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Full text of "The Union army; a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers"

GENliKAL IJ. S. GRANT 



THE 



UNION ARMY 



A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal 
States 1861-65 — Records of the Regi- 
ments IN THE Union Army — Cyclo- 
pedia OF Battles — Memoirs 
OF Commanders and 
Soldiers 



VOLUME VIII 
Biographical 



MADISON, WIS. 
Federal Publishing Company 

1908 



Copyright, 1908 

BY 

Federal Publishing Company 







CONTENTS 



VOLUME I 



Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

VOLUME II 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New York, 
Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. 

VOLUME III 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New Jersey, 
Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

VOLUME IV 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
California, Oregon, The Territories and 
District of Columbia. 

VOLUME V 

Cyclopedia of Battles — -A to Helena. 

VOLUME VI 

Cyclopedia of Battles — Helena Road to Z. 

VOLUME VII 

The Navy. 

VOLUME VIII 

Biographical, 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



Generals of the Union Army, pages 17 to 310 inclusive. 



Page 

Andrews, George L 311 

Bain, Capt. Peter C 313 

Barnard, Job 314 

Belden, Capt. W. Scott 314 

Bergland, Maj. Eric 321 

Bickford, Nathan B. E 325 

Blair, Henry W 316 

Bliss, Alonzo 322 

Bradford, Rev. James H 323 

Brown, George H 319 

Buckingham, Hiram 327 

Bukey, Brig.-Gen. Van H 331 

Burch, Sylvester R 326 

Burt, Brig.-Gen. A. S 320 

Butts, Frank A 329 

Buxton, Charles H 327 

Campbell, Frank L 328 

Carson, John M 332 

Case, William W 333 

Clements, Joseph C 331 

Cole, Henry A 334 

Coleman, Horace, M. D 335 

Conner, Lendell A 337 

Gushing, Lyman F. W 337 

Davis, Jefferson W. . , 338 

DeMerritt, John H 3-38 



Page 

Hancock, Col. John 348 

Harrington, Delavan W 3.>! 

Hart, Capt. Abraham 350 

Hartung, Charles E 351 

Henderson, George, M. D 347 

Hensey, Thomas G .352 

Hine, Lemon G .3-53 

Hull, Charles W .3-54 

Jacobs, Horace G .355 

Janney, Bernard T 356 

Janney, Joseph J .357 

Jarrett, James H., AT. D 358 

Johnson, Albert E., ]\L D 358 

Johnston, William J 359 

Kapp, Hosea W 360 

Kelley, Capt. Leverclt M 361 

Kellogg, William P 365 

Kemp, Joseph R 362 

Kerr, Robert W 363 

Kimball, Ivory G 364 

Knapp, Capt. William A 372 

Kniffin, Col. Gilbert C 367 

Koerper, Egon A 368 

Larrabee, Charles F 369 

Lewis, Morgan D 374 

Lower, Cyrus B 370 

Dickson, Charles H., Sr 339 Lyman, Charles 373 



Dye, P. Edwin 340 

Ebaugh, Theodore 340 

Faunce, Solomon E 336 

Franklin, Walter S 341 

Garrison, John S 347 

Gibbs, John S 342 

Gilmore, Brig.-Gen. John C 346 

Graham, George R., M. D 343 

Graham, Dr. Neil F 344 

Grant, Robert E 345 



McCalmont, John S 375 

McCurley, Isaac 380 

McMillan, Alexander F 379 

Martin, Nathan C 381 

Maxwell, Charles A 383 

Merriam, Henry C' 382 

Merriam, Lewis, Jr 376 

Michael, William H 384 

Morrison, Thomas 385 

Moulton, Judge Hosea B 386 



xni 



XIV 



Biographical Index 



Page 

Oakcs, James 389 

Odcll, William S 391 

Orr, Charles A 388 

Owens, Benjamin B 392 

Tarker, Myron M 395 

Peelle, Stanton J 393 

Petteys, Charles V., M. D 400 

Phillips, Duncan C 400 

Prince, Howard L 398 

Purman, James J., A. M., M. D. 397 

Redway, Capt. George 399 

Reeve, Col. Felix A 401 

Reeve, James H 406 

Reinohl, David C 408 

Reyburn, Robert, M. D 409 

Rizer, Henry C 407 

Sanders, Capt. Henry P 410 

Sands, Francis P. B 411 

Shertzer, A. Trego, M. D 414 

Simmons, George 412 

Sloat, Frank D 415 



Page 

Smith, Francis M 41(> 

Spear, Ellis 417 

Strieby, George F. W 418 

Swift, Harlan J 420 

Swiggert, William Y 419 

Tappan, Myron A 421 

Thomas, Ammi A 420 

Thorp, Martin R 422 

Townsend, Eddy B 423 

Vale, Josiah M 424 

Webster, Daniel 425 

White, Albert B 426 

White, James E 427 

VVhittleton, Capt. Robert J 428 

Williams, Col. Robert, Jr 430 

Wright, Riley E 429 

Yarrow, Harry C, M. D 432 

Yellott, John 1 431 

Yoder, Charles T 433 

Zimmerman, Lewis M 434 




]jiig.-G<.n. J. J. AnKKCKiiM- 

BIE 
l?rig.-Gen. AdELBERT Ames 
nrig.-Gen. Christopher 

Andrews 
Brig.-Gen. Richard Arnold 



llrig.-C.cn. Rokt AllK.n 
Brig.-Gen. Jacob Ammen 
I'rig.-Gen. G. L. Andrews 
Brig.-Gen. A. S. Asboth 



Jjiig.-Gen. Cent. AL\\)Rii 
Brig.-Gen. Rob't Anderson 
Brig.-Gen. L. G. Arnold 
Maj.-Gen. C. C. Augur 



Generals of the Union Army 



NOTE — In the following pages will be found a short biographical sketch of every officer 
who attained the full rank of major or brigadier-general during the war. Those who re- 
ceived these titles by brevet only are not included. 

Abercrombie, John J., brigadier-general, was born in Tennessee 
in 1802, and died in Roslyn, N. Y., in 1877. Entering West Point 
from Tennessee, he was graduated in 1822, served as adjutant in 
the 1st infantry from 1825 to 1833 and was made captain in 1836. 
He served in the Florida war, and was brevetted major for gallant 
conduct at the battle of Okechobee. Then, until the outbreak of 
the Mexican war, he was engaged in frontier duty in the west. He 
took an active part in the Mexican war, and for gallantry at the 
battle of Monterey, where he was wounded, was given the brevet 
rank of lieutenant-colonel. Besides Monterey, he fought also at 
the siege of Vera Cruz and at Cerro Gordo, and, in 1847, served as 
aide-de-camp to Gen. Patterson. When the Civil war broke out 
he was stationed in Minnesota. He took part in the Shenandoah 
campaign and was in command at the action of Falling Waters. 
Through the Peninsular campaign he served as brigadier-general 
of volunteers, was wounded at Fair Oaks, and took part in the bat- 
tle of Malvern hill, and at several skirmishes on the retreat to Har- 
rison's landing. He was engaged in the defense of Washington in 
1862 and 1863, had charge of depots at Fredericksburg in May, 
1864, and took part in the defense against Hampton's legion in 
June, 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. A., on March 
13, 1865, and retired on the 12th of the following June. 

Allen, Robert, brigadier-general, was born in Ohio in 1815, and 
appointed from Ohio to West Point, in which school he was grad- 
uated in 1836. After service in the Seminole war as second lieu- 
tenant, he served as assistant quartermaster during the Mexican 
war, on the march to Monterey. He was present at the siege of 
Vera Cruz, the battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras and Churubusco, 
and the taking of Mexico. For gallant conduct at the battle of 
Cerro Gordo he received the brevet rank of major. After the Mex- 
ican war he was chief quartermaster of the Pacific division, and, 
at the outbreak of the Civil war was made chief quartermaster of 
the Department of Missouri, with headquarters at St. Louis, where 
he had charge of supplies and transportation for the various armies 
of the Mississippi valley. From Nov., 1863, to 1866, he was chief 
quartermaster of the Mississippi valley, with headquarters at Louis- 
ville, and furnished transportation and supplies to^Sherman's com- 
mand for the march across the country to join Gen. Grant at Chat- 
tanooga. He also fitted out the Kentucky, Virginia and North Car- 
olina expeditions. He was promoted to major in 1861, colonel in 
1862, brigadier-general of volunteers in 1863, and was brevetted 
brigadier-general in the regular army in 1864. On March 13. 1865, 

Vol. VIII— 2 17 



18 The Union Army 

he received the brevet rank of major-general, U. S. A. Gen. Allen 
served after the war as chief quartermaster of the Pacific, and was 
retired on March 21, 1878. He died in Geneva, Switzerland, Aug. 
6, 1886. 

Alvord, Benjamin, brigadier-general, was born in Rutland, Vt., 
Aug. 18, 1813, and was appointed from Vermont to West Point 
military academy, in which he was graduated with the class of 1833. 
Being brevetted second lieutenant in the 4th infantry, he served in 
the Seminole war (1835-1837), and was then instructor in mathe- 
matics and physics at West Point until 1839. He was then engaged 
in frontier, garrison and engineer duty until 1846, when he par- 
ticipated in the military occupation of Texas, and subsequently in 
the Mexican war. For gallant conduct in several affairs with 
guerrillas at Paso Ovejas, National Bridge and Cerro Gordo, he 
was given the successive brevets of captain and major, and was 
then chief of stafif to Maj. Lally's column on the march from Vera 
Cruz to the city of Mexico in 1847. On June 22, 1854, he was made 
paymaster, and served as such until 1862, when he became briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, having command during the war of the 
district of Oregon. Resigning this position, he was brevetted brig- 
adier in the regular army in 1865, and was made paymaster-general 
in 1872. On July 22, 1876, he was made brigadier-general and pay- 
master, a position which he held until 1880, when, after over 46 
years of service, he was retired at his own request. He died in 
1884. Gen. Alvord, during the later years of his life, wrote several 
treatises on mathematics, and numerous essays and reviews which 
have become popular. 

Ames, Adelbert, brigadier-general, was born in Rockland, Me., 
Oct. 31, 1835. He was graduated at West Point in 1861, and as- 
signed to the 5th artillery. At the battle of Bull Run he was 
wounded, and was brevetted for gallantry in that action. He was 
present at the siege of Yorktown, and the battles of Gaines' mill, 
Malvern hill, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Antietam, and Get- 
tysburg, besides many minor engagements in Virginia throughout 
the Civil war. Having been brevetted colonel for gallantry, he 
commanded a brigade and at times a division, in the Army of the 
Potomac in the operations before Petersburg in 1864. Gallant con- 
duct at the capture of Fort Fisher in 1865 won for him the brevet 
of major-general of volunteers, and, later, he was brevetted major- 
general, U. S. A., for "gallant and meritorious conduct in 
the field during the rebellion." After the war he was promoted 
to the full rank of lieutenant-colonel in the regular army, and on 
July 15, 1868. was appointed temporary governor of Mississippi, his 
authority being extended later to include the 4th military district 
In 1870 he was elected United States senator, a position which he 
resigned three years later to accept the office of governor. This 
office he resigned in 1876, removing to New York, and later to 
Lowell, Mass. On June 20, 1898, he was appointed brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, in which capacity he served throughout the war 
with Spain. 

Ammen, Jacob, brigadier-general, was born in Botetourt county, 
Va., Jan. 7, 1808. In 1831 he was graduated at West Point and was 
then, until Aug. 31, 1832, assistant instructor on mathematics and 
military tactics. He then spent some time on duty in Charleston 
harbor during the trouble over the nullification acts of South Caro- 
lina, and, returning to West Point, resumed his work as instructor. 
In Nov., 1837, he resigned from the army to accept a professorship 



Biographical Sketches 19 

in mathematics in Bacon college, Georgetown, Ky. He continued 
to teach in various institutions, until 1855, and was then until 1861, 
a civil engineer at Ripley, O. On April 18, 1861, he became captain 
in the 12th Ohio volunteers, and shortly afterward was promoted 
to lieutenant-colonel, in which capacity he participated in the West 
Virginia campaign under Gen. McClellan. On July 16, 1862, after 
the campaigns in Tennessee and Mississippi, he was promoted to 
brigadier-general of volunteers, and had charge of camps of in- 
struction in Ohio and Illinois until Dec. 16, 1863. From the fol- 
lowing April, until Jan. 14, 1865, when he resigned, he was in 
command of the district of eastern Tennessee. 

Anderson, Robert, brigadier-general, was born near Louisville, 
Ky., at a place called "Soldier's Retreat," June 14, 1805. In 1825 
he was graduated at West Point and received a commission as 
second lieutenant in the 3d artillery. During the Black Hawk war, 
in 1832, he served as colonel of the Illinois volunteers, and after 
that, from 1835 to 1837, acted as instructor in artillery at West 
Point. He was brevetted captain for services in the Florida war, 
then was for a time attached to the staff of Gen. Scott as assistant 
adjutant-general, and in 1841 was promoted to captain. He also 
served in the Mexican war, and was severely wounded in the battle 
of Molino del Rey. In 1857 he was appointed major of the ist ar- 
tillery, and in i860 assumed command of the troops in Charleston 
harbor, with headquarters at Fort Moultrie. Owing to threatened 
assaults, Maj. Anderson withdrew his command, on the night of 
Dec. 26, i860, to Fort Sumter, where he remained until forced to 
evacuate, on April 14, 1861. after a bombardment of thirty-six 
hours, to which he replied until forced by the disabling of his guns 
to yield. In recognition of his services at Fort Sumter he was 
appointed by President Lincoln brigadier-general in the U. S. 
army, and was assigned to command the Department of Kentucky, 
being subsequently transferred to that of the Cumberland. On 
account of failing health he was relieved from duty in Oct., 1861, 
and was retired from active service on Oct. 27, 1863. On Feb. 3, 
1865, he was brevetted major-general, U. S. A. In 1869 he sailed 
for Europe in search of health, and died there, at Nice, France, 
Oct. 27, 1871. He was the translator from the French of "Instruc- 
tions for Field Artillery. Horse and Foot," and "Evolutions of 
Field Batteries." To his personal efforts credit is due for the orig- 
inal steps in the organization of the Soldiers' home in Washington, 
which has since then sheltered many thousands of Civil war vet- 
erans. 

Andrews, Christopher C, brigadier-general, was born in Hills- 
boro, N. H., Oct. 2']. 1829. As a boy he worked on his father's 
farm, attending school during the winter months, and in 1843 went 
to Boston. He later attended Francestown academy, and studied 
law after that in Cambridge, being admitted to the bar in 1850. 
After practicing two years in Newton he moved to Boston, but 
removed later to Kansas, and thence to Washington to further the 
interests of Kansas before congress. He spent two years in Wash- 
ington, being employed as a departmental clerk, then moved to St. 
Cloud, Minn., where, in 1859, he was elected state senator. He 
supported Douglas in the campaign of i860, and in 1861 assisted in 
bringing out the "Minnesota Union," a publication supporting the 
administration. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil war he en- 
listed as a private, but was soon commissioned captain in the 3d 
Minn, infantry. In a fight near Murfreesboro he was surrendered. 



30 The Union Army 

and was held prisoner from July to Oct., 1862. Upon being ex- 
changed he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, in 
which capacity he served during the operations about Vicksburg, 
and in July, 1863, became colonel, serving then in the campaign 
which resulted in the capture of Little Rock, Ark., where he was 
placed in command of a brigade. To his efforts was due to a large 
extent the change in public opinion in Arkansas, which resulted, in 
Jan., 1864, in the reorganization of Arkansas as a free state. Dur- 
ing the year 1864 he was in command of forces near Augusta, Ark., 
and then, being promoted brigadier-general, participated in the 
siege and storming of Fort Blakely. Ala. On March 9, 1865, he 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers, and subsequently com- 
manded the district of Mobile, Ala., and later that of Houston, 
Tex. After putting affairs in Texas on a firm basis, Gen. Andrews 
returned to St. Cloud, and on Jan. 15, 1866, was mustered out of the 
service. After the war he continued to take a great interest in 
public affairs, and served as minister to Sweden and consul-general 
to Rio de Janeiro. Gen. Andrews is the author of various historical 
and technical works of value. 

Andrews, George L., brigadier-general, was born in Bridge- 
water, Mass., Aug. 31, 1828, and graduated in 1851 at West Point, 
standing the highest in his class. After graduation he superintend- 
ed the construction of fortifications in Boston harbor, and then, 
returning to West Point, was assistant professor there in 1854 and 
1855. Resigning this position in 1855, he was a civil engineer until 
the outbreak of the Civil war, when he became lieutenant-colonel 
and subsequently colonel of the 2nd Mass. regiment, serving in the 
Shenandoah valley and conducting the rear guard of the retreat at 
Cedar mountain. He fought through Pope's campaign and was at 
Antietam, and on Nov. 10, 1862, was promoted for distinguished 
bravery to brigadier-general. In Banks' expedition he led a bri- 
gade, and from July, 1863, to Feb. 13, 1865, commanded the Corps 
d'Afrique. On March 26, 1865, on account of distinguished serv- 
ices at the capture of Mobile, he was brevetted major-general of 
volunteers. After the war. on April 8, 1867, he was appointed 
United States marshal for Massachusetts, and on Feb. 2"], 1871, 
went to West Point to accept a position as professor of the French 
language. 

Arnold, Lewis G., brigadier-general, was born in New Jersey, 
in Dec, 1815. Graduating at West Point in 1837, he served with 
the 2nd artillery in the Florida war, and then, as iirst lieutenant in 
the same regiment, on the Canada frontier, at Detroit, in 1838-39. 
In 1846 he accompanied his regiment to Mexico, where, under Gen. 
Scott, he engaged in the siege of Vera Cruz, in which he was slight- 
ly wounded, in the battles of Cerro Gordo and Amozoque, the cap- 
ture of San Antonio, and the battle of Churubusco. For gallant 
conduct at Contrcras and Churubusco he was brevetted captain, 
and later, for gallantry at Chapultepec, was given the brevet of 
major. Again, in 1856. he distinguished himself, leading a small 
force, in Florida, against a large force of Seminoles at Big Cy- 
press. When the Civil war broke out in 1861, Maj. Arnold was sta- 
tioned at Dry Tortugas, whence he was transferred to Fort Pick- 
ens on Aug. 2, 1861. He remained at Fort Pickens until May, 1862, 
being in command after Feb. 25 of that year. In the successive 
bombardments of that fort, in November, January and May, he 
so distinguished himself by his gallantry that he was brevetted a 
lieutenant-colonel, to date from Nov. 22, 1861, appointed a briga- 



Biographical Sketches 21 

dier-general of volunteers, and assigned to the command of the 
Department of Florida, his headquarters being at first at Fort Pick- 
ens and later at Pensacola. On the first of Oct., 1862, he was given 
command of the forces at New Orleans and Algiers, La., a com- 
mand which he held until Nov. 10, when he suffered a stroke of 
paralysis from which he never recovered. In Feb., 1864, all hope 
of his being again able to take up his duties having been abandoned, 
he was retired. Gen. Arnold died in South Boston, Sept. 22, 1871. 

Arnold, Richard, brigadier-general, was born in Providence, R. I., 
in 1828 and graduated at the United States military academy at 
West Point in 1850. At the outbreak of the Civil war in 1861 he 
was made captain of an artillery company, and served with dis- 
tinguished gallantry at Bull Run, Savage Station, Port Hudson 
and Fort Morgan. He was promoted to brigadier-general on Nov. 
29, 1862, and was made brevet major-general of volunteers in Au- 
gust, 1865. In 1875 he was promoted to major in the regular 
service and in 1882 was made lieutenant-colonel. He died in 1882. 

Asboth, Alexander S., brigadier-general, was born in Keszthely, 
Hungary, Dec. 18, 181 1. He received his education in Oldenburg, 
and served some time as a cuirassier in the Austrian army. He 
then studied law for a time, and, after that, turning his attention 
to engineering, was employed in various important works in Banat. 
He served with Kossuth in the Hungarian war of 1848-49, followed 
Kossuth to Turkey, and then came with him, in 1851, to America, 
where he soon became a citizen. At the outbreak of the Civil war 
he offered his services to the government, and, in July, 1861. was 
sent to Missouri as chief of staff to Gen. Fremont. He was ap- 
pointed a brigadier-general in September of the same year and 
commanded the fourth division in Fremont's western campaign. 
After that he was assigned to command a division in Gen. Curtis' 
army, and during the Arkansas campaign occupied Bentonville and 
Fayetteville. In the fighting at Pea ridge he was severely wound- 
ed. The year 1863 saw him in command of Columbus, Ky., and in 
August of that year he was transferred to command the district 
of West Florida. Shortly afterward, at the battle of Marianna, he 
was severely wounded, his left cheek bone being broken and his 
left arm fractured in two places. His services in Florida won him 
the brevet of major-general, March 13, 1865, and in 1866 he was 
sent to Argentine Republic and Uruguay, as United States minis- 
ter. Two years later, Jan. 21, 1868, he died at Buenos Ayres. death 
being caused by the wound in his face received four years pre- 
vious. 

Augur, Christopher C, major-general, was born in New York in 
1821, and in 1843 was graduated at West Point to which school he 
had been appointed from Michigan. He served during the Mex- 
ican war, at first as aide-de-camp to Gen. Hopping, and then, after 
the latter's death, in a similar capacity to Gen. Caleb Gushing. In 
1852 he was promoted to captain and served with distinction in the 
war against the Indians of Oregon in 1856. On May 11, 1861, he 
was appointed major in the 13th infantry, was then for a time 
commandant of cadets at West Point, and in November of that 
year was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, being as- 
signed to Gen. McDowell's corps. In July. 1862, he was assigned 
to a division under Gen. Banks, and was severely wounded in the 
battle of Cedar mountain. On Aug. Q, 1862, he was promoted 
major-general of volunteers and, joining his command in the fol- 
lowing November, he took part in the Louisiana campaign. Meri- 



22 The Union Army 

torious services at the siege of Port Hudson, where he commanded 
the left wing of the army, won for Gen. Augur the brevet of 
brigadier-general in the U. S. army, March 13, 1865, and at the 
same time he was brevetted major-general, U. S. A., for meritori- 
ous services during the rebellion. Re was commandant of the 
Department of Washington from Oct. 13, 1863, to Aug. 13, 1866, 
afterwards being commandant successively of the departments of 
the Platte, Texas, the Gulf, the South and the Missouri, and, in 
1885, he was retired. 

Averell, William W., brigadier-general, was born in Cameron, 
Steuben county, N. Y., Nov. 5, 1832. Being graduated at West 
Point in 1855 he was assigned to the mounted riflemen and served 
in garrison and at the school for practice at Carlisle, Pa., until 
1857, when he was ordered to frontier duty, and saw a great deal of 
Indian fighting. He was severely wounded in a night attack by 
the Navajos in 1859, and was given sick leave until the outbreak 
of the Civil war in 1861. Being promoted to first lieutenant of the 
mounted riflemen, on May 14, 1861, he fought at Bull Run and in 
other engagements until Aug. 23. 1861, when he was appointed 
colonel of the 3d Penn. cavalry, and given command of the cavalry 
defenses in front of Washington. In March, 1863, he began the 
series of cavalry raids in western Virginia that have made his name 
famous. His raids did much to help the Union cause, and he was 
rewarded by the government in frequent promotions. On March 
13. 1865, he was made brevet major-general, U. S. A., and on May 
18 he resigned. From 1866 to 1869 Gen. Averell was consul-gen- 
eral of the United States in the British possessions of North Ameri- 
ca, and then became president of a large manufacturing concern. 
He invented a process for making cast steel from the ore in one 
operation, the American asphalt pavement and several complicated 
machines. 

Ayres, Romeyn B,, brigadier-general, was born in Montgom- 
ery county, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1825, and graduated at West Point in 
1847. Shortly after graduation he was sent to Mexico as second 
lieutenant in the 3d artillery, and remained in the garrison at Fort 
Preble until 1850. From that time until the outbreak of the Civil 
war he did frontier and garrison duty, and in May, 1861, was made 
captain in the 3d artillery. He was present at all the early en- 
gagements of the war about the defenses of Washington, then 
served as chief of artillery in W. F. Smith's division and of the 6th 
army corps, after which he accompanied the Army of the Potomac 
in the peninsular campaign of 1862, going thence into the Mary- 
land campaign, ending in the battle of Antietam. After three 
months' sick leave he engaged in the winter campaign on the Rap- 
pahannock, and fought at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and in 
the intervening engagements. Being made brigadier-general of 
volunteers in Nov., 1862, he commanded a division of the 5th corps 
at Gettysburg, and was then ordered to New York city to suppress 
the draft riots. He accompanied his command in the movements 
against Richmond in 1864, was wounded at the siege of Petersburg 
in June, and took part in the final engagements which resulted in 
Lee's surrender at Appomattox. On April 30, 1866, he was mus- 
tered out of the service as lieutenant-colonel of the 28th infantry 
and brevet major-general. U. S. A., having received these and lesser 
appointments on account of meritorious service during the war. 

Bailey, Joseph, brigadier-general, was born in Salem, O., April 
28, 1827. He was killed, near Nevada, Newton county. Mo., March 



Biographical Sketches 23 

21, 1867, while, in performance of his duty as sheriff, a position to 
which he was elected after the war, he was attempting to take two 
arrested desperadoes to the county seat. Gen. Bailey entered the 
service of the United States as captain, July 2, 1861, was assigned 
with his regiment to New Orleans, and in Dec, 1862, was made 
acting engineer of the defenses of that city. He was later pro- 
moted to major, and was sent home on a recruiting expedition, re- 
turning to duty with his regiment in time to accompany Gen. N. P. 
Banks on the Red river campaign. It was on this campaign that 
he won fame by saving the army by means of an engineering feat. 
When Banks, accompanied by a fleet of twelve gun-boats and thir- 
ty transports, tried to pass Alexandria on the way back, it was 
found that the Red river had fallen so that it was impossible for 
the fleet to pass the rapids. Working against the advice of the 
regular engineers, Bailey constructed dams on each side of the 
river, so that the channel was narrowed to sixty-six feet. This 
caused an increase in the depth of the river and enabled the fleet 
to escape. In recognition of this service he was promoted to 
brigadier-general in 1864, and on March 13, 1865, he was given the 
brevet of major-general of volunteers. He resigned from the army 
July 7, 1865. 

Baird, Absalom, brigadier-general, was born in Washington, Pa., 
Aug. 20, 1824, and graduated at West Point in 1849. He served in 
1850-51 as second lieutenant during the Seminole war. In 1853 he 
was promoted to first lieutenant and served until 1859 as assistant 
professor of mathematics at the military academy, spending the 
next two years on frontier and garrison duty. In March, 1861, he 
took command of the light battery for the Department of Wash- 
ington, and on May 11 was brevetted captain. In July, 1861, he 
served as adjutant-general in the defense of Washington and in 
the Manassas campaign, engaging later in the siege of Yorktown 
and the battle of Williamsburg. He commanded a brigade in the 
Army of the Ohio from May to Sept., 1862, and was engaged in 
the capture of Cumberland gap. From Oct., 1862, to June, 1863, 
he commanded the third division in the Army of the Kentucky, and 
was, for gallant action at Chickamauga. brevetted lieutenant-colonel. 
He also held important commands in the operations about Chat- 
tanooga, the battle of Missionary ridge, the march to the sea, the 
capture of Atlanta, and the march through the Carolinas, being 
present at the surrender of Johnston's army at Durham station. For 
his services in the Atlanta campaign he received the brevet rank of 
brigadier-general in the regular army, while distinguished services 
throughout the war won him that of brevet major-general, U. S. A. 
Since the war. Gen. Baird has served as inspector-general of vari- 
ous departments. 

Baker, Edward D., brigadier-general, was born in London, Eng- 
land, Feb. 24, 181 1, and four years later was brought to America 
by his father, who selected Philadelphia as his place of residence. 
There Edward D. grew to manhood and at the age of nineteen 
started for the new West and selected Springfield, Il-l., as his home. 
Amid struggles with poverty he studied law, and established a 
practice in Greene county and soon became noted as one of the 
leading advocates of the state. In 1837 he was sent to the legisla- 
ture by the Whig party, and then to the state senate, serving from 
1840 until 1844. In the latter year he was elected to Congress, but 
left his seat in 1846 to raise a company of Illinois volunteers for 
the Mexican war, becoming colonel of the 4th 111. regiment, and he 



24 The Union Army 

served as one of the most brilliant officers of the army in all the 
actions on the route to the city of Mexico. At Cerro Gordo he 
succeeded to the command of Gen. Shields' brigade, which he led 
until the close of the war. He was honorably mustered out of the 
service on May 29. 1847, and, returning to Illinois was again elected 
to Congress and served from 1849 until 1851. Declining a re-elec- 
tion, he removed to San Francisco, where he became distinguished 
as the head of the bar, and as one of the most eloquent speakers 
in the state. In i860 he removed to Oregon and was sent to the 
United States senate by the united votes of the Republicans and 
Douglas Democrats. When the opening blow was struck at Fort 
Sumter, at a great mass-meeting in New York on April 20, he made 
a thrilling appeal for the preservation of the Union. Raising the 
"California" regiment in New York and Philadelphia, he entered 
the war, and at the fatal battle of Ball's blufif he led the brigade 
with undaunted courage, and fell pierced with several wounds, Oct. 
21, 1861. He was given the commission of brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers on May 17, 1861, but declined it; was commissioned colonel 
on June 21, and was advanced to major-general of volunteers on 
Sept. 21, 1861, but had not accepted the appointment at the time he 
was killed. 

Baker, Lafayette C, brigadier-general, chief of the U. S. secret 
service, was born in Stafford, Genesee county, N. Y., Oct. 13. 1826, 
being a grandson of Remember Baker, one of Ethan Allen's cap- 
tains. Young Baker moved with his parents to Michigan in 1839, 
but in 1848 went to New York and Philadelphia, and in 1853 to San 
Francisco, working in each of the cities as a mechanic. In the 
riots in San Francisco, in 1856, he joined the vigilance committee 
and took an active part in restoring order in the city. At the out- 
break of the Civil war he offered his services at Washington, and, 
at the suggestion of Gen. Hiram Walbridge. Gen. Scott sent him on 
foot to Richmond. The success of this mission, in which he col- 
lected much valuable information, followed by equal successes in 
other hardy enterprises, won for him the confidence of the govern- 
ment and he was made head of the bureau of secret service, with 
almost unlimited resources at his command. In 1862 the bureau 
was transferred to the war department and he was commissioned 
colonel, and later brigadier-general of volunteers. Gen. Baker's 
duties made him enemies in influential quarters and serious charges 
were several times preferred against him. but they were not sub- 
stantiated. At the time of Lincoln's assassination, Gen. Baker or- 
ganized the pursuit of the murderer and was present at his cap- 
ture and death. Gen. Baker published, in 1868, a "History of the 
United States Secret Service," which is of historical value. He 
died in Philadelphia, July 2, 1868. 

Banks, Nathaniel P., major-general, was born in Waltham, Mass., 
Jan. 30, 1816, received a common school education, and then learned 
the trade of a machinist in a cotton factory of which his father 
was superintendent. He afterwards became editor of a local paper 
at Waltham, studied law. was admitted to the bar, and in 1849 was 
elected a member of the state legislature. He was elected speaker 
of the Massachusetts legislature in 1851, re-elected in 1852, was 
chairman of the Massachusetts constitutional convention in 1853, 
and was in the same year elected to Congress as a coalition-demo- 
crat. He was re-elected on the "Know-Knothing" ticket, elected 
speaker of the house of representatives, after a spirited fight, on 
the 133d ballot, and at the next election was chosen congressman 




Brig.-Gen. W. W. Anerell l!i-ig.-(.eii. K. 1!. Avrk? 

Brig.-Gen. Absalom Baird Brig.-Gen. E. D. Baker 

Maj.-Gen. N. P. Banks iMaj.-Gen. F. C. B.\rlo\v 

Brig.-Gen. James B.\rnes Brig.-Gen. T. K. Barnes 



r.n.ir.t'Cn. IciSEPII IJMLEY 

Brig.-Gen. L. C. Baker 
Brig.-Gen. J. C. Barnard 
Brig.-Gen. H. .\. Barnum 



Biographical Sketches 25 

on the republican ticket. On Dec. 4, 1857, he resigned to become 
governor of Massachusetts, was re-elected governor in 1858 and 
1859, and in i860 accepted the presidency of the Illinois Central 
railroad, succeeding Gen. George B. McClellan in that capacity. 
When the Civil war broke out in the following year, he resigned 
his position, was commissioned major-general of volunteers and 
assigned to the command of the 5th army corps in the Army of the 
Potomac, seeing his first active service along the upper Potomac 
and in the Shenandoah valley, in 1861-62. On March 23, 1862, a 
part of his troops, under Gen. Shields, defeated Jackson at Win- 
chester, and the next month, at the head of two divisions. Gen. 
Banks was assigned to guard the Shenandoah. When one of the 
divisions had been withdrawn, leaving only 8,000 men with Banks, 
the force was attacked by Gen. Jackson and defeated, but escaped 
capture. Gen. Banks then joined Pope, who had command of the 
army of Virginia, and on August 9, was defeated at the battle of 
Cedar mountain. He was then for a time in command of the de- 
fenses of Washington, and in Dec, 1862, commanded the expedi- 
tion to New Orleans, where he succeeded Gen. B. F. Butler as 
commander of the Department of the Gulf. In the spring of 1863 
he commanded the expedition against Port Hudson, which finally, 
after several disastrous attempts to storm it had failed, surren- 
dered on July 9, 1863, when the occupants learned that Vicksburg 
had fallen. Early in 1864 Gen. Banks led the expedition up the 
Red River, his force strengthened by the addition of a powerful 
fleet, and at Sabine cross-roads met defeat at the hands of Gen. 
Richard Taylor. On the next day the Confederates made an at- 
tack at Pleasant Hill, but were defeated, and the army withdrew 
to Alexandria. There the skill of Gen. Joseph Bailey saved the 
fleet, and the whole expedition withdrew to the Mississippi. In 
May, 1864, Gen. Banks was relieved of his command, resigned his 
commission, and, returning to Massachusetts, was elected to Con- 
gress, where he served, with the exception of one term, until 1877, 
being for many years chairman of the committee on foreign relations. 
In 1888 he was again elected to Congress, but, after 1890, suffered from 
a mental disorder and was forced to withdraw from public life. In 
1891 Congress voted him an annual pension of $1,200, and in 1894 he 
died. 

Barlow, Francis C, major-general, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Oct. 19, 1834. He was graduated at Harvard, ranking first in his 
class, then studied law in New York city, and practiced there, be- 
ing for a time also on the editorial staff of the "Tribune." In 1861 
he enlisted as a private in the 12th regiment. New York state na- 
tional guard, and at the end of the three months' service had been 
promoted lieutenant. He at once re-entered the service as lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 6ist N. Y. volunteers, was promoted colonel 
during the siege of Yorktown, and at Fair Oaks distinguished him- 
self so that he was later promoted brigadier-general. At Antietam 
his command captured 2 stands of Confederate colors and 300 
prisoners, but he himself was severely wounded. Recovering, he 
fought at Chancellorsville, but at Gettysburg he was again severe- 
ly wounded and taken prisoner. He was exchanged and recovered 
in time to take the field again the following spring, and at Spott- 
sylvania Court House, May 12, 1864, commanded the ist division, 
which, with the 3d division formed the rush line, the assault of 
which carried the Confederate works, making possible the victory. 
Gen. Barlow participated in the final campaigns of the Potomac 



26 The Union Army 

under Grant, was present at the assault on the enemy's lines at 
Petersburg, and at the surrender of the Confederate forces in April, 
1865. Upon being mustered out. he returned to New York, and 
was from 1865 to 1868 secretary of state for New York, and in 1872-73 
attorney-general. He then returned to the practice of law. Gen. 
Barlow died in 1896. 

Barnard, John C, brigadier-general, was born in Sheffield, Mass., 
May 19, 1815. In 1833 he was graduated at West Point, standing 
second in a class of forty-three, and was from that time until the 
outbreak of the Mexican war employed in various engineering 
works, being promoted in the meantime to captain. In the Mexi- 
can war he superintended the construction of the defenses of Tam- 
pico, and surveyed the battle-fields about the city of Mexico. For 
these services he was brevetted major, and in 1850 was appointed 
chief of a scientific commission to survey the isthmus of Tehaun- 
tepec, his report of this work being the first full topographical ac- 
count of the isthmus. From then until the outbreak of the Civil 
war he was engaged in various important engineering works, with 
the exception of the years 1855 and 1856. when he was superintend- 
ent of the military academy at West Point. He was promoted 
major of engineers in 1858, and at the outbreak of the Civil war 
served as chief engineer of the Department of Washington and then 
as chief engineer to Gen. McDowell in the first Bull Run campaign. 
In the Virginia peninsular campaign of 1862 he served as chief en- 
gineer of the Army of the Potomac with rank of brigadier-general, 
and was later made chief engineer of the defenses of Washington, 
being promoted to lieutenant-colonel of engineers, March 31, 1863. 
He was on the staflf of Gen. Grant in 1864 and at the close of the 
war was made colonel of the corps of engineers and brevetted 
major-general, U. S. A. After the war he was a member of various 
boards having charge of the fortifications and river and harbor con- 
structions. He was the author of a number of valuable works on 
engineering subjects. Gen. Barnard died in Detroit, Mich., May 
14, 1882. 

Barnes, James, brigadier-general, was born in Boston, Mass.. in 
1806, and graduated at West Point in 1829. He resigned at the end 
of seven years' service, having attained the rank of first lieutenant 
in the 4th artillery, and was then until 1857 a railroad engineer and 
builder of railroads. Returning to service in the army at the out- 
break of the Civil war, he was colonel of the i8th Mass. volunteers 
from July 26, 1861, to Nov. 29, 1862, when he was promoted briga- 
dier-general. He took part in the engagements of Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, and the skirmishes of Aldie and Upperville, and 
the battle of Gettysburg, where he commanded a division, and was 
severely wounded. He was afterwards on court-martial duty in 
command of various posts until the close of the war, and on March 
13, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers. He was 
mustered out of the service in Jan., 1866, and died at Springfield, 
Mass., Feb. 12, 1869, having never fully recovered from wounds 
and exposure. 

Barnes, Joseph K., brigadier-general, and surgeon-general, U. S. 
A., was born in Philadelphia, July 21, 1817. Being obliged by ill 
health to give up the studies which he had begun at Harvard, he 
left college, and later began his surgical studies under Surgeon- 
General Harris, U. S. A., and in 1838 v/as graduated from the medi- 
cal department of the University of Pennsylvania. After two years* 
practice in Philadelphia he was appointed assistant surgeon in the 



Biographical Sketches 27 

army and assigned to duty at West Point, where he remained a 
year, and was then transferred to Florida, spending two years 
there with Gen. Harney's expedition against the Seniinoles. He 
then served four years at Fort Jessup, La., and subsequently saw 
active service throughout the Mexican war, as chief medical officer 
in the cavalry brigade. He was assigned to duty at West Point in 1854, 
spent several years there, and at the beginning of the Civil war was 
called to duty at Washington. He was assigned to duty in the office of 
the surgeon-general in 1861, was appointed two years later medical in- 
spector with the rank of colonel, and in Sept., 1863, was promoted to 
fill a vacancy in the surgeon-general's office, with the rank of brigadier- 
general. In 1865 he was brevetted major-general, U. S. A. After the war 
he did much to elevate the standard of the medical department, and was 
influential in having established the army medical museum and the 
library of the surgeon-general's ofifice. He was present at the death-bed 
of President Lincoln, attended Secretary Seward when he was shot, 
and was physician to President Garfield during his long confine- 
ment. He died in Washington, April 5, 1883. 

Barnum, Henry A., brigadier-general, was born in Jamesville, 
Onondaga county, N. Y., Sept. 24, 1833, was educated in Syracuse, 
and in 1856 became a teacher in the Syracuse institute, after which 
he studied law and was admitted to the bar. Enlisting at the be- 
ginning of the Civil war as a private in the 12th N. Y. volunteers, 
he was elected captain of Co. I, and fought with his regiment at 
Bull Run, the 12th being the first under fire at Blackburn's ford, 
previous to the battle. In Oct., 1861, he was promoted to major, 
served after that a short time as a member of Gen. Wadsworth's 
staff, and then rejoined his regiment and fought through the penin- 
sular campaign. At Malvern hill he received a wound from which 
he never fully recovered, was carried apparently dead from the 
field, and a body, supposed to be his, was buried, while at his home 
a funeral oration was delivered. He was taken to Libby prison, 
remaining there until July 18, 1862, and then, after a six months' 
leave of absence returned to the war as a colonel, leading his regi- 
ment at Gettysburg, and at Lookout mountain, where he was again 
wounded, and where his regiment captured 11 battleflags. He 
was again wounded in the Atlanta campaign, cornmanded a bri- 
gade in Sherman's march to the sea, and had the distinction of be- 
ing the first officer to enter Savannah. On March 13, 1865, he was 
brevetted a major-general of volunteers, and in the following Jan- 
uary he resigned, having declined a colonelcy in the regular army, 
and became inspector of prisons in New York. 

Barry, William F., brigadier-general, was born in New York 
city, Aug. 8, 1818, was graduated at West Point in 1838, and in that 
year assisted Maj. Ringgold to organize the first battery of light 
artillery formed in the United States army. He served in Mexico 
from 1846 to 1848. fighting at the battle of Tampico, was stationed 
at Fort Henry from 1849 to 1851 and on July i, 1852. was made 
captain of the 2nd artillery. He served in the Seminole war in 
Florida and during the Kansas disturbances, and at- the outbreak 
of the Civil war entered active service, assisting in the defense of 
Fort Pickens as major of light artillery. On Aug. 20, 1861, he was 
appointed brigadier-general of volunteers and took an active part 
in the Virginia peninsular campaign until Aug., 1862, fighting in all the 
important battles. From the end of the campaign until 1864 he was 
chief of artillery in the defenses of Washington, having been ap- 
pointed lieutenant-colonel of the ist artillery on Aug. i, 1863. In 



28 The Union Army 

May, 1863, he was assigned to the command at Pittsburg, Pa., and 
Wheeling, W. Va., against a threatened cavalry raid, and was. from 
March, 1864, to June, 1866, chief of artillery on Gen. Sherman's 
staff, taking part during this time in the siege of Atlanta. During 
his service in the war he was given various brevet titles, culminat- 
ing in that of brevet major-general, U. S. A., which was conferred 
on him March 13, 1865. After the war he served on the northern 
frontier, then as commander of the artillery school of practice at 
Fortress Monroe, and as commandant at Fort Henry. He died in 
Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Md., July 18, 1879. 

Bartlett, Joseph J., brigadier-general, was born about 1820, and 
at the beginning of the Civil war enlisted to fight for the Union. 
He became colonel of the 27th N. Y. volunteers, and on Oct. 4, 
1862, was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. Meritorious 
service during the war won him a renewal of his commission as 
brigadier-general, in March, 1864, and on Aug. i, 1864, he was bre- 
vetted major-general of volunteers. He was mustered out Jan. 15, 
1866. After the war, from 1867 to 1869, Gen. Bartlett was United 
States minister to Norway and Sweden. 

Bartlett, William F., brigadier-general, was born in Haverhill, 
Mass., Jan. 6. 1840, and was a student at Harvard college when 
President Lincoln issued his first call for troops. He at once en- 
listed in the 4th battalion of Massachusetts volunteers, returned to 
college for a short time, and was then elected captain in the 20th 
Mass. volunteers. His aptitude for military service soon won for 
him promotion, and he became an acting field officer. In the spring 
of 1862 he was severely wounded at Yorktown and lost a leg. Re- 
covering, he organized the 49th Mass. volunteers in the fall of 1862, 
and, in spite of the loss of his leg, was elected its colonel. Col. 
Bartlett's regiment was ordered to Louisiana with Gen. Banks' ex- 
pedition, and at the assault on Port Hudson he was twice wounded. 
Returning to the north, he organized the 57th Mass. volunteers, led 
it in the Wilderness campaign, and was again wounded. He was 
appointed brigadier-general and returned to duty as soon as he 
was able to ride. After the explosion of the mine before Peters- 
burg, July 30, 1864, he was taken prisoner and suffered several weeks 
in Libby prison and elsewhere, being then exchanged. In Sept., 
1864, he was given command of the ist division of the 9th army 
corps, and was brevetted major-general of volunteers in 1865. Gen. 
Bartlett's military career is one of the most brilliant on record. He 
was noted as a soldier for his daring, coolness and intrepidity in ac- 
tion. After the war he engaged in business in Richmond, Va., and 
Pittsfield, Mass., and died in Pittsfield in 1876. 

Baxter, Henry, brigadier-general, was born in Sidney Plains, 
Delaware county, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1821. He received an academic 
education and in 1849 went to California as captain of a company 
of thirty men. Early in 1861 he volunteered as a private, raised 
a company, and was elected its captain, the company afterwards 
being mustered into the 7th Mich.- volunteers. On May 22, 1862, 
he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and, while in command of 
his regiment, at Fredericksburg, led an attack upon a company of 
Confederate sharpshooters across the river. The sharpshooters 
were dislodged, but Col. Baxter was shot through the lung. In 
March, 1863, he was promoted to brigadier-general, and participat- 
ed in most of the battles of the Army of the Potomac. He distin- 
guished himself at Antietam and in the Wilderness, in both of 
which contests he was wounded, besides having two horses killed 




Brig.-Gen. W. F. Barry 
Brig.-Gen. Henry Baxter 
Brig.-Gen. John Beatty 
Brig.-Gen. H. W. Benham 



r.i-ig.Geii. T. T. BarTlETT Brig.-Gen, \V. F. Barti.Ett 

Brig.-Gen. G. D. Bayard Brig.-Gen. G. L. Beal 

Brig.-Gen. Samuel Beatty Brig.-Gen. W. W. Belknap 

Brig.-Gen. W. P. BenTon Maj.-Gen. H. G. Berry 



Biographical Sketches 29 

under him at the Wilderness. For gallantry at the Wilderness, 
Dabney's mill and Five P'orks, he was made brevet major-general 
of volunteers, April i. 1865. After the war, from 1866 to 1869, he 
was United States minister to Honduras. He died in Jonesville, 
Hillsdale county, Mich., Dec. 30, 1873. 

Bayard, George Dashiell, brigadier-general, was born in Seneca 
Falls, N. Y., Dec. 18, 1835. Moving with his parents to Iowa in 
early youth, he attended a military school taught by a Maj. Dorn, 
and learned fencing from Col. Korponay, an exiled Hungarian. 
Going then to West Point he was graduated in 1856, and was as- 
signed to frontier duty in the ist cavalry. He was severely wound- 
ed there in a fight with the Kiowa Indians. In 1861 he was cavalry 
instructor at West Point, became a ist lieutenant in the 3d cavalry 
on March 16 of that year, and on Aug. 20 he was promoted to cap- 
tain of the 4th cavalry and granted a leave of absence to become 
colonel of the ist Penn. cavalry. On April 28, 1862, he was pro- 
moted to brigadier-general of volunteers, and served with distinction 
in the campaigns of the Shenandoah, northern Virginia and on the 
Rappahannock. In the battle of Fredericksburg he was mortally 
wounded, and on the next day, Dec. 14, 1862, he died. He was 
buried with military honors at Princeton, N. J. A memorial by 
his father was published in 1874. 

Beal, George L., brigadier-general, was born in Norway, Me., 
May 21, 1825. Leaving Portland on Oct. 6, 1861, as colonel of the 
loth Maine volunteers, he served with distinction throughout the 
Civil war, and was mustered out of the service, Jan. 15, 1866. On 
May 30, 1864, while colonel of the 29th Maine volunteers, he was 
appointed brigadier-general by the president, and served in this 
capacity during the remainder of the war. He was brevetted ma- 
jor-general of volunteers March 13, 1865. 

Beatty, John, brigadier-general, was born near Sandusky, O., 
Dec. 16, 1828, received a common school education, and then en- 
tered business life as clerk in a banking house. In 1861 he enlist- 
ed as a private in the 3d Ohio infantry, was appointed captain, and 
later lieutenant-colonel. He took part in the early campaigns in 
western Virginia, became a colonel in 1862, and in the three days' 
fight at Stone's river, Dec. 31, 1862, to Jan. 2. 1863, commanded a 
brigade. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers 
Nov. 29, 1862, and resigned from the service Jan. 28. 1864. After 
the war he took an active interest in public affairs, served two terms 
in congress, was a presidential elector-at-large, and wrote two books. 

Beatty, Samuel, brigadier-general, was born in Mifflin county, 
Pa., Dec, 16, 1820. In 1827 he moved with his father to Jackson. 
Stark county, Ohio, where he spent the rest of his life, with the 
exception of the time spent in military service. He served nearly 
two years as ist lieutenant in the 3d Ohio volunteers during the 
Mexican war, and then, returning to civil life, was elected sheriff 
of his county in 1857 and re-elected in 1859. On Nov. 16, 1861, he 
became colonel of the 19th Ohio volunteers and served with dis- 
tinction throughout the war. On Nov. 29, 1862, he was made brig- 
adier-general of volunteers, and commanded a division in the bat- 
tle of Stone's river. He was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers March 13, 1865, was mustered out of the service, Jan. 15, 
1866, and returned to Ohio, where he spent the rest of his life on 
his farm. He died. May 26, 1885. 

Belknap, William W., brigadier-general, was born in Newburgh, 
N. Y., Sept. 22, 1829. In 1848 he was graduated from Princeton 



30 The Union Army 

university, afterwards studied law, and in 1851 moved to Keokuk, 
la., to practice his profession. While residing there he was elected, 
in 1857 as a Democrat, to the state legislature. When the Civil war 
broke out he joined the Union forces as major of the 15th Iowa 
volunteers, fought at Shiloh, Corinth and Vicksburg, and distin- 
guished himself during Sherman's Atlanta campaign. He was pro- 
moted to brigadier-general on July 30, 1864, and on March 13, 1865, 
was given the brevet rank of major-general of volunteers. After 
the war he was collector of internal revenue from 1865 to 1869, 
when he was appointed secretary of war. He held this office dur- 
ing the entire administration of Gen. Grant until March 7, 1876, 
when, on account of charges of official corruption, he resigned. He 
was impeached on charges of accepting bribes, but, as his resig- 
nation took efifect before the trial was actually begun, the proceed- 
ings were dropped for lack of jurisdiction. He died in 1890. 

Benham, Henry W., brigadier-general, was born in Connecticut 
in 1817, and graduated from West Point at the head of his class in 
1837. Being assigned to the engineer corps, he had charge of vari- 
ous engineering works until the outbreak of the Mexican war, in 
which he distinguished himself, being brevetted captain for meri- 
torious services at the battle of Buena Vista. After the Mexican 
war he again engaged in engineering works, until the outbreak of 
the Civil war, when he entered upon active service as a member of 
Gen. Morris' staff, as engineer of the Department of the Ohio. He 
was brevetted colonel for gallantry at the battle of Carrick's ford, 
July 13, 1861, was made brigadier-general of volunteers in August, 
and took part in the Virginia campaigns of that year. In 1862 he 
was present at the capture of Fort Pulaski and James' island, and 
in the same year superintended the construction of fortifications in 
Boston and Portsmouth harbors, and commanded the northern dis- 
trict of the Department of the South. He showed himself efficient 
in the construction of pontoon bridges, and was, in 1864, in com- 
mand of the pontoon department at Washington. During the war 
he was advanced by regular stages of promotion to lieutenant-colonel 
of engineers, U. S. A., and he was at the end of the war given the 
brevet titles of brigadier-general and major-general, U. S. A., and 
major-general, U. S. volunteers. After the war he was promoted 
to colonel of engineers, and was employed in various governmental 
works. He was retired in 1882, and died in New York, June I, 
1884. 

Benton, William P., brigadier-general, was born near Newmarket, 
Frederick county, Md., Dec. 25, 1828. His father dying when he 
was but four months old, he was taken by his mother to Indiana 
in 1836. At the beginning of the Mexican war, when only eighteen 
years old, he enlisted for the Mexican war as a private in a regi- 
ment of mounted riflemen, and fought at Contreras, Churubusco, 
Chapultepec, and the capture of the City of Mexico. Returning 
after the war to Richmond, Ind., he was admitted to the bar in 1851, 
was appointed prosecuting attorney in 1852, and in 1856 was made 
judge of the common pleas court. Judge Benton was the first man 
in Wayne county to respond to the president's call for troops, and 
his company, which he gathered in twenty-four hours, was the first 
in Indiana to be mustered into the service. He was promoted colonel 
of the 8th Indiana, had command at Rich mountain and distinguished 
himself there by personal bravery. Upon the expiration of the 
first three months he re-enlisted and re-organized the regiment, and 
reported to Gen. Fremont in Sept., 1861. The regiment, placed in 



Biographical Sketches 31 

the vanguard of Fremont's army, served in the campaign in Mis- 
souri and Kansas. Col. Benton commanded a brigade at Pea ridge, 
and for gallantry in that battle was promoted to brigadier-general. 
He took part in the battles of Port Gibson, Jackson, Champion's 
hill, Black River bridge, the sieges of Vicksburg and Mobile, and 
was injured at Jackson, Miss. On March 25, 1865, he was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers, and resigned the following July. While 
in New Orleans, under appointment from the government, he died 
in 1867. 

Berry, Hiram G., major-general, was born in Thomaston (now 
Rockland), Me., Aug. 27, 1824, learned the carpenter trade as a 
boy, and afterwards becam.e a navigator. He represented his native 
town for several terms in the state legislature and was mayor of 
the city of Rockland. At Rockland he organized and for several 
years commanded a company called the Rockland Guard, which 
was well known for its excellent discipline. At the beginning of 
the Civil war. Gen. Berry entered the service as colonel of the 4th 
Maine infantry, took part in the battle of Bull Run, the siege of 
Yorktown, and on April 4, 1862, was made a brigadier-general. He 
was present at the battles of Fair Oaks and Williamsburg, at the 
Seven Days' fight, the second Bull Run campaign, and Chantilly. 
In Jan., 1863, he was nominated by the president as major-general 
of volunteers, the nomination was confirmed, and he was placed in 
command of the 2nd division of the 3d army corps, succeeding Gen. 
Sickles. Berry lost his life at a critical juncture in the battle of 
Chancellorsville, when, at the head of his division, he was leading 
a bayonet charge against the enemy. 

Biddle, Charles J., brigadier-general, was born in Philadelphia 
in 1819. He was a son of Nicholas Biddle, of United States Bank 
fame, graduated at Princeton college in 1837, studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1840, served as a captain of the Voltigeurs 
in the U. S. army in the Mexican war, and was in the actions of 
Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey. Chapultepec, and the tak- 
ing of the City of Mexico, and was brevetted major for gallant and 
meritorious services. At the close of that war he resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession in his native city. On June 21, 1861, he was 
appointed a colonel in the Penn. Reserve Volunteer Corps, and on 
Aug. 31, was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, but de- 
clined the appointment. In October he was elected a member of 
the 37th Congress, and on Dec. 11, resigned his commission as colonel. 
After the war he became one of the proprietors and editor-in-chief 
of the Philadelphia Age, and he died in Philadelphia, Sept. 28, 1873. 

Bidwell, Daniel D., brigadier-general, was born about 1816 in 
Buflfalo. N. Y., where he became a prominent and influential citi- 
zen, and for more than twenty years was identified with the mili- 
tary organizations of the city. When the war broke out he was 
holding the office of police justice, but resigned his position and 
entered the 6sth N. Y. infantry as a private, and was subsequently 
appointed brigade inspector. Upon the death of the captain of 
his company he resigned that position, accepted the command va- 
cated, and withdrawing it from the regiment reorganized it as an 
independent citizens' corps, thus forming the nucleus" of what was 
afterward known as the 74th N. Y. infantry. In Sept., 1861, he 
was commissioned colonel of the 49th N. Y. infantry, served with it 
through the Peninsular campaign, and during the Seven Days' bat- 
tles was in command of a brigade, continuing in charge from Har- 
rison's landing to Washington and up to the time of the battles of 



33 The Union Army 

South mountain and Antietam, when he resumed command of his 
regiment. Col. Bidwell took a prominent part in the battles of 
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, commanded a brigade at Get- 
tysburg, and when Gen. Grant took command of the armies in Vir- 
ginia was again placed in charge of a brigade, participating in all 
the battles near Petersburg. He was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers in July, 1864, and served with honor in all the 
battles in the Shenandoah valley, under Gen. Sheridan, up to the 
battle of Cedar creek, in which engagement he was killed. 

Birge, Henry W., brigadier-general, was born in Plartford, Conn., 
about 1830. He was serving on the staflF of Gov. Buckingham of 
Connecticut when the Civil war broke out, and organized the first 
regiment raised in that state. On May 22, 1861, he was made ma- 
jor of the 4th Conn, volunteers, the first three-year regiment or- 
ganized in Connecticut, and served with his regiment in Maryland 
and Virginia. He was promoted colonel of the 13th Conn, regi- 
ment, Nov. 5, 1861, left in the following March to join Gen. But- 
ler's forces in New Orleans, and was afterwards placed in command 
of the defenses there. In September he commanded a brigade under 
Maj.-Gen. Beckwith, took an active part in the battle of Georgia 
landing in October, accompanied Gen. Banks on the first Red 
River campaign, and was present at the siege and surrender of Port 
Hudson, July 8, 1863. On Oct. 6, 1863, he was promoted brigadier- 
general and in 1864 commanded a brigade under Banks in the sec- 
ond Red River campaign, served actively in several engagements 
and was then placed in command of Baton Rouge, La. He was 
ordered north with the 2nd division of the 19th corps in Aug., 
1864, commanded a division under Gen. Sheridan in the Shenan- 
doah valley, and, early in 1865, was sent to command the fortifica- 
tions at Atlanta, Ga. At the recommendation of Gen. Sheridan, 
he was, on Feb. 25, 1865, brevetted major-general of volunteers for 
gallant action at the battle of Cedar creek. He resigned his com- 
mission in Oct., 1865, and, on his return to Connecticut, was award- 
ed a vote of thanks by the state legislature. Gen. Birge died June 
I, 1888. 

Birney, David B., major-general, was born in Huntsville, Ala., 
May 29, 1825, being a son of James G. Birney, the abolition leader. 
He studied law in Cincinnati, O., where his father published a 
newspaper, then moved with his parents to Bay City, Mich., and 
later to Philadelphia, where he was practicing law at the outbreak 
of the Civil war. Giving up his profession, he recruited, largely at 
his own expense, the 23d Penn. volunteer regiment, of which he 
was made at first lieutenant-colonel and afterwards colonel, being 
promoted from this rank to brigadier-general and major-general 
of volunteers. He fought bravely at Yorktown, Williamsburg, 
Manassas, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and, upon the death 
of Gen. Berry, succeeded him as commander of the division. In the 
battle of Gettysburg he commanded the 3d corps after Gen. Sick- 
les was wounded, and on July 23, 1864, was made commander of 
the lOth corps. He returned home with greatly impaired health, 
and on Oct. 18, 1864, died of disease contracted while in the serv- 
ice. 

Birney, William, brigadier-general, was born in Huntsville, Ala., 
in 1819, the second son of James G. Birney, and was like his father 
a strong abolitionist. He was educated at Centre and Yale col- 
leges, and spent five years in study in Europe. While in France, 
in 1848, he took an active part in the revolution and was appointed, 





dig. -Gen. C. J. BiddlE 
Brig.-Gen. Wm. Birney 
Maj.-Gen. J. G. Blunt 
Brig.-Gen. J. T. Boyle 



Biig.-licn. II. W. BiRGE 
Maj.-Gen. F. P. Blair 
Brig.-Gen. Henry BohlEn 
Brig.-Gen. L. P. Bradley 



M.ij.-i.cii. .). ;... :;.,-., ICY 
Brig.-Gen. Louis BlenkER 
Brig.-Gen. James BowEN 
Brig.-Gen. E. S. Br.\gg 



Biographical Sketches 33 

on competitive examination, professor of English literature in the 
college at Bourges. Entering the military service of the United 
States as captain, in 1861, he rose through all the grades to the 
brevet rank of major-general of volunteers, and during the last 
two years of the war commanded a division. In 1863. having been 
commissioned by the war department to organize colored troops, he 
enlisted, equipped, and sent to the field, seven regiments of colored 
troops, in doing which, he liberated the slaves from the slave pris- 
ons in Baltimore, thus freeing a large number of slaves belonging 
to Confederate officers. The result of his operations was to hasten 
the abolition of slavery in Maryland. After the defeat of the 
Union troops at Olustee, Fla., being placed in command of that 
district, he succeeded in regaining possession of the principal parts 
of the state and of several Confederate strongholds. He took part 
in numerous skirmishes and the principal battles in Virginia, in- 
cluding the first and second Bull Run, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, 
Chantilly and Chancellorsville. After the war he spent four years 
in Florida, and then removed to Washington where he practiced 
his profession, becoming attorney for the District of Columbia. 

Blair, Francis P., Jr., major-general, was born in Lexington, Ky., 
Feb. 19, 1821, son of Francis Preston Blair, statesman. He was grad- 
uated from Princeton in 1841, admitted to the bar in 1843, prac- 
ticed two years in St. Louis, and then spent two years in the Rocky 
mountains for his health. He served as a private in the Mexican 
war, then returned to St. Louis, where he took an active part in 
politics as a Free Soil Democrat, and represented his district in 
the state legislature from 1852 to 1856, after which he spent sev- 
eral terms in Congress. In 1861, at a meeting of Republican lead- 
ers in St. Louis, Mr. Blair urged the necessity of saving from the 
state authorities the St. Louis arsenal, containing 65,000 stands of 
arms belonging to the government, and he became the head of the 
military organization then formed, which guarded the arsenal from 
that time. Under his direction, the state troops under Gen. Frost 
were captured in May, 1861, and it is claimed that this act, done 
though it was without authority from Washington, saved Missouri 
and Kentucky to the Union. He then joined the Union army as 
colonel of volunteers and was promoted to brigadier-general, and, 
on Nov. 29, 1862, was made major-general of volunteers. He com- 
manded a division in the Vicksburg campaign, led his men at Look- 
out mountain and Missionary ridge, and was at the head of his 
troops, the 17th corps, during Sherman's campaigns in 1864-65, 
including the march to the sea. His opposition to reconstruction 
policies after the war led to his rejection by the senate, when nom- 
inated by President Johnson as revenue collector at St. Louis, and 
also as United States minister to Austria. He returned to the 
Democratic party and was its candidate for the vice-presidency in 
1868. In Jan.. 1871, he again entered the Missouri state legislature, 
was elected to the United States senate to fill an unexpired term, 
but failed at re-election in 1873. At the time of his death, which 
occurred in St. Louis in 1875, he was state superintendent of in- 
surance. 

Blenker, Louis, brigadier-general, was born in Worms, Hesse 
Darmstadt, Germany, July 31, 1812. While in the service of the 
Bavarian legion, which accompanied King Otho to Greece, he at- 
tained the rank of lieutenant, in 1837. He was a leading member 
of the revolutionary government at Worms, in 1849, and upon the 
overthrow of the revolutionist cause, was forced to retire to Swit- 
Vol. VIII— 3 



34 The Union Army 

zerland. Being ordered to leave that country also, he emigrated 
in Sept., 1849, to the United States, where he at first undertook to 
cultivate a farm in Rockland county, N. Y., and later engaged in 
business in New York city. Being commissioned on May 31, 1861, 
colonel of the 8th N. Y. volunteers, which he had organized, he 
first distinguished himself at the battle of Bull Run, where his regi- 
ment, which acted as a reserve, covered the retreat with great 
steadiness and recovered two Union colors which the retreating 
soldiers had left on the field. For gallantry at this time he was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, and, in the early part of 
the peninsular campaign, was ordered to West Virginia, where he 
took an active part in the battle of Cross Keys, June 8, 1862, until, 
on the arrival of Gen. Fremont, he was superseded by Gen. Sigel. 
He was then ordered to Washington, mustered out of the service 
in March, 1863, and on Oct. 31, died on his farm in Rockland 
county, N. Y., as the result of internal injuries, received from a 
fall of his horse during the Virginia campaign. 

Blunt, James G., major-general, was born in Hancock county. 
Me., in 1826. From the time he was fifteen until his twentieth 
year he spent on the sea, then studied medicine, was graduated in 
1849 from the Starling medical college, Columbus, O., and prac- 
ticed medicine in Ohio until 1856, when he settled in Anderson 
county, Kan. In Kansas he soon became prominent in politics, 
used his influence against the introduction of slavery, and was a 
member of the state constitutional convention. Entering the army 
in July, 1861, as lieutenant-colonel of the 3d Kan. volunteers, he 
commanded the cavalry in Gen. James Lane's brigade, and on 
April 8, 1862, was made brigadier-general and given command of 
the military Department of Kansas. His troops routed the Con- 
federates in the battle of Old Fort Wayne, Oct. 22, 1862, again at 
Cane hill. Ark., on Nov. 28, 1862, and on Dec. 7 of that year he met 
and defeated, with the aid of Gen. Herron, the Confederates under 
Hindman at Prairie Grove, checking thereby the advance of the 
Southern troops into Missouri. On Dec. 28, he captured Fort Van 
Buren. He was promoted to major-general of volunteers Nov. 29, 
1862, and in June, 1863, being relieved of command of the Depart- 
ment of Kansas, he took the field with the Army of the Frontier. 
He defeated Gen. Cooper at Honey Springs, July 16, 1863, and in 
Oct., 1864, aided by Sanborn's cavalry, he met the Confederates 
at Newtonia, Mo., and there dealt the final blow to Price's inva- 
sion of Missouri. During the latter part of the war he was military 
commandant of the district of south Kansas. He was mustered 
out of the service, July 29, 1865, and settled at Leavenworth, Kan. He 
died in Washington, D. C, in 1881. 

Bohlen, Henry, brigadier-general, was born in Bremen, Ger- 
many, Oct. 22, 1810. Coming to the United States while a boy, he 
settled in Philadelphia and there acquired a fortune in the liquor 
business. In 1861 he became colonel of the 75th Penn. (German) 
volunteers and was attached to Gen. Blenker's command. On 
April 28, 1862, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers and 
served in western Virginia under Gen. Fremont, distinguishing 
himself especially at the battle of Cross Keys, on June 8. 1862. He 
was also commended for his services under Gen. Sigel in the 
Shenandoah valley. While covering the retreat of the army of 
Virginia across the Rappahannock he led his brigade across the 
river to attack a detachment of Longstreet's division, but was as- 
sailed by superior numbers and lost his life while retreating back 
across the river, on Aug. 22, 1862. 



Biographical Sketches 35 

Bowen, James, brigadier-general, was born in New York city 
in 1808. Left an ample fortune by his father, he was the first pres- 
ident of the Erie railway, holding that office for many years. He 
was a member of the state legislature in 1848 and 1849, and sub- 
sequently held various civic offices, being in 1855 the first police 
commissioner in New York city. At the beginning of the Civil 
war he raised several regiments, which were formed into a brigade, 
of which he was made brigadier-general. After Gen. Butler left 
New Orleans, Gen. Bowen went there, being made provost-marshal- 
general of the Department of the Gulf in Dec, 1862. He resigned, 
July 27, 1864, and on March 13, 1865, was made brevet major-gen- 
eral of volunteers. His last public office was that of commissioner 
of charities, to which he was appointed by Mayor Havemeyer, and 
which he held for many years. Gen. Bowen was a man of unusual 
qualities, and numbered among his intimate friends such men as 
Daniel Webster and William H. Seward. He died at Hastings-on- 
the-Hudson, Sept. 29, 1886. 

Boyle, Jeremiah T., brigadier-general, was born in 1818, gradu- 
ated from Princeton in 1839, was admitted to the bar, and prac- 
ticed law in Kentucky until the outbreak of the Civil war. When 
the slave states seceded from the Union and Kentucky was in doubt 
which side to join, he took the Union side, and on Nov. 4, 1861, was 
appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. Because of distinguished 
services in organizing for defense against the Confederate invasion, 
he was appointed military governor of Kentucky, holding that of- 
fice from 1862 to 1864, when he resigned his commission to become 
president of the Louisville city railway company. In 1866 he be- 
came president of the Evansville, Henderson & Nashville rail- 
road company, which position he held during the remainder of his 
life. He died in Louisville, Ky., July 28, 1871. 

Bradley, Luther P., brigadier-general, was born in New Haven, 
Conn., Dec. 8, 1822. After receiving a common school education he 
removed to Illinois, and in 1861 entered the Union service as lieu- 
tenant-colonel of a regiment which he had organized, — the 51st 111. 
volunteers. He was on recruiting duty until Feb., 1862, and sub- 
sequently fought at the capture of Island No. 10. at New Madrid, 
Farmington, Nashville, Stone's river, Chickamauga, where he was 
severely wounded, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kennesaw moun- 
tain, Peachtree creek, Atlanta and Jonesboro. On Oct. 15, 
1862, he became colonel of his regiment. He was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers July 30, 1864, and took part in the campaign 
against Gen. Hood, being wounded at the battle of Franklin, Tenn. 
On June 30, 1865, he resigned his commission, was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 27th U. S. infantry, July 28, 1866, and on 
March 2, 1867, was brevetted colonel in the regular army for serv- 
ices at Chickamauga, and brigadier-general for services at Resaca. 
After the war, from 1866 to 1886, he served as lieutenant-colonel 
and afterwards colonel, on the plains, and in Wyoming, Kansas, 
New Mexico and other places. He was retired Dec. 8, 1886. 

Bragg, Edward S., brigadier-general, was born at Unadilla, N. Y., 
Feb. 20, 1827. After a preliminary education in the village school 
and academy, he entered Geneva, now Hobart college, where he 
remained three years, going then to study law in the office of Judge 
Noble of Unadilla. He was admitted to the New York bar in 
1848, practiced law for a time in New York, and then moved to 
Fond du Lac, Wis., where he served as district attorney from 1854 
to 1856. In i860 he was sent as a Douglas Democrat to the Charles- 



36 The Union Army 

ton convention. Entering the Union army, May 5, 1861, as cap- 
tain, he was promoted through all the intermediate grades to the 
rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, to which he was appointed 
June 25, 1864. He participated in all the campaigns of the Army of 
the Potomac except the Peninsular and was at Gettysburg and 
Five Forks, serving with such distinction as to win him deserved 
promotions. He was mustered out Oct. 8, 1865, returned to Fond 
du Lac, and in 1866 was appointed postmaster there by President 
Johnson. Since the war he has held various important civic of- 
fices. He was in 1866 a delegate to the Philadelphia Union con- 
vention, was elected state senator in 1867 and served one term, and 
was a delegate to the Soldiers' and Sailors' convention which nom- 
inated Horatio Seymour for president in 1868. In 1872 he was a 
delegate to the national Democratic convention in Baltimore which 
nominated Horace Greeley for president, and was also a member 
of the Democratic national conventions of 1884, 1892 and 1896. In 
the convention of 1884 he seconded the nomination of Grover 
Cleveland for president, using the phrase which has since become 
famous: "We love him for the enemies he has made." In 1896 
he was a prominent gold Democrat, and in 1900 supported McKin- 
ley. He was a member of Congress from 1877 to 1883. and from 
1885 to 1887, and was regarded during his congressional career as 
one of the most dangerous antagonists in debate in the house. He 
was minister to Mexico in 1888-89, consul-general to Havana from 
May 19, 1902, to Sept. 15, 1902. and was on Sept. 15, 1902, appointed 
consul-general to Hong Kong, in which position he served imtil 
1906. He is now living retired at Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Bramlette, Thomas E., brigadier-general, was born in Cumber- 
land county, Ky., Jan. 3, 1817. He was educated in the county 
schools, studied law and was admitted to the bar, and in 1848 be- 
came state's attorney, resigning that office in 1850 in order that he 
might devote himself to his private practice. In 1856 he was elect- 
ed district judge, but resigned in 1861 to enter the Union army. 
He raised the 3d Ky. infantry, was elected its colonel, and in April, 
1863, became brigadier-general of volunteers. He resigned his com- 
mission the same year to become governor of Kentucky, to which 
office he had been elected on the Union ticket. He remained in 
office until 1867, and then resumed his law practice at Louisville. 
He died in Louisville, Jan. 12, 1875. 

Brannan, John M., brigadier-general, was born in the District 
of Columbia, in 1819, and was graduated at the United States mili- 
tary academy at West Point in 1841. He served at Plattsburg, 
N. Y., during the border disturbances in 1840-41, and in the Mexi- 
can war as ist lieutenant of the ist artillery. He took part in most 
of the important engagements of the Mexican war, was severely 
wounded in the assault on the City of Mexico, and came out of the 
contest with the brevet of captain. He served in the Seminole war 
in Florida in 1856-58, and entered the Civil war as brigadier- 
general of volunteers. He was made brevet lieutenant-colonel in 
the regular army for gallantry at the battle of Jacksonville, Fla., 
in 1862, and in Sept., 1863, won the brevet of colonel for meritori- 
ous service at the battle of Chickamauga. On Jan. 23, 1865, he was 
brevetted major-general of volunteers and on March 13, 1865, was 
given the brevet of major-general in the regular army for services 
at Atfanta. He was active in the Tennessee and Georgia cam- 
paigns, fighting with distinction in most of the battles of each. He 
was mustered out of the volunteer service in 1866, and, after a 



Biographical Sketches 37 

short leave of absence, was placed in command of Fort Trumbull, 
Conn. Subsequently he served at Ogdensburg, N. Y., during the 
Fenian disturbances of 1870, and at Philadelphia, in 1877, during the 
railroad riots, commanding United States troops in both places. 
He was retired from the active service in 1882 and died Dec. 16, 
1892. 

Brayman, Mason, brigadier-general, was born in Buffalo, N. Y., 
May 2^, 1813. Brought up on a farm, he became a printer, then 
editor of the Buffalo "Bulletin," studied law, and in 1836 was ad- 
mitted to the bar. Removing to the west, he became city attorney 
of Monroe, Mich., in 1838, editor of the Louisville "Adviser" in 
1841, opened a law office in Springfield, 111., in 1842, and in 1844-45 
revised the state statutes. In 1843, as special government com- 
missioner, he adjusted the Mormon disturbances at Nauvoo, and 
conducted the negotiations which resulted in the withdrawal of 
the Mormons from Illinois. He was from 1851 to 1855 attorney 
for the Illinois Central railroad, and then, until the outbreak of the 
Civil war, was a promoter of railroad enterprises in Missouri, Ar- 
kansas and the southwest. In 1861 he joined the Union army as 
major of the 29th 111. volunteers, became colonel of the regiment 
in May, 1862, and fought with such conspicuous gallantry at the 
battles of Belmont, Fort Donelson and Shiloh that he was pro- 
moted brigadier-general of volunteers. He was in command at 
Bolivar, Tenn., when Van Dorn's attack was successfully repulsed. 
He afterwards reorganized about sixty Ohio regiments, at Fort 
Dennison; was president of a board of inquiry to investigate the 
conduct of Gen. Sturgis, commanded at Natchez, Tenn., from July, 
1864, to May, 1865, and was presiding officer of a committee to in- 
vestigate cotton claims. He was mustered out of the service at 
the close of the war with the brevet rank of major-general of vol- 
unteers. After the war he was engaged in reviving railroad inter- 
ests in the south, was editor of the "Illinois State Journal" in 1872- 
73, practiced law in Ripon. Wis., from 1873 to 1877, and was then 
appointed by President Hayes governor of Idaho. At the expira- 
tion of his term, in 1880, he resumed the practice of his profession 
in Ripon, Wis. He afterwards settled in Kansas City, Mo., and 
died there Feb. 27, 1895. 

Briggs, Henry S., brigadier-general, was born in Aug., 1824, 
and in 1844 graduated from Williams college. He afterwards 
studied law and gained some distinction as a lawyer, and in 1861, 
at the outbreak of the Civil war, joined the Union army as colonel 
of the loth Mass. volunteers. At the battle of Fair Oaks he dis- 
tinguished himself, and on July 17. 1862, was made a brigadier- 
general of volunteers. He served throughout the war and was at 
its close a member of the general court-martial in Washington, 
D. C. He was mustered out of the service Dec. 4, 1865. 

Brisbin, James S., brigadier-general, was born in Boalsburg, Pa., 
about 1838. He received a classical education, taught school, and 
became well known before the Civil war as an anti-slavery ora- 
tor. Enlisting in the Civil war as a private, he was commissioned 
2nd lieutenant, and fought in the battle of Bull Run, July, 1861, 
where he was severely wounded. In Aug., 1861. he was promoted 
captain of the 2nd cavalry and fought with distinction in the fol- 
lowing May, with the Army of the Potomac. He was present at 
Malvern hill and most of the other battles of the Peninsular cam- 
paign, and also in the Blue Ridge expedition, and for meritorious 
service at the battle of Beverly ford, Va., June 9, 1863, was bre- 



38 The Union Army 

vetted major U. S. A. He commanded the Pennsylvania state cav- 
alry at Gettysburg, and then joined Banks' Red River expedition 
as chief of cavalry on the staff of Gen. A. L. Lee. Being wounded 
at Sabine cross-roads, April 8, 1864, he returned north and be- 
came chief of staff to Gen. S. G. Burbridge in his operations in 
Kentucky and Tennessee. Near the close of the war he was bre- 
vetted lieutenant-colonel and colonel U. S. A., brigadier-general of 
volunteers and major-general of volunteers and promoted to the 
full rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, receiving his brevets 
for gallant action at Beverly, Va., and Marion. Va., and meritori- 
ous service during the war. He was mustered out of the volunteer 
service in 1866, and became captain in the 6th U. S. cavalry. In 
January, 1868, he was promoted to major of the 2nd cavalry, was 
made lieutenant-colonel of the 9th cavalry in 1885, and on Aug. 20, 
1889, became colonel of the ist cavalry. He died Jan. 14, 1892. 

Brooke, John R., brigadier-general, was born in Pottsville, Pa., 
July 21, 1838, and joined the Union army in April, 1861, as captain 
in the 4th Penn. volunteers. At the close of his three months' 
service he reenlisted as colonel of the 53d Pa. infantry, and on 
May 12, 1864, was commissioned brigadier-general for distinguished 
services during the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania 
Court House. On Aug. i, 1864, he was brevetted major-general of 
volunteers for "gallant and meritorious services in the battles of 
Totopotomy and Cold Harbor, Va.," and resigned from the vol- 
unteer service Feb. i, 1866. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
in the regular army, July 28, 1866, being assigned to the 37th U. S. 
infantry. On March 2, 1867, he received the brevets of colonel and 
brigadier-general U. S. A. for gallant and meritorious services at 
Gettysburg and Spottsylvania court-house. He was transferred to 
the 3d infantry, March 19, 1869, promoted colonel of the 13th in- 
fantry, March 20, 1879, transferred to the 3d infantry, June 14, 1879, 
and promoted brigadier-general, April 6, 1888. He was assigned 
to the command of the Rialto in 1888 and in 1896 to the command of 
the Department of Dakota, with headquarters at St. Paul, Minn. 
On May 22, 1897, he was promoted major-general and assigned to 
the Department of the Missouri, with headquarters at Chicago, HI., 
and in April, 1898, was given command of the troops assembled at 
Chickamauga park for service in the Spanish-American war. In 
July, 1898, he was made head of the military commission and gov- 
ernor-general of Porto Rico, and in Dec, 1898, was transferred to 
Cuba as governor-general, his conduct in both places meeting with 
the approval of the inhabitants. In May, 1900, he became com- 
mander of the Department of the East, a position which he held un- 
til July 21, 1902, when he was retired. 

Brooks, William T. H., major-general, was born at New Lis- 
bon, Ohio, Jan. 28, 1821. He was graduated at West Point in 1841, 
going immediately afterwards into service in the Florida war, and 
in 1842 was made second lieutenant. He was garrisoned at Fort 
Stansbury, Fla., in 1843, did frontier duty at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kan., from 1843 to 1845, served during the military occupation of 
Texas, and then engaged in the war with Mexico with the rank 
of first lieutenant. At Monterey, Contreras and Churubusco he es- 
pecially distinguished himself and won the brevets of captain and 
major. He was acting adjutant-general of Gen. Twiggs' division 
in 1847 and 1848, and aide-de-camp for the next three years, was 
promoted captain in 1851, and from 1852 to 1858 was on duty in 
New Mexico. After two years' sick leave, he returned to duty at 



Biographical Sketches 39 

the beginning of the Civil war as brigadier-general of volunteers, 
and engaged in the war until July 14, 1864, when he resigned on 
account of failing health. He was major-general of volunteers 
from June 10, 1863, to April 18, 1864. During the war he was pres- 
ent at the principal battles of the Army of the Potomac, command- 
ed a division in the Rappahannock campaign, was in command of 
the Department of the Monongahela in 1863 and 1864, and of the 
loth army corps from May 10, 1864, until he resigned. He was 
wounded at Savage Station and Antietam. After the war, in 1866, 
he moved to his farm near Huntsville, Ala., where he spent the re- 
mainder of his days. He died there July 19, 1870. 

Brown, Egbert B., brigadier-general, was born at Brownsville, 
N. Y., Oct. 24, 1816. He obtained the rudiments of an education 
at Tecumseh, Mich., and then, being thrown upon his own resources, 
was employed as helper on a whaling voyage around the world. 
He was afterwards employed at various occupations in Toledo, 
Ohio, became mayor of that city in 1849, and then, removing to St. 
Louis in 1852, was, until 1861, a railroad manager. Resigning his 
position at that time, he was influential in saving the state to the 
Union, and in May, 1862, was appointed brigadier-general of Mis- 
souri volunteers, and in 1863, after the battle of Springfield, was 
made brigadier-general of United States volunteers. He was se- 
verely wounded at the battle of Springfield, and never fully recov- 
ered. The troops under his command at that battle were officially 
complimented for gallantry by the Missouri legislature. He served 
throughout the war, mainly in Missouri, Arkansas and Texas, com- 
ing out of the conflict with one shoulder almost wholly disabled, 
and a bullet in his hip. In 1866 he was appointed United States 
pension agent at St. Louis, and held this position two years, re- 
signing at the end of that time to engage in farming at Hastings, 
111. From 1881 to 1884 he was a member of the state board of 
equalization. 

Buchanan, Robert C, brigadier-general, was born in Maryland 
about 1810, was graduated at West Point in 1830, served then in 
the Black Hawk and Seminole wars, and in 1838 was promoted 
captain. He served during the military occupation of Texas in 
1845-46, and in the Mexican war, being brevetted major for gal- 
lant action at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, Tex., and lieu- 
tenant-colonel for meritorious conduct at the battle of Molino del 
Rey, Mexico. He was appointed major in the 4th infantry, Feb. 
3, 1855, served on recruiting, garrison and court martial duty until 
1861, and in September of that year was promoted to the lieutenant- 
colonelcy of the 4th infantry and stationed at Washington, D. C, 
where he remained until March, 1862. He took a prominent part in 
the Peninsular campaign, winning the brevet of colonel for gal- 
lantry at Gaines' mill, was appointed brigadier-general of volun- 
teers in Nov., 1862, and, after March, 1863, commanded Fort Dela- 
ware. He was promoted colonel in the regular army in 1864 and 
in 1865 was given the brevets of major-general and brigadier-gen- 
eral, U. S. A., for gallantry at Malvern hill, Manassas and Freder- 
icksburg. He was a member of the military comihission, Dec. I, 
1865, to investigate the complaints of Prussia concerning the Mas- 
sachusetts enlistments in 1863, was a member of the Iowa claims 
commission in 1867, was in command of the district of Louisiana 
in 1868, and of Fort Porte in 1869-70. He was retired at his own 
request Dec. 31, 1870, and died in Washington, D. C, Nov. 29, 
1878. 



40 The Union Army 

Buckingham, Catharinus P., brigadier-general, was born in Spring- 
field, Ohio, March 14. 1808. He graduated in the military academy 
at West Point in 1829, served one year on topographical duty and 
another as instructor at West Point, and then resigned from the 
service to become professor of mathematics and natural philosophy 
at Kenyon college, Gambler, Ohio. He then engaged in manufac- 
turing and acquired a business interest in the Kokosing iron works 
at Mt. Vernon, Ohio. On May 3, 1861, he entered the United States 
service as assistant adjutant-general of Ohio, was made commis- 
sary-general on May 8, and on July i, adjutant-general with the 
rank of brigadier-general, serving until April 2, 1862. He was de- 
tailed on special duty in the war department in Washington from 
July, 1862, to Feb., 1863, and then resigned to go into business 
in New York. He built the Illinois Central railroad company's 
grain elevators in Chicago, and rebuilt those that had been de- 
stroyed by the great fire, being occupied in this work from 1868 to 
1873, and then became president of the Chicago steel works. He 
died in Chicago, 111., Aug. 30, 1888. 

Buckland, Ralph P., brigadier-general, was born at Leyden, 
Mass., Jan. 20, 1812, was educated in Ohio, admitted to the bar there 
in 1837, and began the practice of law in Fremont, that state. He 
was in 1848 a delegate to the national Whig convention, and in 
1855 became state senator, holding that office until 1859. At the 
outbreak of the Civil war he enlisted a regiment which became the 
72nd Ohio volunteers, and was elected its colonel. For gallantry 
at the battle of Shiloh, where he commanded the 4th brigade of 
Sherman's division, he was promoted brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, Nov. 29, 1862. He commanded a brigade of the 15th army 
corps at Vicksburg, was later assigned to the command of the dis- 
trict of Memphis, and on March 13, 1865, was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers. He resigned from the army in Jan., 1865, 
to accept a seat in Congress to which he had been elected while 
in the field, and was re-elected in 1866. He was president of the 
board of managers of the Ohio soldiers' and sailors' orphans' home 
from 1867 to 1873, and government director of the Union Pacific 
railroad from 1877 to 1880. Gen. Buckland was a delegate to the 
Philadelphia loyalists' convention in 1866. to the Pittsburg soldiers' 
convention, and to the Republican national convention of 1876. He 
died at Fremont, Ohio, May 28, 1892. 

Buell, Don Carlos, major-general, was born near Marietta, Ohio, 
March 23, 1818. He was graduated at West Point in 1841, and as- 
signed to the 3d infantry, being raised to ist lieutenant June 18, 
1846. He served in the war with Mexico, being brevetted captain 
for gallant action at Monterey, and major after Contreras and Chu- 
rubusco, having received a severe wound in the latter engagement, 
and was then, from 1848 to 1861, on duty as assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral at Washington and at various department headquarters. He 
received a staff appointment as lieutenant-colonel. May 11, 1861, 
was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on May 17, be- 
ing employed at first in organizing the troops at Washington, and 
in Aug., 1861, was given command of a division of the Army of the 
Potomac. In Nov., 1861, he superseded Gen. W. T. Sherman as com- 
mander of the Department of the Cumberland, which was reorgan- 
ized as the Department of the Ohio, and the campaign in Ken- 
tucky was opened on Dec. 17, 1861. when an attack was begun 
upon his pickets at Rowlett station, near Munfordville. Gen. 
Buell occupied Bowling Green, Feb. 14, 1862, took possession with 




r.iig.-Cen. T. M. Draxnan Ciig. Iku. Masox Dkavman 

Brig.-Gen. j. S. Brisbin Brig.-Gen. J. R. Brooke 

Brig.-Gen. Rob't Anderson Brig.-Gen. R. C. Buchanan 

Brig.-Gen. R. P. Buckland Maj.-Gen. D. C. Buell 



];ii^. i.cii. II. .S. BuiGOS 

Maj.-Gen. W. T. H. 
Brooks 

Brig.-Gen. C. P. Bucking- 
ham 

Maj.-Gen. John Bupord 



Biographical Sketches 41 

a small force of Gallatin, Tenn., on the 23d, and entered Nashville 
two days later. On March 21, 1862, he was made major-general of 
volunteers, his department becoming a part of the Department of 
the Mississippi under Gen. Halleck, and on the 6th of April fol- 
lowing, his opportune arrival at Shiloh saved Gen. Grant from dis- 
astrous defeat. On June 12, 1862, he took command of the Depart- 
ment of the Ohio, and, upon the advance of Bragg into Kentucky, 
he was forced to evacuate Central Tennessee, and make a rapid re- 
treat to Louisville, in order to save that city, and Cincinnati, which 
also was threatened by the Confederates. He arrived at Louis- 
ville at midnight, Sept. 24, amid great excitement, as the inhabi- 
tants had feared that Bragg would get there first. Buell was or- 
dered to give over his command to Thomas, Sept. 30. but was re- 
instated the next day and began a pursuit of the Confederates. 
After a week's chase, Bragg halted to give battle at Perryville, and 
there the two armies fought an indecisive battle which lasted from 
early in the afternoon of Oct. 8 until dark, with great loss on both 
sides. On the next day Bragg retired to Harrodsburg, and thence 
slowly to Cumberland gap. Buell's management of this command 
has been pronounced masterful by military authorities, but he was 
censured by the war department for not pursuing the Confederates 
swiftly enough to bring them into action again, and on Oct. 24, 
1862, was ordered to turn over his command to Gen. Rosecrans. A 
military committee made a report which was never published. Gen. 
Buell was mustered out of the volunteer service. May 23, 1864, and 
resigned his commission in the regular army June i, 1864. After 
the war he became extensively engaged in the iron business in 
Muhlenburg county, Ky., and in 1885 was appointed by President 
Cleveland pension agent in Kentucky. He died near Rockport, 
Ky.. Nov. 19, 1898. 

Buford, John, major-general, was born in Woodford county, Ky., 
March 4, 1826, a half brother of Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte Buford. 
He served as lieutenant in the ist dragoons in the expedition against 
the Sioux, in 1855; at Bluewater, Kan., in 1856-57; in Utah in 1857- 
58, and in 1861 was promoted major and attached to the corps of 
the inspector-general. For a few months in 1862 he was on the 
staff of Gen. Pope in the Army of Virginia, and on July 27, 1862, 
was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, commanding a 
brigade of cavalry in Gen. Hooker's army during the North Vir- 
ginia campaign. He took part in the engagement at Madison Court 
House, Aug. 9. pursued Gen. Jackson's army across the Rapidan, 
Aug. 12, was present at Kelly's ford. Thoroughfare gap, and Man- 
assas, and was wounded at the last named battle. He was chief 
of cavalry during the Maryland campaign, being present at South 
mountain, Sept. 14, and at Antietam, Sept. 17, acting in that battle 
on Gen. McClellan's staff. In Dec, 1862, he commanded the re- 
serve cavalry under Stoneman and did gallant service at Fred- 
ericksburg on the 13th of the month. He was also present at 
Stoneman's raid. May, 1863, and Beverly ford, June 9, 1863, and 
as chief of the cavalry division of the Army of the Potomac was 
present at all the principal engagements, including Gettysburg, 
where he began the attack. Wolf's hill, and Round Top, and the 
pursuit of the enemy to Warrenton. He played a conspicuous part 
at Culpeper, and in driving the Confederates across the Rapidan, 
when he was obliged to cut his way through the enemy to rejoin 
the army. He was assigned to the command of the cavalry of the 
Army of the Cumberland, in 1863, and on July i of that year was 



42 The Union Army 

commissioned major-general of volunteers. He died in Washing- 
ton, D. C, Dec. i6, 1863. 

Buford, Napoleon B., major-general, was born in Woodford 
county, Ky., Jan. 13, 1807, graduated at West Point in 1827, tlien 
studied law at Harvard by permission of the government, and was 
assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West 
Point in 1834 and 1835. He resigned from the army in 1835, was 
for a time employed by the state of Kentucky as an engineer, then 
engaged in the iron business and became a banker and railroad 
president in Illinois. Entering the Union army in 1861 as colonel 
of the 27th 111. volunteers, he was present at the engagement at 
Belmont, Mo., Nov. 7, 1861, occupied Columbus, Ky., in March, 
1862, captured Union City by surprise after a forced march, was 
in command of the garrison at Island No. 10 after the capitula- 
tion of the fort, and was present at Fort Pillow in April, 1862. He 
was promoted brigadier-general April 15, 1862, was present at the 
siege of Corinth, in May, 1862, at the battle of Corinth on Oct. 3 and 
4 of that year, and the siege of Vicksburg in 1863, was in command 
from March to Sept., 1863, at Cairo, 111., and from Sept., 1863, to 
March, 1865, at Helena, Ark. He held a commission as major- 
general of volunteers from Nov. 29, 1862, to March 4, 1863, and on 
March 13, 1865, was given the rank by brevet. He was mustered 
out of the service, Aug. 24, 1865, and served as special United 
States Indian commissioner, in 1868, having been appointed in 1867 
by the government to inspect the Union Pacific railroad, being 
employed at the latter task until 1869, when the road was completed. 
He died March 28, 1883. 

Burbridge, Stephen G., brigadier-general, was born in Scott 
county, Ky., Aug. 19, 1831. He acquired a classical and military 
education, studied law with United States Senator Garrett Davis, 
then engaged in business in Georgetown, D. C, after which he re- 
moved to a large plantation in Logan county, Ky. At the outbreak 
of the Civil war he recruited the 26th Ky. regiment, was made its 
colonel, and at the battle of Shiloh won by gallant action promo- 
tion to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers. He defended 
Kentucky against the invasion of Gen. Bragg in 1862, commanded 
the 1st brigade, ist division, 13th army corps, before Vicksburg, 
led the storming party at the capture of Arkansas Post, and, in 
acknowledgment of his bravery at this time, was permitted, by 
orders of Gen. A. G. Smith, to plant the Stars and Stripes upon the 
Confederate fort. He was also conspicuous in the capture of Port 
Gibson, being among the first to enter the works. During the At- 
lanta campaign of 1864 he was in command of the military district 
of Kentucky, and drove Morgan back into Tennessee. In acknowl- 
edgment of this, and particularly for services at the battle of 
Cynthiana, he received the thanks of President Lincoln. He re- 
signed from the service in 1865 and retired to his home in Ken- 
tucky. 

Burnham, Hiram, brigadier-general, was born in Maine, and en- 
tered the Union service at the beginning of the Civil war as colonel 
of the 6th Maine volunteers. He led his regiment with skill and 
gallantry through the Peninsular campaign, at Antietam and sub- 
sequent engagements. He distinguished himself for gallantry at 
the second battle of Fredericksburg and at Gettysburg, and on 
April 27, 1864, was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He bore 
a conspicuous part in the campaign from the Wilderness to Peters- 
burg. He was killed Sept. 29, 1864, in battle at Chaffin's farm. A 



Biographical Sketches 43 

few weeks prior to his death he was given command of a brigade 
in Stannard's division, i8th army corps. 

Bums, William W., brigadier-general, was born in Coshocton, 
Ohio, Sept. 3, 1825, was graduated at West Point in 1847. and joined 
the 3d infantry. He served throughout the war with Mexico, and, 
after ten years of frontier, garrison and recruiting duty, was given 
a staff appointment as captain and commissary of subsistence. His 
experience in the supply department led to his appointment for 
similar duties of an important nature during the Civil war. He 
served with the Army of the Potomac, was wounded at Savage 
Station, June 29, 1862, and was in the field witli the Army of the 
Potomac up to and including the battle of Fredericksburg. He was 
then appointed chief commissary of the Department of the North- 
west, and subsequently, during the closing years of the war, was 
in charge successively of commissary departments of the Caro- 
linas, Georgia, Florida, and finally of the entire south. After the 
war he was on duty at Washington. He was brevetted brigadier- 
general, U. S. A., March 13, 1865. 

Burnside, Ambrose E., major-general, was born in Liberty, Ind., 
May 23, 1824, fourth son of Edgehill and Pamelia (Brown) Burn- 
side. He was descended from Robert Burnside, a Scotchman who 
had fled his native country after the final defeat of the "Young Pre- 
tender," whose cause he had espoused. During the Revolutionary 
war the Burnside family took different sides, and James Burnside, 
grandfather of Ambrose, remained a loyalist during the struggle. 
He was forced to flee to the island of Jamaica, but returned in 
1786 and died in South Carolina in 1798. His widow, after freeing 
her slaves, emigrated to Indiana, and her third son, Edgehill, set- 
tled in Liberty, a town which was just being built. Here he mar- 
ried and reared a family of nine children. Ambrose, the fourth 
child, was sent to school until he reached the age of seventeen, 
obtaining a better education than was generally to be had in coun- 
try schools of the time, and then, his father being too poor to 
give him professional training, was apprenticed to a tailor. Through 
conversations with soldiers who had fought in the war of 1812 he 
became interested in military life, and read all the books which he 
could obtain which related to military affairs. While engaged in 
reading one of these books in his shop in Liberty, so goes the tra- 
dition, one of the patrons, Caleb B. Smith, then a congressman, 
came into the shop, and asked the boy about his ambitions. He 
became interested in young Burnside and eventually succeeded in 
procuring for him an appointment to West Point. Upon his grad- 
uation with the class of 1847, Lieut. Burnside was ordered to the 
City of Mexico, where he remained on garrison duty until the re- 
turn of the army, when he served at Fort Adams, at Las Vegas, 
where he was wounded, and at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. In 1853 
he resigned his commission as ist lieutenant of the 3d artillery to 
devote his attention to the manufacture of a breech-loading rifle 
which he had invented. The rifle, which had been submitted in 
competition with some eighteen others, had received the approval 
of a board of commissioners appointed by Congress, and Burnside 
expected an order from the government. Upon investigating, how- 
ever, he was told that he would have to pay $5,000 to a profes- 
sional lobbyist before the government would order any of his 
guns, and, as he refused indignantly to pay a sum for such a pur- 
pose, he was forced to make an assignment, and, with fifteen dol- 
lars in his pocket returned west to retrieve his fortunes. Eventu- 



44 The Union Army 

ally he succeeded, by dint of strictest economy, in paying off all 
the indebtedness incurred in the disastrous venture. After his as- 
signment he secured a position as cashier of the land department 
of the Illinois Central railroad, of which his former classmate, 
George B. McClellan. was then vice-president, and, a year later, be- 
came treasurer of the road. Just before the outbreak of the Civil 
war he made a business trip to New Orleans, and. learning the 
state of affairs in the South, arranged his affairs, upon his return 
to the Xorth. so as to be ready to start at a moment's warning for 
the war. He was appointed in the spring of 1861. by Gov. Sprague 
of Rhode Island, colonel of the ist R. I. volunteers, and led his 
regiment to Washington by way of Annapolis, being one of the first 
to assist in the defense of the city. In the first battle of Bull Run 
he commanded a brigade at the beginning of the battle and suc- 
ceeded to the command of Gen. Hunter's division after that offi- 
cer was wounded, winning by his services in that engagement many 
public testimonials and promotion to the rank of brigadier-general. 
Gen. Burnside won his greatest popularitj'. however, by an expe- 
dition which he successfully led against North Carolina in the win- 
ter of 1861-6J. Starting from Hampton Roads, Jan. 12. 1862, the 
fleet arrived at Pamlico sound after a tempestuous voyage, on Jan. 
25, and on Feb. 8. after several sharp engagements. Roanoke island 
was captured. This gave control of Pamlico and Albemarle sounds 
to the northern forces, and soon, by means of a series of brilliant 
maneuvers. Burnside captured New Berne. Beaufort, and Fort Macon, 
besides a number of less important points of vantage to the north, 
and on his return was hailed as the most uniformly successful of 
Union generals, being appointed by President Lincoln major-gen- 
eral of volunteers. Gen. Burnside was next attached to the Army 
of the Potomac, and, with his famous 9th corps, assisted Gen. Mc- 
Clellan in withdrawing from the Peninsula. He next distinguished 
himself by dislodging the Confederates from a strong position which 
they held in the passes at South mountain. Lee retreated to An- 
tietam creek, threw up entrenchments there, and waited battle. 
When the battle was fought, three days later. Burnside's division, 
which held the stone bridge across the creek in spite of fearful 
loss, was all that saved the Union army from complete defeat. Gen. 
Burnside assumed command of the Army of the Potomac when 
McClellan was retired, in Nov., 1862. and retained it until super 
seded, on Jan. 26. 1863. by Gen. Hooker, on account of the disas- 
trous result of the battle of Fredericksburg, blame for which was 
placed on Burnside. and generously assumed by him. In this bat- 
tle, which was fought against the advice of Gen. Burnside. the 
Union army was forced to attack the Confederates at a great dis- 
advantage, the latter holding a line of hills, and being strongly 
entrenched. x\ttempts to carry the place by assault failed, and the 
army was forced to withdraw with a loss of 12.000 men. After be- 
ing relieved of his command Burnside resigned, but the president 
refused to accept his resignation, and placed him in command of 
the Department of the Ohio, where he rendered conspicuous serv- 
ice by ridding the country of guerrillas, enforcing stringent meas- 
ures against Southern sympathizers on both sides of the river, and 
affording protection to loyalists. In Aug.. 1863. he captured Cum- 
berland gap with a force of 18.000 men. then moved on to Knox- 
ville and held that place against siege and assault by t.ongstreet, 
against terrible odds, until relieved at the end of a month by Sher- 
man. He was again assigned to command of his old 9th corps, 




Maj.-Gen. X. B. Bi ford 
Brig.-Gen. W. W. Burns 
Brig. -Gen. Richard 

Bl-STEED 

Maj.-Gen. G. C. C.\d\v.xl- 

.ADER 



Brig.-Gen. S. G. Burbridce 
Maj.-Gen. A. E. Bvrnside 
Maj.-Gen. B. F. Bitler 
Brig.-Gen. T. C. C.\ldwell 



Brig.-Gen. Hir.^m Bur.n- 

H.\M 

Brig.-Gen. Cyrus Bussev 
Maj.-Gen. D.\niel Butter- 
field 
Brig.-Gen. R. A. Cameron 



Biographical Sketches 45 

and in the closing operations of the war under Grant, in the Wil- 
derness, Cold Harbor and Petersburg campaigns took a conspicu- 
ous part. The losses of his troops in the explosion of the Petersburg 
mine were heavy, and a court martial, called at the suggestion of 
Gen. Meade, judged him "answerable for want of success." This 
decision was afterwards revoked, however, by a congressional com- 
mission which investigated the matter. At the close of the war 
Gen. Burnside resigned his commission and retired to private life 
with a reputation as a patriotic, brave and able oificer. He was 
elected governor of Rhode Island in 1866, was twice re-elected, 
but refused a fourth nomination and engaged again in railroad 
construction and management. He was in Paris at the time of the 
Franco-Prussian war, and acted as envoy, and, while his mission 
of peace was not successful, he gained the respect and admiration 
of both parties. He was elected to the United States senate from 
Rhode Island in 1875, and re-elected in 1880. He gained prom- 
inence as a senator, proving himself as capable a statesman as he 
had been a soldier. Gen. Burnside died in Bristol, R. I., Sept. 3, 
1881. 

Bussey, Cyrus, brigadier-general, was born in Hubbard. Trumbull 
county, Ohio, son of a Methodist minister. Commencing business 
life at the age of sixteen, after two years' experience in a drygoods 
store at Dupont, Ind., he studied several hours daily, and for two 
years studied medicine v/ith his brother. Having removed to Iowa 
in 185s he was elected to the state senate as a Democrat in 1858, 
was a delegate to the convention which nominated Stephen A. Doug- 
las for president, and at the outbreak of the Civil war came out 
strongly in favor of the Union. He was appointed by Gov. Kirk- 
wood to command the militia in the southern part of the state with 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and on Aug. 10, 1861, became colonel 
of the 3d Iowa volunteer cavalry, which he had raised, and joined 
the Army of the Southwest. He commanded a brigade in the battle 
of Pea ridge, participated in the Arkansas campaign of 1862, lead- 
ing the 3d brigade of Steele's division on July 10, commanded the 
district of eastern Arkansas from Jan. 11, 1863, until the following 
April, and then took charge of the 2nd cavalry division of the Army 
of the Tennessee. He led the advance, under Gen. Sherman, at 
the siege of Vicksburg and in the pursuit of Johnston, overtaking 
and defeating the Confederate general at Canton, Miss., and forc- 
ing him finally to retreat across Pearl river. He was made briga- 
dier-general, for "special gallantry," Jan. 5, 1864, and shortly after- 
wards was given command of the district of Western Arkansas and 
the Indian Territory, where he soon broke up corruption and re- 
stored proper discipline. He was brevetted major-general of vol- 
unteers, March 13, 1865, and, after the war, resumed his business 
as a commission merchant, first in St. Louis and then at New Or- 
leans, where he was president of the chamber of commerce for six 
years, and was instrumental in securing an appropriation for the 
Eads jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi river. He was a dele- 
gate to the Republican national convention of 1868, was an active 
supporter of Blaine for president in 1884, and in i88q was appointed 
assistant secretary' of the interior. Gen. Bussey served in the in- 
terior department until 1893, and then opened in Washington an 
ofiice for the carrying on of a general practice of law before the 
district courts, the departments and congressional committees, in 
which he has been successful. 

Busteed, Richard, brigadier-general, was born in Cavan, Ireland, 



46 The Union Army 

Feb. i6, 1822, son of George Washington Busteed, emancipationist, 
colonel in the British army, and afterwards barrister in Dublin, 
who moved to London, Canada, where he published a paper called 
the "True Patriot." Richard Busteed worked as a boy as com- 
positor for his father, afterwards following this vocation in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Hartford, Conn., and New York city, where he also 
engaged in preaching for a while by license of the Methodist church. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1846, was corporation counsel of 
New York city from 1856 to 1859, and supported Douglas for presi- 
dent in i860. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers 
and served at Yorktown, but handed in his resignation, March 10, 
1863, fearing that his sentiments on the slavery question would pre- 
vent the appointment being confirmed by the senate. He was ap- 
pointed United States district judge for Alabama in 1864, making 
decisions while in that office which were afterwards confirmed by 
the supreme court, and in 1874 resigned to resume his law prac- 
tice in New York. He died in New York city, Sept. 14, 1898. 

Butler, Benjamin F., major-general, was born in Deerfield, N. H., 
Nov. 5, 1818, was graduated from Watertown college, in 1838, was 
admitted to the bar in 1840, and soon gained a reputation as an 
astute criminal lawyer. He was elected to the Massachusetts house 
of representatives in 1853, and to the state senate in 1859, and was 
a delegate to the Democratic national convention which met at 
Charleston in i860, withdrawing, however, before the close of the 
convention, with the other delegates who later met at Baltimore 
and nominated Breckinridge and Lane. As brigadier-general of 
militia in Massachusetts he was assigned, in the spring of 1861, to 
command of the district of Annapolis, and on May 13, 1861, occu- 
pied Baltimore with 900 men without opposition, and was appointed 
major-general May 16. He captured Forts Hatteras and Clark in 
North Carolina in August, then returned to Massachusetts to re- 
cruit an expedition for the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi, and 
on May i, Admiral Farragut's fleet having virtually captured the 
city, he took possession of New Orleans. He at once put in effect 
a stringent military government, armed the free negroes, compelled 
rich secessionists to contribute to the support of the poor of the 
city, and instituted strict sanitary regulations. For his course in 
hanging William Mulford, who had pulled down the Stars and 
Stripes from the mint, and for the issue of an obnoxious order in- 
tended to prevent soldiers being insulted by women, he aroused 
much strong opposition sentiment, not only in the South, but in 
the North and abroad, and Jefferson Davis declared him an out- 
law and put a price upon his head. On May i, 1862, Gen. Butler 
seized $800,000, which he claimed had been entrusted to the Dutch 
consul to be used in purchasing supplies of war, and by this act 
aroused the protest of every European country, so that the gov- 
ernment at Washington, after investigation, ordered the return of 
the money. He was recalled Dec. 16, 1862, and near the close of 
1863 was placed in command of the department of Virginia and 
North Carolina, afterwards known as the James. He was re- 
called to New York city in Oct., 1864, because election^ riots were 
feared there, and in December conducted an expedition against 
Fort Fisher, near Wilmington, N. C., which failed, as had a 
previous attempt on his part to operate in conjunction with Gen. 
Grant against Lee, and soon afterwards he was removed from his 
command by order of Gen. Grant. Returning to Massachusetts, 
he was elected by the Republicans, to Congress, where he remained. 



Biographical Sketches 47 

with the exception of one term, until 1879, being most active in the 
impeachment of President Johnson. He was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for governor in 1871, failed again as a candidate of the 
Greenback partj^ and one wing of the Democrats in 1878 and 1879, 
but in 1882 the Democrats having united upon him as their can- 
didate, he was elected. During his administration he made charges 
which were not sustained against the administration of the Tewks- 
bury almshouse. He was re-nominated governor in 1883 but was 
defeated, and in 1884 was the candidate of the Greenback and 
Anti-Monopolist parties for president. He died in Washington, 
D. C., Jan. II, 1893- 

Butterfield, Daniel, major-general, was born in Utica, N. Y., 
Oct. 31, 1831, was graduated from Union college in 1849, and became 
a merchant in New York city. He was colonel of the 12th N. Y. 
militia when the Civil war began, and, accompanying his regiment 
to New York city in July, 1861, led the advance into Virginia over 
the Long Bridge, joined Gen. Patterson on the upper Potomac 
and commanded a brigade. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
when the regular army was enlarged, assigned to the 12th infan- 
try, May 14, 1861. and appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Sept. 7, 1861, being ordered to the corps of Fitz-John Porter. He 
took a conspicuous part in the actions at Hanover Court-House, 
Mechanicsville, Gaines' mill, where he was wounded, in the bat- 
tles incidental to the retreat of McClellan's army to Harrison's 
landing, where he commanded a detachment on the south side of 
the river, covering the retreat, at all the battles fought by Pope 
and McClellan in August and Sept., 1862. He was promoted ma- 
jor-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, was made colonel of the 
5th infantry in the regular army, July i, 1863, and commanded the 
5th corps in the battle of Fredericksburg; was chief of staff. Army 
of the Potomac, at Chancellorsville and at Gettysburg where he 
was wounded; was ordered to reinforce Rosecrans' Army of the 
Cumberland in Oct.. 1863. acting as chief of staff to Gen. Hooker 
at Lookout mountain, Missionary ridge, Ringgold and Pea Vine 
creek, Ga.; commanded a division of the 20th corps at the battles 
of Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kennesaw, 
and Lost mountain, and was brevetted brigadier-general and major- 
general U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious conduct, receiving 
his brevet titles at the close of the war. After the war he had 
charge of the general recruiting office, U. S. army, with headquar- 
ters in New York, was commander of the forces at Bedloe's, Gov- 
ernor's and David's islands in New York harbor from 1865 to 1869, 
and was then appointed head of the United States sub-treasury in 
New York city. Resigning that office, he traveled in Europe for 
several years, and was afterwards connected with the American 
express company. He was the originator of the system of corps 
badges, flags and insignia adopted in the Army of the Potomac. 
He was in charge of the great public demonstrations on the occa- 
sions of Sherman's funeral, the Washington Centennial celebra- 
tion in New York city. May i, 1889, and the arrival of Admiral 
Dewey in New York, Sept. 30, 1899. after his triumph at Manila. 

Cadwalader, George C, major-general, was born in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in 1804, son of Gen. Thomas Cadwalader. He passed his 
boyhood in Philadelphia and received his education there. When 
the war with Mexico began he was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers and was present at the battles of Molino del 
Rey and Chapultepec, being brevetted major-general for gallantry 



48 The Union Army 

in the latter engagement. At the outbreak of the Civil war he was 
appointed by Gov. Curtin major-general of state volunteers, and 
in May, 1861, was placed in command of the city of Baltimore, then 
in a state of semi-revolt. In the following month he accompanied 
Gen. Patterson as second in command in the expedition against 
Winchester, and on April 25, 1862, he was commissioned major- 
general of volunteers. In December of that year he was appointed 
one of a board to revise the military laws and regulations of the 
United States, and on July 25, 1865, he resigned. He died in Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., Feb. 3, 1S79. 

Caldwell, John C., brigadier-general, was born in Lowell. Vt., 
April 17, 1833, and was graduated at Amherst college in 1855. In 
Oct., 1861, he was commissioned colonel of the lith Maine volun- 
teers; was made brigadier-general of volunteers, April 28, 1862, 
and brevetted major-general Aug. 19, 1865. Gen. Caldwell was in 
every action of the Army of the Potomac from its organization 
until Grant took command, and in the last year of the war was 
president of the advisory board of the war department. After the 
war he served a term in the Maine senate, was adjutant-general 
from 1867 to 1869, became, in 1869, by appointment from Presi- 
dent Grant, consul to Valparaiso, Chili, and in 1874 was appointed 
United States minister to Montevideo, Uruguay. Returning to the 
United States in 1882, he subsequently removed to Kansas, and in 
1885 was appointed president of the board of pardons of that state. 

Cameron, Robert A., brigadier-general, was born in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Feb. 22, 1828. He was graduated at the Indiana medical 
college in 1850, studied for a while at the Rush medical college in 
Chicago, and then practiced his profession until 1861 at Valparaiso, 
Ind. He also published the Valparaiso "Republican," and was a 
member of the Indiana legislature for one term. At the outbreak 
of the Civil war, in 1861, he entered the national service as captain 
in the 9th Ind. volunteers, became lieutenant-colonel of the 19th 
Ind. infantry the same year, and in 1862 was made colonel of the 34th, 
taking part in the engagements at Philippi, Carrick's ford. Island 
No. 10, New Madrid. Port Gibson, Memphis and Vicksburg. He 
was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. Aug. 11. 1863, and 
in Banks' Red River expedition of 1864 commanded the 13th army 
corps after Gen. Ransom was wounded. Then, until the close of 
the war, he commanded the district of La Fourche, La., and on 
March 13, 1865, he was made brevet major-general of volunteers. 
After the war he became actively engaged in founding colonies 
in the west — Greeley, Manitou and Colorado Springs being among 
those founded by him. He was appointed warden of the Colorado 
penitentiary in 1885, and in 1888 became commissioner of immi- 
gration of the Denver, Texas & Fort Worth railroad. He died 
in Carson City, Col., March 15, 1894. 

Campbell, Charles T., brigadier-general, was born in Franklin 
county. Pa., Aug. 10, 1823. At the outbreak of the Mexican war he 
entered the army as 2nd lieutenant in the 8th U. S. infantry, was 
promoted to the rank of captain, Aug. 14. 1847, and was honorably 
discharged a year later. He was elected a member of the lower 
house of the Pennsylvania legislature in 1852. In Aug., 1861. he 
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the ist Penn. artillery, 
was made colonel the next month, and was later transferred to the 
57th infantry. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers 
Nov. 29, 1862. Gen. Campbell's fame as a soldier is based chiefly 
upon his gallantry at the battle of Fair Oaks, where, after having 




Bng.-Gen. C. T. Campbell nrig.-Gen. W. B. Campbell Maj.-Gen. E. R. S. Canby 

Brig.-Gen. J. H. Carleton lirig.-Gen. W. P. Carlin Brig.-Gen. E. A. Carr 

Brig.-Gen. J. B. Carr Brig.-Gen. H. B. Carring- Brig.-Gen. S. S. Carroll 

i.rig.-Gen. S. P. Carter ton Brig.-Gen. R. F. Catterson 

Maj.-Gen. Silas Casey 



Biographical Sketches 49 

his horse shot under him, he received two severe wounds and was 
taken prisoner with his regiment. He escaped by turning upon 
his captors and brought two hundred of them back to the Federal 
lines as prisoners. His wounds prevented any further active serv- 
ice, and on March 13, 1863, having been reappointed brigadier- 
general of volunteers his first commission expiring March 4, 1863, 
he was transferred to Dakota. Gen. Campbell died April 15, 1895. 

Campbell, William B., brigadier-general, was born in Sumner coun- 
ty, Tenn., Aug. 19, 1807. He studied law and was admitted to the bar 
in Tennessee, practicing in Carthage, was chosen district attorney for 
the fourth district in 1831, and became a member of the legislature in 
1835. He raised a cavalry company, of which he became captain, and 
served in the Creek and Florida wars in 1836, and was from 1837 to 
1843 a Whig member of Congress from Tennessee. He was elected 
major-general of militia in 1844, and served in the Mexican war as 
colonel of the ist Tenn. volunteers, distinguishing himself at Monterey 
and Cerro Gordo, and commanding a brigade after Gen. Pillow was 
wounded. He was governor of Tennessee from 1851 to 1853, was 
chosen judge of the state circuit court in 1857, and on June 30, 1862, 
President Lincoln appointed him, without solicitation, brigadier- 
general of volunteers. He served until Jan. 23, 1863, when he re- 
signed on account of failing health. He was elected to Congress in 
1864, but was not allowed to take his seat until the end of the first 
year of his term. Gen. Campbell died in Lebanon, Tenn., Aug. 19, 
1867. 

Canby, Edward R. S., major-general, was born in Kentucky in 
1817, received his early education there, and in 1839 was graduat- 
ed at West Point, being commissioned 2nd lieutenant, 2nd infan- 
try. He served as quartermaster in the Florida war, assisted in 
escorting the Indians who emigrated to their new lands in Ar- 
kansas, and then served on garrison and recruiting duty until the 
outbreak of the Mexican war. Entering the war with the rank of 
1st lieutenant, he participated in the siege of Vera Cruz, in the bat- 
tles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras and Churubusco, and upon the as- 
sault upon the Belen gate of the City of Mexico, being rewarded 
for his services with the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel. 
After the close of the war he was employed in adjutant duty and 
on the frontier, and was from 1858 to i860 in command of Fort 
Bridger, Utah. At the opening of the Civil war he was in com- 
mand of Fort Defiance, N. M., and at once become a most zealous 
and ardent supporter of the Union. He became colonel of the 19th 
regiment. U. S. infantry, May, 1861, and, acting as brigadier-gen- 
eral of the forces in New Mexico, he repelled the Confederate 
Gen. Sibley, forcing him to retreat, "leaving behind him," as he 
observed in his report, "in dead and wounded, in sick and prison- 
ers, one-half of his Original force." He was promoted brigadier- 
general in March, 1862, was transferred to Washington, and had 
command of the United States troops during the draft riots in New 
York in July, 1863. At the opening of the campaign of 1864, Gen. 
Canby was given command of the military division of west Missis- 
sippi, and, while on a tour of inspection on White river, Ark., Nov. 
4, 1864, was severely wounded by Confederate guerrillas. In the 
following spring he led an army of thirty thousand men against 
Mobile, and captured the city April 12, 1865. On learning that Lee 
had surrendered in Virginia, Gen. Richard Taylor, who command- 
ed west of the Mississippi, surrendered to Gen. Canby, thus end- 
ing the war in the southwest. Gen. Canby was given the brevet 

Vol. VIII— 4 



50 . The Union Army 

ranks of brigadier-general and major-general U. S. A., March 13, 

1865, and continued to command the Department of the South until 

1866, when he was given the full rank of brigadier-general in the 
regular army, and transferred to Washington. He had charge of 
the military district with headquarters at Richmond, after the sur- 
render, and organized Gen. Lee's disbanded cavalrymen for sup- 
pression of bushwhacking, with complete success. Subsequently, 
from 1869 to 1873, he commanded the Department of the Colum- 
bia, and lost his life while trying to arrange peace with the Modoc 
Indians. He met Capt. Jack, the leader of the Modocs, on neutral 
ground for the purpose of discussing peace terms, on the morning 
of April II, 1873, in Siskiyou county, Cal., and, at a signal planned 
before hand, the Indians attacked him and two fellow officers, kill- 
ing all three. Capt. Jack and two subordinates were afterwards 
captured and hanged for murder. Gen. Canby bore a reputation for 
honesty, gallantry and unseliishness which few officers have en- 
joyed. He was popular among almost all classes and was univer- 
sally respected among his fellow-officers. 

Carleton, James H., brigadier-general, was born in Maine in 
1818. He took part in the "Aroostook war" which resulted from a 
dispute as to the location of the northeastern boundary of the 
United States, and in Feb.. 1839, after the conclusion of that dis- 
pute, was commissioned 2nd lieutenant of the ist U. S. dragoons. 
He was promoted ist lieutenant in 1845 and was assigned to com- 
missary duty in Kearny's expedition to the Rocky mountains in 
1846. During the Mexican war he served on Gen. Wood's staf?, 
was promoted captain in Feb., 1847, and in the same month was 
brevetted major for gallantry at Buena Vista. After the war he 
was engaged until the outbreak of the Civil war in exploring and 
in expeditions against hostile Indians, and, on Sept. 7, 1861, he was 
commissioned major and ordered to California in command of the 
6th cavalry. In 1862 he raised and organized the "California col- 
umn," and conducted it across the deserts to Mesilla on the Rio 
Grande. He was made commander of the department of New 
Mexico, succeeding Gen. Canby, and served in this capacity through- 
out the remainder of the war. On March 13, 1865, he was raised 
through the ranks by brevet to brigadier-general in the regular 
army for his services in New Mexico, and brevetted major-general 
U. S. A. for his conduct during the war. He was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel in the regular army, July 31, 1866, and, subse- 
quently, was promoted to colonel of the 2nd cavalry and ordered 
to Texas. He died in San Antonio, Tex., Jan. 7, 1873. 

Carlin, William P., brigadier-general, was born in Rich Woods, 
Greene county. 111., Nov. 24. 1829, and was graduated at the United 
States military academy in 1850, with the brevet rank of 2nd lieu- 
tenant. After serving in garrison duty at Fort Snelling, Minn., he 
became ist lieutenant in the 6th infantry, March 3, 1855, and took 
part in Gen. Harney's expedition against the Sioux in that year. 
He commanded a company in the expedition against the Cheyennes 
the following year, spent the years from 1858 to i860 in California, 
and on March 2, 1861, was promoted captain. He entered the vol- 
unteer service in August of that year as colonel of the 38th 111. 
volunteers, and was present at the defeat of Gen. Jeff. Thompson 
at Fredericktown, Mo., Oct. 21, 1861, after which he com- 
manded the district of southeastern Missouri. He won promotion 
to brigadier-general of volunteers for gallant action at Perryville, 
in Oct., 1862, took part in the Tullahoma campaign and the bat- 



Biographical Sketches 51 

ties of Chickamauga, Lookout mountain anU Missionary ridge. He 
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for distinguished service at Chat- 
tanooga, and in Feb., 1864, as major of the i6th U. S. infantry, was 
engaged in the Georgia campaign and the surrender of Atlanta. He 
won the brevet of colonel, U. S. A., at Jonesboro, Ga., Sept. i, 
1864, and for faithful and efficient service during the war, he was 
made, on March 13, 1865, brevet major-general of volunteers, and 
brevet brigadier-general and major-general U. S. A. After the war 
he was engaged in frontier duty during the Indian troubles, was 
made colonel of the 4th infantry, in 1882, and was retired in 1893. 

Carr, Eugene A., brigadier-general, was born in Erie county, 
N. Y., March 20, 1830, was graduated at West Point in 1850, and 
then engaged in Indian fighting and garrison duty until 1861, being 
promoted in the meantime to captain. During the Civil war he 
served with distinction at most of the principal battles, being pro- 
moted and given brevet ranks until he reached the rank of brevet 
major-general, U. S. A., March 13, 1865. He engaged at Dug springs, 
Wilson's creek, where he won the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for 
gallantry, was acting brigadier-general in Fremont's hundred days' 
campaign, served under Hunter, Halleck and Curtis, and was as- 
signed, Feb.. 1862, to the command of the 4th division of the Army 
of the Southwest, participating in the pursuit of the enemy into 
Arkansas, and holding the rank of brigadier-general which he had 
received March 7, 1862. At Pea ridge, although thrice wounded, 
he held his position for seven hours, contributing in large measure 
to the success of the day and winning for himself a medal of honor. 
The rest of his army record in the Civil war was no less illustri- 
ous than that already described, and he came out of the contest 
with many testimonials to his gallantry and faithful attention to 
duty. He was made lieutenant-colonel of the 4th cavalry, in 1873, 
transferred to the 5th cavalry later, and promoted to colonel of the 
6th cavalry in 1879. He was actively engaged in many of the In- 
dian wars of the southwest, proving himself always a gallant and 
efficient soldier. In July, 1892, he was commissioned brigadier- 
general U. S. A., and was retired Feb. 15, 1893. 

Carr, Joseph B., brigadier-general, was born in Albany, N. Y., 
Aug. 16, 1828. He was educated in the public schools, apprenticed 
to a tobacconist, entered the militia in 1849, and rose to be colonel. 
In May, 1861, he went to the front as colonel of the 2nd N. Y. 
volunteers, his regiment being the first to encamp in Virginia, and 
he commanded the 2nd at Big Bethel, Newmarket bridge, the Or- 
chards, Fair Oaks and Glendale. He commanded the 2nd N. J. 
brigade at Malvern hill, distinguishing himself at that battle, and 
on Sept. 7, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general for "gal- 
lant and meritorious services in the field." He subsequently served 
with conspicuous bravery at the battles of Bristoe station, 2nd 
Bull Run, Chantilly, Chancellorsville, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, 
Wapping Heights and Robinson's tavern. He served in front of 
Petersburg in command of the ist division, i8th corps, and sup- 
ported Gen. Burnside in the mine fight with this force and the 3d 
division of the loth corps (colored). He was given command of 
the James river defenses with headquarters at Wilson's landing, 
June I, 1864, was transferred to City Point on May 20, 1865, and 
on June i. 1865, was given the brevet commission of major-general 
of volunteers, to date from March 13, "for gallant and meritorious 
services during the war." Being mustered out of the service in 
Oct., 1865, he was appointed by Gov. Fenton, major-general, N. Y. 



52 The Union Army 

state militia, and commanded the forces that quelled the railroad 
riots of 1877. He was placed on the retired list in 1887. Gen. 
Carr was elected secretary of state for New York in 1879, and 
served three terms, and was candidate for governor in 1885. He 
died at Troy, N. Y., Feb. 24, iSpS- 

Carrington, Henry B., brigadier-general, was born in Walling- 
ford, Conn., March 2, 1824, was graduated at Yale in 1845, spent 
several years in teaching, and was, in 1848, admitted to the bar, be- 
ginning practice in that year in Columbus, Ohio. He was an active 
anti-slavery Whig, and in 1854 helped in the organization of the 
Republican party. He was appointed judge-advocate-general by 
Gov. Chase in 1857, and aided in the organization of the state mil- 
itia, was afterwards appointed inspector-general, and was adju- 
tant-general of Ohio when the war began. As adjutant-general he 
placed ten regiments of Ohio infantry in West Virginia before vol- 
unteers could be mustered, and organized the first twenty-six Ohio 
regiments. He received an appointment as colonel in the regular 
army, May 14, 1861, commanded the camp of instruction at Fort 
Thomas, Ohio, commanded a brigade at Lebanon, Ky., served as 
chief muster officer in Indiana in 1862, mustering 100,000 troops, 
and on the occasion of Morgan's raid into Indiana, having been 
made a brigadier-general of volunteers Nov. 29, 1862, he command- 
ed the militia of that state, aided in raising the siege of Frankfort, 
Ky., and afterward gave publicity to the charges against the "Sons 
of Liberty." He was mustered out of the volunteer service in Sept., 
1865, was president of a military commission to try guerrillas in 
November, and in 1866 was given command of Fort Kearny, Neb. 
He opened a road to Montana, in May, 1866, in spite of interfer- 
ence by hostile Sioux, conducted the military operations in Ken- 
tucky until the close of 1869, and in 1870 was retired. He was then, 
until 1873, professor at Wabash college, and after that devoted his 
attention to literary work. 

Carroll, Samuel S., brigadier-general, was born in Washington, 
D. C, Sept. 21, 1832, and was graduated at West Point in 1856. Be- 
ginning his military service in the loth infantry, he was promoted 
captain, Nov. i, 1861. became colonel of the 8th Ohio volunteers, 
Dec. 15, 1861, and served in the operations in western Virginia 
from Dec, 1861, to May, 1862. From May 24, 1862, until Aug. 14 
of that year he commanded a brigade in Gen. Shields' division, was 
engaged in the northern Virginia campaign, in the battle of Cedar 
mountain, and was wounded in a skirmish on the Rapidan, Aug. 
14, 1862. He commanded a brigade at Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg, receiving the brevet rank of major for his 
services at Chancellorsville, and being brevetted lieutenant-colonel 
for services at Gettysburg, He won the brevet of colonel in the 
battle of the Wilderness, and in the engagements near Spottsyl- 
vania was twice wounded and disabled for further active service 
during the war. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. 
May 12, 1864, and on March 13, 1865, was given the brevet ranks of 
brigadier-general and major-general U. S. A. for gallantry at Spott- 
sylvania and services during the war, respectively. Gen. Carroll 
was mustered out of the volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866, was from 
June, 1866, to April, 1867, on recruiting service, and in 1868 was 
acting inspector-general of the division of the Atlantic. He was 
retired as brevet major-general. June 9, 1869, "for disability from 
wounds received in battle." He died in Washington, D. C.. Jan. 
28, 1893. 



Biographical Sketches 53 

Carter, Samuel P., brigadier-general, was born in Elizabethtown, 
Carter county, Tenn., Aug. 6. 1819. He studied at Princeton col- 
lege, but never graduated, leaving college in 1840 to accept an ap- 
pointment as midshipman in the U. S. navy. He was promoted to 
passed midshipman in 1846, assigned to duty on the "Ohio" and 
served on the eastern coast of Mexico during the Mexican war, be- 
ing present at the capture of Vera Cruz. He was attached to the 
U. S. naval observatory in Washington in 1847 and 1848, was as- 
sistant instructor at the U. S. naval academy in 1851-53, was pro- 
moted master in 1854 and lieutenant in 1855, and from 1855 to 1857 
was attached to the "San Jacinto" of the Asiatic squadron, partici- 
pating in the capture of the Barrier forts in the Canton river. Re- 
turning to America, he was for two years assistant instructor at 
West Point, and on July 11, 1861, was ordered to the special duty 
of organizing troops from east Tennessee. He was commissioned 
brigadier-general. May i, 1862, was provost-marshal of east Ten- 
nessee during 1863 and 1864, was brevetted major-general of vol- 
unteers, March 13, 1865, and mustered out in Jan., 1866. He dis- 
tinguished himself during the war for gallantry at Wild Cat, Ky., 
Mill Springs, and in the capture of Cumberland gap. In Dec, 1862, 
he commanded a cavalry expedition which cut the east Tennessee 
railroad, destroying nearly 100 miles of track, and doing other dam- 
age. He commanded the left wing of the army at Kinston, N. C, 
March 10, 1865, and defeated the Confederates at Goldsboro. At 
the close of the war he returned to naval duty, was promoted cap- 
tain and commodore, was retired Aug. 6, 1881, and promoted rear- 
admiral on the retired list. May 16, 1882. He was commandant at 
the U. S. naval academy during 1869-72, and was a member of the 
light-house board from 1867 to 1880. He died in Washington, 
D. C, May 26, 1891. 

Casey, Silas, major-general, was born in East Greenwich, R. I., 
July 12, 1807, was graduated in the U. S. military academy at West 
Point in 1826, and then, until the outbreak of the Civil war, served 
on frontier and garrison duty, and in the battles of the Florida and 
Mexican wars. Entering the Civil war with the rank of colonel in 
the regular army and brigadier-general of volunteers, he was as- 
signed a division in Gen. Keyes' corps of the Army of the Poto- 
mac, and, occupying with it the extreme advance before Richmond, 
received the first attack of the enemy at Fair Oaks, so distinguish- 
ing himself as to win promotion to brevet brigadier-general U. S. A., 
and major-general of volunteers. He was from 1863 to 1865 presi- 
dent of the board for examining candidates for officers of colored 
troops, and on March 13, 1865, was brevetted major-general in the 
regular army. He was mustered out of the volunteer service Aug. 
24, 1865, and later in that year was given command of troops at 
Fort Wayne, Detroit, Mich. He was retired from the active serv- 
ice, July 8, 1868, on his own request, after forty consecutive years 
of service, and died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 22, 1882. 

Catterson, Robert F., brigadier-general, was born in Indiana and 
entered the United States service at the beginning of the Civil war, 
from that state. He served throughout the war, winning promotion 
to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers and was honorably 
mustered out Jan. 15, 1866. Gen. Catterson became ist sergeant 
in the 14th Ind. infantry, June 7, 1861; 2nd lieutenant, July 5, 1861; 
and was then promoted from one rank to another, until, on May 
31, 1865, he became brigadier-general of volunteers. 

Chamberlain, Joshua L. (See page 17, Vol. I.) 



54 The Union Army 

Chambers, Alexander, brigadier-general, was born in New York 
in 1832, was graduated at West Point in 1853, served on garrison 
and other duty until 1855, and then took part in the Florida war 
against the Seminoles, and was promoted first lieutenant in 1859. 
He became captain in the i8th infantry, May 14, 1861, colonel of 
the i6th Iowa volunteers. March 24, 1862, and on Aug. 11, 1863, 
was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, his commission 
expiring April 6, 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers, March 13, 1865, for gallant services in the battle of Cham- 
pion's hill, Feb. 4, 1864, and Meridian, Miss., Feb. 14, 1864. Gen. 
Chambers engaged in the Tennessee campaign, March 12, iP'')2, 
was twice wounded in the battle of Shiloh, April 6, 1862, and once 
at the battle of luka, Sept. 19, 1862, and for gallant conduct on 
these occasions was brevetted major and lieutenant-colonel. He 
tlien served in the Vicksburg campaign, winning the brevet rank 
of colonel for gallantry, July 4, 1863. He was afterwards, until 
Feb. I, 1864, in garrison at Vicksburg, and then served in Sher- 
man's raid to Meridian, and commanded a battalion at Lookout 
mountain. After the war. Gen. Chambers was judge-advocate of 
the district of Nebraska in the early part of 1866, and of the De- 
partment of the Platte until July 31, 1867, was then promoted ma- 
jor and lieutenant-colonel U. S. A. and served on garrison and 
frontier duty, and from July, 1877, to Sept., 1878, was military at- 
tache at Constantinople, Turkey. Subsequently he was stationed 
at Fort Townsend, Wash. He died in San Antonio, Tex., Jan. 2, 
1888. 

Champlin, Stephen G., brigadier-general, was born in Kingston, 
N. Y., July I, 1827, was educated in the common schools and at 
Rhinebeck academy, N. Y., studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar of New York at Albany in 1850. He removed to Grand Rapids, 
Mich., in 1853, became judge of the recorder's court and prosecut- 
ing attorney there, and in i86r entered the Union service as major 
in the 3d Mich, infantry. He became its colonel in Oct., 1861, and 
fought at Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Groveton and Antietam. At 
Fair Oaks, June i, 1862, he received a severe wound which prevent- 
ed him seeing active service upon receiving promotion to the rank 
of brigadier-general of volunteers Nov. 29, 1862, and he was placed 
on detached duty in command of the recruiting station at Grand 
Rapids, He died there, in the service, as the result of his wound, 
Jan. 24, 1864. 

Chapin, Edward P., brigadier-general, was born in New York, 
about 1831, and entered the Union army from that state in 1S61, 
being made captain in the 44th N. Y. volunteer infantry, Sept. 6, 
1861. He was promoted major, Jan. 2, 1862, and lieutenant-colonel 
July 4, 1862, resigning on that day, to organize a new regiment. In 
the fall of 1862, this regiment, the Ii6th N. Y. volunteers, was mus- 
tered in. and Gen. Chapin became colonel, Sept. 5, 1862. He then 
went with his regiment through a number of engagements, and 
was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers May 2.7, 1863. He 
was killed the same day, while fighting heroically at Port Hudson, 
La. 

Chapman, George H., brigadier-general, was born in Massachu- 
setts, and at the time of the outbreak of the Civil war was em- 
ployed in the ofifice of the clerk of the lower house of Congress, 
in Washington. He was appointed major in the 3d Ind. cavalry, 
Nov. 2, 1861, and served with distinction throughout the war. He 
was promoted lieutenant-colonel, Oct. 25, 1862, colonel, March 12, 



Biographical Sketches 55 

1863, and brigadier-general, July 21, 1864. He was brevetted m.iior- 
general of volunteers March 13, 1865, and resigned from the army, 
Jan. 7, 1866. Gen. Chapman distinguished himself for gallantry on 
numerous occasions during the war, his brevet of major-general 
being awarded for meritorious conduct at the battle of Winchester. 
He died June 17, 1882. 

Chetlain, Augustus L., brigadier-general, was born in St. Louis, 
Mo., Dec. 26, 1824. His parents moving to Galena, 111., he obtained 
a common school education there, and, at a meeting called in re- 
sponse to President Lincoln's appeal for troops, was the first man 
to enlist. He was elected captain of a company which afterwards 
became part of the 12th 111. regiment, of which he was commis- 
sioned, April 26, 1862, lieutenant-colonel. He was in command from 
Sept., 1861, to Jan., 1862, at Smithland, Ky., then joined his regi- 
ment and led it in the Tennessee campaign. He participated in the 
capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, was promoted colonel, and 
led his regiment at Shiloh and at the siege of Corinth. After the 
battle of Corinth, in which he distinguished himself, he was left 
by Gen. Rosecrans in command of the city, and while in this serv- 
ice recruited the first colored regiment enlisted in the west. He 
was relieved in May, 1863, was promoted brigadier-general in De- 
cember of that year and placed in charge of the organization of 
colored troops in Tennessee and afterwards Kentucky. He was 
successful in raising a force of 17,000 men, receiving for this work 
special commendation from Gen. Thomas. He was in command of 
the post of Memphis from Jan. to Oct., 1865, was then given com- 
mand of the district of Talladega, Ala., and on Feb. 5, 1866, was 
mustered out of the service. He was brevetted major-general of 
volunteers. June 17, 1865. After the war Gen. Chetlain served as 
collector of internal revenue for Utah and Wyoming, and as U. S. 
consul-general to Brussels, and then became a banker in Chicago. 
In i8gi he organized and became president of the Industrial bank of 
Chicago. 

Chrysler, Morgan H., brigadier-general, was born in New York 
and entered the Union service from that state, becoming captain 
in the 30th N. Y. infantry, June i, 1861. He served with distinc- 
tion throughout the war, winning frequent promotions for meri- 
torious services, and on March 13, 1865, was awarded the brevet 
rank of major-general of volunteers. He was promoted to major, 
March 11, 1862; lieutenant-colonel, Aug. 30, 1862, and was then, 
June 18. 1863, honorably mustered out. Returning to New York, 
he became lieutenant-colonel of the 2nd N. Y. veteran cavalry, 
Sept. 8, 1863; was promoted colonel, Dec. 13 of that year, and on 
Nov. II, 1865, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. 
He was mustered out of the service, Jan. 15, 1866, and died Aug. 
24, 1890. 

Clark, William T., brigadier-general, was born in Norwalk, Conn., 
June 29, 1831. Entering the Civil war at its outbreak in 1861, as a 
private, he was promoted through the grades to the rank of brevet 
major-general of volunteers, which was conferred on him Nov. 24, 
1865, for gallant and meritorious services. Gen. . Clark enlisted 
from Iowa, became ist lieutenant and adjutant in the 13th Iowa 
infantry, Nov. 2, 1861; was promoted captain and assistant adju- 
tant-general, March 6. 1862; major, Nov. 24. 1862; lieutenant-colonel, 
Feb. 10, 1863; and brigadier-general of volunteers. May 31. 1865. 
He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers July 22, 1864. for 
distinguished service at the battle of Atlanta. Gen. Clark was chief 



56 The Union Army 

of staff and adjutant-general of the Army of the Tennessee until 
the battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864, and afterwards commanded a 
brigade and a division. Being honorably mustered out of the serv- 
ice, Feb. I, 1866, he engaged in business in Galveston, Tex., and 
was a member of Congress from the Galveston district from 1869 to 
1873. While in Congress he secured the first appropriation of $100,- 
000 for the Galveston harbor, which resulted in the completion of 
the jetties, making Galveston one of the most important ports in 
the United States. At this writing (1903) Gen. Clarke is the last 
surviving adjutant and chief of staff of Grant's old Army of the 
Tennessee. 

Clay, Cassius M., major-general, was born in Madison county, 
Ky., Oct. 19, 1810. He attended Centre college, Ky., and Transyl- 
vania university, and was graduated from Yale in 1832. Gen. Clay's 
career was that of an abolitionist and diplomatist rather than a 
soldier, though the part he took in war was most creditable to 
him. Entering the Mexican war as captain of a volunteer company 
which had already as an organization distinguished itself at Tippe- 
canoe in 181 1, he was taken prisoner, in 1847, with several others, 
while more than 100 miles in advance of the main armj'-, and saved 
the lives of the party by gallantry and presence of mind. He was 
appointed by President Lincoln, March 28, 1861, minister to Russia, 
and was preparing to leave when the national capital was threat- 
ened. He enlisted volunteers and organized Clay's battalion, which 
he commanded until troops from the North arrived, and then left 
for St. Petersburg, where his influence did much to make the Czar 
favorable to the Union. Resigning in June. 1862, he accepted a 
position as major-general of volunteers, which he held until the 
following March, when he resigned to become again minister to 
Russia. Gen. Clay was for years a picturesque figure in national 
politics. Before the war he was an ardent abolitionist, and published, 
in spite of mob violence, and threats upon his life, a paper called 
"The True American" which he circulated in Kentucky. He was 
an important figure in almost every national election until after the 
defeat of Blaine, in 1884, when he retired to a quiet life at his 
home, "Whitehall," Ky., where he lived to an extreme old age. 

Clayton, Powell, brigadier-general, was born in Bethel, Dela- 
ware county, Pa., Aug. 7, 1833. He studied civil engineering at 
Bristol, Pa., moved to Leavenworth, Kan., and was elected civil 
engineer of that city in 1857. When the Civil war broke out he en- 
listed a company, of which he became captain, and entered the 
Union ariny as captain in the ist Kan. infantry. May 29, 1861. He 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 5th Kan. cavalry, Feb. 27, 
1862, and was promoted colonel, March 30, 1862. On May 6, 1863, 
he commanded a successful expedition from Helena. Ark., to the 
White river, to break up a band of guerrillas and destroy Confed- 
erate stores, and afterwards one from Pine Bluff, which, in March, 
1864, inflicted severe loss on the enemy. He was commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers, Aug. i, 1864, and was honorably 
mustered out of the service, Aug. 24, 1865. After the war he set- 
tled in Arkansas as a planter, was elected governor and inaugu- 
rated in June, 1868, and was, in 1871, elected United States senator. 
At the expiration of his term he moved to Little Rock, Ark., and 
later to Eureka Springs, where he became president of the Eureka 
Springs railway, which he had built, and manager of the Eureka 
Improvement company, besides holding various public oflfices. He 
was appointed, in 1897, by President McKinley, minister to Mexico, 




Biig.-Gen. J. L. Chamber- 
lain 
Brig.-Gen. E.' P. Chapin 
Brig.-Gen. M. H. Chrysler 
Brig.-Gen. Powell Clayton 



Brig.-Gen. G. II. Cii.\pman 
Brig.-Gen. W. T. Clark 
Brig.-Gen. G. P. CluserET 



- I .111. .>. I I. CllAMPI.IN' 

r.ris.-Geii. .\. L. Chetlain 
Maj.-Gen. C. M. Clay 
Brig.-Gen. John Cochrane 



Biographical Sketches 57 

a position which he retained until 1905. Gen. Clayton has always 
taken an active interest in politics, and was a member of every Re- 
publican national convention from 1872 to 1896. 

Cluseret, Gustave P., brigadier-general, was born in Paris, France, 
June 13, 1823, and entered the service of the United States, after a 
career of varying fortunes in European armies, in 1862. He was 
appointed aide-de-camp to Gen. McClellan with the rank of colonel, 
Jan., ,1862, joined Freinont's army of West Virginia later, and for 
gallantry at the battle of Cross Keys was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers Oct. 14, 1862. In this battle he commanded 
the right wing, and, in spite of Fremont's repeated orders to re- 
treat, made nine consecutive attacks upon "Stonewall'' Jackson, 
fighting fifteen hours without eating. The ninth attack was suc- 
cessful, and the Union forces were saved from defeat. After some 
further service in the Shenandoah, he resigned from the army, and 
in 1864 edited the "New Nation," denouncing President Lincoln 
and advocating the candidacy of John C. Fremont for the presi- 
dency. In 1867 he returned to Europe, where his career was as 
tempestuous as it had been before his coming to the United States. 
After having been exiled from France and condemned to death by 
both the French and British governments, he returned to France 
and was, in 1888, elected member of the French chamber of depu- 
ties. He was re-elected in 1889, in 1893 and 1898. He died Aug. 
23, 1900. 

Cochrane, John, brigadier-general, was born in Palatine, Mont- 
gomery county, N. Y., Aug. 27, 1813, being a direct descendant, 
on both sides, of Revolutionary war heroes. He was graduated 
at Hamilton college, in 1831, was admitted to the bar and prac- 
ticed in Oswego, Schenectady and New York city, and in 1853 was 
appointed by President Pierce surveyor of the Port of New York. 
He was a representative in Congress from 1857 to 1861, was ap- 
pointed by President Buchanan a member of a board of visitors 
to West Point, and on June 11, 1861, was commissioned by Secre- 
tary Cameron to recruit and command a regiment of volunteers to 
.serve during the war. On Nov. 21, he was made colonel of the ist 
U. S. chasseurs, with rank from June 19, and on July 19, 1862, was 
made brigadier-general of volunteers. He served in Gen. Couch's 
division of the Army of the Potomac in the battles of Fair Oaks, 
Malvern hill, Antietam, Williamsport and Fredericksburg, and on 
Feb. 25, 1863, resigned on account of physical disability. In 1864 
he was nominated by the Independent Republican national con- 
vention for vice-president of the United States, with Gen. John C. 
Fremont for president. After the war he held for many years an 
important position in New York politics, being one of the leaders 
of Tammany Hall, and had charge of many celebrations of national 
importance. He was an orator of note, and, in a speech made Nov. 
4, 1861. was the first to advocate arming the slaves. Gen. Coch- 
rane died in New York city, Feb. 7, 1898. 

Connor, Patrick E., brigadier-general, was born in the south of 
Ireland, March 17, 1820, came to the United States when a boy and 
was educated in New York city. In 1839 he enlisted in the regu- 
lar army, serving through the Seminole war, and, upon being dis- 
charged in 1844, entered upon commercial pursuits in New York 
city, but moved to Texas in 1846. At the outbreak of the Mexi- 
can war he became captain of Texas volunteers in the regiment of 
Albert Sidney Johnston, and fought at Palo Alto, Resaca de la 
Palma and Buena Vista, where he was severely wounded. Short- 



58 The Union Army 

ly after the close of the war he emigrated to California, where he 
engaged in business, and at the beginning of the Civil war he 
raised a regiment of California volunteers, and was ordered to 
Utah to keep the Mormons in check and protect the overland 
routes from the raids of Indians. With a force of 200 men he 
marched 140 miles in four days through deep snow and in the dead of 
winter, and, attacking a band of 300 Indians in a stronghold, killed 
the whole band. He commanded the Utah district during the war, 
eflfectively establishing the authority of government. He was com- 
missioned brigadier-general, March 30, 1863, and on March 13, 
1865, was brevetted major-general of volunteers for efficient and 
meritorious services. Declining a commission as colonel in the 
regular army, he was mustered out of the service in 1866. and be- 
came the leader in building up a gentile community in Utah. He 
founded the first daily paper published in the state, located the first 
silver mine, and did much to advance the interests of the territory. 
He died in Salt Lake city. Utah, Dec. 17, 1891. 

Connor, Seldon, brigadier-general, was born in Fairfield, Me., 
Jan. 25, 1839. He was graduated at Tufts college, Mass., studied 
law, and when the war broke out enlisted for three months in the 
1st regiment of Vermont volunteers. At the end of this period of 
service he became major, and soon afterwards lieutenant-colonel 
of the 7th Maine regiment, which he commanded in the Peninsular 
campaign from the beginning of the Seven Days' battles. For a 
short time after the battle of Antietam he commanded the 77th 
N. Y. volunteers. In Jan., 1864, he was made colonel of the 19th 
Maine infantry, and commanded the brigade as ranking officer. 
In the battle of the Wilderness, on May 6, 1864, his thigh was shat- 
tered by a bullet, and, although commissioned brigadier-general in 
June, 1864, was incapacitated for further service. He was made a 
member of the staff of Gov. Chamberlain in 1867, was appointed 
assessor of internal revenue in 1868, and in 1874 was appointed by 
President Grant collector for the Augusta district. He was elected 
governor of Maine in 1875, and served two terms. He was pen- 
sion agent under President Arthur from 1882 to 1885, and in 1897 
was appointed to the same position by President McKinley. 

Cook, John, brigadier-general, was born at Belleville, 111., June 
12. 1825. He was educated at Jacksonville college and began life 
in the drygoods business at St. Louis, Mo. Later he removed to 
Springfield, 111., engaged in the real estate business there, was 
elected mayor of the city in 1855, sheriff of Sangamon county a 
year later, and at the beginning of the Civil war was quartermaster- 
general of the state of Illinois. He commanded the first regiment 
raised in Illinois in defense of the Union, and served through the 
war, commanding a brigade at Fort Donelson. He was at first 
colonel of the 7th 111. infantry, being appointed to that position 
on April 25, 1861, and was honorably mustered out of the three 
months' service on July 24, following. Upon the reorganization 
of the regiment for the three years' service, on July 25, he again 
became its colonel, was commissioned brigadier-general of volun- 
teers on March 21, 1862. and for faithful and meritorious service 
he was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Aug. 24, 1865. He 
was honorably mustered out of the service on Aug. 24, 1865. re- 
turned to Springfield, 111., and there continued to reside. 

Cooke, Philip St. G., brigadier-general, was born in Leesburg, 
Va., June 13, 1809, was graduated at West Point in 1827, and as- 
signed to the 6th infantry. He took a prominent part in the Black 



Biographical Sketches 59 

Hawk war, and was adjutant in his regiment at the battle of Bad 
Axe river, in 1832. He commanded a Missouri volunteer battnlion 
from 1846 to 1847 during the Mexican war, being located in Cali- 
fornia, and later commanded a regiment in the city of Mexico. 
He was for years a noted Indian tighter, being for a long time sta- 
tioned at various frontier posts. He was promoted to brigadier- 
general. Nov. 12, 1861, and commanded all the regular cavalry in 
the Army of the Potomac during the Peninsular campaign, par- 
ticipating in the siege of Yorktown, and the battles of VVilliams- 
burg, Gaines' mill, and Glendale, besides smaller engagements. At 
Harrison's landing he was relieved and in 1862 and 1863 was on 
court martial duty in St. Louis. He commanded the Baton Rouge 
district after that until 1864, and was then, until 1866, general su- 
perintendent of the recruiting service. After the war he was head 
of the departments of the Platte, the Cumberland and the Lakes, 
successively, and in 1873 was retired, having been in active service 
more than forty-five years. He died in Detroit, Mich., March 20, 
1895. 

Cooper, James, brigadier-general, was born in Frederick coun- 
ty, Md., May 8, 1810. He attended St. Mary's college, and after- 
wards Washington college, being graduated at the latter institution 
in 1832. He was admitted to the bar in 1834, practiced in Gettys- 
burg, Pa., and was from 1839 to 1843 a member of the lower house 
of Congress. He was then member of the state legislature from 
1844 to 1848, being speaker of the assembly in 1847, was attorney- 
general of the state in 1848. and from 1849 to 1855 United States 
senator. He afterwards settled in Frederick City, Md., and in 1861 
commanded the Union volunteers in that state, being commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers May 17, 1861. He subse- 
quently commanded Camp Chase, until his death, which occurred 
there March 28, 1863. 

Cooper, Joseph A., brigadier-general was born in Pulaski county, 
Ky., Nov. 25, 1823. He served during the Mexican war in the 4th 
Tenn. infantry, then became a planter, and at the outbreak of the 
Civil war entered the Union army as captain in the ist Tenn. in- 
fantry. He was promoted colonel of the 6th Tenn. infantry in 
1862, served in East Tennessee and Georgia, and on July 4, 1864, 
was made brigadier-general, in which capacity he commanded in 
the march through Georgia. He commanded a division in the bat- 
tle of Nashville, and in North Carolina in 1865. On March 13, 
1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers. Returning to 
Tennessee in 1866, he was commander of state troops in 1866 and 
1867, and subsequently was from 1869 to 1879 collector of internal 
revenue. He then resumed farming in Kansas. 

Copeland, Joseph T., brigadier-general, was born in Michigan 
about 1830. Entering the ist Mich, cavalry, which was organized 
in the summer of 1861, he was elected lieutenant-colonel on Aug. 
22, fought through the Manassas campaign and then returned to 
Detroit in July, 1862. There he organized the 5th Mich, cavalry, 
of which he became colonel on Aug. 14, and on Nov. 29, 1862. he 
was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to 
command the Michigan cavalry brigade, then forming in Washing- 
ton. The brigade was a part of Hooker's cavalry, and was in 
Maryland after Lee crossed the Potomac. They were the first 
troops to enter Gettysburg, but, with other changes of command- 
ers then carried out. Gen. Copeland transferred his command to 
Gen. Custer just before the battle, July i, 1863. Subsequently he 



60 The Union Army 

commanded a draft rendezvous at Annapolis Junction, Md., and at 
Pittsburg, Pa., and was then, until the close of the war, command- 
er of the post and military prison at Alton, 111. He died May 6, 

1893. 

Corcoran, Michael, brigadier-general, was born in Carrowkeel, Ire- 
land, Sept. 21, 1827. His father, a captain in the British army, gave him 
a good education, and procured for him a commission in the Irish con- 
stabulary in 1845. This he resigned, being unwilling to oppress his people, 
and in 1849 he emigrated to America, locating in New York. He joined 
the militia there as a private, rose through the grades to the rank of 
colonel, 1859, and when Prince Albert of Wales visited this country, he 
refused to order out the regiment, the 69th, to do honor to the prince. 
For this he was subjected to trial by court-martial, that was still pending 
when the Civil war began. Upon the first call for troops, he led the 
69th to the seat of war, and, being ordered to Virginia, built Fort Cor- 
coran on Arlington Heights, and then led it into the battle of Bull Run, 
where he fought with impetuous gallantry. He was wounded and cap- 
tured, and spent nearly a year in various Confederate prisons, refusing 
to accept a release conditional upon his promise not to take up arms 
again in defense of the Union. Upon being exchanged, Aug. 15, 1862, 
he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers to date from July 
21. 1861, and organized the Corcoran legion, which he commanded in the 
battles on the James, near Suffolk, in April, 1863, and in checking the 
advance of the Confederates upon Norfolk. The legion was attached to 
the Army of the Potomac, in Aug., 1863, and Gen. Corcoran was killed 
by the falling of his horse upon him while riding in company with Gen. 
Thomas Francis Meagher, Dec. 22, 1863. 

Corse, John M., brigadier-general, was born in Pittsburg, Pa.. April 
27, 1835, entered West Point military academy, but resigned before 
graduation, studied in the Albany law school and was admitted to the 
bar, after which he located in practice at Burlington, la. Soon thereafter 
he was nominated by the Democrats for lieutenant-governor of Iowa, and 
was defeated. Entering the Federal service in Aug., 1861, as major of 
the 6th Iowa regiment, he served with Fremont in Missouri, was on Gen. 
Pope's staff at the siege of New Madrid and at the battle of Farmington, 
and in the Corinth campaign. He was then transferred to the division of 
Gen. W. T. Sherman, promoted lieutenant-colonel, and acted as colonel 
in the Memphis and Holly Springs campaign, and with Grant at Vicks- 
burg. On Aug. 14, 1863, he was promoted brigadier-general, and com- 
manded a division at Collierville, Tenn.. where he rescued Sherman's 
division, which was surrounded by the Confederate cavalry under Gen. 
Chalmers. He made a night attack across Lookout mountain, then re- 
turned to command Sherman's assaulting column at Missionary ridge, and 
was carried from the field with a broken leg. He was appointed inspec- 
tor-general on the staff of Gen. Sherman in the spring of 1864, served 
through the Atlanta campaign, and, when Logan succeeded McPherson, 
Corse was made commander of the 2nd division, i6th army corps. Gen. 
Corse made his greatest reputation by holding the post of Allatoona 
against fearful odds. He was sent to Allatoona after the evacuation of At- 
lanta, when Col. Tourtellotte, with 890 men, was threatened by an infan- 
try division of the enemy. He arrived at Allatoona, with 1,054 men, before 
the Confederates, who, wlien they reached the place shortly afterwards, 
in vastly superior numbers, demanded his immediate surrender. Upon 
his refusal they attempted again and again to storm the place, but were 
unsuccessful. Meanwhile Sherman had heard the firing, eighteen miles 
away, and he sent by the sun-telegraph the since famous message, "Hold 
the fort for I am coming." And Corse held the fort. Furthermore he 




Pri!'"?""- n i-- V-''^^"" Brig.-<-,cn SeldEN O.X.N, k 

i.r.g.-Gen. P. h,T G. Cooke Brig.-Gen. .1 vmes Cooper 



P.rig.-Gen. T. T. Copeland 
Maj.-Gen. D. N. Couch 



Brig.-Gen. Mich.^el 

CORCOR.\N 

Brig.-Gen. Kob't CowDir 



lirig.-licn. jwii \ Cook 
Brig.-Gen. J. .\. Coopek 
Brig.-Gen. J. M. Corse 
^faj.-Gen. T. D. Cox 



Biographical Sketches 61 

captured 500 prisoners. His action at Allatoona was made the subject of 
a special order from Gen. Sherman, in which he showed the importance 
of retaining to the last a fortified place, and Corse was given the brevet 
of major-general of volunteers Oct. 5. 1864. After this, Gen. Corse con- 
tinued in command of a division on the march to the sea, and at the close 
of the war conducted a successful campaign against the Indians of the 
northwest. Declining an appointment as lieutenant-colonel in the regular 
army. Gen. Corse engaged in railroad building in Chicago, was appointed 
revenue collector there and in 1869, was removed by President Grant. 
He then spent several years in Europe, located in Boston in 1877, and was 
appointed postmaster of the city by President Cleveland, Oct. 9, 1886. 
He was removed by President Harrison in March, 1891. Gen. Corse died 
in Winchester, Mass., April 27, 1893. 

Couch, Darius N., major-general, was born in South East, Putnam 
county, N. Y., July 23, 1822, and was graduated at the United States 
military academy at West Point in 1846, entering immediately thereafter 
upon active service in the Mexican war. He was brevetted first lieutenant 
for gallantry at Buena Vista, and was later, upon the promotion of Capt. 
Washington to the command of the artillery battalion of Gen. Taylor's 
army, made adjutant. After service in the Seminole war, at various artil- 
lery posts, and in the department of natural history in the Smithsonian 
institution, he resigned from the army in 1855, and engaged, until 1857, 
in business in New York city, and afterwards, until the Civil war, in man- 
ufacturing in Norton, Mass. In 1861 he offered his services to Gov. 
Andrew, and was appointed colonel of the 7th Mass. volunteers. He was 
given a commission as brigadier-general, dating from May 17, 1861, and 
was promoted major-general of volunteers July 4, 1862. On the reor- 
ganization of the Army of the Potomac, he was assigned a division in Gen. 
Keyes' corps, with which he distinguished himself at Fair Oaks, Williams- 
burg and Malvern hill, and later commanded a division in the retreat from 
Manassas to Washington, Aug. 30 to Sept. 2, 1862, and took part in the 
battle of Antietam in Franklin's corps. He took a prominent part in the 
battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, being twice wounded in 
the latter engagement and having his horse killed under him. He com- 
manded the Department of the Susquehanna from June 11, 1863, to Dec. 
I, 1864, and was then at the head of the 2nd division of the 23d army 
corps until May, 1865. He was present at the battle of Nashville, and 
took part in the operations in North Carolina in Feb., 1865. He resigned, 
May 25, 1865, was the unsuccessful candidate for governor of Massachu- 
setts that year, and in 1866 was appointed by President Johnson collector 
of the port of Boston, serving from October of that year until March 4, 
1867, when he was forced to vacate the office, the senate having refused 
to approve the appointment. He became president of a Virginia mining 
and manufacturing company in 1867, but subsequently moved to Norwalk, 
Conn., and was quartermaster of the state from 1876 to 1878 and adju- 
tant-general in 1883 and 1884. He died in Norwalk, Conn., Feb. 12, 1897. 

Cowdin, Robert, brigadier-general, was born at Jamaica, Vt., Sept. 
18, 1805. On May 25, 1861, he was appointed colonel of the ist Mass. 
volunteers, which was the first regiment enlisted for three years or the 
war to reach Washington. He distinguished himself at the battle of 
Blackburn's ford by his bravery, standing conspicuously in white shirt 
sleeves and refusing to sit down, saying "The bullet is not, cast that will 
kill me to-day." He commanded a brigade from Oct., 1861, to Feb. 7, 
1862, and then, returning to command of his regiment, took part in the 
Peninsular and Manassas campaigns. He was appointed brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, Sept. 26, 1862. his appointment expiring March 4, 1863, 
because it had not been approved by the senate. During the war Gen. 



62 The Union Army 

Cowdin engaged in the battles of Bull Run, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, 
Glendale, Malvern hill and Chantilly. Upon the expiration of his com- 
mission he returned to Massachusetts, and died in Boston July 7, 1874. 

Cox, Jacob D., major-general, was born in Montreal, Canada, Oct. 2"], 
1828, spent his boyhood in New York, removed with his parents to Ohio in 
1840, and graduated at Oberlin college in 185 1. After leaving college 
he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1853, practiced in Warren, 
Ohio, and was from 1859 to 1861 member of the state senate. Holding 
a state commission as brigadier-general of volunteers at the beginning of 
the Civil war, he was active in raising troops, and on May 17, 1861, was 
commissioned brigadier-general of U. S. volunteers. He commanded an 
independent column in the West Virginia campaign under McClellan from 
July to Sept., 1861, and under Rosecrans from September to December 
of the same year. He commanded the district of the Kanawha almost 
continuously until Aug., 1862, when he was ordered to Washington and 
assigned to the Army of Virginia under Pope. He led the advance of 
the right wing of McClellan's army at South mountain and opened the 
battle, Sept. 14, 1862, assuming command of the 9th army corps when Gen. 
Reno fell, and directing its movements in the battle of Antietam three 
days later. For his services in this campaign he was commissioned major- 
general of volunteers, Oct. 6, 1862, and was ordered to West Virginia, 
where he drove back the Confederates, and then commanded the district 
until April, 1863, when he was put in command of the district of Ohio, 
and later of a division of the 23d army corps. He served in the Atlanta 
campaign and in the campaigns of Franklin and Nashville under Gen. 
Thomas. For services at the battles of Franklin he was restored to the 
rank of major-general of volunteers from which he had been reduced 
by constitutional limitation, in April, 1863, and was given permanent com- 
mand of the 23d corps. He was transferred with his corps to North 
Carolina, in Feb., 1865, as part of Schofield's army, capturing Fort An- 
derson, the cities of Wilmington and Kinston, then joining Sherman's 
army at Goldsboro, and commanding the district of western North Car- 
olina at Greensboro after the surrender of Gen. Johnston. He resigned 
from the service, Jan. i, 1866, returned to Ohio, and was governor of 
the state in 1866 and 1867. He was secretary of the interior in Presi- 
dent Grant's cabinet, 1869-70, then resigned, and, returning to Ohio, was 
a representative from the Toledo district in the 45th Congress, 1877-79. 
He was also for several years president of the Wabash railroad. He was 
elected dean of the Cincinnati law school in 1881, and was president of 
the University of Cincinnati from 1884 to i88g. He retired from the 
deanship of the law school in 1897, and from active professional life, and 
died Aug. 4, 1900. 

Craig, James, brigadier-general, was born in Pennsylvania, May 7, 
1820. He studied law and removed to St. Joseph. Mo., where he practiced 
his profession, and in 1847 was a member of the state legislature. He 
was captain of the Missouri mounted volunteers in the Mexican war from 
Aug., 1847, until Nov., 1848, and then, returning to Missouri, was from 
1852 to 1856 state attorney for the 12th judicial circuit. He served in 
Congress as a Democrat from 1857 to 1861, and on March 21, 1862, was 
commissioned by President Lincoln, brigadier-general of volunteers. This 
office he held until May 5, 1863, serving in the west, then resigned and 
was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the 47th Congress. He was 
subsequently the first president of the Hannibal S: St. Joseph railroad, 
and the first controller of St. Joseph. He died in St. Joseph, Mo., Oct. 
21, 1888. 

Crawford, Samuel W., brigadier-general, was born in Franklin county, 
Pa.. Nov. 8, 1829, was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 



Biographical Sketches 63 

1846 and the medical department in 1850, and entered the United States 
army in 1851, serving in Texas and Mexico from 1851 to 1857, and in 
Kansas from 1857 to i860. He was then stationed at Fort Moultrie, and 
later at Fort Sumter, being one of the garrison there under Maj. Ander- 
son and having command of a battery during the bombardment. lie Vv^as 
then stationed until Aug., 1861, at Fort Columbus, New York harbor, 
vacating his commission as assistant surgeon then, by becoming major 
in the 13th U. S. infantry, and in 1862 was connnissioned a brigadier- 
general of volunteers. Gen. Crawford was conspicuous at Winchester, 
and at Cedar mountain, where he lost one-half of his brigade, and at the 
battle of Antietam he succeeded to the command of Gen. Mansiield's di- 
vision, and was severely wounded. Early in 1863 he was placed in com- 
mand of the Pennsylvania reserves, then stationed at Washington, and 
led them at Gettysburg, July 1-3, serving with great bravery. Subse- 
quently he participated in all the operations of the Army of the Potomac 
until the close of the war, and was brevetted from colonel, in 1863, up 
to major-general, U. S. A., March 13, 1865, for conspicuous gallantry in 
the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Petersburg, Five Forks and 
other engagements. He was mustered out of the volunteer service in 
1866 and served with his regiment in the south, becoming colonel of the 
l6th infantry in 1869 and later of the 2nd infantry. He was retired by 
reason of disability caused by wounds, in Feb., 1873, with rank of briga- 
dier-general, and died in 1892. 

Crittenden, Thomas L., major-general, was born in Russellville, Ky., 
May 15, 1819, studied law under his father, was admitted to the bar, and 
was elected commonwealth's attorney in Kentucky in 1842. In the Mex- 
ican war he served as lieutenant-colonel of Kentucky infantry, and was 
vohmteer aide to Gen. Taylor in the battle of Buena Vista. He was from 
1849 to 1853, under appointment from President Taylor, consul to Liver- 
pool, then returned to the United States, resided for a time in Frankfort, 
and afterwards engaged in mercantile pursuits in Louisville, Ky. Es- 
pousing the Union cause at the beginning of the Civil war, he was com- 
missioned brigadier-general, Oct. 27, 1861. At Shiloh he commanded a 
division and won by gallantry on that field promotion to major-general 
of volunteers, being assigned to command of a division in the Army of 
the Tennessee. He commanded the 2nd corps, forming the left wing of 
Gen. Buell's Army of the Ohio, served afterwards under Gen. Rosecrans 
in the battle of Stone's river, and at Chickamauga commanded one of the 
two corps that were routed. He was afterwards given command of a 
division of the 9th corps. Army of the Potomac, and operated with that 
corps in the campaign of 1864. He resigned, Dec. 13, 1864, but was after- 
wards commissioned by President Johnson colonel of the 32nd U. S. infan- 
try, and in 1869 was transferred to the 17th infantry. He was retired by 
reason of his age. May, 1881. Gen Crittenden won by gallantry at Stone's 
river the brevet of brigadier-general in the regular army, which was con- 
ferred on him, March 2, 1867. He died at Annandale, Staten Island, 
N. Y., Oct. 23, 1893. 

Crittenden, Thomas T., brigadier-general, was born in Alabama 
about 1828. He served in the Mexican war, from Aug., 1846, to Sept., 
1847, as 2nd lieutenant in Willcock's battalion. Mo. volunteers, settled 
afterwards in Indiana, and at the beginning of the Civil war enlisted 
for three months as captain in a regiment of which be became colonel, 
April 2"], 1861 — the 6th Ind. volunteers. He took part with a detachment 
of his regiment in the battle of Philippi, and the regiment was reorgan- 
ized in September, under his command, for three years' service. He was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on April 28, 1862, and served 
until May 5, 1864, when he resigned. He was taken prisoner at Murfrees- 
boro on July 12, 1862, and was not released till October. 



64 The Union Army 

Crocker, Marcellus M., brigadier-general, was born in Franklin, Ind., 
Feb. 6, 1830, entered the United States military academy at West Point 
in 1847, but left at the end of his second year and studied law, practicing 
later in Des Moines, la. In May, 1861, he joined the national army as 
major in the 2nd Iowa volunteers. He was promoted colonel on Dec. 30, 
fought with distinction in the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on Nov. 29, 1862, and engaged 
in the siege of Vicksburg, conducting a raid in Mississippi. In 1864, 
upon the reenlistment of his brigade, he joined Sherman's army, and was 
present at the siege of Atlanta and on the march to the sea, commanding 
a division part of the time. He was suffering from consumption all dur- 
ing his service, and was ordered to Mexico at his personal solicitation, in 
hopes of bettering his health. He returned afterwards to Washington, 
D. C, and died there, Aug. 26, 1865. 

Crook, George, major-general, was born near Dayton, Ohio, Sept. 
8, 1828, was graduated at West Point in 1852, and served in California 
as 2nd lieutenant in the 4th U. S. infantry until 1861, participating in the 
Rogue river expedition in 1856, and commanding the Pitt river expedition 
in 1857, where he was engaged in several actions, in one of which he was 
wounded by an arrow. He had risen to a captaincy at the time of the 
outbreak of the Civil war, and was ordered east to become colonel in the 
36th Ohio volunteer infantry. He commanded a brigade in western Vir- 
ginia, being wounded at the affray at Lewisburg, and then engaged in the 
northern Virginia and Maryland campaigns, winning the brevet of lieu- 
tenant-colonel U. S. A. for his services at Antietam. He was in command, 
in 1863, of the 2nd cavalry division. Army of the Cumberland, and, after 
the battle of Chickamauga, in which he distinguished himself, pursued 
Wheeler's cavalry, driving it across the Tennessee into Alabama with 
great loss. In Feb., 1864, he was transferred to the command of the mili- 
tary district of West Virginia, made constant raids, partook in various 
actions and won the battle of Cloyd's mountain, May 9, 1864, and later 
in the year took part in Sheridan's Shenandoah campaign. For his serv- 
ices he received, March 13. 1865, the brevets of major-general and brig- 
adier-general in the regular army. He commanded the cavalry of the 
Army of the Potomac in March and April, 1865, during which time he 
was engaged at Dinwiddie Court House, Jetersville, Sailor's creek and 
Farmville, imtil the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. He was after- 
wards transferred to the command of Wilmington, N. C, where he re- 
mained from Sept. i, 1865, until mustered out of the volunteer service, 
Jan. 15, 1866. After the war Gen. Crook gained great fame as a fighter 
of Indians, and manager of them, being equally skillful in both. After 
a short leave of absence, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel U. S. A., 
July 28, 1866, and assigned to service in Idaho, where he actively en- 
gaged against hostile Indians until 1872, when he was ordered to quell 
Indian disturbances in Arizona. He sent an ultimatum, ordering the 
chiefs to return at once to their reservations or "be wiped ofT the face 
of the earth," and, this being disregarded, he attacked them in what was 
considered an impregnable stronghold, the Tonto basin, and soon brought 
them to subjection. Next, in 1875, he defeated the Sioux and Cheyenne 
Indians at Powder river, Wy.. following this victory with two more, one 
at Tongue river and one at Rosebud. The final victory so incensed the 
Sioux that they massed eleven tribes and at Little Big Horn massacred 
Gen. Custer with 277 of his famous troopers, in what has since been 
known as the "Custer Massacre." Crook was given reinforcements, 
and proceeded so vigorously that by May, 1877, all the hostile tribes in 
the northwest had yielded. Returning to Arizona in 1882. he drove off 
white marauders from lands belonging to the Apaches, and pledged the 










Bng.-C.en. I". V. Critten- 

DEX 

Brig.-Gen. J. T. Croxton 
nrig.-Gen. X. M. Curtis 



Brig.-Gen. S. W. Gr\«imri, Maj.i.in T. 1.. i,'kitti;n-- 
Brig.-Gen. :\I. M. Crocker den 
Brig.-Gen. Cii.\rles Critt Maj.-Gen. Geo. Crook 
ilaj.-Gen. S. R. Curtis Brig.-Gen. G. \V. Cullvm 

Maj.-Gcn. G. A. Custer 



Biographical Sketches 65 

Indians the protection of the government. This action he followed in 
1883 by regaining a large amount of plunder stolen by the Chiricahuas, 
and making those Indians peaceable and self-supporting, and then for 
two years had complete charge of Indian affairs. Gen. Crook was pro- 
moted major-general in 1888 and assigned to the Department of the 
Missouri. He died in Chicago, 111., March i, i8go. 

Croxton, John T., brigadier-general, was born in Bourbon county, 
Ky., Nov. 29, 1837. He v^as graduated at Yale in 1857, was admitted to 
the bar in 1858, and practiced law in Paris, Ky. When the Civil war 
broke out he espoused the Union side and joined the national service in 
June, 1861, as lieutenant-colonel of the 4th Ky. volunteers. In March, 
1862, he succeeded to the colonelcy, and in Aug., 1864, was commissioned 
brigadier-general. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, April 
27, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of Franklin, 
Tenn., and in the campaign from the Tennessee river to Macon, Ga. He 
commanded the district of southwest Georgia, with headquarters at Ma- 
con, in 1865, and then, resigning his commission, Dec. 26, 1865, he resumed 
his law practice in Paris, Ky. He helped establish the Louisville Com- 
mercial as a Republican organ. Gen. Croxton's health had been under- 
mined by exposure during the war and overwork afterwards, and in 1873 
he accepted the office of United States minister to Bolivia, in hope of 
regaining it. He died in La Paz, Bolivia, April 16, 1874. 

Cruft, Charles, brigadier-general, was born in Indiana, and entered 
the service of the United States from that state, becoming, on Sept. 20, 
1861, colonel of the 31st Ind. infantry. He was promoted brigadier-general 
of volunteers, July 16, 1862, and on March 5, 1865, was given the brevet 
of major-general of volunteers. He was honorably mustered out of the 
service, Aug. 24, 1865. Gen. Cruft served with distinction throughout the 
war, receiving on several occasions special mention from his superior of- 
ficers, and distinguishing himself especially at the battles which were 
fought near Richmond, Ky., Aug. 29 and 30, 1862, having on these occa- 
sions command of a brigade under Gen. Mahlon D. Manson. He died 
in Terre Haute, Ind., March 23, 1883. 

Cullum, George W., brigadier-general, was born in New York city, 
Feb. 25, 1809, was graduated in the military academy at West Point in 
1833, standing third in his class, and, being assigned to the engineer corps, 
was promoted captain in 1838, and superintended the construction of gov- 
ernment works at New London, Conn., and in Boston harbor. He or- 
ganized platoon trains for use in the Mexican war, was instructor in en- 
gineering at West Point from 1848 to 1855 and then, until 1861, superin- 
tended the construction of government works at New York city, Charles- 
ton, S. C, New Bedford, Mass., Newport, R. I., and New London, Conn. 
He was ordered to Washington, April 9, 1861, as aide-de-camp of Gen. 
Scott, then commander-in-chief of the army, was promoted major of en- 
gineers, Aug. 6, 1861, and, upon the resignation of Gen. Scott, Oct. 31, 
1861, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers the next day. 
He was appointed chief engineer of the Department of the Missouri, and 
was made chief of staff to Gen. Halleck, commanding that department. 
He directed engineering operations on the western rivers, was for some 
time in command at Cairo, was engaged as chief of engineers in the siege 
of Corinth, and then, after accompanying Gen. Halleck to Washington, 
was employed in inspecting fortifications, examining engineering inven- 
tions, and on various engineer boards. He was also from 1861 to 1864 
member of the U. S. sanitary commission, and in the autumn of 1864 
was emploj'ed in projecting fortifications for Nashville, Tenn., which had 
been selected as a base of operations and depot of supplies for the west- 
ern armies. He was then, from Sept., 1864, until Aug., 1866, superintend- 

Vol. VIII— 5 



66 The Union Army 

ent of the U. S. military academy at West Point. He was brevetted ma- 
jor-general U. S. A., March 13, 1865. He served on various boards for 
national defense until 1874, and on Jan. 13, 1874, retired from active serv- 
ice on account of his age. He then devoted himself to military, literary 
and scientific studies. He married the widow of Gen. Halleck, and, in 
conjunction with his wife, gave $200,000 to the New York cancer hospital. 
By his will he bequeathed over a quarter of a million dollars to the U. S. 
military academy to build a memorial hall. He died in New York city, 
Feb. 29, 1892. 

Curtis, N. Martin, brigadier-general, was born in De Peyster, St. Law- 
rence county, N. Y., May 21, 1835, was educated in the common schools 
and at the Gouverneur, N. Y., Wesleyan seminary, and became prominent 
in local Democratic circles, being postmaster in his home town 1857-61, 
and candidate for the assembly in i860. He enrolled a volunteer com- 
pany, April 14, 1861, was commissioned captain on May 7, and served 
with the Army of the Potomac. He participated in the first battle of 
Bull Run, July 21, 1861 ; was severely wounded at West Point, Va., May 
7, 1862; was promoted lieutenant-colonel in Oct., 1862, and colonel of 
the 142nd N. Y. volunteers in Jan., 1863, and was assigned to command 
a brigade in June, 1864, after the battle of Cold Harbor, in which he had 
commanded a brigade whose leader was killed in action. He advanced 
with his brigade on Petersburg, June 15, 1864, and took part in all the 
operations before Petersburg and Richmond until Dec. 5, when he was 
assigned to the first expedition against Fort Fisher. For his services at 
the capture of Fort Fisher in Jan., 1865, when he was several times 
wounded, losing his left eye on account of one of the wounds, he was 
promoted brigadier-general on the field, and thanked by the legislature of 
New York state. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 
13, 1865, and assigned to duty as chief of staff to Gen. E. O. C. Ord; was 
given command of southwestern Virginia, with headquarters at Lynch- 
burg, July I, 1865, and was mustered out there Jan. 15, 1S66. After the 
war Gen. Curtis was collector of customs; special agent of the U. S. 
treasury department; member of the New York assembly, 1884-90; and 
representative in Congress from 1891 to 1897. 

Curtis, Samuel R., major-general, was born in Clinton county, N. Y., 
Feb. 3, 1807, was taken as a child to Ohio, was graduated at West Point 
in 1831, and, after a year in the army, resigned to take up civil engi- 
neering. He afterwards studied law, became actively interested in state 
militia affairs, and, having risen to colonel of Ohio militia in 1843, in 1846 
was made adjutant-general of Ohio for the special purpose of organizing 
the state's quota for service in the Mexican war. He served in that war 
as colonel of the 2nd Ohio volunteers, and while in charge of the army 
stores at Camargo defeated an attempt made by Gen. Urrea to capture 
the place, driving the Mexican general through the mountains to Ramos, 
and thus opening communications with Gen. Taylor. He subsequently 
served on the staff of Gen. Wool and, after the war, opened a law office 
in Keokuk, la. While residing in Keokuk he was elected to Congress, 
served two terms and part of a third, and then resigned, in 1861, to be- 
come colonel of the 2nd Iowa regiment. He was one of the first officers 
to receive a commission. May 17, 1861, as brigadier-general, and during 
the summer organized and had charge of a camp of instruction at St. 
Louis. He commanded the district of southwestern Missouri from Dec. 
26, 1861, to Feb., 1862, and the Army of the Southwest until Aug. of that 
year, defeating in a decisive battle at Pea Ridge on March 6-8 1862, a 
Confederate force commanded by Gens. Price and McCulloch, for which 
action he was promoted major-general of volunteers. He then marched 
over one thousand miles through swamps and wilderness and captured 



Biographical Sketches 67 

Helena, Ark., which place he held from July 14 to Aug. 29, 1862. He com- 
manded the Department of Missouri, 1862-63, and the Department of Kan- 
sas, 1864-65, being in command at Fort Leavenworth in Oct., 1864, and 
aiding in the defeat and pursuit of Gen. Price's army. He commanded 
the Department of the Northwest from Feb. to July, 1865, and was United 
States Indian commissioner during the latter part of that year. He was 
early interested in the Pacitic railroad, having presided over the conven- 
tion that met in Chicago in Sept., 1862, and was a commissioner to ex- 
amine the road in 1866. He died at Council Bluffs, la., Dec. 26, 1866. 

Custer, George A., major-general, was born in New Rumley, Harri- 
son county, Ohio, Dec. 5, 1839, and was graduated at West Point in 1861. 
Being assigned to duty as 2nd lieutenant in the ist U. S. cavalry, he ar- 
rived at the front on the day of the first battle of Bull Run and joined 
his regiment on the field. In the fall of 1861 he was ordered home on 
sick leave, and on his return, in Feb., 1862, he rejoined the army, being 
assigned to the 5th U. S. cavalry. He served successively as aide on the 
stafifs of Gens. Phil Kearny, W. F. Smith and George B. McClellan, was 
promoted to be a captain of volunteers and served throughout the Pen- 
insular campaign of 1862. He was commissioned brigadier-general of 
volunteers in June, 1863, and placed at the head of a brigade of Michi- 
gan cavalry, which, under his leadership, became one of the best trained 
and most efficient bodies in the Federal army. He led his brigade at the 
battle of Gettysburg, and distinguished himself by gallantry which won 
for him the brevet rank of major in the regular army. Subsequently his 
brigade was attached to Sheridan's cavalry corps, with which he served 
in the campaigns in Virginia, in the spring and summer of 1864, and in 
the subsequent operations in the Shenandoah valley, distinguishing him- 
self by his bravery on numerous occasions. He was then given com- 
mand of the 3d division of Sheridan's corps, won the battle of Wood- 
stock, and at Cedar creek his division recaptured, before the day was 
over, guns and colors that had been taken from the army earlier in the 
fight, together with Confederate flags and cannon. After this brilliant 
success. Gen. Custer was sent to Washington in charge of the captured 
colors, and was recommended for promotion. He was given the brevet 
of major-general of volunteers, Oct. 19, 1864, defeated Gen. Early at 
Waynesboro, and took part in the battles of Five Forks, Dinwiddle Court 
House, and other engagements of Grant's last campaign. He received 
the first flag of truce from the Army of Northern Virginia, and was 
present at Appomattox Court House when Lee surrendered his army. 
He was appointed major-general of volunteers to date from April 15, 
1865, having been brevetted major-general, U. S. A., March 13, 1865, and, 
after the grand review at Washington, commanded the cavalry in Texas 
in the winter of 1865 and 1866, and then applied for leave of absence to 
become commander of the cavalry which Juarez was organizing to drive 
the Emperor Maximilian out of Mexico. His request being denied, he 
accepted the position of lieutenant-colonel of the 7th cavalry and gained 
his first experience in Indian fighting in 1867-68, with Gen. Hancock's 
campaign against the Cheyennes, bringing the campaign to a successful 
conclusion by a decisive defeat which he inflicted on the Indians at 
Washita, I. T., in Nov., 1868. He first met the hostile Sioux in 1873, 
when his regiment was ordered to Dakota to guard the Northern Pacific 
railroad construction, and in 1874 he commanded an expedition to the 
Black Hills which opened up a hitherto undiscovered region of mineral 
wealth. Gen. Custer lost his life, June 25, 1876, at the fatal massacre on 
the Little Big Horn. Reaching the Indian encampment in a region which 
was little known, he did not wait for the rest of the army, under com- 
mand of Gen. Terry, and, underestimating the strength of the Indians, 



68 The Union Army 

divided his force of 277 troopers into three divisions, v^rith which he 
made the attack. The Indians, outnumbering their opponents ten to one, 
killed every one of the noble band. 

Cutler, Lysander, brigadior-general, was born in Massachusetts about 
1806. He became an early settler of Wisconsin, and at the beginning of 
the Civil war he offered his services to the government being appointed 
colonel of the 6th Wis. infantry, July 16, 1861. He speedily brought this 
regiment into a state of discipline and rendered it one of the best in the 
service. He was afterwards in command of the famous "Iron Brigade" 
(Meredith's), of the Army of the Potomac, to which his regiment was 
attached, and on Nov. 29, 1862, was commissioned brigadier-general. He 
was brevctted major-general of volunteers, Aug. 19, 1864, for meritorious 
services, and resigned from the army, June 30, 1865, leaving the service 
with scars of two wounds upon his body. He died in Milwaukee, Wis., 
July 30, 1866. 

Dana, Napoleon J. T., major-general, was born in Fort Sullivan, East- 
port, Me., April 15, 1822. was graduated in the United States military 
academy at West Point in 1842, and served on garrison duty until the 
Mexican war. He served with distinction throughout that contest, being 
severely wounded at the storming of Cerro Gordo, and being made cap- 
tain by brevet for gallant and meritorious conduct on that occasion. He 
was promoted captain on the staff and assistant quartermaster in 1848, and 
was on garrison duty, principally in Minnesota, until 1855, when he re- 
signed to take up banking in St. Paul, serving there as brigadier-general 
of state militia from 1857 to 1861. He raised and commanded the ist 
Minn, infantry in the first year of the war, was commissioned brigadier- 
general in Feb., 1862, and attached to the Army of the Potomac. He 
served in the battles before Richmond, commanded a brigade in Gen. 
Sedgwick's division at Antietam, and at that battle received so serious a 
wound that he was carried off the field for dead. Recovering, he was 
commissioned major-general of volunteers, in Nov., 1862, commanded the 
defenses of Philadelphia during Lee's invasion, afterwards joined the 
Army of the Gulf, and commanded an expedition by sea to the Rio Grande, 
landing at Brazos Santiago, and driving the Confederate forces as far as 
Laredo. He then successively commanded the 13th army corps, the dis- 
trict of Vicksburg, the i6th army corps, the districts of west Tennessee 
and Vicksburg, and the Department of the Mississippi, and in May, 1865, 
resigned from the army to engage in mining in the far west. He was sub- 
sequently, from 1866 to 1871, general agent of the American-Russian com- 
mercial company of San Francisco, in Alaska and Washington, then be- 
came superintendent of railroads in Illinois, and superintendent of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad in 1878. He was made chief of 
the old war and navy division, pension department, in 1893, was promoted 
first deputy commissioner of pensions by President Cleveland, in 1895, and 
was removed from the latter office in 1897 by President McKinley. 

Davidson, John W., brigadier-general, was born in Fairfax county, 
Va.. Aug. 28, 1824, was graduated at West Point in 1845, and commanded 
a howitzer battery under Gen. Stephen M. Kearny in 1846. He remained 
with the army of the west during the Mexican war being present at the 
combats of San Pasqual, San Bernardo, San Gabriel and Mesa, and after 
the war served on the frontier, his most notable accomplishment being the 
defeat, in 1854, of the Apache and Utah tribes, at Cieneguilla. N. M.. in 
an engagement in which he lost three-fourths of his force and was himself 
wounded. He won promotion to captain by this action, was promoted 
major, Nov. 14, 1861, while stationed at Washington, in the defense of the 
capital, and was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, commanding a brigade in the Peninsular campaign. He was 



Biographical Sketches G9 

brevetted lieutenant-colonel U. S. A. for action at Gaines' mill and colonel 
for Golding's farm, and also distinguished Iiimself for gallantry at Lee's 
mill, Mechanicsville, Savage Station and Glendale. lie was transferred 
to the Department of the Missouri and commanded the St. Louis district 
from August to Nov., 1862, the Army of Southeast Missouri until Feb., 
1863, and the district of St. Louis again for the following live months. 
He directed the operations at Pilot Knob and Fredericktown and drove 
Gen. Marmaduke out of Missouri, and in the operations in Arkansas lead- 
ing to the capture of Little Rock, commanded a cavalry division. He was 
made chief of the cavalry forces west of the Mississippi on June 26, 1864, 
and led the cavalry expedition from Baton Rouge to Pasagoula, Nov. 
24, 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army on 
March 13, 1865, for services at Little Rock, and, at the same time, major- 
general U. S. A. for services during the war. Gen. Davidson was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel of the 10th U. S. cavalry, Dec. i, 1866, was act- 
ing inspector-general of the Department of the Missouri, 1866-67 ', profes- 
sor of military science in the Kansas agricultural college, 1868-71, com- 
manded posts in Texas and Idaho, 1871-77, and the district of Upper 
Brazos, Tex., 1877-78. He was promoted colonel in the regular army, 
March 20, 1869. Gen. Davidson died in St. Paul, Minn., June 26, 1881. 

Davies, Henry E., major-general, was born in New York city, July 
2, 1836, was educated at Harvard and Williams colleges, and at Colum- 
bia, in which he was graduated, and in the same year, 1857, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He entered the volunteer service in April, 1861, as 
captain in the 5th N. Y. regiment, was made major of the 2nd N. Y. 
cavalry in July of that year, and served in the cavalry corps, Army of the 
Potomac, as colonel and brigadier-general, having command of a divi- 
sion at the close of the war. He was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers, Oct. I, 1864, having been promoted brigadijer-general, Sept. 16, 
1863, and was given the full rank of major-general of volunteers. May 4, 
1865. He served with distinction throughout the war, and resigned from 
the service Jan. i, 1866. He commanded the middle district of Alabama 
during the reconstruction, 1865, until he resigned. He was public ad- 
ministrator, after the war, in New York city, 1866-69, assistant U. S. dis- 
trict attorney, 1870-72, and thereafter refused public office in order that 
he might devote himself to the practice of law. He died in Middleboro, 
Mass., Sept. 6, 1894. 

Davies, Thomas A., brigadier-general, was born at Black Lake, St. 
Lawrence county, N. Y., Dec. 3, 1809, was graduated at West Point in 
1829, and, after serving two years on frontier duty, resigned to become 
civil engineer on the Croton aqueduct, and to enter mercantile pursuits 
in New York city. He reentered the national service. May 15, 1861, as 
colonel of the i6th N. Y. regiment, and distinguished himself at the bat- 
tle of Bull Run, where, as commander of the 2iid brigade, 5th division, 
Army of the Potomac, he successfully repulsed an attack upon the left 
wing after the main body of the Federal army was in full flight, thus 
preventing the capture of Washington. At the close of the battle he was 
placed in command of the left wing of the army by Gen. McDowell, was 
afterwards engaged on fortifications around Washington and in the de- 
fenses of Alexandria, until March 7, 1862, when he was commissioned 
brigadier-general for "gallant conduct at the battle of Bull Run," and 
joined Gen. Halleck's army at Corinth. He engaged in the siege of 
that place in April and May, 1862, in the battle of Corinth. Oct. 3-4, 
1862; commanded Columbus, Ky., 1862-63; Rollo, Mo., 1863-64; the dis- 
trict of North Kansas, 1864-65, and that of Wisconsin in 1865. His serv- 
ices being no longer needed in Wisconsin, he resigned his commission, in 
June, 1865, and on July 11, 1865, was brevetted major-general of volun- 



70 The Union Army 

teers, "for gallant and meritorious services." After the war he devoted 
a good deal of his time to literature, and was the author of numerous 
books on religious criticism and kindred subjects. He died at Black 
Lake, N. Y., Aug. 19, 1899. 

Davis, Edmund J., brigadier-general, was born in St. Augustine, Fla., 
Nov. 21, 1830. He moved to Texas in 1848, practising law there later; 
was collector of customs, 1850-52, district attorney, 1853-54, and district 
judge, 1854-60. He joined the Union army as colonel of the ist Tex. 
cavalry, Oct. 26, 1862, and was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Nov. 10, 1864. He was mustered out, Aug. 24, 1865, was a member of the 
first and president of the second reconstruction conventions, and Repub- 
lican governor of Texas from 1870 to 1874. He died in Austin, Tex., 
Feb. 8, 1883. 

Davis, Jefferson C, brigadier-general, was born in Clark county, 
Ind., March 2, 1828, was educated at the county academy, and, at the age 
of eighteen, enlisted for service in the Mexican war. For bravery at 
Buena Vista he won a commission as 2nd lieutenant in the ist artillery. 
In 1852 he was promoted ist lieutenant. In 1858 he was placed in charge 
of the garrison at Fort Sumter, and, as an officer under Maj. Anderson, 
took part in the occupation and defense of that fort. In recognition of 
his bravery on this occasion, he was promoted captain and given leave 
of absence to recruit the 22nd Ind. volunteers, of which regiment he be- 
came colonel. Being assigned as acting brigadier-general to the Depart- 
ment of the Missouri, he distinguished himself by bravery at Milford, 
Mo., and won promotion to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers. 
He commanded a division at the battle of Pea ridge, March 8, 1862, and 
took part in the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, and the siege of Corinth, 
and after the evacuation of that place by the Confederates, May 29, he 
was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee. On Sept. 29, 1862, he chanced 
to meet in Louisville Gen. William Nelson, his superior officer, from whom 
he claimed to have had harsh treatment, and, in a quarrel which ensued, 
he shot and instantly killed Nelson. Gen. Davis was arrested, but was 
not tried, and was soon afterwards assigned to duty in Covington, Ky. 
He commanded a division forming a part of McCook's right wing at the 
battle of Stone's river, Dec. 31, 1862, where he so distinguished himself 
that Gen. Rosecrans recommended him for promotion to major-general. 
In 1864 he commanded the 14th corps of Sherman's army in the Atlanta 
campaign and in the march through Georgia, and on March 13, 1865, he 
was brevetted major-general U. S. A. for gallant and meritorious serv- 
ices at the battle of Jonesboro, Ga. He was promoted colonel of the 23d 
U. S. infantry, July 23, 1866, and served on the Pacific coast, in Alaska, 
and, after the murder of Gen. Canby by the Modoc Indians, in 1873, suc- 
ceeded to the command of the department and forced the tribe to sur- 
render. Gen. Davis died in Chicago, 111., Nov. 30, 1879. 

Deitzler, George W., brigadier-general, was born in Pine Grove. Pa., 
Nov. 30, 1826, was educated in the district schools and removed to Kan- 
sas in 1855, becoming there one of the leaders of the conservative Free 
State party. In March, 1855, he was sent east by Gov. Robinson, and ob- 
tained from the emigrant aid company an order for 100 Sharp's rifles, 
which he brought back to Lawrence in boxes labeled "books." In May, 
1856, he was arrested, with other leaders of the Free State party, in- 
dicted for treason and thrown into prison, but was set at liberty on Sept. 
10. He was elected to the state legislature in 1857 and chosen speaker, 
was reelected in 1859, and in 1861 was appointed Indian agent by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, the appointment being withdrawn, however, on account of 
opposition by Senator James H. Lane, before it came before the senate 
for confirmation. At the outbreak of the Civil war he organized the ist 



Biographical Sketches ^ 71 

Kan. volunteers, of which he became colonel, June 5, 1861, and was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers Nov. 29, 1862, for bravery at 
Wilson's creek, where he commanded a brigade. He resigned from the 
volunteer army on account of ill health, Aug. 22, 1863, and in 1864 was 
made major-general of Kansas militia. Subsequently he served as mayor 
of Lawrence and treasurer of the board of regents of the University of 
Kansas. He died at Tucson, Ariz., April 11, 1884, from injuries sustained 
in a fall from his carriage. 

Delafield, Richard, brigadier-general, was born in New York city, 
Sept. I, 1798, and was graduated first in his class in the U. S. military 
academy in 1818, being promoted 2nd lieutenant at once and assigned 
to duty with the American boundary commission under the treaty of 
Ghent. He was engaged as superintending engineer in constructing U. S. 
defenses until 1838, was then promoted major and was superintendent 
of the military academy at West Point from 1838-45 and 1855-61. He 
accompanied Capt. George B. McClellan and Maj. Alfred Mordecai to 
Europe in 1855-56, to watch the operations of the Crimean war, and his 
elaborate report of modern war methods as seen in that war was printed 
jjy Congress in i860. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1861, colonel 
in 1863, brigadier-general and chief of engineers, April 22, 1864, and was 
brevetted major-general U. S. A. for "faithful, meritorious and distin- 
guished services in the engineer department during the war." He ren- 
dered valuable service to the government during the Civil war on the 
staff of Gov. Morgan of New York, 1861-63, in the reorganization and 
equipment of state forces ; was from 1864 to 1870 on duty at Washington 
as commander of the engineer corps, and in charge of the bureau of en- 
gineers of the war department, and served as inspector of the military 
academy, as member of the light-house board, and of the commission for 
the improvement of Boston harbor. He was also a regent of the Smith- 
sonian institution, and a member of scientific organizations. He was re- 
tired, Aug. 8, 1866, after forty-five years' service, and died in Washing- 
ton, D. C, Nov. 5, 1873. 

Dennis, Elias S., brigadier-general, was born in New York, and at 
the time of the outbreak of the Civil war was a resident of Carlyle, III. 
On Aug. 28, 1861, he became lieutenant-colonel of the 30th 111. infantry, 
and when Col. Philip B. Fouke resigned, April 22, 1862, he was promoted 
colonel. May i, to succeed him. His services won him promotion to brig- 
adier-general, Nov. 29, 1862, and on April 13, 1865, he was promoted brevet 
major-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services in the 
operations before Mobile, Ala. Gen. Dennis was honorably mustered out 
of the service, Aug. 24, 1865. He died Dec. 16, 1894. 

Dent, Frederick T., brigadier-general, was born in White Haven, St. 
Louis county, Mo., Dec. 17, 1820. son of Frederick F. and Ellen (Wren- 
shall) Dent, and brother of Julia Dent, wife of Gen. U. S. Grant. He was 
graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1843 and served in the IMex- 
ican war, at the siege of Vera Cruz, the capture of San Antonio, the bat- 
tles of Churubusco, where he was severely wounded, and Molino del 
Rey, receiving for gallant and meritorious conduct at the last named bat- 
tles the brevets of ist lieutenant and captain. He then served on the Pa- 
cific railroad survey and on frontier duty against hostile Indians in the 
far west, and in 1863 was promoted major and given command of a regi- 
merit in the Army of the Potomac. He was on duty in New York city 
during the draft riots of that year, and served as a member of a commis- 
sion for the trial of state prisoners from January to March, 1864. He was 
then assigned to the staff of Lieut. -Gen. Grant, with the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and was present at the battles and operations of the Rich- 
mond campaign to the surrender of Lee, after which he was military 



72 The Union Army 

commander of the city of Richmond and of the troops stationed at Wash- 
ington, lie was colonel and aide-de-camp to the general-in-chief at Wash- 
ington, in 1866, and served as private secretary to President Grant from 
1869 to 1873. He was transferred to the 14th infantry in 1866, made 
lieutenant-colonel of the 32nd infantry in 1867, colonel of the ist artil- 
lery in 1881, and was retired at his own request in 1883. He was pro- 
moted brevet brigadier-general U. S. A. and brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, in 1865, for "gallant and meritorious services in the field during 
the war." Gen. Dent died in Denver, Col., Dec. 24, 1892. 

Denver, James W., brigadier-general, was born in Winchester, Va., 
May 28, 1817, removed to Ohio in 1830, studied at the Cincinnati law 
school, in which he was graduated, and practiced law and edited a local 
Democratic paper in Xenia. Removing thence to Platte county. Mo., he 
was appointed captain of Company H, 12th U. S. infantry, in March, 1847, 
and served in the war with Mexico until its close, participating in the 
battles of Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec and the 
Garetas. In 1850 he moved to California, locating in Weaverville, and 
he served as state senator, secretary of state, and representative in Con- 
gress, 1855-57, where he was chairman of the committee on the Pacific 
railroad. He was subsequently commissioner of Indian affairs, but resigned 
this office to become governor of the territory of Kansas, which then in- 
cluded Colorado. The city of Denver was named for him. He resigned 
this latter office in 1858 to become again commissioner of Indian affairs, 
and on Aug. 14, 1861, President Lincoln appointed him brigadier-general 
of volunteers. He served in this capacity about two years, resigning in 
1863. He was for some time in Kansas, was then ordered to report to 
Gen. Halleck at Pittsburg landing. Term., and advanced thence to Cor- 
inth, Miss., where he had command of all the railroads in that section, 
his force increasing to 30,000 men. After his resignation he practised 
law at Washington, and at Wilmington, Ohio, where he also had a large 
farm. Gen. Denver died in Washington, D. C, Aug. 9, 1892. 

De Russy, Gustavus A., brigadier-general, was born in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Nov. 3, 1818. He was a cadet at the U. S. military academy, 
1835-38, and in March, 1847, was appointed 2nd lieutenant, 4th U. S. ar- 
tillery. He served throughout the war and received the brevets of ist 
lieutenant for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, and captain for like 
service at Chapultepec. He was quartermaster of the 4th U. S. artillery 
from 1849 to 1857, and was promoted captain in Aug., 1857. He was 
brevetted major, June 25, 1862, for bravery in action at Fair Oaks, lieu- 
tenant-colonel for gallantry at Malvern hill, colonel and brigadier-gen- 
eral U. S. A. March 13, 1865, for services during the war. He entered 
the volunteer service as colonel of the 4th N. Y. artillery, March 17, 1863, 
was promoted May 29, 1863, and was mustered out of the service, Jan. 
15, 1866. He was made major of the 3d U. S. artillery, July 26, 1866; 
lieutenant-colonel, Aug. 25, 1879, and colonel of the 4th U. S. artillery, 
June 30, 1882. He was superintendent of practical instruction and tactical 
recitations at West Point from 1871 till 1874. Gen. De Russy was re- 
tired by operation of law, Nov. 3, 1882, and died in Detroit, Mich., May 
29, 1891. 

De Trobriand, Philip R., brigadier-general, was born in the Chateau 
des Rochetts, near Tours, France, June 4, 1816. He became a page at 
the court of Charles X, then king of France, but the revolution of 1830 
changed the plans formed for his military education and he was gradu- 
ated at the University of Orleans as bachelier-cs-lettrcs in 1834 and at 
Pontiers as licencie-en-droit in 1838. Coming to the United States in 
1841, he married the daughter of a New York merchant, and published 
in New York, in 1849-50, the "Revtie de Nouveau Monde," and was joint 




Brig.-Gen. I^ysander 

Cutler 
Maj.-Gen. H. E. Davies 
Brig.-Gen. G. W. Deitzler 
Brig.-Gen, F. T. Dent 



Maj.-Gen. N. J. T. Dana 
Brig.-Gen. T. A. Davies 
Brig.-Gen. Richard Dela- 

FIELD 
Brig.-Gen. T. W. Denver 



Brig.-C»en. J. 
Brig.-Gen. E. 



W. Davidson 
J. Davis 



Brier.-Gen. E. S. Denxis 
Brig.-Geii. G. .\. De Rrssv 



Biographical Sketches 73 

editor of the "Courier dcs Etats-Unis" in 1854-61. On Aug. 28, 1861, 
he entered the service of the United States as colonel of the 55th N. Y. 
regiment. He was engaged at Yorktown and Williamsburg, commanded 
a brigade of the 3d army corps in 1862-63 and took part in the engagements 
at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, where, on the second 
day, he held the peach orchard, the central point of Gen. Sickles' line. 
He was then mustered out of the service, but in Jan., 1864, was com- 
missioned brigadier-general, a position which he accepted in May, and 
in May and June, 1864. he commanded the defenses of New York city. 
As commander of a brigade in the _'nd army corps he was present at Deep 
Bottom, Petersburg, Hatcher's run and Five Forks, and he commanded 
the 3d division of the 2nd corps in the final campaign, ending in the sur- 
render of Lee at Appomattox. He was brevettcd major-general of vol- 
unteers, April 9, 1865, for "highly meritorious services during the cam- 
paign terminating with the surrender of the insurgent army under Gen. 
R. E. Lee," being the only Frenchman besides Lafayette to hold that rank 
in the United States army. He entered the regular army as colonel in 
July, 1866, was brevetted brigadier-general March 2, 1867, and commanded 
the district of Dakota in August of that year. In March, 1869, he was 
transferred to the 13th infantry and commanded the district of Montana, 
and subsequently that of Green river. He was retired at his own request, 
March 20, 1879, on account of age. Gen. De Trobriand became Baron de 
Trobriand upon the death of his father, in 1840, and inherited the title 
of count in 1874, but he never carried the titles in the United States. He 
spent the last years of his life in New Orleans, spending the summers al- 
ternately in France and at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Charles A. 
Post, at Bayport, X. Y., and he died at Bayport, July 15, 1897. 

Devens, Charles, brigadier-general, was born in Charlestown. Mass., 
April 4, 1820. He was graduated at Harvard in arts in 1838 and in law 
in 1840, and practised his profession in Northfield and later in Greenfield, 
Mass. He was state senator, 1848-49, and U. S. marshal for the district, 
1849-53, under appointment of President Fillmore. In this capacity it 
became his duty to execute the process under which the fugitive slave, 
Sims, was returned to his owner, but after the rendition he offered to 
pay for Sims' freedom, and in 1877, when attorney-general of the United 
States, he appointed him to a position in the department of justice. He 
entered the Federal army in 1861, was made major of the 3d battalion 
rifles in April of that year; and in July was appointed colonel of the 15th 
Mass. volunteers. He served with this regiment until 1862 and was 
wounded at Ball's bluff. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 
April 15, 1862, commanded a brigade during the Peninsular campaign, 
and fought at Fair Oaks, Antietam and Fredericksburg, being severely 
wounded at Fair Oaks and having a horse shot under him at Antietam. 
For gallant conduct at Fredericksburg he received commendations from 
the division commander. In 1863 he commanded a division in the ilth 
corps at Chancellorsville, and was severely wounded there. Returning 
to the field in 1864, he was appointed to the command of a division of the 
l8th army corps, reorganized as the 3d division of the 24th corps, and 
his troops were the first to occupy Richmond upon the evacuation of the 
city by the Confederates. On recommendation of Gen. Grant, he was bre- 
vetted major-general of volunteers for gallant and good conduct at the 
capture of Richmond. He commanded the district , of Charleston, in 
1865-66, and then, in June, 1866, was mustered out of the service and re- 
turned to practice his profession in Worcester. He was judge of the su- 
perior court of Massachusetts, 1866-73, was afterwards judge of the su- 
preme judicial court, and then resigned to become attorney-general of the 
United States under President Hayes. At the close of the administra- 



74 The Union Army 

tion he was appointed by Gov. Long to the supreme bench of the state, 
where he remained until his death. Gen. Devens was commander-in-chief 
of the G. A. R. in 1874. He was orator of the day on numerous note- 
worthy occasions, and, after his death, a heroic size statue was erected 
to his memory by the state of Massachusetts. Gen. Devens died in Bos- 
ton, Mass., Jan. 7, 1891. 

Devin, Thomas C., major-general, was born in New York city in 
1822, was educated in the common schools there and learned the trade 
of painter. He was lieutenant-colonel of the ist N. Y. state militia in 
1861, and recruited in June of that year the first company of cavalry sent 
by Gov. Morgan to the defense of Washington. He became captain of 
that company, which was made part of the ist N. Y. cavalry, and after 
his first three months' service, returned to the front as colonel of the 6th 
N. Y. volunteer cavalry. He commanded a brigade at Five Forks and 
captured the Confederate earthworks there, and at Front Royal his regi- 
ment captured two sets of colors and he was himself severely wounded. 
For gallantry at Front Royal he was brevetted brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers, Aug. 15, 1864, and on March 13, 1865, he received the brevet of 
major-general of volunteers for his services during the war. At the 
close of the war he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 8th U. S. 
cavalry, July 28, 1866, and on March 2, 1867, he was brevetted colonel 
U. S. A. for gallantry at Fisher's hill, and brigadier-general for distin- 
guished service at Sailor's creek. He was promoted colonel of the 3d 
U. S. cavalry, June 25, 1877. Gen. Grant is said to have ranked Gen. 
Devin as second only to Sheridan as a cavalry officer. Gen. Devin died 
in New York city, April 4, 1878. 

Dewey, Joel A., brigadier-general, was born in Georgia, Vt., Sept. 
20, 1840, and was a student at Oberlin college in 1861, when he received 
a commission as ist lieutenant. He left college to join the Union army, 
served in the army of Gen. John Pope, and afterwards with Gen. Sher- 
man, was promoted captain and served on the staff of Gen. Rosecrans. 
In 1863 he was promoted colonel and commanded the iiith colored regi- 
ment. He led a brigade in the operations in Alabama, was captured at 
Athens, Ala., while engaging Forrest's cavalry, and, after his exchange, 
served in Tennessee and Alabama until the close of the war. He re- 
ceived his commission as brigadier-general of volunteers. Dec. 13, 1865, 
declined an appointment as captain in the regular army, and was mus- 
tered out of the volunteer service Jan. 31, 1866. He then studied law in 
the Albany (N. Y.) law school, was graduated in 1867 and removed to 
Dandridge, Tenn., where he practised law. He was attorney-general of 
Tennessee from 1869 to 1873. He died in Knoxville, Tenn., June 17, 1873. 

Dix, John A., major-general, was born in Boscawen, N. H., July 24, 
1798, and received his early education at the academy at Salisbury, at 
the Phillips Exeter academy, and the College of Montreal. As a boy of 
fourteen he entered the war of 1812 as a cadet in his father's regiment, 
the 14th U. S. infantry, stationed at Baltimore, Md., where he also studied 
at St. Mary's college. He was made ensign in 1813, took part in the oper- 
ations on the Canadian frontier, served subsequently as adjutant to Col. 
Walback, and in 1819 was appointed aide-de-camp to Gen. Jacob Brown, 
then in command of the northern military department of the United States, 
and stationed at Brownsville, where he studied law. He was later pre- 
pared for the bar in Washington, under William West, but did not prac- 
tice there, and in 1826 was sent as special messenger to the court of Den- 
mark. On his return he was stationed at Fort Monroe, but ill health 
led him to practice law in Cooperstown, N. Y., and he subsequently held 
various important positions in that state. He was adjutant-general "of the 
State of New York, secretary of state and superintendent of public schools. 



Biographical Sketches 75 

a prominent member of the "Albany Regency." and then, going out of 
office in 1840 by the defeat of the Democratic party, devoted himself to 
literary pursuits, being editor-in-chief from 1841 to 1843 of '"The Northern 
Light." He was elected member of the state assembly in 1841, spent two 
years abroad, was United States senator from New York from 1845 to 
1849, and, in 1848, was the candidate on the Free-Soil Democratic ticket 
for governor of New York, but was overwhelmingly defeated by Hamil- 
ton Fish. He was appointed assistant treasurer at New York by Presi- 
dent Pierce, and was the choice of the president as minister to France, 
but was never nominated, owing to political opposition. He earnestly 
supported Buchanan and Breckenridge in the canvass of 1856, and opposed 
the election of Lincoln in i860, voting for Breckenridge and Lane. He was 
appointed by President Buchanan postmaster of New York to succeed 
Isaac V. Fowler, defaulter, declined the portfolio of war in that presi- 
dent's cabinet, and on Jan. 9, 1861, accepted the place of secretary of the 
treasury It was while in this office that he sent the historic message to 
Lieut. Caldwell at New Orleans, to arrest the commander of the revenue 
cutter, adding to the message : "If anyone attempts to haul down the 
American flag, shoot him on the spot." At the opening of the Civil war 
he rendered effective service as president of the L^nion defense committee 
in New York, from its formation in 1861, and on April 24 of that year 
presided over the great meeting in Union Square which determined the 
attitude of the metropolis and of the entire North in reference to sup- 
porting the new administration. On the president's call for troops he or- 
ganized and sent to the front seventeen regiments, and was appointed by 
Gov. Morgan one of the four major-generals of state troops. In the 
following June he was commissioned by President Lincoln major-general 
of volunteers, and was ordered to Washington by Gen. Scott to take com- 
mand of the Arlington and Alexandria department. He was ousted from 
this post by political intrigue and given command of the Department of 
Maryland, which was then considered of comparatively minor importance, 
but which became later the center and key of the national position, and 
it was through Gen. Dix's energetic and judicious measures that the city 
and state were prevented from espousing the Confederate cause. He was 
sent from Baltimore to Fortress Monroe in May, 1862, and in June, 1863, 
was in command of a force of 10,000 men, in the movement up the York 
river to the White House, where he succeeded in cutting off Lee's line 
of communication with the Confederate capital, and in destroying bridges, 
capturing Confederate troops, including Gen. W. H. F. Lee, and obtain- 
ing control of the whole country between the Pamunkey and Rappahan- 
nock rivers. Then, when the city of Richmond was almost within his 
grasp, he was ordered to fall back and send all his available troops to the 
defense of Washington and the Pennsylvania border, then threatened by 
the combined Confederate forces. After the trouble connected with the 
draft riots in New York, he was transferred to New York, in command 
of the Department of the East, superseding Gen. Wool, and he held this 
post until the close of the war, his energetic action preventing further 
trouble in the metropolis and restoring business confidence. He was the 
first president of the Union Pacific railroad company, and in 1866 was 
appointed U. S. naval officer of New York, and in the same year, minister 
to France. He returned to America on the accession of President Grant 
in 1869, was elected governor of New York in 1872, but in 1874, owing 
to political intrigue in the Republican party, was defeated of reelection. 
He became president of the Erie railroad company in 1872. Gen. Dix 
died in New York city, April 21. 1879. 

Dodge, Charles C., brigadier-general, was born in Plainfield. N. J., 
Sept. 16, 1841. He was commissioned captain in the first N. Y. mounted 



76 The Union Army 

rifles, Dec. 6, 1861, and was soon afterwards promoted major. He was 
in command of the outposts at Newport News, and of a cavalry column 
of Gen. Wool's army that marclicd on Norfolk, and received the surrender 
of that place before the arrival of his superior oflkers. He commanded in 
successful engagements at Suffolk, Va., and Hertford ford, N. C, was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel, July 1, 18O2, colonel, Aug. 13, 1862, and brig- 
adier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, and on June £2, 1863, he re- 
signed. 

Dodge, Grenville M., major-general, was born in Danvers, Mass., 
April 12, 183 1, was graduated in Capt. Partridge's military academy, Nor- 
wich, Vt., in 1850, and in 1851 moved to Ilhnois, going thence to Iowa, 
and was employed as a civil engineer in railroad construction work until 
the outbreak of the Civil war. He was sent to Washington in 1861 to 
secure arms and equipments for the Iowa troops, was successful in his 
mission, and on returning to Iowa was appointed colonel of the 4th Iowa 
regiment, which he had raised. He served in Missouri under Fremont, 
commanded a brigade in the Army of the Southwest, and a portion of 
his command took Springfield, Feb. 13, 1862, opening Gen. Curtis' Ar- 
kansas campaign of that year. At the battle of Pea ridge he commanded 
a brigade on the extreme right, had three horses shot under him in that 
engagement and was severely wounded in the side. For gallantry he 
was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, March 31, 1862, and in June 
of that year he took command of the district of the Mississippi and built 
the Mississippi & Ohio railroad. He was one of the first to organize negro 
regiments. He defeated Gen. J. B. Villepigue on the Hatchie river, Oct. 
5, 1862, captured Col. W. W. Faulkner and his forces near Island No. 10, 
and in the autumn of 1862 was placed in command of the 2nd division 
of the Army of the Tennessee. During the Vicksburg campaign, with 
headquarters at Corinth, he made frequent raids, and indirectly protected 
the flanks of both Grant and Rosecrans, and for his services was placed 
at the head of Gen. Grant's list of officers recommended for promotion. 
He distinguished himself at the battle of Sugar valley, May 9, 1864, and 
at Resaca, May 14 and 15, 1865, and for his services at these engagements 
was promoted major-general of volunteers June 7, 1864. In the Georgia 
campaign he led the i6th corps of Sherman's army and distinguished 
himself at Atlanta, July 22, withstanding, with eleven regiments, a whole 
army corps, and at the siege of that city, on Aug. 19, where he received 
a wound so severe as to incapacitate him for service for some time. He 
succeeded Gen. Rosecrans in the command of the Department of Missouri 
in Dec, 1864, became commander also of the Department of Kansas and 
the territories in Feb., 1865, breaking up bands of guerrillas and marau- 
ders and defeating hostile Indians, and receiving the surrender of Gen. 
Smith's army in Missouri, and Gen. Merriwether JefT Thompson's com- 
mand in Arkansas. Gen. Dodge was chosen chief engineer of the Union 
Pacific railroad on May i, 1866, and resigned from the army to accept the 
ofiice. He served in the 40th Congress, 1867-69, as representative from 
Iowa, but declined renomination. He was chief engineer of the Texas & 
Pacific railroad from 1871 to 1881, and then removed to New York city. 
Gen. Dodge was a delegate to the Republican national conventions of 1868 
and 1876, held the office of president of the Society of the .•Xrmy of the 
Tennessee, and was at one time commander of the Loyal Legion. He was 
appointed major-general in the war with Spain, in 1898, but declined the 
honor. 

Doolittle, Charles C, brigadier-general, was born in Burlington. Vt., 
March 16, 1832, was educated at the Montreal, Canada, high school, and 
moved in 1847 to New York city, going thence to Michigan. In 1861 he 
was elected ist lieutenant in the 4th Mich, volunteers, was promoted 




Brig.-Gen. P. R. De 

Trobriand 
Brig.-Gen. T. A. Dewey 
Maj.-Gen. G. M. Dodge 
Brig.-Gen. Ne.^l Dow 



Brig.-Gen. Charles Devens Brig.-Gen. T. C. Devin 
Maj.-Gen. J. A. Dix Brig.-Gen. C. C. Dodge 

Brig.-Gen. C. C. Doolittle Maj.-Gen. Abner Double- 
Brig.-Gen. A. X. Duffie pay 

Brig.-Gen. Ebenezeb 

DUMONT 



Biographical Sketches 77 

colonel of the i8tli Mich, volunteers, July 22, 1862, and fought with con- 
spicuous gallantry at the battle of Gaines' mill where he received a slight 
wound. Being transferred to the Army of the Ohio, he served in Ken- 
tucky, 1862-63, and in Tennessee, 1863-64. While in command of troops 
occupying Decatur, Ala., Oct. 30, 1864, he repulsed Gen. Hood in his three 
successive attacks, and at the battle of Nashville he led a brigade. He 
commanded Nashville during the early part of 1865, and was trans- 
ferred later in the year to the command of the northeastern district of 
Louisiana. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, Jan. 
27, 1865, and was brevetted major-general June 13. 1865. He was mustered 
out of the volunteer service, Nov. 30, 1865, and located at Toledo, Ohio, 
becoming cashier of the Merchants' national bank there. Gen. Doolittle 
died Feb. 20, 1903. 

Doubleday, Abner, major-general, was born in Ballston, N. Y., June 
26, 1819. He was graduated at West Point in 1842 and served in tlie 
Mexican war in the ist artillery, being present at Monterey, and at Buena 
Vista, where he defended the Rinconoda pass. He was promoted capt.'iin 
in 185s, served in the Seminole war. 1856-58, and was one of the garrison 
at Fort Moultrie in i860, withdrawing with his men, by order of Maj. 
Anderson, to Fort Sumter, Dec. 26, i860. He aimed the first gun fir^'d 
in defense of that fort, April 12, 1861. He was promoted major, in the 
7th infantry. May 14, 1861, and served with Gen. Patterson in the valley 
and in the defense of the national capital. Promoted brigadier-general of 
volunteers, Feb. 3, 1862, he commanded the defense of Washington, led 
a brigade in the Northern Virginia campaign from May to Sept., 1862, and 
at the second battle of Bull Run he succeeded to the command of Hatch's 
division, while at Antietam his division, which led the extreme rigiit, 
opened the battle and captured six battle flags. Gen. Doubleday was pro- 
moted major-general of volunteers. Nov. 21, 1862, fought at Fredericks- 
burg and Chancellorsville, and, when Reynolds was made commander of 
a wing of the army, succeeded to command of the ist army corps. He 
supported Buford's cavalry at Gettysburg, commanded the field when 
Reynolds fell until the arrival of Gen. Howard, and on the third day his 
division aided in turning back Pickett's charge and putting the Confed- 
erate army to flight. He was after that, until 1865, on courtmartial duty 
and on various commissions, was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general 
in the regular army. March 11, and major-general U. S. A. March 13, 
1865, for services during the war. He was commander of Galveston, Tex., 
at the close of 1866, and was then commissioner of the Freedmen's bureau 
in Texas until mustered out of the volunteer service, Aug. i, 1867. He 
was promoted colonel U. S. A. and assigned to the 35th infantry, Sept. 
15, 1867, and was afterwards stationed on various duties in New York 
city, San Francisco, and Texas. Gen. Doubleday was retired Dec. 11, 
1873. He died in Mendham. N. J.. Jan. 27, 1893. 

Dow, Neal, brigadier-general, was born in Portsmouth. Me., March 
20, 1804. of Quaker parentage, was educated in public schools and in the 
Friends' academy in New Bedford. Mass.. and was trained in mercantile 
pursuits, succeeding to the management of his father's tannery in 1861. 
Early in life he became a champion of the temperance movement, and in 
1851 succeeded in getting through the legislature a radical, anti-liquor 
law. He made many addresses on temperance throughout the state, was 
elected mayor of Portland in 1851 and again in 1855. and was a member 
of the state legislature. 1858-59. On Dec. 31, t86i. he was appointed 
colonel of the nth Maine regiment, which he had raised, as he had also 
the 2nd Maine battery, and was assigned with his regiment to join Gen. 
Butler's expedition to New Orleans. He was in the steamer "Mississippi" 
with about 2.500 men when she was run aground on Frying Pan 



78 TKe Union Army 

shoals off the coast of North CaroHna. Soon after the arrival of the 
expedition at Ship island, he was commissioned brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers, April 28, 1862, and was placed in command of the forts at the 
mouth of the Mississippi and afterwards of the district of Florida. In 
the attack on Port Hudson, May 27, 1863, he was wounded twice and taken 
prisoner while lying in a house near, and spent eight months in Libby 
prison and at Mobile. He was exchanged for Gen. W. H. Fitzhugh Lee, 
in March, 1864, but his health was so undermined from privations of pris- 
on life that he was unable to take the field again, and on Nov. 30, 1864, 
he resigned his commission. After the war. Gen. Dow resumed his tem- 
perance work, and in 1880 was candidate on the Prohibition ticket for the 
presidency, receiving 10,305 votes. In 1884, as the result of his many 
years of labor for the cause, the state of Maine adopted an amendment 
forbidding forever the manufacture or keeping for sale of intoxicating 
liquors. Gen. Dow died in Portland, Me., Oct. 2, 1897. 

Duffie, Alfred N., brigadier-general, was born in Paris, France, May 
I, 1835. He studied at several military academies in Paris, was gradu- 
ated at the military college of St. Cyr in 1854 as 2nd lieutenant, and then 
served in Algiers and Senegal, and in the Crimea during the war with 
Russia, being promoted there to ist lieutenant of cavalry. He afterwards 
took part in the campaign against Austria and gained several medals of 
honor. Coming to the United States when war was threatened, in i860, 
he was given a captaincy in a cavalry regiment, Aug. 9, 1861. He was 
promoted major, on Oct. 5, and on July 6, 1862, became colonel of the 
1st R. I. cavalry. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 
June 23, 1863, and served until Aug. 24, 1865, when he was honorably 
mustered out of the service. After the war Gen. Duffie was appointed 
United States consul in Cadiz, and held this office until his death, which 
occurred in Cadiz, Spain, Nov. i, 1880. 

Dumont, Ebenezer, brigadier-general, was born in Vevay, Ind., Nov. 
23, 1814. He was educated at the Indiana state university, studied law 
and was admitted to the bar, and began to practice his profession in Ve- 
vay. He was chosen member of the state legislature in 1838, was elected 
speaker of the house, and in 1839-45, was treasurer of Vevay county, and 
was for many years president of the state bank. In the Mexican war he 
served as lieutenant-colonel of the 4th Ind. volunteers, and distinguished 
himself at the battle of Huamantla. Returning to Indiana, he was a 
Democratic elector in 1852, and in 1850 and 1853 was again a member 
of the lower house of the state legislature. At the beginning of the Civil 
war he became colonel of the 7th Ind. regiment, served with distinction 
at Laurel hill. Rich mountain and Carrick's ford, and then, reorganiz- 
ing his regiment for three years' service, commanded it at the action of 
Greenbrier river, Oct. 3, 1861, under Gen. Reynolds. He was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers Sept. 3, 1861, was engaged at Cheat 
mountain, Sept. 12, and commanded the 17th brigade, Army of the Ohio, 
in Jan., 1862. He attacked and drove off Morgan and his raiders at Leb- 
anon, Ky., May 5, 1862, and after September of that year commanded the 
I2th division of Buell's army. He was compelled by failing health to 
resign his commission, Feb. 28, 1863, and was elected to Congress as a 
LTnionist, serving from 1863 till 1867. He died in Indianapolis, Ind., 
April 16, 1871. 

Duryee, Abram, brigadier-general, was born in New York city, April 
29. 1815. His father and two uncles were officers in the war of 1812, 
while his grandfather was a soldier in the Revolution and was for a time 
a prisoner in the old sugar house on Liberty street. He received a high 
school education and acquired a fortune through the sale of mahogany. 
Joining the militia as a private when eighteen years old, he rose through 



Biographical Sketches 79 

the grades, becoming colonel of the 7th regiment in 1849 and holding this 
office fourteen years. He commanded his regiment in live desperate riots 
in Xew York city, was wounded in the Astor place riot, and his prompt 
action on that occasion suppressed a serious outbreak, though not with- 
out the loss of several lives. He was among the iirst to recruit volun- 
teers for the Civil war, raising in less than a week, in April, 1861, the 
5th N. Y. regiment, known as "Duryee's Zouaves," leading it to the front 
and participating in the first important battle of the war, the disastrous 
engagement at Big Bethel, June 10, 1861. After the battle he was made 
acting brigadier-general, superseding Gen. Pierce, and, in Aug., 1861, he 
was commissioned brigadier-general. He commanded his brigade at Cedar 
mountain, Thoroughfare gap, 2nd Bull Run and Chantilly, and at South 
mountain and Antietam commanded Ricketts' division when that officer 
succeeded Gen. Hooker to the command of the corps. He was then for 
a time absent on furlough, and on his return, finding that his brigade had 
been given to an inferior, and that his claims to the old position were ig- 
nored, he resigned Jan. 5, 1863. He was brevetted major-general of vol- 
unteers, March 13, 1865, for distinguished services. He was appointed 
police commissioner of New York city, in 1873, holding that office for 
many years, and distinguishing himself by routing the assembled com- 
munists in Tompkins square in 1874. He was dockmaster from 1884 until 
1887. He died in New York city, Sept. 2"], 1890. 

Duval, Isaac H., brigadier-general, was born in Wellsburg, Va., Sept. 
I, 1824, received a common school education, and, when thirteen years old, 
became a traveller, hunter and trapper in the Rocky mountains, Mexico, 
Central and South America and California. In 1846-47 he was secretary 
of the commissioners sent out by President Polk to make treaties with 
the Indians living on the borders of Texas and New Mexico. He led 
the first expedition which crossed the plains from Texas to California in 
1849; was in the Lopez insurrection in Cuba in 1851, barely escaping 
execution, and then returned to Wellsburg, Va., where he remained until 
the outbreak of the Civil war. He entered the United States service as 
major of the first three months' service regiment of volunteer infantry 
sent out from western Virginia, was promoted colonel of the 9th W. Va., 
infantry, in Sept., 1862, became brigadier-general in 1864, and was as- 
signed to the command of a division of the 8th army corps. He was 
brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13. 1865, for gallantry and 
meritorious service on the battle field, particularly at the battle of Win- 
chester, Va., and was mustered out Jan. 15, 1866. During the war he was 
in thirty-two battles, was wounded three times, and had eleven horses 
killed or wounded under him. After the war Gen. Duval was both rep- 
resentative and senator in the state legislature of West Virginia, was ad- 
jutant-general of the state two years; a representative in Congress from 
1869-71 ; U. S. assessor for the District of West Virginia, 1882-84, and col- 
lector of internal revenue, 1884-98. 

Dwight, William, brigadier-general, was born in Springfield, Mass., 
July 14, 1831. He was a student at a preparatory military school at West 
Point, 1846-49, and a cadet at the United States military academy, 1849-53, 
but resigned before graduation to engage in manufacturing in Boston. 
He was commissioned captain in the 13th U. S. infantry. May 14. 1861, 
and in June of that year was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 70th 
N. Y. volunteers, of which Daniel E. Sickles was colonel. At the battle 
of Williamsburg, where his regiment lost half its men, he was 
twice wounded, left for dead on the field, and taken prisoner. He was 
exchanged, and for gallantry was promoted brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, Nov. 29, 1862, and assigned to the ist brigade of Grover's division, 
which he led in the attack on Port Hudson. For his braverv on this 



80 The Union Army 

occasion he was appointed member of the commission to receive the sur- 
render of Confederate forces, l^e was chief of staff to Gen. Banks in 
the Red River expedition after May, 1864, and in July of that year was 
assigned to the command of the ist division of the lyth army corps, with 
which he rendered important service under Sheridan in the campaign of 
the Shenandoah valley, notably at Winchester, Fisher's hill and Cedar 
creek. He resigned, Jan. 15, 1866, and engaged in business in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Gen. Dwight died in Boston, Mass., April 21, 1888. 

Dyer, Alexander B., brigadier-general, was born in Richmond, Va., 
Jan. 10, 1815. He was graduated in the United States military academy 
in 1837, served in garrison, in the Florida war, was on ordn.ance duty 
at various United States arsenals, 1838-46, and was chief of ordnance 
to the army invading New Mexico, 1846-48, serving part of the time on the 
staff of Gen. Sterling Price. He was engaged at Canada, in the valley 
of Taos, where he was wounded, Feb. 4, 1847, and Santa Cruz de Rosales, 
Mexico, receiving for his services the brevets of ist lieutenant and cap- 
tain. He was commandant of the armory at Springfield. Mass., 1861-64, 
and in charge of the ordnance bureau, Washingtc)n, D. C, with the rank 
of brigadier-general, 1864-74. During the war he extended greatly the 
manufacture of small arms for the army. He invented the Dyer projec- 
tile for cannon. On March 13, 1865, he was brevetted major-general 
U. S. A. for "faithful and meritorious services during the war." Gen. 
Dyer died in Washington, D. C, May 20, 1874. 

Eaton, Amos B., major-general, was born in Catskill, N. Y., May 
12, 1806, and was graduated in the United States military academy in 
1826. He took part in the Seminole war in Florida and Alabama, in 
1827-28, and was a captain in Gen. Taylor's army of occupation in the 
war with Mexico, winning a brevet as major for "gallant and meri- 
torious conduct" at Buena Vista. He served in the Civil war as pur- 
chasing commissary in New York city, 1861-64, and as commissary- 
general of subsistence, at Washington, 1864-65. He was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel, colonel and brigadier-general, U. S. A., and on 
March 13, 1865, was given the brevet rank of major-general for efficient 
services in the commissary department during the Civil war. Gen. 
Eaton was retired in 1874, and died in New Haven, Conn., Feb. 21, 

1877. 

Edwards, John, brigadier-general, was oorn in Jefferson county, Ky., 
Oct. 24, 1815. He received a common school education, studied law, and 
entered upon the practice of his profession in Indiana, becoming a repre- 
senative in the state legislature, 1845-49. In 1849 he removed to Califor- 
nia and was at once made an alcalde, and then, returning to Indiana in 
1852, he served in the state senate. Subsequently he moved to Iowa, 
was a member of the state constitutional convention there in 1855, and 
a representative in the state legislature in 1856-60. being speaker of the 
house, 1859 and i860. He was appointed member of Gov. Kirkwood's 
staff in t86i. and in May, 1862. organized tlic i8th Iowa volunteers, be- 
came colonel of the regiment, and led it to the front. He was promoted 
brigadier-general of volunteers, Sept. 24, 1864, and served in this capacity 
until mustered out of the service, Jan. 15, 1866. After the war he settled 
at Fort Smith, Ark., and was appointed United States assessor, Aug. 6, 
1866. He was elected by the Republicans a member of the 42nd Congress, 
but his seat was successfully contested by Thomas Boles, the Democratic 
candidate, who took his seat, Feb. 9, 1872. Gen. Edwards died April 8, 
1894. 

Edwards, Oliver, brigadier-general, was born in Springfield. Mass., 
Jan. 30, 1835. At the beginning of the Civil war he was commissioned 
1st lieutenant and adjutant of the loth Mass. regiment, and in Jan.. 1862, 




Jfed^^ 1^^ 






'>*=i 




Brig.-Gen. Abraham Brig.-Gen. I. II. IIuval 

• DuRYEE Tirie.-Gen. A. B. Eaton 

Brig.-Gen. A. B. Dyer Brig.-Gen. T. W. Ecan 

Brig.-Gen. Oliver Edwards Maj.-Gen. W. H. Emory 
Brig.-Gen. W. L. Elliott 



Brig.-Gen. Wm. Dwicjit 
Brig.-Gen. J. C. Edwards 
Brig.-Gen. A. W. Ellet 
Brig.-Gen. G. P. Este 



Biographical Sketches 81 

he was appointed senior aide-de-camp on the staff of Gen. Darius N. 
Couch. He was commissioned major of the 37th Mass. regiment, Aug. 9, 

1862, was promoted colonel soon afterward; was brevetted brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, Oct. 19, 1864, "for gallant and distinguished services 
at the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, and for meritorious services 
at the battle of the Upcquan;" was given the brevet rank of major-general 
of volunteers, April 5, 1865, for "conspicuous gallantry in the battle of 
Sailor's creek, Va.," and on May 19, 1865, was given the full rank of 
brigadier-general of volunteers. After serving through the Peninsular 
campaign of 1862, and the Fredericksburg and Gettysburg campaigns. Gen. 
Edwards was ordered to New York city to quell the draft riots of July, 

1863, ^nd was placed in command of Forts Hamilton and Lafayette. Re- 
turning then to the Army of the Potomac, he took part in the battle of 
Rappahannock, and then distinguished himself at the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, when, on the second day, he made a charge at the head of the 37th 
Mass. regiment and succeeded in breaking through the Confederate lines; 
and at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864, when he held the "bloody angle" dur- 
ing twenty-four hours of continuous fighting. He subsequently partici- 
pated in all the battles of the overland campaign, and accompanied the 
6th corps when sent to the defense of Washington against the advance 
of Early. He was afterwards in Sheridan's campaign in the Shenandoah 
valley, took part in the battle of Winchester and was placed in command 
of that city by Gen. Sheridan. He distinguished himself at the final as- 
sault on Petersburg, when his brigade captured the guns in front of three 
of the enemy's brigades, and he received the surrender of the city, April 
3, 1865. At Sailor's creek, on April 6, with the 3d brigade of the ist di- 
vision, he captured Gen. Custis Lee and staff with his entire brigade, 
Lieut.-Gen. Ewell and staff, and many others. Gen. Edwards was mus- 
tered out of the army in Jan., 1866, and after the war engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits both in England and the United States. 

Egan, Thomas W., brigadier-general, was born in New York city, 
in 1836. Entering the 40th N. Y. regiment at the beginning of the Civil 
war, he was appointed lientcnant-colonel, and on June 5, 1862, was pro- 
moted colonel. He participated in all the battles of the Army of the Po- 
tomac. He commanded a brigade in Grant's overland campaign of 1864, 
receiving his commission as brigadier-general Sept. 3 of that year, and 
was wounded at Petersburg. He commanded the division at the battle 
of Boydton plank-road, Va., and for distinguished services on this occa- 
sion was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Oct. 27, 1864. In No- 
vember of that year he was severely wounded, and on recovery was given 
a division in the Army of the Shenandoah. Gen. Egan was mustered out of 
the service, Jan. m, 1866, and subsequently lived in New York. He died 
Feb. 24, 1887. 

EUet, Alfred W., brigadier-general, was born at Penn's Manor, Bucks 
county. Pa., worked on a farm, and studied civil engineering at Bristol 
academy. When his brother, Charles Ellet, was ordered by the war de- 
partment, in t86i, to purchase vessels and convert them into rams, he 
accompanied him, being commissioned lieutenant-colonel. They completed 
their fleet at Cincinnati and steamed down the river to IMemphis, defeat- 
ing the Confederate fleet there, on Jime 6, 1862, and sinking or disabling 
eight of the nine Confederate ironclads. Col. Charles Ellet received a 
wound in the battle which proved fatal and left the command of the fleet 
to Alfred, the appointment being confirmed later by the secretary of war. 
With the "Monarch," accompanied by the "Lancaster,'" he steamed 50 
miles up the Yazoo river and discovered and reported the presence of 
the "Arkansas." He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 
I, 1862, for gallant and meritorious service at the capture of Memphis, 
Vol. VIII— 6 



82 The Union Army 

and in 1863 was assigned to the Department of the Mississippi and placed 
in command of the marine brigade. He added to his distinctions in 
March, 1863, by running the Confederate batteries at Vicksburg, and after 
that was kept busy moving Gen. Grant's troops. He burned Austin, Miss., 
May 24, 1863, in retaHation for information furnished by citizens to the 
Confederates of Gen. Chalmer's command, which nearly resulted in the 
capture of one of his transports. Gen. EUet resigned his commission, Dec. 
31, 1864, and engaged in the practice of his profession as a civil engi- 
neer. He died in Kansas in 1895. 

Elliott, Washington L., brigadier-general, was born in Carlisle, Pa., 
March 31, 1821. He was graduated at West Point in 1846 and served in 
the Mexican war until the surrender of Vera Cruz, being promoted ist 
lieutenant July 20, 1847, and captain in July, 1854. I" an engagement with 
the Navajos in New Mexico, Sept., 1858, he commanded a company of 
United States troops and distinguished himself. Being stationed in Mis- 
souri at the outbreak of the Civil war, he took part in the engagements 
at Springfield and Wilson's creek, and in Sept., 1861, he was commissioned 
colonel of the 2nd Iowa cavalry. He was promoted major in the regular 
army, Nov. 5, 1861, and for services at New Madrid, Mo., in March, 1862, 
at Island No. 10 in April and at Corinth in May, he was severally bre- 
vetted. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers in June, 1862, 
and in the following August became chief of cavalry of the Army of Vir- 
ginia and was wounded at the second battle of Bull Run. Early in 1863 
he was transferred to the command of the Army of the Northwest, but 
in the summer of that year he was placed in command of a division of the 
Army of the Potomac, then in the Army of the Cumberland, and com- 
manded the Federal troops at the battle of Mossy creek, Tenn. He was 
subsequently chief of cavalry in the Army of the Cumberland, and was 
conspicuous in the Atlanta campaign and in the pursuit of Gen. Hood. 
He commanded a division in the 4th army corps in the battles about Nash- 
ville, Tenn., in Nov. and Dec, 1864. and received for gallant services in 
that campaign the brevets of major-general of volunteers and brigadier- 
general in the regular army, while for gallant and meritorious services in 
the field during the war he was given the brevet rank of major-general 
U. S. A. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel in the regular army, Aug. 
31, 1866, colonel in 1878, and was retired at his own request, March 20, 
1879. Gen. Elliott died in San Francisco, Cal., June 29, 1888. 

Emory, William H., major-general, was born in Poplar Grove, Queen 
Anne county, Md., Sept. 9, 181 1. was graduated at the United States mili- 
tary academy in 1831 and appointed lieutenant in the 4th artillery. He 
was on garrison duty at Charleston, S. C, during the nullification excite- 
ment, was engaged on the Delaware breakwater and in the survey of the 
northwest boundary, 1837-46, went with Gen. Stephen M. Kearny to Cal- 
ifornia in 1846, and was on his stafif during the Mexican war, receiving 
the brevet of captain for action at San Pasqual, Dec. 6, 1846, and major 
for San Gabriel, Jan. 9, 1847. He was on topographical duty on the Mex- 
ican boundary line from 1848 till 1853, was promoted lieutenant-colonel for 
this service, was in Kansas in 1854 and in Utah in 1858, and remained on 
border duty until May 9, 1861, when he resigned. In 1861 he captured 
with his command, and brought to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., the first pris- 
oners of war taken by Federal troops in the Civil war. a body of Con- 
federate troops from Texas. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 
6th cavalry. May 14. 1861, and took part in the Peninsular campaign 
under McClellan, engaging at Yorktown, Williamsburg, and Hanover 
Court House, and on March 17, 1862, was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers. Gen. Emory commanded a division under Gen. Banks 
in 1863, was raised to the command of the 19th corps and accompanied 



Biographical Sketches 83 

Banks in the Red River expedition of 1864, in which the displayed un- 
usual skill and bravery, winning especial distinction at Sabine cross- 
roads, Pleasant Hill, and Cane river. He was afterwards transferred to 
the army operating in Virginia, where he defeated Early at Opequan creek, 
Sept. 19, 1864. and fought in the subsequent battles of Fisher's hill and 
Cedar creek. He commanded the department of West Virginia in 1865, 
and in Jan., 1866, was mustered out of the volunteer army. He was 
awarded the brevets of major-general in the volunteer army, July 23, 
1864, brigadier-general and major-general U. S. A., March 13, 1865, and 
on Sept. 25, 1865, was commissioned full major-general of volunteers. 
After the war he was successively in command of the Department of 
Washington and the Department of West Virginia, and was retired in 
1876 with the rank of brigadier-general in the regular army. Gen. Emory 
died in Washington, D. C.. Dec. i, 1887. 

Este, George P., brigadier-general, was born in Nashua, N. H., April 
30, 1830, was graduated at Dartmouth college in 1846, then took a trip 
to California, and, returning to the states in 1850, practised law at first 
in Galena, 111., and then in Toledo, Ohio. Enlisting in the volunteer 
army at the beginning of the Civil war, he was elected lieutenant-colonel 
of the 14th Ohio regiment, April 24. 1861, and after the first three months' 
service rendered conspicuous service by reorganizing the regiment, and 
was subsequently promoted its colonel. He was then put in command of 
the 3d brigade, 3d division, 14th army corps, which he continued to lead 
through the Atlanta campaign, the march to the sea, and the campaign 
of the Carolinas. He engaged in the battles of Snake Creek gap, Resaca, 
Kennesaw mountain, the Chattahoochee, where he had his horse shot under 
him, Peachtree creek, and Jonesboro. At Jonesboro, where he had an- 
other horse shot under him and was again slightly wounded, he especially 
distinguished himself, winning special commendation from Gen. Absalom 
Baird, commanding the division. He was brevetted brigadier-general of 
volunteers, Dec. 9, 1864, and was commissioned the full rank June 26, 1865. 
He resigned from the service. Dec. 4, 1865, and practised law in Wash- 
ington, D. C. Gen. Este died in New York city. Feb. 6. 1881. 

Eustis, Henry L., brigadier-general, was born at Fort Independence, 
Boston, Mass.. Feb. i. i8to. He Avas graduated at Harvard in 1838, and 
at West Point, at the head of his class, in 1842. He assisted in the con- 
struction of Fort Warren and Lovell's island sea-wall in Boston harbor, 
was assistant professor in engineering at the United States military acad- 
emy from 1847 to 1849, and in that year resigned to become professor of 
engineering at Lawrence scientific school of Harvard college. He joined 
the volunteer army in 1861 as colonel of the loth Mass. infantry and was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers Sept. 12. 1863. During the war 
he served at Williamsport. Fredericksburg, Marye's heights, Salem, Get- 
tysburg, Rappahannock Station, Mine run. Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold 
Harbor, and in many minor actions. He resigned, June 27, 1864, owing 
to impaired health, and resumed his college duties. He was dean of the 
Lawrence scientific school until his death, which occurred in Cambridge, 
Mass.. Jan. it. 1885. 

Ewing, Charles, brigadier-general, was born in Lancaster. Ohio, 
March 6, 1835. He was educated at the Dominican college and at 
this University of Virginia, studied law and was admitted to the 
bar, and when the Civil war broke out was practising law in St. 
Louis, Mo. He was commissioned captain in the 13th infantry. 
May 14. 1861, and afterward served on the staff of his brother-in- 
law. Gen. William T. Sherman. For his action at Vicksburg. where 
he planted the flag of his battalion on the parapet of the Confeder- 
ate fort, receiving in this accomplishment a severe wound, he was 



84 The Union Army 

brevetted major, July 4, 1863. and for gallant and meritorious serv- 
ices at Jackson, CoUierville and Missionary ridge, and in the At- 
lanta campaign, he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel Sept. i, 1864. 
He was brevetted colonel in the regular army, March 13, 1865, for 
gallant and meritorious services during the war. He was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers, March 8, 1865, and resigned 
his commission July 31, 1867. Gen. Ewing then opened a success- 
ful law practice in Washington, D. C, and died in Washington, 
June 20, 1883. 

Ewing, Hugh, brigadier-general, was born in Lancaster, Ohio, 
Oct. 31, 1826, and was educated at the United States military acad- 
emy. Going to California at the time of the gold fever in 1849, 
he went to High Sierra in an expedition sent out by his father, 
then secretary of the interior, to rescue snowbound emigrants, 
and returned by way of Panama in 1852, as bearer of despatches 
to Washington. He then resumed his law studies in Lancaster, 
practised law from 1854 to 1856 in St. Louis, practising after that 
in Leavenworth, Kan., and in 1858 removed to Ohio to take charge 
of his father's salt works. He was appointed by Gov. Dennison 
brigade-inspector of Ohio volunteers, in April, 1861, and served 
under Rosecrans and McClellan in western Virginia. He was made 
colonel of the 30th Ohio infantry, Aug. 20, 1861, was promoted 
brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, and on March 13, 
1865, was given the brevet rank of major-general of volunteers for 
gallant and meritorious service during the war. He led the assault 
at South mountain which drove the enemy from the summit, led 
a brigade in a brilliant charge at Antietam, and served through- 
out the campaign before Vicksburg, leading assaults made by Gen. 
Sherman, and upon its fall was placed in command of a division. 
At Chattanooga his division formed the advance of Sherman's 
army and carried Missionary ridge. He was ordered to South 
Carolina in 1865, and was planning a secret expedition up the Roa- 
noke river to co-operate with the Army of the James, when Lee 
surrendered. After the war Gen. Ewing served as United States 
minister to Holland from 1866 to 1870, and then retired to a farm 
near Lancaster, Ohio. 

Ewing, Thomas, brigadier-general, was born in Lancaster, Ohio, 
Aug. 7, 1829, and was educated at Brown university', leaving college 
to act as private secretary to President Taylor, 1849-50. He studied 
law in Cincinnati and began to practice his profession there, but 
moved to Leavenworth, Kan., in 1856. became a member of the 
Leavenworth constitutional convention of 1858. and in 1861 was 
elected chief justice of the state. In 1862 he resigned his judge- 
ship, recruited and became colonel of the nth Kan. volunteers, 
and with his regiment fought in the battles of Fort Wayne, Cane 
hill and Prairie Grove. He was made brigadier-general March 
13, 1863, for gallantry at Prairie Grove, and checked the invasion 
of Missouri in Sept. -Oct., 1864, by holding Fort Davidson, at Pilot 
Knob, with about 1,100 men, against the repeated attacks of the 
Confederate forces under Price. He made a successful retreat to 
Rolla in 1864, and on March 13, 1865, was brevetted major-general 
of volunteers for meritorious services at the battle of Pilot Knob. 
He resigned from the army, Feb. 26, 1865. and practised law in 
Washington, but returned to Lancaster in 1871, and from 1877-81 
was a member of Congress, where he prepared a bill to establish 
a bureau of labor statistics, opposed the presence of soldiers at the 
polls, and favored the remonetization of silver and the continua- 



Biographical Sketches 85 

tion of the use of the greenback currency. In 1879 he was an un- 
successful candidate of the Democratic party for governor of Ohio. 
At the close of his last term in Congress, Gen. Ewing declined re- 
nomination and resumed his law practice, making his office and 
residence in New York city. He died in New York city, Jan. 21, 
1896. 

Fairchild, Lucius, brigadier-general, was born at Franklin Mills, 
now Kent, Ohio, Dec. 27, 1831. He attended the public schools in 
Cleveland and the Twinsburg (Ohio) academy, moved to Madison, 
Wis., in 1846 and continued his education at Carroll college, Wau- 
kesha, Wis., until 1849, when he joined a caravan party organized 
at Madison and crossed the plains to California. He returned to 
Madison not much richer then when he left, was clerk of the cir- 
cuit court of Dane county, 1859-60, and in 1861 was admitted to 
the bar. Joining, in 1858, a volunteer company known as the "gov- 
ernor's guard," he rose to ist lieutenant in March, 1861, and in 
April, 1861, became its captain, the company having been mustered 
in as company K, ist Wis. volunteers. After taking part in the 
skirmish at Falling Waters, Va., tlie regiment was mustered out, 
and on Aug. 5, i86r, Capt. Fairchild was promoted to the rank of 
captain in the regular army and assigned to the i6th U. S. infan- 
try. He obtained leave of absence and was appointed major and 
then lieutenant-colonel of the 2nd Wis. infantry, and in the 2nd 
battle of Bull Run he commanded the consolidated 2nd and 7th 
Wis. regiments, forming part of the famous "iron brigade." He 
was promoted colonel, to date from Aug. 30, 1862, and on Sept. 14, 
stormed and carried Turner's gap. South mountain, pursuing the 
enemy through Boonsboro to Antietam creek, where, on the 17th, 
although sick, he was lifted to his horse and commanded his regi- 
ment through "the bloodiest day that America ever saw." He com- 
manded his regiment also in the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 
13, 1862, winning for skill and gallantry there special commenda- 
tion from Gen. Meredith, and in Jan., 1863, commanded the expe- 
dition to Heathsville, Va., which secured valuable stores and im- 
portant information, and destroyed several blockade runners on 
the river. He rendered important service at Chancellorsville, and 
at Gettysburg led a charge up Seminary hill, losing his left arm. 
While recovering from his wounds he was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers, Oct. 19, 1863. and on Nov. 2, 1863, he was 
mustered out of the service. He was then secretary of state of 
Wisconsin, 1864-65; governor of Wisconsin, 1866-72; U. S. consul 
at Liverpool, 1873-78; president of the National soldiers' and sail- 
ors' convention, 1878; U. S. consul-general at Paris, 1878-80 and 
U. S. minister and envoy plenipotentiary to Spain, 1880-81. He was 
department commander, G. A. R., 1886; commander-in-chief of the 
organization, 1887; commander of the Wisconsin commandery of 
the military order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, 1890- 
93, and commander-in-chief, 1893-94. He was also a promoter and 
officer of various state and national military homes and beneficent 
organizations. Gen. Fairchild died in Madison, Wis., May 23. 1896. 
• Farnsworth, Elon J., brigadier-general, was born in Green Oak, 
Livingston county, Mich., in 1837. He was educated in the public 
schools and spent a year at the University of Michigan, but left 
college in 1858 and served in the quartermaster's department of the 
army during the Utah expedition of that year. He subsequently 
engaged in buflfalo-hunting and in carrying freight to the then 
newly discovered mines at Pike's peak, and in 1861 became assist- 



86 The Union Army 

ant quartermaster of the 8th III. cavalry, which his uncle was then 
organizing. He was soon promoted captain and took part in all 
the battles of the Peninsula, and in those of Pope's campaign. He 
was appointed aide-de-camp to Gen. Pleasonton in May, 1863, and 
was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on the 29th of the 
following month. He was killed, July 3, 1863, while leading a 
charge at Gettysburg. 

Farnsworth, John F., brigadier-general, was born in Eaton, Can- 
ada, March 2"}, 1820. He removed with his parents to Michigan in 
1834, received a classical education, studied and practised law, and 
afterwards went to Chicago, 111. He was elected as a Republican 
a representative in the 35th and 36th Congresses, serving from 
1857 to 1861. He then recruited and became colonel of the 8th 111. 
cavalry regiment, was afterwards ordered by the war department 
to recruit the 17th 111. regiment, and on Nov. 29, 1862, was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He was on active duty 
at the front until March, 1863, when, on account of injuries re- 
ceived in battle, he was compelled to resign. He made his home 
in St. Charles, 111., was a representative from his district in Con- 
gress from 1863 to 1873, and then engaged in the practice of law in 
Washington. Gen. Farnsworth died in Washington, D. C, July 

14, 1897- . ^ ^ c- ■ 

Ferrero, Edward, brigadier-general, was born m Granada, Spam, 
of Italian parentage, Jan. 18, 1831, and came to the United States 
with his parents in 1833. Prior to the Civil war he conducted a 
dancing-school in New York city, taught dancing at West Point, 
and was a member of the state militia, having attained the rank of 
colonel by 1861. In the summer of 1861 he raised the 51st N. Y. 
regiment, called the "Shepard rifles," at his own expense, and led 
it in Burnside's expedition to Roanoke island, while at New Berne 
he commanded a brigade under Gen. Reno. He served in Pope's 
Virginia campaign of 1862, distinguishing himself at the second 
battle of Bull Run, and in covering Pope's retreat at Chantilly on 
the following day. At South mountain he commanded a brigade 
after the death of Reno, and at Antietam he so distinguished him- 
self that he was promoted brigadier-general on the field of battle, 
Sept. 19, 1862. He subsequently served at Fredericksburg, where 
he again distinguished himself, and at Vicksburg where his 
brigade was a part of the 9th army corps. He pursued Gen. Jo- 
seph E. Johnston, defeating him at Jackson, Miss., commanded a 
division under Burnside at Knoxville, during the siege, from Nov. 
17 to Dec. 4, 1863; and his defense of Fort Sanders against an as- 
sault by Longstreet, Dec. 4, compelled that commander to retire, 
while at the battle of Bean's station his timely occupation of Kel- 
ley's ford frustrated Longstreet's attempt to send a detachment 
across the Holston, and attack the Union forces in the rear. In 
Grant's final campaign Gen. Ferrero commanded a colored division 
at Petersburg. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Dec. 
2, 1864, and was mustered out of the service, Aug. 24. 1865. Gen. 
Ferrero died in New York city, Dec. 11, 1899. 

Ferry, Orris S., brigadier-general, was born in Bethel, Fairfield 
county. Conn., Aug. 15, 1823. He was graduated at Yale in 1844, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar and began the practice of his 
profession in Norwalk. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 
1st division of Connecticut militia in 1847, was judge of probate 
for the district of Norwalk from 1849 to 1856, and was elected to 
the state senate in 1855 and 1856. He was an unsuccessful candi- 



Biographical Sketches 87 

date for Congress in 1856, was elected two years later, and was 
again defeated in i860. He zealously supported the national govern- 
ment when the Civil war broke out, became colonel of the 5th 
Conn, regiment in July, 1861, joined Gen. Banks' corps in Mary- 
land, and on March 17, 1862, was promoted brigadier-general and 
assigned a brigade in Shields' division. He was subsequently trans- 
ferred to Peck's division of the 4th army corps under Gen. Keyes. 
He served until the close of the war, being brevetted major-gen- 
eral of volunteers, May 23, 1865, for gallant and distinguished serv- 
ice in the battles of the Peninsula and the campaigns of the Army 
of the Potomac, and resigned June 15, 1865. After the war, in 
1866, he was elected United States senator from Connecticut, and 
in 1872 he was re-elected. He died in Norwalk, Conn., Nov. 21, 

1875. 

Fessenden, Francis, major-general, was born in Portland, Me., 
March 18, 1839. He was graduated at Bowdoin in 1858, became a 
lawyer, and at the outbreak of the Civil war was appointed cap- 
tain in the 19th U. S. infantry. May 14, 1861. He was subsequently 
on recruiting duty, commanded a company in the Army of the 
Cumberland from January to April, 1862, and was severely wound- 
ed at Shiloh. Becoming colonel of the 25th Maine volunteers, 
Sept. 29, 1862, he commanded a brigade in the defenses of Wash- 
ington, and then, from Sept., 1863, to May, 1864, was colonel of 
the 30th Maine veteran infantry. He was commissioned brigadier- 
general in the volunteer army. May 10, 1864, accompanied Banks 
in the Red River expedition, and took part in the battles of Sabine 
cross-roads. Pleasant Hill and Monett's bluff, distinguishing him- 
self especially for gallantry in the last named engagement, where 
he led the charge of his brigade and lost a leg. For gallantry at 
Shiloh and Monett's bluff he was given the brevet ranks of major 
and lieutenant-colonel U. S. A., July 6, 1864. He was commissioned 
major-general of volunteers, in Nov., 1865, commanded the ist in- 
fantry division, Department of West Virginia, and was subsequently 
assigned to the ist veteran corps. He was a member of the Wirz 
military commission in the winter of 1865-66, and after that was 
assistant commander of the bureau of refugees, freedmen and aban- 
doned lands. He was retired with the rank of brigadier-general 
and brevet major-general in the regular army, at his own request, 
Nov. I, 1866, was subsequently mayor of his native city, Portland, 
and then practised law there. 

Fessenden, James D., brigadier-general, was born in Westbrook, 
Me., Sept. 28, 1833, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1852, and then 
practised law in Portland until the Civil war broke out. He was 
commissioned captain of the 2nd U. S. sharpshooters, Nov. 2, 1861, 
and in 1862-63 served on the staff of Gen. David Hunter and en- 
gaged in the operations on the Carolina coast, being present at the 
attack on Fort McAllister, in the operations on the Edisto, and at 
Du Pont's attack on Charleston. He organized and commanded 
the 1st regimefit of colored troops in May, 1862, but the govern- 
ment refiised to accept such service at that time. In July of that 
year he was promoted colonel and additional aide-de-camp. He 
was subsequently transferred to the Army of the" Tennessee, in 
1863, and served under Hooker in the campaigns of Chattanooga 
in that year and Atlanta in 1864. He was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers, Aug. 8, 1864, was ordered to report to Gen. 
Sheridan in the valley of Virginia, and participated in the battle 
of Cedar creek in October. He was brevetted major-general of 



88 The Union Army 

volunteers, March 13, 1865, for distinguished service in the war, and 
served in South Carolina until mustered out, Jan. 15, 1866. Return- 
ing then to Maine, he was appointed register of bankruptcy in 1868 
and was representative in the state legislature, 1872-74. Gen. Fes- 
senden died in Portland, Me., Nov. 18, 1882. 

Fisk, Clinton B., brigadier-general, vvas born near Greenville, 
N. Y., Dec. 8, 1828. He began preparation for college at Albion 
academy, but, being obliged to give up his studies on account of 
trouble with his eyes, was a merchant, miller and banker in Michi- 
gan, and then western financial manager at St. Louis of the Aetna 
insurance company of Hartford, Conn. He served three months 
in 1861 as private in the Missouri home guards, and in July, 1862, 
recruited the 33d Mo. regiment, and, as its colonel, led it to the 
front. In September he was ordered to St. Louis to organize a 
brigade, became brigadier-general Nov. 24, 1862, and served with 
the army of the Tennessee. He was made commander of the mili- 
tary district of southeast Missouri in June, 1863, was transferred to 
the command of the Department of North Missouri in March, 1864, 
and defended the state capital against the attacks of Confederate 
troops under Gens. Price, Marmaduke and Shelby. For this timely 
action he was made major-general of state militia by the legisla- 
ture of Missouri and on March 13, 1865, he was given the title of 
major-general of volunteers by brevet, but was not allowed to re- 
sign, being appointed assistant commissioner of the Freedmen's 
bureau for Kentucky and Tennessee. Gen. Fisk was active in 
founding the Fisk university, which was named for him, gave 
large sums of money to the institution, and was until his death 
president of its board of trustees. He also rendered conspicuous 
service to the Methodist church. He was president of the U. S. 
Indian commissioners from 1872 to 1890, was a candidate for gov- 
ernor of New Jersey on the Prohibition ticket in 1886, and for 
president of the United States in 1888. Gen. Fisk died in New 
York city, July 9, 1890. 

Force, Manning F., brigadier-general, was born in Washington, 
D. C, Dec. 17, 1824. He was graduated at Harvard in 1845 and 
from the Harvard law school in 1848, moved to Ohio in 1849 and 
began the practice of law in Cincinnati in that year. At the begin- 
ning of the Civil war he joined the Union army as major of the 
20th Ohio volunteers, was promoted lieutenant-colonel Sept. 11, 
1861, and served with Grant at Fort Donelson and Shiloh. He was 
promoted colonel of his regiment May i, 1862, served with Gen. 
Grant in the campaign of southwestern Tennessee and north Mis- 
sissippi in 1862-63, 'ifd on Aug. 11, 1863, was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers for service at the siege of Vicksburg. In the 
Meridian and Atlanta campaigns and the march to the sea he com- 
manded a brigade in Sherman's army, and in the campaign of the 
Carolinas he commanded a division. For special gallantry before 
Atlanta, where he was severely wounded, he was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, and subsequently command- 
ed a military district in Mississippi until mustered out in Jan., 
1866. For his services at Atlanta he was also awarded a medal of 
honor by Congress, May 31, 1892. After the war Gen. Force was 
judge of the court of common pleas at Cincinnati, 1867-77, oi the 
superior court, 1877-87, and then superintendent until iSigg of the 
soldiers' home at Sandusky, Ohio. He was the author of numer- 
ous historical and biographical works on the Civil war, and a 
member of various learned societies. He died at Soldiers' Home, 
Sandusky, Ohio, May 8, 1899. 




Brig.-C.en. H. L. EusTis Brig.-Gen. Charles Ivvving Brig.-Gen. Hugh Ewing 

Brig.-Gen. Thomas Ewing, Brig.-Gen. Lucius Fair- Brig.-Gen. J. F. Farns- 

Jr. child worth 

Brig.-Gen. Edward Ferrero Brig.-Gen. O. S. Ferry Maj.-Gen. Francis Fessen- 

Brig.-Gen. J. D. Fessenden Brig.-Gen. C. B. Fisk den 

Brig.-Gen. yi. F. Force 



Biographical Sketches 89 

Forsyth, James W., brigadier-general, was born in Ohio, Aug. 
26, 1834. He was graduated at West Point in 1856, was promoted 
1st lieutenant of infantry March 15, 1861, and captain in the i8th 
infantry Oct. 24, 1861. He served on Gen. McClellan's staff dur- 
ing the Peninsular and Maryland campaigns, was brevettcd major 
for gallantry at Chickamauga. and in 1864-65 was assistant adju- 
tant-general of volunteers and chief-of-staff to Gen. Sheridan. He 
took part in tlie Richmond and Shenandoah campaigns, was bre- 
vetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallantry at Winchester, Fish- 
er's hill and Middletown, Oct. 19, 1864, colonel in the regular army, 
April I, 1865, for gallant and meritorious service in the battle of 
Five Forks, and brigadier-general April 9, for gallant and meri- 
torious service in the field during the war. Gen. Forsyth was 
given the full commission of brigadier-general of volunteers. May 
19, 1865, and in 1866-67 was assistant inspector-general of the de- 
partment of the gulf. He was promoted major in the regular army, 
July 28, 1866; lieutenant-colonel of the ist cavalry April 4, 1878, 
colonel June 11, 1886, brigadier-general commanding the Depart- 
ment of California Nov. 9, 1894, and major-general May 12, 1897. 

Foster, John G., major-general, was born in Whitefield, N. H., 
May 2^, 1823. He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1846, assigned to the engineer corps, and served in the 
Mexican war under Gen. Scott at the battles of Vera Cruz, Cerro Gor- 
do, Contreras, Churubusco and Molino del Rey, where he was severely 
wounded. He was brevetted ist lieutenant and captain for gal- 
lantry, and then, until the Civil war, was assistant engineer in 
Maryland, engaged on coast survey work in Washington, assistant 
professor of engineering at West Point, and engaged in the con- 
struction of Forts Sumter and Moultrie. He successfully moved 
the garrison of Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter during the night of 
Dec. 26-27, i860, and was subsequently one of the defenders of the 
latter fort during its bombardment, and received the brevet of ma- 
jor for his services. He was commissioned brigadier-general of 
volunteers Oct. 23, 1861, and for services at Roanoke island in 
Burnside's expedition to North Carolina received the brevet of 
lieutenant-colonel U. S. A. He was then in command of the De- 
partment of North Carolina, having been promoted major-general 
of volunteers, conducted several important and successful expedi- 
tions in 1862-63, had charge of the combined departments of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina from July to Nov., 1863, and after that 
commanded the Army and Department of the Ohio. This com- 
mand he was forced to give up in Dec, 1864, on account of 
severe injuries sustained by a fall from his horse, and, on 
recovery, was given command of the Department of the South. 
He received Gen. Sherman and his army at Savannah, Dec. 21, 
i3;64, on the completion of the march to the sea, and commenced 
the operations for the reduction of Fort Sumter and the capture of 
Charleston, S. C, but was forced by the condition of his old wound 
to leave the carrying out of his plans to Gen. Q. A. Gillmore. lie 
received the brevet ranks of brigadier-general and major-general 
in the regular army for his services at Savannah and in the field 
during the war. Gen. Foster commanded the Depa-rtment of Flori- 
da in 1865-66, and afterward superintended the construction of river 
and harbor improvements at Boston and Portsmouth. He died in 
Nashua, N. H., Sept. 3. 1874. 

Foster, Robert S., brigadier-general, was born in Vernon, Jen- 
nings county, Ind., Jan. 27, 1834, where he received a common school 



90 The Union Army 

education. Joining the Union army at the outbreak of the war 
he fought to the close, being advanced from rank to rank until, on 
March 31, 1865, he received the brevet of major-general of volun- 
teers for gallant conduct in the field. He became captain in the 
nth Ind. infantry, April 22, 1861, major of the 13th Ind. infantry, 
June 19, 1861, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel on Oct. 28 
of that year, and colonel April 30, 1862. He was commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers June 12, 1863. He resigned Sept. 
25, 1865, and was offered a lieutenant-colonelcy in the regular army, 
but declined and took up his residence in Indianapolis, where he 
was city treasurer from 1867-72. He was United States marshal 
for the District of Indiana from 1881 to 1885. Gen. Foster died 
March 3, 1903. 

Franklin, William B., major-general, was born in York, Pa., 
Feb. 27, 1823, and was graduated at the United States military 
academy at West Point, first in his class, in 1843. He served in 
the Mexican war as topographical engineer under Gen. Taylor, and 
so distinguished himself at the battle of Buena Vista as to win 
promotion to the brevet rank of ist lieutenant. In the years be- 
tween the Mexican war and the Civil war he was employed on 
topographical duty on the frontier, as engineer-secretary of the 
light-house board, assistant professor of engineering at West Point, 
and supervising engineer in the construction of additions to the 
national capitol and in the erection of the treasury and postoffice 
buildings in Washington, D. C, rising in this interval also to the 
rank of captain, July i, 1857. When the Civil war broke out he 
was promoted colonel of the 12th infantry, May 14, 1861, brigadier- 
general of volunteers, May 17, 1861, and major-general of volun- 
teers, July 4, 1862. Gen. Franklin's first service in the volunteer 
army was at Bull Run, July 21, 1861, when he commanded a bri- 
gade and engaged in the heaviest fighting of the day around the 
Henry house. He received a division on the organization of the 
Army of the Potomac, and when the 6th army corps was formed, 
became its commander, continuing as such throughout the year 
1862. He was in almost all the battles of the Peninsula, engaging 
at Yorktown, West Point, White Oak bridge. Savage Station, Mal- 
vern hill and Harrison's landing, and, after his return to Maryland 
with the army, commanded the left of the army at Crampton's gap, 
South mountain, Sept. 14, 1862, and engaged in the battle of Antie- 
tam three days later. At the battle of Fredericksburg he com- 
manded the left grand division under Burnside. Gen. Burnside, by 
complaining that Franklin did not obey orders in this battle caused 
the latter to be sharply censured by the Congressional committee 
on the conduct of the war, and he was also removed from his com- 
mand for insubordination. The failure of the president to approve 
the order of removal led to Burnside's resignation of his command. 
After several months on waiting orders Gen. Franklin returned to 
duty in July, 1863. and on Aug. 15, was assigned to command the 
19th army corps, which he directed under Banks in the Red River 
expedition of 1864. He was wounded at the battle of Sabine cross- 
roads, April 8, 1864, and was on sick leave until Dec. 2, 1864, when 
he was placed on duty as president of the retiring board at Wil- 
mington, Del., in which capacity he served until Nov. 9, 1865. Dur- 
ing his leave, while still an invalid, he was captured by Confederate 
raiders while riding on a train of the Baltimore & Philadelphia 
road, but made his escape the same night. He was given the brevet 
rank of brigadier-general, June 30, 1862, for gallant and meritori- 



Biographical Sketches 91 

ous service in the battles before Richmond, and brevet major-gen- 
eral U. S. A. March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services 
in the field during the war. He resigned from the regular army- 
March 15, 1866, as colonel of the 12th infantry. He was adjutant- 
general of Connecticut 1877-78, was for several years president of 
the board of managers for the National home for disabled soldiers, 
and was interested in the manufacture of fire arms and a director 
of three insurance companies. Gen. Franklin died March 8, 1903. 
Fremont, John C, major-general, was born in Savannah, Ga., 
Jan. 21, 1813, and was educated at Charleston college, from which 
he was expelled before graduation, although subsequently, in 1836, 
he was given his degree by the college authorities. lie became 
teacher of mathematics on the sloop-of-war "Natchez" in 1833, on 
which he took a two-year cruise, and, on returning, passed the nec- 
essary examination and was appointed professor of mathematics in 
the U. S. navy. He was commissioned 2nd lieutenant in the U. S. 
topographical engineers in 1838, while engaged in exploring the 
country between the Missouri and the northern frontier, and in 
1842, having suggested a geographical survey of all the territories 
of the United States, he was sent at the head of a party of 28 
men to explore the Rocky mountain region. In accomplisliing this 
he ascended the highest peak of the Wind River mountains, which 
was afterwards known as Fremont's peak. He next explored the 
territory between the Rocky mountains and the Pacific, then a re- 
gion almost unknown, and early in 1843 started with a party of 39 
men, and, after a journey of 1,700 miles, reached Great Salt lake. 
It was his report of this region which gave to the Alormons their 
first idea of settling in Utah. He proceeded thence to the tribu- 
taries of the Columbia river and in November started upon the re- 
turn trip, but, finding himself confronted with imminent danger of 
death from cold and starvation, turned west, and, after great hard- 
ship, succeeded in crossing the Sierra Nevada range and in March 
reached Sutter's fort in California. His return journey was con- 
ducted safely by the southern route, and he reached Kansas in 
July, 1844. He went on another exploring expedition in 1845, spend- 
ing the summer along the continental divide and crossing the Sier- 
ras again in the winter. Upon refusal of the Mexican authorities to 
allow him to continue his explorations, he fortified himself with 
his little force of 64 men on a small mountain some 30 miles from 
Monterey, but when the Mexicans prepared to besiege the place 
he retreated to Oregon. He was overtaken near Klamath lake, May 
9, 1846, by a courier with despatches from Washington, directing 
him to watch over the interests of the United States in the 
territory, there being reason to fear interference from both Great 
Britain and Mexico. He promptly returned to California, where the 
settJers, learning that Gen. Castro was already marching against 
the settlements, flocked to his camp, and in less than a month 
Northern California was freed from Mexican authority. He re- 
ceived a lieutenant-colonel's commission. May 27, and was elected 
governor of the territory by the settlers July 4. Learning on July 
10 that Com. Sloat, commanding the American squadron on the 
Pacific coast, had seized Monterey, Fremont joined, him and, when 
Com. Stockton arrived with authority to establish the power of 
the United States in California, Fremont was appointed by him 
military commandant and civil governor. Near the end of the year 
Gen. Kearny arrived with a force of dragoons and said that he had 
orders also to establish a government. Friction between the two 



92 The Union Army 

rival officers immediately ensued, and Fremont prepared to obey 
Stockton and continued as governor in spite of Kearny's orders. 
For this he was tried by court-martial in Washington, and, after a 
trial which lasted more than a year, was convicted, Jan. 31, 1847, 
of "mutiny," "disobedience to the lawful command of a superior 
officer," and "conduct to the prejudice of good order and military 
discipline," and was sentenced to dismissal from the service. Pres- 
ident Polk approved of the conviction for disobedience and mutiny, 
but remitted the penalty and Fremont resigned. In Oct., 1848, Fre- 
mont started on an independent exploring expedition with a party 
of 33 men, and reached Sacramento in the spring of 1849 after 
more severe sufferings than tl^ose experienced on any of his earlier 
expeditions. He represented California in the United States senate 
from Sept., 1850, to March, 1851, and in 1853 made his fifth and last 
exploring expedition, crossing the Rocky mountains by the route 
which he had attempted to follow in 1848. Fremont's known oppo- 
sition to slavery won him the presidential nomination of the Re- 
publican party in 1856, but in the election he was defeated by Bu- 
chanan, who received 174 electoral votes to Fremont's 114. Soon 
after the beginning of the Civil war Fremont was appointed major- 
general in the regular army and assigned to command the newly 
organized Western Department with headquarters at St. Louis. Soon 
after the battle of Wilson's creek. Aug. 10, 1861. he proclaimed mar- 
tial law, arrested active secessionists, suspended the publication of 
papers charged with disloyalty, and issued a proclamation assum- 
ing the government of the state and announcing that he would free 
the slaves of those in arms against the Union. This proclamation 
he refused to withdraw, and on Sept. 11, the president annulled it 
as unauthorized and premature. Fremont was relieved of his com- 
mand, Nov. 2, 1861, many complaints having been made of his ad- 
ministration, but in March, 1862, he was placed in command of the 
Mountain Department of Virginia, Tennessee and Kentucky. Early 
in June he pursued the Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson for 8 days, 
finally engaging him at Cross Keys, June 8, but permitted him to 
escape with his army. When the Army of Virginia was created, 
June 26, to include Gen. Fremont's corps, with Pope in command, 
Fremont declined to serve on the ground that he outranked Pope, 
and for sufficient personal reasons. He then went to New York 
where he remained throughout the war, expecting a command, but 
none was given him. He was nominated for the presidency. May 
31, 1864, by a small faction of the Republican party, but, finding 
but slender support, he withdrew his name in September. He sub- 
sequently became interested in the construction of railroads, and 
in 1873, was prosecuted by the French government for alleged par- 
ticipation in the swindles connected with the proposed transcon- 
tinental railway from Norfolk to San Francisco, and was sentenced, 
on default, to fine and imprisonment, no judgment being given on 
the merits of the case. Gen. Fremont was governor of Arizona in 
1878-81, and was appointed major-general on the retired list by act 
of Congress in 1890. He died in New York city, July 13, 1890. 

French, William H., major-general, was born in Baltimore, Md., 
Jan. 13. 1815. He was graduated at the U. S. military academy in 
1837, served in the Florida war and on the Canadian frontier as 
second lieutenant of artillery, and in the Mexican war, where he 
was aide-de-camp to Gen. Franklin Pierce, and on the stafif of Gen. 
Patterson. He was engaged at the siege of Vera Cruz, the battles 
of Churubusco and Contreras, and the capture of the City of Mex- 



Biographical Sketches 9o 

ico, receiving the brevet of captain for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, 
and major for service at the capture of the Mexican capital, lie served 
against the Seminole Indians in Florida, 1850-52, and on frontier and 
garrison duty, and in 1861 was commissioned brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers and assigned to McClellan's army operating against Richmond. 
He was engaged at Yorktown, Fair Oaks, Oakgrove. Gaines" mill, 
Peach Orchard, Savage Station, Glendale and Malvern hill. He 
commanded a division in Sumner's corps during the Maryland cam- 
paign at the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg, and was soon 
afterward appointed major-general of volunteers. He was given 
command of the gth army corps in July, 1863, commanded it in the 
operations at Mine run from Nov., 1863, to May, 1864, and was 
honorably mustered out of the volunteer service May 6, 1864. Hav- 
ing received the intervening brevets, he was brevetted brigadier- 
general and major-general U. S. A. for services in the war, March 
13, 1865. Gen. French subsequently served on the Pacific coast, 1865- 
72, and commanded Fort McHenry, Baltimore, until July i, iSSo. 
when he was retired at his own request. He died in Baltimore, Md., 
May 20, 1881. 

Fry, James B., brigadier-general, was born in CarroUton, Greene 
county. 111., Feb. 22, 1827, was graduated at West Point in 1847 and 
assigned to the 3d artillery. In the same year he joined the army 
of Gen. Scott in the City of Mexico, and the next year, with a 
detachment of artillery, made the voyage around Cape Horn to take 
military possession of Oregon. He was subsequently on frontier 
and garrison duty, assistant to Maj. George H. Thomas at the mili- 
tary academy, and adjutant of the academy under Col. R. E. Lee. 
Being promoted captain and made assistant adjutant-general, March 
16. 1861, he was chief of staff to Gen. Irwin McDowell in that year, 
serving in the first battle of Bull Run, was afterwards chief of staff 
to Gen. Don Carlos Buell, 1861-62, and took part in the battles of 
Shiloh and Corinth, the movement to Louisville, Ky., and the pur- 
suit of Gen. Bragg. He was made provost-marshal-general of the 
United States on March 17, 1863, given the full rank of brigadier- 
general April 21. 1864, and was successively brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel, colonel, brigadier-general and major-general in the regular 
army for "faithful, meritorious and distinguished services during 
the war." Before the abolition of the office of provost-marshal- 
general, Aug. 30, 1866, Gen. Fry put in the army 1,120,621 men, ar- 
rested 76,562 deserters, collected $26,366,316.78, and made an exact 
enrolment of the national forces. Gen. Fry was subsequently suc- 
cessively adjutant-general of the Departments of the Pacific, the 
South, the Missouri and the Atlantic, and was placed on the retired 
list June i, 1881. He died at Newport, R. I., July 11, 1894. 

Fvy, Speed S., brigadier-general, was born in l\Tercer county, 
now Boyle county, Ky.. Sept. 9, 1817. He began his college educa- 
tion at Centre college, but finished at Wabash, where he was grad- 
uated in 1840, studied law, and in 1843 was admitted to the bar. He 
organized a company for the 2nd Ky. volunteers in 1846, command- 
ed it during the Mexican war, and on his return to Kentucky re- 
sumed his law practice and was, from 1857 to i86r, county judge of 
Boyle county. At the beginning of the Civil war ,he organized the 
4th Ky. infantry, became its colonel Oct. 9, 1861, and served through- 
out the war, being mustered out of the service Aug. 24. 1S65. He 
was brigadier-general of volunteers from March 2t, 1862. After 
the war, from 1869-72, Gen. Fry was supervisor of internal revenue 
in Kentucky. He died in Louisville. Ky., Aug. r, 1892. 



94 The Union Army 

Fuller, John W., brigadier-general, was born in Cambridge, Eng- 
land, July 28, 1827, and came to New York with his father, a Bap- 
tist clergyman, in 1833. He became a bookseller, first in Utica, 
N. Y., and afterwards in Toledo, Ohio, and in May, 1861, was ap- 
pointed assistant adjutant-general of Ohio. He was elected colonel 
of the 27th Ohio volunteer regiment upon its organization, and in 
Feb., 1862, joined the army of Gen. John Pope in his operations 
on the Mississippi river, being present at the capture of New Ma- 
drid and Island No. 10 in the spring of that year. He commanded 
a brigade at luka, Sept. 19, 1862, and at Corinth in October checked 
the Confederate charge and broke their line, winning for himself 
and brigade the thanks of Gen. Rosecrans. He defeated Forrest's 
cavalry in December, at Parker's cross-roads, commanded Mem- 
phis until Oct., 1863, when he accompanied Gen. Sherman's army to 
Chattanooga, and in March. 1864, captured Decatur. As comman- 
der of a brigade in the Atlanta campaign he rendered brilliant 
service at the Chattahoochee river on July 21, while at Atlanta his 
division opened the battle and won the approbation of Gen. Mc- 
Pherson. He fought Hood at Snake Creek gap and commanded 
the 1st division of the 17th corps in the march to the sea and 
through the Carolinas, being present at the surrender of Gen. 
Johnston. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 
13, 1865, and resigned on Aug. 15. Gen. Fuller was appointed col- 
lector of the port of Toledo. Ohio, in 1874. by President Grant, 
and held the office by reappointment by President Hayes until 
1881. He died in Toledo. Ohio, March 12, 1891. 

Gamble, William, brigadier-general, was born in Ireland about 
1819. came to America when twenty years old, and enlisted in the 
1st U. S. dragoons, serving in the Florida war and being promoted 
sergeant and sergeant-major. He was honorably discharged from 
the army in 1843 and moved to Chicago. 111., where he was a civil 
engineer until the outbreak of the Civil war. He became lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the 8th 111. cavalry, Sept. 18, 1861, was promoted 
colonel Dec. 5, 1862, and was mustered out July 17, 1865. He was 
brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, Dec. 14, 1864, and, en- 
listing again after his first discharge, was given the full rank of 
brigadier-general of volunteers Sept. 25, 1865. Gen. Gamble was 
engaged in the battles of the Peninsula, proving himself a fearless 
and capable officer, and was severelj^ wounded in the breast while 
leading a charge at Malvern hill, Aug. 5, 1862. Gen. Gamble died 
Dec. 20, 1866. 

Garfield, James A., major-general, was born in a one-room log 
house in Orange township. Cuyahoga county, Ohio, Nov. 19, 1831. 
His father's death occurring when Garfield was onh^ two years 
old, the boy spent his youth in alternate periods of study and hard 
manual labor on the farm. Obtaining monej'^ for his higher edu- 
cation by teaching school, he attended Geauga seminary at Ches- 
ter. Ohio, and the Western Reserve eclectic institute (now Hiram 
college) at Hiram, Ohio, entered Williams college, Mass., in 1854, 
and was graduated with distinguished honor in 1856. He was also, 
before entering college, a preacher in the Disciples church, though 
never ordained to preach. He was for a time instructor in an- 
cient languages and literature in the Western Reserve eclectic in- 
stitute, was its president from 1857-61 and studied law at Hiram, 
although he entered his name as a law student with a firm of 
lawyers in Cleveland. He joined the new Republican party and 
spoke for Fremont and Dayton in 1856, and was from 1860-62 



Biographical Sketches 95 

member of the Ohio legislature. At the outbreak of the Civil war 
he gave up the practice of law, which he had but just begun, and 
in Aug., 1861, was commissioned by Gov. Dennison lieutenant-colonel 
of the 42nd Ohio volunteers, a regiment which Garfield had en- 
listed at Hiram from the alumni of the institution. Col. Garfield 
brought his regiment to a state of discipline, was elected its colonel 
and led it to the front in December, reporting to Gen. Bucll at 
Louisville, Ky. He was at once assigned by Gen. Buell to com- 
mand a brigade of 2,500 men, and was commissioned to drive Gen. 
Humphrey Marshall from the state. In this he had to attack, in a 
region where a majority of the people were hostile, a general with 
a force twice outnumbering his own and strongly entrenched in a 
mountainous country. Garfield concentrated his force, confused 
Marshall by sudden, rapid moves, and b}' false information skilfully 
prepared for him, so that the Confederate general abandoned his 
large store of supplies at Paintville and allowed himself to be 
caught in retreat by Garfield, who charged the full force of the 
enemy and maintained a hand-to-hand fight with it for five hours. 
He was then reinforced by Gens. Granger and Sheldon, and Mar- 
shall was forced to give way, leaving Col. Garfield victor at Middle 
creek, Jan. 10, 1862, one of the most important of the minor bat- 
tles of the war. In recognition of these services President Lincoln 
made him brigadier-general, dating his commission from the bat- 
tle of Middle creek. He was assigned to the command of the 20th 
brigade and ordered to join Gen. Grant, who was opposing Gen. 
A. S. Johnston. Reaching the battle-field of Shiloh on the second 
day of the fight, April 7, 1862, he aided in repulsing the enemy and 
then joined Gen. Sherman in his attack on the rear guard of the 
Confederate army. After rebuilding the bridges on the Memphis 
& Charleston railroad, and repairing the fortifications at Harts- 
ville, Tenn., Gen. Garfield was forced to return home on sick leave, 
July 30, 1862. He remained at Hiram until Sept. 25, when he was 
ordered on court-martial duty at Washington, where he so dis- 
played his ability that on Nov. 25 he was assigned to the case of 
Gen. Fitz-John Porter. Returning to the Army of the Cumberland 
in Feb., 1863, he was made chief-of-staflf to Gen. Rosecrans, and 
so won that general's confidence and respect that when, on June 
24, every one of the seventeen general ol^cers except Garfield ad- 
vised against an advance, Rosecrans disregarded their opinions and 
ordered the advance. Gen. Garfield wrote out all the orders for the 
battle of Chickamauga except the fatal one which lost the day, 
and, after the defeat of the right of the army, carried the news of 
the defeat, though exposed to constant fire, to Gen. Thomas on the 
extreme left, thus enabling that general to save the Army of the 
Cumberland. For this action Garfield won promotion to the rank 
of major-general of volunteers, Sept. 19. 1863, which rank was con- 
ferred upon him "for gallantrj^ on a field that was lost." He then 
declined command of a division urged upon him by Gen. Thomas 
and, at the urgent request of President Lincoln, gave up ambitions 
for a military career and took his seat in Congress, Dec. 7. 1863, to 
which he had been elected in Oct., 1862. serving until the end of the 
war as a member of the military committee, and winning respect as 
an expert, experienced and careful authority on military affairs. 
While on the military committee he opposed the bill that increased 
bounty paid for raw recruits, favored the draft and favored liberal 
bounties to veterans who re-enlisted. Gen. Garfield's career from 
this point, although always illustrious, is not concerned with the 



96 The Union Army 

history of the Union army and will be but briefly sketched. He 
continued to sit in Congress, term after term, until 1880, being one 
of the leaders of his party, for several terms its candidate for speak- 
er when the party was in the minority, taking particular interest in 
bills relating to the currency, and on Jan. 13, 1880, was chosen 
United States senator from Ohio. At the Republican national con- 
vention, held in Chicago ni 1880, Garfield supported John Sherman 
of Ohio against Grant, Blaine and others. Although not himself a 
candidate at first, he so won the admiration of the delegates from 
all sections that, after thirty ballots had been cast without a choice, 
he was elected on the thirty-sixth ballot. He took the stump in 
his own behalf and was elected in November, receiving the elec- 
toral votes of all but three of the northern states. President Gar- 
field, early in his administration, incurred the enmity of Senator 
Conkling of New York — who had secured New York to the Repub- 
lican column — by nominating W. H. Robertson for collector of the 
port of New York in direct opposition to the senators from that 
state. Both Senators Conkling and Piatt resigned their seats in 
the senate and failed at re-election, and the senate confirmed the 
president's nomination. President Garfield was shot by Charles 
Jules Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker, in the station of the 
Baltimore & Potomac railroad, July 2, 1881, while on his way to 
attend the commencement exercises at Williams college. The presi- 
dent lingered between life and death at the White House, and sub- 
sequently at Elberon, N. J., and died at Elberon, Sept. 19, 1881. He 
was buried at Cleveland, Ohio, and over the spot where his re- 
mains lie an imposing monument was erected by popular subscrip- 
tion at a cost of over $155,000. 

Garrard, Kenner, brigadier-general, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
in 1830. He was graduated at West Point in 1851 and was serving 
in Texas as captain of dragoons in 1861, when he was captured by 
Confederate forces. He was paroled but not exchanged until Aug. 
27, 1862, and in the meantime served as instructor and commandant 
of cadets at West Point. He was commissioned colonel of the 
146th N. Y. volunteers, in Sept., 1862, took part in the Rappahan- 
nock and Pennsylvania campaigns, was promoted brigadier-general 
July 23, 1863, and took part at Rappahannock station and in the 
Mine run operations. In 1864 he was transferred to the Army of 
the Cumberland as commander of a cavalry division, and participat- 
ed in the operations around Chattanooga and the invasion of Geor- 
gia, being engaged constantly in detached operations. For services 
in the operation to Covington, Ga., he was brevetted colonel U. S. A., 
and from Dec. 1864, until the end of hostilities he commanded the 
2nd division of the i6th army corps, winning the brevets of major- 
general of volunteers and brigadier-general in the regular army 
for services at Nashville. He participated in the operations against 
Mobile, led in the capture of Fort Blakely, Ala., and commanded the 
district of Mobile until mustered out of the volunteer service Aug. 
24. 1865. He was brevetted major-general U. S. A., March 13, 1865, 
for gallant and meritorious service in the field during the war. Gen. 
Garrard resigned his commission in the regular army Nov. 9, 1866, 
and died in Cincinnati. Ohio, May 15, 1879. 

Garrard, Theophilus T., brigadier-general, was born in Man- 
chester, Ky., June 7, 1812. He was a member of the lower house 
of the Kentucky legislature in 1843-44, and served through the 
Mexican war as captain in the i6th U. S. infantry. He went to 
California by the overland route, upon the discovery of gold in 





Brig.-Gen. J. VV. Forsyth 
Maj.-Gen. W. B. Franklin 
Hrig.-Cen. J. B. Fry 
Brig.-Gen. William 
Gamble 



Maj.-Gen. J. G. Foster 
Maj.-Gen. J. C. Fremont 
Brig.-Gen. S. S. Fry 
Maj.-Gen. J. A. Garfield 



Brig.-Gen. R. S. Foster 
Maj.-Gen. W. H. French 
Brig.-Gen. J. VV. Fuller 
Brig.-Gen. Kennek Garrard 



Biographical Sketches 97 

that state in 1849, remained a year and then returned to Kentucky 
by way of Panama. He was elected to the state senate in 1857, re- 
signed to become a candidate for Congress, and was again elected 
state senator in 1861. When the Civil war broke out he actively 
espoused the Union side and was appointed colonel of a Kentucky 
infantry regiment, Sept. 22, 1861. He was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, and served with distinction 
until April 4, 1864, when he was honorably mustered out, having 
been incapacitated for further service by a severe affliction of the 
eyes. After the war he took up his residence in Clay county, Ky. 
Gen. Garrard died March 15, 1902. 

Geary, John W., brigadier-general, was born in Mount Pleas- 
ant, Westmoreland county, Pa.. Dec. 30, 1819. He entered Jeflfer- 
son college but was compelled to leave before graduation on ac- 
count of his father's sudden death and loss of property, then taught 
school and was a civil engineer at the time of the outbreak of the 
Mexican war. He organized the "American Highlanders," and as 
lieutenant-colonel of the 2nd Penn. volunteer infantry joined Gen. 
Scott at Vera Cruz and commanded the regiment at Chapultepec, 
where he was twice wounded, and at Belen Gate the same day. His 
service won the approbation of the commanding general and he 
was made the first commander of the city and promoted colonel of 
his regiment. At the close of the war he went to California, was 
made first postmaster of San Francisco, and was authorized by 
President Polk to establish the postal service throughout Califor- 
nia. He was elected by the people alcalde and first mayor of San 
Francisco, and also judge of the first instance. He was a delegate 
to the state constitutional convention, where he was instrumental 
in securing the organization of California as a free state, and upon 
his return to Pennsylvania he retired for several years from pub- 
lic life to his farm in Westmoreland county. He was appointed by 
President Pierce governor of Kansas in 1856, but resigned the next 
year upon failing to secure the state a free state constitution. Upon 
the outbreak of the Civil war he organized, in April, 1861, a regi- 
ment of 1,500 men and reported for duty to Gen. Banks at Har- 
per's Ferry, Va. He commanded in several engagements, distin- 
guished himself and was wounded at Bolivar Heights, captured 
Leesburg, Va., March 8, 1862, and was made brigadier-general 
April 25. He was twice wounded at the battle of Cedar mountain, 
and on recovery was placed in command of the 2nd division of the 
I2th army corps, which he led in the battles of Chancellorsville 
and Gettysburg. He was subsequently transferred to the Army 
of the Cumberland, in Gen. Hooker's command, and distinguished 
himself at the battles of Wauhatchie and Lookout mountain. In 
Sherman's march to the sea he commanded the 2nd division of the 
20th army corps, was the first to enter Savannah after its evacua- 
tion. Dec. 22, 1864, and for his conduct at the capture of Fort Jack- 
son and gallantry at Savannah, he was appointed military governor 
of the city. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Jan. 
12, 1865, "for fitness to command and promptness to execute." Upon 
returning to Pennsylvania in 1866, Gen. Geary was elected gov- 
ernor, and in 1869 he was re-elected. His administration was emi- 
nently successful, and, after his death, which ocdurred eighteen 
days after the expiration of his second term, the legislature erect- 
ed a monument to his memory. Gen. Geary died in Hamburg, Pa., 
Feb. 8, 1873. 

Getty, George W., brigadier-general, was born in Georgetown, 
Vol. VIII— 7 



98 The Union Army 

D. C, Oct. 2, 1819. He was graduated at West Point in 1840, 
doing garrison duty at various posts, was promoted ist lieutenant 
Oct. 31, 1845, and served in the Mexican war, being present at Con- 
treras and Churubusco, for which service he was brevetted cap- 
tain, April 20, 1847, and at Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and the 
taking of the City of Mexico. He served in the Seminole wars of 
1849-50, and 1856-57, was promoted captain in 1853, and was in 
Kansas during the troubles incidental to the organization of a 
state government, 1857-58. He was made aide-de-camp with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel, Sept. 28, 1861, commanded the artillery 
in the engagements near Budd's ferry in November and December 
of that year, and in the Peninsular campaign of 1862 commanded 
four batteries at Yorktown, Gaines' mill and Malvern hill. He 
engaged also at South mountain and Antietam, was promoted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, Sept. 25, 1862, and took part in the 
Rappahannock campaign of 1862-63, being engaged at Fredericks- 
burg and in the defense of Suffolk, from April 11 to May 3, re- 
ceiving the rank of lieutenant-colonel U. S. A. April 19, 1863, for 
his services. He was brevetted colonel May 5. 1864, for gallan- 
try at the battle of the Wilderness, where he was severely wound- 
ed, served in the defense of Washington in July, 1864, was brevet- 
ted brigadier-general for services in the battle of Petersburg, and 
on the same day, March 13, 1865, was given the brevet rank of 
major-general U. S. A., for services in the field during the war. 
He was also given the brevet rank of major-general of volunteers, 
Aug. I, 1864, for services at the battles of Fisher's hill and Win- 
chester. After the war he became colonel of the 37th infantry, 
July 23, 1866, and commanded various districts and posts until 
Oct. 2, 1883, when he was retired from active service. Gen. Getty 
died Oct. 1, 1901. 

Gibbon, John, major-general, was born near Holmesburg. Pa., 
April 20, 1827, and was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1847. In the Mexican war he served as 2nd lieuten- 
ant of artillery at the City of Mexico and at Toluca, and was then 
on frontier and garrison duty, served in the Seminole war, was 
instructor at West Point, 1854-57, and quartermaster, 1856-59. He 
was made chief of artillery in Gen. McDowell's division, Oct. 29, 

1861, and brigadier-general of volunteers. May 2, 1862. He com- 
manded a brigade through the Northern Virginia, Maryland, Rap- 
pahannock, and Pennsylvania campaigns of 1862-63, was brevetted 
major in the regular army, Sept. 17, 1862, for gallant and meritori- 
ous services in the battle of Antietam; lieutenant-colonel, Dec. 13, 

1862, for Fredericksburg, where he was so severely wounded as 
to be disabled for service for three months, and colonel. July 4, 

1863, for services at Gettysburg, where he was severely wounded 
while in command of the 2nd corps and disabled for four months. 
When he was able to return to service he was in command of the 
draft depot in Philadelphia until March 21, 1864, when he was as- 
signed to a division in the 2nd corps, becoming major-general of 
volunteers, June 7, 1864, and being engaged at the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania and Cold Harbor. He commanded the 24th army- 
corps after Jan. 15, 1865, and was before Petersburg from June, 

1864, to April, 1865, taking part in the assaults of the last two 
days and carrying two redoubts. He was brevetted brigadier-gen- 
eral and major-general U. S. A., Alarch 13, 1865, and was one of 
the commissioners to carry into effect the stipulations of Lee's 
surrender. He was mustered out of the volunteer service, Jan. 



Biographical Sketches 99 

15, 1866. After the war Gen. Gibbon commanded various posts as 
colonel, first of the 36th and then of the 7th infantry, commanded 
the Yellowstone expedition against Sitting Bull in 1876, fought 
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perces at Big Hole pass in 1877, where 
he was wounded, commanded the Department of the Columbia, 
1885, and then, until his retirement, April 20, 1891, the Department 
of the Pacific. He was promoted brigadier-general U. S. A., July 
10, 1885. Gen. Gibbon died in Baltimore, Md., Feb. 6, 1896. 

Gibbs, Alfred, brigadier-general, was born in New York April 22, 
1823. He was graduated at West Point in 1846 and served in the 
Mexican war, winning the brevet of ist lieutenant for gallantry at 
Cerro Gordo and captain for services at Garita de Belen, City of 
Mexico, engaging also at Vera Cruz, Contreras, Churubusco, and 
Chapultepec. After the war he was assigned to the staff of Gen. 
Persifal F. Smith, with whom he served in Mexico, Texas and Cali- 
fornia, was promoted ist lieutenant. May 31, 1853, and served on the 
frontier until the Civil war, engaging in several Indian expeditions 
and serving in New Mexico, 1860-61. He was promoted captain, 
May 13, 1861, was subsequently taken prisoner by the Confederates, 
at San Augustine springs, N. M., and paroled until exchanged, Aug, 
27, 1862. He became colonel of the 130th N. Y. regiment Sept. 6, 
was engaged in the operations about Suffolk until June, 1863, and 
in July and August of that year reorganized his regiment as the ist 
N. Y. dragoons. He commanded a cavalry brigade, 1864-65, serv- 
ing under Sheridan in several raids, was brevetted major, June 11, 
1864, for services at Trevilian Station, Va., lieutenant-colonel for 
gallantry at Winchester, Va., and on Oct. 19, 1864, was appointed 
brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded a cavalry brigade 
in the final attack and pursuit of the army of Northern Virginia 
in March and April, 1865, was present at the surrender of Lee, and 
commanded a cavalry division in the department of the Gulf, 1865- 
66. On March 13, 1865, he received all the brevets up to and includ- 
ing major-general in the regular army, for services during the war. 
He was mustered out of the volunteer service, Feb. i, 1866, became 
major of the 7th cavalry in July, and served in various forts in Kan- 
sas until his death, which occurred at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., Dec. 
26, 1868. 

Gilbert, Charles C, brigadier-general, was born in Zanesville, 
Ohio, March i, 1822, and was graduated at the United States mili- 
tary academy in 1846. He served in the war with Mexico at Vera 
Cruz, 1847-48, and in the occupation of the Mexican capital, 1848. 
He was "subsequently assistant professor at the military academy, 
1850-55, and was on the frontier in Texas and the Indian territory 
from then until the outbreak of the Civil war, being promoted in 
the meantime ist lieutenant and captain. He served in the south- 
west during the Civil war, was wounded at Wilson's creek, Aug. 10, 
1861; was appointed inspector-general of the Department of the 
Cumberland, Sept. 20, 1861, and of the Army of the Ohio in the field, 
Aug. 25, 1862. He was brevetted major for action at Shiloh, April 
7, 1862; lieutenant-colonel for services at the battle of Richmond, 
Ky., Aug. 30, 1862, and was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Sept. 9, 1862, for gallant conduct at Springfield, Mo., and Shiloh, 
Tenn. He became acting major-general in command of the Army 
of Kentucky, was brevetted colonel in the regular army for gallan- 
try at Perryville on Oct. 8, 1862, and afterward, taking command of 
the loth division of the Army of the Ohio, guarded the Louisville 
& Nashville railroad through the winter, when he became assistant 



100 The Union Army 

to the provost-marshal at Louisville until July 2, 1863. He was then 
commissioned major in the 19th infantry and served at various forts 
until Sept. 21, 1866, when he was transferred to the 28th infantry. 
He was subsequently promoted lieutenant-colonel and colonel, and 
was retired, March i, 1886, by operation of law. Gen. Gilbert died 
Jan. 17, 1903. 

Gilbert, James J., brigadier-general, was born in Kentucky, about 
1824, and at the time of entering the National service, in the sum- 
mer of 1862, was in business in Lansing, Iowa. He was commis- 
sioned colonel of the 27th Iowa volunteers and served with his regi- 
ment without special distinction, and without seeing active service 
in battle, until the spring of 1864. when he joined Gen. A. J. Smith 
for the Red River campaign. His gallant conduct at Fort De Russy 
and throughout the whole campaign, and before Nashville nearly a 
year later, won him promotion to brigadier-general Feb. 9, 1865. 
On March 26, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers 
for faithful and meritorious service during the campaign against 
the city of Mobile and its defenses. Gen. Gilbert was honorably 
mustered out of the service, Aug. 24. 1865. He died Feb. 9, 1884. 

Gillem, Alvan C, major-general, was born in Jackson county, 
Tenn., July 29, 1830, was graduated at West Point in 1851 and saw 
active service against the Seminoles in 1851-52. He became a cap- 
tain. May 14, 1861, served as brigade quartermaster, was brevetted 
major for gallantry at Mill Springs, and was in command of the 
siege artillery and chief quartermaster of the Army of Ohio in the 
Tennessee campaign, 1861-62, being engaged at Shiloh and in the 
siege of Corinth. He was made colonel of the loth Tenn. volunteers, 
May 13, 1862, was provost-marshal of Nashville, commanded a bri- 
gade in the operations in Tennessee during the first half of the year 
1863, and afterward served as adjutant-general of the state of Ten- 
nessee, being promoted brigadier-general Aug. 17, 1863. He com- 
manded troops guarding the Nashville & Northwestern railroad 
from July, 1863, to Aug., 1864, then took command of the ex- 
pedition to eastern Tennessee, engaging in many combats and 
being brevetted colonel for bravery at Marion, Tenn. For bravery 
on the field of battle he received the brevet ranks up to and includ- 
ing major-general. U. S. A., receiving the highest brevet, April 12, 
1865, for the capture of Salisbury, N. C., which he took in an expe- 
dition to North Carolina, having previously commanded a cavalry 
expedition to East Tennessee. When the state government of Ten- 
nessee was organized in 1865, Gen. Gillem was vice-president of the 
convention and was chosen a member of the first legislature elected 
under the new constitution. He was promoted colonel in the regular 
army, July 28, 1866, commanded the District of Mississippi in 1867- 
68, served on the Texas frontier and in California, and in 1873 led 
the troops against the Modoc Indians at the Lava Beds. He died 
near Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 2, 1875. 

Gillmore, Quincy A., major-general, was born in Black River, Ohio, 
Feb. 28. 1825, was appointed cadet at the United States military acad- 
emy in 1845 and graduated at the head of his class in 1849. The inter- 
val between graduation and the opening of the Civil war he spent as 
engineer at Hampton Roads, instructor and subsequently treasurer and 
quartermaster at the academy, and in charge of the fortifications in 
New York harbor. He was promoted captain of engineers in Aug.. 
i86r, and as chief of engineers in the Port Royal expedition and after 
the capture of Hilton Head, S. C. rebuilt the forts and otherwise 
strengthened their position. Gen. Gillmore gained his greatest rep- 




Brig. -Gen. T. T. Garr.\rd 
Maj.-Gen. John Gibbon 
Brig.-Gen. T. J. Gilbert 
Brig.-Geii. G. H. Gorhon 



Iirig.(ieii. J. W. Ge.-\ry 
Brig.-Gen. .\lfki;i) Gibbs 
Maj.-Gen. .\. C. Gillem 
Brig.-Gen. W. .\. Gorm.\x 



Brig.-Gen. G. W. Getty 
Brig.-Gen. C. C. Gilbert 
Maj.-Gen. O. A. Gillmore 
Brig.-Gen. C. K. Grah.\m 



Biographical Sketches 101 

utation and recognition as a leading military engineer by reducing 
Fort Pulaski, defending the water approach to Savannah, a strong 
fortification built on a marshy island that was entirely surrounded 
by deep water. The reduction of this fort, while considered essen- 
tial to the success of the expedition, was regarded as impractica- 
ble by the ablest engineers of both armies. Capt. Gillmore, then 
acting brigadier-general, accomplished this by establishing iju Ty- 
bee island, a mile distant, eleven batteries of mortars and rifled 
guns, which, aimed and fired under his minute directions, so shat- 
tered the fort as to render it untenable. The bombardment was 
begun at 8 a. m., April lo, 1862, and lasted until 2 p. m. the fol- 
lowing day. For the exploit Capt. Gillmore was brevetted lieuten- 
ant-colonel U. S. A. lie was given important commands in Ken- 
tucky in Aug., 1862, defeated Gen. Pegram at Somerset in March, 
1863, for which he was given the brevet rank of colonel, and in 
June, 1863, he was given command of the Department of the South, 
comprising all territory occupied by Union troops on the coasts of 
South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. He was placed in command 
■ of the loth army corps in July, 1863, and commanded it in the oper- 
ations against Charleston, S. C. Here he again won distinction 
and was promoted by brevet to lieutenant-colonel, colonel, briga- 
dier-general and major-general in the regular army for the capture 
of Fort Wagner in July, 1863. For the part he took in the bombard- 
ment of Fort Sumter, capture of Fort Wagner and Battery Gregg, 
and for operations against Charleston, at long range, from the bat- 
tery known as the "Swamp Angel," he was also promoted major- 
general of volunteers and received the commendation of the com- 
mander-in-chief, who said of him, "His operations on Morris island 
constitute a new era in the science of engineering and gunnery." 
Being transferred in 1864 to the command of the loth corps in 
Virginia, he was engaged at the landing at Bermuda Hundred and 
the action at Swift creek, captured the line in front of Drewry's 
bluff and enabled Gen. Butler to withdraw his army to the intrench- 
ments at Bermuda Hundred. He commanded two divisions of the 
19th army corps in the defenses of Washington in July of the same 
year, and in 1865 was again ordered to the Department of the 
South, which he commanded until near the end of that year, when 
he resigned his commission in the regular army, and, returning 
to service in the engineer bureau in Washington, was made engi- 
neer-in-clw.ef of all fortifications on the Atlantic coast south of 
New York. He was promoted major U. S. A., in June, 1863; lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1874, and colonel, Feb. 20, 1883. He was president 
of the Mississippi river commission created by Congress in 1879, of 
the boards of engineers for the improvement of the Cape Fear river, 
N. C, and the Potomac river and flats, of several boards for impor- 
tant harbor improvements, and was one of the judges at the Cen- 
tennial exhibition of 1876. Gen. Gillmore's works on professional 
subjects are considered among the highest authorities in their class. 
He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., April 7. 1888. 

Gordon, George H., brigadier-general, was born in Charlestown, 
Mass., July 19. 1824, and was graduated at the United States mili- 
tary academy in 1846. In the Mexican war he took part in the 
siege of Vera Cruz, was wounded at Cerro Gordo and brevetted 
ist lieutenant for bravery there, and engaged also in the battles of 
Contreras and Chapultepec and the assault on and capture of the City 
of Mexico. On Dec. 21, 1847, he was attacked near San Juan bridge 
by two guerrillas, defended himself in a hand-to-hand fight and was 



102 The Union Army 

severely wounded. He was promoted ist lieutenant Jan. 8, 1848, 
was on sick leave for a year, then on duty at the cavalry school 
for practice at Carlisle, Pa., and subsequently was on frontier duty 
in Washington territory and on the coast survey, and in 1854 re- 
signed to study law at the Harvard law school, being admitted to 
the bar in 1857, and practicing then in Boston until the outbreak 
of the Civil war. He became colonel of the 2nd Mass. regiment, 
May 24, 1861, was military governor of Harper's Ferry, command- 
ed a brigade under Gen. Banks, and for his conduct in the retreat 
from Strasburg to Williamsport was made brigadier-general of 
volunteers, June 9. 1862. He engaged with his brigade at Cedar 
mountain, Groveton and Antietam, was then on guard duty at Har- 
per's Ferry, engaged in the operations under Gillmore against 
Charleston, 1863-64, and after that had command of the Department 
of Florida; kept open the communications with Little Rock, Ark., 
by the White river, and took part in the operations against Mobile. 
He was in command of the eastern district of the Department of 
Virginia in 1864-65, was brevetted major-general of volunteers April 
9, 1865, and at the close of the war returned to Boston, becoming 
collector of internal revenue in 1866. Gen. Gordon died at Framing- 
ham, Mass., Aug. 3o, 1886. 

Gorman, Willis A., brigadier-general, was born near Flemings- 
burg, Ky., Jan. 12, 1814. He studied law at the University of In- 
diana, in which he was graduated in 1835, practised his profession 
in Bloomington, was for several terms in the state senate, and at 
the outbreak of the war with Mexico, in 1846, was appointed major 
of Gen. Lane's regiment of Indiana volunteers. He was wounded 
at Buena Vista, was promoted colonel of the 4th Ind. volunteers 
in 1847, and in 1848 was civil and military governor of Pueblo. 
After the war he was representative in Congress from Indiana, 
1849-53, governor of Minnesota territory in 1853-57, delegate to 
the Minnesota state constitutional convention in 1857 and repre- 
sentative in the state legislature in 1858. He entered the Union 
army in 1861 as colonel of the ist Minn, regiment, was present at 
the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and on Sept. 7 was appointed 
brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded a brigade at the 
battles of Savage station. South mountain, Edwards' ferry and 
Antietam, and led a bayonet charge at Fair Oaks. He was at the 
head of the 2nd division, 2nd corps, until the reorganization of the 
army following McClellan's removal. He was mustered out of the 
service in 1864 and resumed his practice of law in St. Paul, being 
city attorney from 1869 until his death. May 20, 1876. 

Graham, Charles K., brigadier-general, was born in New York city, 
June 3, 1824. He became a midshipman in the United States navy in 1841, 
served actively in the Gulf during the Mexican war until 1848, when 
he resigned and became a civil engineer in New York city. Having be- 
come, in 1857, constructing engineer in the Brooklj-n navy yard, he of- 
fered his services, in 1861, together with those of about 400 men who 
had worked under him, the company becoming part of the Excelsior 
brigade in which Graham became major and subsequently colonel. He 
was actively engaged in the Army of the Potomac during the early part 
of the Civil war, and in Nov., 1862, was promoted brigadier-general. He 
fought in the battle of Gettysburg, was severely wounded there and taken 
prisoner, and, after his release, was assigned to command a gun-boat flo- 
tilla under Gen. Butler. He was the first to carry the national colors up 
the James river, took part in the attack on Fort Fisher, and then re- 
mained on duty at different points until the close of the war. He was 




Biographical Sketches 103 

brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, for gallant and 
meritorious service during the war. Gen. Graham returned to the prac- 
tice of engineering in New York city after the war, was chief engineer 
of the New York dock department, 1873-75, surveyor of the port, 1878-83, 
and naval officer, 1883-85. He died in Lakewood, N. J., April 15, 1889. 

Graham, Lawrence P., brigadier-general, was born in Amelia countj% 
Va., Jan. 8, 1815. He was appointed 2nd lieutenant in the 2nd dragoons 
in 1837, was subsequently promoted ist lieutenant and captain, and on 
June 14, 1858, major. He was made lieutenant-colonel of the 5th cav- 
alry in Oct., 1861, colonel of the 4th cavalry, May 9, 1864, and was pro- 
moted brigadier-general U. S. A. by brevet March 13, 1865, for meritori- 
ous services during the Civil war. He took an active part in the Semi- 
nole war in Florida from 1837 to 1842, being present at the battle of 
Lochahatchee, and in the Mexican war won the brevet of major for gal- 
lantry in the engagements of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. In Aug., 

1861, he was commissioned brigadier-general in the volunteer army, and 
in 1862 he raised and commanded a brigade of cavalry in the Army of the 
Potomac. He afterward acted as president of a general court-martial 
in St. Louis, and of a board for the examination of invalid officers at An- 
napolis. He was mustered out of the volunteer service Aug. 24, 1865. 
Gen. Graham was retired at his own request, Dec. 15, 1870, after more 
than thirty years of continuous service in the army. 

Granger, Gordon, major-general, was born in New York about 1822. 
He v^as graduated at the United States military academy in 1845 and took 
part in the principal battles of the Mexican war, being brevetted ist lieu- 
tenant and captain for bravery at Contreras and Churubusco and at the 
storming of Chapultepec. After the close of the war he served on western 
frontier service, and in 1861 was assigned to the staff of Gen. McClellan 
at Cincinnati. When the 2nd Mich, cavalry was formed he was made its 
colonel, Sept. 2, 1861, having previously served at Dug springs and Wil- 
son's creek, in August, and been brevetted major for gallantry at Wil- 
son's creek. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, March 26, 

1862, commanded the cavalry division in the army of Gen. Halleck in the 
siege of Corinth, became major-general of volunteers Sept. 17, 1862, and 
was placed in command of the Army of Kentucky. He repelled Forrest's 
raid into the interior of Tennessee in June, 1863, commanded a division 
in Gen. Rosecrans' army in the Tennessee campaign and distinguished 
himself at the battle of Chickamauga. Being soon afterward assigned to 
command the 4th army corps, he took a prominent part in the operations 
about Chcfttanooga and in the battle of Missionary ridge, Nov., 1863. On 
the reformation of the army he was granted a leave of absence, and, re- 
turning to the field in July, 1864, commanded a division at Fort Gaines, 
Ala., in August, and was commander of the 13th corps in the capture of 
Fort Morgan and throughout the operations which resulted in the fall of 
Mobile in the spring of 1865. He was promoted by brevet lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel for services at Chickamauga and Chattanooga ; brig- 
adier-general for gallantry in the capture of Mobile, and major-general 
U. S. A. for the capture of Fort Gaines and Fort Morgan. Gen. Granger 
was mustered out of the volunteer service Jan. 15, 1866, and at the time 
of his death was in command of the district of New Mexico, having been 
promoted colonel in the regular army July 28, 1866. He died in Santa 
Fe, N. M., Jan. 10, 1876. 

Granger, Robert S., brigadier-general, was born 'in Zanesville, Ohio, 
May 24, 1816, was graduated at the United States military academy in 
1839 and saw his first active service in the Seminole war in Florida, 
1840-42. He was subsequently for two years assistant instructor in tac- 
tics at West Point, and served in the Mexican war, winning promotion 



104 The Union Army 

to captain, Sept. 8, 1847. He afterwards served on the Texas frontier, 
and on April 2"], 1861, was captured by the Confederate commander on 
the Texas coast and paroled. While on parole he organized and prepared 
for the held a brigade at Mansfield, Ohio, and then, being exchanged in 
Aug., 1862, was commissioned in September brigadier-general of Ken- 
tucky troops. He engaged with Confederate troops at Shepherdsville, 
Lebanon Junction and Lawrenceburg, was for his action in the last named 
battle brevetted colonel in the regular army, and on Oct. 20, 1862, he was 
commissioned brigadier-general of U. S. volunteers. He commanded a 
division and, during 1863, the districts of Nashville and Middle Ten- 
nessee successively, and in the hrst part of 1864 prepared Nashville as a 
depot of supplies. He then commanded the District of Northern Ala- 
bama, and while there captured Gen. Philip D. Roddey's camp, drove 
Gen. Joseph Wheeler out of middle Tennessee and defended his district 
against the raid of Gen. Forrest, and Decatur, Ala., against the army of 
Gen. Hood. He was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army for 
these services and was awarded the brevet of major-general U. S. A. 
for services during the war. He commanded in northern Alabama dur- 
ing the occupation, in 1865, was promoted lieutenant-colonel U. S. A., 
on June 12 of that year ; colonel, Aug. 16, 1871, and was placed on the 
retired list, Jan. 16, 1873. Gen. Granger died in Washington, D. C., 
April 25, 1894. 

Grant, Lewis A., brigadier-general, was born in Bennington county, 
Vt., Jan. 17, 1829. He was educated at Townsend and Chester, Vt., prac- 
ticed law at Bellows Falls, Vt., and in 1861 organized the 5th regiment, 
Vermont volunteer infantry, of which he was commissioned major, Aug. 
15, 1861, lieutenant-colonel Sept. 25, 1861, and colonel Sept. 16, 1862. 
He took command of the "Old Vermont Brigade" in Feb., 1863, and con- 
tinued in command most of the time until the close of the war. The bri- 
gade was actively engaged in almost every important battle of the Army 
of the Potomac and with Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley, and is said 
to have lost more heavily in killed and wounded than any other brigade 
in the Federal service. Col. Grant was promoted brigadier-general of 
volunteers, April 2"], 1864, and brevetted major-general of volunteers Oct. 
19, 1864, for his services at the battle of Cedar creek, in which battle his di- 
vision saved the day by holding Early in check for an hour in the morning, 
while later in the day, after the arrival of Sheridan, it was on this di- 
vision that the line was formed from which the victorious charge of the 
afternoon was made. After the war Gen. Grant was one of the organ- 
izers and for several years was president of the New England Loan & 
Trust company. He was made assistant secretary of war by President 
Harrison, in April, 1890, and resigned in December, 1893. He was award- 
ed a Congressional medal of honor, in 1893, for having led his command 
at the battle of Salem Heights, Va.. May 3, 1863, over the enemy's works 
and captured three battle flags. 

Grant, Ulysses S., general, was born at Point Pleasant. Clermont 
county, Ohio. April 27, 1822. His grandfather was a soldier of the Revo- 
lution, bore arms at the battle of Lexington, and, when the war was 
ended, settled in western Pennsylvania. As a lad Ulysses assisted on the 
farm. He received the ordinary education of the frontier, going to 
school in winter, and at all other times working on the farm. In 1839, 
through the instrumentality of Thomas L. Hamer. member of Congress, 
he was appointed to a cadetship at West Point, entering at the age of 
seventeen. He was graduated in 1843. standing number twenty-one in a 
class of thirty-nine, slightly below the general average of the class. He 
was assigned to the infantry as brevet second lieutenant, and was sent 
to Jefferson barracks at St. Louis, Mo., where he remained until May, 









Rrig.-Gen. L. P. Graham 
Brig.-Gen. L. A. Grant 
Brig.-Gen. D. McM. Gregg 
Maj.-Gen. Charles Griffin 



Maj.-Gen. Gordon Granger 
Gen. U.S. Grant 
Brig.-Gen. W. Q. Gresham 
Brig.-Gen. S. G. Griffin 



Brig.-Gen. R. S. Granger 
Brig.-Gen. G. S. Greene 
Maj.-Gen. Benj. Grierson 
Brig.-Gen. Wm. Grose 



Biographical Sketches 105 

1844, was then sent to Louisiana, and in Sept., 1845, was commissioned 
second lieutenant. At the beginning of the Mexican war he joined the 
army of occupation under Gen. Zachary Taylor and saw a great deal of 
service, being in all the battles of the war in which any one man could 
be. He first saw blood shed at Palo Alto on May 8, 1846, at Monterey 
he showed bold and skillful horsemanship by running the gauntlet of the 
enemy's bullets to carry a message for "more ammunition." In the spring 
of 1847 he was made quartermaster of his regiment and placed in charge 
of the wagons and pack-train for the march. At Vera Cruz he served 
with his regiment during the siege, until the capture of the place, March 
29, 1847. At the battle of Molino del Rey, on Sept. 8 following, he was 
with the first troops that entered the place. Seeing some of the enemy on 
top of a building, he took a few men, climbed to the roof and forced 
the surrender of six Mexican officers, for which service he was brevetted 
first lieutenant. At the storming of Chapultepec he distinguished himself 
by conspicuous services and received the brevet of captain. For an es- 
pecially gallant exploit during the advance on the city of Mexico, he was 
summoned into the presence of Gen. Worth, specially complimented and 
promoted to a full first lieutenancy. Lieut. Grant remained with the army 
in Mexico until the withdrawal of the troops in 1848, then went with 
his regiment to Pascagoula, Miss., and at the close of the war was trans- 
ferred with his regiment to Detroit, Mich. On July 5, 1852, he sailed from 
New York with his regiment for California, via the Isthmus of Panama, 
going first to Benicia barracks, Cal., and thence to Fort Vancouver, Ore., 
a lonely outpost in the wilderness of the extreme Northwest. In July, 
1854, the year after he became captain, he resigned from the army and 
went to St. Louis, where he had married, in 1848, Julia T. Dent, a sister 
of one of his classmates at West Point. The next six years of his life 
were years of poverty, obscurity and failure. He tried his hand as a 
farmer but was not successful ; took up bill collecting, but this also re- 
sulted in failure; tried for the position of county engineer, but failed to 
get the place; tried auctioneering, and also made an experiment in the 
real estate business, but the result was the same in all his ventures. In 
the winter of 1859 lie was actually wandering about the streets of St. 
Louis seeking work, and even oflfering to become a teamster to accom- 
pany quartermaster's stores to New Mexico. He finally went to Galena, 
111., and became* a clerk at a nominal salary of $66 a month, in the store 
of his father and brother, who had a leather and saddlery business. Lin- 
coln's first call for troops was made on April 15, 1861, and the telegraph 
flashed the call throughout the country. That evening the Galena court 
house was packed with an excited crowd, and Grant, being known as a 
West Pointer, as well as a Mexican soldier, was called upon to preside. 
In four days he was drilling a company of volunteers, then oflfered himself 
to Gov. Yates of Illinois, and was given the charge of mustering regiments. 
His eleven years' service in the regular army brought him a commission 
as brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from May 17, 1861, and on 
May 24 he wrote to Adjt.-Gen. Thomas, commanding at Washington, D. C, 
tendering his services to the government, but the letter was carelessly 
filed away and temporarily lost. Gov. Yates then placed Grant in com- 
mand of the 2ist 111. volunteer infantry, and on July 3 he led it to Pal- 
myra, Mo., and from there to guard the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad. 
Subsequently he took command of the district of southeast Missouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on Sept. 6, took possession "of Paducah, Ky., 
on the Ohio near the mouth of the Tennessee, thus commanding a large 
region. Early in November he was ordered to make a demonstration in 
the direction of Belmont, a point on the west bank of the Mississippi, 
about eighteen miles below the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi, 



106 The Union Army 

the object being to prevent the crossing of hostile troops into Missouri. 
He received his orders Nov. 5; moved 3,100 men on transports on the 6th; 
landed at Belmont on the 7th, and broke up and destroyed the camp while 
under tire, with raw troops. When Gen. Halleck assumed command of 
the Department of the Missouri he placed Grant in command of the dis- 
trict of Cairo, which was enlarged so as to make one of the greatest in 
size in the country, including the southern part of Illinois, Kentucky west 
of the Cumberland, and the southern portion of Missouri. In Feb., 1862, 
Grant gained a reluctant consent to a well-matured plan that he had been 
cherishing for a month past, and started off with 15,000 men, aided by 
Com. Foote with a gunboat fleet, to capture Forts Henry and Donelson, 
the former commanding the Tennessee river, and the latter the Cumber- 
land, near the dividing line between Kentucky and Tennessee. The capit- 
ulation of both of these forts, as well as the other military achievements 
of Gen. Grant, are important parts of the main history of the Civil war, 
and are given appropriate mention on other pages of this work, but it may 
be said here that the boldness of the assault at F"ort Donelson, and the 
completeness of the victory, made Grant the hero of the people. The 
president nominated him to the senate as major-general of volunteers, to 
date from Feb. 16. 1862, the date of the surrender of Fort Donelson, and 
the senate immediately confirmed him. While this was going on Gen. 
Halleck, who never seemed to estimate Grant's work at its value, was 
writing to the war department that after his victory Grant had not com- 
municated with him, and the result of this complaint was that Grant was 
suspended from his command. Halleck's jealousy met with a rebuff, how- 
ever, and Grant was restored to his position and was soon on his way to 
other important and decisive victories. On March 17 he transferred his 
headquarters to Savannah, on the Tennessee river, and in the vicinity 
of Pittsburg landing. After the dearly-bought victory at Shiloh, Grant 
was named second in command of all the Federal troops congregated in 
that section, but especially intrusted with the right wing and reserve, and 
on April 30 the order was given to advance against Corinth. On June 21 
Grant moved his headquarters to Memphis, on July 11 Halleck was ap- 
pointed general-in-chief of all the armies and six days later set out for 
Washington, leaving Grant in command of the Army of the Tennessee, 
to which position he was officially promoted on Oct. 25. On Jan. 29, 1863, 
he arrived at Young's point above Vicksburg, and began in detail the work- 
ing out of well matured plans of his own, the ultimate object of which was 
the capture of the fortified city of Vicksburg, a supposed impregnable po- 
sition commanded by the Confederate Gen. Pemberton. The history of 
this campaign is the record in detail of one of the master strokes and bril- 
liant achievements of the Federal forces during the Civil war, but it is 
unnecessary to recount the different movements in this sketch. On May 
I he defeated a portion of Pemberton's force at Port Gibson; on May 12 
he routed a part of Johnston's army that was trying to join Pemberton; 
and then pushed on to Jackson, Miss., capturing that place on the 14th. 
Grant then turned about and moved rapidly toward Vicksburg, attacking 
Pemberton at Champion's hill, and from this onward the advance was 
steady and the fighting constant. And after an active campaign of eighty 
days, on the afternoon of July 4. 1863, the Federal troops marched in and 
took possession of the city, while Pemberton's troops marched out as 
paroled prisoners of war. Port Hudson soon surrendered to Banks, and 
the Mississippi was open for commerce through its entire length, or, as 
President Lincoln expressed it, "the mighty river ran unvexed to the sea." 
Grant was at once appointed a major-general in the regular army to date 
from July 4, 1863, a gold medal was given him by Congress, and on Oct. 
18 he was given command of the "Military District of the Mississippi," 



Biographical Sketches 107 

comprising the departments of the Tennessee, the Ohio, and the Cum- 
berland. He went at once to Chattanooga, took command in person, and 
five days later a three hours' battle was fought at Wauhatchie in Lookout 
valley, resulting in a Federal victory and the opening of a much-needed 
line of communication for supplies. Grant then ordered a concentration 
of forces near Chattanooga, and on Nov. 23, one month after his arrival, 
began the series of battles embracing Chattanooga, Orchard knob, Lookout 
mountain and Missionary ridge. On March i, 1864. Grant was nominated 
lieutenant-general, the grade having been revived by Congress, was con- 
firmed by the senate on March 2, and left Nashville, where he then was 
stationed, in obedience to an order calling him to Washington, March 4. 
His new commission was handed him by the president on the 9th, and 
he was given formal command of all the armies of the United States on 
the 17th. He established himself at Culpeper, Va., with the Army of the 
Potomac, and opened the final great campaign of the war, on May 4, 
when he crossed the Rapidan, and the 5th, 6th, and 7th witnessed the 
terrible scenes of the battle of the Wilderness between opposing forces 
aggregating 183,000 men. Then by strategic movements Grant endeav- 
ored to outwit Lee, and a long series of battles resulted. Spottsylvania, 
North Anna, Cold Harbor and Chickahominy followed, and by the time 
Grant had reached the James river he had lost, including the Wilderness 
fight, 70,000 of his troops. Then ensued the Richmond and Petersburg 
campaign, with the capture of those places as the desideratum, and through 
the summer, autumn, and following winter the campaign was "fought out 
on this line." On the morning of April 2, 1865, an assault was begun upon 
the lines around Petersburg, the city was evacuated the same night, and 
the Federal forces took possession on the morning of April 3. Then the 
retreat of the Confederates began, closely pursued by the Federal troops, 
and on April 9 the end came — the war was over — Lee surrendered to 
Grant at Appomattox Court House. Following the surrender Grant es- 
tablished his headquarters in the city of Washington. Wherever he went 
he was greeted with ovations ; honors were heaped upon him from every 
hand, and he was universally hailed as the country's deliverer. Congress, 
as a reward for his military valor, created for him the grade of general. 
He also obtained through Congress the entire control of affairs relating 
to the southerR states, and in Aug., 1867, was appointed by President 
Johnson secretary of war ad interim while Secretary Stanton was under 
suspension. Grant protested against this action, and much dissension, 
ensued, but he held the office until Jan. 4, 1868, when, the senate refusing 
to confirm the suspension of Stanton, Grant promptly retired, greatly to 
the president's annoyance. Grant grew daily in popularity with the peo- 
ple, and at the national convention of the Republican party, held at Chi- 
cago on May 20, 1868, he was nominated for the presidency on the first 
ballot. When the election occurred in November, out of 294 electoral 
votes cast for president, Grant received 214, and Seymour, the Democratic 
candidate, 80 — the former carrying twenty-six states against eight won 
by his rival — and on March 4, 1869, the victorious general took the oath 
as chief executive of the United States. During his first term of office 
occurred the Credit Mobilier scandal, in connection with the building of 
the Union Pacific railroad, but in all the investigations made in connec- 
tion with the matter, no stain ever rested on Grant. There came another 
scandal, the "Back-pay" affair, where certain laws regarding salaries 
had been passed, retroactive in their character, and near the close of his 
term a determined effort was made by his political enemies to encompass 
his defeat. The lamented Horace Greeley was placed against him in the 
presidential contest of 1872, but Grant carried thirty-one states and re- 
ceived the largest vote that had ever been given for any presidential can- 



108 The Union Army 

didate. His second administration was mainly important for the pas- 
sage of the "Resumption act" in Jan., 1875, and the detection and punish- 
ment of the ringleaders in tlie notorious "Whiskey ring," of which many 
were men of great personal influence, and with friends claiming to hold 
very important positions near the president himself. Shortly after the 
close of his second term, on May 17, 1877, he set sail from Philadelphia 
on a tour of the world, his first objective point being England. On May 28 
he arrived at Liverpool and there received the first of a grand series of 
ovations in foreign lands, which for two years and four months consti- 
tuted a triumphal tour never experienced by even a Roman or Oriental 
monarch, his welcome by every class of people, from royalty to peasants, 
being of the most heartfelt kind. He finally sailed from Yokohama for 
home on Sept. 3, 1879, and touched the American shore at San Francisco 
on Sept. 20. Then banquets and receptions met him everywhere, until he 
sought the retirement of his private home. In 1880 he visited Cuba and 
Mexico, after which he went with his family to his old home in Galena, 
111., but the popular feeling in his favor was such that a movement was 
started for his third nomination to the presidency of the United States. 
The convention gathered at Chicago, in June, 1880, and for thirty-six 
ballots the iron-clad vote for Grant was 306, with slight variations rang- 
ing between 302 and 313. After a long and exciting contest, the opposi- 
tion became united upon James A. Garfield and secured his nomination, 
thus defeating the third-term movement. The military and public life of 
Gen. Grant having ended, he invested his entire capital of accumulated 
money in a banking house in New York city, and in May, 1884, through 
a series of unblushing frauds the firm became bankrupt, and the man who 
had been able to conquer and subdue the greatest uprising in all history 
found himself completely swindled by the skillful manipulation of a single 
business partner. In 1884, at the age of sixty-two, Gen. Grant was at- 
tacked by a disease which proved to be cancer at the root of the tongue, 
and which ultimately caused his death. On March 4, 1885, Congress 
unanimously passed a bill creating him a general on the retired list, thus 
restoring him to his former rank with full pay; but he enjoyed this evi- 
dence of a nation's gratitude but a short time, for on July 21 an alarming 
relapse set in, and on Thursday morning, July 25, 1885, death released him 
from his suffering. In 1884 he began the preparation in two octavo vol- 
umes of "Personal Recollections," in which he told the story of his life 
down to the close of the Civil war, and he finished the proof-reading four 
days prior to his death. Gen. Grant was buried at New York city, and 
the public funeral, which occurred Aug. 8, 1885, was the most impressive 
spectacle of the kind ever witnessed in the United States. 

Greene, George S., brigadier-general, was born in .Apponaug, War- 
wick, R. I., May 6, 1801. He was graduated at the United States mili- 
tary academy in 1823, second in his class, served in various garrisons and 
as instructor at West Point until 1836, when he resigned and became a 
civil engineer, building many railroads in the states of Maine, Massachu- 
setts, Rhode Island, New York, Maryland and Virginia. He served in 
the Crotan aqueduct department in the city of New York, and designed 
and built the reservoir in Central park and the enlargement of High 
bridge. He entered the army in Jan., 1862. as colonel of the 60th N. Y. 
regiment, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, April 28, 
1862, commanded his brigade at Cedar mountain, and commanded the 
2nd division of the 12th corps at the battle of .\iitietam. He also led a 
brigade at the battle of Chancellorsville, and at Gettysburg, on the night 
of July 2, 1863, he held with his brigade the right wing of the .Army of 
the Potomac at Gulp's hill against the onslaught of more than a division 
of Confederate troops, thus saving the position of the wing. He was 



Biographical Sketches 109 

transferred to the western armies in Sept., 1863, and in a night engage- 
ment at Wauhatchie, near Chattanooga, Oct. 28, 1863, was dangerously 
wounded in the jaw. Returning to active service in Jan., 1865, he re- 
joined the army at New Berne, N. C, took part in the battle of Kin.ston, 
where he had a horse shot under him, commanded a brigade at Golds- 
boro, and in Slocum's corps in the march to Washington, D. C, where 
the army was disbanded. He was brevetted major-general in the volun- 
teer army for his services, March 13, 1865. He died at Morristown, N. J., 
Jan. 28, 1899. 

Gregg, David McM. (see vol. I, pa:,e 311). 

Gresham, Walter Q., brigadier-general, was born in Lanesville, Har- 
rison county, Ind., March 17, 1833. He was educated at Corydon seminary 
and the University of Indiana, studied law in the office of Judge William 
A. Porter, and was admitted to the bar in 1854, entering a partnership 
with Judge Thomas C. Slaughter. He canvassed the state in that year in 
the interest of his partner, who was candidate for Congress on the anti- 
Nebraska bill ticket, canvassed the state in 1856 for John C. Fremont, and 
in i860 was elected to the state legislature, where he was chairman of the 
military committee. At the beginning of the Civil war he offered his 
services to the government, and, on being refused a commission, organ- 
ized a company at Corydon, of which he was chosen captain, becoming 
later lieutenant-colonel of the 38th Ind. volunteers. He was promoted 
colonel of the 53d regiment in December, and was present at Shiloh, the 
siege of Corinth, and the siege of Vicksburg, and then, on recommenda- 
tion of Gen. Grant, he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Aug. IT, 1863. Being then assigned to Sherman's army, he commanded 
the 4th division of the ijth corps at Atlanta, and for gallantry at Atlanta 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865. He was shot 
in th.j knc? in the engagement at Bald hill, Ga., July 22, 1864 and his 
wound incapacitated him for further active service. After the war Gen. 
Gresham attained prominence as a politician and statesman. He was an 
unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1864 and 1866. was financial agent 
at New York for the state of Indiana, 1867-68, and from 1869-82 United 
States district judge for Indiana under appointment from President 
Grant. He was., then postmaster-general under President Arthur, for 
three months secretary of the treasury after the death of Secretary Fol- 
ger, and then United States judge for the Seventh judicial district until 
1893, when he resigned to accept the portfolio of state in President Cleve- 
land's cabinet. This office he held at the time of his death, which oc- 
curred in Washington. D. C, May 28, 1895. 

Grierson, Benjamin H. (see vol. Ill, page 209). 

Griffin, Charles, major-general, was born in Licking county, Ohio, in 
1826. and was graduated at the United States military academy in 184^. 
In the Mexican war he commanded a company under Gen. Patterson in 
the campaign from Vera Cruz to Puebla, and after the war served against 
the Navajo Indians, on general frontier service, and then as instructor 
in artillery practice at West Point, until 1861, having been promoted ist 
lieutenant in 1849. He commanded the "West Point Battery" in the 
first battle of Bull Run, was commissioned brigadier-general of volun- 
teers June 9, 1862, and served with McClellan's army, distinguishing him- 
self for action at Gaines' mill ; commanded the artillery at Malvern hill, 
where he supported his brigade against the assault of Gen. Magruder, and 
contributed largely to the success of the day. He was ordered to support 
Pope at Manassas and after the battle was arrested on charge of re- 
fraining from taking part in the action and "spending the day in making 
ill-natured strictures upon the commanding general." He was tried and 
acquitted and was promoted to command a division, which he led at 



110 The Union Army 

Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chanccllorsville, Gettysburg, and in all the 
engagements from the Wilderness to Five Forks. He commanded the 
5th army corps at Appomattox, and, by direction of Gen. Grant, received 
the arms and colors of the Army of Northern Virginia after the surren- 
der. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Aug. i, 1864; col- 
onel in the regular army, .'\ug. 18, 1864, and brigadier-general and major- 
general U. S. A. May 13, 1865. He was promoted colonel of the 35th 
infantry, July 28, 1866, commanded the District of Maine in 1865-66, the 
Department of Texas with headquarters at Galveston, 1866-67, and after 
the removal of Gen. Sheridan, the Department of the Gulf. When or- 
dered to transfer his headquarters to New Orleans from Galveston, as 
the yellow fever was epidemic in the latter city, he refused to obey, 
replying to the order that "to leave Galveston at such a time was like 
deserting one's post in time of battle." He died of yellow fever at Gal- 
veston, Tex., Sept. 15, 1867. 

Griffin, Simon G., brigadier-general, was born in Nelson, N. H., Aug. 
9, 1824. He was educated at Roxbury, N. H., taught school, represented 
his native town in the state legislature, 1859-60, studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and in i860 began to practice in Concord. Being com- 
missioned captain in the 2nd N. H. volunteers at the beginning of the 
Civil war, he fought at Bull Run, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
of the 6th N. H. regiment in the fall of 1861, commanded his regiment 
in Burnside's expedition to North Carolina in Jan., 1862, and on April 
22 was promoted colonel. He distinguished himself in April by capturing, 
with 600 men and the aid of five gun-boats, a number of prisoners and 
stands of arms at Elizabeth City, N. C., and again at Camden, where his 
regiment fought with such notable gallantry that it was permitted to in- 
scribe "Camden, April 19, 1862," upon its colors. He commanded a bri- 
gade at second Bull Run, Chantilly and South mountain, and at Antietam 
he charged the stone bridge and carried it in the face of a heavy fire. 
He was present at Fredericksburg, where his regiment lost one-third its 
number, and in May, 1863, was given permanent command of the ist bri- 
gade, 2nd division, 9th army corps, and with it joined Sherman in the 
defense of the rear of Grant's army before Vicksburg. He then joined 
Burnside at Knoxville, commanded Camp Nelson, Ky., where he was at 
the head of 9,000 troops, and in 1864 joined the Army of the Potomac on 
the Rapidan, commanding his brigade in the battles of the Wilderness 
and Spottsylvania Court House, and so distinguishing himself in the last 
named battle that on Gen. Grant's recommendation he was promoted 
brigadier-general. Gen. Griffin commanded a brigade at the North Anna, 
Totopotomy, Bethesda church and Cold Harbor, and commanded two 
brigades in the assault on Petersburg, carrying the works and capturing 
1,000 prisoners, together with arms, ammunition and artillery. On April 
2, 1865, he arranged and planned the assault at "Fort Hell," and for gal- 
lant conduct was brevetted major-general of volunteers, participating 
afterward in the pursuit and capture of Lee's army. He was mustered 
out of the volunteer service, Aug. 24, 1865, declined an appointment in 
the regular army and returned to New Hampshire, where he was a rep- 
resentative in the state legislature, 1867-69, was chairman of the Repub- 
lican state convention in 1868. and in 1888 commander of the Massachu- 
setts commandery of the military order of the Loyal Legion. He subse- 
quently became extensively interested in land and railroad enterprises in 
Texas and devoted much time to literary work. Gen. Griffin died Jan. 
14, igo2. 

Grose, William, brigadier-general, was born in Dayton. Ohio, Dec. 
16, 1812. He received a common school education and attained some 
prominence in local politics prior to the war, being a Pierce elector and 



Biographical Sketches 111 

unsuccessful candidate, in 1852, for Congress ; elected member of the state 
legislature in 1856, and judge of the court of common pleas in i860. This 
latter office he resigned in 1861 to accept the colonelcy of the 36th Ind. 
infantry, which he had recruited. At Shiloh his was the only regiment 
of Buell s army that engaged in the first day's fight, and after the battle 
he was promoted to command a brigade. He served with the Army of 
the Cumberland in all its campaigns, including Vicksburg, Chickamauga, 
Lookout mountain, Dalton, and the battles in front of Atlanta, and, at the 
request of Gens. Sherman and Thomas, he was promoted brigadier-gen- 
eral, receiving his commission while under fire in front of Atlanta. Gen. 
Grose then served in the battles of Franklin and Nashville, and after- 
wards was president of a court-martial at Nashville until Jan., 1866, being 
brevetted major-general of volunteers Aug. 13, 1865. He subsequently 
served as collector of internal revenue under appointment by President 
Johnson, 1866-74, was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1878, 
served in 1884-86 as one of a commission to build three hospitals for the 
insane, and in 1887 served as member of the Indiana legislature. Gen. 
Grose died July 30, 1900. 

Grover, Cuvier, brigadier-general, was born in Bethel, Me., July 24, 
1829, and was graduated at West Point in 1850. He saw his first service 
in the west and rose to captain before the outbreak of the Civil war. On 
April 14, 1862, having previously been called east to the defense of Wash- 
ington, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers and was assigned 
to the command of the ist brigade, and division, 3d army corps, Army of 
the Potomac. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel in the regular estab- 
lishment for gallantry at Williamsburg, and colonel for service at Fair 
Oaks, was then transferred with his brigade to Pope's army, where he 
distinguished himself in a brilliant bayonet charge, in which, after a hand- 
to-hand struggle which lasted over an hour, his men were obliged to fall 
back before a superior force. Being transferred to the Department of the 
Gulf, he took charge of the 4th division of the 19th corps, with which 
he took possession of Baton Rouge, and in the siege of Port Hudson he 
commanded the right wing of Gen. Banks' army. He held the right of 
the 2nd corps in the first line of battle at Winchester and charged the 
enemy with great , bravery, and again distinguished himself by conspic- 
uous gallantry at Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, being wounded at the lat- 
ter battle and brevetted on the same day major-general of volunteers for 
gallantry at Winchester and Fisher's hill. On March 13, 1865, he was 
given the brevet rank of brigadier-general and major-general in the reg- 
ular army in recognition of gallant and meritorious services in the field. 
Gen. Grover was mustered out of the volunteer service, Aug. 24, 1865, 
and subsequently served on frontier and garrison duty, rising to the rank 
of colonel of the ist cavalry, Dec. 2, 1875. He died in Atlantic City, N. J., 
June 6, 1885. 

Hackleman, Pleasant A., brigadier-general, was born in Franklin 
county, Ind., Nov. 15, 1814, son of Maj. John Hackleman, an officer in 
the war of 1812. He was admitted to the bar in 1837 and soon won dis- 
tinction in the practice of his profession in Rushville; was judge of pro- 
bate court of Rush county, 1837-41 ; clerk of the state house of repre- 
sentatives and clerk of Rush county, 1841-47, and in 1848 and again in 
1858 was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress. He was a delegate to 
the Republican national convention of i860 and to the peace conference 
at Washington in 1861. He entered the national service in May, 1861, as 
colonel of the i6th Ind. regiment, served in the first battle of Bull Run 
and later on the staff of Gen. Banks in Virginia, and on April 28, 1862, 
was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. In June he was ordered 
to report to Gen. Grant in the southwest. He participated actively in the 



112 The Union Army 

battles of luka and Corinth, and was killed in the latter battle, near Cor- 
mth. Miss., Oct. 4, 1862. 

Halleck, Henry W., major-general, was born at Westernvillc, Oneida, 
county, N. Y., Jan. 16, 1815. After a common-school education, received 
at tludson academy, and a partial course at Union college, he entered the 
United States military academy July i, 1835, graduating four years later 
third in a class of thirty-one. On July i, 1839, he was appointed second 
lieutenant in the engineer corps of the army, and from his marked ability 
and skill as an instructor, while still a cadet, was retained as assistant 
professor of engineering at tlic academy until June 28, 1840. During the 
next year he acted as assistant to the board of engineers at Washington, 
D. C, and was thence transferred to assist in the construction of the forti- 
fications in New York harbor. Here he remained several years, with the 
exception of time spent in 1845 on a tour of inspection of public works in 
Europe, receiving while absent a promotion to first lieutenant. At the 
outbreak of the war with Mexico, he was sent to California as engineer 
of military operations for the Pacific coast, and after a seven-months' 
voyage in the transport Lexington, reached Monterey, Cal., which he 
partially fortified as a port of refuge for the Pacific fleet, and a base for 
incursions into California by land. Tn his military capacity he accom- 
panied several expeditions ; in that of Col. Burton into Lower California, 
he acted as chief of staff to that officer, and took part in the skirmishes 
of Palos Prietos and Urias, Nov. 19-20, 1847; with a few volunteers made 
a forced march to San Antonio, March t6, 1848, surprising a large Mex- 
ican garrison and nearly capturing the governor, and was engaged at 
Todos Santos on March 30. He was also aid-de-camp to Com. Shubrick 
in naval operations on the coast, among which was the capture of Mazat- 
lan (of which for a time he was lieutenant-governor), and for "gallant 
and meritorious services," received the commission of captain by brevet, 
to date from May i, T847. As secretary under the military governments 
of Gens. Mason and Riley, he displayed "great energy, high administra- 
tive qualities, excellent judgment and admirable adaptability to his va- 
ried and onerous duties," and as a member of the convention, called to 
meet at Monterey, Sept. i, 1849, to frame a constitution for the state of 
California, he was substantially the author of that instrument. On Dec. 
21, 1852, he was appointed inspector and engineer of lighthouses; from 
April II, 1853, was a member of the board of engineers for fortifications 
of the Pacific coast, receiving the promotion of captain of engineers on 
July I, and retained all these positions until Aug. i, 1854, when he resigned 
from the army to become the head of the most prominent law firm in 
San Francisco, with large interests and much valuable property in the 
state, with whose development and prosperity his name was identified. 
In 1860-61 he was major-general of the militia of California, and at the 
outbreak of the Civil war tendered his services to the government, and 
was appointed major-general of regulars at the urgent recommendation of 
Gen. Scott, his commission dating Aug. 19, t86i. On Nov. 18 he took 
command of the Department of Missouri, with headquarters at St. Louis, 
where his vigorous rule soon established order. After the victor^' at Shiloh 
Halleck took the field, having. March it, 1862, succeeded to the command 
of the Department of the Mississippi, and the siege of Corinth took place 
under his personal direction. After the evacuation by the enemy, and in 
the midst of the fortification of Corinth against his return fmm the south, 
Halleck was visited by two assistant secretaries of war and one U. S. 
senator, to urge his acceptance of the office of general-in-chief, which had 
been tendered him, but which he declined until events in the Peninsular 
campaign forced his acceptance of the honor on July 23. From Wash- 
ington, on Oct. 28, he wrote the letter which constitutes "the only official 





Brig. Gtn. Ci \ ier GrovER 
Brig. -Gen. T. E. Hamblin 
Maj.-Gen. Schuyler 

Ha .MILTON 

Maj.-Gcn. W. S. H.\ncock 



Brig.-Gen. P. A. HacklE- 

MAN 

Brig.-Gen. A. J. Hamilton 
Brig.-Gen. Cyrus Hamlin 
Brig.-Gen. J. A. H.\rdie 



Maj.-Gen. H. W. HallCCK 
Maj.-Gen. C. S. Hamilton 
Brig.-Gen. W. A. Hammond 
r.rig.-Gen. M. D. Hardin 



Biographical Sketches 113 

explanation of the final removal of McClellan from command, Nov. 7." 
After Gen. Grant became lieutenant-general of the army, Halleck remained 
at Washington as chief of staff from March 12, 1864, to April 19, 1865, 
and from April 22 to July i of the latter year was in command of the 
military division of the James with headquarters at Richmond. On Aug. 
30 he took command of the division of the Pacific, from which he was 
relieved by Gen. George H. Thomas, and on March 16, 1869, was trans- 
ferred to that of the South, with headquarters at Louisville, Ky. Gen. 
Halleck died at Louisville, Jan. 9, 1872. 

Hamblin, Joseph E., brigadier-general, was born in Yarmouth, Mass., 
in 1828, was for many years prior to the Civil war a member of the 7th 
N. Y. militia regiment, and on the outbreak of the war accompanied that 
regiment to Washington. At the expiration of his first thirty days' serv- 
ice he was made adjutant of the 5th N. Y. volunteers, and was soon af- 
terward transferred as lieutenant-colonel to the 65th N. Y. volunteers and 
assigned to the ist brigade, 3d division. Army of the Potomac, under Gen. 
Joseph Hooker. He commanded his regiment at Chanccllorsville, distin- 
guished himself at Hazel run. May 2, 1862, was promoted colonel and led 
his regiment at Gettysburg during the entire engagement. He served under 
Grant from the Wilderness to Petersburg, was with Sheridan's army in 
the valley, where he commanded the 2nd brigade in the battle of Cedar 
creek and was severely wounded. For gallantry at Cedar creek he was 
brevetted brigadier-general and given command of the brigade, and upon 
the return of the corps to Petersburg he was promoted to the full rank 
of brigadier-general of volunteers and participated in all the subsequent 
engagements of the Army of the Potomac to the surrender at Appomattox, 
being brevetted major-general of volunteers for distinguished bravery at 
Sailor's creek. He was mustered out of the service, Jan. 15, 1866, and re- 
turned to New York city, where he died July 3, 1870. 

Hamilton, Andrew J., brigadier-general, was born in Madison county, 
Ala., Jan. 28, 1815. He was for some years clerk of the circuit court of 
his native county, moved to Texas in 1846 and practised law at Austin, 
becoming attorney-general of the state and a Buchanan elector. He was 
a representative in the 39th Congress, 1859-61, having been elected as a 
Republican, opposed the secession of Texas in 1861 and removed north. 
He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers in 1862, and in the 
same year was appointed by President Lincoln military governor of Texas. 
He commanded the U. S. troops at Matamora. In 1865 he became pro- 
visional governor of the state under appointment of President Johnson, 
and in 1866 he became a justice of the supreme court of the state. The 
same year he was delegate to the Philadelphia loyalists' convention, and 
also delegate to the soldiers' convention held in Pittsburg. He was an 
independent candidate for governor of Texas in 1869, but was defeated. 
Gen. Hamilton died in Austin, Tex., April 10, 1875. 

Hamilton, Charles S., major-general, was born in Westernville, N. Y., 
Nov. 16, 1822. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1843, went to Mexico in 1846 as ist lieutenant in the army of occu- 
pation, was brevetted captain for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, 
and was severely wounded at Molino del Rey. He subsequently served 
on frontier duty until 1853, when he resigned his commission and engaged 
in farming and milling at Fond du Lac, Wis., returning to the service of 
the United States at the beginning of the Civil war as colonel of the 3d 
Wis. volunteers. May 11, 1861, and being promoted six days later to 
brigadier-general. When Banks opposed the advance of""StonewaU" Tack- 
son in northern Virginia, Gen. Hamilton commanded the ist division. 
He was transferred to the Army of the Potomac in 1862 and served in 
the operations of that year, including the siege of Yorktown, receiving 

Vol. VIII— 8 



114 The Union Army 

promotion to the rank of major-general of volunteers Sept. 19, 1862. 
Being transferred to the Army of the Mississippi, he commanded the 3d 
division at luka, Sept. 19, 1862, and at Corinth on Oct. 3 and 4, and was 
then, until Jan., 1863, commander of the left wing of the Army of the 
Tennessee. Resigning from the army in April, 1863, he returned to Wis- 
consin, was member of the board of regents of the University of Wiscon- 
sin, 1866-75, being president of the board, 1869-75, and from 1869 to 1875 
was United States marshal for the district of Wisconsin. Gen. Hamilton 
died in Milwaukee, Wis., April 17. 1891. 

Hamilton, Schuyler, major-general, was born in New York city, July 

25, 1822. He was graduated at West Point in 1841, entered the first in- 
fantry and served on the plains and as assistant instructor in tactics at 
West Point. In the Mexican war he served with conspicuous distinction, 
being brevetted ist lieutenant for gallantry at Monterey, where he was 
severely wounded, and captain for gallantry at Mil Flores, where in a 
hand-to-hand encounter with Mexican lancers, he was wounded by a 
lance, which passed entirely through his body. He was promoted ist 
lieutenant in March, 1848, was acting aide-de-camp to Gen. Scott from 
1847 to 1854, and in 1855 resigned from the army. At the beginning of 
the Civil war he reentered the national service, volunteering as a private 
in the 7th regiment, N. Y. state militia, served for a time on the staff of 
Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, and afterwards acted as military secretary to 
Gen. Scott until the latter's retirement, being instrumental in preventing 
the murder of certain Confederate prisoners of war captured on the battle 
field of Bull Run. He was subsequently assistant chief of staff to Gen. 
H. W. Halleck, with the rank of colonel, was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers on Nov. 12, 1861, and ordered to command the De- 
partment of St. Louis. He served with Grant's army operating in west- 
ern Kentucky and Tennessee, suggested to Gen. Pope the cutting of a 
canal to turn the enemy's position at Island No. 10. and commanded a 
division in the assault on that island and New Madrid, for which he was 
promoted major-general of volunteers on Sept. 17, 1862. He commanded 
the reserve at the battle of Farmington. On Feb. 27, 1863, he was com- 
pelled to resign on account of feeble health. After the war Gen. Hamil- 
ton made a number of attempts to be reinstated on the army list as lieu- 
tenant-colonel and colonel U. S. A., but was unsuccessful, and his friends 
have always maintained that in neglecting to restore him to rank the 
government was guilty of gross injustice to a brave and faithful officer. 
He was hydrographic engineer for the department of docks, New York 
city, 1871-75. Gen. Hamilton died March 18, 1903. 

Hamlin, Cyrus, brigadier-general, was born in Hampden, Me., April 

26, 1839, was educated at Hampden academy and at Colby university, but 
left Colby before graduating and studied law, being admitted to the bar 
in i860, and practising in York county, Me. He was appointed captain 
and aide-de-camp to Gen. Fremont in 1862 and attracted that officer's 
favorable notice by his conduct at Cross Keys. He was among the earliest 
ofificers in the army to advocate enlisting the negro, was appointed col- 
onel of the 80th U. S. colored infantry, Feb. 12, 1863, serving in the De- 
partment of the Gulf, and on Dec. 3, 1864. was made brigadier-general of 
volunteers. He commanded Port Hudson, 1864-65, and on March 13, 1865, 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers for distinguished service during 
the war. He remained at New Orleans after the war. practising law 
and taking an active part in the movements of the reconstruction period, 
and died there, Aug. 28. 1867, of disease contracted while in the army. 

Hammond, William A., brigadier-general, was born in Annapolis, 
Md.. Aug. 28. 1828. He was graduated M. D. at the University of the 
City of New York in 1848 and entered the U. S. army in 1849 as assist- 



Biographical Sketches 115 

ant surgeon with the rank of ist lieutenant. After eleven years spent on 
the frontier he resigned in Oct., i860, to become professor of anatomy and 
physiology in the University of Maryland, but reentered the army, May, 
1861, as assistant surgeon, and organized United States hospitals at Ha- 
gerstown, Frederick and Baltimore. Upon the reorganization of the med- 
ical department he was appointed surgeon-general of the U. S. army with 
the rank of brigadier-general U. S. A. in April, 1862, through the urgent 
request of Gen. McClellan and the United States sanitary commission. 
He instituted radical changes in the management of his office, established 
the army medical museum by special order, and increased the efficiency 
of the field, camp and permanent hospital service many fold, making it fully 
competent to handle an army of 1,000,000 men. On account of charges 
preferred against him of irregularity in the award of liquor contracts, 
he was tried by court-martial and dismissed from the army in Aug., 1864, 
but in 1879, upon a review of the court-martial proceedings made lay the 
president, he was restored to his place on the army rolls as surgeon- 
general and brigadier-general and placed on the retired list. Upon leav- 
ing the army Dr. Hammond practiced medicine in New York city, attain- 
ing prominence as an authority on nervous diseases, on which he deliv- 
ered many lectures before medical students. He was the author of a 
number of technical works, mainly on diseases of the nervous system, 
and of several novels. He died in Washington, D. C, Jan. 5, igoo. 

Hancock, Winfield S., major-general, was born at Montgomery 
Square, Pa., Feb. 14, 1824. and was sent in early boyhood to Norristown 
academy. There he first began to display his military tastes by contin- 
ually marching and countermarching with his playmates, among whom 
he organized a military company, of which he was chosen captain. In his 
fifteenth year the boy received a marked expression of public esteem, in 
being appointed to read in public at Norristown the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. In 1840, at the age of sixteen, he entered the West Point mili- 
tary academy, as a member of a class that graduated twenty-five, among 
whom were Gens. U. S. Grant, George B. McClellan, William B. Frank- 
lin. William F. Smith, Joseph J. Reynolds, Rosecrans, Lyon, and others 
of the Federal army; and Longstreet, Pickett, E. K. Smith, and "Stone- 
wall" Jackson of the Confederate army. Hancock was graduated on 
June 30, 1844, and was brevetted second lieutenant of the 6th infantry, 
July I. He was afterward sent to join his company in the Indian coun- 
try, near the Red river, on the border of Texas, and in this rough but 
exhilarating duty he remained until 1846. when he was commissioned sec- 
ond lieutenant in a company stationed on the frontier of Mexico, where 
he remained until the outbreak of the Mexican war. His first active serv- 
ice in that conflict was at the National bridge, on the way from Vera 
Cruz to Puebla, where he was in command of a storming party, and cap- 
tured the bridge and a strong barricade. He was brevetted first lieuten- 
ant "for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battles of Contreras and 
Churubusco in the war with Mexico." Between 1848 and 1855 he served 
as regimental quartermaster and adjutant on the upper Missouri, being 
ordered to Fort Snelling, Minn., in 1849. In 1855 Lieut. Hancock was 
appointed quartermaster with the rank of captain, and ordered to Florida, 
where the Seminole war was going on, and where, under Gen. Harney, 
he performed difficult and arduous service. Next occurred the disorders 
in Kansas, and he was ordered to Fort Leavenworth, and after the Kan- 
sas troubles were over he accompanied Gen. Harney's expedition to Utah. 
Following the Utah outbreak, he was ordered to join his regiment, the 
6th infantrj% at Fort Bridger, and made the trip with sixteen soldiers, a 
distance of 709 miles, in twenty-seven days with a train of wagons. He 
was next ordered to Benicia, Cal., and the entire journey which he made 



116 The Union Army 

from Fort Leavenworth to that station, 2,100 miles, was performed by 
Capt. Hancock on horseback. Later he was stationed at Los Angeles, 
Cal., where he was when the Civil war broke out, with a depot of military- 
stores under his control, which he succeeded in holding until the arrival 
of reinforcements. He was then ordered to the east, reaching New York 
Sept. 4, 1861, when he reported at Washington for service. He was at 
once commissioned brigadier-general and placed in charge of a brigade, 
consisting of the 5th Wis., the 6th Me., the 49th Pa., and the 4th N. Y. 
infantry. In the spring of 1862 the division of which his brigade was 
a part was assigned to the 4th army corps and had its first serious 
conflict with the enemy at Lee's mill on April 16. He saw sharp fight- 
ing at Williamsburg and Frazier's farm and in the Maryland campaign. 
At the battles of South mountain and Antietam he commanded the ist 
division of the 2nd army corps, which fought brilliantly during the second 
day of the battle of Antietam. In the battle of Fredericksburg he again 
commanded the same division in the magnificent attempt to storm Marye's 
heights, Dec. 13, 1862, when he led his -men through such a fire as has 
rarely been encountered in warfare. The following spring Hancock's 
division fought at Chancellorsville, and on June 25 he was ordered by the 
president to assume command of the 2nd army corps. In the fight of 
July 3, at Gettysburg, he commanded the left center, the main point as- 
sailed by the Confederates, and was shot from his horse, being danger- 
ously wounded, but remained on the field until he saw that the enemy's 
attack had been repulsed by his corps. For his services in this campaign 
Gen. Hancock received, on April 21, 1866, a resolution of thanks passed 
by Congress. His wound kept him from active duty imtil March, 1864, 
when he resumed command in the spring campaign of that year, and 
fought in the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, also at the 
second battle of Cold Harbor and in the assault on the lines in front of 
Petersburg. On Aug. 12, 1864, he was appointed brigadier-general in the 
regular army "for gallant and distinguished services in the battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and Cold Harbor, and in the operations of the 
army in Virginia under Lieut.-Gen. Grant." In the movement against the 
South side railroad in October of that year Gen. Hancock took a leading 
part. On Nov. 26 he was called to Washington to organize a veteran 
corps of 50,000 men, and continued in the discharge of that duty until 
Feb. 26, 1865, when he was assigned to the command of the military divi- 
sion and ordered to Winchester, Va. After the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, Gen. Hancock's headquarters were transferred to Washing- 
ton, and he was placed in command of the defence of the capital. On 
July 26, 1866, he was appointed major-general of the regular army, and 
on the loth of the following month assigned to the command of the De- 
partment of the Missouri. Here he fought the Indians until relieved by 
Gen. Sheridan, when he was placed in command of the fifth military dis- 
trict, comprising Texas and Louisiana. In t868 he was given command 
of the division of the Atlantic, with headquarters in New York city. 
The following year he was sent to the Department of Dakota, but in 1872 
was again assigned to the division of the Atlantic, in which command he 
remained until the time of his death. In 1868 and in 1872 Gen. Hancock 
was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination, and in 1880 
was nominated by the Democratic convention at Cincinnati. The election 
in November, however, gave the opposing candidate, James A. Garfield, 
a majority in the electoral college. More than any other officer on either 
side, perhaps, he was the embodiment of chivalry and devotion to the 
highest duties of the soldier. Gen. Grant, best qualified to judge, said of 
him : "Hancock stands the most conspicuous figure of all the general 
officers who did not exercise a general command. He commanded a corps 



Biographical Sketches 117 

longer than any other one, and his name was never mentioned as having 
committed in battle a blunder for which he was responsible. He was a 
man of very conspicuous personal appearance, tall, well-formed, and, at 
the time of which I now write, young and fresh looking; he presented an 
appearance that would attract the attention of an army as he passed. 
His genial disposition made him friends, and his presence with his com- 
mand in the thickest of the tight won him the confidence of troops who 
served under him." He died at Governor's island. New York harbor, 
Feb. 9, 1886. 

Hardie, James A., brigadier-general, was born in New York city, 
May 5, 1823, and was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1843. From 1844-46 he held an assistant professorship at West Point, 
and was then on frontier duty until 1861, serving in the Mexican war as 
commander of a New York regiment with the rank of major, and being 
promoted captain in the regular army in 1857. Being transferred to the 
5th artillery in 1861, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and aide-de-camp, 
he served on Gen. McClellan's staff during the Peninsular and Maryland 
campaigns, and on the staff of Gen. Burnside in the battles around Fred- 
ericksburg. He was made judge advocate-general on Gen. Hooker's staff 
when that general succeeded Burnside, and for his services and conduct 
was made brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, and assistant 
adjutant-general with the rank of major in 1863. He was assigned to 
special duty in the war department and was assistant secretary to Secre- 
tary of War Stanton, and afterwards to acting Secretaries Grant, Scho- 
field and Rawlins. He was promoted inspector-general with the rank of 
colonel in 1864, and on March 13, 1865, was given the brevet ranks of brig- 
adier-general and major-general U. S. A. in recognition of distinguished 
and faithful services. In 1866 Gen. Hardie was senior member of the 
commission to inspect ordnance and ordnance stores in forts and arsenals,, 
and commissioner to audit the military claims of Kansas, Montana, Da- 
kota, California a?>d Oregon. He died in Washington, D. C, May 5, 1876. 

Hardin, Martin D., brigadier-general, was born in Jacksonville, 111., 
June 26, 1837, was graduated at West Point in 1859 and served until the 
outbreak of the Civil war at Fortress Monroe and in Washington terri- 
tory. He then served in the defences of Washington and with McClel- 
lan at Yorktown, and, after some time on sick leave, fought in the Seven 
Day's battles. He became lieutenant-colonel in July and colonel in Sept., 
1862, of the I2th Penn. reserve regiment, and led his regiment with dis- 
tinction at Mine run and Gettysburg. He lost his arm in an engagement 
with guerrillas near the close of the year 1863, but returned to active 
service the following spring and commanded a brigade, being wounded 
at North Anna and distinguishing himself at Bethesda Church. He was 
then put in command of the defences of Washington north of the Poto- 
mac river and promoted brigadier-general, and in July, 1864, rendered 
important service by holding Early in check until the arrival of the 6th 
corps. He was assigned to command the district of North Carolina, Aug. 
IS, 1865, was commissioned major of the 43d veteran reserve in July, 1866, 
and in 1870 was retired from active duty with the rank of brigadier- 
general in the regular army, having been advanced by brevet to this 
grade, through the intervening ranks for gallantry on numerous occa- 
sions. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practised in 
Chicago. 

Harding, Abner C, brigadier-general, was born in East Hampton, 
Middlesex county. Conn., Feb. 10, 1807. He attended tlie Hamilton, N. Y., 
academy, was subsequently admitted to the bar and practised for some 
time in Oneida county, N. Y., moving then to Warren county. III, where 
he was actively engaged in the practice of his profession for fifteen years. 



118 The Union Army 

He was a member of the Illinois constitutional convention in 1848, served 
in the legislature, 1848-50, and for the ten years prior to the Civil war 
was engaged in railway enterprises. Enlisting in the 83d 111. infantry 
as a private in 1862, he rose to the rank of colonel, was promoted brig- 
adier-general (^f volunteers for bravery at Fort Donelson, and in 1863 
had command at Murfreesboro, Tenn. He was then a representative in 
the 39th and 40th Congresses, 1865-69, and after that devoted his attention 
principally to the promotion of railway enterprises in Illinois. He en- 
dowed a professorship in Monmouth college and gave generously to other 
educational institutions. Gen. Harding died in Monmouth, 111., July 19, 

1874. 

Harker, Charles G., brigadier-general, was born in Swedesboro, N. J., 
Dec. 2, 1837, and was graduated at West Point in 1858. He was pro- 
moted 1st lieutenant in the 15th infantry. May 14, 1861, and captain, Oct. 
24; became lieutenant-colonel of the 65th Ohio volunteers, and on Nov. 
II, 1861, colonel. He served with his regiment at Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, 
took part in the siege of Corinth, and at Stone's river, Dec. 31, 1862- Jan. 
3, 1863, where he commanded a brigade, he so distinguished himself that 
he was recommended by his superior officers for promotion to brigadier- 
general of volunteers. He did not receive his promotion, however, until 
he had still further distinguished himself at Chickamauga and Chatta- 
nooga, when he was given his commission, to date from Sept. 20, 1863. 
He commanded a brigade under Gen. Howard in the Georgia campaign, 
and at Rocky Face ridge in ]\Iay, 1864, held the peak against determined 
efforts on the part of the Confederates to dislodge him. He was mor- 
tally wounded at Kennesaw mountain, Ga., June 2"], 1864, while leading 
his brigade in a gallant charge, and died on the field of battle the same 
day. 

Harland, Edward, brigadier-general, was born in Norwich, Conn., 
June 24, 1832. He was graduated at Yale in 1853 and admitted to the 
bar in Norwich two years later. At the beginning of the Civil war he 
organized a company, of which he was chosen captain, and which became, 
in April, 1861, a part of the 3d Conn, infantry. In September of that year 
he became colonel of the 8th Conn, infantry and served with his regiment 
until March, 1863, when he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. 
He resigned this commission in June, 1865. During the war Gen. Harland 
served with distinction in many of the most important battles. After 
seeing service with Burnside in the North Carolina expedition, he fought 
at South mountain and Antietam, commanding a brigade in these bat- 
tles and succeeding to command of a division at Antietam, after Gen. 
Rodman fell. He served also at the battle of Fredericksburg and the 
siege of Suffolk, the battles of Port Walthall Junction and Fort Darling, 
and in numerous other engagements. After the war Gen. Harland served 
two terms in the state house of representatives and one in the state senate, 
and was judge of probate from 1862-76. Later he became president of 
the savings bank at Norwich. 

Harney, William S., brigadier-general, was born near Haysboro, 
Tenn., Aug. 2^, 1800. He was commissioned 2nd lieutenant, 19th U. S. 
infantry, Feb. 13, 1818, and in the interval between the time of his en- 
tering the service and the Civil war he was continuously in the service 
of the United States, receiving frequent promotions, culminating in pro- 
motion to brigadier-general June 14. 1858. He engaged in the Black 
Hawk war, the Seminole war, the Mexican war, and in numerous en- 
gagements against Indians, commanded the Department of the Oregon, 
1858-60, until his recall on account of border difficulties with England, 
and was then assigned to command the Department of the West, with 
headquarters in St. Louis. In April, 1861, while on his way to Wash- 



Biographical Sketches 119 

ington, he was arrested by the Virginia troops at Harper's Ferry, but was 
soon afterward released, and, on returning to St. Louis, he agreed with 
Gen. Price in command of the Missouri mihtia to make no military move- 
ment within the borders of the state so long as peace was maintained 
by the existing state government. He was relieved of his command May 
29, 1861, was placed on the retired list Aug. i, 1863, and on March 13, 
1865, was brevetted major-general U. S. A. for long and faithful services. 
Gen. Harney died in Orlando, Fla., May 9, 1889. 

Harris, Thomas M., brigadier-general, was born in Wood county, Va., 
June 17, 1817. He studied medicine and practised at Harrisville and 
Glenville, Va., until the Civil war, and on March 17, 1862, became lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the lOth W. Va. infantry, becoming colonel of his regiment 
on May 20. He served throughout the war, being promoted brigadier- 
general March 29, 1865. He sent out the detachment that silenced the 
last Confederate guns at Appomattox, and was mustered out of the serv- 
ice April 30, 1866. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Oct. 19, 1864, for gallant and meritorious service at the battle of Mid- 
dletown, Va., and major-general of volunteers April 2, 1865, for gallant 
conduct in the assault on Petersburg, Va. After the war Gen. Harris 
served one term in the West Virginia legislature, was adjutant-general 
of the state in 1869-70, and pension agent at Wheeling in 1871-77. He is 
the author of medical essays and a tract entitled "Galvanism Vindicated." 

Harrow, William, brigadier-general, was born in Kentucky about 
1820, but moved later to Indiana and entered the national service as major 
of the 14th Ind. infantry, June 7, 1861. He was promoted lieutenant-col- 
onel, Feb. 14, 1862, colonel, April 26, 1862, and brigadier-general of volun- 
teers Nov. 29. While colonel of the 14th Ind. he participated in the bat- 
tle of Antietam, where more than half of his regiment were killed or 
wounded. Gen. Hairrow resigned his commission, April 20, 1865, and re- 
tired to private life. He died Sept. 27, 1872. 

Hartranft, John P., brigadier-general, was born in New Hanover, 
Montgomery county. Pa., Dec. 16, 1830. He was educated at Marshall 
and Union colleges, graduating at Union in 1853, studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1859, and practised in Norristown, Pa. In April, 
1861, he recruited the 4th Penn. volunteers, was elected its colonel, and 
subsequently commanded it until its term of enlistment expired, the day 
before the battle of Bull Run. As his regiment had been ordered to Har- 
risburg, he volunteered and obtained leave to serve on the staff of Gen. 
William B. Franklin in that battle. He then organized the 51st Penn. 
regiment, was commissioned its colonel, July 27, 1861, and accompanied 
it in Burnside's expedition to North Carolina in the following spring, 
when he led the attack on Roanoke island and participated in the battle of 
New Berne. Following this he served in the Army of the Potomac in 
the battles of second Bull Run and Chantilly, was in the 9th corps at the 
battle of South mountain, led the charge at the stone bridge at Antietam 
and commanded his regiment at Fredericksburg, and then, being ordered 
to Tennessee, was engaged in the battle of Campbell's station and in the 
successful defence of Knoxville.. At Vicksburg he commanded a bri- 
gade engaged in protecting the besieging troops from an attack in the rear, 
and, after the fall of that place, he accompanied Sherman in his advance 
to Jackson, Miss. He commanded a brigade in the battles of the Wilder- 
ness and Spottsylvania, received his commission as, brigadier-general 
May 12, 1864, took part in all the movements before Petersburg, was sub- 
sequently given command of a division, and on March 25, 1865, was 
brevetted major-general of volunteers for conspicuous gallantry in the 
recapture of Fort Stedman. Gen. Hartranft then returned to Pennsyl- 
vania, was elected auditor-general of the state, and declined a commission 



120 The Union Army 

offered him by the president as colonel in the regular establishment, 
Aug. 29, 1866. He was reelected auditor-general in 1868, and was from 
1873 to 1879 governor of Pennsylvania. During his term of office the 
militia of Pennsylvania w^as entirely reorganized on a military basis, 
and from 1879 to 1889 he was in command of the national guard as 
major-general of militia. Gen. Hartranft was postmaster of Philadel- 
phia under appointment by President Hayes 1879-80, and in Aug., 1880, 
became collector of the port of Philadelphia. He died in Norristown, 
Pa., Oct. 17, 1889, and after his death an equestrian statue was erected 
to his memory in front of the capitol building, Harrisburg. 

HartsufI, George L., major-general, was born in Tyre, N. Y., May 
28, 1830, and was graduated at West Point in 1852. He served in Texas 
and in the Florida war, where he was wounded, and was instructor in 
artillery and infantry tactics at the military academy from 1856-61, when 
he became captain and assistant adjutant-general. He served at Fort 
Pickens from April until July 17, 1862; was then under Gen. Rosecrans 
in West Virginia, becoming brigadier-general of volunteers, April 15, 
1862, and soon after commander of Abercrombie's brigade, being pro- 
moted major in the regular army July 17, 1862. He commanded his bri- 
gade at Cedar mountain, and at Antietam, where he was severely wound- 
ed; was appointed major-general of volunteers Nov. 29, 1862; served as 
member of a board to revise the rules and articles of war in 1863; and 
on April 27 of that year was ordered to Kentucky, where he commanded 
the 23d army corps and opposed the advance of Morgan in Ohio. He 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general U. S. A. 
June I, 1864; was in command of works in the siege of Petersburg in 
March and April, 1865, and on March 13, 1865, was given the brevet ranks 
of brigadier- and major-general U. S. A. for faithful and meritorious 
services in the war. He was after the war adjutant-general of the 5th 
military district, 1867-68, and of the division of Missouri, 1869-71, and on 
June 29, 1871, was retired for disability from wounds received in battle. 
Gen. Hartsuff died in New York city, May 16, 1874. 

Hascall, Mile S., brigadier-general, was born in the state of New 
York, and during childhood removed with his parents to Indiana, from 
which state he was appointed to the United States military academy at 
West Point. He entered that institution of learning in 1848 and grad- 
uated with the class of 1852, being brevetted on July i of that year sec- 
ond lieutenant and assigned to the 3d artillery. He was commissioned 
second lieutenant in the 2nd artillery on March 31, 1853, serving 
in garrison at Fort Adams, R. L, in 1852-3, and he resigned from 
the service on Sept. 30, 1853. The following year he became a railroad 
contractor in Indiana, and from 1855 to 1861 followed the practice of law 
in Goshen. He served as district attorney of Elkhart and La Grange 
counties, Ind., 1856-58; was school examiner for Elkhart county, 1859-61, 
and during the same years also served as clerk of the county, circuit, and 
common pleas courts. In the Civil war he served as aide-de-camp, with 
the rank of captain, to Gen. Thomas A. Morris, from April 2"] to June 
12, 1861. Upon the latter date he was commissioned colonel and or- 
ganized the 17th Ind. volunteers, with which he served in the western 
Virginia campaign from August to November, having previously been en- 
gaged in the action of Philippi on June 3. He commanded a brigade in 
the Army of the Cumberland in the Tennessee campaign from Oct.. 1862, 
to March, 1863, having been commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, 
April 25, 1862, and he was engaged in the battle of Stone's river, in which 
action he commanded a division. He was engaged in collecting strag- 
glers from the army, throughout the states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, 
from March to June, 1863, was then in command of the district of In- 




Brig.-Gen. A. C. Harding Brig.-Gen. C. ('■. IIarker Brig.-Gen. Edward Hari.and 

Brig.-Gen. W. S. Harney Brig.-Gen. 'I". M. Harris Brig.-Gen. Wm. Harrow 

Brig.-Gen. J. F. Hartranft AFaj.-Gen. G. L. Hartsuff Brig.-Gen. M. S. Hascall 

Brig.-Gen. J. .\. Haskin Brig.-Gen. Edward Hatch Brig.-Gen. J. P. Hatch 



Biographical Sketches 121 

diana until August; in command of a division in the Army of the Ohio, 
in operations in East Tennessee. Aug., 1863, to March, 1864, being en- 
gaged in the defense of Knoxville, and numerous skirmishes ; was in com- 
mand of the 2nd division of the 23d corps. Army of the Ohio, in the in- 
vasion of Georgia, May 28 to Oct. 27, 1864, being engaged in numerous 
actions and skirmishes on the advance to Atlanta, siege of Atlanta, and 
occupation of Decatur and vicinity. He resigned his commission on Oct. 
27, 1864, and returned to his home in Goshen, Ind., where, in 1865, he 
initiated a successful career as a banker. 

Haskin, Joseph A., brigadier-general, was born in New York in 1817. 
He w^as graduated at West Point in 1839, being assigned to the ist ar- 
tillery, was in Maine on duty incident to the border dispute, 1840-45; 
in Florida and Louisiana in 1845-46, and in the Mexican war served 
under Gen. Scott from Vera Cruz to the capture of the City of Mexico, 
losing an arm at the storming of Chapultepec. He was subsequently 
on frontier and garrison duty, becoming captain in 1851, and was in 
command of the arsenal at Baton Rouge in 1861, when he was attacked 
by a vastly superior force of Confederates and compelled to surrender 
the buildings and arms. He subsequently served in Washington, at 
Key West, in command of the Northern defenses of Washington, 
1862-64, and then as chief of artillery in the war department until 
1866. He was promoted major in 1862, and in the same year lieu- 
tenant-colonel of staff; was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the ist 
artillery in 1866, and on March 13, 1865, was raised by brevet to 
the ranks of colonel and brigadier-general U. S. A. He was retired 
from active service in 1872, and died in Oswego, N. Y., Aug. 3, 

1874. 

Hatch, Edward, brigadier-general, was born in Bangor, Me., 
Dec. 22, 1832, and was educated at the Norwich, Vt., military acad- 
emy. In April, 1861, he was a member of the District of Columbia 
volunteers who were enlisted to defend the national capital, and 
then, being ordered to take charge of a camp of instruction at Dav- 
enport, la., he became successively captain, major, and on Dec. 11, 
1861, lieutenant-colonel of the 2nd Iowa cavalry. He led his regi- 
ment at New Madrid, Island No. 10, Corinth, the raid on Booneville 
and the battle of luka, and was promoted colonel of "volunteers, 
June 13, 1862. He commanded the 2nd Iowa cavalry in Grant's 
western campaign, conducting a raid through Mississippi in April, 
1863, for the purpose of distracting the attention of the Confeder- 
ates from Grant's movement at Vicksburg, and then, being given 
a division of cavalry, 3,500 strong, he conducted a series of raids 
in Alabama until disabled by wounds, Dec, 1863. He was promot- 
ed brigadier-general April 27, 1864, and. as commander of a cav- 
alry division under Gen. A. J. Smith, took part in the battles of 
Franklin and Nashville, being promoted brevet brigadier-general 
U. S. A. for his action at Franklin, and brevet major-general U. S. A. 
for his services at Nashville. His services at Nashville sub- 
sequently won him further promotion to the brevet rank of 
major-general in the regular army. Gen. Hatch was honorably 
mustered out of the volunteer service Jan. 15, 1866, and on July 6 
following he became colonel of the 9th U. S. cavalry, which regi- 
ment he commanded for twenty-three years. Hi? service after the 
war was m the west. He died April 11, 1889, at Fort Robinson, 
Neb. 

Hatch, John P., brigadier-general, was born in Oswego, N. Y., 
Jan. 9. 1822. He was graduated at West Point in 1845, being as- 
signed to the 3d U. S. infantry, but was later transferred to the 



122 The Union Army 

mounted rifles and served in the military occupation of Texas and 
the Mexican war, being brevctted ist lieutenant for gallantry at 
Contreras and Churubusco, and captain for services at Chapulte- 
pec. After the close of the Mexican war he was engaged on fron- 
tier duty and in expeditions against Indians until 1861, when he 
was acting chief of commissariat in the Department of New Mexico, 
having been promoted captain Oct. 13, i860. He was commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers Sept. 28, 1861, commanded a cavalry 
brigade at Annapolis, Md., and distinguished himself by several 
daring reconnoissances about Gordonsville, the Rapidan and the 
Rappahannock, afterwards commanding the cavalry of the 5th army 
corps at Winchester, Groveton and Manassas, where he was wound- 
ed and made brevet major for "gallant and meritorious services." 
At South mountain. Sept. 14, 1862, he was so severely injured as 
to be disabled until the following February, and for his gallantry 
there he was promoted brevet lieutenant-colonel and awarded a 
medal of honor. Upon returning to duty he was employed on 
courts-martial, assigned to command the draft rendezvous at Phil- 
adelphia, and was given charge of the cavalry depot at St. Louis 
until Oct. 2y, 1863, when he was made major of the 4th cavalry. 
He was assigned to the Department of the South, commanded in 
the battles of John's island and Honey Hill, S. C, and afterwards 
commanded the coast division under Sherman and operated with 
him in his march through South Carolina, covering the right flank 
of his army until the evacuation of Charleston by the Confederates. 
From Feb. 26 to Aug. 26, 1865, he commanded the Charleston dis- 
trict. Department of South Carolina; was on duty in the west, 1865- 
81. was then promoted colonel of the 2nd U. S. cavalry and com- 
manded his regiment until retired by operation of law Jan. 9, 
1886. He was brevetted for his services in the war. on March 13, 
1865, colonel and brigadier-general U. S. A., and major-general 
of volunteers. Gen. Hatch died April 12, 1901. 

Haupt, Herman, brigadier-general, was born in Pennsylvania, 
and was a cadet at the United States military academy from July 
I, 1831, to July I, 1835, when he was graduated and promoted in 
the army to brevet second lieutenant, 3d infantry. He resigned on 
Sept. 30, 1835, and served as assistant engineer on the Norristown 
railroad during the following year. He was principal assistant en- 
gineer in the service of the state of Pennsylvania, 1836-39, profes- 
sor of civil engineering and architecture in Pennsylvania college 
at Gettysburg. 1840, and of mathematics, 1844-47. He then served 
as principal assistant engineer of the Pennsylvania railroad, 1847- 
49, and as general superintendent, 1849-52. He was chief engineer 
of the Southern railroad of Mississippi in 1852, of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad, 1852-54, being elected director by the city council 
of Philadelphia, in 1855, and he was chief engineer of the Hoosac 
tunnel in Massachusetts, 1856-62. He was also a member and sec- 
retary of the board of visitors to the U. S. military academy in 
1861. In the Civil war he served as colonel of staflf and additional 
aide-de-camp from April 27 to Sept. 5, 1862, as chief of construc- 
tion and transportation on the U. S. military railroads, directing 
the repairs and construction of roads for facilitating the movements 
of the Federal armies in Virginia, and on Sept. 5, 1862, was promoted 
brigadier-general of volunteers for meritorious services in opera- 
tions against the enemy during the campaign of the Army of Vir- 
ginia, but declined to accept the appointment, and devoted his at- 
tention to civil pursuits. He was general manager of the Piedmont 



Biographical Sketches 123 

Air Line railroad, from Richmond, Va., to Atlanta, Ga., 1872-76; 
chief engineer of the Pennsylvania Transportation company, and 
Seaboard Pipe Line, for carrying petroleum from Parkers City to 
Baltimore, 1876-78; consulting engineer, 1878-81; general manager of 
the Northern Pacific railroad, 1881-85, and president of the Dakota 
& Great Southern railway, 1885-86. 

Hawkins, John P., brigadier-general, was born in Indianapolis, 
Ind., Sept. 29, 1830. He was graduated at West Point in 1852 and 
assigned to the infantry, was promoted ist lieutenant in 1857, and 
in 1861 was brigade quartermaster in the defenses of Washington. 
He accepted a commission as staff captain and commissary of 
subsistence, Aug. 20, 1861; served in southwest Missouri and west 
Tennessee, 1861-62; was chief commissary under Grant at the bat- 
tle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862; and on Nov. i, 1862, he joined the 
volunteer army as lieutenant-colonel in the commissary department, 
in which capacity he served until April 13, 1863, when he was pro- 
moted brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded a brigade 
of colored troops in northeastern Louisiana from Aug. 17 of that 
year until Feb. 7, 1864, was then promoted to command a division, 
being stationed at Vicksburg from March, 1864, till Feb., 1865, 
and after that served in the Mobile campaign, winning the brevet 
of major-general in the regular establishment for gallantrj' at the 
siege of ^lobile. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 
June 30, 1865, and honorably mustered out of the volunteer service 
Feb. I, 1866. In the regular service he was brevetted, on March 
13, 1865, lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and brigadier-general, for his 
services during the war. He was promoted major in the commis- 
sary department in 1874, lieutenant-colonel and assistant commis- 
sary-general in 1889, colonel and assistant commissary-general in 
1892, brigadier-general and commissary-general of subsistence Dec. 
22, 1892, and was retired by operation of law Sept. 29, 1894. 

Hawley, Joseph R., brigadier-general, was born in Stewartsville, 
N. C., Oct. 31, 1826. His parents removed to Connecticut while he 
was very young. He was graduated at Hamilton college with the 
degree of A. B. in 1847. studied law and was admitted to the bar 
in 1850, immediately entered political life as a Free Soil Democrat, 
and on Feb. 4. 1856, called the first meeting in Connecticut for the 
organization of the Republican party, which meeting was held in 
his law office. In that same year he spent three months can- 
vassing the state for Fremont and Dayton, and in 1857 he gave up 
law for journalism and edited the Hartford "Evening Press," hav- 
ing previously edited the "Charter Oak," which was merged with 
the "Press." At the outbreak of the Civil war he helped recruit 
the first company in the ist Conn, volunteers, was commissioned 
its 1st lieutenant, and commanded the company at the battle of 
Bull Run. After the first three months' service he helped recruit 
the 7th Conn, volunteers, of which he became lieutenant-colonel, 
and went south with his regiment with the Port Royal expedi- 
tion, the regiment engaging in the four months' siege of Fort Pu- 
laski and garrisoning the place after its surrender. Having suc- 
ceeded Col. Alfred H. Terry to the command of the regiment, Col. 
Hawley led it in the battles of James island and Pocotaligo, and in 
the Florida expedition, and subsequently commanded the port of 
Fernandina, Jan., 1863, and made an unsuccessful attempt to cap- 
ture Charleston. He commanded a brigade on Morris island in the 
siege of Charleston and at the capture of Fort Wagner, and in Feb., 
1864, commanded his brigade in the division of Gen. Truman Sey- 



124 The Union Army 

mour in the bloody and disastrous battle of Olustee. In April, 
1864, he went to Virginia as commander of a brigade in Terry's 
division and participated in the battles of Drewry's blufif, Deep 
run, Darbytown road, and various affairs near Bermuda Hundred 
and Deep bottom, and subsequently commanded a division in the 
battle of New Market road and took part in the siege of Petersburg. 
Having been made brigadier-general in Sept., 1864, he command- 
ed a picked brigade sent to New York in November to keep peace 
during election, and in Jan., 1865, when Gen. Terry was sent to 
lead the operations against Fort Fisher, Gen. Hawley succeeded 
him to the command of the division, and on Gen. Terry's return 
became his chief of stafif. He was military governor of the district 
of southeastern North Carolina from February to June, 1865, was 
chief of stafif to Gen. Terry in command of the department of Vir- 
ginia, with headquarters at Richmond, until Oct., 1865, when he 
returned to Connecticut, was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 
and on Jan. 15, 1866, was honorably discharged from the service. 
Gen. Hawley was elected governor of Connecticut in 1866, was 
defeated for re-election the following year, was president of the 
Republican national convention in 1868, secretary of the commit- 
tee on resolutions in 1872, and chairman of the committee on res- 
olutions in 1876. He was elected to Congress to fill a vacancy 
and served 1872-75, was then defeated for the two succeeding Con- 
gresses, but held his seat again 1879-81. He was elected United 
States senator in 1881 by the unanimous vote of his party, and was 
re-elected three times, holding that office at the time of his death 
in 1905. He was president of the U. S. centennial commission, 
1873-77. If 1884 Gen. Hawley was candidate for the Republican 
nomination for president of the United States. 

Haynie, Isham N., brigadier-general, was born in Dover, Tenn., 
Nov. 18, 1824. He removed to Illinois when a boy, studied law 
there and was admitted to the bar in 1846, and served throughout 
the Mexican war as ist lieutenant of the 6th 111. volunteers, resum- 
ing the practice of his profession in 1849. He was a member of 
the legislature in 1850, was graduated at the Kentucky law school 
in 1852, was appointed judge of the court of common pleas at 
Cairo, 111., in 1856, and in i860 canvassed the state as a Douglas 
elector. In 1861 he raised and organized the 48th 111. infantry, of 
which he was commissioned colonel, Nov. 10, 1861, and which he 
commanded in the battles of Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 
where he was severely wounded, and Corinth. He was an unsuc- 
cessful war candidate for Congress in 1862, and on Nov. 29 of that 
year was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, his com- 
mission expiring March 4, 1863. He resumed the practice of his 
profession in 1864 and subsequently became adjutant-general of 
Illinois. Gen. Haynie died in Springfield, 111., May 22, 1868. 

Hayes, Joseph, brigadier-general, was born in South Berwick, 
Me., Sept. 14, 183s, was educated at Harvard college and became 
a civil and mining engineer. He was commissioned major of the 
i8th Mass. regiment, July 26, 1861; lieutenant-colonel, Aug. 25, 
1862, colonel Nov. 30, 1862, and brigadier-general. May 12, 1864. 
He was taken prisoner and held for six months by the Confed- 
erates in Libby prison, Richmond. Va., and upon rejoining the 
army, April 2, 1865, he commanded the advance brigade. Army of 
the Potomac, at the Appomattox surrender, April 9, 1865. He was 
brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, for gallan- 
try in action on the Weldon railroad, Va., and was mustered out of 



Biographical Sketches 135 

the service, Aug. 24, 1865, at his own request, having declined an 
appointment offered him as field officer in the regular army. He 
then went to South America, where he introduced the hydraulic 
system in the mines of Columbia, and on his return engaged in 
business in New York as a broker and as president of a coal com- 
pany. 

Hayes, Rutherford B., brigadier-general, was born m Delaware, 
Ohio, Oct. 4, 1822. He prepared for college at an academy at Nor- 
walk, Ohio, and at Isaac Webb's preparatory school in Middle- 
town, Conn., and was graduated at Kenyon college, in 1S42. vale- 
dictorian of his class, receiving his A.M. degree in 1875. He was 
graduated at Harvard LL.B. in 1845, practised law in Lower San- 
dusky, and in 1849 removed to Cincinnati, where he was city solici- 
tor, 1858-61. At a mass-meeting held at Cincinnati upon receiving 
the news that Fort Sumter had been fired upon, he was made chair- 
man of a committee on resolutions to give vent to the feelings of 
the people, and upon the president's call for volunteers he organ- 
ized a company from the literary club of Cincinnati, and was elect- 
ed its captain. On June 7, 1861, he was appointed by Gov. Denni- 
son major of the 23d Ohio volunteers, and in July he accompanied 
the regiment to the seat of war in West Virginia. He was judge- 
advocate of the Department of Ohio, Sept. -Oct., 1861; was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel Oct. 24, receiving promotion to colonel a 
year later. Col. Hayes saw active service in the field in 1861-62, 
distinguishing himself first in the battle of South mountain, Sept. 
14, 1862, when, although severely wounded in the arm, he led a 
gallant charge and held his position at the head of his men until 
carried from the field. Upon recovering he took command of his 
regiment in the field, and in the operations against Morgan at the 
time of the latter's raid into Ohio, commanded two regiments and 
a section of artillery, and aided in preventing the escape of the 
Confederate general across the river, thus compelling Morgan to 
surrender. He commanded a brigade in Gen. Crook's expedition to 
cut the principal lines of communication between Richmond and 
the southwest, in the spring of 1864, and distinguished himself at 
Cloyd's mountain, May 9, 1864, by storming at the head of his bri- 
gade a strongly fortified Confederate position. He was conspicu- 
ous also in the first battle of Winchester and in the battle of Ber- 
ryville, and in the second battle of Winchester, Sept. 19, 1864, 
showed great and unusual gallantry in leading an assault upon a 
battery across a morass over 50 yards wide. His horse becoming 
mired in the morass, Col. Hayes dismounted, waded across on foot, 
under fire of the enemy, and then, finding himself alone in front 
of the battery, signalled to his men to follow. When but about 40 
had crossed, the little band charged the battery and, after a hard 
hand-to-hand fight, drove away the gunners. He again distinguished 
himself at Fisher's hill, routing the enemy by a skillful flank move- 
ment, and his action on the battle field at Cedar creek, Oct. 19, 
1864, secured his commission as brigadier-general at the request 
of Gen. Crook. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 
March 13. 1865, for "gallant and distinguished services in the cam- 
paign of 1864 in West Virginia, and especially at the battles of 
Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, Va." Gen. Hayes was elected repre- 
sentative of the 2nd district of Ohio in the 39th Congress, took his 
seat Dec. 4, 1865, was re-elected to the 40th Congress, and was then 
for two terms governor of Ohio. He was nominated for Congress 
in 1872, declined at first, but, afterward accepting, was defeated by 



126 The Union Army 

1,500 votes. In 1873 he declined to permit the use of his name for 
United States senator, and announced his intention of retiring to 
private life. He was, however, called uptni in 1.S75, much agamst 
his will, to take the Republican nomination for governor, and was 
elected by over 5,000 votes, and as an advocate of sound currency 
and opposed to an unlimited issue of paper money, he became a 
prominent figure in national politics. When the Republican nation- 
al convention met in Cincinnati, June 14, 1876, his name was pre- 
sented as a candidate for president, as were those of James _ G. 
Blaine, Oliver P. Morton, Benjamin F. Bristow, Roscoe Conkling 
and John F. Hartranft. and on the seventh ballot, owing to cjppo- 
sition to Mr. Blaine, Gen. Hayes was nominated. Samuel J. Til- 
den of New York was nominated by the Democrats, and the elec- 
tion was unusually close. Hayes being, however, finally declared 
president after a long and bitter dispute. During his administra- 
tion he favored a sound currency policy and advocated extension 
of the civil service system. After his term of office had expired 
he assisted in the inauguration of James A. Garfield as president, 
and then retired to his home in Fremont, Ohio, where he devoted 
much of his time to benevolent enterprises. He died in Fremont, 
Ohio, Jan. 13. 1893. 

Hays, Alexander, brigadier-general, was born in Franklin, Pa., 
July 8, 1819, and was graduated at the United States military acad- 
emy in 1844. He served in the Mexican war as 2nd lieutenant in 
the 8th infantry, distinguishing himself in the battle near Atlixco, 
then resigned his commission, in 1848, and was an iron manufac- 
turer in Venango county. Pa., 1848-50, assistant engineer on rail- 
roads in 1850-54, and after that until the outbreak of the Civil war 
a civil engineer in Pittsburg. When the war began he re-entered 
the national service as colonel of the 63d Penn. regiment and 
was given the rank of captain in the regular army to date from May 
14, 1861. He served in the Peninsula with the ist brigade of 
Kearny's division of Heintzelman's corps, and his service at Will- 
iamsburg and in the Seven Days' battles won him promotion tn the 
brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel U. S. A. He was wounded at 
second Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862, and his services there and in this 
campaign won him promotion to brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Sept. 29, 1862. He was wounded at Chancellorsville, while at the 
head of his brigade, and at Gettysburg he commanded the 3d divi- 
sion of Hancock's corps, aided in holding Cemetery ridge, and in 
the latter part of the battle, when Hancock was wounded, had 
temporary command of the 2nd corps. Upon the reorganization of 
the army Gen. Hays was placed in command of the 2nd brigade of 
Birney's 3d division of the 2nd army corps. He led his brigade 
in the battle of the W^ilderness, and at the junction of the Germanna 
plank road with the Brock road, during the terrible struggle which 
was the feature of the first day's fighting, he was killed. May 5, 
1864. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers for gallantry. 

Hays, William, brigadier-general, was born in Richmond, Va., 
in 1819. He was graduated at West Point in 1840, served through- 
out the Mexican war as ist lieutenant of artillery, being wounded 
at Molino del Rey and brevetted captain and major. He was pro- 
moted captain in 1853, served in the Seminole war, 1853-54, was 
then on frontier duty, and in the Civil war commanded a brigade 
of flying artillery, 1861-62. He was present at Antietam. and at 
Fredericksburg, where he commanded the right division of the ar- 
tillery reserve, was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 



Biographical Sketches 127 

29, 1862, and at Chancellorsville, in May. 1863, where he command- 
ed the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 2nd army corps, he was wounded 
and taken prisoner. On his recovery he was exchanged and pro- 
moted major in the regular service, and, rejoining the army at Get- 
tysburg, was appointed provost-marshal of the southern district of 
New York. His commission expiring in Feb., 1865, he rejoined 
his regiment at Petersburg and served with the 2nd corps, being 
in command of the reserve artillery until the close of the war. He 
was brevetted brigadier-general U. S. A. on March 13, 1865, for 
gallant and meritorious service in the field during the war, and 
was mustered out of the volunteer service Jan. 15, 1866. He subse- 
quently served at various posts, and was in command of Fort In- 
dependence, Boston harbor, 1873-75. He died in Boston, Mass., 
Feb. 7, 1875. 

Hazen, William B., major-general, was born in West Hartford, 
Vt., Sept. 27. 1830. In 1833 his parents removed to Huron, Ohio. 
He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1855, 
was on duty in California and Oregon until 1857, and was then on 
the Texas frontier, where he distinguished himself in numerous 
engagements with Indians, and was severely wounded. He served 
for a time as assistant professor of infantry tactics at West Point, 
was promoted ist lieutenant, April 6, 1861, and captain. May 14, 
1861. In the autumn of 1861 he organized the 41st Ohio volunteers, 
of which he became colonel, Oct. 29, and commanded in the de- 
fenses of the Ohio frontier and in Kentucky. He was given com- 
mand of a brigade, Jan. 6, 1862, was engaged at Shiloh, the siege 
of Corinth, and the battle of Perryville, and his conduct was such 
as to win him promotion on Nov. 29, 1862, to the rank of brigadier- 
general. His brigade, by a well executed movement at Brown's 
ferry, enabled the army at Chattanooga to receive supplies, and 
at Missionary ridge he captured 18 pieces of field artillery. He 
commanded the 2nd division of the I5tli army corps in the Atlanta 
campaign and in Sherman's march to the sea, and for his action in 
attacking and capturing Fort McAllister, Dec. 13, 1864, he was pro- 
moted major-general of volunteers the same day. He was present 
at Johnston's surrender, and was given command of the 15th army 
corps, May 19, 1865, commanding it until it was disbanded, Aug. i 
of that year. He was brevetted in the regular army lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel, Sept. i, 1864, brigadier- and major-general March 
13, 1865. He was mustered out of the volunteer service in 1866, 
promoted colonel of the 38th infantry, and was transferred to the 
6th infantry in 1869. He was in Paris, France, during the Franco- 
Prussian war, was U. S. military attache at Vienna during the 
Russo-Turkish war, and in the interval between these European 
visits was stationed at Fort Buford, where he made revelations of 
the practices of post traders which resulted in implicating Secre- 
tary of War Belknap. He succeeded Gen. Meyer as chief signal- 
officer in 1880, with the rank of brigadier-general, and during his 
service in this capacity introduced the cold wave signal and inau- 
gurated many reforms which greatly increased the efficiency of the 
service. For his conduct in regard to the Arctic exploring expedi- 
tion of Lieut. Greely, and for severely censuring Secretary Lin- 
coln for not sending out a relief expedition. Gen. Hazen was tried 
by court-martial and reprimanded. He died in Washington, D C 
Jan. 16, 1887. 

Heckman, Charles A., brigadier-general, was born in Easton, 
Pa., Dec. 3, 1822, and was graduated at Minerva seminary in his 



138 The Union Army 

native town in 1837. He served in the Mexican war as sergeant 
in the ist U. S. voltigeurs, and at the beginning of the Civil war, 
on April 20, 1861, was commissioned captain in the ist Penn. regi- 
ment. He became major of the 9th N. J. volunteers, Oct. 3, 1861. 
lieutenant-colonel Dec. 3. colonel Feb. 10, 1862, and on Nov. 29, 
1862, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He served 
in Burnside's expedition to North Carolina and afterward in the 
army of the James, was wounded at New Berne and again at 
Young's cross-roads, N. C, and at Port Walthall, Va., and com- 
manded the defenses of Norfolk and Portsmouth in the winter of 
1863-64. He was captured at Drewry's bluff, Va., May 16, 1864, 
after his brigade had five times repelled a superior force of Con- 
federates, and was taken first to Libby prison and afterward to 
Macon, Ga., and Charleston, S. C, where he was one of the fifty- 
one officers that were placed under fire of the national guns. Being 
exchanged on Aug. 25, he commanded the i8th army corps at the 
capture of Fort Harrison or Chaffin's farm, and was in command 
of the 25th corps in Jan. and Feb., 1865. Resigning at the close 
of the war. May 25, 1865, he retired to civil life and became mem- 
ber of the board of education in Phillipsburg, N. J. Gen. Heck- 
man died Jan. 14, 1896. 

Heintzelman, Samuel P., major-general, was born in Manheim, 
Pa.. Sept. 30, 1805. He was graduated at West Point in 1826, 
served as lieutenant of infantry in the west and in Florida until 
1847 when he was promoted captain, and also served in the Mexi- 
can war, being brevetted major for gallantry at Huamantla. He 
was then in California until 1855, engaged against Indians and in 
establishing Fort Yuma, operated against Mexican marauders on 
the Rio Grande, 1859-60, was brevetted lieutenant-colonel in May, 
1861, for meritorious services against Indians in California, and 
was ordered to Washington. In the same month he was commis- 
sioned colonel of the 17th U. S. infantry and made brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers and inspector-general of troops at Washington. He 
commanded the forces that captured Alexandria, Va., May 24, 1861, and 
distinguished himself at Bull Run, where he commanded the 3d divi- 
sion of McDowell's army, being wounded in that engagement. He com- 
manded the 3d corps in the Army of the Potomac in March, 1862, be- 
fore Yorktown, at Malvern hill, Beaver Dam, Oak Grove, Savage Sta- 
tion, and Frazer's farm, and also in the Peninsular campaign. He 
won promotion to major-general of volunteers for his action in 
the battle of Williamsburg, May 5, 1862, and at Fair Oaks or 
Seven Pines, Va., he distinguished himself in both the first and 
second days' fighting, for which he was brevetted brigadier-gen- 
eral in the regular army. He led the 3d corps in the seven days' 
fighting about Richmond, subsequently joined Pope in his Vir- 
ginia campaign, and at the second battle of Bull Run his corps 
formed the right wing of Pope's army. He was in command of 
the defenses of Washington during the Marjiand campaign, and 
later he was appointed to the command of the department of 
Washington and the 23d corps, which appointment he held during 
the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. He was relieved 
of his command in Oct., 1863, and from Jan. to Oct., 1864, he com- 
manded the northern department, including the states of Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois and Michigan, serving after that on court-martial 
duty. He was brevetted major-general U. S. A. March 13, 1865, 
was mustered out of the volunteer service in August of that year, 
and in September resumed command of his regiment, being sta- 




Brig.-Gen. Herman Haupt 
Brig.-Gen. I. N. Haynie 
Brig.-Gen. Alex. FIays 
Brig.-Gen. C. A. Heckman 



Brig.-Gen. J. P. Hawkins 
Brig.-Gen. Joseph Hayes 
Brig.-Gen. Wm. Hays 
INIaj.-Gcn. S. I'. Heixtzel- 

MAX 



Ilrig.-Gen. J. R. Hawley 
Brig.-Gcn. R. R. Hayes 
Waj.-Gen. \V. B. Hazen 
i\raj.-Gen. K. J. IIerron 



Biographical Sketches 129 

tioned first in New York harbor and subsequently in Texas. He 
was retired with the rank of colonel, Feb. 22, 1869. and on April 
29, 1869, was by special act of Congress placed on the retired list 
with the full rank of major-general to date from his retirement. 
He died in Washington, D. C., May i, 1880. 

Herron, Freincis J., major-general, was born in Pittsburg, Pa., 
Feb. 17, 1837, was educated at the Western University of Pennsyl- 
vania and moved west, becoming a merchant in Dubuque, la., 
where he organized and became captain of the "Governor's Greys" 
in 1861. He entered the volunteer service in April, 1861, as captain 
in the ist Iowa regiment, and commanded his company at Dug 
springs, Ozark and Wilson's creek, and in Sept., 1861, was made 
lieutenant-colonel of the 9th Iowa regiment, which he command- 
ed in the campaign of Gen. S. R. Curtis in 1862, in Missouri, Ar- 
kansas and the Indian territory. For gallantry at Pea ridge, wliere 
he was wounded and taken prisoner, he was promoted brigadier- 
general, July 16, 1862, and he commanded the army of the fron- 
tier in its forced march of 114 miles in three days to relieve Gen. 
James G. Blunt at Prairie Grove, fighting in the battle of Dec. 7 
and winning by this action promotion to major-general of volun- 
teers. Subsequently Gen. Herron captured Van Buren, Ark., was 
in command of the left wing of the investing forces at Vicks- 
burg and of the combined forces of army and navy that invested 
and captured Yazoo City, and was with Capt. John G. Walker 
on board the U. S. gunboat "De Kalb" when that vessel was blown 
up by a torpedo. He was then in command of the 13th army 
corps on the Texas coast, where, with headquarters at Brownsville, 
he prevented the smuggling of cotton into Mexico across the Rio 
Grande, and as confidential agent of the state department aided 
President Juarez in preventing French troops establishing posts 
on the frontier. Being transferred to Baton Rouge, La., in March, 
1865, as commander of the northern division of the state, he co- 
operated with Gen. Canby in his operations against Mobile, and 
subsequently against Gen. Richard Taylor, and in May, 1865, he 
negotiated and received the formal surrender of the Trans-Mis- 
sissippi army including all the forces west of the Mississippi river. 
He was appointed in July, 1865, a commissioner to negotiate treaties 
with the Indian tribes, which commission, as well as that of major- 
general of volunteers, he resigned in August. He then practised 
law in New Orleans, was United States marshal of the district 
of Louisiana from 1867-69, secretary of state of Louisiana in 1872- 
"JZ^ and then took up his residence in New York, where he prac- 
tised his profession and became a prominent member of the G. A. R. 
and the Loyal Legion. Gen. Herron died Jan. 8, 1902. 

Hicks, "Thomas H., brigadier-general, was born in Dorchester 
county, Md., in 1789, frequently served in the legislature of that 
state; was governor from 1858 to 1862: was commissioned briga- 
dier-general of volunteers on July 22, 1862, but declined; and was 
elected a senator in Congress upon the death of James A. Pearce, 
taking his seat during the third session of the 37th Congress, and 
was re-elected for the term ending in 1867. serving on the Com- 
mittee upon Naval Aflfairs, and that on Claims. His firmness and 
adroit management were among the most efficient -means of saving 
Maryland to the Union, when the secession mania began to sweep 
over the South. He refused to call a special meeting of the legis- 
lature to consider an ordinance of secession, and by this most ju- 
dicious act saved his state from the headlong measures that in the 
Vol. VIII— 9 



130 The Union Army 

heat of the moment would probably have been taken. This gave 
time for second thought and the Union element rallied. When the 
attack on the 6th Mass. infantrj^ was made in Baltimore, Gov. 
Hicks issued a proclamation declaring that all his authority would 
be exercised in favor of the government. Before the legislature 
assembled Baltimore was strongly garrisoned and the state saved. 
In his public career he ever proved himself strong and steadfast 
against political pressure. He died suddenly of paralysis at Wash- 
ington on Feb. 13, 1865. 

Hinks, Edward W., brigadier-general, was born in Bucksport, 
Me., May 30, 1830. He was educated in the schools of his native 
village, moved to Bangor in 1845, was printer on the Bangor "Whig 
and Courier" until 1849, when he moved to Boston, and in 1855 he 
was a member of the Massachusetts legislature. He was among 
the first to volunteer his services to help defend Fort Moultrie, 
became lieutenant-colonel of the 8th Mass. regiment in April, and 
while on the march to Washington commanded a party that as- 
sisted in saving the frigate "Constitution" at Annapolis. He was 
for this service commissioned 2nd lieutenant in the regular service, 
April 26, 1861, and he was subsequently promoted colonel of the 
19th Mass. volunteers. May 16, 1861. commanding a brigade in 
Sedgwick's division of the Army of the Potomac, Sept., 1861, to 
Sept., 1862, and taking part in all the engagements from Ball's bluff 
to Antietam, when he was disabled from wounds and forced to re- 
tire from active service. He was promoted brigadier-general of 
volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, was on court-martial duty, 1863-64, com- 
manded the camp of prisoners of war at Camp Lookout, Md., in 
March and April. 1864, and then joined the Army of the James, 
commanding a division of colored troops in the field operations 
of that year, and distinguishing himself in the preliminary engage- 
ments and the assault at Petersburg. He commanded the draft 
rendezvous on Hart's island, N. Y., from Oct., 1864, to Jan., 1865, 
and was then until the close of the war chief mustering officer for 
the United States in New York city. He was brevetted major-gen- 
eral of volunteers, March 13, 1865, was made lieutenant-colonel of 
the 40th U. S. infantry, July 28. 1866, commanded the National 
soldiers' home, and was afterwards deputy-governor of the soldiers' 
homes at Hampton, Va., and IMilwaukee, Wis. Gen. Hinks died in 
Cambridge, Mass.. Feb. 14, 1894. 

Hitchcock, Ethan A., major-general, was born in Vergennes, Vt., 
May 18, 1798. He was graduated at West Point in 1817 and saw 
continuous service in the United States army until 1855. when he 
resigned on account of personal differences with Jef¥erson Davis, 
then secretary of war. He served during this period on frontier 
duty, as instructor and later commandant at West Point, in the 
Seminole war and in the Mexican war, where he won the brevets 
of colonel and brigadier-general for gallantry. At the beginning 
of the Civil war he re-entered the army, was made major-general 
of volunteers and stationed at Washington, where he served on the 
commission for the exchange of prisoners and on that for the re- 
vision of the military code. He was a warm personal friend and 
the military adviser of President Lincoln. After the war he served 
on the Pacific coast, but resigned in 1867 on account of ill health 
and died in Sparta, Ga., Aug. 5, 1870. 

Hobson, Edward H., brigadier-general, was born in Greensburg, 
Ky., July II, 1825. He served in the Mexican war as lieutenant in 
the 2nd Ky. volunteers, distinguishing himself at Bucna Vista, and 



Biographical Sketches 131 

at the outbreak of the Civil war recruited the 13th Ky. volunteers, 
drilling them at Camp Hobson and receiving his commission as 
colonel Jan. i. 1862. He joined Buell's army in Feb., 1862, and 
distinguished himself at Shiloh, where he was wounded. He was 
made a brigadier-general, but did not receive his commission until 
he had still further distinguished himself at the siege of Corinth 
and at Perryville, where he commanded a brigade. The condi- 
tion of his troops after this latter battle relieved the regiment from 
active service, and he was ordered to Munfordville, Ky., where he 
had charge of the drilling of 10,000 recruits. Then, as commander 
of the Southern district of Kentucky, he was chief commander of 
the force engaged in the pursuit of Morgan, whom he followed 
through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio. He was made commander 
of Burnside's cavalry corps but was prevented by ill health from 
serving, and established himself at Lexington, Ky., where he en- 
gaged in repelling raids. He was mustered out of the army in 
Aug., 1865, and having been a banker before the war, resumed tins 
business, became interested also in railroads and was elected presi- 
dent of the southern division of the Cumberland & Ohio railway. 
He was delegate to and vice-president of the Republican national 
convention in 1880. supporting President Grant for the third nom- 
ination. Gen. Hobson died Sept. 14, 1901. 

Holt, Joseph, brigadier-general, was born in Breckenridge county, 
Ky., Jan. 6, 1807, was educated at St. Joseph's college, Bardstown 
and at Centre college, Danville, and in 1828 began to practice law 
in Elizabethtown, Ky. He was then for many years an attorney of 
national reputation. He supported the candidacy of Franklin 
Pierce for the presidency in 1852. that of James Buchanan in 1856, 
and that of Stephen A. Douglas in i860. He was Commissioner of 
Patents in Washington, 1857-59, Postmaster-General 1859-60, and 
Secretary of War, 1860-61. He supported the administration when 
Lincoln succeeded to the presidency, actively co-operated with 
Gen. Scott in providing against hostile demonstrations at the in- 
auguration, and in a report which was afterwards published de- 
scribed the plot which had been formed to seize the capital. In 
the latter part of 1861 he was one of a commission appointed to in- 
vestigate the military claims against the Department of the West, 
and on Sept. 3, 1862, he was appointed by President Lincoln judge- 
advocate-general with the rank of colonel. On the establishment 
of the bureau of military justice in 1864 he was put at its head with 
the same title but with the rank of brigadier-general, and on March 
13, 1865, he was brevetted major-general for "faithful, meritorious 
and distinguished services in the bureau of military justice during 
the war." He conducted the trial of Fitz-John Porter, who was 
charged with disobedience of orders, and also of the trials of the 
accomplices in the assassination of President Lincoln. He was 
retired at his own request m 1875, being over sixty-two years old, 
and he died in Washington, D. C, Aug. i, 1894. 

Hooker, Joseph, major-general, was born at Hadley, Mass., in 
1815, graduated in the military academy at West Point in 1837, and 
served in the Mexican war. rising to the rank of captain of artil- 
lery, and the brevet of lieutenant-colonel in the staff. From 1859 
to 1861 he was a colonel in the California militia. -When the Civil 
war broke out in 1861, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers 
and put in command of the defenses of Washington, Aug. 12, 1861; 
but his commission was dated back to ]\Iay 17. When Gen. Mc- 
Clellan moved to the Peninsula Gen. Hooker's brigade was added 



133 The Union Army 

to the command, and for gallant service at Williamsburg he was 
promoted to be major-general of volunteers, May 5, 1862. During 
Gen. Pope's operations before Washington Gen. Hooker was very 
active, and at Antietam, Sept. 17, was wounded, and was soon after 
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general of the regular army. At 
the disastrous repulse of Burnside at Fredericksburg in December, 
he commanded the center of the army. In Jan., 1863, he was ap- 
pointed to the command of the Army of the Potomac, and on May 
2-4 fought and lost the battle of Chancellorsville. He resigned 
his command on June 28, and remained in Baltimore waiting or- 
ders till Sept. 24, when he was put in command of the 20th army 
corps and sent to Chattanooga, Tenn. He distinguished himself 
at Lookout valley, Lookout mountain. Missionary ridge, and Ring- 
gold, Oct 27 to Nov. 27; was actively engaged in the march to 
Atlanta; again relieved of command, July 30, 1864; in command 
successively of the Northern, Eastern, and Lake departments, and 
of the retiring board till Sept. i, 1866. He was brevetted major- 
general of the United States army in March, 1865. and in conse- 
quence of disability put upon the retired list, with the full rank 
of major-general, in 1868. He died at Garden City, L. L, Oct. 31, 

1879. 

Hovey, Alvin P., brigadier-general, was born in Posey county, 
Ind., Sept. 6, 1821. He was educated in the Mount Vernon com- 
mon schools, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1843, prac- 
tising subsequently with great success. He was a delegate to the 
state constitutional convention in 1850, judge of the third judicial 
circuit, 1851-54. judge of the state supreme court, 1854-56; president 
of the state Democratic convention, in 1855, U. S. district attorney 
for Indiana, 1855-58. and in 1858 an unsuccessful candidate for 
Congress. He entered the service of the United States in 1861 as 
colonel of the 24th Ind. volunteers and was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers, April 28, 1862. He commanded the eastern 
district of Arkansas in 1863 and the district of Indiana in 1864-65. 
Gen. Grant accredited him in his official report with the honor of 
the key-battle of the Vicksburg campaign, that of Champion's hill. 
Gen. Hovey resigned Oct. 7, 1865. and was, from 1865-70, by ap- 
pointment of President Lincoln, U. S. minister to Peru. He was 
a Republican representative in the soth Congress, 1887-89 ; governor 
of Indiana, 1889-91, and Republican candidate for the United States 
senate in Jan., 1891. He died in Indianapolis, Ind.. Nov. 23, 1891. 

Hovey, Charles E., brigadier-general, was born in Thetford, Vt., 
April 26, 1827. He was educated at Dartmouth college, where he 
was graduated in 1852; was principal of the high school in Farm- 
ingham, Mass., 1852-54; of the boys' high school, Peoria, 111., 1854- 
56; superintendent of public schools of Peoria, 1856-57; president 
of the state teachers' association. 1856; organizer and first president 
of the Illinois state normal university, 1857-61. He entered the 
national service in Aug.. 1861, as colonel of the 33d 111. regiment, 
which was composed principally of young men from the state col- 
leges, and on Sept. 5, 1862, he was promoted brigadier-general. He 
was forced by ill health to resign from the army in the spring of 
1863, and on March 13, 1865, was given the brevet rank of major- 
general of volunteers "for gallant and meritorious conduct in bat- 
tle, particularly at Arkansas Post, Jan. 11, 1863." After the war 
Gen. Hovey practised law in Washington. He died in Washington, 
D. C, Nov. 17, 1897. 

Howard, Oliver O., major-general, was born at Leeds. Kenne- 



Biographical Sketches 133 

bee count3^ Me., Nov. 8, 1830. Having finished preparation at 
Monmouth and Yarmouth, at the age of sixteen he entered Bow- 
doin college, in which he was graduated in 1850, with a fair stand- 
ing. An opportunity was then afforded him to enter the United 
States military academy, and he became a cadet in that institution, 
graduating in 1854. He stood fourth in his class, and by his own 
request was assigned to the ordnance department with the brevet 
rank of second lieutenant. His first service was at Watervliet, N. Y., 
and Kennebec arsenal, Me., and he next served in Florida, being 
chief ordnance officer during Gen. Harney's campaign against the 
Indians. The following year he was promoted first lieutenant, and 
was assigned to duty as acting professor of mathematics at West 
Point, which position he continued to hold until the breaking out 
of the Civil war. In 1861 Lieut. Howard volunteered his services 
to the governor of his native state, and was finally, by a regimen- 
tal election, made colonel of the 3d regiment, Me. volunteers. His 
commission bore the date of May 28, and by June i he was on 
his way to the national capital with a full regiment. Col. How- 
ard commanded the 3d brigade of the 3d division during the bat- 
tle of Bull Run, July 21, and for his conduct during this cam- 
paign was created brigadier-general of volunteers on Sept. 3. He 
bore a prominent part in the movement toward the Rappahannock 
in the spring of 1862, and was then transferred to the Peninsula, 
where he participated in the advance against Richmond. He was 
twice wounded in the right arm at the battle of Fair Oaks on May 
31, while leading his brigade in a charge against the enemy, and he 
lost that arm by amputation. In two months and twenty days af- 
ter Fair Oaks Gen. Howard returned to his corps, and was in the 
Pope campaign in Virginia, participating in the second battle of 
Bull Run, and during the retreat from Centerville to Washington, 
he commanded the rear guard of the army, which was under hre 
almost continuously. In the Maryland campaign he commanded 
a brigade until Antietam, where Gen. Sedgwick was wounded, 
when he took charge of that general's division, which he also com- 
manded at Fredericksburg. In November he was promoted to the 
rank of major-general of volunteers, and in the following spring 
he succeeded Gen. Sigel as commander of the nth army corps, 
which he led during the sanguinary battles at Chancellorsville and 
Gettysburg. In Oct., 1863, Gen. Howard's corps was engaged in 
the fighting in Lookout valley, and he received Gen. Thomas' com- 
mendation in further orders the following month, when he fought 
under Grant in the battle of Chattanooga, gaining distinction. Dur- 
ing Sherman's Atlanta campaign in the spring of 1864, Gen. How- 
ard was in command of the new 4th corps, which formed a part of 
the army of the Cumberland, seeing severest service for 100 days. 
When Gen. McPherson fell before Atlanta, Gen. Howard succeed- 
ed him as commander of the Army and Department of the Tennes- 
see, and throughout the whole of the grand march through Geor- 
gia his corps formed the right of Sherman's army. For his part 
in this campaign he was appointed brigadier-general in the regu- 
lar army. He commanded the same wing during the movement 
through the Carolinas, and assisted in the operations by virtue of 
which Johnston's army was forced to surrender in 1865. For this 
portion of the campaign Gen. Howard was brevetted major-gen- 
eral of the regular army. On May 12, 1865, he was assigned to 
duty in the war department in the bureau of refugees, freedmen, 
and abandoned lands, in which position he remained until July, 



134 The Union Army 

1874, when he was assigned to the command of the Department 
of the Columbia. In 1877 he commanded a successful expedition 
against the Nez Perces Indians, his infantry marching over 1,400 
miles, and the following year another, nearly as extended, against 
the Bannocks and Piutes. In 1881-82 Gen. Howard was superin- 
tendent of the United States military academy, and from 1882-86 
he commanded the Department of the Platte at Omaha, Neb. In 
1886 he was commissioned major-general and placed in command 
of the division of the Pacific; and after the death of Gen. Sheri- 
dan, and the assignment of Maj.-Gen. Schofield to command the 
U. S. army, Gen. Howard was appointed to the command of the 
division of the Atlantic, with headquarters at Governor's island 
in the harbor of New York. He was placed upon the retired list, 
Nov. 8, 1894. 

Howe, Albion P., brigadier-general, was born in Standish, Me., 
March 13, 1818. He was graduated at West Point in 1841 and en- 
tered the 4th artillery, was teacher of mathematics at the military 
academy from 1843 to 1846, and then served in the Mexican war, 
winning the brevet of captain for gallant and meritorious conduct 
in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco. He became captain in 
1855 and subsequently received promotions to the rank of briga- 
dier-general U. S. A., which he received in 1882, the year in which 
he was retired. He was chief of artillery in AlcClellan's army in 
western Virginia in 1861 and commanded a brigade of light artil- 
lery in the Army of the Potomac in the Peninsular campaign of 
1862. He became brigadier-general of volunteers, June 11, 1862, 
commanding at first a brigade in Couch's division, 4th army corps, 
and took part in the battles of Malvern hill, Manassas, South 
mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg, and from 1864- 
66 commanded the artillery depot, Washington, D. C. He was 
given the brevet ranks of brigadier-general and major-general U. S. A., 
March 13, 1865, having previously been awarded the intervening 
brevets and on July 13, 1865, was brevetted major-general of vol- 
unteers. After the war he served in the bureau of refugees, freed- 
men and abandoned lands, and subsequently in command of various 
posts until retired. He died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 25, 1897. 

Howell, Joshua B., brigadier-general, was a native of Somerset 
county, Pa. He was commissioned colonel of the 85th Penn. regi- 
ment, Nov. 12, 1861, and joined McClellan on the Peninsula. He 
participated with his regiment in the operations which drove the 
enemy in upon their capital, engaged in the battle of Fair Oaks, 
where the regiment lost heavily in killed and wounded, and, after 
the evacuation of the Peninsula, made a short excursion into the 
interior of North Carolina, being transferred then to the Depart- 
ment of the South, where Col. Howell was given command of a 
brigade, which he continued to command during most of the re- 
mainder of his service. He was employed in the operations for 
the reduction of Charleston, taking part in the siege of Fort Wagner, 
and in April, 1864, was ordered with his command to Virginia. 
Here, on May 20, he distinguished himself by leading his brigade 
in a daring charge on the enemy's works, and subsequently he 
participated in the vigorous operations of the lOth corps on the 
north side of the James, leading his brigade until early in Septem- 
ber, when he was given command of a division of colored troops. 
On the I2th of the month he received injuries from a fall of his 
horse which proved fatal, and he was given his commission as 
brigadier-general of volunteers to date from that day. He died 
Sept. 14, 1864. 



Biographical Sketches 135 

Humphreys, Andrew A., major-general, was born in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Nov. 2. 1810, and was graduated at the United States 
military academy in 1831. From the time of his graduation until 
the outbreak of the Civil war, with the exception of two years, 
1836-38, when he was employed by the U. S. government as a civil 
engineer, he was constantly on duty, most of the time in the engi- 
neer department, engaging in topographical and hydrographical 
surveys of the delta of the Mississippi river, and on other impor- 
tant engineering works, and on Aug. 6, 1861, was promoted major, 
corps of topographical engineers. He was chief topographical en- 
gineer under Gen. G. B. AlcClellan at Washington, Dec, 1861, to 
March, 1862, and in the Army of the Potomac, being engaged in the 
defenses of Washington, the siege of Yorktown, the battles of 
Williamsburg, and the movements and operations before Richmond. 
He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, April 28, 1862, and 
in September of that year assumed command of a division of new 
troops in the 5th corps of the Army of the Potomac, which divi- 
sion he led in the Maryland campaign. He engaged in the battles 
of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, at the latter commanding 
the extreme left of the armj^; was then transferred to the command 
of the 2nd division of the 3d corps, which he commanded at Gettys- 
burg under Gen. Daniel E. Sickles, and he was promoted major- 
general of volunteers, July 8, 1863. From that time until Nov., 
1864, he served as chief-of-staf¥ to Gen. Meade, and was then giv- 
en command of the 2nd corps, which he commanded in the siege 
of Petersburg, the actions of Hatcher's run, and the subsequent 
operations ending in the surrender of Lee's army. Having previ- 
ously been promoted lieutenant-colonel of engineers and brevetted 
colonel, U. S. A., for gallantry at Fredericksburg, Gen. Humph- 
reys was awarded, on March 13, 1865, the brevet of brigadier-gen- 
eral, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious service at the battle of 
Gettysburg, and that of major-general, U. S. A., for similar serv- 
ice at Sailor's creek. He was mustered out of the volunteer serv- 
ice, Sept. I, 1866, having served after the march to Washington 
following Lee's surrender, in command of the District of Penn- 
sylvania and subsequently in charge of the Mississippi levees. He 
was made brigadier-general and chief of engineers, Aug. 8, 1866, 
the highest scientific appointment in the United States army, with 
charge of the engineer bureau in Washington. This ofifice he held 
until June 30, 1879, when he was retired at his own request, serv- 
ing during this period on lighthouse and other important boards. 
During his military career he served in seventy engagements, cov- 
ering Indian warfare and the Civil war. He was a member of va- 
rious scientific societies and author of several works on scientific 
and historical subjects. Gen. Humphreys died in Washington, 
D. C, Dec. 27. 1883. 

Hunt, Henry J., brigadier-general, was born in Detroit, Mich., 
Sept. 14, 1819. He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1839, served in the Canada border disturbances of 
that year, and afterwards until the Mexican war was stationed at 
forts and on recruiting duty, being promoted ist lieutenant in 1846. 
He was brevetted captain for gallantry at Contreras and Churu- 
busco, and major for services at Chapultepec, wa's engaged also at 
Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, San Antonio, Molino del Rey, where he 
was twice wounded, and in the assault and capture of- the City of 
Mexico. He was promoted captain in 1852, was placed in com- 
mand of Harper's Ferry, Jan. 3, 1861, was promoted major. May 



136 The Union Army 

14, 1861, and in the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, commanded 
the artillery on the extreme left. After being in charge of the de- 
fenses of Washington, July to Sept., 1861, he was placed on the 
staff of Gen. McClellan, Sept. 28, with the rank of colonel, and he 
organized the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac, which 
he commanded at Gaines' mill. July 2-7, 1861, and rendered conspic- 
uous service in covering the retreat of McClellan's army to Malvern 
hill, at the battle of that place, July i, 1862, distinguishing himself 
and having two horses shot under him. He was promoted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers in Sept., 1862, and as chief of artillery 
of the Army of the Potomac was present at Fredericksburg, where 
he commanded the artillery, posting 147 guns on Stafford heights, 
Nov. 21, 1862, and he also commanded the artillery in the Chan- 
cellorsville campaign. For his services at Gettysburg, where he 
was chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac, he was brevetted 
colonel U. S. A., and he was given the brevet of major-general of 
volunteers, July 6, 1864. "for faithful and highly meritorious serv- 
ices" in the campaign from the Rapidan to Petersburg. For serv- 
ices in the campaign ending with Lee's surrender he was brevetted 
brigadier-general U. S. A., and for services in the war, major- 
general U. S. A., the last two brevets dating from March 13, 1865. 
He was made colonel of the 5th U. S. artillery, April 4, 1869; was 
retired from active service, Sept. 14, 1883, and commanded the Sol- 
diers' Home, Washington, until 1889. Gen. Hunt died in Washing- 
ton, D. C., Feb. II, 1889. 

Hunt, Lewis C, brigadier-general, was born in Fort Howard, 
Green Bay. Wis., Feb. 23, 1824, and was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy at West Point in 1847. He was assigned to the 
infantry, served on the Pacific coast and commanded the U. S. de- 
tachment in the joint occupation of San Juan island in 1859, hav- 
ing been promoted captain in 1855. He was ordered to Washington 
on the outbreak of the Civil war, took part in the Peninsular cam- 
paign of 1862, was made colonel of the 92nd N. Y. volunteers, 
May 21, 1862, and was severely wounded at Fair Oaks. He re- 
ceived promotion to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Nov. 29, 1862, and served during the winter of 1862-63 in North 
Carolina, receiving the brevet of colonel for gallantry at Kinston. 
He was made major of the 14th infantry, June 8. 1863, was in charge 
of the draft rendezvous at New Haven, Conn., 1863-64, was then 
on special duty in Missouri and Kansas, and after that commanded 
the defenses of New York harbor, 1864-66. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general U. S. A. for his services in the war, March 13, 
1865, and afterwards served in command of various posts, becom- 
ing lieutenant-colonel in 1868 and colonel of the 14th infantry. May 
19, 1881. He died at Fort Union, N. M., Sept. 6, 1886. 

Hunter, David, major-general, was born in Washington, D. C, 
July 21, 1802, was graduated at West Point in 1822, and after be- 
coming captain in the ist dragoons in 1833, resigned his commis- 
sion in 1836 to go into business in Chicago. He rejoined the 
army as paymaster with the rank of major in 1842 and was chief 
paymaster of Gen. John E. Wool's command in the Mexican war, 
serving after that at New Orleans and at other posts, including 
those on the frontier. He was assigned, in Feb., 1861, to accom- 
pany President-elect Lincoln from his home in Springfield, III., 
to Washington, but at Buffalo his collar-bone was dislocated by 
the pressure of the crowd that gathered to see Lincoln, and he 
did not arrive at Washington until May 14. He was then ap- 






-^ 




■j-ikX **' 






%1ps. 




Brig. -Gen. E. W. HiNKS ?»laj.-r.eii. E. A. Urn u Ki i^;. ('.cn. i;. H. T1.ihs..n 

Erig.-Gen. Joseph Holt ccck Jtrig.(,cii. A. 1'. Hovey 

Brig.-Gen. C. R. IIovey Maj.-Gen. Joseph Hooker Brig.-Gen. A. P. Howe 

Brig.-Gen. J. B. Howell Maj.-Gen. O. O. Howard lirig.-Gen. H. J. Hunt 
Maj.-Gen. A. A. Humph- 
reys 



Biographical Sketches 137 

pointed colonel of the 6th U. S. cavalry, and three days later was 
given a commission as brigadier-general of volunteers. He com- 
manded the main column of McDowell's army in the Manassas 
campaign, was severely wounded at Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and 
on Aug. I, 1861, was made major-general of volunteers, serving 
under Gen. Fremont i-n Missouri, and on Nov. 2 succeeding "him in 
the command of the western department. He commanded the De- 
partment of Kansas from Nov., 1861, until March, 1862, and by 
his prompt reinforcement of Grant at Fort Donclson, at the so- 
licitation of Gen. Halleck, made possible the victory of Feb. 16, 
1862. In March, 1862, Gen. Hunter was transferred to the Depart- 
ment of the South, with headquarters at Port Royal, S. C.. and 
his first effective movement was the capture of Fort Pulaski, April 
II, 1862. Finding there a large number of able-bodied, idle ne- 
groes, willing to enlist in the United States service, Gen. Hunter 
on April 12 issued an order declaring that slavery and martial law 
were incompatible, further declaring free all slaves in Fort Pu- 
laski and on Cockburn island, Ga., and on May 9, he extended the 
declaration to slaves in Georgia, Florida and South Carolina. On 
May 19, President Lincoln issued a proclamation which declared 
Gen. Hunter's order entirely void and given without authority. 
On June 16, 1862, an expedition against Charleston by way of 
James island resulted in the disastrous battle of Secessionville — 
an attack which, according to Gen. Hunter's report, was made 
contrary to his orders. Gen. Hunter organized the ist S. C. vol- 
unteers, a regiment composed of refugee slaves which was the first 
of the kind to be mustered into the U. S. volunteer service. In 
September he was ordered to Washington and was made president 
of a court of inquiry to investigate the causes for the surrender 
of Harper's Ferry and other matters, and he subsequently served 
as president of the court-martial instituted by Gen. Pope to try 
Gen. Fitz-John Porter for disobedience to orders. He was placed 
in command of the Department of West Virginia in May, 1864, 
defeated a Confederate force at Piedmont on June 5, moved on 
Lynchburg on the 8th by way of Lexington, where he burned the 
place, and on the i6th of June invested Lynchburg, falling back 
then by way of the Kanawha river, thus bringing his army to the 
Ohio river and leaving the valley for several weeks open to the 
mercy of Early. Gen. Hunter was then on leave of absence until 
Feb. I, 1865, after which he served on courts-martial, being presi- 
dent of the commission that tried the persons who were charged 
with conspiring for the assassination of President Lincoln. He 
was brevetted major-general U. S. A.. March 13, 1865, and was. 
mustered out of the volunteer service in Jan., 1866. He was retired 
the following July and died in Washington, D. C, Feb. 2. 1886. 

Hurlbut, Stephen A., rnajor-general, was born in Charleston, S. C, 
Nov. 29, 1815. He studied law and practised in Charleston until 
1845, serving as adjutant in a South Carolina regiment during the 
Seminole war in Florida, and then moved to Illinois, and prac- 
tised law in Belvidere. He was a member of the Illinois consti- 
tutional convention of 1847, a Taylor and Fillmore elector in 1848 
and a member of the legislature. 1859-61. He ejntered the Fed- 
eral army at the beginning of the Civil war, being appointed bri- 
gadier-general of volunteers. May 17. 1861. was stationed at various 
posts in Missouri. 1861-62, and after the evacuation of Fort Don- 
elson by the Confederates, in Feb., 1862. was made commander 
of the fort. When Grant's army moved up the Tennessee river 



138 The Union Army 

he commanded the 4tli division, and arrivii;^ at Pittsburg landing 
a week in advance of reinforcements, he held the place alone. He 
took part in the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, was promoted for 
his services major-general of volunteers, Sept. 17. 1862, and after 
the battle of Corinth pursued the retreating Confederates and en- 
gaged them in battle at Hatchie bridge, Oct. 6. He vi^as engaged in 
the Vicksburg campaign from Nov., 1862, and after the reorgan- 
ization of the forces under Gen. Grant, Dec. 18, 1862, was com- 
mander of the i8th army corps. He commanded Memphis in Sept., 

1863, led a corps under Sherman in the expedition to JNIeridian in Feb., 

1864, and in May, 1864. succeeded Gen. Banks as commander of the 
Department of the Gulf, continuing in command until mustered out of 
the service at the close of the war. Gen. Hurlbut was a pioneer mover 
in the formation of the order of the Grand Army of the Republic arid 
was its first commander-in-chief. 1866-68. He was a representative in 
the state legislature in 1867, Republican elector-at-large from Illinois 
in 1868, and from 1868-73 was U. S. minister to Columbia, S. A., under 
appointment by President Grant. He then served in Congress until 
1877, and was in 1881 appointed by President Garfield minister to Peru. 
He died in Lima, Peru, March 27. 1882. 

Ingalls, Rufus, brigadier-general, was born in Denmark, Me., 
Aug. 23, 1818. He was graduated at West Point in 1843, joined the 
riflemen but was transferred to the ist dragoons in 1845, and during 
the Mexican war fought in the battles of Embudo and Taos. He 
was promoted ist lieutenant in 1847 and assistant quartermaster 
with the rank of captain in 1848, and then served in California and 
Oregon until the outbreak of the Civil war, when he was ordered 
east and sent with a detachment to reinforce Fort Pickens, Pen- 
sacola harbor. He joined the Army of the Potomac in July. 1861, 
and in September of that year was assigned to the staflf of Gen. 
McClellan with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was appointed 
major in the quartermaster's department, Jan. 12, 1862, and was 
then chief quartermaster of the Army of the Potomac until 1865. 
He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. May 2^, 1863, 
and colonel and assistant quartermaster-general July 29, 1866. He 
was present at the battles of South mountain, Antietam, Freder- 
icksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and the subsequent battles 
till the surrender of Lee, and at the surrender of the latter at Ap- 
pomattox. He was brevetted, on March 13. 1865, lieutenant-colonel, 
colonel, brigadier-general and major-general in the regular army, 
and major-general of volunteers, for faithful and meritorious serv- 
ices. After the war he was on duty in Washington, D. C, as chief 
quartermaster in New York, and subsequently at Chicago and 
Washington, and on Feb. 23, 1882, was promoted brigadier-general 
and quartermaster-general of the army. He was retired at his own 
request. July i, 1883, and died in New York city, Jan. 15, 1893. 

Jackson, Conrad P., brigadier-general, was born in Pennsylvania, 
Sept. II, 1813. He was an employee of the Philadelphia & Reading 
railroad from its beginning until 1861, when he resigned to become 
colonel of the 9th Penn. reserves. He commanded the regiment in 
the protection of the national capital and at the battle of Dranes- 
ville, Va., and served under Gen. McCall in the Peninsular cam- 
paign, being attached to Sej^mour's brigade and succeeding to the 
command of the brigade when Seymour took charge of the division. 
In July, 1862, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general of 
volunteers and fought at second Bull Run, South mountain and An- 
tietam. He fell while leading a charge in command of the attack- 



Biographical Sketches 139 

ing column, at Fredericksburg, Va., and died on the battlefield, 
Dec. 13, 1862. 

Jackson, James S., brigadier-general, was born in Fayette coun- 
ty, Ky., Sept. 27, 1823. He was graduated at Jefferson college. Pa., 
studied law at Transylvania university, and began practice in 1845. 
The following year he assisted in organizing a regiment of volun- 
teers for the Mexican war, and served for a time as lieutenant. 
While in Mexico he became involved in a quarrel with Col. Thomas 
F. Marshall, which resulted in a duel, whereupon he resigned from 
the army to escape trial by court-martial. He resumed his law 
practice at Greenupsburg, and afterward at Hopkinsville, K3'., was 
elected a representative to the 37th U. S. Congress, and served in 
the first session from July 4, to Aug. 6, 1861. During the recess in 
the autumn of 1861, he organized the 3d Ky cavalry, of which he 
became colonel. He participated in the battle of Shiloh, where his 
regiment was in Rousseau's 4th brigade of the 2nd division, and on 
July 16, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. 
He was assigned to the command of a division of McCook's corps 
of the Army of the Ohio, and with his division participated in the 
battles of luka and Corinth, and while leading his men at the bat- 
tle of Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862, received a wound from which he died 
almost instantly. 

Jackson, Nathaniel J., brigadier-general, was born in Newbury- 
port, Mass., July 28, 1818. He became a machinist and at the out- 
break of the Civil war was superintendent of the Hill mills at Lew- 
iston, Me. He became colonel of the ist Maine regiment. May 3, 
1861, and on Sept. 3, following, colonel of the 5th Maine infantry. 
He was wounded at the battle of Gaines' mill, June 27, 1862, was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, Sept. 24, and served 
as commander of the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 12th army corps. 
He was again wounded at Chancellorsville, and when able to leave 
the hospital was given command of Riker's island and later of Hart 
island. New York harbor. When able to bear arms he was assigned 
to command the ist division, 20th army corps, and took part in 
Sherman's march to the sea and the invasion of the Carolinas, his 
last engagement bemg at Averasboro, N. C, March 16, 1865. He 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, and 
was mustered out of the service Aug. 24 of that j^ear. After the 
war he became interested in coal mining. He died in Jamestown, 
N. Y., April 21, 1892. 

Jackson, Richard H., brigadier-general, was born in Ireland, July 
14, 1830. He migrated to America in early life and, entering the 
United States army as a private in 1851, he served in Florida against 
the Seminole Indians and in Nebraska and the western territories, 
and in Sept., 1859. passed the examinations before a regimental 
board and the academic board at the U. S. military academy, and 
was appointed brevet 2nd lieutenant, 4th U. S. artillery. He then 
served at Fort Monroe and in Texas, being promoted first lieuten- 
ant of the 1st artillery, May 14, 1861; engaged in the defense of 
Fort Pickens and in the capture of Pensacola, Fla.; served in the 
field with the loth army corps. Department of the South; was on 
Folly island, S. C, during the operations against^ Fort Sumter, and 
then took part with the Army of the James in the final campaign 
terminating in the surrender of Lee. He was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, May 19, 1865, was brevetted major-general of 
volunteers, Nov. 24, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services, 
and was mustered out of the volunteer service, Feb. i, 1866. In 



140 The Union Army 

the regular army he received the brevets including that of brigadier- 
general. Gen. Jackson was promoted major of the 5th artillery, 
July 5, 1880, and lieutenant-colonel of the 4th artillery, Dec. 4, 1888, 
serving at various posts. He died Nov. 28, 1892. 

Jameson, Charles D., brigadier-general, was born in Gorham, Me., 
Feb. 24, 1827. He was educated in the public schools, became a 
prosperous lumberman, and in i860 was a delegate to the Demo- 
cratic national convention in Charleston, S. C. He was a member 
of the state militia, and in May, 1861, was placed in command of the 
2nd Maine regiment, the first that left that state for the seat of 
war. He led his regiment at Bull Run, and for protecting the 
Federal retreat to Centerville he was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, Sept. 3, 1861. He was an unsuccessful Demo- 
cratic candidate for governor of Maine in 1861 and again in 1862. 
Gen. Jameson participated in the Seven Days' battles about Rich- 
mond, commanding the 1st brigade of Kearny's 3d division, Heint- 
zelman's 3d army corps, and after the battle of Fair Oaks \vas 
stricken with camp fever and forced to return to Maine. He died 
in Oldtown, Me., Nov. 6, 1862. 

Johnson, Andrew, brigadier-general, was born in Raleigh, N. C., 
Dec. 29, 1808. Moving to Tennessee when a young man, he became 
prominent in politics, was for several terms a member of the state 
legislature, and represented his district in Congress from 1843-1853. 
He was then elected governor of Tennessee, was re-elected in 1855, 
and in 1857 was elected to the United States senate. In the senate 
he strongly opposed secession and said that he was in favor of having 
secessionists arrested and tried for treason. Johnson held his seat in 
the United States senate until 1862, when he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln military governor of Tennessee, ranking as brigadier- 
general of volunteers. His service in the war was in this capacity, 
and it was chiefly due to his courage that Nashville was held against 
a Confederate force. He urged the holding of Union meetings 
throughout the state, raised twenty-five regiments for service in the 
state, and levied a tax on the wealthy southern sympathizers to be 
used in behalf of the families of the poorer Confederate soldiers. He 
exercised during his term of office absolute and autocratic powers, but 
with moderation and discretion, and his course strengthened the 
Union cause in Tennessee. Upon the renomination of Mr. Lincoln for 
the presidency Mr. Johnson was nominated for vice-president, and when 
President Lincoln was assassinated Johnson was immediately sworn 
in as president, April 15. 1865. Johnson's course as president does not 
concern this volume. After the expiration of his term of office he re- 
turned to Tennessee, and in 1875 was elected U. S. senator. He died 
at Carter's station. Carter county, Tenn., July 30, 1875. 

Johnson, Richard W., brigadier-general, was born near Smithland, 
Livingston county, Ky., Feb. 7, 1827, and was graduated at West 
Point in 1849. He was promoted ist lieutenant of the 2nd cavalry 
in 1855, was promoted captain in 1856 and served on the Texas fron- 
tier until 1861. He was then assigned to the 3d Ky., cavalry with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel; was promoted brigadier-general Oct. 11, 
and, being assigned a brigade in Gen. Buell's army, engaged at Shi- 
loh, Tenn., and served also in Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky. He 
engaged in the siege of Corinth, commanded a division in the Army 
of the Ohio in the Tennessee campaign, in July, 1862, was taken pris- 
oner at Gallatin, Aug. 21, 1862, and after his exchange in December, 
was placed in command of the 12th division of the Army of the Cum- 
berland. He was at Stone's river, Chickamauga, Missionary ridge, 





riiig.-Cen. L. C. Hunt 
Brig.-Gen. RuFfs Ingalls 
Brig.-Gen. N. J. Jackson 
Brig.-Gen. Andrew John- 
son 



Maj.-Con. Daxid Hintf.r 
Brig.-Gen. C. F. Jackson 
Brig.-Gen. R. H. Jackson 
Brig.-Gen. R. \V. Johnson 



^laj.-Gen. S. A. Murlblt 
Brig.-Gen. J. S. Jackson 
Brig.-G.en. C. I). Jameson 
Brig.-Gen. P. }I. Jones 



Biographical Sketches 141 

and in the Atlanta campaign, engaging in all the battles from Chatta- 
nooga to New Hope Church, where he was severely wounded, May 
28, 1864. He subsequently commanded a division of cavalry at the 
battle of Nashville, was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular 
army, March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services, and at 
the same time major-general U. S. A. for his services in the field 
during the war, and he remained on the stafif of Gen. Thomas as 
provost-marshal and judge-advocate of the military district of the 
Tennessee until 1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer 
service. He was retired with the rank of major, Oct. 12, 1867, and 
with the rank of brigadier-general March 3, 1875. Gen. Johnson was 
military professor in the University of Missouri, 1868-69, ^nd in the 
University of Minnesota, 1869-70. He was the unsuccessful candi- 
date of the Democratic party for governor of Minnesota in 1881. He 
died in St. Paul, Minn., April 21, 1897. 

Jones, Patrick H., brigadier-general, was born in Ireland. Mi- 
grating to America he entered the service of the United States early 
in the Civil war, becoming 2nd lieutenant in the 37th N. Y. infantry, 
June 7, 1861. He was promoted ist lieutenant and adjutant, Nov. 4, 
and major Jan. 21, i8(52. The 37th N. Y. distinguished itself at 
Williamsburg and Fair Oaks, and at the battle of Fredericksburg 
contributed largely in repulsing the enemy. Maj. Jones became colonel 
of the 154th N. Y. regiment, which he had been instrumental in en- 
listing, on Oct. 8, 1862, and was promoted brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers, Dec. 6, 1864. His regiment fought at Chancellorsville, Get- 
tysburg, and Wauhatchie in the Chattanooga and Rossville campaign, 
the Atlanta campaign and the march to the sea, and the campaign 
of the Carolinas, taking part in all tlie principal battles. Gen. Jones 
was mustered out of the service, June 17, 1865. He died July 2^^, 1900. 

Judah, Henry M., brigadier-general, was born in Snow Hill, Md., 
June 12, 1821. He was graduated at the United States military acade- 
my in 1843, entering the 8th infantry, in the Mexican war led his 
company in storming the city of Monterey, and won the brevets of 
1st lieutenant and captain for his bravery at Molino del Rey and the 
capture of the City of Mexico. He was promoted captain in the 4th 
infantrj' in 1853 and served actively against Indians in California, 
Washington, and Oregon until the Civil war. when he became colonel 
of a volunteer regiment, being promoted subsequently brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers March 21, 1862. He was acting inspector-gen- 
eral of the Army of the Tennessee, and then, resigning his staff ap- 
pointment, commanded the ist division of the Army of the Reserve 
until the evacuation of Corinth by the Confederate troops, after 
which he was reappointed acting inspector-general of the Army of 
the Ohio in Oct., 1862, unsuccessfully opposed the advance of Morgan 
across the Cumberland river, and was active in the pursuit of the 
Confederate general, following him to near Salineville, Ohio, where 
Morgan surrendered, July 26, 1863. Gen. Judah commanded the right 
wing of the 2nd division of Schofield's Army of the Ohio at Resaca, 
Ga., May 14, 1864, losing 600 men in the struggle. He was mus- 
tered out of the volunteer service. Aug. 24, 1865. having received, 
on March 13. 1865, the brevets of lieutenant-colonel and colonel in 
the regular army for gallant and meritorious services in the war, 
and he was made commander of the post at Plattsburg, N. Y., 
where he died, Jan. 14, 1866. 

Kammerling, Gustave, brigadier-general, was a patriotic Ger- 
man citizen of the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, and upon the outbreak 
of the Civil war he enrolled himself as a member of the Qth Ohio 



142 The Union Army 

infantry for the three months' service, being mustered in on May 
8, 1861, as captain of Co. F. Before leaving the state he learned 
of the president's call for volunteers to serve three years and im- 
mediately agreed to enlist for that period, his company being trans- 
ferred as a body to the three years' organization, M^hich was also 
numbered as the 9th Ohio infantry. Capt. Kammcrling's first ex- 
perience in actual vv^arfare was at the battle of Rich mountain, W. 
Va., and with his regiment he was also engaged at Carnifix Ferry. 
His command also participated in the battle of Mill Springs, Ky., 
where it made a decisive charge, completely routing the Confed- 
erates. Capt. Kammerling was promoted to major on Nov. i, 1861, 
lieutenant-colonel on March 8, 1862, and he was commissioned colonel 
and took chief command of his regiment on Aug. 6, 1862. In the 
second day's fighting in the battle of Chickamauga he led his regi- 
ment in the famous bayonet charge of Van Derveer's brigade ; and 
in the afternoon of the same day, while holding the hill on which 
the right of Gen. Thomas' corps rested, his regiment once more 
drove the Confederates back at the point of the bayonet. On Jan. 
5, 1864, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, but 
declined the profifered honor and continued to serve with his regi- 
ment. With it he participated in the battle of Resaca, Ga., and on 
May 20 entered upon his last march against the enemy, moving 
from Kingston to the Etowah river. Up to the last moment his regi- 
ment stood within range of the enemy's guns and from the very 
outer picket line it was relieved by Gen. Thomas, in person, and 
started for Cincinnati. Gen. Kammerling was mustered out with 
the regiment on June 7, 1864, and then engaged in peaceful pursuits 
in the city of his adoption. 

Kane, Thomas L., brigadier-general, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., Jan. 27, 1822. He was educated in Paris, France, and on his 
return to America studied law, was admitted to the bar, and was a 
clerk in the United States district court until the passage of the fu- 
gitive slave law, when he resigned. He visited the Mormon settle- 
ment near Commerce, 111., in 1847, and during the migration to Utah 
so won the confidence of the Mormon leaders that, when the terri- 
tory was declared in a state of rebellion in 1858, he went there at 
his own expense with letters from President Buchanan and arranged 
an amicable settlement that was afterwards concluded by the peace 
commissioners. He founded and laid out the town of Kane, in the 
northwestern part of Pennsylvania, where he raised, in 1861, a regi- 
ment called the "Bucktails," which became famous for valor and 
endurance. He led the advance at Dranesburg, where he was wound- 
ed, and at Harrisonburg was sent to rescue a regiment that had 
fallen into an ambuscade, and was again wounded and taken prison- 
er. He was paroled, and, on being exchanged was brevetted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, Sept. i, 1862. Although absent on sick 
leave at the time the battle of Gettysburg opened, he hastened to 
Washington for orders and carried to Gen. Meade the information 
that the Confederates were in possession of the national cipher code. 
He joined his brigade on the morning of the second day of the battle 
and held an important position on the extreme right. He was dis- 
charged, Nov. 7, 1863, being disabled by wounds and exposure, and 
on March 13. 1865. was brevetted major-general of volunteers for 
his services at Gettysburg. He died in Philadelphia, Pa.. Dec. 26, 
1883. 

Kautz, August V., brigadier-general, was born in Ispringen, Baden, 
Germany, Jan. 5, 1828. He immigrated to this country with his parents 



Biographical Sketches 143 

when a small boy, settling in Ohio, served in the Mexican war as a private 
in the ist Ohio volunteer regiment, and, at the close of the war was 
appointed cadet at West Point, where he was graduated in 1852. He was 
assigned as 2nd lieutenant to the 4th infantry and served in the north- 
west, being wounded during the Rogue river hostilities of 1853-55, 'iJid 
again on Puget sound in 1856. He was promoted ist lieutenant in 1855, 
captain in the 6th U. S. cavalry in 1861, and in 1862 became colonel of the 
2nd Ohio volunteer cavalry. Being ordered with his regiment to Camp 
Chase, Ohio, to remount and relit, he commanded that place from Dec, 
1862, till April, 1863, when he led a cavalry brigade into Kentucky and 
participated in the capture of Monticello, May i, and in thwarting Mor- 
gan's raid and effecting his capture in July. He served with the Army of 
the Ohio as chief of cavalry of the 23d corps, was made brigadier-general 
of volunteers. May 7, 1864, was given command of the cavalry division 
of the Army of the James, and won the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, hav- 
ing previously been brevettcd major for gallantry, by entering Petersburg 
with his small force of cavalry on June 9. He then led the advance of 
the Wilson raid, which cut the roads leading to Richmond from the 
south, for more than forty days, and as commander of the ist division, 
25th army corps, he took part in the movement leading to the surrender of 
Lee's army at Appomattox, and led his division of colored troops into the 
city of Richmond, April 3, 1865. He was brevetted colonel in the regular 
arm\', Oct. 7, 1864, for gallantry in action on the Darbytown road ; briga- 
dier-general and major-general U. S. A. March 13, 1865, for gallant and 
meritorious service in the field during the war, and major-general of vol- 
unteers, Oct. 28, 1864, for gallant and meritorious service in the cam- 
paign against Richmond. Gen. Kautz was mustered out of the volunteer 
service, Jan. 15, 1866, and in July of that year was made lieutenant-col- 
onel of the 34th U. S. infantry, being assigned later to the 15th infantry, 
which he commanded in the Mescalero Apache campaign, succeeding in 
establishing the Indians in their reservations. He was promoted colonel 
of the 8th infantry in 1874, was commander of the Department of Arizona, 
1875-77; stationed at Angel island, Cal., 1878-86, and then at Niobrara, 
Neb., 1886-90. He was appointed brigadier-general in the regular estab- 
lishment, April 20, 1891, was retired Jan. 5, 1892, and died in Seattle, 
Wash., Sept. 4, 1895. 

Kearny, Philip, major-general, was born in New York city, June 2, 
1815. He was graduated at Columbia in 1833 and studied law, but in 
1837 accepted a commission as 2nd lieutenant in the ist dragoons, com- 
manded by his uncle. Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny, and served at Jeffer- 
son barracks and on the frontier. In 1839 he went to France with two 
other officers to study military tactics at the Royal cavalry school, at 
Saumur. After six months of this experience he went to Algiers as hon- 
orary aide-de-camp to the Duke of Orleans, and was present in several 
notable exploits while attached to the First Chasseurs d'Afrique in the 
campaign against Abdel-Kader, the Arab chief. On returning to the 
United States in the autumn of 1840 he was made aide-de-camp to Gen. 
Alexander Macomb, commander-in-chief of the U. S. army, and to his 
successor. Gen. Winfield Scott, 1840-44. He was at Fort Leavenworth 
and accompanied the expedition through the South Pass, 1844-46, re- 
signed his commission, April 2, 1846, and at the outbreak of the Mexican 
war was reinstated. He recruited his company up to the war footing 
at Springfield, equipped it magnificently and operated at first along the 
Rio Grande, but later joined Gen. Scott on his march to' Mexico, the com- 
pany acting as body-guard to the general-in-chief. Kearny was promoted 
captain in Dec, 1846. and distinguished himself at Contreras and Churu- 
busco, and at the close of the latter battle, as the Mexicans were retreat- 



144 The Union Army 

ing into the capital, Capt. Kearny, at the head of his dragoons, followed 
them into the city itself. While retreating he was shot in the left arm, 
which caused that member to be amputated. For this action he was bre- 
vetted major, and, on returning to New York, he was presented witli a 
splendid sword by the Union club. After being stationed in New York 
on recruiting service he was engaged, in 1851, in the campaign against the 
Rogue river Indians, but resigned in October of that year and took a 
trip around tlie world. In 1859 he was again in France, and, joining his 
old comrades in the ist Chasseurs d'Afrique, participated in the war in 
Italy, winning by liis gallantry on the held of Solferino the decoration 
of the cross of the Legion of Honor. Returning to the United States 
shortly after the beginning of the Civil war, he offered his services to the 
national government and to his native state, and, no command being con- 
ceded him, entered the volunteer service as commander of the ist N. J. 
brigade. He was subsequently given by President Lincoln a commission 
as brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from May 17, 1861, and was 
assigned to command the ist N. J. brigade in Gen. William B. Franklin's 
division, Army of the Potomac. Gen. Kearny was present at the battle of 
Williamsburg, where, arriving at 2:30 p. m., he reinforced Gen. Hooker's 
division, recovered the ground lost and turned defeat into victory. He 
served through the engagements of the Peninsula, then, with the Army 
of Virginia, from Rapidan to Warrenton. He was given command of a 
division in May, 1862, and was given a commission as major-general of 
volunteers to bear the date of July 4, which, however, never reached 
him. At the second battle of Bull Run he was in command on the right 
and forced Jackson's corps back against Gen. Longstreet's men. He was 
killed on the battleground of Chantilly, Va., Sept. i, 1862. Gen. Kearny 
had, while reconnoitering, inadvertently penetrated the Confederate lines 
and was trying to escape when he was shot through the spine and in- 
stantly killed. His remains were sent by Lee under flag of truce to Gen. 
Hooker, and in City Park, Newark, N. J., the citizens of New Jersey 
erected a statue to his memory. Gen. Scott said of Kearny, "He was the 
bravest man I ever knew and the most perfect soldier." 

Keim, William H., brigadier-general, was born near Reading. Pa., 
June 25, 1813. He was educated at IMt. Airy military academy, Pa., was 
mayor of Reading in 1848, was elected to Congress as a Democrat to 
fill a vacancy and served in 1858-59, and then became surveyor-general 
of the state. In 1861 he was commissioned major-general of the Penn- 
sylvania militia, and, as second in command to Gen. Patterson, marched 
with that general into Virginia, where they served three months. In the 
fall of 1861 he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, and, 
joining the army under McClellan, commanded a Pennsylvania brigade in 
the advance upon Richmond. He contracted camp fever on the Penin- 
sula and died in Harrisburg, Pa.. May 18, 1862. 

Kelley, Benjamin F., brigadier-general, was born in New Hampton, 
N. H., April 10, 1807. He removed to West Virginia in 1826 and settled 
in Wheeling, where he engaged in business until 1851, and then became 
freight agent on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. In May, 1861, he raised 
the 1st Virginia regiment for the national army, was commissioned its 
colonel, and on June 3, 1861, won the battle of Phillippi, being severely 
wounded. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, May 17, 
1861, fought a successful battle at Romney, Oct. 22, 1861, was again vic- 
torious at Blue's gap. and was then appointed to command the Depart- 
ment of Harper's Ferry and Cumberland, but was relieved at his own re- 
quest, in Jan.. 1862. on account of his wounds. In the following sum- 
mer he resumed command of the railroad district under Gen. Fremont, 
and in July, 1863, was assigned to the Department of West Virginia. He 





Brig.-Gen. H. M. Judah 
Brig.-Gen. A. N'. Kautz 
Brig. -Gen. B. F. KellEy 
Brig.-Gen. W. S. Ketchum 



Brig.-Gen. Gustave 

Kammerljng 
Maj.-Gen. Philu- 

Kearny 
Brig.-Gen. J. R. Kenly 
Maj.-Gen. E. D. Keyes 



r.rig.-Gen. 'I'. L. Kane 
Brig.-Gen. \V. H. Keim 
Brig.-Gen. T. H. Ketcham 
Brig.-Gen. J. B. Kiddoo 



Biographical Sketches 145 

pursued Gen. Lee after his passage of the Potomac and dispersed the 
Confederate camp under Gen. Imboden near Moorefield, Va., in Nov., 
1863. In 1864 he won the battles of Cumberland, Md., and New creek 
and Mooretield, Va., and on March 13, 1865, he was brcvetted major-gen- 
eral for gallant and distinguished services during the war. He was ap- 
pointed collector of internal revenue for the ist division of West Virginia 
in 1866, was appointed, in 1876, superintendent of the Hot Springs, Ark., 
reservation, and in 1883 received from President Arthur appointment as 
examiner of pensions. Gen. Kelley died in Oakland, ]\Id., July 16, 1891. 

Kenly, John R., brigadier-general, was born in Baltimore, Md., in 
1822, was educated in the public schools of Baltimore and admitted to the 
bar there in 1845. He was a member of the Eagle artillery of Baltimore, 
in which he rose to the rank of lieutenant, and at the beginning of the 
Mexican war raised a company of volunteers of which he was chosen 
captain. He participated with his company in the three days' battle which 
resulted in the capture of Monterey, and so distinguished himself on this 
occasion that, on returning to Maryland, he was given a vote of thanks 
by the state legislature. He then resumed the practice of his profession, 
and, on June 11, 1861, was commissioned by President Lincoln colonel of 
volunteers and given command of the ist Md. regiment. He was actively 
engaged in the western part of Maryland and in the Virginia valley, 
1861-62, and on May 23, 1862, distinguished himself in checking the Con- 
federate advance at Front Royal, being then severely wounded and taken 
captive. He was exchanged on Aug. 15, and on Aug. 22 was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers for his gallantry and assigned to 
command all the troops in Baltimore outside the forts. He joined McClel- 
lan after the battle of Antietam and rendered conspicuous service at Hag- 
erstown and Harper's Ferry, leading the Maryland brigade at the recap- 
ture of Maryland heights. He subsequently held various brigade positions 
in the ist and 8th army corps, and at the close of the war, March 13, 
1865, he was awarded the brevet of major-general of volunteers, while the 
state legislature of Maryland extended him a vote of thanks, and the cor- 
poration of Baltimore presented him with a sword. After the war Gen. 
Kenly devoted a considerable part of his time to literature. He died in 
Baltimore, Md., Dec. 20, 1891. 

Ketcham, John H., brigadier-general, was born in Dover, N. Y., 
Dec. 21, 1831. Before the Civil war he served as supervisor of his native 
town, was a member of the New York assembly, 1856-57, and a state sena- 
tor, 1860-61. He became colonel of the 150th N. Y. regiment in Oct., 
1862, and served throughout the Civil war, being brevetted brigadier- 
general of volunteers, Dec. 6, 1864, and major-general of volunteers 
March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, re- 
ceiving his commission as full brigadier-general of volunteers April I, 
1865. He resigned to accept a seat in Congress, where he served until 
1873. He was then commissioner for the District of Columbia, 1874-77, 
and was then successively re-elected to Congress, where he served until 
his death with the exception of two terms, 1893-97, when he declined on 
account of ill health. He was a delegate to many state conventions and 
to the Republican national conventions of 1876 and 1896. His death oc- 
curred in New York city, Nov. 3, 1906. 

Ketchum, William S., brigadier-general, was born in Norfolk. Conn., 
July 7, 1813, and was graduated at the LI. S. military academy in 1834. 
He served against the Seminole Indians in Florida, became captain in the 
6th infantry in 1842, and then until 1861 was engaged in garrison duty 
on the western frontier and the Pacific coast, being promoted major of 
the 4th infantry in June, i860. At the outbreak of the Civil war he be- 
came acting inspector-general of the Department of the Missouri, with 
Vol. VIII— 10' 



146 The Union Army 

headquarters in St. Louis, and in Feb., 1862, he was commissioned brig- 
adier-general of volunteers and given charge of the organization of re- 
cruits in Harrisburg, Pa., serving later in the war department, and then, 
during the latter part of the war was connected with the quartermaster's 
department. He was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general 
U. S. A., March 13, 1865, for his services during the war, was mustered 
out of the volunteer service, April 30, 1866, and served subsequently in 
the adjutant-general's department and in the treasury department until 
retired in 1869. Gen. Ketchum died in Baltimore, Md., June 28, 1871. 

Keyes, Erasmus D., major-general, was born in Brimlield, Mass., 
May 29, 1810. He was graduated at West Point in 1832, served in 
Charleston harbor during the nullification troubles, 1832-33; was aide- 
de-camp to Gen. Scott, 1837-41 ; served then on garrison duty until 1844, 
and after that until 1848 as instructor at the military academy, being then 
on frontier and garrison duty until i860. During this time he commanded 
a battery in expeditions against Indians in the northwest, took part in a 
number of engagements, and was promoted major in 1858. He was mili- 
tary secretary to Gen. Scott from Jan. i, i860, to April 19, 1861, was made 
colonel of the nth infantry, May 14, and three days later was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He assisted in organizing the 
expedition to relieve Fort Pickens, Fla., in April, 1861, served on the staff 
of Gov. Morgan of New York from April to June of that year, and as- 
sisted in forwarding the state quota of troops to the front. He com- 
manded a brigade in McDowell's army at the first battle of Bull Run, 
was then in command of the defenses of Washington until March 10, 
1862, when he was assigned to McClellan's Army of the Potomac and 
placed in command of the 4th corps, with which he engaged at Lee's 
mills and in the siege of Yorktown. In May, 1862, he was promoted 
major-general of volunteers, and after that was in several engagements, 
being brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army, May 31, for his 
conduct in the battle of Fair Oaks. Subsequently he organized a raid 
to White House, Va., Jan. 7, 1863, commanded the expedition to West 
Point, Va., May 7, and engaged in another exploit under Ma j. -Gen. Dix 
toward Richmond in June and July, 1863. He was charged by Gen. Dix 
with being responsible for the failure of this expedition, and he made 
repeated unsuccessful applications for court-martial proceedings to de- 
fend himself against the charges made. He served on the board for re- 
tiring disabled officers from July 15, 1863, until May 6, 1864, when he re- 
signed from the army and removed to San Francisco, Gal. Here he be- 
came interested in gold mining and was president of the California Vine 
Culture society, 1868-72. Gen. Keyes died at Nice, France, Oct. 15, 1895, 
and was buried at West Point, N. Y., in 1897. 

Kiddoo, Joseph B., brigadier-general, was born in Pennsylvania about 
1840. He entered the national service at the beginning of the Civil war 
as a private in the 2nd Penn. volunteers and engaged in the siege of 
Yorktown and in the battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks and Malvern 
hill. He was then promoted major of the loist Penn. volunteers and 
engaged in the battles of South mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg and 
Chancellorsville, serving as colonel in the last named battle. He was 
promoted major of the 6th U. S. colored troops in Oct.. 1863, and colonel 
of the 22nd U. S. colored infantry in 1864, was present at the siege of 
Petersburg with the Army of the James, and was severely wounded on 
Oct. 4. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallant 
and meritorious service in the assault on Petersburg, and major-general 
of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services during the war. On 
July 28, 1866, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 43d U. S. in- 
fantry, but was incapacitated from active service by his wounds, and on 



Biographical Sketches 147 

Dec. 15, 1870, was retired with the full rank of brigadier-general in the 
regular army. Gen. Kiddoo died in New York city, Aug. 19, 1880. 

Kiernan, James L., brigadier-general, was born in New York city in 
1837. He was graduated at the University of New York in the medical 
department in 1857, became a teacher in the city public schools and was 
editor of the "Medical Press" of that city from 1859 ""til 1861, when he 
volunteered as assistant surgeon in the 69th N. Y. regiment. He subse- 
quently became surgeon of the 6th Mo. cavalry, March i, 1862, and served 
with Fremont in Missouri and in the battle of Pea ridge. He resigned. 
May 24, 1863, on account of severe wounds which he received near Port 
Gibson, where he was captured but escaped. On Aug. i, 1863, he was 
appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, but resigned Feb. i, 1864. He 
then served as surgeon in the United States pension bureau, and after the 
war was U. S. consul to Chin Kiang, China. He died in New York city, 
Nov. 27, 1869. 

Kilpatricic, Judson, major-general, was born in Deckertown, N. J., 
Jan. 14, 1836, and was graduated at West Point in 1861. He was ap- 
pointed captain of volunteers, May 9, promoted ist lieutenant of artil- 
lerj'. May 14, and in the action at Big Bethel on June 10 received a severe 
wound which disabled him for several months. Upon his return to the 
army he was detailed on recruiting duty, organized a regiment of New 
York volunteer cavalry, of which he became lieutenant-colonel in Septem- 
ber, and in Jan., 1862, went to Kansas to accompany Gen. Lane in the ex- 
pedition to Texas as chief of artillery. Upon the abandonment of this 
project, Kilpatrick rejoined his regiment in Virginia, where he partici- 
pated in the skirmishes near Falmouth, in April, the movement to Thor- 
oughfare gap in May; raids on the Virginia Central railroad in July, and 
skirmishes at Carmel Church on July 23. He was also present in various 
other skirmishes and at the second battle of Bull Run, and in the expedi- 
tion to Leesburg, Sept. 19, commanded a cavalry brigade. After several 
months' absence on recruiting service, during which time he became col- 
onel of the 2nd N. Y. cavalry, he returned to the field and com- 
manded a brigade of cavalry in the Rappahannock campaign, engaging 
in Stoneman's raid toward Richmond, April-May, 1863, and in the battle 
at Beverly ford on June 9. He was commissioned brigadier-general of 
volunteers, June 13, 1863, and commanded a cavalry brigade and division 
in the Army of the Potomac, participating in the actions at Aldie, where he 
commanded and won the brevet of major, Middlebury, and Upperville, 
and in the battles of Hanover, Hunterstown and Gettysburg, and in the 
pursuit of the enemy after the last named battle, being engaged in con- 
stant fighting at Smithsburg, Hagerstown, Boonsboro and Falling Waters. 
He commanded a cavalry division in the operations in central Virginia 
from August until Nov., 1863. took part in the expedition to destroy the 
Confederate gunboats, "Satellite" and "Reliance," in Rappahannock river, 
the action at Culpeper on Sept. 13, and the subsequent skirmish at Somer- 
ville ford, the fights at James City and Brandy Station, and in the move- 
ment to Centerville and the action at Gainesville, Oct. 19. He participated 
in the action at Ashland, Va., May i, 1864, in many skirmishes, and took 
part in the invasion of Georgia as commander of a cavalry division of the 
Army of the Cumberland, being engaged in the action at Ringgold, April 
29, the operations about Dalton, May 7-13, and in the battle of Resaca, 
where he was severely wounded. Having previously been brevetted lieu- 
tenant-colonel for gallantry at Gettysburg, he was given the brevet rank 
of colonel for gallant and meritorious conduct at Resaca, and upon his 
return to the service in the latter part of July, 1864, guarded Sherman's 
communications, and raided and took part in several heavy skirmishes with 
the Confederates. He participated in numerous skirmishes during the 



148 The Union Army 

march to the sea and commanded a cavalry division during the invasion 
of the CaroHnas, where he engaged in many actions and skirmishes. 
From April to June, 1865, he commanded a division of the cavalry corps 
of the Military Division of the Mississippi. He was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers Jan. 15, 1865, and brigadier-general and major- 
general U. S. A. on March 13 of that year, resigning his volunteer com- 
mission, Jan. I, 1866, and his commission in the regular army in 1867. 
Gen. Kilpatrick was envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
Chili, 1865-68, an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1880, and was 
appointed minister to Chili again in 1881. He died in Santiago, Chili, 
Dec. 4, 1881, and his remains were afterward brought to the United 
States and buried at West Point, N. Y. 

Kimball, Nathan, brigadier-general, was born in Fredericksburg, Ind., 
Nov. 22, 1S22. He raised and became captain of a company of volunteers 
which served in the Mexican war, and at the beginning of the Civil war 
he became colonel of the 14th Ind. infantry. He took part in the battles 
of Cheat mountain and Greenbrier in the fall of 1861, commanded a bri- 
gade at the battle of Winchester, and was promoted brigadier-general of 
volunteers, April 15, 1862, for a victory over Stonewall Jackson at Kerns- 
town, Va., on March 23. At Antietam his brigade held its ground with 
desperate courage, losing nearly 600 men, and at Fredericksburg 
Gen. Kimball was severely wounded. Subsequently he served in the west, 
commanding a provisional division at Vicksburg, in June and July, 1863. 
He was afterwards present at the battles of Dallas, New Hope Church, 
Kennesaw mountain and Peachtree creek, where his gallantry won him 
promotion to command of a division, and he served in all the battles 
around Atlanta until the capture of that city, Sept. 2, 1864. He was then 
detached to aid in quelling the disturbance arising concerning the 
"Knights of the Golden Circle" in Indiana and afterward took part in 
the battles of Franklin and Nashville in the latter part of 1864. He was 
brevetted major-general of volunteers, Feb. i, 1865, and was mustered out 
Aug. 24, 1865. He was state treasurer of Indiana, 1870-71, served one 
term as representative in the state legislature, and in 1873 was appointed 
by President Grant surveyor-general of Utah territory and moved to 
Salt Lake city. He died Jan. 21, 1898. 

King, John H., brigadier-general, was born in Michigan about 1818 
and was appointed 2nd lieutenant of the 1st infantry in the regular army 
in 1837. He was promoted ist lieutenant two years later, captain in 
1846 and major in May, 1861. He was stationed in Florida and on the 
western frontier up to 1846, was in Vera Cruz in 1847 and then in Texas 
up to the time of the Civil war. When the war broke out he with Maj. 
Larkin Smith prevented the state troops disarming the national forces, 
and took six companies of the 2nd U. S. cavalry and three companies of 
the 1st U. S. infantry to New York. He commanded Newport barracks, 
Ky., in 1861. battalions of the 15th. i6th and 19th regiments, U. S. A., 
in 1862, and was engaged with the 15th and i6th in the battle of Shiloh, 
advance on Corinth, the march to the Ohio river, and the battle of Mur- 
freesboro. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers Nov. 
29, 1862, and fought at Stone's river, where he was wounded, and at 
Chickamauga in Sept., 1863, where his brigade, with that of Col. B. F. 
Scribner. was overpowered by Gen. St. J. R. Liddell's division. He was 
also present at the battles of Resaca, New Hope Church, Kennesaw 
mountain, Ruff's station, and Peachtree and Utoy creeks, and commanded 
a division for thirty days during the Atlanta campaign. He was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel in June, 1863 ; colonel of the 9th U. S. infantry in July, 
t86s ; was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865; and 
in the regular army received the brevets of colonel for gallantry at Chick- 




Brig.-Gcn. J. L. KiErnan 
Brig.-Gen. J. H. King 
Brig.-Gen. E. N. Kirk 
Brig.-Gen. Frederick 
Lander 



Maj.-Gen. Judson Kil- 

TATRICK 

Brig.-Gen. RuFus King 
Brig.-Gen. J. F. Knipe 
Brig.-Gen. T. G. Lauman 



lililT.-t .LMl. .Natiiax 

Kim BALI 
r.rig.-Gen. Kdmund Kirbv 
Bri?.-Gen. Wlademir 

Kbzyzanovvski 
Brig.-Gcn. M. K. I.awler 



Biographical Sketches 149 

amauga ; brigadier-general for conduct at Ruff's station, and major-gen- 
eral for gallant and meritorious services during the war. After the war 
he commanded the 9th U. S. infantry in the west until retired in 1882. 
He died in Washington, D. C, April 7, 1888. 

King, Rufus, brigadier-general, was born in New York city, Jan. 26, 
1814. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1833 
and appointed to the engineer corps, but resigned in 1836 and became 
assistant engineer of the New York & Erie railroad, a position which he 
relinquished in 1839 to become adjutant-general of New York. He was 
associate editor of the "Albany Evening Journal" and of the Albany 
"Advertiser" from 1841 to 1845, when he moved to Wisconsin, where he 
was editor of the "Milwaukee Sentinel" until 1861. He served also as 
member of the convention that formed the state constitution, as regent of 
the state university, member of the board of visitors to the U. S. mili- 
tary academy in 1849, and superintendent of public schools in Milwaukee, 
1849-61. He was appointed U. S. Minister to the Pontifical States in 
1 861 and held the appointment from March 22 to Aug. 5, but did not serve, 
having offered his service to the governor of Wisconsin in the Civil war. 
He was commissioned brigadier-general of state volunteers, May 7, 1861, 
received his commission in the U. S. volunteer service ten days later 
and served in the defence of Washington from May, 1861, to March, 1862. 
He commanded a division at Fredericksburg, Groveton, and Manassas, 
was a member of the commission to try Gen. Fitz-John Porter, was then 
on waiting orders until March, 1863, and afterwards was in command of 
Yorktown, Va., and subsequently of a division at Fairfax Court House, 
Va., until compelled by failing health to resign, Oct. 20, 1863. Gen. King 
was then U. S. minister resident at Rome until July i, 1867, and deputy 
collector of customs at the port of New York after that until 1869, when 
he retired from public life. He died in New York city, Oct. 13, 1876. 

Kirby, Edmund, brigadier-general, was born in Brownville, N. Y., 
in 1840. He was graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1861, was 
promoted ist lieutenant in the ist artillery. May 17, 1861, and upon the 
death of Capt. James B. Ricketts at Bull Run, succeeded to the command 
of his battery. He was engaged with the battery throughout the Penin- 
sular and Maryland campaigns, on the march to Falmouth and in the bat- 
tles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. He was mortally wounded 
at Chancellorsville. May 3, 1863, and was taken to Washington, where 
he died. May 23, 1863. For his gallantry in the battle in wdiich he received 
his death wound he was given on his death-bed a commission as brigadier- 
general of volunteers, to date from the day of his death. 

Kirk, Edward N., brigadier-general, was born in Jefferson county, 
Ohio, Feb. 29, 1828. He was educated at the Friends' academy. Mount 
Pleasant, taught school, was admitted to the bar in 1853, and, after a year 
in practice at Baltimore, Md., removed to Sterling, 111. In Aug., 1861, 
he recruited the 34th 111. volunteers, of which he was commissioned 
colonel, and was assigned to the sth brigade, 2nd division. Army of the 
Ohio. He served as member of the military board of examiners at Mun- 
fordville, Ky., was then in charge of an expedition in the defence of 
Lebanon, Ky., and subsequently assvuned command of all the forces at 
Louisville, until relieved by Gen. Gilbert, when he was assigned to com- 
mand the 1st brigade, 2nd division. Army of Kentucky. He assumed com- 
mand of the 5th brigade, 2nd division, Sept. 28, 1861, and on Nov. 29, 
1862, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteer* for heroic action, 
gallantry, and ability. Gen. Kirk was wounded at the battle of Shiloh, 
covered the retreat of the Federal army at Richmond, Ky.. and com- 
manded the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, occupying the right wing of the 
Army of the Cumberland, at Murfreesboro, Dec. 31, 1862-Jan. 3, 1863. In 



150 The Union Army 

that battle his brigade lost about 500 men in killed and wounded, and 
he himself received a mortal wound. Gen. Kirk died in Sterling, III., 
July 29, 1863. 

Knipe, Joseph F., brigadier-general, was born in Mount Joy, Lan- 
caster county. Pa., Nov. 30, 1823. He served in the ranks through the 
Mexican war, then engaged in business in Harrisburg, Pa., and in 1861 
organized the 46th Penn. regiment, of which he was commissioned colonel. 
He was promoted brigadier-general Nov. 29, 1862, and served in the Army 
of the Potomac, then in the Army of the Cumberland, commanding first 
a brigade and subsequently a division, until the fall of Atlanta, when he 
became chief of cavalry of the Army of the Tennessee. Gen. Knipe was 
wounded twice at Winchester, twice at Cedar mountain, and once at 
Resaca. He was mustered out of the service, Aug. 24, 1865, and became 
after the war superintendent of one of the departments of the military 
prison at Leavenworth, Kan. He died Aug. 18, 1901. 

Krzyzanowski, Wlademir, brigadier-general, was born in Raznova, 
Poland, July 8, 1824. He was a revolutionist in Poland and fled to New 
York in 1846, becoming a civil engineer. In 1861 he organized the Tur- 
ner rifles, was commissioned captain, and on Oct. 22, he became colonel 
of the 58th N. Y. volunteers, which he led in the Army of the Potomac. 
He distinguished himself particularly during the war at the battle of 
Chancellorsville. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 
29, 1862, and his commission expired March 4, 1863, the senate failing to 
ratify the appointment. He was mustered out Oct. i, 1865, and was given 
a civil appointment in California, afterwards serving as governor of 
Alaska and as inspector of customs at various South American ports. 
He was appointed special agent of the treasury department in the New 
York custom house in 1883, and held this office until his death, which 
occurred in New York city, Jan. 31, 1887. 

Lander, Frederick W., brigadier-general, was born in Salem, Mass., 
Dec. 17, 1822. He attended Dummer academy at Byfield and studied 
civil engineering at the military academy at Norwich, Vt. ; practiced his 
profession for a time in Massachusetts and then entered the service of the 
United States government as a civil engineer. He made two expeditions 
across the continent to determine a feasible railroad route, making the 
second trip at his own expense, and being the only member of the party 
who survived its hardships. He afterwards, in 1858, surveyed and con- 
structed the great overland wagon route, and while engaged in this work 
his party of 70 men was attacked by some Pah Ute Indians, whom 
they defeated in a decisive engagement. In all he made five trips across 
the continent, and for his efficiency he received official recognition from 
the Secretary of the Interior. In 1861 he was employed by the United 
States government to visit secretly the southern states in order to ascer- 
tain the strength of the insurgents, and when McClellan assumed com- 
mand of the army in western Virginia he became volunteer aide on his 
staff. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers May 17, 
1861 ; participated in the capture of Phillippi, June 3, and in the battle of 
Rich mountain July 11, and was given command of one of the three bri- 
gades composing Gen. C. P. Stone's division on the upper Potomac. Upon 
hearing of the disastrous defeat of the Union forces at Ball's bluff, Oct. 
21, 1861, Gen. Lander hastened to Edward's ferry, which he held with a 
single company of sharp-shooters, but was severely wounded in the leg. 
He reported for duty before his wound was healed, reorganized his brigade 
into a division, and at Hancock, Md., Jan. 5, 1862, defended the tov/n 
against a vastly superior force of Confederates. Although still suffering 
keenly from his wound, he led a brilliant charge at Blooming Gap into 
a pass held by the Confederates, thereby securing a victory for which 



Biographical Sketches 151 

he received a special letter of thanks from the secretary of war. He 
received orders on March i, 1862, to move his division into the Shenan- 
doah valley to cooperate with Gen. Banks, and while preparing an at- 
tack on the enemy he died suddenly of congestion of the brain, at Paw 
Paw, Va., March 2, 1862. Gen. Lander was a gallant and energetic sol- 
dier, and his death was a great loss to the Union army. 

Lauman, Jacob G., brigadier-general, was born in Taneytown, Md., 
in Jan., 1813. He removed with his parents to York county. Pa., was 
educated in the academy there, and in 1844 he removed to Burlington, 
la., where he engaged in business. He was commissioned colonel of the 
7th Iowa volunteer regiment, July 11, 1861, served under Grant in Mis- 
souri, and was severely wounded at Belmont, Nov. 7, 1861. He distin- 
guished himself at Fort Donelson, where, in command of a brigade in 
Gen. C. F. Smith's division, he was one of the tirst to storm and enter 
the enemy's works, and for his services on this occasion he was made 
brigadier-general March 21, 1862. He commanded a brigade in Gen. Hurl- 
but's division at the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, and the 4th 
division of the i6th army corps during the Vicksburg campaign. He was 
relieved of his command by Gen. Sherman, July 16, 1863, and returned to 
Iowa. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, 
for gallant and meritorious services during the war. Gen. Lauman died 
in Burlington, la., Feb. 9, 1867. 

Lawler, Michael K., brigadier-general, was born in Ireland Nov. 16, 
1814. He immigrated to America, located in Illinois, and there became 
captain of the 3d 111. infantry, June 29, 1846, serving with his regiment 
in the Mexican war until honorably mustered out. May 21, 1847. Return- 
ing then to Illinois, Capt. Lawler raised an independent company of IIH- 
nois mounted volunteers, of which he became captain, July 19, 1847, and 
with which he served during the remainder of the war, being mustered 
out of the service Oct. 26, 1848. He began his service in the Civil war 
as colonel of the i8th 111. infantry, his commission dating from June 30, 
1861. The i8th regiment was organized at Camp Anna and was 
mustered into the state service first for thirty days by Capt. U. S. Grant, 
afterwards being mustered into the United States service for three years. 
It took a gallant part in the capture of Fort Donelson. Col. Lawler was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, and served until 
mustered out of the volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866. For gallant and 
meritorious services during the war he was brevetted major-general of 
volunteers, March 13, 1865. He died July 26, 1882. 

Ledlie, James H., brigadier-general, was born in Utica, N. Y., April 
14, 1832. He studied at Union college, became a Civil engineer, and at 
the beginning of the Civil war, on May 22, 1861, he was commissioned 
major in the 3d N. Y. artillery. He became lieutenant-colonel of this 
regiment on Sept. 28, colonel on Dec. 23, and was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers Dec. 24, 1862. Late in 1862 he was made chief of 
artillery on the staff of Gen. John G. Foster. Gen. Ledlie served in North 
and South Carolina, subsequently in the Army of the Potomac, and his 
division led the assault on the crater after the explosion of the mine 
at Petersburg. He resigned from the volunteer service, Jan. 23, 1865, 
declined a commission in the regular army, and returned to the practice 
of his profession as a civil engineer. He took the contract for the build- 
ing of bridges, trestles and snow-sheds for the Union Pacific railroad, 
built the breakwaters of Chicago harbor, engaged in railroad construc- 
tion in the west and south, and at the time of his death was chief en- 
gineer of railways in California and Nevada and president of the Balti- 
more, Cincinnati & Western railroad construction company. Gen. Led- 
lie died at New Brighton, Staten island, N. Y., Aug. 15, 1882. 



152 The Union Army 

Lee, Albert L., brigadier-general, was born in Fulton, N. Y., Jan. 
i6, 1834. He was graduated at Union college in 1853, studied law, re- 
moved to Kansas and became judge of the state supreme court there in 
1861. He resigned this office to become major of the 7th Kan. cavalry, 
became its colonel. May 17, 1862, and in Jan., 1863, was given a commis- 
sion as brigadier-general of volunteers to date from Nov. 29, 1862. He 
commanded the 2nd cavalry brigade at the battle of Corinth and after- 
wards in Grant's central Mississippi campaign, and acted as chief of staff 
to Gen. John A. McClernand in the operations about Vicksburg and in the 
battles of Champion's hill and Big Black river, May 16 and 17, 1863. On 
May 19 he commanded the ist brigade, 9th division, 13th army corps in 
the assault on Vicksburg, and was severely wounded by gunshot in the' 
face and head. Rejoining his brigade for duty, July 26, 1863, he was or- 
dered to New Orleans and saw service as chief of cavalry. Department of 
the Gulf, on the staff of Gen. Banks, in western Louisiana. He com- 
manded the cavalry division in the Red river expedition of 1864, com- 
manded, an infantry brigade in the expedition up the White river, in July 
of that year, and in August was assigned to command the cavalry division, 
headquarters at Baton Rouge, La. He was ordered to New Orleans in 
Jan., 1865, and was on duty until May 4, when he resigned his commis- 
sion and was mustered out of the service. After the war Gen. Lee spent 
much of his time for a number of years in Europe, and was engaged in 
business in New York. 

Leggett, Mortimer D., major-general, was born in Danby, Tompkins 
county, N. Y., April 19. 1821. In 1836 he moved to Ohio with his parents, 
who were Friends, worked on his father's farm until 1839, and then stud- 
ied at Kirtland, Ohio, and at Western Reserve college. He subsequently 
taught school, studied law. was graduated in medicine at the Wil- 
loughby medical school, and in 1845 established the first system of graded 
schools west of the Alleghanies. He became superintendent of public 
schools in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1857, and when the Civil war broke out he 
was volunteer aide on McClellan's staff and accompanied him to western 
Virginia. In the fall of 1861 he raised and organized the 78th Ohio in- 
fantry, of which he became lieutenant-colonel, Dec. t8, and colonel a 
month later, and he commanded his regiment at Fort Donelson, Shiloh 
and Corinth. In June, 1862, he commanded a brigade, and at Bolivar, 
Tex., in August, he met and fought for seven hours a brigade of Con- 
federate cavalry vmder Gen. Armstrong. He was wounded at Shiloh, 
at Champion's hill and at Vicksburg, where his brigade was assigned to 
construct the extensive mine which hastened the surrender of the city. 
He commanded a division in Sherman's march to the sea, captured Bald 
hill on July 21, 1864, held it against repeated assaults by the Confederate 
army, and was with Sherman through the Carolinas to Washington. He 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers. Sept. i, 1864, for gallantry, 
was given the full commission Aug. 21, 1865, and resigned Sept. 28, 1865. 
After the war Gen. Leggett was United States commissioner of patents, 
1871-75, then engaged in the practice of patent law in Cincinnati, and be- 
came an organizer and the president of the Brush Electric company. 
He died in Cleveland, Ohio, Jan. 6, 1896. 

Lightburn, Joseph A. J., brigadier-general, was born in Westmore- 
land county. Pa., Sept. 21, 1824. He received a common school education, 
removed to West Virginia, and was delegate in 1861 from Lewis county 
in the convention that reorganized the state government. He recruited 
the 4th Va. regiment for the national army and was made its colonel, 
Aug. 14, 1861, commanded the District of Kanawha in 1862, and in Sep- 
tember of that year conducted the retreat from the Kanawha valley. He 
was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, March 16, 1863, partici- 












Brig.-Gen. J. H. LedliE 
Brig.-Gen. J. A. J. Light- 
burn 
Brig.-Gen. Eli Long 
Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel Lyon 



Brig.-Gcn. A. L. LeE 
Brig.-Gen. H. D. Lock- 
wood 
Brig.-Gen. C. E. Lowell 
Brig.-Gen. W. H. LytlE 



Maj.-Gen. M. D. Leggett 
Maj.-Gen. J. A. Logan 
Brig.-Gen. T. J. Lucas 
Brig.-Gen. R. S. Mac- 
kenzie 



Biographical Sketches 153 

pated in the Vicksburg campaign, the battle of Missionary ridge and the 
battle of Chattanooga, and was with Sherman in his march to Atlanta, 
where, in Aug. 1864, he received a severe gunshot wound in the head. He 
took a conspicuous part in the capture of Resaca heights, May 14, 1864. 
Gen. Lightburn was subsequently given command of a brigade in the 
Shenandoah valley and was president of the examining board when he 
resigned his commission, June 22, 1865. He was a representative in the 
state legislature of West Virginia in 1866-67. Gen. Lightburn was or- 
dained to the Baptist ministry in 1869 and became minister at Mt. Lebanon 
Baptist church, Harrison county, VV. Va. He engaged in the active work 
of the ministry until Jan., 1901. 

Lockwood, Henry H., brigadier-general, was born in Kent county, 
Del., Aug. 17, 1814. He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1836 and served against the Seminoles in Florida, but resigned 
his commission in 1837 and engaged in farming in Delaware until 1841. 
He was then appointed professor of mathematics in the United States 
navy, and was on the frigate "United States" during the siege and capture 
of Monterey. He subsequently served at the United States naval asylum 
at Philadelphia, and at the United States naval academy at Annapolis, 
Md., as professor of natural philosophy and astronomy, 1847-51, and as 
professor of field artillery and infantry tactics and also of astronomy 
and gunnery until 1861. He was appointed colonel of the ist Del. regi- 
ment in 1861, and was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 
Aug. 8 of that year. He commanded an expedition to the eastern shore 
of Virginia, then had charge of Point Lookout and of the defenses of 
the lower Potomac, and at Gettysburg he commanded the 2nd brigade, 
1st division, 12th army corps. Gen. Lockwood subsequently commanded 
the middle department with headquarters at Baltimore until 1864, the 
provisional troops against Gen. Early in July, 1864, and then a brigade in 
Baltimore until mustered out, Aug. 25, 1865, when he returned to the 
naval school in Annapolis. He was retired Aug. 4, 1876. Gen. Lock- 
wood died in Washington, D. C, Dec. 7, 1899. 

Logan, John A., major-general, was born in Jackson county. 111., Feb. 
9, 1826. In 1840 he attended Shiloh college, and when the war with 
Mexico broke out in 1846, being twenty years of age and of a military 
turn of mind, he volunteered for service and was appointed a lieutenant 
in the ist regiment of 111. volunteers. His record during the war was good, 
and he was for some time adjutant, and also acting quartermaster of his 
regiment. He returned from Mexico in 1848, and entered upon the study 
of law with such enthusiasm that he made more rapid progress than many 
young men enjoying greatly superior advantages. He subsequently at- 
tended the law school of Louisville, Ky., and in 1849 he was elected clerk 
of Jackson county, but, although he accepted the position, he resigned it 
to continue the study of law. Meanwhile he had developed a taste for 
politics and a talent as a public speaker ; he soon became very popular 
with the Democrats of his county, so that he was elected prosecuting at- 
torney of the judicial district in which he lived, and the following autumn 
was elected to the state legislature. In 1856 Mr. Logan was appointed 
presidential elector for his district, and in 1858 he was elected to Congress 
on the Democratic ticket. In i860 he again became a candidate and was 
returned to Congress ; in the presidential campaign of that year he ear- 
nestly advocated the election of Stephen A. Douglas. Logan was in 
Washington when the news of the fall of Sumter aroused the people; 
he was there also when the capital was cut ofif from the North by the 
Baltimore mob, and when McDowell started for the battle-field of Bull 
Run Logan followed him, and overtaking Col. Richardson's regiment ob- 
tained a musket, marched with it and fought in the ranks, being one of 



154 The Union Army 

the last to leave the field. The following month he returned home to 
Marion, 111., and so awakened the people to a realization of the impend- 
ing crisis by his eloquence that in two weeks a regiment was raised, of 
which he was made colonel, and in less than two months he led it into 
battle at Belmont, where he fought gallantly and raised the character 
of his troops to the highest pitch by his conduct, having a horse shot un- 
der him during the engagement. He was with Grant through the cam- 
paigns of the Cumberland and the Tennessee, and led his regiment in 
the attack on Fort Henry. While at Fort Donelson he received a wound 
which incapacitated him for active service for some time, and on March 
5, 1862, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded 
a brigade in Halleck's movement against Corinth, and was afterward in 
command at Columbus. In Grant's winter campaign in northern Missis- 
sippi, Logan, who had been promoted to the rank of major-general, was 
assigned to the command of the 3d division of the 17th army corps under 
McPherson, and he bore a conspicuous part in the campaign against Vicks- 
burg and at Port Hudson. He made the desperate assault which followed 
the explosion of the mine under the main fort at Vicksburg, and on the 
surrender of the place his division was given the post of honor, leading 
the advance of the party of occupation, while he was put in command of 
the place. For his distinguished service in this siege, Gen. Logan received 
a medal of honor voted him by Congress, and inscribed, "Vicksburg, 
July 4, 1863." He succeeded Sherman in the command of the isth army 
corps in 1863, and he led the advance in the following spring when Sher- 
man moved down to Chattanooga, making his first great flank movement 
to Resaca, the initial movement in the celebrated Atlanta campaign. At 
the battle of Dallas he was shot through the left arm ; and during the 
desperate assaults which Hood made upon McPherson at Atlanta, Logan 
fought splendidly, and it was to him that McPherson sent the last message 
that he ever dispatched on earth. On the death of this great general, 
Logan, by virtue of his rank, assumed command, and he changed the de- 
feat into victory without receiving any orders from Sherman, who was 
in command of all the forces. After the evacuation of Atlanta, Logan 
received a medal from the Army of the Tennessee, upon which were en- 
graved the names of the battles in which he had taken part. After a few 
weeks spent in Illinois in the political campaign of 1864, he rejoined his 
troops at Savannah, and continued in active service until the surrender 
of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, April 26, 1865. Active service being over. 
President Johnson appointed Gen. Logan minister to Mexico, but the of- 
fice was declined, and in 1866 he was elected to Congress in Illinois as 
representative of the state-at-large, as a Republican. He continued in 
the lower house of Congress until he was elected by the Illinois legisla- 
ture U. S. senator from that state for the term which began March 4, 
1871. At the expiration of his term he settled in Chicago, where he prac- 
ticed law until he again returned to the senate in 1879. At the Republi- 
can national convention held at Chicago in June, 1884, Gen. Logan was 
nominated for vice-president on the ticket with Mr. Blaine, but was de- 
feated at the ensuing election. Gen. Logan died in Washington, D. C, 
Dec. 26, 1886. 

Long, Eli, brigadier-general, was born in Woodford county, Ky., June 
16, 1837. He was graduated at the Frankfort, Ky., military school in 
1855, was appointed from civil life 2nd lieutenant in the ist U. S. cav- 
alry, July 27, 1856, and prior to the Civil war saw active service against 
Indians. He was promoted ist lieutenant March i, and captain May 24, 
1861, assigned to the 4th U. S. cavalry and served in the Army of the 
West, participating in the operations leading to and including the battle 
of Stone's river, Tenn. Throughout the war he was actively engaged as 



Biographical Sketches 155 

colonel of the 4th Iowa cavalry in the west, at TuUahoma, Murfreesboro, 
Chickamauga, and in the Atlanta campaign until its close, Sept. 18, 1864. 
He was promoted brigadier-general, Aug. 18, 1864, and commanded the 
2nd division of the cavalry corps in Wilson's raid through Alabama and 
Georgia from March 22 to April 20, 1865, and the military district of 
New Jersey in 1865-66. He was brevetted major for gallant and merito- 
rious services in the battle of Farmington, Tenn., lieutenant-colonel for 
gallantry at Knoxville, colonel for services at the battle of Lovejoy's 
Station, Ga., brigadier-general, March 13, 1865, for gallantry in the battle 
and capture of Selma, Ala., major-general U. S. A. on the same date for 
gallant and meritorious services during the war, and major-general of 
volunteers for gallant and meritorious services in action. He was mus- 
tered out of the volunteer service Jan. 15, 1866, was retired with the rank 
of major-general of volunteers Aug. 16, 1867, and brigadier-general March 
3, 1875. He died Jan. 5. 1903. 

Lowell, Charles R., brigadier-general, was born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 
2, 1835. He was graduated A. B. at the head of his class, at Harvard, 
in 1854, spent several years in European travel, and at the time of the 
outbreak of the Civil war was manager of the Mount Savage iron works, 
Maryland. He offered his services to the government in the spring of 
1861, and on May 14 was commissioned captain in the 6th cavalry. He 
served all through the Peninsular campaign, and at the close of it was 
brevetted major for gallantry and assigned to the staff of Gen. McClel- 
lan. At Antietam he carried orders from the commanding general under 
severe fire, rallied broken regiments and displayed so great gallantry that 
he was commissioned to carry the captured standards to Washington. 
In the fall of 1862 he organized the 2nd Mass. cavalry, of which he was 
made colonel May 10, 1863. During the winter of 1863-64 he commanded 
the advanced defenses of Washington, and in July he was engaged against 
the attack of Early. He subsequently commanded the provisional cav- 
alry brigade under Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley, and finally the 
reserve brigade, with which he distinguished himself at the battle of Ope- 
quan creek, Sept. 19, 1864, and on Oct. 9 took a leading part in the over- 
throw of Gen. Rosser's cavalry. During his three years' service he had 
had twelve horses shot under him and had escaped without injury, but 
at Cedar creek he was wounded early in the day, and later, having re- 
fused to leave the field, he led his brigade in a final successful charge and 
received a mortal wound. His commission as brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers issued at the request of Gen. Sheridan, was signed in Washington 
on the day of the battle, Oct. 19, 1864. He died at Middletown, Va., Oct. 
20, 1864. 

Lucas, Thomas J., brigadier-general, was born in Lawrenceburg, Ind., 
Sept. 9, 1826. He learned his father's trade, that of a watchmaker, but 
joined the 4th Ind. volunteers for the Mexican war as a drummer boy, 
was made 2nd lieutenant on the same day, and while in the service in 
Mexico was promoted ist lieutenant and adjutant. Returning to Indiana 
in 1848, he resumed his former occupation. In 1861 he raised a company 
of which he was chosen captain, and which became part of the i6th Ind. 
regiment, of which he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel. May 20. He 
distinguished himself at Ball's bluff, Va., where he covered the retreat 
of the national forces, and on Aug. 19, 1862, he was chosen colonel of 
his regiment, which reenlisted for three years or the war. He engaged 
in the battle of Richmond, Ky., where his regiment, a-fter the loss of 200 
men, was completely routed and afterwards sent to Indianapolis, fur- 
loughed and reorganized, and in December joined Grant's army at Vicks- 
burg, during the operations around which place Col. Lucas was wounded 
three times. He was afterwards ordered to command the post of Vermil- 



156 The Union Army 

lionville, La., and then was placed at the head of a cavalry brigade, with 
which he did good service in the Red River expedition, first in the ad- 
vance, then in covering the retreat of Banks' army, and then in the ad- 
vance again to the Mississippi. He was promoted brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers, Nov. 10, 1864, and commanded a division of cavalry in the oper- 
ations about Mobile, defeated the Confederates at Claiborne and led raids 
into western Florida, southern Georgia, and Alabama. He was bre- 
vetted major-general of volunteers March 26, 1865, and after his command 
was mustered out he was ordered to New Orleans, by request of Gen. 
Sheridan, where he remained until the affairs of the French in Mexico 
were settled, and then returned to his home in Lawrenceburg, Ind., in 
Jan., 1866. After the war Gen. Lucas was employed in the United States 
revenue service, 1875-81, was postmaster of Lawrenceburg, 1881-85, ^nd 
in 1886 was an unsuccessful candidate on the Republican ticket for Con- 
gress. 

Lyon, Nathaniel, brigadier-general, was born in Ashford, Conn., 
July 14, 1818. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 
1841, served in the Seminole war, and afterwards, until the Mexican war, 
on garrison duty. He was promoted ist lieutenant, Feb. 16, 1847, and took 
part in all the principal engagements of the Mexican war, winning the 
brevet of captain for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, and being 
slightly wounded at the Belen gate. City of ]\Iexico. In the interval be- 
tween the close of the Mexican war and the beginning of the Civil war 
he served on garrison and frontier duty in the western states, being pro- 
moted captain in 1851. He was in Washington while the debates were 
going on in Congress over the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and, whereas he 
had formerly been a loyal Democrat, his sympathies were now engaged in 
behalf of the negro. Capt. Lyon was commissioned brigadier-general of 
volunteers on ]\Iay 17, 1861, and succeeded Maj. Hagner in command of the 
St. Louis arsenal. On the president's call for troops. Gov. Jackson of 
Missouri, who had been active in promoting the organization of state 
militia for the Confederate army, prepared to plant batteries on the hills 
overlooking the armory. Gen. Lyon then secured three regiments of Illi- 
nois troops and subsequently secretly removed from the arsenal all arms 
except those needed for the arming of the citizens. The Confederate 
militia forces under Gen. Frost, now numbering only 700 men, went into 
camp at St. Louis, at Camp Jackson, on May 6, and on May 10 Lyon sur- 
rounded the camp and took as prisoners of war the entire force. Later 
in the day an encounter between the U. S. troops and the citizens re- 
sulted in the death of several unarmed citizens and caused great excite- 
ment in St. Louis. Gen. Lyon succeeded Harney as commander of the 
Department of the West on May 31, and two weeks later he overtook 
Jackson's state troops and scattered them at Boonville. Then followed 
the action at Dug springs, Aug. 2, after which he retreated to Springfield, 
upon learning that the three Confederate columns had joined. On Aug. 
9, considering a retreat more hazardous than a battle, he decided to sur- 
prise the enemy at their camp on Wilson's creek at daybreak the next 
morning. He turned their position and attacked their rear, while Gen. 
Franz Sigel assailed the right flank. Sigel was defeated through mistak- 
ing one of the Confederate regiments for Iowa troops, and Lyon, perceiv- 
ing new troops coming to the support of the Confederate forces, brought 
all his men to the front in a final effort. His horse had been killed and 
he had been wounded in the head and leg. but he mounted another horse 
and dashed to the front to rally his wavering line, when he was shot 
through the breast, dying almost instantly. Soon afterwards Maj. Sam- 
uel D. Sturgis, who had succeeded to the command, ordered a retreat. 
Lyon's movement, although resulting in defeat, had enabled the Union 



Biographical Sketches 157 

men to organize a state government and array the power of the state on 
the national side, and in recognition of the services of himself and his 
troops Congress passed a resolution of thanks, and each regiment which 
took part in the battle was permitted to "bear upon its colors the word 
'Springlield' emblazoned in letters of gold." Gen. Lyon bequeathed $30,000, 
which constituted almost his entire property, to the government to aid 
in preserving the union. 

Lytle, William H., brigadier-general, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Nov. 2, 1826. He was graduated at Cincinnati college, studied law, and 
served in the Mexican war as 2nd lieutenant and subsequently captain in 
the 2nd Ohio infantry. After the war he practiced law in Ohio, was 
elected to the Ohio legislature, and in 1857 was the unsuccessful candidate 
of the Democratic party for governor of Ohio. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war he was major-general of militia, commanding the ist division, 
Ohio militia, and he mustered for the three months' service the 5th, 6th, 
9th, and loth regiments. He was commissioned colonel of the loth Ohio 
infantry, and at Carnitix ferry, Sept. 10, 1861, where he commanded a 
brigade, he was severely wounded. On his recovery he commanded a 
camp of instruction and rendezvous at Bardstown, Ky., and subse- 
quently a brigade in the Army of the Ohio, and served in the Alabama 
campaign and during Gen. Buell's march into Kentucky, where he covered 
the rear of the army. At Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862, where he distinguished 
himself for gallantry in leading a charge, he was severely wounded and 
left on the field for dead. He was captured, and while in captivity was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862. He was ex- 
changed Feb. 4, 1863, served in the Chickamauga campaign, and at Chick- 
amauga. Sept. 20, 1863. he was killed while leading a charge of his bri- 
gade. Gen. Lytle was the author of a number of poems, the best-known 
of which is the poem beginning: "I am dying, Egypt, I am dying," first 
published July 29, 1858. 

Mackenzie, Ranald S., brigadier-general, was born in Westchester 
county, N. Y., Jul\ i-j, 1840. was graduated at West Point in 1862 and 
assigned to the engineers. He served as assistant engineer, 9th army 
corps, in the northern Virginia campaign, and was brevetted for gallantry 
at the battle of Manassas ist lieutenant. He was attached to the engineer 
battalion in the Maryland campaign, participated in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, as engineer of Gen. Sumner's grand division, 
on March 3, 1863, was promoted ist lieutenant, two months later was bre- 
vetted captain for "gallant and meritorious services at the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville, Va." He served in the Pennsylvania campaign as commander 
of an engineer company, was brevetted major for gallantry at Gettysburg, 
was promoted captain of engineers, Nov. 6, 1863, and commanded the 
engineer company in the Richmond campaign. He commanded the 2nd 
Conn, artillery at the siege of Petersburg, was brevetted lieutenant-col- 
onel for his gallantry there, in the following October was brevetted col- 
onel for gallantry at Cedar creek, and was promoted brigadier-general of 
volunteers for meritorious services at the battles of Opequan, Fisher's 
hill and Middletown, Va. On March 13, 1865, he was brevetted briga- 
dier-general U. S. A. and major-general of volunteers "for gallant and 
meritorious services in the field during the rebellion," and he engaged in 
the battle of Five Forks, the pursuit of Lee's army, and was present at the 
surrender at Appomattox. April 9. 1865. He was mustered out of the 
volunteer service, Jan. 15. 1866. was promoted colonel, in 1867. brigadier- 
general in 1882, and on March 24, 1884. was placed on the retired list, 
having been disabled "in the line of duty." Gen. Mackenzie died on 
Staten island. N. Y., Jan. 19, 1889. 

Maltby, Jasper A., brigadier-general, was born in Kingsville, Ashta- 



158 The Union Army 

bula county, Ohio, Nov. 3, 1826. He served during the Mexican war as 
a private and was severely wounded at Chapultepec. On returning to pri- 
vate life he engaged in business at Galena, 111., and was engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits there until the Civil war. He became lieutenant-colonel 
of the 45th 111. infantry on Dec. 26, 1861, and was promoted colonel 
March 5, 1863. He was wounded at Fort Donelson, and received a severe 
wound at Vicksburg while in command of his regiment. He was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers, Aug. 4, 1863, and served with 
the Army of the Tennessee during the subsequent campaigns, being mus- 
tered out of the service Jan. 15, 1866. Gen. Maltby was appointed by the 
military commander of the district mayor of Vicksburg, Miss., on Sept. 
3, 1867, and died there Dec. 12, 1867, while in the discharge of the duties 
of that ofifice. 

Mansfield, Joseph K. F., major-general, was born in New Haven, 
Conn., Dec. 22, 1803. He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1822 and assigned to the engineer corps, being engaged from 
then until the Mexican war on various engineering works. In the Mex- 
ican war, in which he served as chief engineer under Gen. Taylor, he won 
the brevet of major for gallant and distinguished services in the defense 
of Fort Brown, which he had built ; that of lieutenant-colonel for conduct 
at Monterey, and that of colonol for services at Buena Vista. On May 
'^Zi 1853, he was appointed inspector-general of the army, with the rank 
of colonel, and on May 14, 1861, he was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers and placed in command of the Department of Washington. He 
fortified the city completely on every side, and on the return of Gen. Wool 
to Fortress Monroe he commanded successively Camp Hamilton, New- 
port News, and Suffolk, and engaged in the capture of Norfolk. In 1862 
he served on the court of inquiry on the battle of Bull Run, in Washington, 
and on July 18, 1862, he was made major-general of U. S. volunteers and 
assigned to command the corps formerly under Gen. N. P. Banks. At the 
battle of Antietam, where he was at the head of his corps, he was mortally 
wounded early in the day while cheering on his troops in a charge, and he 
died on the battlefield, near Sharpsburg, Md., Sept. 18, 1862. 

Manson, Mahlon D., brigadier-general, was born at Piqua, Ohio, 
Feb. 20, 1820. He removed to Indiana in early life, served in the Mexi- 
can war as captain in the 5th Ind. infantry, and was a representative in 
the Indiana state legislature in 1851-52. At the beginning of the Civil 
war he became captain in the loth Ind. volunteers, soon afterwards major 
and colonel, and he commanded his regiment at Rich mountain, Va., July 
II, 1861. He was in command of the 2nd brigade of the army of Gen. 
George H. Thomas at the battle of Mill springs, Ky., Jan. 19, 1862, and 
on March 24 he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. In 
April and May, 1862, he engaged in the skirmishes in front of Corinth, 
Miss., and at the disastrous battle of Richmond, Ky.. he commanded the 
national forces before the arrival of Gen. Nelson, being wounded and taken 
prisoner. He was exchanged in Dec, 1862, in the following March com- 
manded the national forces in a skirmish with Pegram, and in July, 1863, 
was in command during the Morgan raid in Indiana and Ohio. He served 
with Burnside in east Tennessee, was placed at the head of the 23d army 
corps in Sept., 1863, and took part in the siege of Knoxville, Tenn., and 
in various engagements in that state. He was severely wounded at the 
battle of Resaca, and resigned on account of his wounds. Dec. 21, 1864. 
Gen. Manson was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for governor of 
Indiana in 1864, and subsequently for secretary of state, but he was 
elected to the 42nd Congress, and in 1872 was elected auditor of the state 
of Indiana. He died in Crawfordsville, Ind., Feb. 4, 1895. 

Marcy, Randolph B., brigadier-general, was born in Greenwich, Mass., 



Biographical Sketches 159 

April 9, 1812, and was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1832. He served in the Black Hawk war, on frontier duty, took part 
in the military occupation of Texas, and was engaged in the war with 
Mexico, being present at the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. 
He afterwards was engaged in the explorations of the Red river, in the 
Seminole war in Florida, and in the Missouri and Utah expedition of 
1857-58. He was promoted paymaster with the rank of major, Aug. 22, 
1859, and inspector-general with the rank of colonel Aug. 9, 1861. He was 
chief-of-staff to Gen. McClellan, his son-in-law, at the beginning of the 
war, was made brigadier-general Sept. 23, 1861, engaged in the campaign 
of western Virginia May to July, 1861, and was in Washington from 
July, 1861, to August, 1862. He served during the war on inspection 
duty in the departments of the Northwest, the Missouri, Arkansas, Mis- 
sissippi and the Gulf, until 1865, and was on leave of absence, 1865-66. 
He was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general U. S. A., March 
13, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services during the war. Gen. 
Marcy was promoted inspector-general with the rank of brigadier-gen- 
eral U. S. A., Dec. 12, 1878, and was retired from active service Jan. 2, 
1881. He contributed to magazines and wrote several books. He was 
a famous hunter. Gen. Marcy died in Orange, N. J., Nov. 22, 1887. 

Marston, Oilman, brigadier-general, was born in Oxford, N. H., Aug. 

20, 181 1. He was brought up on his father's farm, taught school in or- 
der to pay his way through college, and was graduated at Dartmouth in 
1837. He was then principal of an academy at Indianapolis, Ind., in 
1837-38, and was graduated at the Harvard law school in 1840. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1841, practiced in Exeter, N. H., and was a repre- 
sentative in the state legislature in 1845-46-47 and 1848, subsequently in 
1872-73-76-77, and during the biennial terms of 1879-80, 81-82, 83-84, 85-86 
and 87-88. He was a delegate to the state constitutional conventions of 
1850 and 1876. Early in 1861 he recruited the 2nd N. H. volunteers, of 
which he became colonel and which he led in the battle of Bull Run. July 

21, 1861. He served under McClellan on the Peninsula, and with Burn- 
side at Fredericksburg, where his regiment was in the ist brigade, 2nd 
division, 3d corps, and he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers 
Nov. 29, 1862. He served throughout the remainder of the war, being 
several times wounded, and resigned April 20, 1865. Gen. Martston served 
in Congress from 1859 to 1863 and from 1865 to 1867, but was defeated 
for election to the 46th Congress. He declined an appointment as gover- 
nor of Idaho territory, 1870. He served as United States senator, under 
appointment of Gov. Sawyer, as successor to William E. Chandler, from 
Feb. 15 to June 18, 1889. He died in Exeter, N. H., July 3, 1890. 

Martindale, John H., brigadier-general, was born at Sandy Hill, N. Y., 
March 20. 1815. He was graduated at the United States military acad- 
emy in 1835, but resigned his commission March 10, 1836, was engineer 
on the construction of the Saratoga & Washington railroad in 1836, and 
in 1838 was admitted to the bar. He practiced law in Batavia, N. Y., 
1838-51, and in Rochester, N. Y., 1851-61, being district attorney for 
Genesee county, 1842-45 and 1847-51. He was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers, Aug. 9. 1861, and distinguished himself by the 
skillful handling of his brigade during the Peninsular campaign. At 
Hanover Court House, with about i.ooo men, he sustained the attack of 
a force of 4,000 until Gen. Fitz-John Porter came up, thus saving the day, 
and his brigade was prominently engaged also at Gaines' rnill and Malvern 
hill. In the retreat he exclaimed that he would rather surrender than 
desert the wounded, and for this Gen. Porter brought charges against 
him, but he was fully exonerated by a court of inquiry. He was military 
governor of Oregon, 1862-64, was relieved at his own request in May, 



160 The Union Army 

1864, joined Gen. Benjamin F. Butler's army and led a division in the 
operations south of Richmond and in the siege of Petersburg. He distin- 
guished himself particularly at Cold Harbor, where he charged the Con- 
federate earthworks four times with his division without the support of 
the 1st division, and, although repulsed, the front of his division was, at 
the close of the battle, within two hundred yards of the enemy's Hne. Gen. 
Martindale was compelled by sickness to resign his commission, Sept. 
13, 1864, and on March 13, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers for gallantry at Malvern hill. He was attorney general for New 
York, 1866-68, and died in Nice, France, Dec. 13, 1881. 

Mason, John S., brigadier-general, was born in Steubenville, Ohio, 
Aug. Ji, 18^4. tie was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1847, was assigned to the 3d artillery as 2nd lieutenant and served in 
the Mexican war in 1847-48. He was promoted ist lieutenant in 1850, 
captain May 14, 1861, and was commissioned colonel of the 4th Ohio vol- 
unteers Oct. 3, 1861. His regiment was assigned to the ist brigade, 3d 
division, 2nd army corps, and he commanded the brigade in the battle of 
Fredericksburg after Gen. Nathan Kimball was wounded. He was bre- 
vetted major, Sept. 17, 1862, for gallant and meritorious services in the 
battle of Antietam; lieutenant-colonel Dec. 13, 1862, for similar services 
at Fredericksburg, and colonel and brigadier-general U. S. A., March 
13, 1865, "for gallant and meritorious services during the war" and "in 
the field." He served after Jan. 9, 1863, as brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, his commission dating from Nov. 29, 1862. He was mustered out 
of the volunteer service April 30, 1866. He was promoted major of the 
17th infantry Oct. 14, 1864, and after the war served chiefly on the fron- 
tier with different regiments, being promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 
4th infantry, Dec. 11, 1873, and colonel of the gth infantry April 2, 1883. 
He was retired by operation of law, Aug. 21, 1888, and died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, Nov. 29, 1897. 

Matthies, Charles L., brigadier-general, was born in Bromberg, Prus- 
sia, May 31, 1824. He was educated in the university at Halle, then 
worked on his father's farm and afterwards served in the Prussian army. 
He came to America in the spring of 1849 and located at Burlington, la., 
where he engaged in mercantile pursuits. He was the first man in the 
United States to offer a military company to the government, his tender 
being made by letter, through Gov. Kirkwood, Jan. 9, 1861. He was mus- 
tered into the service as captain in the ist Iowa infantry, May 14, 1861, 
and was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 5th Iowa infantry July 23, 

1861, colonel May 23, 1862, and brigadier-general of volunteers Nov. 29, 

1862. Gen. Matthies' record throughout the war was most creditable. He 
was present with his regiment during the Missouri campaign, at Island 
No. 10, and during the siege of Corinth, and especially distinguished him- 
self at the battle of luka, where his regiment lost, out of an aggregate 
strength of 482, 217 men in killed, wounded and missing. After receiving 
his commission as brigadier-general Gen. Matthies commanded the 3d 
brigade, 3d division, 15th army corps under Sherman, from Grand Gulf 
to Jackson and thence to the rear of Vicksburg, and won commendation 
from Gen. Sherman for his efficient service. He afterwards had charge 
of the Nashville & Decatur railroad as far north as Lynnville, and the 
Memphis & Charleston railroad as far east as Huntsville, and in May, 1864, 
he fortified Decatur. He had been wounded at Chattanooga, and failing 
health compelled him to resign, Mav 16, 1864. Gen. Matthies died Oct. 
16, 1868. 

McArthur, John, brigadier-general, was born in Erskine, Scotland, 
Nov. 17, 1826. He attended the public schools and worked in his father's 
blacksmith shop until 1849, when he immigrated to America and, locating 




Hrig.-C.en. .1. A. Maltby Maj.-Gen. J. K. F. Mans- I'.iig.Oen. M. 1) Manson 



Brig.-Gen. R. 15. jMarcy field 

Brig.-Gen. C. A. McCall Brig.-Gen. T. H. Martin- 

Maj.-Gen. J. A. McClf.r- oale 



Brig.-Gen. Wm. McCand- Clellan 



Brig.-Gen. John Mc- 

Arthur 
Maj.-Gen. G. B. Mc- 



LESS 

Maj.-Gen. A. ^[cD. Mc- 

COOK 



Rrig.-Gen. Daniel McCook 



Biographical Sketches 161 

in Chicago, III, secured employment as a boiler-maker and afterwards 
established a business of his own. He was captain of the "Highland 
Guards" attached to the state mihtia, and in 1861 this company volun- 
teered and became part of the 12th 111. regiment, of which he became 
colonel on May 3, 1861. He commanded a brigade under Grant at the 
assault on Fort Donelson in Feb., 1862, and for his gallantry was pro- 
moted brigadier-general on March 21 following. At Shiloh he received 
a wound in the foot during the first day's tight, but returned to the battle 
after the wound had been dressed and succeeded to the command of the 
2nd division after Gen. William H. L. Wallace was mortally wounded. 
He commanded a brigade at Corinth, Oct. 3-4, 1862, and the 6th division, 
17th army corps. Army of the Tennessee, during the Vicksburg campaign. 
May I, 1863, to July 4. 1863. At the battle of Nashville, where he com- 
manded a division under Gen. A. J. Smith, he took a conspicuous part 
and distinguished himself by gallantry, leading his division in the assault 
of the salient point in the enemy's line after Gen. Couch had refused the 
privilege of charging. For this he was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers, Dec. IS, 1864. He was mustered out of the service, Aug. 24, 1865, 
and returned to Chicago, where he was president of the board of com- 
missioners of public works during the fire of 1871, and postmaster of the 
city from 1873-77. 

McCall, George A., brigadier-general, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
March 16, 1802. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1822, served as aide-de-camp to Gen. E. P. Gaines in the Seminole war 
of 1831-36, participated in the second war with the Seminoles, 1841-2, 
and was promoted captain in 1836 and major in 1847. He took part in 
the military occupation of Texas and the war with Mexico, being present 
at the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and winning the bre- 
vets of major and lieutenant-colonel for his gallantry. On his return from 
the Mexican war he was given a sword by the citizens of Philadelphia, 
and in 1850 he was appointed inspector-general of the army, with the 
rank of colonel, which position he resigned in 1853 to engage in farming 
in Chester county. Pa. On May 15, 1861, he was commissioned major- 
general of Pennsylvania volunteers, and his division formed the extreme 
right of the defenses of Washington. He was commissioned brigadier- 
general of U. S. volunteers. May 17, 1861, and he commanded the reserves, 
which formed a division of three brigades, until June, 1862. He planned 
the successful movement against Dranesville, Dec. 20, 1861, and com- 
manded all the national forces at the battle of Mechanicsville, June 26, 
1862, where he repelled a vastly superior force. He led his brigade in the . 
battle of Gaines' mill, June 27, 1862, and at the battle of New Market 
cross-roads, June 30, 1862, where he was taken prisoner. He was con- 
fined in Libby prison until Aug. 18, was then on sick leave until March 
31, 1863, when he resigned and retired to his farm in Pennsylvania. The 
citizens of Chester county presented him with a sword in Aug., 1862, and 
in 1864 he was the Democratic candidate for Congress. He died at 
Belair, Pa., Feb. 26. 1868. 

McCandless, William, brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Pennsylvania and was one of the loyal citizens of that state that offered 
his services to the Federal government in the early days of the Civil war. 
He enlisted in the 31st Pa. infantry, which was also known as the 2nd 
Pa. reserves, and on June 21. 1861, was elected major of that organization. 
On July 24 with his regiment he left camp at Philadelphia and moved to 
Harrisburg, leaving that point at once for Baltimore and then proceeded 
to Harper's Ferry. On Sept. 25 the regiment was assigned to the ist bri- 
gade of the Pennsylvania reserves, becoming the second regiment of the 
brigade, and at the battle of Mechanicsville it received the brunt of the 
Vol. viir— 1 1 



1G2 The Union Army 

attack without flinching and was highly praised by the commanding of- 
ficer. On Oct. 22 Maj. McCandless was promoted to heutenant-colonel 
of his regiment and witli it was active at Gaines' mill and Glendale, but 
was in reserve at Malvern hill. He was commissioned colonel on Aug. 
I, 1862, was wounded at the second battle of Bull Run, and also par- 
ticipated at Chantilly and the sharp engagement on the old Hagerstown 
road, near Frederick, Md. At the licad of his regiment he was with the 
1st Pa. reserves at South mountain, Antictam and Fredericksburg, and 
at the battle of Gettysburg participated in a brilliant charge in which 
many prisoners and the flag of the islh Ga. infantry was captured. He 
was active with Lis regiment at Bristoe Station and in the Mine Run cam- 
paign, and during the Wilderness movement, on May 8, 1864, he was again 
wounded. He remained with his regiment, however, and participated in 
the battles of that campaign until June T. his last engagement being at 
Shady Grove Church, and on June 16, 1864, he was mustered out of the 
service, the term for which the regiment enlisted having expired. On July 
21, 1864, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, but de- 
clined the proffered honor and gave his attention to peaceful pursuits. 

McClellan, George B., major-general, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Dec. 3, 1826. He received his early education in the schools of his na- 
tive city and in 1841 entered the University of Pennsylvania, where he 
remained nearly two years. In 1842 he entered the U. S. military acad- 
emy, being graduated second in the class of 1846, the largest that had 
ever left the academy, and he was first in the class in engineering. In 
June, 1846, he was commissioned brevet second lieutenant of engineers 
and in September of the same year accompanied the army to Mexico, be- 
ing assigned to a company of sappers and miners which had just been 
organized. He distinguished himself under Gen. Scott in the battles of 
Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, and Chapultepec, and was com- 
missioned second lieutenant and brevetted captain for gallantry in action. 
The intrepid act which won him the brevet of captain occurred while Gen. 
Worth's division was camped on the Puebla road preparatory to the ad- 
vance on the City of Mexico. McClellan went out at early dawn on a per- 
sonal scouting expedition, accompanied only by an orderly. On mount- 
ing a ridge he came suddenly upon a Mexican engineer officer who, it 
afterward developed, was engaged in the same work. Taking in the sit- 
uation at a glance, McClellan dashed forward and with his large Ameri- 
can horse rode down the Mexican, disarmed him, handed him over to 
his orderly and then climbed to the summit of the ridge, from which he 
discovered a body of 2,500 cavalry forming for attack. He promptly re- 
turned with his prisoner to camp, the "long-roll" was beaten, and the next 
night found Gen. Worth occupying Puebla. At the close of the Mexican 
war Capt. McClellan was assigned to the command of the engineer corps 
to which he was attached and returned with it to West Point, where he ' 
acted as assistant instructor in practical engineering until 1851, when he 
was put in charge of the construction of Fort Delaware. In the follow- 
ing year he went on the Red River exploring expedition with Capt. R. B. 
Marcy. In the meantime he had written and published a "Manual on the 
Art of War." In 1853 and 1854 he was on duty in Washington territory 
and Oregon and commenced a topographical survey for the Pacific rail- 
way. In 1855 he was one of three American officers sent to observe the 
campaign in the Crimea, the other two being Maj. Richard Delafield and 
Maj. Alfred Mordecai. After their experience in Crimea the members 
of this commission traveled through various European countries, examin- 
ing military posts and fortresses and acquainting themselves with the 
military methods in use, and on returning each of the three made an of- 
ficial report, Capt. McClellan's being on the arms, equipment and organiza- 



Biographical Sketches 163 

tion of the European armies. In Jan., 1857, McClellan, who had been pro- 
moted to a full captaincy and transferred to the ist cavalry, resigned his 
commission to accept the position of chief engineer and afterward vice- 
president of the Illinois Central railroad company, and later he was made 
president of the eastern division of the Ohio & Mississippi railroad com- 
pany. On May 22, i860, he married Ellen Mary Marcy, daughter of Capt. 
(afterward Gen.) Randolph K. Marcy, and settled in Cincinnati, Ohio. 
At the outbreak of the Civil war he was in an excellent business position, 
as regards both salary and prospects, and had every temptation to refrain 
from offering his services in the war, had not his patriotism and his char- 
acter as a soldier forced him to do so. He volunteered for the service 
and on April 23, 1861, was commissioned major-general of Ohio volunteers, 
but by the recommendation of Gen. Scott, who knew his value, on May 
3 following he was placed in command of the Department of the Ohio. 
He issued a proclamation to the Union men of western Virginia and an 
address to his soldiers, and then entered upon the western Virginia cam- 
paign, during which he freed that section from secessionists and preserved 
it to the Union. He was then summoned to Washington and assigned 
to the command of the Division of the Potomac as major-general, U. S. A., 
and on Nov. i, 1861, he was made commander-in-chief of the Federal 
forces. He was one of the few who foresaw a long war and he dis- 
cerned the necessity of making a most careful preparation for it ; of or- 
ganizing what should be a real army, like the armies he had seen in 
Europe, and not a mere mass of untrained, undisciplined volunteers or 
militia; and of erecting fortifications or some kind of defenses for the 
extensive exposed frontier lines of the loyal states. The promptness 
with which he collected and organized the military resources of Ohio, In- 
diana and Illinois, satisfied the authorities at Washington that he was at 
least the right man in the right place, and he may be said to have been 
called upon to save the government, after the disastrous retreat of the 
Federal army from the field of the first Bull Run. It was he who created 
the Army of the Potomac, and even the delays and apparent inertness at 
Yorktown, where it seemed that he was fortifying against the air, were 
the means by which McClellan was training his men to understand and 
apply the rules of war. His Peninsular campaign in the spring of 1862 
was based on the distinct understanding that the army which he then con- 
trolled should not be diminished ; and had it not been for the withdrawal 
of Gen. McDowell's force of 40,000 men from the neighborhood of Fred- 
ericksburg, it is highly probable that McClellan's army would have entered 
Richmond before the end of June. On June 28 McClellan wrote to the 
secretary of war, stating that if he had been sustained by the government 
he could have captured Richmond, and in enclosing this despatch to Stan- 
ton he exhibited the deep chagrin and unhappiness which he felt in these 
words : "If I save this army now, I tell you plainly that I owe no thanks 
to you or to any persons in Washington ; you have done your best to 
sacrifice this army." He had fought the battle of Gaines' mill and had 
begun his movement to the James, the most remark.-ible general re- 
treat during the war, and in some respects the most remarkable in the his- 
tory of any war, inasmuch as the result was not utter disaster to the 
general making the movement. The battles of Mechaniscvillc, Gaines' mill 
and White Oak swamp were followed by Savage Station and the fighting 
at Frazier's farm, where McClellan had a line eight miles in length at- 
tacked at once by "Stonewall" Jackson, Magruder, Lonsjstreet, and Hill. 
The army succeeded in reaching Harrison's landing, just before which an- 
other attack was made along the whole line at Malvern hill, where the 
Confederates, although fighting magnificently, were finally defeated. 
Finally, on Aug. 30, 1862, McClellan was relieved of his command and 



164 The Union Army 

superseded by Gen. Pope, whereupon followed the second disaster at Bull 
Run. With a smaller force than was subsequently put at the disposal 
of some of his successors, McClellan had encountered the largest Con- 
federate army that ever took the held, in the very flower of its vigor, and 
commanded by the greatest Confederate captains of the Civil war. He 
had shown strategical and tactical ability of a high order, out-maneuver- 
ing, out-witting and out-lighting the enemy throughout the entire cam- 
paign, and he had displayed personal qualities tliat gained and kept the 
love of his soldiers through every trial. On the night of Aug. 30, after 
he had been relieved from command, he asked for permission to go to the 
front as a volunteer, that he might be with his own men. "If it is not 
deemed best," he said, "to intrust nic with the command even of my own 
army, I simply ask to be permitted to share their fate on the battle-field." 
The request was put aside. The battles of Gainesville, Groveton, Manas- 
sas, and Chantilly, ended in disastrous defeat to the P"ederal arms, and 
McClellan was then a second time called upon to save the government and 
the capital at Washington. On Sept. 2 President Lincoln came to him at 
his house in Washington, informed him that he (Lincoln) regarded Wash- 
ington as lost, and asked him if he would under the circumstances con- 
sent to accept command of all the forces. Without a moment's hesitation 
and without making any conditions whatever, McClellan at once said that 
he would accept the command and would stake his life that he would save 
the city. On the evening of the same day he rode to the front and was 
received with enthusiasm by the beaten and weary but undisheartened 
soldiers, and before the day broke on the following morn the troops were 
all in position prepared to repulse an attack and the capital of the nation 
was safe. On Sept. 3 the enemy disappeared from the neighborhood of 
Washington, with the design of crossing the upper Potomac into Mary- 
land, and the same day McClellan began his counter movement, reporting 
the facts to Gen. Halleck, general-in-chief of the army, by whom he was 
informed that his command included only the defenses of Washington and 
did not extend to any active column that might be moved out beyond the 
line of works. This was the condition of affairs on Sept. 7, when, Lee 
having crossed into Maryland at Leesburg and was concentrating at 
Frederick City, it became absolutely necessary that his army should be 
met. As Gen. McClellan was afterward accused of assuming command 
without authority, for nefarious purposes, his own statement of the case 
is of interest : "As the time had now arrived for the army to advance, 
and I had received no orders to take command of it, but had been ex- 
pressly told that the assignment of a commander had not been decided, 
I determined to solve the question for myself, and when I moved out 
from Washington with my staff and personal escort I left my card with 
P. P. C. written upon it, at the White House, War Office, and Secretary 
Seward's house, and went on my way. * * * j fought the battles of 
South mountain and Antietam with a halter around my neck, for if the 
Army of the Potomac had been defeated and I had survived I would 
* * * probably have been condemned to death. I was fully aware of 
the risk I ran, but the path of duty was clear and I tried to follow it." 
But the Army of the Potomac was not defeated. McClellan carried Cramp- 
ton's gap and Turner's gap on Sept. 14 by one of the most spirited com- 
bats of the war in the baLtle of South mountain, and on Sept. 17 attacked 
Lee and won the great battle of Antietam, forcing the enemy to retreat 
across the Potomac on the evening of the following day. Yet he was 
still in disgrace among the Republican party heads at Washington. It was 
charged upon him that he did not follow Lee as he should have done, 
and soon afterward he was relieved by Gen. Burnside who was presently 
defeated at Fredericksburg and was succeeded in turn by Gen. Hooker, 



Biographical Sketches 165 

who immediately went into winter cantonment. From Antietam to Get- 
tysburg the history of the Army of the Potomac was a history of defeat 
and disaster, during which time McClellan had virtually been placed in 
retirement, and in fact his brilliant and victorious Maryland campaign 
closed his military career. In 1864 he was nominated for the presidency 
of the United States by the Democratic party, and he resigned his com- 
mission in the army on election day of that year ; but when the votes were 
counted it was found that he had been defeated, receiving a popular vote 
of 1,800,000, while Mr. Lincoln polled 2,200,000. From that time until his 
death Gen. McClellan was engaged in various important civil pursuits. 
He made a visit to Europe and on his return, in 1868, settled at Orange 
Mountain, N. J. In 1870 he was appointed by the mayor of New York 
city engineer-in-chief of the department of docks, and in 1871 was oflfered 
the nomination for comptroller of the city, which honor he declined. On 
Nov. 6, 1877, he was elected governor of New Jersey, serving until 1881, 
and later he settled in New York, where a number of friends presented 
him with a handsome residence, and where he superintended several im- 
portant enterprises. Gen. McClellan died at South Orange, N. J., Oct. 29, 
1885. He left two children, a daughter and a son, the latter of whom, 
George B. McClellan, Jr., is now (1907) mayor of Greater New York. 

McClernand, John A., major-general, was born near Hardinsburg, 
Ky., May 30, 1812. He moved with his mother, after the death of his 
father in 1816, to Shawneetown, 111., where he was brought up on a farm, 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1832. In the same year he 
volunteered for the Black Hawk war, and on his return engaged in trade 
for a time, and then, in 1835, established at Shawneetown a paper called 
the "Democrat," which he edited, at the same time practicing law. He 
was a representative in the state legislature, 1836-42, and was appointed 
by the legislature commissioner and treasurer of the Illinois & Michi- 
gan canal. He was a presidential elector on the Van Buren and John- 
son ticket in 1840, and was a Democratic representative in Congress in 
1843-51, and again in 1859-61. He resigned his seat in the 37th Congress 
to enter the United States volunteer army, and with N. B. Buford, John 
A. Logan and Philip B. Fouke he raised the McClernand brigade and was 
appointed by President Lincoln brigadier-general, May 17, 1861. At the 
battle of Belmont he commanded the ist brigade of Grant's army, and at 
Fort Donelson he did good service, commanding the right of the national 
line. He was made major-general of volunteers March 21, 1862; com- 
manded the 1st division, Army of the Tennessee at Shiloh, and in Jan., 
1863, relieved Gen. Sherman in command of the expedition for the cap- 
ture of Vicksburg. He afterwards took part in the storming and capture 
of Arkansas Post, and was at Port Gibson, Champion's hill, and Big 
Black river, and also at the siege of Vicksburg. He was charged by 
Grant with failing to support the troops engaged in the battle of Cham- 
pion's hill, and he was relieved of his command in July, 1863. He was 
reinstated by President Lincoln, Jan. 31, 1864, but resigned from the army 
on account of ill health, Nov. 30, 1864, and in 1865 resumed his law prac- 
tice in Springfield. He was circuit judge for the Sangamon district 
1870-73 ; chairman of the Democratic national convention in St. Louis 
in 1876, and was appointed a member of the Utah commission by President 
Cleveland in 1888. Gen. McClernand died in Springfield, 111., Sept. 20, 
1890. 

McCook, Alexander McD., major-general, was born in Columbiana 
county, Ohio, April 22. 1831. He was graduated at the United States 
military academy in 1852, served for a time on garrison duty, was then 
engaged against the Apaches in New Mexico until 1857, and was subse- 
quently assistant instructor in infantry tactics at West Point, becoming 



166 The Union Army 

1st lieutenant in 1858. At the beginning of the Civil war he was com- 
missioned colonel of the ist Ohio regiment, with which he engaged m 
the defenses of Washington, May-July, 1861. He was promoted captam 
in the 3d U. S. infantry, May 14, 1861 ; participated in the skirmish at 
Vienna, Va., June 17, and at the battle of Bull Run, where he commanded 
his regiment, he won the brevet of major for gallantry. He was appoint- 
ed brigadier-general of volunteers Sept. 3, 1861, and commanded a bri- 
gate in the operations in Kentucky, from Oct. to Dec, 1861, and the 2nd 
division. Army of the Ohio, under Maj.-Gen. Buell in the Tennessee and 
Mississippi campaign, Feb.-June, 1862. He was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel at the capture of Nashville, March 3, 1862, and colonel on April 
7, for services at Shiloh. In the advance upon the siege of Corinth he 
commanded the reserve of the Army of the Ohio, his division engaging, 
however, at Bridge creek and at Serratt's hill, and he then served in 
northern Alabama and in east Tennessee, being commissioned major- 
general of volunteers July 17, 1862. He was then placed in command of 
the 20th army corps, with which he served in the campaigns of Perry- 
ville, Stone's river, Tullahoma and Chickamauga. He was relieved of his 
command, Oct. 6, 1863, shortly after the battle of Chickamauga, and asked 
for a court of inquiry which found him free from all blame. He was 
engaged in the defense of Washington on July 11 and 12, 1864, was as- 
signed to duties in the middle division in Nov., 1864, and in Feb., 1865, 
was placed in command of the eastern district of Arkansas. He repre- 
sented the war department in the investigation of Indian affairs May 
6, 1865. On March 13, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general U. S. A. 
for gallant and meritorious services at Perryville, and major-general 
U. S. A., for services in the field during the war. Gen. McCook was mus- 
tered out of the volunteer service, Oct. 21, 1865 ; was appointed lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the 26th infantry, March S, 1867; served subsequently on 
the staff of Gen. W. T. Sherman, and was promoted colonel of the 6th 
infantry, Dec. 16, 1880, commanding the infantry and cavalry school at 
Fort Leavenworth, Kan. He was appointed brigadier-general July 11, 
1890; major-general Nov. 9, 1894, and retired by operation of law, April 
22, 1895. He represented the United States at the coronation of the czar 
of Russia, at Moscow, May 24, 1896, and was a member of the commission 
appointed by President McKinley to investigate the war department dur- 
ing the war with Spain, Sept. 23, 1898, to Feb. 10, 1899. 

McCook, Daniel, brigadier-general, was born in Carrollton, Ohio, 
July 22, 1834. He was graduated at Alabama university, studied law in 
Steubenville and became a partner of William T. Sherman and Thomas 
Ewing in Leavenworth, Kan. When the war opened the law office was 
closed and soon all three partners became generals. Daniel McCook vol- 
unteered as captain of a local company in a Kansas regiment and served 
under Gen. Nathaniel Lyon at Wilson's creek. He was subsequently 
chief of staff of the ist division of the Army of the Ohio during the Shi- 
loh campaign, was commissioned colonel of the 52nd Ohio infantry, July 
15, 1862, and was at once assigned to command a brigade under Gen. W. 
T. Sherman. He served with distinction at the battles of Perryville and 
Chickamauga, and continued to command a brigade in the Army of the 
Cumberland during the Atlanta campaign. He was selected by Gen. Sher- 
man to lead the assault on the southern slope of Kennesaw mountain, 
June 27, 1864, and had reached the top of the enemy's works and was 
encouraging his men to follow him, when he fell, mortally wounded. For 
his gallantry he was given the full rank of brigadier-general of volun- 
teers to date from July 16, 1864. He died from the effect of his wound, 
July 17. 1864. 

McCook, Edward M., brigadier-general, was born in Steubenville, 



Biographical Sketches 167 

Ohio, June 15, 1833. He received a common school education, was one 
of the early settlers of the Pike's Peak region, where he practiced law 
and represented that district in the Kansas legislature. Prior to the war 
he was a volunteer secret agent of the United States government, and in 
recognition of this service he was appointed 2nd lieutenant in the 4th 
U. S. cavalry, May i, 1861. He was promoted ist lieutenant in July, 
1862. In the volunteer service he served successively as major, lieutenant- 
colonel, and colonel of the 2nd Ind. cavalry, was promoted brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, April 27, 1864, brevetted major-general of volunteers 
March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, and 
he was mustered out of the volunteer service Jan. 15, 1866. He was bre- 
vetted in the regular army ist lieutenant for gallantry at Shiloh; captain 
for services at Perryville; major for conduct in the battle of Chickamauga; 
lieutenant colonel for gallant and meritorious services during the cav- 
alry operations of east Tennessee; colonel, March 13, 1865, for gallant 
and meritorious services in the capture of Selma, Ala., and brigadier- 
general at the same time in recognition of gallant and meritorious serv- 
ices in the field during the war. Gen. McCook resigned his commission in 
the regular army in May, 1866, and as minister to Hawaii, 1866-69, he con- 
cluded the peace that led to annexation. He was territorial governor of 
Colorado under appointment from President Grant, from 1869 to 1875. 

McCook, Robert L., brigadier-general, was born in New Lisbon, Ohio, 
Dec. 28, 1827. He attended school until he reached the age of twenty, 
then entered his father's office as deputy clerk of Carroll county, subse- 
quently studied law and practiced in Steubenville, Columbus, and Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, until 1861, when he organized the 9th Ohio volunteers and 
became colonel of the regiment on May 8. He participated in the West 
Virginia campaign under McClellan, took part in the action at Carnifix 
Ferry, W. Va., Aug. 10, 1861, and was commissioned brigadier-general of 
volunteers March 21, 1862. At the battle of Mill Springs, Ky., where he 
distinguished himself and was wounded, he commanded the 3d brigade 
under Gen. George H. Thomas. He accompanied the brigade across 
Tennessee from Stevenson to Decherd, and, although ill, he refused to 
desert his post, and directed the movements of his troops from an ambu- 
lance. On Aug. 4, while his escorts were reconnoitering, he was shot 
by Confederate guerrillas as he lay helpless in his ambulance. He died 
from the wound, near Decherd, Tenn., Aug. 6, 1862. 

McDowell, Irvin, major-general, was born in Ohio, Oct. 18, 1818, 
received his early education at the College of Troves in France, and was 
graduated at West Point in 1838, becoming second lieutenant in the ist 
artillery. He was recalled to the military academy in 1841, and served 
four years, first as assistant instructor in infantry tactics, and afterward 
as adjutant. On the outbreak of the Mexican trouble he was appointed 
aide-de-camp to Gen. John E. Wool, and took a creditable part at the 
battle of Buena Vista in 1847, which earned for him the brevet of cap- 
tain. He continued with the army of occupation for a while, and was 
then made assistant adjutant-general in the war department serving in 
Washington, New York, and elsewhere, and attaining the rank of major on 
March 31, 1856. After the Civil war was declared he occupied himself 
in organizing volunteer companies at the capital until he was made brig- 
adier-general. May 14, 1861, and assigned to the command of the De- 
partment of northeastern Virginia. On May 29 he was transferred to 
the Army of the Potomac, and in such command fought the well-planned 
but unsuccessful battle of the first Bull Run. On March 14, 1862, he was 
made major-general of volunteers, and took part in the engagements of 
Cedar mountain, Rappahannock Station, and the second battle of Manas- 
sas, but ill fortune continued to follow him and he was retired from ac- 



168 The Union Army 

tive duty on the field, Sept. 6, 1862. On July i, 1864, he was assigned to 
the command of the Department of the Pacific, and on July 27, 1865, 
he was transferred to the Department of California, holding the latter 
office until March 31, 1868. Meanwhile he was mustered out of the vol- 
unteer service and received the brevet of major-general, U. S. A., Sept. 
I, 1866. In July, 1868, he was assigned to the Department of the East, 
and on Nov. 25, 1872, he was promoted major-general. After this he had 
command of the division of the South until June 30, 1876, and again of 
the Department of the Pacific until his retirement, Oct. 15, 1882. Gen. 
McDowell died in San Francisco, May 4, 1885. 

McGinnis, George F., brigadier-general, was born in Boston, Mass., 
March 19, 1826. He was educated in the common schools of Maine and 
Ohio and he served in the Mexican war as ist lieutenant and subsequently 
captain in the 2nd Ohio volunteers. Enlisting for the Civil war as a 
private in the nth Ind. infantry on April 11, 1861, he was a few days 
later made captain and then lieutenant-colonel under Col. Lew Wallace, 
and on Sept. 6, 1861, he became colonel of the regiment. He was pro- 
moted brigadier-general on Sept. 29, 1862. Gen. McGinnis commanded 
his regiment and distinguished himself at the capture of Fort Donelson, 
and in the battle of Shiloh he commanded the ist brigade, 3d division. 
He took part with a portion of his regiment in the Yazoo pass expedi- 
tion in Feb., 1863; commanded the ist brigade, 12th division, 13th army 
corps. Army of the Tennessee, in the Vicksburg campaign, May-July 4, 
1863, and subsequently served in the west until the close of the war. He 
was mustered out of the service Aug. 24, 1865, settled in Indianapolis, 
Ind., and from 1867 to 1871 he was auditor of Marion county, Ind. He 
was appointed postmaster at Indianapolis in 1897. 

Mcintosh, John B., brigadier-general, was born in Tampa, Fla., June 
6, 1829. He entered the United States navy as midshipman in 1848, but 
resigned in 1850, and in 1861 he entered the United States army, being 
appointed 2nd lieutenant, 2nd cavalry, on June 8 of that year. He was 
transferred to the 5th cavalry, Aug. 3, 1861 ; promoted ist lieutenant 
June 27, 1862, and captain Dec. 7, 1863. He served in the Shenandoah 
valley and in the defenses of Washington and subsequently in the opera- 
tions of the Army of the Potomac on the Peninsula, and was brevetted 
major Aug. 5, 1862, for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of 
White Oak swamp. He served under McClellan at South mountain and 
Antietam, became colonel of the 3d Penn. cavalry on Nov. 15, 1862, and 
commanded a brigade in the Chancellorsville campaign and at Gettysburg, 
where he won the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for gallantry. He was se- 
verely injured by a fall of his horse in Sept., 1863. He commanded a 
brigade in Grant's campaign against Richmond, taking part in Sheridan's 
raid at Trevilian station. May and June, 1864, including the battle of Ash- 
land on June i, for which he was brevetted colonel and given a commission 
as brigadier-general of volunteers. He lost his leg at the battle of Ope- 
quan, or Winchester, Sept. 19, 1864, and on his recovery he was placed 
on court-martial duty. On March 13, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier- 
general for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Winchester; 
major-general U. S. A. for gallant and meritorious services in the field 
during the war, and major-general of volunteers for distinguished gal- 
lantry and good management at the battle of Opequan. He was mustered 
out of the volunteer service April 30. 1866, and was made lieutenant- 
colonel of the 42nd infantry on July 28 of that year. He was governor 
of the Soldiers' Home. Washington. D. C, 1868-69; served as a member 
of the retiring board of New York city, and was retired with the rank of 
brigadier-general July 30, 1870. He died in New Brunswick, N. J.. June 
29, 1888. 




liriK.-Ucn. K. M. AlcCouK 
Brig. -Gen. G. F. Mc- 

GlNNIS 

BriE;.-Gen. Justus Mc- 

KlNSTRY 

Brig.-Gen. John McNeil 



Hi il;. -Cell. R. I,. .\1cCuuk 
Brig.-Gen. J. 1!. Mc- 

Intosh 
Brig.-Gen. N. C. McLe.\n 
Maj.-Gen. J. B. McPher- 

SON 



.Maj.-Gcii. Ir\i.n Mc- 
Dowell 
Brig.-Gen. T. 1. McKean 
Brig.-Gen. J. W. Mc- 

IvIlLL.'VN 

Maj.-Gen. G. G. Me.^de 



Biographical Sketches 169 

McKean, Thomas J., brigadier-general, was born in Burlington, Pa., 
Aug. 21, 1810. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1831 and assigned to the 4th infantry, but resigned in 1834, and engaged 
in civil engineering, lie served during the Florida war, 1837-38, as ad- 
jutant of the 1st Pa. volunteers; and in the Mexican war failing to 
secure an appointment he served as a private and afterwards as sergeant- 
major in the 15th infantry, engaging at Contreras, at Churubusco, where 
he was wounded, and at Molino del Rey, the storming of Ciiapultepec, 
and the capture of the City of Mexico. He was brevetted 2nd lieutenant 
of dragoons in June, 1848, but declined and returned to civil engineering, 
in which profession he attained some prominence. He was appointed ad- 
ditional paymaster of U. S. volunteers, June i, 1861, and promoted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers Nov. 21, i8l5i. He commanded Jefferson City 
and the central district of Missouri from Dec, 1861, to March, 1862, and 
served in the Mississippi campaign until July, 1862. He subsequently 
commanded Benton barracks at St. Louis, Mo., until September, and Cor- 
inth, Miss., from September to October, and in the battle of Corinth, Oct. 
3-4, 1862, he commanded the 6th division, Army of West Tennessee. 
From Jan. to June, 1863, Gen. McKean was in command of the District 
of Missouri, and after that he was in command successively of the dis- 
tricts of Nebraska and South Kansas. He was chief of cavalry. Depart- 
ment of the Gulf, from Sept. to Oct., 1864, was then on court-martial duty 
until December, and subsequently commanded successively the districts of 
West Florida, Morganza, La., and southwest Missouri. He was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious 
services during the war, and was honorably mustered out Aug. 24, 1865. 
After the war he became a farmer near Marion, Iowa, where he was 
mayor of the town in 1865, and in 1869 he was offered the office of pen- 
sion agent for the eastern district of Iowa, but declined. He was a dele- 
gate to the Republican national convention at Chicago, 111., May 20, 1868. 
Gen. McKean died in Marion, la., April 19, 1870. 

McKinstry, Justus, brigadier-general, was born in New York about 
1818, was graduated at the United States military academy in 1838 and 
assigned to the 2nd infantry. He was promoted ist lieutenant in 1841, 
and in the Mexican war he led a company of volunteers at Contreras 
and Churubusco, and was brevetted major for gallantry. He participated 
also in the battle of Chapultepec and was promoted captain Jan. 12, 
1848. He subsequently served on quartermaster duty, and on Aug. 3, 
1861, he was promoted major and quartermaster, and was stationed at 
St. Louis and attached to the staff of Gen. John C. Fremont. He was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers Sept. 2, 1861, and com- 
manded a division on Gen. Fremont's march to Springfield. He was sub- 
sequently accused of dishonesty in his transactions as quartermaster and 
was arrested on Nov. 11, 1861, by Gen. Hunter, who succeeded Fremont. 
After almost a year of imprisonment and release on parole, he was tried 
by court-martial in Oct., 1862, and on Jan. 28, 1863, he was dismissed from 
the army for neglect and violation of duty. He afterwards became a 
stock-broker in New York and then a land-agent in Rolla, Mo. He 
died Dec. 11, 1897. 

McLean, Nathaniel C, brigadier-general, was born in Warren county, 
Ohio, Feb. 2, 181 5. He was graduated at Augusta college with the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts in 1834, took a post-graduate course at Har- 
vard, 1834-36, and in 1838 was graduated LL.B, from' the Harvard law 
school. In that year he married a daughter of Judge Jacob Burnet and 
moved to Cincinnati, where he practiced law. He entered the service of the 
United States as colonel of the 75th Ohio infantrj^, his commission dating 
from Sept. 18, 1861, and, being ordered to western Virginia, he was as- 



170 The Union Army 

signed to Milroy's brigade, Schenck's army, and at the battle of Mac- 
Dowell, May 8, 1862, he led his regiment up the side of the mountain and 
dislodged the entrenched army of Gen. T. J. Jackson. In the engage- 
ments of Fremont's army, June 1-9, 1862, he served in Schenck's brigade, 
and on Nov. 29, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volun- 
teers. He commanded the 2nd brigade, ist division, nth army corps, at 
the battle of Chancellorsvillc, and when Gen. Charles Devens was wound- 
ed he succeeded to the command of the division. He resigned his com- 
mission, April 20, 1865, and resumed the practice of his profession in 
Cincinnati. Subsequently he moved to Bellport, N. Y., where he lived 
for many years. 

McMillan, James W., brigadier-general, was born in Clark county, 
Ky., April 28, 1825. He removed to Illinois, and in the Mexican war 
served as sergeant in the 4th 111. infantry, and also in a Louisiana regi- 
ment. He was commissioned by President Lincoln colonel of the ist 
Ind. artillery, July 24, 1861, and he was promoted brigadier-general of 
volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862. He was engaged with the army of Gen. B. F. 
Butler, which cooperated with the naval force under Farragut in the 
opening of the Mississippi, and captured the Confederate blockade-runner 
"Fox," one of the richest prizes of the war. Gen. McMillan particularly 
distinguished himself in the Red River campaign, where, after Gen. Frank- 
lin was wounded and Gen. Emory assumed command of the corps, he 
succeeded to the command of the ist division. With this division he held 
the ground at Sabine cross-roads and covered the retreat of the Federal 
army, saving it from destruction. He was brevetted major-general of 
volunteers, March 5, 1865, and resigned from the army May 15 following. 
He subsequently received an appointment as a member of the board of re- 
view of the United States pension office. Gen. McMillan died March 9, 

^903- 

McNeil, John, brigadier-general, was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
Feb. 14, 1813. He learned the hatter's trade in Boston, Mass., engaged 
in the business first in New York city and subsequently for many years 
in St. Louis, Mo., and was a member of the Missouri legislature, 1844-45. 
He was president of the Pacific insurance legislature, 1855-61. He was 
captain of a volunteer company early in 1861, was promoted colonel of 
the 3d regiment, U. S. reserve corps, and on July 17, 1861, he defeated, 
with about 600 men, the Confederate forces under Gen. David B. Har- 
ris at Fulton, Mo. He was then placed in command of the city of St. 
Louis by Gen. Fremont, and on Aug. 3, 1861, he was appointed colonel of 
the 19th Mo. volunteers. In 1862 he took command of a cavalry regiment, 
and of the district of northeast Missouri, which he cleared of guerrillas. 
He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862; was 
ordered into southeastern Missouri in December of that year, and in the 
spring of 1863 he held Cape Girardeau with 1,700 men against Gen. Mar- 
maduke's force of 10,000. In 1864 he was appointed to command the 
district of Rolla, Mo., and with the assistance of Gen. John B. Sanborn, 
Clinton B. Fisk and E. B. Brown he saved the capital from Price's army. 
Afterwards he joined his cavalry force with that of Gen. Brown and par- 
ticipated in the campaign which led to the defeat of Price's army at New- 
tonia, Oct. 28, 1864. He then commanded central Missouri until April 
12, 1865, when he resigned. He was given the brevet rank of major- 
general of volunteers in recognition of faithful and meritorious services 
during the war, to date from the day of his resignation. Gen. McNeil 
was clerk of the criminal court in St. Louis county, 1865-67; sheriff of 
the county, 1866-70. and clerk of the criminal court again, 1875-76. He 
was in 1876 commissioner to the Centennial exhibition in Philadelphia; 
was an inspector in the U. S. Indian service in 1878 and 1882, and at the 



Biographical Sketches 171 

time of his death was superintendent of the United States post-office, St. 
Louis branch, lie died in St. Louis, Mo., June 8, 1891. 

McPherson, James B., major-general, was born in Sandusky county, 
Ohio, Nov. 14, 1828; entered West Point from his native state, in 1849, 
and graduated at the head of his class, June 30, 1853, being at once ap- 
pointed brevet second lieutenant of engineers and assistant instructor of 
practical engineering at the academy, a compliment never before awarded 
to so young an officer. He was next appointed assistant engineer on the 
defences of New York harbor, and on the improvement of the navigation 
of the Hudson river, having previously been made full second lieutenant 
of engineers. In Jan., 1857, he was placed in charge of the construction 
of Fort Delaware, and subsequently of the erection of fortifications on 
Alcatraz island, San Francisco bay, Cal., and was also connected with the 
survey of the Pacific coast. In Dec, 1858, he was promoted to first 
lieutenant, and in 1861 was ordered from the Pacific coast to take charge 
of the fortifications of Boston harbor. The same year he was made cap- 
tain, and upon the appointment of Maj.-Gen. Halleck to the command of 
the Department of the West in November, he was chosen aide-de-camp 
to that general, and at the same time was promoted as lieutenant-colonel. 
In the expeditions against Forts Henry and Donelson he was chief en- 
gineer of the Army of the Tennessee, and subsequently was at Shiloh 
and as colonel on Gen. Halleck's staff held the chief engineering charge 
of the approaches to Corinth which ended in its evacuation. On May 15, 
1862, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and appointed general 
superintendent of military railroads in the district of West Tennessee the 
following June. In Sept., 1862, Gen. McPherson held a position on the 
staff of Gen. Grant and for his gallantry at Corinth was promoted to 
be major-general, dating from Oct. 8, rising to that position in the short 
space of nine years, and by merit alone. From that time till the close of 
the siege of Vicksburg, during which he commanded the center of the 
Federal army, his career was one course of triumph. Upon Grant's rec- 
ommendation Gen. McPherson was immediately confirmed a brigadier- 
general in the regular army, dating from Aug. i, 1863, and soon after 
conducted a column into Mississippi and repulsed the enemy at Canton. 
In the memorable expedition to Meridian he was second in command to 
Gen. Sherman, and during the Atlanta campaign his command was the 
Department of the Tennessee, including the entire 15th, i6th, and 17th 
corps. He distinguished himself at Resaca, Dallas, Allatoona, Kolb's 
farm, and Kennesaw mountain. In superintending the advance of his 
skirmish line in the battle before Atlanta, on July 22, 1864, he had ridden 
from left to right, and was returning when he was suddenly confronted 
by a party of the enemy's skirmishers, and received a shot in the breast, 
causing almost instant death. 

Meade, George G., major-general, was born at Cadiz, Spain, during 
the consulship of his father at that port, in 1815. At an early age he was 
sent to the boys' school in Washington, D. C, at that time kept by Salmon 
P. Chase, afterward chief-justice of the United States supreme court. 
Subsequently he attended the military academy near Philadelphia, and, 
in 1831, entered the academy at West Point, whence he graduated in 
1835, as brevet second lieutenant of the 3d artillery. The same year he 
was made second lieutenant, and served in Florida in the Seminole war. 
The state of his health induced him to resign his commission in 1836, and 
he became a civil engineer; but, in 1842, he again entered the army, as 
second lieutenant in the corps of topographical engineers, and in that ca- 
pacity served in the Mexican war. During this campaign he was at- 
tached to the staff of Gen. Taylor, and afterward to that of Gen. Scott, 
distinguishing himself at Palo Alto and Monterey, and receiving, as an 



172 The Union Army 

acknowledgment of his gallantry, a brevet of first lieutenant, dated Sept. 
23, 1846, and also upon his return to Philadelphia, a splendid sword from 
his townsmen. During the interim between the Mexican war and the 
Civil war, having been promoted to a full first lieutenancy in Aug., 1851, 
and to a captaincy of engineers in May, 1855. he was engaged in the par- 
ticular duties of his department, more especially in the survey of the 
northern lakes ; but upon the call of the government for men in 1861, 
he was ordered to report at Washington, and upon the organization of the 
Pennsylvania reserve corps, was made a brigadier-general of volunteers 
and assigned the command of the 2nd brigade, his commission dating 
Aug. 31, 1861. During the Seven Days' battles Gen. Meade was severely 
wounded, but soon recovered and, in Sept., 1862, took command of a 
division in Reynolds' ist army corps, which he conducted with great 
skill and bravery during the Maryland campaign. At Antietam, when 
Gen. Hooker was wounded. Gen. Meade was placed in command of the 
corps and fought bravely the remainder of the day, receiving a slight 
wound and having two horses killed under him. He received the appoint- 
ment of major-general of volunteers on Nov. 29, and took part in the bat- 
tle of Fredericksburg, displaying courage and coolness during the engage- 
ment. In June, 1863, when Lee was advancing up the Shenandoah val- 
ley to invade Maryland and Pennsylvania, Gen. Meade was suddenly and 
unexpectedly called to succeed Gen. Hooker in the command of the Army 
of the Potomac, and he displayed masterly ability throughout the three 
days' battle of Gettysburg. Following this engagement, about July 18, 
he moved his army across the Potomac into Virginia, where he had sev- 
eral skirmishes with the enemy in October and November, and he was 
in command of the Army of the Potomac during the operations against 
Richmond in 1864. On June 18, 1862, Gen. Meade was promoted to the 
rank of major of engineers in the regular army, and on July 3, 1863, was 
advanced by the several grades of lieutenant-colonel and colonel to the 
brigadier-generalship in the regular army. During the session of 1863-64 
he received the thanks of Congress, and was on Feb. i, 1865, promoted a 
major-general in the regular army, his commission dating from Aug. 18, 
1864. In the reconstruction of the miHtary divisions after the war, Gen. 
Meade was given the command of the division of the Atlantic, with head- 
quarters at Philadelphia, where he resided in the house presented to his 
wife by his fellow-citizens, in grateful recognition of his eminent services. 
He died at this residence in Philadelphia, Nov. 6, 1872. 

Meagher, Thomas P., brigadier-general, was born in Waterford, Ire- 
land. Aug. 3, 1823. He attended the Jesuit college at Clongowes, Kildare, 
1832-36, and then Stonyhurst college, near Preston, England, where he re- 
mained until 1843 and became one of the leaders of the revolutionary 
Young Ireland party in 1846. In consequence of his actions and incen- 
diary speeches he was arrested on charge of sedition, in March, 1848, was 
bailed, but after the passage of the treason felony act was rearrested and 
sentenced to death. The sentence was subsequently commuted to banish- 
ment for life, and he was sent to Van Dieman's island, in 1849. whence he 
escaped in 1852, and, coming to the United States, studied law. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1856 and practiced in New York city until the 
Civil war. In t86i he organized a company of volunteers and joined the 
69th N. Y. regiment under Col. Michael Corcoran. He was acting major 
of the regiment in the battle of Bull Run and had a horse shot under him; 
and he then returned to New York and was mustered out of the service 
with his regiment. In the winter of 1861-62 he recruited the Irish bri- 
gade, was elected colonel of the ist regiment, and on Feb. 3, 1862, was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and given command of the 
brigade. He was present at the battles of Fair Oaks, Gaines' mill, Malvern 



Biographical Sketches 173 

hill, Frazier's farm, second Bull Run, Antietam, where his horse was shot 
under him, and Chancellorsville. At Fredericksburg he was wounded in 
the leg. Gen. Meagher gave up his commission after the battle of Cliaii- 
cellorsville, but was reappointed brigadier-general early in 18O4 and com- 
manded the district of Etowah, Ga. In Jan., 1865, he was ordered to Sa- 
vannah, Ga., where he was mustered out, May 15, 1865. After leaving the 
service Gen. Meagher was appointed territorial secretary of Montana, and 
while acting governor in the absence of Gov. Sidney Edgerton he em- 
barked on an expedition to protect the white settlers from the Indians, 
and was drowned in the Missouri river, by falling off a steamboat, near 
Fort Benton, Mont., July i, 1867. 

Meigs, Montgomery C, brigadier-general, was born in Augusta, Ga., 
May 3, 1816. He was graduated at the United Stales military academy 
in 1836 and assigned to the artillery; was transferred to the engineer 
corps in 1837; promoted ist lieutenant in 1838, and in 1853 captain. He 
was employed at first on Mississippi river surveys, and in 1839-41 was a 
member of the board of engineers for Atlantic coast line defenses. He was 
subsequently superintending engineer successively in the building of Forts 
Delaware, Wayne, Porter and Ontario, and at Montgomery. From 1852- 
60 he planned and constructed the aqueduct from Great Falls, Md., to 
Washington, D. C., and he superintended also the building of the new 
wings and iron dome of the capitol extension, the extension of the United 
States post-office building and the repairs on Fort Madison, Md. In April, 
1861. he was appointed chief engineer to organize and conduct the expedi- 
tion for the relief of Fort Pickens, and in Oct. was sent to take charge 
of the building of Fort Jefferson. He was promoted colonel of the nth 
infantry, Maj' 14, 1865, and the next day was commissioned brigadier- 
general of staf? and quartermaster-general of the United States army, 
which position he continued to hold until his retirement in 1882. Gen. 
Meigs was engaged during the war in directing the equipment and 
supplies of the army in the field, generally from headquarters at 
Washington, but was present at the battle of Bull Run ; engaged in 
the Chattanooga campaign, Nov., 1863; commanded Gen. Grant's 
base of supplies at Belle Plain and Fredericksburg, May 16-18, 1864, and 
was sent on a special mission to Bermuda Hundred, May 21-26, 1864. 
When the national capital was threatened, in July, 1864, he commanded 
a brigade of quartermaster's employees. He was brevetted major-gen- 
eral U. S. A., on July 5; 1864, for distinguished and meritorious services 
during the war. He was stationed at Savannah, Ga., in Jan., 1865, equip- 
ping Gen. Sherman's armies, and in INIarch was sent to Goldsboro, di- 
recting the opening of communications for again supplying Sherman's 
army. After the war Gen. Meigs traveled in Europe, 1867-68, for his 
health, and again in 1875-76 to examine the organization of European 
armies as a member of the commission for reform and reorganization of 
the army. He was a member of the board to prepare plans for the new 
war department building in 1866 ; for the National museum in 1868 ; for 
the hall of records in 1878, and was architect of the building for the pen- 
sion bureau. He was retired from the army Feb. 6, 1882. Gen. Meigs 
was a member of the board of regents for the Smithsonian institution, 
and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He died in Wash- 
ington, D. C., Jan. 2, 1892. 

Meredith, Solomon, brigadier-general, was born in Guilford county, 
N. C., May 29. 1810. He removed to Wayne county, Ind., when nineteen 
years old, and by means of manual labor secured for himself a fair edu- 
cation. He then located at Cambridge city, was sheriff of his county 
in 1834 and 1836, and a member of the state legislature, 1846-48 and 
1854-56. In 1849 he became U. S. marshal for the district of Indiana, 



174 The Union Army 

and he was clerk of the courts of Wayne county, 1859-61. He was direc- 
tor and financial agent of the Indiana Central railroad, 1854-59, and sub- 
sequently president of the Cincinnati & Chicago railroad company. On 
July 29, 1861, he became colonel of the 19th Ind. regiment, which saw its 
first service in Virginia and lost half its number at Gainesville, where 
Col. Meredith was wounded. He commanded his regiment also at Sharps- 
burg and Antietam, was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers Oct. 6, 

1862, and commanded the "Iron Brigade" at Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville, and Gettysburg, where he was so severely wounded as to be dis- 
abled for active service until Nov., 1863. He was then assigned to com- 
mand the 1st division, ist army corps, but failing health compelled him to 
relinquish the charge, and he commanded the military post of Cairo, 111., 
in 1864, and the district of western Kentucky in 1864-65. He was bre- 
vetted major-general of volunteers for meritorious service during the war 
and was honorably mustered out May 22, 1865. After the war Gen. Mere- 
dith was United States assessor of internal revenue for his district, 1866- 
67; surveyor-general of Montana territory, 1867-69, and then retired to his 
farm, "Oakland," near Cambridge city, Ind. He died in Cambridge city, 
Ind., Oct. 2, 1875. 

Meredith, Sullivan A., brigadier-general, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., July 5, 1816. He was educated at William and Mary college, and 
when a "young man took two trips to China. In 1848 he visited Califor- 
nia. He was engaged in business in Philadelphia when the Civil war 
broke out, and he superintended the drilling, equipping and forwarding 
of over 30,000 troops. He was commissioned colonel of the loth Penn. 
regiment on April 26, 1861, took part in Patterson's campaign in the 
Shenandoah valley, and on his return organized the 56th regiment and was 
commissioned its colonel, March 6, 1862. In April he was assigned to Mc- 
Dowell's corps, with which he served in the second battle of Bull Run, 
where he was severely wounded. For gallantry in this engagement he was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from Nov. 29, 1862, and 
when partially recovered from his wounds he was appointed commissioner 
for the exchange of prisoners. He was ordered to St. Louis in 1864 and 
served there under Gen. Rosecrans until mustered out of the service, 
Aug. 24, 1865. He died in Bufifalo, N. Y., Dec. 26, 1874. 

Merritt, Wesley, major-general, was born in New York city, June 
16, 1836. He was graduated at the United States military academy and 
brevetted 2nd lieutenant of dragoons, July i, i860. He was promoted 
2nd lieutenant, Jan. 28, 1861; 1st lieutenant, May 13, 1861, was transferred 
to the 2nd cavalry, Aug. 3. 1861, and promoted captain, April 5, 1862. 
In 1861-62 he served as adjutant-general of the Utah forces, then adju- 
tant of the 2nd cavalry and after that in the defenses of Washington. He 
was aide-de-camp to Gen. John Cook, 1862-63, and to Gen. Stoneman in 
1863; participated in Stoneman's raid toward Richmond in April and May, 

1863, and commanded the reserve cavalry brigade in the Pennsylvania 
campaign of i863, receiving his commission as brigadier-general of volun- 
teers June 29. He was brevetted major U. S. A. for gallantry at Gettys- 
burg, and served in the various engagements in Virginia in 1863-64, 
winning the brevets of lieutenant-colonel, colonel and brigadier-general in 
the regular army and major-general of volunteers for gallantry at the 
battles of Yellow tavern, Haw's shop, Winchester and Five Forks, re- 
spectively. On March 13, 1865, he was given the additional brevet of 
major-general U. S. A. "for gallant and meritorious services." He was 
commissioned major-general of volunteers on April 1, 1865, for "gallant 
service," and was present at the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. He was 
afterwards successively in command of the military division of the South- 
west, the Department of Texas, and the military division of the Gulf, 



Biographical Sketches 175 

and was mustered out of the volunteer service Feb. i, 1866. In the reg- 
ular army he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 9th cavalry in 1866, 
colonel of the 5th cavalry in 1876, brigadier-general in 1887, and major- 
general April 25, 1895. After the war he was employed chiefly on fron- 
tier duty until 1882; was superintendent of the U. S. military academy 
from 1882 to 1887; commanded the Department of the Missouri, 1887-91; 
the Department of Dakota, 1891-95 ; the Department of Missouri again 
1895-97, and the Department of the East, with headquarters at Governor's 
island, New York harbor, 1897-98. He was appointed to command the 
forces in the Philippines in May, 1898, and was retired by operation of 
law, June 16, 1900. He was a delegate to the United States peace con- 
mission at Paris in Oct., 1898. 

Miles, Nelson A., major-general, was born at Westminster, Mass., 
Aug. 8, 1839, was reared on a farm, received an academic education, and 
in early manhood engaged in mercantile pursuits in Boston. Inheriting 
the spirit of patriotism, he devoted all the means he possessed, early in 

1861, to raising a company of volunteers, and offered his services to his 
country. He was given the commission of a captain, but, being considered 
too young for the responsibilities of that command, he joined the Army 
of the Potomac as first lieutenant in the 22nd Mass. volunteers. In 1862 
he was commissioned by Gov. Morgan of New York, as lieutenant-colonel 
and colonel of the 6ist N. Y. volunteers, and at the earnest request of 
Gens. Meade and Grant he was made a brigadier-general of volunteers 
by President Lincoln. He was engaged in all the battles of the Army 
of the Potomac except one — which his wounds unfitted him to enter — 
until the close of the war. He was wounded at the battles of Fair Oaks, 
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and received four brevets for gal- 
lant and distinguished service. At the close of the war he commanded 
the district of North Carolina during the work of reconstruction, and on 
the reorganization of the army he was appointed colonel of infantry. He 
was made a brigadier-general, U. S. A., in 1880, and a major-general in 
1890. He successfully conducted Indian campaigns against the Kiowas, 
Comanches and Cheyennes in the Indian territory and the Southwest ; the 
Sioux, Cheyennes, Nez Perces and Bannocks in the Northwest ; the 
Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico, and the Sioux in South Dakota. 
He received a vote of thanks from the states of Montana and Kansas and 
the territories of Arizona and New Mexico for his services, and on sev- 
eral occasions prevented Indian wars by judicious and humane settlement 
of difficulties without the use of military power. He commanded at dif- 
ferent times the departments of the Columbia, Missouri and Arizona, and 
the military divisions of the Pacific and the Missouri ; was given the rank 
of lieutenant-general on June 6, 1900, and he was retired, Aug. 8, 1903. 

Miller, John F., brigadier-general, was born in Union county Ind., 
Nov. 21, 1831. He removed with his parents to South Bend in 1833, was 
prepared for college and was graduated in 1852 at the New York state 
law-school. After practicing a short time in South Bend he was forced 
to go west for his health and for three years resided in California. On 
returning to Indiana he took an active part in the Republican campaign 
of 1856 and was a member of the state senate in i860, but resigned to 
enter the army. After serving as aide to Gov. Morton he recruited and 
became colonel of the 29th Ind. volunteers and joined Gen. Rousseau in 
Kentucky, Oct. 10, 1861. He succeeded in Feb., 1862, to the command of 
a brigade in Buell's Army of the Ohio, and his regiment served in Kirk's 
brigade in the battle of Shiloh. He subsequently commanded first the 
military barracks and then the city of Nashville, Tefm., and in Sept., 

1862, was given command at Nashville of the 7th brigade, Negley's 8th 
division. He distinguished himself particularly at the battle of Stone's 



176 The Union Army 

river, where at the head of liis brigade he charged across the river and 
drove Breckenridge from his position, and in the charge he received a 
bullet wound in the neck. At Liberty gap, June 25, 1863, he made another 
gallant charge and received a wound which destroyed the sight of his 
right eye. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Jan. 5, 1864, 
and he commanded a division of 8,000 men on the left at the battle of 
Nashville in the following December. For gallant and meritorious serv- 
ices in this battle he was brevetted major-general of volunteers on March 
13, 1865, and during the summer of that year he commanded the district 
of Mobile. He resigned Sept. 25, 1865, refused a commission as colonel 
in the regular army and moved to San Francisco, where he practised law 
and for four years was collector of the port. He was then an organizer 
and became president of the Alaska commercial fur company and amassed 
a large fortune. He was a Republican presidential elector in 1872, 1876, 
1880; a member of the state constitutional convention in 1879, and in 
Jan., 1881, was elected to the United States senate, where he served until 
his death. He died in Washington, D. C, March 8, 1886. 

Miller, Stephen, brigadier-general, was born in Carroll, Pa., Jan. 
7, 1816. He received a common school education, became interested in 
politics and held the offices of prothonotary of Dauphin county and flour 
inspector in Philadelphia. From 1853 to 1855 he edited tlie "Telegraph," 
a Whig newspaper in Harrisburg. Removing to St. Cloud, Minn., in 
1858, he engaged in business there and became a delegate to the Repub- 
lican national convention in i860 and a presidential elector for Lincoln 
in that year. He became lieutenant-colonel of the ist Minn, infantry, 
April 29, 1861, and its colonel Aug. 24, 1862. He took part in the battles 
of Bull Run and Ball's bluff, the Valley campaign and the Peninsular 
campaign of 1862, and on Nov. 17, 1862, he succeeded Gen. Sibley in 
command of Majikato, Minn. He assisted with his regiment in quelling 
the Indian outbreak of that year and had charge of the execution of 
38 of the disloyal Indians on Dec. 26. He commanded the District 
of Minnesota during Gen. Sibley's absence in June, 1863, and on Oct. 
26, he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. He then commanded 
Fort Snelling, but resigned from the army, Jan. 18, 1864, having been 
elected governor of Minnesota. He was governor of Minnesota in 1864- 
65, and from 187 1 to 1881 was field agent for the St. Paul & Sioux City 
railroad. Gen. Miller died at Worthington, Minn., Aug. 18, 1881. 

Milroy, Robert H., major-general, was born near Salem, Ind., June 
Ii, 1816. He was graduated at Norwich university, Vt., in 1843, taking 
degrees in both the classical and military departments, and in the war 
with Mexico he served as captain in the ist Ind. regiment. He was grad- 
uated at the Indiana university with the degree of LL. B. in 1850, and 
practiced law until the Civil war, first at Delphi and then at Rensselaer; 
was a member of the Indiana constitutional convention, 1850-51, and in 
1851 was appointed judge of the 8th judicial circuit of Indiana. At the 
beginning of the Civil war he issued a call for volunteers and was com- 
missioned colonel of the qth Ind. volunteers on April 26, 1871. In Dec, 
1861, he attacked the Confederates in front of Cheat Mountain pass, and 
on Feb. 6, 1862, he was given a commission as brigadier-general to date 
from Sept. 5, i86r. He assumed command of the Mountain Department 
in Jan., 1862, and adopted stringent and effective measures against the 
depredations of guerrillas, as the result of which President Davis secured 
the passage of a bill through the Confederate congress offering a reward 
of $100,000 for the body of Gen. Milroy, dead or alive. In May, 1862, 
Gen. Milroy was attacked by Jackson at McDowell, and he fought there 
with the aid of Shields, who assumed command, the battle of McDowell. 
Gen. Milroy's brigade was then attached to Sigel's corps. Army of the 




Brig.-Gen. T. F. Meagher 

Brig.-Gen. S. A. Meridith 

Brig.-Gen. J. F. Miller 

Brig.-Gen. J. G. Mitchell 



Rrig.-Gen. M. C. Meios 
Maj.-Gen. Wesley Merritt 
Brig.-Gen. Stephen Mil- 
ler 
Maj.-Gen. O. M. Mitchel 



I'.iiir.-Gen. Solo.mo.v 

.Meredith 
Maj.-Gen. N. .\. Miles 
Maj.-Gen. R. H. Milroy 
r>ng.-Gen. R. K. Mitchell 



Biographical Sketches 177 

Potomac, and fought in the second battle of Bull Run. He was pro- 
moted major-general of volunteers Nov. 29, 1862, and v^rith his division of 
8,000 men he occupied Winchester. Here he was attacked by nearly the 
whole of Lee's army, which was marching toward Pennsylvania, and held 
out for three days "against the superior force, retreating then, by night, 
with great loss of men, to Harper's Ferry. Gen. Milroy claimed that by 
thus holding Lee in check he enabled Meade to meet him at Gettysburg, 
when otherwise the battle would have been fought farther north. How- 
ever, his conduct was made the object of official investigation and he was 
held in contmement until May 13, 1864, for having evacuated Winchester 
without orders from Gen. Schenck, his immediate commander. After his 
release he was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., and soon thereafter fought 
his last battle against Gens. Forrest and Bates, defeating their combined 
forces on the old Murfreesboro battle-ground. He resigned from the 
army July 25, 1865. In 1868 he was elected trustee of the Wabash & 
Erie canal company. He then held the office of superintendent of Indian 
affairs in Washington territory, 1872-75, and that of Indian agent in 
Washington territory, 1875-85. Gen. Milroy died in Olympia, Wash., 
March 29, 1890. 

Mitchel, Ormsby M., major-general, was born in Morganfield, Ky., 
Aug. 28, 1810. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1829, served as assistant professor of mathematics at West Point for 
two years, and was then on garrison duty until Sept. 30, 1832, when he 
resigned. He was in that year admitted to the bar, practiced two years 
in Cincinnati, was chief engineer of the Little Miami railroad, 1836-37, 
and professor of mathematics, astronomy and philosophy at Cincinnati 
college, 1834-44. He raised almost all the money for the establishment 
of an observatory at Cincinnati, which was the first of the larger ob- 
servatories to be built in the United States, and in 1843 the corner-stone 
of the pier for the great telescope was laid by John Quincy Adams. 
Prof. Mitchel lectured extensively throughout the United States from 
1842 to 1848; was adjutant-general of the state of Ohio, 1841-48; chief 
engineer of the Ohio & Mississippi railroad, 1848-49, and again in 1852-53, 
and was director of the Dudley observatory at Albany, N. Y., in 1859-61. 
He invented a number of valuable mechanical devices for use in astron- 
omy, and gained great distinction in his profession. He was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers, Aug. 9, 1861, and at first reported 
to Gen. McClellan, who assigned him the command of Gen. William B. 
Franklin's brigade in the Army of the Potomac; but at the request of 
the citizens of Cincinnati he was transferred to that city and commanded 
the Department of the Ohio from Sept. 19 to Nov. 13, 1861. He served 
with the Army of the Ohio during the campaigns of the winter of 1861- 
62 in Tennessee and northern Alabama, took part in the occupation of 
Bowling Green, Ky., Nashville, Tenn., the march to Huntsville, Ala., in 
the action near Bridgeport, Ala., April 30. 1862, and was promoted major- 
general of volunteers to date from April ir, 1862. He took possession 
of the railroad from Decatur to Stephenson, by which the control of 
northern Alabama was secured to the Federal authorities. He was anx- 
ious to advance into the heart of the South, but was restrained by his 
superior officer, Gen. Buell, and in consequence of a dispute with Buell 
he tendered his resignation to the secretary of war and was transferred 
to the command of the Department of the South, with headquarters at 
Hilton Head, S. C, Sept. 17, 1862. He died of yellow fever at Hilton 
Head. Oct. 30. 1862. 

Mitchell, John G., brigadier-general, was born in Piqua, Ohio, Nov. 
6, 1838. He was graduated at Kenyon college in 1859 and studied law 
in Columbus, Ohio. On June 27, 1861, he enlisted in the first battalion 
Vol. VIII— 12 



178 The Union Army 

of Ohio reserves and on July 30 he was appointed ist lieutenant and 
adjutant of the 3d Ohio infantry. On Dec. 21, 1861, he was promoted 
captain. His early service was in West Virginia under Rosecrans, and 
he subsequently served in Gen. Mitchel's campaign in Tennessee and 
Alabama. In the summer of 1862 he was sent into Ohio on recruiting 
service, and on Sept. 2 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 113th 
Ohio infantry. With his regiment he was engaged, first in guarding rail- 
roads in Kentucky, and afterwards was stationed at Franklin, Tenn. He 
was promoted colonel of his regiment in the spring of 1863; took part in 
the Tullahoma campaign, and distinguished himself particularly at Chat- 
tanooga, where a diversion by Whitaker's brigade and his own insured 
the safe retreat of Gen. Thomas' army. On the reorganization of the 
army Col. Mitchell relinquished the command of the brigade, which be- 
came the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 14th army corps, and which took part 
in the battle of Missionary ridge and the pursuit of Bragg, and then went 
into winter quarters at Rossville. He resumed command of his brigade 
previous to the Atlanta campaign, however, and took part in that cam- 
paign, leading the advance at Rocky Face ridge and participating in the 
battle of Resaca, the capture of Rome, and the battles of Dallas and New 
Hope Church. His brigade, in conjunction with that of Col. Daniel Mc- 
Cook, led the assault at Kennesaw mountain and suffered terrible losses. 
Col. Mitchell continued to command the brigade throughout the Atlanta 
campaign, and was present subsequently at the battle of Nashville and 
the pursuit of Hood. He then joined his corps in South Carolina and led 
his brigade through the campaign of the Carolinas. He was promoted 
brigadier-general Jan. 12, 1865. On March 13, 1865, he was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers "for gallant and meritorious services in the 
war, especially at the battle of Averasboro and Bentonville, N. C." Gen. 
Mitchell resigned from the army July 3, 1865, and returned to Columbus, 
Ohio. He died Nov. 7, 1894. 

Mitchell, Robert B., brigadier-general, was born in Richland count}', 
Ohio, April 4, 1823. He attended Washington college, studied law, prac- 
ticed in Mansfield, 1844-46, and served throughout the Mexican war as 
1st lieutenant in the 2nd Ohio volunteers. Removing to Kansas in 1856 
he became an active member of the Free-State party, was a representa- 
tive in the territorial legislature, 1857-58, and treasurer, 1858-61. He was 
appointed colonel of the 2nd Kan. infantry, May 23, 1861, and was se- 
verely wounded at the battle of Wilson's creek. On his recovery he raised 
a regiment of cavalry, and on April 8, 1862, he was commissioned briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. At the battle of Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862, Gen. 
Mitchell commanded the 9th division, 3d army corps. Army of the Ohio, 
and he commanded the cavalry corps of the Army of the Cumberland in 
the battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19-20, 1863. He was honorably mus- 
tered out, Jan. 15, 1866. Gen. Mitchell was governor of New Mexico, 
1865-67, and then removed to Washington, D. C, where he died, Jan. 
26, 1882. 

Montgomery, William R., brigadier-general, was born in Monmouth 
county, N. J., July 10, 1801. He was graduated at the United States mil- 
itary academy in 1825 and served on the Canadian border during the dis- 
turbances of 1838-46. in the Florida war of 1840-42, and in the military 
occupation of Texas. In the Mexican war, which he entered as captain, 
he fought at Resaca de la Palma, where he was wounded and brevetted 
major, at Molino del Rev, where he was again wounded, and he com- 
manded his regiment at Chapultepec and the capture of the Mexican cap- 
ital. For services at Molino del Rey he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 
and in Dec, 1852, he was promoted major. He was stationed at Fort 
Riley, Kan., during the troubles in that territory, and while there incurred 



Biographical Sketches 179 

the displeasure of the authorities and was dismissed from the service, 
Dec. 8, 1855. At the beginning of the Civil war he organized the ist 
N. J. volunteers, of wliich he became colonel, May 21, 1861, and he was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, to date May 17, and ap- 
pointed military governor of Alexandria, Va. He subsequently held a 
similar office in Annapolis, Md., and then in Philadelphia, Pa., until 1863, 
after which he served on a military commission in Memphis, Tenn. He 
resigned on account of failing health, April 4, 1864, and after a brief 
period in Philadelphia retired to his home in Bristol, Pa., where he died 
May 31, 1871. 

Morell, George W., major-general, was born in Cooperstown, N. Y., 
Jan. 8, 1815. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1835 and assigned to the corps of engineers, but resigned in 1837 to 
become assistant engineer in the construction of the Charleston & 
Cincinnati railroad. He held a similar position with the Michigan Cen- 
tral railroad in 1838-39, then removed to New York city, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1842. From 1854 to 1861 he was commissioner of 
the United States circuit court for the Southern district of New York. 
He had been appointed, in 1846, major of a New York regiment of vol- 
unteers for the Mexican war, but it was never mustered in, and at the 
beginning of the Civil war he was colonel and chief of staf¥ to Gov. 
Sanford for organizing regiments and forwarding them to the seat of 
war. On Aug. 9, 1861, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, and in 1861-62 he served in the defenses of Washington. He served 
subsequently in the Army of the Potomac in the Peninsular campaign, 
commanding a brigade in the skirmish at Howard's bridge, April 4, 1862, 
and in the siege of Yorktown. April to May, 1862. He commanded the 
1st division of Hancock's corps in the capture of Hanover Court House, 
and at Beaver Dam creek, Gaines' mill, and Malvern hill. He was pro- 
moted major-general of volunteers, July 4, 1862, but the appointment ex- 
pired March 4, 1863, the nomination not being made to the senate. Gen. 
Morell subsequently took part in the battles of Manassas, or second Bull 
Run, and Antietam, where he pursued Lee's fleeing cavalry after the bat- 
tle, and on Sept. 20 was driven back from the heights of the river bank 
near Shepherdstown ; and he was in command of troops guarding the 
upper Potomac from Oct. to Dec, 1862. He was then on waiting orders 
at Washington, 1862-63, in command of a draft rendezvous at Indianapo- 
lis, Ind., 18(53-64, and was mustered out of the service Dec. 15, 1864. He 
then engaged in farming near Scarborough, N. Y., and died there, Feb. 
12, 1883. 

Morgan, Charles H., brigadier-general, was born in Manlius, N. Y., 
Nov. 6, 1834. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1857, and prior to the Civil war saw service in the Utah expedition, 
1857-59. He was promoted ist lieutenant, April i, 1861, and served, in 
1861-62, in western Virginia and in the defenses of Washington, and in 
the Army of the Potomac, March-Aug., 1862. He took part in the Rap- 
pahannock campaign, the battles of Gettysburg and Warrenton, the skir- 
mishes at Auburn and Bristoe Station, the battles of the Wilderness, the 
skirmish at Todd's tavern, the battles of Spottsylvania, North Anna, To- 
topotomy, Cold Harbor and vicinity, Petersburg, Deep bottom, Reams* 
station, Boydton plank road, and the siege of Petersburg, and in 1864-65 
assisted in organizing the ist army corps of veterans at Washington, 
D. C. He was chief of artillery, 2nd corps. Army of the Potomac, 1862- 
63 ; assistant inspector-general and chief of stafT, 2nd army corps, 1863-64, 
and 1st veteran corps, 1865. He was assistant inspector-general and chief 
of staff to Gen. Halleck, commanding the middle military division, from 
Feb. to June, 1865, and a member of the examining board, June to Aug., 



180 The Union Army 

1865. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, May 21, 1865, 
and was mustered out of the volunteer service on that day. He was 
brevetted major for gallant and meritorious services at Gettysburg; lieu- 
tenant-colonel for conduct at Bristoe Station; colonel for gallantry at 
Spottsylvania Court House; colonel of volunteers "for distinguished and 
valuable services and gallantry throughout the campaign, and especially at 
the Wilderness and Spottsylvania;" brigadier-general of volunteers for 
gallant and distinguished services as chief of staff of the 2nd army corps 
during the campaign before Richmond, and brigadier-general U. S. A. 
March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services in the held during the 
war. After the war Gen. Morgan was promoted major of the 4th ar- 
tillery and was stationed at various posts, and finally at Alcatraz island, 
Cal., where he died, Dec. 20, 1875. 

Morgan, Edwin D., major-general, was born in Washington, Mass., 
Feb. 8, 181 1. He entered business life as clerk in the wholesale grocery 
store of his uncle in Hartford, Conn., in 1828, was admitted to partner- 
ship in 1831, and in 1836 moved to New York city, where he established 
himself as a merchant and accumulated a large fortune. He held various 
offices in New York city; was chairman of the Republican national com- 
mittee in 1856 and vice-president of the Republican national convention of 
that year; was member of the state senate, 1850-54, commissioner of emi- 
gration, 1855-58, and from 1859 to 1862 was governor of the state of New 
York. He was appointed major-general of volunteers by President Lin- 
coln, Sept. 28, 1861, and held the position until Jan. i. 1863, when he re- 
signed, refusing compensation for his services. During this time the state 
of New York was a military department under his command, and he 
sent 223,000 troops from New York to the army and put New York har- 
bor in a state of defense. During his term of office as governor of New 
York the state debt was reduced and an increase in canal revenue was 
made. Gen. Morgan was United States senator from New York, 1863- 
69; declined the portfolio of the treasury, offered him by President Lin- 
coln in 1865 ; was temporary chairman of the Republican national conven- 
tion in 1864; delegate to the Loyalists' convention in Philadelphia in 1866; 
chairman of the Republican national convention of 1872, and manager of 
the campaign which resulted in the reelection of President Grant. He was 
an unsuccessful candidate for United States senator in 1875 and for gov- 
ernor of New York in 1876, and in 1881 declined the secretaryship of the 
treasury in President Arthur's cabinet. He died in New York city, Feb. 
14, 1883. Gen. Morgan's philanthropic bequests aggregated $795,000. 

Morgan, George W., brigadier-general, was born in Washington, Pa., 
Sept. 20, 1820. He entered Washington college, but left when sixteen 
years old to enlist in a company organized for the purpose of assisting 
Texas to gain her independence, and at the age of eighteen years he was 
in command of Galveston. He entered the United States military acad- 
emy in 1841, but left in 1843, studied law, and practiced at Mt. Vernon, 
Ohio, until the beginning of the Mexican war. In that conflict he served 
first as colonel of the 2nd Ohio volunteers and then of the 15th U. S. in- 
fantry, and was engaged at Contreras, and at Churubusco, where he was 
severely wounded. For his gallantry he was brevetted brigadier-general 
and was awarded the thanks of the legislature of Ohio, and was presented 
with a gold sword by the citizens of that state. He was United States 
consul at Marseilles, France, 1856-58, and minister to Portugal, 1858-61 ; 
was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 12. 1861. and as- 
signed to duty under Gen. Buell. In March, 1862, he assumed command 
of the 7th division. Army of the Ohio, and was ordered to occupy Cum- 
berland gap, and, if possible, drive the Confederates out of East Tennessee. 
He took possession of Cumberland gap, June 18, 1862, but in September 




^3mik 




ling. -Gen. W . K. Mont- 
gomery 
Maj.-Gen. E. D. Morgan 
Brig.-Gen. W. H. Morris 
Maj.-Gen. J. A. Mower 



Maj.-T.en. Tr. W. Morei.i. 
Brig.-Gen. G. W. Morgan 
Brig.-Gen. J. S. Morton 
Brig.-Gen. James Nagle 



r.rig.-Geii. C. IF. Morgan 
Brig.-Gen. J. D. Morgan 
Maj.-Gen. Gershom Mott 
Brig.-Gen. H. M. Naclee 



Biographical Sketches 181 

of that year retreated toward the Ohio, as its importance in a general 
campaign was disproportionate to the force required to maintain it. He 
commanded a division under Gen. Sherman at the battle of Chickasaw 
bluffs, Vicksburg, Miss., under Gen. McClernand at the capture of Fort 
Hindman, Ark., Jan. ii, 1863, and on June 8, 1863, he resigned on account 
of ill health. He was an unsuccessful candidate on the Democratic ticket 
for governor of Ohio in 1865, and was congressman, 1867-69 and 1871-73. 
He died at Old Point Comfort, Va., July 26, 1893. 

Morgan, James D., brigadier-general, was born in Boston, Mass., 
Aug. I, 1810. In 1826 he went to sea for a three years' cruise, but when 
the vessel was thirty days out a mutiny occurred and shortly afterward 
the ship was burned. Young Morgan escaped to South America, and 
thence, after many hardships, made his way back to Boston. He was a 
merchant in Quincy, 111., 1834-61, helped to organize the "Quincy Grays," 
and was captain in the Quincy riflemen during the Mormon difficulties in 
Hancock county. 111., 1844-45. He was captain in the ist 111. volunteers 
during the Mexican war. He became lieutenant-colonel of the loth 111. 
volunteers, April 29, 1861, colonel, July 29, 1861, and for meritorious serv- 
ices at New Madrid and Corinth he was promoted brigadier-general of 
volunteers July 17, 1862. He commanded the 14th army corps at Chat- 
tanooga, in Nov., 1863, served in the Chattanooga campaign, distinguishing 
himself at Buzzard Roost gap. May 9, 1864, and in the Atlanta campaign, 
where he succeeded to the command of the 2nd division after Gen. Jef- 
ferson C. Davis succeeded to the command of the 14th army corps. On 
Sept. 28, 1864, he was sent with his division into Tennessee to oppose 
Gen. Forrest, and he took part in Gen. Sherman's march to the sea and 
the campaign through the Carolinas. For gallant and meritorious serv- 
ices at the battle of Bentonville, N. C, he was brevetted major-general 
March 13, 1865, and on Aug 24, 1865, he was honorably mustered out and 
returned to Quincy, 111., where he became a banker. He was also presi- 
dent of the Army of the Cumberland and treasurer of the soldiers' home, 
Quincy, 111. Gen. Morgan died in Quincy, 111., Sept. 12, 1896. 

Morris, Thomas A., major-general, was born in Nicholas county, Ky., 
Dec. 26, 181 1. He received an appointment to the U. S. military academy 
at West Point and was graduated in the class of 1834. He served for 
two years, resigning from the army in 1836 to take up the business of a 
civil engineer, having been appointed resident engineer of canals and rail- 
roads in the state of Indiana. From 1847 to 1852 he was chief engineer 
of two railroads, then building, and in 1852 he was made engineer-in-chief 
of the Indianapolis & Cincinnati railroad, and in 1854 its president, which 
latter position he held for three years. In 1859 he was elected president 
of the Indianapolis, Pittsburg & Cleveland railroad. On the breaking out 
of the Civil war in 1861 Mr. Morris was appointed by the governor of 
Indiana to the rank of brigadier-general and assigned to the command of 
Indiana troops in West Virginia, serving throughout that campaign. He 
was afterward offered commissions as brigadier-general and major-gen- 
eral of U. S. volunteers, but declined and took up railroad interests then 
needing his experienced direction. He was again chief engineer of the 
Indianapolis & Cincinnati railroad from 1862 until 1867, then accepted the 
presidency of the Indianapolis & St. Louis railroad, and in 1870 the re- 
ceivership of the Indianapolis. Cincinnati & Lafayette railroad. 

Morris, William H., brigadier-general, was born in New York city, 
April 22, 1826. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1851, served three years in the army but resigned his commission Feb. 
28, 1854, and from that time until 1861 was assistant editor of the New 
York "Home Journal." On Aug. 20, 1861, he joined the volunteer army 
as captain and assistant adjutant-general, served in the defenses of Wash- 



182 The Union Army 

ington and with the Army of the Potomac during the Peninsular cam- 
paign, taking part in the" battles of Yorktown, WiUiamsburg and Fair 
Oaks. He resigned his staff position, Sept. i, 1862, and the next day- 
became colonel of the 6th N. Y. artillery. He was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862; took part in the defense of Mary- 
land heights and Harper's Ferry in that year; and at Gettysburg, July 
1-3, 1863, he commanded the 6th artillery held in reserve. He subse- 
quently took part in the action at Wapping heights, and tlie Rapidan cam- 
paign, where he commanded the ist brigade, 3d division, 6th army corps, 
and he also took part in the action at Locust Grove, Nov. 29, 1863. He 
participated in the battles of the Wilderness and in the action near Spott- 
sylvania, where he commanded the 6th army corps part of the time and 
was severely wounded. He was on sick leave in May and June, 1864, then 
served on courts-martial, and on Aug. 24, 1865, was mustered out of the 
service. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, 
for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of the Wilderness. After 
the war Gen. Morris retired to his estate in Putnam county, N. Y. He 
was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1869. He was the 
author of works on military tactics and the inventor of a conical repeat- 
ing carbine. Gen. Morris died at Long Branch, N. J.. Aug. 26, 1900. 

Morton, James S., brigadier-general, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Sept. 24, 1829. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 185 1, standing second in his class, and prior to the Civil war was em- 
ployed on various engineering works and as assistant professor of engi- 
neering at West Point ; and he commanded the Chiriqui expedition to 
Central America in i860. He was superintending engineer during the 
construction of Fort Jefferson at Tortugas, Fla., 1861-62, and of the re- 
pairs of Fort Mifflin, Pa., in 1862; was promoted captain, Aug. 6, 1861, 
and in May, 1862, reported to Gen. Don Carlos Buell as chief engineer of 
the Army of the Ohio. He became chief engineer in the Army of the 
Cumberland in Oct., 1862, commanded the bridge brigade in that armj^ 
and on Nov. 29, 1862, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. 
He constructed the intrenchments about Murfreesboro, Tenn., and was 
present at the capture of Chattanooga, was wounded at Chickamauga, 
and superintended the engineering operations under Gen. William S. Rose- 
crans. He was promoted major, July 3, 1863, and was mustered out of 
the volunteer service on Nov. 7 of that year ; served as superintending 
engineer of the construction of the defenses of Nashville, Murfreesboro, 
Clarksville and Fort Donelson from Nov. 14. 1863 to Jan. 30, 1864, and 
was from the latter date to May of that year assistant to the chief en- 
gineer at Washington. He was chief engineer of the 9th army corps 
during the campaign before Richmond in 1864, and was engaged in the 
battles of North Anna, Totopotomy, Bethesda Church, and the assault on 
Petersburg, where he was killed while leading the attack, June 17, 1864. 
He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, Jan. 2, 1863, for gallant and merito- 
rious services at the battle of Stone's river; colonel, Sept. 20, 1863, for 
good conduct at Chickamauga. Ga., and after his death he was given the 
brevet of brigadier-general U. S. A., to date from June 17. 1864, for 
"gallant and meritorious services at the assault on Petersburg, Va." 

Mott, Gershom, major-general, was born at Lamberton, N. J., April 
7, 1822. He attended the Trenton, N. J., academy, entered business life 
in New York city at the age of fourteen, and in the Mexican war served 
as 2nd lieutenant in the loth U. S. infantry. He was collector of the port 
of Lamberton, 1849-53, teller of the Bordentown banking company, 1855- 
61, and he entered the service of the United States for the Civil war, Aug. 
17, t86t, as lieutenant-colonel of the 5th N. J. infantry. He was promoted 
colonel of the 6th N. J. infantry. May 7, 1862, was wounded at the sec- 



Biographical Sketches 183 

ond battle of Bull Run, and was commissioned brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers Sept. 7, 1862. He was again wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, 
1863 ; commanded the 4th division, Hancock's 2nd corps, in the battle of 
the Wilderness, and a brigade at the battle of Cold Harbor. He was 
brevetted major-general of volunteers Aug. i, 1864, for distinguished 
services during the war, and at Petersburg, Dec. 31, 1864, he commanded 
the 3d division, 2nd army corps, and was stationed on the Jerusalem turn- 
pike, south of the city. He was again wounded at Amelia Springs, Va., 
April 6, 1865, and after the army was disbanded he commanded a pro- 
visional corps for some time and was a member of the Wirz commission 
at Washington. He was given a commission as major-general of volun- 
teers, Dec. I, 1865, to rank from May 26, 1865, and he resigned, Feb. 20, 
1866. After the war Gen. Mott served as paymaster of the Camden & 
Amboy railroad company, 1866-73 ! became a member of the firm of 
Thompson & Mott, iron founders; was appointed major-general of the 
national guard in New Jersey in 1873 ; was treasurer of New Jersey in 
1875, keeper of the state prison, 1876-81, and member of the Riparian 
commission, 1882-84. He was also interested in railroads and banking. 
He died in New York city May 29, 1884. 

Mower, Joseph A., major-general, was born in Woodstock, Vt., Aug. 
22, 1827. He was educated in the public schools, learned the carpenter's 
trade, and served during the Mexican war as a private in a battalion of 
engineers. He was commissioned 2nd lieutenant in the ist U. S. in- 
fantry in 1855, promoted ist lieutenant in 1857, and captain Sept. 9, 1861. 
He was engaged in the early operations of the Union army in Missouri, 
was elected colonel of the nth Mo. infantry, May 3, 1862, won the nick- 
name of "Fighting Joe" by gallantry at luka and Corinth, and was pro- 
moted brigadier-general of volunteers Nov. 29, 1862. He commanded the 
2nd brigade, 3d division, 15th army corps in the Vicksburg campaign, 
May 19-July 4, 1863, distinguishing himself particularly at the battle of 
Milliken's bend on June 6-8. In the Red River campaign under Banks he 
led the attacking column into the fort at the capture of Fort De Russy, 
March 14, 1864, and on May 15, encountered and defeated Wharton and 
Polignac on the Yellow bayou, while in command of the rear-guard of 
the army. He subsequently was promoted to the command of a division, 
defeated Forrest at Tupelo, Miss., July 13-15, and on Aug. 12, 1864, he 
was promoted major-general of volunteers. He served with Sherman 
in Georgia and the Carolinas, commanding the 17th corps in South Caro- 
lina, and the 20th corps at the battle of Bentonville, March 19-20, 1865. 
Hewas brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, colonel, brigadier-general and 
major-general in the regular army for gallantry at the battles of Farm- 
ington, luka, and Jackson, Miss., Fort De Russy, La., and Salkehatchie, 
S. C, respectively. He was mustered out of the volunteer service, Feb. i, 
1866; promoted colonel U. S. A., July 28, 1866, and was transferred to the 
25th infantry in 1868 and then to the 39th infantry. He died while in 
command of the Department of Louisiana, at New Orleans, Jan. 6, 1870. 

Nagle, James, brigadier-general, was born in Reading, Pa., April 5, 
1822. In 1842 he organized the Washington artillery company, and when 
the war with Mexico began he enlisted with it as captain in the ist Penn. 
volunteers. His regiment was stationed at Perote castle to keep open 
communications with Vera Cruz during the siege. He subsequently was 
present at the battles of Huamantla, Puebla and Atlixco, entered the City 
of Mexico, and then was stationed at San Angel until- the close of the war. 
On his return to Pennsylvania he was presented with a sword by the citi- 
zens of Schuylkill county. He was commissioned colonel of the 6th Penn. 
regiment, April 22. 1861, and later in the year organized the 48th Penn. 
infantry, of which he became colonel. Oct. i. He commanded the ist 



184 The Union Army 

brigade, 2nd division, of the 6th army corps, and took part in the battles 
Crampton's gap in South mountain and Antietam, and at the last named 
battle performed an important part in carrying the stone bridge, which, 
according to Gen. McClellan, saved the day. He was commissioned brig- 
adier-general of volunteers, Sept. lO, 1862, and his appointment expired 
March 4, 1863, but was renewed March 10, and he served with his brigade 
in Kentucky until May 9, when he resigned on account of impaired health. 
He organized the 39th Penn. regiment in June, 1863, and was commis- 
sioned its colonel, July i, commanded a brigade during Lee's invasion of 
Pennsylvania, and was honorably mustered out, Aug. 2, 1863. In 1864 
he organized the 149th Penn. regiment for 100 days' service, and was its 
colonel from July 24 to Nov. 5, guarding the approaches to Baltimore. 
He died in Pottsville, Pa., Aug. 22, 1866. 

Naglee, Henry M., brigadier-general, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Jan. 15, 1815. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1835, but resigned on Dec. 31, of that year, and engaged in civil en- 
gineering until 1846. At the beginning of the Mexican war he was com- 
missioned captain in the ist N. Y. volunteers, and he served throughout 
the war, in California, afterwards engaging in banking in San Francisco 
until 1861. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the i6th U. S. infan- 
try. May 14, 1861, but did not join his regiment; resigned his command, 
Jan. 10, 1862, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, Feb. 4. 
He served in the defenses of Washington, and in the Virginia campaign 
of 1862, commanding a brigade at Williamsburg, at Fair Oaks, where he 
was wounded, and in the Seven Days' battles about Richmond, June 26- 
July 2, 1862. He then commanded a division in the Department of North 
and South Carolina, in 1863 ; was in command of the 7th army corps, 
July and Aug., 1863, at Harper's Ferry; and from Aug. to Sept., 1863, 
commanded the District of Virginia. He was on waiting orders from 
Nov., 1863, to April 4, 1864, when he was mustered out of the service. 
He subsequently resumed his banking business in San Francisco, became 
interested in grape culture and engaged in distilling brandy. He died in 
San Francisco, Cal., March 5, 1886. 

Negley, James S., major-general, was born in East Liberty, Alle- 
gheny county, Pa., Dec. 22, 1826. He was graduated at the Western Re- 
serve university of Pennsylvania, served through the most important bat- 
tles of the Mexican war as a private in the ist Penn. volunteers, and on 
returning to civil life became a farmer and horticulturalist. At the be- 
ginning of the Civil war he raised a brigade for three months' service 
and participated with it in the battle of Falling Waters, July 2, 1861. 
After his three months' service had expired he was recommissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers, his commission dating from Oct. i, 1861, 
and served under Gen. Buell in northern Alabama and Tennessee, where 
he commanded one of the columns of Mitchel's force, and in May, 1862, 
surprised the Confederate cavalry under Gen. Wirt Adams, at Sweeden's 
cove captured a large number of prisoners and put the remainder to 
flight. He subsequently commanded at the battle of La Vergne. Oct. 7, 
1862, where he defeated the Confederates under Gen. R. H. Anderson 
and Gen. N. B. Forrest, and for gallantry at Stone's river he was promoted 
major-general, to date from Nov. 29. 1862. He engaged in the Georgia 
campaign, and held Owen's gap at the battle of Chickamauga. He was 
honorably mustered out Jan. 19, 1865. After the war Gen. Negley was 
representative in Congress from the 22nd Penn. district from 1869-73, 
"^^'S-yy, 'i"d 1885-87. He was for fifteen years manager of the Volunteer 
Soldiers' Home; was president of the National Union League of America; 
member of the G. A. R. Veteran Legion; Scott's Legion; Military Order 
of Foreign Wars, and other military orders. He died in Plainfield. N. J., 
Aug. 7, 1 90 1. 




Maj.-Gen. J. S. Negley IMaj.-Gen. W'u. Nelson 

Brig.-Gen. F. S. Nickerson Brig.-Gen. James Oakes 
Brig.-Gen. J. M. Oliver Brig.-Gen. "Emerson 

Brig.-Gen. W. W. Orme Opdycke 

IMaj.-Gen. P. J. Osterhaus 



Maj.-Gen. Johx Nevvtox 
31aj.-Gen. R. J. OglEsby 
Maj.-Gen. E. O. C. Ord 
Drig.-Gen. J. T. Owen 



Biographical Sketches 185 

Neill, Thomas H., brigadier-general, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
April 9, 1826. He attended the University of Pennsylvania two years, 
was then appointed cadet at the United States military academy, and was 
graduated there and appointed brevet 2ntl lieutenant in the 4th infantry, 
July 1, 1847. He served in the Mexican war, 1847-48, and served then on 
garrison and frontier duty until the Civil war, with the exception of the 
years 1853 to 1857, when he taught drawing at West Point, was later pro- 
moted 1st lieutenant, and in 1857 captain. He was during the first part 
of the war assistant adjutant-general on the staff of Gen. Cadwalader, 
was promoted colonel of the 23d Penn. volunteers, Feb. 17, 1862, and brig- 
adier-general of volunteers on Nov. 29 of that year. He served first with 
the Army of the Potomac, engaging in the siege of Yorktown and the 
battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Savage Station and Malvern hill, 
was also in the Maryland campaign and at the battle of Fredericksburg 
commanded a brigade. He was brevetted major for gallantry at Mal- 
vern hill, won the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for his action at Chancel- 
lorsville, was engaged at Gettysburg after a forced march of over 35 
miles, and took part in the succeeding operations of the Army of the 
Potomac until the autumn of 1864, winning the brevet of colonel for gallant 
and meritorious services at Spottsylvania. He commanded the 2nd divi- 
sion, 6th army corps, at Cold Harbor, June i, 1864, was acting inspector- 
general in Sheridan's Shenandoah campaign, taking part in the battle of 
Cedar creek and in several skirmishes, and on March 13, 1865, was bre- 
vetted brigadier-general in the regular army and major-general of volun- 
teers for gallant and meritorious services in the war. He was mustered 
out of the volunteer service, Aug.' 24, 1865. He had been promoted major 
of the nth infantry, Aug. 26, 1863, and after the war served with his 
regiment at various posts, was a member of the examining board and 
subsequently commandant of cadets at the military academy, besides 
serving as inspector-general, as commandant of the recruiting station at 
Governor's island, N. Y., and on the frontier against Indians. He was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel and transferred to the ist infantry, Feb. 22, 
1869 ; was promoted colonel and transferred to the 8th cavalry, April 2, 
1879. and was retired from the active service, April 2, 1883, for "dis- 
ability in the line of duty." He died in Philadelphia, Pa., March 10, 1885. 

Nelson, William, major-general, was born near Maysville, Ky., in 
1825. He entered the United States nav}' as midshipman, Jan. 28, 1840, 
corimanded a battery at the siege of Vera Cruz in the Mexican war, and 
afterwards served in the Mediterranean. He was promoted master in 
1854. lieutenant in 1855. and in 1858 commanded the "Niagara," in which 
he carried back to Africa the negroes that had been taken from the 
slaver "Echo." Early in 1861 he was serving in Washington, and on July 
16 he was promoted lieutenant-commander and had charge of the gunboats 
on the Ohio river. He was instrumental in raising recruits for the Union 
army in Kentucky and Tennessee, and on Sept. 16, he was appointed brig- 
adier-general of volunteers. On Nov. 8, he engaged with two Ohio regi- 
ments, reinforced by detachments from several Kentucky regiments, in 
checking the advance of Col. John S. Williams on Prestonburg, and was 
successful in forcing the Confederate leader back into Virginia. He was 
then ordered to join the column in front of Louisville in command of a 
division under Gen. Buell, and he took a conspicuous part as commander 
of his division at the battle of Shiloh, where Buell's army was the first 
to join Gen. Grant. He was defeated at Richmond. ,Ky., and wounded 
in the engagement, commanded Louisville when that city was threatened 
by Bragg, and on July 17, 1862, was promoted major-general of volun- 
teers. In an altercation which arose at the Gait House in Louisville be- 
tween Gen. Nelson and Gen. Jefiferson C. Davis, Davis shot Nelson, and 



18G The Union Army 

the latter died at the Gait House, Louisville, Ky., Sept. 29, 1862. Davis 
was arrested but was never brought to trial. 

Newton, John, major-general, was born in Norfolk, Va., Aug. 24, 
1823. He was graduated at the United States military academy, second 
in his class, in 1842, and was engaged as assistant professor of engineering 
at that school, and on various engineering works, until i860, except in 
1858, when he was chief engineer of the Utah expedition, receiving pro- 
motion to captain, July i, 1856. He was appointed chief engineer of the 
Department of Pennsylvania at the outbreak of the Civil war, then held 
a similar position in the Department of the Shenandoah, was promoted 
major in Aug., 1861. and from then until March, 1862, was chief engineer 
in charge of the defenses of Washington, being in command also of a 
brigade for the defence of the capital, and receiving promotion to the rank 
of brigadier-general of volunteers, Sept. 23, 1861. He served during the 
Peninsular campaign in the Army of the Potomac as commander of a 
brigade, and took part in the action at West Point and the battles of 
Gaines' mill and Glendale, and he covered the retreat of Pope's army from 
Bull Run to Washington, Sept. 1-2, 1862. He then served in the Mary- 
land campaign, engaging in the battle of South mountain, and also at 
Antietam, where he won the brevet promotion to lieutenant-colonel for 
gallantry ; and he commanded the 3d division, 6th corps. Army of the 
Potomac, at Fredericksburg and in the Chancellorsville campaign, the 
successful assault on Marye's heights being under his direction. He was 
promoted major-general of volunteers, March 30, 1863, and at Gettysburg 
on July 2 he succeeded to the command of the ist corps after the death 
of Gen. Reynolds, being brevetted colonel for his services in this action. 
He engaged then in the pursuit of the Confederate army to Warrenton, 
and was in the Rapidan campaign, in October-December. He was placed 
in command of the 2nd division of the 4th corps of the Army of the Cum- 
berland, under Gen. Oliver O. Howard, in May, 1864, and took part in 
all the important engagements of the invasion of Georgia, including the 
battle of Peachtree creek and the siege and occupation of Atlanta. On 
March 13, 1865, Gen. Newton was brevetted brigadier-general and major- 
general in the regular army, and. his commission as major-general in the 
volunteer army having been revoked April 18, 1864, was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers on the same date for gallant and meritorious serv- 
ices during the war. From Oct., 1864, to Jan. 24, 1866, he was in com- 
mand of the state and of various districts in the state of Florida, and 
was honorably mustered out of the volunteer service, Jan. 31, 1866. He 
was promoted lieutenant-colonel of engineers, Dec. 28, 1865, was promoted 
colonel in 1879, and on March 6, 1884, became chief of engineers with the 
rank of brigadier-general. After the war he was in charge of various 
engineering works which won him world-wide fame as an engineer. His 
most important achievement was the removing of obstructions from the 
channel at Hell Gate, East river, N. Y. These obstructions, known as 
Hallett's reef and Flood rock, were duly exploded on Sept. 24, 1876. and 
Oct. 10, 1885. Gen. Newton was retired, Aug. 27, 1886, and in 1887-88 
was superintendent of public works in New York citv. He died in New 
York city. May i. 1895. 

Nickerson, Frank S., brigadier-general, was born in Swanville, Me., 
Aug. 27, 1826. He was educated at the East Corinth academy and was 
collector of customs at the beginning of the Civil war, but he resigned his 
office to become major in the 4th Maine infantry, June 15, 1861. He was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, Sept. 9, colonel Nov. 25, and 
on Nov. 29, 1862, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
was specially mentioned by Gen. O. O. Howard for his bravery at Bull 
Run. .A^fter becoming colonel of his regiment he was sent to New Or- 



Biographical Sketches 187 

leans, under Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, and was specially mentioned for 
his services at Baton Rouge. After receiving his commission as briga- 
dier-general Gen. Nickerson served in the Department of the Gulf during 
the remainder of the war. and on May 13, 1865, resigned his commission 
and took up his residence in Boston, Mass. 

Oakes, James, brigadier-general, was born near Limestoneville, Pa., 
April 4, 1826. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1846 and served in the 2nd dragoons during the Mexican war, where 
he won the brevet of ist lieutenant "for gallant and meritorious conduct 
in the affair at Medelin, Mex.," and that of captain for gallantry at Mo- 
lino del Rey. After the Mexican war he served on frontier and garrison 
duty, was wounded in an affray with Indians, Aug. 12, 1850, and was pro- 
moted captain in the 2nd infantry, March 3, 1855. He was subsequently 
a member of frequent scouting parties against Indians, was promoted 
major, April 6, 1861, and declined the commission of brigadier-general of 
volunteers offered him, May 17, 1861. He commanded a regiment in the 
Tennessee and Mississippi campaign of 1862, afterwards served on mus- 
tering and recruiting service, and commanded the District of Illinois, 
1863-66. He had been promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 4th cavalry, 
Nov. 12, 1861, and on July 31, 1866, he was promoted colonel of the 6th 
cavalry. He was retired April 20, 1879. On March 30, 1865, he was bre- 
-vetted colonel and brigadier-general U. S. A., "for meritorious and faithful 
service in the recruitment of the armies of the United States." 

Oglesby, Richard J., major-general, was born in Oldham county, Ky., 
July 25, 1824. He was left an orphan when eight years old and moved to 
Decatur, 111., where he worked as a farm hand and carpenter. He studied 
law under Judge Silas W. Robinson at Springfield, 111., 1844-45, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1845, and joined the service of the United States for 
the Mexican war as ist lieutenant in the 4th 111. volunteers. He saw 
service at Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo, resumed his law practice in De- 
catur in 1847, was graduated at the Louisville, Ky., law school with the 
degree of LL. B. in 1849, and in that year engaged in gold seeking in 
California. He travelled in Europe, Egj^pt and the Holy Land, 1856-57, 
was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1858, and in i860 was elect- 
ed to the Illinois state senate. He resigned this position, April 25, 1861. to 
become colonel of the 8th 111. volunteers, and distinguished himself as 
commander of a brigade under Gen. Grant, at the capture of Fort Henry 
and Fort Donelson, his brigade being the first to enter Fort Henry. For 
gallantry at Fort Donelson he was promoted brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, March 21, 1862, and he again distinguished himself at Corinth, 
where he was severely wounded and incapacitated for duty until April, 
1863, when, having been promoted major-general of volunteers, 
Nov. 29, 1862, he commanded the left wing of the i6th army corps. 
He resigned. May 26, 1864, and in the following November was elected 
governor of Illinois on the Republican ticket by a large majority. He 
lield this office continuously until 1869, was again elected in 1872, and in 
1873 resigned to accept a seat in the LTnited States senate. He declined 
reelection to the senate in 1879, and in Nov., 1884, was elected governor of 
the state for a four-year term. In 1889 he retired to private life. He 
died in Elkhart, III, April 24, 1899. 

Oliver, John M., brigadier-general, was born in Penn Yan, N. Y., 
Sept. 6, 1828. He was educated at St. John's college. College Point, Long 
Island. N. Y., and subsequently moved to Monroe, Mich., where he was 
a druggist and served as recorder of the court. Oh April 17, 1861, he 
enlisted as a private, was promoted ist lieutenant in the 4th Mich, in- 
fantry on June 20, and captain in that regiment on Sept. 25. On March 
13, 1862, he was commissioned colonel of the T5th Mich, infantry, and at 



188 The Union Army 

the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, he won commendation from Gen. 
McCook for conspicuous bravery and efficient service. He commanded 
a brigade at the battles of luka, Corinth and Grand Junction, his regi- 
ment during the Vicksburg campaign, and a brigade during the first part 
of the Atlanta campaign. He commanded a brigade again in the march 
to the sea, and at the capture of Fort McAllister, Dec. 13, 1864, his bri- 
gade opened and carried the assault. He then led his brigade in the Caro- 
linas and until disbanded at Washington after the surrender of Johnston's 
army, receiving promotion to the rank of brigadier-general Jan. 12, 1865. 
He subsequently commanded the 2nd division, 15th army corps. Army of 
the Tennessee, at Louisville, Ky., and then at Little Rock, Ark., where 
he was mustered out of the service, Aug. 24, 1865. He was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, "for faithful, efficient and 
gallant service during the war." After being mustered out Gen. Oliver 
practiced law in Little Rock, Ark., and was assessor of internal revenue 
there; was subsequently appointed by President Grant superintendent of 
the postal service in the southwest, and took up his residence in Wash- 
ington. He resigned in 1871 on account of ill health. He declined the 
appointment of associate justice of the supreme court of the district of 
Columbia in 1869. Gen. Oliver died in Washington, D. C, March 30, 1872. 

Opdycke, Emerson, brigadier-general, was born in Hubbard, Ohio, 
Jan. 7, 1830. He engaged in business in Ohio and then California, then 
returned to Warren, Ohio, and enlisted for service in the Civil war from 
that place, becoming ist lieutenant in the 41st Ohio infantry, Aug. 26, 
1861, and captain, Jan. 9, 1862. He was acting major at Shiloh, where 
he led an important charge. He subsequently was mustered out and re- 
cruited the i2Sth Ohio infantry, of which he became lieutenant-colonel, 
Oct. I, 1862, and colonel Jan. 14, 1863, and he served in the movements 
against Chattanooga, making a charge at Chickamauga and later in the 
day maintaining his position at a loss of one-third his men ; while at 
Chattanooga, where he commanded a demi-brigade, his force was among 
the first commands to reach the crest at the storming of Missionary ridge. 
He also rendered good service in the Atlanta campaign, notably at Rocky 
Face ridge where he was the first to reach the crest, at Resaca where he 
was severely wounded, and at Kennesaw mountain, where with three reg- 
iments he made an unsuccessful assault. He commanded a brigade from 
Aug., 1864, until the close of the war, and at Franklin, in Nov., 1864, he 
led his brigade from reserve into the gap made by Hood's assault, with- 
out waiting for orders, and was credited by Gen. Thomas, the commander 
of the army, with the success of the day. He subsequently distinguished 
himself at Nashville and took a prominent part in repelling Hood's in- 
vasion of Tennessee, afterwards commanding a division at New Orleans, 
La., until Jan., 1866. when he resigned. He was brevetted brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers Feb. 7, 1865, and on March 13. 1865, was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers to date from Nov. 30, 1864, for important and 
valuable services at Franklin. His commission of brigadier-general dates 
from July 26, 1865. After the war Gen. Opdycke engaged in the whole- 
sale drygoods business in New York city. He died in New York city, 
April 25, 1884. 

Ord, Edwrard O. C, major-general, was born at Cumberland, Md., 
Oct. 18, t8i8. He was educated at the West Point military academy, and 
after being graduated in 1839 was appointed a brevet second lieutenant 
in the 3d U. S. artillery. He served with distinction in the Seminole war 
in Florida, and also in the Civil war. The battle of Dranesville, in 1861, 
was won under his leadership, and he was severely wounded at the battle 
of Hatchic bridge and again at the assault on Fort Harrison. Having been 
several times promoted for gallant and meritorious conduct, he became 



Biographical Sketches 189 

commander of the Department of Virginia and North Carohna in 1864, 
and led the Army of the James in the victorious engagements that ended 
the war. In March, 1865, he received the brevet of major-general in the 
regular army, and he subsequently held successive command of the De- 
partments of Arkansas, California, Texas, and the Platte. In 1880 he 
was placed on the retired list, and soon afterward accepted the position 
of engineer in the construction of the Mexican railway. He died at 
Havana, Cuba, July 22, 1883. 

Orme, William W., brigadier-general, was born in Washington, D. C, 
Feb. 17, 1832. He was educated at Mount St. Mary's college, Emmitsburg, 
Md., and afterwards moved to Illinois, studied law, and practiced his pro- 
fession in Bloomington. He was a member of the constitutional conven- 
tion in Illinois in i860, and at the beginning of the Civil war raised the 
94th 111. regiment, of which he was commissioned colonel, Aug. 20, 1862. 
He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, and 
served until compelled to resign on account of failing health, April 26, 
1864. He was subsequently supervising agent in the United States treas- 
ury. Gen. Orme died in Bloomington, 111., Sept. 13, 1866. 

Osborn, Thomas O., brigadier-general, was born in Jersey, Licking 
county, Ohio, Aug. 11, 1832. He attended Delaware college, was grad- 
uated at the University of Ohio with the degree of A. B. in 1854 and 
A. M. in 1857, studied law with Gen. Lew Wallace and began to practice 
in Chicago in 1859. He offered his services to the government at the 
beginning of the Civil war, was instrumental in enlisting and organizing 
the 39th 111. regiment, became lieutenant-colonel of that organization, Oct. 
II, 1861, and its colonel, Jan. i, 1862. Being detailed to guard the Balti- 
more & Ohio railroad in West Virginia, he engaged Jackson's forces dur- 
ing the raid into Morgan county and held the superior Confederate force 
in check for several hours, afterwards making good his escape across the 
Potomac with small loss. He was engaged in the battle of Winchester, 
March 23, 1862, and commanded a brigade in the operations against the 
forts in Charleston harbor in 1863. He accompanied Gen. Butler up the 
James river in May, 1864, was severely wounded at Drewry's bluff, where 
he lost the use of his right arm, and at the siege of Petersburg he com- 
manded the 1st brigade, ist division, 24th army corps. He made a gal- 
lant charge and was instrumental with his brigade in the capture of Fort 
Gregg, April 2, 1865, and for this service was promoted brigadier-general 
on May i, 1865, and he took an important part in the subsequent opera- 
tions leading to the surrender of Lee's army. He was given the brevet 
rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, March 10, 1865, and that of major- 
general on April 2, in recognition of gallant and meritorious services in 
front of Richmond and Petersburg. Gen. Osborn resigned his commis- 
sion, Sept. 28, 1865, and resumed his law practice in Chicago, becoming 
also treasurer of Cook county and a manager of the national soldiers' 
home. He was a commissioner to settle the disputed claims between the 
United States and Mexico, and from 1874-85 was United States consul- 
general and minister-resident to the Argentine Republic. He was subse- 
quently engaged in railroad enterprises in Brazil but retained his resi- 
dence in Chicago. He died, Dec. 20, 1898. 

Osterhaus, Peter J., major-general, was born in Coblentz, Germany, 
Jan. 4, 1823. He immigrated to the United States in 1849, settling in Belle- 
ville, 111., and at the outbreak of the Civil war was commissioned major 
of a battalion in the 2nd Mo. infantry, with which he took part in the 
actions at Dug springs and Wilson's creek. He was commissioned col- 
onel of the I2th Mo. regiment, Dec. 19, 1861, and commanded a brigade 
under Gen. John C. Fremont, a division under Gen. Samuel R. Curtis 
at Pea ridge, in March, 1862, and one of the three divisions of the Army 



190 The Union Army 

of the Southwest in May of that year. He was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers, June 9, 1862, and commanded a division in the 
capture of Arkansas Post and subsequently in the Vicksburg campaign. 
He commanded the ist division of the 15th corps of Grant's army in the 
operations at Chattanooga and at the battle of Missionary ridge, where 
he particularly distinguished himself, and he subsequently partici- 
pated in the Atlanta campaign, the march through Georgia, and 
the campaign of the Carolinas. During the absence of Gen. Logan, from 
Sept. I, 1^4, to Jan., 1865, he commanded the 15th army corps, Army 
of the Tennessee, having been promoted major-general, July 23, 1864. 
He acted as chief of staff to Gen. Canby at the surrender of Geti. E. 
Kirby Smith, and afterwards commanded the military district of Missis- 
sippi until Jan. 15, 1866, when he was honorably mustered out. Gen. Os- 
terhaus was United States consul at Lyons, France, 1866-77, then returned 
to New York city, where for several years he engaged in manufac- 
turing and exporting hardware, and he subsequently removed to Mann- 
heim, Germany, where he continued the business. 

Ov(ren, Joshua T., brigadier-general, was born in Caermarthen, 
Wales, March 29, 1821. He immigrated to the United States with his 
parents in 1830, was graduated at Jefferson college, Canonsburg, Pa., in 
1845, and engaged in teaching and in the practice of law, being admitted 
to the bar in 1852, and he established, with his brother Robert, the Chestnut 
Hill academy for boys. He was a member of the state legislature, 1857- 
59, was a private in the ist city troop of Philadelphia in 1861, and on May 
8 of that year became colonel of the 24th Penn. volunteers. After being 
mustered out after his three months' service had expired he organized 
the 69th Penn. regiment, of which he became colonel, Aug. 18, 1861, and 
with which he served in all the battles of the Army of the Potomac from 
Fair Oaks to Cold Harbor, commanding a brigade part of the time and 
winning by gallant and meritorious conduct at Glendale promotion to the 
rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862. His commission 
expired March 4, 1863, but he was reappointed, March 30, and served un- 
til mustered out, July 18, 1864. Gen. Owen then resumed the practice of 
his profession in Philadelphia, and was recorder of deeds there in 1866-71. 
In 1871 he founded the "New York Daily Register," a law journal which 
became the official organ of the New York courts in 1873, and he was a 
member of its editorial staff until shortly before his death. Gen. Owen 
died at Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 7, 1887. 

Paine, Charles J,, brigadier-general, was born in Boston, Mass., Aug. 
26, 1833. He was graduated at Harvard with the degree of A. B. in 1853 
and A. M. in 1856, and he entered the Union Army ,Oct. 5, 1861, as captain 
in the 22nd Mass. infantry. He became major in the 30th Mass. infantry, 
Jan. 16, 1862, colonel of the 2nd La., infantry, Oct. 23, of that year, and on 
July 4, 1864, he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. He led 
a brigade at the siege of Port Hudson, May 24-July 8, 1863, then joined 
Gen. Butler in the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, partici- 
pating in the battle of Drewry's bluff, and he commanded a division of 
colored troops in the attack at New Market, Va., in Sept., 1864. He also 
participated in the expedition against Fort Fisher, was with Sherman in 
North Carolina, subsequently, and for a time commanded the District of 
New Berne. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Jan. 15, 
1865, for "valuable and meritorious services," and was mustered out a 
year later. After leaving the army Gen. Paine was connected with the 
management of railroad corporations and was for many years a director 
of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Mexican central and the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe railroads. He also became prominent for the 
part he took in defending the "America's" cup, and in Feb., 1888, the New 



Biographical Sketches 191 

York yacht club presented him with a silver cup in recognition of his 
services in three times defending the trophy. In 1897 he was appointed 
by President McKinley, together with Edward O. Wolcott and Adlai E. 
Stevenson, a special envoy to Great Britain, France and Germany, with 
a view to secure by international agreement the remonetization of silver 
as a coin of final redemption. 

Paine, Eleazer A., brigadier-general, was born in Parkman, Geauga 
county, Oliio, Sept. 10, 1815. He was graduated at the United States 
military academy in 1839, served on Gen. Taylor's staff in the Florida war, 
and resigned his commission in 1840 to begin the study of law. He was 
admitted to the bar and practiced at Paincsville, Ohio, 1843-48, and then 
at Monmouth, 111., 1848-61. He was United States deputy marshal for 
Ohio from 1842 to 1845, being at the same time lieutenant-colonel in the 
Ohio militia, and he was brigadier-general of Ohio militia from 1845 to 
1848. He was appointed colonel of the 9th 111. infantry, July 26, 1861, 
and brigadier-general of volunteers on Sept. 3 of that year. He com- 
manded a brigade at Paducah, Ky., in the fall of 1861, at Cairo, Jan.- 
Feb., 1862, and the 4th division of Pope's army in the operations against 
New Madrid, Island No. 10, Fort Pillow and Memphis, in March and 
April, 1862, and he took an important part in the advance on Corinth in 
May, the evacuation of that place being materially hastened by his oper- 
ations, his troops being engaged with the Confederates at Farmington on 
May 9. The remainder of his service was in guarding railroads, and as 
commander, first of the district of West Tennessee and then of western 
Kentucky. He resigned his commission, April 5, 1865, and after the war 
engaged in business. Gen. Paine was a personal friend of President Lin- 
coln. He died in Jersey City, N. J., Dec. 16, 1882. 

Paine, Halbert E., brigadier-general, was born in Chardon, Geauga 
county, Ohio, Feb. 4, 1826. He was graduated at Western Reserve col- 
lege with the degree of A. B. in 1845 and A. M. in 1848, was admitted 
to the bar in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1849 and practiced there until 1857, when 
he moved to Milwaukee, where he continued the practice of his profes- 
sion until the Civil war broke out. He was major-general of Ohio militia, 
1856-57. He entered the service of the United States, July 2, 1861, as 
colonel of the 4th Wis. cavalry, and after serving for a time at Baltimore, 
Md., left with Gen. Butler in 1862 on the expedition to New Orleans. 
His service during the remainder of the war was chiefly in the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf. He captured the town of Grand Bluff and burned it 
by order of Gen. Butler, was subsequently arrested by Gen. Thomas Will- 
iams for refusing to return fugitive slaves to the camps of their masters, 
and after the death of Gen. Williams succeeded to the command of Baton 
Rouge, where he packed the statue of Washington and the books in the 
state capital and sent them to New Orleans. He was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers, March 13, 1863, and in the last assault on Port 
Hudson, where he commanded the 3d division of the 19th corps, he lost a 
leg. He afterwards served on Gen. Augur's military commission in Wash- 
ington, commanded the forces stationed between Forts Totten and Stev- 
ens during Gen. Early's advance on Washington in July, 1864, commanded 
for a time the district of Illinois, and then returned to Milwaukee. He 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, "for conspic- 
uous gallantry on several occasions, particularly for the attack on Port 
Hudson, La., May 27, 1863." He resigned from the army. May 15, 1865. 
Gen. Paine was a Republican representative from the ist Wis. district in 
Congress from 1865-71, and in 1869 secured the passage of a bill organizing 
the United States signal service. After leaving Congress he practiced law 
m Washington and was United States commissioner of patents from 1878 
to 1890. 



193 The Union Army 

Palmer, Innis N., brigadier-general, was born in Buffalo, N. Y., March 
30, 1824. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 
1846 and served throughout the Mexican war, where he was wounded at 
Chapultepec, won the brevets of ist lieutenant and captain for gallantry 
at Contreras, Churubusco and Chapultepec, and took part in the assault on 
and capture of the City of Mexico. He was afterwards on frontier and 
recruiting duty, and was promoted major, April 5, 1861, having attained 
the intervening grades. He served from April to July, 1861, in the de- 
fenses of Washington, and in the Manassas campaign he commanded the 
battalion of United States cavalry at the battle of Bull Run, winning pro- 
motion to brevet lieutenant-colonel by gallantry there. He was trans- 
ferred to the 5th cavalry in Aug., 1861, was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers on Sept. 23, and commanded a brigade in the 4th army 
corps of the Army of the Potomac during the Virginia Peninsular cam- 
paign, being engaged at Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, and in the 
Seven Days' battles. He was subsequently engaged in organizing and 
forwarding to the field New Jersey and Delaware troops and in superin- 
tending camps of drafted men at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1862 ; commanded 
then the ist division of the i8th army corps in North Carolina from Jan. 
to July, 1863, the Department of North Carolina, February to March, the 
District of Pamlico, the i8th army corps and the defenses of New Berne, 
N. C, March, 1863, to April, 1864, and then the districts of North Caro- 
lina and Beaufort, N. C, successively until June, 1865. He was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel and transferred to the 2nd cavalry, Sept. 23, 1863, and 
on March 13, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army 
and major-general of volunteers. He was promoted colonel in June, 
1868, and commanded his regiment at various posts until retired at his 
own request in March, 1879. He died in Chevy Chase, Md., Sept. 10, 1900. 

Palmer, John M., major-general, was born at Eagle Creek, Scott 
county, Ky., Sept. 13, 1817. He removed with his parents to Illinois in 
1831, studied law there, supporting himself meanwhile by manual labor, 
and in 1839 was admitted to the bar, practicing subsequently at Carlin- 
ville. 111., until the Civil war. He supported Martin Van Buren for the 
presidency, was judge of the probate court for Macoupin county, 111., 
from 1843 to 1847, member of the state constitutional convention in the 
latter year, judge of probate in 1848, county judge from 1849 to 1851, 
member of the state senate from 1852 to 1854, and again in 1855, and a 
delegate to the Republican national convention in 1856. He was a de- 
feated Republican candidate for Congress in 1858, and was a Lincoln 
elector in 1861. He was elected colonel of the 14th 111. infantry, May 
25, 1861, accompanied Gen. John C. Fremont in his expedition to Spring- 
field and was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on Dec. 20. He 
commanded a division under Gen. Pope at the capture of New Madrid 
and Island No. 10, and his brigade at the siege of Corinth, and was then 
ordered home. May 29, 1862, on account of sickness. He organized the 
122nd 111. infantry in August, and on his return to duty in the field com- 
manded a division in Rosecrans' army at the battle of Stone's river, 
where he was promoted major-general of volunteers, and in the battle of 
Chickamauga he commanded the 2nd division of the 21st army corps. He 
commanded the 14th army corps in the Chattanooga campaign and the 
Atlanta campaign until Aug.. 1864. when he was assigned to the military 
division of Kentucky. There he was military governor and had charge of 
the Freedmen's bureau, and was mustered out of the service. Sept. i. 1866. 
Gen. Palmer was Republican governor of Illinois from 1869-73, actively 
supported Tilden and Hendricks in 1876. and was the defeated Demo- 
cratic candidate for United States senator in 1877 and again in 1883. He 
was defeated for governor of Illinois in 1888, and in 1891 was elected as 




Brig.-Gen. C. J. Paine 
T.riR.-Cien. I. N. Palmer 
Brig.-Gen. L. B. P.\rsons 
Brig.-Gen. G. R. Paul 



Brig.-Gen. E. A. Paine 
Maj.-Gen. J. M. Palmer 
Brig.-Gen. F. E. Pattersop 
Maj.-Gen. T. T. Peck 



Brig.-Gen. li. E. Paine 
Maj.-Gen. T. G. Parke 
Brig.-Gen. M. R. Patrick 
Brig.-Gen. Galusha 
Pennypacker 



Biographical Sketches 193 

a Democrat to the United States senate, serving until 1897. He refused 
• to support the free silver policy of the Democratic party in 1896 and be- 
came a candidate for president of the United States on the Gold Demo- 
crat platform with Simon B. Buckner of Kentucky for vice-president. 
He gave his influence to the Republican nominees for the presidency and 
vice presidency in 1900. Gen. Palmer died in Springfield, 111., Sept. 25, 
1900. 

Parke, John G., major-general, was born in Chester county, Pa. 
Sept. 22, 1827. He entered the University of Pennsylvania, but left at the 
end of his sophomore year and became a cadet at the United States mili- 
tary academy, where he was graduated second in his class, in 1849, and 
assigned to duty with the topographical engineers. He was employed 
previous to the Civil war on various important topographical surveys as 
chief astronomer and surveyor, and was commissioned captain of topo- 
graphical engineers, Sept. 9, 1861. He was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers on Nov. 23 and accompanied Gen. Burnside on the expedition 
to North Carolina, where he was engaged at Roanoke island. New Berne, 
and Fort Macon. For his services at Fort Macon he was brevetted lieuten- 
ant-colonel in the regular army and promoted major-general of volunteers, 
to date from July 18, 1862. He was engaged in the movement to Newport 
News, Fredericksburg, and Washington, D. C, in 1862, and was chief 
of staff to Gen. Burnside in the Maryland campaign, where he was en- 
gaged at South mountain and Antietam and in the pursuit of the enemy 
to Warrenton. When Burnside became commander of the Army of the 
Potomac Gen. Parke continued as his chief of staff and engaged in the 
battle of Fredericksburg. He participated in the movement of the 9th 
army corps into Kentucky, commanded it on the march to Vicksburg, 
where he arrived before the surrender ; and in the reoccupation of Jack- 
son, Miss., he commanded the left wing of Gen. Sherman's army and v/on 
the brevet of colonel for his services there. He subsequently commanded 
the 9th army corps in the Department of the Ohio during the East Ten- 
nessee campaign, being engaged in the action at Blue springs, Oct. ro, 
1863; the defence of Knoxville, Nov. 17-Dec. 4, and in the operations 
against Longstreet in Jan. and Feb., 1864. When Gen. Burnside resumed 
command of the corps he accompanied him as commander of a division 
in the march to Virginia and acted as his chief of staff during the Wilder- 
ness and Spottsylvania campaigns. He was on sick leave July-Aug., 
1864. and on his return to duty, the 9th corps having been made a part 
of the Army of the Potomac, he resumed command of it and led in dur- 
ing the Richmond campaign, engaging in the siege of Petersburg, the com- 
bat at Peebles' farm, at Hatcher's run, and the assault on Fort Stedman, 
being also present at the surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox. On 
March 13, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general in 
the regular establishment for gallant and meritorious services at Knox- 
ville and Fort Stedman. His last service in the volunteer army was as 
commander of the southern district of New York, and on Jan. 15, 1866, 
he was honorably mustered out of the volunteer service. He had been 
made major of engineers, June 14, 1864, and he was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel, March 4, 1879, and colonel, March 17, 1884. Gen. Parke was 
commandant at the United States military academy from 1887 to 1889 
and was retired at his own request July 2, 1889. He was the author of nu- 
merous technical reports. He died in Washington, D. C, Dec. 15, 1900. 

Parsons, Lewis B., brigadier-general, was born in Genesee county, 
N. Y., April 5, 1818. He was graduated at Yale in 1840, studied law at 
Harvard, was admitted to the bar and settled in Alton. 111., where for sev- 
eral years he held the office of city attorney. In 1853 he moved to St. 
Louis, Mo., where he became president and treasurer of the Ohio & Mis- 

Vol. VIII— 13 



194 The Union Army 

sissippi railroad, and early in the Civil war he was one of a commission 
appointed to examine into the administration of Gen. John C. Fremont in 
Missouri. He was appointed colonel of volunteers and assigned to the 
staff of Gen. H. W. Halleck, Feb. 19, 1862, with the charge of railroad 
transportation in his department, which was subsequently extended to 
include the entire country west of the Alleghanies, and in 1864 he was 
placed in charge of all railway and river army transportation in the United 
States. Perhaps his most noteworthy feat in railroad army transportation 
was that of transferring the army of Gen. John M. Schofield from Mis- 
sissippi to Washington, D. C. This force, consisting of 20,000 men, was 
transferred a distance of 1,400 miles, in Jan., 1865, in an average time of 
eleven days, and in recognition of the service he was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers May 11, 1865. He was brevetted major-general of 
volunteers, April 30, 1866, and was honorably mustered out at that time. 

Patterson, Francis E., brigadier-general, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., June 24, 1827. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, 
served in McCullough's "Texas Rangers" in the Mexican war, and on 
June 24, 1847, was appointed 2nd lieutenant in the ist U. S. artillery. He 
was promoted ist lieutenant in 1848 and captain in the 9th infantry in 
1855, resigned his commission in 1857 and became engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. He became colonel of a Pennsylvania regiment at the beginning 
of the Civil war, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, April 
II, 1861, and commanded the 3d brigade. Hooker's division, Heintzel- 
man's corps, at Williamsburg and Fair Oaks. He was killed by the acci- 
dental discharge of his own pistol and died at Fairfax Court House, Va., 
Nov. 22, 1862. 

Patrick, Marsena R., brigadier-general, was born in Houndsfield, 
N. Y., March 15, 181 1. He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1831, took part in the Florida war in 1837-42, was promoted 
1st lieutenant in 1839 and served in the war with Mexico, being promoted 
captain in the 22nd infantry, Aug. 22, 1847, and brevetted major May 30, 
1848, "for meritorious conduct while serving in the enemy's country." He 
resigned from the army in 1850 and engaged in farming in New York, 
becoming also president of the Sacket's Harbor & Ellisburg railroad, gen- 
eral superintendent of the New York state agricultural society, and pres- 
ident of the New York state agricultural college. He was brigadier-gen- 
eral of staff and inspector-general of New York mihtia in 1861 ; a mem- 
ber of the staff of Gen. McClellan in 1862, and on March 17 of that year 
was commissioned brigadier-general of United States volunteers. He 
commanded a brigade in the defense of Washington from March to May, 
then became military commandant of Fredericksburg, and he took part 
in McDowell's pursuit of Jackson, May 7-Aug. 9, 1862. He commanded 
a brigade in the northern Virginia campaign and was present at the bat- 
tles of Bull Run, South mountain and Antietam, and was subsequently 
provost-marshal-general of the Army of the Potomac. 1863-65, and of 
the armies operating against Richmond, 1864-65. On March 13, 1865, he 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers for faithful and meritorious 
service, and subsequently was provost-marshal-general of the Department 
of the Virginia until June. 1865. when he resigned. After the war Gen. 
Patrick was president of the New York state agricultural society, 1867-68; 
and commissioner of New York state, 1868-69. and 1879-80. He then re- 
moved to Dayton, Ohio, and was governor of the central branch of the 
national home for disabled volunteer soldiers from 1880 to 1888. He died 
in Dayton. Ohio, July 2"], 1888. 

Paul, Gabriel R., brigadier-general, was born in St. Louis, Mo., 
March 22, 1813. He was graduated at the United States militarj' academy 
in 1834. served in the Florida war and on the frontier, and was' promoted 



Biographical Sketches 195 

captain in 1846. In the war with Mexico he engaged in the defense of 
Fort Brown, fought in the battle of Monterey, the siege of Vera Cruz, 
'the battle of Cerro Gordo where he was wounded, the battles of Con- 
treras, Churubusco and Molino del Rey, and the storming of Chapultepec, 
receiving the brevet of major for gallant and meritorious conduct at Cha- 
pultepec. After the close of the Mexican war he gained distinction by his 
services on the frontier against desperadoes and Indians, served in garrison 
in Texas and Missouri, 1852-58, and took part in the Utah expeditions, 1858- 
60. During the early part of the Civil war he served in New Mexico, 
where he was acting inspector-general from July to Dec, 1861, and on 
Dec. 9 was appointed colonel of the 4th N. M. volunteers. In 1862 he 
commanded Fort Union and the Southern military district of New Mex- 
ico, respectively, participating in the skirmish at Peralta, N. M., April 
IS, and on April 25 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel U. S. A. He was 
appointed brigadier-general of volunteers on Sept. 5, and, his appointment 
expiring March 4, 1863, he was reappointed on April 18, of that year. 
He served with the Army of the Potomac at Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville, and Gettysburg, and in the latter engagement lost the sight of both 
eyes by being wounded by a rifle ball. He was retired from active serv- 
ice. Feb. 15, 1865, served until June of that year as deputy governor of the 
soldiers' home near Washington, D. C, and then conducted the mili- 
tary asylum at Harrodsburg, Ky., until Dec, 1866. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general U. S. A., March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious 
services at Gettysburg, and in Dec, 1866, Congress granted him the pay 
and allowances attaching to the full rank of brigadier-general. For his 
services in Mexico the citizens of St. Louis presented him with a sword, 
and in recognition of his services at Gettysburg the 29th N. J. volunteers 
gave him a jeweled sword. After his death his comrades in the Grand 
Army erected a monument over his grave in the cemetery at Arlington, 
Va. Gen. Paul died in Washington, D. C, May 5, 1886. 

Peck, John J., major-general, was born in Manlius, N. Y., Jan. 4, 
1821, and was graduated at the United States military academy in 1843. 
He took part in most of the important engagements of the Mexican war, 
was promoted ist lieutenant, Aug. 20, 1847, brevetted captain for gallantry 
at Contreras and Churubusco, major for meritorious conduct in the battle 
of Molino del Rey, and on his return to New York the citizens presented 
him with a sword. He subsequently served on scouting, frontier and re- 
cruiting duty, resigned his commission in 1853, and was then treasurer 
of the proposed railroad from New York to Syracuse via Newburg, and 
cashier of the Burnet bank, Syracuse, N. Y. He was commissioned brig- 
adier-general of volunteers, Aug. 9, 1861, and served in the defenses of 
Washington and then in the Peninsular campaign. He engaged in the 
siege of Yorktown and the battles of Williamsburg and Fair Oaks ; in 
the operations of the Seven Days' battles before Richmond, and on the 
change of base to the James river, June 26-July 2, 1862, he commanded the 
2nd division of the 4th corps. He was promoted major-general of volun- 
teers, Jul\' 4, 1862, and commanded a division at first composed of 9,000 
men and afterwards augmented to almost 25,000, embracing all the Fed- 
eral troops south of the James river. He was engaged in the operations 
about Suffolk, Va., and rendered valuable service by his brilliant defense 
of Suffolk against a superior force under Longstreet. He was in com- 
mand of North Carolina, 1863-64, of the Department of the East with 
headquarters in New York, 1864-65, and was mustered out Aug. 24, 1865. 
He then returned to Syracuse, N. Y., and organized at that place the 
New York State life insurance company, of which he was president until 
his death. He died in Syracuse, N. Y., April 28, 1878. 

Pennypacker, Galusha, brigadier-general, was born in Valley Forge, 



196 The Union Army 

Pa., June i, 1844. He entered the volunteer army for service in the Civil 
war, April 22, 1861, as quartermaster-sergeant in the 9th Penn. infantry, 
and at the close of his three months' service enlisted for the war as cap- 
tain in the 97th Penn. infantry on Aug. 22. He was promoted major in 
October and served in the Department of the South, being engaged in the 
operations in Florida and against Charleston, S. C. He commanded a suc- 
cessful expedition against Woodstock mills, Fla., in Feb., 1864, was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel on April 3, and in that month was placed in 
command of the post at Fernandina. He was then transferred to the 
Army of the James under Gen. Butler and fought at Swift creek, Drew- 
ry's bluff, Chester Station and Green Plains, and in the later engagements 
was three times wounded. He was promoted colonel on Aug. 15, and after 
recovering from his wounds sufficiently to be able to return to the tield 
commanded a brigade at Deep bottom. Strawberry plains and Malvern 
hill, in the trenches before Petersburg and in the capture of New Mar- 
ket heights. In the unsuccessful attempt to capture Fort Gilmer he was 
wounded and had a horse shot under him ; he commanded a brigade be- 
fore Petersburg in December, and took part in Gen. Butler's unsuccess- 
ful attempt to capture Fort Fisher on Dec. 25, and in the capture of that 
fort in Jan., 1865. Gen. Terry claimed that but for his bravery at the 
assault on Jan. 15 the place would not have been taken, and called him 
"the real hero of Fort Fisher." He was desperately wounded in the as- 
sault and lay in the hospital at Fort Monroe for ten months. For his 
gallantry there he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, Jan. 15, 
1865. He was promoted to the full rank of brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, Feb. 15, 1865, and was brevetted major-general U. S. A. March 13, 
1865, for his services during the war. For his gallantry at Fort Fisher 
Congress awarded him a medal of honor. Gen. Pennypacker was com- 
missioned colonel in the 34th U. S. infantry in July, 1866, and soon after- 
ward was transferred to the i6th infantry. On March 2, 1867, he was bre- 
vetted brigadier-general and major-general in the regular army. He was 
retired on account of disability from wounds received in action, July 3, 
1883. He was the youngest officer to hold the rank of general in the vol- 
unteer army, and the youngest man in the regular army to hold the rank 
of colonel and brevet major-general. 

Penrose, William H., brigadier-general, was born at Madison bar- 
racks, Sacket's Harbor, N. Y., March 10, 1832. Prior to the Civil war he 
engaged in civil and mechanical engineering in Michigan, and on April 
13, 1861, he was appointed 2nd lieutenant in the 3d U. S. infantry. He 
was promoted ist lieutenant on May 14, was appointed colonel of the 
iSth N. J. volunteers April 18, 1863, and commanded the ist brigade, ist 
division, 6th army corps, from the afternoon of the first day's fight at 
Chancellorsville until three days before the battle of Gettysburg, when 
Gen. A. T. A. Torbert. absent by reason of wounds, returned. He com- 
manded his regiment at Gettysburg and in Grant's campaign against 
Richmond early in 1864. and then commanded a brigade again at the bat- 
tle of Cold Harbor on June i. and through the Wilderness campaign. 
He continued in command through the Shenandoah valley under Sheri- 
dan, and was wounded at Cedar creek on Oct. 19. He was brevetted cap- 
tain for gallantry at Marye's heights and major for good conduct at 
Gettysburg, was promoted captain, Sept. 11, 1863, brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel for services in the Wilderness, colonel for gallantry at Cedar 
creek, brigadier-general of volunteers for conduct at Middletown, and on 
April 9, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army for 
gallant and meritorious services in the field during the war. He was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, June 27, 1865. and was hon- 
orably mustered out of the volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866. In the reg- 



Biographical Sketches 197 

ular army he rose to colonel of the 20th infantry, Nov. 28, 1893. He was 
transferred to the i6th infantry in 1894 and retired by operation of law, 
March 10, 1896. 

Phelps, John S., brigadier-general, was born in Simsbury, Conn., 
Dec. 22, 1814. lie was graduated at Trinity college, in 1832, practiced law 
in Cincinnati until 1837, and then moved to Springfield, Mo., and was a 
member of the Missouri legislature in 1840 and brigade inspector of mili- 
tia in 1841. He was a Democratic representative in Congress from 1845 
to 1861, being chairman of the ways and means committee in the 35th 
Congress and one of the select committee of thirty-three on the seceding 
states in the 36th Congress. He declined reelection to the 37th Congress, 
and on Oct. 2, 1861, became lieutenant-colonel of Phelps' regiment of 
Mo. infantry, becoming colonel of the regiment on Dec. 19. He was 
appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, July 19, 1862, and was military 
governor of Arkansas, 1862-63. He was a delegate to tlie National Union 
convention at Philadelphia in 1866; commissioner to settle the claims of 
Indiana, 1867 ; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for governor of Mis- 
souri, 1868, and governor of the state, 1876-82. He died in St. Louis, 
Mo., Nov. 20, 1886. 

Phelps, John W., brigadier-general, was born in Guilford, Vt., Nov. 
13, 1813. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 
1836 and served in the Florida war, 1836-39, on the Canadian frontier 
during the border disturbances, then at various forts, and in the Mexican 
war. In the latter conflict he took part in the battles of Vera Cruz, Con- 
treras and Churubusco, and was brevetted captain for gallantry but de- 
clined, and in 1850 was promoted to the full rank of captain. He resigned 
from the service, Nov. 2, 1859, and took up his residence in Brattleboro, 
Vt., where he wrote many articles against the aggression of the slave 
power. When the Civil war broke out he became colonel of the i?t Vt. 
infantry, May 9, 1861, and on May 17 he was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers. He took possession of and held Newport News for 
the defense of Hampton Roads, from May to November, being engaged 
in several skirmishes, and was then transferred to the Department of the 
Gulf, where he took possesison of Ship island. Miss., and with Commo- 
dore Farragut's fleet forced the opening of the lower Mississippi in April 
and May, 1862. While in garrison in Camp Parapet, La., in 1862, he 
organized the first negro troops, but was ordered by the government 
commander to cease such organization, and on that account he resigned, 
Aug. 21, 1862. For his action in organizing the negroes the Confederate 
government declared him an outlaw. When the negroes were finally 
armed he declined a commission as major-general of colored troops, and 
he spent the rest of his life in Brattleboro, Vt. He was the candidate 
for the presidency of the United States on the American ticket in 1880. 
He devoted his attention principally to literary work, and was vice-presi- 
dent of the Vermont Historical society, 1863-85, and of the Vermont 
Teachers' association, 1865-85. He died in Guilford, Vt, Feb. 2, 1885. 

Piatt, Abram S., brigadier-general, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, May 
2, 1821. He was educated at the Athenaeum and at Kinmount academy 
in Cincinnati, and then engaged in farming in the Macacheek valley. He 
began to study law in 1846, and in that year founded a paper, which he 
afterwards edited for several years, called the "Macacheek Press." He 
enlisted in the volunteer army in 1861, was commissioned colonel of the 
13th Ohio infantry on April 20, and in July raised and equipped at his 
own expense the ist Ohio Zouave regiment, which became the 34th Ohio 
infantry, and of which he was commissioned colonel on Sept. 2. He 
then began to organize another regiment, with the intention of forming 
a brigade, but before it was completed he was ordered to the front, and 



198 The Union Army 

was made brigadier-general of volunteers, April 28, 1862. He commanded 
the post at Winchester, Va., for a short time, and subsequently he par- 
ticipated in the second battle of Bull Run and the battle of Fredericksburg. 
He resigned from the army, Feb. 17, 1863, and resumed farming, became 
a member of the National Greenback-Labor party and was its candidate 
for governor in 1879. He was a member of the Patrons of Husbandry, 
serving as its state lecturer for two years, and he contributed poems to 
his own publication and to the Cincinnati "Commercial." 

Pierce, Byron R. (see vol. HI, page 369). 
. Pile, William A., brigadier-general, was born near Indianapolis, Ind., 
Feb. II, 1829. He received an academic education, studied theology and 
became a Methodist minister, joining the Missouri conference. He be- 
came chaplain in the ist Mo. light artillery, June 12, 1861 ; lieutenant- 
colonel of the 33d Mo. infantry, Sept. 5, 1862; colonel of his regiment on 
Dec. 23, and brigadier-general in the volunteer service, Dec. 26, 1863. 
During his period of service he was engaged at Corinth, Vicksburg and 
Mobile. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, April 9, 1865, for 
gallant and meritorious services at the siege and capture of Fort Blake- 
ly, and was honorably mustered out, Aug. 24, 1865. Gen. Pile was a rep- 
resentative in Congress from Missouri from 1867-69, but was defeated 
for reelection ; was governor of New Mexico under appointment of Gen. 
Grant, 1869-70, and United States minister to Venezuela, 1871-74. He 
died in Monrovia, Cal., July 7, 1889. 

Pitcher, Thomas G., brigadier-general, was born in Rockport, Ind., 
Oct. 23, 1824. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1845 and served in the military occupation of Texas, and also in the 
war with Mexico, where he was engaged at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo and 
the other battles leading up to and including the assault and capture of 
the City of Mexico, winning the brevet of ist lieutenant for gallantry at 
Contreras and Churubusco. He was subsequently on duty at various posts 
until the Civil war, being promoted ist lieutenant in 1849 and captain in 
1858, and he reported for duty in Washington in 1861. He served in the 
defense of Harper's Ferry in June, 1862, was severely wounded at the 
battle of Cedar mountain on Aug. 9, and was granted sick leave of absence 
until Jan., 1863. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Nov. 29, 1862, and after returning to duty served on commissary and pro- 
vost duty in Vermont and New York in 1863-64, and was assistant to 
the provost-marshal-general in Indiana, 1864-66. For gallantry at Cedar 
mountain he was brevetted major, Aug. 9, 1862, and on March 13, 1865, 
he was given the brevet ranks in the regular army up to and including 
that of brigadier-general. He was mustered out of the volunteer service 
April 30, 1866; was promoted colonel and transferred to the 44th infantry, 
July 28, 1866, and was transferred to the ist infantry. Dec. 15, 1870. He 
was superintendent of the U. S. military academy. 1866-70; was governor 
of the soldiers' home, near Washington, D. C, from 1870 to 1877, and was 
superintendent of the New York State soldiers' and sailors' home from 
1880 to 1887. He was retired from active service by reason of disability 
incurred in line of duty, June 28, 1878. Gen. Pitcher died at Fort Bayard, 
N. M.. Oct. 21, 1895. 

Pleasonton, Alfred, major-general, was born in Washington, D. C, 
June 7, 1824. He was graduated at the United States militarv' academy 
in 1844 and served in the war with Mexico, where he won the brevet 
of 1st lieutenant for gallantry at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. He 
was promoted captain in 1855, served during the disturbances in Kansas, 
and was then from 1858 to i860 assistant adjutant-general of the Depart- 
ment of Oregon. He commanded a regiment in the Department of Utah 
from June to Aug., 1861, then took the regiment to Washington, and on 



Biographical Sketches 199 

Aug. 3, he was transferred to the 2nd cavalry, being subsequently engaged 
in the defenses of Washington. He served in the siege of Yorktown and 
the Seven Days' battles, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, 
July i6, 1862, and commanded the advance cavalry division of the Army 
of the Potomac in the Maryland campaign in the fall of that year. For 
his services at Antietam he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, and he sub- 
sequently took part in the Rappahannock campaign in the winter of 1862- 
63, and until June, 1863 ; commanded the cavalry corps of the Army of 
the Potomac during the Pennsylvania campaign, and was brevetted col- 
onel for his services at Gettysburg. He was promoted major-general of 
volunteers, June 22, 1863, took part in the battles of Culpeper Court House 
and Brandy Station, Va., and in March, 1864, was transferred to the 
Department of the Missouri, where he was engaged in the defenses of 
Jefferson City, on Oct. 8. He commanded subsequently the cavalry in 
pursuit of the Confederate Gen. Price, and routed him near Marais des 
Cygnes river on Oct. 25. For his services against Price he was brevetted 
brigadier-general in the regular army on March 13, 1865, and his brevet 
of major-general U. S. A. for gallant and meritorious services in the field 
during the war bore the same date. Gen. Pleasonton was mustered out 
of the volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866, after having engaged in over one 
hundred battles and skirmishes, and he resigned his commission in the 
regular army in 1868. He was subsequently for several years collector 
of internal revenue in New York city, and then became president of the 
Terre Haute & Cincinnati railroad. In May, 1888, he was placed on the 
retired list with the rank of major. Gen. Pleasonton died in Washington, 
D. C, Feb. 17, 1897. 

Plummer, Joseph B., brigadier-general, was born in Barre, Mass., 
Aug. 10, 1820, and was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1841. He served in Florida, on the western frontier and during the 
Mexican war, and was promoted ist lieutenant in 1848 and captain in 1852. 
During the early part of the Civil war he rendered important services 
to Gen. Nathaniel Lyon in Missouri in the capture of Camp Jackson, and 
he participated with that general in the battle of Wilson's creek, where 
he was severely wounded. On Sept. 25, 1861, he became colonel of the 
nth Mo. infantry, and, on Oct. 22, he was appointed brigadier-general 
of volunteers. He defeated the Confederates at Fredericktown, Mo., on 
Oct. 12, and subsequently participated in the battle of New Madrid and 
the capture of Island No. 10. On April 25, 1862, he was promoted major 
in the regular army, and he served in the Mississippi campaign, being 
present at the siege and battle of Corinth, and taking part in the pursuit 
of the enemy at Booneville. He died as the result of exposure in camp, his 
death occurring near Corinth, Miss., Aug. 9, 1862. 

Poe, Orlando M., brigadier-general, was born in Navarre, Ohio, 
March 7, 1832. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1856, and until the Civil war was engaged on the survey of the northern 
lakes, being promoted ist lieutenant in i860. Early in the war he was en- 
gaged in organizing volunteers in Ohio, and he was chief topographical 
engineer of the Department of the Ohio from May 13, i86r, to July 15 of 
that year, taking part in the action at Rich mountain on July 11, on the 
staff of Gen. McClellan. He was a member of Gen. McClellan's staff at 
Washington from July to September, was appointed colonel of the 2nd 
Mich, volunteers on Sept. 16, and he served during the following winter 
in the defenses of Washington. He served with the Army of the Poto- 
mac at the battles of Williamsburg and Fair Oaks, then commanded a 
brigade in the northern Virginia campaign and subsequently in the de- 
fenses of Washington, served in the Maryland campaign, was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, and participated in 



SOO The Union Army 

the battle of Fredericksburg, afterwards commanding a division in the 
9th army corps until April, 1863. He was promoted captain of engineers, 
March 3, 1863, and was subsequently successively chief engineer of the 
Army of the Ohio, of the Department of the IVlississippi, and of Sher- 
man's army. He was brevetted major for gallant services at the siege 
of Knoxville, lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at the capture of Atlanta, 
colonel for conduct at Savannah, and brigadier-general, March 13, 1865, 
for services in the Carolinas. After the war he was promoted major in 
1867, lieutenant-colonel in 1882 and colonel in 1888. He was engineer 
secretary of the lighthouse board until 1870, constructed the lighthouse on 
Spectacle reef. Lake Huron, 1870-73 ; was aide-de-camp to Gen. Sherman 
from 1873 to 1884, and at the same time had charge of river and harbor 
w'orks from Lake Erie to Lake Superior. He was fatally injured while 
inspecting the great lock at Sault Ste. Marie, and died at Detroit, Mich., 
Oct. 2, 1895. 

Pope, John, major-general, was born in Louisville, Ky., March 16, 
1822; was graduated at the United States military academy and appointed 
a brevet second lieutenant of topographical engineers in 1842; was pro- 
moted second lieutenant May 9, 1846, first lieutenant March 3, 1853, cap- 
tain July I, 1856, brigadier-general July 14, 1862, major-general Oct. ^, 
1882, and was retired March 16, 1886. In the volunteer service he was 
commissioned brigadier-general May 17, 1861, promoted major-general 
March 21, 1862, and was mustered out Sept. i, 1866. During his military 
career he was brevetted lirst lieutenant Sept. 23, 1846, for gallant conduct 
in the several conflicts at Monterey ; captain, Feb. 2},, 1847, for services 
at the battle of Buena Vista; and major-general, Alarch 13, 1865, for 
services at the capture of Island No. 10. His early service included duty 
in Florida in 1842-44, in the survey of the boundary between the United 
States and the British provinces, and in the Mexican war. He was in 
charge of an exploring expedition in Minnesota in 1849, and proved that 
the Red river of the North could be navigated by steamers ; on engineer- 
ing service in New Mexico in 1851-53; and had charge of the survey of 
the route for the Pacific railroad near the thirty-second parallel in 1853- 
59. In 1861 he was one of the officers detailed by the war department to 
escort President-elect Lincoln to Washington. His first service in the 
Civil war was as commander of the District of northern Missouri, from 
which he was transferred successively to the southwestern and the central 
districts, and on Dec. 18, 1861, he gained a victory over Gen. Sterling 
Price at Blackwater, and forced the Confederates to retreat below the 
Osage river. His next detail was as commander of the land forces that 
cooperated with Admiral Foote in the operations against New Madrid 
and Island No. 10, on the Mississippi. After the occupation of Corinth 
he was transferred from the command of the Army of the Mississippi to 
that of the Army of Virginia, and for fifteen days in Aug., 1862, he 
fought a greatly superior force of Confederates, under Gen. Lee, at Bris- 
toe Station, Groveton, Manassas Junction, Gainesville and Germantown, 
and then fell back to Washington. On Sept. 3 he asked to be re- 
lieved of his command, and soon afterward was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Department of the Northwest. He proved efficient in check- 
ing the hostilities of the Indians in Minnesota, and held that command 
till 1865, when he was transferred to the military division of the Mis- 
souri, subsequently the Department of Missouri. In Jan., 1866, he was 
relieved of this command; in 1867-68 commanded the third military dis- 
trict, organized under the Reconstruction act of Congress, comprising the 
states of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia; in 1868-70 the Department of the 
Lakes ; in 1870-84 the Department of the Missouri ; and from 1884 till his 
retirement the Department of the Pacific. He died in Sandusk}', Ohio, 
Sept. 23, 1892. 




Brig.-Gen. W. H. Penrose 
Brig.-Gen. A. S. Piatt 
Brig.-Gen. T. G. Pitcher 
Brig.-Gen. O. INF. PoE 



Brig.-Gen. John S. Phelps P.rig.-Gen. J. W. Phei.ps 

Brig.-Gen. B. R. Pierce Brig.-Gen. W. A. Pile 

Maj.-Gen. Alfred Ple.vson- Brig.-Gen. J. B. Plummer 

TON Brig.-Gen. Andrew Porter 
Maj.-Gen. John Pope 



Biographical Sketches 201 

Porter, Andrew, brigadier-general, was born in Lancaster, Pa., July 
10, 1820. He entered the United States military academy in 1836, but 
left in 1837, and in 1846 he was appointed ist lieutenant in the mounted 
rilies. lie served throughout the Mexican war, winning the brevet of 
major for gallant and meritorious conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, 
and lieutenant-colonel for services at Chapultepec. He was promoted cap- 
tain, Alay 15, 1847, served after the close of the Mexican war in Texas 
and the southwest, and on May 14, 1861, was promoted colonel of the 
i6th infantry. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 
May 17, and commanded a brigade in the 2nd division, McDowell's army, 
at ihe battle of Bull Run, and, after Gen. David Hunter was wounded, the 
division. He was provost-marshal-general of the Army of the Potomac, 
1861-62; organized state troops at Harrisburg, Pa., in 1862, and in No- 
vember was given a command in Pennsylvania and charged with the duties 
of provost-marshal-general of Washington, where he rendered valuable 
service in restoring order in the city and the surrounding district. He 
was mustered out of the volunteer service, April 4, 1864, and, owing to 
impaired health, resigned his commission in the regular establishment on 
April 20, afterwards travelling in Europe. He died in Paris, France, Jan. 

3, 1872. 

Porter, Fitz-John, major-general, was born in Portsmouth, N. H., 
June 13, 1822, son of Commander John Porter of the United States navy. 
He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1845 and as- 
signed to the 4th artillery, becoming ist lieutenant. May 29, 1847. He 
served creditably at Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo, was brevetted captain for 
gallant and meritorious conduct at Molino del Rey and major for services 
at Chapultepec. He was present also at the capture of the City of Mexico 
and was wounded at the Belen gate. In the interval between the Mexican 
and Civil wars he served on garrison duty and as instructor at West Point, 
became assistant adjutant-general with the rank of captain in 1856, and 
served during the troubles in Kansas and in the Utah expedition. He was 
promoted colonel of the 15th infantry. May 14, 1861, and on May 17, was 
appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. After taking part in the action 
of Falling Waters on July 2, Gen. Porter commanded a division in the 
defenses of Washington, 1861-62, and in the Virginia Peninsular cam- 
paign in the spring of 1862, directing the siege of Yorktown, April 5- 
May 4. From May to August he commanded the 5th army corps. Army 
of the Potomac, and directed its operations in the battles of New bridge, 
Hanover Court House, Mechanicsville, Gaines' mill, Turkey tavern, and 
Malvern hill. He was promoted major-general of volunteers on July 

4, having been brevetted brigadier-general U. S. A. on June 27 for gal- 
lantry at Chickahominy, was transferred to northern Virginia in August 
and commanded his corps under Pope at the second battle of Bull Run, 
subsequently protecting Washington by occupying the right bank of the 
Potomac. At Antietam he commanded the Sth army corps under Mc- 
Clellan, and on Sept. 19, he fought with his own troops alone the battle 
of Shepherdstown and captured four guns. He was relieved of his com- 
mand in November, and was ordered to Washington to appear before a 
military commission and answer charges preferred against him by Gen. 
Pope. A court-martial was subsequently ordered, the first order being 
revoked, and on Nov. 25 he was arrested, the charges against him being 
made known on Dec. i. He was charged with having failed to join Pope 
at Bristoe on the morning of Aug. 28, and with having disobeyed two or- 
ders at the second battle of Bull Run on Aug. 30, one to advance and the 
other to retreat. The court-martial found him guilty of the charges pre- 
ferred, and he was cashiered Jan. 21, 1863, and "forever disqualified from 
holding any office of trust or profit under the government of the United 



202 The Union Army 

States." The justice or injustice of the verdict was the subject of much 
controversy, and numerous appeals were subsequently made by Porter 
to have the case reopened. The clause providing that he should never 
again be permitted to hold office under the United States was remitted 
in 1882, and in 1885 President Arthur vetoed a bill which had passed both 
houses restoring him to his rank in the army, on the grounds that Con- 
gress lacked constitutional authority to pass such a bill. In 1886, however, 
President Cleveland signed a similar bill, and he was reappointed colonel, 
U. S. A., his commission dating from May 14, 1861. After leaving the 
army Gen. Porter was engaged in business in New York for a time; was 
superintendent of the construction of the New Jersey insane asylum, 
1872-75; commissioner of public works in New York city, 1875-77; assist- 
ant receiver of the Central railroad of New Jersey, 1877-82; police com- 
missioner of New York city, 1884-88; fire commissioner, 1888-89, and 
cashier of the New York post-office, 1893-97. He declined an offer made 
him by the Khedive of Egypt in 1869 to command his army with the rank 
of major-general. Gen. Porter died in Morristown, N. J., May 21, 1901. 

Potter, Edward E., brigadier-general, was born in New York city, 
June 21, 1823. He was graduated at Columbia college in 1842, studied law, 
then spent some time in California, and after his return to the east de- 
voted his attention to farming in New Jersey. He was appointed cap- 
tain and commissary of subsistence in the volunteer army, Feb. 3, 1862, 
served in North Carolina, and while there recruited the ist N. C. volun- 
teers, of which he was commissioned colonel on Oct. i. He served in 
North and South Carolina and East Tennessee, being commissioned brig- 
adier-general of volunteers, and on March 13, 1865, was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services during the war. 
He resigned, July 24, 1865, and after the war resided in Madison, N. J. 
He died in New York city, June i, 1889. 

Potter, Joseph H., brigadier-general, was born in Concord, N. H., 
Oct. 12, 1822. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
in 1843 and served in the military occupation of Texas and the Mexican 
war. He was engaged in the defense of Fort Brown, and for gallantry 
at Monterey, where he was severely injured while storming the enemy's 
works, he was brevetted ist lieutenant. He was promoted ist lieutenant 
in 1847 and captain in 1856, serving until the latter year on garrison duty, 
and taking part subsequently in the Utah expedition. He was on duty 
in Texas at the beginning of the Civil war and was captured by Confed- 
erates at San Augustine Springs, July 27, 1861, not being exchanged until 
Aug. 27, 1862. He was appointed colonel of the 12th N. H. volunteers on 
Sept. 22, and engaged in the Maryland and Rappahannock campaigns, 
commanding a brigade at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. He was 
severely wounded at Chancellorsville, and captured, and was held as a 
prisoner of war until October, 1863. He was promoted major and trans- 
ferred to the 19th infantry, July 4, 1863. was brevetted lieutenant-colonel 
for gallantry at Fredericksburg and colonel for services at Chancellors- 
ville, and after returning to duty was on special duty for five months and 
then provost-marshal of Ohio until Sept., 1864. He was then assigned 
to a brigade in the i8th corps of the Army of the James, which he com- 
manded at the assault on Fort Harrison. From Dec. 1864, to Jan., 1865, 
he commanded a brigade in the 24th army corps, and was then chief-of- 
staff of that corps, being engaged in the attack on Hatcher's run and the 
subsequent operations until the surrender of Lee. He was brevetted brig- 
adier-general in the regular army, March 13, 1865, for gallant and meri- 
torious services in the final campaign, was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral in the volunteer army. May i, 1865, and was mustered out of the 
volunteer service, Jan. i<i. 1866. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 



Biographical Sketches 203 

the 30th infantry, July 28, 1860, colonel in the 24th infantry, Dec. 11, 
1873, and brigadier-general, April i, 1886. After the war he commanded 
various posts and districts, was governor of the Soldiers' Home, Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1877-81, and commanded the Department of the Missouri 
from April to Oct. 12, 1886, when he was retired from active service. 
Gen. Potter died in Columbus, Ohio, Dec. i, 1892. 

Potter, Robert B., major-general, was born in Schenectady, N. Y., 
July 16, 1829. He entered Union college in the class of 1849 but did not 
graduate, studied law, and at the time of the outbreak of the Civil war 
enjoyed a lucrative practice in New York city. He was appointed major 
of the 51st N. Y. infantry, Oct. 14, 1861, and was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel on Nov. I and colonel Sept. 10, 1862. He took part in Burnside's 
expedition to North Carolina, led the assault at Roanoke island, was 
wounded at New Berne, and he subsequently participated in the battles of 
Cedar mountain, Manassas or second Bull Run, Chantilly, Antietam, 
where he took part in the assault on the stone bridge and was wounded, 
and Fredericksburg. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 
March 13, 1863; commanded a division at Vicksburg and in the siege of 
Knoxville; was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Aug. i, 1864, com- 
manded his division in the Wilderness campaign, and was severely 
wounded during the final assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865. On his 
recovery he was given command of the Rhode Island and Connecticut 
district of the Department of the East. He was married, Sept. 20, 1865, 
to Abby, daughter of John Austin Stevens, and on his wedding day was 
given his commission as full major-general of volunteers. He was hon- 
orably mustered out of the volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866, and was then 
for three years receiver of the Atlantic & Great Western railroad. He 
died in Newport, R. I., Feb. 19, 1887. 

Potts, Benjamin F., brigadier-general, was born in Carroll county, 
Ohio, Jan. 29, 1836. He attended Westminster college at New Wilming- 
ton, Pa., for a time, but did not graduate, studied law, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1859, subsequently practicing his profession in Carroll county. 
At the beginning of the Civil war he raised a company, of which he was 
elected captain and which became a part of the 32nd Ohio, and he was 
present with his regiment at Cheat mountain and Greenbrier, at Mc- 
Dowell and Franklin in the spring of 1862, and subsequently was with 
Gen. Fremont in his pursuit of Jackson, where he was engaged at Cross 
Keys and Port Republic. The regiment was subsequently ordered to 
Cleveland for reorganization, Capt. Potts was commissioned its lieutenant- 
colonel, and on Dec. 28, was made its colonel. Col. Potts then joined 
Grant at Memphis and took part in the Vicksburg campaign, distinguish- 
ing himself at Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson and Champion's hill. He 
commanded a brigade in Sherman's expedition to Meridian and subse- 
quently in the Georgia campaign, distinguishing himself again in the 
movements at Big Shanty, Kennesaw mountain and in the battles near 
Atlanta. He was also engaged at Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station, and 
was in the engagements of Sherman's army in the Carolinas. He was pro- 
moted brigadier-general. Jan. 15. 1865, and was brevetted major-general 
of volunteers, March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during 
the war. Gen. Potts was mustered out, Jan. 15, 1866, and afterwards 
engaged in the practice of law at Carrollton, Ohio. He died, June 17, 
1887. 

Powell, William H., brigadier-general, was born in Monmouthshire, 
South Wales. May 10, 1825. He came to the United States with his pa- 
rents in 1830, received a common school education in Nashville, Tenn., 
afterwards engaged in the erection of manufacturing works, and was from 
1857 to 1861 manager of the Lawrence iron works at fronton, Ohio. He 



204 The Union Army 

entered the Federal army in Aug., 1861, recruited a company of cavalry 
in southern Ohio, and became captain in the 2nd W. Va. cavalry on Nov. 
8. He became major and then lieutenant-colonel of this regiment in 1862, 
was commissioned its colonel. May 18, 1863, and on July 18 was wounded 
while leading his regiment in a charge at Wytheville, Va., being left on 
the field and taken prisoner. He was exchanged in Feb., 1864, commanded 
a division in Sheridan's cavalry corps in the Shenanodah valley, and was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on Oct. 19, while on March 
13, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for gallant and 
meritorious services in the campaign of 1864 in West Virginia, and "par- 
ticularly at the battle of Front Royal, Va." In 1890 he was awarded a 
Congressional medal of honor "for distinguished services in a raid where, 
with only 20 men he charged and captured the enemy's camp, 500 
strong, without the loss of a man or gun at Sinking creek, Va., Nov._ 26, 
1862." Gen. Powell resigned, Jan. 5, 1866, declined a Republican nomina- 
tion for Congress offered him in 1866 and again in 1868, and was a Grant 
and Colfax elector in the latter year. He superintended the building and 
was general manager of the Clifton nail works in Mason county, W. Va., 
1867-70, was general manager of the Belleville nail company of Belleville, 
111., 1876-80, and in 1882 organized the Western nail company at Belleville, 
of which he was made president and general manager. He was depart- 
ment commander of the G. A. R. in Illinois, 1895-96, and was appointed 
internal revenue collecter for the 13th district of Illinois in 1898. 

Pratt, Calvin E., brigadier-general, was born in Princeton, Mass., 
Jan. 22,, 1828. He was educated at Wilbraham and Worcester academies, 
taught school and practiced law for several j-ears in Worcester. He re- 
moved to Brooklyn in 1859 and at the beginning of the Civil war organ- 
ized the 31st N. Y. infantry, which he commanded in the battle of Bull 
Run, and of which he was commissioned colonel, Aug. 14, 1861. He was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Sept. 13, 1862, and commanded 
a brigade at Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. He resigned 
from the service, April 25, 1863, and practiced law in Brooklyn until 
1869. He was then until 1891 judge of the supreme court of New York, 
after which he practiced his profession in Brooklyn again until 1895, 
when he became associate judge of the appellate division of the supreme 
court. He died in Rochester, Mass., Aug. 3, 1896. 

Prentiss, Benjamin M., major-general, was born in Belleville, Va., 
Nov. 23, 1819. He removed to Missouri in 1835 and to Quincy, 111., in 
1841, and in 1844 was ist lieutenant in the Quincy rifles, organized to 
drive the Mormons out of Hancock, 111. He was captain and adjutant 
in the ist 111. volunteers during the Mexican war, receiving honorable 
mention at Buena Vista, and after returning to Quincy engaged as a com- 
mission merchant. He was the unsuccessful candidate for Congress from 
his district in i860, and at the beginning of the Civil war reorganized 
his old company and became colonel of the loth 111. volunteers, April 29, 
1861. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on May 17; 
commanded Cairo for three months ; led the expedition that raided 
southern Missouri from Pilot Knob, and on Dec. 28, routed the Confed- 
erate force at Mt. Zion, Mo. He joined Grant at Pittsburg landing three 
days before the battle of Shiloh, and during the first day's fight was cap- 
tured with most of his command while valiantly holding his position. 
He was released in Oct., 1862, was promoted major-general of volunteers 
on Nov. 29, and served on the court-martial of Fitz-John Porter. He 
subsequently commanded Helena, Ark., in 1863, and repulsed the attack 
of the Confederate forces under Gens. Price and Holmes there on July 4. 
Gen. Prentiss resigned his commission, Oct. 28, 1863, and subsequently 
practiced law in Bethany, Mo. He died there, Feb. 8, 1901. 




Maj.-Cjen. Fitz-John 

]'ORTER 

Maj.-Gen. R. B. Potter 
Brig.-Cien. C. E. Pratt 
Brig.-Gen. Henry Prince 



P.rig.C.en. K. E. Potter r.iig.-l .on. .1. II. Potter 

P.iig.-Oen. B. F. Potts Brig.-Gen. W. H. Powell 

Maj.-Gen. B. :M. Prentiss Brig.-Gen. F. E. Prime 

Brig.-Gen. I. F. Ouinby Brig.-Gen. G. ]^. Ra.msay 



Biographical Sketches 205 

Prime, Frederick E., brigadier-general, was born in Florence, Italy, 
Sept. 24, 1829. He was graduated at the United States military academy 
at the head of his class in 1850 and assigned to the engineer corps, and 
prior to the Civil war was employed on fortifications in New York, Cali- 
fornia, Alabama and Mississippi. While on his way to Fort Pickens in 
1861 he was taken captive by Confederate forces, was commissioned cap- 
tain on Aug. 6, and served after his release in the Manassas campaign. 
He was then for the next six months successively chief engineer of the 
departments of Kentucky, the Cumberland, and the Ohio, and after being 
wounded and again taken prisoner he served under Grant in the Mississippi 
campaign of 1862-63. He was brevetted major for gallantry at Corinth, 
was promoted major, June i, 1863. and took part in the siege of Vicks- 
burg, where he won the brevet promotion to lieutenant-colonel. He was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers Aug. 4, 1863. On March 

13, 1865, he was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general U. S. A., for gallant 
and meritorious conduct during the war. He was retired, Sept. 5, 187 1, on 
account of disability incurred in line of duty. He died, Aug. 12, 1900. 

Prince, Henry, brigadier-general, was born in Eastport, Me., June 19, 
181 1. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1835, 
and served in the Seminole war, 1836-37, the Florida war of 184X-42, and 
the Mexican war. In the latter conflict he won the brevet of captain for 
gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, was present also at the capture 
of San Antonio, and was brevetted major for gallantry in the battle of 
Molino del Rey, where he was severely wounded. After the war he was 
an invalid from his wound for three years, and subsequently served on 
coast survey duty and in the pay department, and took part in the Utah 
expedition. In the Civil war he took part in the northern Virginia cam- 
paign, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, April 28, 1862, 
and at the battle of Cedar mountain he commanded first a brigade in 
Gen. Augur's division, and, after that officer was wounded, the division ; 
was captured there and held prisoner until December. For gallant and 
meritorious service at Cedar mountain he was brevetted lieutenant-col- 
onel and after his release he participated in the North Carolina operations 
early in 1863, was ordered to Maryland in June, was engaged at the action 
at Wapping heights in July, and from October to December commanded 
a division in the Rapidan campaign, being prominent in the attack on 
the Confederates at Antioch Church on Nov. 29. He commanded the dis- 
trict of Columbus, Ky., from April to Aug., 1864, was engaged from Octo- 
ber to November in the pursuit of Forrest's raiders in Tennessee and 
Alabama, and from Jan. to May, 1865, commanded a provisional division 
on the coast of South Carolina. On March 13, 1865, he was brevetted 
colonel and brigadier-general in the regular army for faithful, gallant and 
meritorious services during the war, and he was mustered out of the vol- 
unteer service, April 30, 1866. After the war he served in the pay depart- 
ment, rising to lieutenant-colonel and department paymaster-general in 
1877, and he was retired in 1879. He committed suicide in London, Eng., 
Aug. 19, 1892. 

Quinby, Isaac F., brigadier-general, was born near Morristown, Mor- 
ris county, N. J., Jan. 29, 1821. He was graduated at the United States 
military academy in 1843 and served from 1845 to 1847 as assistant pro- 
fessor at West Point, engaging then in the war with Mexico. In 1852 
he resigned his commission and was until the Civil war professor of math- 
ematics and natural and experimental philosophy at the University of 
Rochester, N. Y. He became colonel of the 13th N, Y. infantry. May 

14, 1861, led his regiment through Baltimore to Washington, and then 
resigned his commission on Aug. 4. He was appointed brigadier-general 
of volunteers, March 17, 1862, took part in the northern Mississippi cam- 



206 The Union Army 

paign of 1862-63, and was detailed to guard the western extremity of 
the Memphis & Charleston railroad. He subsequently took an impor- 
tant part in the operations about Vicksburg, as commander of the 7th 
division of the Army of the Tennessee, planning an attack on Fort 
Pemberton which was given up on orders from Gen. Grant. He was 
ordered home on sick leave, May i, 1863, but, hearing of Grant's pro- 
posed attack on Vicksburg returned to the command of his division 
two weeks later, and engaged in the battle of Champion's hill on May 
16, and in the assaults on Vicksburg, May 19-22. His health again fail- 
ing he was on leave of absence from June to August, then commanded 
a draft rendezvous at Elmira, N. Y., until December, and on Dec. 31, 
resigned his commission and resumed his chair at the University of 
Rochester. He was city surveyor of Rochester, 1886-90, and a trustee 
and vice-president of the soldiers' home at Bath, N. Y., 1879-86. He 
was the author of mathematical text-books. Gen. Quinby died in 
Rochester, N. Y., Sept. 18, 1891. 

Ramsay, George D., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Virginia in 1801, graduated at the United States military academy in 
July, 1820, and was assigned to the corps of light artillery as second 
lieutenant. In March, 1826, he was promoted to the grade of first 
lieutenant, and was made regimental adjutant in Dec, 1833, having 
served on topographical and ordnance duty prior to that date. In Feb., 
183s, he was appointed captain of ordnance, and held that rank over 
twenty-six years, serving in command of arsenals, in the military occu- 
pation of Texas, and in the field in Mexico. During the Mexican war 
he was engaged in the battle of Monterey, in Sept., 1846, and received 
the brevet of major "for gallant and meritorious conduct in the several 
conflicts at Monterey, Sept. 2^, 1846." From June, 1847, to the close of 
the war in May, 1848, he served as chief ordnance officer of the army 
commanded by Maj.-Gen. Taylor, in command of arsenals, and as a 
member of the ordnance board in i860. He was prom.oted to be major 
of ordnance in April, 1861, lieutenant-colonel in Aug., 1861, and colonel 
in June, 1863. He was appointed chief of ordnance in Sept., 1863, with 
the rank of brigadier-general, U. S. army, and served in that position 
until Sept., 1864, when he was retired from active service under the act 
of July 17, 1862, being over the age of sixty-two years, but continued to 
serve by assignment, in command of Washington arsenal until June 8, 
1866. On March 13, 1865, he was awarded the brevet of major-general,. 
U. S. army, "for long and faithful service in the army." He died at 
his residence in the city of Washington, May 23, 1882. 

Ransom, Thomas E. G., brigadier-general, was born in Norwich, 
Vt., Nov. 29, 1834. He was educated at Newbury seminary and Nor- 
wich university, completing the course in civil engineering at Norwich 
in 1851. and prior to the Civil war he practiced his profession and en- 
gaged in the real estate business in Illinois. Early in 1861 he recruit- 
ed a company for the nth 111. regiment, of which he was commissioned 
captain on April 24, and he became major of the regiment in June and 
lieutenant-colonel on July 30. He was wounded while leading a charge 
at Charleston, Mo., on Aug. 20, and distinguished himself in the assault 
on Fort Henry and the attack on Fort Donelson, where he was again 
wounded. He became colonel of his regiment, Feb. 15, 1862, and at 
Shiloh was in the thickest of the fight, and, although wounded in the 
head early in the day, persisted in remaining with his command. He 
became chief of staff to Gen. McClernand and inspector-general of the 
Army of the Tennessee in June, and was promoted brigadier-general 
of volunteers in Jan., 1863, his commission dating from Nov. 29, 1862. 
He rendered conspicuous service in command of his brigade at Vicks- 



Biographical Sketches 307 

burg, and in the Red River campaign he commanded a division and 
received a wound in the knee at Sabine cross-roads, from which he 
never recovered. He commanded a division and subsequently the i6th 
army corps in the operations about Atlanta, and on Sept. i, 1864, was 
brevetted major-general of volunteers. He subsequently commanded 
a division and then the 17th corps in the pursuit of Hood, until forced 
to relinquish his command at Gaylesville on account of illness. Gen. 
Ransom was pronounced by both Grant and Sherman to be among the 
ablest generals on their commands. He died near Rome, Ga., of ill- 
ness brought on by overwork and exposure, Oct. 29, 1864. 

Raum, Green B., brigadier-general, was born in Golconda, 111., Dec. 
3, 1829. He was admitted to the bar in 1853 and practiced in his native 
town until 1856, when he removed to Kansas and became identified 
with the Free-state party. He returned to Illinois in 1857, practiced 
in Harrisburg until the Civil war, and after the firing upon Fort Sum- 
ter made the first war speech in southern Illinois, at Metropolis. He 
entered the Federal army as major of the 56th 111. infantry, Sept. 28, 
1861, was promoted lieutenant-colonel in June, 1862, and colonel on 
Aug. 31. He served with Gen. Rosecrans in the Army of the Missis- 
sippi, led a successful bayonet charge at Corinth on Oct. 4, and after- 
wards commanded a brigade in the Vicksburg campaign and also in the 
Chattanooga campaign, being severely wounded at Missionary ridge, 
Nov. 25, 1863. During the Atlanta campaign he held the line of com- 
munication from Dalton to Acworth and from Kingston to Rome, and 
in Oct., 1864, reinforced Resaca and held it against Hood. He was 
brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, Sept. 19. 1864, received pro- 
motion to the full rank, Feb. 15, 1865, and was with Sherman on his 
march to the sea and in the assembling of his army in South Carolina, 
his final service being as commander of a brigade in the veteran corps 
under Halleck at Winchester, Va. He resigned his commission in 
May, 1865, was builder and first president of the Cairo & Vincennes 
railroad in 1866, and from 1867-69 was Republican representative in 
Congress from the 13th Illinois district. He was president of the 
Illinois Republican convention in 1866, temporary president in 1876, 
and in the latter year was delegate to the Republican national conven- 
tion. He was commissioner of internal revenue from 1876 to 1883; 
practiced law in Washington then until 1889; was commissioner of 
pensions, 1889-93, and then engaged in the practice of law in Chicago. 

Rawlins, John A., brigadier-general, was born in East Galena, 111., 
Feb. 13, 1831. He passed his early years on a farm, attended school 
during the winter months, and also engaged in burning charcoal. He 
studied law in Galena, 1854-55, was admitted to the bar and became a 
partner of his preceptor, Isaac P. Stevens. He was city attorney for 
Galena in 1857, a Democratic candidate for presidential elector in i860, 
and during the campaign of that year held a series of debates with his 
rival, gaining considerable local reputation as an orator. At a meeting 
held in Galena after the fall of Fort Sumter he favored the mainte- 
nance of the union by force of arms and was appointed aide-de-camp to 
Gen. Grant. Although the youngest member of his staflf. Grant pro- 
moted him assistant adjutant-general with the rank of captain, Sept. 
15, 1861, his commission dating from Aug. 31, and he served with Grant 
throughout the remainder of the war, with the exception of Aug. and 
Sept., 1864, when he was absent on sick leave. His valuable services 
won his rapid promotion as follows: major, May 14', 1862; lieutenant- 
colonel, Nov. I, 1862; brigadier-general of volunteers, Aug. 11, 1863; 
brigadier-general U. S. A. and chief of staff, March 3, 1865; brevet 
major-general of volunteers, Feb. 24, 1865, and brevet major-general 



208 The Union Army 

U. S. A., March 13. 1865. Gen. Rawlins was held in high esteem by- 
Grant, who characterized him in a letter to Henry Wilson, chairman of 
the senate military committee, urging his confirmation as brigadier- 
general, as "more nearly indispensable to me than any other officer in 
the service." Gen. Rawlins became secretary of war in President 
Grant's cabinet, March 9, 1869, and held the office until his death, which 
resulted from pulmonary consumption contracted during the war, at 
Washington, D. C., Sept. 9, 1869. 

Reid, Hugh T., brigadier-general, was born in Union county, Ind., 
Oct. 18. 181 1. He was graduated at Bloomington college, Ind., studied 
law, and in 1839 moved to Fort Madison, la., where he practiced for 
ten years, moving subsequently to Keokuk. He was in 1840-42 prose- 
cuting attorney for Des Moines, Henry, Lee, Jefferson and Van Buren 
counties, and he enjoyed a reputation as an able land lawyer. He was 
for four years president of the Des Moines Valley railroad. He en- 
tered the service of the Federal government on Feb. 22, 1862, as colonel 
of the 15th Iowa infantry, and distinguished himself at Shiloh, where, 
after receiving a bullet wound in the neck, he refused to leave the field 
and rode up and down the lines encouraging his men. He was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers, March 13, 1863, and was sub- 
sequently commander of the posts at Lake Providence, La., and Cairo, 
111., until April 4. 1864, when he resigned. He died in Keokuk, la., Aug. 
21, 1874. 

Reilly, James W., brigadier-general, was born in Akron, Ohio, May 
21, 1828. He was graduated at St. Mary's college, Emmitsburg, Md., 
was admitted to the bar, and in 1861 was representative from Colum- 
biana county in the state legislature. He became colonel of the 104th 
Ohio infantry. Aug. 30, 1862, serving in the Army of the Ohio under 
Gen. H. G. Wright and later under Burnside. He was ordered to or- 
ganize and command the Eastern Tennessee recruits, and formed them 
into a brigade which became the ist brigade, 3d division, 23d army 
corps. He was engaged in the battle of Knoxville in Dec, 1863, took 
part in the pursuit of Longstreet and remained in Tennessee until 
April, 1864, afterwards participating in Sherman's march to Atlanta, 
and receiving his commission as brigadier-general on July 30, 1864, 
during the operations before that city. Gen. Reilly distinguished 
himself at Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864, where he captured 1,000 
prisoners and 22 stands of colors, and afterwards he commanded a 
brigade at Nashville on Dec. 15-16, and a division at Bentonville, March 
18. 1865. He resigned his commission, April 20, 1866, and afterwards 
practiced law in Wellsville, Ohio. 

Reno, Jesse L., major-general, was born in Wheeling, Va., June 20, 
1823. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 
1846 and served with distinction during the Mexican war, where he 
took part in the siege of Vera Cruz, the battles of Cerro Gordo, Con- 
treras and Churubusco, and the storming of Chapultepec, where he 
was severely wounded. For gallantry at Cerro Gordo he was bre- 
vetted 1st lieutenant and for services at Chapultepec, captain. He was 
promoted ist lieutenant in 1853 and captain in i860, the interval be- 
tween the Mexican and Civil wars being employed as assistant profes- 
sor at the military academy, on topographical duty, as a member of 
various boards and in comm.and of arsenals. He commanded Mt. Ver- 
non arsenal, Ala., from 1859 until its seizure by the Confederates in 
Jan., 1861, and the arsenal at Leavenworth, Kan., from February until 
December of that year. He was appointed brigadier-general of volun- 
teers on Nov. 12, and commanded a brigade in Gen. Burnside's expe- 
dition to North Carolina, participating in the capture of Roanoke 







^lS»»' 10 





Brig.-Gen. T. E. G. 

Ransom 
Brig.-Gen. H. T. Reid 
Brig.-Gen. J. W. Revere 
Brig.-Gen. A. V. RicE 



Erig.-Gen. G. B. Raum 
Brig.-Gen. J. W. Reilly 
Maj.-Gen. j. F. Reynolds 
Brig.-Gen. E. W. RicE 



Brig.-Gtn. J. -V. R.wvlins 
Maj.-Gen. j. L. Reno 
Maj.-Gen. J. J. Reynolds 
Maj.-Gen. 1. B. Richard- 
son 



Biographical Sketches 209 

island, the battle of New Berne, and the action at Camden. From April 
to Aug., 1862, he commanded a division in the Department of North 
Carolina, was promoted major-general of volunteers, July 18, 1862, 
and took part in the movement to Newport News and the Rappahan- 
nock in August. He commanded the 9th corps in the northern Vir- 
ginia campaign, from August to September, engaging at Manassas 
and Chantilly, and also at South mountain in the Maryland campaign. 
He was killed at South mountain, Sept. 14, 1862, while gallantly leading 
an assault. 

Revere, Joseph W., brigadier-general, was born in Boston, Mass., 
May 17, 1812. He entered the service of the United States in 1828 as 
midshipman in the navy, was promoted past midshipman in 1834 and 
lieutenant in 1841, and served during the Mexican war, where he raised 
the first United States flag on the north side of the bay of San Fran- 
cisco. Fie left the service of the United States in 1850, entered the 
Mexican service as lieutenant-colonel of artillery, and was knighted 
by Queen Isabella of Spain for saving the lives of her subjects. When 
the Civil war broke out he re-entered the national service, becoming 
colonel of the 7th N. J. volunteers. Sept. 19, 1861. He was promoted 
brigadier-general of volunteers, Oct. 25, 1862, and commanded a bri- 
gade at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. For his action at Chan- 
cellorsville he was censured by Gen. Joseph B. Carr, commanding the 
division, and a court-martial dismissed him from the service in May, 
i863. However, he succeeded in having the proceedings reopened and 
President Lincoln subsequently accepted his resignation from the 
army. Gen. Revere died in Hoboken, N. J., April 20, 1880. 

Reynolds, John P., major-general, was born in Lancaster, Pa., in 
1820, graduated at West Point on June 30. 1841, and on Oct. 23 follow- 
ing, received his commission as second lieutenant in the 3d artillery. 
On June 13, 1846, he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant, and 
served throughout the Mexican war, winning the brevets of captain and 
major for his "gallant and meritorious conduct" at Monterey and 
Buena Vista. After his return from Mexico he was engaged in mili- 
tary service in California, and against the Indians on the Pacific coast. 
In 1852 he was appointed aid to Gen. Wool, and on March 3, 1855, was 
promoted to a captaincy in the 3d artillery. On May 14, 1861, he 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 14th U. S. infantry, and on 
Aug. 20 was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, and ap- 
pointed to the command of the ist brigade of the Pennsylvania re- 
serve corps. In June, 1862. the reserves joined the Ariny of the Poto- 
mac, on the peninsula, and Gen. Reynolds, on June 26, participated in 
the battle of Mechanicsville, and the next day took part in the severe 
battle of Gaines' mill. He was also engaged at Savage Station, and at 
Charles City cross-roads, where he took command of the division 
after Gen. McCall was taken prisoner, and at a late hour the same 
day was himself captured by the enemy and sent to Richmond. For 
his gallantry in these battles he received the brevets of colonel and 
brigadier-general in the regular army. After his release from Rich- 
mond, and on Sept. 26, he returned to the command of his division, 
and soon after assumed command of the ist army corps, by virtue 
of seniority of rank. He commanded this corps in the first battle of 
Fredericksburg, and in Jan., 1863. he was nominated major-general of 
volunteers. He hastened forward in the movement to Gettysburg at 
the direction of the commanding general, and arrived there in the van- 
guard of the Federal army, and bringing his little corps of 8,000 men 
into action against a Confederate force of three times that number, he 
rode forward to reconnoiter a grove in which the enemy had placed 
Vol.lVIII— 14 



210 The Union Army 

a laige body of sharp-shooters; and dismounting from his horse, ap- 
proached a fence and looked over toward the wood, when he was 
struck in the neck by a rifle ball, fell upon his face and died in a 
few minutes, July i, 1863. 

Reynolds, Joseph J., major-general, was born in Flemingsburg, 
Ky., Jan. 4, 1822. He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1843. took part in the military occupation of Texas, 
and was promoted ist lieutenant in 1847. He was assistant pro- 
fessor at the military academy from 1846 to 1849, then principal 
assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy until 
1855, served on frontier duty at Fort Wichita, Ind. Ter., 1855-56, 
and resigned from the army, Feb. 28, 1857. He was then profes- 
sor of mechanics and engineering at Washington university, St. 
Louis, Mo., until i860, engaged in business for a time in Lafayette, 
Ind., and on April 25, 1861, re-entered the national service as colonel 
of the loth Ind. infantry. He was commissioned brigadier-general 
of volunteers, on May 17. served in western Virginia under Rose- 
crans and McClellan. and in September was left in command of 
the Cheat mountain district. Here he engaged in several skirmishes 
and also in the action at Greenbrier river on Oct. 3, and on Jan. 
23, 1862, resigned his commission, subsequently engaging in re- 
cruiting troops in Indiana. He became colonel of the 75th Ind. 
volunteers in August, and on Sept. 17 was again given a commis- 
ion as brigadier-general of volunteers, being promoted major-gen- 
eral on Nov. 29. He took part in the engagement at Hoover's 
gap, June 24, 1863, was engaged at Chickamauga, Sept. 19-20, and 
on Oct. 10, 1863, was made chief of stafif of the Army of the Cum- 
berland, in which capacity he took part in the battle of Chatta- 
nooga. He commanded the defenses of New Orleans from Jan. 
to June, 1864, and was then made commander of the 19th army 
corps. He then commanded successively the Mississippi river from 
its mouth to Memphis, the military division of west Mississippi 
and the Department of Arkansas, commanding also the 7th army 
corps from Nov., 1864, to Aug., 1865. He was promoted colonel 
in the regular army and given command of the 26th infantry, July 
28, 1866, was mustered out of the volunteer service on Sept. i, 
and on March 2, 1867, was brevetted brigadier-general and major- 
general in the regular army for gallantry at Chickamauga and Mis- 
sionary ridge, respectively. He was afterwards in command of 
various posts and districts until June 25, 1877. when he was retired 
for disability contracted in the line of duty. He died in Washing- 
ton, D. C, Feb. 25, 1899. 

Rice, Americus V., brigadier-general, was born in the state of Ohio, 
and upon the outbreak of the Civil war entered the militarj^ serv- 
ice as captain in the 21st Ohio infantry, three months' troops. He 
served with this regiment throughout its term of enlistment, par- 
ticipating in engagements at Ripley and Scarey creek, W. Va., and 
was honorably mustered out on Aug. 12, 1861. He re-entered the 
service on Sept. 2, as captain in the 57th Ohio infantry, and with 
it left the state in Feb., 1862. With his command he participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, having been promoted to lieutenant-colonel 
on Feb. 8, 1862, and at Chickasaw Bayou five days of severe fight- 
ing were experienced. At Arkansas Post, at the head of his regiment 
he led the brigade in a charge on the works which were captured after 
a desperate battle of three hours, and on May 24, 1863, he was pro- 
moted to colonel. He served through the siege and until the capitula- 
tion of Vicksburg, and then his regiment being sent to East Tennessee,. 



Biographical Sketches 211 

he participated in the battle of Missionary ridge, lie continued with 
his regiment, when not absent on account of serious wounds, through 
the Atlanta campaign, the march through the Carolinas, and on May 
31, 1865, in rccognitit'n of his distinguished services he was given the 
rank of brigadier-general of volunteers. He remained in the service 
until Jan. 15, 1866, when, all disturbances having ceased he was hon- 
orably mustered out and returned to his home in Ohio, where he 
became quite prominent in civil life. 

Rice, Elliott W., brigadier-general, was born in Pittsburg. Pa., 
Nov. 16, 1835. He moved to Ohio with his parents, was graduated 
at the University of Ohio, was admitted to the bar in 1856, and 
practiced in Oskaloosa, la. At the beginning of the Civil war he 
enlisted as a private in the 7th Iowa volunteers, rose to be major 
in Aug.. 1861, colonel, April 7, 1862, and on June 20, 1864, was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He first met the Con- 
federates at Belmont, Mo., Nov. 7, 1861, and afterwards command- 
ed his regiment at Shiloh and Corinth, and in all the important bat- 
tles of the southwest. He commanded a brigade and for a time 
the 2nd division of the i6th army corps in the Atlanta campaign; 
a brigade in Corse's division during Sherman's march through 
Georgia and the Carolinas; and on March 13, 1865, was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers for gallant and distinguished services 
during the war. He was honorablj^ mustered out in Aug., 1865, 
and resumed his law practice in Oskaloosa, afterward moving to 
Sioux City. He died in Sioux City, la., June 22, 1887. 

Rice, James C, brigadier-general, was born in Worthington, Mass., 
Dec. 27, 1829. He attended school, but was mainly self-educated 
until he entered Yale, where he was graduated in 1854. He en- 
gaged in teaching for a while at Natchez, Miss., became literary 
editor of a newspaper, and then commenced the study of law. A 
year later he removed to New York city, where he was admitted 
to the bar in 1856 and began to practice. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war he enlisted as a private, was chosen adjutant and captain, 
and on the organization of the 44th N. Y. regiment was appointed 
its lieutenant-colonel. Shortly afterward he became colonel of the 
regiment, and led it in the battles of Yorktown, Hanover Court 
House, Gaines" mill, Malvern hill, Manassas, Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville, and performed distinguished service at Gettysburg while 
commanding a brigade during the second day's fight, by holding 
the extreme left of the line against repeated attacks, and defend- 
ing Round Top from a flank movement. For this he received a 
brigadier-general's commission in the volunteer army Aug. 17, 
1863. He took part in the advance on Mine run and in the opera- 
tions in the Wilderness, and met his death in the battle near Spott- 
sylvania Court House, Va., May 11, 1864. 

Rice, Samuel A., brigadier-general, was born in Penn Yan, N. Y., 
Jan. 27, 1828. He studied at the Ohio university, then at Union 
college, where he was graduated in 1849. He then studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1852, removed to Oskaloosa, la., 
where he was elected count}' attorney in 1853, and attorney-general 
for the state in 1856, and by re-election serving until 1862. On 
Aug. 10. 1862, he was commissioned colonel of the 33d la. volun- 
teers and he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers for brav- 
ery in the hotly contested battle of Helena. Ark. He continued serv- 
ing with honor during the campaigns of 1863-64 in the Southwest, and 
on April 30, 1864. in the attack made at Jenkins" ferry, in middle Ar- 
kansas, on Gen. Banks" expedition, he was mortally wounded. He 



212 The Union Army 

was immediately removed to his home at Oskaloosa, where he died on 
July 6, 1864. 

Richardson, Israel B., major-general, was born in Fairfax, Vt., 
Dec. 26, 1815. He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1841 and served in the Florida war of 1841-42, in the 
military occupation of Texas, and in the Mexican war, where he 
was present at most of the principal engagements and won the 
brevet of captain for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, and 
that of major for services at Chapultepec. He was promoted cap- 
tain in 1851 and resigned from the service in 1855, engaging in farming 
near Pontiac, Mich. At the beginning of the Civil war he was com- 
missioned colonel of the 2nd Mich, infantry, and on May 17, 1861, 
he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He took part in 
the battle of Bull Run and covered the retreat of the Federal army 
with his brigade, and he commanded a division in the Army of the 
Potomac during the Virginia Peninsular campaign, engaging in the 
battle of Fair Oaks and the Seven Days' battles before Richmond. 
His coolness in action had won him the name "fighting Dick" in the 
Mexican war, and the name clung to him in the Civil war also. Gen. 
Richardson was promoted major-general of volunteers July 4, 1862, 
and commanded the ist division in the Maryland campaign where he 
fought at South mountain and at Antietam. He was mortally wound- 
ed at Antietam, and died in Pry's house, McClellan's headquarters, 
near Sharpsburg, Md., Nov. 3, 1862. 

Richardson, William A., brigadier-general, was born in Fayette 
county, Ky., Oct. 11, 181 1, became a lawyer and settled in Illinois. 
Between the years 1836 and 1844 he was three times a member of 
the state legislature, and in 1844 was an elector-at-large on the Polk 
and Dallas presidential ticket. In 1846 he served as captain in the 
Mexican war, and on the battle-field of Beuna Vista was promoted 
major by the unanimous vote of his regiment.. In 1847 he was 
elected a representative in Congress from Illinois by the Democrats 
and continued a member of the house until 1856, when he resigned. 
In 1857 he was appointed governor of Nebraska by President Bu- 
chanan, but he resigned that position the following year. In i860 he 
reluctantly consented to serve as a member of Congress, and on 
Sept. 3, 1861, was commissioned a brigadier-general of volunteers. 
He declined the military position, however, and before his term as 
representative had expired he was elected United States senator to 
fill the unexpired term of Stephen A. Douglas. He was a delegate 
to the Democratic national convention in New York city in 1868, 
then retired from public life, and he died at Quincy, 111., on Dec. 27, 

1875. 

Ricketts, James B., brigadier-general, was born in New York 
city. June 21, 1817. He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1839, served during the Canadian border disturbances, 
and took part in the Mexican war. where he was engaged in the 
battle of Monterey and Iield the Riconda pass during the battle 
of Buena Vista. He was promoted captain in 1852, served in Florida 
against the Seminole Indians, and was then on frontier and garrison 
duty until the Civil war. His early service in the Civil war was in 
the defenses of Washington and he commanded a battery in the 
capture of Alexandria. He distinguished himself in the battle of 
Bull Run, where he was wounded and taken prisoner. For his 
gallantry on this occasion he was breveted lieutenant-colonel and 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, and after being con- 
fined as a prisoner of war and being absent on sick leave, he returned 




Brig.-Gen. \\ . A. kii_a- 
ARDSON 

P.rig.-Gen. B. S. Roberts 
Brig.-Gen. I. P. Rodman 
Maj.-Gen. L. 11. Rousseau 



lllig. lien. J. l:. UlCKKTTS 

Brig.-Gen. J. S. Robixso.v 
Maj.-Gen. W. S. Rosecrans 
Brig.-Gen. T. .\. Rowley 



Brig.-Gen. J. W. Ripley 
1?rig.-Gen. T. C. Robinson 
Brig.-Gen. L. F. Ross 
Brig.-Gen. D. H. Rvcker 



Biographical Sketches 213 

to duty ill June, 1862, and commanded a division in the Army of 
Virginia during the Northern Virginia campaign, where he par- 
ticipated in the battles of second Bull Run and Cedar mountain, 
and in the actions at Rapi)ahannock station and Thoroughfare gap. 
He also commanded a division in the Maryland campaign, taking 
part in the battles of South mountain and Antictam, was promoted 
major in the regular army, June i. 1863, and commanded the 3d 
division, 6th army corps, under Gen. Grant in the Richmond cam- 
paign, where he was engaged in the Wilderness, at Spottsylvania 
and Cold Harbor, and in the siege of Petersburg. He vi^as brevetted 
colonel for gallantry at Cold Harbor, and in the defense of Mary- 
land against Gen. Early's raid commanded the 3d division under 
Gen. Wallace at the battle of Monocacy. He commanded the 3d divi- 
sion, 6th army corps, Army of the Shenandoah, at Opequan, Fisher's 
hill, and Cedar creek, Va., and was severely wounded in the last named 
battle. Gen. Ricketts was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 
Aug. I, 1864. and on March 13, 1865. he was brevetted brigadier- 
general in the regular army for gallant and meritorious services 
in the battle of Cedar creek, and major-general U. S. A. for gallant 
and meritorious services in the field during the war. After the close 
of hostilities he commanded a district in Virginia until April 30, 1866, 
when he was mustered out of the volunteer service. He was retired 
from active service in the regular army, Jan. 3, 1867, with the rank of 
major-general, for disability incurred from wounds received in battle, 
and he died in Washington. D. C, Sept. 2^, 1887. 

Ripley, James W., brigadier-general, was born in Windham, Conn., 
Dec. 10, 1794. He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1814, served in the war against Great Britain and in 
the Seminole war, and was then until the Civil war engaged in 
various duties connected with the ordnance department. He was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel in 1848 for meritorious conduct in the 
performance of his duty in the prosecution of the war with Mexico, 
and was promoted colonel and chief of ordnance, U. S. A., April 23, 
1861. He was brevetted brigadier-general, July 2, 1861, was pro- 
moted brigadier-general and chief of ordnance on Aug 3, and on 
March 13. 1865, was brevetted major-general U. S. A. for long and 
faithful services in the army. He was retired from active service, 
Sept. 15, 1863, and afterwards served until his death as inspector of 
armament and fortitications on the New England coast. He died 
in Hartford, Conn., March 16, 1870. 

Roberts, Benjamin S., brigadier-general, was born in Manchester, 
Vt., Nov. 18. 1810. He was graduated at West Point in 1835 and 
served on frontier and recruiting duty, but resigned from the army 
in 1839 and became chief engineer of the construction of the Cham- 
plain & Ogdensburg r.iilroad, and later he served as assistant geol- 
ogist of the state of New York. In 1842 he was employed with 
Lieut. George W. Whistler in constructing the Russian system of 
railways, and in 1843 was admitted to the bar and began to practice 
in Des Moines, la. He was lieutenant-colonel of Iowa militia, 1844-46, 
and on Alay 27, 1846, was reappointed to the United States army 
as 1st lieutenant in the mounted rifles. He was promoted captain 
in Feb., 1847, and during the war with Mexico served at Vera Cruz, 
Cerro Gordo. Contreras. Churubusco, and other engagements up to 
the capture of the Mexican capital. He was brevetted major for 
gallantry at Chapultepec, lieutenant-colonel for gallantry in the 
actio-! at Matamoras and at the pass at Galaxara, and the legislature 
of the state of Iowa presented him with a sword of honor in recog- 



214 The Union Army 

nition of his services during the war. He was promoted major early 
in 1861 and served in New Mexico under Gen. Canby, engaging at 
Fort Craig, Valverde, Albuquerque and Peralta. He was brevetted 
lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at Valverde, and on June 16, 1862, 
was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He served as in- 
spector-general on the staff of Gen. Pope at Cedar mountain, Rappa- 
hannock station. Sulphur springs and the second Bull Run, was sub- 
sequently inspector-general of the Northwest department, and in No- 
vember commanded an expedition against the Chippewa Indians. In 
186.3 he commanded first the upper defenses of Washington and then 
an independent brigade in West Virginia and Iowa, and in 1864. after 
leading a division of the 19th corps in Louisana, he was chief of cav- 
alry of the Department of the Gulf until ordered, early in 1865, to 
command the district of west Tennessee and the cavalry division of 
the District of Tennessee. On March 13, 1865, he was brevetted brig- 
adier-general in the regular army and major-general of volunteers for 
gallant and meritorious services at second Bull Run and Cedar moun- 
tain. He was mustered out of the volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866, was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel in the 3d cavalry, July 28, uS66. and on 
Dec. 15, 1870. was retired at his own request. He then practiced law 
in Wasliingtiin, until his deatli, which occurred in Washington, D. C, 
Jan. jg, 1875. 

Robinson, James S., brigadier-general, was born near Mansfield, 
Ohio, Oct. 14, 1827. He learned the printer's t.rade. and from 1847 
to 1865 edited the "Weekly Republican" at Canton, Ohio. He was 
secretary of the first Republican convention held in Ohio, in 1856, 
and was clerk in the house of representatives of the Ohio legislature, 
1856-58. Enlisting as a private in the 4th Ohio volunteers at the 
beginning of the Civil war, he was soon afterward appointed cap- 
tain, served under McClellan at Rich mountain, July 11, 1861, and 
on re-enlisting after his first three months' service became major 
of the 82nd Ohio infantry on Dec. 31, being subsequently promoted 
lieutenant-colonel, April 9, 1862, and colonel on Aug. 29 of that 3'ear. 
He served with Fremont in the Shenandoah valley, and was after- 
wards engaged at the second Bull Run, where he commanded his regi- 
ment after Col. Cantwell was wounded, and also at Cedar mountain 
and Chancellorsville, and he was severely wounded at Gettysburg. 
After recovering from his wound he commanded a brigade in Sher- 
man's Atlanta campaign, and on the march to the sea. He was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Jan. 12, 1865, was brevetted 
brigadier-general of volunteers. Dec. 9, 1864, and major-general 
March 13, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services during the war. 
Gen. Robinson was mustered out, Aug. 31, 1865, engaged in railroad 
building in Ohio after the war, was chairman of the Republican 
state executive committee, 1877-79. and state commissioner of rail- 
roads and telegraplis in 1880. He was Republican representative 
from the 9th Ohio district in Congress from 1881 to 1885. and was 
from 1885 to 1889 secretary of state of Ohio. He died in Toledo, 
Ohio, Jan. 14, 1892. 

Robinson, John C, brigadier-general, was born in Binghamton, 
N. Y., April 10. 1817. He entered West Point academy in 1835, and 
resigned in 1838 to commence the study of law. but in 1830 was 
appointed by the president second lieutenant of infantry. During 
the Mexican war he served as brigade quartermaster and took part 
in the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma. and Monterey, and 
in the capture of the city of ^Mexico. He was promoted to bo captain 
in Aug.. 1850, took part in the campaigns against the Indians of 



Biographical Sketches 215 

Florida and Texas, and accompanied the military expedition to Utah 
in 1857. At the opening of the Civil war he was commander at Fort 
Mc Henry and skillfully prevented its falling into the hands of the 
Confederates. Later he engaged in recruiting service in Ohio and 
Michigan, and in Sept., 1861, was commissioned colonel of the ist 
Mich., volunteers. In Feb., 1862, he was promoted to be major in 
the regular army, and on April 28, was appointed brigadier-general 
of volunteers. He participated in all the battles of McClellan's Pen- 
insular campaign, and led a division at Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville, Gettysburg and the Wilderness. He was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel for services at Gettysburg, and colonel for his gallantry in 
the Wilderness. During a charge on the Confederate breastworks at 
Spottsylvania Court House he received a wound that necessitated 
the amputation of his left leg and disabled him for further active 
service. Until the close of the war he commanded districts in New 
York, and in 1866 was military commander in North Carolina, and 
commissioner for that state of the Freedmen's bureau. He was bre- 
vetted major-general of volunteers in June, 1864; brigadier and major- 
general in the regular army in March, 1865, and in July, 1866, was 
commissioned colonel. He served as commander of the Department 
of the South in 1867; of the Department of the Lakes in 1868 and 
1869, and on May 9 of the year last named was. at his own request, 
placed on the retired list with the full rank of major-general. In 
1872 Gen. Robinson was, as a Republican, elected lieutenant-governor 
of New York, and held that office until 1876. In 1877 and 1878 he 
was commander-in-chief of the G. A. R., and in 1887 and 1888, 
president of the Society of the Army of the Potomac. After retiring 
from the lieutenant-governorship, in 1876, he engaged in various 
business enterprises in Binghamton, N. Y., and died on Feb. 18, 1897. 

Rodman, Isaac P., brigadier-general, was born at Soutli Kingston, 
R. I., Aug. 28, 1822. He received a common school education, was 
trained in business, became a manufacturer of woolen goods in part- 
nership with his father, and was for a time colonel of militia. In 
1861 he resigned his seat in the state senate, raised a company, and 
as a captain in the 2nd R. I. infantry took part at Bull Run. For 
gallantry in that action he was advanced to a lieutenant-colonelcy, 
and assigned to the 4th R. I. regiment, Oct. 5, 1861, and soon after 
to the colonelcy. As colonel of this regiment he was engaged in the 
capture of Roanoke island, Feb. 8, 1862, and of New Berne, March 
14, where he took tb.e enemy's works by assault; for this ser^•ice, 
and others at Beaufort and Fort Macon, he was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers, his commission dating from April 28. He 
had command of a division at South mountain and Antietam; and in 
the latter battle received a mortal wound while leading the charge 
by which the stone bridge was carried, and he died near Hagers- 
town, Md., Sept. 29, 1862. 

Rosecrans, William S., major-general, was born at Kingston, 
Ohio, Sept. 6. 1819, and was graduated fifth in the class of 1842, 
at the West Point military academy. He entered the U. S. engineer 
corps, as second lieutenant by brevet, serving for a year in the con- 
struction of fortifications at Hampton Roads, Va. He was assistant 
professor of natural and experimental philosophy, and then of 
engineering, for four years, at the U. S. military academy. He 
was next the superintending engineer at Fort Adams, Newport, 
R. I., and of several surveys in eastern New England, and at the 
Washington navy yard, until April i, 1854. Having attained the rank 
of first lieutenant, he resigned from the army and began business 



216 The Union Army 

life at Cincinnati, Ohio, as civil engineer and architect. From 1853 
to i860 he was in charge of the Cannel coal company in western 
Virginia, and in 1856 became the president of the Coal river nav- 
igation company. In 1857 he organized the Preston coal oil com- 
pany for the manufacture of kerosene. At the beginning of the 
Civil war he entered the service as colonel of the 23d regiment 
U. S. Ohio volunteer infantry. Within a month he was made 
brigadier-general in the U. S. regular army, and ordered to accom- 
pany Gen. George B. McClellan to West Virginia, where he com- 
manded a provisional brigade of t!iree-m(mths' volunteers until July 23, 
1861, when he succeeded Gen. r.IcClellan in command of the Depart- 
ment of the Ohio. In September, when the Confederates. Floyd 
and Wise, sought to get possession of the Great Kanawha valley, 
Gen. Rosecrans marched no miles, defeated Floyd at Carnifix ferry, 
and ultimately compelled their retreat through the mountains 
to Dublin, on the Southwestern Virginia & Tennessee railway. He 
received, shortly after, resolutions unanimously framed by the leg- 
islatures of West Virginia and Ohio, thanking him for his successful 
military operations and civil administration. In April, 1862, he re- 
ceived the command of Paine's and Stanley's divisions of the Missis- 
sippi army, and took part in the siege of Corinth. With two divisions 
of the Army of the Mississippi, on Sept. 19. he fought and won the 
battle of luka. against the forces of Gen. Price, and on Oct. 3 and 4, 
with the remnants of those two divisions, and McKean's and Davis's, 
he also routed the forces of Price and Van Dorn at the battle of 
Corinth, and pursued them until he was recalled by Gen. Grant. 
On Oct. 30 he assumed command of the Department of the Cum- 
berland, and on Dec. 31, following, the sanguinary battle of Stone's 
river began. It was fought on that day and on Jan. i and 2, 1863, 
and it ended with the retreat of the Confederates along the line 
of Duck river. In view of this victory the U. S. congress unan- 
imously passed a joint resolution of thanks, as did the legislatures 
of Ohio and Indiana. On June 2^ Gen. Rosecrans began his next 
movement, drove the Confederates out of their camps at Shelby- 
ville and Tullahoma, and in fifteen days forced them to retreat to 
the south side of the Tennessee river, with headquarters at Chat- 
tanooga. Demonstrations toward Decatur, Ala., deceived Bragg, 
and Rosecrans crossed the Tennessee, threatened Bragg's communi- 
cation with Atlanta, and compelled him to withdraw from Chatta- 
nooga to Lafayette. Rosecrans then got between Bragg and Chat- 
tanooga, concentrated his forces on the roads leading to Chatta- 
nooga, and after the sanguinary battle of Chickamauga held possession 
of the roads, and on Sept. 21 took and held possession of Chattanooga. 
On Jan. 27, 1864, he was placed in command of the Department of 
the Missouri, and although previous commanders had encountered 
insuperable obstacles in administration, in the face of these difficul- 
ties he so managed and concluded a campaign against the Confed- 
erate Gen. Price, that his army was defeated and driven out of the 
state. On Dec. 10, 1864, he was placed on waiting orders at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, and was mustered out of the U. S. volunteer service, 
Jan. 15, 1866. He resigned from the U, S. regular armj% March 28, 
1867, having been brevetted major-general, U. S. A., on Alarch 13, 
1865, for gallant and distinguished services at the battle of Stone's 
river, Tenn, In the year 1868 Gen. Rosecrans was appointed U. S. 
minister to Mexico, and reached that country in November. In 
1880 he was elected to the U. S. house of representatives from the 
state of California, and served until March 4. 1885. In June, 1885, 




r,ri«. r.Lii. T. II. Klgi;k 
Bri^.-Gen. Frederick 

Salomon 
Rrig.-Oen. RuFus Saxton 
Brig.-Gen. Alex. Schim- 

MELFENNIG 



IJr.ig.-Gcii. I). A. KlsSHll 
Hrig.-Gen. J. B. Sanborn 
Brig.-Gen. E. P. Scammon 
Maj.-Gen. T. M. Schofield 



IJrii;-'"'. '■• i • ^- l\i thER- 

FORD 

Brig.-Gen. W. P. Sanders 
M.Ti.-Gcn. R. C. S'-HENCK 
r.rig.-Gen. Albix SchoEpf 



Biographical Sketches 217 

he was appointed register of the U. S. treasury, at Washington, 
D. C, which oAke he held until 1S93. On Feb. 27, 1889, by act of 
Congress he was re-appointed brigadier-general, U. S. arnij', and 
was placed on the retired list on March 2, following. Gen. Rose- 
crans died on March 11, 1898. 

Ross, Leonard F., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Illinois, and on July 18, 1S46, enlisted as a private in Co. K of the 
4th 111. infantry for service in the Mexican war. On Sept. 4 of 
the same year he was commissioned first lieutenant of his company, 
and he served in that capacity until May 26, 1847. when he was 
honorabh^ mustered out of the service. He then followed civil pur- 
suits until the breaking out of the Civil war, when, on May 25, 
1861, he was mustered in as colonel of the 17th 111. infantry. The first 
actual engagement in which Col. Ross led his regiment was on 
Oct. 21, when with other regiments it was sent from Cape Girardeau 
in pursuit of Gen. Jefif Thompson's forces, meeting and defeating 
them at Fredericktown. At the head of his regiment he charged 
the enemy's lines early in the engagement, completely routing him. 
The following day the regiment pursued the enemy and engaged 
him near Greenfield, Ark. Col. Ross participated with his regiment 
in the sanguinary battle which was followed by the surrender of 
Fort Donelson; and then embarked for Savannah, later arriving 
at Pittsburg landing, where his regiment was assigned to the ist 
division of the Army of West Tennessee, and upon the memorable 
field of Shiloh he took part in the momentous battles of April 
6 and 7. On April 25, 1862, Col. Ross was promoted to the rank 
of brigadier-general of volunteers and served out the remainder 
of his military career in that capacity, resigning his commission 
on July 22, 1863. Gen. Ross died Jan. 17, 1901. 

Rousseau, Lovell H., major-general, was born in Stanford, Lin- 
coln county, Kj-., Aug. 4, 1818. his father having emigrated from 
Virginia. He received the ordinary school advantages afiforded the 
pioneer settlers of that early period and then devoted his attention 
to the study of law. Subsequently he removed to Bloomfield, Ind., 
and was admitted to the bar of that state in 1841. He became an 
active political leader at once, and was elected to the state assembly 
in 1844 and to the state senate in 1S47. He took part in the Mexican 
war as captain of the 2nd Ind. regiment of volunteers, and received 
special mention for his gallantry at Buena Vista, Feb. 22-23, 1847. 
In 1849 he made Louisville, K}'., his home and there opened a law 
office, where he soon attained prominence as a criminal lawyer. 
He was elected to the Kentucky state senate in i860, being the 
choice of both parties. On the outbreak of the Civil war in 1861, 
he used his earnest efforts to restrain Kentucky from joining the 
Confederacy, and was especially active in recruiting troops and 
providing for their proper drill and equipment. He resigned from 
the legislature to serve better the Federal cause, and to this end he 
proposed and established Camp Joe Holt, near Louisville, which 
became a prominent rendezvous for troops. He raised the 5th regi- 
ment, Ky. volunteers, and was made colonel in Sept., 1861, becom- 
ing brigadier-general on Oct. 6, following. He led the 4th brigade 
of the 2nd division. Army of the Ohio, at the second day's battle of 
Shiloh, and greatly distinguished himself by retaking the head- 
quarters abandoned by Gen. McClernand the day before and other- 
wise contributing to the success of the Federal army on that day. 
He again distinguished himself at the battle of Perryville, Ky., on 
Oct. 8, and that day gained his promotion to major-general of volun- 



218 The Union Army 

teers. He was next in the field at Stone's river on Dec. 31, and 
from Nov., 1863, to the close of the war, was in command of the 
districts of Tennessee. He led an important and successful raid into 
the heart of Alabama in 1864 and defended Fort Rosecrans during 
the siege of Nashville. He resigned from the army on Nov. 30, 
1865, and four days later took his seat in the Thirty-ninth Congress, 
to which he had been elected as a Republican representative from 
Kentucky. In June, 1866, Gen. Rousseau made a personal assault on 
J. B. Grinnell of Iowa, for words spoken in debate, and was, by resolu- 
tion of the comrnittee appointed to investigate, recommended to be 
expelled. The house, however, adopted the minority report to repri- 
mand him, whereupon he resigned his seat. He was re-elected dur- 
ing the subsequent recess to the same Congress and served on the 
same committees as in the first session. He was appointed on March 
28. 1867, by President Johnson, a brigadier-general in the regular 
army, being given on the same date the brevet rank of major-general 
U. S. A., and he was assigned to duty in the new territory of Alaska to 
receive that domain from the Russian government and assume 
control of the territory. He succeeded Gen. Sheridan in command 
of the Department of the Gulf, and continued in that command with 
his headquarters at New Orleans up to the time of his death, which 
occurred Jan. 7, 1869. 

Rowley, Thomas A., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Pennsylvania, and on Oct. 8, 1847, entered the United States military 
service as captain of a company of volunteers, which was recruited in 
the District of Columbia and Maryland for service in the Mexican war. 
With this company he served until July 18, 1848, when he was hon- 
orably mustered out and returned to peaceful pursuits. Upon the 
breaking out of the Civil war he assisted in recruiting and became the 
colonel of the 13th Pa. infantry, being mustered into the service on 
April 25, 1S61, and he served with it during its three months' term 
of enlistment. The regiment was mustered out on Aug. 6. 1861, and a 
fortnight later Col. Rowley left for Washington with five compa- 
nies, being soon joined by others who were desirous of enlisting for 
three years, and the regiment thus organized became the 102nd Pa. in- 
fantry, with Col. Rowley as its commanding officer. With this regiment 
he participated in the siege of Yorktown and in the battles of Williams- 
burg, Fair Oaks, and Malvern hill. He again met the enemy at 
Centerville, after the second Bull Run battle, acted as support to a 
battery during the engagement at Chantilly, was held in reserve at 
Antietam, and the regiment then became attached to the 6th corps 
when Gen. Burnside assumed command of the army. On Nov. 29, 
1862, Col. Rowley was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, 
and served in that capacity until Dec. 29, 1864. when he resigned from 
the army and devoted his attention to peaceful pursuits. He died May 
14, 1892. 

Rucker, Daniel H., brigadier-general, was born at Belleville, N. J., 
April 28, 1812, and entered the United States army as second lieuten- 
ant of 1st dragoons. Oct. 13, 1837. He was acting assistant quarter- 
master at Fort Gibson, Ind. Ter., from Feb., 1838, to June. 1839, at 
Fort Wayne, Ind. Ter., to April, 1840, at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., 
from Jul}-, 1840, to Oct.. 1842. and again from July, 1843, to Oct., 1844, 
at which time he became first lieutenant in the ist U. S. dragoons. He 
was stationed at Fort Towson, Ind. Ter., until the spring of 1845. and 
was then at Fort Washita and on recruiting duty until March. 1846. 
He was then in charge of recruits en route from Newport barracks to 
Fort Gibson, Ind. Ter., and then was stationed at Evansville, Ind., 



Biographical Sketches 219 

until July. lie became captain in the ist U. S. dragoons in Feb., 1847, 
and served in Texa.s and Mexico, participating in the Mexican war, 
until July, 1848. He was brevctted major in the U. S. army for gal- 
lant and meritorious conduct at the battle of Buena Vista, and after 
the close of the war made the trip to California, via Chihuahua, and 
was stationed at Los Angeles until Sept.. 1849. He then was engaged 
in aiding overland emigrants, and was stationed at Sacramento City 
and Benicia, Cal., until December. He was transferred to the quart- 
er-master's department of the U. S. army on Nov. 30, and was on 
temporary duty until March, 1851. He was stationed at Forts Union, 
Conrad, and Albuquerque, N. M., from Oct. 1851, to June, 1853, and 
at Fort Union, N. M., from Oct., 1853, to Feb., 1855. He was then in 
the field until April, and was depot quartermaster at Albuquerque, N. 
M., until Nov. i860. He was depot quartermaster at Washington. D. C, 
from April, 1861, to Jan., 1867, having been promoted to major and 
quartermaster, U. S. A., in Aug., 1861. colonel and aid-de-camp in 
September, brigadier-general U. S. volunteers in May, 1863, brevet 
major-general U. S. volunteers for faithful and meritorious services 
during the war, colonel and assistant quartermaster-general U. S. 
A. in July, 1866, and he was acting quartermaster-general U. S. 
A. at Washington, D. C, from Jan., 1867, to June, 1868. He was 
brevetted brigadier-general U. S. A. for diligent and faithful serv- 
ices during the war, and major-general U. S. A. on March 13, 1865, 
for faithful and meritorious services during the war. Gen. Rucker 
was commissioned brigadier-general and quartermaster-general on 
Feb. 13, 1882, and ten days later was retired from the service, taking 
up his residence in Washington, D. C. 

Ruger, Thomas H., brigadier-general, was born at Lima, Liv- 
ingston county, N. Y.. on April 2, 1833. He was graduated at West 
Point in 1854, and placed in the engineer corps, U. S. A. He resigned 
on April i, 1855, after service at New Orleans, La., and practiced law 
in Janesville, Wis., until June, 1861, when he became lieutenant-colo- 
nel of the 3d Wis. regiment. He was made colonel on Au.g. 20, and 
brigadier-general on Nov. 29, 1862, serving in the Rappahannock 
campaigns, commanding a division at Gettysburg, and helping to 
put down the draft riots in New York in 1863. He guarded the Nash- 
ville & Chattanooga railroad in Tennessee until April, 1864; then led 
his brigade, under Sherman, until November, and on Nov. 30, 1864, 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers for services at the brittle of 
Franklin and placed in charge of a division of the 23d corps against 
Gen. Hoods armj' in Tennessee. Organizing a division at Nash- 
ville, he led it, from Feb. to June, 1865, in North Carolina, and 
then commanded that department until June, 1866. He was 
made a colonel in the regular army on being mustered out, July 
28, 1866, and on March 2, 1867, was brevetted brigadier-general for 
services at Gettysburg. He was detailed by Gen. Meade on Jan. 
13, 1868. as governor of Georgia, which duty he performed until 
July of the same year. Gen. Ruger was superintendent of the L^. S. 
military academy at West Point. 1871-76; in command of the De- 
partment of the South, 1876-78, having in charge tlie U. S. troops in 
South Carolina during the state government tronbles, and later was 
in command of statiotis in the West and South. He was made a 
brigadier-general on March 19. 1886. He had chaVge of the Depart- 
ment of Missouri during April and May, 1886, and took charge of 
the Department of Dakota in t888. He was commissioned major- 
general on Feb. 8, 1895, and was placed upon the retired list, April 
2, 1897. 



220 The Union Army 

Russell, David A., brigadier-general, was born at Salem, Washing- 
ton county, N. Y., Dec. lo, 1820. In 1841 he entered the U. S. mil- 
itary academy at West Point, in which he graduated in July, 1845, 
and was assigned to the 4th regular infantr}- and stationed on the 
Pacific coast. He remained there two years, and during the time 
was brcvetted captain. At the commencement of the Civil war he 
was appointed colonel of the 7th Mass. regiment which he led 
under Gen. McClellan through the Peninsular campaign. He was 
made brevet major in the regjular army for gallantry at the battle 
of Williamsburg, took part in the battle of Fair Oaks, and was 
promoted a full major in the 8th infantry; and for meritorious and 
gallant services throughout the Peninsular campaign he was made 
lieutenant-colonel bj^ brevet in the regular army. In Nov., 1862, he 
was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and commanded the bri- 
gade on the left of the line at Fredericksburg in December, at Salem 
heights in May, 1863, in the expedition to Beverly and Kelly's 
fords in June, and at Gettysburg in July of the same year. He pre- 
sented the War department with the colors that his brigade captured 
on the Rappahannock, and v^as complimented by Secretary Stanton 
for his important services and gallant conduct while in command of 
his brigade. In Nov., 1863, he was placed in command of a division, 
and led the ist division of the 6th army corps through the battles 
of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania. Cold Harbor, and before Petersburg. 
At the battle of Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864, Gen. Russell, while 
at the head of his division, was shot and instantly killed by a can- 
non ball. He was given the brevets of major-general of volunteers 
and major-general U. S. A. for gallant and meritorious service at 
the batlie in which he was killed. 

Rutherford, Friend S., brigadier-general, was born in the state 
of New York, but in early life took up his residence in the state 
of Illinois. On June 30, 1862, he was made captain commissary of 
subsistence and served in that capacity until Sept. 2, when he re- 
signed and assisted in the organization of the 97th 111. infantry. 
This regiment was organized at Camp Butler, 111., in Aug. and Sept., 
1862, and upon Sept. 16, Friend S. Rutherford was commissioned 
as its colonel. After some preliminary service it became a part of 
the forces operating against Vicksburg, and Col. Rutherford and his 
regiment bore their full share in the spirited engagement at Port 
Gibson. At the fierce battle of Champion's hill Col. Rutherford had 
the not very pleasant duty of holding his regiment as a target for 
the Confederate artillery for at least two hours, and at a distance 
of not over 800 yards. The next morning he led his regiment on 
to the Black river and took part in the fight at that place. On May 
19 and 22, he led it in both the charges at Vicksburg, and it never 
failed to go as far as any other organization, and as a rule much 
farther. He then took part in the contest at Jackson, and under his 
leadership his regiment distinguished itself sufficiently to be praised 
by Maj.-Gen. W. T. Sherman, commanding the expeditionary army. 
Tlie remainder of his service was spent in Louisiana, where his reg- 
iment did guard duty, but owing to serious ill health he resigned 
his position as colonel on June 15. 1864. On June 27, following his 
resignation, he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, but 
he had died on June 20, 1864. seven days previous to his nomination. 

Salomon, Frederick, brigadier-general, was born in Prussia, but 
early in life migrated to America. Upon the breaking out of the 
Civil v/ar he became a captain in the 5th Mo. infantry, being mus- 
tered into the service on May 19, 1861, and he served with that reg- 
iment during its three months' term of enlistment, being mustered out 



Biographical Sketches 231 

on Aug. 14. During this term of service he participated in the bat- 
tles of Dry Forks and Wilson's creek, having joined Gen. Lyon's 
expedition toward Fayetteville, Ark. After being mustered out of 
the three months' service he assisted in raising tlic gth Wis. infantry, 
of which he became colonel on Nov. 26, 1861, and with it he first 
took part in the "Southwestern expedition" into Kansas, Missouri, 
and Indian territory. The regiment under his command routed two 
Confederate camps at Covvskin prairie, as well as a large camp of 
Confederate Indians en route, and took part in an engagement at 
Newtonia. He fought at Cane Hill, Prairie Grove, Terre Noir creek. 
Poison springs, and Jenkins' ferry, and on June 16, 1862, was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He served in this capacity 
during the remainder of the war, and on March 13, 1865, was bre- 
' vetted major-general of volunteers for meritorious service. He was 
honorably mustered out on Aug. 24, 1865, and he died on March 
8. 1897. 

Sanborn, John B., brigadier-general, was born at Epsom, N. H., 
on Dec. 5, 1826. His early education was acquired at the village 
school, and he fitted for college with a view to devoting himself 
to the profession of law. He entered Dartmouth, was graduated, 
and then pursued a law course, being admitted to the bar in July, 
1854. He at once removed to Minnesota, settling in St. Paul in De- 
cember of that year. He founded a law practice, and interested 
himself in the politics of his state, being elected in 1858 to the posi- 
tion of adjutant-general of the state. At the outbreak of the Civil 
war Gen. Sanborn was serving as quartermaster-general, and the 
duty of raising and equipping the volunteer soldiers to fill the quota 
for Minnesota fell upon him. Early in 1862 he accepted a commis- 
sion as colonel of the 4th Minn, volunteers, and with the regiment 
went to the front. His first engagement was at the battle of luka 
on Sept. 19, when he commanded the ist brigade of Gen. Hamilton's 
left wing of the army under Rosecrans. In the ofiicial report Gen. 
Sanborn was highly commended, and he was promoted to be a brig- 
adier-general of volunteers, but the U. S. senate failed to confirm 
the commission. He participated in the battles of Grant which led 
to the fall of Vicksburg, and upon the surrender, July 4, 1863, he 
was selected to lead the advance guard into the city, and afterward 
to superintend the paroling and disbanding of the 31,600 Confed- 
erate soldiers captured. This honor was conferred by reason of 
his gallant conduct during the Vicksburg campaign, and especially 
for bravery and skill displayed at the capture of Jackson, Miss., 
on May 14. In November Gen. Sanborn assumed command of the 
district of southwest Missouri, where he opposed Gen. Price, and 
either at the head of a brigade or division of cavalry he fought 
in the battles of Jeflferson City, Boonville, Independence, Big Blue, 
Osage, and Newtonia. After the Civil war ended he conducted a 
campaign against the Indians, in the summer and fall of 1865, and 
restored quiet on the border by treaties with hostile tribes. He 
was brevettcd major-general of volunteers on Feb. 10, 1865, and was 
honorably mustered out of the service on April 30, 1866. 

Sanders, William P., brigadier-general, was born in Lexington, 
Ky., Aug. 12, 1833. He was graduated in the U. S. military academy 
in 1856, became ist lieutenant on May i. 1861, and on the 14th of 
that month was promoted captain in the 6th U, S. cavalry. He 
participated in the battles of Yorktown. Williamsburg, Mechanics- 
ville. and Hanover Court House, during the Peninsular campaign, 
became colonel of the 5th Ky. cavalry in March, 1863, and engaged 
in pursuit of Morgan's raiders in July and August. He acted as 



223 The Union Army 

chief of cavalry in the Department of the Ohio in October and Novem- 
ber, was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers on Oct. i8, and 
took part in the actions at Blue springs and Lenoir's station. Gen. 
Sanders was mortally wounded at Campbell's station, and died two 
days later, Nov. i8, 1863, at Knoxville, Tenn. 

Saxton, Rufus, brigadier-general, was born in Greenfield, Mass., 
Oct. 19, 1824. He received an academic education, and was gradu- 
ated at the West Point military academy in 1849. He was assigned to 
the 3d artillery, took part in an exploring expedition to the Rocky 
mountains in 1853 and 1854, and in 1855 was promoted to .be first 
lieutenant. Between 1855 and 1861 he was engaged on the coast 
survey and as instructor at West Point. At the opening of the 
Civil war he served under Gen. McClellan in western Virginia, and 
as quartermaster to Gen. T. W. Sherman in the Port Royal expe- 
dition, and on April 15, 1862, was raised to the rank of brigadier- 
general of volunteers. For a few weeks in 1862 he was commander 
at Harper's Ferry, where he repulsed an attack by Gen. Ewell, and 
then, until 1865, was military governor of the Department of the 
South. On Jan. 12, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers, on April 9 he was given the brevet rank of brigadier-general 
in the regular army "for faithful and meritorious services during 
the war," and in July, 1866, was appointed quartermaster with the 
rank of major. He was made lieutenant-colonel and deputy quarter- 
master-general in June, 1872, and colonel and assistant quartermaster- 
general in March, 1882. From 1883 until 1888 he was stationed at 
Louisville, Ky., and in October of the latter year was placed on the 
retired list. 

Scammon, Eliakim P., brigadier-general, was born in Whitefield, 
Lincoln county, Me., Dec. 2"], 1816. He was graduated at West 
Point in 1837. and became second lieutenant in the 4th artillery. For 
more than a year he was at the academy as assistant professor of 
mathematics. In 1838 he was commissioned a second lieutenant of 
engineers, and later in the year he was sent to Florida, where he 
served in the Seminole war till its close in 1840. After spending a 
year in mapping the territories west of the Mississippi, he returned 
to the military academy as assistant professor of history, geography, 
and ethics. While he was engaged in superintending the survey 
of New Bedford harbor the Mexican war broke out, and he was 
ordered to staff duty under Gen. Scott. After the war he was ap- 
pointed assistant topographical engineer of the survey of the north- 
western lakes, wliich occupied him until 1855, and during this assign- 
ment he was promoted captain. He retired from the army in 1856, 
and was a professor in Moimt St. Mary's college, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
in 1856-58, and president of the Cincinnati Polytechnic college in 1859- 
61. He was commissioned colonel of the 23d Ohio volunteers in 
June, 1861, and served as commandant of Camp Chase, where vol- 
unteers were drilled before going to the front; in the western "Vir- 
ginia campaign, where he commanded a brigade under Gens. 
Rosecrans and Cox; and in the Maryland campaign, in which he 
distinguished himself by leading a brilliant bayonet charge in the 
battle of South mountain. He was promoted brigadier-general of 
volunteers for gallantry on the field, Oct. 15, 1862; commanded the 
District of Kanawha from Nov.. 1862, to Feb. 3, 1864; and was a 
prisoner of war in Libby prison from Feb. 3 till Aug. 3. He was 
then placed in command of a separate brigade at Morris island 
during the operations against Charleston, S. C. ; was again taken 
prisoner; commanded the District of Florida from Nov., 1864, till 
April, 1865; and was mustered out of the service on Aug. 24, 1865. 



Biographical Sketches 223 

In 1866-70 he was United States consul at Prince Edward island; 
in 1870-75 was engaged in engineer work in New York harbor; and 
in 1875-85 was professor of mathematics and history in Seton Hall 
college, South Orange, N. J. Gen. Scammon died in New York har- 
bor, Dec. 7, 1894. 

Schenck, Robert C, major-general, was born in Franklin, War- 
ren county, Ohio. Oct. 7, 1809. He was graduated at Miama uni- 
versity in 1827, remained there three years as a tutor in French and 
Latin, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1831. Settling in 
Da3'ton, Ohio, he soon acquired a large practice, and entered polit- 
ical life as a Whig. In 1838 he was defeated as a candidate for the 
legislature, in 1840 stumped the state for William Henry Harrison, 
in 1841 was elected to the legislature, and in 1842 was re-elected 
to the legislature and also elected to Congress. In Congress he 
rendered conspicuous service both on the floor and in several com- 
mittees to which he was appointed. He w^as re-elected three times, 
serving from 1843 to 1851, and during 1847-49 he was chairman of the 
committee on roads and canals, and had the opportunity for car- 
rying out some of the plans he had formed for the internal improve- 
ment of several commercial sections in the western states. In 1850 
he declined a renomination for Congress, and in 1851 was appointed 
United States minister to Brazil. During his two years residence 
in South America he negotiated commercial treaties with the states 
bordering the La Plata river, personally visiting Buenos Ayres, Monte- 
video, and the Uruguay, Paraguay, and Parana river regions. Re- 
turning to the United States in 1853, he resumed professional practice 
and was engaged in the management of the Fort Wayne railroad 
till the beginning of the Civil war. When the first call for volun- 
teers was made, he offered his services to Gov. Dennison, and was 
appointed a brigadier-general of state militia. On reaching the field 
he was placed in command of all the Ohio troops in eastern Vir- 
ginia, and had his first encounter with the Confederates at Vienna, 
June 17, 1861. Soon afterward he was transferred to western Vir- 
ginia, where he aided Gen. Rosecrans in driving the Confederates 
from that department. In the spring of 1862 he succeeded Gen. 
Lander in command at Cumberland, Md.; on June 8 he commanded 
the right of Gen. Fremont's army in the battle of Cross Keys; and 
during the interval between Gen. Fremont's relief and Gen. Sigel's 
assumption of the command of the ist corps of the Army of Vir- 
ginia Gen. Schenck was its commander. On Aug. 30, he was wounded 
in the second battle of Bull Run and had to retire from the field, 
and on Sept. 18 he was promoted major-general United States vol- 
unteers, his commission dating from Aug. 30. While on disability 
leave he was again elected to Congress as a Republican, where he 
was appointed chairman of the committee on military aflfairs, and, 
resigning his commission in the army, was re-elected to Congress in 
1864, 1866, and 1868, and defeated in 1870. In 1870 he was appointed 
United States minister to England, but before departing he served 
by appointment as a member of the joint high commission, which 
resulted in the treaty of Washington, the Geneva arbitration, and 
the settlement of the "Alabama" controversy. While he was in Eng- 
land a charge was preferred against him of complicity in the cele- 
brated Emma mine fraud, and as a result of such charge he resigned 
his position and returned home to appear before a committee of in- 
vestigation. He was completely exonerated by the" committee, but 
never re-entered public life, and he died in the city of Washington 
on March 23, 1890. 

Schimmelfennig, Alexander, brigadier-general, was born in Ger- 



234 The Union Army 

tnany in 1824, and was an (jfficer under Kossuth in the Hungarian 
revolt. Then immigrating to America, at the breaking out of the 
Civil war he was appointed colonel of the 74th Pa. infantry, and 
served under Gen. Sigel during the Virginia campaign of Gen. Pope, 
lie was nominated a brigadier-general of volunteers for his services 
at Bull Run, his commission bearing date of Nov. 29, 1862. At 
Chancellorsville he commanded the ist brigade of Gen. Schurz's 
division of Gen. Howard's nth corps, and was at Gettysburg with 
the same command. Gen. Schimmclfennig's forces were the first 
to enter Charleston, on Feb. 18, 1865, when flanked by Gen. Sherman. 
For some time he remained in command of the defences of the city, 
but was finally relieved on account of ill health, the result of his 
exposure during the war, and, retiring to his home in Pennsylvania, 
rapidly sank under consumption, and he died at Minersville. near 
Pottsville, Pa., on Sept. 7, 1865. 

Schofield, John M., major-general, was born in Cliautauqua countj', 
N. Y., Sept. 29, 1831. His father, a clergyman, removed to Bristol, 
111., when the son was about twelve j'ears of age, and in 1845 to 
Freeport, in the same state. In June. 1849, young Schofield entered 
the U. S. military academy, being graduated in 1853 seventh in the 
same class with Gens. McPherson, Sheridan, Sill, Terrill, R. O. Tyler, 
and the Confederate Hood. On July i, 1853, he was made brevet 
second lieutenant of artillery, serving at Fort Moultrie, S. C, and on 
Aug. 31, second lieutenant of the ist artillery, stationed in Florida, 
1854-55. From Nov. 19, 1855, till Aug. 28, i860, he was at the West 
Point military academy, as acting assistant, and then as assistant 
professor of natural and experimental philosophy. While on leave 
of absence for one yeat he held the chair of professor of physics 
at Washington university, St. Louis, Mo., but when the Civil war 
began he waived the remainder of his leave, and was made muster- 
ing officer of Missouri, April 20, 1861, serving one month. By per- 
mission of the war department, he accepted the commission of major 
of the 1st Mo. volunteers on April 26, and on May 14 he received 
the rank of captain in the ist artillery of the regular army, remain- 
ing, however, with the Missouri troops. As chief of staff to Gen. 
Nathaniel Lyon, he participated in the engagements of Dug springs 
and Curran P. O.. Aug. 2, 3, and 4, and the battle of Wilson's creek 
on Aug. 10. In the fall of the same year he was charged with the 
conversion of the ist Mo. infantry into an artillery regiment, and with 
battery A, hastily forwarded from St. Louis, took part in the battle 
of Fredericktown, Mo., on Oct. 21. On Nov. 21 he was appointed 
by the president brigadier-general of volunteers, and on the 26th 
he received the same commission from the governor of Missouri 
in the Missouri state militia, with orders to organize and equip a 
force of 10,000, to be at the service of the Federal government, 
within the limits of the state, while the war should last, and which 
should relieve the main armies for service in more important 
fields. From Sept. 26, 1862, until April, 1863, he organized and com- 
inanded the Army of the Frontier in the southwest part of the state 
and in northwest Arkansas, driving the Confederates south of the 
Arkansas river, having been made major-general of volunteers on 
Nov. 29, 1862. For about one month, April 20 to May 13, 1863, Gen. 
Schofield commanded the 3d division of the 14th army corps, but 
was assigned to the command of the Department of the Missouri, 
and retained it until Jan. 31, 1864, sending troops to assist Gen. Grant 
in the capture of Vicksburg, operating successfully to obtain pos- 
session of the line of the Arkansas river, and clearing the state of 
guerrilla and border war. With the Army of the Ohio, of which he 










Brig.-Gen. J. C. Davis 
Brig.-Gen. Gilman Mars- 
ton 
Maj.-Gen. T. A. Morris 
Brig.-Gen. S. A. RicE 



Crig.-Gen. E. J. Farn'S- 

worth 
Brig. -Gen. J. S. Mason 
Brig.-Gen. T. H. Neill 
Brig.-Gen. H. H. Siblev 



Brig.-Gen. T. H. IIicks 
Brig.-Gen. C. L. Matthies 
Brig.-Gen. T. C. RicE 
Maj.-Gen. Julius Stahel 



Biographical Sketches 225 

was in command, he took part in all the battles and operations of 
the entire Atlanta campaign, viz., the demonstration at Buzzard 
Roost gap, the battles of Resaca and Dallas, the movement against 
and engagements near Lost mountain, the action of Kolb's farm, 
the battle of Kenncsaw mountain, the passage of the Chattahoochee, 
and the battles near and siege of Atlanta, ending in the capture of 
that city on Sept. 2, 1864. In October Gen. Schoheld was sent by Gen. 
Sherman to the assistance of Gen. George H. Thomas in Tennessee, 
commanding the troops in the held opposed to Gen. Hood from Nov. 
3 till Dec. I. Falling back from Pulaski to Columbia, skirmishing, 
and from the latter place to Spring Hill, he finally gave battle at 
Franklin on Nov. 30. He also participated in the battle of Nashville, 
which terminated the campaign, on Dec. 15 and 16, and was engaged 
in the pursuit of Hood's armj' until Jan. 14, 1865. His commission of 
brigadier-general in the U. S. army was dated from the battle of 
Franklin, and on March 13. 1865, he also received the rank of brevet 
major-general, U. S. A., for "gallant and meritorious services" in 
the same battle. Gen. Schofield then operated with Gen. Sherman in 
the final campaign against Gen. Johnston, and after the surrender he 
remained in command of the Department of North Carolina until 
June 21. After the war he visited Europe on a special mission, rela- 
tive to the occupation of Mexico by French troops. From Aug. 16, 
1866. till June, 1868, he was in command first of the Department 
of the Potomac, and then of the ist military district of Virginia, as 
confirmed under the reconstruction laws. On June 2, 1868, he was ap- 
pointed secretarj' of war by President Johnson, retaining the office 
under President Grant until March 14, 1869, and on March 4 of the 
same year he was made major-general in the regular army. From 
March 20, 1869, till May 3, 1870, he was in command of the Depart- 
ment of the Missouri, and from the last date to July, 1876, of the Di- 
vision of the Pacific. Then until Jan. 21. 1881, he was superintendent 
of the military academy at West Point, and commander of the De- 
partment of West Point. For a few months thereafter he command- 
ed the Division of the Gulf, but on Oct. 15, 1882. he again command- 
ed the Division of the Pacific, and on Nov. 8, 1883, he succeeded Gen. 
Sheridan in command of the Division of the Missouri, with head- 
quarters at Chicago, 111. From April 2, 1886, he commanded the Di- 
vision of the Atlantic, and on Aug. 14. 1888, on the death of Gen. 
Sheridan, was assigned by President Cleveland to command the U. S. 
army, with headquarters at Washington, D. C. He occupied this po- 
sition until Sept. 29, 1895. when he was retired from the service, the 
rank of lieutenant-general having been conferred upon him on Feb. 5 
of that year. Gen. Schofield died of cerebral hemorrhage at St. Aug- 
ustine, Fla., on March 4, 1906. 

Schoepf, Albin, brigadier-general, was born in Hungary, and in 
early manhood migrated to America, taking up his residence in the 
state of Maryland. Upon the outbreak of the Civil war he espoused 
the Federal cause, and on Sept. 30, 1861, was commissioned a briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. He served in this capacity during his 
entire military service, performing in an excellent manner the duties 
assigned him, and he was honorably mustered out on Jan. 15. 1866. 
Gen. Schoepf died on May to. 1886. 

Schurz, Carl, major-general, was born at Liblar, near Cologne, 
Prussia, on March 2. 1829. He was educated at the Gymnasium of 
Cologne and the University of Bonn, entering the latter in 1846. 
Being concerned in the publication of a revolutionary journal dur- 
ing the troubles of 1848, he was forced to fly from Bonn in conse- 
quence of the failure of an insurrection he had been instrumental in 

Vol. VIII— 15 



22G The Union Army 

fomenting. He entered the revolutionary army in the south of Ger- 
many and took part in the defense of Rastadt, escaping to Switzer- 
land on the surrender of this fortress and returning secretly to Ger- 
many. On the night of Nov. 6, 1850, he succeeded in liberating his 
friend and former editorial partner from the fortress of Spandau, and 
together they reached Scotland, going thence to Paris, where, dur- 
ing the spring of 1851, Schurz acted as correspondent for several 
German journals. Later in that year he removed to London, where he 
occupied himself as a teacher, married, and came to America, locat- 
ing first in Philadelphia, but settling finally in 1855 in Watertown, 
Wis. Entering politics and connecting himself with the newly formed 
Republican party, as early as 1856 he was known as an effective orator 
through the speeches he had made in the German language, being 
one of the most potent factors in turning the German element in the 
state against the extension of slavery. He was an unsuccessful candi- 
date for lieutenant-governor of his adopted state in 1857, and took 
part in the senatorial canvas in Illinois between Douglas and Lincoln, 
making his first political speech in English, which was widely circu- 
lated as a campaign document. He next established himself in the 
practice of law at Milwaukee, but made many electioneering tours 
throughout the country. He was a member of the national Repub- 
lican convention of i860 and had great influence in shaping its plat- 
form, particularly that part which related to the citizens of foreign birth. 
In the subseciuent campaign he spoke both in English and German, 
and when Mr. Lincoln became president Schurz was sent as minister 
to Spain, but he resigned his post in Dec, 1861, to enter the army. 
He was made brigadier-general of volunteers in April, 1862, and took 
command of a division in the corps of Gen. Franz Sigel. He dis- 
tinguished himself at the second battle of Bull Run. was commis- 
sioned major-general of volunteers on March 14, 1863, was given com- 
inand of a division of O. O. Howard's corps and took part in the bat- 
tles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Fredericksburg and Chattanooga. 
After the close of the war President Johnson sent Gen. Schurz 
through the southern states to inquire into the workings of the Freed- 
men's bureau. In Jan.. 1869, he was chosen U. S. senator from ]\Iis- 
souri for the term ending in 1875. With Senator Sumner he vigor- 
ously opposed some of President Grant's measures, and in 1872 pre- 
sided over the convention wliich nominated Mr. Greeley for the presi- 
dency. Many of the members of the "liberal party" affiliated with the 
Democrats after the election of 1872, but in 1876 Mr. Schurz sup- 
ported Gen. Hayes, who. after becoming president called Mr. Schurz 
into his cabinet as secretary of the interior. After the close of the 
Hayes administration, Mr. Schurz became editor of the "Evening 
Post" in New York and remained in that position until 1884. He con- 
tinued to take an active interest in public afifairs and was noted for his 
earnestness and independence up to the time of his death, which event 
occurred in the city of New York on May 14, 1906. 

Scott, Robert K., brigadier-general, was born in the state of Penn- 
sylvania, and was reared and educated in his native commonwealth. 
Early in the Mexican war he entered the military service of the L^nited 
States as a captain in the ist regiment of Pennsylvania volunteers, 
the date of his enlistment being Dec. 16, 1846. He served in that ca- 
pacity during the two years of warfare and was honorably mustered out 
on July 31, 1848. A few years later he removed to Ohio and estab- 
lished his home in Napoleon, at which place he was residing at the 
outbreak of the Civil war. He offered his services to the Federal 
cause, and on Nov. 30, 1861, he was mustered in as lieutenant-colonel 
of the 67th Ohio infantry. On July 12, 1862, he was promoted to 



Biographical Sketches 227 

colonel of his regiment, and with it was actively engaged in guard 
duty until the spring of 1863, when he became actively engaged in 
the Vicksburg campaign. He moved with his command to Bruins- 
burg, there crossed the river, and by a forced march was able to 
participate in the battle of Thompson's hill, on May i. He followed 
closely after the retreating Confederates, was engaged in the bat- 
tles of Raymond, Jackson, and Champion's hill, and he also partici- 
pated in an attack on the Confederate works in the rear of Vicks- 
burg on May 18, and in the assault on Fort hill on the 22nd. At the 
head of his regiment he was actively engaged through tlie entire 
siege until the capitulation of the Confederate forces, and in Octo- 
ber he moved on a reconnoissance with the 17th corps and was en- 
gaged in a skirmish at Bogue Chitto creek, also participating in 
the fights at Clinton and Jackson, while moving on the Meridian 
raid. He joined Sherman in the Atlanta campaign, and with his 
regiment was on the advance line for sixty-five days and nights, 
being engaged at Kennesaw mountain, Nickajack, Atlanta July 22 
and 28, Jonesboro, and Lovejoy. Then came the march to the sea, 
and up through the Carolinas, through the progress of which, on 
Jan. 12, 1865, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, 
and on Dec. 5. 1865. was given the brevet rank of major-general 
of volunteers, for meritorious services. After the close of the war 
he served as military governor of South Carolina, and he resigned 
from the service on July 6, 1868. Gen. Scott died on Aug. 12. 1900. 

Scott, Winfield, major-general, was born in Petersburg. Va., June 
13, 1786. After spending two 3'ears in William and Mary college he 
studied law. was admitted to the bar in 1806, and the following year 
went to Charleston with the intention of settling there, but before 
he had fairlj' entered upon the practice of his profession. Congress, 
in view of imminent hostilities with England, passed a bill to enlarge 
the armj' and he obtained a commission as captain of light artillery 
and entered upon his career as a soldier. Recruiting a company 
he was stationed at Baton Rouge, La., in the division, commanded 
by Gen. Wilkinson. War having been declared against Great 
Britain in June, 1812, Capt. Scott was made a lieutenant-colonel 
in the 2nd artillery the following month, and was stationed at Black 
Rock with two companies of his regiment. Taking part in the 
battle of Queenstown heights, the field was at first won under his 
direction; but it was finally lost and himself and his command 
taken prisoners, from the refusal of the troops at Lewiston to 
cross to their assistance. Exchanged in Jan., 1813. immediately after 
the capture of York. Upper Canada, Scott rejoined the army on 
the frontier as adjutant to Gen. Dearborn, with the rank of colonel. 
He took part in the expedition against Fort George; landed his 
men in good order and scaled a steep height in the presence of the 
enemy, carrying the position at the point of the bayonet. He served 
well in Wilkinson's campaign, was made a brigadier-general in 
March, 1814. and immediately thereafter established a camp of in- 
struction at Bufifalo, where his own and other officers were drilled 
into thorough and accurate discipline. Fie now served a vigorous 
and brilliant campaign, being present at the taking of Fort Erie, 
winning the battle of Chippewa, and doing good service at Lundy's 
lane, where he was twice severely wounded. For his gallant con- 
duct Scott was brevetted major-general, his commission dating July 
25. 1814, the day of the battle of Lundy's lane. He also received 
a gold medal from Congress, and was tendered a position in the 
cabinet as secretary of war. which he declined. He led the troops 
in the Black Hawk war of 1832, and the latter part of the same 



228 The Union Army 

year went south to command the national troops at Charleston 
and elsewhere, during the nullification excitement, where his pru- 
dence, tact, and discretion, saved the country from what seemed 
the inevitable danger of intestine war. In 1835 he was ordered to 
Florida, but recalled and employed in the Creek war, and afterward 
sent before a court of inquiry, but dismissed with honor. In the 
frontier troubles connected with the Canadian rebellion of 1837, 
and subsequently with the disputes two years later on the north- 
eastern boundary line, and with the removal of the Cherokees from 
Georgia in the 30's, Gen. Scott was efficient, conciliating and useful, 
as an officer and negotiator. In 1841, upon the death of Gen. Ma- 
comb, Gen. Scott was placed at the head of the army as general-in- 
chief, with full rank as major-general, and upon the outbreak of 
the war with Mexico he was ordered thither. The battles of Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, and Monterey having been fought he 
took the field in time for the projected capture of Vera Cruz, which 
he invested on March 12, 1847, commencing the bombardment on 
the 22nd. On the 26th overtures of surrender were made, and ten 
days later the army moved on to Mexico; defeated the Mexican 
army under Gen. Santa Anna, at Cerro Gordo on April 18; entered 
Jalapa the day after; occupied the strong castle and town of La 
Perote on the 22nd, and the city of Puebla May 15. Contreras, 
San Antonio, and Churubusco, strong fortifications, were each taken 
in turn at the point of the bayonet. Molino del Rey and Casa de 
Mata, dependencies of Chapultepec, were carried by assault on 
Sept. 8, and, after a determined siege of several days a breach was 
finally effected in the strong walls • of the military college at the 
castle of Chapultepec, and the following night Santa Anna marched 
out with the small remnant of his army, and the city of Mexico 
was at the mercy of Scott. This virtually ended the war, and the 
honors bestowed upon the successful commander by his country 
were numerous and enthusiastic, and included a vote of thanks by 
Congress. In 1848 Gen. Scott was a candidate for the Whig nom- 
ination for the presidency, and in 1852 was nominated, but he was 
defeated at the election by Gen. Franklin Pierce. In Feb., 1855, 
he was brevetted lieutenant-general, to take rank from March 29, 
1847, in commemoration of his bravery in Mexico. The Civil war 
found him still in command of the army, and every inducement was 
offered him by the South to join their cause; but his loyalty was 
proof against them, and he threw the weight of his well-earned 
reputation upon the side of the government. During the early part 
of the war Gen. Scott was much in consultation with the govern- 
ment, and did his best to perform his official duties as general-in- 
chief, but he was now too infirm for so colossal a charge, and on 
Oct. 31, 1861, he retired from office, retaining, by special act of 
Congress, his pay and allowances. He died at West Point, N.Y., 
on May 29, 1866. 

Sedgwick, John, major-general, was born in Connecticut about 
1815. He was graduated at West Point in 1837, twenty-fourth in a 
class of fifty members, among whom were Gens. Benham, Hooker, Ar- 
nold, French, and others of the Federal service, and the Confederate 
Gens. Bragg, Early, and Pemberton. He entered the Mexican war 
as first lieutenant of artillery, and was successively brevetted cap- 
tain and major for gallant conduct at Contreras, Churubusco, and 
Chapultepec. He also distinguished himself at the head of his com- 
mand in the attack on the San Cosmo gate of the city of I\Iexico. 
At the outbreak of the Civil war he held the position of lieutenant- 
colonel of the 2nd U. S. cavalry. On April 25, 1861, he was pro- 



Biographical Sketches 229 

moted to the colonelcy of the 4th cavalry, and on Aug. 31 was com- 
missioned a brigadier-general of volunteers and placed in command 
of a brigade of the Army of the Potomac, which in the subsequent 
organization of the army was assigned to the 2nd corps, under 
Gen. Sumner, Gen. Sedgwick assuming command of the 3d division 
of the corps. In this capacity he took part in the siege of York- 
town and the subsequent pursuit of the enemy up the Peninsula, 
and greatly distinguished himself at the battle of Fair Oaks, where 
the timely arrival of Sumner's troops saved the day. In all the 
seven days' fighting, and particularly at Savage Station and Glen- 
dale, he bore an honorable part, and at the battle of Antietam he 
exhibited the most conspicuous gallantry, exposing his person with 
a recklessness which greatly imperiled his life. On this occasion he 
was twice wounded, but refused for two hours to be taken from the 
field. On Dec. 23, 1862, he was nominated by the president a 
major-general of volunteers, having previously been made a brevet 
brigadier-general of the regular army, and in the succeeding Feb- 
ruary he assumed command of the 6th army corps. At the head 
of these troops he carried Marye's heights in the rear of Fredericks- 
burg during the Chancellorsville campaign in May, 1863, and afler 
the retreat of Gen. Hooker across the Rappahannock, succeeded 
only by very hard fighting in withdrawing his command in the face 
of a superior force, against which he had contended for a whole 
day, to the left bank of the river. He commanded the left wing 
of the Army of the Potomac during the advance from the Rappa- 
hannock into Maryland in June, and also at the succeeding battle 
of Gettysburg, where he arrived on the second day of the fighting, 
after one of the most extraordinary forced marches on record, and 
where his steady courage inspired confidence among his tried troops. 
During the passage of the Rapidan on Nov. 7 he succeeded by a 
well-executed maneuver in capturing a whole Confederate division 
with a number of guns and colors, for which he was thanked by 
Gen. Meade in a general order. In command of his corps he took 
part in the spring campaign of the Wilderness, under Gen. Grant, 
and on May 5 and 6 had position on the Federal right wing, where 
the hardest fighting of those sanguinary engagements took place. 
On May 9, 1864. while directing the placing of some pieces of ar- 
tillery in position in the intrenchments in front of Spottsylvania 
Court House, he was struck in the head by a bullet from a sharp- 
shooter and instantl}^ killed. 

Seward, William H., Jr., brigadier-general, was born in Auburn, 
N. Y., June 18, 1839, being the son of the eminent statesman of 
the same name. He was carefully educated at home and entered 
business in a banking institution at Auburn in 1861, but shortly 
afterward enlisted in the volunteer service as lieutenant-colonel of 
the 138th N. Y. infantry. He was an energetic officer and was 
shortly promoted to the colonelcy of the 9th N. Y. heavy artillery. 
Col. Seward's regiment saw considerable service in the battle of the 
Wilderness and took part in the battle of Cold Harbor. He was 
given command of Fort Foote, Md., and was engaged in the battle 
of Monocacy, where he received a slight wound, but not sufficiently 
serious to prevent his retaining his command. On "Sept. 13, 1864, 
he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, and was for 
a season in command at Martinsburg, Va., but on June i, 1865, he 
resigned his commission and returned to Auburn, where he resumed 
his banking business. 

Seymour, Truman, brigadier-general, was born in Burlington, Vt., 
Sept. 25, 1824. He was graduated at the United States military 



230 The Union Army 

academy and appointed brevet 2nd lieutenant ist artillery, July i, 
1846; was promoted 2nd lieutenant March 3, and ist lieutenant Aug. 
26, 1847; captain Nov. 22, i860; was transferred to the 5th artillery, 
May 14, 1861; promoted major, Aug i;i, 1866; and was retired, Nov. 
I, 1876. In the volunteer army he was commissioned brigadier- 
general on April 26, 1862; bre vetted major-general on March 13, 
1865, and was mustered out of the service on Aug. 24, following. 
During his military career he was brevetted ist lieutenant on April 
18, 1847, for gallantry at Cerro Gordo; captain on Aug. 20 following, 
for conduct at Contreras and Churubusco; major on April 13, 1861, 
for the defense of Fort Sumter; lieutenant-colonel, Sept. 14, and 
colonel Sept. 17, 1862, for gallantry at South mountain and An- 
tietam; and brigadier-general and major-general on March 18, 1865, 
for services at Petersburg and during the war, and for "ability and 
energy in handling his division and for gallantry and valuable services 
in action." In his long service he distinguished himself in the Mex- 
ican, the Seminole, and the Civil wars. He was a member of Maj. 
Anderson's staflf in the defense of Fort Sumter. Among his bril- 
liant feats in the Civil war were his leading in the unsuccessful assault 
on Fort Wagner, where he was severely wounded, and his three 
hours' battle wit'n the Confederates under Gen. Joseph Finegan, near 
Olustee, Fla., whence lie was forced to retire to Jacksonville. He 
was taken prisoner in the battle of the Wilderness on May 6, 1864, 
and, by order of Gen. Samuel Jones, was placed in the line of fire 
of the Federal batteries on Morris island. After his release on Aug. 
9, he commanded a division in the Shenandoah valley and Richmond 
campaigns, and was conspicuous in the siege of and final attack 
on Petersburg. After the war he commanded forts in Florida, 
Fort Warren, Mass., and Fort Preble, Me., till his retirement. He 
then lived in Europe, most of the time in Florence, Italy, at which 
place he died on Oct. 30, 1891. 

Shackelford, James M., brigadier-general, was born in Lincoln 
county Ky., on July 7, 1827, and received an academic education 
in the schools of Springfield in his native state. Having barely ar- 
rived at manhood when the Mexican war broke out he enlisted in 
the United States service and became a lieutenant in Co. I of the 
4th Ky. regiment. After the close of that conflict he returned home, 
began the stud}- of law, was admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1853, 
and practiced his profession until the outbreak of the Civil war. 
In the early fall of 1861 he recruited the 25th Ky. infantry, was 
commissioned colonel of the same on Jan. i, 1862, and with it was 
engaged in the fighting at Donelson. He also bore his part in the 
battle of Shiloh, fighting during the entire first day's battle and had 
his regiment in the advance on the second day. In the month of 
April, after the battle of Shiloh, the 25th regiment was consolidated 
with the 17th, and with this consolidated command Col. Shackelford 
moved to Corinth and was engaged in severe skirmishing, lasting 
nearly all the night before the evacuation, and was with the first 
troops to enter the place. On Sept. 13, 1862, Col. Shackleford be- 
came colonel of the Stli Ky. cavalrj*. with the first battalion of which 
he attacked Adam Johnson's command at Geiger's lake and dispersed 
the enemy, but in the fight he was wounded, receiving a shot through 
the foot. Col. Shackelford was given the full rank of brigadier- 
general of volunteers on March 17, 1863. and his principal service 
in that capacity was as leader in the pursuit and capture of Morgan, 
in July, although he later commanded a cavalry corps consisting 
of sixteen regiments in the Army of the Ohio. He resigned his 
commission on Jan. 18, 1864, and returned to peaceful pursuits. 



Biographical Sketches 231 

making the practice of law his chief occupation. In 1889 he received 
the appointment as judge of the United States court for the Indian 
Territory, and he tilled that position until 1893, after which he re- 
sumed the practice of law at Muscogee, Ind. Ter., becoming attor- 
ney for the Choctaw Nation. 

Shaler, Alexander, brigadier-general, was born in Haddam, Conn., 
May 19, 1827, and was educated in private schools. When eighteen 
years old he joined the New York state militia as a private in the 
8th regiment, and was subsequently transferred to the noted 7th 
regiment. He was a close student of tactics and won repeated 
promotions — having served in turn as corporal, sergeant, lieutenant, 
captain, and major, which last-named rank he reached on Dec. 13, 
i860. When the 65th regiment. N. Y. volunteers, was recruited for 
service in the Civil war in 1861, Maj. Shaler was appointed its 
lieutenant-colonel in June, and became its colonel in July, 1862, 
serving with distinction in the Army of the Potomac up to the fall 
of 1863. He was then given command of the militarj-- prison at 
Johnson's island, Ohio, serving through the winter of 1863-64, when 
he rejoined the Army of the Potomac, having been commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers on May 26, 1863. He fought in all 
the battles of the Armj- of the Potomac up to that of the Wilderness, 
where he was captured and carried a prisoner of war to Macon, 
Ga. In Charleston, S. C, he was held during the summer of 1864 
a prisoner under the fire of Federal batteries. He was sub- 
sequently exchanged and commanded a division in the 7th corps, 
serving in the Southwest until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out of service on Aug. 24, 1865, having received the brevet 
of major-general of volunteers on July 2^. On retiring from the 
army Gen. Shaler continued his interest in military aflfairs, and was 
appointed major-general of the ist division of the National Guard 
of New York, serving from 1867-86. 

Shepard, Isaac F., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Massachusetts. In early life he removed to Missouri and was a 
resident of that state at the time of the breaking out of the Civil 
war. He at once of¥ered his services in defense of the Federal 
cause, and on June 18, 1861, was appointed assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral of the state of Missouri with the rank of major. On Aug. 30 
he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 19th Mo. infantry, 
and upon the consolidation of that regiment with the 3d Mo. 
infantry on Jan. 18, 1862, he was commissioned colonel. With four 
companies of the regiment he marched to southwest Missouri and 
was in the battle of Pea ridge. He led his entire regiment as a 
part of Gen. Curtis' army in the expedition to Helena, Ark., and 
on Dec. 12 became a part of the Army of the Mississippi. On May 
9, 1863, he became colonel of the 51st U. S. colored infantry and 
commanded that organization until Oct. 27, 1863, when he was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He served until his com- 
mission expired, on July 4, 1864. and he then left the service and 
devoted his attention to peaceful pursuits. He died on Aug. 25, 1889. 

Shepley, George F., brigadier-general, was born in Saco, Me., 
Jan. I, 1819. He was graduated at Dartmouth college in 1837, and 
after studying law at the Harvard law school he began practice in 
Bangor, Me., but in 1844 removed to Portland. ' In 1850 he was 
elected to the state senate, and from 1853 to June, 1861, he was 
United States district attorney for Maine, having been appointed to 
that oflice by President Pierce and continued in it by President 
Buchanan. In 1860 he was a delegate at large to the national Dem- 
ocratic convention at Charleston, and attended its adjourned session 



232 The Union Army 

at Baltimore. In the autumn of 1861 he became colonel of the 
I2th Me. volunteers, with which he arrived at Ship island in Feb., 
1862. He was then placed in command of the 3d brigade, and on 
the occupation of New Orleans he was made military commandant 
of that city. In June, 1862, he was appointed governor of 
Louisiana, and in July was made a brigadier-general of volunteers. 
After the inauguration of a civil governor of Louisiana Gen. Shepley 
was placed in command of the military district of Eastern Vir- 
ginia. He afterward became chief of stafif to Maj.-Gen. Weitzel, 
and for a short time during the absence of that ofificer commanded 
the 25th army corps. He continued with the Army of the James to 
the end of the war, and after the entry into Richmond he was made 
the first military governor of that city. He resigned his commis- 
sion in the army on July i, 1865, and in 1866 he was elected as a 
Republican to the Maine legislature. In 1869 he was appointed 
United States circuit judge for the ist circuit, in which position he 
continued till the time of his death, that event occurring at Portland, 
Me., on July 20, 1878. 

Sheridan, Philip H., major-general, was born at Albany, N. Y., 
March 6, 1831, but while he was yet in his infancy his par- 
ents removed to Somerset, Ohio, and some of his earlier biographers 
have made the error of naming the latter as the place of his birth. 
His father was a contractor for the building of roads, and was away 
from home a great deal, so that Sheridan was reared by his mother, 
and at the village school learned the rudimentary English branches. 
The ambition to be a soldier had already evinced itself, but as soon 
as he could do so he entered a country store at a salary of $24 
per year; thence he went to another store, where his pay was $60 
per annum, and finally secured a situation where he earned $120 
for twelve months' labor as book-keeper and general manager. 
It is said that up to the time he was sixteen years old he had never 
been ten miles away from Somerset after his parents located there. 
At this period he applied to the member of Congress from his dis- 
trict for an appointment as cadet at the United States military 
academy. The answer was the enclosure of his warrant as such 
cadet, and the direction that he report at the academy on June i, 
1848. Passing the preliminary examinations without trouble, he was 
aided by Cadet H. W. Slocum of New York, who was his room- 
mate, in studies of which he knew nothing upon his entry into the 
institution. In 1852, his graduating year, Sheridan was suspended 
from the academy for his action in some trouble with another 
cadet, but he afterward joined the class of 1853 and was graduated 
with it, rating the thirty-fourth in a class of fifty-two. He was 
assigned to the ist U. S. infantry, but was soon afterward trans- 
ferred to the 4tli. In 1856 he was stationed in Washington ter- 
ritory, defending the cascades of the Columbia river against Indians. 
In May, 1861, he became a captain, and in December was appointed 
chief quartermaster and commissary in southwest Missouri, on the 
staff of Maj.-Gen. Curtis. He was quartermaster at Gen. Halleck's 
headquarters in April, 1862, but in response to an application from 
the governor of Michigan, who wanted an educated soldier to com- 
mand the 2nd Mich, cavalry, Sheridan was made its colonel, and so 
received his first command. In the advance on Corinth he partici- 
pated in several engagements, and on June 2, 1862, he was placed 
in command of the 2nd cavalry brigade of the Army of the Missis- 
sippi. At the battle of Booneville on July i, where he was at- 
tacked by a force of Confederates at least 4.500 strong, he con- 
verted his defence into an offensive movement by detaching a part 




Maj.-Gen. Carl Schurz 
Maj.-Gen. John Sedgwick 
Brig.-Gen. J. M. Shackel- 
ford 
Maj.-Gen. P. H. Sheridan 



Brig.-Gen. R. K. ScoTT 
Brig.-Gen. W. H. Seward, 

Jr. 
Brig.-Gen. Alex. Shaler 
Brig.-Gen. F. T. Sherman 



Maj.-Gen. Winfield Scott 
Maj.-Gen. Truman Sey- 
mour 
Brig.-Cien. G. F. SheplEY 
Brig.-Gen. T. W. Sherman 



Biographical Sketches 233 

of his force to take his foe in the rear and Hank, and the surprised 
enemy, utterly routed, fled from the field. For this he received 
his star and commission as brigadier-general of volunteers, dating 
July l; on Oct. i he found himself in command of the nth division 
of the army, and on the 8th of that month he took part in the 
sanguinary battle of Perryville, holding the key-point of the posi- 
tion and defending it successfully against several attacks of the 
enemy. In the battle of Stone's river Sheridan sustained four sep- 
arate attacks, and four times repulsed the enemy. On recommenda 
tion of Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, the U. S. commander in that engage- 
ment, he was now made major-general of volunteers, dating from 
the lirst day of the battle of Stone's river. He remained with the 
Armj' of the Cumberland in its march toward the Chickamauga 
creek, and in the battle of that name, Sept. 19-20, 1863, he did his 
best to beat back the furious storm which so nearly destroyed the 
Federal army, and he never displayed more stubborn courage or 
military skill in a subordinate sphere than on that eventful day. 
The battle of Missionary ridge was fought two months later, and it 
was Sheridan who, with his division, carried the ridge under a hot 
enfilading fire from thirty pieces of Confederate artillery, and a 
tempest of musketry from well-filled rifle pits on its summit; worked 
his way up to the front till he reached the highest crest, and then 
went thundering down the ridge until within 500 yards of the head- 
quarters of the Confederate commanding general, Bragg. Com- 
petent authority declares that in this battle he really did as much 
as in any other to earn what finally came to him. the generalship 
of the U. S. army. He took command of the cavalry of the Army 
of the Potomac on April 4, 1864, and at once set about making it 
a fighting force, rather than a defensive picket-line for the infantry 
and artillery. In June he was sent to cut the Virginia Central 
railroad and unite with Gen. Hunter, who was then marching up 
the valley of Virginia, and it was expected that this movement would 
draw oflf the Confederate cavalry and leave the James river free 
to the unimpeded passage of Gen. Grant's army. It did so, Sheri- 
dan having on his route, however, to fight a smart battle at Tre- 
vilian Station, as he also did at Darbytown, Va., in the month of 
July. Soon thereafter Sheridan came to the leadership of the Army 
of the Shenandoah, by direct appointment of Gen. Grant, after per- 
sonally visiting Sheridan, and without consulting the government 
at Washington. Sheridan attacked Early on Sept. 19, and after 
a severe struggle scattered the enemy in all directions, sending^ 
them "whirling through Winchester," Va., and on Sept. 22, after 
pursuing Early, struck him again in flank and rear at Fisher's hill, 
where the Virginia valley is but three miles wide. While he was 
in Winchester on Oct. 19, his wily foe. Early, surprised the Federal 
forces in their camp at Cedar creek, and drove back large portions 
of them for six or seven miles in great disorder. This occasioned 
the famous ride, celebrated in song and story, and what appeared 
like disastrous defeat was turned into a decided victory. Sheridan 
was at once made a major-general in the U. S. regular army, in 
President Lincoln's words, "For the personal gallantry, military skill, 
and just confidence in the courage and gallantry of your troops, 
displayed by you on Oct. 19. at Cedar run, whereby, imder the bles- 
sing of Providence, your routed army was reorganized, a great 
national disaster averted, and a brilliant victory achieved over the 
rebels for the third time in pitched battle within thirty days." Gen. 
Sheridan's career from this time until the surrender of Lee is a part 
of the history of the final daj^s of the war, and after the surrender 



234 The Union Army 

he had charge of the Department of the Gulf, and later he was 
commander of the Department of Missouri. He was made U. S. 
lieutenant-general in 1869, when Gen. Grant was elected president, 
the western and southwestern military divisions of the United 
States were under his command in 1878, and when Gen. Sherman 
was retired in 1883, Sheridan became general-inchief of the regular 
army, being the nineteenth officer who had attained that rank. 
Gen. Sheridan died at Nonquitt, Mass., Aug. 5, 1888. 

Sherman, Francis T., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Connecticut, and in early life located in Illinois, where he was re- 
siding at the time of the outbreak of the Civil war. After serving 
for a short period with the 56th 111. infantry he was honorably 
mustered out on Feb. 5, 1862, and on March 8, following, he became 
major in the 12th 111. cavalry. With his regiment he remained at 
Camp Butler, 111., guarding Confederate prisoners until June 25, 
when he accompanied his command to Martinsburg, W. Va. He 
was again honorably mustered out on Aug. 26, 1862, and on Sept. 4, 
following, was promoted to colonel of the 88th 111. infantry, organ- 
ized at Chicago and known as the "Second Board of Trade Reg- 
iment." He accompanied this regiment to Louisville, Ky., going 
into camp below Jefifersonville, and led it in the engagement at 
Perryville. His next conflict with the enemy was in the battle of 
Stone's river, and he also participated in the battle of Chickamauga. 
His regiment with its gallant colonel in the lead formed part of the 
assaulting column upon the left center of the enemy's position at 
the battle of Missionary ridge, and was among the first to place 
its colors upon the enemy's works. He was with the advance, his 
regiment forming part of the 4th corps, throughout the whole of the 
Atlanta campaign, up to and including the capture of Atlanta — 
participating in the following principal battles and skirmishes: 
Rocky Face ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope Church, Pine moun- 
tain. Mud creek. Kennesaw mountain, Smyrna Camp Ground, At- 
lanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station. He was also engaged in 
skirmishes at Columbia and Spring Flill. Tenn.. and in the battle 
of Franklin, in which engagement his regiment was upon the right 
center, the main point of attack of the enemy. Col. Sherman was 
also engaged in the battle of Nashville, and continued to serve with 
his regiment until March 13, 1865, when he was commissioned brig- 
adier-general of volunteers. On Jan 15, 1866, he retired from 
military service and gave his attention to civil pursufts. 

Sherman, Thomas W., brigadier-general, was born in the state 
of Rhode Island in 1S13, and was a cadet at the United States mili- 
tary academy from July i, 1832 to July i, 1836, when he was grad- 
uated and promoted in the army to second lieutenant in the 3d ar- 
tillery. He served in the Florida war, 1836-38, and also in the Cher- 
okee Nation, and was promoted to first lieutenant in the 3d artillery 
on March 14, 1P38. He again served in the Florida war, 1838-42; 
in garrison at Fort Moultrie, S. C, 1842-44; on recruiting service, 
1844-46; in the war with Mexico, 1846-48. being engaged in command 
of a battery in the battle of Buena Vista. He was promoted cap- 
tain in the 3d artillery, on May 28, 1846. and was breyetted major 
on Feb. 23, 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle 
of Buena Vista. He was in garrison at Fort Trumbull, Conn., in 
1848. at Fort Adams. R. I.. 1849-53; and on frontier duty at Fort 
Snelling. Minn.. 1853-57; in command of expedition to Yellow Med- 
icine, Minn., 1857; quelling Kansas border disturbances. 1857-58, 
and he was at Fort Ridgely, Minn., as instructor in an artillery 
school for practice, 1858-61, except while in command of an ex- 



Biographical Sketches 235 

pedition to Kettle Lake, Dak., in 1859. Upon the outbreak of the 
Civil war he was placed in command of a battery of U. S. artillery 
and ■ battalion of Pennsylvania voluntcer.s, at Elkton, Md.. from 
April 24 to May 10, 1861, guarding the Philadelphia & Baltimore 
railroad and the Delaware canal. He was engaged in reopening com- 
munications throu.gh Baltimore, May 10-12, was commissioned lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 5th artillery on May 14, and brigadier-general 
of volunteers on May 17, and as chief of light artillery was engaged 
in the defense of Washington from May 21 to June 28. He was 
engaged in recruiting the 5th U. S. artillery in Pennsylvania, June 
30 to July 2T, in (Mganizing an expedition for seizing and holding 
Bull's Bay, S. C, and Fernandina, Fla., for the use of the block- 
ading fleet on the Southern coast, July 2^ to Oct 21, and was in 
command of the land forces of the Port Royal expedition, Oct. 21, 
1861, to March 31, 1862. He was in command of a division of the 
Army of the Tennessee from April 30 to June i, in the advance 
upon and siege of Corinth, Miss., and in command of the center 
of the Army of Mississippi in pursuit of the enemy upon evacuating 
the place. He was in command of a division of the Department 
of the Gulf above New Orleans from Sept 18, 1862, to Jan. 9, 1863, 
in the defenses of New Orleans from Jan. 9 to May 19, and was 
in the expedition to Port Hudson, M^y 19-27, in command of the 
left wing of the army besieging the place, being engaged in sev- 
eral skirmishes and in the assault upon tlie works, May 2^, when, 
in leading a column to the assault, he lost his right leg. He was 
commissioned colonel in the 3d artillery on June i, 1863, but was 
disabled by his wound until Feb. 15, 1864, when he was placed in 
command of the reserve brigade of artillery, Department of the 
Gulf, and was stationed at Forts Jackson and St. Philip, La., from 
March i to May 4. He was in command of the defenses of New 
Orleans from June 16, 1864, to Feb. 11, 1865, of the southern di- 
vision of Louisiana from Feb.ii to July 23, and of the eastern dis- 
trict of Louisiana from July 23, 1865, to April 20, 1866. He was 
brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. army, on March 13, 1865, for 
gallant and meritorious services at the capture of Port Hudson, 
La., and was given the brevets of major-general of volunteers and 
major-general U. S. A., at the same time for gallant and meritorious 
services during the rebellion. He was mustered out of the volun- 
teer service on April 30, 1866, after which he served in command 
of a regiment and the post of Fort Adams, R. L, with but a few 
months intermission until Feb., 1869; then was stationed at Key 
West, Fla., until Nov. 29, 1870. He retired from active service on 
Dec. 31, 1870. as major-general, for disability caused by the loss 
of a leg in battle, and he died at Newport, R. L, on March 16, 1879. 

Sherman, William T., lieutenant-general, was born at Lancaster, 
Fairfield county, Ohio, Feb. 8, 1820. Left an orphan at nine years 
of age. he was adopted by Thomas Ewing, later secretary of the 
interior, and attended school at Lancaster until 1836, when he was 
appointed a cadet at the West Point military academy. Graduating 
in 1840, sixth in a class of forty-two, he was made a second lieu- 
tenant and assigned to duty in Florida, where he was engaged from 
time to time in incursions against the hostile Seminole Indians. 
On Nov. 30, 1841, he was promoted to first lieutenant, and until the 
outbreak of the Mexican war, was stationed at various posts in 
the South, including St. Augustine, and Forts Pierce. Morgan and 
Moultrie. At one time he undertook the study of law, with no 
thought of making it his profession, but to be prepared "for any 
situation that fortune or luck might oflFer." In 1846 he was sta- 



236 The Union Army 

tioned at Pittsburg, as recruiting officer, but shortly after, in con- 
sequence of repeated applications for active service, was sent to 
California, where, contrary to expectation, he was uneventfully en- 
gaged as acting assistant adjutant-general of the loth military 
department under Gen. Stephen W. Kearnj', and later under Col. 
R. B. Mason. In 1850 he returned to the Atlantic states as bearer 
of despatches, and was stationed at St. Louis, Mo., as commissary 
of subsistence with the rank of captain. In March, 1851, he received 
the commission of captain by brevet, to date from May 30, 1848. 
On Sept. 6, 1853, he resigned from the army and became manager 
of the branch banking-house of Lucas, Turner & Co., at San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. In 1857 he returned to New York and, his firm having 
suspended, opened a law office in Leavenworth, Kan., with Hugh 
and Thomas E. Ewing, Jr. In July, 1859, he was elected superin- 
tendent of the Louisiana military academy, with a salary of $5,000 
per annum, the institution opening Jan. i, i860, but on the seizure 
of the arsenal at Baton Rouge in Jan., 1861, in anticipation of the 
secession of the state, he tendered his resignation. Going to Wash- 
ington, he endeavored in vain to impress upon the administration 
the gravity of the situation which he characterized as "sleeping upon 
a volcano," and the president's call for volunteers for three months 
as "an attempt to put out the flames of a burning house with a 
squirtgun." For two months he was president of the 5th street 
railway of St. Louis, Mo., and on May 14, 1861, was made colonel 
of the 13th regiment of regular infantry, commanding a brigade in 
the division of Gen. Tyler in the battle of Bull Run, July 21. On 
Aug. 3 he was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers, to date 
from May 17, and on Oct. 7 relieved Maj.-Gen. Anderson in com- 
mand of the Department of Kentucky. On Nov. 12, however, he 
was in turn relieved by Gen. D. C. Buell, his estimate of the number 
of troops required in his department, "sixty thousand men to drive 
the enemy out of Kentucky and 200,000 to finish the war in this sec- 
tion." being considered so wildly extravagant as to give rise to 
doubts of his sanity. It was. however, justified by later events. 
During the remainder of the winter he was in command of the 
camp of instruction at Benton barracks, near St. Louis, and when 
Grant moved upon Donelson. was stationed at Paducah. where he 
rendered eflfective service in forwarding supplies and reinforcements. 
Here, also, he organized the 5th division of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee from raw troops who had never been under fire, and with 
these he held the key point of Pittsburg landing and "saved the 
fortunes of the day" on April 6, and contributed to the glorious vic- 
torj' of the 7th. although severely wounded in the hand on the first 
day. On the second, he had three horses shot under him. but mount- 
ing a fourth he remained on the field, and it was the testimony of 
Gen. Grant, in recommending his promotion, that "to his individ- 
ual eflForts I am indebted for the success of that battle." On May 
I he was commissioned major-general of volunteers and on July i 
was put in charge of the Department of Memphis, which he at once 
proceeded to organize, restoring the civil authorities, causing a re- 
vival of business, and sternly repressing guerrilla warfare. In Oc- 
tober he concerted with Gen. Grant at Columbus, Ky.. the details 
of the ensuing campaign, in which Pemberton's force, 40.000 strong, 
was dislodged from the line of the Tallahatchie and driven behind 
the Yalabusha in consequence of a combined movement by both 
generals from Jackson and Memphis, while 5.000 cavalry under Wash- 
burne threatened his communications in the rear. Falling back to 



Biographical Sketches 237 

Millikcn's bend, Sherman resigned his command to Gen. McCler- 
nand, but shortly afterward suggested and led the attack on Fort 
Hindman with its garrison of 5,000 men by which the control of 
Arkansas river was gained, the key to the military possession of the 
state, with the loss of but 134 killed and 898 wounded, while of the 
enemy, 150 were killed and 4,791 taken prisoners. In the campaign 
of 1863 Sherman was in command of the expedition up Steele's 
bayou, abandoned on account of insuperable difficulties, though he 
dispersed troops sent to oppose the movement; and the demonstra- 
tion against Haynes" bluff was also committed to him, tliough 
with some hesitation, by Gen. Grant, lest his reputation should suffer 
from report of another repulse. In the Vicksburg campaign of 109 
days Gen. Sherman entitled himself, in the words of Gen. Grant, 
"to more credit than usually falls to the lot of one man to earn." 
The drawn battle of Chickamauga and the critical condition of 
Rosecrans at Chattanooga called next loudly for the troops resting 
at Vicksburg, and on Sept. 22 Sherman received orders to forward 
his divisions, with the exception of one which remained to guard 
the line of the Big Black. Meanwhile Gen. Grant, having been placed 
in command of the Division of the Mississippi, assigned the Depart- 
ment of the Tennessee to Sherman, who, on the receipt of telegraphic 
summons to "drop all work" and hurrj' eastward, pushed forward 
in advance of his men and reached Chattanooga on Nov. 15. It 
was proposed that he initiate the offensive, which he proceeded to 
do upon the arrival of his troops, Nov. 23. He pitched his tents 
along Missionary ridge and his sentinels were clearly visible, not 
a thousand yards away. The battle of Missionary ridge being won, 
the relief of Burnside on the Hiawassee was next to be contemplated 
and with weary troops who two weeks before had left camp with 
but two days' provisions and "stripped for the fight," ill supplied 
now and amid the privations of winter, Sherman turned to raise the 
siege of Knoxville. On Jan. 24, 1864, he returned to Memphis, and in 
preparation for the next campaign decided upon the "Meridian Raid." 
To the expedition of Gen. Banks up the Red river he next con- 
tributed 10,000 men for thirt}' days, but the force did not return 
to Vicksburg until more than two months had elapsed, too late to 
take part in the Atlanta campaign. On March 14 Gen. Grant was 
appointed lieutenant-general to command all the armies of the 
United States in the field, and Sherman succeeded to the Division 
of the Mississippi. On May 6 the movement toward Atlanta was 
started with the capture of the city as the desideratum, and such 
progress was made that on Aug. 12 the rank of major-general, U. S. A., 
was bestowed upon Gen. Sherman by the president, in anticipation 
of his success. After indefinite skirmishing for a month, following 
the fall of Atlanta, and during which the gallant defense of Allatoona 
pass was made by Gen. Corse with 1,944 men against a whole 
division of the enemy, the famous "march to the sea" was resolved 
upon, not alone as a means of supporting the troops, but, in Sher- 
man's own words, "as a direct attack upon the rebel army at the 
rebel capital at Richmond, though a full thousand miles of hostile 
country intervened," and from Nov. 14 until Dec. 10 he was accord- 
ingly buried in the enemy's country, severed from all communication 
in the rear, and crossed the three rivers of Georgia, passing through 
her capital in his triumphal progress of 300 miles, during which his 
loss was but 567 men. On Dec. 2, he telegraphed to President Lin- 
coln, "I beg to present you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah 
with 150 heavy guns and plenty of ammunition, and also about 25.000 



238 The Union Army 

bales of cotton," in reply to which he received the assurance that to 
him alone the honor of his iindertaking was due, as acquiescence 
only had been accorded him, and anxiety, if not fear, had been 
felt for his success. The surrender of Johnston was made at Dur- 
ham station, N. C, on April 26, 1865, after a triumphal march of 
Sherman's army through the Carolinas, and on May 24, a year after 
it had started on its journey of 2.600 miles, the conquering host 
was reviewed at Washington. D. C. On June 2y Gen. Sherman 
was placed in command of the military division of the Mississippi, 
which included the departments of Ohio, Missouri, and Arkansas, and 
on July 25. 1866. he succeeded Gen. Grant as lieutenant-general of 
the army. On March 4, 1869, when Grant was inaugurated as presi- 
dent, Sherman became general of the army, and in 1871-72, on leave 
of absence, made a tour of Europe and the East. On Feb. 8, 1884, 
he was retired from active service, and on Feb. 14, 1891, expired at 
New York, the day following tlie demise of his friend and comrade 
in arms, Adni. David D. Porter. 

Shields, James, brigadier-general, was born in Dungannon. County 
Tyrone. Ireland, Dec. 12, 1810. He emigrated to the United States 
in 1826, studied law and was admitted to the bar at Kaskaskia, 
111., when he was but twenty-one years old. He subsequently turned 
his attention to politics, in 1836 was elected to the state legislature 
and in 1839 was made state auditor. In 1843 he was appointed 
judge of the Supreme Court and in 1845 was appointed commissioner 
of the U. S. land office. He served during the Mexican war, being 
severely wounded both at Cerro Gordo and Chapultepec, and for 
meritorious and gallant services on the former occasion was com- 
missioned brigadier-general and brevet major-general. He served 
under Gen. Tajdor on the Rio Grande and under Gen. Wood at 
Chihuahua. After resigning from the army he was appointed gov- 
ernor of Oregon in 1848. He served as U. S. senator from Illinois, 
1S49-55, and was U. S. senator from Minnesota from 1858-60. and 
afterward settled in California. He was in Mexico at the outbreak 
of the Civil war, engaged in superintending a mine, but at once went 
to Washington and offered his services for the cause of the Union. 
He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers on Aug. 19, 1861, 
assigned to the command of Gen. L?nder's brigade after the latter's 
death, and was placed at the head of a division of Gen. N. P. Banks' 
Army of the Shenandoah, March 29, 1862. He took a leading part in 
the battles of Winchester and Port Republic, and resigned from the 
service in 1863. Gen. Shields then settled in Wisconsin, whence he 
removed to Carrollton, Mo., wliere he practiced law and served as 
a railroad commissioner. In 1874 he w^as elected to the Missouri legis- 
lature and in 1879 was appointed to the U. S. senate to serve out the 
unexpired term of Senator Bogg. He died at Ottumwa. la., June i, 

1879. 

Sibley, Henry H., brigadier-general, was born in Detroit, Mich., 
Feb. 20, 181 1. He was graduated at Detroit Academy, took a special 
course in Greek and Latin and read law, but in 1829 became clerk 
to the sutler at Sault Ste. Marie. Soon afterward he took a local 
agency of John Jacob Astor's fur company, and, after being in 1832-34 
a purchasing a.gent. he was given an interest in the companj' and took 
charge of its business in the territory north of Lake Pepin, extend- 
ing to the British line and west to the head waters of the tributaries 
of the Missouri river. In 1834 he reached the mouth of the Min- 
nesota river, on a trip for the company, and, establishing his head- 



Biographical Sketches 239 

quarters at St. Peters (now Mendota), built the first stone Iksusc 
within the present limits of Minnesota. Two years afterward he 
was appointed by Gov. Chambers of Iowa, a justice of the peace. 
In 1848 he was elected a delegate from Wisconsin territory to Con- 
gress,, and there secured the passage of a bill for the creation of 
Minnesota territorj'. He was re-elected to Congress for two terms; 
in 1857 took part in the constitutional convention and was elected to 
the territorial legislature; and on the admission of Minnesota as a 
state, in 1858, he was elected its first governor, as a Democrat. In 
1862, at the time of the Sioux Indian outbreak, he organized and 
commanded the troops raised for the protection of the frontier settlers 
and was commissioned a brigadier-general. During this campaign 
he took about 2,000 Indian prisoners, tried more than 400 of them 
by court-martial, and on Dec. 26 executed thirty-eight at one time, 
only President Lincoln's direct orders preventing the execution of 
many more. Gen. Sibley was brevetted major-general, Nov. 29, 1865, 
was relieved of his command in Minnesota in Aug., 1866, and was de- 
tailed as a member of a commission to negotiate treaties with the Sioux 
and other hostiles along the upper Missouri river. In 1871 he served 
another term in the legislature, and afterward lived quietly in St. 
Paul. He was a regent of the state university, president of the 
state normal school board, and a member of the United States board 
of Indian commissioners. He died in St. Paul on Feb. 18, i8gi. 
Sickles, Daniel E., (see Vol. II, page 17). 

Sigel, Franz, major-general, was born in Sinsheim, Baden, Ger- 
many, Nov. 18, 1824. He received a military education and took an 
active and prominent part in the German revolution of 1848 and 1849. 
At the close of the revolution he retreated with the rest of his army 
to Switzerland and in 1852 came to the United States, becoming a 
teacher in a private school in New York city. In 1857 he removed 
to St. Louis and taught in a college of that city. In 1861 he became 
colonel of the 3d Mo. infantry, aided in the capture of Camp Jackson, 
and on July 5 fought and won the battle of Carthage. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of brigadier-general, served under Fremont in the 
campaign against Price, and commanded two divisions at the battle 
of Pea ridge. Owing to a disagreement with Halleck he resigned, 
but was soon made a major-general and took command of the forces 
stationed at Harper's Ferry, Va. He succeeded to the command of 
Fremont's corps, served under Pope in the Virginia campaign, and 
fought gallantly at the second battle of Bull Run. On Sept. 14, 1862, 
he was assigned to the nth armj^ corps, and in 1863 he commanded 
a grand division, consisting of the nth and 12th corps, under Gen. 
Burnside. In 1864 he was placed in command of the Department of 
West Virginia. He fought an unsuccessful battle with the forces of 
Gen. Breckinridge at New Market on May 15, with 3,000 against .S.ooo 
men, and in conse.ouence was relieved of his command by Gen. Hunt- 
er. During Gen. Early's raid in July he defended Maryland Heights 
successfully with 4,000 against 15.000 men. In 1866 he settled in New 
York city and in i860 was the Republican candidate for secretary of 
state of New York, but was defeated at the polls. In 1871 he was 
elected register of New York city and county by the Republicans 
and Reform Democracy and served the full term. Upon the nomina- 
tion of Gen. Hancock for the presidency in 1880, he allied himself 
with the Democracy, and from 1885 to 1889 was pension agent of the 
U. S. government in New York city, by appointment of President 
Cleveland. He died at his residence at Morrisania, N. Y., on Aug. 
21, 1902. 



240 The Union Army 

Sill, Joshua W., brigadier-general, was born in Chillicothe, Ohio, 
Dec. 6, i(S3i. He was graduated from West Point military academy 
in 1853, and as second lieutenant was assigned to the ordnance depart- 
ment at Watervliet arsenal; was returned to the academy, Sept. 23, 
1854, as assistant professor of geography, history, and ethics, and 
served in that capacity until Aug. 29, 1857; promoted to first lieuten- 
ancy in 1856; was engaged in routine duty at various arsenals and ord- 
nance depots until Jan. 25, i86r, when he resigned from the army to 
become professor of mathematics and civil engineering in the Brook- 
lyn collegiate and polytechnic institute. On the call for troops, 
after the firing on Fort Sumter, a few weeks after resigning his 
position in the regular army, he offered his services to the governor 
of Ohio and was promptly commissioned assistant adjutant-general 
of that state. He took part in the battle of Rich mountain, July 11, 
with the 33d Ohio infantry, and was commissioned colonel of that 
regiment. His operations were principally in Kentucky, Tennessee, 
and Alabama. He took command of a brigade Nov. 30, 1861; was 
appointed brigadier-general of volunteers July 16, 1862; took part in 
the battle of Perryville, the pursuit of Bragg's army and the Ten- 
nessee campaign of the Army of the Cumberland. While endeavoring 
to rally his men at the battle of Stone's river he was killed, Dec. 
31, 1862. 

Slack, James R., brigadier-general, was born in the state of Penn- 
sylvania, but removed to Indiana early in life and was a resident of 
that state at the time of the breaking out of the Civil war. In 
Oct., 1861, he joined the 47th Ind. infantry, a regiment that was 
organized at Anderson, Ind., and with it he was mustered into the 
service on Dec. 13, being commissioned colonel. On the same 
day he left the state with his regiment and proceeded to Bards- 
town, Ky., where his command was assigned to Gen. Wood's brigade 
of Buell's army. It moved to Camp Wickliffe, arriving there Dec. 
31, and thence moved for West Point, Feb. 14, 1862, taking trans- 
ports there for Commerce, Miss. He thence moved to New Madrid, 
where he was engaged with the enemy, his regiment being the first 
to enter Fort Thompson. He led his regiment in the engagement 
at Riddle's Point between the shore batteries and the enemy's gun- 
boats and then moved to Tiptonville, Tenn. He was at Memphis 
during July and with his regiment participated in a skirmish at 
Brown's plantation on Aug. 11. He then moved to Helena, Ark., 
where he remained with his regiment until March. 1863, then joined 
the Yazoo Pass expedition, after which he moved his command to 
the rear of Vicksburg, engaging in the battles and skirmishes of that 
campaign. He was at Champion's hill, and in the trenches before 
Vicksburg his regiment was constantly engaged until the surrender. 
He was also engaged in the battle at Jackson, moved to New 
Orleans in August and thence to Berwick bay. In the Tecbc expedi- 
tion with his regiment he was engaged at Grand Coteau. and he 
also took part in the Red River expedition in the spring of 1864, 
participating in the marches, battles, skirmishes and retreats of that 
campaign. He was engaged at Atchafalaya bayou on July 28, and 
was stationed with his regiment at Morganza most of the fall, being 
promoted to brigadier-general on Nov. 10, 1864. He continued in 
the field, rendering loyal and effective service, until Jan. 15, 1866, 
when he was honorably mustered out, having been brevetted major- 
general of volunteers on March 13. 1865, for gallant and meritorious 
services during the war. Gen. Slack died on July 28, t88i. 

Slemmer, Adam J., brigadier-general, was born in Montgomery 
county. Pa., in 1828. He was graduated at the West Point military 






,«*^ 





Lieut. -Gen. W. T. Sher- lirig. -Gen. James Suihlus 

MAN Brig.-Geii. J. W. Sill 

Maj.-Gen. Franz Sigel Maj.-Gen. H. \V. Slocum 

Brig.-Gen. A. T. Slemmer Maj.-Gen. C. F. Smith 
Maj.-Gen. A. J. Smith 



.Maj. ('.L'li, I ). v.. SicKi.r.i 
I'.rig.-Gen. J. R. Slack 
Erig.-Gen. J. P. Slouch 
Maj.-Gen. G. .\. Smith 



Biographical Sketches 241 

academy in July, 1850, and assigned to the ist artillery. He took 
a conspicuous part in the campaign against the Seminole Indians in 
Florida, served on the California frontier for four years, and was 
assistant professor of mathematics at West Point, 1855-59. He 
was afterward assigned to garrison duty at Fort Moultrie, S. C, 
and in i860 was transferred to Florida. When the war broke out 
he occupied Fort Barrancas in Pensacola harbor with a small body 
of soldiers. Later he was instrumental in holding Fort Pickens 
until relieved by Col. Harvey Brown, thus preserving the key to 
the Gulf of Mexico. He was promoted major of the i6th infantry 
in May, 1861; was inspector-general of the Department of the Ohio, 
and participated in the siege of Corinth and the movement for the 
relief of Nashville, Tenn. He became brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, Nov. 29, 1862, and took an active part in the battle of Stone's 
river, Dec. 31, where he received wounds so severe that his field 
service was practically ended. From July, 1863, to the close of the 
war he served on an examining board as its president. On Feb. 
8, 1864, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 4th infantry, 
and in March, 1865, he won the brevets of colonel and brigadier- 
general, U. S. A., for gallant conduct. Gen. Slemmer left the vol- 
unteer service in August of the same year and spent the balance 
of his life in command at Fort Laramie, Dak., where he died of 
heart disease, Oct. 7, 1868. 

Slocum, Henry W., major-general, was born in Delphi, Onondaga 
county, N. Y., Sept 24, 1827. He was graduated at West Point in 
1852 and became second lieutenant in the ist artillery. After serv- 
ing in the Seminole war in Florida he was promoted first lieutenant 
on March 3, 1855, and was on duty at Fort Moultrie, S. C.,. till Oct. 
31, 1856, when he resigned his commisssion. He then settled in 
Syracuse; began practicing law, which he had studied while in the 
army; entered political life; was elected to the legislature as a Dem- 
ocrat in 1859, and from 1859 till 1861 was also instructor of artillery 
in the state militia with the rank of colonel. On May 21, 1861, he 
became colonel of the 27th N. Y. volunteers. The regiment left 
Elmira for the front on July 10, and eleven days afterward it passed 
through the first battle of Bull Run, where its commander was 
wounded in the thigh. On Aug. 9, while confined to the hospital, 
he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. On his recovery 
he was assigned to the command of a brigade in Franklin's division. 
Army of the Potomac. In the Peninsular campaign of 1862 he took 
part in the siege of Yorktown and the engagement at West Point; 
succeeded Gen. Franklin in command of the division on May 15; 
reinforced Gen. Fitz John Porter in the battle of Gaines' mill, June 
27; and, with his division, occupied the right of the main line in the 
battles of Glendale and Malvern hill. On July 4, 1862, he was promoted 
major-general of volunteers; on Aug 30 was engaged in the second 
battle of Bull Run; Sept. 14 was in the battle of South mountain; 
and Sept. 17 added much to his brilliant record in the battle of 
Antietam, in the latter part of which he was assigned to the com- 
mand of the I2th corps, succeeding Gen. Mansfield, who had been 
killed. He further distinguished himself at Chancellorsville and at 
Gettysburg, where his command was on the right of the army, and 
repelled a charge made by Ewell's corps at daylight on July 3. 
In October, after the drawn battle at Chickamauga, the nth and 12th 
corps were detached from the Army of the Potomac and hastened 
to reinforce the army in the Department of the Cumberland. In 
April, 1864, Gen. Sherman consolidated the two corps into what 
Vol. VIII— 16 



242 The Union Army 

was afterward known as the 20th corps, and assigned Gen. Hooker 
to the command. On this consolidation Gen. Slocum was given 
command of a division and of the district of Vicksburg. In August 
Gen. Hooker was succeeded by Gen. Slocum. When Gen. Sherman 
made his movement around Atlanta to the Macon road, he assigned 
Gen. Slocum to guard the communications, and wlien the Confed- 
erates left their intrenclimcnts about Atlanta to meet the Federal 
army, Gen. Slocum threw his corps directly into the city. In the 
march to the sea and through the Carolinas, Gen. Slocum commanded 
the left wing of the army, comprising the 14th and 20th corps. 
From June 29 till Sept. 16 he commanded the Department of the 
Mississippi, and on Sept. 28, 1865, he resigned his commission, re- 
turning to civil life in Brooklyn. In the election of 1865 he was 
defeated as Democratic candidate for secretary of state of New 
York; in 1868 was a presidential elector; and in 1868 and 1870 was 
elected to Congress. He was defeated by Grover Cleveland in the 
Democratic convention of 1882 as a candidate for the nomination 
for governor of New York, and in the same year was elected Con- 
gressman at Large. Gen Slocum died at Brooklyn. N. Y., April 14, 

'894- . ... 

Slough, John P., brigadier-general, was a native of Cincinnati, 
and in the year 1850 was elected to the legislature of Ohio, from 
which body he was expelled for striking one of the members. He 
was requested to apologize to the liouse, and upon his refusal to 
do so that body expelled him. In 1852 he became the secretary of the 
Central Democratic committee of Ohio, which office he filled satis- 
factorily. Soon after this he went to Kansas, and in i860 to Denver, 
Col. The next year upon the breaking out of the war he raised 
a company of volunteers and assumed command of Fort Garland. 
He finally rose to the rank of colonel of volunteers, and was sent 
into New Mexico and took command of Fort Union. Here he fought 
his first battle, causing the retreat of the Texan troops. The battle 
was fought in direct opposition to the orders of his superior officer. 
Gen. Canby, but terminated successfully, and his praise was in the 
mouths of the people far and near. Immediately after this he threw 
up his commission as colonel and repaired to Washington, where 
he was appointed and confirmed as brigadier-general of volunteers 
and assigned to duty at Alexandria. He continued as military 
governor at that point up to the close of the war, and throughout 
his career there his record is one of the most favorable. At the close 
of the war he was appointed chief justice of the territory of New 
Alexico. but his imperious temper rendered him very unpopular, and a 
series of resolutions were passed in the legislature advocating his 
removal from the position. These resolutions so incensed him 
against the senator who introduced them that a personal encounter 
resulted, in which Gen. Slough was killed, at Santa Fe, N. M., on 
Dec. 16, 1867. 

Smith, Andrew J., major-general, was born in the state of Penn- 
sylvania and was a cadet at the U. S. military academy from July i, 
1834 to July I, 1838, when he was graduated and promoted in the 
army to second lieutenant in the ist dragoons. He served at Carlisle 
barracks, Pa., in the cavalry school for practice, 1838-39; on re- 
cruiting service, 1839-40; on frontier duty at Ft. Leavenworth, Kan., 
1840-46, and he was commissioned first lieutenant in the ist dragoons 
on May 4, 1845. He served in the war with Mexico, 1847-48, being 
commissioned captain in the ist dragoons on Feb. 16, 1847. and was 
on frontier duty at San Francisco. Cal.. 1848-49. He was on recruit- 
ing service, 1849-53; stationed at Fort Lane, Ore., 1853-55; took part 



Biographical Sketches 243 

in the Oregon hostilities during tlic latter year, being engaged in 
the skirmish at Cow creek on Oct. 31; was in the Rogue River 
expedition in 1856, being engaged with hostile Indians in several 
skirmishes during March and June, and he was stationed at Fort 
Yamhill, Ore., 1856-57. He was on the Oregon war claims commis- 
sion, 1857-58 and on frontier duty at Fort Walla Walla. Wash., 
1858-59. He was at Fort Vancouver, Wash., 1859-60. and was en- 
gaged against the Snake Indians in skirmishes near Harney lake 
on May 24 and near Owyhee river on June 23. He was stationed 
at Fort Walla Walla, 1860-61, and was on the march to Nez Perce 
Agency in the latter year, being commissioned major in the ist 
dragoons on May 13 and transferred to the ist cavalry on Aug. 13. 
He served during the Civil war, first as colonel of the 2nd Cal. cavalry, 
to which position he was appointed on Oct. 2, 1861; was chief of 
cavalry, Department of the Missouri, from Feb. 11 to March 11, 1862, 
and of the Department of the Mississippi, March it to July 11, being 
engaged in the advance upon and siege of Corinth, April 15 to May 
30. including several skirmishes. He was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers, March 17, 1862; was in command of the troops 
in Covington, Ky.. and vicinity, Sept. 9-Oct. 9; in command of a 
division in the movements through Kentucky, October-November; 
was stationed at Memphis, Tenn., Nov 28 to Dec. 21, and was on the 
expedition to the Yazoo river in December, being engaged in the 
assault of Chickasaw bluffs on Dec. 27-29. He was in the expedi- 
tion to Arkansas Post, which was carried by assault on Jan. 11, 
1863; in the Vicksburg campaign from January to July, command- 
ing a division in the 13th army corps, and was engaged in the 
advance to Grand Gulf, the battles of Port Gibson, Champion's 
hill. Big Black river, assaults on Vicksburg, May 19 and 22, the 
siege of the place, and the capture of Jackson, Miss., on July 16. 
He was in command of the 6th division, i6th army corps, and 
District of Columbus. Ky., from Aug. 5, 1863, to Jan. 21, 1864; in 
command of the 3d division, i6th armj^ corps, Jan. 24 to Marcli 6, 
in the Department of the Tennessee; was in the Red River 
campaign, commanding detachments of the i6th and 17th army corps, 
March 6 to May 22, and was engaged in the assault and capture 
of Fort De Russy, the battle of Pleasant Hill, the action at Cane 
river, and in covering the retreat of Gen. Banks' army, with almost 
daily heavy skirmishing. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
of the 5th cavalry on May g, major-general of volunteers on May 
12, and was in command of the right wing of the i6th army corps 
in the operations in Mississippi and Tennessee from June to Sep 
tember, being engaged in the actions near Lake Village and Tupelo, 
Miss., and on the expedition from Memphis to Holly Springs. He 
was engaged in the operations in Missouri, covering St. Louis from 
a threatened attack by Gen. Price; in command of a detachment 
of the Army of the Tennessee in Maj.-Gen. Thomas' campaign 
against the Confederates under Gen. Hood, from Dec, 1864 to Jan. 
1865, being engaged in the battle of Nashville and the pursuit of 
the enemy to Pulaski. He was in the movement from Eastport. 
Miss., via Cairo, to New Orleans. Feb. 6-21, 1865; in command of 
the i6th army corps. Feb. i8-July 20. being brevetted brigadier- 
general U. S. A., on March 13. 1865, for gallant and meritorious 
services at the battle of Tupelo, and the brevet title of major-general, 
U. S. A., was conferred upon him at the same time for gallant and 
meritorious services in the battle of Nashville. He was engaged 
in the Mobile campaign, taking part in the siege of Spanish Fort, 



244 The Union Army 

but was in reserve during the storming of Blakely. He was in the 
movement to and occupation of Montgomery, Ala., making detach- 
ments to various points in Alabama; was in command of the District 
of Montgomery, and later of the District of Western Louisiana, 
Oct. 27, 1865 to Jan. 15, 1866. when he was mustered out of the vol- 
unteer service. He was on the board for the recommendation of 
officers for brevet promotions from March 10 to June 22, and he 
was commissioned colonel of the 7th cavalry on July 28, 1866. He 
served in command of the District of Upper Kansas from Nov. 25, 
1866 to Sept., 1867, and of the Department of Missouri from Sept. 
14, 1867, to March 2, 1868, when he was given a leave of absence, 
and he resigned from the service on May 6, 1869. He was appointed 
postmaster of St. Louis, Mo., on April 3, 1869, and he pursued 
vocations of civil life until Jan. 22, 1889, when he was recommis- 
sioned colonel of cavalry and placed upon the retired list. Gen. 
Smith died on Jan. 30, 1897. 

Smith, Charles F., major-general, was born in Pennsylvania about 
1806. He was a son of the late Dr. Samuel B. Smith, U. S. A., 
graduated with honor at West Point in 1825, and was made second 
lieutenant of artillery on July t in the same year. In 1820 he was 
appointed assistant instructor in infantry tactics at West Point; in 
1831 was promoted to the adjutancy, and in 1832 was made a first 
lieutenant. In 1838 he was appointed instructor in infantry tactics 
and commandant of cadets, and the same year was promoted to 
a captaincy. He took an important part in most of the battles 
during the Mexican war; in 1847 was brevetted major for gallant 
conduct in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, in 
Texas, and at the battles of Monterey, Contreras, and Churubusco, 
won the successive brevets of lieutenant-colonel and colonel In the 
same year he was appointed acting inspector-general in Mexico. On 
Nov. 25, 1854, he was made major of the ist artillery, and the fol- 
lowing year lieutenant-colonel of the loth infantry. In Sept.. 1861, 
he was promoted to the colonelcy of the 3d infantry, having the 
previous month been appointed brigadier-general of volunteers and 
taken charge of the troops at Paducah, Ky. At the attack on Fort 
Donelson, the most brilliant charge was made by the troops under 
his command and had much to do with the surrender. For his 
gallantry on that memorable occasion he was promoted to a major- 
generalship in the volunteer army, and ordered to take possession 
of Savannah, Tenn., where he died of chronic dj^sentery contracted 
during the Mexican war, and fatally aggravated by his exposures 
in the campaign of the West. His death occurred on April 25, 1862. 

Smith, Giles A., major-general, was born in the state of New York 
but in early life established his home in the state of Illinois, where 
he was residing at the beginning of the Civil war. On June 14, 
i86r he became the captain of a company then organizing for ser- 
vice as a part of the 8th Mo. infantry. Before the organization of 
the regiment was complete it was called on to suppress the guer- 
rillas engaged in committing depredations along the line of the 
North Missouri railroad, defeating them in the vicinity of St. Charles 
and Mexico, in which engagements Capt. Smith got his introduction 
to actual warfare. On July 29 he left St. Louis with the regiment 
and on Sept. 7 landed at Paducah, Ky., where he remained until 
the following February, the regiment then joining the forces moving 
against Forts Henry and Donelson. Fort Henry surrendered before 
the regiment arrived, but at Donelson it showed the metal of which 
it was made, and, under the command of Gen. Lew Wallace, assisted 
in the repulse of the attempt of the enemy to cut his way out. Capt. 



Biographical Sketches 245 

Smith at the head of his company and under the command of Wal- 
lace was in some of the heaviest fighting at Shiloh on the second 
day of that battle; was in the engagements about Corinth, Miss., 
and the operations in that vicinity until November, when the reg- 
iment was ordered to Memphis, Tenn. He was promoted to lieu- 
tenant-colonel of his regiment on June 12, 1862, and eighteen days 
later was commissioned as its colonel. He joined Gen. Sherman's 
forces for the assault on the Confederate works at Chickasaw 
bluffs, where his regiment acquitted itself with credit, and a few 
days later was on the skirmish line in the assault on Arkansas 
Post. His was one of the regiments assigned to Steele's bayou 
expedition in the early movements against Vicksburg; took part in 
the feint against Haynes' bluff; was then in the battles of Raymond 
and Champion's hill, and in the advance on Vicksburg it was the 
first regiment to encounter and drive in the enemy's pickets. With 
his regiment he took part in the assaults on the Vicksburg works, 
and after the fall of that city was in the movement to drive Gen. 
Johnston from Jackson. On Aug. 4, 1863, he was commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers, and on Nov. 24, 1865, was commis- 
sioned major-general of volunteers. Previous to the latter date, 
on Sept. I, 1864, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for 
long and continued service and for special gallantry and complete- 
ness as an officer during the Atlanta and Savannah campaigns. 
Gen. Smith was honorably mustered out of the service on Feb. i, 
1866 and returned to the pursuits of civil life, in which he continued 
until his death, Nov. 5, 1876. 

Smith, Green Clay, brigadier-general, was born in Richmond, Ky., 
July 2, 1832. In 1847 he enlisted in a cavalrj' regiment and served 
a year in the Mexican war. He was graduated at Transylvania 
university in 1850 and at the Lexington law school in 1853; began 
practicing with his father; removed to Covington in 1858, and was 
elected to the legislature, where he defended the national government 
in i860. In the following year he was commissioned major in the 
3d Ky. cavalry; was appointed colonel of the 4th Ky. cavalry in Feb., 
1862; was wounded at Lebanon, Tenn.; and was promoted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, June 11. He resigned his commission, 
Dec. I, 1863, having been elected to Congress, where he served till 
1866, then resigned to accept the office of governor of Montana, 
where he remained three years. He was brevetted major-general 
of volunteers. March 13. 1865, for gallantry in the field. In 1869 he 
was ordained to the ministry of the Baptist church and settled 
in Frankfort, Ky. He devoted most of his time to service as an 
evangelist, but in 1876 was the candidate of the National Prohibition 
party for the presidency, and received a popular vote of 9,522. In 
1890 he was called to the pastorate of the Metropolitan Baptist 
Church. Washington, D. C, and he died in that city on June 29, 1895. 

Smith, Gustavus A., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Pennsylvania, hut removed to Illinois and was residing in that state 
at the outbreak of the Civil war. He assisted in organizing and 
became the colonel of the 35th 111. infantry in July. t86i, the regi- 
ment being accepted by the secretary of war on July 23, as Col. 
G. A. Smith's Independent Regiment of Illinois Volunters. On 
Aug. 4 it left Decatur. Til., and arrived at Jefferson barracks. Mo.. 
the following day. With his regiment Col. Smith- first experienced 
the realities of war in Feb., 1862, when he followed Price's retreat- 
ing army, skirmishing with the Confederates nearly every day. He 
participated in the battle of Pea ridge, and in May moved to 
Farmington, Miss., and took part in the siege of Corinth until the 



246 The Union Army 

evacuation of that place. On Sept. 19, 1862, he was commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers and served as such until March 4, 
1863. vvrhen his commission expired and he was reverted to colonel 
of his regiment. In the following August with Hoge's brigade his 
command crossed the Tennessee river on pontoons and drove the 
Confederate pickets back while the bridge was being laid — being 
the first infantry on the south side of the Tennessee river. His 
regiment participated in the battle of Chickamauga, following which, 
on Sept. 22, 1863, he left the service and returned to his home in 
Illinois. In Feb., 1865, he again entered the military service as colonel 
of the 155th 111. infantry, the regiment being mustered in on Feb. 
28 for one year. On March 2 he moved with his command via 
Louisville and Nashville to Tullahoma, Tenn., and was assigned to the 
brigade of Gen. Dudley. On March 13, 1865, Gen. Smith was given 
the brevet rank of brigadier-general of volunteers for failthful and 
meritorious service during the war, and on Dec. 14, 1865, he was hon- 
orably mustered out of the service. He then returned to the civil pur- 
suits of life in which he remained until his death on Dec. ir, 18S5. 

Smith, John E., brigadier-general, was born in the state of Penn- 
sylvania, but removed to Illinois and became aide-de-camp to Gov. 
Yates, which position he held during the early part of 1861. He 
was commissioned colonel of the 45th 111. infantry in July of that 
year and was engaged successively at the capture of Forts Henry 
and Donelson. Tenn., battle of Shiloh, siege of Corinth, action of 
Meadow Station, and the Mississippi campaign. He was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers in Nov., 1862, and was assigned 
to the command of the 8th division, left wing of the i6th army corps 
in December. He engaged in the expedition to Yazoo Pass, battles 
of Port Gibson, Raymond. Jackson, Champion's hill and Big Black 
river. In June, 1863, he took command of the ist division, 17th army 
corps, the division being transferred to the 15th army corps in 
September, and he was engaged at the siege of Vicksburg, battle 
of Missionary ridge, Atlanta campaign. Sherman's Georgia and Caro- 
lina campaign, and the battle of Bentonville, N. C. He was relieved 
from duty with the Army of the Tennessee in April, 1865, ■/and com- 
manded the District of West Tennessee until April. 1866. when 
he was honorably mustered out of the volunteer service. On Jan. 
12, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for faithful 
and efficient services and for gallantry in action. In the regular 
army he was commissioned colonel of the 27th U. S. infantry in 
July. 1866, and on March 2. 1867, was brevetted brigadier-general, 
U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services at the siege of Vicks- 
burg, IVliss., and on the same date he was given the brevet title 
of major-general, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services at 
the capture of Savannah, Ga. He was retired from the regular army 
service on May 19, 1881, and he died Jan. 28, 1897. 

Smith, Morgan L., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
New York, and in early manhood, on Jul}- 19, 1845, he joined the 
United States regular armj% in which he served five years. For 
some reason or other he enlisted under the name of Martin L. San- 
ford, and as such his name appears upon the rolls, as private, cor- 
poral and sergeant. After retiring from the regular army service 
he located in Missouri where he was living at the time of the out- 
break of tb.e Civil war. On July 4, 1861, he was commissioned 
colonel of the 8th Mo. infantry, which, before its organization was 
complete, was called upon to suppress the guerrillas engaged in com- 
mitting depredations along the line of the North Missouri railroad, 



Biographical Sketches 247 

defeating them in the vicinitj' of St. Cliarles and Mexico. On July 
29 he left St. Louis with his regiment and on Sept. 7 landed at 
Paducah, Ky., where he remained until the following February and 
then joined the forces moving against Forts Henry and Donelson. 
Fort Henry had surrendered before the regiment arrived, but at 
Donelson the regiment and its colonel behaved in a gallant manner, 
assisting in the repulse of the enemy when he attempted to cut his 
way out. Col. Smith was in some of the heaviest fighting at Shiloh 
on the second day of that battle, then participated in the advance 
upon Corinth, and while in that vicinity, on July 16, 1862, he was 
conmiissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He continued to =erve 
in that capacity until the close of the war, rendering faithful and 
meritorious service, and on July 12, 1865, he resigned his commission 
and took up the threads of civil life. He died on Dec. 29, 1874. 

Smith, Thomas C. H., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Massachusetts, but was a resident of Ohio at the time of the out- 
break of the Civil war. On Sept. 5, 1861, he was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel of t!ie ist Ohio cavalry, then being organized at 
Camp Chase for the three years' service. In December the regiment 
broke camp and proceeded by rail and steamboat to Louisville, being 
the first regiment of cavalry to enter that department. Col. Smith 
writh his regiment participated in the advance upon Corinth, having 
frequent skirmishes with the enemy, and after the evacuation joined 
in pursuit of Beauregard's army, going as far as Booneville. During 
this pursuit four sharp engagements were had with the enemy. 
Returning to Kentucky with Buell's army, on Nov. 29. 1862, Col. 
Smith was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, but he 
remained with his regiment until April 27. 1863. On the first day of 
the battle of Stone's river the regiment made a heroic charge against 
a foe flushed with success, and it continued the remaining two days 
until the victory was complete. Gen. Smith continued in the service 
until some time after Lee's surrender and was mustered out of the 
volunteer service on Jan. 15, 1866. He then followed civil pursuits 
until April 17, 1878. when he was appointed paymaster in the regular 
army service with the rank of major, and he served as such until 
March 24, 1883, when he was retired. Gen. Smith died on April 
8, 1897. 

Smith, Thomas Kilby, brigadier-general, was born in Dorchester, 
Mass.. Sept. 23, 1820. In 1825 his parents removed to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, where he studied at the military and engineering school of 
Prof. O. M. Mitchel, and, after spending some time in civil en- 
gineering, read law in the office of the late Chief-Justice Chase and 
was admitted to the bar, where he had for associates such men as 
George Hoadley. Stanley Matthews. Edward Marshall, and George 
Pugh. In 1861 he volunteered to raise a brigade of troops for the 
national service at his own expense, and Gov. Dennison appointed 
him lieutenant-colonel of the 54th Ohio infantry, and promoted him 
to tlie colonelcy before he left the state. His regiment was part 
of Gen. Sherman's division in the battle of Shiloh, and when Gen. 
Stuart, commanding the brigade, was wounded, the command was 
given to Col. Smith, who held it till the siege of Vicksburg. When 
Gen. Grant assumed the direction of the siege Col. Smith was pro- 
moted to the rank of brigadier-general and acted for some time 
as chief of Gen. Grant's staflF. After the capitulation of Vicksburg 
Gen. Smith was given command of a division of the Army of the 
Tennessee to assist Gen. Banks in the Red River expedition, and 
succeeded in protecting Admiral Porter's fleet while withdrawing 
down the river after the disaster of Sabine cross-roads. He assisted 



248 The Union Army 

in the reduction of Mobile and was then placed in command of the 
District of Southern Alabama and Florida, which was his last mili- 
tary service. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers for 
distinguished services in the war, and on being mustered out was 
appointed by President Johnson United States consul at Panama, 
holding the office till after the inauguration of President Grant. 
Gen. Smith died in New York city Dec. 14, 1887. 

Smith, William F., major-general, was born in the state of Ver- 
mont, and was a cadet at the U. S. military academy from July i, 
1841 to July I, 1845, when he was graduated and promoted in the army 
to brevet second lieutenant of topographical engineers. He served 
as assistant topographical engineer on the survey of the Northern 
lakes, 1845-46; at the military academy as assistant professor of math- 
ematics, Nov. 6, 1846, to Aug. 21, 1848; as assistant topographical 
engineer on explorations in the Department of Texas, 1848-50, being 
commissioned second lieutenant of topographical engineers on July 
14, 1849. He was on the survey of the boundary between the United 
States and Mexico, 1850-52, on the survey of the canal route across 
Florida in 1853, and was commissioned first lieutenant of topographical 
engineers on March 3, 1853. He was on explorations in Texas, 1853-55; 
at the military academy as principal assistant professor of mathe- 
matics, Sept. 4. 1855, to Sept. 8, 1856; as engineer of the nth light-house 
district, Dec. 11, 1856, to Nov. 3, 1859, and he was commissioned 
captain of topographical engineers on July i, 1859, for fourteen years' 
continuous service. He then served as engineer secretary of the 
light-house board from Nov. 3, 1859, to April 15, 1861. He served 
during the Civil war. first on mustering duty at New York city, 
April 15 to May 31, 1861; on the staf? of Maj.-Gen. Butler at Fort 
Monroe, Va., June i to July 20, and was commissioned colonel of 
the 3d Vt. infantry on July 16, 1861. He was on the staff of Brig- 
Gen. McDowell, July 20 to Aug. 13; served in the Manassas cam- 
paign and was engaged in the battle of Bull Run; in the defenses 
of Washington, D. C., July 27. 1861 to March 10, 1862, and he was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on Aug. 13, 1861. He 
served in the Virginia Peninsular campaign, in command of a di- 
vision of the Army of the Potomac, being engaged in the siege 
of Yorktown, including the skirmish of Lee's mill, the battles of 
Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, White Oak swamp. Savage Station, Glen- 
dale and Malvern hill. On June 28, 1862, he was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services in the battle 
of White Oak swamp, and in the Maryland campaign he was in 
command of a division of the Army of the Potomac, being engaged 
in the battles of South mountain and Antietam, and on the march 
to Falmouth. On Sept. 17, 1862, he was brevetted colonel, U. S. A., 
for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Antietam; par- 
ticii)ate(l in the Rappahannock campaign, in command of the 6th 
corps, Nov. 14, 1862 to Feb. 4, 1863, and of the 9th corps from Feb. 
4 to Marcli 17, being engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg. He 
was commissioned major of the corps of engineers on March 3, 1863, 
and was in command of a division in the Department of the Sus- 
quehanna, being engaged in the pursuit of the Confederate army 
retreating from Gettysburg, and was then in the Department of 
West Virginia from Aug. 3 to Sept. 5. He served as chief engineer 
of the Department of the Cumberland, Oct. 10 to November, and 
of the Military Division of the Mississippi from Nov., 1863 to March 
31. 1864, in operations about Chattanooga, being engaged in sur- 
prising a passage and throwing a pontoon bridge across the Ten- 




Brie.-r.en. C C. Smith 
Brig.-Gen. M. I.. Smith 
Maj.-Oen. W. F. Smith 
Brig.-Gen. J. G. Spears 



Brig.-Gen. G. A. Smith 



Brig.-C.oii. .1. 



Brig.-Gen. T. C. H. Smith Brig.-Gen I . k. 
r.rig.-Gen. W. S. Smith I"'8-5?^"- t Kir- 

Brig -Gen. F. B. Spinola r.ng.-(.en. J. W. 



^MlTU 

Smith 
Smyth 
Spracue 



Biographical Sketches 219 

nessee river at Brown's ferry, and he \yas also engaged in the battle 
of Missionary ridge. On March 9, 1864, he was commissioned major- 
general of volunteers, and was in command of the i8th corps of 
the Army of the Potomac from May 2 to July 19, being engaged 
in the operations before Richmond and in the battle of Cold Harbor 
and siege of Petersburg. He was on special duty, under the orders 
of the secretary of war, from Nov. 22, 1864 to Dec. 15, 1865, and was 
then on leave of absence until March 7, 1867, when he resigned from 
the regular army, having resigned his volunteer commission on Nov. 
4, 1865. He was brcvetted brigadier-general, U. S. A., on March 
13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Chat- 
tanooga, and on the same date was given the brevet title of major- 
general, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services in the field 
during the Rebellion. He served as president of the International 
Telegraph company, 1864-73, and became Commissioner of Police 
of New York city on May i, 1875, and then served as president of 
the Board of Police Commissioners from Dec. 31, 1875, to March 11, 
1881. After this date he followed civil engineering in the service 
of the United States. He was reappointed as major, U. S. A., on 
March i, 1889, and placed upon the retired list. Gen. Smith died 
on Feb. 28, 1903. 

Smith, William S., brigadier-general, was born in Tarlton, Ohio, 
July 22. 1830. He was graduated at the Ohio university in 1849 and 
from the U. S. military academy in 1853. Resigning from the army in 
1854 he became assistant to Lieut.-Col. James D. Graham of the 
U. S. topographical engineers, then in charge of the government 
improvements in the great lakes. In 1855 he moved to Buffalo. N. Y., 
and for a while was principal of a high school. In 1857 he was em- 
ployed by tlic city of Buffalo as an expert to examine the various 
plans submitted for the international bridge across the Niagara river. 
Later he became engineer and secretary of the Trenton (N. J.) 
locomotive works, holding that connection until 1861. He visited 
Cuba in the interests of this company and also constructed an iron 
bridge across the Savannah river, where he introduced improvements 
in sinking cylinders pneumatically. At the commencement of the 
Civil war in 1861 he promptly offered his services, and was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel of Ohio volunteers and assigned to duty as 
assistant adjutant-general at Camp Dennison. He was commissioned 
colonel of the 13th Ohio infantry on June 26. 1861. took part in the 
campaigns of western Virginia, then entered the Army of the Ohio and 
was present at Shiloh and Perryville. He became brigadier-general 
of volunteers, April 15, 1862, when he joined the forces under Grant 
and participated in the Vicksburg campaign as commander of the 
ist division of the i6th corps. Later he was made chief of 
cavalry of the Department of the Tennessee, and in that capacity 
was attached to the staflf of Gen. Grant and Gen. W. T. Sherman 
until failing health compelled his resignation in Sept., 1864. Re- 
suming his profession after the war, he built the Wangoshanee 
lighthouse at the entrance of the Straits of Mackinaw, where he 
sank the first pneumatic caisson in 1867. He built the first great 
entire steel bridge in the world, across the Missouri river at Glasgow, 
Mo., and was concerned in the construction of many others, including 
those at Leavenworth, Kan., and Omaha and Plattsmouth, Neb. 
He was president of the Civil Engineers' club of the Northwest 
in 1880. 

Smyth, Thomas A., brigadier-general, was born in Ireland. He 
came to America in boyhood and became a coachmaker at Wilming 



250 The Union Army 

ton, Del. Embracing with ardor the cause of his adopted country, 
he raised a company of three-months' men in the spring of 1861, 
served with them in Virginia, became major and colonel of the ist 
Del. infantry and rendered able and gallant service through the war, 
being promoted to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers in 
1864 for his conduct at Cold Harbor. While in command of the 
2rid division of the 2nd army corps he was wounded near Farm- 
ville, Va., April 6, 1865, and died three days later at Petersburg. 

Spears, James G., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Tennessee and at the breaking out of the Civil war he allied him- 
self with the friends of the Federal government in that common- 
wealth. He offered his services to the cause of the Union and on 
Sept. I, 1861, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the ist Tenn. 
infantry, then being organized at Camp Dick Robinson, Ky. He 
was first under fire in the engagement at Wild Cat and was afterward 
present at the battle of Mill Springs. With his regiment he also assist- 
ed in the capture of Cumberland gap, where he remained until the 
evacuation of that post by Gen. Morgan. He then retreated with 
the remainder of the command to Ohio and thence went on an ex- 
pedition up the Kanawha valley. On March 5, 1862. he was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers and served in that capacity 
until Aug. 30, 1864, when he was dismissed from the service. He 
died on July 22, 1869. 

Spinola, Francis B., brigadier-general, was born in Stony Brook, 
Long Island, N. Y., March 19, 1821. He received an academical 
education, was admitted to the bar in New York city in 1844, and 
served five years as alderman, six years as assemblyman, and four 
years as state senator. He was a delegate to the national Demo- 
cratic convention in Charleston in i860. In the early part of the 
Civil war he recruited and organized the "Empire" brigade of four 
regiments, which he accompanied to the front, and on Oct. 2, 
1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
served till the close of the war, and in leading a charge at Wapping 
Heights. Va., he was twice wounded. Returning to New York city, 
he engaged in the banking and insurance business and resumed 
political life. In 1886 and 1888 he was elected to Congress from the 
loth N. Y. district as a Democrat, serving as a member of the com- 
mittees on military affairs and on war claims. Gen. Spinola died 
in Washington, D. C, April 14, 1891. 

Sprague, John W., brigadier-general, was born in White Creek, 
Washington county, N. Y., April 4, 1817. He was an attendant at 
the district school of his neighborhood and entered the Rensselaer 
polytechnic institute at Troy, N. Y.. when thirteen years of age. 
He left school before graduation to engage in business, and in 1845 
removed to Milan, Erie county, Ohio, where he continued the busi- 
ness of a merchant. He afterward settled in Sandusky and was 
for one term (1851-52) treasurer of Erie county. Upon the out- 
break of the Civil war he raised a companj' of militia, was made 
its captain and with it joined the 7th Ohio infantry. He was rapidly 
promoted and in 1863 was colonel of the 63d Ohio infantr)\ briga- 
dier-general of volunteers on July 2\, 1864, and on March 13, 1865, 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers. He was mustered out 
of the service on Aug. 24, 1865. During his service as a volunteer 
officer he declined a lieutenant-colonelcy in the regular army. 
After the war he was appointed manager of the Winona & St. 
Paul railway. In 1870 he was general manager of the western 
division of the Northern Pacific railwaj- and with Capt. Ainsworth 



Biographical Sketches 251 

established the city of Tacoma, Wash. In 1883 he had the honor of 
driving the golden spike on the completion of his division and soon 
afterward resigned on account of impaired health. He was active 
in hiiilding up the new city of Tacoma and was president of the 
board of trade and of various banks and corporations. Gen. Sprague 
died at his home in Tacoma, Wash., Dec. 2"] . 1893. 

Sprague, William, brigadier-general, was born at Cranston, Prov- 
idence county, R. I., Sept. 12, 1830, son of Amasa and Fanny (Morgan) 
Sprague. the latter a native of Groton, Conn. He was educated in 
the schools of Cranston, East Greenwich and Scituate, and at Irving 
institute, Tarrytown, N. Y. At the age of fifteen he entered the 
store at Cranston connected with the large cotton manufacturing 
and calico printing business of A. & W. Sprague, the firm consist- 
ing of his father and his uncle. Gov. William Sprague. At the age 
of sixteen he removed to Providence to enter the counting house 
of the firm, and two years later became a book-keeper. He took an 
interest in military affairs early in life, and in 1848 joined the marine 
artillery company of Providence and rose from the ranks to the 
position of colonel. He made the company the equal of any mil- 
itary force in the United States in efficiency. In 1859 he visited 
Europe and made a special study of its military' establishments. In 
i860 he was elected governor of Rhode Island and, anticipating the 
Civil war, had the infantry and artillery of the state in readiness 
for emergencies. He made great exertions to raise troops in response 
to President Lincoln's call for three-months' men and ofTered the 
national government a regiment and a battery of light-horse ar- 
tillery. The "war governor," as he was called, went immediately 
to the front and was in the first battle of Bull Run, where his 
horse was shot under him. He served during the Peninsular cam- 
paign and for his bravery and patriotic services in general was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, but was not mus- 
tered into service, being unwilling to give up his position as gov- 
ernor. He was reelected governor in 1861 and 1862, but was absent 
in the field most of the time and the duties of his office were per- 
formed by John R. Bartlett. In the spring of 1863 Gov. Sprague 
was elected to the U. S. senate and resigned the governorship, 
William C. Cozzens, president of the senate, acting in his place 
until the regular election in May. He was a member of the com- 
mittees on manufactures and on military affairs, and chairman of 
the committee on public lands. He served two term.s in the senate, 
from March 4, 1863 until March 3, 1875, when he left Congress to 
resume his business as a manufacturer. 

Stahel, Julius, major-general, also known as Count Sebastiani, 
was born in Csongrad, Hungary, Nov. 4. 1825. He received a clas- 
sical education in his native town and at Buda-Pesth, and then 
entered the Austrian army as a private. He had reached the rank 
of a commissioned officer when the Hungarian revolution opened, 
and he at once resigned and threw in his lot with his fellow-country- 
men. As an aide on the staffs of Gen. Arthur Gorger and Gen. 
Richard D. Guyon he rendered brilliant and effective service, but 
the Austrian forces finally triumphed and he was forced to flee 
the country. He resided for some years in Berlin and London, 
gaining a livelihood as a teacher and journalist, and in 1859 he came 
to the United States and settled in New York city, where he was 
the editor of an eminent and influential weekly German newspaper 
until 1861. In May, 1S61, he entered the Federal armj' as a volun- 
teer and was made lieutenant-colonel of the Sth N. Y. infantry. 



253 The Union Army 

He commanded tliis regiment at the lirst battle of Bull Run and 
was soon afterward made its colonel. On Nov. 12, 1861. he was pro- 
moted to be brigadier-general of volunteers and took part in all 
the earlier battles of the war, especially distinguishing himself at 
Cross Keys. He was advanced to be major-general of volunteers 
on March 14, 1863, and for some time commanded a division of the 
nth army corps under Gen. Franz Sigel. He resigned his com- 
mission and retired from the army on Feb. 8, 1865, and early in 
1866 was appointed by President Johnson U. S. consul at Yokohama, 
Japan, where he remamed until poor health compelled his retirement 
in i86g. He then returned to the United States, and from 1870 
till 1877 he was a successful mining engineer and mine owner in the 
Western states. In 1877 he was again appointed consul at Yoko- 
hama, and in March, 1884, was made consul-general at Shanghai, 
where he remained until Grover Cleveland became president in 
1885. He then returned to Xew York city, where he became inter- 
ested in various business enterprises. 

Stanley. David S., major-general, was born in Cedar Valley, Ohio, 
June I, 1828. He was graduated at West Point in 1852 and as 
an ofiicer of cavalry served on the Western plains for several years, 
reaching the grade of captain in 1861. At the opening of the Civil 
war he was tendered and refused an important commission in the 
Confederate service; took part in the early operations of the Federal 
forces in Missouri, and on Sept. 28, 1861, was promoted to be brig- 
adier-general of volunteers. He participated in the battles of New 
Madrid and Island No. 10, and for his special services on these oc- 
casions received the thanks of his superior officers. He took part 
in the capture of Corinth and the battle of luka, and on Nov. 29, 
1862, was raised to the rank of major-general of volunteers. Dur- 
ing the Atlanta campaign he rendered conspicuous service, espe- 
cially at the battle of Jonesboro, where he commanded the 4th army 
corps. On Oct. 6, 1864, in the absence of Gen. Thomas, he was 
assigned to the command of the Armj-^ of the Cumberland in the 
field, and bj^ his energy, skill and activity contributed largelj' to the 
successful defense of Nashville. At Spring Hill he repulsed three 
desperate assaults of the Confederate cavalry and infantry, and at 
the battle of Franklin, when the Federal line was broken and defeat 
threatened, he led a charge of a reserve brigade and in a gallant 
struggle at close quarters succeeded in recovering the ground that 
had been lost. He was severelj- wounded at Franklin but refused 
to leave the field until the battle was won, although his injuries 
incapacitated him for active service during the remainder of the 
war. For his services he received brevet ranks from lieutenant- 
colonel to major-general in the regular army, and in 1866 was 
appointed colonel of the 22nd infantry. From 1866 until 1874 he 
was stationed mainly in Dakota. In 1873, as commander of the 
Yellowstone expedition, he led his troops into western Montana, 
and by his reports upon the section visited greatly hastened its 
settlement. From 1874 until 1879 he served on the lakes. In the 
latter year he was transferred to the Texas frontier, where he 
promptly suppressed Indian raids into that state and established 
more amicable relations with the Mexicans on the other side of 
the border. From 1882 until i8<S4 he commanded the Department 
of New Mexico and put down uprisings of the Navajo and Ute 
Indians by peaceful means. In March. 1884. he was prom.oted to 
be brigadier-general in the regular army and he retired from service 
on June t, 1892. Gen. Stanley died March 13, 1902. 



Biographical Sketches 253 

Stannard, George J., brigadier-general, was born in Georgia, Vt., 
Oct. 20, 1820. Between the ages of tifteen and twenty he worked 
on his father's farm in summer and taught in a district school in 
winter. In 1845 he became a clerk in the St. Albans Foundry com- 
pany and in time was placed in charge of the business. In i860 he 
was admitted as a member of the company. Up to this time he had 
been active in the state militia and had become colonel of the 4th 
Vt. regiment. On President Lincoln's first call for volunteers he 
tendered the services of himself and his regiment by telegraph; but 
it was decided by the state authorities and the legislature, then in 
special session, to organize a regiment of ten companies selected 
from the ist, 2nd, and 4th regiments of the militia, under the com- 
mand of Col. John W. Phelps, reserving Col. Stannard for the duty 
of organizing additional regiments. In May, 1861, he organized the 
2nd Vt. infantry, was commissioned as its lieutenant-colonel and 
mustered into the U. S. service at Burlington. June 12, 1861, leavmg 
for the field twelve days later. He was with the men of the 2nd 
in every march and skirmish till the latter part of May, 1862, v.hen 
he accepted the commission of colonel of the 9th Vt. infantry and 
was soon afterward assigned to Gen. Pope's command. On Alarch 
II, 1863, he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers and placed 
in command of the 2nd Vt. brigade. He rendered efficient service 
in the Gettysburg battles, his brigade being conspicuous in the re- 
pulse of the final Confederate charge, and he was severely wounded 
in the cannonade with which Gen. Longstreet strove to cover the 
Confederate retreat. As soon as he was sufficiently recovered 
for light duty he was assigned to the command of the troops gar- 
risoning the forts in New York harbor, remaining at this post till 
May, 1864, when on the final advance of Gen. Grant upon Richmond 
he again took the field, being assigned to the lOth army corps. He took 
part in the battle of Cold Harbor, where he lost two staff-officers 
and was again wounded. In the movement of the i8th corps on 
Petersburg on June 14 he led the advance with his brigade, occupied 
some of the enemy's fortifications within three-quarters of a mile 
of the city, and was a third time wounded. On Sept. ig he was 
assigned the task of storming Fort Harrison, which he accomplished 
in a gallant manner, capturing and holding that important work at the 
cost of his right arm. This wound unfitted him for active service for 
several montlis. In Dec. 1864. he was as^^igned to the coninianrl of 
the Vermont border and remained in service in the Department of 
the East till Feb., 1866, when he was ordered to duty at Baltimore 
in connection with the Freedmen's bureau. He retired from the 
army on June 27, 1866 and was appointed collector of customs 
for the District of Vermont, holding the office till 1872. In t88i 
he was appointed a door-keeper of the House of Representatives 
at Washington, D. C. and he died at this post on May 31, t886. 

Starkweather, John C, brigadier-general, was born in Coopers- 
town, N. Y., in May, 1830. He was graduated at Union college in 
1850. was admitted to the bar in 1857, and removing to Milwaukee 
practiced with success till the beginning of the Civil war. He vol- 
unteered his services on the first call for troops and was com- 
missioned colonel of the ist Wis. infantry in May, 1861. With his 
regiment he took part in the battles of Falling Waters and Edward's 
ferry. When his regiment was mustered out of the three month's 
service he reenlisted and was ordered to Kentucky for duty. He 
distinguished himself at the battle of Perry ville and at Stone's river; 
was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers; was stationed at 



254 The Union Army 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., till July, 1863, and in September he partici- 
pated in the battle of Chickamauga, in November in the battles 
around Chattanooga, and afterward in the capture of Atlanta. Gen. 
Starkweather was a member oi the court-martial that tried Sur- 
geon-General William A. Hammond. He subsequently served in 
Alabama and Tennessee till mustered out of the service in 1865. 
He then resumed the practice of law in Milwaukee, but soon removed 
to Washington, D. C, where he practiced till his death, Nov. 15, 1890. 

Steedman, James B., major-general, was born in Northumberland 
county, Pa., July 30, 1818. Migrating to Ohio at nineteen, he did 
some contract work on the Wabash & Erie canal and was sent to 
the legislature in 1843. ^^ was one of the "Argonauts" of 1849, 
crossing the plains to California at the head of a company of gold- 
seekers, but came back the next year and in 1851 was a member of 
the state board of public works. Under President Buchanan he 
was at Washington as printer to Congress and in i860 a member 
of the Democratic national convention at Charleston. In 1861 he 
entered the war as colonel of the 14th Ohio infantry, was sent to 
western Virginia and took part at Philippi in "the first battle of 
the rebellion." Joining Gen. Buell in Kentucky, he received a brig- 
adier's commission in July, 1862, and at Perryville arrived in time 
to save the day. In July, 1863, he took command of a division of the 
reserve corps of the Army of the Cumberland. With Gen. Granger 
he divided the honors of reinforcing Gen. Thomas, who was thus 
enabled to maintain his position at Chickamauga against the entire 
Confederate army; heading a furious charge in person, he drove Gen. 
Hindman's division from an important position and secured the 
ridge at a cost of one-fifth of his troops and a severe wound. He 
was advanced to major-general of volunteers in April, 1864; took 
part under Gen. Sherman in the movement on Atlanta; relieved the 
garrison at Dalton, Ga., and defeated Gen. J. G. Wheeler's cavalry 
in June. Returning to the help of Gen. Thomas when Tennessee 
was attacked by Gen. Hood, he took command of a provisional 
corps made up of a brigade of colored troops and some 5,000 men 
who had failed to join their commands in time for the march to 
the sea, and with this irregular force did terrible execution on 
Hood's right flank in the battle of Nashville. He was military 
governor of Georgia after the war, left the army in July, 1866, and 
was appointed by his friend. President Johnson, collector of the 
port of New Orleans. In his later years he edited a paper in Ohio 
and was sent to the state senate in 1879, but failed of reelection. 
He became chief of police of Toledo in May, 1883, and died there 
Oct. 18, of the same year. 

Steele, Frederick, major-general, was born at Delhi, Delaware 
county, N. Y., Jan. 14, 1819. He graduated at West Point in 1843, 
was assigned to the 2nd infantry, served through the war with Mex- 
ico and was twice brevetted for gallantry at Contreras and Chapul- 
tepec. In 1849 he was sent to California; from 1853 to i860 his 
duty was in the Northwest. He was commissioned captain in Feb., 
1855, major in May, 1861, colonel of the 8th la. infantry in Sept., 
1861, brigadier-general of volunteers in Jan., 1862, and major-gen- 
eral of volunteers in Nov., 1862. During the first year of the war 
he had command of a brigade in Missouri and took part in the 
battles of Dug springs and Wilson's creek. In 1862 he was at the 
head of a division in the Army of the Southwest and as stated 
above was promoted major-general of volunteers on Nov. 29. He 
led the 15th army corps in the Yazoo expedition and the capture of 



Biographical Sketches 255 

Arkansas post in Jan., 1863; was transferred to the 15th corps, 
engaged in the Vicksburg campaign, bore a part at Chickasaw bayou 
and in the taking of Fort Hindman, and in the summer was made 
lieutenant-colonel and brevet colonel in the regular army. His di- 
vision was sent to Helena, Ark., in July and took possession of Little 
Rock on Sept. 10. After some months in command of the Department 
of Arkansas he was sent to the aid of Gen. Canby in the reduction 
of Mobile early in the winter of 1864. In 1865 he was brevetted 
brigadier- and major-general, U. S. A., sent to Texas and thence 
to the command of the Department of the Columbia. He became 
colonel of the 20th infantry in July, 1866, remained in the volunteer 
service until March. 1867, and died at San Mateo, Cal., Jan. 12, 1868. 

Stevens, Isaac I., major-general, was born in Andover, Mass., in 
1817. He graduated at West Point in 1839, ranking first in his class, 
and was commissioned second lieutenant of engineers. In 1840 he 
became first lieutenant and was employed upon the fortifications 
of the New England coast until the Alexican war, at that time being 
adjutant of engineers. He was attached to Gen. Scott's staff and 
for gallant and meritorious conduct at the battles of Contreras and 
Churubusco was brevetted captain, and major for his heroic conduct 
at the storming of Chapultepec and the city of Mexico, where he 
received a severe wound from which he never fully recovered. 
Upon his return to the United States he was selected by Prof. Bache 
to perform the duties of chief of the coast survey at Washington. 
In 1853 he resigned his commission and accepted the appointment 
of governor of Washington territory, where he became known as 
an able executive officer, displaying the most unremitting devotion 
to the interests of the territory. During the administration of Pres- 
ident Buchanan he represented Washington territory as delegate 
in Congress for two terms. He was the chairman of the Breck- 
inridge executive committee in the presidential campaign of i860; 
but when the Southern leaders declared for secession he openly 
denounced them and stood by the Federal government, strongly 
urging President Buchanan to remove Sees. Floyd and Thompson 
from the cabinet and trust to the counsels of Gen. Scott. At the 
close of the session of Congress Gov. Stevens proceeded to Wash- 
ington territory, but upon hearing of the attack upon Fort Sumter 
returned to Washington and offered his services to the government. 
He was appointed colonel of the 79th N. Y. Highlanders. He was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on Sept. 28, 1861, and 
accompanied Gen. Sherman to South Carolina, where he bore a 
prominent part in all the battles near Port Royal. He was then 
transferred to North Carolina, whence he came to Virginia in the 
corps of Gen. Reno and was promoted to the rank of major-general 
of volunteers, his commission bearing date of July 4, 1862. He was 
in all the skirmishes along the Rappahannock under Gen. Pope and 
fought most gallantly in the battle of Chantilly, where he was 
killed Sept. 1, 1862. 

Stevenson, John D., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Virginia, but early in life took up his residence in Missouri, where 
he was living at the time of the Mexican war. On June 2"], 1846, 
he became captain of the Missouri mounted volunteers and served 
in that capacity in the war with Mexico until June 24, 1847. He 
then retired from the military service and followed' peaceful pursuits 
until June i, 1861, when he was commissioned colonel of the 7th 
Mo. infantry and began active service in the Civil war at Boon- 
ville, Mo., on July 4. He was on duty at various places in the state 



256 The Union Army 

until early in May, 1862, when he was ordered with his regiment to 
Pittsburg landing, where he arrived on the 14th. From August to 
October he was on post duty at Jackson, Tenn.; took part in the 
engagements at Medon Station and Britton's lane; was then ordered 
to Corinth, Miss., where he arrived in time to attack the Confeder- 
ate rear as the enemy was assaulting the Federal forces; was attached 
to Gen. McPherson's division and was in the advance in the pur- 
suit of the enemy from Corinth to Ripley. On Nov. 29, 1862, he was 
commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and continued to serve 
in that capacity until April 22, 1864, when he resigned from the 
service; but on Aug. 7, 1864, he was recommissioned as brigadier, 
to rank from the date of his first commission, and he continued to 
serve until Jan. 15, 1866, when he was honorably mustered out of 
the volunteer service. On March 13, I865. he was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers for meritorious service during the war, and 
on July 28, 1866, he was commissioned colonel in the regular army 
and given command of the 30th infantry. On March 2, 1867, he 
was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious 
service at the battle of Champion's hill. Miss., and on Dec. 15, 1870, 
was assigned to the command of the 25th infantry. He was hon- 
orably disciiarged from the service at his own request on Dec. 31, 
1870. Gen. Stevenson died on Jan. 22, 1897. 

Stevenson, Thomas G., brigadier-general, was the son of Hon. 
J. Thomas Stevenson of Boston, Mass., born in 1836, and early man- 
ifested a predilection for military life, having risen from the ranks 
to major of the 4th battalion of Mass. infantry, which position he 
held at the commencement of the war. He had an unsurpassed rep- 
utation as a drill-master and his command, which was brought to 
a high degree of discipline, became the school of many young 
officers afterward distinguished in the Federal service. In the fall 
of 1861 he recruited the 24th Mass. infantry, which originally formed 
part of Foster's brigade in Burnside's expedition to North Carolina, 
and as its colonel participated in the capture of Roanoke island and 
New Berne. Feb. and March, 1862, and in various minor operations 
immediately succeeding those events. After holding for some months 
the outpost defences of New Berne, he conducted several expeditions 
within the Confederate lines and on Sept. 6 successfully defended 
Washington, N. C, against an attack by a superior force. He had 
charge of a brigade in the movements on Goldsboro and Kinston 
and in Dec, 1862, was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers 
and when Gen. Foster organized the expedition for operations 
against Charleston, in Feb.. 1863, received command of a brigade in 
Gen. Naglee's division. His appointment as brigadier-general was 
confirmed in March, 1863, and during the succeeding summer he 
saw much active service in the neighborhood of Charleston, assist- 
ing in the reduction of Morris island and the assault on Fort Wagner, 
where he commanded the reserves. He returned to the north in the 
fall to recruit his health and subsequently was appointed by his 
old commander. Gen. Burnside, who had a high appreciation of his 
capacity, to command the ist division of the 9th corps. Gen. Steven- 
son was killed near Spottsylvania, Va., on May to, 1864. 

Stokes, James H., brigadier-general, was born in Baltimore, Md., 
in 1814. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 
1835, served in the Seminole war in Florida, and after its close 
resigned his commission. From 1845 till 1858 he was engaged in 
manufacturing and in railroad business. At the beginning of the 
Civil war he offered his services to the governor of Illinois; received 




Uiig.-Gcu. \\'.\i. Spragui; 
Maj.-Gen. J. B. Steedmax 
Brig. -Gen. ]. D. Steven'son 
Brie.Gen. C. P. Stone 



Maj.l'.cii. I ). S. StanlEV 
Maj.-Gen. Frederick 

Steele 
Brig.-Gen. J. II. Stokes 
Maj.-Gen. George Stone- 

MA\- 



lli-i;4.-Gen. .1. L. Siakk- 

vveather 
Maj.-Gen. I. I. Stevens 
Biig.-Gen. C. J. M. Stol- 

BRAND 

Brig.-Gen. H. H. Stouch- 

TON 



Biographical Sketches 257 

a captain's commission, served a year in Tennessee, was then ap- 
pointed an assistant adjutant-general, and on July 20, 1865, was pro- 
moted brigadier-general of volunteers. After the war he was 
engaged in business in Chicago till 1880, and then in New York, in 
which city he died on Dec. 27, 1890. 

Stolbrand, Carlos J. M., brigadier-general, was born in Sweden 
May II, 1821. He entered the royal artillery when eighteen years 
old; served in the Schleswig-Holstein campaign in 1848-50; and came 
to the United States at the close of that war. In July, 1861, he en- 
listed in the Federal service as a private, was soon afterward com- 
missioned captain in the ist battalion of 111. light artillery, and 
subsequently was chief of artillery under Gen. John A. Logan. He 
took part in the siege of Corinth, the Atlanta campaign, Sherman's 
march to the sea, and in Feb., 1865. was promoted brigadier-general 
of volunteers and resigned his commission. After the war he settled 
in South Carolina and entered political life. In 1868 he was sec- 
retary of the state constitutional convention, a delegate to the Re- 
publican national convention and a presidential elector. He was also 
for some years superintendent of the state penitentiary, and was 
superintendent of the new U. S. government building in Charleston 
under President Harrison's administration. Gen. Stolbrand died in 
Charleston, S. C, Feb. 3, 1894. 

Stone, Charles P., brigadier-general, was born in Greenfield, Frank- 
lin county, Mass., in 1826. He entered the United States military 
academy in 1841 and graduated in 1845, when he was appointed a 
brevet second lieutenant of ordnance. A month later he was appointed 
acting assistant professor of ethics in the military academy, an 
office he held till Jan., 1846, when he was ordered to duty in Mexico. 
He distinguished himself in several battles under Gen. Scott, was 
brevetted first lieutenant Sept. 8, 1847, for gallant and meritorious 
conduct in the battle of Molino del Rey, captain five days later for 
similar conduct at Chapultepec, and commissioned first lieutenant in 
the regular army in Feb., 1853. In 1851 he was sent to California, 
where he constructed the Benicia arsenal and acted as chief of 
ordnance for the Pacific coast. He resigned from the army in 1856, 
was engaged in the banking business in San Francisco for a year 
and then undertook a survey of Sonora and Lower California under 
a commission from the Mexican president. Just before the inaugura- 
tion of President Lincoln Mr. Holt, the secretary of war, called 
Lieut. Stone to Washington, appointed him a captain in the army and 
assigned him to the duty of inspector-general of all the militia in 
the District of Columbia then organizing for the protection of the 
national capital. On May 14, 1861, he was appointed colonel of the 
14th U. S. infantry and three days later was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers. He served in the Shenandoah valley under 
Gen. Patterson during July, and when Gen. McClellan assumed 
command of the Armj- of the Potomac, after the battle of Bull Run, 
Gen. Stone was selected to command a division and directed to 
occupy the valley of the Potomac above Washington as a corps of 
observation. On Jan. 5, 1862, he appeared before the Congressional 
committee on the conduct of the war and was rigidly examined as 
to every detail of the battle of Ball's bluff, which he had been 
accused of bringing on without due preparation. His responses were 
given frankly and seemed to satisfy the committee, but in February 
he was arrested and imprisoned in Fort Lafayette. N. ^'. harbor, 
where he was kept in confinement for seven months without any 
charges having been preferred against him, despite his appeals to 

Vol. VIII— 17 



258 The Union Army 

Sec. Stanton and President Lincoln for such a hearing as the military 
code provided for every accused officer. After his release he served 
in the siege of Port Hudson, was one of the commissioners to 
receive its surrender, and as chief of staff of Gen. Banks was en- 
gaged in the skirmish of Bayou Teche and the battles of Sabine cross- 
roads and Pleasant Hill in April, 1864. He was mustered out of the 
volunteer service the same month and remained unemployed till 
August, when he was assigned to the command of a brigade in the 
Army of the Potomac, retaining it till after the surrender of Peters- 
burg and then resigning from the army. He was engineer and 
superintendent of the Dover mining company of Virginia from 
1865 to 1869, and in 1870 entered the service of the Khedive of 
Egypt, becoming chief of the general stafif or practically commander- 
in-chief of the entire army. For his valuable services in command, 
organization and administration he was decorated commander of 
the Order of Osmanieh Oct. 10, 1870, grand officer of the Order of 
Medjii Jan. 24, 1875, and raised to the dignity of a pasha in 1878. 
Early in 1883 Gen. Stone resigned his commission in the Egyptian 
service, returned to the United States and was appointed engineer- 
in-chief of the construction of the pedestal for Bartholdi's statue 
of Liberty in the harbor of New York, which proved his last work. 
Gen. Stone died in New York city. Jan. 24, 1887. 

Stoneman, George, major-general, was born in Busti, Chautauqua 
county, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1822. He was graduated at West Point in 
1846 and entered the armj' as brevet second lieutenant in the ist 
dragoons. In the regular army he was promoted second lieutenant 
July 12, 1847, first lieutenant July 25, 1854, captain in the 2nd cav- 
alry March 3, 1855, majf)r in the ist cavalry May 9, 1861, lieutenant- 
colonel of the 3d cavalry March 30, 1864, colonel of the 21st in- 
fantry July 28, 1866, retired Aug. 16, 1871. appointed colonel of 
infantry on Feb. 9, i8gi, and again retired on the 24th of the 
same month. In the volunteer army he was commissioned a briga- 
dier-general Aug. 13. 1861, promoted major-general Nov. 29, 1862, 
and was mustered out of the service Sept. t, i86b. Durmg I:is 
active career he was brevetted colonel, U. S. army, Dec. 13, 1862, 
for services in the battle of Fredericksburg and brigadier-general 
and major-general on March 13. 1865, for services in the capture 
of Charlotte, N. C., and during the war, respectively. Gen. Stone- 
man'i first military service was as quarter-master to the Mormon 
batta/ion at Santa Fe in 1847. He accompanied it into Mexico and 
after the war served on the Pacific coast till 1857, when he was trans- 
ferred to Texas. In Feb.. 1861. while in command of Fort Brown, 
Tex., he was ordered by Gen. Twiggs, his superior officer, to sur- 
render the fort and all Federal property in his charge to the state 
secession authorities, but he refused, evacuated the fort and hastened 
to New York city. In August, after serving in western Virginia, 
he was appointed chief of cavalry in the Army of the Potomac. 
He organized that branch of the army, commanded it during the 
Pe'.iin,'--.ular campaign of 1862 and brought on the battle of Williams- 
burg by overtaking the Confederate troops with his cavalry and ar- 
tillery after they had evacuated Yorktown. After the second battle 
of Bull Run he w;is assigned to command Gen. Kearny's division 
and on Nov. 15, 1862, was appointed commander of the 3d army 
corps, with which he distinguished himself at Fredericksburg. In 
April and May, 1863, he commanded a cavalry corps in raids toward 
Richmond, and then till April, 1864, was in command of the 23d 
army corps. He was then assigned to command a cavalry corps 



Biographical Sketches 359 

in the Arnij- of the Ohio. In tlie Atlanta campaign he undertook to 
capture IVIacon and Andersonville and release the prisoners con 
fined in the latter place, but was himself captured at Clinton, Ga., 
and held a prisoner for three months. In Dec, 1864. he led a raid 
into southwestern Virginia; in Feb. and March. 1865, commanded 
the District of East Teimessee; led an expedition to Asheville, N. C, 
in March and April; and was engaged in the capture of Salisbury 
and the subsequent operations in North Carolina. After the war he 
purchased a ranch in Los Angeles countj% Cal.; in 1882 was elected 
railroad commissioner of California as a Democrat; and the follow- 
ing 3ear was elected governor of the state, serving till Jan., 1887. 
Gen. Stoneman died iii Buffalo, N. Y., Sept. 5, 1894. 

Stoughton, Edwin H., brigadier-general, was born in Vermont 
in 1837, served as a cadet at the military academy at West Point 
from July i, 1854 to July i, 1859. when he was graduated and en- 
tered the armj' as brevet second lieutenant of infantry. He served 
in garrison at Fort Columbus, N. Y., 1859-60, being promoted to 
second lieutenant in the 6th infantry Sept. 5, 1859, and he resigned 
from the service on March 4, 1861. He served during the Civil war, 
first in scouting in western territories in 1861; in the defenses of 
Washington, D. C, from Sept., 1861, to March, 1862, having been 
commissioned colonel of the 4th Vt. infantry on Sept 21, 1861. He 
served with the Army of the Potomac in the Peninsular campaign, 
being engaged in the siege of Yorktown, the action at Lee's mill, 
the battles of Williamsburg, Savage Station and the operations be- 
fore Richmond. He was on leave of absence from July to Nov., 
1862; was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on Nov. 5, 
and was in command of a brigade covering the defenses of 
Washington from that time until March 8, 1863. when he was cap- 
tured bj' Mosby's command at Fairfa.x Court House. His com- 
mission expired by constitutional limitation March 4, 1863, and after 
being released as a prisoner of war he located in New York city 
and commenced the practice of law. He died in that city Dec. 25, 1868. 

Strong, George C., major-general, was born in Stockbridge, Vt., 
in 1833. His father died when he was but eight years of age and 
he was adopted in the family of his uncle, A. S. Strong, of East- 
hampton, Mass., under whose care he imbibed his first desire for 
military life. He entered West Point academy in the class of 1857 
and held the post of first captain of cadets for three years. After 
graduating he had charge of the Bridesburg arsenal, was thence 
transferred to Fortress Monroe and thence to Mount Vernon, Ala. 
He subsequently had charge of the Watervliet arsenal a short time, 
but on the breaking out of the war he applied for active service 
and was placed on the staff of Gen. McDowell at the battle of Bull 
Run. and was highly complimented for his efficiency in that battle. 
He was ne.xt appointed on the stafif of Gen. McClellan, but shortly 
afterward was detailed as ordnance officer by Gen. Butler to the 
Department of the Gulf. He distinguished himself at Biloxi and in 
the perilous adventure up the Tangipahoa river. He was a brave 
and skillful officer, honored and trusted by the men under his com- 
mand. At the assault on Fort Wagner in Charleston harbor, he com- 
manded the assaulting column and led it with the judgment and cour- 
age of a veteran, but he received a mortal wound, fjrom which he died 
in New York city on July 30. TS63. His commission as maior-general 
dated from July iS. 1863, the daj' he was wounded at Fort Wagner. 

Strong, William K., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
New York and there achieved considerable prominence in civil life 



260 The Union Army 

prior to the breaking out of the Civil war. When hostilities began 
he took an active part in the support of the Federal government 
and on Sept. 28, 1861, was commissioned a brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers. He accepted the position and served faithfully until Oct. 
20, 1863, when he resigned from the service and retired to private 
life. Gen. Strong died on March 15, 1868. 

Stuart, David, brigadier-general, was born in the state of New 
York, but early in life removed to Illinois, in which state he was 
residing at the beginning of the Civil war. He assisted in organiz- 
ing the 42nd 111. infantry and was mustered into the service as its 
lieutenant-colonel on July 22, 1861. With this regiment he moved 
to St. Louis on Sept. 21, but he severed his connection with it on 
Oct. 31, 1861, to become colonel of the 55th 111. infantry. This 
regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago and was one 
of two regiments raised by Col. Stuart under an act of Congress 
and called the "Douglas Brigade." Col. Stuart left Camp Douglas 
with the 55th for Alton, Nov. 9, 1861, and thence by steamboat for 
St. Louis, arriving at IBenton barracks on Nov. 11. He received 
his baptism of fire at Shiloh, his regiment with one other holding 
an important position for over two hours on the first day of the 
battle, and after being nearly surrounded it retreated from point 
to point and took its position with its organization still complete 
in the last line formed in the evening near the landing. Col. Stuart 
led his regiment in the battle the next day. acting on the right, 
and during this terrible two-days' conflict, the first in its history, 
his regiment lost the heaviest of any Federal regiment in that en- 
gagement, with one exception. It was in the advance on Corinth 
and on Nov. 29, 1862, Col. Stuart was advanced to the rank of brig- 
adier-general of volunteers. He served in this capacity until March 
II, 1863, when his appointment was negatived by the U. S. senate 
and he retired from the military service. Gen. Stuart died Sept. 
II. 1868. 

Stumbaugh, Frederick S., brigadier-general, was born in the state 
of Pennsylvania, and at the outbreak of the Civil war took a very 
active part in support of the Federal government. On April 20, 1861, 
he was commissioned colonel of the 2nd Pa. infantry for the three- 
months' service, and with it proceeded to Cockeysville, then to 
York and Chambersburg, where it became a part of the 2nd brigade, 
2nd division. Department of Washington, and moved to Funks- 
town, Md. He was mustered out of the three-months' service 
July 27, 1861, and on Oct. 26 of the same year was again mustered 
into the military service as colonel of the 77th Pa. infantry. He 
left the state with this regiment and proceeded to Louisville, Ky., 
thence to the Nolin river, where it was encamped for some time 
and assigned to the sth brigade, 2nd division. Army of the Ohio. 
On March 2. 1862. the regiment arrived at Nashville, and on April 
7 Col. Stumbaugh led it in the second daj^'s struggle of the battle 
of Shiloh. On May 28 with his command he was in front of the 
works at Corinth. Miss., and after the evacuation by the enemy 
slowly returned to Nashville, arriving there early in September. 
Later in the month he hastened with Buell's army to the protection 
of Louisville, was engaged with the enemy at Floyd's fork. Ky., 
and skirmished at Fern creek and Claysville. His regiment was 
not engaged at Perryville, and soon after that battle it returned to 
Nashville, where it rested until the opening of the winter campaign. 
On Nov. 2"] Col. Stumbaugh led his regiment in a sharp skirmish 
near La Vergne, and on Nov. 29. 1862, was commissioned brig- 



Biographiccd Sketches 261 

adier-general of volunteers, lie served in that capacity until Jan. 
22, 1863, when his appointment as brigadier-general was revoked. 
He was honorably discharged as colonel May 15, 1863, and returned 
to the pursuits of a civil career. 

Sturgis, Samuel D., brigadier-general, was born in Shippensburg, 
Pa., June 11, 1822. He was graduated at the U. S. military academy 
in 1846 and entered the army as brevet second lieutenant of the 2nd 
dragoons. In the permanent establishment he was promoted sec- 
ond lieutenant Feb. 16, 1847, first lieutenant on July 15, 1853, cap- 
tain in the ist U. S. cavalrj^ March 3, 1855, major May 3, 1861, 
lieutenant-colonel of the 6th cavalry Oct. 27, 1863, colonel of the 
7th cavalry May 6, 1869, was brevetted lieutenant-colonel Aug. 10, 
1861, for services at Wilson's creek, Mo., colonel Aug. 29, 1862, for 
gallantry at the second Bull Run, brigadier-general and major-gen- 
eral on March 13. 1865, for conduct at South mountain and Fred- 
ericksburg, and was retired June ii. 1886. In the volunteer service 
he was appointed brigadier-general Aug. 10, 1861, and was mustered 
out Aug. 24, 1865. He was captured by the Mexicans at Buena 
Vista, and was in service against the Indians during a large part 
of his military life. Gen. Sturgis died in St. Paul, Minn., Sept. 28, 1889. 

Sullivan, Jeremiah C, brigadier-general, was born in Indiana and 
was the son of Jeremiah Sullivan, an early pioneer and an eminent 
jurist of that state. In early life he served in the U. S. navy for a 
time, but leaving that service engaged in civil pursuits, which he 
was following at the time of the outbreak of the Civil war. He 
assisted in organizing the 6th Ind. infantry for the three-months' 
service, and as captain of a company in that organization left the state 
May 30, 1861, for West Virginia and reached Philippi on June 2. 
He participated in the first battle of the war at that place the follow- 
ing day, his regiment being attached to Gen. Thomas A. Morris' 
brigade. On June 19 he was commissioned colonel of the 13th Ind. 
infantry and again left the state July 4, and joined McClellan's 
forces at Rich mountain, W. Va., where he participated in the battle. 
He was in numerous skirmishes about Cheat mountain and in the 
engagement there on Sept. 12-14. With his regiment he supported 
a battery at Greenbrier and was in several skirmishes, after which 
he moved to Green Spring run, where he remained until spring. 
He was in the battle of Winchester in March and joined in pursuit 
of Jackson's army as far as New Market. Col. Sullivan was appointed 
brigadier-general of volunteers on April 28, 1862, and continued to 
serve in that capacity until May 11, 1865. when he resigned from 
the military service and engaged in peaceful pursuits. He died 
Oct. 21, 1890. 

Sully, Alfred, brigadier-general, was born in the state of Penn- 
sylvania in 1821. Graduating at the United States military academy 
in 1841, he served with his regiment, the 2nd U. S. infantry, in the 
Florida war against the Seminole Indians, the Mexican war, the 
Rogue River expedition in Oregon, and in campaigns against the 
Sioux and Cheyennes in Minnesota and Nebraska. During the Civil 
war, as a colonel and later as brigadier-general of volunteers, he 
participated in the siege of Yorktown, the affair at West Point, the 
battles of Fair Oaks, Peach Orchard, Savage Station, Glendale, 
Malvern hill, Chantilly, South mountain, Antictam, Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville, and the marches and campaigns incident thereto. 
He was ordered to Dakota territory in 1863 a'nd commanded the 
expedition against the hostile Indians of the northwest, defeating 
the combined tribes at White Stone hill, for which engagement he 



362 The Union Army 

was brevetted a brigadier-general in the regular service, having 
already been made a brevet major-general of volunteers. Gen. Sully 
died at Vancouver barracks, Wash. Ter., April 27, 1879. 

Sumner, Edwin V., major-general, was born in Boston, Mass., in 
1796. Me was educated at the Milton academy in Boston, was ap- 
pointed second lieutenant in the 2nd U. S. infantry in March, 1819, 
and served in the Black Hawk war. When the 2nd regiment 
of dragoons was raised by Gen. Jackson he was commissioned cap- 
tain, was for man}' years employed in service on the Indian frontier, 
and subsequently commanded the school of cavalry practice at 
Carlisle, Pa. He was promoted major in 1846 and in April, 1847, 
led the famous cavalry charge at Cerro Gordo, where he was wounded 
and obtained the brevet of lieutenant-colonel. At Contreras and 
Churubusco he won further honors and at the battle of Molino del 
Rey commanded the entire cavalry, holding in check 5,000 Mexican 
lancers. For his gallant conduct he received the brevet of colonel, 
and in July, 1848, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the ist 
dragoons. At the close of the war he was placed in command of 
the Department of New Mexico. In 1855 he was promoted to the 
colonelcy of the ist cavalry, and the following year was in command 
at Fort Leavenworth, Kan. In July of 1857 he led a successful 
expedition against the Cheyenne Indians, and in 1858 was appointed 
commander of the Department of the West. In March, 1861, he was 
appointed brigadier-general in the regular army in place of Gen. 
Twiggs, and in March. 1862. was appointed commander of the ist 
ami}' corps, Armj' of the Potomac. At the siege of Yorktown he 
commanded the left wing and was engaged in all the battles of 
the Chickahominy. during which he was twice wounded. For his 
services before Richmond he was made major-general of volunteers 
and brevet major-general in the regular army. Upon the reorgan- 
ization of the army Gen. Sumner was assigned to the 2nd corps and 
in the battle of Antietam was wounded. Subsequently he was placed 
in command of the right grand division, Army of the Potomac, but 
upon tlie appointment of Gen. Hooker as chief of that army he asked 
to be relieved, and after a few weeks was ordered to the command 
of the Army of the Frontier. Upon the waj' thither he was taken 
sick, and died after a short illness at Si'racuse, N. Y., March 21, 1863. 

Swayne, Wager, major-general, was born in Columbus. Ohio, Nov. 
10, 1834, son of Noah H. Swayne. late associate justice of the U. S. 
supreme court. He was educated at Yale college, graduating in 
1856. and then entered the Cincinnati law school, in which he was 
graduated in 1859. He formed a law partnership wnth his father and 
practiced two years, or until the Civil war broke out, when he 
oflfered his services to the government and in July, 1861, was ap- 
pointed major of the 4.3d Ohio infantry. He was first stationed 
at Camp Chase, near Columbus, then took part in the Missouri 
campaign under Pope in 1861-62, assisted in the capture of New 
Madrid and Island No. 10, and was engaged in the battles of Corinth 
and luka. During the Corinth engagement the colonel of the 43d 
Ohio was killed, the command devolving upon Maj. Swayne. who 
was subsequentlj' commissioned as colonel. He continued with his 
regiment until the fall of 1863, in Tennessee. Mississippi and Ala- 
bama, and in 1864 accompanied Sherman to Atlanta and on his 
march to the sea. During the campaign of the Carolinas Col. Swayne 
lost his right leg by the explosion of a shell in an affair at the cros- 
sing of the Salkahatchie river, and "for gallant and distinguished 
services" in that action was commissioned brevet brigadier-general. 



Biographical Sketches 263 

and later was promoted to the full rank of brigadier-general of 
volunteers. Gen. Swayne was invalided until June, 1865, when at 
the request of Gen. O. O. Howard, chief of the Freedmen's bureau, 
he was detailed by the war department to duty in Alabama as 
assistant commissioner of the bureau in that state. He instituted 
various enterprises for the education of the blacks and to provide 
them with sustenance and the opportunity to become self-supporting. 
Through Sec. Stanton he secured from President Johnson an order 
devoting certain confiscated war materials to the education of the 
freedmen and subsequently, through Senator, afterward Vice-Pres- 
ident Henry Wilson, an act of Congress devoting to the same cause 
such real property as had been purchased from individuals by the 
Federal government, becoming by the rules of international law the 
property of the United States. But his policy was radically dif- 
ferent from that which President Johnson eventually adopted, and 
accordingly Gen. Swayne was recalled from Alabama in 1868. The 
command of the United States forces in Alabama had meantime, 
soon after he came into the state, been added to his duties, and to 
facilitate his work he was made a major-general of volunteers. In 
1866 Congress increased the regular army of the United States by 
the creation of four regiments of infantry composed of disabled 
volunteer soldiers, known as "the veteran reserve corps." Gens. 
Daniel E. Sickles, John C. Robinson. Thomas G. Pitcher and Wager 
Swayne were respectively appointed to the command of these reg- 
iments. In Dec, 1868, Gen. Swayne was assigned to duty in the war 
department at Washington, but in 1870 was placed on the retired 
list of the army at his own request and resumed the practice of law, 
locating at Toledo, Ohio. Almost immediately he took rank among 
the foremost lawyers of Ohio. He fought through the lower courts 
and finally through the supreme court of the United States, the 
constitutionality of a state law which was designed to tax national 
banks out of existence, and secured a final decision in the negative. 
Gen. Swayne soon had among his clients such concerns as the 
American Union telegraph company and the Wabash railroad com- 
pany, and in 1879 the growth of his railroad and telegraph business 
made it necessary for him to remove to New York city, where his cli- 
ents were. In May, 1881, he entered into partnership with Judge John 
F. Dillon and the firm soon became general counsel for the Western 
Union telegraph company, the Missouri Pacific railroad company, and 
other great commercial and railway interests. Gen. Swayne was the 
second president of the Ohio society of New York. He died Dec. 18, 
1902. 

Sweeny, Thomas W., brigadier-general, was born in Cork, Ireland, 
Dec. 25, 1S20. He came to the United States in 1832, learned the 
printer's trade in New York city, and served in the ist N. Y. in- 
fantry in the Mexican war, receiving a wound at the battle of 
Churubusco which made it necessary to amputate his right arm. 
On returning to New York he was brevetted captain and was pre- 
sented with a silver medal by the city government. He was com- 
missioned second lieutenant in the U. S. infantry March 3, 1848; pro- 
moted first lieutenant June 11, 1851; captain Jan. 19, 1861; major 
of the i6th infantry Oct. 20. 1863; unassigned March 15, 1869, 
and was retired as brigadier-general in the U. S. army May 11, 
1870. After entering the regular army he was ordered to California, 
where for a time he was commandant at Fort Yuma, and afterward 
he distinguished himself in campaigns with the Indians. At the 
beginning of the Civil war he was placed in charge of the U. S. 



26-1 The Union Army 

arsenal at St. Louis, Mo., which he saved by threatening to explode 
the 40 tons of gunpowder stored there in case the secessionists 
attacked him. He was second in command of the national troops 
at the surrender of the Missouri state forces at Camp Jackson, 
was commissioned a brigadier-general of volunteers on May 20, 
1861, and at the battle of Wilson's creek he was severely wounded. 
After this he was given command of the 52nd 111. infantry, was 
attached to Gen. Grant's army, took part in the capture of Fort 
Donelson, and at the battle of Shiloh successfully defended a gap 
in the line, for which Gen. Sherman afterward said: "I attach more 
importance to that event than to any of the hundred events that I 
have since heard saved the day." In Dec, 1862, he was given com- 
mand of a division of the i6th army corps and was engaged in pro- 
tecting the Memphis & Charleston railroad. In the Atlanta campaign 
he commanded the 2nd division, i6th corps. Army of the Tennessee, 
with which he took possession of Snake Creek gap 24 hours before 
the arrival of supporting cavalry and held it against several assaults. 
Subsequently he took part in the battle of Resaca, forced a passage 
across Oostanaula river and fought a successful battle. He also 
distinguished himself in the battles of Kennesaw mountain, and in 
the battle before Atlanta on July 22, 1864, his division repelled an 
assault and captured 4 Confederate flags and 900 prisoners. After 
the occupation of Atlanta he held the post of commandant at Nash- 
ville till July, 1865, and was mustered out of the volunteer service 
on Aug. 24 following. Gen. Sweeny was active in the Fenian in- 
vasion of Canada in 1866, during a virtual retirement from the army. 
After that event he was reinstated in the army and assigned to duty 
in the Southern military district. He was presented by the city of 
Brooklyn with a costly sword for his services during the Civil war. 
He died in Astoria, L. I., April 10, 1892. 

Sykes, George, major-general, was born in Dover. Del., Oct. 9, 
1822. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 
1842, assigned to the 3d infantry, participated in the latter part of 
the war with the Seminoles and afterward served in the West. On 
Sept. 21, 1846, he was promoted first lieutenant, engaged in the Mex- 
ican war, was present at Monterey, Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo (where 
he earned the brevet of captain), Contreras, Churubusco and the 
capture of Mexico city. He served as commissary under Gen. Twiggs, 
then on frontier and garrison duty, took part in the Apache war- 
fare of 1854 and the Navajo expedition of 1859. and attained the 
rank of captain Sept. 30, 1855. He became major of the 14th in- 
fantry May 14, 1861, was present at the first battle of Bull Run, 
and received the commission of brigadier-general of volunteers 
on Sept. 28, 1861. He joined the Peninsular campaign as leader of 
the regulars in Gen. Fitz John Porter's corps, was brevetted colonel 
after Gaines' mill, was appointed major-general of volunteers Nov. 
29, 1862, and given command of the 5th corps after the battle of 
Chancellorsville, holding the same until he was sent to Kansas April 
20, 1864. At the end of the war he received the brevet of brigadier- 
general, U. S. A., for services at Gettysburg, and major-general, 
U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services throughout the war. 
He had been promoted lieutenant-colonel in the regular army Oct. 
16, 1863, and on Jan. 12, 1868, he became colonel of the 
20th infantry. After 1877 he was in command at Fort Brown, Tex., 
where he died on Feb. 9, 1880. Congress afterward appropriated 
$1,000, on motion of Gen. Burnside, for the transfer of his remains 
to the cemetery at West Point, and to further the erection there 
of the fine monument which now stands to his memory. 




Maj.-Gen. (',. C. Strong 
Brig.-Gen. F. S. Stum- 

BAUGH 

Maj.-Gen. E. \'. Sumner 
Maj.-Gen. George Sykes 



Brig.-Gen. \V. K. Str.v 
■Rrig.-Gen. S. D. Stirgis 
Maj.-Gen. Wager Swayne 
I!iif;.-Gen. G. \V. Taylor 



l'.rig.-< .eii. I. C. SuLLiVAM 
Rrig.-Gen. T. W. Sweeney 
Rrig.-Gen. J. P. Taylor 



Biographical Sketches 'io'y 

Taylor, George W., brigadicr-gcncral, was a native of Clinton, 
Hunterdon county, N. J., and was born in 1808. At the age of 
nineteen he entered the navy as a midshipman, but after a three 
years' cruise settled in New Jersey as a farmer. In the Mexican war 
he served first as lieutenant and afterward as captain in the loth 
U. S. infantry. After the close of that war he resided for three 
years in California and then returned to his native state, where 
he engaged in mining and manufacturing. At the commencement 
of the Civil war he was commissioned colonel of the 3d N. J. in- 
fantry, which, under Brig.-Gen. Runyon, formed a part of the reserve 
at Bull Run. When the three months' men were mustered out 
of the service he reorganized his regiment, returned to the army 
and was attached to the Army of the Potomac when it went to 
the Peninsula. After the battle of West Point Gen. Kearny was 
made a division commander. Col. Taylor was placed in charge of 
the 1st brigade of N. J. volunteers, and on May 9, 1862, received 
his commission as brigadier-general of volunteers. In the hard 
fighting that followed before Riclimond he performed his part man- 
fully, and when the army returned to the Potomac he was prompt 
and ready with his brigade in the sharp battles southwest of Wash- 
ington. He died in Alexandria. Va., Sept. i, 1862, of wounds re- 
ceived at the second battle of Bull Run. 

Taylor, Joseph P., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Kentucky, and from that state entered the regular army service 
at the time of the war of 1812. He became third lieutenant in the 
28th U. S. infantry in May, 1813. second lieutenant in the same 
regiment in August, first lieutenant in July. 1814, and was hon- 
orably discharged from the service June 15, 1815. He was reinstated 
in the service as a second lieutenant of U. S. artillery in May, 1816, 
with brevet of first lieutenant from July 15, 1814, promoted to first 
lieutenant on Nov. 24, 1817, transferred to the 3d artillery on June 
I, 1821, and was promoted to captain in the same on July 6, 1825. 
He was transferred to the 2nd artillery March 18. 1829, and remained 
with that regiment until July 7, 1838, acting as commissary of subsist- 
ence with the rank of captain, and was promoted to major July 7, 1838. 
He became lieutenant-colonel and assistant commissary-general 
of subsistence in the U. S. army Nov. 30. 1841, and was brevetted 
colonel for meritorious conduct, particularly in the performance of 
his duties in the prosecution of the war with Mexico. He was 
commissioned colonel and commissary-general of subsistence on 
Sept. 29, 1861, and was promoted to brigadier-general and commis- 
sarj'-general of subsistence, U. S. A., on Feb. 9, 1863. Gen. Taylor 
served in this capacity until his death, which occurred at Washington, 
D. C, on June 29, 1864. 

Taylor, Nelson, brigadier-general, was born in South Norwalk, 
Conn., June 8. 1821. He received a common-school education and 
removed to New York city, where, on Aug. i, 1846, he joined the 
army as a captain in the ist N. Y. infantry (known as Col. Steven- 
son's regiment), which was ordered to California just before the 
Mexican war. He served through the war and at its close settled 
in Stockton, Cal. In 1849 he was elected a state senator; in 1855, 
sherifif of San Joaquin county; and in 1850-56 was president of the 
board of trustees of the state insane asylum. He returned to New 
York city, where he began studying law in 1857, and was graduated 
at the Harvard law school in i860. In 1861 he was commissioned 
colonel of the 72nd N. Y. infantry, which was attached to Gen. 
Sickles' brigade during the Peninsular campaign, and in Gen. Pope's 



266 The Union Army 

Virginia campaign he commanded the brigade. He was promoted 
brigadier-general of volunteers on Sept. 7, 1862. but resigned on 
Jan. 19, 1863, returned to New York city and engaged in law practice. 
In 1864 he was elected to Congress as a Democrat and during his 
term, which expired March 3, 1867, he served on the committees on 
freedmen and invalid pensions. About 1880 he returned to his birth- 
place, where he practiced law, was city attorney for several years 
and held other municipal offices. Gen. Taylor died at South Nor- 
walk, Conn., on Jan. 16, 1894. 

Terrill, William R., brigadier-general, was a native of Virginia, 
born about 183-' and appointed from that state a cadet at the mili- 
tary academy, where he graduated in 1853 and was immediately 
appointed brevet second lieutenant of the 3d artillery, from which 
he was transferred to the 4th artillery in November following as 
second lieutenant. In 1855 he was appointed assistant professor 
of mathematics at West Point. In 1856 he was promoted to a first 
lieutenancy and in May, 1861, was appointed captain in the 5th 
artillery and assigned to duty on the coast survey. He soon after- 
ward raised a regiment of volunteers, was sent to Kentucky, where 
he commanded a battery in Gen. McCook's diA'ision, was transferred 
to the command of a brigade and for his gallant and meritorious 
conduct at the battle of Shiloh was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers, his commission bearing date Sept. 9, 1862. At the battle 
of Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862, he was killed while urging forward his 
brigade against the enemy. 

Terry, Alfred H., major-general, was born at Hartford, Conn., 
Nov. 10, 1827. After a partial course at the Yale law school he began 
the practice of law in 1849 and served from 1854 to i860 as clerk 
of the superior and supreme courts of his state. When the Civil 
war broke out he took the field at once with the 2nd Conn, militia, 
of which he had been in command for seven years. On the expira- 
tion of the three months for which his regiment had been called out 
by President Lincoln he organized the 7th Conn, infantry and led 
it to the front as colonel. He assisted in Gen. Thomas W. Sher- 
man's expedition against Port Royal in 1862 and was soon afterward 
made brigadier-general of volunteers in reward for his services at 
Fort Pulaski. From 1862 to 1864 he took part in the operations 
against Charleston, Forts Sumter, Wagner and Gregg, on James 
island and Stono river, and as an officer in the Army of the James 
was engaged at Chester Station, Drewry's bluff, Bermuda Hundred, 
Deep Bottom, Fussel's mill, Petersburg, Fort Harrison, New Market 
road and Williamsburg road. He was brevetted major-general of 
volunteers Aug. 20. 1864. In Jan., 1865, he performed one of the 
most brilliant exploits of the whole war in the capture of Fort 
Fisher by assault after the failure of the first attempt under Gen. 
Butler. He took over 2,000 prisoners, 167 pieces of artillery, and 
2,000 stands of small arms. This victory secured him a national 
reputation and he was further rewarded with a brigadiership in the 
regular army, a major-generalship of volunteers and a vote of thanks 
by Congress: "To Brevet Maj.-Gen. A. H. Terry and the officers 
and soldiers under his command for the unsurpassed gallantry and 
skill exhibited by them in the attack upon Fort Fisher, and the 
brilliant and decisive victory by which that important work has 
been captured from the rebel forces and placed in the possession 
and under the authority of the United States, and for their long 
and faithful service and unwavering devotion to the cause of the 
country in the midst of the greatest difficulties and dangers." He 



Biographical Sketches 267 

afterward assisted in the capture of Wilmington and for his ser- 
vices there was brevetted a major-general in the regular army. 
After the war he commanded the Departments of Virginia, Dakota 
(where he fought the Sioux Indians), and the South. On March 3, 
1886, he was promoted major-general in the regular army to suc- 
ceed Maj.-Gen. Hancock. He retired from the service in April, 
1888, being at that time in command of the Division of the Missouri. 
He died at New Haven, Conn., Dec. 16, 1890. 

Terry, Henry D., brigadier-general, was a native of Connecticut, 
but removed early in life to Michigan, where he had entered upon 
the legal profession before the commencement of the war. He had 
given considerable attention to military matters for some years and 
when the call was made for troops in June, 1861, he raised a regiment 
(the 5th Mich.), of which he was appointed colonel, and which was 
mustered into the service Aug. 28, 1861. It was ordered to the Army 
of the Potomac and such were the ability and military skill manifested 
by Col. Terry that on July 17, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers, having already for some months been in com- 
mand of a brigade. He served through the war in the Army of the 
Potomac, behaving with great gallantry in the several battles in which 
he was engaged, and when mustered out of service in 1865, resumed 
the practice of his profession in Washington, D. C, where he contin- 
ued to reside till his death, which occurred on June 22, 1869. 

Thayer, John M., brigadier-general, was born at Bellingham, Mass., 
Jan. 24, 1820. He received an excellent preparatory education and was 
graduated with honor at an early age from Brown university, studied 
law and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. When a young man 
he went West, stopping for a while in Ohio, and in 1854 removed to 
Nebraska, shortly after the passage of the "Kansas-Nebraska Act." 
He settled at Omaha, engaging in the practice of law and taking a 
great interest in politics. Being originally an old line Whig he nat- 
urally gravitated into the Republican party, with which he afterward 
uniformly acted. After a time he was appointed brigadier-general 
of the territory and proved to be an excellent Indian fighter. In 1855 
he was unanimously elected major-general of the territorial forces by 
the legislature, continuing to hold that position until the commence- 
ment of the Civil war. In July. 1859, he conducted the Pawnee war, 
in which the entire tribe was captured and put upon a reservation. 
His fighting experience proved of great value during the Civil war. 
He was commissioned colonel by the war department and took com- 
mand of the first regiment that left Nebraska for the field. For his 
great bravery at Fort Donelson and Shiloh, he was subsequently ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers and was placed in command 
of five Iowa regiments and a part of the 3d 111. cavalry, with which he 
assisted Gen. Sherman in the operations against Vicksburg. After the 
war Gen. Thayer was prominent in organizing the state of Nebraska 
and was one of the two U. S. senators first elected from the new com- 
monwealth, his term expiring March 3, 187I. He then devoted himself 
to his private law business, retaining, however, his interest in politics. 
In 1875 he was appointed governor of Wyoming territory and served 
four years; in 1886 he was elected governor of Nebraska, taking his 
seat Jan. 3, 1887. He was reelected in 1888. Gen. Thayer died at Lin- 
coln, Neb., on March 19, 1906. 

Thomas, George H., major-general, one of the dblest. purest and 
most successful of the military chieftains of the Civil war, was born 
in Southampton county. Va., July 31, 1816. His early opportunities of 
education were good and at the age of twenty he had just entered 



2G8 The Union Army 

upon the study of law when his friends secured him an appointment 
as cadet at the military academy at West Point. He entered in 1836 
and, after a thorough and solid rather than a brilliant course, he grad- 
uated in 1840, ranking twelfth in a class of 42 members, among whom 
were Sherman, Ewell, Jordan, Getty, Herbert, Van Vliet and others 
who afterward attained celebrity. Assigned to duty on the day of 
graduation as second lieutenant in the 3d artillery, he served in the 
regular army for twenty years, during which time he rendered hon- 
orable and faithful service in the Florida war from 1840 to 1842; in 
command of various forts and barracks from 1842 to 1845; in the mili- 
tary occupation of Texas in 1845-46; in the Mexican war from 1846 to 
1848 — participating in nearly all its leading battles; in the Seminole 
war in 1849-50; as instructor in artillery and cavalry at West Point 
from 1851 to 1854; on frontier duty at various posts in the interior of 
California and Texas, leading several expeditions against the Indians, 
from 1855 to the autumn of i860. During these twenty years he was 
repeatedly brevetted for gallant and meritorious services, rising 
through all the grades to a captain of artillery, and in 1855 was made 
a major of the 2nd cavalry, which regiment he commanded for three 
years. He was wounded in a skirmish with the Indians at the head- 
waters of the Brazos river in Aug., i860, and the following November 
went east on a leave of absence. During the winter of 1860-61 he 
watched with the most painful anxiety the culmination of that conflict 
of opinion which preceded the war. Relinquishing his leave of absence, 
he reported for duty at Carlisle barracks, Pa., April 14, — the day when 
the flag went down at Sumter— and less than 48 hours after the first 
shot was fired. On May 2"] he led a brigade from Chambersburg across 
Maryland to Williamsport; rode across the Potomac in full uniform at 
the head of his brigade on June 16, to invade Virginia and fight his old 
commanders; a few days afterward he led the right wing of Gen. Pat- 
terson's army in the battle of Falling Waters and defeated the Confed- 
erates under Stonewall Jackson. After serving through the brief cam- 
paign of the Shenandoah Gen. Thomas entered upon that wider sphere 
of action in which he was destined to win an undying reputation. At 
Gen. Robert Anderson's request Sherman and Thomas were m.ade 
brigadier-generals of volunteers and assigned to his command — the De- 
partment of the Cumberland. The first month's work that Thomas 
performed in the department was at Camp Dick Robinson, Ky., where 
he mustered into service eleven regiments and three batteries of Ohio, 
Indiana, Kentucky and Tennessee troops, which he organized into the 
first brigade, and which formed the nucleus of the division, then of 
the corps and finally of the great army which he afterward so long 
commanded. He was soon placed in command of the ist division of 
the army and on Dec. 31 was ordered to move against Zollicof¥er, who 
commanded a large force occupying the road leading from Cumber- 
land gap to Lexington, Ky. In pursuance of this order Gen. Thomas 
fought and won the battle of Mill Springs, which was by far the most 
irnportant military success that had yet been achieved west of Vir- 
ginia, and with the exception of the defeat of Marshall near Preston- 
burg a few days before, it was the first victory in the department. 
In this battle Gen. Thomas laid the foundation of his fame in the Army 
of the Center. From Nov. 30, 1861, to Sept. 30, 1862, he commanded 
a division of Gen. Buell's army without intermission, except that dur- 
ing the months of May and June he commanded the right wing of the 
Army of the Tennessee and around Corinth. On Sept. 30, 1862, 
he was appointed second in command of the Army of the Ohio, 




Brig.-Gen. Nei.S"N Ivni'K I'.ir^. i.rw. \\ . K. 'I'errii.l 
Brig.-Gen. H. D. Terry Liig.-CJen. John M. 

Rrig.-Gen. H. G. Thomas Thayer 

Brig.-Geh. C. M. Thruston niig.-Gen. Lorenzo 
Thomas 
Rrig.-Gen. VV. B. Tibbits 



Maj.t'.cii. A. II. TiiKRY 
>faj.-Gcn. G. H. Thomas 
I!rig.-Gen. Stephen 

Thomas 
r>rig.-Gen. J. I?. S. Todd 



Biographical Sketches 269 

having previously refused the chief command, and served in that 
capacity in the battle of Perryville and until Oct. 30, i86j, when 
the old name of Department of the Cumberland was restored and 
Gen. Rosecrans assumed command. That officer reorganized the 
army into three distinct commands — right, left and center — and as- 
signed Thomas to the center, which consisted of five divisions. 
He held this command in the battle of Stone's river and until 
Jan. 9, 1863, when the 14th army corps was created by order of the 
war department, and Thomas commanded it during the summer cam- 
paign in middle Tennessee and the Chickamauga campaign. On Sept. 
27, 1864, after the capture of Atlanta, he was ordered by Gen. Sher- 
man to return with a portion of his army into Tennessee and defend 
that state against Hood's invasion. Thus Thomas was confronted 
by that veteran army which had so ably resisted Sherman on his 
march to Atlanta, and had to meet it with an effective force of about 
40,000 infantry and 7,000 cavalry, having to remount the latter, pro- 
vide transportation, and almost to organize and supply a new army. 
Although severely checked by Schofield at Franklin, Tenn., Hood 
gathered head and threatened Nashville. Then the government 
and country waited impatiently for Thomas to attack, but he would 
not move until he was ready. He thought he "ought to be trusted 
to decide when the battle should be fought," and to know better 
than any one hundreds of miles away. Grant called him "slow," 
Sherman commented on his "provoking, obstinate delay," and Stan- 
ton, still actuated by the partisan bitterness that had caused him 
to secure the removal of two successful commanders, wrote to Grant: 
"This looks like the McClellan and Rosecrans strategy of do nothing 
and let the enemy raid the country." Urgent despatches and orders 
rained in upon him, but he said they might remove him if they liked, 
and complained to one of his generals, "They are treating me like a 
boy." An order removing him was actually made on Dec. 9, but 
happily revoked. On Dec. 13 Gen. Logan was started for Nashville 
with orders to take the command on his arrival if Thomas had not 
moved, and two days later Grant himself set out thither. On the 
road both received the great news of the battle of Dec. 15. Thomas 
had at length attacked, driving the enemy eight miles, and Hood, 
"for the first and only time, beheld a Confederate army abandon the 
field in confusion." On the next day Thomas completelj-^ redeemed 
his promise to "ruin Hood," whose army was broken to pieces and 
chased out of Tennessee. But even here the victor was blamed as 
dilatory in the pursuit, although the reward of his splendid services 
could no longer be kept back. When he received his commission 
as major-general in the regular army his friend and medical director, 
seeing that he was deeply moved, said: "It is better late than never, 
Thomas." "It is too late to be appreciated." he replied; "I earned 
this at Chickamauga," and afterward, "I never received a promotion 
they dared to withhold." But the nation was by this time ready to 
recognize Gen. Thomas' merits and to understand that it was solely 
by his remarkable abilities, without the influence of powerful friends, 
that he had attained a position second to that of no officer of the 
army. Honors and rewards were pressed upon him, but with a sim- 
ple dignity of character he declined them all, satisfied with having 
done his duty. After the war he was placed in command successively 
of the most important and difficult military departments, often under 
circumstances of great responsibility and delicacy, but his conduct 
gave general satisfaction. Gen. Thomas' death was the result of 
apoplexy and occurred in San Francisco, Cal., March 28. 1870. 



270 The Union Army 

Thomas, Henry G., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Maine and was one of the sons of that commonwealth that hastened 
to ofifer his services to the Federal government at the outbreak of 
the Civil war. He was mustered into the service of the United States 
on June 24, 1861. as a captain of a company in the 5th Me. infantry, 
and witli his command left the state for Washington two days later. 
With his regiment he remained in camp at Meridian hill until July 
5, when the march was commenced to the battlefield of Bull Run, 
where he received his first taste of actual warfare. On Aug. 5, 1861, 
he became a captain in the nth U. S. infantry and was on regimen- 
tal recruiting service until July, 1862. He joined the regiment in the 
field in October of that year and was engaged in the action of Snick- 
er's gap. He was commissioned colonel of the 79th U. S. colored 
infantry on March 20, 1863, but that regiment was mustered out of 
the service on July 11, following, and on Jan. 16, 1864, he was com- 
missioned colonel of the 19th U. S. colored infantry, served as com- 
mandant of Camp Birney, Md., from February until May, and then 
commanded a brigade of the 9th corps, Army of the Potomac, until 
November, being engaged at the battles of the Wilderness, Spott- 
sylvania, Petersburg, explosion of the mine, Weldon railroad and 
Hatcher's run. On Nov. 30, 1864, he was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers and transferred to the Army of the James, 
where he commanded a brigade and temporarily a corps, in the oper- 
ations before Richmond. On March 13, 1865, he was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious service dur- 
ing the war, and was mustered out of the volunteer service Jan. 
15, 1866. In the regular army service he was brevetted major May 

12, 1864, for gallant and meritorious service in the battle of Spottsyl- 
vania, lieutenant-colonel on July 30, for gallant and meritorious serv- 
ice in front of Petersburg, and colonel and brigadier-general on March 

13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious service during the war. After 
the close of the war he continued in the regular army until July 2, 
1891, when he was retired. His death occurred on Jan. 23, 1897. 

Thomas, Lorenzo, brigadier-general, was born in the state of Del- 
aware in 1805. He was appointed from that state a cadet in the mil- 
itary academy at West Point Sept. i, 1819, and on July i, 1823, he 
was graduated and assigned to duty in the army as second lieutenant 
in the 4th infantry. He served in garrison at Cantonment Clinch, 
Fla., in 1824; in constructing a military road to St. Augustine, 1824-25; 
in the Creek Nation, Ga., 1825-26; in garrison again at Cantonment 
Clinch, 1827-28. and as adjutant of the 4th infantrj' at regimental 
headquarters from March i, 1828, to Feb. 15, 1831, being commis- 
sioned first lieutenant in the 4th infantry March 17, 1829. He served 
on recruiting service, 1831-33, in the adjustant-general's office 
at Washington, D. C, from June 5, 1833, to Sept. 3, 1836, and did 
quartermaster duty in the Florida war, 1836-37, being commissioned 
captain in the 4th infantry Sept. 23. 1836. He served in the quarter- 
master-general's office in Washington, D. C. from Oct. 16, 1837. to 
July 7, 1838, being commissioned major and assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral on the last-named date. In the war with Mexico he was adjutant- 
general and chief of staff to Maj.-Gen. Butler, both while commander 
of a division of volunteers and commander of the army, and his 
experience and systematic administrative powers were conspicuous 
in the final movements and the withdrawal of the army in Mexico. 
Early in the Civil war he became adjutant-general of the army by 
succession, and was afterward especially assigned to the duty of 



Biographical Sketches 871 

organizing volunteer troops, particularly the colored regiments. He 
was commissioned brigadier-general on Aug. 3, 1861, brevetted ma- 
jor-general, U. S. A., on March 13, 1865, and having passed the age 
of sixty-two years he was placed on the retired list of the army in 
Feb.. 1869. Gen. Thomas died at his residence in the city of Wash- 
ington on March 2, 1875. 

Thomas, Stephen, brigadier-general, was born in the state of Ver- 
mont, and from that state entered the volunteer military service of 
the United States in the early days of the Civil war. On Feb. 18, 
1862, he was commissioned colonel of the 8th Vt. infantry, a regi- 
ment recruited for Gen. Butler's Southern expedition, being mus- 
tered in for a three years' term. With his regiment he left for New 
York on March 4 and there embarked for Ship island, where from 
April 5 until early in May his regiment was encamped. It was then 
ordered to New Orleans and quartered in the Mechanics' institute 
building, which it occupied until the end of the month, then crossed 
to Algiers and Col. Thomas was placed in command of the District 
of La Fourche. He opened the Opelousas railroad as far as La 
Fourche crossing and his regiment was engaged for some months 
in guarding the road. From October to December, as a part of Gen. 
Weitzel's brigade, his regiment began the work of opening the Ope- 
lousas railroad to Brashear City. It was then encamped at Brashear 
City until Jan. 8, 1863, when it moved to Camp Stevens at Thibo- 
deaux, but returned after two days and shared in the expedition against 
the gunboat "John L. Cotton," located in the Bayou Teche, during 
which the regiment performed excellent service. On April 12 Col. 
Thomas moved his regiment with the 19th corps in the advance to 
Port Hudson, having a brisk engagement with the enemy at Fort 
Bisland on the march. In the desperate assault on Port Hudson 
Col. Thomas commanded the brigade and distinguished himself for 
gallantry, being wounded in the engagement. With his regiment he 
now shared in the siege operations and on June 14 led the column 
in the second grand assault. After the surrender of Port Hudson 
his regiment was ordered to Donaldson and thence to Thibodeaux, 
where it encamped until Sept. i. It then moved to Algiers and took 
part in the fruitless Sabine Pass expedition. The regiment remained 
in active service at Algiers and Thibodeaux until June 6, 1864, and 
then after a number of scouting expeditions embarked for Fortress 
Monroe. On its arrival it was at once ordered to Washington to 
assist in resisting Early's attempt upon the city. Col. Thomas was 
ordered to join the 6th corps with his regiment and moved in pur- 
suit of the enemy as far as Berryville, in the Shenandoah valley. He 
then countermarched his men to the vicinity of Washington, whence 
he was ordered back into Maryland during the flurry caused bj' Mc- 
Causland's raid into that state. In August his regiment was assigned 
to the 2nd brigade, ist division, 19th corps, imder Gen. Emory, and 
did gallant service at the battle of Winchester, executing a splendid 
bayonet charge. It participated in the charge which routed the ene- 
my at Fisher's hill and then followed in pursuit. It then encamped 
north of Cedar creek and participated in the fierce fighting at that 
place on Oct. 19, being also engaged at Newtown in November. On 
Feb. I, 1865. Col. Thomas was commissioned brjgadier-general of 
volunteers and served in that capacity until Aug. 24, 1865, when he 
was honorably mustered out of the service. On July 25, 1892, he 
was awarded a medal of honor for distinguished conduct in a des- 
perate hand-to-hand encounter at Cedar creek, in which the advance 
of the enemy was checked. 



272 The Union Army 

Thruston, Charles M., brigadier-general, was born in the state 
of Kentucky in 1798, but while he was yet a child his parents took 
up their residence in the District of Columbia. He served as a cadet 
in the military academy at West Point from June 8, 1813, to July 21, 
1814, when he was graduated and entered the army as second lieu- 
tenant of artillery. He served in the War of 1812 with Great Brit- 
ain, as acting assistant engineer in erecting temporary defenses at 
Governor's island, New York harbor, and was in garrison at Fort 
McHenry, Md., 1815-18, being promoted to first lieutenant of artil- 
lery April 20, 1818. He served as battalion adjutant of artillery from 
May 14, 1818, to June i, 1821, when he was commissioned first lieu- 
tenant in the 3d artillery in the reorganization of the army, and 
served as adjutant of the 3d artillery at regimental headquarters 
from that time to Feb. 17, 1827. On the last named date he was 
commissioned captam in the 3d artillery and served in garrison at 
Fort Severn, Md., Fort Trumbull, Conn., 1827-33, and Fort Monroe, 
Va., 1833-35. In the Florida war, 1835-36, he was acting adjutant- 
general of the Florida army from Feb. to May, 1836, and was en- 
gaged against the Seminole Indians in the combat of Oloklikaha 
Marcli 31. He resigned from the army Aug. 31, 1836, and settled at 
Cumberland, Md., where he followed the occupation of a farmer until 
1861, being president of the Mineral bank of Cumberland, 1838-41, and 
in 1861 was elected mayor of the city. On Sept. 7, 1861, he was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to the duty of 
guarding the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. He resigned his commission 
on April 17, 1862, and resumed farming, which occupation he followed 
until his death, which occurred at Cumberland, Md.. Feb. 18, 1873. 

Tibbits, William B., brigadier-general, was a native of the state of 
New York, and was one of the first in that commonwealth to offer 
his services to the Federal cause. He was commissioned captain in 
the 2nd N. Y. infantry May 14, i86x, being mustered into the U. S. 
service at Troj^ for a term of two years. On May 18 he accompanied 
the regiment to New York and there embarked for Fortress Monroe, 
at the end of the journey encamping at Mill creek and participating 
in the battle of Big Bethel. On Aug. 5 the regiment was ordered to 
Newport News, where permanent quarters were erected and the ensu- 
ing winter was passed. In Jan., 1862, his regiment joined an expedi- 
tion up the James river; on March 7 it became a part of the ist brigade, 
1st division, Army of Virginia; from April 6 to 17 it was stationed at 
Young's mills, and on June 6 was assigned to the 3d brigade, 2nd 
division, 3d corps. With his regiment Capt. Tibbits took part in the 
campaign on the Peninsula, was engaged near Fair Oaks and in the 
Seven Days' battles. During the campaign in Virginia he was active 
at Bristoe Station, Groveton, the second Bull Run and Chantillj'. On 
Oct. 13, 1862, he was commissioned major of his regiment, which after 
various marches and counter-marches in Virginia, took part in the 
battle of Fredericksburg and then went into winter quarters near Fal- 
mouth, occupying the same until the opening of the Chancellorsville 
movement in the spring of 1863. On May 26, 1863, Maj. Tibbits was 
mustered out of the service, the term of enlistment for his regiment 
having e.xpired. On Feb. 5, 1864, he again entered the service as colonel 
of the 2ist N. Y. cavalry. With this regiment he served in the ist 
brigade, ist cavalry division. Army of West Virginia. He was at 
Remount camp, Md., from Aug. to the close of Oct.. 1864. then joined 
the Army of the Shenandoah, being assigned to the ist brigade. 2nd 
cavalry division. He saw m.uch tr_ving service throughout the year 




BriK. -r.cn. A. T. A. '['•■k- 

BERT 

r!rig.-Gen. J. W. TURNER 
Brig.-Gen. E. B. Tyler 
Brig.-Gen. Daniel Ullman 



llri.:. l.en. J. C. ToiTKN 
Brig.-Gen. T. M. Tltti.E 
Brig.-Gen. R. O. TylER 
Brig.-Gen. A. B. Under- 
wood 



i;i 1-. 1 all. /. i;. T.iu i.k 
Brig.-Gen. Jjaniel Tyler 
Brig.-Gen. Hector Tvn- 

dalE 
Brig.-Gen. Hmery Upton 



Biographical Sketches 273 

1864, when his regiment was constantly employed in the arduous 
duties devolving on the cavalry arm of the service. During 1865 he 
took part in engagements near Paris, at White Post, and near Berry- 
ville, and on Oct. 18, 1865, he was commissioned brigadier-general of 
volunteers. He was mustered out of the service Jan. 15, 1866, and died 
Feb. 10, 1880. 

Tillson, Davis, brigadier-general, was born in Rockland. Me., April 
14, 1830. He spent two years at West Point, and then resigned because 
of an accident that required the amputation of his leg. In 1857 he 
was elected to the state legislature, in the following year was appointed 
adjutant-general of the state, and early in 1861 was appointed collector 
of customs of the Waldoboro (Maine) district. In 1861 he was com- 
missioned captain of the 2nd Me. battery. He remained in Maine, 
owing to the apprehension of difficulty with England on account of 
the "Trent" affair, till April, 1862, when he reported for duty in Wash- 
ington, D. C. In the following month he was promoted major and 
appointed chief of artillery in Gen. Ord's division, and in August, 
after the battle of Cedar mountain, became chief of artillery on Gen. 
McDowell's staflf, taking part in the action at Rappahannock station 
and the second battle of Bull Run. He was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers, to date from Nov. 29. 1862, and after serving 
as inspector of artillery till April, 1863, he was ordered to Cincinnati 
as chief of artillerj^ for fortifications in the Department of the Ohio, 
where he had charge of the defenses of Cincinnati and the works on 
the Louisville & Nashville railroad. While here he also raised two 
regiments of heavy artillery. In December following he was ordered 
to the supervision of defensive works at Knoxville, Tenn., and was 
assigned to the command of a brigade in the 23d corps, with which 
he served in several engagements during the winter of 1863-64. From 
Knoxville, where he constructed what were commended as the best 
works in the militar}^ division of the Mississippi, he was transferred 
to the command of the District of East Tennessee, serving there till 
early in 1865, when he was assigned to the 4th division. Department 
of the Cumberland, which he commanded till the close of the war. 
He was retained in the service till Dec. i, 1866, having charge of 
branches of the Freedmen's bureau in Tennessee and Georgia. He was 
engaged as a cotton planter in Georgia for a year, then returned 
to his birthplace and became interested in the lime and granite busi- 
ness. Gen. Tillson died in Portland. Me., April 30, 1895. 

Todd, John B. S., brigadier-general, was born at Lexington, Ky., 
April 4, 1814. The family removed in 1827 to Illinois, whence he was 
appointed to the U. S. military academy. He was graduated in 1837. 
assigned to the 6th infantry and became first lieutenant on Dec. 25 of 
that year. He served with his regiment in the Florida war from 1837 
to 1840; was on recruiting service in 1841; again took part in the 
Florida war until 1842; was promoted captain in 1843 and performed 
frontier duty in the Indian territory and Arkansas, 1843-46. During 
the war with Mexico he took part at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo and 
Amozoque in 1847, and was thereafter at various garrisons and frontier 
posts. In 1855 he shared in the fight against the Sioux at Blue Water. 
Resigning in Sept., 1856, he became an Indian trader at Fort Randall, 
Dak.; was sent as a delegate to Congress in 1861, as a Democrat; 
promptly reentered the Federal service when the Civil war commenced; 
was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers and commanded a 
division in the Army of the, Tennessee from Sept., 1861, to July, 1862. 
and was in command of the North Missouri district from Oct. i to 

Vol. VIII— 18 



274 The Union Army 

Dec. I, 1861. He was again elected a delegate to Congress, 1863-65; 
served in the Dakota legislature 1867-69; was speaker of its lower 
house; and in 1869-71 was governor of the territory. Gen. Todd was 
a founder of the city of Yankton and one of the leading citizens of 
Dakota in his time. By marriage he was connected with Abraham 
Lincoln and John C. Breckinridge. He died at Yankton, S. D., Jan. 5, 
1872. 

Torbert, Alfred T. A., brigadier-general, was born in the state of 
Delaware in 1833, and was the cadet from that state in the military 
.-loadcniv at West Point from Sept. i. 1851, to July i, 1855, when he 
was graduated and entered the army as brevet second lieutenant of 
infantry. He served on frontier duty in conducting recruits to Texas, 
1855-56; was commissioned second lieutenant in the 5th infantry on 
July 19, 1855; was engaged in the Florida hostilities against the Semi- 
nole Indians, 1856-57; was on frontier duty on the Utah expedition, 
1857-60; then in the march to New Mexico, and was stationed at Fort 
Stanton, N. M., 1860-61, being commissioned first lieutenant in the 
5th infantry, Feb. 25, 1861. He served during the Civil war, first in 
mustering New Jersey volunteers into service from April 17 to Sept. I, 
1861; was commissioned colonel of the ist N. J. infantry Sept. 16, cap- 
tain in the 5th infantry Sept. 25. 1861, and was in command of his 
regiment in the defenses of Washington, stationed near Alexandria, 
Va., from Sept. 17, 1861, to March 10, 1862. He was in the Peninsular 
campaign with the Army of the Potomac, being engaged in the siege 
of Yorktown, the action at West Point, and the battles of Gaines' 
mill and Charles City cross-roads. He was in command of a brigade 
in tiie 6th corps from Aug. 28, 1862, in the northern Virginia campaign, 
being engaged in the battle of Manassas; in the Maryland campaign 
with the Army of the Potomac, being engaged in the battles of South 
mountain and Antietam, and in the march to Falmouth, Va. On Nov. 
29, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and par- 
ticipated in the Rappahannock campaign. In command of a brigade 
of the 6th corps. Army of the Potomac, he was in the Pennsylvania 
campaign, being in the battle of Gettysburg, the skirmish at Fairfield, 
Pa., and the pursuit of the enemy to Warrenton, Va. On July 4, 1863, 
he was brevetted major, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services 
at the battle of Gettysburg. He was engaged in the Rapidan campaign, 
participating in the action at Rappahannock station and the operations 
at Mine run. He was in command of the ist cavalry division. Army 
of the Potomac, during April and May, 1864. and participated in the 
Richmond campaign, being engaged in the actions at Milford Station, 
the North Anna river, Hanovertown, where he was in command, Haw's 
shop, Matadequin creek, where he was again in command, battle of 
Cold Harbor, Trevilian Station, Mallory's cross-roads, Tunstall's sta- 
tion, and at Darbytown. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, U. S. A., 
on May 28, 1864, for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of 
Haw's shop. He served as chief of cavalry of the middle military divis- 
ion in the Shenandoah campaign; was in command at the battles of 
Winchester and Kearneysville; was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers Sept. 9, 1864, for distinguished services during the rebellion; and 
on Sept. 19, 1864, he was given the brevet rank of colonel, U. S. A., 
for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of Winchester. He 
was in command at the actions of Milford, Luray, Waynesboro, Mount 
Crawford and Tom's brook; was engaged in the battle of Cedar creek 
and the actions near Middletown. and was in command at Liberty 
mills and Gordonsville. He was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. A., 



Biographical Sketches 275 

March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of 
Cedar creek, and on the same date received the brevet rank of major- 
general, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services in the field 
during the rebellion. He was in command of the Army of the Shen- 
andoah, with headquarters at Winchester, Va., from April 22 to July 12, 
1865, of the District of Winchester from July 12 to Sept. i, and of the 
District of Southeastern Virginia from Sept. i to Dec. 31, 1865, and 
he was mustered out of the volunteer service Jan. 15, 1866. He resigned 
from the regular army Oct. 31, 1866. He served as United States min- 
ister resident to the Central American states from April 21, 1869, to 
July 10, 1871; was U. S. consul-general at Havana, Cuba, from July 10, 
1871, to Nov. 6, 1873, and served in the same capacity at Paris, France, 
from Nov. 6, 1873, to May, 1878. Gen. Torbert was drowned, Aug. 29, 
1880, by the wrecking of the steamer Vera Cruz, ofT Cape Canaveral, 
Fla. 

Totten, Joseph G., brigadier-general, was born in New Haven, 
Conn., Aug. 23, 1788, graduated at West Point in 1805, as second lieu- 
tenant of engineers, and remained in the service until March, 1806, 
when he resigned and went into civil life, from which he again entered 
the army in 1808. Promoted to be a first lieutenant in 1810 and cap- 
tain in 1812, he was chief engineer of the army on the Niagara frontier 
in the campaigns of 1812 and 1813, being brevetted major "for meri- 
torious services" in June. 1813. He became chief engineer of the army 
on Lake Champlain in the campaign of 1814, and was brevetted lieuten- 
ant-colonel Sept. II, 1814, "for gallant conduct at the battle of Platts- 
burg." Passing through the successive grades of major and lieutenant- 
colonel in his own corps, he became colonel and chief engineer on 
Dec. 7, 1838. From 1816 to 1838, with but an intermission of two years, 
he was a member of the board of engineers for planning the national 
defenses. During the Mexican war he served as chief engineer of the 
army under Gen. Scott until the capture of Vera Cruz, conducted the 
siege operations against that place, and was brevetted a brigadier- 
general "for gallant and meritorious conduct" on that occasion. Subse- 
quently he resumed his duties as chief engineer, continuing in their 
performance with but two short intervals until his death. The fortifi- 
cations of Newport, R. I., were built under his immediate supervision, 
and with other defenses and fortifications are enduring monuments to 
his memory. In the first days of the Civil war Gen. Scott urged upon 
Gen. Totten the acceptance of the position of commander-in-chief, 
which the latter declined on account of physical inability for field 
service. During the period of 26 years in which Gen. Totten stood at 
the head of the engineer department, he discharged his varied duties 
with untiring devotion, spotless integrity and signal ability, as an 
acknowledgment of which the president, upon hearing of his serious 
illness, forwarded his commission as brevet major-general, U. S. A. 
He had been commissioned brigadier-general in the regular army 
March 3. 1863. Gen. Totten died at Washington, D. C., April 22, 1864. 
Tower, Zealous B., brigadier-general, was born in Cohasset, Mass., 
Jan. 12. 1819. He was graduated at West Point in 1841 at the head 
of the class, was commissioned second lieutenant in the engineer corps 
on July I, 1841, was on duty for a year as assistant to the board of 
engineers, and in 1842 became assistant professor of engineering at 
West Point. From 1843 to 1846 he was employed in" the construction 
of the fortifications at Hampton Roads. He was raised to the rank 
of first lieutenant in April, 1847, and during the Mexican war rendered 
brilliant and eflfective service at Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Chapultepec, 



276 The Union Army 

and in the operations which ended in the surrender of the City of 
Mexico. Between 1848 and 1861 he was engaged in engineering work, 
mainly on the Pacific coast. He was promoted captain on July i, 1855, 
and major of engineers on Aug. 6, 1861. He skillfully and successfully 
conducted the defence of Fort Pickens, Fla., on Nov. 23, 1861, and as 
a reward was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers, his com- 
mission to date from that time. He served with honor under Gen. 
N. P. Banks and Gen. John Pope in northern Virginia, and at the 
second battle of Bull Run received a wound that incapacitated him 
for service for the time being. From July to Sept., 1864, he was 
superintendent of the West Point academy. He then returned to duty 
in the field with the Army of the West, as chief engineer superintended 
the construction of the defenses in front of Nashville and participated 
in the battle at that place in December. He continued to serve in the 
West and South until the close of the war, holding responsible staflE 
offices in the military divisions of the Mississippi and Tennessee. In 
1865 he was made lieutenant-colonel of engineers and was repeatedly 
brevetted "for gallant and meritorious services," reaching the rank of 
brevet major-general, U. S. A., on March 13, 1865. On Jan. 15, 1866, 
he was mustered out of the volunteer service, and during the following 
eight years was engaged in improving the principal harbors of the 
country, both for commercial and military purposes. He was promoted 
colonel of engineers Jan. 13, 1874, and on the same day was volun- 
tarily placed on the retired list of the army. Gen. Tower died on 
March 20, 1900. 

Turchin, John B., brigadier-general, was born in Russia, but in 
early life migrated to America and at the time of the outbreak of the 
Civil war was living in the state of Illinois. On June 17, i86r, he was 
commissioned colonel of the 19th 111. infantry, and having been a 
colonel of staff in the Russian Guards he paid particular attention at 
the start to the drill and discipline of his regiment, utilizing the first 
two weeks in camp to the utmost to make the regiment as efficient 
as possible for the service before it. He pursued his endeavors in 
that respect every time the regiment was not on the march, and 
finally succeeded in making the 19th 111. infantry one of the best drilled 
regiments in the western armies. On the evening of July 13 he arrived 
at Quincy with his regiment, and on the 14th received orders from 
Gen. Hurlbut to relieve the 21st 111. infantry, on the Hannibal & St. 
Joseph railroad from Quincy to Palmyra, and between the latter place 
and Hannibal, Mo. During their two weeks' stay in that locality the 
men of his command, besides guarding several important bridges on 
the railroad, made several expeditions to different points in the neigh- 
borhood, chased newly organized Confederate companies out of various 
plantations, destroyed their barracks and provisions, obliged the citi- 
zens to give pledges not to support any more such companies, encour- 
aged formations of home-guard companies at Palmyra and Newark, 
suppressed the secessionists and encouraged the Unionists. So well 
did Col. Turchin perform the work assigned him that, on July 17, 1862, 
he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, in which capacity 
he served until Oct. 4, 1864, when he resigned from the army and 
resumed the peaceful pursuits of civil life. Gen. Turchin died June 19, 
1901. 

Turner, John W., brigadier-general, was born in the state of New 
York, but as a child was taken to Illinois by his parents. He was a 
cadet at the United States military academy from July i, 1851, to July 
I, 1855, when he was graduated and promoted in the army to brevet 



Biographical Sketches 277 

second lieutenant of artillery. Me was commissioned second lieutenant 
in the ist artillery Nov. i8, 1855; served on frontier duty at Fort Dalles, 
Ore., 1855-56; participated in the Florida hostilities against the Semi- 
nole Indians in 1857-58; was in garrison at Fort Adams, R. I., 1858-59; 
on frontier duty at Fort Leavenworth. Kan., 1859-60; and in garrison 
at the artillery school of practice at Fortress Monroe, Va., 1860-61. He 
served during the Civil war, as first lieutenant in the ist artillery from 
April 21, 1861, to Feb. 20, 1862, bemg commissioned captain of staff 
and commissariat of subsistence Aug. 3, 1861, and was in command of 
a breaching battery in the reduction of Fort Pulaski, Ga., in April, 
1862. He was appointed colonel of staff and additional aide-de-camp 
May 3, 1862; served as chief of commissariat of the Department of the 
Gulf from May 22 to Dec. 23, 1862; as chief of staff in the Department 
of the South from June 13, 1863, to May 4, 1864; was engaged in com- 
mand of the artillery during the siege of Fort Wagner and in the 
operations against Fort Sumter from July to November. He was 
brevetted major Sept. 6, 1863, for gallant and meritorious services at 
the siege of Fort Wagner, and brigadier-general of volunteers on the 
following day. He was in command of a division of the loth corps, 
Army of the James, in the Richmond campaign, being engaged in the 
operations before Bermuda Hundred, including the action near 
Drewry's bluff, and was in the siege of Petersburg. He was brevetted 
lieutenant-colonel July 30, 1864, for gallant and meritorious services 
in the action at the explosion of the Petersburg mine, and on Oct. i, 
1864, was brevetted major-general of volunteers for gallant and meri- 
torious services in the campaign of 1864 on several occasions before 
the eneni}'. He was chief of staff, Departments of North Carolina 
and Virginia and of the Army of the James, from Nov. 20, 1864, to 
Jan. 12, 1865, and of the Department of Virginia from Jan. 12 to 
March 20. On March 13, 1865, he was given the brevet of colonel for 
gallant and meritorious services at the capture of Fort Gregg; briga- 
dier-general, U. S. A., for faithful and meritorious services during the 
rebellion; and major-general, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious serv- 
ices in the field during the rebellion. He was in command of an 
independent division of the 24th army corps from March 20 to Aug. 5, 
participated in the capture of Petersburg and the pursuit of the Con- 
federate armj'. terminating in the capitulation at Appomattox Court 
House; was in command of the 24th army corps from Aug. 5 to Aug. 
10; of the District of Henrico, Va.. from June 9, 1865. to April 6, 1866; 
the Department of Virginia from April 7 to May 17, and was mustered 
out of the volunteer service on Sept. i, 1866. He served as purchasing 
and depot commissary at St. Louis, Mo., from Oct. 31, 1866, to Feb., 
1871, and resigned from the regular army ser