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Purchased by the 
Mrs. Robert Lenox Kennedy Church History Fund. 

BX 9867 .C37 1902 
Carter, George. 
Unitarian biographical 
dictionary being short 

JAN 4 i03. 

UNITARIAN ^%oeautsa5 






Brought down to the Year 1900. 



5, FuRNivAL Street, Holrorx, E.C. 


i;iTitiiiin;it €l]xx^tinn irintht0 (^fltct, 



During the past few years there have been given, 
in the '^Unitarian Bible Magazine," a series of 
monthly biographical notices, for the most part 
selected and condensed from the '' Historical Sketches 
of Unitarian Worthies " (now out of print), compiled 
by the late Rev. Robert Spears. It was suggested 
that the collection of these notices, with additions 
that would bring them up to date, might be found 
useful, and therefore acceptable. The selection of 
names has been somewhat difficult owing to the 
large number of eminent persons who, though 
decidedly anti-Trinitarian, and in sympathy Avith 
Unitarian opinions, yet could not fairly be identified 
with organised Unitarian associations ; while the 
demand for brevity has necessitated ihe omission 


of much that would have proved interesting in the 
career of those chosen. 

'^ Addenda" will be found of names inadvertently 
omitted in the course of preparation. In venturing 
to publish the book with such imperfections, I can 
only hope that it may at least be useful as a basis 
for a better production by some one with more leisure 
than has fallen to my lot, and with fewer disabilities 
than those that have hindered me. 

The " Explanation of Theological Terins " used in 
the book may be found useful by some. 

G. C. 

October, 1902. 




Arian. — A name taken from Alius, a native of Libya, born shortly 
after the middle of the third centur}', and who maintained that Christ was 
not co-equal or co-eternal with the Father, but only the first and highest of 
all finite beings, created out of nothing by God's free will, and that he 
ought not to be ranked with the Father ; that he had not always existed ; 
that he was not of the same substance with the Father ; that he was not 
the "Word" or "Wisdom," and that the Scriptures only attribute these 
names to him as they do to other created intelligences. For expression of 
this belief Arius was excommunicated, and after\\ards banished. 

Hicksite.— A division of Quakers owing their name to Elias Hicks, 
who profess the faith held by the theistic school of Unitarians. The 
Hicksites include about one-half of the body of the Society of Friends in 

Humanitarian. — A name given to Anti-Trinitarians who refuse to 
ascribe a superhuman character to Christ. The Humanitarian opinion is 
therefore distinct from the Arian, the latter admitting the pre-existence of 
Christ, and his pre-eminence among the creatures of God. The tenn is also 
sometimes applied to those who look to the perfectibility of human nature 
as their great moral dogma, and ignore altogether the dependence of man 
upon supernatural aid. 

Presbyterians. — So called because they held that the power of ruling 
the Church and ordaining ministers should rest, not with bisho])s, but with 
assemblies of Elders, or Presbyters, to use the Bible term. One of the 
most important things in their system, however, was the claim " that eveiy 
man has a natural right to judge for himself, and make ]:)rofession of that 
religion he apprehends as most agreeable to truth." They exist as a 
sect both in Scotland and Ireland, but in England they underwent 


much persecution in the time of Oliver Cromwell. Afterwards, when 
they v/ere enabled by the Act of Toleration to build chapels, they left their 
Trust Deeds oj:)en. From such persons have Unitarians sprung in the 
broadening of theological thought. 

Socinian, a name even now mis-applied to Unitarians for no better 
reason than that Socinus, an Italian of eminence, held and proclaimed 
some of the opinions entertained by Unitarians. Before his time the 
Anti-Trinitarians of Poland had been distinguished by the names of 
Pinczovians and Racovians, from Pinczow, where they had their earliest 
settlement, and Racow, which for several years was their University town ; 
and different sections among them had been called Farnovians and 
Budnseans, from Farnovius and Budnoeus, their respective leaders. But 
these and all other distinctive epithets applied to them by the orthodox 
were ultimately absorbed in the general denomination of Socinians ; and 
although the Socinians, as a body, have long since become extinct, the 
name still survives. 

Unitarian ism is that form of Christianity which holds to the primitive 
faith in the simple Unity of God — that God is One, not a Trinity — and 
which looks upon Jesus as the greatest and holiest of Teachers, but not 
God. Trinitarianism had a Pagan origin, and though for a long time its 
progress was opposed — notably by the Arians — Unitarianism was finally 
all but cnished out. Modern Unitarianism rose after the Reformation, 
in Poland and Hungary, rejecting the Trinity, in the sixteenth century. In 
America Unitarianism had its birth among the oldest of the Pilgrim and 
Puritan Churches. In England Unitarianism spread among the " Rational 
Dissenters," the great leader of the movement towards its open avowal being 
Dr. Joseph Priestley, but it was not organized. The first of the body of 
Churches now commonly knoM^n as Unitarian was established in 1774 by 
Theophilus Lindsey, who gave up his living in Cattericlc, Yorkshire, ard 
opened Essex Street Chapel in London. 

Universalist. — The profession of faith genei-ally accepted by tlie 
Universalist Church of America declares a belief in the Bible as a revelation 
of the character and will of God, and of the duty, interest, and final destina- 
tion of mankind ; in the unity of God, whose nature is love, revealed in 
Jesus Christ, by one Holy Spirit of grace, who Avill finally restore the 
v/hole family of mankind to holiness and happiness. Although Universalists 
now for the greater part are Unitarian in opinion, they sustain quite a 
separate organization in America. 


Page 19, line 3, for "Jesuit," read " Romanist." 
„ 40, ,, 13. for " Duff, Adam," read " Adam Duff O'Toole." 
,, 45, ,, 17, for " Fairburn," read " Fairbairn." 
,, 58, ,, 24, for "Norwich," read " Horwich." 

J. 109, ,, 7, for " abjured," read " abandoned." 


> o < 

ABAUZIT, FiRMiN. He was born of Calvinistic parents 
in Languedoc, in France, and in consequence of the persecu- 
tion, was sent to be educated at Geneva, where he by-and-bye 
gained the post of librarian. He became eminent in mathe- 
matics, in history, and other sciences. He visited England, 
and became intimate with Newton. Here he detected an 
error in the Prijicipia, which that great man acknowledged, 
and corrected in the second edition. His theological 
writings leave us in no doubt about his Arian opinions. Died 
]March 20, 1757. 

ABBOTT, Rev. Dr. Ariel, was an American theologian 
and preacher, who was made anti-Trinitarian by reading the 
Rev. Dr. Price's sermons on the Christian Doctrine. In his 
seventh year he was lost in the woods, and with great diffi- 
culty recovered. At the age of 93 he continued to read two 
chapters of the Greek Testament every day. At his death 
he was the oldest graduate of Harvard College. Died 1859, 
age 94. 

ABBOTT, Rev. Dr. Ezra. An American scholar, who, 
representing the Divinity Department of Harvard University, 
served on the American Bible Revision Committee. His 
speciality pertained to the New Testament, and his pamphlet 
on "The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel" is by some 
regarded as his masterpiece. Died ?^Iarch 21, 1884, aged 64. 

ABELARD, Pierre. Born of a noble family at Nantes, 
in France, schoolmaster, professor, and afterwards monk. 
He taught the Unity of God, and that the Trinity was a 
merely mental conception. He denied that the inspiration 
of the Scriptures was of equal quality throughout. He 


ABE] 2 [ADA 

maintained that the work and office of Christ were not to 
ransom men from Satan by a bargain, but by his example 
and love to attract souls to himself. Died April 21, 1142, 
age 63. 

ABERNETHY, Rev. Dr. John, was the son of a Presby- 
terian minister, and was born in Coleraine, Ireland. His first 
thought was to be a physician, but turning to the study of 
theology, he became a minister, and was ordained at Antrim. 
Adopting Calvinism first, he became Arminian, and after- 
wards Arian. In Belfast he was instrum.ental in forming a 
society for Biblical research,, whence sprang the Remonstrant 
Synod. He ministered to the Unitarian Church in Dublin for 
ten years, till his death. His published works include " Ser- 
mons on the Divine Attributes," and four volumes of sermons 
which appeared after his death. An engraved portrait of him 
was placed in the vestry of the First House, Rosemary Street 
Congregation, Belfast. Died in 1740, age 60. 

ABRAHAMZ, Galen, M.D., was founder of the religious 
sect in Holland which for many years bore the name of 
Galenists, a branch of the more liberal Anabaptists. William 
Penn, the celebrated Quaker, spoke of him as "the great 
father of the Socinian Mennonists.'' Died about 1664. 

ADAM, William, was a native of Beaconfield, Scotland, 
and a man of great learning and singularly varied experience. 
He was at first an Orthodox Baptist missionary in India, 
but, attempting to convert Rammohun Roy, the celebrated 
reformer, was by him converted to Unitarianism, and became 
the first Unitarian missionary to Calcutta. Turning after- 
wards to secular work, he became Commissioner of Vernacular 
Education in Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. The Old Testament 
writings were in his later years the chief subject of his study. 
Died February 19, 1881, age 84. 

ADAMS, John, of Braintree, Massachusetts, was the 
second President of the United States, succeeding to the 
office on the retirement of (jeorge Washington. His parents 
were descendants of a Puritan family which had emigrated 
from England. Distinguishing himself as a jurist, he became 
a member of Congress, and as such was an advocate for 
separation from the Mother Country, and with others assisted 
in settling the conditions of peace after the war undertaken 
with that end, and was the first ambassador to London as 

Ada] 3 [aik 

representative of the Union. On his return to America he 
was elected Vice-President of the United States. He was 
grandfather to John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the 
United States. He was a poUtical writer of some reputation, 
and in religion was a firm Unitarian. Died July 4, 1826 (the 
fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence), 
age 91. 

ADA^IS, Sarah Flower. Her father, Mr. Benjamin 
Flower, was a journalist, noted for his love and championship 
of freedom, who found in ]Miss Eliza Gould, whom he m.arried, 
a kindred spirit that, like his own, had suffered much in the 
maintenance of high and noble principles. The death of INIrs. 
Flower in 1810 left Sarah motherless at the age of five, but it 
was soon evident that the child had inherited the talent and 
religious disposition of her parents. Sarah Fuller Flower was 
married in 1834 to Mr. William Bridges Adam^s, and after that 
event signed her name Sarah Flower Adams. She was a 
woman of great personal attractions, and possessed a rich con- 
tralto voice. Of her poetical compositions she wall probably 
be best remembered by the beautiful hymn, " Nearer, my God, 
to Thee," which has been translated into several languages. 
Died August 15, 1848, age 43. 

AHvENHEAD, Thomas, put to death by hanging at the 
Gallowlee. He is stated to have been the last person put to 
death in the name of religion in this island, his alleged ofi'ence 
being the denial of the Trinity and the Incarnation, and 
so-called '' scofiing " at the Scriptures. Died January 8, 1 697, 
age 19. 

AIKIN, Arthur, F.G.S., F.S.A. He was son of Dr. 
John Aikin (q.v.), and a nephew of IMrs. Barbauld (q.v.). As 
a literary man he edited the Annual Review, and was the 
author of a " iManual of ^Mineralogy," " A Dictionary of Arts 
and Manufactures," «S:c. He was for many years Secretar}' to 
the Society of Arts. Died April 15, 1854, ^g"^ 7^. 

AIKIN, John, I\I.D. Born at Kibworth, in Leicester- 
shire. Reputed for his endeavours to popularise scientific 
inquiries. His love of Nature is shown in "The Natural His- 
tory of the Year," as well as in other works. One of his 
most valuable productions is his "Biographical Dictionary." 
As a poet he has enriched our collection of hymns. He was 
joint-author with his sister, Mrs. Barbauld (q.v.), of " Evenings 

aik] 4 [ake: 

at Home." He was a strenuous advocate for religious liberty. 
Died January 15, 1822, age 75. 

AIKIN, Miss Lucy, born at Warrington, was the daughter 
of Dr. John Aikin (q.v.), and niece to Mrs. Barbauld (q-v.), of 
each of whom she published a memoir. Her life was that of a 
literar)^ woman, noted for her amiable character, scientific 
attainments, and liberal theological views. Her principal works 
were historical, and included " Memoirs of the Court of Queen 
Elizabeth," and works on the reigns of James I. and Charles I. 
In her correspondence with Dr. Channing, among other 
eminent men, she expressed her grief at the extent to which the 
popular system of theology operated to degrade and distort 
men's moral sentiments and their views of human life. Died 
1864, age 83. 

AINSLIE, Rev. Robert, was a convert to Unitarianism 
through a course of lectures delivered under the auspices of 
the London District Society. At first one of the secretaries 
of the London City Mission, he was afterwards a successful 
minister of a Unitarian (which he called " Unsectarian") 
church at Brighton. He was the author of two volumes of 
essays, and was a translator from the Greek of the New 
Testament. Died August 21, 1876, age 74. 

AINSWORTH, Rev. William M., a Unitarian minister 
whose useful life was ended by drowning on his return from a 
tour in the East, taken to recruit his health. In his ministry 
at Brixton he gave special attention to young people, not only 
in the Bible class, but in the library, literary societies, and 
recreations, to which he generously contributed pecuniarily. 
The Dorcas Society and the Mothers' Meetings were his own 
creation, while winter soirees were helped by his musical 
knowledge. Died May, 1891. 

AKENSIDE, Mark. His father, a butcher of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, belonged to the Presbyterian congregation in 
Hanover Square, and Mark developed his gravity and earnest- 
ness of character in the hands of a Mr. Wilson, a Dissenting 
minister. At eighteen Mark was sent to Edinburgh to study 
for the pulpit, but changed his plan a year later, resolving 
to become a physician. Being shut out from our own 
Universities for Dissent, he went, like many others, to Leyden. 
In 1759 he was made principal physician to St. Thomas's 
Hospital. His life was a consecration to liberty, poetry,. 

wisdom, and thought, and he was one of England's philo- 
sophical poets. Died June 23, 1770, age 49. 

ALCIATI, John Paul, a ]\Iilanese noble, was driven 
into exile because of his Unitarian opinions. Although he 
appears to have been a strict Humanitarian, he was sus- 
pected of Arianism, and it is said that he escaped death in 
Cracow by a joke, saying that he was not an Arian, but a 
JMarian, which he explained as meaning that he believed 
Jesus to be the son of the living God, and of Mary. He spent 
many years in Poland, whither he had fled from persecution, 
and died at Dantzig in 1567. 

ALLEN, W. J. C, J.P., First Registrar of Queen's 
College, Belfast ; one of the founders of the Irish National 
Education League ; for forty years Secretary to the Joint 
Board of Managers and Visitors of the Royal Academical 
Institution, which office he rendered so memorable for his 
fairness in all questions of a denominational character, that a 
memorial portrait of him by Sir Thomas Jones was presented 
to the Institution ; one of the secretaries to the Belfast meet- 
ing of the British Association in 1852, and treasurer to the 
meeting of 1874; J. P. for County Antrim and Belfast Borough; 
member and for many years treasurer of the Presbyterian 
(Unitarian) congregation in Rosemary Street, and first treasurer 
of the Belfast Domestic Mission. Died July 18, 1884, age 74. 

ALLYN, Rev. Dr. John, minister of Duxbury, near Chor- 
ley, Lancashire, for nearly forty years. Averse to controversy, 
he treated discussions on the Trinity with a freedom that at 
times bordered on levity. Something of this spirit is illus- 
trated in a story told of him. A fanatical itinerant preacher 
was asked by him why he came to disturb the peace of the 
village. On receiving the reply, " Because it is commanded 
us to preach the Gospel to every creature," the doctor added, 
" Yes, but he has not commanded every creature to preach 
the Gospel." With small means but a large heart. Dr. Allyn 
performed many charitable deeds. Died 1833, age 66. 

AMORY, Thomas, called "the EngHsh Rabelais" by 
William Hazlitt, was the son of Councillor Thomas Amory, a 
large proprietor in Clare, Ireland, but was not born in Ireland. 
He was educated for the Church, but adopted Unitarianism 
while at college, and was in consequence disinherited by his 
father, though he retained ;^40o a-year that was independent 

AMO] 6 [arc 

of his parent's control. He was very eccentric, and might 
well be judged in this respect by his own suggestion for the 
motto on his tombstone : " Here Hes an odd man." His- 
definition of oddness, however, shows that he deserved a 
better memorial. His publications include a romance entitled 
*' Memoirs of several Ladies of Great Britain/' in which his 
heroines are Unitarians ; " The Life of John Buncle, Esq.," 
and many political and religious tracts, poems, and songs. 
In his worship of God, he looked upon Jesus as an intercessor.. 
Died November 25, 1788, age 97. 

AMORY, Rev. Dr. Thomas, of Taunton, was nephew to 
the philosophic Henry Grove, by whom he was trained for the 
Christian ministry, whose system of moral philosophy he gave 
to the world, and whom he succeeded in the charge of the 
Dissenting Academy, being at the same time minister of the 
Presbyterian congregation at Taunton. In London he was at 
first a colleague with Dr. Chandler, in the Old Jewry, whom 
he succeeded as sole minister, and was afterwards associated 
with Dr. Price in the ministry at Newington Green. He 
rejected the doctrine of the Trinity as unscriptural, and 
refused subscription to the Articles — which was then required 
to secure the benefits of the Toleration Act — choosing to run 
all risks in preference to losing his Christian liberty. A 
monument in Bunhill Fields testifies to his memory. Died 
June 24, 1774, age 74. 

ANDERSEN, Hans Christian, was a Danish author, 
who rose to eminence from humble circumstances. His 
father was a shoemaker, on whose death the lad was adopted 
by the widow of the poet Bunkeflod. After an unsuccessful 
attempt to obtain employment as an actor, and also, from 
failure of voice, as a singer, he was placed by the aid of 
friends at an advanced school, where his academic education 
was commenced at the public expense. A pension from the 
king enabled him to travel, and, among other countries, he 
visited England. In his religious faith he was a Universalist. 
Died August 4, 1875, age 70. 

ARCISSEVIUS, Admiral. Of Polish parentage, a friend 
of Socinus, a most successful soldier, ultimately raised to the 
rank of an Admiral under the Dutch, he was a man of high 
and noble spirit, and willing to share with those he governed. 
In 1 641 he returned to an office in his own country. His 

arm] 7 [ash 

family was influential and opulent, and, with others similarly- 
favoured, did much in the cause of the Unitarian Reformation 
in the sixteenth century. He himself openly avowed Unitarian 
views. Died April 20, 1676. 

ARMSTRONG, Rev. George. He resigned his living as 
Rector of Bangor, Ireland, and twelve years afterwards, as a 
fervent Unitarian, be became the colleague of the Rev, Dr. 
Lant Carpenter at Bristol. It is said that his correspondence 
with Blanco White led to the withdrawal of the latter from 
the Church of England. Died August 6, 1857, age 65. 

AR:\ISTR0NG, Rev. George Allman, A.B. A barrister 
of promise, he was led to forego the prospects of his profession, 
and qualify himself to become the ministerial successor of his 
father, the Rev. Dr. James Armstrong (q.v.), of Dublin. He 
was colleague first with Dr. A. H. Drummond, and afterwards 
with Rev. D. D. Jeremv. Died March 10, 1889, age 74. 

ARMSTRONG, Rev. Dr. James. One of the founders 
of the Irish Unitarian Society (1830) and of the Association 
of Irish Non-subscribing Presbyterians (1B35), the latter of 
which he represented at the Genevan Tercentenary in the 
same year. Died December 4., 1839. 

ARMSTRONG, John, of Manchester- Converted from 
scepticism to Unitarianism, he became a strong support to the 
cause he embraced. He was a subscriber for sixty-five years 
to the Unitarian Fund, which preceded the British and 
Foreign Unitarian Association. He assisted in the foundation 
of the Village ^Missionary Society, which afterwards merged 
into the ^Manchester District Unitarian Association. His sym- 
pathies and support were, perhaps, most attracted by the 
Home ^Missionary Board, which was deeply indebted to him 
for labours on its behalf that were unremitting. Died 
February 6, 1879, age 88. 

ASHTON, Thomas. Born in Cheshire, educated at a 
Liverpool school, he passed his collegiate course at the 
University of Heidelberg (the English Universities being 
closed to him as a Nonconformist^ whence he returned home 
to join his father and brother in business in ^Manchester, 
where he became conspicuous in political, educational, and 
philanthrophic movements. One of the earliest and most 
energetic of the founders of the Anti-Corn Law League, one 
of the chief founders of the Manchester Reform Club, and 

asp] 8 [asp 

took a prominent part in the extension of Owen's College ; 
first Mayor of Hyde, and laid the foundation stone of the 
Town Hall. Maintained at his own expense an efficient day 
school with about i,ooo scholars, and set on foot at the Hyde 
Technical School a system of scholarships. His usual place 
of worship was at Gee Cross Chapel. Besides erecting a 
chapel at Flowery Field to meet the needs of his numerous 
workpeople, he was a liberal contributor to various Unitarian 
institutions. He was one of the committee of five under 
whose direction the famous " Exhibition of Art Treasures " 
was carried out at Manchester in 1857. The Victoria Univer- 
sity conferred on him the honorary degree of LL.D., the 
Manchester City Council the honorary freedom of the City, 
and Mr. Gladstone offered him a baronetcy, which he declined, 
as he did repeated invitations to stand for a seat in Parliament. 
Died Januarv 21, 1898, age 80. 

ASPLAND, Alfred, F.R.C.S., J. P. He was a son of 
the Rev. Robert Aspland (q.v.). He was educated at King's 
College, London, and subsequently studied at Guy's Hospital. 
On his retirement from practice in Dukinfield, on account of 
ill-health, he devoted himself to the collection of valuable 
engravings, pictures, and books, and to his public duties as 
a magistrate. Besides various offices in connection with art 
societies, Mr. Aspland was for years surgeon to the 4th C.R.V. 
He was also an active supporter of the Discharged Prisoners' 
Aid Society, and chairman of the Reformatory and Industrial 
School Committee of the County Justices. Died October 25, 
1880, age 75. 

ASPLAND, Arthur Palmer, J. P., elder son of the 
Rev. Robert Brook Aspland (q.v.), of Dukinfield. Partner in a 
firm of cotton manufacturers, he, during the cotton famine, 
kept the mills going, notwithstanding the high price of 
cotton. A member of the Manchester Royal Exchange for 
over forty years. At first one of the leaders of the Liberal 
party in Hyde, he became a Liberal Unionist on the Home 
Rule split. For some years a member, and for three years 
chairman, of the Hyde Local Board. Member of the Gee 
Cross Unitarian Chapel, Hyde. Died March 28, 1900, 
age 63. 

ASPLAND, LiNDSEY Middleton, Q.C, M.A., LL.D., 
second son of the Rev. R. B. Aspland (q.v.). His career at 

asp] 9 [asp 

the London University was a brilliant one. He took his M.A. 
degree, with the gold medal in Moral Philosophy at the lowest 
limit of age (twenty) permitted. He then studied law, and 
took the LL.B. degree, obtaining the London University Law 
Exhibition, and being first in the first class of the Honours 
examination in several branches of law. He also obtained a 
certificate of honours at the Bar examination, and passed the 
LL.D. examination, being first in the first class in Equity, and 
alone in the first class in Common Law. He was called to 
the Bar in 1868, and was appointed Q.C. in 1886. He was 
appointed Examiner in Common Law by the London Uni- 
versity, and served as a member of the Council of University 
College and of the Bar Committee. He was a trustee of the 
Hibbert Trust, of Dr. Williams's Library, of Essex Church, 
and of numerous other Trusts connected with our Liberal 
Churches, and filled the office of President of the British and 
Foreign Unitarian Association. Died May 6, 1891, age 49. 

ASPLAND, Rev. Robert, head of the large family so 
many of whose members have been honourably distinguished 
in the annals of Unitarianism, was born of humble parents 
in a small villasfe in Cambridsreshire. He inherited from his 
mother a deeply religious feeling, and was brought up as a 
Baptist, entering a Baptist college on the introduction of 
Andrew Fuller and Robert Hall, two most bitter opponents to 
L'nitarianism. He afterwards entered ^Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, where his theological views underwent a change, 
which was increased by intercourse with several L^nitarian 
families, until, in 1801, he became pastor of the Ceneral 
Baptist and Unitarian Church in Newport, LW. ■ Four years 
later he was called to succeed the Rev. Thomas Belsham, at 
Hackney, where he laboured assiduously for forty years. As 
a Christian patriot he took a leading part in all politics that 
related to the progress of liberal opinions. Died December 30, 
1845, age 63. 

ASPLAND, Rev. Robert Brook, son of Rev. Robert 
Aspland (q.v.), was placed under the scholastic care of Mr. 
Poticary, a Unitarian, of Blackheath, where he had as 
a schoolfellow Benjamin Disraeli (afterwards Lord Beacons- 
field), whom, it is said, he remembered as being visited 
every week by a Rabbi for religious instruction. After his 
religious course at the University of Glasgow, he entered 

AUS] 1 [aUS 

on his first ministerial charge at Chester, whence he was called 
to assist Dr. Lant Carpenter (q.v.) at Bristol, \yhich he left 
to take charge of the congregation at Diikinfield, where he 
ministered for more than twenty years. He then went to 
Hackney, London. For eleven years he was one of the secre- 
taries of Manchester New College, and in 1859 undertook the 
secretaryship of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. 
He was associated with his father in conducting the Christian 
Refonne7\ a monthly Unitarian magazine. Died June ii, 
1869, age 64. 

AUSTIN, John, was the son of a miller in Suffolk, and 
became successively an officer in the Army, a barrister, and a 
Professor of Jurisprudence at the London College, having had 
rnany eminent men among his pupils at the last-named. His 
life is a tale of disappointment and suffering. He had great 
qualities that made him famous, but they were unappreciated 
and unemployed ; while his own disposition was unfitted for 
battle with difficulties. His works, J. S. Mill said, will always 
retain a place in the education of statesmen, publicists, and 
students of the human mind. As one of two Royal Com- 
missioners sent by the Colonial Office to Malta to inquire into 
grievances there, he earned the gratitude of the Maltese for 
their improved condition and privileges. Died December, 
1859, age 65. 

AUSTIN, Sarah, of Norwich, wife of John Austin 
(q.v.), was a woman beautiful and stately in person and 
highly cultivated in mind. Although her home was not 
attractive in luxury, it was a centre of attraction intellectually,, 
and the social gatherings therein included such people as the 
Mills, the Grotes, Bentham, Carlyle, Sydney Smith, and 
Jeffrey. During a residence for some years in Paris, also, the 
small salon of the Austins was frequented by a large intellectual 
society. Her only child was the celebrated Lady Duff Gordon, 
one of whose chief playmates in childhood was the afterwards 
renowned J. S. Mill. Mrs. Austin was a translator of great 
merit, among her translations being Ranke's " Popes of 
Rome." She also published a volume of "Selections for 
Children " from the Old Testament and the Apocrypha. But 
her most valuable service was after the death of her husband 
— to whom for forty years she had been an earnest and true 
helpmate — the difficult task of preparing for publication his 

AVi] II [hAK 

valuable and famous lectures on Jurisprudence. Died August, 
1867, age 74. 

AVISOX, Thomas, J. P. The son of a Liverpool attorney, 
he was himself a solicitor, who published some legal works, 
and was at one time president of the Law Society ; he was 
also a member of the Town Council in the Liberal interest. 
He was a man of literary tastes, and was a member of several 
of the literary and kindred societies of the town, being vice- 
chairman of the Library and Museum Committee, and president 
of the Art Club. He was a member of the British and Foreign 
Unitarian Association, and held the position of Local Treasurer 
to that Society. Died August 20, 1879, age 68. 

BACHE, Rev. Samuel. He was one of the successors, at 
Birmingham, of Dr. Priestley, his immediate predecessors 
having been Kentish and Toulmin. He was for many years 
a most enthusiastic advocate of the separation of Church and 
State. Died January 7, 1878, age 72. 

BAILLIE, Joanna, born at Bothwell, Lanarkshire, was 
for the most part self-taught, and gave little promise in 
early life of the fame she afterwards attained in literature. 
She was, however, endowed with poetical genius, and though 
living a tranquil life in the midst of a quiet domestic circle, 
she gained so much from reading and observation as to 
depict the characters in her dramas with wonderful truth to 
nature and feeling. Particularly is this shown in the work by 
which she is best known — " Plays of the Passions." Miss 
Baillie was brought up in the Calvinism of the Scotch Kirk, 
but study of the Scriptures led to her adoption of Unitarianism, 
in which she took the Arian view of Jesus. In 1831 she 
published her " View of the General Tenor of the New Testa- 
ment regarding the Nature and Dignity of Jesus Christ," an 
anti-Trinitarian work. Died at Hampstead February 23, 
185 I, age 86. 

BAKER, Sir Thomas. After studying at ^Manchester 
New College, he read for the law, and, as a point of 
honour, paid to the treasurer of his college an amount 
equivalent to the cost of his five years' training for the 
ministry. Among his public positions, he was Mayor of 
Manchester for two years, Guardian of the Poor, Justice 
of the Peace, and was knighted for his many years of public 
service. His pre-eminent labour was in connection with the 

RAk] , 12 [bar 

Public Libraries of Manchester. He enjoyed a wide reputa- 
tion as an antiquary and a man of letters. Died April 17, 
1886, age 75. 

BAKER, Thomas, of Kingscote, Wokingham, was a 
native of Ilminster, and a member of a Unitarian family well 
known in the West of England. In the Ilminster School case, 
in 1858-60, Mr. Baker fought single-handed before the Lords 
Justices and the House of Lords, for the right of Dissenters 
to be appointed trustees of endowed schools, and he was 
mainly instrumental in securing the passing of the Act of Par- 
liament of i860, which finally secured that right. Died 
November 20, 1889, age 70. 

BARBAULD, Anna Letitia, was the daughter of Rev. 
Dr. Aikin (q.v.). She was remarkably bright and precocious 
as a child, and her character developed under the judicious 
influence of her mother, a woman of superior education. Mrs. 
Barbauld's reputation was established by her first published 
v\ ork, a selection of her poems. Many of her writings were 
called forth by the stirring events of the time, the French 
Revolution, and the rise of the American RepubHc Her prose 
writings are distinguished by excellence of sentiment and 
purity of style. Her hymns and sacred poems entitle her to 
rank with the first of modern hymn writers. She married 
the Rev. Rochemont Barbauld, one of the French refugees. 
On her death a memorial tablet to her memory was put up in 
the Chapel at Newington Green, where her husband was 
minister at the time of his death. Died March 9, 1825, 
age 82. 

BARKER, Philip, of Nantwich, was educated in a school 
established by Dr. Priestley when minister of the Nantwich 
Unitarian Church, in which the name of Barker was one of 
prominence for a very lengthened period, and in which the 
subject of our notice held important offices for more than 
half a century. In public matters he chiefly interested himself 
in the higher education of the people ; and to this end he 
bequeathed his mansion and grounds and the sum of ;^20,ooo 
to found and maintain a " Barker Collegiate School." Died 
March 11, i8g8, age 84. 

BARMBY, Rev. Goodwin. On the death of his father, 
who had intended him for the Church, he was placed first 
Avith a surgeon, and then trained with the view of following 

bar] 13 [bar 

his father's profession as a solicitor, but his inclinations 
tended towards the religious, social, and political movements 
of the time. He ministered successively at Topsham (Devon- 
shire), Nicholas Street (Lancaster), and Westgate Chapel. 
He worked for the press as well as for the pulpit, and besides 
his contributions to various periodicals, he published a 
religious manual entitled, " Aids to Devotion," and two 
poetical works — " The Poetry of Home and Childhood," 
and '* The Return of the Swallow, and Other Poems," besides 
religious tracts. For several years he edited the " Band of 
Faith Messenger," the organ of a society he had founded for 
the promotion of fraternal feeling, and which had its proto- 
type in a Communistic Christian Church of which he was 
the founder. He further exerted himself for the advance- 
ment of the educational and charitable institutions of Wake- 
field and Lancaster. For a time he held the office of Secre- 
tary to the West Riding Unitarian Association. Died October 
18, 1 88 1, age 60. 

BARNES, Rev. Dr. Thomas, was the first Principal of 
the Manchester Academy, now ^lanchester New College ; he 
was minister of Cockey Moor and Cross Street, Manchester. 
Died February 13, 18 10, age 63. 

BARRINGTON, Lord, born 1678 (John Schute), came 
of a patrician family, and was brought up in the midst 
of wealth. He was a pupil of Locke, was a leader in the 
cause of civil and religious liberty, and in its behalf warmly 
exerted himself as a member of Parliament. Pie was a man 
of eloquent speech, well versed in the original writings of 
the Scriptures, and the author of several works on Scripture 
criticism. To his youngest son, Bishop of Durham, Paley 
dedicated his " Natural Theology." Died December 4, 


BARTRAM, Richard, was born at Civita Vecchia. 
He was an active member of several of our denominational 
organisations, solicitor to the British and Foreign Unitarian 
Association, and a valued worker in connection with the 
Sunday School Association, for which he wrote several 
valuable class books and manuals. His " Lessons on Genesis " 
have been widely used. He was keenly interested in politics, 
and was a member of the London School Board. Died in 
London, December 7, 1895, age 53. 

BE a] 14 [bEL 

BEARD, Rev. Charles, B.A., LL.D., was a son of Rev. 
Dr. John Relly Beard (q.v.). The son's intellectual powers 
were early shown, and on a choice between the legal profes- 
sion and the ministry he unhesitatingly chose the latter. His 
education began in the school conducted by his father, and 
was continued at Manchester New College ; he took his B.A. 
at London University, and spent some time at the University 
of Berlin ; the degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by the 
University of St. Andrews. His first ministerial charge was 
at Hyde Chapel, Gee Cross, thence going to Liverpool as 
minister in Renshaw Street. He was an eloquent preacher, a 
powerful writer, an earnest politician, and was largely inter- 
ested in philanthropic work. He was the editor of the Theo- 
logical Reviezv from its beginning in 1864 to its close, and was 
the author of a large number of books, pamphlets, and ser- 
mons. He took a prominent share in the formation of 
University College, Liverpool, and was one of the first mem- 
bers of its council. Died April 9, 1888, age 61. 

BEARD, Rev. John Relly, D.D. He was Unitarian 
minister at Greengate (afterwards Strangeways, Manchester), 
and also, later, at Sale, in the same district. He received his 
degree of D.D. from Giessen, in Germany. He laboured in 
the pulpit, on the platform, and for the press, and among 
other services rendered for his cause, he will be remembered 
as the founder of the Unitarian Home Missionary Board 
and College, and the Unitarian Herald. Died November 22, 
1876, age 76. 

BEAUMONT, Rev. George, was a student at the Unit- 
arian Home Missionary Board, first missionary of the North 
End Domestic jMission in Liverpool, and afterwards minister 
of Gateacre Chapel, a new schoolroom being built during his 
ministry. He identified himself with all public movements 
both in Woolton and Gateacre, the Public Library in 
Woolton especially owing its existence to his efi'orts. Died 
November 22, 1897, '^o^ ^4- 

BELLOWS, Rev. Dr. Henry W., a distinguished Unit- 
arian preacher of the United States, was born at Boston. 
During the war between North and South, Dr. Bellows stood 
at the head of the Sanitary Commission — that great movement 
for lessening the horrors of war on the battlefield ; and his 
name is indelibly marked on his country's history in this 

eel] 15 [ben 

connection. Unitarianism was to him the Gospel. Died 
January 31, 1882, age 68. 

BELSHAM, Rev, Thomas, a Unitarian divine, was the 
son of a Presbyterian minister, and began life as a pastor of a 
congregation of that body at Worcester, in 1778, but resigned 
in 1789 on embracing the doctrines of Dr. Priestley, whom 
he succeeded, in 179+, as minister of the congregation at 
Hackney. Eleven years later he removed to the chapel in 
Essex Street, London, where he officiated until, in 1826, old 
age and infirmity compelled him to retire. Besides publishing 
a great number of controversial works on metaphysics and 
theology, Belsham took a principal share in the prepara- 
tion of what was called "The Improved Translation of the 
New Testament," published by the Unitarian Society. Died 
November 11, 1829. 

BELSHA^M, William, was brother to Rev. Thomas 
Belsham (q.v.), and began a literary career by publishing, in 
1789, "Essays — Historical, Political, and Literar}-," which 
included a defence of Unitarian Christianity. These were 
followed by several works on legal subjects, and in 1793 he 
published his " Memoirs of the Kings of the House of 
Brunswick," which led to his larger " History of Great Britain 
from the Revolution of 1688 to the Peace of Amiens," in 
twelve 8vo volumes. Died at Hammersmith in 1827, 
age 75. 

BENN, George, was the compiler of "The Histoty of 
Belfast," and was intimately connected with many Unitarian 
and benevolent institutions, as also with literary and scientific 
societies. Died January 8, 1882, age 81. 

BENNETT, Thomas, was a brother of the Rev. William 
Bennett, of Heywood, and was himself connected with the 
St. Vincent Street Unitarian Church, Glasgow. His connection 
with educational matters is shown in the various offices he 
filled. While quite a young man he vv-as appointed librarian 
of the Glasgow Athenaeum ; he was then associated vvith his 
brother William in conducting " The Secular School," the 
object of which was to indicate what could be done in the 
way of unsectarian teaching ; he resuscitated the Mechanics' 
Institute of Dumbarton, and took a prominent part in the 
establishment of the Dumbarton Philosophical Societv ; he 
was editor of the Dumbarton Herald, and was the author of 

ben] 1 6 [ben 

two small works, " A Plea for Secular Education," and " A 
Rational Scheme of Taxation." Died May, 1880. 

BENTHAM, Jeremy. Known chiefly as a political 
economist, he nevertheless published in 1823, under the name 
of Gamaliel Smith, a work called " Not Paul, but Jesus," 
which, as a contribution to the Unitarian controversy, attracted 
a good deal of notice, and created a considerable amount of 
argument. Died June 6, 1838, age 84. 

BENTLEY, John. He was for some time treasurer of 
the Old Jewry Chapel, and a trustee of Dr. Williams's Library. 
He ardently distinguished himself in the cause of reform. Died 
September 4, 1835, age 83. 

BENTLEY, Dr. William, was an American, who 
graduated from Harvard College, in which he afterwards 
became a tutor, and was then ordained minister of the East 
Church, in Salem, remaining its pastor till his death, a 
period of thirty-five years. He was one of the earliest pro- 
nounced Unitarians of New England, thirty years before 
Channing made these views popular. His Unitarianism was 
that known as Flumanitarianism. He was a man of wide 
culture, a Liberal in politics, an accomplished linguist, a lover 
of books, a collector of rare coins, volumes, manuscripts, and 
curiosities, a taste he was able largely to gratify through his 
interest in and large acquaintance with seamen. Died 
December 29, 18 19, age 60. 

BENSON, George, D.D., was a man of sound learning, 
and a liberal, enlightened, Christian spirit — his course based 
on the sole authority of Christ as head of his church, the 
sufficiency of the Scriptures as a guide to his faith, and the 
rights of individual inquiry and judgment. He graduated at 
Glasgow, where he seems to have avowedly cut himself adrift 
from the orthodoxy of his time, and at Abingdon (his first 
ministerial connection), by careful study, he became con- 
vinced of the error of Calvinistic views. In 1729 he became 
minister in King John's Court, Southwark, and remained for 
eleven years, continuing Biblical research with remarkable 
zeal, publishing paraphrases of those epistles of St. Paul which 
Locke's commentary omitted, and expositions of the seven 
Catholic epistles, all of which were favourably received. Of 
his works, which were all Scriptural, may be mentioned, *' A 
Defence of the Reasonableness of Prayer," and "A History 

ber] 17 [bid 

of the Life of Jesus Christ," containing chapters on Miracles 
and the Resurrection. Died April 6, 1762, age 63. 

BERRY, Charles, was the son of an Independent 
minister, classical tutor in the Dissenting College at 
Homerton, under whom and Dr. Pye Smith successively, 
the youth studied, until, at the age of twenty, he changed 
his views and became minister of the Unitarian consrresfation 
of the Great ^Meeting, Leicester, a position he held for the 
lengthened period of fifty-five years. Died May 4, 1877, 
age 94- 

BEST, Paul. Not much more is recorded of him than 
that during the reign of Charles L he was charged at the Bar 
of the House of Commons with having opposed the doctrine 
of the Trinity, for which he was imprisoned, and on July 24, 
1647, an order was given to burn one of his pamphlets, and to 
punish the printers. 

BETTI, Francis, a noble Roman, who was exiled from 
Italy in the sixteenth century on account of his Unitarian 
views, and took up his residence at Basle. He was the friend 
of Acontius, and also of Faustus Socinus (q.v.), who spoke 
very highly of him. 

BIDLE, John, has sometimes been called the Father 
of English Unitarianism, but it might be more correctly said 
that he was the first in England to organize a Christian 
Unitarian church and worship. He was born of humble 
parents in Gloucester, but afterwards reached the important 
ofiice of Master of the Crj^pt School at Gloucester. He 
was an earnest student, an able scholar, and a ready writer ; 
and his courageous avowal of the conclusions to which 
his study of the Scriptures had brought him — disbelief 
in the doctrine of the Trinity — led to his prosecution for 
heresy, his imprisonment, and an order for the burning of 
his books. Among others who tried to alter his opinions to 
save him from imprisonment and possible death was Arch- 
bishop Usher, but no sacrifice of comfort or endurance of 
persecution was too great for his faithfulness, and after five 
separate imprisonments, one extending to five years, he was 
committed for the sixth time to the dungeon, where he con- 
tracted a disease terminating in death after nearly twenty 
years of trials and suff'erings endured for conscience sake. 
Died September 22, 1662, age 47. 

big] 1 8 [bla 

BIGGS, William, J. P., was the son of a merchant 
and manufacturer of Leicester, and was a magistrate, town 
councillor, alderman, and twice mayor. He was also M.P. 
for Newport, Isle of Wight, his political opinions being of 
the most advanced type. He was a staunch Unitarian, and 
at one time an active member of the Great Meeting, Leicester. 
Died October 3, 1881, age 77. 

BLACKLEY, Charles Harrison, M.D., was in early 
life an engraver, an occupation he gave up for the study of 
medicine, in which he gained the diploma of INLR.C.S. He 
devoted much research to the disease known as hay fever, on 
which he published a book which is quoted in medical text- 
books as a classic on the subject. His experiments on ozone 
were also acknowledged as of considerable interest and value. 
Among his lesser writings may be mentioned " On Progres- 
sive Pernicious Ai'\cemia and its Successful Treatment," and 
his address as President of the British Homoeopathic Society 
on " The Action of Infinitesimals." He was a trustee of Cross 
Street Chapel, Manchester. Died at Southport, September 4, 

BLAIN, Thomas, LL.D. His name, for more than 
half a century, v/as intimately associated with Intermediate 
Education in Belfast and the north of Ireland. He was 
connected for many years with the First Presbyterian (Unit- 
arian) Congregation of Belfast. Died November 16, 1879, 
age 87. 

BLAKE, Rev. William, came of a highly-respected 
family, and was a collateral descendant of Admiral Blake. 
He was minister at Crewkerne for forty -five years, and was 
succeeded in that office by his son William, who held it (for 
about half that time) till his death. Died March 29, 1799, 
age 69. 

BLAND RATA, George, v/as an eminent physician, 
the author of a large number of able papers, and a most 
successful disseminator of Unitarianism in Poland and Transyl- 
vania. He was a Piedm.ontese, and was for a time imprisoned 
by the Inquisition, and also by Calvin at Geneva. Appointed 
physician to the Prince of Transylvania, John Sigismund, he 
soon converted the Prince and many of his nobles to Unit- 
arianism, and since his time Unitarian views have flourished 
in Hungary. As a believer in the practice of prayer to Christ, 

boe] 19 [bol 

however, he persecuted Davides, who contended for the sole 
worship of the Almighty God. He afterwards deserted Unit- 
arianism, and became a Jesuit. He was murdered by a nephew 
who had been adopted by him as his heir. Died May 14, 1588. 

BOERHAAVE, Dr. Her^ianx, was a physician and 
scientist, the son of a Lutheran minister in a small village 
near Amsterdam. Theology and mathematics were favourite 
objects of his study, and he read the Scriptures for himself 
in the original languages, and was familiar with the writings 
of the Grbek and Latin fathers. In the later years of his life, 
and to it? end, he rested in Unitarianism. He was elected 
Professor of ^ledicine in his own university of Leyden. He 
published several valuable works during his life, whilst others 
appeared posthumously. He is said to have anticipated 
Darwin in showing the sexual distinctions of plants, and he 
published a splendid work, with plates, on horticulture. Died 
September 23, 1738. 

BOCHER, Joan, a noble lady, held Mennonite views of 
the Incarnation. Edward VI. was most reluctant to sign her 
death warrant, but it was pressed upon him by Archbishop 
Cranmer. Burnt at the stake ^lay 2, 1550. 

BOLIXGBROKE, Hannah Shaw. She inherited the 
name of Shaw from the family of Rev. Sam.uel Shaw, the 
ejected minister of jMoseley. With the exception of a few 
years, her life was spent in Norwich, in connection with the 
Octagon Chapel, taking the keenest and most helpful interest 
in all its various institutions. She was unsparing of herself in 
her labours of love among the poor in the dense alleys of 
Norwich. Her husband's position as Chairman of Charity 
Trustees created further opportunities for the exercise of her 
charitable spirit. In connection with the almshouse for aged 
people known as Doughty's Hospital, she found many ways 
of doing good ; and she was instrumental in setting on foot 
the Girls' Hospital Training School, an institution for fitting 
young girls for domestic service. Died September 5, 1878, 
age 77. 

BOLINGBROKE, Horatio, was for many years a manu- 
facturer in Norwich, and took a prominent part in its municipal 
affairs. He was the first sheriff after the passing of the 
Municipal Corporation Reform Act in 1836, and was also a 
magistrate for many years ; chairman of the Norwich Charitv 

BON] 20 [bow 

Trustees' General List, an active member of the Norfolk 
Dissenters' Benevolent Society, and a resident director of the 
Norfolk Railway Company. He was a Liberal in politics, and 
a Unitarian in religion. Died January 5, 1879, age 80. 

BONOMI, Joseph. Born in England (his father an 
Italian), he was brought up for a sculptor, but travelled abroad, 
and spent eight years on the banks of the Nile, drawing for 
the English explorers the ancient temples and their wonderful 
sculptures. He was one of the first Europeans to enter the 
Haram at Jerusalem, the site of the Temple of Solomon, and 
to make drawings of the buildings upon it. He was for sixteen 
years Curator of the Soane Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
an appointment due to his Egyptian knowledge, and to the 
fact that the Museum possessed the celebrated Sarcophagus 
of Oimenepthah the First, which was brought home by Belzoni^ 
the hieroglyphics on the surface of which Mr. Bonomi litho- 
graphed and published. The Egyptian Court at the Crystal 
Palace was erected from Mr. Bonomi's designs, and under his 
superintendence. He was also employed in the British Museum 
in arranging the department of Egyptian antiquities. He was 
an art student, and the inventor of a measuring machine 
which simultaneously recorded the height of a body and the 
length of the arms, which he thought would be useful for the 
identification of prisoners. Mr. Bonomi has rendered great 
service, not only by his illustrations, but also by his writings 
on subjects connected with the various countries in the East 
which he visited. Died March 3, 1878, age 82. 

BOOTH, Henry. The life of this Liverpool Unitarian 
has been written by Smiles. Railway travellers owe to him 
some of the most valuable improvements of the railway system. 
Died March 28, 1869, age 81. 

BOWDITCH, Nathaniel. This American naval mathe- 
matician came of a poor family, and as he had to leave 
school for business at the age of ten, his eminence in later 
days was due to his amazing industry in self-education. He 
was an accomplished linguist ; and his invaluable book, 
*'The American Practical Navigator," has earned for him the 
title, " Pilot of Navies." Died March 16, 1838, age 65. 

BOWRING, Sir John, was a varied and voluminous writer. 
His writings cover a wide range, comprising philology, politics,,, 
and poetry. His accurate knowledge of both European and 

bra] 21 [bRI 

Eastern languages is shown in his translations of the poetry 
■of different nations. At the age of thirty-three he became 
-editor of the Westminster Rev ieiv^ and ten years later a member 
of the House of Commons. In 1849 he was appointed 
British Consul at Hong Kong, and filled various posts in the 
diplomatic service until 1859, when he retired on a pension. 
His volume of hymns has been a great acquisition to Unitarian 
literature. Died November zi, 1872, age 80. 

BRAMLEY, Edward, was Town Clerk for Sheffield for 
sixteen years. In early life he was a member of the Established 
Church, but afterwards became a Unitarian, joined the Upper 
Chapel, Sheffield, and wrote an admirable tract entitled 
" What is Unitarianism } " which was widely circulated. 
Died ]\Iarch 12, 1865, age 59. 

BRA^^ILEY, Herbert, was only son of Edward Bramley 
(q.v.), first Town Clerk of Sheffield, an office which Herbert 
himself held in succession for two years. He filled a pro- 
minent place in the municipal life of Sheffield, and was Pre- 
sident of the Incorporated Law Society. In his latter years 
he became President of the Yorkshire Unitarian Union, and 
of the Unitarian Home Missionary College, ^lanchester, and 
was a member of the Council of the British and Foreign 
Unitarian Association. Died September 13, 1897, ^&^ 5^* 

LE BRETON, Rev. Philip, M.A., was the son of the 
Dean of Jersey, and had himself the offer of the Deanery, but 
resigned his preferment for conscience sake, and after a short 
residence in France he established a boys' school in London. 
He was an attendant for fifty- five years at Essex Street Chapel, 
and served as a member of the Council of University Hall, 
and of the British and Foreign LTnitarian Association. Died 
November 5, i860, age 81. 

BRETTELL, Rev. Jacob, was minister at Rotherham, 
and was a poet who composed several beautiful hymns, one 
of them, "The last full wain has come— has come," being 
in Dr. ^lartineau's collection. Died January 12, 1862, age 70. 

BRIGGS, Henry, was a large colliery proprietor in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, who three years before his death 
transformed the whole of his estate into a co-operative com- 
pany, admitting workmen and customers as shareholders, the 
former securing their privilege by the "payment of weekly 
subscriptions. He was a teacher in the Sunday school of 

BRl] 22 [bRO' 

Wakefield Chapel, and occasionally read the lessons at services 
in the latter, and further helped his Unitarian cause by visiting, 
comforting, and assisting the poor. Died October 4, 1868. 

BRIGGS, Henry Currer. In his youth he was asso- 
ciated with his parents in unsectarian Sunday school work at 
Overton, his native place, afterwards becoming an active 
teacher in the Wakefield Unitarian Sunday School. He was 
for many years treasurer of the West Riding Unitarian Tract 
and Village Mission Society. To his earnest efforts was mainly 
due the erection of the chapel in Dundee. When he took 
up his residence in Yorkshire, at Saltburn-by-the-Sea, he held 
Unitarian services every Sunday in his own house. Died 
October 21, 1881, age 52. 

BRIGHT, Henry Arthur, M.A., was a scholarly and 
faithful Unitarian layman, who combined the career of a suc- 
cessful merchant with the reputation of a man of letters and 
a devout theologian. He was among the first of the Non- 
conformists who received a degree after the Universities were 
opened to others than those belonging to the Church of 
England. As a literary man, he wrote poetry, articles for the 
leading reviews, and several books. In his services to the 
community, he was esteemed as a Justice of the Peace and a 
County Magistrate ; he took a great interest in sailors, and 
his name will be remembered in connection with those 
admirable institutions, the Liverpool Sailors' Homes. Died 
May 3, 1884, age 54. 

BROCK, Rev. George Browne, was an accomplished 
scholar, and was at first minister of the Unitarian Church, 
Gloucester, and afterwards of the old Swansea Unitarian 
Church. Through his efforts the present church was built on 
the site of the old edifice. In 1854 he retired from the 
pastorate of High Street Church, removed to Exeter, thence to 
Altrincham, returning again to Swansea, where he entered 
business as a colliery proprietor. In public life he filled the 
offices of Mayor of Swansea, Borough Magistrate, Guardian of 
the Poor, member of the Swansea School Board, and chairman 
of the Free Library Committee. Died October 30, 1886, 
age 82. 

BRONNER, Dr. Edward, M.R.C.S. As a specialist in 
diseases of the eye and ear he was a kind friend to the poor, 
for the gratuitous treatment of whom he opened a dispensary,. 

BRO] 23 [bUC 

and out of this small beginning grew a capacious estab- 
lishment known in Bradford as the P^ye and P^ar Hospital, 
which was claimed to be one of the best appointed and 
most efficient of its kind in Europe. To the poorer patients 
who sought relief at this hospital Dr. Bronner gave up his 
leisure and much of his private practice. Died March 27, 
1886, aged 63. 

BROWN, George, was converted from iNIethodism to 
Unitarianism by Joseph Barker, and became lay preacher to 
the Church at Barnard Castle. He was the first editor of the 
Darlington and Stockton Times, and was afterwards called to 
the Bar. Died March 13, 1868, age 57. 

BROWNE, Rev. Stephen Weaver, was originally a 
clergyman of the Establishment, afterwards minister of the 
French Church, Norwich ; then at the Old fleeting, Birming- 
ham. He was the last minister at the Chapel in IMonkwell 
Street (the first Nonconformist Chapel built in London, 
closed in 1824.), and first of the new Chapel in York Street. 
Died January 13, 1832, age 64. 

BROWNE, Rev. Theophilus, M.A., was a Unitarian 
convert, having been vicar of Hinton, Minister at Warminster, 
Norwich, Congleton, Chester, and Gloucester, and Classical 
Tutor at York. He was a great friend of Sunday schools, and 
his " Selections from the Old and New Testaments " were at 
one time much esteemed. Died May 20, 1835, age 72. 

BRUCE, Rev. Dr. William, was the first of the Liberal 
Presbyterians of Ulster who used the Unitarian name. Died 
February 27, 1841, age 84. 

BRYANT, William Cullen, one of the best of the 
American poets, and one of the sweetest poets of the Liberal 
faith, was educated for the law, but afterwards devoted himself 
to newspaper work. He was one of the founders of the 
New York Review and AthetKEum Magazine^ and next began 
the publication of an annual called the Talisman, which ex- 
tended his popularity as a poet. He afterwards became 
editor of the New York Evening Post, to which he devoted his 
energies for upwards of thirty years. Died June 11, 1878, 
age 84. 

BUCKMINSTER, Rev. Joseph Stevens, one of the 
early preachers of Unitarian Christianity in America. At the 
age of four he was learning Latin, and soon afterwards Greek ; 

bur] 24 [byr 

he was sent to Cambridge at 13, and passed a college career 
distinguished by excellence. When scarcely 2 1 he was made 
a pastor, and was noted for his eloquence in the pulpit. He 
was a contributor to the best publications of the day. In 
1 8 1 1 he received the appointment of first lecturer on Biblical 
Criticism at Cambridge, known as the Dexter Professorship, 
but illness intervened before he could make arrangements 
for commencing his duties, and he died June 9, 1812, 
age 28. 

BURNS, Robert, was born in Ayrshire, Scotland. 
There was in his time no Unitarian chapel in Scotland, 
but his opinions, with his opposition to the doctrines and 
spirit of Calvinism., come out niost unmistakably in his poems. 
His beautiful hymns, several of which are included in our 
Unitarian collections, are full of penitential acknowledgment 
of his own errors, and dependence on Divine mercy. Died 
January 25, 1796, age 37. 

BUTCHER, Rev. Edmund, an Arian and Universalist, 
was educated at Daventry under Belsham, then orthodox. 
He was minister of Sowerby and Sidmouth. At the early age of 
fourteen he proved himself a poet, and to him we owe some 
very valuable hymns. Died April 14, 1822, age 65. 

BUZOGANY, Aaron, of Budapest, was in his boyhood 
mixed up with the struggle for Hungarian independence, and 
was especially devoted through life to the cause of education 
on national principles. For some years he occupied the chair 
of Mathematics in the college at Kolozsvar, and for a time 
was one of the editors of the Christian Seedsoiver. He held 
a secretarial post under the Ministry of Public Worship and 
Instruction at Budapest, and rose to the position of one of its 
departmental councillors. He was secretary also of the 
Szekler Union, a literary and patriotic society, and was earnest 
in the triumphant effort to establish a Unitarian Church in 
the Hungarian capital. He was one of the first students 
to enter Manchester New College. Died February 25, 1888, 
age 54- 

BYRON, Lady Dowager, was a worshipper at the 
Essex Street Unitarian Chapel. The Red Lodge, Bristol, 
was purchased by her, and placed at the disposal of Miss 
Carpenter as a reformatory for girls. Died May 16, i860, 
age 68. 

-cal] 25 [cap 

CALHOUN, John Caldwell, of South Carolina, was 
descended from an Irish family. He was leader of the 
American war party against England, and served as Minister 
of War under President Monroe. In the latter part of his 
■career he agitated for the dissolution of the Union, and, losing 
popularity, resigned his vice-presidency. A work on " The 
Philosophy of Government," in which he vindicated the 
doctrine of State sovereignty, . was posthumously published. 
Died March 31, 1850, age 68. 

CAPPE, ]\Irs. Catherine, was the daughter of the 
Rev. Jeremiah Harrison, vicar of Catterick, and predecessor 
of the Rev. Theophilus Lindsey, her friendship with whom and 
his fjimily culminated in her adoption of Unitarianism. In 
Bedale, near Catterick, she opened a Sunday School some 
fifteen to twenty years before Raikes commenced his endeavour 
in Gloucester. Her work was carried on in a kitchen afford- 
ing limited accommodation, and necessitated a succession of 
classes, so that nearly the whole of Sunday was occupied in 
teaching. At Leeds, in connection with Mill Hill Chapel, 
she opened a Female Benefit Club among the colliers' wives. 
At York she assisted in founding a Spinning School, for 
children employed in a hemp factory. After her marriage 
with the Rev. Newcome Cappe (Unitarian), she helped him 
in his church work, especially during his illness, and after his 
death edited his Biblical works and wrote a Memoir of him. 
Died July 26, 1821, age 64. 

CAPPE, Newcome, son of a Unitarian pastor, was left 
fatherless in early life, but was so carefully educated, that he 
was acquainted with Latin before he was seven years of age, 
and made such rapid progress in his studies, that the highest 
hopes were entertained of him. As a pupil of Dr Aikin, he 
became acquainted with the doctor's daughter, then a child, 
afterwards ]Mrs. Barbauld. He was presently removed to 
Northampton Academy, then under the care of Dr. Doddridge, 
and afterwards went to Glasgow University, whence he pro- 
ceeded to York as co-pastor at St. Saviours-gate with Dr. 
Hotham, on whose death he was chosen sole minister. In 
him Lindsey found a firm friend, sympathiser, and defender. 
After an attack of paralysis, he was compelled to seek 
assistance in his ministerial work, which he hapi)ily found in 
Mr. Wellbeloved. Died December 24, 1799, age 67. 

car] . 26 [car 

CARPENTER, Rev. Dr. Lant, born at Kidderminster, 
began his religious work in the Sunday School, the members of 
which he met on week-days, calling up his boys at five o'clock 
in the morning. He was educated at the Northampton 
Academy, and then went to Glasgow University. Employment 
as assistant at a classical school in Birmingham, and librarian 
of the Liverpool Athenaeum, was followed by a ministerial 
charge at Exeter. Six years later he removed to Lewins 
Mead, Bristol. In 1827 he resigned pulpit duty through 
ill-health, as also the teaching work in which he had previously 
been more or less engaged. Among his other works are his 
opposition to Archbishop iNIagee's views on the Atonement, 
and his defence of Priestley and Belsham. As a politician he 
was a Liberal. The manner of his death is involved in 
mystery. On a voyage from Leghorn to Naples, he was last 
seen walking the vessel's deck till about ten o'clock, and his 
body was found two months later on the coast about fifty miles 
from Rome. Among his children were Dr. W. B. Carpenter, 
the eminent physiologist, and Mary Carpenter, the well-known 
philanthropist. Died April 5, 1840, age 60. 

CARPENTER, Mary, of Exeter, daughter of Rev. Dr. 
Lant Carpenter (q.v.), was an eminent philanthropist, who, 
beginning as a school teacher, afterwards entered on a larger 
sphere of work. She gave an earnest support to the Domestic 
Mission connected with the Lewin's Mead Society. In Bristol, 
too, she established a refuge for the destitute, opened a work- 
ing men's club in one of the lowest districts of the town, and 
took special interest in the education of pauper children. 
Looking beyond her own country, she felt deeply for and 
laboured heartily on behalf of the women of India, and made 
many useful suggestions to the Government as to the prisons in 
India. Her labours on behalf of the women of India, and the 
destitute children of England, were but a part of her Vv^idespread 
work. The Reformatory movement was one of the crowning 
labours of her life, and the most useful of her many treatises 
are on the Management of Reformatories and Certified Indus- 
trial Schools. But besides these she published many valuable 
books ; among these being " Morning and Evening Medita- 
tions," " Life of Dr. Tuckerman," " Last Days of Rammohun 
Roy," and "Six Months in India." Died' June 15, 1877,. 
age 70. 

car] 27 [car 

CARPENTER, Rev. Philip Pearsall, of Montreal, 
a son of Rev. Dr. Lant Carpenter, brother to Dr. W. B. 
Carpenter and Miss ]\Iary Carpenter (q.v.), was born in 
Bristol, where, and in Edinburgh, he received his education, 
and as Christian minister laboured at Stand, near Manchester, 
and afterwards at Warrington. His strong bias towards 
scientific pursuits led to the resignation of his ministerial 
charge. He prepared an elaborate report on the ^MoUusca 
of the West Coast of North America for the British Associa- 
tion, and a catalogue of the Mazathan Shells for the British 
Museum, to which he presented his magnificent collection 
of these shells. On his visit to America, where he finally 
settled in jNIontreal, he made presentations of shells to the 
Smithsonian Institution, to the ^M'Gill University, and other 
institutions. Shortly after his arrival in America the failure 
of a bank in England compelled him to devote a part of his 
time to teaching boys. His scientific productions are scattered 
through technical papers. His thoughts on other subjects 
were thrown out in tracts, letters, and popular addresses. 
Died ^lay 24, 1877, age 58. 

CARPENTER, Rev. Russell Lant, M.A., of Bridport, 
was son of Rev. Dr. Lant Carpenter, and brother of Dr. 
W. B. Carpenter, C.B., and of ^liss Mary Carpenter (q.v.). 
He was an accomplished man, minister at Halifax and Brid- 
port, who distinguished himself by his interest in philanthropic 
movements. He was the author of a volume on " The 
Atonement," which is valued for its moderate and well- 
balanced tone of argument. Died January 23, 1892, age 75. 

CARPENTER, William Benjamin, M.D., LL.D., C.B., 
F.R.S., was a son of Rev. Dr. Lant Carpenter (q.v.), and 
brother to Miss Mary Carpenter (q.v.). Though not free at 
the outset from the necessity of earning his bread by his 
labours, he not only became a leader in the great fields of 
knowledge and thought, but distinguished himself by his 
success in original research. He was one of the ablest and 
most interesting exponents of science, and it has been said 
of him that " his brain was a living library." Among his 
literary works were '* The Principles of Physiology, General 
and Comparative," ** The Principles of Human Physiology," 
'' The ]\Iicroscope and its Revelations," " Principles of 
Mental Physiology," many valuable papers to various learned 

car] 28 ^ [CHA 

societies, and for several years he edited the " British and 
Foreign Medico- Chirurgical Review." Among the honours 
bestowed upon him was the gold medal of the Royal Society 
for his physiological researches ; while he was elected 
President for one of the Meetings of the British Association. 
For twenty-two years he was Registrar of the University of 
London, on retiring from which office, with a pension, he 
became a member of its Senate. He was a devout Unitarian, 
a skilful musician, and for some years honorary organist to the 
Unitarian Church in Hampstead, London. Died November i o, 
1885, age 73. 

CARTER, Elizabeth. This learned translatress of 
Epictetus was, as her posthumous Biblical Notes attest, an 
Arian, and her father, the Rev. Nicholas Carter, D.D., though 
connected with the Establishment, seems to have been of the 
same cast of opinion. It is,. however, from her writings, and 
not from any profession of faith, that her strong Arianism is 
known. Dr. Johnson said he thought Elizabeth Carter under- 
stood Greek better than anyone he had ever known. Dr. 
Burney, Mus. Doc, in some playful lines upon Mrs. Thrale's 
guests, spoke of " Carter's piety and learning." She wrote 
the touching poem from which has been extracted our hymn 
beginning, " O Thou, the wretched's sure retreat." Died 
February 19, 1806, age 89. 

CARTWRIGHT, Major John, was an ardent reformer, 
who entered the Navy at an early age, but though continuing 
to hold his commission, he refused to serve in the war against 
America. He was a Major in the Nottinghamshire Militia, 
and a bronze statue was erected to his memory. On the 
testimony of his niece, regretfully borne, he lived and died a 
Unitarian. Died September 23, 1824, age 84. 

CELLARIUS, Martin, born at Stuttgard, was a school 
companion of Melancthon, and upon intimate terms with 
Luther, and was the author of several biblical and philosophial 
works. His declaration of Unitarian opinions cost him several 
years' imprisonment. He was liberated from the goal at 
Konigsberg, and fled for safety to Switzerland, dying at Basle 
highly-esteemed, especially by the Unitarians of Poland and 
Transylvania. Died October li, 1563, age 64. 

CHANNING, George Gibhs, was brother to William 
Ellery Channing (q.v.), and was himself ordained a Unitarian 

CHA] 29 [CLA 

minister (after a business career which was distasteful to him), 
and preached for two years in Brooklyn, Conn., then in Ware, 
Mass., and last of all in Lancaster. Before his ordination he 
worked as a missionary for the American jMissionary Associa- 
tion. His last work, which he gave up ten years before his 
death, was for eight years as chaplain of the Sailors' Snug 
Harbour at Quincy. For six years he was publisher of the 
Christian World (American), but his strong anti-slavery attitude 
lost him a large number of subscribers, and the paper finally 
died from the courageous stand he took. Died January 16, 
1 88 1, age 92. 

CHANNING, Dr. William Ellery, the great American 
divine, has been called " the Apostle of Unitarianism." He 
was commencing his ministry at about the time Dr. Priestley 
was ending his. The minds of the two great champions of 
Unitarianism were cast in different moulds, and their experience 
in life differed, for while Priestley had been driven from his 
native land by persecution, Channing was honored and beloved 
by his fellow-countrymen in his life-time, as Priestley was 
after his death. He was of a feeble physical constitution, 
induced, perhaps, by the studious and sedentary habits of 
his youth. Channing began his preparation for college, 
like Calvin, at the age of 12, and on his entry to college at 
the age of 16, manifested such strong predilection for the 
pulpit that he was called " the little minister." Calvinism 
was rampant in Channing's childhood, and his mother was a 
firm upholder of the Reformer's stern views ; but, happily for 
the world, Channing's study of the Bible, and of the incon- 
sistencies between profession of faith and practice in life of a 
kind-hearted and loving father, induced such different views 
that his writings have done much to soften the asperities of 
Calvinism, and spread abroad the Unitarian faith on both 
sides of the Atlantic. Notwithstanding his firm advocacy of 
Unitarianism, he was beloved and honoured by men of all 
sects, and at his funeral, persons of all denominations did 
honour to his memor)% the bells even of the Roman Catholic 
Cathedral being tolled on the occasion. At the age of 60 he 
stood forth bravely as an advocate for the emancipation of 
slaves. Died October 2, 1842, age 62. 

CLARKE, Rev. Charles, was, in his teens, head of a 
manufacturing department, who gave much time to philosophic 

CLA] , 30 [CLE 

thought, and was profoundly stirred by the political movements 
of the time. Induced to join the Unitarian ministry, he 
officiated first at Canterbury, then as successor to the famous 
George Harris at Glasgow, afterwards succeeding the Rev. 
Hugh Hutton at the Old Meeting Church in Birmingham. 
He was esteemed both as preacher and lecturer. While in 
Glasgow he won universal admiration by his self-sacrificing 
labours during a visitation of cholera. Died November 15, 
1892, age 72. 

CLARKE, Thomas Chatfeild, F.R.T.B.A., occupied 
an influential position as architect and surveyor, and in his 
public life was as highly esteemed as in his private character. 
He sat for Finsbury on the first-and second School Boards for 
London, and took part in that settlement of the religious 
difficulty which is associated with the name of Mr. W. H. 
Smith. He was a magistrate for the county of Hants and for 
his native town of Newport, and was an active politician in 
the Liberal interest. Died June 28, 1895, age 66. 

CLEPHAN, James, who commenced his career as a 
printer, became afterwards a well-known journalist in the 
North of England, being editor of the Gateshead Observer for 
twenty-two years, and in this position obtained a reputation 
for wit, ability, and influence, that was recognized on his 
resignation in the presentation by the Northumberland and 
Durham Press Club of a cheque for £2^0 and a silver inkstand. 
Besides devoting himself zealously to his duties as a journalist, 
he rendered valuable service in his capacity as a citizen of 
Gateshead. Died March, 1888, age 83. 

CLEPHAN, Joseph, was a memxber of the Stockton-on- 
Tees Unitarian Meeting House, and was a teacher in its 
Sunday school, the elder boys of which also met in his house 
once a- week. He further took a deep interest in the Stockton 
Mechanics' Institute. On leaving the Tees, he became a 
resident in Gateshead, where again the Mechanics' Institute 
received his interest and help as treasurer, an office he also 
discharged in connection vv-ith the Gateshead Dispensary. Of 
the Unitarian congregation at Newcastle he acted for many 
years as secretary. For nine years he held the office of presi- 
dent of the Northumberland and Durham Unitarian Associa- 
tion, and was made a vice-president of the British and Foreign 
Unitarian Association. Died June 20, 1880, age 71. 


coc] 31 [cog 

COCHRANE, Rev. William, was minister respectively 
at Wisbeach, Aberdeen, and Cradley. In the neighbourhood 
of the last-named place, in a large village known as Lye 
Waste, he was instrumental in effecting a transformation of 
the inhabitants, and a generous member of his flock (]Miss 
Pargeter) built there a commodious chapel. 

COCQUEREL, Athanase, Pere, was a brilliant preacher 
of the Reformed Protestant Church. Losing his mother early, 
he was brought up by two aunts (one of whom was Helea Maria 
WilHams), who placed all thefacilitiesfor a thoroughly good and 
religious education within his reach. To these aunts, in the 
days of their adversity, he made a most noble and generous 
return. For twelve years he was pastor in Holland. After 
this he returned to Paris, and became one of the most eloquent 
and popular preachers of France, converting many Roman 
(.Catholics to the Protestant Church. He distinguished himself 
as an author, producing many volumes, and contributing 
largely to periodical literature. He laboured deeply in the 
religious education of the young. He was a member of the 
French Assembly, and was elected, by over 100,000 votes, a 
legislator of Paris, He was throughout the whole of his 
ministry a Unitarian theologian, and in the later years of his 
life suffered much persecution in consequence. Died January 
10, 1868, age 73. 

COCQUEREL, Charles, was brother to the eloquent 
preacher, Athanase Cocquerel (q.v.), with whom he was brought 
up by his grandmother, Mrs. Williams, to whom also he was 
indebted for his liberal education. Like his brother, he was 
destined for the ministry of the Reformed Protestant Church, 
but an accident which caused his return to Paris, and the ex- 
citing incidents of the French Revolution, changed the bent 
of his life, and he became an accomplished writer on scientific 
subjects. He entertained a great love of theological study. 
His work on " The History of the Philosophy of Christianity " 
was written before he arrived at the age of thirty. He also 
■established and was the life of the Revue Protestant, and 
translated into French " Belsham's Summary Review of the 
Christian Revelation." Died February i, 1851, age 53. 

COGAN, Dr. Thomas, one of the founders of the Royal 
Humane Society, was born in Rowsell, Northamptonshire. 
He was distinguished in his own day as a physician, a 

coo] 32 [coo- 

theologian, a metaphysician, and a philosopher, and especially 
as a Christian, which he himself considered " the highest 
style of man." He was designed for the ministry, and 
fulfilled the duties of that vocation for a time in Rotterdam 
and Southampton. He afterwards took his M.D. at the 
University of Leyden, and practised both in Holland and 
in England as a physician. He turned his thoughts for 
a time to farming as a recreation, and appeared before the 
public as a ready writer on a variety of topics. His brother, 
Rev. E. Cogan, kept a classical school at Walthamstow,. 
to which many Unitarian families sent their sons. Died 
November 3, 18 17, age 61. 

COOPER, John. His life is associated with that of 
Bidle, for on the dismissal of' the latter from the Crypt 
School at Gloucester, Cooper was appointed to correct the 
views of his predecessor, to which, however, he himself 
became a convert ; and when he, as "one of the memorable 
Two Thousand," was ejected from the Cheltenham Parish 
Church in 1 662, he was elected pastor of the Unitarian meeting 
in the same town, where he discharged his duties till the year 
1682. The following entry is found in the Parish Register : — 
"In the yeare of our Lord God, 1682, Rev. John Cooper, 
Minister of the Unyterian Conventicle of this place, obit. 
March 18, aet. 62." 

COOPER, Peter, was a distinguished American philan- 
thropist, who rose to great wealth from a humble position, 
being apprenticed, after a very scanty education, to a coach- 
maker, and for some time following that trade. He after- 
wards made a large fortune in the manufacture of glue and 
isinglass, and erected extensive ironworks near Baltimore, 
where he made the first locomotive engines that were ever 
made in America. He was one of the earliest promoters of 
the Atlantic Telegraph. He expended nearly a million of 
money upon philanthropic purposes, largely educational, 
among which was the Cooper Institute, on which he spent 
;^i 30,000 in building, and added ;2f^3o,ooo for endowment. 
He was also an active and munificent supporter of Unitarian 
institutions and propagandist efforts. Died March, 1883, 
age 92. 

COOPER, Rev. Thomas, was born in Framlingham, 
Suffolk, and began his preparation for the ministry at Durham, 

cou] 33 [CRA 

House, Hackney. His first ministerial appointment was at 
Moreton Hampstead, in Devonshire, which he left to accept 
the post of missionary in Jamaica, to instruct the negroes on 
the estate of jMr. Robert Hibbert, the founder of the Hibbert 
Trust. On his return to England, his evidence before a 
Parliamentary Committee on the curse of slavery made him 
the object of attacks on his character, for v.'hich he obtained 
legal redress. After this he was for some years a Unitarian 
missionary in the ^Staffordshire Potteries. He subsequently 
engaged unsuccessfully in business, and, returning to the 
ministry, officiated respectively at Stockton-on-Tees, Dor- 
chester, Warminster, and Framlingham, his pastorate of the 
last-named extending over about twenty years. He acted for 
some time as assistant-secretary of the Unitarian Association 
under his former tutor, ]Mr. Aspland. On his eighty-second 
year a sum of money was collected and presented to him as 
an expression of respect. Died October 25, 1880, age 89. 

COURTAULD, Samuel. He was a man of great 
enterprise and high principle. As founder of a large silk 
and crape manufactory in Essex, he bestowed generous care 
upon the minds and morals of his employees, paying special 
attention to the housing and comfort of his workpeople around 
his residence, Gosfield Hall, Halstead. In connection with 
religion, he took considerable interest in the restoration and 
improvement of the Parish Church, as patron of the living, and 
at the same time erected a handsome Unitarian Church. At 
Halstead and High Garret he for several years kept open two 
meeting houses for Unitarian public worship. He was 
foremost in the Church Rate struggle, and probably to no 
one person are Dissenters more indebted than to him for the 
abolition of Church Rates, his public services in this connection 
being recognized by the presentation of a piece of plate 
(suitably inscribed) of the value of 700 guineas. He was a 
valued leader of the Liberal cause in Essex. Died March 21, 
1881, age 87. 

CRAWFORD, John, was connected with Larne for over 
half a century, and, from his connection with public companies, 
was well known throughout the North of Ireland. Among 
many evidences of the generous use of his wealth, the greatest 
monument to his memory was the building and endowment of 
the Larne Grammar School. Died March 9, 1889, age 79. 


cre] 34 [CRO 

CRELLIUS, Christoph, was the second son of the 
famous John Crellius and father of Samuel Crellius (q.v.). 
Christopher was a man of distinguished piety. He twice 
visited England, the second time in 1668, when he made a 
report on the state of Unitarianism in this country. Died 
December 12, 1680. 

CRELLIUS, Samuel, was born in Poland, but spent 
some of his earlier years in England, whence he was moved 
for education to Amsterdam, going afterwards to Berlin, in 
which city he became a Unitarian minister. On re-visiting 
England he formed friendships with men of high reputation, 
both in Church and State, Archbishop Tillotson being among 
them. Indeed, he was fortunate in the kindness he received 
from orthodox theologians, who excused his so-called "heresy" 
in their judgment of him. His life was mainly that of a literary 
man. He was a firm and consistent Anti-Trinitarian, the 
doctrine of the Divine Unity being to him a great central 
truth. His best-known book is the Proem to John's Gospel, 
which was warmly welcomed by Sir Isaac Newton. Died 
May 12, 1747, age 87. 

CROOK, Joseph, J. P., of Bolton. His life history is 
associated with the progressive movements of the nineteenth 
century — repeal of the Corn Laws, extension of the franchise, 
popular education, temperance, liberation of religion from 
State control, and other measures for the good of the people. 
He represented Bolton for nine years in the House of 
Commons. He was a worshipper at the Bank Street Unitarian 
Chapel, and manifested a practical interest in the different 
institutions of our denomination. Died December 8, 1884, 
age 76. 

CROPPER, Rev. John, M.A., was the last of three men 
known in Lancashire as the *' Warrington Worthies," being so 
associated with the Revs. W. Gaskell and G. H. Wells. He 
was educated at Mr. Broadbent's Academy at Warrington, and 
determining to enter the ministry, went to the University at 
Glasgow, where he gained his degree. He ministered at 
Moore Street, Bolton (afterwards absorbed into the church at 
Bank Street), Exeter, Aberdeen (where he was instrumental 
in building the present Church by collecting the money), 
Wareham, and Stand. After relinquishing the duties of the 
regular ministry, he took up Sunday school work, and 

CRo] 35 [dal 

maintained his interest in the religious welfare of the young 
to the close of his life. Died July 17, 1889, age 83. 

CROSSKEY, Rev. Dr.,F.G.S. Preacher, pastor, politician, 
educationalist, and scientific writer. An excellent biography 
of him has been written by Rev. Richard Acland Armstrong, 
B.A., with chapters respectively on Dr. Crosskey's scientific 
researches by Dr. Lapworth, F.R.S., F.G.S., and on his 
educational work by Rev. E. F. M. IMacCarthy, M.A. Died 
October i, 1893, age 67. 

CURIONE, Celio Secondo, was Professor at Pavia, at 
Lucca, and at Basle, and rector of the Lausanne College, and 
■edited the Divine Co7isideratione of Juan Valdes. He was a 
follower of Servetus, a friend of Laelius Socinus, and the 
licenser of Ochino's Dialogues. While a student at the 
convent of San Benigno, he abstracted the relics from the 
convent shrine, and deposited instead a copy of the Bible, 
** in which are contained the true relics of the saints." Died 
May I, 1569, age 66. 

CURRIE, Dr. James. His first occupation was that of 
a merchant's clerk in America, in which he met with much 
hardship and cruelty from his employers. A small inheritance 
from his father he divided among his six sisters, who, in con- 
junction with an aunt, returned his generosity by maintaining 
him in Edinburgh during his study for the medical profession, 
in which he attained a prosperous position. He was a man 
of varied ability, and wrote several works in diff"erent spheres 
of literature. The results of his medical experience and 
reflections were given to the public in his " INIedical Reports 
on the Effects of Water, Cold and Warm, as a Remedy in 
Fever and other Diseases " ; as a politician, he is best known 
by his " Letter, Commercial and Political, to the Right Plon. 
William Pitt," which he published under the assumed name 
of " Jasper Wilson." He wrote a biography of Robert Burns, 
with whom he had become personally acquainted during an 
excursion in Scotland, and accordingly the " Works of Robert 
Burns, with an Introduction by Dr. Currie," appeared in 
four volumes. Although the son of a Scotch clergyman, 
Dr. Currie connected himself with a Unitarian congrreg-ation 
in Liverpool. Died August 31, 1805, age 50. 

DALTON, John, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. There seems 
to be no doubt that this eminent chemist, educated among 

DAL] 36 . [den 

the Quakers, was a Unitarian in his theological convictions. 
He was tutor in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at 
JManchester College before it was removed to York. Died 
July 27, 1844, age 78. r ^ • u 1 

DALTON, Rev. Dr. Thomas, was rector of Cansbrook 
and Northwood (Isle of Wight), and Hastings (Sussex). 
Together with Theophilus Lindsey, he was one of the 
Petitioning Clergy in 1772, and with him also he became one 
of the early members of the Unitarian Society. Died May 1 3, 
1822, age 88. 

DAVID, Francis, was the first Unitarian pastor and bishop 
in Hungary. It is recorded that in the year 1540 this noble 
confessor of Christian truth preached to a large number of 
people in the streets of Thorda, asserting the Father to be the 
only God, and that he brought over to Unitarian views nearly 
the whole city of Clausenberg. David held that prayer should 
be offered to the supreme God only, and not to Jesus ; and 
for his earnestness in advocating this position he was sent to 
prison, where he ended his days. Died November 15, 1579. 

DAVIS, Dr. Joseph Barnard, F.R.S., of Hanley, was a 
medical practitioner, who achieved a degree of eminence in the 
scientific world. He was joint author of " Crania Britannica," 
was a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and an honorary member of many Continental 
learned societies. He was a strong adherent to the Unitarian 
faith. Died May 19, 188 1, age 79. 

DAWSON, Rev. George, minister of one of the largest 
Dissenting congregations in Birmingham — the Church of the 
Saviour — was one of the most popular lecturers of his day, 
and a good friend especially to small Unitarian churches. He 
died suddenly, owing to the rupture of a blood vessel. The 
press generally bore witness to the sweet and sterling quali- 
ties that so endeared him to all by whom he was known in any 
relationship of his useful life. His little volume of Prayers 
has been helpful to many. Died November 30, 1876, 

age 56. 

DENCK, John, was a Bavarian who, on account of his 
Unitarian views, was deprived of the office of Rector of the 
School of St. Sebald, and banished from the place. Going to 
Switzerland, he was engaged at Basle as a corrector of the press, 
and wrote several theological tracts. He was a companion 

den] 37 [dis 

of Hetzer, the martyr (q.v.), in conjunction with whom, soon 
after the Reform.ation, he commenced a translation of the 
Bible into German. Both died before its completion, Denck 
at Basle in 1528. 

DENDY, Rev. John, B.A., was grandson of a Unitarian 
minister to whose memory a tablet in the old General Baptist 
Chapel bears record. He entered Manchester New College, 
took his degree at the London University, spent some months 
at the University of Berlin, and then undertook ministerial 
work first at Cheltenham, afterwards at Stourbridge. Retiring 
for a time from the pulpit, he entered into trade as a silk 
merchant, still rendering valuable service to the Unitarian 
cause as a Sunday school teacher and occasional preacher, 
and it was greatly due to his zeal and enthusiasm that the new 
Church took the place of the old Presbyterian Chapel at 
Monton. On his return to the pulpit, he ministered at 
Newport till his death, March 31, 1894, age 67. 

DEWEY, Dr. Orville, was an American Unitarian 
preacher, born at Sheffield, Massachusetts. For some years 
he was the intimate friend and assistant of Dr. Channing, 
and his works are valued as models of pulpit eloquence and 
religious power. His volume of Sermons was re-printed in 
this country. The memorial service for him, conducted by 
the Unitarian Dr. CoUyer, was held in an orthodox place of 
worship, and participated in by preachers representing widely 
different theological views. Died 1882, aged 88. 

DICKENS, Charles. The great humourist and 
humanist, who has been called " Nature's Novelist," was a 
thorough Unitarian, and was a member of Little Portland 
Street Congregation during the ministry of the Rev. Edward 
Tagart. Dickens held up before his children the life of 
Christ as the sum of the Christian religion, and wrote out 
that life in his own words for their use, to be treasured as a 
family legacy, not to be given to the world. Died June 9, 
1870, age 58. 

DISNEY, Rev. John, D.D., F.S.A. Intended by his 
parents for the legal profession, his preference for the Christian 
ministry was gratified, and he became a clergyman of the 
Church of England. He early displayed his objections to 
its creeds by omitting to read the Athansian and Nicene 
Creeds, and even the Litany. On his resignation of two 

DIX] 38 . [dOL- 

valaable livings in the Church of England, he became first 
the colleague, then the successor, of Theophilus Lindsey at 
the Essex Street Chapel, London. From this position he 
retired in 1805, when a member of his congregation, Mr. 
Thomas B. Holies, bequeathed to him the whole of his estates ; 
and the remainder of Dr. Disney's life was devoted to literary 
and agricultural pursuits. He published a great number of 
useful pamphlets and sermons, and took an active interest in 
the repeal of laws interfering with liberty of conscience. Died 
December 26, 18 16, aged 71. 

DIX, Miss Dorothea, an American, was a woman who, 
though frail in health, laboured for more than half a century 
night and day, and travelled tens of thousands of miles in 
her own and other lands for the public good. She organised 
ragged schools, improved the treatment of prisoners, and 
made more sanitary the gaols of her country. But her chief 
work was among the insane asylums of America and Europe. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War in America, she was summoned 
to Washington to lend her help in supplying nurses for the 
army. *' A frail woman, who is an American by birth, a 
Unitarian by creed, and has no motive beyond the promptings 
of benevolence." Thus said Robert Chambers in the London 
Times. Died July 19, 1887, age 86. 

DIXON, Rev. James M., left the Methodist Church to 
join the Unitarian Congregation at Sunderland, where he 
occasionally occupied the pulpit. While a lay preacher here, 
he was invited to take the pulpit at Dewsbury, whence he was 
called to Hull, where he ministered for sixteen years, a new 
chapel being built during the latter years of his labour. Died 
February 22, 1883, age 60. 

DODSON, Michael, a barrister and Biblical scholar, 
and son of a Dissenting minister, was born in Wilts in 1730. 
In 1790 he published a " Translation of Isaiah, by a Layman," 
which was commended by his predecessor in the same field, 
Bishop Lowth. Says Dr. Disney (q-v.) : — ** He was a learned 

DOLET, Stephen, suff"ered martyrdom for his Unitarian 
opinions on August 30, 1546, in his 37th year, thus preceding 
his friend Servetus, whom he met at Lyons, by seven years. 
He was a native of Orleans, a printer and bookseller, a. 
scholarly man who also wrote several works and translated 

dol] 39 [dre 

others, and was held in high esteem by some of the most 
learned men of his time. When first charged with and 
imprisoned for heresy, he was allowed, on the intercession of 
his friends, to escape to Piedmont. On his return to France 
he was again arrested and sentenced to be burnt alive, a sen- 
tence which was carried into effect at Paris. 

DOLLOND, Peter, was the son of John Dollond, 
F.R.S., the inventor of the achromatic telescope. Like his 
father (who was a self-taught man), Peter was a Spitalfield's 
weaver, but inheriting his father's taste for the study of optics 
and mathematics, and availing himself of the knowledge 
obtained from his father, he, with more ambitious aims, com- 
menced business as an optician, in which he was afterwards 
joined by his father, and introduced such important improve- 
ments in philosophical instruments that the name of Dollond 
at once became famous, and the poor Spitalfields weaver 
received friendly recognition from the most eminent men in 
science. Thus he who began life so humbly, closed it as a 
wealthy man noted for his open-handed charity. He was 
much attached to the ministry of Benson and Lardner. Died 
August II, 1820, age go. 

DOWSON, John Withers, of Norwich, was an earnest 
worker, for over half a century, in the cause of self-help and 
moral advancement. He was a sincere friend of the young, 
and devoted time, to the neglect of his own material interests, 
in the promotion of education not only through the medium 
of public schools, but also by his own personal exertions. At 
early morn, before business hours, he would gather around 
him in his office numbers of young men and women for 
instruction. He inspired Travers Madge and others with an 
ardent zeal for religious work. The schools connected with 
the Octagon Chapel (in which he often preached) had his 
watchful care. He served the public interest as a member of 
the Corporation, of the Board of Guardians, and a Charity 
Trustee. He was among those who have filled the office of 
President of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. 
Died July 12, 1879, age 79. 

DRENNAN, Dr. William, physician, scientist, verse- 
maker, Irish politician, was son of the Rev. Thomas Drennan, 
minister of the first Presbyterian (Unitarian) congregation of 
Belfast, with which and its plans of usefulness the son entered 

DRU] 40 [^YE 

into close connection. He wrote several of the hymns that 
are sung in Unitarian places of worship. Much of his time was 
given to the promotion of education. Died in 18,20, age 66. 

DRUMMOND, Dr. William Hamilton, was born at 
Larne, educated at Glasgow, and was minister, first at Belfast, 
and then at Strand Street (now Stephen's Green), Dublin. 
He was a poet, a controversialist, and a Unitarian Christian. 
Among his works are the " Life of Servetus," " Rights of 
Animals," " Letters to Archbishop Magee," and some poems 
and hymns. He was father to the Rev. Dr. James Drum- 
mond. Principal of Manchester College, Oxford. Died 
October 15, 1865, age 87. 

DUFF, Adam, a Unitarian martyr of the fourteenth 
century, who, denying the Incarnation, and the Trinity of 
Persons in the Godhead, was said to be possessed with a 
diabolical spirit. He was sentenced to be "burned and 
hanged in the fire at Hoggin Green," near Dublin, in 1326. 

DUMLER, Nicholas, of Nuremburg, was born near the 
close of the sixteenth century. When a young man at College 
he embraced the Unitarian doctrine, and was banished in 
1 61 6. He is supposed to have died at an early age in Poland. 

DUNKIN, Miss Joanna. First a member of the Unit- 
arian congregation at Newport, LW., under the ministry of 
the Rev. Edmund Kell, who became her brother-in-law, she 
was afterwards instrumental with him in the foundation of the 
Southampton Unitarian congregation, and the building of the 
church there. Some years after the death of Mr. and Mrs. 
Kell, she erected a beautiful painted window in the Church of 
the Saviour (Southampton), in memory of them and of her 
parents. One of her early playmates was Sir Edwin Landseer. 
Died June 3, 1889, age 89. 

DUNNE, John, K.C, was son of the Rev. Dr. Dunne, 
Presbyterian minister in Dublin. He was a member of the 
Irish Bar and of the Irish Parliament. Setting aside prospects 
of legal advancement that he might study the life of savage 
men, he spent much time among the Indians, of whom he 
published (in 1802) an account in the "Transactions of the 
Royal Irish Academy." In his later years he devoted himself 
to Biblical study, to the confirmation of his Unitarianism. 

DYER, George. The son of poor parents, he passed 
in his education from a charity school to Christ's Hospital, 

eat] .41 [^^^ 

and thence to Cambridge University. Intended for the 
Church, he found himself unable to subscribe the Articles, so 
was compelled to accept the position of usher in a school ; 
but, finding the occupation distasteful, he accepted a Baptist 
pastorate in Cambridge, which he held only for four years, 
and, removing to London, became a parliamentary reporter 
for a daily paper. This again he gave up for private tuition 
and literary work. He was skilled in antiquities, and made 
his name by several books written in this connection. Rather 
late in life he became comfortably circumstanced, from 
annuities purchased by friends, and from the proceeds of his 
writings. He was a Unitarian, and an intimate friend of 
Charles Lamb. Died July 24, 1841, age 86. 

EATON, David, was born in Scotland into circum- 
stances of hardship and miser}% and in his time was fifer in 
a marching regiment, errand-boy, pot-boy, officer's servant, 
shoemaker's apprentice, and bookseller, to which last-named 
calling he was introduced and generously patronised by 
Unitarians. He learned in his youth to read mainly by his 
own exertions, and the Bible was at first his one book. He 
joined a society of Baptists— originally Calvinistic in creed — 
who from Scripture study became Unitarians. In this con- 
nection Mr. Eaton published a little work entitled, " Scripture 
the Only Guide to Religious Truth : A Narrative of the 
Proceedings of the Society of Baptists in York, on Relinquish- 
ing the Popular Systems of Religion from the Study of the 
Scriptures." The Unitarian Fund found in him one of its 
■earliest supporters, he frequently conducted religious services 
for small congregations, and not long before his death became 
pastor of the General Baptist Church, Worship Street, London. 
Died April 9, 1829, age 58. 

ELLIOTT, Rev. William, was one of a small band of 
reformers who sprang up in Barnard Castle, receiving their 
inspiration from the speeches and writings of Joseph Barker 
(q.v.). As an active worker in Unitarian Churches his 
service was carried over a period of about thirty-five years. 
His pulpit ministrations included Selby, Doncaster, New- 
■church, Stockton, and Sunderland. He was a warm advocate 
of total abstinence. His zeal in public service exhausted 
his strength, and he was laid aside from active work for six 
jears. Died February 14, 1889, age 66. 

ell] 42 , [eme 

ELLIS, Arthur, was a City journalist who served under 
the editor of the Economist, as editor of the Statist, City 
editor of the Daily News^ and afterwards of the Times, 
started the City Quarterly (which afterwards merged into the 
Banker's Magazine), and published a book on " Market 
Fluctuations.-' For many years an attendant at the services 
of the Church of England, he afterwards became a member 
of the Highgate Hill Unitarian Christian Church. Died 
December 28, 1894., ^%^ 44- 

ELLIS, Alderman Charles, J. P., of Maidstone, took 
a conspicuous part in the public work of that town, the 
municipal enterprises with which he was most notably 
identified being the system of main drainage and the new 
bridge which spans the Medway. On the opening of the latter 
he was presented with the Ellis Cup, which now forms part 
of the Corporation plate. He was also presented with a 
testimonial by his personal and political (Liberal) friends 
"in token of their esteem for his private and public worth." 
He was a life-long member of the Earl Street (Unitarian) . 
Chapel. Died August 26, 1900, age 77. 

ELWALL, Edward, was the retired tradesman of 
Wolverhampton whose trial for " blasphemy " at the Stafford 
Assizes in 1726 attracted the attention of Dr. Priestley, who 
published an account of it under the title of "The Triumph 
of Truth." Mr. Elwall was a man of uprightness and integrity. 
He appears to have received but little education, yet his 
Biblical studies produced some valuable tracts. Died May 30, 


EMERSON, Ralph Waldo, of Concord, U.S.A., was of 
English ancestry. Losing his father when he was but in his 
eighth year, Ralph was left with a good mother to watch over 
his early education. At the age of fourteen he entered 
Harvard College, graduating at eighteen. For a time he 
taught school, and for three years was pastor of the " Second 
Church," Boston. He was made chaplain of the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature, and it was from his pulpit that the first 
anti-slavery sermons were preached. After some kind of a 
disagreement with his congregation, he ceased to attend 
public worship for many years, but in the closing period of 
his life was fairly regular in his attendance at the Unitarian 
Church in Concord. As essayist, poet, and lecturer, his^ 

eml] 43 [eny 

influence has been great in kindling religious life. Died 
April 27, 1882, age 79. 

EMLYN, Rev. Thomas. This Unitarian Confessor was 
educated in the Dissenting Academy of Shuttlewood and 
Doolittle, and also for a year at Emanuel College, Cambridge. 
He was successively chaplain to Lady Dougal, Sir Robert 
Rich, preacher at Lowestoft, and Pastor at Wood Street, 
Dublin. He was prosecuted in 1702 for an alleged "blas- 
phemous libel," on the ground of his " Humble Inquiry into the 
Scripture Account of Jesus Christ." He henceforth lived in 
London, where he preached for some years to a small Unit- 
arian congregation at Cutlers' Hall. Died July 30, 1741, 
age 78. 

ENFIELD, Rev. William, LL.D., was born at Sudbury, 
in Norfolk, the Dissenting minister of which place gave 
him his early education, this being followed by a successful 
educational course at the Daventry Academy. His first 
ministerial charge was at Bens Garden Chapel, Liverpool. 
While here. Dr. Enfield published a volume of hymns for the 
use of the congregation, a book of family prayers, and two 
volumes of sermons. At the age of twenty-nine he accepted 
the post of "Rector Academiae " and the chair of " Belles 
Lettres" at Warrington Academy. During this period he 
published fourteen works, the best known among them being 
a very popular collection of pieces in prose and verse for 
schools, commonly known as the " Enfield Speaker," 
though his most important production was " The History of 
Philosophy." A new publication of his works after his 
death enabled the publisher to hand over the sum of ;^2,ooo 
to his family. The removal of the Warrington Academy to 
Manchester closed Dr. Enfield's connection with it after 
thirteen years of service, and he remained only for two years 
longer in the place as minister of the Unitarian chapel there, 
when he accepted the co-pastorship of the Octagon Chapel, 
Norwich. Dr. Enfield assisted in, if he did not originate, 
the formation of a scheme amongst the united ministers of 
Lancashire and Cheshire, called "The Widows' Fund," and 
at his death his widow was the first who received an annuity 
from it. Died 1797, age 57. 

ENYEDI, Bishop George. He was the third bishop of 
our Unitarian churches in Transylvania. His theology was 

est] 44 [eva 

rather that of Francis David than of Faustus Socinus. His 
posthumous volume of Scriptural ExpUcatioms was publicly- 
burnt, but a second edition got into circulation about seventy 
years later. Died November 24, 1797, age 42. 

ESTLIN, Rev. John, LL.D. Though born of Dissenting 
parents, he was originally, through the influence of an uncle, 
intended for the Church. After education at Warrington 
Academy, however, he became minister of the Unitarian 
Chapel at Lewin's Mead, Bristol. His '* Discourses on 
Universal Restitution" give an example of his boldness in the 
avowal of his changed opinions. Died August 10, 1 8 1 7, age 70. 

EVANS, Rev. Thomas, a self-educated man, was for 
twenty years minister of the Old Meeting House, Aberdare. 
While yet young, he was known in his neighbourhood as a 
heretic, and nick-named "little Priestley." He first of all 
preached in his father's house (licensed for the purpose), and 
afterwards in a chapel built for him. at Cwmwrdn. For singing 
a song which was regarded as treasonable, he was sentenced 
to two years' imprisonment, with the additional punishment 
of the pillory. He was the author or translator into the 
Welsh language of more than twenty works, chiefly religious, 
two of which he wrote in prison. Time, 1766-1833. 

EVANS, Rev. David, B.A., though known only in the 
limited circle of Welsh Unitarian churches, was a man of mark 
in his time. At an early age he entered Carmarthen College, 
graduated at Glasgow, and was ordained as co-pastor at 
Llwynrhydowen with Rev. John Davies, where he laboured 
for twenty-three years. He afterwards succeeded to the pulpit 
at Caeronen, near Lampeter, which he filled till he left the 
ministry. After his retirement as a minister in full charge, 
however, he regularly supplied the pulpit at Cribin for five 
years, when failing health brought his public duties to a close. 
Died April 23, 1885, age 79. 

EVANSON, Rev. Edward, M.A. He filled at diflferent 
times the positions of tutor, vicar, farmer, and author. 
Among his published works were "The Doctrines of the 
Trinity and the Incarnation of God examined upon the 
Principles of Reason and Common Sense," Letters to Dr. 
Hurd on " Prophecy and Apostacy," and to Dr. Priestley on 
"Sunday Observance," the "Authenticity of the Four Evan- 
_gelists Examined," the " State of Religion in England," and 

eve] 45 [^'^L 

Sermons. Prosecuted for heresy, he resigned his preferment 
in the Church, though acquitted. With many peculiarities of 
thought, he was an earnest confessor of Christian Unit- 
arianism. Died September 24, 1805, age 74. 

EVE, Richard, was a soUcitor at Aldershot, and acted 
as the prisoner's soUcitor at the trial of Arabi Pasha at Cairo. 
He was an active politician, and a prominent Freemason. 
As lord of the manor of Farnborough, he was a zealous 
defender of common rights, and succeeded in opening a 
road over Frimley Common which had been closed for 
twenty-eight years. He bequeathed 3,000 guineas to the 
three INIasonic charities, the Boys' and Girls' Institutes, and 
the Benevolent Fund for Poor and Disabled ]\Iasons. He 
also gave ;^2,ooo to the trustees of Aldershot Hospital. He 
was a member of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. 
Died July 6, 1900, age 69. 

FAIRBURN, Sir William. This eminent engineer 
began life as a poor Scotch lad, working at a humble employ- 
ment on the Tyne-side with his life-friend George Stephenson 
as his companion. To these two men is due the erection of 
the great tubular bridge over the Menai Straits. Fairburn 
was the designer and m.aker of the first iron ships, and to him 
are also due many important improvements in machines that 
are now in daily use. Successful in business, he was bountiful 
in charity. He was one of the founders of the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and was its president 
in the year 1861. For nearly fifty years he was a member 
of the Unitarian congregation of Cross Street, Manchester. 

Died August 18, 1874. age 85- 

FALKLAND, Lord, was Secretary of State m the reign 
of Charles L, and though he sided with the King against the 
Parliament, he did not fail to oppose his Sovereign's errors. On 
the authority of his chaplain. Dr. Cressy, who professed to have 
introduced the works of Socinus into England, Lord Falkland 
" was so extremely taken and satisfied with them, that from 
that time was his conversion to Unitarian opinions." The poet 
Pope eulogises him as "the virtuous and the just." He was 
killed at the battle of Newbury, September 20, 1643, age 33. 

FALLOWS, William, J. P., was a merchant of :Middles- 
brough. His biography is written in the rise, progress, and 
development of the Tees as a shipping port, and he was 

tie] 46 [fie 

locally, styled '* The Father of the Tees." As a member 
of the Corporation, Poor Law Guardian, member of the School 
Board, Mayor, and Magistrate, he rendered great service to 
his town. He was a Liberal in politics, and a Unitarian in 
religion, and the Church in Corporation Road, of which he 
laid the corner-stone, was founded by him and chiefly built by 
his generosity. Died August 14, 1889, age 92. 

FIELD, Edwin Wilkins, was son of the Rev. W. Field, 
and was born at Leam, near Warwick. He was a lawyer whose 
legal advice and unflinching determination helped to pass the 
Dissenters' Chapels Bill, and a large sum was subscribed by 
way of a testimonial for his eminent and gratuitous services. 
Declining to apply the amount" raised to his private use, he 
devoted it to rebuilding the Rosemary Chapel (now known as 
" The Memorial Chapel ") at Kenilworth, at which his aged 
father was minister. He laboured without remuneration until 
he had got the Artists' Copyright Bill passed. In conjunction 
with his friend, Henry Crabbe Robinson, he established the 
gallery of Flaxman's works at University College, London. 
He also took an influential part in the establishment of 
University Hall, in connection with the London University. 
He was a member of the Unitarian Church at Hampstead, 
where he has been known upon occasion to conduct the 
Sunday service. His biography was written by Dr. Sadler, 
the minister of this church. He died in the Thames at 
Goring, while trying to save a friend from drowning, on July 30, 
1 87 1, age 67. 

FIELD, Rogers, eldest son of E. W. Field (q.v.), was 
born in London, in 1831, educated at University College, 
London, and brought up as a hydraulic and drainage engineer, 
upon which work he spent his life, putting the whole subject 
upon a scientific level, and so revolutionising the current 
method, both domestic and agricultural, that he has been called 
the " Prince of Sanitary Engineers." He was the inventor of 
Field's Engineering Aneroid Barometer. Died at Hampstead, 
March 28, 1900, age 68. 

FIELD, Rev. William, descended through his mother 
from Oliver Cromwell, was born at Stoke Newington, educated 
at Homerton and Daventry, and was ordained minister of 
High Street Chapel, Warwick, of which he remained sole 
pastor for fifty-six years Through his active zeal the old 

tie] 47 [fir 

chapel at Kenilworth was re-opened and re-built. He 
preached here along with his own pulpit duties during the rest 
of his ministry. The friend and biographer of Dr. Parr, he was 
a good classic, and an able student of Biblical literature. Died 
August 1 6, 185 1, age 74- 

FIELDEN, Joshua, of Surrey, was a merchant who, in 
his public career, was identified with his father in the advocacy 
of the Ten Hours Bill. He was for about twelve years the 
Conservative representative in Parliament of the Eastern 
division of the West Riding of Yorkshire. He built the hand- 
some Unitarian Chapel at Todmorden at a cost of ;!^36,ooo. 
He was also instrumental in the erection of several important 
public buildings, notably the Town Hall, which he and his 
brothers erected in memory of their father and uncle, at a cost 
of;^54,ooo. Died ]\Iarch 9, 1887. 

FIELDEN, Samuel, of Todmorden, brother to Joshua 
Fielden (q.v.), was for nearly half a century a pillar of strength 
among the mill hands of Todmorden, a town which was 
created by the large cotton factories established by this 
family. Samuel presented a valuable Free Library to the town 
of Fleetwood, and was a generous donor to all the hospitals, 
schools, orphanages, and charitable institutions for miles 
around Todmorden. He was a man of great personal courage, 
and took so much interest in life-boat work, as to present 
;^5oo to the Shetlanders towards providing them with a life- 
boat. His modesty equalled his philanthropy. Died Novem- 
ber 9, 1889, age 73. 

FIERI, LuDovico, a Bolognese, in the year 15 61, denied 
the Trinity, and therefore the Deity of Christ, and submitted 
to a synod the question, " Whether any one ought to be 
deemed a heretic on account of a simple error in the article 
of the Trinity, when in other respects he is a man of approved 
morals, and distinguished for his charity to the poor ? " The 
answer was excommunication, and he retired to Moravia, 
and spent the chief part of his time in diffusing Unitarian 

FIRMIN, Thomas, of Ipswich, was noted as a philan- 
thropist, of whom Wesley said, ** undoubtedly Firmin was a 
pious man." Although a wealthy man of business, he devoted 
a large amount of his time to the study of theology, and was 
a convert from Calvinism. Among Firmin's generosities was 

FIS"] • 48 _ [fOL. 

the help he gave to John Bidle, whom he frequently visited in. 
prison, and from whose friendship he became a zealous 
Unitarian. He was on terms of intimacy with Archbishop 
Tillotson, and it is said that Queen Mary herself was- 
sufficiently interested in him to lament his heterodoxy. Died 
December 20, 1 697, age 65. 

FISHER, William, was a descendant of James Fisher, 
vicar of Sheffield, who in 1662 went out of the Established 
Church on the passing of the Act of Uniformity, and who- 
founded the Upper Chapel (Unitarian). William's father so 
earnestly advocated the cause of civil and religious liberty, 
that he was known in Sheffield as the '' Father of Reform " ; 
and the subject of our notice was the worthy son of a worthy 
sire. He was a member of the first School Board for Sheffield, 
and was a liberal supporter of various Unitarian and charitable 
institutions. He bequeathed about £1 1,000 for establishing a 
charitable institution, now known as " The Fisher Institution." 
Died March 25, 1880. 

FITZROY, Augustus Henry (Duke of Grafton). 
On his retirement from public life, this distinguished ex- 
Premier devoted much time to theological study, and became 
a firm Unitarian. He retained the belief, however, that 
Christ in heaven both hears and helps his followers on earth. 
He was a worshipper at Essex Street Chapel. To his- 
generosity and zeal for the study of the Scriptures we owe the 
cheap reprint of Griesbach's edition of the Greek Testament. 
Died March 14, 1811, age 76. 

FLEKWYK, Herman Van, was a Baptist, whose heresy 
was discovered in a discussion with a Franciscan friar. Dr. 
Toulmin published a translation of his famous " Dialogue." It 
seems that his conversion to Unitarianism was due to Erasmus. 
The Inquisition had him burned at Bruges, June 10, 1569, 

FOLLEN, Charles T. C, was born at Darmstadt, in 
Germany, and joined the volunteer corps formed in the hope of 
freeing his country from the tyranny of Napoleon. He en- 
deavoured to effect a moral and political reform in the Universi- 
ties, and was so persecuted by the authorities in consequence 
that he fled to New York. Through Lafayette's influence he 
became acquainted with the leading men of Philadelphia, where 
he studied the English language assiduously, and became a 
successful lecturer, and in 1825 Professor of German at Harvard. 

fol] 49 [fox 

University, Boston, which he was compelled to leave on account 
of his devotion to the anti-slavery cause. As preacher and 
lecturer he visited Chicago, where he preached to the scattered 
Unitarians of that town so successfully that a church was 
erected by them. He next stayed at New York for some 
time, but was forced to leave the town, owing to his anti- 
slavery views. On his way to East Lexington to take up a 
Unitarian pastorate there, he perished by fire at sea, January 13, 
1840, age 44. 

FOLLEN, Eliza Lee {me Cabot, at Boston, Massa- 
chusetts), devoted her youth assiduously to self-culture, and 
early began to contribute essays and poems to the papers 
and magazines of the day. As wife of Dr. Follen (q.v.), 
she continued diligent with her pen, among her productions 
being ** Selections from Fenelon," " The Well-Spent Hour," 
translations of German fairy tales, while she added to her 
literary labours the editing for a year of the Christian 
Teachers' Manual, and for seven years the Child's Friend. 
She was deeply interested in the anti-slavery cause, and stood 
by her husband when his part in the same work exposed him 
to sacrifice and loss. Died in i860, age 73. 

FOSTER, Ja:\ies, D.D., the grandson of a beneficed 
clergyman, but of Dissenting parentage, was a native of 
Exeter. He became an Arian in doctrine, and gave great 
offence to some leading members of his first church, a small 
one in Somersetshire. He then preached to two humble 
societies in the neighbourhood of the Mendip Hills, at a 
yearly stipend of about £1^. Here he wrote several of the 
books which afterwards made him known. He then removed 
to the ancient Baptist Church at Trowbridge, where, to eke 
out his living, he was just about to learn a mechanical trade, 
when he was invited to become minister of the Barbican, 
London ; and as one of the Old Jewry Sunday evening 
lecturers attracted fashionable crowds. He closed his 
ministerial career with the Pinner's Hall Society. He 
published four volumes of his sermons, his last work, in two 
volumes, being entitled, "Discourses on all the Principal 
Branches of Natural Religion and Social Virtue." Died 
1753. age 54. 

FOX, William Johnson, was known as "the Norwich 
weaver boy." He rose from farmer boy, weaver lad, bank 


fra] . 50 [fra 

clerk, journalist, and politician, a self-made man, and an 
example of what may be achieved by perseverance. Among 
the Independents, as a minister, he was nervous, awkward, 
and unacceptable as a speaker ; he presently grew heretical 
and joined the Unitarians, when he became noted for an 
eloquence that attracted large audiences. His chief ministerial 
work was at South Place, Finsbury, London, where he preached 
as Unitarian minister for twenty-eight years. Newspaper work 
occupied a large portion of his time, and in this he was at one 
time associated with John Stuart Mill. In the Anti-Corn 
Law strugo-le he stood shoulder to shoulder with Cobden and 
Bright. He was past sixty years of age when he entered 
Parliament as a member for Oldham, but was able to render 
useful service, and was a strenuous advocate for national 
education, being one of the first to demand that it should 
be compulsory. Died June 3, 1864, age 78. 

FRANCE, Sebastian, was a Swabian, a learned author, 
who was driven from city to city because of his heretical 
opinions, on account of which he was bitterly opposed by 
Catholics and Protestants alike. He suffered banishment and 
imprisonments. His pen vv^as active to the last. He spoke of 
Jesus as " a man of eminent and extraordinary piety." Died 
at Basle, in 1543, ^o^ 43- 

FRANCKEN, Christian, was a Prussian by birth, and 
lived as a Jesuit in Rome. He afterwards became a Lutheran, 
and then, in 1583, joined the Unitarians, and was appointed 
in the following year rector of their school at Chmielnik. He 
wrote a great deal against the Trinitarianism of his times. 
Driven from France, Germany, and Poland, he took refuge in 
Clausenburg, and may be regarded as among the early Unit- 
arians of the Transylvanian Church. He died about the 
close of the sixteenth century. 

FRANKLIN, Benjamin, was born in Boston, America, 
in 1706, and brought up to the printing business, which he 
carried on until he was thirty years of age. His immense 
activity of mind, strong common sense, and untiring zeal in 
everything that might benefit his country, soon brought him 
into public notice and political position. His experiments in 
electricity and his lightning conductors made him famous. 
He was twice sent to the British Court as agent for Pennsyl- 
vania. It was during the second of these visits to London 

fre] 51 [gan 

that Theophilus Lindsey was opening, in 1774, his Unitarian 
Church in Essex Street, Strand, and Franklin threw himself 
ardently into the new project ; but on the breaking out of war 
with England in the next year, he was recalled to America. 
Died April 17, 1790, age 85. 

FREE^MAN, Dr. James, was a clergyman at the King's 
Chapel, Boston, U.S.A., originally an Episcopalian establish- 
ment, but which changed along with his change of opinion. 
It is said that he derived his Unitarian ideas from his inter- 
course with William Hazlitt. He encountered much opposition 
in his effort to introduce Dr. Clarke's reformed liturgy there, 
in which the invocations and the doxologies were to the Father 
only ; but he succeeded, with the entire sympathy of his con- 
gregation, who demanded only his loyalty to the Bible. Died 
November 14, 1835, age 76. 

FREND, William, was born at Canterbury, where his 
father was twice IMayor. Destined for a mercantile life, he 
entered the Church of England. After about four or five years 
in priest's orders, a change took place in his religious opinions, 
and he resigned his living, to the destruction, of course, of all 
his fair prospects. On his retirement from the Church at the 
age of thirty, he devoted himself to various works of usefulness, 
and became the author of many valuable treatises, one of which 
— political — involved him in a long and serious trial. He was 
an acute and keen-sighted mathematician, and assisted in 
the formation of the " Rock Life Assurance Company," under 
which Company he worked for thirty years, and was granted 
an annuity of ;z^8oo on his retirement. It is said that he was 
the first who recommended to Peel's Administration a uniform 
postage of one penny for letters. Died February 21, 1841, 
ao'e 84. 

FROTHINGHAM, Rev. William, was the first Unitarian 
minister at Belfast, in the United States, a learned man, fond of 
historical research. When called to the ministry of Belfast, 
he refused to subscribe to a Trinitarian creed, and this led to 
a division in the original society, and the formation of a new 
x:hurch on non-subscribing principles. Died IMarch 14, 1852, 
aged 75. 

GANNETT, Rev. Dr. Ezra Stiles. His father was a 
congregational minister, and he traced his descent from one 
of the courageous women who went out in the " May Flower." 

gar] 52 . [gas 

At the age of fifteen young Gannett was admitted a student 
at Harvard College, Boston, where he devoted himself 
assiduously to his studies, and in due course he became a 
colleague of the Rev. Dr. Channing, whom he succeeded in 
the ministry. He was for some years joint-editor of the 
Christian Examiner. He would not join the abolitionists, 
but he lifted his voice against slavery, and also exposed the 
iniquities and miseries of war. Although suffering from lame- 
ness, and compelled to go about on crutches, he was almost 
ceaseless in his rounds of benevolence. He met his death in 
a railway accident while on a journey to fulfil a preaching 
engagement. Dr. Gannett published a large number of 
tracts, single sermons, and review articles. He was the first 
secretary of the American Unitarian Association, and was 
afterwards president. Died May 4, 1871, age 70. 

GARRARD, Colonel James, of Virginia, fought in the 
War of Independence, and was called to a seat in the 
Legislature of Virginia, where he was one of the principal 
agents in passing the Statute of Virginia, which gave universal 
religious liberty throughout that State. He afterwards became 
Governor of Kentucky. In advanced life he rejected the 
orthodox beliefs of his youth, and became an active Unitarian. 
Died 1822, age 74. 

GASKELL, Mrs. Mary Elizabeth, novelist, was the 
wife of Rev. William Gaskell (q.v.). Unitarian minister, 
at Manchester, and her first novel, " Mary Barton," at 
once gained for her a wide circle of readers. This work 
is remarkable for the vivid picture it presents of the life of 
the working cotton spinner, and also forcibly depicts the 
miseries attendant upon strikes. Mrs. Gaskell was a frequent 
contributor to the columns of Household Words and the Daily 
News. Died November 12, 1865. 

GASKELL, Rev. William, M.A. By his own choice, 
the only ministerial charge he ever held was at the Cross 
Street Unitarian Chapel, Manchester, which he retained till 
his death, so completing a pastorate of half a century. He was 
an influential citizen of Manchester, one of the first editors of 
the Unitarian Herald, one of the tutors (and for many years 
the Principal) of the Home Missionary Board, secretary for 
several years (and one of the Professors) of the Manchester 
New College, and devoted himself with unremitting attention 

GEl] 53 [GIF 

to public duties in addition to his ministerial work. He was 
the recipient of several testimonials of respect and affection. 
He was husband to Mrs. Gaskell, the writer. Died June ii, 
1884, age 78. 

GEISTERANUS, John. As a pastor in a town of 
Hanover, he was banished on account of his avowal of Unit- 
arian opinions, his offence being increased by his advocacy of 
peace principles. After his banishment from the pulpit he 
learned the trade of a weaver, by which he maintained himself 
and famil}', even then suffering persecution from the Govern- 
ment. He died a martyr to his devotion to the sick during 
the plague in Hanover in 1622 (his wife and two children 
dying at the same time), October 14, 1622, age 36. 

GENTILIS, John Valentine, was sorely persecuted by 
Calvin for his Unitarian opinions. He was thrown into prison 
in Geneva, and threatened with death unless he recanted. In 
a moment of weakness he yielded to an impulse of fear, the 
memory of which so shadowed his life on his escape from the 
city, that he devoted his energies to the spread of the faith he 
had denied, and returned to Geneva, falling again into the 
hands of his enemies. Again he was offered his life if he 
would repeat his recantation, but he joyfully caught at the 
opportunity of atoning for past faithlessness by sacrificing his 
life for the truth, and therefore fell a willing martyr for the 
faith he had once denied. Calvin had died before this event, 
but not before he had written a letter showing how angry with 
himself he was that he had not burnt Gentilis. Beheaded at 
an advanced age on September 9, 1556. 

GIFFORD, Admiral James, was son of Captain Gifford, 
a soldier who published a work in defence of Unitarianism. 
James was born in America, but coming to England, joined 
her Navy, at the age of 12, and rose from midshipman 
to admiral. On his retirement from the Service he devoted 
himself to theological, literary, and philanthropic pursuits, 
and laboured especially to promote the cause of Unitarian 
Christianity, and published some works, the best known 
of which is his " Remonstrance of a Unitarian." He 
spent nearly a thousand pounds in the fruitless attempt to 
establish Unitarian worship in Jersey. His sister Juliana 
went hand in hand with him in his good work, and 
bequeathed the reversionary interest of her whole property 

GLo] 54 • [gor 

to the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. Died 
1853, age 85. 

GLOVER, Rev. Benjamin. A watch-finisher's appren- 
tice in Liverpool, he became an earnest worker in the tem- 
perance movement, a recognised local preacher among the 
Unitarians, and at a later period in life than some of his 
friends deemed advisable, he entered as a student at the 
Home Missionary Board, and afterwards became a most suc- 
cessful missionary. As the agent of the Liverpool District 
Street Mission, he became the founder of the Roscommon 
Street congregation, from which the Hamilton Road Church 
sprang. He was a preacher at Southport, was the founder 
of the Portland Street Chapel in that town, and of a congrega- 
tion at Heywood, and he was also instrumental in the early 
operations at Crewe. On leaving Liverpool he became 
minister at Middleton, whence he removed to Lydgate, York- 
shire, which also he was compelled to resign through failure 
of health. Died September 29, 1890, age 72. 

GONESIUS, Peter, of Poland, openly affirmed Unit- 
arianism in 1556, saying at a synod of the Reformed Clergy 
held at Secemin, " In my opinion the Father only is the true 
God." For a time silence was enjoined upon him, but without 
effect, for he became instrumental in establishing many Unit- 
arian churches in Poland. 

GORDON, Alexander, M.D., was the son of Dr. A. 
Gordon, of Saintfield, received his early education in Belfast, 
and took his medical degree in Edinburgh, becoming a 
Hcentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons there. Among the 
public offices he filled were the following : Demonstrator of 
Anatomy in the Royal Belfast Academical Institution ; Professor 
of Surgery in the same place ; Chair of Surgery in con- 
nection with the Queen's University ; and also contributed 
papers on important surgical questions to the leading medical 
journals. He originated the " Gordon splint," which has 
been so v/idely adopted by the Faculty. A portrait of him 
was placed in the Examination Hall of the Queen's College. 
Died July 28, 1887, age 69. 

GORDON, Rev. John. He was originally associated 
with the Wesleyan body, from which he retired on grounds 
which had no reference to theological opinion. He subse- 
quently found himself more in harmony with the Unitarians, 

ore] 55 [gri 

among whom he became a minister at Coseley, Coventry, Kenil- 
worth, Edinburgh, Dukinfield Old Chapel, and P>esham, at 
which last-named place he remained till his final retirement 
from active ministerial work about eight years before his 
death. He was one of the founders of the Midland Chris- 
tian Union, and took an active part in promoting the passing 
of the Dissenters' Chapels Bill. Died April 24, 1880, age 73. 
GREELEY, Horace. This great American editor, the 
founder of the Nezu York Tribune, and whose life was chiefly 
devoted to politics, was the son of a poor farmer of New 
Hampshire. The story of his rise from poverty to a position 
of eminence has been written by many pens. He was an 
ardent Universalist, and as a church member it is said that 
he was as regular in his pew, when at home, as was his 
minister (Dr. Chapin) in his pulpit. His convictions were 
based, as he avowed, not so much on particular passages, 
however pertinent and decisive, as on the spirit and general 
scope of the Gospel. Died November 29, 1872, age 61. 

GREENHOW, Dr. Thomas M., F.R.C.S. After serving 
as assistant-surgeon in the army for two years, he settled in 
Newcastle, and became surgeon to the Lying-in Hospital, and 
also to the Infirmary. In connection with Sir John Fife he 
established the Eye Infirmary at Newcastle. He had con- 
siderable mechanical ingenuity, and constructed various 
instruments and modifications of surgical appliances. As 
writer, speaker, and worker, he laboured hard in the cause of 
sanitation, and was a sincere philanthropist. While residing 
at Newcastle, and in later years at Leeds, he was a regular 
attendant at the Unitarian Chapels in these towns. Died 
October 25, 1881, age 90. 

GRDISHAW, Dr. Thomas W., C.B., Registrar-General 
for Ireland, sprang from the linen merchant class that 
enriched Ulster. He was educated in Trinity College, Dublin, 
afterwards becoming an examiner in the Queen's University, 
and in the Dublin College of Physicians. His paper on 
statistics, together with his lectures on public health, suggested 
his fitness for the post of Registrar-General. He wrote a 
valuable treatise on pneumonia, and was one of the founders 
of the National Hospital for Consumption at Newcastle, Co. 
Wicklow. He was a member of the Unitarian Church, 
Stephen's Green, Dublin. Died February, 1900. 

GRU] • 5^ . [ham 

GRUNDY, Rev. John. He was educated at Man- 
chester Academy, and was minister respectively at Bury- 
vSt.-Edmunds, Nottingham, Manchester (Cross Street), and 
Liverpool (Paradise Street). Dr. Martineau, in his funeral 
sermon, referred to his literary works as " those clear, mild, 
judicious writings by which he achieved so much in this 
country for the cause of pure and rational Christianity." 
Died May 9, 1843, age 60. 

GUIRLANDA, Giulio, was of Treviso, and hence was 
known as Trevisanus. He was a member of the Unitarian 
Society of Vicenza, and- was put to death at Venice by 
drowning — a customary mode of execution for heretics in 
that town — on October 19, 1562. 

GURNEY, Baron John, son of the confidential shorthand 
writer of the Government, received a good education, but, as 
his family were Dissenters, he was unable to study in either 
of the Universities. He was called to the Bar in 1793, and 
obtained such repute that he was engaged in memorable 
State trials before the lapse of two years, and became a great 
advocate. In 1832 he was promoted to the judicial bench as 
one of the Barons of the Exchequer, and was knighted. In 
religion he several times changed his opinions. Brought up 
as an orthodox Dissenter, he joined the Independents, and 
then the Baptists ; but in later life he connected himself with 
the Unitarians at the Chapel in the Old Jewry. His charities 
were munificent. Died January, 184.5, age 77. 

HAMONT, Mattheav, was a ploughwright, of Norfolk, 
and was tried and convicted of heretical utterances, so-called 
" blasphemy against the Queen and her Council." His 
opinions bore some resemblance to those of Francis David, 
the Transylvanian Unitarian. In accordance with the cruel 
sentence passed upon him, his ears were cut off in the Nor- 
wich Market Place, and he was burned alive in the Castle 
Moat, 1579. 

HAMPSON, Caroline Winifred. Her beautiful life 
was one of tender helpfulness and self-sacrificing love. 
Motherless at the age of sixteen, she became her father's 
right hand, and the stay of the household. As a doctor's 
wife she worked as a teacher to keep the home together 
during her husband's illness. Extending her sympathies 
beyond home interests, she laboured hard on behalf of poor 

han] 57 [har 

women, directing her efforts chiefly to the succour of young 
girls who had been led astray. The outcome of her rescue 
■work was the establishment of what became so well-known as 
Mrs. Hampson's Home, in Islington (changed into the 
Winifred Convalescent Home). Among other works that 
enlisted her active endeavour was the effort to secure the 
repeal of the Contagious Diseases Act. She was a teacher in 
early life at Lower ^loseley Street Schools, and on leaving 
]Manchester, she took up similar work in Bridgewater. Died 
September 7, 1890, age 60. 

HANCOCK, William Neilson, Q.C, LL.D., was the 
descendant of a long line of liberal-minded and independent 
ancestors. His great-grandfather founded the Quaker School 
known as Prospect Hill, Lisburn, Ireland ; his father, however, 
disconnected himself from the Society of Friends, while the 
subject of our notice was a Unitarian. He was an ardent 
student of political economy, to whose writings on the Irish 
land question Sir Robert Peel acknowledged his indebtedness. 
On his mother's side he was descended from one of the 
founders of the Northern Star, whose motto was, " The public 
will our guide, the public good our end." Died July 10, 1888, 
age 68. 

HARRIS, George. On account of his pronounced 
Unitarianism, he was called by Calvinists in Scotland " The 
Devil's Chaplain." His father was for upwards of forty years 
Unitarian minister at ^Maidstone. George Harris was a hard 
toiler in the Unitarian cause, travelling much in its interests, 
and noted for his brave and fearless preaching of the Unit- 
arian doctrines. Died December 24, 1859, age 65. 

HARRIS, Thaddeus ]\Ia.son, was an American of 
Puritan ancestry. After the battle of Bunker's Hill his 
father was compelled to fly from his home, and died while 
Thaddeus was yet young, leaving a widow and family with 
but little means of support. The lad succeeded, nevertheless, 
in making his way to college, and became pastor to a Boston 
congregation, to which he ministered for forty-three years, 
adding to his ministerial labours the task of arranging 
Washington's papers, which, when published, extended to 
132 volumes. While rejecting the doctrine of the Trinity, he 
seems to have held to something approaching the orthodox 
views of atonement. He wrote a work on the " Natural 

har] 58 ' [har 

History of the Bible," which went through several editions. 
Died October 30, 1778, age 64. 

HARRISON, James Bower, M.D., of Manchester, was 
descended from the Rev. Cuthbert Harrison, who in 1662 was 
ejected from his pulpit at Lurgan, in Ireland. His father was 
the Rev. William Harrison, Unitarian minister for over fifty 
years. The son was articled to a surgeon in Manchester, and 
on the termination of his articles became one of the resident 
medical officers of the Royal Infirmary. He contributed to 
various medical and other journals, and of his numerous 
writings, special mention may be made of " Popular Medical 
Errors," "Medical Aspects of Death," "On the Contamina- 
tion of Water with Lead," "Familiar Letters on the Diseases 
of Children," and the " Injurious Effects produced by the 
Manufacture of Lucifer Matches." He was instrumental in 
leading to a Government inquiry into the condition of children 
employed in unhealthy occupations. He was a member of 
the congregation of Cross Street Chapel, Manchester. Died 
January 2, 1890, age 76. 

HART, Lord Chancellor, was born in the West Indian 
island of St. Kitts, educated in England at Tunbridge, and 
afterwards studied at Homerton College for the Independent 
ministry, but with a change of theological views entered upon 
the ministry of the Unitarian Chapel at Norwich. Having 
resolved to become a lawyer, he was called to the Bar in 1781, 
and became successively Vice-Chancellor of England, and 
Lord Chancellor of Ireland. Died December, 183 1, age 77. 

HARTIGVELD, John, was a Dutch Unitarian of learn- 
ing and literary ability, with some tendencies towards the 
ideas of the Quakers on such points as the freedom of prophetic 
utterance in religious assemblies, and the unlawfulness of 
bearing arms, a common tenet of the Polish Unitarians. He 
was one of the earliest opponents of capital punishment, which 
he held to be forbidden by Christianity. Died October 22. 
1678, age 67. 

HARVEY, Daniel Whittle, was born at Witham, in 
Essex, his father being a gentleman of property, a Noncon- 
formist, and a rigid Calvinist, and the son was sent to a school 
in which it was intended that he should be educated in his 
father's opinions. School days over, he trained for the legal 
profession, and after practising as a solicitor in Colchester, he 

har] 59 [ha.z 

established a lucrative business in London. Successful in his 
effort to enter the House of Commons, he became the fearless 
advocate of liberty, justice, and purity in political life. He took 
part in the struggles by which the Test and Corporation Acts 
were repealed, Catholic Emancipation was carried, the Rotten 
Borough system in the House of Commons put an end to 
by the Reform Bill of 1832, the Corn Law Monopoly repealed, 
and the Jews admitted to the British Legislature. He lost 
his political power, however, in his acceptance of the office 
of Chief Commissioner of the City Police, which he made 
one of the best of municipal guards in Europe. His body 
was followed to the grave at the Hackney Unitarian Church 
by 460 of this force. Died 1863, age 77. 

HARWOOD, Richard, J.P., of Lancashire. A successful 
cotton mill owner, he was elected Mayor of Bolton. On his 
removal from Bolton to Pendleton, his active powers were trans- 
ferred to the new sphere, and he was thrice elected ]Mayor, 
On retiring from his mayoralty, he was made a Justice of the 
Peace for the Borough. He took a lively interest in Unitarian 
affairs, and filled many important offices in connection with 
the denomination. Died October 13, 1887, age 72. 

HAWKSLEY, Thomas, F.R.S., of London, was born at 
Nottingham. He was an eminent civil engineer, who has the 
merit of being the first to suggest and carry into practice the 
system of " constant service" in water supply, and before his 
death had the satisfaction of seeing the confirmation of his 
often-expressed opinion in favour of the Thames as a source 
for the London water supply. He belonged to many technical 
bodies, and was at one time President of the Listitution of 
Civil Engineers, as also of the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers. So wide-spread were his services that he was 
awarded at various times decorations from the Sovereigns of 
Austria, Sweden, Denmark, and Brazil. He is also gratefully 
remembered at Nottingham for his erection there of a Cholera 
Hospital in 1832. On his reaching the age of eighty a sub- 
scription was raised to present him with his portrait painted 
by Herkomer. Died September 2^, 1893, age 86. 

HAZLLFT, William. His father, although brought up 
in orthodox Presbyterianism, became afterwards a confirmed 
believer in and defender of Unitarianism. The subject of 
our notice was designed for the ministry, but preferred the 

hed] 6o . [hew 

profession of an artist. He presently abandoned an artist's life 
for devotion to literature. He was a friend of Charles Lamb. 
Died September i8, 1830, age 52. 

HEDGE, Rev. Dr. F. H.,of Boston, was born in Cambridge, 
U.S.A., and after the usual elementary education, enjoyed the 
advantage of several years' residence in Europe. He studied 
first in Germany for two years, and entering college in America 
with an advanced standing, graduated two years later. After 
three years in the Theological School, he entered the ministry 
first as Congregationalist, afterwards becoming Unitarian. 
He received his degree of D.D. from Harvard College, where 
he was chosen Professor of Ecclesiastical History. He took 
charge of the Christian Examiner^ was one of the chief editors 
of the Christian World, and was a frequent contributor to the 
Unitarian Review and Chi'istian Register ; and he delivered a 
course of Lectures before the Lowell Institute in Boston on 
*' Mediaeval History." Among his literary productions may 
be mentioned " Reason in Religion," " Primeval World of 
Hebrew Tradition," " Liturgy for the Use of the Church," 
and hymns, sermons, orations, &:c. He became a President 
of the American Lhiitarian Association. Died August 21, 
1890, age 84. 

HETZER, Lewis, a Swiss, was beheaded on the charge 
of blasphemy on February 4, 1529. He was a man of learning, 
well acquainted with the original languages of the Scriptures, 
and, in conjunction with Denck (q.v.), translated the Books of 
the Prophets into German before Luther. He wrote a treatise 
against the Deity of Christ (which was suppressed), and also 
against the worship of images. For a time he was a pastor at 
Zurich, but left the Protestant party on account of his disbelief 
in the Trinity. 

HEWLEY, Dame Sarah, was the only child and heiress 
of Robert Woolryche. After the death of her husband. Sir 
John Hewley, M.P. for York, which happened in 1697, Lady 
Hewley lived for thirteen years carrying out the benevolent 
Avorks in which they had laboured together. She was the 
mainstay of St. Saviourgate Chapel (built by her husband), 
and continued her assistance to a number of the ministers who 
had been ejected from their pulpits in 1662. After the Act 
of Toleration she conveyed a large portion of her property to 
trustees for the relief of preachers, assisting congregations — 

hey] 6 I [hey 

Presbyterian, Baptist, Independent. She founded the " Lady 
Hewley Trust." Died August 23, 17 10, age 83. 

HEYWOOD, Alderman Ahel, of Manchester, attained 
celebrity in connection with freeing the Press from many of 
the fetters that bound it in his time. He was an active man 
in times when newspapers were all taxed, and penny journals 
were impossible ; and he was in early life imprisoned for 
selling the Poor Man's Guardian^ on the ground that he had 
infringed the Stamp Laws. He lived to become twice ^layor 
of ^Manchester. Died August 19, 1893, age 84. 

HEYWOOD, I\Irs. Abel, of Manchester, had as first 
husband Alderman Goadsby, of whom, after his death, she 
presented a bust to the Corporation, which was placed in the 
sculpture gallery in the Town Hall. She also presented a 
marble statue of the Prince Consort, which stands in the 
centre of Albert Square, Manchester. She vested in. trustees 
the sum of £^00, the interest to be given annually to the 
most deserving student or students of the ^Manchester School 
of Art. Eight years subsequently, when she had married 
^Ir. Alderman Heywood (q.v.), she gave a statue of Oliver 
Cromwell, which stands near the Victoria Hotel, ^Manchester. 
Her munificence was further displayed by the presentation to 
the city of a valuable collection of Japanese metal work, &c. 
A sum of ;^i 0,000 was left to Owen's College for providing 
proper instruction for women and girls. Her labours during 
the cotton famine called forth the gratitude of the citizens. 
With all her riches, her life was one, it is said, of Spartan sim- 
plicity. Died January, 1887. 

HEYWOOD, Isaac, was the last survivor, in direct line, 
of the family of Oliver Heywood, whose life was a famous 
*' connecting link of early Puritanism and modern Dissent." 
His own name, however, deserves record as an honoured repre- 
sentative and cultured inheritor of the family's pious traditions, 
for he was himself a man of irreat natural gifts, wide-raneins: 
literary taste, and sturdy political sympathies. His chief 
interest in local social life was for many years the direction of 
the ^Mansfield Proprietary Library, in the Town Hall Buildings. 
He attended public worship in the Old fleeting House of his 
Presbyterian ancestors. Died June 5, 1892, age 80. 

PIP:YW00D, James, F.R.S., M.A., of London, distin- 
guished himself in connection with efforts for the abolition of 

hey] 62 [hey 

religious tests in colleges, using his position in Parliament as a 
Lancashire member to this end. To him is mainly due the Act of 
Parliament that opened the degrees of Oxford and Cambridge 
to students of all religious persuasions. He was also an 
ardent and successful pioneer in securing a revised version of 
the Scriptures, in connection with which he published a work 
on "The State of Biblical Revision." He was the friend of 
education, and built a free library and reading-room at Notting 
Hill, and encouraged a similar work at Manchester. In the 
Anti-Corn Law League he took a promiinent part. He was a 
zealous Unitarian, and for three years was chosen President 
of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. Died 
October 7, 1897, ^o^ ^^• 

HEYWOOD, John Pemberton, J. P. His family was 
wealthy, as well as distinguished, in Lancashire, and traced its 
genealogy as far back as the time of Edward VI . The first mem- 
ber of note was Oliver, the ejected minister. Mr. Heywood was 
educated at Manchester College, of which he was afterwards 
president. To his munificence was due in great part the erection 
of the cathedral-like church in Hope Street, Liverpool, during 
the ministry of the Rev. James Martineau. In 1869 Mr. Gladstone 
offered him a peerage, which was modestly declined. He was, 
during several years of his later life, president of the Rav/don 
Fund, for increasing the stipends of Nonconforming ministers. 
Died May 9, 1877, age 74. 

HEYWOOD, Serjeant, was a descendant of the Rev. 
Nathanael Heywood, vicar of Ormskirk, one of the ejected 
ministers. He was educated at Warrington Academy, whence 
he proceeded to Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he had much 
to endure from the bigotry of the College tutor, Dr. Hallifax, 
v/ho thought that Dissenters had no business at the University, 
and wished to expel Mr. Heywood for absenting himself from 
the sacramental service in the chapel. Called to the Bar, 
Mr. Heywood secured an extensive practice, was made Serjeant- 
at-Law, was placed on the Judicial Bench in Wales, and 
became Chief Justice of the Carmarthen Circuit. He was the 
author of several valuable works, among which his "Vindica- 
tion of Mr. Fox's History of James II." was reviewed by 
Sydney Smith in the Edinliirgh. He also published "The 
Right of Protestant Dissenters to a complete Toleration, with 
the History of the Test Laws, and showing the Injustice 

hib] 63 [hig 

of the Sacramental Test." Died September 11, 1828, 
age 78. 

HIBBERT, Robert, B.A. His forefathers were wealthy 
West Indian merchants in London, and holding large estates 
in Jamaica. For some years of his boyhood he was a 
pupil at Nottingham, in the house of Gilbert Wakefield, 
to whose influence was attributed his deep interest in the 
theological and political questions of the day. Although as 
a large estate-holder in Jamaica, from which he derived a 
considerable income, he held the views on slavery common to 
his time, he was an exceptionally kind master to his 400 slaves, 
in whose religious instruction he took a keen interest. He 
left money to form the Hibbert Trust, the income of which 
is directed to be applied by the trustees in such a manner 
as they shall from time to time deem most conducive to 
the spread of Christianity in its most simple and intelligible 
form, and to the unfettered exercise of the right of private 
judgment in matters of religion. It is applicable in Scholar- 
ships and Fellowships as above, and also in Travelling 
Scholarships. Died September 23, 1849. 

HICKS, Elias, was an American. At the age of 27 he 
was well known as a preacher connected with the Society of 
Friends, and travelled through the States and Canada. His 
denial of the Deity of Jesus, and rejection of the popular 
doctrine of the Atonement, led to the alienation of many ot 
his friends, but at the age of 80 he still travelled and preached. 
The result of his labours was a schism in the Society in 
America, which was divided into two sections, known 
respectively as the Orthodox and the Hicksite Quakers. 
Died February 27, 1830, age 82. 

HIGGINSON, Rev. Edward. The son of a Unitarian 
minister, he himself entered ^Manchester New College, then 
at York, as a Divinity student. Entering on ministerial work 
at Hull, the smallness of his salary compelled the addition of 
school-keeping to his labours, an experience he repeated at 
Wakefield and Swansea. While at the last-named, he was for 
a time Tutor of English Language and Literature at the 
Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, of which he became 
Principal. He was the author of several well-known works, 
among which may be mentioned '* Ecce Messias," " Catechism 
•of Religions," " Spirit of the Bible," an English Grammar, a 

hil] 64. • [hob 

scientific work called *' Astro-Theology, or the Religion of 
Astronomy." He also published some sermons, and a large 
number of theological tracts. Died February 1 2, 1 880, age 77. 

HILL, Rev. George, was a native of Ramoan, Ireland. 
He served in the Unitarian ministry for sixteen years, when 
he was appointed librarian of the Queen's College, Belfast, 
and soon after entering upon his duties began to publish the 
results of researches into local and provincial history. His 
"Plantation" is a valuable record of the "Ulster Settlement"; 
of equal interest is his . account of "The M'Donnells of 
Antrim " ; while the " Montgomery Manuscripts " throw light 
upon men and things in Ulster three hundred years ago. In 
1897, upon the occasion of the jubilee of the Queen's College, 
his portrait was unveiled in the hall of the College. Died 
July 4, 1900, age 90. 

HILL, Rev. Dr. Thomas, of America, commencing life 
as a shop boy, became a Bible student, mathematician, 
astronomer, student of natural history, classical scholar, poet, 
&c., and attained a high professional position in his own land. 
For six years he was President of Harvard College. When 
quite a young man, the Franklin Institute of Pennsylvania 
conferred on him a gold medal for the invention of a machine 
to calculate the eclipses of the moon. Died December, 1891, 

age 73. 

HINCKS, Rev. Thomas, B.A., F.R.S., of Bristol, was 
Unitarian minister respectively at Cork, Dublin, Warrington, 
Exeter, Sheffield, and Leeds, but was finally compelled to 
resign pulpit work through loss of voice. In his retirement he 
devoted himself to scientific investigation, and contributed 
about fifty papers to the "Transactions" of various learned 
scientific associations ; he also published monographs on 
British Hydroid Zoophytei, and on British Marine Polyzoa. 
He further published several sermons, and was the author of 
many beautiful hymns. Died Januarv 25, 1899, age 81. 

HOBHOUSE, Sir Benjamin,', F,R.S., was born at 
Bristol, educated at Oxford University, was called to 
the Bar, entered Parliament, and, after holding various 
political offices — among them that of Chairman of Com- 
mittees of Supply— was created a baronet. His second wife 
was the daughter of a Unitarian minister. He was led to 
investigate the claims of Orthodoxy, which he rejected, and 

hod] 65 [hol 

became a Unitarian, though he seems to have withdrawn him- 
self from all visible connection with Nonconformity for some 
years before his death. Died 1831, age 74. 

HODGES, John Frederick, .M.D., a native of Down, 
Ireland, was Professor of Agriculture and Lecturer on Medical 
Jurisprudence at Queen's College, Belfast. As a practical 
chemist and analyst he had a European reputation, as testified 
by many honours which he received from foreign countries. 
He was the author of a number of works on chemistry, and 
was for many years editor of the Journal of the Chemico- 
Agricultural Society of Ulster. As a Unitarian, he was a 
member of the Second Congregation of Belfast, and in earlier 
life was a frequent contributor to the Bible Christian, for 
which he wrote both poetry and prose. Died December 13, 
1899, age 84. 

EIODGETTS, Alfred, was educated under Dr. Beard 
in Manchester, and Rev. Henry Green at Knutsford. He 
was a partner in the High-house mines. After his retirement 
from business he took great interest in public affairs, and 
rendered valuable assistance to the Liberal cause, not simply 
in St. Bees, but throughout West Cumberland. The handsome 
and commodious public hall and rooms with which he endowed 
the St. Bees Liberal Club was a generous expression of his 
sympathy, recognized by the presentation to the Club of his 
portrait painted by public subscription. Died July 30, 1887, 
age 56. 

HOLDEN, Rev. Lawrence, was for seventy years pastor 
of the Tenterden congregation. He was a life-long friend of 
the Rev. C}eorge Harris, of Scotland, and who paid a warm 
tribute to his memory. Died INIarch 19, 1844, age 91. 

HOLLIES, Dr. Oliver Wendell, one of the most genial 
of American writers. His genius was shown in his wisdom 
and wit as physician, philosopher, professor, novelist, essayist, 
and poet. The catalogue of his literar)'- productions would 
fill a vast space. After completing his education at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, he became a doctor of medicine, and visited 
Europe. Returning to America, he was appointed Professor 
o^ Anatomy and Physiology in the College at Dartmouth, and 
later in Harvard University. He retained his mental faculties 
fresh to the last. Died October 7, 1894, age 85. 

HOLMES, Robert. ''The most remarkable man of 

- F 

hol] 66 ■ [hop 

his time at the Irish Bar," said the Dublin University Magazine 
of the day. Beginning Hfe, as he himself said, without a 
shilHng in his pocket, he won his way up to the foremost rank 
of his profession. At the time of what was known as 
"Emmet's RebelHon " in Ireland, Mr, Holmes was arrested, 
and for three months detained in prison, on no further reason 
than his having married a lady of the incriminated family. 
The refusal of the Government to relax his imprisonment so 
far as to allow him to visit his wife on her death-bed naturally 
embittered his heart, and led to his rejection of all subsequent 
conciliatory advances and offers of. preferment from any 
Anglo-Irish Government. On his being chosen, in i83i,a 
member of the Board of Irish Education, he was described by 
a well-known writer as " a Unitarian, but a man of whose 
upright and manly character and high moral principles no 
Irishman of any class or creed had or could have any doubt." 
Died Novem.ber 30, 1859, age 94. 

HOLT, George, J. P., of Liverpool, was one whose 
name was written on his city's life, for the intellectual, social, 
and moral improvement of which he was interested all through 
his long life. His benefactions were many and princely. He 
took part in the founding of a reformatory for lads ; he was 
one of the founders of University College, Liverpool, and one 
of the few who first offered /,' 10,000 for its support; he gave 
upwards of ;i^2 0,000 for professional endowments and the 
maintenance of laboratories in connection with medical 
education ; and he was not only a mem^ber of the Unitarian 
Church in Liverpool, but was most liberal in his support of 
the various missions connected with the Unitarian household 
of faith. Died April 3, 1896, age 71. 

HOLT, Rev. James. Originally an engraver, of poor 
parentage, he was bred a Churchman, converted by Calvinistic 
Methodists, educated at Homcrton for the Independent 
ministry, and became at length a Unitarian minister on a 
salary of £^S' Enriched by his marriafi,e, he founded the 
" Holt Fund," for the education of Unitarian ministers, 
especially of the missionary class. He Vv-as of the same family 
as Lord Chief Justice Holt. Died January 30, 1828, age 72. 

HOPE, George, was a Scotchman, among whose agri- 
cultural successes is to be reckoned tlie introduction of the 
potato crop into East Lothian. The Scotsman of the day 

hub] 67 [hun 

rendered him the testimony that ** if every farm in the United 
Kingdom were equally as well worked as his, one-half of the 
necessary importation of foreign corn might be dispensed 
with." Notwithstanding this, Mr. Hope was evicted from his 
farms by his landlord for political reasons, and although much 
indignation was aroused, and sympathy expressed, the loss of 
his farms deeply affected his heart. He gained the first prize 
offered by the Anti-Corn Law League for the best essay on 
"Agriculture and the Corn Law," a production that converted 
Lord Dalhousie to Free Trade, and won the author the 
friendship of both ]\Ir. Cobden and IMr. Bright. Born and 
bred as a Scotch Presbyterian, George Hope afterwards 
became a firm Unitarian, and his home was noted for its 
worshipping assemblies. He now and then occupied the 
pulpit at the Unitarian Chapel in Edinburgh, and he was a 
Vice-President of the British and Foreign Unitarian Associa- 
tion. Died December i, 1876, age 65. 

HUBER, Francis, of Geneva, was a famous entomologist 
who lost his sight while young, but nevertheless continued to 
prosecute his studies with ardour, and his greatest work was 
accomplished in his days of blindness. Died October 22, 
1830, age 83. 

HUNT, James Henry Leigh. This charming writer 
as poet, essayist, and critic, was the son of a West Indian 
resident in America when the War of Independence broke 
out, which compelled him, as a staunch Royalist, to seek 
refuge in England, where his son Leigh was educated with 
Lamb, Coleridge, and Barnes, at Christ's Hospital. " This son 
became successively assistant to an attorney, a clerk in the 
War Office, and a journalist. In the last-named capacity he 
brought upon himself legal proceedings that involved two 
years of imprisonment, but later on in life was granted a 
pension of ;^2oo a-year. Among the last of his multitudinous 
literary productions was " The Religion of the Heart : A 
Manual of Faith and Duty." In his theology, he was a 
Universalist. Died August 28, 1859, age 75. 

HUNTER, Rev. Thomas, was a native of Antrim, Ireland, 
and after holding ministerial charges at Ringwood, Diss, Ches- 
terfield, and Coventry for a period extending over twenty years, 
he filled for a like period the ofiice of librarian to Dr. Williams's 
Library, the usefulness of which was much extended during 

hut] 68 * , [jam 

his term of office. He interested himself in the formation of 
a lay preaching society in London, and often took part in the 
supply of pulpits. Died March 24, 1898, age 80. 

HUTTON, William, was a bookseller who was a sufferer 
with Priestley in the Birmingham Riots of 1 791, in which he 
lost nearly ;^i 0,000. In many respects he so closely resembled 
the great American philosopher that he won from some of his 
biographers the title of " The Benjamin Franklin of England." 
His life was a most chequered one. He passed the first eight 
years of his existence in the midst of rags, misery, and 
want. In various employments afterwards he found but a 
variety in drudgery and suffering, until in Birmingham he 
added a paper warehouse to his shop, a step by which he rose 
to fortune. In his autobiography he relates how his first visit 
to London was to make a purchase for trade to the amount of 
;^3, and the second to ratify the purchase of an estate which 
cost ^11,590. One of his public functions was that of 
Commissioner in the Court of Requests — a court established 
for the recovery of small debts, and the settlement of disputes 
among the poorer classes. Died September 20, 1815, age 92. 

lERSON, Rev. Henry, M.A., was born in London, 
educated at the Baptist College at Stepney, London, and 
graduated as gold medallist at Edinburgh. His ministry of 
nearly forty years was confined to three congregations : 
Baptist, of Northampton ; as assistant, and afterwards suc- 
cessor, to William Johnson Fox, at South Place, London ; 
Carter Lane Chapel (Unitarian), near St. Paul's, and subse- 
quently, on its removal, to Upper Street, Islington, on leaving 
which he was presented with a testimonial of ^300. For 
fifteen years he was the Secretary of the British and Foreign 
Unitarian Association, which he represented on one occasion 
in the United States, and on another in Hungary. For a 
quarter of a century he was the Secretary of the Ministers' 
Conference in London, the members of which presented him 
with his portrait. Died August 27, 1892, age 72. 

JAMES, Rev. John, was of humble parentage, but 
became one of the fathers of Unitarianism in Wales. Refused 
admission to the Academy of Carmarthen on account of his 
heterodox opinions, he went to Exeter, where he was trained by 
the Rev. Timothy Kenrick (q.v.), Unitarian minister. His first 
ministrations were undertaken at Capel-y-Groes and Pantydefaid 

JEB] 69 [jER 

amid much opposition, but though he often preached on 
Sunday to no more than five or six persons, he had the 
gratification before the end of his days of seeing flourishing 
congregations in those places. He afterwards became minister 
at Gellyowen, where he spent the remainder of his Hfe — some 
fifty years. Among the many young men whom he trained 
was Lord Justice James. He was the author of some valuable 
pamphlets in the Welsh tongue. Died September i, 1864, 
age 86. 

JEBB, Dr. John, was the son of an Irish dean, and, as a 
college lecturer, drew upon himself the hostile notice of the 
governing body through the free spirit of his lectures. The 
opposition to him on account of his opinions became so strong 
that he resigned, first his livings (of which he held several) in 
the Church, and afterwards his professional position at 
Cambridge ; and although he was invited by Lindsey to 
become his ministerial colleague at Essex Street, he decided 
on seeking his future support in the medical profession, 
receiving from St. Andrew's University his diploma of iNI.D. 
As a " heretic " and a political reformer, his endeavour to 
secure election as one of the physicians of a metropolitan 
hospital was defeated, notwithstanding his acknowledged 
professional skill. Died ]\Iarch 2, 1786, age 50. 

JEFFERY, Henry. He was connected with the well- 
known firm of Cassell and Co., and as a member of the 
Committees of the British and Foreign and the Sunday 
School Associations, his experience and help in the publish- 
ing department were invaluable. In early life he was a 
Secularist lecturer. Study of the works of Theodore Parker, 
Channing, and ]Martineau, led him to Avithdraw from the 
Secularists, and soon after coming to London he became a 
member of Unity Church, Islington, of which for over twenty 
years he was the indefatigable secretary. He was actively 
associated with the work of the London District Unitarian 
Society, was a most acceptable lay preacher, and was the 
author of many very useful Unitarian tracts. Died June 6, 
1895, age 75. 

JEREMY, Walter D., M.A., J. P., was educated for a 
Unitarian minister at Carmarthen College, but turned to the 
profession of the law and became a barrister, bencher of the 
Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, and a J. P. for Cardiganshire. 

JES] 70 • [job 

He was for some years Receiver to Dr. Williams's Library, 
an honorary Examiner of Candidates for Dr. Williams's Glas- 
gow and other scholarships, and was one of the Governors 
of Dr. Williams's Endowed Schools for Girls at Dolgelly. He 
was the author of a volume which was published in 1885 under 
the title " The Presbyterian Fund and Dr. Daniel Williams's 
Trust." Died September 18, 1893, ^ge 69. 

JESSOP, Thomas, J. P., of Sheffield, was member of a 
steel manufacturing firm, who took an active part in the public 
affairs of Sheffield, of which he was mayor twice in succession. 
The public Hospital for Women, built at a cost of nearly 
^30,000, and opened in- 1878, is a monument of his 
generosity. He was a worshipper at the Upper Chapel, and 
a generous supporter of both that and the Upper Thorpe 
Chapel, the latter being the second Unitarian Chapel of 
Sheffield. Died November 30, 1887, age 84. 

JEVONS, William Stanley, LL.D., F.R.S., He was 
the son of an iron merchant at Liverpool, his mother, who 
wrote poems and edited the "Sacred Offering," being the 
daughter of William Roscoe (q.v.), author of the biographies 
of Lorenzo de Medici and Leo X. His early education was 
received at the High School of the Mechanics' Institution, 
Liverpool, whence he passed to University College, London, 
where he matriculated with honours in botany and chemistry, 
and where afterwards he took his M.A. degree, becoming 
later an F.R.S., and LL.D. of Edinburgh. Between the ages 
of 18 and 23 he was Assayer to the Royal Mint at Sydney, 
and wrote his ''Data concerning the Climate of Australia and 
New Zealand." Li England he was made Professor of Logic 
and Philosophy, and Cobden Lecturer in Political Economy 
at Owen's College, Manchester, which he relinquished for the 
Professorship of Political Economy in University College, 
London. Among his works may be mentioned " Substitution 
of Similars the True Principle of Reasoning," " Elementary 
Lessons in Logic," " Theory of PoHtical Economy," " Prin- 
ciples of Science," and " Money and the Mechanism of 
Exchange." In religion he was a Unitarian, connected with 
the congregation at Hampstead. He lost his life by drowning, 
August 13, 1882, age 47. 

JOBSON, David, lost his life, at the age of 42, in the 
Tay Bridge disaster, that occurred on December 28, 1879, but 

JOH] 71 [jON 

his body was not recovered till February 17, 1880. He was 
returning home, after having conducted pulpit services at 
Perth, in the train which was blown into the river Tay. He 
was a man of culture, and connected with several public 
Boards, being a member of the Town Council and of the Free 
Library Board, and a Director of the Dundee Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. He took an active interest 
in the Unitarian Church in Constitution Road, Dundee. In 
his pocket, when his body was taken out of the water, was 
fonnd a Bible bearing his name. 

JOHNS, Rev. John, of Plymouth, studied at Plymouth 
Grammar School under Dr. Bedlake, and with Rev. J. Worsley, 
the then Unitarian minister at Plymouth ; and, while still very 
young, joined Mr. Howard, of Taunton, as his assistant, with 
a view of finishing his studies. He next went to Edinburgh 
University, and at the end of two years accepted the post 
of Unitarian minister at Crediton. He was no mean poet, 
and the hymn " Come, kingdom of our God," is from his 
pen. He also v/rote some good tracts. Died June 23, 1847, 
age 46. 

JONES, Rev. George, was the minister of the Unitarian 
Church at Selby, in Yorkshire, having been first an assistant 
schoolmaster, then a book-keeper, afterwards succeeding to 
the m.inistry of Alillgate Chapel. He was also master of the 
IMillgate School under the trustees of Chamberlavne's Charitv, 
one of the original members of the Selby Temperance Society, 
a founder of the Selby Mechanics' Institute ; a director of the 
Selby Gas Company, and a member of the School of Art 
Committee. He was noted in his town as a politician, an 
astronomer, a mathematician, and, better than all, as a good 
friend to the poor, and a promoter of the moral and intellectual 
good of the town. Died August 24, 1879, age 64. 

JONES, Rev. Roj^ert Crompton, B.A., was the eldest 
son of the Rev. Noah Jones, Unitarian minister. He was 
educated at [Manchester New College, and entered the Unit- 
arian ministry as co-pastor at Eewin's Alead Chapel, Bristol. 
He afterwards ministered at Friargate Chapel, Derby, which he 
resigned through ill-health. During his retirement he compiled 
two collections of religious poetry — " Poems of the Inner Life," 
and " Hymns of Duty and Faith" — a Chant Book for con- 
gregational use, and a Book of Prayer in Thirty Orders of 

jon] 72 [kel 

Worship. He was at one time editor of the Modern Review. 
DiedMay 22, 1885, age 52. 

JONES, Sir William. Sir James Macintosh, among 
other warm tributes to his character, says : "So pure was he 
in his political conduct that he has been called * The Enghsh 
Cato ' ; so universal in his attainments that he has been 
compared to the ' Admirable Crichton ' ; whilst the Dutch 
scholar Schultens termed him the * Phoenix of his day and the 
ornament of his age.' " He was a learned Oriental writer, 
studied the native laws of India, and filled the office of judge 
in the Supreme Court at Calcutta. As a linguist he has 
scarcely ever been surpassed. He has left us translations 
of Hindoo sacred books and- of Persian poetry. There is 
a statue to him in St. Paul's Cathedral. Died April 27, 
1794, age 48. 

JUDD, Sylvester, was an American teacher, author, and 
preacher. He was educated at Yale College, after which he 
took position as a teacher in an orthodox school, which 
brought him into contact with several Unitarian families, and 
his views became so far affected that he resigned his office. 
He then went to the Divinity School at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, where he was brought under the influence of Prof. 
H. Ware, jun. (q.v.), by whom his conversion to Unitarianism 
was completed. On leaving College he became minister of a 
church in Augusta, where he remained till his death. As an 
author he is best known by his book entitled, " Margaret," 
which Lowell describes as *' the first Yankee book." He was 
known as an abolitionist and a peace advocate. As the latter 
he gave such offence to the Maine Legislature that he was 
deprived of the office of chaplain, which he held in turn with 
the other ministers of Augusta, but was afterwards re-appointed, 
and his sermon on " The True Dignity of Politics " was 
ordered to be published at the expense of the Legislature. 
Died January 26, 1853, age 40. 

KELL, Rev. Edmund, M.A., F.S.A., was born at 
Wareham, where his father was at that time the Unitarian 
minister. He studied at Glasgow College, whence he went as 
a divinity student to Manchester New College, York. He was 
minister for thirty years at Newport, Isle of Wight, andjjfor 
about twenty years at Southampton, and honorary secretary of 
the Unitarian Societies of the South of P^ngland. Mr. Kell 

kel] 73 [ken 

also devoted attention to antiquarian research. A handsome 
church and commodious schoolroom in Southampton stand as 
memorials of Mr. and Mrs. Kell's piety and goodwill. Died 
January 17, 1874, age 75. 

KELL, Mrs., was the wife of Rev. Edmund Kell 
(q.v.), and, converted to Unitarianism, entered with her 
husband into all his plans for the promotion of the religious 
life. One branch of her philanthrophic labours was the 
rescue of fallen women. A brass plate in the school- 
room at Southampton, erected to her memory at a cost 
■of ;j^i,5oo, bears the testimony : — " Her time was spent in 
works of charity and usefulness, in alleviating the sufferings 
of the poor and needy, and visiting the abodes of wretched- 
ness, to which her life was sacrificed." She was the writer 
of some useful papers for the diffusion of her views. 

KENRICK, Rev. John, M.A., was a very superior 
scholar and an occasional preacher. While yet young he 
was appointed to the tutorship of Greek and Latin, History-, 
and Literature, in the Dissenting Academy at York. When 
the Academy became the jManchester New College, the chair 
of History was held by Mr. Kenrick for ten years, after which 
he became one of the Visitors of the College. He was a 
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and one of the founders 
of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. Among his works, 
which were numerous, may be mentioned *' Primeval History," 
" Ancient Egypt under the Pharaohs," " Phoenicia," and 
''Biblical Studies." Died May 7, 1876, age 89. 

KENRICK, Rev. Timothy, of Wales, a minister to the 
George's ^Meeting Congregation, Exeter, for twenty years, was 
one of the first, it is said, of the preachers in the West of England 
who openly taught from the pulpit the simple humanity of 
Jesus. He took a leading part in the founding of an Academy 
at Exeter for the training of young men for the ministry, and 
in the formation of the Western Unitarian Society. Among 
the little that ]\Ir. Kenrick wrote, his best known work was his 
exposition of the Gospels and Acts, in three volumes. Died 
August 22, 1804, age 45. 

KENTISH, Rev. John, came of a wealthy Hertfordshire 
family. He was first a student in the Daventry Academy, whence 
he followed jNIr. Belsham (q.v.) to the New College, Hackney. 
He ministered to a small Unitarian Society at Plymouth Dock, 

kin] 74. • [kir 

now known as Devonport. Thence he removed to Plymouth, 
where he encountered much opposition. Hackney (London) 
was his next place of ministry, succeeded by that at the New 
Meeting, Birmingham, where he remained until his death. He 
wrote much, chiefly on religious topics, in the Old Monthly 
Repository and the Christian Reformer. Many of these papers 
v/ere afterwards published under the title of " Notes and 
Observations on Scripture." He also published some sermons, 
and revised Mr. Wellbeloved's translations of parts of the 
Old Testament. He was a benevolent man, and a good 
friend to the poor. Died 1853, age 85. 

KINGSFORD, William, v/as a Unitarian Baptist, con- 
nected with the Canterbury congregation. He published an 
"Appeal to the Scriptures on the Universality of the Love of 
God to Man," and " Letters " to John Wesley on the subject 
of the General Baptist body. As a man of means he built 
three chapels, and was distinguished by his liberality to the 
poor. Died May 31, 1812. age 63. 

KIPPIS, Dr. Andrew, was born in Nottingham, and was 
prepared for the ministry at the Academy of Dr. Doddridge, 
of whom he wrote a biography. Settling first with a small 
society at Dorking, he became afterwards Dissenting minister 
at Princes Street, Westminster, a position he filled for forty 
years. He was for some time classical tutor at Daventry 
Academy, and also at Hackney. He wrote for several reviews 
and magazines, and edited the Writings of Dr. Lardner, with 
Life ; the Voyages of Captain Cook ; the earlier volumes of 
the " Biographica Britannica," and " Kippis' Hynms." Died 
October 8, 1795, age 70. 

KIRWAN, Richard, F.R.S., born in Galway, was 
educated in the Jesuits' College at St., and in the 
University of Dublin. He was President both of the Royal 
Irish Academy and of the Dublin Society, and a member of 
almost every literary academy of Europe. Although he prac- 
tised for a time at the Bar, he devoted his attention specially 
to the sciences, and among them particularly to mineralogy. 
The first Irish scientific society was called, after him, "The 
Kirwanian Society." He was an earnest Unitarian, and, 
when living in London, attended the services of Mr. Lindsey 
(q.v.), whom he warmly encouraged and supported. Died 
1812, aged 62. 

Kis] 75 [lar 

KISS, ^Michael, was one of the Transylvanian clergy, who 
held the post of Dean of his church circuit, while exercising 
the pastoral care of the congregation of Arkos. His church, 
re-erected in 1639, was situated within a castellated enclosure, 
so as to afford shelter to the congregation, in troublous times, 
from the dangers of invasion. Dean Kiss was a scholarly 
man, an enthusiastic Unitarian, and a minister for fifty-five 
years. Died January 21, 1889, age 81. 

KUENt^N, Professor, one of the Dutch school of 
Bible students. He delivered the Hibbert Lectures in Lon- 
don and Oxford in 1882. his subject being "National 
Religions and Universal Religions." He presided over the 
Congress of Orientalists vvhich was held at Leyden in 1883. 
He was engaged just before his death on the second edition 
of his "Introduction," was superintending a comprehensive 
translation and commentary on the Old Testament by Dutch 
scholars, and was recasting his " Religion of Israel." Died 
December, 1891, age 63. 

LAMB, Charles, was the youngest of three children of 
humble parents, who were able, nevertheless, to place intel- 
lectual advantages in their way, and of these Charles, with 
his studious disposition, happily availed himself. He was 
brought up a Unitarian, and attended the Hackney Unit^ 
arian Chapel during the ministry of Rev. T. Belsham ; and 
though in later life he was not a regular attendant at worship, 
he still strongly affirmed his Unitarian belief. His devo- 
tion to his sister Mary, so frequently attacked with fits 
of insanity, is a matter of history. At first a clerk in the 
South Sea House, and afterwards removed into the East 
India House, he was allowed to retire from the latter with a 
pension — handsome for that time — and was thus enabled to 
devote his time to literary work. Of this may be mentioned 
the "Essays of Elia," "Tales from Shakespeare," " I\Irs. 
Leicester's School," " Specimens of English Dramatic Poets 
contemporary with Shakespeare," and many poems. Died 
December 27, 1836, age 61. 

LAMSON, Rev. Dr. Alvan, was minister at Dedham for 
more than forty years, and was author of the " Church of the 
First Three Centuries." Died July 17, 1864, age 72. 

LARDNP2R, Dr. Nathaniel, was the son of a Noncon- 
formist minister, in the persecuting times of Charles II. He 

law] " 76 • [law 

was noted rather as a writer than as a preacher, his success in 
the latter capacity being greatly hindered by a constitutional 
deafness which prevented his hearing even the congregational 
singing in his church. He gained his recognition and dis- 
tinction late in life, for he was forty-five before he was 
appointed to a pulpit, and did not attain his D.D. degree till 
he was sixty-one. His great work is his " Credibility of the 
Gospel History," a laborious collection of passages illus- 
trating the growth of Christianity, gathered from the early 
Christian writers, beginning with Barnabas and Clement in 
the second century, down to the venerable Bede in the eighth 
century. The quotations are given in the original tongues — 
Greek and Latin — with a translation, and with observations on 
each. This occupied him for thirty years. During the last 
thirteen years of his life he compiled his '' Jewish and 
Heathen Testimonies," an invaluable supplement to the 
former — ten volumes in all. His " Letter on the Logos," and 
other small works, are not yet forgotten. Paley acknow- 
ledged his indebtedness to Lardner for the substance of his 
"Evidences of Christianity." Died July 24, 1768, age 84. 

LAWRENCE, Sir James Clarke, of London, was the 
second son of Mr. Alderman William Lawrence, and brother 
to Sir William Lawrence (q.v.). As a citizen he served the 
offices of Alderman, Sheriff of London and Middlesex, and 
Lord Mayor. During his Mayoralty Queen Victoria opened 
Blackfriars Bridge and Holborn Viaduct, and the Lord Mayor 
received the honour of Baronetcy. He was a magistrate for 
London, Middlesex, and Surrey ; represented Lambeth in 
Parliament as a Liberal for seventeen years ; was President of 
the Royal Hospitals of Bridewell and Bethlehem ; opened the 
Central Meat Market at Smithfield ; and performed other 
public functions of like nature. His energy was as strongly 
marked in benevolent as in civic enterprise. An earnest 
Unitarian, there was scarcely a denominational institution 
with which he was not more or less closely connected. Died 
May 21, 1897, ^R^ 1^- 

LAWRENCE, Sir William, M.P., was one of a family 
than which none perhaps have been more distinguished in the 
annals of London citizenship. He and two brothers carried 
on an extensive business as builders in Lambeth, on retiring 
from which they made it a present to the heads of their staff. 

lee] 77 [leg 

Sir William served first the office of Sheriff of London and 
Middlesex, and afterwards that of Lord ]\Iayor. He was a 
Parliamentary representative in the Liberal interest of the 
City of London, until 1885. In religion a Unitarian, his 
charity knew no bounds of sect or creed. Died April 18, 
1897, age 78. 

LP2E, JoHX, of Leeds, known in his day as " honest Jack 
Lee," was originally designed by his mother for the Established 
Church, but was himself too honest to profess conformity, and 
so resolved on the Law as his profession, in which he made 
such rapid strides that he attained the position of Attorney- 
General of England in a Coalition Ministry. He was a 
man of exuberant wit, blunt manners, and boisterous spirits, 
but of religious nature and with a taste for theological study. 
He was active in Parliament on the Liberal side. He was 
connected with the Leeds Unitarian congregation, and when 
the Rev. Theophilus Lindsey (q.v.) opened his chapel in Essex 
Street, Lee was one of his most zealous supporters. Died 
August, 1793, age 60. 

LEE, Rev. Joseph, of Barnard Castle, was a local 
preacher among the Wesleyans who, after his conversion to 
Unitarianism by the preaching of the Rev. Joseph Barker, 
joined in what was then known as the " Barkerite ^Movement," 
out of which ultimately grew the Free Christian (Unitarian) 
Church of Barnard Castle, on behalf of which I\Ir. Lee 
travelled through the chief towns of England, gathering 
funds for the place of worship which was erected in 1870, 
and which stands as an evidence of his unwearied perseverance. 
Died January 22, 1887, age 67. 

LEGATE, Bartholomeav, born 1572, was the last of the 
Smithfield martyrs, and his death at the stake was by order of 
the Protestant King James, at the instigation of a Protestant 
council. Legate was a man of fine personal appearance, of 
high character, scholarly attainments, and was an attractive 
speaker. He professed and taught Unitarian views, opposing 
the Athanasian and Nicene Creeds, denying the existence of 
a triune Godhead, and affirming that Jesus Christ was not 
God, but the anointed of God. His renev/ed boldness after 
his release from imprisonment in Newgate led to his conviction 
for heresy by an L!cclesiastical Court, and his sentence of 
death was carried out on j\Iarch 18, 16 12, age 40. 

LEP] 78 • [lIN 

LEPPOC, Henry Julius, of Manchester, was a man 
who, having secured for himself by his ability, industry, and 
energy, a handsome competency, devoted the remainder of his 
life entirely to public duties. He gave generously of his means 
to charitable and educational institutions, and his personal 
service as a Guardian of the Poor and a Magistrate. He took 
the largest share in establishing the Model Secular (afterwards 
called the Free) School, by which the poorest classes of the 
city were afforded facilities for obtaining (free) sound instruc- 
tion in the elements of knowledge, with a good, moral, and 
religious training, with freedom from what has become known 
as " the religious difficulty." - As a tribute of appreciation of 
his public services, he was presented with his portrait, which 
was afterwards accepted by the City Council and placed in 
one of the rooms of the 1 own Hall. He was a member of 
the Cross Street (Unitarian) Chapel, Manchester. Died 
October 30, 1883, age 77. 

LEWES, John, was an almost unknown martyr of the 
faith now known as Unitarian. Little as there is to tell of 
him, that little is to his honour. It is evident that he was 
fully aware of the probable result of his public profession of 
a belief for which Matthew Hamont (q.v.) suffered four years 
previously ; and that Lewes publicly reproduced the opinions 
of his predecessor at the stake is a matter of history. Died 
September 18, 15 S3. 

LINDSEY, Rev. Theophilus, M.A., was an Anglican 
clergyman, whose last office in the Church of England was 
that of Catterick, in Yorkshire, which he resigned, after ten 
years' tenure, in 1773, being then fifty years of age. He had 
from the time of his ordination entertained some conscientious 
scruples as to subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles, but in 
practical Christian work he hoped still to labour on without 
violating his conscience, till the failure of the endeavour, 
made with other clergymen, to substitute subscription to the 
" sufficiency of the Scripture " for the authority of the Articles, 
when the strain becam^e intolerable, and Lindsey resigned his 
living, and became the founder of the first Unitarian Church 
in London, Essex Street Chapel (now known as Essex Hall), 
in the Strand. Died November 3, 1808. 

LINDSEY, Mrs., v»'as the stepdaughter of Archdeacon 
Blackburne, and wife of Theophilus Lindsey (q.v.) ; and when- 

Loc] 79 [luc 

her husband gave up his lucrative position in the Church, she 
refused the offer of opulent relations to provide for her if she 
would abandon the cause of her husband, whose theological 
position she had herself reached. Died January 18, 181 2, 
age 72. 

LOCKE, John, philosopher, born at Wrington, near 
Bristol, was a warm advocate of civil and religious liberty. 
His last years were much occupied with the study of the 
Scriptures, on which he wrote several dissertations; but 
his principal works were the '* Essay on the Human 
Understanding,'' and " Letters on Toleration," the latter to 
promote a scheme for reconciling all sects of Christians. 
Died October 28, 1704, age 62. 

LOWE, Rev. Charles, was born in New Hampshire, 
U.S.A., and educated at Harvard College. Having attained 
distinction as a classical scholar, he was ordained at the age 
of twenty-four as joint-pastor of a society in New Bedford, 
which ill-health compelled him to resign at the close of a year, 
to seek renewal of health in travel. After two years thus 
spent, he accepted a pastorate in Salem, which again he was 
compelled to resign in two years. After trial of a smaller 
charge, he finally retired from the ministry to become the 
Secretary of the American Unitarian Association. At the 
close of six years he was once more compelled to seek repose, 
and resorted again to a voyage across the Atlantic. Unable 
to endure idleness, he commenced and carried through some 
of the earlier numbers of the *' Unitarian Review and Religious 
Magazine." Died 1874, age 46. 

LUBIENIETZKI, Pastor Stanislaus. His "History 
of the Polish Reformation," published after his death, is a 
standard source of information respecting his Unitarian co- 
religionists in Poland. He was accidentally poisoned while 
under sentence of banishment from Hamburg for his opinions. 
Died INIay 18, 1675, age 52. 

LUCAS, George, of Darlington, was from his boyhood 
connected with railways, and for forty years was super- 
intendent of stores of the North Eastern. He was the 
founder of several Temperance institutes, took a keen interest 
in education, was a promoter and supporter of provident 
societies, and though in early life trained among the Method- 
ists, he became an active propagandist of Unitarianism, to 

LUP] 80 [mad- 

which he devoted much time as a preacher. Died April 24^ 
1892, age 73. 

LUPTON, Darnton, was in early life a member of a 
firm of cloth manufacturers at Harrogate, but withdrew from 
business, and devoted the whole of his time and energy to 
philanthropic work in the town. The prevention of crime 
among juveniles, and the rescue of those who had fallen into 
it, found in him a generous and ardent supporter. To the 
Industrial Home for Girls, the Boys' Refuge, the Leeds- 
Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society, Leeds Guardian Asylum,, 
he devoted much time, energy, and means, and his advice 
and services were sought by the Reformatory and Industrial 
Schools Commissioners. He took great interest in the 
Unitarian Sunday School at Hunslet. Died May 4, 1885, 
age 42. 

LUPTON, Joseph, J. P., of Leeds, was the last survivor 
of six brothers who all won good names among their fellow- 
townsmen for integrity, energy, and benevolence. He was an 
enthusiastic politician, and took an active part with Cobden. 
in the great Reform struggle. He was also a good friend to 
men who were engaged in the anti-slavery crusade in 
America. A Sunday school teacher in the Unitarian cause 
almost from his boyhood, he took part in the establishment 
of Zion School, New Wortley, when there was neither a 
church nor a school in the district, and in which Churchmen 
and Methodists, Baptists, Quakers, and Unitarians, all worked 
together. He was a President of the British and Foreign 
Unitarian Association, and of Manchester New College, now 
at Oxford. Died January 17, 1894, ^-ge 78. 

LYELL, Sir Charles, the eminent geologist, well known 
as the author of '* Principles of Geology," *' Elements of 
Geology," and "The Antiquity of Man," was a truly religious 
man of great openness of mind, whose desire it was ta 
reconcile science and religion. A visit to America, which 
brought him into contact with Channing, Belsham, Ware, 
Gannett, and other Unitarians, led to his adoption of Unitarian^ 
views. Died February 21, 1875, age 78. 

MADGE, Rev. Thomas, was born at Plymouth. Educated 
at York College, he was minister successively at Bury-St. 
Edmunds, Norwich, and Essex Street, London. Simple in 
mind and habits, lucid in thought and expression, fervent in 

.aiad] 8 1 [man 

zeal and righteousness, he was ever the warm friend of liberty, 
the earnest advocate of Scripture truth, and the devoted servant 
of Unitarian Christianity Died August 29, 1870, age 84. 

]MADGE, Travers, was the eldest son of Rev. Thomas 
Madge (q.v.) Though in ill-health, he devoted himself to 
missionary work in Norfolk. The beauty of his suffering life 
has received appropriate recognition in a ^Memoir of him by 
Rev. Brooke Herford. His last words were, "With God 
eternally shut in." Died j\Iarch 22, 1866, age 43. 

MAGGINNTS, Rev. David. He was associated with the 
public life of Stourbridge, in which place his ministerial 
charge of twenty three, followed that in Belfast of nineteen^ 
years. At Queen's College, Belfast, he won a Dublin exhibi- 
tion, which he never received, as Unitarians were precluded 
from holding it. He was an advocate of elementary educa- 
tion vv'hen it was opposed by prejudice. He was for some 
time a secretary of the ^lidland Christian Union, as also of 
the Monthly Meeting of the Protestant Dissenting Ministers 
of Warwickshire. To his duties as minister he added those of 
schoolmaster and journalist. Died August 11, 1884, ^S^ 64. 

]\IAUCOL^I, William Hl^nter, of Ulster, was a business 
man who inherited a love of letters, was a gifted musician, 
at home in the domain of English poetry, the genius of 
Shakespeare having a special charm for him, as evidenced in 
his little book, '* Shakespeare and Holy Writ." He was a 
valued contributor to the Northern Whig. He was a Unitarian, 
and worshipped with the First Presbyterian congregation of 
Holy wood. Died October 26, 1899, age 80. 

^MAMIANI, Count. This patriot, poet, philosopher, 
and statesman, was a Unitarian of the Channing school. A 
Romagnole by birth, he was a member of the ^Ministry which 
governed the Romagna when the latter threw off the yoke of 
Gregory XVI. in 1831, until the Papal )'oke was restored by 
the Austrians. After a p)rolonged exile in France, he returned 
to Italy and became a member of Pio Nono's short-lived 
Liberal Cabinet in 1848. He subsequently cast in his lot 
with Piedmont. The close of his life was devoted to literary 
labours. Died May 31, 1885, age 85. 

MANFIELD, Sir :\Ioses Philip, J. P., born in Bristol, 
was one who rose from an obscure position as a working boot- . 
closer to one of wealth and honour. He afterwards became 


man] 82 [mar 

manae-er of a boot factory in the town which he later, as 
proprietor of a large factory, represented in Parliament 
(Northampton). He was made a borough magistrate, a 
county magistrate, and received the honour of knighthood. 
As a Unitarian, he was a constant worshipper at the old 
Unitarian Church in King Street, to which he gave one of 
three coloured windows, as memorials of Drs. Priestley, 
W. E. Channing, and Theodore Parker. He and Lady 
Manfield gave the present handsome church and school 
buildings in Kettering Road, and provided a fund for the 
perpetual maintenance of the fabric. Died September 30, 
1899, ^?"6 80. 

MANNING, William, was one of the Ejected 2,000 
clergy of 1662, who preferred to lose liis living to signing 
articles of faith and conforming: to a ritual out of harmony 
with his thought and feeling. Ho was distinctly Unitarian in 
his views, and the friend of l^mlyn (q.v.) His contem- 
poraries describe him as a man of great ability and learning, 
while they deplore his heresy. Died 171 1. 

MARCET, Mrs. J7\ne, born in Geneva, was the daughter 
of a wealthy Swiss merchant who afterw ards settled in London. 
She married Dr. Marcet, of Guys Mo.s])ital, and by his advice 
applied herself in middle-life to aiitl.orsliii) Among her works 
were Conversations on Political l-^cor.omy, on Chemistry, on 
Natural History, and on Botany, ;:n(l " Stories for very Little 
Children." She was a Unitarian of the type of Channing, 
many of whose works were traiisJiitcd into French by her 
sister, Madame de la Rive. Died 185S, age 89. 

MARDON, Rev. Benjamin, was minister at Worship 
Street, London, and at Sidm.Outi!. lie was a Tutor in the 
General Baptist Academy, and froin liim several Unitarian 
ministers received their theologicr.l tr;iir:i;ig. Died April 15, 
1878, age 86. 

MARRIOTT, Rev. John iov. i 1; bom at Nottingham, 
was educated for the Baptist 1:1 ii i>;iy at Regent's Park 
College, London, but, with cha;.L;rd (>|)ininns, undertook the 
pastorate first of the Old Gern;;.l !!.ii)list congregation at 
Sutton, near Long Sutton, follow rd 1)\- niinistry at King's 
Lynn, whence he was called to .i l;iL;(r snliere of work at 
Strangeways, Manchester, where l,i> I were broken by 
ill-health. He had only just acce; led a call to Liverpool, 

:^iar] 83 [mar 

when he was attacked by typhoid fever, which terminated his 
life. He was the author of a volume of sermons entitled 
"The Soul in God's Presence," another for young people on 
'• Our Unitarian Faith," and a series of poetic sketches, 
" Fragments of a Life," an autobiography of inner experiences. 
Died November 22, 1890, age 39. 

:\IARRIOTT, William Thomas, was born in Wakefield, 
with the life and prosperity of v/hich town his own was bound 
up. His home was a centre of quiet but most munificent 
philanthropic work. He was an earnest Unitarian, and a liberal 
supporter of the Westgate Chapel, the restoration of which, 
changing it into one of the richest and most beautiful interiors 
among the sacred edifices of Yorkshire, was to a very large 
extent his own work. He helped to secure the Wakefield 
Public Park, and filled a large number of public offices. Died 
February 2, 1889, age 78. 

MARTIN, Rev. Samuel. His early education was con- 
ducted chiefly by his father, a schoolmaster. At the age of 14 
he was apprenticed to a wholesale ironmonger, who so highly 
esteemed his capacity that he desired to take him into part- 
nership ; but Samuel's wish to become a minister, although 
discouraged by his father, determined his future course. 
W^hen he began to preach he was often called the " boy 
preacher," on account of his youthful appearance. After 
various missionary labours, he settled at Trowbridge, the 
chief field of his ministerial work, where he found it. necessary 
to increase his slender income by carrying on a day school. 
On four different occasions he was chosen to preach the annual 
sermon of the General Baptist denomination. Died July 27, 
1877, age 76. 

MARTINEAU, Harriet, born at Norwich. Her father was 
a manufacturer, and belonged to the Unitarian denomination. 
Harriet was a sickly child, lacking the full powers of sight, 
smell, and taste ; but notwithstanding these physical limita- 
tions, she was strong in mental development. She had an 
extraordinary memor}-, and her preference in study was for 
history, politics, and poetry ; but she also spent much time in 
studying the religious doctrines held by her parents. On the 
death of her father, straitened circumstances compelled her to 
seek a livelihood by means of her pen ; and ami)ng her many 
works, "Tales of Political Economy" won for her a lasting- 

mar] 84 [mau 

reputation. In recognition of her literary merits, she was 
offered a pension by Government, which, however, she 
respectfully declined. Died June 27, 1876, age 74. 

MARTINEAU, Rev. James, LL.D.,S.T.D.,D.D.,D.C.L., 
Litt.D., of London, was born at Norwich, educated at the 
Norwich Grammar School, and at Dr. Lant Carpenter's School 
at Bristol. He went to Derby to be trained for a civil engineer, 
but in his eighteenth year entered Manchester College, then 
at York, as a divinity student. On leaving College, he spent 
a year as assistant to Dr. Lant Carpenter in his school at 
Bristol, and then entered on his first ministerial charge at 
Eustace Street, Dublin. He subsequently ministered for 
twenty-five years at Paradise Street Chapel (Liverpool), the 
congregation of which removed to Hope Street, and then in 
London at Little Portland Street. He assisted in starting 
the Irish Unitarian Christian Society, acting as its secretary, 
and in the formation of the Domestic Mission Society. He 
was appointed Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy and 
Political Economy at Manchester New College, of which he 
afterwards became Principal, and then President. He was 
the author of a large number of most valuable Avorks, besides 
pamphlets, addresses, and prefaces to books, and contributed 
essays to various reviews. Died January 1 1, 1900, age 94. 

MARllNEAU, Sir Thomas, of Birmingham, of which 
he was thrice chosen Mayor, was a nephew of Harriet and 
Dr. James Martineau (q.v.). He engaged himself in almost 
every form of service that was calculated to increase the 
intelligence and happiness of all classes of his neighbours. 
Died July 28, 1893, age 65. 

MASERES, Baron Francis, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., of 
London, came of a family originally French. He was 
educated at Cambridge University, whence he removed to 
the Temple, and was called to the Bar. His first appoint- 
ment was that of Attorney-General of Quebec, followed by 
that of an English Baron of the Exchequer, an office he filled 
for over fifty years. He published many books, among them 
being the " Scriptores Logarithmici." His religious faith 
was expressed in the words of Jesus, " This is eternal life, to- 
know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou 
hast sent." Died May 19, 1824, age 93. 

MAL'RICE, Rev. Michael, born at Pudsey, son of an 

m'ale] 85 [m'caw 

orthodox dissenting minister, and father to the celebrated Pro- 
fessor ]\Iaurice, an Anglican clergyman, was himself a Unitarian 
preacher who ministered respectively in Great Yarmouth, 
Hackney (London), in Lowestoft, Frenchay, and other places, 
and opened his own house for Unitarian worship at Kirby when 
he kept a school in that place. FIc associated with Clarkson 
and Macaulay in their work for slaver)- abolition, and was the 
warm partisan of Lancaster in his scheme of schools for all. 
Died 1855, age H8. 

^M'ALESTER, Rev. Charles James, of Belfast, was a 
Unitarian minister of nearly fifty-seven years' standing. He 
was trained for the ministry at the old Belfast College (Royal 
Academical Institution), where he was the winner of numerous 
prizes. Before he had completed his twenty-fourth year, he 
accepted the charge of the First Presbyterian Church, Holy- 
wood. He also conducted for some years a private school, 
and for a lengthened period he edited the Bible Christian. He 
was secretary of the Ulster Unitarian Christian Association, 
chief organiser of the Xon-subscribing Orphan Society, an 
attached member of the Peace Society, and an earnest advocate 
of total abstinence. At the jubilee celebration of his settle- 
ment in Holywood, he was presented with an address, his 
portrait, a purse of sovereigns, and a silver salver. Died 
August 8, i8qi. age 81. 

M'CALMONT, Robert, F.C.S. He was a prominent 
figure in Irish Unitarian circles for forty years. He com- 
menced a Sunday school in a factory room, which he made 
the nucleus of the oNIountpottinger Unitarian congregation. 
He was a chemical scientist, and was invited, with others, by 
the United States Government, to conduct geological explora- 
tions in the East Indian and South Pacific Archipelago, where 
he was in charge of the party that discovered those vast 
deposits of foreign manures which have so materially enriched 
the soil of the United Kingdom. Died, July, 1890. 

M'CAW, Rev. John. At the age of twenty he entered 
the Belfast Academical Institution, where he obtained his 
General Certificate, equivalent to a Master's degree in days 
when the only University in Ireland was that of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. His first ministry was at Ravara, from which, 
after fifteen years' service, he removed to Killinchy For 
three years he was Clerk of the Remonstrant Synod, and he 

m'lel] 86 . [mon 

occupied the Moderator's Chair in 1867 and again in 1877. 
Died July 28, 1884, age 72. 

M'LELLAN, Rev. R. E. B., of Irish birth, was a convert 
to the Unitarian faith, on behalf of which he laboured at 
.Alaidstone, Canterbury, and elsewhere. He was a frequent 
contributor, both of prose and verse, to various religious 
publications, and issued a volume entitled "A Brief Expo- 
position of the Gospel of St. Matthew." Died August 17,. 
1892, age 85. 

M'QUAKER, William, was born in Ayrshire, and com- 
menced business as a hatter in Glasgow at the age of twenty- 
two, keeping steadily on, for a period of about fifty years, till 
within a few weeks of his death. Keen and successful in 
business management, he was equally fervent in his religion, 
and so deeply interested in the Unitarian cause, that he 
bequeathed the sum of ;^3 0,000 for the support and diffusion 
of Unitarian Christianity in Scotland, leaving everything in 
the way of administration to the judgment of the Committee 
of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. He was a 
convert to Unitarianism, and in Glasgow attended the services 
at St. Vincent Street Unitarian Church. Died ]\Iay 28, 1888, 
age 72. 

M'TEAR, Thomas, of Belfast. His name is associated 
with one of the most valuable appliances of steam navigation, 
the screw propeller. He projected the first two screw steamers 
that crossed the ocean in 1844. About the same time he 
employed a screw steamer on a voyage to Alexandria. As a 
Unitarian, his name appears on the list of members of the 
First Presbyterian Congregation of Belfast. Died March 12, 
1889, age 90 

MITCHELL, W. H., of Newry, was the son of a Unit- 
arian minister, and possessed much of the literary ability that 
characterised his own brother, the well-known John Mitchell. 
He spent some years in America, where he gained notice as 
the inventor of a type-setting machine. Returning to Newry, 
he designed the plans on which was built the Dromalane mill, 
said to be the most perfect of its day. Died January 22, 1 891, 
age 60. 

MONTGOMERY, Rev. Henry, LL.D., born in Antrim, 
Ireland, was for fifty-one years minister at Dunmurry, head- 
master in the English department of the Belfast Academical 

MOO] 87 [mOR 

Institution, and at a time of theological disputes founded the 
Remonstrant Synod of Ulster. But his most important work 
was the effective help he was able to give to the general body 
of Unitarians in both countries in pushing the Dissenters' 
Chapels Act through Parliament in 1843, 1844. The danger 
to Unitarian Chapels was, it seems, even greater in Ireland 
than in England, and Henry Montgomery came to London, 
where, by his powerful character and impressive eloquence, he 
gained a'marvellous influence over vSir Robert Peel, Sir James 
Graham, and Lord Lyndhurst the Chancellor, and after 
months of strenuous labour was able to return home with an 
acknowledged victory. Died December 18, 1865, age 77. 

MOOkE, Charles, F.G.S., was distinguished in the 
domain of geological science, and started the valuable museum 
at the Royal Literary and Scienti^fic Institution in Bath. 
Among his discoveries, the most important was that ot the 
stratum known as the " rhcetic beds," which had hitherto 
escaped the attention of geologists. As a Fellow of the 
Geological Society, he occasionally contributed papers to its 
publications. As an earnest Liberal in politics, he was active 
in all the movements, both municipal and Parliamentary, that 
took place during his residence in Bath, where he occupied 
the dignity of an alderman. He was for nearly fifty years a 
member of the Bath Crnitarian congregation, working in the 
Sunday school, classes for mutual improvement, and in the 
missionary eftbrts of young men. Died December, 1881, 

"^ .MOREHOUSE, Hexry James, F.S.A., of Huddersfield. 
Trained for the medical profession, in which he practised 
actively for sixtv years, he devoted his leisure hours largely to 
antiquarian pursuits, one outcome of which was the production 
of a" History of Kirkburton and of the Graveship of Holme." 
He assisted to found the Yorkshire Archxological Association. 
As a firm Unitarian he took great interest in the chapel at 
Lyd^ate, in which his forefathers had worshipped since its 
foundation Died October 9, 1890, age 84. 

MORELL, JoHN^ Daniel, M.A., LL.D., was trained for, 
and for a few years was engaged in the Independent ministry, 
but afterwards became a member of the Unitarian Church at 
Hampstead. He filled the office of H.M. Inspector of Schools, 
from which he retired after thirty years of useful and effective 

mor] 88 • • [mvk. 

public service. He published seven works on English Gram- 
mar and Logic, but was best known to the world of letters by 
his "History of Speculative Philosophy." Died 1891. 

MORLEY, Professor Henry, of Carisbrooke, I.W., 
began life as a medical man, but finally decided to make 
literature his vocation, becoming a contributor to Household 
Words, the Examiner, &:c. His peculiar service to his genera- 
tion was as a populariserof the finest literature in the world. He 
held the Chair of English Language and Literature at University 
College, the examinership in the same subjects, and in History 
at the University of London, and Principal of University Hall. 
In his Library of English Literature there is a taste of the 
quality of the great writers of the world. He was a warm 
supporter of the Unitarian Church. Died May 14, 1894, 
age 72. 

MURCH, Sir Jerom, a citizen of Bath, for which he 
was elected seven times Mayor, was descended on his father's 
side from a Huguenot family, and on his mother's side from 
one of the 2,000 Nonconformist ministers ejected from the 
Church of England in 1662. The early part of his life was 
devoted to the Unitarian ministry, first in Norfolk, then in 
Bath, until his health broke down. He was connected with 
most of the public institutions of Bath, and held many public 
offices in the county of Somerset. He devoted much time 
to literary work, and among his publications were the 
** History of the Presbyterian and General Baptist Churches 
in the West of England," " Five Years' Retrospect of Litera- 
ture, Science, and Art," "Footprints of a Year," "The Elder 
and Younger Pitt," "Mrs. Barbauld and her Contemporaries," 
and " The Celebrities of Bath." Died May 13, 1895, age 88. 

MYERS, Rev. Edward, F.G.S., was born in Lancashire. 
His father, was a member of the Church of England, his 
mother was a Roman Catholic, while he himself was intended 
for the Anglican Church, but became instead a Unitarian, 
and ministered at Walsall, at Birmingham as co-pastor to 
George Dawson (q.v.), at Wolverhampton, and finally at the 
High Street in Shrewsbury, once th?» worshipping place of 
the Darvv'ins, and wherein is a tablet to the memory of Darwin, 
designed by Mr. Myers, who was no mean artist. He was a 
member of several learned and public bodies, and filled a large 
place in the life of Shrewsbury. Died January i b, 1 897, age 67. 

net] 89 [new 

NETTLEFOLD, Joseph Henry, whose name is in- 
timately connected with tlie great screw-making business in 
Birmingham established by his father, as a public man took keen 
interest in local institutions and liberal politics. He took an 
active part in promoting the formation of King's Norton School 
Board, and gave the land and a large portion of the building 
fund for the King's Heath Institute. The charities of Bir- 
mingham found in him an interested friend and a liberal 
donor. He was an ardent lover of works of art, of which he 
was a connoisseur as well as a collector, leaving on his death 
a large number of pictures by David Cox to the Birmingham 
Fine Arts Gallery. He took part in the management of 
various organisations connected with the Unitarian Church 
of the Messiah in Birmingham, and was one of the trustees of 
the Kin2:swood Chapel. Died November 22, 1881, age 67. 

NEUSER, Adam, died of an incurable disease which was 
attributed by some of his opponents to God's judgment on 
his heretical opinions. The historian :\[osheim declared 
that " Socinianism was introduced into Germany by Adam 
Neuser and other emissaries who infected the Palatinate 
with its errors." Neuser opposed the attempts made in the ' 
reformed churches to impose human authority upon the 
conscience. While in prison in the year 1570 he wrote a 
work on the " Person of Christ." Died September 12, 1576. 
NEW, Herbert, senior partner in a firm of solicitors at 
Evesham, and Registrar of the County Court, was a man of 
literary alnlity and poetic taste. He took a lively interest in 
education, was one of the founders of the Evesham Institute, 
and was the author of several local historical and antiquarian 
works, and also published a volume of sonnets. As a 
politician he was the local leader of the Liberal party. He 
was twice appointed president of the British and Foreign 
Unitarian Association, which published a tract of his, entitled 
■" The Unitarian and Free Christian Churches in England— 
Their Origin, Open Trusts, and Present Position." Died 
November 28, 1893, age 73. 

NEWTON, Sir Isaac. It has been asserted by the 
most intimate friends of this great scientific discoverer (who 
was also deeplv learned in theology), that he held Unitarian 
views ; and this is emphatically shown in his paper entitled 
^'Twelve Articles of Religion." Died March 20, 1727, age 85. 

NIc] go [OLA 

.NICHOLSON, Robert, a respected citizen of Man- 
chester, who took a prominent part in the foundation of the 
Manchester Athenaeum, was one of the earliest friends and 
founders of the Unitarian Home Missionary Board, and of 
the Memorial Hall ; an earnest promoter of the Anti-Corn 
Law League ; and an indefatigable supporter of educational 
agencies. For some years he held the chairmanship of the 
Board of Overseers of Manchester. Died October 29, j886, 
age 84. 

NORTON, Professor Andrews, was an American scholar 
and theologian, who, after graduating at Harvard College, 
became Mathematical Tutor therein. Librarian to the Uni- 
versity, and successor to Dr. Channingas Lecturer on Biblical 
Criticism and Interpretation, and was appointed Dexter Pro- 
fessor of Sacred Literature, an office he held till failing health 
compelled his retirement. Besides his work on " The 
Genuineness of the Gospels," he published several minor 
books, was a contributor to periodical literature, and left some 
poems and a translation of the Gospels. Died September 18, 
1853, age 67. 

ODGERS, Rev. William James, was born in Cornwall, 
where his parents were respected Wesleyans, who, for holding 
Unitarian views, were publicly expelled from the very chapel 
which was afterwards purchased and opened for Unitarian 
worship. Receiving his early education in his native town, 
Mr Odgers afterwards commenced a preparatory course of 
study for the Christian ministry under the Rev. Samuel 
Martin (q.v.), of Trowbridge, continuing his studies under the 
Rev. Dr. Lant Carpenter (q.v.), and later of Hebrevv and of 
ecclesiastical history under the Rev. Benjamin ]\Lirdon (q.v.), 
of London, v.hilst he also attended Greek and Latin classes 
at University College. His ministerial engagements included 
INIarsh field near Bristol, Walthamstow, Plymouth, and Bath. 
He rendered valuable service to the cause of sanitary reform, 
and was an earnest advocate of Free Trade. Died Decem- 
ber II, 1884, age 74. 

OLAND, William, was a Unitarian at Marshfield, and 
author of the hymn, " Soon will our fleeting hours be past," 
which is to be found in Dr. Martineau's collection of" Hymns 
for the Christian Church and Home." Died June 28, 1785,. 
ag^e u2. 

OLi] 91 L^A^ 

OLIVER, John, of Shrewsbury, was one of the humbler 
ranks of society, who took a prominent part in the governing 
body of the town in which he lived, sitting on the magisterial 
Bench side by side with those who were his employers. He 
died comparatively young, but his life was a useful one, and 
the respect in which he was held wa5 testified by the large 
gathering at his funeral, attended by all classes, from the 
Mayor down to the humblest in the town. At the Borough 
Police Court, and in various associations, resolutions in his 
honour were passed. He was a worshipper at the High 
Street Unitarian Chapel, Shrewsbury. Died January, 1900. 

OSSOLI, ^Iargaret Fuller, was an American, who 
became an excellent linguist, made considerable progress in 
mathematics, mental philosophy, and kindred sciences, 
acquired an extensive knowledge of P^nglish literature, and 
conceived an enthusiastic love for art. As a writer for the 
Press she displayed singular aptitude and power. Her large- 
hearted sympathy prompted her to visit hospitals and prisons 
whenever opportunity offered. In Italy, the land of her adop- 
tion, as the v/ife of the Marquis Giovanni Angelo Ossoli, she 
witnessed the revolution of 1848, and gave active assistance to 
the wounded as head of the hospital of the Fait Bene Fnife/li. 
She was drowned with her husband and child on their return 
passage to New York. She was a woman of deep and earnest 
religious feelings, and though her theological opinions may 
not have appeared to some very definite, there is no doubt 
whatever that she held the Unitarian faith. Memoirs of 
her have been written by J. Freeman Clarke, R. ^V. Kmerson, 
and W. H Channing. Died Julv 16. 1850, age 40. 

OSTEROD, Pastor Christopher, was a learned (German 
minister at Buskow, near Dantzig, and one of the most ortho- 
dox of the early Socinians. Died August 8, 161 1, age 51. 

PAGET, Dr. John, was born in Leicestershire, and 
educated for the medical profession, beginning his studies 
in New York, and finishing them in Edinburgh, where he 
took his medical degree. In 1848, when the Hungarians 
revolted against Austria, he fought in the revolutionary 
ranks, and on the suppression of the revolution fled to 
Englantl, where he remained for a fev,- years, but was after- 
wards allowed to return to Koloszvar. His experiences of 
Hungary and its people were embodied in a work entitled, 

PAG] 92 ' [PAI> 

** Hungary and Transylvania " ; and the reports of the events 
of the Kossuth era which appeared in the EngHsh Press 
came mostly from his pen. He took great interest in the 
Unitarians of Hungary, amongst whom he lived for many 
years Died April 23, 1892, age 85. 

PAGET, Thomas Tertius, M.P. for the Southern 
Division of Leicestershire, was an active politician, who took 
part in the agitations in favour of the Reform Bill, and for the 
abolition of Church rates, tithes, the Corn Laws, and taxes on 
knowledge. The lash, the game laws, and capital punishment 
found in him an uncompromising opponent. He was a strong 
advocate of compulsory education and County Councils. As a 
friend of dramatic art, he was the liberal founder of the Royal 
Opera House in Leicester, on which he spent a fortune. He 
was throughout life a consistent Unitarian, and a generous 
contributor to the funds of the Great Meeting, Leicester. 
Died October 16, 1892, age 85. 

PAKLEWSKI, Stanislaus, was a Polish Unitarian 
Baptist preacher, and Pastor of the Church at Lublin. A poet 
and historian of Poland enumerates him among " Christian 
Heroes." Died February 26, 1565. 

PALAEOLOGOS, Jacops, sprang from the Lnperial 
house of Constantinople, on the taking of which city by the 
Turks in 1453 his family had gone into exile at Chios. 
Imprisoned for heresy in 1559, he escaped through Germany 
into Transylvania. As a Unitarian he became the defender 
of Francis David. Falling again into the hands of Roman 
Catholics, he was sent to Rome, and, after a long imprisonment, 
was condemned to perish in the flames. Martyred March 25, 


PALMER, Thomas Fysche, was descended from an 
ancient and honourable family in Bedfordshire. Trained at 
Faou, he graduated at Queen's, Cambridge, gaining his j\LA. 
and B.D., and the coveted prize of a Fellowship. He with- 
drew in 1783 from the Church of England and from his College, 
and at Montrose, in Scotland, became associated with a small 
Unitarian Society. In 1785 he founded a small congregation 
at Dundee ; but being tempted into political controversy on 
the outbreak of the French Revolution, he became involved 
in the publication of a manifesto which brought him under 
the rigour of a Scotch Criminal Court, and a sentence of seven 

par] 93 [par 

years' transportation took him to Botany Bay, where he engaged 
in farm work. On his voyage to England, owing to a series 
of misfortunes, his part)' could get no farther than the Ladrone 
Islands, where -Mr. Palmer contracted dysentery, of which he 
died, June 2, 1802, age 55. 

PARKER, Rev. Dr. Theodore, was born at Lexington, 
Massachusetts, U.S.A. Brought up simply as a farmer's boy, he 
fitted himself for college with the aid of a few school-teachers, 
and when he had earned money enough entered Harvard 
College, where he stayed for a little over two years, giving 
lessons to help towards college fees. He was one of the heroic 
opponents of American slavery, and was indicted for treason 
in 1854, this indictment being quashed in 1855. His life was 
a chequered one, including deep study, hard labour, philan- 
thropic endeavour, and much political, theological, and social 
agitation. It has been said that Parker's prayers were one 
of the strongest attractions of his church. He broke down 
in health, and died (about a year before the Civil War in 
America broke out) in Florence, May 10, i85o, age 50. 

PARKES, Samuel, one of the first practical chemists of 
his day, was born at Stourbridge. During his minority he 
served in his father's shop at Stourbridge as a grocer, but 
afterwards removed to the Pottery district, where he opened 
his house for Unitarian worship. Removing to London, he 
published " The Rudiments of Chemistry," a " Chemical 
Catechism," and '' Chemical Essays." He also wrote papers 
in the earlier volumes of the " Monthly Repository." To him 
the Christian Tract Society owed in a large measure its 
existence. Died 1825, age 64. 

PARK^LW, Francis, the historian, was born in Boston, 
where his father was for thirty-six years pastor of the New 
North Unitarian Church. Francis was an explorer of the 
then comparatively unexplored Rocky Mountains. He lived 
for some months with the Dakota Indians and other tribes, 
but incurred such hardships as to break his health. On return 
to civilised life, an invalid, and afflicted with partial blindness, 
he devoted his time and talent to literature, attaining, in 
spite of physical disabilities, a high rank as historian and 
writer. Died November, 1893, ^&^ ?'• 

PARSONS, Theophilus, an American lawyer, became 
Chief justice of the Supreme Court, and lived to decline the 

pas] 94 [pea 

office of Attorney-General of the United States. From his 
great learning and mental power, he was known as *' the Giant 
of the Law." He was a Unitarian. Died 1813, age 63. 

PASTORIS, Adam, of Holland, was excluded from the 
Baptist Church of his country in 1546 for his profession 
of Unitarian opinions. He was compelled to take up his 
residence in Poland and conceal his name, as his life was in 
dano:er. He was the author of a few treatises on Christian 
-doctrine. He died at P^mden, in East Friesland, but it is not 
known at what date. 

PAT TERSON, Robert; an eminent zoologist, was born 
in Belfast. In his early life he abandoned his thought of 
the Irish Bar as a profession, and, from a sense of duty, 
assisted his father in mercantile operations. The hours 
he could spare from the cares of trade were devoted to 
literary and scientific pursuits. His " Zoology for Schools" 
was adopted as a class book by the Commissioners of 
Education in Ireland, as well as by the Council of Education 
in England. He was also the writer of some of the most 
valuable of the papers of the Natural History and Philosophical 
Society of Ireland, of which he was one of the founders. 
As a Unitarian, he was a member of the Rev. John Scott 
Porter's (q.v.) Church in Belfast. Died February 14, 1872, 
age 70. 

PAYNE, Rev. Alfred, originally intended for the 
medical profession, went from Deal to study for the ministry, 
the duties of which he fulfilled at Dean Row and Styal, 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, St. Petersgate Chapel, Stockport, 
and acted for a series of years as secretary of the East 
Cheshire Christian Union. In 1890 he settled in Manchester 
as minister of the Strange ways Unitarian P>ee Church. He 
was an indefatigable pastor, an earnest and eloquent preacher, 
and a worker in all denominational undertakings. Died 
February 29, 1892, age 51. 

PEABODY, Dr, Andrew Preston, was an American 
Unitarian preacher, who was called to the Professorship of 
Christian Morals in Harvard College, to the duties of which 
were added those of preacher to the College, of which he waS 
also for some years acting President. He was editor of the 
North Ame7'ican Review for ten years, and a contributor to the 
Christia7i Examiner and the Christian JVor/d of London. His 

pea] 95 [PEI 

writings were strongly marked by a positive, constructive, 
Christian character. Died March lo, 1893, ^§^ 82. 

PEABODY, Miss Elizabeth, sister of Mrs. Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, was an American authoress, the greater part of 
whose life was spent in Boston, where she was engaged in 
educational works and in literary pursuits. She wrote ''Records 
of a School," and contributed to the Journal of Education, the 
Christian Examiner, and the Dial, in which last-named she 
was a collaborator with Emerson, and wrote the articles on 
'* Socialism." She introduced the Kindergarten system into 
the United States, and edited the Kindergaiien Messenger. 
Died January, 1894, age 82. 

PEABODY, Dr. XVilliam Bourn Oliver, was born in 
Exeter, New Hampshire, U.S.A. At fourteen he entered 
Harvard University, remaining there for four years. His first 
and only settlement was at Springfield, where, for twenty-seven 
years, he laboured in the work of an evangelist. He wrote 
some fine hymns, which appear in American collections, but 
much of his poetry has never been published. Died April 27, 
1847, age 48. 

PECAUT, Felix, a Frenchman, was trained originallv 
for the ministry, but finding in the French pulpit no congenial 
sphere, he devoted his life to journalism and to education, 
and was appointed Inspector-General of Public Instruction. 
The creation and direction of the first French training 
college for schoolmistresses — the Ecole Normale Superiere 
— is due to him. Among the productions of his pen 
were a little volume on Christian Theism considered as a 
Religion, and, a fevv' months before his death, " L'Education 
Publique et la Yie Nationale." He was a man of saintlv 
character, and well fitted to be a religious leader. Died 
August, 1898. 

PECCHIO, Guiseppe. A political exile from Italy, he 
was brought to England by Dr. Bowring, and joined the 
Unitarians. For two years he was tutor in modern languages 
at Manchester College, York. Died June 4, 1836, age 50. 

PEIRCP^, James, was an Arian commentator who, after 
serving two orthodox congregations, was led to accept the 
doctrine of one God, a step that involved him in bitter 
•controversy and trouble. He was compelled to resign all 
•connection with the Exeter Churches, retiring from his pulpit, 

per] 96 [phi 

and suffering much unmerited obloquy. Several of his hearers 
seceded with him, and a commodious edifice, known for a 
century as the Mint ^Meeting, was built, for the avowed sole 
object of worshipping the one God. Died March 10, 1726. 

PERRY, Rev. Charles John, B.A., born at Bulwell, near 
Nottingham, was a promising young man, who died after a 
short span of five years as a popular and helpful preacher in 
Hope Street Church, Liverpool. A little volume of his ser- 
mons, edited by Rev. R. A. Armstrong, B.A., entitled' 
" Spiritual Perspective," was published after his death, which 
occurred October 9, 1883, age 31, 

PHILIPS, Robert Needham, of Stratford-on-Avon, was 
Parliamentary representative for many years of Bury, to which 
place he rendered many important services. His generosity 
enriched the town with a handsome building, called the Philips 
Hall and Trevelyan Club, capable of holding persons. 
For his tenants he provided a comm.odious building comprising 
library, reading and news rooms, and other attractions. Gn 
the drainage of the village of Snitterfield he expended over 
^2,000. He presented a club-room to the town of Stratford- 
on-Avon, for the use of all sects and parties. As a Unitarian, 
he gave an organ to the ancient chapel at Stand ; and his 
benefactions to Manchester New College, to the support of 
the ministry, and to new and enlarged schools and chapels 
all over the country, were numerous and generous. Died 
April 28, 1890, age 74. 

PHI LP, Miss Elizabeth, of Falmouth, was the daughter 
of James Philp (q.v.), and she was herself a life long member 
of the Unitarian faith. vShe was a well-known song composer, 
upwards of a hundred English songs and ballads having pro- 
ceeded from her pen. Died November 26, 1885. 

PHILP, James, of Falmouth, son of Robert Kemp 
Philp (q.v.), was an earnest worker in the Unitarian cause, 
whose life was chequered. He was present as a sailor at the 
bombardment of St. Sebastian in Spain, and St. Jean de Luz 
in France. Gn one occasion he was accidentally left on shore 
by his ship, which was lost in the Bay of Biscay a few days 
later. He afterwards became a printer, and by hard study 
and close application to business made rapid advance in- 
tellectually and materially. He founded the Fahidiith Packet 
newspaper, and for several years was special correspondent 

phi] 97 [POR 

for the Times in days when there was neither steam, railway, 
nor telegraphic communication. He was a member, at 
different times, of the Unitarian congregation at Essex Street, 
Lewin's Mead, Kentish Town ; and frequently conducted the 
services in places lacking regular ministers. Died April 17, 
1887, age 87. 

PHILP, Roi^ERT Kemp, was a well-known and versatile 
author, and projector of many literary ventures. He started 
and edited Diogenes, at one time a rival of Punch ; he was 
editor and proprietor of the taniily Friend and Parlour 
Magazine, joint editor of the People s Journal, and compiler 
of Enquire Within and the celebrated Reason Why series of 
books. His principal work was " The History of Progress 
in Great Britain," published in i860. In his religious work 
may be included the occasional occupancy of the pulpit at 
Spicer Street ^Mission, London. Died November 30, 1882, 
age 64. 

PIERPOIXT, Rev. John, originally in business, entered 
the ministry after a course of study at Harvard College. He 
afterwards settled at Troy, N.Y., and Medford, ]\Iass. He 
made many enemies in that day by his fearless advocacy of 
the Temperance question. He is known as the author of 
some beautiful hymns, especially that one beginning, " O Thou 
to whom, in ancient time, the lyre of Hebrew bards was 
strung." Died August 26, 1866, age 81. 

POPE, Rev. William Annetts, was born in Hampshire, 
and brought up in connection with the Established Church, 
but early joined the Congregationalists. He was associated 
as an efficient teacher in one of the schools of the Society of 
Friends. He afterwards became a missionary minister among 
the Unitarians, serving at Woodchurch (near Birkenhead), 
Prescot, St. Helen's, King's Lynn, then as Agent to the Eastern 
Unitarian Mission, and later on to the Southern District, and 
at the time of his death was minister to the London Domestic 
Mission in Spicer Street. He met his death by falling from 
a precipice while on a holiday visit, August 2, 1882. 

PORTER, Rev. Classon E.m:\iett, was minister for 
forty years of the Non-subscribing congregation of Lame and 
Kihvaughter, in Ireland, and was an earnest advocate of the 
cause during the agitation for the Dissenters' Chapel Act. 
He was deeply interested in ecclesiastical history, and was 

- H 

por] 98 [pot 

the author of some valuable historical papers. Died May 17, 
1885, age 71. 

PORTER, Rev. John Scott, was eldest son of Rev. 
William Porter, brother to Rev. Classon Emmet Porter (qv.), 
and one of a family distinguished for vigor of intellect. 
As a tutor, he had among his pupils many who afterwards 
obtained considerable distinction. As a Christian minister, 
he was a pillar of the Unitarian Church in Ireland. His 
efforts in support of the national system of education for 
Ireland were life-long. As a literary man his pen was a ready 
one. He was for many years clerk of the Presbytery of 
Antrim, and also Professor of Hebrew, Biblical Criticism, and 
Doctrinal Theolog}^ for the Non-subscribing Association. 
His first ministerial charge was at Little Carter Lane, London, 
which was followed by that in Belfast, where he laboured 
for forty-eight years, when his health broke down. Died 
July 5, 1880, age 79. 

POSTEL, GuiLLAUME, a most accomplished Orientalist, 
was born of poor parents in Normandy, and was educated as 
a Jesuit, though he never joined the Order. He was the 
associate, and, in most of his views, the disciple, of the Unit- 
arian Servetus (q.v.). His deep piety was acknowledged even 
by those who regarded him as either a lunatic or a heretic. 
Died September 6, 1581, age 71. 

POTTER, Edmund, F.R.S., began life's battle early, 
working fifteen hours a day through an apprenticeship of 
seven years. With good education, natural ability, and sterling 
character, he attained great commercial prosperity as the head 
of a large calico printing industry at Manchester, and won 
honour all around as an extensive employer of labour, a merchant, 
a local magistrate, and Member of Parliament. As an employer, 
he received a testimontal from his workpeople orl his withdrawal 
from his firm after fifty years' connection. As a merchant he 
received a tribute to his high principle in discharging in five 
years all liabilities incurred by the connection of his firm with 
another. As a writer, Mr. Potter issued pamphlets on "Limited 
Liability," "Popular Education," "Commercial Treaties," 
" Schools of Art," and " Calico Printing as an Art Manu- 
facture." He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 
London. Throughout his long life he was one of the active 
Unitarians of Manchester. The whole expense of erecting 

pot] 99 [pre 

the chapel at Glossop, in 1875, was borne by him. Died 
October 29, 1883, age 81. 

POTTER, Thomas Bayley, was for thirty years i\I.P. for 
Rochdale, in succession to Mr. Cobden, and was founder of 
the Cobden Club. He was educated at Rugby School and 
London University, the older Universities being barred to 
him as a Unitarian. He acquired ample means as a Man- 
chester merchant, and, on his retirement from business, 
devoted himself almost wholly to politics. During the 
American secession war he established in Manchester the 
Union and Emancipation Society, and at the close of the 
struggle the government at Washington made suitable ac- 
knowledgments of the historic service so rendered in the 
cause of freedom. Died November 6, 1898, age 81. 

POUNDS, John, was the founder of ragged schools. 
Crippled by an accident at fifteen years of age in Portsmouth 
Dockyard, he devoted himself to the repairing of boots and 
shoes for a livelihood. In this humble position he gathered 
round him a number of poor children, teaching them, while 
he proceeded with his work, reading, writing, and elementary 
arithmetic, sending them generally for religious instruction to 
the Sunday School connected with High Street (Unitarian) 
Chapel, Portsmouth, of which he was a member, exerting 
himself to procure for them respectable clothing in which to 
appear. He remained to the end of his days in his original 
humble position, refusing to receive any other aid than that 
for his philanthropic work. A monument erected in the 
chapel yard at Portsmouth bears on one side the record that 
it was raised " chiefly by penny subscriptions, not only from 
the Christian brotherhood with whom John Pounds habitually 
worshipped, but from persons of widely differing religious 
opinions throughout Great Britain, and from the most distant 
parts of the world." Died January i, 1839, age 73. 

POYNTING, Rev. Thomas Elford. During thirty-two 
years he held the pastorate of ]\Ionton— his only ministerial 
charge — and he was also Theological Tutor at the Home 
Missionary Board, Manchester, and was distinguished in both 
for his affection and his high intellectual ability. Died 
February 28, 1878, age 64. 

PRESCOT, William Hickling, was a well-known 
American historian, the son of a famous judge of Boston, 

PRi] 100 [PRI 

and grandson of the commander at Bunker's Hill. William 
was sent to Harvard University, where he was deprived by an 
accident of the sight of one eye, and presently of the other. 
Prevented thus from following the legal profession, for which 
he was intended, he turned his attention to literature, about 
w^hich time he became Unitarian. He is a remarkable 
instance of one who achieved fame, notwithstanding what 
seemed to be an insuperable hindrance to success. His 
Histories of Ferdinand and Isabella, and of the conquest of 
Mexico and Peru, were widely read. Honours were bestowed 
on him from all parts of the world. Notwithstanding his 
heretical opinions, the .degree of D.C.L. was conferred on 
him by Oxford College, and he was also made corresponding 
member of the Class of Moral and Political Philosophy in the 
French Institute, and became a member of most of the learned 
societies in Europe. Died January 28, 1859, age 63. 

PRICE, Dr. Richard, born in county Glamorgan, Wales, 
was the son of a Calvinistic minister. At college he dis- 
tinguished himself by his studies in theology and mathematics. 
He attained high rank as a metaphysician, and received from 
Aberdeen the unsolicited dignity of D.D. for his work entitled 
"A Review of the Principal Questions in Morals." His 
ministerial work included the chaplaincy in a family at Stoke 
Newington, and preaching work at Newington Green and 
Hackney. His theological opinions weie Arian. Among 
other of his writings was a friendly discussion with Priestley 
on Materialism and Necessity. Died April 19, 1791, age 68. 

PRIESTLEY, Dr. Joseph, scientific discoverer, theo- 
logian, preacher, and author, was born in Yorkshire, at the 
village of Birstal Fieldhead, near Leeds. The eldest child of 
Dissenting parents, he v.'as brought up by a Calvinistic aunt, and 
was sent to study at the comparatively liberal Academy known 
as Dr. Doddridge's. He continued here till the age of twenty- 
two, when he undertook the pulpit of Needham Market, in 
Sufiblk. His success was hindered by the discovery of his 
Arian opinions, and further, by a stammering in his speech, 
and he removed to the pulpit at Nantwich, in Cheshire, in 
1758, and by the exercise of reading aloud to himself every 
day he in some measure got the better of his physical defect. 
After six years as tutor of languages in the Academy at. 
Warrington, Priestley accepted an invitation to the INIill Hill 

PRi] 101 [PRZ 

Chapel, at Leeds. At the age of thirty-five he made the 
discovery that he was completely Humanitarian in his views 
of Christ. Priestley's chief relaxation from professional duties 
was in his scientific experiments, and those at Leeds were 
more especially upon the nature and properties of air. After 
six years at Leeds, Priestley became librarian to Lord Shelburne, 
in Wiltshire, in whose garden at Bowood, on the ist August, 
1 774, he discovered oxygen. In the winter of 1 780 he accepted 
an invitation to the pulpit of the New INIeeting at Birmingham. 
Priestley's literary labours were great, and among his many 
theological works was his " History of the Corruptions of 
Christianity." This work, his interference on the subject of 
the Test Act, and his " Letters to Burke," in 1791, made him 
a marked man. He was charged with Atheism by t]ie 
Clergy, and on the 14th of July, the celebration in Birming- 
ham of the French Revolution, the mob was set on to break 
into Priestley's library ; his books, his papers, his chemical and 
electrical instruments were pulled to pieces ; his dwelling- 
house and his chapel were burned down ; and Priestley 
sought refuge in London. Finally, he emigrated to America. 
Died February 6, 1804, age 71. In August, 1874, a century 
after he had made his interesting experiment on oxygen, his 
statue was set up opposite the Town Hall in Birmingham. 

PRINGLE, Sir John, Royal Physician. To him, as 
the head of an army hospital, is due much of the humane 
treatment of sick and wounded soldiers, and especially the 
recognition of hospital localities as neutral ground in battle. 
His position afi'orded him vast opportunities of studying the 
question of sanitation, and his books on this subject place 
him high among our earliest health reformers. As a student of 
theology, he passed through phases of Agnosticism and Deism, 
to a full conviction of the authority of the gospel of Jesus, 
under the influence of which he constantly lived. He has an 
epitaph in Westminster Abbey. Died January 18, 1782, age 75. 

PRZYPKOWSKI, Samuel, was a noble Polish knight, 
and a skilful theologian, who underwent great sacrifices on 
behalf of his Unitarian convictions. His works, collected in 
1692, form a volume of the library of the Polish Brethren, 
among the writings of F. Socini and the classical commentators 
of the Socinian "School. He was the author of a valuable 
little Life of Faustus Socinus. Died June 19, 1670, age 78. 

qui] 102 • [rat 

QUINCY, JosiAH, an American senator, who, in Con- 
gress, distinguished himself by his eloquent speeches against 
slavery, and who lived to hear Lincoln's proclamation of 
Emancipation. After retirement from Congress, and an 
interval of comparative leisure, he entered on the most 
fruitful of his fields of public labour. He became President 
of Harvard University, in the history of which his name 
stands out as the great organiser. He kept his mental 
faculties actively at work, even in old age. He was a Unit- 
arian, and attached himself to the congregations to which 
Dr. Kirkland and Dr. Channing ministered. Died 1865, 
age 93. 

RADETSKI, Matthew. Born a Roman Catholic at 
Dantzig, he became a Lutheran, then a Calvinist, next a Men- 
nonite, and lastly embraced Unitarianism, for which he was 
driven from Holland. He was thrice baptised — as an infant 
by sprinkling, as a Mennonite by pouring, as a Polish Uni- 
tarian by immersion. He spent the end of his days at Racow, 
in Poland, where he preached. Died March 29, 161 2, age 72. 

RAMMOHUN ROY, born near Calcutta, has been 
called '* the morning star of Hindoo reformation." He came 
of a high caste and wealthy Brahmin family, by all of whom 
(except his parents) he was so opposed, owing to his conversion 
to monotheism, that he was led to seek service under the Anglo- 
Indian Government till his father's death, which put him in 
possession of a good fortune, and enabled him to devote him- 
self to those works of social reform in India with which his 
name is associated, more especially in labouring to abolish the 
burning of Hindu widows. He devoted himself also to the 
spread of Theism, through which he passed to the adoption of 
its Christian form as exemplified in Unitarianism, and, in 
consequence, he suffered much persecution. He learned the 
English language, speaking and writing it with facility and 
grace. Died at Bristol, September 23, 1833, ^S^ 47- 

RATH, Professor Gerard vom, was a German scientist, 
whose private means enabled him to devote time to scientific 
explorations involving a large range of travel, including 
Transylvania, Italy, Greece, Palestine, Ireland, United States, 
and Mexico ; and the results of his observations were pub- 
lished in several volumes. Among his productions was a nar- 
rative of the rise of the Unitarian movement in Transylvania.. 

raw] 103 L^ic 

He was a Knight of the Prussian Order of the Red Eagle, and 
a member of many learned societies. Died April 23, 1888, 
age 58. 

Rx\WDON, Christopher, born at Halifax, Yorkshire, 
was the founder of the Rawdon Fund, for the augmentation of 
the salaries of Unitarian ministers North of the Trent. He 
passed through some hazardous adventures in his Portuguese 
business connection. Although he had a large share of the 
management of his father's extensive business, he had leisure 
which he consecrated to noble purposes. He entered 
thoroughly into the great questions of the day— Parliamentary 
Reform, Repeal of the Corn Laws, &c. Died 1858, age 78. 

RECKENZAUN, Anthony, an Austrian by birth and 
education, who came to England, was well known in the world 
of electrical science. He constructed the first electric boat 
that was seen on the Thames, and built the first electric launch 
for American waters. On the West ^Metropolitan tramway he 
ran an experimental electric tram. He was a lecturer, a writer 
for some of the scientific journals, and author of a book on 
" Electrical Traction on Railways and Tramways " ; and vvas 
the recipient of honours from various scientific societies. In 
religion he was at first a Roman Catholic, but was converted ' 
to Unitarianism when he came to England, and attended the 
Church at Highgate under the ministry of the Rev. R. Spears. 
Died November 11, 1893, age 43. 

RICARDO, David. Estranged from his father by seces- 
sion from the Jewish faith, and by his marriage with a Quakeress, 
and thus thrown upon his own resources, the young man, with 
assistance, commenced business for himself, and in a few 
years realised an ample fortune. The whole of his leisure 
was devoted to the study of political economy, and he soon 
commenced a series of publications on that science. The 
work by which he is best known is his " Principles of Political 
Economy and Taxation." On retiring from business, he 
became M.P. for Portarlington, Irehmd, and attained influence 
in the House, notwithstanding his lack of eloquence. He 
was a member of the Unitarian congregation at Hackney. 
Died September 11, 1823, age 51. 

RICHARDS, Rev. William, born in Wales, was the 
Unitarian minister of King's Lynn, of which town he wrote 
a history. He was also author of a History of Welsh Baptists, 

rid] 104. ' [rix 

and compiler of a Welsh Dictionary still in use. His scholar- 
ship was united with deep piety. Died September 13, 181 8, 
age 69. 

RIDLEY, John, was one who, having felt his early life 
darkened by limited views of the goodness of God, devoted 
his energies to the circulation of the best thoughts on the 
Gospel of the Larger Hope. At the age of eighteen he was 
a local preacher among the Wesleyans, but having an instinct 
towards mechanical inventions, he so devoted his powers in 
this direction as ultimately to realise a handsome fortune in 
Australia. Here it was that he invented what is known as the 
Ridley Reaper, which he made a free gift to the Colony. 
During the last ten years of his life, he took great interest in 
collecting, printing, and circulating gratuitously any literature 
w^hich seemed to him to throw light on the Fatherhood of 
God, the love of Christ, the necessity for temperance, &c., 
which he forwarded to clergymen and ministers of all 
denominations, in all parts of the world. Died November 25, 
1887, ^S^ ^^• 

RLrXENHGUSE, David, born at Germantown, near 
Philadelphia, U.S.A., of Dutch ancestry, was of humble parent- 
age, who early began the study of science, and though he had 
to work in the field daily, his zest for knowledge overcame the 
difficulty of acquirem.ent. His health proving too delicate 
for husbandry, he was taught the trade of clock and m.athe- 
matical instrument maker, a trade which greatly favoured 
his tendencies towards natural philosophy. He was elected 
one of a committee to observe the transit of Venus, and for 
the Pennsylvanian observation he made all the preparations. 
His were the firstpublished, and said to be the most accurate 
of the observations made. By them the sun's distance, before 
then thought to be 80,000,000, was proved to be 96,000,000 
miles. He was created Treasurer for the State of Pennsylvania, 
and Director of the Mint of U.S.A. He was a Universalist. 
Died July 10, 1796, age 64. 

RIX, Rev. Thomas, was for nearly fifty years a minister 
in the Christian Church, at first with the Wesleyans, and 
afterwards as a Unitarian at Stratford, London, where, for 
more than a quarter of century, he conducted public services 
free of expense to his congregation. The pretty little chapel 
at Stratford stands as a monument to his faithful service, his- 

rob] 105 [ros 

self-denving labour, and his generosity. Died December 26, 
1886, age 80. 

ROBERTSON, Dr. William, was born in Ireland and 
educated in Glasgow. On his return to Ireland, he received 
from the Bishop of Ferns a living in the Established Church. 
He suffered much domestic affliction, losing his wife and 
children. In his sixtieth year he refused a valuable living 
rather than again subscribe the Thirty-nine Articles, and on 
a very moderate salary accepted the post of schoolmaster at 
Wolverhampton. He was among the earliest Unitarian con- 
fessors from within the walls of the Anglican Church. Died 
INIay 28, 1783, age 78. 

ROGERS, Samuel, was not only a poet, but a man of 
such literary and artistic taste as to make his house a centre of 
attraction for authors and artists. His collection of painters 
by the old masters drew to his house foreign travellers and 
students. He was a son of Dissenting parents, who traced 
their descent from the Rev. Philip Henry, one of the two 
thousand Ejected ministers in the reign of Charles II. But 
for his father's desire that his son should go into his own 
bank, Samuel would have entered the Dissenting College at 
Warrington, for training as a minister ; as it was, his enthu- 
siasm for literature and art so far overcame him, that on his 
father's death, he appointed his brother to look after his share 
of duty in the banking business, and devoted himself wholly to 
literature and society. His two volumes of poetry, " Italy" 
and " Poems," are richly illustrated by drawings by Flaxman 
and Stothard. An account of his life was given by his nephew, 
Samuel Sharpe (q-v.). Died December 18, 1855, age 92. 

ROSCOE, William. A noble man who loved virtue 
and knowledge ; who, without being feeble or fanatical, was 
pious ; who, without being factious, was firm and independent ; 
who, in political life was an equitable mediator between king 
and people, and in his civil life a firm promoter of all which 
can shed a lustre upon his country, or promote the peace and 
order of the world— such is the tribute paid to Roscoe by 
Sidney Smith. Son of a market gardener, assistant in a book- 
seller's shop, attorney, eminent historical writer, member of 
Parliament, and partner in a banking house— such is the sum- 
mary of his biography. He was a friend of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Fuseli, and 'Gibson the sculptor. His historical 

row] io6 *, [ryl 

works were the " Life of Lorenzo de Medici " and *' The Life 
and Pontificate of Leo X." Washington Irving, in his Sketch 
Book, says that no one seeing the boy going to sell his pota- 
toes would have foreseen in him the future member for 
Liverpool, the poet, the historian, the philanthropist. He and 
his family were members of the Unitarian congregation in 
Renshaw Street, Liverpool. Died June 30, 1831, age 78. 

ROWAN, Archibald Hamilton, an Irish patriot, a 
defender of the weak and oppressed, who on a false charge of 
publishing an incitement to rebellion, was prosecuted, found 
guilty, fined ;^5oo, and sentenced to imprisonment for two 
years. He escaped, although a reward of ;^2,ooo was offered 
for his re-capture — a scheme frustrated by the plans of a most 
heroic wife, seconded by the faithfulness of three poor Irish 
fishermen. In the course of time he received the royal 
pardon, and returned to his native land, where he died, after 
a life's devotion to every measure that could contribute to his 
country's happiness. He was a man of broad sympathies, not 
limited by his mem.bership with the Strand Street Unitarian 
Church, Dublin. Died November i, 1834, age 83. 

RUARUS, Martin, born at Krempe, in Holstein, was 
a poet, orator, and writer, versed in the Oriental and European 
languages. Gathering arguments for a book to refute Arianism, 
he found them so much in its favour that he joined the Church 
he had intended to oppose, and for teaching its doctrines was 
on one occasion expelled from Dantzic. He was one of the 
leaders of the Unitarian movement on the Continent in the 
17th century. In his loyalty to conscience he refused a pro- 
fessorship that was offered to him at Cambridge. Died 1657, 
age 69. 

RUTT, John Towill, of London, was of Unitarian 
parentage, well connected, well educated, and particularly 
well read in English history. He edited, with valuable foot- 
notes, Pepys' Correspondence, Burton's Diary, and Calamy's 
Memoirs of his own tim.e. He also appended a number of 
notes to his edition of Priestley's works, and made large addi- 
tions to the Doctor's autobiography. His contributions to the 
Unitarian periodicals of the time were numerous. Died 1841, 
age 81. 

RYLAND, Arthur, was born in Birmingham, where he 
practised as a solicitor. He was elected Mayor, and signalised 

sad] 107 [SAV 

his year of office by opening the first Free Library in the town, 
and was afterwards engaged in the founding of the Free Hos- 
pital for Sick. Children. As a lawyer he wrote several impor- 
tant papers, including, " The Registration of Partnerships," 
"The Codification of the Law," "Trade Marks," and others 
of a kindred character. ]Much of his time was devoted to 
work for the public good. As a Unitarian, he was a member 
of the Church of the Saviour, in his own town. Died 
]March 24, 1877, age 70. 

SADLER, Rev. Dr. Thomas. Educated in London by 
the General Baptists. His life, though not marked by stirring 
incidents, wa.s strongly influential in the sweetness of love. 
He passed the whole of his ministerial life, extending over 
forty-eight years, in London, but he was known by reputation 
far beyond the capital. Of his character it has been said of 
him that he was "as good as his sermons," and it is no 
wonder, therefore, that he gathered around him a large and 
intelligent Unitarian congregation, and that as a minister and 
citizen he was highly esteemed both by his own and other 
Churches. He was philanthropic, gentle in manners, an 
impressive preacher, an elegant writer, and wrote the memoirs 
of several of our Unitarians. Died September 11, 1891, 
age 69. 

SAND, Christoph. This eminent historian of Uni- 
tarianism was educated at K.onigsberg. Though his life was 
so brief, his Ecclesiastical History and \\vs> Bihliotheca Antitriin- 
iariorum have raised him to a place among the most impor- 
tant authorities for Unitarian history. Died November 30, 
1680, age 36. 

SAVILE, Sir George, represented the county of York 
in five successive Parliaments, and distinguished himself as a 
member by his opposition to the American War, his bills for 
the Limitation of the Claims of the Crown upon Landed 
Estates, and for Relieving Catholics from the Penal Laws 
enacted against them in the reign of William and Mary ; he 
was a zealous supporter of Pitt's motion for a Reform of 
Parliament, and used his energies to free the clergy from the 
necessity of signing the Thirty-nine Articles. He was a man 
of large and unpretentious beneficence. As a Unitarian, he 
made open profession of his faith. Died January 9, 1784, 
age 63. 

sch] io8 [ser 

SCHMALZ, Valentine. A German by birth, and a 
Lutheran by education, he joined the PoHsh Unitarian 
Church, and became minister first at LubHn, and afterwards 
at Racow. To him, it is said, more than to anyone else, is 
due the composition of the famous Racovian Catechism of 
1605. Died December 8, 1622, age 50. 

SCHOMAN, George, was born at Ratibor, in Silesia, 
and, brought up as a Roman Catholic, passed through 
Lutheranism to the Unitarian faith, and is said to have been 
one of the authors of the Racovian Catechism, which exercised' 
such an influence upon Continental Unitarians. Among the 
hardships he suffered on account of his faith, was expulsion 
from the State in which he lived, and the confiscation of his 
property. The failure of an attempt to form a union with the 
Moravian Anabaptists so disheartened some of Schoman's 
companions that they ceased to labour for the Unitarian 
cause ; but he continued faithful to the end of his life. Died 
1 59 1, age 61. 

SEDGWICK, Catharine, born at Stockbridge, Massa- 
chusetts, an American authoress, was descended from an old 
Puritan family. The theology she w^as taught was that of rigid 
Calvinism, but, brought into acquaintance with Dr. Channing 
(q.v.) during his ministrations at her father's death-bed, an 
impression was made on her mind that led to her adoption of 
more liberal views, and. on the formation of the first Unitarian 
Society in New York, she separated from the Calvinistic 
Church and joined the new community. Among her literary 
productions were "The New England Tale," "Redwood," 
"Hope Leslie," "The Linwoods," "Live and Let Live." 
She took an active part in social work, especially of a philan- 
thropic character. The anti-slavery movement also found in 
her a warm supporter. Died July, 1867, age 78. 

SEGA, Francesco, was a member of the Unitarian 
Society at Vicenza in 1546, that Unitarian Society which 
produced Lselius Socinus and his nephew. Sega was 
executed by drowning at Venice, after a protracted imprison- 
ment, during which he composed several religious writings 
for the consolation of his fellow-prisoners. Died February 25, 

SliRVETUS, Michael, the Unitarian martyr, was a 
Spaniard by birth, and was originally trained for the law, but 

SEV] 109 [SHA 

afterwards turned his attention to the study of medicine, in 
the course of which he made important scientific discoveries, 
and is credited with the first intimation as to the circulation 
of the blood. Religious questions, however, determined the 
course of his life, and as the result of an earnest study of the 
Bible, and particularly of the New Testament, he not only 
abjured his Roman Catholicism, but went farther back on the 
way to Primitive Christianity than the reformers themselves, 
and thus placed himself between two lines of opponents. 
His work on the Trinity forced him to wander from place 
to place for nearly twenty years. He was imprisoned in 
France for his heretical writings, escaping whence, he took 
refuge in Geneva, which, however, was no place of safety 
from the bitter hatred and cruel spirit of Calvin, by whose 
influence he was brought to the stake, and sacrificed under 
circumstances peculiarly horrible. He was chained to the 
trunk of a tree with his book on the " Restoration of 
Christianity " bound to his thigh, and with a crown of leaves 
and straw smeared with brimstone on his brow% and then 
roasted slowly, October 27, 1553, age 43. 

SEVERN, Rev. Willia:\i. At the age of sixteen he was 
expelled his father's house in Nottingham, for his ]Methodism. 
Some years later he acted for two years as travelling preacher 
and confidential associate with John Wesley. He then went 
to Edinburgh to study divinity, and ultimately became a 
Unitarian, officiating in the Chapels of Hinckley, Kidder- 
minster, and Hull. Died June 22, 1814, age 59. 

SHAEN, Rev. Richard, M.A., of Essex, son of Samuel 
Shaen, and elder brother of William Shaen, ]\I.A. (q.v.), studied 
at Glasgow University and at the University of Bonn. For 
thirty years he discharged ministerial duties at the Unitarian 
Chapel in Royston, and was the author of some books on 
Unitarianism. Outside his ministerial work, it was as an 
active supporter of the temperance movement that he was 
best known in the town. Died January 24, 1894, age 76. 

SHAEN, William, of London, was a lawyer, an active and 
able supporter of literary, philanthropic, political, and religious 
organisations in London. He was educated at University 
College, where he took his degree with honours in Classics, 
proceeded to the ]\LA., and took the gold medal in Philosophy. 
He took a prom^inent part in the movement by which the 

SHA] no [SHA 

degrees of the University of London were opened to women, 
and female graduates admitted to Convocation (of which he 
was for ten years the Clerk). He was one of the active founders 
of the London School of Medicine for Women, and had a 
prominent share in the establishment of three colleges for 
women, Newnham College and Girton College at Cambridge, 
and Somerville Hall, Oxford. A Unitarian in religion, he 
was a trustee of Dr. Williams's Library, a Committeeman of the 
British and Foreign Unitarian Society, and a member of the 
Unitarian Church at Notting Hill. Like his brother. Rev. 
Richard Shaen, M.A. (q.v.),"he was keenly interested in the 
teetotal movement, and was one of the founders of the 
Temperance Building Society. Died March 2, 1887, 
age 66. 

SHARMAN, Rev. William, of Sheffield, was a minister 
at one time in the Methodist New Connection, but finding his 
spiritual home in Unitarianism, he ministered at Malvern, 
Aberdeen, and Bradford. After filling several posts in the 
United States, he returned to England, and became minister 
at Plymouth, whence he removed to Preston. He was widely 
known for his self-sacrificing and energetic championship of 
Mr. Bradlaugh's cause in the House of Commons, in which 
he considered that the member for Northampton had been 
badly treated ; and he published a book on Oaths. Died 
November 15, 1889, age 48. 

SHARPE, Samuel, translator of the Bible and author of 
" The History of Egypt," was born at Nottingham Place, 
London, but, losing his father and mother before he was eight 
years old, his half-sister took him, with his brothers and 
younger sister, to live at Paradise Row, Stoke Newington. He 
was sent to the Rev. E. Cogan's Classical School at Waltham- 
stow, and presently went to his uncle's bank, in Clement's 
Lane, City. He was forty-six years in this same house of 
business, as clerk, partner, and afterwards manager. He was 
studious from his boyhood, and there were few branches of 
knowledge to which he was a stranger. The Duke of Graf- 
ton's reprint in England of Griesbach's Greek Testament 
first drew him into the work of Bible translation. He did 
not begin upon the Hebrew Scriptures until much later in 
life. By meeting accidentally with Sir Gardner Wilkinson's 
** Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians," he was- 


drawn into the study of Egyptian hieroglyphics, and copied, 
and lithographed by hand, some hundreds of their inscriptions 
in the British Museum with great industry. His study of the 
Bible seemed to him to be closely connected with Egyptian 
history, and he worked laboriously at the two together for 
many years. He was a life-long, steadfast Unitarian, and a 
President of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. 
Died July 28, 1881, age 82. 

SIMEN, Professor Dominik, was a young and able Tran- 
sylvanian divine, a student for two years at Manchester New 
College, who, after returning to his own country, received the 
appointment to a Professor's Chair at Kolozsvar. As Professor 
of Theology and Philosophy, as a frequent preacher, and as 
General vSecretary to the Unitarian Churches of Transylvania, 
he exercised a beneficial influence on the cause of religion. 
He was equally esteemed as an author. He edited the religious 
periodical of the body (Christian Seed- Sower J, and produced 
many important works. At the time of his death he was 
engaged on a ^Magyar translation of the New Testament, and 
an Introduction to the Old and New Testaments in the same 
language. Died September g, 1878, age 43. 

SISMONDE DE SISMOx^DI, Jean Charles Leonard, 
was a distinguished historian, the son of a Liberal minister 
near Geneva, and himself held U^nitarian views. His best 
known work is the " History of the Italian Republics in the 
^Middle Ages." Died June 25, 1842, age 69. 

S^HTH, George, of Coalville, known as " The Children's 
Friend," was son of a brickmaker, and at nine years of age 
was actively engaged — and often for thirteen hours a day — for 
the pay of sixpence. The fevv^ pence he had for overtime he 
spent on a night-school education. His soul was stirred by 
the brutal treatment of little children from morning till night, 
and his career of usefulness embraced first his agitation on 
behalf of the children brought up in the brickfields, then of 
those in the canal boats, and he succeeded in getting the 
Brickfield Act and the Canal Boat Act passed. He next 
turned his attention to the state of the gipsy children and the 
dwellers in vans. Although he had to endure many forms of 
persecution, his single-mindedness won the admiration of all 
ranks, and many testimonials in the shape of money help 
were raised for him. Died June 21, 1895, age 64.. 

s^lJ 1 1 2 [soc 

SMITH, Sir James Edward, M.D., F.R.S., was President 
of the Linnean Society, and was among the most eminent of 
English botanists. His beautiful hymns in our hymn-books 
attest his piety and faith. • His wife survived him for forty-nine 
years, and was nearly 104 years old when she died. She was 
a beautiful woman, both morally and physically. On the 
attainment by Lady Smith of her hundredth year, she was 
presented by Queen Victoria with a handsome copy of " Our 
Life in the Highlands," inscribed by the Queen's own hand. 
Sir James died March 17, 1828, age 69. 

SMITH, John Benjamin, of London, was a prominent 
Member of Parliament for thirty years, the first President of 
the Anti-Corn-Law League, and a Vice-President of the 
British and Foreign Unitarian Association. He laboured 
most effectually on behalf of interests against which, for a 
time, the wealth and political power of England were arrayed, 
both in politics and theology. His time and m.eans were 
generously devoted to reforms which were a boon to the 
public. He was one of a band of men to whom our country 
is indebted for greater liberty, better education, juster laws, 
and freer commerce. His two daughters. Miss Burning 
Smith and Lady Edwin Burning Lawrence, proved themselves 
of invaluable service to the Unitarian cause. Died Septem- 
ber 15, 1879, age 85. 

SMITH, William, of Clapham, London, became M.P. 
for Sudbury, and afterwards for Norwich, his whole Parlia- 
mentary career lasting for forty-six years, during most of 
which time he was recognized as a leader of the friends of 
religious liberty in the House, of which he lived to be the 
" Father." To him Unitarians owe the " Unitarian Relief 
Bill of 1 81 3 — sometimes called William Smith's Bill — an Act 
repealing all former statutes remaining against those who 
denied the Trinity. He was also one of the most earnest foes 
of the slave trade. As a Unitarian he was in the habit of 
worshipping in the Essex Street Unitarian Chapel, and was 
also chairman to the Stamford Street Chapel Committee, and 
superintended the law proceedings for the erection of that 
chapel. Died 1835, age 79. 

SOCINUS, Faustus, was born of a patrician family in 
Siena, in Italy. The early loss of his father threw him entirely 
on the training of his mother. Socinus studied for civil law, 

SOC] 113 [SOH 

and spent twelve years at the Court of his cousin, the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany. Through the influence of his uncle, Laelius 
Socinus (q.v,), his attention was directed to religious matters, 
and in the thirty-fifth year of his age he relinquished all his 
bright prospects at Court in order to devote himself more 
exclusively to the study of theology, and the propagation 
of his anti-Trinitarian views. In Poland, his adopted home, 
he married the daughter of a nobleman by whom he was 
offered refuge, and through this family connection was enabled 
to make many converts among the upper classes. Troubles 
gathered about him, however, among which was the lcss.'of 
his wife, as also of his revenue from Italy upon the death of 
the Duke of Tuscany. On one occasion, while lying sick, he 
was dragged from his bed, an attempt was made to murder 
him, his furniture and library were destroyed, and worse than 
all, in his estimation, his MS., among which was a treatise 
against Atheism. He organised into a compact religious 
community the numbers of refugees who, like himself, had 
fled to Poland and Transylvania to escape the Inquisition. 
Died March 3, 1604, age 65. 

SOCINUS, L.^iLius, was uncle to Faustus Socinus (q.v.), 
and belonged to an Italian family. He was born at Siena, 
in Tuscany, his father being an able lawyer, who designed his 
son for the same profession. Laelius, however, showed a 
preference for theological inquiry, and in order to fit himself 
the better for Biblical study, made himself familiar with Greek, 
Hebrew^ and Arabic. At Vicenza he joined a secret societ} 
— formed for the discussion of religious questions — which 
among other things, formed a conclusion unfavourable to the 
doctrine of the Trinity. On the discovery of its meetings the 
society broke up, some of its members being arrested and put 
to death, others making their escape. Lcelius hid himself in 
the houses of his friends, travelled from country to country, 
and finally settled at Zurich. Died i\Iay 14, 1562, age 37. 

SOHNER, Ernest. Mosheim says of him : " This subtle 
philosopher, who had joined the Socinians during his residence 
in Holland, instilled their principles into the minds of his 
scholars with much greater facility by his having acquired the 
highest reputation for both learning and piety. The death of 
this eminent man deprived the rising society of its chief 
ornament and support." He wrote a "Theological and 


spa] _ 114 ['^TA 

Philosophical Demonstration, that the Eternal Punishment of 
the Wicked argues not the Justice, but the Injustice of God." 
Died September 30, 161 2. 

SPARKES, Rev. Jared, LL.D., an American pastor, 
was author of several biographies of great value, and editor 
of Washington's Despatches. He was at first Professor of 
History, and afterwards President, of Harvard College. 
Channing's important sermon, " Unitarian Christianity," was 
preached at the Ordination of Jared Sparkes. Throughout 
life he was a devout Unitarian. Died March 14, 1866, 
age 77. - 

SPEARS, Rev. Robert, born at the village of Lemmgton, 
near Newcastle-on-Tyne, was of humble parentage, and at an 
early age was sent to work as an engineer, an occupation he 
relinquished for that of school-teaching. Foratime he served on 
trial as a local preacher of the Methodist New Connection, but, 
adopting Unitarian opinions, accepted preaching engagements 
under the Rev. George Harris (q.v.). Sunderland, Stockton- 
on-Tees, and London were afterwards the successive scenes 
of his Unitarian ministry. He became co-secretary with the 
Rev. R. Brook Aspland (q.v.), and then sole secretary, of the 
British and Foreign Unitarian Association, on his retirement 
from which office he was presented vvith a very handsome 
money testimonial. He was essentially a man of action, and 
his busy life included not only preaching and pastoral work, 
but that of editing the Christian Life and Christian Freeman ; 
he compiled a " Unitarian Handbook " that has passed through 
many editions, and also a " Record of Unitarian Worthies " ; 
he was enabled, with the help of generous friends, to circulate 
many thousands of Dr. Channing's works ; he was instrumental 
in establishing friendly relations between British Unitarians and 
the cultured Theists of India ; and was an ardent propagandist 
of the Unitarian faith. Died February 25, 1899, ^%^ 73- 

STANSFELD, James, born at Leeds, served as a clerk 
Avith a firm of solicitors in Halifax, and rose to the position of 
a judge of the Court of Requests, and afterwards judge of the 
New County Courts. He was one of the seven members 
chosen out of sixty County Court Judges for making the Rules 
of Practice, and suggested, it is said, one of the best clauses 
of the Bankruptcy Act. He took great interest in the educa- 
tion of the working classes, and his portrait was presented 'to 

ST a] I I 5 [sWA 

him by the HaUfax ^Mechanics' Institute in recognition of his 
great services. He attended the rehgious services in the 
Essex Street Unitarian Chapel. His only son became an 
honoured Cabinet Minister. Died 1872, age 80. 

STANSFPXD, Sir James, G.C.B., an eminent statesman, 
who in his forty years of Parliamentary life deserved well of 
his country. He held offices of distinction in the Govern- 
ments of Palmerston, Russell, and Gladstone, and in neither 
case did he sacrifice to personal interest or ambition any 
conviction that was dear to him. As a politician he was ever 
the champion in Parliament of the weak and the oppressed. 
He was the only son of James Stansfeld (q-v.), and, like his 
father, was a Unitarian in religion. Died February, 1898. 

STORY, Judge Joseph, was born and educated at Harvard 
■College, in America, where he was the class-mate and close 
friend of Channing. He vvas appointed Associate Justice of 
the Supreme Court at the age of thirty-two, was Professor of 
jurisprudence at Harvard College, and obtained a European 
reputation by his legal writings. He was an ardent Unitarian. 
Died September 10, 1845, age 66, 

SUMNPIR, Charles, a ^Massachusetts senator, was born 
in Boston, U.vS.A. During part of his childhood his father 
was clerk of a Unitarian chapel in Boston. Sumner is honoured 
as an illustrious scholar and statesman, whose manly virtues 
and righteous principles Avere devoted to advocacy of the 
cause of civil liberty. He was endowed with a vigorous 
intellect, an iron will, and unconquerable energy. His 
brilliant oratorical powers were consecrated to the service of 
humanity. But his fearless advocacy of liberty entailed 
painful personal consequences, and a memorable speech on 
the " Crime against Kansas" really cost him his life, for from 
the shock of the murderous assault that followed its delivery 
he never fairly recovered. Crippled in the noon of life, and 
condemned to the seclusion of an invalid while filled with 
ardent longing for work, Sumner bore his sufferings with 
exemplary fortitude, and such powers as he had were all 
sincerely and faithfully used to the last in faith in God and 
the help of humanity. Died March 12, 1874, age 63. 

SWAN WICK, :\Iiss Anna, was daughter to Mr. John 
.Swanwick, of Liverpool, and descended from Philip Henry, 
the Ejected iMinister. Most of his accomplished .daughter's 

syl]. ii6 [tat 

education was due to her private study after leaving schooll 
She began her literary work with translations from Goethe and 
Schiller ; she was also a translator of ^:schylus. Her apprecia- 
tion of the value of poetry was disclosed in her work, " Poets, 
the Interpreters of their Age." Another of her works was 
entitled "Evolution and the Religion of the Future." She 
was an accomplished mathematician ; was once President of 
Bedford College, following in that office Erasmus Darwin and. 
Mark Pattison ; and she was a Unitarian in her reUgious 
opinions. Died November, 1899, age 86. 

SYLVANUS, John, was" a Tyrolese, and appeared first 
as a Catholic, then became a Lutheran, and finally adopted 
Unitarian views. He was a man of learning, and the author 
of several treatises on the Doctrine and Discipline of the 
Christian Church. He was a Unitarian martyr, and, by 
authority of his own pupil, Frederick, Elector of Palatine, was 
beheaded for heresy, February 12, 1571. 

SYLVESTER, Rev. Matthew, was the friend of TiUotson 
and Whichcote, the colleague of Baxter and editor of his 
" Life and Times," and founder of the congregation now 
worshipping at Unity Church, Islington. Died January 25,. 
1708, age 72. 

TAGART, Rev. Edward, F.S.A., was born at Bristol, 
educated at York College, and was minister successively at 
Norwich, and York Street (afterwards Little Portland Street), 
London. He died at Brussels, on his way home from a mission 
visit to the Unitarian Churches in Transylvania. He was for 
many years Secretary to the British and Foreign Unitarian 
Association. Died October 12, 1858, age 54. 

TALFOURD, Sir Thomas Noon, poet and judge, was 
converted to Unitarianism in early youth by the preaching of 
the Rev. Richard Wright the missionary, and though, after 
his elevation to the Bench, he made no public acknowledgment 
of his faith, he continued throughout his life in sentiment a 
Unitarian. He was the executor of Charles Lamb, and the 
lovinir editor of his letters and memorials. Died March 13, 

1854, age 59. 

TATE, Sir Henry, was born at Chorley, Lancashire, 
where his father was a Unitarian minister, and he himself was 
deeply attached to Unitarianism, as testified in his munificent 
donations to the cause. He accumulated great wealth m the 

tay] 1 1 7 [tay 

business of sugar refining. Among his benefactions may be 
mentioned the erection in Liverpool of a magnificent hospital 
dedicated to the practice of homoeopathic surgery and medi- 
cine ; his contributions to the Nursing Plomes of Liverpool ; 
his aid in promoting and founding the Liverpool University 
College, and the endowment of a Chair ; his gifts of large 
sums of money to the Liverpool Council of Education, and to 
the Training School for Teachers in that city ; he endowed 
the nation v/ith a collection of pictures valued at between 
eighty and ninety thousand pounds. His greatest public 
work was the erection of the splendid Gallery for British Art 
at Pimlico. His most munificent gift as a Unitarian was that 
■of ^^10,000 for the library wing of Manchester College, Oxford, 
where he endowed a lectureship. His public munificence was 
recognised by a baronetcy. Died December 5, 1899, age 80. 
TAYLER, Rev. John James. His father was the Rev. 
James Tayler, minister of the old Presbyterian congregation 
St. Thomas's Street, Southwark, which was twenty-five years 
later merged in that of Stamford Street. He afterv/ards became 
minister of the High Pavement Chapel, Nottingham, where 
he kept a school in v/hich his son, John James, received his 
early education. At the age of seventeen the son went to 
York, and there commenced his connection with ^Manchester 
New College, of which he was afterwards Secretary, and for a 
time Public Examiner. When the managers of the College 
arranged for its removal to University Hall, London, he 
.accepted an invitation to become its Principal. Among the 
pulpits he occupied were those of Lower ]\Ioseley Street, ^lan- 
•chester ; and, in conjunction with the Rev. James Martineau 
(q.v.), at Little Portland Street, London. In addition to his 
other labours, he edited and contributed to the " Prospective 
Review," and later on issued his volume entitled "Christian 
Aspects of Eaith and Duty." A memorial window was 
placed by his friends in the Hampstead Chapel, bearing the 
inscription : " As a tribute to his simple and elevated character, 
saintly virtues, large humanity, tender sympathies, and child- 
like devotion. His life was a persuasive to piety : his memory 
lifts up the heart to a better world." Died May 28, 1869, 
age 72. , , , . 

TAYLOR, Rev. Dr. John, was the son of a Lancashire 
limber merchant, a Churchman, who yielded to his son's 

ten] 1 1 8 [tho 

desire to become a Dissenting minister, and had him trained 
accordingly. John distinguished himself as a student, but 
commenced his pulpit work in a very humble sphere, and as 
minister to an illiterate congregation, his salary being £2$ 
per annum. He afterwards received a call to a larger church 
in Norwich, where his open avowal of Unitarian views caused 
a division, the majority of the congregation remaining Avith Dr. 
Taylor, who served the cause for nearly a quarter of a century. 
It was while in Norwich that he published his " Original Sin ^' 
and other theological works. When past sixty years of age he 
removed from Norwich to become Principal and Theological 
Tutor at Warrington College. Dr. Taylor was a man of musical 
taste, and gave to the world some tunes collected for use in 
public v\^orship, besides many beautiful hymns in our hymn- 
books. Died March 5, 1761, age 67. 

TENNANT, Smithson, M.D., F.R.S., was born in York- 
shire, at Selby, at which town his father was the vicar. He 
showed an early taste for scientific pursuits, and his studies 
were directed accordingly. Political economy was also a 
favourite study with him. He made a series of continental 
tours, to observe the productions of different countries, and 
their systems of laws and governments. Pressing on to new 
discoveries rather than the perfection of such as he had made, 
he has left a record of intentions never carried into fulfilment. 
He became known throughout Europe by his paper on the 
diamond, proving it to be pure carbon, and by his discovery of 
iridium and osmium. Notwithstanding his orthodox training 
in religion, he became a Unitarian, and while residing in the 
Temple was an attendant at Essex Street Chapel. His life 
was terminated by a fall from his horse when staying at 
Boulogne. Died 181 5, age 54. 

THOM, Rev. John Hajniilton, was of Irish birth, being 
born at Newry (where his father was a Presbyterian minister), 
and received his education at the Royal Academical Institu- 
tion, Belfast. His work as a minister was exclusively in Liver- 
pool, first at the Ancient Chapel, Toxteth Park, and then at 
Renshaw Street Chapel. He retired from the pulpit in 1867. 
He took a notable part in the memorable Liverpool Contro- 
versy of 1839, when he, in conjunction with the Revs. James 
INIartineau and Henry Giles, defended Unitarianism. against 
the attacks of thirteen clergymen of the Church of England. 

THO] 119 [tHO 

He took high rank as an author, and his published sermons 
will long be treasured for their pure spiritual religion. Among 
his numerous literary productions we may mention his " Life of 
the Rev. Joseph Blanco White," "Correspondence of the 
Rev. John James Tayler," " Spirit and Significance of the 
Epistles to the Corinthians," and his " Laws of Life ; " and for 
many years he was editor, with the Rev. Dr. James ^Nlartineau, 
J. J. Taylor, and C. Wicksteed, of the Unitarian Quarterly 
Prospective Review. With the assistance of noble friends he 
succeeded in establishing the Liverpool Domestic Mission, 
and was one of the prime movers in founding the Liverpool 
District ^Missionary Association. Died September 2, 1894, 
age 86. 

THOMAS, Rev. W., was a Welsh minister, who entered 
Carmarthen College in his seventeenth year as an Independent, 
but became a Unitarian before the end of his curriculum. He 
graduated in Glasgow University as Dr. Williams's Exhibitor, 
and entered on ministerial work in his twenty-sixth year at 
Llwnrhydowen and Bv/lch-y-Fadfa, soon after which he estab- 
lished a Grammar School which in a few^ years attained great 
reputation throughout South Wales. It is recorded of him that 
when only eleven years old he contributed to the columns of 
a Welsh periodical, and while a student at Glasgow published 
a small volume of poems ; he also composed many hymns, 
some of which appeared in the Welsh Unitarian Hymn Book. 
He was a Liberal in politics. To the influence he wielded in 
the central districts of Cardiganshire was attributedthe eviction 
of his congregation and himself in 1876— a blov/ that told 
upon his constitution. Died December 11, 1879, age 45. 

THO-AIPSOX, Rev. David, born at Mealough, co. Down, 
was in early life engaored as a printer, but, after training in the 
classes of the Home ^Missionary Board, entered on ministerial 
work. For ten years he laboured at Moneyrea, co. Down, on 
leaving which he made over to the congregation the capital 
sum (over ;^i, 000) realised by the commutation of his Regium 
Donum, to which he considered he had no moral, though a 
legal, right. He then went to ]Mountpottinger, and thence to 
Dromore. He filled the offices of President of the Asso- 
ciation of Non-subscribing Presbyterians and Other Free 
Christians, and ^Moderator of the Remonstrant Synod of 
Ulster. Several of the Unitarian congregations in Ulster 

THO] 120 [tIM 

united with the Non-subscribing congregation of Dromore 
and members of other churches in that town in making a 
handsome presentation to him. Died January 17. 1900, 
age 62. 

THOMSON, John, M.D., was born at Kendal, and 
received a University education before entering, at the age of 
twenty-six, on medical practice in Halifax, where he soon 
attained reputation in the treatment of disease, as he did 
afterwards in Leeds. He is best known in his religious 
connection as the initiator of the Fellowship Fund system. 
After his death a monument to his memory was placed in the 
North-gate- end Chapel, Halifax. He was the author of the 
hymn, "Jehovah God! thy gracious power." Died 18 18, 
age 36. 

THRUSH, Captain R.N., sacrificed his naval rank, and 
the pension connected with it, for his Unitarian principles. 
Before going to sea he appears to have engaged in trade. On 
taking up his residence in Sutton, Yorkshire, he devoted his 
leisure to religious studies. A firm believer in the benefits of 
national worship, he regularly attended the Church of England, 
and only by silence in those parts of the service to which he 
objected showed his protest. Gradually, however, he with- 
drew from it, and printed a letter, giving as his reasons for 
withdrawal, that the solitary worshipper is heard by the Father 
in secret, and that, finding much he believed to be untrue in 
popular forms of worship, he could not join in it. His letter 
was attacked by Archdeacon Wrangham, but the Rev. C. 
Wellbeloved gave a decisive refutation to the Archdeacon's 
statements. His reflections on the subject of war, and its 
repugnance, as he thought, to the gospel, was the reason he 
assigned, in a letter to the king, for resigning his commission 
in the Navy. After this his life was devoted to the preparation 
of works on peace, and Unitarian Christianity. Many of 
these he printed himself with a small press of his own inven- 
tion, which he colild work with little exertion when crippled 
with rheumatism. Died July 10, 1843, age 82. 

TIMMINS, Rev. Thomas, Avidely known as the "Apostle 
of Mercy," was educated at the Home Missionary Board, and 
at the time of his decease was minister at Billingshurst. Con- 
jointly with Mr. Angel, he was the founder of the Universal 
Band of Mercy in America ; and in England, conjointly with 

TOU] 1 2 1 [tOU 

Lord and Lady ]Moimt-Temple, the means of establishinL'- 
many thousands of branches. He persevered in his work 
until the Education Department included kindness to animals 
in their code. In the prosecution of his self-imposed propa- 
ganda, he travelled thousands of miles both in America and 
England, founding his ^Mercy Bands. Died August 19, 1898, 
age 58. 

TOULMIN, Harry. Judge Toulmin was the son of 
the Rev. Dr. Joshua Toulmin (q.v.), and was himself for a 
time Unitarian minister at Chowbent. He spoke with such 
boldness on behalf of liberty when the French Revolution 
broke out, that, like Dr. Priestley, he was compelled to flee 
from England to America, where he became in due course 
Secretary of State for Kentucky, and finally Judge of the 
P'ederal Court for ^Mississippi. When Alabama was formed 
into a separate State he aided in framing its Constitution, in 
which is this clause, of his insertion ; — " No person in this 
State shall, upon any pretence, be deprived of the inestimable 
privilege of worshipping God in the manner most agreeable 
to his own conscience ; nor be compelled to pay any taxes lor 
religious purposes." Died June 21, 1823, age 56, 

TOUL:\nN, Dr. Joshua, was the son of Orthodox 
parents, and was trained for that ministry, but although his 
change of views was a disappointment to his friends, he was 
recommended to his first charge (Colyton) by one of his 
teachers, Dr. Savage. A difference on the subject of baptism 
brought his stay here to a close at the end of a year, and he 
received an invitation from the General Baptist Society at 
Taunton, where he ministered for nearly forty years. While 
here, he wrote a history of those memorable troubles in which 
the names of ^lonmouth on the one hand, and James H. and 
Judge Jeffreys on the other, are involved. On the outbreak 
of the French Revolution, which so disastrously aff'ected 
Priestley, the subject of our notice became so far a victim that 
his house was several times attacked and his life attempted, 
although he was a man most widely beloved. In 1 8 14 Toulmin 
accepted the joint charge, with Kentish, of the New .Meeting, 
Birmingham, which had formerly enjoyed the ministry of Dr. 
Priestley. Toulmin published over sixty books, among which 
were a supplement to Neal's History of the Puritans, Lives of 
Socinus, Biddle, and other biographies. He also contributed 

TOAV] 122 [tUR 

largely to various periodicals, and was besides a voluminous 
correspondent, many of his letters having been published. 
He was a Unitarian of the school of Priestley and Belsham, 
and was associated with several of the Unitarian Associations. 
Died July 23,1815. 

TOWGOOD, MicAiAH, was born at Axminster, in Devon. 
Of such delicate health in youth that an early death was 
feared, his life was prolonged to the uncommon age of 91 by 
regularity and temperance. Of Puritan blood, and grandson 
to one of the Ejected Ministers, Mr. Towgood was a zealous 
Nonconformist, and defended- with voice and pen the separa- 
tion from the Church of England, which, he contended, was 
solely a parliamentary church. He ministered successively as 
a pastor in the Moreton Hampstead, Crediton, and Exeter 
Chapels. He rejected the doctrine of the Deity of Jesus, 
though he retained his belief in the great teacher's pre- 
existence. He resigned his pastoral office after more than 
sixty years of service as a Christian minister. He was the 
author of a volume of letters known by the name of 
"Towgood's Dissent." Died February i, 1791. 

TUCKERMAN, Dr. Joseph, of Boston, U.S.A., was, it 
has been said, the founder of Domestic Missions. His early 
inclination for the Christian ministry was favoured by his 
elder brothers, who helped him to Harvard College, where 
he contracted a close friendship with Channing and Story. 
Commencing his ministerial course in a very humble sphere 
of life, he was called in 1826 to Boston to undertake the 
ministry-at-large which was there established, his main duty 
consisting of pastoral work in the most squalid quarters of the 
great city. In this work he was an enthusiast. Such efforts 
as he made were too great for long continuance, but even 
when he could no longer labour, he advised and directed. 
Dr. Tuckerman devoted much attention to poetry and classical 
literature. Died April 20, 1840. 

TURNER, Rev. William, came of a Presbyterian and 
sturdy Nonconformist stock. Educational and home influence 
combined to develop his devotional character. For nearly 
sixty years of his life he held the position of pastor to the 
Hanover Square Unitarian Congregation at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. With the duties of preacher he combined those, 
of schoolmaster, besides taking an active interest in the 

TVs] 1 2 3 [van 

establishment of a library and literary and philosophical 
association. Among his pupils were the tv/o Stephensons, of 
railway fame; while another was Sir Henry Holland, the 
accomplished royal physician. He was one of the first to 
introduce the Sunday school system on Raikes' plan in the 
North of England. Died April 24, 1859, age 95. 

TYSZKIEWICZ. This Unitarian burgher of Bielsk, in 
Poland, was cruelly tortured, his tongue plucked out, his hand 
and foot cut off, and himself finally burnt to death in Warsaw 
market-place, November 16, 161 1. 

VALDEZ, John, a Spaniard, was an accomplished and 
upright man who left the Court of Naples to devote himself 
to the promotion of religion. He was the means of establish- 
ing the first church of the Reformed Religion in Naples, which 
included persons of the first rank. His religious opinions 
may be best given in his own words : "I know nothing else 
of God and his Son than that there is one most high God the 
Father of Christ, and one Christ the son of God." The 
earliest account of Valdez is found in a letter addressed to 
him by Erasmus in 1528. Died 1540. 

VANE, Sir Hexry. Although a man of obscure 
idealism on many subjects, he was a religious thinker and 
writer of some depth, and his Universalism was very pro- 
nounced. He will be remembered in connection with Oliver 
Cromwell's impatient exclamation, " Sir Harry Vane, Sir 
Harry Vane, the Lord deliver me from Sir Harry Vane ! " 
Baxter called Vane's followers " Vanists." Beheaded June 
14, 1662, age 50, 

VAN PARRIS, George, was a surgeon, one of whom 
Burnet says that " he was a man of wonderful strict life, and 
of great self-denial and devotion." Proceedings were taken 
against him for declaring that '• God the Father was the only 
God, and the Christ was not very God." Notwithstanding the 
threat of death by burning, he held nobly to his view that 
it was " not heresy to call (jod the Father the only God," 
and was therefore pronounced an " obstinate heretic," and 
delivered over to the secular power as " a child of the devil 
and of all unrighteousness." Intercessions on his behalf were 
vainly made, and he suffered the penalty of his faithfulness 
with great constancy, " kissing the stake and the faggots 
which were to burn him." Burnt at Smithfield, April 25, 1551. 

VOG] 124 ' [WAL 

VOGEL, Catharine, of Poland, was among the first 
martyrs of modern times for Unitarianism in a city in which it 
afterwards flourished. The following is the avowal she made 
before her judges of her views of God :— " I believe in the 
existence of One God, who has created all the visible and 
invisible world, and who cannot be conceived by the human 
intellect." Her position appeared to her judges'to be akin to 
that of the Jews, against whom the Roman Cathohc Church 
felt a cruel enmity, and she was led to the stake. She bore 
her sufferings with the most heroic courage, remaining firm 
in the expression of her faith to the last. Burnt at Cracow, 
March 27, 1539, age 80. 

VORST, Dr. Conrad, was the successor of Arminius at 
Leyden. While still a Roman Catholic, Vorst was a non- 
subscriber, for he refused to sign the Canons of Trent, and 
hence could not take his M.A. degree at Cologne, obtaining 
his D.D. at Heidelberg. His treatise " De Deo " was burned 
at St. Paul's Cross by order of James L, who, after its destruc- 
tion, proceeded to write a " Confutation " of it. Vorst was 
banished from Holland for his Unitarian opinions, and died 
in Holstein, September 29, 1623, age 53. 

WALKER, Rev. George, F.R.S., as a preacher was a 
splendid orator, but he deprecated the inferior regard in 
which the devotional part of the service was sometimes held, 
and is said to have remarked jocularly to his students on one 
occasion : " You read the Word of God in the basement ; to 
deliver your own nonsense you go up into the parlour." He 
ministered at Durham, Great Yarmouth, and Nottingham. 
He was Mathematical Tutor at Warrington, and Professor of 
l^heology at Manchester College. Died April 21, i8o7,age72. 

WALLACE, Rev. Robert, F.G.S., was born at Dudley, 
Worcestershire. His early education was followed by study 
at the New Manchester College, York, after which he 
entered on the ministry (Unitarian) at the Elder-yard, Chester- 
field, which he held for a quarter of a century. He after- 
wards filled the Theological Chair of York College, and when 
compelled by ill-health to resign this post, he accepted the 
pastorate at Trim Street, Bath, which he was able to continue for 
four years only. He wrote much, among other productions 
being a valuable work of reference, entitled " Antitrinitarian 
Biography." Died 1850, age 59. 

war] 1 2 5 [WEI> 

WARE, Dr. Henry, was an American preacher ante- 
cedent to Channing. For twenty-four years he was Theological 
Professor at Harvard University, and thus exerted an immense 
influence in shaping the thought of many students who after- 
wards became eminent men. Among his children was the 
well-known and revered Prof. Henry Ware. It is said of Dr. 
Ware that as he grew increasingly weak in body the Bible 
became more and more the companion of his quiet hours, 
and at length his only book. Died June 12, 1845, age 81. 

WARE, Professor Henry, of America, a son of Rev. 
Dr. Ware (q.v.), early evinced considerable abilities, passing 
from school to college (teaching in a school to supplement 
the needful funds), which he left in his seventeenth year for a 
tutorship. He afterwards accepted the charge of the Second 
Church in Boston. After travel necessited by ill-health, he 
resigned the pulpit, and accepted the post of Professor of 
Pastoral Theology at Cambridge, United States. During his 
tenure of this office he issued many of the works by which he 
is best known, among them "The Life of the Saviour," 
*' Recollections of Jotham Anderson," " The Formation of 
the Christian Character," and a series of " Sermons on the 
Character and Offices of Christ." His poetical abilities were 
of a high order, as witnessed by many beautiful hymns and 
pieces addressed to his friends. Died September 21, 1843, 
age 47. 

WEDGWOOD, JosiAH, born at Burslem, .in Stafford- 
shire, was spoken of by ^Ir. Gladstone as "perhaps the m.ost 
distinguished individual in the whole history of commerce, 
taken from the earliest ages." He was the son of a master 
potter, and leaving school at the age of twelve, was for the 
most part self-educated. To his artistic taste and his study of 
chemistry we owe the blue and cream-coloured ware, with 
white figures on it, which bears his name. Flaxman, the 
sculptor, worked for years with Wedgwood, and supplied him 
with the classical designs that have made his work famous. He 
was a man of literary tastes, was a Liberal in politics, a Unitarian 
in religion, and did much for the benefit of his native town, 
besides giving munificently, both in public and private sub- 
scriptions, to any object that could bless his fellow-creatures. 
The town of Stoke has put up a colossal statue of him in front 
of the railway station. Died January 3, 1795, age 65. 

A^'EL] 126 [avhe 

WELLBELOVED, Rev. Charles, a Bible commentator, 
was born in London, and after school routine was placed in 
a retail establishment in the City. His heart's desire, how- 
ever, was for the ministry, and he entered the Homerton 
Academy, whence he removed to the New College at Hackney. 
On completing his college course he accepted an invitation 
to York as assistant to Mr. Cappe (q.v.), on whose death he 
was chosen minister of St. Saviour- gate Chapel, which office 
he held for fifty-six years. Without resigning his ministry he 
accepted the dignity of Principal of the Manchester New 
College, York, being at the same time its Divinity Tutor. His 
writings included Letters, Serm.ons, Devotional Exercises, Reli- 
gious Biographies, and volumes of Antiquities ; but the most 
important of his works was his Family Bible, of which, how- 
ever, only a comparatively small portion was completed. 
Died 1858, age 90. 

WELLS, Rev. G. H., M.A., obtained his degree at the 
Glasgow University. His first settlement in the ministry was 
with the ancient Presbyterian (Unitarian) Church at Rivington, 
whence he proceeded to the venerable Chapel at Gorton, 
where, by the munificence of a member of his congregation, 
a large Gothic church v/as built. He rendered important 
service to his ministerial brethren in Lancashire and Cheshire, 
especially in the management of the " Widows' Fund." In 
public recognition of his high character and conspicuous 
usefulness, his portrait was placed by subscription in the 
Memorial Hall, in company with the pictures of his friends, 
the Revs. Dr. Beard and William Gaskell. Died July 17, 
1881, age 77. 

WHEAl'ON, Henry, American jurist, was born in Pro- 
vidence, Rhode island. After his college course he visited 
P^urope, and studied the legal and political institutions of 
France and England. Returning to America, he began to 
practise as a lawyer, and filled in turn the offices of a judge 
of the INlarine Court of New York, Rejjorter of the Supreme 
Court of the U.S., and Representative of tlie United States 
in Denm.ark and in Berlin, and, after twcnt}' years of diplo- 
matic service, was appointed a J^rofessor in Harvard Univer- 
sity. He wrote largely for the American Press ; twelve 
volumes of his Reports, enriched with his notes, have been- 
called " the Golden Book of American Law ;" he published a 

WHi] 127 [WHI 

work on "International Law," followed by a " History" of 
that science ; and wrote pamphlets, articles for the leading 
journals of America and Europe, and letters to learned 
societies on both sides of the Atlantic. In his religious life, 
he was a founder of and communicant at the First Unitarian 
Church in New York, and when in Paris he was a worshipper 
in the Reformed Church under I\I, Coquerel (q.v..). Died 
March 11, 1848. age 63. 

WHITE, Rev. Joseph Blanco, born at Seville, was of 
Irish descent on his father's side, and on his mother's con- 
nected with the old Andalusian nobility. Intended by his father 
for mercantile life, he, by his own wish, entered the Roman 
Catholic Church, and, as Dr. Channing said, " passed in his 
short life through stages which centuries are required to 
accomplish in the of the race." Relinquishing his 
•clerical for editorial duties, he came to England, where he 
joined the Church of England, and became a tutor. He was 
afterwards resident for three years at the Archiepiscopal Palace, 
Dublin, with his friend Dr. Whateley, which he left before 
openly avowing the Unitarian opinions at which he finally 
-arrived. He took great interest in the social and religious 
questions of the day, and aided in the formation of the Liver- 
pool Domestic Mission. Among his writings were " The 
Poor ]\Ian's Preservative against Popery," "The Internal 
Evidence against Catholicism," " Second Travels of an Irish 
Gentleman " (written in answ^er to Moore's "Travels of an 
Irish Gentleman in Search of a Religion "), " Heresy and 
Orthodoxy," and half-a-dozen hymns in our hymn-books. 
Died ^lay, 1842, age 66. 

WHITEHEAD, Rev. James Thornely, of London, 
was son of a Unitarian minister, whom he succeeded in the 
pulpit at Ainsworth, Lancashire, after a previous ministry at 
Altrincham and Hale. In 1870 he became minister of the 
New Gravel Pit Church, Hackney, London, which he resigned, 
owing to ill-health, after niore than twenty years of service. 
He was during nearly the whole of his ministry at Hackney a 
member of the Executive of the British and Foreign L^nitarian 
Association ; for some years a trustee of Dr. Williams's 
Library ; a member of the Presbyterian Board ; and at various 
•times served on the Committees of the London District, 
Unitarian Societv and the London Domestic Mission. He 


ao] 128 [avil. 

was a member of the old Board of Works, and prominently 
connected with the local branch of the Charity Organization 
Society. Of musical ability, he was one of the editors of the 
musical edition of Dr. Martineau's " Hymns of Praise and 
Prayer." Died October 22, 1898, age 64. 

WIGHTMAN, Edward, was burnt for heresy in the 
early part of the seventeenth century, when Unitarianism was 
punishable by death. When called upon by the Bishop of 
Lichfield for his answer , to the charge made against him, 
Wightman made a speech that moved the hearts of many of 
those arrayed against him ;but the bishop hurried on the 
martyr's execution, so that he himself might be able to return 
to London to examine the new translation of the Bible ordered 
by the king, who also, the bishop thought, would be discon- 
tented unless he heard of the death or conversion of the 
heretic. As an evidence of the sympathy excited, it is said 
that a note was put into Wightman's hands, from the chan- 
cellor of Lichfield Cathedral, expressive of sorrow, and 
informing him that his wife and children would be abun- 
dantly provided for. Burnt April 11, 161 1, age 52. 

WILKOWSKI, Samuel. He was a Polish Unitarian of 
the modern, as distinguished from the Socinian school. Died 

July 4. 1599- 

WILLIAMS, Helen Maria, poetess, was born in the 
North of England, her father being descended from the 
Huguenots, and her mother from the Covenanters. Miss 
Williams was well known in French literary circles, her poems 
having been translated by two popular Academicians. She 
became an earnest Girondist, and under the tyranny of Robe- 
spierre was arrested, and kept for some time a close prisoner 
in the Temple at Paris : and the Reign of Terror swept away 
most of the fortune of herself and her sister. To the influence 
and training of Miss Williams the Coquerel family were 
largely indebted, and her nephew, Athanase Coquerel (q.v.), 
endeavoured to repay her care by assisting her in the transla- 
tion of Humboldt's works (fourteen volumes) into English, 
and later in life took her, with her sister, into his own home, 
thus brightening their last days. Among her poems she 
published an ode on " Peace," one on " Peru," and a volume 
of Miscellaneous Poems, including the hymn beginning, 
"Whilst thee I seek, protecting Power." Died 1827, age 65. 

WIl] 129 |_WOL 

WILLIAMS, Sarah Joanna, was the daughter of a 
Unitarian minister, and was born at Halifax. She early mani- 
fested a taste for poetry, her first published work being a 
poem on Sherwood Forest. She afterwards published a little 
book entitled " Geography in Verse for Children," and various 
short poems, chiefly of a religious character. Among her prose 
writings was one on the " Love of God to I\Ian," which was 
highly appreciated. She also devoted herself to teaching the 
young. Died May, 1844, age 39. 

WILLIS, Robert, ^I.D., was a physician living in 
Barnes, Surrey, who translated the works of Spinoza for the 
Sydenham Society, produced a " Life of Spinoza," and a book 
on " Servetus and Calvin." At the time of his death he was 
engaged on a '' Life of Harvey." He was at one time 
Librarian to the College of Surgeons. Died September 21, 
1878, age 80. 

WINTERBOTTOM, Archibald, of Manchester, was 
one of those who justify the definition once given of a 
Unitarian as a man who paid twenty shillings in the pound. 
Entering the service of a ^lanchester firm he became manager 
of a department at nineteen, and was taken into partnership at 
thirty. Opening a warehouse on his own account, commercial 
reverses compelled him to arrange with his creditors. A more 
successful venture enabled him to fulfil the desire he had 
cherished for thirteen years of discharging every liability 
attached to his name, and he settled all former claims upon 
him, amounting to over _;^2o,ooo, an honourable act which 
was recognised by the presentation of an address and a 
testimonial. He manifested an earnest interest in the foun- 
dation of the Home Missionary Board. He was an officer of 
the ?*Ionton (Unitarian) Church, and had also a pew at Cross 
Street Chapel, ^Manchester. Died January 18, 1886. 

WISZOWATY, Pastor Andreas, was nephew of Andreas 
Wiszowaty, and grandson of Faustus Socinus. It was he 
who superintended the printing at Amsterdam, by Francis 
Kuyper, of the famous ISibliolhcca Fra/rutn Polonoriifn, which 
contains the classics of early Unitarian criticism. Died July 
29, 1678, age 70. 

WOLZOGEN, Baron Johann Ludwig von. Educated 
a Calvinist, and offered the highest promotion in Austria on 
condition of turning Catholic, he became a follower of 


woo] 130 [WOR 

Socinus during his abode in Poland, and was the editor of 
the ''Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum." Died September 16, 
1661, age 62. 

WOOD, George William, M.P., born at Leeds, was 
earlv destined to a business life, which he followed till he 
had realised a moderate fortune, when he retired from trade 
to devote himself more entirely to public service. The 
Manchester Savings Bank owed its origin to him, the Royal 
Institution numbers him among its founders, and the exist- 
ence of the Majichester Guardian is due to him. In his 
religious connection, he was treasurer for several years of the 
Manchester New College, York. As a member of Parliament, 
he introduced a Bill to enable Dissenters to enter the National 
Universities (carried in the Commons, but rejected by the 
Lords), and gave assistance in constructing the Dissenters' 
Chapels Bill. Died October 3, 1843, age 62. 

WORCESTER, Dr. Noah, born in New Hampshire, 
U.S.A., was the son of a soldier in Washington's army, 
himself becoming from choice first a fifer, and by promotion 
a fife-major in one of the regiments, serving in the latter 
capacity at the battle of Bunker's Hill, and continuing a 
soldier till nearly the close of the War of Independence. 
Later in life he was known as one of the founders of 
Peace Societies. His pursuit of knowledge was carried on 
under difficulties, for he practised his hand-writing on the 
surface of beech-bark, and thought himself fortunate in 
the possession of an English dictionary. He was in turns 
school-teacher, Calvinistic pastor, farmer, shoemaker, Town 
Clerk, Justice of the Peace, legislator, and editor. In the 
course of his studies he saw reason to doubt, and then to 
discard, the doctrine of the Trinity, other dogmas of orthodoxy 
being also afterwards rejected. He was a friend of Dr. 
Channing. Died October 31, 1857. 

WORSLEY, Rev. Israel, born at Hertford, was descended 
on the maternal side from one of the Ejected Ministers of 
1662. Resolving to devote himself to the ministry, he passed 
from his father's school to Daventry, and thence to Aberdeen. 
He ministered first to a congregation of i^nglish Presbyterians 
at Amsterdam, removing to Dunkirk for the performance of 
similar duties, after which he returned to his native land just 
before the breaking out of the revolution in France, and for 

wor] 1 3 1 [WRI 

a time gave up the pastoral office. He then went again to 
France and opened a school, when, with other English resi- 
dents, he was arrested and committed to prison. Making his 
escape to Holland, he passed over with his family to England, 
and accepted a ministerial position in Lincoln, where he 
openly preached Unitarianism. After seven years he removed 
to Plymouth, where he spent twenty years, after which he 
once more returned to France. Among his published writings 
were "The State of France," "A History of the Christian 
Church," a few sermons, some books for the use of schools, 
and a treatise on the North American Indians. Died at 
Havre, 1836. 

WORSLEY, Rev. William, B.A., second son of the 
Rev. Israel Worsley (q.v.), was for fifty years a Unitarian 
minister. Although not much known beyond his sphere of 
labour in Gainsborough, he was there highly esteemed for his 
pulpit ministrations, as also for the part he took in the battles 
for Catholic Emancipation, and the preparation for the Reform 
Bill of 1832. He was one of the founders of and a frequent 
lecturer in the Gainsborough INIechanics' Institute, and served 
the interests of the town in a variety of ways. Died I\Iay 21, 
1881, age 85. 

WRIGHT, Rev. John, of Bath, was grandson of Rev. 
Richard Wright (q.v.), the Unitarian missionary. His first 
settlement in the ministry was as assistant at vSt. Saviourgate, 
York, whence he removed to King Edward Street Chapel, 
^lacclesfield, and from that place to Bank Street, Bury, where 
he ministered for twenty years. Resigning this charge on the 
ground of health, he became minister of Trim Street Chapel, 
Bath, and remained there for seven years, when he resigned the 
ministry. Among his publications were "Popular Introduction 
to the Bible," *' Religious Truths and Duties," " Unitarianism 
and Unitarians" ; he was also for a period one of the editors 
of the Unitarian Herald. For many years he was a tutor 
in the Unitarian Home ^Missionary Board (now College) 
at Manchester ; he also acted as secretary to the Provincial 
Assembly of Lancashire and Cheshire. Died March 26, 1900, 
^ge 75. 

WRIGHT, Rev. Richard, well known at one time as a 
Unitarian missionary, was born at a small Norfolk village, of 
lowly parents, who were Calvinists, the mother becoming 

WRi]. 132 [yAT 

Unitarian at the age of seventy. Richard's progress from 
Orthodoxy was rapid, and he became minister first of the 
congregation of General Baptists at Wisbeach, and after- 
wards Missionary of the Unitarian Fund, the parent of the 
British and Foreign Association. He spent eight years in 
itinerant ministry, travelling about three thousand miles a-year 
at a time when journeying was very expensive, save on foot. 
When, between fifty and sixty, his bodily powers began to fail, 
he preached in and around London, contracting his labour by 
becoming minister at Trowbridge, whence he removed to a 
quieter field of labour in Kirkstead, Lincolnshire. He was 
the author of many works, nearly all bearing on the Unit- 
arian controversy. Died 1836, age 73. 

WRIGLEY, Thomas, was a paper-maker in Bury, 
Lancashire, who was a magistrate, and afterwards a deputy- 
lieutenant of the county of Lancaster ; and served also as high 
sheriff of Lancashire. He was largely interested in public 
companies, and was the first to suggest the construction of 
the Manchester, Bury, and Rossendale line. He devoted 
much thought to the safer working of railway traffic, and by a 
series of what he called '' affirmative signals," anticipated what 
is now known as the " block system." Previously to the 
passing of the Elementary Education Act, 1870, he had advo- 
cated compulsory education. He maintained a life-long 
connection with the Unitarian Chapel, Bury, and a stained - 
glass window and an elegant pulpit are evidences of his 
liberality. Died January 26, 1880, age 71. 

WRIGLEY, William, J. P. As a young man of rare 
gifts, he became keenly interested in the question of Parlia- 
mentary reform, and was active in the Chartist and Free 
Trade struggles. In the movement for the incorporation of 
Oldham, he took the foremost part, was returned for the 
Municipal Council, and two years afterwards was elected 
Mayor. A Unitarian, he excited turmoil by inviting the 
Council to a Nonconformist Church. Deeply interested in 
education, :he took his place as a member of the first Oldham 
School Board. For his services to the town, he was presented 
on his seventieth birthday with a life-size oil-painting of 
himself, Vv^hich found a place on the walls of the Reform Club. 
Died July 16, 1890, age 78. 

YATES, Rev. James, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., was 

yat] 133 [you 

fourth son of Rev. John Yates, was educated at Glasgow and 
York, discharged ministerial duties at Glasgow, Birmingham 
(New Meeting), London (Carter Lane), and was Secretary of 
the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. While going 
through his Theological Course at Glasgow, he opened 
Unitarian Services of Public Worship in the town, and this 
is claimed to be the foundation of the present St. Yincent 
Street Church. His principal work, "The Vindication of 
Unitarianism," was published in 1815 in answer to Dr. 
Wardlaw's Discourses, and was followed by a "Sequel," in 
consequence of Dr. Wardlaw's Reply, and by and bye a second 
and a third edition of the Vindication were called for. It was 
also reprinted in America, and remains as a most admirable 
defence, on Scriptural grounds, of the Unitarian position. In 
later years he left the ministry, and turned his attention to 
classical subjects. He has left a volume on " The Art of 
Weaving among the Ancients," which never reached the 
promised second volume. He retired to live at Highgate in 
Lauderdale House, the old historic dwelling of Nell Gwyn. 
Here his Unitarian gatherings, summer after summer, in the 
picturesque garden (since thrown into Waterlow Park), were 
both profitable and delightful. Died i\Iay 7, 1871, age 82. 

YATES, Richard Vaughan, brother of Rev. James 
Yates (q.v.), was a Liverpool merchant, a good scholar, a 
thoroughly consistent Unitarian, characterised by almost 
princely benevolence. He was the writer of the hymn in 
Martineau's collection, " O God ! to thee my sinking soul." 

YELLAND, Rev. Robert, was a native of Tavistock, 
and began his ministerial work in connection with the 
Methodists. He formed in Tavistock an intimate acquaint- 
ance v\dth the Rev. Henry Solly, through whose influence, 
probably, he entered the Unitarian ministry. He officiated 
first at Billingshurst, Sussex ; afterwards at Ringwood, Hants ; 
and finally settled at Sidmouth, where he died September 1 1, 
1889, age 75. 

YOUNG, Thomas, of London, was a solicitor, who in 
public life will be remembered from the fact that his foresight 
and commercial enterprise contributed to the founding of the 
town of Clacton-on-Sea, which, found by him little more than 
a field, is now a favourite resort of tens of thousands in the 
holiday season, and is visited in the summer by a fleet of the 

zsc] 134 [zwi 

finest steamers in the world. Better still, by his gratuitous 
advice in legal matters, he established grateful memories in 
many a home. He was an ardent temperance reformer. He 
worshipped, when in London, with the Unitarian congrega- 
tion at Newington Green Chapel. Died November 2, 1896, 
age 82. 

ZSCHOKKE, John Henry Daniel, born at Magde- 
burg, in Prussia, was a popular German writer, who took up 
his residence in Switzerland, where he was successively 
employed as the head of an educational establishment,. 
Governor of Basle, and after the federal union of Switzerland 
in 1803, member of the Council of Forests and Mines. He 
was a voluminous and versatile writer, his principal works 
being " Historical Memoirs of the Swiss Revolution," " His- 
tory of Switzerland for the Swiss People," several novels 
which have been translated into English, and his Autobio- 
graphy, which has also appeared in an English version. 
Among his religious productions, the most popular was 
*' Hours of Devotion " ; on the title-page the following words 
appear as "published by her Majesty's gracious permission" : — 
" They have been selected for translation by one to whom, 
in deep and overwhelming sorrow, they have proved a source 
of comfort and edification " (June, 1862). Died 184.8, 
age 77. 

ZWICKER, Daniel, M.D., a learned Prussian Unitarian 
writer, author of ** Irenicum Irenicorum " (1658) and other 
works. Died at Dantzic 1678, age 66. 


ACONTIUS, James, was a native of Italy, from which 
he was exiled on account of his religious opinions. Originally 
a Catholic, but becoming Protestant, he visited England, 
where he met with a kind reception from Queen Elizabeth, to 
whom he dedicated a work entitled "The Stratagems of 
Satan," printed at Basle in 1565. He wrote a work that gave 
great offence to orthodox people, because of the author's 
attempt to simplify the Christian faith, and his insistance on 
the necessity of more tolerance of differences of opinion 
among religious people. In his search after religious truth, 
he advocated tolerance for the Unitarian faith, though he did 
not hold it. Died 1565, age 45. 

BEVAN, Mary Rees, Gelligron, Glamorganshire, was the 
daughter of earnest Nonconformists, and married first the 
Rev. David Rees, Presbyterian minister of Aberdare, and 
afterwards Mr. Bevan, a surgeon of the same town. On his 
death, when she was about eighty, she went to live with her 
son, the Rev, Josiah Rees, and studied the Unitarian faith, 
which she adopted. Losing her sight a few years before her 
death, she devoted herself to the composition of Welsh poetry ; 
and though some of her poems consisted of a hundred lines, 
and were never put into writing, she carried them in her 
memory, and could repeat them without hesitation or mistake. 
Died 181 8, age 100. 

BUTLER, William, w^as born near the city of Worcester, 
and early distinguished himself as an instructor of youth, and 
is now chiefly remembered for his useful school books, which 
marked an era in the art of tuition by aid of books. Among 
these, he drew up a series of geographical exercises on the 
New Testament. His Unitarianism was denied by some of his 
friends, but, as the Times of the day remarked, his book bears 
ample evidence that he was a Unitarian. Died 1822, age 74. 

cab] 136 [car 

CABOT, Hon. George, was an American statesman 
who, at the early age of eighteen, became master of a ship, 
and visited various parts of Europe as a student of manners 
and laws. At the early age of twenty-six he distinguished 
himself as an advocate of Free Trade. He became a member 
of the Provincial Congress, helped to frame the Constitution 
of Massachusetts, was elected a senator in the National 
Congress, and in 1814 president of the Hartford Convention, 
which assembled just before the close of the war with England. 
Died 1823, age 72. 

CAMPANUS, John, of "Novara, was an Italian mathe- 
matician, the first translator of Euclid from the Arabic. He 
was on intimate terms with both Luther and Melancthon, 
but displeased them both by his expression of opinion. In 
1532 he openly attacked the doctrine of the Trinity, and in 
the following year issued a pamphlet against it. In the same 
year he was thrown into prison, where he was confined for 
twenty-six years. It is said that he regained his freedom 
after this long confinement, retreated from the public eye, 
and lived to a great age. 

CAPER, John, a martyr to the Unitarian faith he adopted 
in his old age, was born in the early part of the sixteenth 
century. For twenty-eight years pastor of the Evangelical 
Church of Meseritz, he was removed from his office by a synod 
held at Posnania for his views about the Lord's Supper. 
When over eighty years of age, and while minister at Smigel, 
he was dragged from his home by a company of horsemen, 
and drowned in a pond. 

CAPITO, Wolfgang Fabricius, a Hebrew scholar of 
Alsace, was a friend of Cellariiis (q.v.), and was himself a 
Unitarian. He superintended the publication of the Greek 
New Testament which was published at Strasburg in 1524, 
and was the author of several Bible Commentaries. Died at 
Strasburg 1542, age 64. 

CARDALE, Paul, born at Dudley, and in the first stage 
of his career a Calvinist, was a pioneer of the Unitarian 
Church when Lindsey (q.v.) was a Churchman, and Priestley 
(q.v.) an Arian. In the year 1733 he began a ministry which 
was long and useful at Evesham. He was not known as 
Unitarian till, in 1767, he published a book called "The 
True Doctrine of the New Testament concerning Jesus Christ 

cat] 137 [CLA 

Considered," prefixed to which was a " Discourse upon the 
Right of Private Judgment in blatters of Religion." In his 
last days he found occupation in the composition of an 
"Inquiry whether we have Scripture Warrant for a Direct 
Address of Supplication, Praise, or Thanksgiving, either to 
the Son, or to the Holy Ohost." Died February, J 775, 
age 70. 

CATZ, Charles, was a native of Holland, of whom little 
more is known than that he lived about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, that his views were Unitarian, and that 
he was the author of a translation of the New Testament into 
the Dutch language. 

CHANNING, Rev. William Henry, was a nephew of the 
eminent Dr. Channing(q.v.),of Boston, and father-in-law of Sir 
Edwin Arnold, C.S.I. Born at Boston, in the United States, 
he graduated with distinction at Harvard University in 1829, 
and was ordained at Cincinnati. After serving as pastor to 
several religious societies in America, he followed IMr. Thom at 
the Renshaw Street Unitarian Chapel, and succeeded Dr. James 
Martineau at the Hope Street Unitarian Church in Liverpool. 
He returned to America at the timiC of the Civil War, and bore 
a patriotic part on the side of the North, ministering to the 
wounded Federal soldiers in field hospitals and at the front, 
and afterwards for some time officiating as chaplain to the 
House of Representatives. Among his works may be men- 
tioned his life of his uncle. Dr. Channing, in three volumes ; 
translation of Jouffroy's " Ethics " ; a " Memoir of James 
Perkins," written in conjunction with Emerson and Freeman 
Clarke; "Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli " ; and his 
edition of " The Perfect Life," the last-named being a 
posthumous volume of the sermons of Dr. Channing, v.ith a 
Preface. Died P^ecember 23, 1884., age 74. 

CLAUDE, of Savoy, was a man of some position who 
travelled from country to country endeavouring to spread his 
Unitarian views. About the year 1530 he created some 
sensation among the pastors in Berne by his novel doctrines, 
and in Germany was arrested and sent away, going to Italy, 
whence, after some stay, he returned to Germany, but was 
again arrested at Augsberg, and compelled to quit the city.. 
After this he was banished from place to place owing to his 
teaching of the oneness of God. Nothing is heard of him 

coq] 138 [dar 

after the year 1555, and the time and place of his death are 

COQUEREL, Athanase Joseph, was born in Amster- 
dam, and, like his father (q.v.), was one of the most eloquent 
of French preachers, and besides, recognized as a scholar, 
critic, patriot, artist, and philanthropist. His efforts on behalf 
of the liberty of French Protestants were prolonged and 
severe. Notwithstanding his unpopularity with the Govern- 
ment — owing to his religious attitude — he was decorated 
with the Legion of Honour. Being suspended from the 
French Protestant Church, he established, with the sanction 
of the Government, a Church of his own, apart from any help 
from the Consistory of Paris. On more than one occasion he 
preached in Unitarian Churches in America and England, 
and one year preached the annual sermon of the British 
and Foreign Unitarian Association. During the siege of 
Paris he suffered much with his people, and by the griefs and 
hardships he endured was brought to his grave almost in the 
prime of his manhood. Died July 24, 1875, age 55. 

DARWIN, Charles Robert, F.R.S., the eminent 
naturalist, was born at Shrewsbury, to the Unitarian Chapel 
at which place he was, as a boy, taken by his mother. He 
distinguished himself by his zoological and geological dis- 
coveries, and became also widely known by his work, " The 
Voyage of Naturalists " — a record of the observations he 
made in several of the countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle^ to 
which he was attached as Naturalist. He also wrote several 
other v/orks which place him high among geologists. His 
** Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection " is a work 
that has occasioned much controversy. He was connected 
through his mother with Josiah Wedgwood (q.v.), who was a 
worshipper in the Unitarian Chapel at Newcastle, Stafford- 
shire. Died April 19, 1882, age 73. 

DARWIN, Erasmus, M.D., of Lichfield, grandfather of 
C. R. Darwin (qv.), Avas a poet, botanist, and philosopher, 
who, after taking his Doctor's degree at Cambridge, practised 
as a medical man at Lichfield. His literary fame rests upon 
his " Botanic Garden," with philosophical notes. He was, 
besides, the author of papers in the " Philosophical Transac- 
tions," and a tract on ** Female Education." He had also a 
share in the formation of the '* System of Vegetables " of 

DE m] 139 [hOL 

Linnceiis, published in the name of the Botanical Society at 
Lichfield. He wrote the hymn, "The Lord, how tender is 
his love," in INIartineau's Collection. Died 1802, age 71. 

DE MORGAN, Professor Augustus, logician and mathe- 
matician, was son of a British officer, and was born at Madura, 
a little island near the coast of Java. He was a student at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, but was debarred the degree he 
might have taken by his unwillingness to subscribe the Thirty- 
nine Articles. He was for many years a Professor in University 
College, London. In religion he was a Unitarian, though 
his description of himself was "a Christian unattached." 
For some years he was a contributor to the Athenceum. Died 
March. 1871, age 65. 

ERBURY, William, was a Welsh clergyman, and a 
chaplain in the Parliamentary army, who became an Inde- 
pendent at the beginning of the Long Parliament, and officiated 
for some time as a chaplain to the Earl of Essex's army. In 
London he openly preached Universalist views, and in 1645 
was preaching at Bury St. Edmunds the doctrine of Uni- 
versalism. Died 1634. 

EVANS, Rev. William, was born in Wales, and after a 
course of study in Carmarthen College, where he distinguished 
himself in Classics, became co-pastor with Dr. Toulmin at 
Taunton, whence he removed to an appointment at Tavistock. 
Here he so boldly preached Unitarianism to a congregation 
some of which were inclined to Calvinism, that he lost many 
who had supported the Abbey Chapel, but he laboured on 
cheerfully, notwithstanding his small salary. Among many 
good works he established a public library and reading 
room in Tavistock, and a mechanics' institute and library, 
presenting to the latter a large number of books. He Avas 
an earnest champion of civil and religious liberty. He 
resigned his pulpit after a ministry of forty-seven years. He 
was a constant contributor to periodical literature, published 
many sermons and lectures, translated some Spanish ballads 
and a portion of Tasso's ** Jerusalem Delivered" (with Notes 
for the use of Italian scholars), and left an unfinished work 
'' On the Future State of the Soul." Died 1847, age 74. 

HOLYOKE, Ed-ward Augustus, ^LD., LL.D., was an 
American whose father was President of Harvard College, and 
his mother a direct descendant of Rogers, the Smithfield 

h6w] 140 [kin 

martyr. He was an indefatigable student, and for eighty 
years recorded his meteorological observations. At the age 
of Qo he was writing a " Summary of Duties," and in his loist 
year he began his MS. Recollections. He was a diligent 
reader of the Bible, and studied the Greek Testament until 
the last year of his life. Educated as a Trinitarian, he after- 
wards adopted Unitarian views. 

HOWE, Rev. Thomas, of Devon, after a college course 
at Hoxton Academy, entered the family of Sir Harry Trelawney 
as domestic chaplain, and afterwards became pastor of a small 
society at Ringwood, Hants. Thence he removed to Bridport, 
where he ministered for thirty years. The Blasphemy Act 
was on the Statute Book during nearly the whole period of 
his ministry, and the Test and Corporation Acts were still 
unrepealed ; but many of the members of the Corporation of 
Bridport were Nonconformists, and the Unitarian cause was 
supported by many of the higher classes of the town. Died 
I 820, age 62. 

JOHNSON, Joseph, born in Liverpool, was a Unitarian 
bookseller in London, who published the Rev. Theophilus 
Lindsey's works ; and took, on his own responsibility, and fitted 
up as a place of worship, the house in Essex Street which 
was afterwards known as Essex Street Chapel, in Avhich he 
became a worshipper. He it was who applied for the 
magistrates' licence for its opening, and when the Bench 
demurred, accompanied the Attorney-General Lee to Hicks' 
Hall to demand compliance with the requirements of the 
Toleration Act. He was Cowper's publisher for many years, 
and introduced Miss Edgeworth's works to the public. He 
v/as a good friend to poor but worthy authors. Died Decem- 
ber 20, 1809, age 70. 

JOY, Henry, was an Lishman who exercised great 
influence over the development of his country. During the 
period of the French and American Revolutions, the struggles 
between the Irish and the English Parliament, and the union 
of the two countries, he was, till 1795, editor and proprietor 
of the Belfast News-Lelter, founded by his grandfather, ?>ancis 
Joy, in 1737, and for a long time the only journal in the 
province of Ulster. Died April 14, 1835, age 80. 

KING, Rev. Thomas Starr, was an American. His 
father, an Episcopalian minister, died early, and the widow being 

mil] 141 [OCH 

left poorly off, Starr was sent out to work at the ao-e of fifteen. 
From a clerkship in a dry goods store he passed to school 
teaching, becoming assistant in the school in which he had 
received his own education. His attainments at the age of 
nineteen were thus summarized by Theodore Parker (q.v.) : — 
*' Reads French, Spanish, Latin, Italian, a little Greek, and 
begins German." He was fond of metaphysical studies, into, 
which he entered eagerly. Brought up a Universalist, he 
early joined a Unitarian Church, wished to become a Unit- 
arian preacher, and attained the object of his aspiration just 
as he was turned twenty. Both as preacher and lecturer he 
was highly successful. So much was he sought after, and so 
sedulously did he devote himself to his labours, that his 
strength broke down soon after a new church had been built 
for him in San Francisco, whence he had gone from Boston. 
Died March 4, 1864, age 40. 

MILTON, John, the great English poet, was born in 
London, and educated first at St. Paul's School, and afterwards 
at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he took his degree in 
Arts, being designed for the Bar or the Church. Owing to a 
natural weakness and intense application to his studies, he 
lost his sight, but still produced works that made his name 
immortal. In the political struggles of his time he took the 
Parliamentary side against the King, and at the Restoration 
was compelled to conceal himself till he obtained a pardon. 
He held Unitarian opinions in the riper years of his life, and 
before the discovery in the British IMuseum of his MS. treatise 
on Christian doctrine the Arian tendency of his theology 
had been noted. Died 1674, age 66. 

^MITCHELL, Rev. William, was born at Halifax, whence 
he removed with his parents (who were Congregationalists) 
to Stanningley, near Leeds. He passed through a period of 
scepticism to Unitarianism, and became practically founder of 
the Free Christian Church, Leicester. He also ministered at 
Hinckley, Glasgow, Accrington, and Longsight. He was an 
indefatigable lecturer, and did not a little good work with his 
pen. The last fourteen years of his life were spent in brave 
endurance of suftering. Died April 3, 1897, ^S^ ^7- 

OCHINO, Bernardino Tomassini, called "the Luther 
of Italy," was born at Siena, in Italy, and though of humble 
origin, and a poor monk, rose to eminence as an eloquent 

por] 142 [ray 

preacher, who attracted large audiences of both rich and 
poor. He at first joined the order of the Capuchins, of 
which he was twice elected Vicar-General. His conversion 
to Protestantism, Avhich excited much consternation, was 
followed by his adoption of evangelical views under the in- 
fluence of Valdez (q.v.), and late in life by his covert presenta- 
tion of Unitarianism. This " great and illustrious man," as 
Calvin called him, was driven about in his old age from city 
to city, from country to country, and, in a little over a 
year, lost his wife and three children under the most painful 
circumstances. As an author he published some Dialogues 
treating of the Trinity, of Christ, &c., which gave great offence. 
Died 1564, age 77. 

PORSON, Professor Richard, Greek scholar and 
Biblical critic, was born at East Ruston, in Norfolk, where 
his father was parish clerk. His scholastic course was from 
village school to Eton and to Cambridge, where he took the 
first medal, and whilst only a Junior Bachelor of Arts was 
elected a Fellow of Trinity College. For some years he devoted 
himself to studying and editing the Classics, and then came 
his great Biblical labour, the final expulsion from the New 
Testament of the forged text about the Three Heavenly 
Witnesses. Porson resigned his Fellowship of Trinity rather 
than sign the Thirty-nine Articles, and suff"ered much hardship 
in consequence ; and, to save him from want, a subscription 
was raised among his friends of about ;^2,ooo, of which he 
accepted only the interest. He was given the Professorship 
of Greek, the salary of which, however, was only £^0 a-year. 
In addition to his classical studies, he was an occasional 
contributor to the Morjiing Chronicle. His great work was 
his edition of Euripides. On the founding of the Eondon 
Institution, he was appointed librarian. His life, which was 
a long struggle against ill-health, poverty, and neglect, was late 
in life marred by habits of intemperance. His Unitarianism 
has by some been denied, but the doubt arose from his cautious 
reserve. Died 1808, age 4q. 

RAYNER, Mrs. Elizabeth, was closely related to the 
illustrious House of Percy. To her the Christian world is 
indebted for the publication of Dr. Priestley's " History of 
Early Opinions Concerning Christ," which is dedicated to 
her, and of the production of which she bore the cost. 

ItOB] 143 [SMI 

Converted to Unitarianism by the preaching of Theophilus 
Lindsey (q.v.), she became a regular attendant at Essex Street 
Chapel, and a generous friend to ]\Ir. and Mrs. Lindsey, who 
were buried in her vault in Bunhill Fields. The inscription 
on ]Mrs. Rayner's tomb was written by Rev. T. Belsham (q.v.). 
She died July 1 1, 1800, age 84. 

ROBINSON, Rev. Robert, Baptist minister at Cam- 
bridge, was born in Norfolk, and, being in poor circumstances, 
owed his education to his own studious habits. Bound appren- 
tice to a hair-dresser, he afterwards became a distinguished 
preacher, and also a farmer. Though he early opposed Unit- 
arianism, and even wrote a "Plea for the Divinity of our Lord 
Jesus Christ" in reply to Lindsey's ''Apology," he afterwards 
abandoned all belief in the Trinity, together with the satisfac- 
tion scheme. He officiated in the chapel of Dr. Priestley at 
Birmingham, and a monument is erected to his memory in 
the Old fleeting. Died 1790, age 55. 

SIGIS?\IUND, John, Prince of Transylvania, was the 
first ruler who granted to the Unitarians among his people 
the free exercise of their religion. In 1563 he invited to his 
Court the physician Blandrata (q.v,), by whom he was con- 
verted to the Unitarian faith, with which he openly identified 
himself; and to him the Unitarians of Trans\lvania owe the 
enjoyment of equal political rights with the Catholics, Calvin- 
ists, and Lutherans. From Prince John, therefore, we may 
date the foundation of the Hungarian Unitarian Church in 
Europe. Died March 14, 1571. 

SMITH, Rev. Edwin, M.A., was born at Long Sutton, 
in Lincolnshire, his father being for som.e years minister at 
Thome. He was prepared for Manchester New College at 
Dr. Beard's school in ^Manchester ; matriculated at London 
University, where he graduated with honours in classics ; he 
was Second Hibbert Scholar, and as First Fellow he studied 
at the Heidelberg University. He became minister of Upper 
Brook Street (Unitarian) Church, Manchester, but was com- 
pelled to resign through ill-health. After this he opened a 
private school in Nottingham. He then rem.oved to Southport, 
engaged in private tuition, and gave occasional lectures. A 
removal followed to Liverpool, where he died. He was a man 
of scientific attainments, and was the author of several interest- 
ing papers and some poems. Died April i5, 1895, age 62. 

SMi]- 1-44 [wic 

SMITH, Rev. John Frederick, entered Regent's Park 
College, whence he proceeded to Gottingen, and came under 
the influence of Ewald, whose work on the "Prophets," and 
later volumes of the " History of Israel," he translated, as he 
did also Pfleiderer's " Hebrew Sects." Among his literary 
work was that of a contributor to the Mancheste)- Gtta?'dia?i, 
and articles to the Theological Review^ notably the series 
separately published under the title of " Studies in Religion 
under German Masters," and he also edited the Rev. Charles 
Beard's work on Martin Luther. His ministerial work 
included engagements at Broughton in Hampshire, Baptist 
Church in Hull, St. Mark's Chapel in Edinburgh, Elder 
Yard Chapel in Chesterfield, Mansfield, and Clifton. Died 
November 22, iSgg, age 59. 

WEYGEL, Catharine, burned alive at Cracow, in 1539, 
for holding Unitarian opinions. She was a woman who, 
reading the Bible for herself, was unable to find in it any 
support for the doctrine of the Trinity, and freely expressed 
her opinions. The charge was made against her that she was 
turning Jew, and, notwithstanding her great age, she was 
condemned to death. 

WICKSTEED, Rev. Charles, B. A., was born in Shrews- 
bury, in the Grammar School of which place he received ten 
years of tuition under the head-mastership of Dr. Samuel 
Butler, afterwards Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. He 
then proceeded to Glasgow University, where he took his 
Bachelor's degree with honours. His labours as a minister 
of religion were principally in Leeds and Liverpool, and in 
the first-named he was presented with a testimonial of ;^88o 
and a handsome silver salver. He was compelled, through 
failing health, to retire from the ministry for some years, 
which he spent in Wales, devoting himself to farming. He 
afterwards came again before the public as a minister-at-large, 
and lectured acceptably up and down England on the topic, 
"Why I am a Unitarian." On two occasions he preached 
the annual sermon of the ]kitish and Foreign Unitarian 
Association. Although all was subordinated to his religious 
work, he took an active part in public afiairs generally. Died 
April 19, 1885, age 74. 

Printed at the Unitarian Christian Printing Oi'FIce, 5, Furni\al Street, E.C.