(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "United Empire"

T 



UNITED EMPIRE 



THE ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE JOURNAL 



EDITED BY 

SIR HARRY WILSON, K.C.M.GL, K.B.E., 

AND 

EDWARD SALMON 




VOLUME XI. (NEW SERIES) 

1920 




LONDON 

SIR ISAAC PITMAN AND SONS, LIMITED 

PARKER STREET, KINGSWAY, W.C. 2 

1920 



10 



INDEX 



ADAMS, MAJOR SIR HAMILTON GOOLD-, Obituary 

notice, 269-70 
Administration of the Empire, W. B. Worsfold, 

357-63 
After the war problems : Lord Liverpool's 

speech, 314-5 
ALLEN, HON. SIR JAMES, The Samoan mandate, 

648-63 

ALLPORT, D. W., The Elizabethan Sea Kings 
and the struggle with the dominion of 
Spain, 133-4 
AMERY, LIEUT.-COL. L. S., Union and strength, 

614 

Speech on Malta, 646-7 
Speech on Empire unity and the double 

income-tax, 685 
ARGENTINA BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 

Artist of the goldfields, W . Moore, 535-8 
AUSTRALIA, 3, 4-5, 6, 26-7, 71, 84, 95, 127, 136, 
180-1, 186, 264-5, 267-8, 276, 306, 352, 
385-6, 390-1, 409, 411-2, 446, 473, 478, 
506-7, 522-3, 524, 544-5, 572, 598, 599-600, 
605, 616, 671-2, 683 
Institute luncheon to Sir Charles Wade and 

Sir Thomas Robinson, 77-9 
Through the north-west of Australia, A. 0. 

Neville, 367-75 
Neglected opportunities in the Pacific [Letter], 

B. Richmond, 396-7 
An Australian poet : Henry Lawson, A . Clyne, 

418-20 
Luncheon to Prince Arthur of Connaught 

and Lord Forster, 440-5 
Australia and the Prince of Wales, 452 
Australian child emigration, Kingsley Fair- 
bridge, 503-5 

Artist of the goldfields, W . Moore, 535-8 
The Royal tour. II. Australasia, the Pacific 
and the West Indies, J. Saxon Mills, 576-84 
Farewell luncheon to the Earl of Stradbroke 

and Sir Matthew Nathan, 594-8 
See also NEW GUINEA, NEW ZEALAND, 

PACIFIC 
AVIATION, 4-5, 48, 97-8, 279-80, 305, 523-4, 

571-2 

Imperial air routes, H. C. Macfie, 102-10 
Imperial aviation, H. F. Wilson, 151-3 



BADEN-POWELL, ROBERT, Some lessons from 

the Jamboree, 492-3 
BANKING. See FINANCE 
BARRON, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HARRY, Speech, 

505 
BARTHOLEYNS, ALBERT, Hiawatha's return 

[Poem], 231-5 
BARTOLO, AUGUSTO, Malta and sea power, 588- 

94, 637-47 



BARTON, CAPTAIN, Speech on New Guinea, 125 
BARTON, RT. HON. SIR EDMUND, Obituary 

notice, 84 
BEDWELL, C. E. A., Imperial unity and legal 

research, 51-8 
BEGG, DONALD, German strongholds in 

Argentine trade, 218-9 

BEIRNE, CAPTAIN J. G., Obituary notice, 136 
BELL, H. T. MONTAGUE, Speech on problems 

in the Far East, 176-7 
BENNETT, A. G., The industries of the Falkland 

Islands, 563 
Between two oceans : the Cape in 1710, 

E. L. McPherson, 585-7 
BILLIS, R. V., Speech, 253 
BIRCHENOUGH, SIR HENRY, Speech on cotton 

supply, 302, 304 
BIRDWOOD, GENERAL SIR W. R., Address on 

Australia, 616 
BIRMINGHAM BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 
Blossoming of the "Mayflower,'" E. Salmon, 

490-1 
BOLSHEVISM, 44, 93, 224, 273, 471, 520-1, 567. 

See also RUSSIA 
BOOSE, LIEUT. E. J. H., The Navy on the Tigris, 

268-9, 556-62 
BOOSE, MAJOR J. R., Speech at the inauguration 

of the Sheffield Branch, 37 
Major Boose's new tour, 616 
Itinerary of Major Boose's Australasian tour, 

683 
BOURNEMOUTH BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 

BOWD EN-SMITH, N. See SMITH 
BOY SCOUTS, 477 

Some lessons from the Jamboree, R. Baden- 
Powell, 492-3 
BRISTOL BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 

BRITANNIC INDUSTRIAL ALLIANCE, 209 
BRITISH EAST AFRICA, 29, 128, 307 
British Empire and the British worker, C. 

Jesson, 261-3 
BRITISH GUIANA : 

Prospects in British Guiana [Letter], G. Wyatt, 

266, 313 

See also WEST INDIES 
BRITISH GUIANA BRANCH. See ROYAL 

COLONIAL INSTITUTE 
BRITISH HONDURAS, 278, 600 
BRITISH IMPERIALISM, 96-7, 227-8, 274-5, 326, 

351-3, 409-10, 669-70, 684 
Imperial unity and legal research, C. E. A. 

Bedwell, 51-8 
The new British kingship, Ellis T. Powell, 

58-69 
Institute luncheon to Sir Charles Wade and 

Sir Thomas Robinson, 77-9 

A2 



IV 



INDEX 



BRITISH IMPERIALISM continued 

A message to the Dominions, Admiral 

Jellicoe, 101 
The meaning of the Empire to the labour 

democracy, Sir Charles Luca#, 110-21 
The administration of the Empire, W. B. 

Worsjold, 357-63 

Empire Day, D. H. Macartney, 393 
The government of the British Common- 
wealth, H. Duncan Hall, 481-9 
Colonial appointments and promotions, 512-3, 

551-2, 601-3, 673-5 
National sentiment and British unity [Letter], 

T. D. Wanliss, 553-4 
Ditto [Letter], J. G. Taylor, 679-80 
See also EMPIRE DAY, IMPERIAL CONFERENCE, 
IMPERIAL DEFENCE, IMPERIAL STUDIES, 
IMPERIAL TRADE, MANDATORY GOVERN- 
MENT 
BRITISH INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, 

406 
British in the Par East, Pro/. C. A. Middleton 

Smith, 168-77 

BRITTAIN, SIR HARRY, Speech, 37 
Brotherhood of valour : some aspects of the 
Palestine campaign, E. M. Tenison, 153-9 
BROWN, SIR GEORGE MCLAREN, Speech to the 

merchants of London, 435 
Speech, 666 
BUENOS AIRES BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 
BULL, HENRY, Speech, 686 



CABLES, 263-4, 411 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE BRANCH. See ROYAL 

COLONIAL INSTITUTE 

CANADA, 4, 25-6, 28, 70-1, 108-9, 126-7, 136, 
137, 145-6, 179-80, 184, 264, 267, 274, 
275-6, 305, 309-10, 385, 392, 407-8, 445-6, 
450-1, 452, 475-6, 506, 509-10, 521-2, 544, 
548, 552-3, 554, 569-70, 599, 606-7, 629-30, 
671, 677, 679 

Canada and British women, 0. S. Pott, 10-4 
Hiawatha's return [Poem], A. Bartholeyns, 

231-5 
Canada's cariboo and reindeer industry, 

E. L. Chicanot, 245-7 
Canadian writers, A. Clyne, 289-91 

The passing of the scarlet riders, E. L. 

Chicanot, 415-8 
Immigrant conditions under the Maple Leaf, 

F. Hague and E. L. Chicanot, 527-33 
Universities in Canada and the United States, 

Sir Arthur E. Shipley, 539-43 
The Royal North-West Mounted Police 

[Letter], C. F. Hamilton, 552-3 
Transport facilities in Canada, Hon. J. D. 

Reid, 663-6 
CANTERBURY (N.Z.) BRANCH. See ROYAL 

COLONIAL INSTITUTE 
CANTLIE, Sm JAMES, Speech on tropical 

diseases, 502 

CASTELLANI,^DR., Speech on tropical diseases,501 
Centenary of the 1820 settlers in Cape Colony, 

J. de M. Overbeek, 178-9 
CEYLON. See INDIA 



CHADWICK, E. M., Letter on place names in 

Canada, 554 

CHAMBERLAIN, MRS., Obituary notice, 85 
CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH, 474-5 
CHICANOT, E. L., Canada's cariboo and reindeer 

industry, 245-7 

Passing of the scarlet riders, 415-8 
Immigrant conditions under the Maple Leaf. 

(2) English girls, 530-3 
CHIDELL, C. F., Speech on developments in 

China, 177 
CHINA : 

The British in the Far East, Professor C. A. 

Middleton Smith, 168-77 
CHINNERY, LIEUT. E. W. PEARSON, Unknown 

New Guinea, 122-5 
CHRISTCHURCH (N.Z.) BRANCH. See ROYAL 

COLONIAL INSTITUTE 
CHURCHILL, M., The Institute's name [Letter], 

76 

CIRCLE OF HOPE, 543 
CLYNE, ANTHONY, Canadian writers, 289-91 

An Australian poet : Henry Lawson, 41820 
COCKSON, HARRY, Speech of the English [Poem], 

632 

COCONUT, 388-9 
COFFEE : 

Coffee cultivation [Letter], E. Farrar, 33 
Colonial appointments and promotions, 512-3, 

551-2, 601-3, 673-5 
Colonist [Poem], G. F. Newnham, 9 
Conference or Cabinet, B. Jebb, 160-8, 235-45 
Congress of universities of the Empire, 684 
CONNAUGHT, H.R.H. THE DUKE OF, President's 

message to Mr. H. R. Denison, 9 
Letter at Annual Dinner, 376 
CONNAUGHT, H.R.H. PRINCE ARTHUR OF : 
Luncheon to Prince Arthur and Lord 

Forster, 440-5 

CONNOLLY, HON. J. D., Speech, 253 
Speech on child emigration to Western 

Australia, 504-5 
COOK, CAPTAIN, On water transport on the 

Tigris, 268 
COOPER, SIR EDWARD, Speech at Mansion House 

Meeting, 254, 261 
COPE, I. L., The forthcoming expedition to the 

Antarctic, 311 
CORRESPONDENCE, 32-3, 75-6, 128-9, 181-2, 

266, 313, 396-7, 455-6, 509, 552-4, 608-10, 

679-80 
CORYNDON, SIR ROBERT T., Uganda, 291-305 ; 

Speech, 501-2 
COTTON, 98-9, 229, 263, 671 
COXHEAD, T. C., The natives of Northern 

Rhodesia and the war, 399 
CRAWFORD, LIEUT. -CoL. J. D., Obituary notice, 

137 
CYPRUS, 307, 673 



DE MIST, JUFFROUW AUGUSTA. See MIST 
DENISON, HUGH R., 1, 9, 34-5, 355, 376 
DORSET BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL IN- 
STITUTE 

DRYSDALE, C. B. V., Speech on Imperial 
statistics, 22 



INDEX 



DUTTON, F., Speech, 38 
Speech at Annual Meeting, 325 
Speech at City Meeting, 435-6 
Speech on double income-tax, 686 



EARNSCLIFFE, BAKONESS MACDONALD OF. See 

MACDONALD 

EDITORIAL NOTES, 1-9, 43-50, 93-100, 141-9, 
223-30, 273-82, 349-56, 405-14, 471-80, 
519-26, 567-74, 623-31 
EGYPT, 46-7, 350-1, 447, 508-9, 625 
ELIOT, E. C., Native unrest in the Pacific 

[Letter], 181-2 
EMIGRATION, 8, 26, 144-5, 206-7, 228, 312, 396, 

514-5 

Canada and British women, 0. 8. Pott, 10-4 
The organisation of migration and settlement 

within the Empire, C. Tumor, 247-54 
Immigrant conditions under the Maple Leaf, 

F. Hague and E. L. Chicanot, 527-33 
Mr. Christopher Tumor's report, 554-5 
EMPIRE DAY, 326 

Empire Day, T>. H. Macartney, ffifl 
EMPIRE DEVELOPMENT PARLIAMENTARY COM- 
MITTEE : 
The British Empire and the British worker, 

C. Jesson, 261-3 

Empire Timber Exhibition, A. H. Unwin, 
453-4 

F AIRBRIDGE, KINGSLEY, Australian child emi- 
gration, 503-5 
FARRAR, RUFUS, Coffee cultivation [Letter], 

33 

FAULKNER, F. C., Speech, 505 
FEDERATED MALAY STATES. See INDIA 
Fellowships at All Soul's College, Oxford, 684 
Fiji Islands as an Imperial opportunity, G. S. 

Kingsell, 283-8 
FINANCE, 6-8, 49-50, 99-100, 146-8, 229-30, 

412-3, 478-9, 628-9, 631, 670-1 
Empire unity and the double income-tax, 

685-6 
FISHER, RT. HON. ANDREW, Speech, 125 

Speech at Mansion House Meeting, 258-9 
FORSTER, RT. HON. LORD : 

Luncheon to Prince Arthur of Connaught and 
Lord Forster, 440-5 

GARRATT, F. S., The Institute's name [Letter], 

76 
GIBB, LACHLAN, The Institute's name [Letter], 

313 

GIBSON, HARRY, Obituary notice, 513 
GILBERT AND ELLICE ISLANDS : 
Native unrest in the Pacific [Letter], E. C. 

Eliot, 181-2 
GILL, SAMUEL THOMAS : 

The artist of the goldfields, W. Moore, 535-8 
GLEICHEN, EDWARD, Empire place-names 

[Letter], 554 

GOLD COAST. See WEST AFRICA 
GONNE, MAJOR C. M., Empire sport, 457 
GOOLD-ADAMS, MAJOR SIR HAMILTON. See 

ADAMS 



Government of the British Commonwealth, 

H. Duncan Hall, 481-9 
GRANT, E. H., The Institute's name [Letter], 

129 

GRANT, SIR JAMES A., Obituary notice, 136 
GREY, EARL, Bust of, 623 
GRICE, WATSON, Speech, 375 
GWYNNE, R. L., Ex-service men and the 

Dominions overseas [Letter], 396 

HADOW, SIR HENRY, Speech at inauguration of 

the Sheffield Branch, 37 
HAGGARD, SIR H. R., Speech on Imperial 

emigration, 251-2, 254 
HAGUE, FREDERICK, Immigrant conditions 

under the Maple Leaf. (1) Soldier settle- 
ment, 527-30 
HALL, H. DUNCAN, The government of the 

British Commonwealth, 481-9 
HAMILTON, C. F., The Royal North-West 

Mounted Police [Letter], 552-3 
HANTS AND DORSET BRANCH. See ROYAL 

COLONIAL INSTITUTE 
HART, RUPERT L. L., Papyrus and water 

[Letter], 182 
HENRY, MAJOR DouGLAS,Mining on the Western 

front, 616-7 
Hiawatha's return [Poem], A. Bartholeyns, 

231-5 

HILL, ALEXANDER, Speech, 542 
HINDLIP, LORD, Speech on Uganda, 302-3 
HOLMES, J. R. : 

Retirement of, 673 
HONG KONG, 387, 447 

The British in the Far East, Professor C. A. 

Middleton Smith, 168-77 
HOORN, VAN. See VAN HOORN 
HORNE, GENERAL LORD, Speech at Annual 

Dinner, 379 

HOWARD, C. W., Speech, 432 
HOWELL, GEORGE, Speech, 22, 177 
HUTTON, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR EDWARD, Speech 

at Annual Meeting, 326 
HYMAN, COLEMAN P., Speech at Annual 

Meeting, 323 

ILLUSTRATIONS : 

Grave of Captain F. C. Selous, 349 
National memorial to Captain F. C. Selous at 

the National History Museum, 349 
Zealous gold-diggers, Bendigo, 536 
Diggers licensing, Forrest Creek, 536 
Scene near the Missunga plains, 537 
Native sepulchre, Missunga plains, 537 
The Royal Family, 657 
Group at farewell luncheon to the Earl of 

Stradbroke and Sir Matthew Nathan, 594 
T*lan showing the present site of the Royal 
Colonial Institute and proposed additions, 
613 

Bust of Earl Grey, 623 

I love the forest [Poem], J. M. Stuart- Young, 575 
Immigrant conditions under the Maple Leaf, 

F. Hague and E. L. Chicanot, 527-33 
Imperial air routes, H. C. Macfie, 102-10 
Imperial aviation, H. F. Wilson, 151-3 



VI 



INDEX 



IMPERIAL BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY, 353-4 
IMPERIAL CONFERENCE, etc., 228, 623 

Conference or Cabinet, R. Jebb, 160-8, 235-45 
The administration of the Empire, W. B. 

Worsfold, 357-63 

The government of the British Common- 
wealth, H. Duncan Hall, 481-9 
See also BRITISH IMPERIALISM 
IMPERIAL DEFENCE, 277-8, 376-9 
Lord Jellicoe in New Zealand, 23-5 
A message to the Dominions, Viscount 

Jellicoe, 101 

IMPERIAL PREFERENCE. See IMPERIAL TRADE 
Imperial Press Conference, 475-6 
IMPERIAL STATISTICS, 5, 47, 480 
Statistics and national destiny, 6. H. Knibbs, 

14-23 

IMPERIAL STUDIES, 88, 202-4 
IMPERIAL TRADE, 229, 274-5, 406-7, 522 

Empire trade and industry section of the 

RoyalColoniallnstitute, 30-2, 80-3, 129-32, 

183-5, 267-8, 307-9, 390-2, 406-7, 450-2, 

509-11, 546-8, 603-6, 675-7 

The British Empire and the British worker, 

C. Jesson, 261-3 
After the war problems : Lord Liverpool's 

speech, 314-5 
The meaning of the Empire to the merchants 

of London, 432-6 
Imperial preference [Letter], B. H. Morgan, 

455-6 
Imperial unity and legal research, C, E. A. 

Bedwell, 51-8 

IM THURN, SIR EVERARD, Speech, 374-5 
INCOME TAX. See FINANCE 
INDIA, 29, 72, 73, 128, 205-6, 382, 416, 447, 451, 

473^1, 520, 545-6, 549-50, 600 
Production in Malaya, 387-90 
INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, 406 
IRELAND, 146, 225-6, 280, 476-7, 572-3 
ISLINGTON, RT. HON. LORD, Speech at Annual 

Dinner, 383-4 
ITALY, 46 



JACKSON, HON. MR. JUSTICE C. G., Obituary 

notice, 683 
JAPAN : 
The British in the Far East, Professor C. A. 

Middleton-Smith, 168-77 
JEBB, RICHARD, Conference or Cabinet? 160-8, 

235-45 

JELLICOE, VISCOUNT, 226, 277-8 
Lord Jellicoe in New Zealand, 23-5 
A message to the Dominions, 101 
Speech at Annual Dinner, 377-9 
JENKINS, HON. J. G., Speech on the meaning of 

Empire to labour, 120, 121 
Impressions of America, 134 
Speech, 685 

JENSEN, E. T., Speech on tropical diseases, 502 
Jersey : Britain's oldest overseas dominion, 

E. Salmon, 533-5 
JESSON, C., Speech on the meaning of Empire 

to labour, 120-1 

The British Empire and the British worker, 
261-3 



JOHNSON, CAPTAIN J. B., Speech at Annual 

Meeting, 324 
JOHNSTON, D. HOPE, Speech at Annual Meeting, 

323 
JOLLIE, MRS. TAWSE, The question of Southern 

Rhodesia, 633-6 
JONES, DAVID, Speech, 666 



KINGSELL, G. S., Fiji Islands as an Imperial 

opportunity, 283-8 
KIPLING, RUDYARD, 227 
KNIBBS, G. H., Statistics and national destiny, 

14-23 



LABOUR, 96-7, 218, 281-2, 479-80, 525-6, 574, 

630-1 
The meaning of the Empire to the labour 

democracy, Sir G. P. Lucas, 110-21 
LAGDEN, SIR GODFREY, The amalgamation ques- 
tion [Letter], 266 

Speech at Annual Meeting, 323, 324, 325-6 
Speech at Annual Dinner, 375, 381-3 
Speech at luncheon to Sir Thomas Mackenzie, 

437-8 
Speech at luncheon to Prince Arthur of 

Connaught and Lord Forster, 440-2 
Speech at luncheon to the Earl of Stradbroke 

and Sir Matthew Nathan, 594-8 
Statement at the first meeting of the session, 

647-8 

Speech on Samoa, 658-9 
Speech at luncheon to the Hon. J. D. Reid, 

663-4 

LAMINGTON, LORD, Speech on New Guinea, 125 
LAND SETTLEMENT. See EMIGRATION 
LANG, WILLIAM, The founder of the Bank of 

England [Letter], 76 
LAW : 
Imperial unity and legal research, C. E. A. 

Bedwell, 51-8 
LAWSON, HENRY : 

An Australian poet, A. Clyne, 418-20 
LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 45, 94-5, 142, 350, 624, 

626-7 

See also MANDATORY GOVERNMENT 
LEGGETT, MAJOR E. H. M., Speech on Uganda, 

303 
LEICESTERSHIRE BRANCH. See ROYAL 

COLONIAL INSTITUTE 
LEWIN, EVANS, Place-names of the Empire 

[Letter], 610 

LITTLEJOHN, ROBERT, Obituary notice, 310-11 
LIVERPOOL, EARL OF, After the war problems, 

314-5 

Speech on New Zealand problems, 666-9 
LIVERPOOL BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 
LOGAN, LIEUT. -CoL. ROBERT, Speech on Samoa 

662 
LUCAS, SIR CHARLES, 96, 684 

Speech on Imperial statistics, 22-3 
" The Gold Coast and the War," 48-9 
The new premises and the Jubilee Fund 
[Letter], 75 



INDEX 



vn 



LUCAS, SIR CHARLES continued 
Speech at luncheon to Sir Charles Wade and 

Sir Thomas Robinson, 77-8 
Meaning of the Empire to the labour demo- 
cracy, 110-21 

Speech at Mansion House Meeting, 254-6 
Speeches, 373-4, 384, 588 
Speech at Annual Meeting, 316-20, 323, 326 
Speech on the universities of the Empire, 543 
LUCAS, HON. E., Speech on Imperial statistics, 

22 
Speech 253 



MACARTNEY, DOUGLAS HALLIDAY, Empire Day, 

393 

Speech at Annual Meeting, 323 
MACALLUM, COL. SIR HENRY, Obituary notice, 

38 

MACDONALD OF EARNSCLIFFE, BARONESS, Obit- 
uary notice, 548 
MACFIE, H. C., Speech, 69 

Imperial air routes, 102-10 
MACFIE, MATTHEW, Obituary notice, 84 
MACKENZIE, HON. SIR THOMAS, 402 
Speech at Mansion House Meeting, 259 
Speech at Annual Dinner, 384 
Luncheon to Sir ThomaatMackenzie, 437-40 
McPHERSON, ETHEL L., South Africa in 1802-4, 

363-6 

Between two oceans : the Cape in 1710, 585-7 
MALAY PENINSULA. See INDIA 
MALTA, 350-1 
Malta and sea-power, A. Bartolo, 588-94, 

637-47 
MANCHESTER BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 
MANDATORY GOVERNMENT, 627 

Samoan mandate, Hon. Sir James Allen, 

648-63 

See also LEAGUE OF NATIONS 
MANNING, BRIG. -GEN. SIR WILLIAM, Speech at 

Annual Dinner, 384 
MANSON, SIR PATRICK, Speech on tropical 

diseases, 502-3 
MAPS : 

Air route from London to Port Darwin, 150 
Air route from Cairo to Capetown, 152 
MAURITIUS, 508, 672 

Meaning of the Empire to the labour demo- 
cracy, Sir Charles Lucas, 110-21 
Meaning of the Empire to the merchants of 

London, 432-6 
MEETINGS : 

Dec. 9, 1919. Statistics and national destiny, 
G. H. Knibbs, Discussion by Sir Charles 
Lucas, Dr. C. B. V. Drysdale, Hon. E. 
Lucas, Mr. George Howell, Sir Harry 
Wilson, 14-23 

Jan. 13, 1920. The new British kingship, 
Ellis T. Powell, Discussion by Sir George 
Parkin, Mr. E. Salmon, Mr. H. C. Macfie, 
Major Hely Pounds, Mr. W. S. Clayton 
Greene, 58-69 

Feb. 10, 1920. The meaning of the Empire 
to the labour democracy, Sir Charles 



Lucas, Discussion by Hon. J. G. Jenkins, 
Mr. C. Jesson, Sir Francis Younghusband 
and others, 110-21 

Nov. 25, 1919. Unknown New Guinea, Lieut. 
E. W. Pearson Chinnery, Discussion by 
the Rt. Hon. Andrew Fisher, Captain 
Barton, Lord Lamington, 122-5 

Dec. 16, 1919. The British in the Far East, 
Professor C. A. Middleton Smith, Discussion 
by Lieut.-Col. the Rt. Hon. Sir Matthew 
Nathan, Mr. Ben H. Morgan, Mr. H. T. 
Montague Bell, Mr. C. F. Chidell, Mr. 
George Howell, 168-77 

April 13, 1920. The organisation of migration 
and settlement within the Empire, C. 
Tumor, Discussion by Sir H. Rider Haggard, 
Hon. Sir Arthur Stanley, Lieut.-Col. Sir A. 
Weigall, Hon. Edward Lucas, Hon. J. D. 
Connolly, Mr. R. V. Billis, Sir Henry Rew, 
Major Horsfall, Major Pounds, Hon. J. G. 
Jenkins, 247-54 

Mar. 23, 1920. Uganda, Sir Robert T. 
Coryndon, Discussion by Sir Henry Birch- 
enough, Lord Hindlip, Bishop oj Uganda, 
Major E. H. M. Leggett, Major-Gen. Northey, 
Major H. Blake Taylor, 291-305 

Mar. 9, 1920. Through the north-west of 
Australia, A. 0. Neville, Discussion by Sir 
Charles Lucas, Sir Everard Im Thurn, Dr. 
Watson Grice, Sir Harry Wilson, 367-75 

Jan. 27, 1920. Tropical and sub-tropical 
diseases, L. W. Sambon, Discussion by Sir 
Patrick Manson, Dr. Castellani, Sir R. T. 
Coryndon, Sir James Cantlie, Mr. E. T. 
Jensen, 420-31, 493-503 

Feb. 24, 1920. Australian child emigration, 
Kingsley Fairbridge, Discussion by Hon. 
J. D. Connolly, Major-General Sir Harry 
Barron, Mr. F. W. Teesdale, Sir George 
Parkin, Mr. F. C. Faulkner, 503-5 

Apr. 27, 1920. Universities in Canada and 
in the United States, Sir Arthur E. Shipley, 
Discussion by Rt. Hon. Sir Gilbert Parker, 
Sir George Parkin, Dr. Alexander Hill, Sir 
Charles Lucas, 539^3 

Sept. 28, 1920. Malta and sea-power, 
Augusto Bartolo, Discussion by Sir Charles 
Lucas, 588-94, 637-47 

Nov. 2, 1920. Samoan mandate, Hon. Sir 
James .Allen, Discussion by Sir Godjrey 
Lagden, Rt. Hon. Sir Joseph Ward, Mr. 
S. G. Raymond, Lieut.-Col. Robert Logan, 
Mr. A. Myers, Mr. 0. F. Nelson, Sir 
Gerald Strickland, Sir George Parkin, 
648-63 
MESOPOTAMIA, 350, 520, 625, 671 

The Navy on the Tigris, Lieut. E. J. H. 

Boose, 556-62 

MILLS, J. SAXON, The Royal tour. II. 
Australasia, the Pacific and the West 
Indies, 576-84 

MILNER, VISCOUNT, Speech at Mansion House 
Meeting, 256-8 

Speech, 445 
MIST, JUFFROUW AUGUSTA DE : 

South Africa in 1802-4 : a forgotten diary, 
E. L. McPherson, 363-6 



Vlll 



INDEX 



MOCKRIDGE, WITNEY, Reasons why London 
should be regarded as the centre of Imperial 
musical art, 563 

MOORE, WILLIAM, The artist of the goldfields, 
535-8 

MORGAN, BEN H., Speech on problems in the 

Far East, 176 

The new Chairman of the B.E.P.O., 219 
Imperial preference [Letter], 455-6 

MORRIS, RT. HON. LORD, Speech at inaugura- 
tion of the Sheffield Branch, 36-8 

MORTON, J. H., Modern artificial drying, 457-8 

MYERS, A., Speech on Samoan mandate, 662 

" NAMESAKE," Place-names of the Empire 

[Letter], 509 
NATHAN, LIEUT. -CoL. SIR MATTHEW, Speech on 

the British in the Far East, 175-6, 177 
Farewell luncheon to the Earl of Stradbroke 

and Sir Matthew Nathan, 594-8 
National Laymen's Missionary movements 

appeal, 125-6 
National sentiment and British unity [Letter], 

J. G. Taylor, 679-80 
NAURU, 350 
Navy on the Tigris, Lieut. E. J. H. Boose, 

556-62 
NELSON, 0. F., Speech on the Samoan mandate, 

662 
NEVILLE, A. O., Through the north-west of 

Australia, 367-75 

New British kingship, Ellis T. Powell, 58-69 
NEWFOUNDLAND, 180, 385, 607-8 
NEW GUINEA : 

Unknown New Guinea, Lieut. E. W. Pearson 

Chinnery, 122-5 

NEWNHAM, GUENN F., The colonist [Poem], 9 
NEW ZEALAND, 27, 71, 226, 276; 306, 456, 507, 

510-11, 524-5, 604, 672, 683 
Lord Jellicoe in New Zealand, 23-5 
Wellington Cathedral Memorial Chapel, 219 
After the war problems : Lord Liverpool's 

speech, 314-5 
Neglected opportunies in the Pacific [Letter], 

B. Richmond, 396-7 

Luncheon to Sir Thomas Mackenzie, 437-40 
New Zealand as a manufacturing country 

[Letter], B. Tripp, 456 

The Royal tour : II. Australasia, J'. Saxon 
..' Mitts, 576-84 
Samoan mandate, Hon. Sir James Allen, 

648-63 
Lord Liverpool's speech on New Zealand 

problems, 666-9 
See also AUSTRALIA, PACIFIC 
NIGERIA. See WEST AFRICA 
NOMENCLATURE : 

Place-names of the Empire [Letters], 6. C. 
Moore Smith, " Namesake," and Evans 
Lewin, 455, 509, 610 
NORTHEY, MAJOR-GENERAL E., Speech, 303 

OBITUARY, 39, 90, 138, 191-2, 221, 271, 328, 

401, 460, 516, 565, 620, 688 
Col. Sir Henry McCallum, 38 
Rt. Hon. Sir Edmund Barton, 84 
Mr. Matthew Macfie, 84 



Mrs. Chamberlain, 85 

Mr. Joseph S. O'Halloran, 136 

Hon. H. B. T. Strangways, 136 

Sir James A. Grant, 136 

Capt. L. J. Beirne, 136 

Lieut. -Col. J. D. Crawford, 137 

Sir Thomas Anderson Stuart, 186 

Lieut. -Col. E. A. Steele, 186 

Major Sir Hamilton Goold-Adams, 269-70 

Mr. J. Arthur Pott, 270 

Mr. Robert Little John, 310-11 

Mr. James Barker, 458 

Mr. Harry Gibson, 513 

Baroness Macdonald of Earnscliffe, 548 

Mr. Thomas Russell, 683 

Hon. Mr. Justice Jackson, 683 
O'HALLORAN, JOSEPH S., Obituary notice, 136 
OIL, 263, 281, 390-2, 394 
OVERBEEK, J. DE M., The centenary of the 

1820 settlers in Cape Colony, 178-9 
OVERSEAS CLUB, 148-9, 188-9, 266, 320, 354-5 

Report of the Joint Committee of the Royal 
Colonial Institute and the Overseas Club 
and Patriotic League of Britons Overseas, 
/ 33 1-48 



PACIFIC, 672, 678 

Native unrest in^the Pacific [Letter], E. C. 

Eliot, 181-2 
Neglected opportunities in the Pacific [Letter], 

B. Richmond, 396-7 
The Samoan mandate, Hon. Sir James Allen, 

648-63 

See also FIJI, NAURU, NEW GUINEA 
PALESTINE, 350-1 
PARKER, RT. HON SIR GILBERT, Speech at 

Annual Dinner, 379-81 
Speech on Canadian universities, 542-3 
PARKIN, SIR GEORGE, Speech on British 

monarchy, 67-8 

Speech at Mansion House Meeting, 259-61 
Speech at Annual Meeting, 320-2 
Speech on the meaning of the Empire to the 

merchants of London, 432-4 
Speech, 505 
Speech on universities in the United States, 

541-2 

Speech on mandatory government, 663 
Speech at Liverpool Branch on United Empire, 

669-70, 670 
Passing of the scarlet riders, E. L. Chicanot, 

415-8 
PEARSE, A. W., State-owned v. company- 

owned railways [Letter], 608-9 
PERLEY, HON. SIR GEORGE, Speech at Mansion 

House Meeting, 258 

Place-names of the Empire [Letters], G. C. 
Moore Smith, " Namesake," and Evans 
Lewin, 455, 509, 610 
POTT, GLADYS, S., Canada and British women, 



POTT, J. ARTHUR, Obituary notice, 270 
POUNDS, MAJOR H. HELY, Speech at Annual 

Meeting, 324 
POWELL, ELLIS T., The new British kingship, 

58-69 



INDEX 



IX 



POWELL, ROBERT BADEN-. 'See BADEN-POWELL 
PRICES. See FINANCE, LABOUR 
PRINCE OP WALES, H.R.H. THE. See WALES 
Production in Malaya, 387-90 
PROSSOR, H. KEMP, Colour and climate in 
relation to health, 83 



RAYMOND, S. G., Speech at luncheon to Lord 

Jellicoe in New Zealand, 23-4 
Speech on Samoan mandate, 60 
REID, HON. J. D., Transport facilities in Canada, 

663-6 
REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES, 28-9, 72-5, 185, 

309-10, 394-5, 448-9, 508-9, 549-50, 606-8, 

677-9 
Canadian Annual Review, 1918, J. Castell 

Hopkins, 28 

Making of America, F. C. De Sumichrast, 28-9 
Profit and sport in British East Africa, Lord 

Cranworth, 29 
Local government in ancient India, Radha- 

kumud Mookerji, 29 

French refugees at the Cape, C. G. BotJia, 72-3 
Ceylon and the Hollanders, 1658-1796, P. E. 

Pieris, 73 
The Gold Coast and the War, Sir Charles 

Lucas, 73 

Voyage of a Vice-Chancellor, 73 
Jamaica under the Spaniards, F. Cundall and 

J. L. Pirtersz, 73-4 

Desert musing, L. Richmond Wheeler, 74 
Imperial Institute monographs on mineral 

resources. No. 1. Manganese ores, A. H. 

Curtis, 74 

Dix and de politique chinoise, J. Rodes, 74 
Institut Colonial de Marseille. Les amandes 

et Vhuile de palme, 74-5 
Journal of the Parliaments of the Empire, 

Vol. I, No. L, 185 

British Dominions Year Book, 1920, 185 
British supremacy and Canadian self-govern- 
ment, 1839-54, J. L. Morison, 309-10 
England' 1 s mission, Sir Francis Younghusband, 

310 
Wild life in Canada, Captain A. Buchanan, 

310 
Social and industrial reform, Sir Charles W. 

Macara, 310 
Treatise on British mineral oil, J. Arthur 

Greene, 394 
South African Commonwealth, M. Nathan 

394-5 

Poems of Gilbert White, 395 
History of Great Britain, J. Munro, 395 
Etudes africaines, P. Salkin, 395 
Kalahari or thirstland redemption, E. H. L. 

Schwarz, 448 

Handbook of Uganda, H. R. Wallis, 448 
Egyptian problem, Sir Valentine Chirol, 508-9 
La Nouvelle Allemagne et la question coloniale, 

C. Fidel, 549 
India in conflict, Rev. P. N. F. Young and 

A. Ferrers, 549-50 
The Gold Coast regiment in the East African 

campaign, Sir Hugh Clifford, 550 



Annals and antiquities of Rajasthan, J. Tod, 

550 
Essays on early ornithology, J. R. McClymont, 

550 
Canadian Annual Review, 1919, J. Castell 

Hopkins, 606 
Life and times of Sir Alexander Tilloch Gait, 

0. D. Skelton, 606-7 
Spanish-America, C. R. Enoch, 607 
Cocoa and Chocolate, A. W. Knapp, 607 
Roving editors, Sir W. J. Sowden, 607 
Story of Newfoundland, Lord Birkenhead, 

607-8 

Congo, C. Liebrechta, 608 
Jamaica in 1920, F. Cundall, 608 
Bridging the chasm, P. F. Morley, 677 
Natural history of South Africa, Vols. 3 & 4, 

F. W. Fitzsimons, 677-8 
Red Book of West Africa, A. Macmillan, 678 
Islands far away, A. G. King, 678 
National Idea in Industry, Sir C. Macara, 

Bart., 678-9 
Why the " Lawes of Virginia," J. Murray 

Clark, 679 

REW, SIR HENRY, Speech, 253 
RHODESIA, 278-9, 399, 628 

The question of Southern Rhodesia, Mrs. 

Tawse Jollie, 633-6 
See also SOUTH AFRICA 
RICHMOND, B., Neglected opportunities in the 

Pacific [Letter], 396-7 
RIGG, MAJOR RICHARD, English national 

patriotism, 311-2 
ROBINSON, SIR THOMAS : 

Institute luncheon to Sir Charles Wade and 

Sir Thomas Robinson, 77-9 
ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES, 25-8, 69-72, 126-8, 

179-81, 263-6, 305-7, 385-7, 445-7, 506-8, 

544-6, 598-600, 670-2 
ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE, 1, 8-9, 9, 27, 

33-41, 77-91, 96, 97, 101, 121, 129-39, 

148-9, 187-222, 228, 266, 267-72, 310-48, 

354-6, 398-403, 454, 456-70, 514-7, 563-5, 

572, 598, 610-22, 630, 680-4, 687-9 
Lord Jellicoe in New Zealand, 23-5 
Empire Trade and Industry, 30-2, 80-3, 

129-32, 183-5, 267-8, 307-9, 390-2, 450-2, 

509-11, 546-8, 603-6, 675-7 
The Institute's name [Letters], M. Stewart, 

C. 0. Work, N. Bowden-Smith, M. Churchill, 

F. S. Garratt, E. H. Grant, and L. Gibb, 

32, 76, 129, 313 
Essay competition, 33-4, 87-8 
House and Social Committee, 34, 83-4, 133-4, 

218-9, 268-9, 311-2, 399, 457, 514-5, 563, 

616-7, 681-2 
Donations to the new premises, 34-5, 86, 

135, 186, 269, 313, 400, 458, 515, 564, 612, 

680 

Empire Social Circle, 36, 135, 312, 684 
Branch News, 36-8, 85, 132-3, 314, 398, 456, 

515, 614-5, 682 
New premises and the Jubilee fund [Letter], 

Sir Charles Lucas, 75 
Institute's luncheon to Sir Charles Wade and 

Sir Thomas Robinson, 77-9 
Institute's Christmas lectures, 85-6 



INDEX 



ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE continued 
Report of the Council, 1919, 187-217 
Mansion House Meeting, 254-61 
After the war problems : Lord Liverpool's 

speech, 314-5 
Report of the fifty-second annual general 

meeting, 316-26 
Report of the Joint Committee of the Royal 

Colonial Institute and the Overseas Club, 

331-48 

Annual Dinner, 375-84 
Freemasonry, 403, 617-8, 682 
Institute's appeal to the City, 432-6 
Institute's luncheon to Sir Thomas Mackenzie, 

437-40 
Institute's luncheon to Prince Arthur of 

Connaught and Lord Forster, 440-5 
Messrs. Price, Waterhouse & Co.'s reports, 

463-70 
Farewell luncheon to the Earl of Stradbroke 

and Sir Matthew Nathan, 594-8 
New premises jubilee fund, Sir Harry Wilson, 

610-2 
Plan showing the present site of the Royal 

Colonial Institute and proposed additions, 

613 

Major Boose's new tour, 616, 683 
Programme for the session, 19201, 618-9 
Regulations for school medal competitions 

for essays on subjects relating to the Em- 
pire, 622 
The first meeting of the session : Sir Godfrey 

Lagden's statement, 64,7-8 
Institute's luncheon to the Hon. John 

Dowsley Reid, 363-6 
Liverpool and United Empire, 666-70 
RUBBER, 387-8 

RUSSELL, THOMAS, Obituary notice, 683 
RUSSIA, 93, 471-2 
See also Bolshevism 



SALMON, EDWARD, Speech on British kingship, 

68-9 

Blossoming of the " Mayflower," 490-1 
Jersey : Britain's oldest overseas dominion, 

533-5 

Speech at Liverpool meeting, 670 
SAMBON, Louis WESTENRA, Tropical and sub- 
tropical diseases 420-31, 493-503 
Samoan mandate, Hon Sir James Allen, 648- 

63 
SELBORNE, EARL OF, Speech at Annual Dinner, 

376-7 

SELOUS, CAPTAIN FREDERICK, 354 
Photo of grave, 349 
Bust at National History Museum, 349 
SHARPE, SIR ALFRED, Natives of Northern 

Rhodesia and the war, 399 
SHEFFIELD BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 
SHIPLEY, SIR ARTHUR E. , Universities in Canada 

and the United States, 539-43 
SLACK, CAPTAIN C., Speech at Annual Meeting, 

322-3 
SMITH, PROFESSOR C. A. MIDDLETOK, The 

British in the Far East, 168-77 



SMITH, G. C. MOORE, Place-names of the Empire 

[Letter], 455 
SMITH, N. BOWDEN-, The Institute's name 

[Letter], 76 
SOUTH AFRICA, 5-6, 27-8, 72, 72-3, 127-8, 

129-30, 144, 181, 265, 279-80, 308, 310, 

352, 386, 394-5, 446-7, 448, 457, 459, 

507-8, 545, 569, 600, 604-5, 672, 677-8, 

681-2, 683 
Centenary of the 1820 settlers in Cape Colony, 

J. de M. Overbeek, 178-9 
South Africa in 1802-4, E. L. McPherson, 

363-6 
Luncheon to Prince Arthur of Connaught and 

Lord Forster, 440-5 
The Cape and convict settlers, 1849, donation 

to the Library, 454 
Between two oceans : the Cape in 1710, E. L. 

McPherson, 585-7 
See also RHODESIA 
Speech of the English [Poem], H. Cockson, 

632 

STANLEY, HON. SIR ARTHUR, Speech on emigra- 
tion to Australia, 252 
STANTON, C. B., Industrial unrest and how to 

meet it, 218 
State-owned v. company-owned railways 

[Letter], A. W, Pearse, 608-9 
STEELE, LIEUT. -CoL. E. A., Obituary notice, 

186 
STEWART, McLEOD, The Institute's name 

[Letter], 32 

STRADBROKE, EARL OF : 
Farewell luncheon to the Earl of Stradbroke 

and Sir Matthew Nathan, 594-8 
STRANGWAYS, HON. H. B. T., Obituary notice, 

136 
STRICKLAND, SIR GERALD, Speech on the 

Samoan mandate, 662-3 
STUART, SIR THOMAS ANDERSON, Obituary 

notice, 186 

STUART-YOUNG, J. M. See YOUNG 
SUGAR, 281-2, 546, 672 
SUSSEX BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 



TATLOW, A. H., Address on South Africa, 681-2 

TAXATION. See FINANCE 

TAYLOR, MAJOR H. BLAKE, Speech on the 

Uganda railway, 304-5 
TAYLOR, J. G., The founder of the Bank of 

England [Letter], 128-9 
National sentiment and British unity [Letter], 

679-80 
TEESDALE, F. W., Speech on child emigration 

to Western Australia, 505 
TENISON, E. M., The brotherhood of valour, 

153-9 
Through the north-west of Australia, A. O. 

Neville, 367-75 

THURN, SIR EVERARD IM. See IM THURN 
Timber Exhibition, A. H. Unwin, 453-4 
TIN, 389-90 
TOBACCO, 229 
Transport facilities in Canada, Hon. J. D. Eeid, 

663-6 



INDEX 



XI 



TEIPP, BERNARD, New Zealand as a manufac- 
turing country [Letter], 456 
TRISTAN DA CUNHA, 555 
Tropical and sub-tropical diseases, L. W. 

Sambon, 420-31, 493-503 

TURNOR, CHRISTOPHER, The organisation of 
migration and settlement within the 
Empire, 247-54 
Mr. Christopher Tumor's report, 554-5 



UGANDA, Sir Robert T. Goryndon, 291-305 
UGANDA, BISHOP OF, Speech on Uganda, 303 
UNITED STATES, 28-9, 94, 100, 134, 142-3, 146-7, 

274, 472-3, 625-6 

The blossoming of the " Mayflower" E. Sal- 
mon, 4901 
Universities in Canada and the United States, 

Sir Arthur Shipley, 539-43 
Unknown New Guinea, Lieut. E. W. Pearson 

Ghinnery, 122-5 
UNWIN, A. H.,Empire Timber Exhibition, 453-4 



VANCOUVER j ISLAND BRANCH. See ROYAL 

COLONIAL INSTITUTE 
VAN HOORN, ADMIRAL : 

Letter of Admiral Van Hoorn and his wife, 

E. L. McPherson, 585-7 
VICTORIA BRANCH. See ROYAL COLONIAL 

INSTITUTE 



WADE, SIR CHARLES : 
Luncheon to Sir Charles Wade and Sir Thomas 

Robinson, 77-9 
WALES, H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF, 25-6, 36, 95-6, 

226-7, 276, 473, 570-1, 598 
Hiawatha's return [Poem], A. Bartholeyns, 

231-5 

Australia and the Prince of Wales, 452 
The Royal tour. II. Australasia, the Pacific 

and the West Indies, J. Saxon Mills, 576-84 



WANLISS, T. D., For " England " read " Great 

Britain " [Letter], 182 
National sentiment and British unity 

[Letter], 553^ 

WARD, RT. HON. SIR JOSEPH, Speech on man- 
datory government, 659-61 
WAR OF 1914-19, 47, 48-9, 73, 399, 550, 616-7 
Brotherhood of valour : some aspects of the 

Palestine campaign, E. M. Tenison, 153-9 
The Navy on the Tigris, IAe.nl. E. J. H. Boose, 

556-62 
WATT, W. A., Message to school-children on 

Empire Day, 393 

WEIGALL, LIEUT. -CoL. SIR A., Speech, 253 
WEST AFRICA, 6, 48, 73, 386, 450-1, 547, 550, 

678 
WEST INDIES, 73-4, 143, 181, 265-6, 307, 386-7, 

447, 475, 503, 509-10, 570, 587, 600, 608, 

682 

See also BRITISH GUIANA 
WESTMINSTER ABBEY, 413-4 
WHEAT, 69-70, 71 
WILSON, SIR HARRY, Speeches, 23, 87, 269, 375, 

376, 670, 681 
Imperial aviation, 151-3 
Royal Colonial Institute's new premises and 

the Jubilee fund, 610-12 

WOLSELEY, LADY CAPEL, Cultured colonisa- 
tion a woman's question, 514-5 
WORK, CHARLES O., The Institute's name 

[Letter], 32 
WOHSFOLD, W. BASIL, The administration of 

the Empire, 357-63 
WYATT, GUY, Prospects in British Guiana 

[Letter], 266, 313 



YOUNG, SIR F. W., Speech on the double income- 
tax, 685-6 

YOUNG, J. M. STUART-, I love the forest [Poem], 
575 

YOUNGHUSBAND, SIR FRANCIS, Speech on the 
meaning of the Empire to labour, 121 



Printed by SPOTTISWOODE, BALLANTYNE & Co. LTD. 
Colchester, London & Eton, England 



UNITED EMPIRE 

THE EOYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE JOURNAL 

VOL. XI. JANUARY 1920 No. 1 

The Institute is not responsible for statements made or opinions expressed 
by authors of articles and papers or in speeches at meetings. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

OUR best wishes for the New Year to all Fellows, Associates and 
Affiliated Members of the Institute ! It is a year which opens with 
much promise, and we hope that it will also prove to 
be a year of high performance. The Jubilee has been 
worthily celebrated, the Building Fund creditably 
inaugurated ; and at the very outset of 1920 we are able to make the 
gratifying announcement of a splendid gift of 25,000, through our 
President, H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught, from Mr. Hugh E. Denison, 
of Sydney, New South Wales, one of our Life Fellows, which more than 
doubles the amount already in hand. Mr. Denison's munificence 
should stimulate all friends of the Institute, and supporters of the 
ideal of " United Empire " for which it stands, to fresh endeavours 
during the coming twelve months. So far we have appealed, and not 
in vain, to our own members, and until it is known what that appeal 
will produce, the Council have wisely decided not to widen the sphere 
of their operations ; but a great deal remains to be done ere our goal 
can be reached, and, before the New Year is much older, it may be 
accepted that further measures will be taken in order to make our 
wants known to a more extended public, both at home and overseas. 
300,000 is a large sum, even in these days of big figures, but we are 
already in sight of a sixth part of it, and our appeal is only six months 
old. By January, 1921, our great project should be appreciably 
nearer to its complete realisation. 

As though the concrete issues before it were not more than enough 
to occupy all its attention, the British public is being asked to consider 
the question whether Coalition government is justifiable 
es at this length of time from the termination of hostilities. 



The attack on the status quo proceeds from the section 
of the Liberal Party which has not rallied to Mr. Lloyd George's 



2 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

standard, and it is being energetically pressed by Mr. Asquith, who 
still remains outside the House of Commons. Hitherto it has not 
suited either section in Parliament to acknowledge any definitive 
split in the Liberal Party, but the disagreement between the two 
camps threatened to become an open breach over the Spen Valley 
by-election, in which a Coalition Liberal candidate was appointed to 
oppose Sir John Simon, the nominee of the local Liberal Association. 
Mr. Asquith's patience with his successor in office is exhausted, and 
he is working hard to rally Liberals against Mr. Lloyd George, or, as 
he expresses it, to reconstruct a definite and an independent Liberal 
Party. The first step in this direction is clearly to break up the 
Coalition, and then, having to some extent isolated Mr. Lloyd George, 
or thrown him into the arms of the Unionists or of Labour, to trust 
to the Liberal Party being able to form a Ministry by itself or with 
such fortuitous support as offered. For his disparagement of Coali- 
tion government Mr. Asquith has to rely mainly on his personal 
grievances against the Prime Minister, and on a somewhat easy criti- 
cism of the situation at Home. Our domestic policy, he declares, 
has been a series of zigzags, of improvisation, of temporary expedients, 
of ministerial contradictions, and of Parliamentary compromises ; 
" there is no coherence, no consistency, because there are no common 
convictions, and without common convictions, the Government cannot 
have a common policy." 

IT is true that in a speech delivered a few days previously in Man- 
chester, Mr. Lloyd George, speaking in defence of Coalition government, 
had relied largely on his Ministry's performances in the 

realm f domestic afiairs - Mr- Asquith, therefore, 
would feel justified in attacking him on the same 
ground ; but whereas the Prime Minister spoke also of the situation 
abroad, his rival for the support of the Liberal Party was at pains to 
ignore it. The British public, if its mind is not already made up on 
the subject, will seek guidance elsewhere. By far the most convincing 
case for the Coalition has been established by Mr. Balfour, whose 
clear thinking and reliable statesmanship have never been a more 
valuable asset than at the present time. In his opinion, the War is 
to be regarded as a great national and international disease, and the 
present is the period of convalescence. No one whose survey embraces 
the world would be bold enough to say that the problems of recon- 
struction are not more difficult and more complex even than the 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 8 

troubles of the War. From these problems the British nation cannot 
disinterest itself, and consequently the task of those responsible for 
guiding the external policy of the country is one of great anxiety and 
difficulty. Circumstances point insistently to the need of working 
together as a nation, in other words to the need for a Coalition. The 
party system must weaken national effort at this juncture ; it threatens 
to resolve itself into a question of men and not measures, or if the 
chasm between parties is deep, every change of Government means 
something very like revolution. Mr. Balfour ended up on a note 
which contrasted forcibly with Mr. Asquith's challenge at Manchester. 
" Let us," he said, " as occasion arises, do our duty by our country, 
and we shall be doing our duty by our party." 

IN each of the three great Dominions this controversy between 

Coalition and the Party system is being fought out at the present time. 

The position of Mr. Hughes in Australia bears a strong 

\ e ~ resemblance to that of Mr. Lloyd George in this country, 

STDrGclCl J-SSTJLG 

' in so far as he found it necessary to go outside his own 
party to obtain the support required to enable him to carry Australia 
through her share of the War. After an absence of sixteen months he 
returned to the Commonwealth, and had every reason to be gratified 
by the warmth of the reception given him as a tribute to the part 
that he had played in the War and at the Paris Peace Conference. 
But in the face of an election he began to feel the lack of a following 
of his own, and it is by no means certain that his hold on the Nationa- 
list Party the Australian Coalition will carry him through the 
troubles of reconstruction. As a fighter, and as one with the knack 
of getting things done, Mr. Hughes enjoys to-day a unique position 
in Australia ; but here again the problems ahead are " more difficult 
and more complex even than the troubles of the War," and other 
qualities may be considered of greater advantage to the country 
in a long period of constructive legislation. He has, however, come 
successfully through the General Election, and in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, with the support of the Farmers, he will command a useful 
majority, so long as the Nationalists hold together under his leadership. 
The fact that the Labour Party, which is now bitterly opposed to 
Mr. Hughes, has gained ground, and that the losses among the 
Nationalists are chiefly in the ranks of Mr. Hughes' section of the 
party, suggests that there is still a strenuous fight ahead of the Prime 
Minister. 



4 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

CANADA, like Australia, gave a new party name to the coalition 
formed for the purposes of the War, but it seems to have as little 
difficulty as Great Britain in deciding that the fusion is as 
essential to the work of reconstruction as it was to achiev- 
ing victory in the field. Unfortunately, however, the ill- 
health of Sir Robert Borden raises the question of the future of the 
Unionist Party, as no other man enjoys his prestige, or is likely to 
command the same measure of success in holding the new organisation 
together. A further complication is met with in the disparity of the 
strength of the two political groups forming the party. With the 
Conservative element supplying more than three-quarters of the 
membership, it is inevitable that the principle of equal representation 
of Liberals and Conservatives in the Cabinet, which could be accepted 
as a matter of course during the War, will give rise to heartburnings 
among the Conservatives in the less emotional days of peace. The 
question is bound to assume greater prominence as the personal hold 
of the leader of the party tends to weaken. For the time being, 
however, Sir Robert Borden, at the instance of the party, has decided 
to withhold his resignation, and will take a long rest in the hope of 
recovering his health. 

ANOTHER notable stage in the history of aviation has been reached 
with Captain Ross Smith's successful flight to Australia. Leaving 

Hounslow on November 12, the Vickers-Vimy Rolls- 
The Flight R O y Ce aeroplane with its four aviators arrived at Port 
? . ,. Darwin on December 10. By completing the journey 

in a few hours under twenty-eight days, Captain 
Smith has won the prize of 10,000 offered by the Australian Govern- 
ment for the first flight to be completed within thirty days. It is 
almost inevitable that the air trail thus blazed from the United Kingdom 
to Australia should lead to the establishment of a regular commercial 
line, following practically the same route. In this connection the 
experience of the first flight will be invaluable, and it need not be 
supposed that the time taken by Captain Ross Smith will bear any 
relation to the time-table of an organised air-service. This long 
journey of over eleven thousand miles, it is interesting to note, has 
proved an even severer test for the machine than for the aviator, and 
it will be a sine qua non for any such route in the future that a fresh 
aeroplane should be available for each stage. While we celebrate 
this new aviation success, we cannot forget that disaster has overtaken 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 5 

other competitors. The conquest of the air has still to be perfected, 
and the world is still in the experimental stage in regard to numerous 
sciences which have their bearing directly or indirectly on flying. The 
different Governments of the Empire, therefore, will be well advised 
to encourage, as far as they possibly can, research in every salient 
direction, for the development of commercial aviation must needs 
prove an even greater asset to a nation in war time than a similar 
extension of its maritime service. In South Africa the proposal has 
been made for a Chair of Aeronautics at Johannesburg University. 
By such means and by financial assistance the British Empire should 
be in a position to command the premier air-service of the world. 

SINCE the discussion took place on Mr. Knibbs' interesting paper, 
" Statistics and National Destiny," which is reported in another 
part of the Journal, our attention has been 
called to the proceedings relating to this subject at 
the Imperial War Conference of 1918, and the resolution 
then passed. It ran as follows : " The Imperial War Conference, 
having considered the correspondence as to the improvement of 
Imperial Statistics arising out of the recommendations of the Dominions 
Royal Commission, is in favour of the proposal to hold a Conference 
of Statisticians after the War, and that such Conference consider the 
establishment of an Imperial Statistical Bureau under the supervision 
of an Inter- Imperial Committee." It is understood that, as a result 
of this resolution, preparations are being made for holding a Conference 
of Statisticians early in 1920, at which Mr. Knibbs will represent 
Australia, and that the formation of an Imperial Statistical Bureau 
will be on the agenda of that Conference. 

THIS year marks the centenary of the arrival of British settlers in 
South Africa, and steps are being taken to commemorate the event 
in the Union. There is a striking similarity in the 
1R2O IQQO^' wor ^ conditions of the present day and those that led 
to the dispatch of some twenty shiploads of emigrants 
from the British Isles to Cape Colony. The after-effect of the wars 
that ended in Waterloo was being felt ; soldiers and sailors had been 
disbanded in large numbers ; the high price of land and the bad state 
of trade weighed heavily on the poorer classes. It was in these cir- 
cumstances that the Government of the day decided to send some of 



6 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

the surplus population to a country which was badly in need of culti- 
vators. The story of those early days belongs to the romance of 
South Africa. To-day it has been wisely decided that the same 
practical considerations that brought about the settlement shall 
determine the form of the commemoration. In the first place, the 
descendants of those first settlers are to be, where necessary, the special 
care of the community, and the bulk of any money to be subscribed 
is likely to be devoted to an educational scheme from which the 
present and future generations will benefit. 

THE flotation of two new Colonial loans in the City is an indication 
that the Empire, as well, as the Mother Country, is on the eve of great 
industrial developments. The six per cent. Nigeria 
Loans and Loan was issued at par and largely over-subscribed, 
and its partly paid shares have hardly suffered any 
discount in the day-to-day quotations a rather unusual 
proof of strength, since most investors dislike the purchase of issued 
stocks to which liability still attaches, and most stock in these days 
stands at a discount for some considerable time even after it has been 
fully paid. The Queensland Government is also floating a two million 
loan maturing in 1930-40 ; the interest is the same as with the Nigeria 
issue six per cent. ; but the price is 98 10s., instead of par. The 
amount asked for is modest as times and issues go ; but it is to be 
regretted that political controversies in Australia between Mr. Hughes 
and the Premier and Ministry of Queensland regarding the financial 
status and policy of the State as contrasted with the Commonwealth 
have hardly assisted the matter. It is, of course, inevitable that 
politicians should charge one another with incompetence, and on 
purely domestic matters these recriminations not only do no harm, 
but may be regarded as adding incident and variety to the dull round 
of life. But it is a pity that they do not confine themselves to local 
politics, since criticism of a State's finances is likely to be read by those 
who are not interested in local party quarrels, but are genuinely 
interested in the general position and progress of the country, and 
any suggestion that this is unsound is calculated to react on the general 
credit of the community, which is something quite distinct from the 
credit of its political leaders. Since many of the Dominions are likely 
to be entering the home market for loans in the next few years, it is 
to be hoped that their statesmen may take this suggestion in good 
part. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 7 

AT Home new industrial companies are being floated every day, 

with capitals of anything from one to ten millions, and the shares 

are generally well-subscribed. There is an enormous 

amount of loose money in England at the moment, 
Flotations. , , .. . , . 

owners of real estate everywhere realising their pro- 
perty at high prices, and looking out for liquid investments, while 
others who have kept their money on deposit in the banks since the 
Armistice are now ready to put it in sound securities ; others, who 
only bought War Loan from 1914-18 from motives of patriotism are 
gradually realising their holdings, even at a slight loss, and transferring 
to other securities. There is no sign whatever that this process is at 
an end, and the best authorities are convinced that it will last at least 
two, and possibly four or five, years longer. The result will be a con- 
tinuance of the tendency for pre-war stocks to depreciate, while the 
rates of interest and the yields on all stocks, old and new, go up. 
Any increase in either taxation or the cost of living, either here or in 
the Dominions, must necessarily strengthen this tendency for stocks 
to go down and interest to go up, and must also encourage the spirit 
of gambling which is more than a little in evidence already. It is 
proper to add that increases in prices and in taxation both seem 
inevitable during the new year, since all the world is short of 
commodities and every Treasury is short of cash. 

THE reaction on the issue price of stocks is inevitable. Before the 
War the British Government attempted to maintain a three per cent, 
basis, Dominion and Colonial Governments roughly a 
Eising Rates f our p er CQR ^ basis, and industrial securities of good 
standing a five to six per cent, basis. Even before the 
War, the rate of interest was rising, largely owing to the insistent 
demand for money for legitimate purposes of development ; but the 
War has swept the old values and yields aside, apparently for good. 
A British Government five per cent, loan is now quoted at a discount ; 
few Dominion six per cent, loans will rank at parity in 1920, and the 
seven per cent, preference shares of first-class industrial undertakings, 
which are the fashion of the time, can mostly be purchased at a dis- 
count. The wail of the dying company-promoter in " Tono Bungay " 
" You can't get a safe six per cent." is out of date ; anybody can 
get a safe seven per cent, (gross), almost by pricking the Stock Ex- 
change lists at random with a pin, so long as they avoid the field of 
Oils, Mines or Kubbers, where fabulous monsters breed and delude 



8 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

the unwary sportsman. Undoubtedly there will be room, now and 
in the future, for the issue of many fresh Dominion securities, which 
furnish more pleasant pillows for the investor to sleep upon than even 
the most seductive of industrial stocks. Moreover, the Dominions 
are in one sense at an advantage, even over the British Government, 
whose long list of war loans is now rather confusing to the uninitiated. 
We do not yet paper our walls with Consols, but if wall-paper goes 
up and Consols go down any more, they may make a cheap and 
effective frieze for the new working-class villas. These things, no 
doubt, will change in time, for in the next ten years every Govern- 
ment in the world will have to consider seriously the question of 
consolidating all its liabilities ; but, for the present, the demand for 
new money is steady and continuous, and consolidation is a matter 
for the future. 

ANOTHER point affecting Dominion finance directly is concerned 
with migration. There is great industrial activity in England, which 
is engaging the bulk of the returned armies in commer- 
iin 3e and c > a j en t e rprise, but many thousands of men want a 
different kind of life, and intend to go abroad ; and, 
of these thousands, many hundreds are capitalists in a small way. It 
must not be forgotten that their success will not only help the Dominion 
concerned, directly and materially, but their reports home will help to 
advertise it, and that kind of advertisement cannot be bought or 
contrived by any system of propaganda. The collapse of Eussia and 
Central Europe will also tend to stimulate the investor's interest 
which is something quite different from patriotic interest in the 
British Empire, and for these reasons the road seems clear for a 
general advance. 

PROUD as the Institute is of its ever-growing family, the latest of 
its children, the Sheffield Branch, seems to invite special congratula- 
tions. How often during the past half-dozen years 
The Sheffield have 'we of the Old Country found no more fitting 
Branch. phrase, no more grateful and superlative praise, for 

the Dominions and Dependencies of the Empire, than 
" True as Steel " ! And as Sheffield's steel is the world's best as with- 
out Sheffield's steel our Empire would not be the Empire Lord Morris 
so graphically described Sheffield will know how to help in welding 
the Empire metal after its own heart. Sir Henry Hadow made a 



THE COLONIST. 9 

very apt reference to Shakespeare. May we not adopt a line from 
Polonius' speech to Laertes and say that, as with friendship, so with 
the Dominions and Dependencies, we will grapple them to our souls 
with hoops of steel. The inauguration of the Sheffield Branch, which 
is referred to under Branch Notes, is of happy omen. 



THE COLONIST. 

I dream of simple things ; laughter and tears 

That still go hand in hand, old customs ceased, 

Quaint fancies handed down from bygone years 

Not poppy-fevered visions of the East, 

But the clean fragrance of an English May ; 

Memories of saunterings among the lanes 

And meadows scented with the drying hay, 

In later June ; when the slow-moving wains 

Go plodding farmward in the after-glow, 

With all the horse-bells ringing merrily, 

As once I heard them ringing, long ago. 

I love this land. I chose it willingly ; 
A pleasant land of sun and plenteousness. 
But, though I chose a bride across the sea, 
She cannot make me love the old home less. 
Yet I could rest content, if it may be 
That I shall see my country ere I die 
One little year of England, ere I die. 

GUENN F. NEWNHAM. 



THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO MR. H. R. DENISON. 

THE following cablegram has been despatched by His Royal Highness, the Duke of 
Connaught, to Mr. Hugh R. Denison in acknowledgment of his donation to the Jubilee 
Fund, recorded in our first note : 

" Your telegram of 21st December and your cheque duly received. It is a splendid 
gift to the Royal Colonial Institute. As President I tender you my grateful thanks 
and join in your hope that your generosity may induce others to do likewise, thereby 
promoting the cause of United Empire. We wish you every happiness for Christmas 
and the New Year. 

" ARTHUR." 



10 



CANADA AND BRITISH WOMEN. 

For many years before the War, the question of a system of well-directed emi- 
gration from the United Kingdom to the Dominions occupied the minds of men 
and women concerned with the larger interests of Empire. The rapidity with 
which means of transit and communication increased and multiplied during 
the opening decade of the present century accentuated the problem on the 
one hand, while on the other it rendered practicable a closer co-operation 
between the countries of origin and reception. The War has crystallised a 
considerable body of hitherto nebulous opinion in the direction of demanding 
co-ordination of effort in the matter. Before the War, the Home Government 
concerned itself chiefly with the provision of information, the securing of 
supervision of emigrant ships, and the tabulation of facts and figures relating to 
conditions of population in various parts of the Empire. Any actual encourage- 
ment or guidance, offered to proposing emigrants, came either from the repre- 
sentatives of the Dominions themselves, or from voluntary and philanthropic 
societies interested in the matter. The stronger bond of brotherhood, wrought 
by the late world-wide struggle, in which the great self-governing Dominions 
took so noble a share, has quickened the spirit of Imperial citizenship in so 
marked a measure as to make it impossible for British people to revert to 
national as contrasted with Imperial ideas. The Empire, with all that it stands 
for, is the unit of organisation, and the population within that unit should be 
encouraged to regard the problem of the vast partially developed tracts of the 
Overseas Dominions as one closely related to themselves, whether they be 
dwellers in overcrowded centres in the old country, or inhabitants of the younger, 
sparsely populated, rural districts of the newer continents. The Home Gov- 
ernment has recently enlarged the sphere of its activities and has set up a 
Committee to deal with emigration, both of men and women. With the cessa- 
tion of the War, emigration, as applied to the ex-Service man and woman, 
demanded special and immediate attention, the importance of that portion of 
it connected with women being rendered even more acute by the fact that 
free passages for Overseas Settlement may be applied for by late members of 
the War Services. 

It is obvious that the direction of organised assisted passages, especially for 
wage -earning women, requires careful handling, and that one of the first steps 
to be taken to ensure success in the matter is the collection of accurate infor- 
mation regarding conditions of employment overseas. 

Women Commissioners were, therefore, appointed by the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies to visit Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and to ascertain 
what openings existed, or were likely to exist in the near future, for women 
in industrial, commercial and agricultural occupations. The two Commissioners 
appointed to Canada were the first to undertake their journey, and therefore 
the first to present their Eeport. This document has recently been printed and 
circulated for public use. 



CANADA AND BRITISH WOMEN. 11 

Emigration to Canada has been active during the present century. Some 
fifteen years ago the Dominion possessed a population of something over 
5,000,000 ; to-day it has over 8,000,000. Of the 3,000,000, of whom the great 
majority have been imported, 28 per cent, are said to have been British, 
34 per cent. American, and the remainder non-English-speaking people, both 
from Europe and Asia. The emigration of men from Great Britain has been 
considerably greater than that of women, It is calculated that, during the 
forty years preceding the War, over half a million more men than women 
entered Canada from England and Wales, and in spite of the losses incurred 
during the last five years, men still outnumber the women in the Dominion. 
The distribution is, of course, uneven, the preponderance of the male sex being 
chiefly in the rural, not in urban districts. 

That Canada requires, and would welcome, increased British migration is 
undoubted. Scarcity of population is the only bar to the development of her 
unlimited resources. But it is equally certain that, to be welcome, settlers must 
be prepared to adapt themselves to the requirements of the new country, and 
not expect either to find conditions similar to those experienced in the older 
land, or to introduce the latter into the country of their adoption. Though 
this home-truth has been stated with wearying reiteration by all who are 
acquainted with life overseas, it is of such vital importance, especially with 
regard to women, that its repetition is desirable. Undirected emigration in 
the past has not proved a success. Women, attracted by the glowing accounts 
of the opportunities offered by a rich and undeveloped soil, by a sunny climate 
and boundless natural resources, have too often been tempted to uproot them- 
selves from known surroundings and to travel to the new country, only to meet 
with bitter disappointment in their experience of the unknown and unex- 
pected conditions. It is not that the latter are unbearable, but that they 
are different ; and that the difference arises, not from want of knowledge or 
lack of education on the part of the Canadians, but from the fundamental 
fact that Canada is a new, vast and thinly populated land as compared with 
Great Britain an old, small and densely peopled country. Primitive England 
was developed for us by our forefathers, two thousand years ago ; we live on 
and by that development. Canada, with the exception of certain areas within 
its boundaries, is still awaiting nay inviting development. Canada asks 
that its daughters, as well as its sons, shall not only be self-supporting citizens, 
but shall take a part in the pushing forward of the greater development that 
the country requires. In Great Britain, provided one is possessed of money, 
it is generally possible to find a substitute willing to do the work that naturally 
falls to one's own lot. In rural Canada no such surplus labour is available. 
No amount of cash will produce the substitute. The work that falls to the lot 
of a particular member of the community will probably remain undone, if not 
carried out by that special individual. Each person must be self-dependent. 
There is no hardship involved, provided the facts are fairly and squarely 
faced. On the contrary, the life, simpler than that to which English people 
are accustomed, gains from that very simplicity. The opportunity for wider 



12 CANADA AND BRITISH WOMEN. 

scope, for utilisation of special capacity is sure to occur, and is there to be 
taken by the individual concerned without hesitation, without the heart- 
breaking competition which involves the disappointment of a dozen appli- 
cants for one successful candidate which has to be faced in the Old Country. 

Women are as necessary a factor in the development of Canada as are men. 
But they are wanted chiefly as home-makers, as partners of men rather than 
as single units. As is weD known, the need for domestic help is as great, even 
greater, overseas than at home. And with this difference, that, broadly 
speaking, the domestic in rural Canada is a " help," working with the employer, 
regarded as an independent individual, requiring consideration as such. City 
life in the Dominions differs little from that of towns in England. In country 
districts the differences are great. Women settlers in Canada will inevitably 
have to take a share in domestic work, not necessarily as wage-earners, but 
even as householders and employers. Very few Canadian women fail in 
taking a share in the work of their own house, and the stenographer or teacher 
who marries in the Dominion will expect to " keep " her house in the true sense 
of the word. 

Any woman who is willing toundertake domestic help, when other occupation 
is not forthcoming, need never be hard-up in Canada. The other occupation 
will assuredly turn up in time for those really skilled in the same, but 
during the period of waiting domestic work should be accepted. Only those 
who refuse this class of duty need fear unemployment, or anticipate being 
unpopular with Canadian women, who know so well the true place taken by 
such work in the economic growth of the community that they are astonished 
at the inexperience of so many English women in ordinary household tasks. 

Turning to employment of a non-domestic nature, openings undoubtedly 
exist for educated women, provided the necessary training is taken in the 
Dominion. Posts in connection with Nursing, crganisation of Social Service, 
Child Welfare, &c., are likely to develop in the near future. But Canadians 
naturally look to candidates to take the qualifying training specially arranged 
to fit an applicant for the local surroundings. Skilled stenographers and 
competent clerk-accountants would find openings, provided their acquire- 
ments are of a first-rate kind. The slightly skilled are not likely to obtain 
work. 

As regards agriculture, climatic conditions prevent the employment of the 
whole-time farm woman. Practically all hired farm labour is seasonal, the 
men having to turn to alternative winter work, which they usually find in the 
lumber trade, a class of employment entirely unsuited to women. But certain 
opportunities in the fruit districts are likely to develop, whereby young women 
may obtain out-door work during six or seven months in the year, provided they 
are willing to go into domestic employment in the winter. In some provinces 
also, farm servants willing to work partly in and partly outside the farm-house 
may be placed. Women farmers intending to acquire land should invariably 
gain local experience by working as wage-earners in the province in which they 
propose to settle before they decide upon purchase. In connection with 



CANADA AND BRITISH WOMEN. 13 

agricultural work, the climatic conditions must always be borne in mind. A 
five to six months' rigorous winter, during which no field operations can be 
carried on, and a temperature of 20 to 40 below zero must be anticipated, 
falsifies any close comparison between conditions of farm labour in Great 
Britain and in Canada. 

In one direction British women possessing the spirit of enterprise and 
Empire-making may find an inspiring opportunity. Kecent developments in 
connection with the War have resulted in the withdrawal of permits to teach 
formerly granted to teachers of alien birth amongst foreign communities in the 
northern parts of the Western Provinces. In addition to this, the rapid settle- 
ment of ex-Service men upon the land is creating an urgent demand for a larger 
supply of teachers in the more remote districts. The necessity for more 
teachers in those areas is, therefore, acute. Well educated, young and eager- 
spirited women may therein find a scope, second to none, for personal influence, 
for work in moulding the characteristics of a rural community, for Empire 
building in its truest and widest sense. That there are hardships to be faced 
in the way of isolation and rough accommodation is not denied. But since 
when have British women been daunted by such facts ? Local authorities 
recognise the difficulties and are endeavouring to meet them by arranging, 
wherever possible, that the Eural Nurse and Teacher should live together. 
Such organisation must come slowly, but it is in train. 

There can be little doubt that physical strength is a necessary adjunct to 
successful settlers. Women should not have sent their roots down so low in the 
Old Country, and its form of civilisation, as to be unable to replant themselves 
in the new. Where their heart and real interest lie, there will their best work 
and fullest life be carried on. The middle-aged are naturally less adaptable, 
and find new conditions very difficult to accept. Canadian life is strenuous, 
but it is full, free, and splendid. 

In such an article as this it is not possible to describe in detail the many 
possibilities and drawbacks present in Canada which should be placed before 
proposing emigrants. The Report of the Commissioners (C.M.D. 403) attempts 
to deal with the main questions, and should be placed in the hands of women 
concerned. But it is desirable to point out that, in order to deal fairly 
with the British woman on one hand, and the Dominion on the other, a system 
of careful selection of would-be settlers, combined with the provision of the 
fullest possible information, is the only sound principle upon which to work. 
The Overseas Settlement Committee of the Colonial Office is prepared to supply 
all information, including that being collected by its Women Commissioners. 
Excellent little handbooks are issued to enquirers containing specific facts, 
political and social, regarding each Dominion. The Committee is further 
setting up a body of women accustomed to deal with the question of migration 
and experienced in its various aspects, to act as its agent in interviewing and 
selecting the most suitable women applicants for settlement overseas. 

In Canada, the Federal Government have recently established a Council 
of Women in connection with the Ministry of Immigration and Colonisation. 



14 STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY. 

To this body is entrusted the supervision of Hostels of Reception for Women 
Immigrants and the duty of making recommendations to the Department 
regarding the welfare of such women. The Overseas Settlement Committee 
will be in close touch with these Canadian authorities, will receive from them 
information regarding conditions of employment, demand for women workers, 
&c., and thus be in a position to give the most helpful advice to British women 
who contemplate emigrating to Canada. 

The trail is being well laid from the Mother Country to its daughters and 
sons across the ocean. It rests only with their brothers and sisters in the Old 
Country to use these advantages to the full, not only in their own interests 
but those of Empire. 

GLADYS S. POTT. 



STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY.* 
By G. H. KNIBBS. C.M.G., F.R.A.S., Hon. F.S.S. 

CAN it be possible that so prosaic a thing as statistical record, which necessarily always 
refers to the past, has any real relation to national destiny, which concerns the future ? 
One would be tempted to answer " No " an answer that would, perhaps, be correct, 
were we to mean merely statistical record perse. But of statistics in its larger aspect 
this answer would be in error. For the word used in its wider and more scientific sense 
connotes that systematic compiling of information, by means of which the arts of 
control can be guided rationally instead of empirically. In this sense statistics 
may be of almost incalculable value as regards the future. When appropriately 
compiled, they can reveal the trend of the things of the past and can be correlated 
with the policy and acts of government. Moreover, whenever we have reason to 
believe that, in affairs, the future will be consistent with the past, we can project our 
statistical results onward, with considerable certitude that they will be at least an 
approximate if not an exact representation of the " things to come." Thus in 
any case they constitute an empirical guide. They may do more than this. If from 
past records we can discover any correlation between the drift of affairs and the 
policy and acts of government, we have added an element of value to our knowledge 
of the principles of government, of social economics, or it may be to our knowledge 
of social control. And, if we can interpret this correlation by referring to basic prin- 
ciples, we have arrived at fundamental truths and a rational theory of the matter 
investigated. 

In days gone by monarchs often made statistical surveys of their kingdoms, in 
order to obtain precise knowledge of their resources in men and material, the primary 
aim being to estimate their chances of success in military operations against their 
neighbours, the operations usually having no other object than that of extending 

* Paper read at a Meeting of the Royal Colonial Institute held at the Central Hall, Westminster, 
on December 9, 1919, at 8 p.m. ; Sir Charles Lucat, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., Chairman of Counc.il, 
in the Chair. 



STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY. 15 

their dominion and increasing their dynastic prestige. The well-being of the people, 
merely pawns in the game, was a matter of small direct moment. Recent history 
is not without its parallel, and proud and arrogant leaders may promote a conception 
of the State which may easily be made to take the place of the monarch and fulfil 
similar functions, and the entire scheme of national statistical record will again serve 
the same fundamental purpose the gauging of the chance of success or failure in a 
scheme for acquiring world-power by the subjugation of other peoples. When the 
alternatives are " Weltmacht oder Niedergang " statistics may, or as history has 
shown may not, serve a useful purpose. 

With this type of application of statistical knowledge, however, we are not here 
specially concerned : but it is not unimportant to remember that it may be pressed 
into the service of man (in the mass), instead of into the service of any monarch, 
for the purpose of his personal aggrandisement. And it has become very evident 
that, if it can be made to render this sinister service, it should not be difficult to utilise 
it in the interests of the people themselves. For in the last analysis, statistics are 
essential for any systematic and intelligent survey of affairs, and its results, rightly 
used, can undoubtedly be made to answer questions of high public importance. And 
the object of this address is to focus attention on this aspect of the matter : in short, 
to lead to a realisation of the fact that, if statistics are to be used to the best advantage, 
they must be thorough, and that being thorough they can profoundly influence 
national destiny. 

The complex of relations subsisting in any community, whether social, economic, 
financial or other, is organic, for the community may be regarded as a social -economic 
organism, acting upon and re-acted upon by Nature, and moreover influenced by the 
growths even of its own organs. Thus the question arises, " Is it possible to derive 
any sufficient knowledge of the characteristics of the social-economic organism, and 
is it possible to make such knowledge of service in that criticism of affairs which 
aims at their better guidance ? " And in saying this, it has to be remembered that 
affairs are comparative. Thus, in focussing our attention upon the general question, 
we have indeed to remember that national destiny is related to world-advance. In 
this way it becomes more obvious that adequate statistics are essential to determining 
our place in world affairs, or the drift of our nation in respect of the general movement 
of a rapidly changing world. 

It is, of course, a truism that the destiny of a people " lies on the knees of the gods," 
and they are uncommunicative. It is none the less true that a people destined to 
greatness will give an earnest of that destiny through their national acts. Even 
in the relatively negligible affairs of the individual, circumspection and foresight 
play an important role. A prudent man will survey and forecast his affairs. Will 
not a wise nation do the same ? Will it not analyse its past and endeavour to shape 
its future in the light of the past 1 This then is our theme. And here I may antici- 
pate an objection which wears a most pious mask, and it is this : It is not uncommon 
to hear " National Affairs " referred to as if -in some very special way they were 
in the hands of the gods, which no doubt, bicn entendu, is true. And it is true also 



16 STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY. 

that the " Soul of a People " is the most important thing about it it is that which 
supports it or brings it to ruin -when the day of judgment arrives for the people. 
But in national affairs, as in personal, idleness or indifference is no excuse, even if 
disguised as a proper faith in the gods, or the God of gods. The sober truth is that 
we do well to trust in God only when we take care to "keep our powder dry." If 
we do our best to watch over and guide our national drift, we may then without 
impiety put our trust in the Hidden Power. 

Before considering the question before us in any detail let us glance for a moment 
at the significance of the existing state of affairs. In a manner before unknown, it 
has been demonstrated to mankind that as no man liveth to himself, so no nation 
liveth to itself. The interests of nations may it is true clash ; they constitute, 
nevertheless, in some and most important sense a solidarity. Disaster is not inflicted 
upon any one of them without injuring all : the true interests of any one people are 
probably the interests of mankind- The affairs of nations have become so interwoven, 
that if the well-being of one people is deeply injured, that of others is by no means 
left untouched. The devastation of one is a hurt to all, though unfortunately it 
may bs necessary to inflict it. And in this connection it is not useless to remember 
that effects may be psychical as well as physical : they may touch material things, 
or ethical, and, because of the latter, may be very far-reaching in their effects. 

May I now draw attention to one point of great moment in considering the 
importance of the question under review ? Before the war, the increase of human 
population was such that one might well be concerned with the future of the world's 
food supply ; and so there arose among the intelligent the recognition of the need 
of such a statistical inquiry as that now being undertaken by the International Agri- 
cultural Institute at Eome. Through this inquiry, not only has it become more 
difficult to carry on detrimental operations in regard to foodstuffs, one is also enabled 
to obtain that conspectus of the totality of supplies, by means of which we can forecast 
the needs of the human race in the future, and devise the best means of meeting 
any shortage. 

The Permanent Office of the International Institute of Statistics is endeavouring 
to fulfil a mission of an analogous nature in respect of great branches of statistics. 
The colossal efforts at devastation during the past five years have resulted in a waste 
of material, of the energies and lives of human beings, the scale of which was un- 
paralleled in the course of history. And the sad feature of this experience is that it 
has been revealed at the same time that the world's resources are by no means unlimited. 
Whatever discoveries the future may have in store, this must remain true. The 
present population of the world some seventeen hundred millions seems relatively 
small, a mere handful on a large surface. And yet a rate of increase of population 
even so small as 1 per cent, per annum means trouble within but a few centuries. 
It seems but a small rate of increase ; and from the anti-Mai thustan standpoint it 
is deplorably small. Yet such a rate cannot possibly continue unchecked for five 
centuries unless astounding discoveries are made in modes of feeding and keeping 
in health the human organism. And this is one of the facts that teaches us that 



STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY. 17 

we must look ahead. While it is right that we should face the future with expectant 
hope, and with faith in human destiny, these afford no warrant for neglect to consider 
our drift and to shape our affairs accordingly, for the matters just referred to touch 
the very foundations of the social organism. 

There is, on the part of all thinking men at the present time, a feeling that we 
are moving towards some important change in the social-economic organism, although 
no one appears to see clearly whither we are drifting. The wave-beats on the shoreless 
sea of Time are not unfelt by those whose minds are attuned to the wider issues of 
Life. The " things to come " are already pulsing in the present : and we feel rather 
than know that we are on the eve of momentous changes. The scale of losses in the 
recent war was such that the credit of the future had to be hypothecated ; and, in 
reliance upon the possibilities of future production transcending the needs of the 
moment, we have gone on in hope, as one that trusts his debtor even when as things 
stand at the moment of inquiry he is bankrupt. Some seem to think that we may 
repudiate our indebtedness, but that is no real escape, and will bring serious conse- 
quences in its train. We must face our difficulty, and suffer such readjustment as 
the situation requires, even though its scale be commensurate as it must be to 
the loss inflicted on mankind by the unscrupulousness of vaulting ambitions. 

It is when we consider matters of this kind that we are better able to realise tha 
our past and characteristic neglect to survey national affairs is quite inappropriate 
in regard to our future. If as an Empire we are to maintain a vital connection between 
the different parts, and to play a worthy role in the affairs of mankind, we cannot 
afford to continue our neglect and must now make good what was alone worthy of, 
and needed for, our place in human affairs. In short, we shall need a conspectus 
of the activities of all parts of the Empire, showing the relation of each to the whole ; 
without this there cannot be such a thing as the intelligent observation of its affairs. 
And this conspectus will need to be at the disposal of all publicists and those who take 
a real interest in affairs. Data that will reveal how we stand at every moment, and 
in which direction things are drifting, are a prime requisite, for in so far as our nation 
is virile, so will it, presumably, have the power of controlling events and shaping 
its future if it have the appropriate knowledge. To have this knowledge it must survey 
piece by piece, and in a systematic way, the movement of its affairs. As time goes 
on and this survey develops, not only will it be perceived whether the drift is really 
satisfactory or unsatisfactory, it will also be seen and with considerable exactitude 
what particular things need different or remedial action, how far one element of 
development can be sacrificed for the benefit of another, or what new elements of 
development are required. 

To carry on such work as this intelligently requires something more than mere 
records : something more than a lifeless body of Imperial statistics. Nor will it be 
sufficient if it be limited to the Empire itself. To appreciate the significance of 
Imperial developments it is obvious they must be viewed comparatively : they stand 
in relation to the trend of affairs in other parts of the world. In short, the significant 
question may not be the rapidity of our own development, but its rapidity as com,- 



18 STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY. 

pared with, that of other peoples. The most fundamental thing about the statistics 
of things is that to be of value they must ordinarily be comparative : the meaning 
of events may lie not so much, in themselves taken alone as in them when taken with 
their surroundings. 

What has been stated does not imply that, even when we have an adequate record 
of affairs, any arbitrary fiat can force development into a satisfactory position : that 
is perhaps beyond human power. But assuredly with such a record the various 
activities of the people can be better co-ordinated, and, given efficient government, 
we can nationally undertake those things which, from their very nature, are outside 
the appropriate sphere of individual action. In this connection one is reminded of 
the fact that, as a nation, we are intensely individualistic. " Let every man take 
care of his own affairs, and the nation will take care of itself " is practically our motto. 
Such a view is inconsistent with modern development of civilisation. Eugenics, 
in the wider sense, has become international. Trade and financial developments are 
world-wide. The rights of individuals impinge upon another, and the clash of 
individual interests is not always in the interest of the people as a whole. More 
and more has State interference become essential : it is aa necessary as it is 
inevitable. 

So also do the rights of nations come into conflict : and the rights of mankind 
as a solidarity limit the rights of nations as the rights of a people limit the right of 
the individuals composing it. National eudaemonism may involve the development 
of national hygiene and of national eugenics. The co-ordination of national industry 
may similarly demand a large measure of State interference, and it is self-evident that 
such interference cannot, in the nature of the case, be appropriately directed without 
adequate knowledge of the general drift of affairs. Just as a manufacturer needs 
to co-ordinate the various parts of his business, to consider ita existing and future 
supplies, and to anticipate the measure of its development, so must a wise nation 
forecast its wants in respect of the things which demand national action. It is self- 
evident that to do this it must have a knowledge of the trend and rapidity of the 
developments affecting the matters at issue. It is only when one realises this that 
the inadequacy of our present position can be properly gauged. Some parts of the 
Empire have attempted a fairly comprehensive survey of their activities, and this 
movement is spreading. Other parts, however, lag behind, and hence the survey 
of the whole either falls short, or is impossible. And to make the whole satisfactory 
the advance must be considerable. 

Before considering the organisation of statistics which could serve the purpose 
of criticising national affairs and their drift, in this rapidly changing world, it is 
desirable to have before the mind a conspectus of an adequate system. In the com- 
pass of this brief address it is not, of course, possible to set out such a conspectus. 
It must suffice to give merely the roughest outline of some of the more important 
matters. 

The statistics of population are, of course, the basis of all. But these embrace 
not merely aggregates, and migrations of the peoples, but also their constitutions 



STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY. 19 

according to age, sex, race or nationality, and moreover have regard to all facts 
tending to throw light upon population-growth. Thus they are concerned with birth 
and death rates, and their annual and secular variations ; with fertility and fecundity, 
and the effect thereupon of age, race, etc., and with the physical, mental, and ethical 
well-being of the peoples. For this reason anthropometry, education, public hygiene, 
national and international eugenics ; the conjugal condition (as expressed by fre- 
quency according to age of marriage, divorce, judicial separation, etc.) the phenomena 
of birth in relation to marriage and outside of it, the incidence of disease according 
to age, the effect thereupon of public sanitary measures, are subjects for statistical 
survey. So, too, are the facts of trade and commerce (e.g. import, export, influence 
of tariffs, etc.), and the effect of these upon production, the relations of capital and 
production, employment, of industrial matters as related to wages, cost of living, 
prices, and general finance. 

And then, again, to determine the balance of activity, statistics of the relations 
of pastoral, agricultural, manufacturing, and other industry are required, and the 
variation, with all of these, of prices and cost of living. In regard to standards of 
living might be mentioned not only the above, but also the relations of labour and 
capital, variations in our constitutional drift, etc. ; the housing of the people ; defence, 
and other similar matters. 

Obviously the above purview is only a mere suggestion of the scope of an adequate 
national statistical survey, as anyone who will trouble to look at the annuaries of 
South Africa, New Zealand, or Australia will at once recognise. 

Such an indication as has been given, though not exhaustive, is however sufficient 
to show that mere collections of departmental statistics cannot result in the body 
of statistics required. National statistics are not mere aggregates of disconnected 
departmental statistics, nor can they be produced therefrom except by proper direction 
and co-ordination of their contents. This is not an assertion that departmental 
statistics are unnecessary, but it does assert that their organisation should be subject 
to the direction of an expert, other than a departmental head, and that when the 
departmental requirements are not adequate for national purposes, the mode of 
compilation and the subject-matter to be included in the compilation should be 
governed by the national needs, and not merely by the limited views of departmental 
utility. 

Every department, in building up statistics for its immediate purpose, should 
be required to conform to these national requirements. 

The effort to create a body of national statistics ot any value cannot be a Fort uf 
side function of sonic particular department ; nor should any department, existing 
for a specific purpose oth* j r than the statistical, be entrusted with the general upbuilding 
of a national statistical scheme. 

Ignorance of the methodology of statistics, of the present position of statistical 
theory, of the necessary qualifications for an expert director of census and statistical 
affairs (who must be able to marshal and interpret the entire body of facts), is respon- 
sible for the absurd idea reflected in the opinion that almost any intelligent official 



20 STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY. 

can bring together the compilations of many departments, and create out of them a 
statistical purview of the constitution and activities of a people. 

There should be a department of statistics, charged with all matters relating to 
the censuses of population and of wealth and similar matters, and with general statistics. 
Such a department will collect, not only a considerable amount of statistics by means 
of its own questionnaires, and by its own authority (the scope of which could be deter- 
mined by Parliament, with action subject to the direction of a responsible Minister) 
it should also be the appropriately accredited adviser in regard to the mode of com- 
pilation of all departmental statistics, as well as the compiler from all sources of 
information. For this reason its director or chief should be expert in the arts of repre- 
senting the statistical facts, in the art of compiling and tabulating, in the art of ex- 
pounding and presenting the results obtained, in the interpretation of their significance, 
in the mathematical and general methodology of statistics, in all applications of the 
theories of probability and distribution, and in the dissection and analysis of results. 

The ability to discern the real significance and appropriately to correlate statistical 
results is of fundamental and far-reaching importance. It has been said that by 
means of statistics one can prove anything. There is no doubt that the misuse of 
statistics has been responsible for many false conclusions, mostly of post hoc ergo 
propterhoc character, and these false conclusions come not infrequently from very high 
places, and with the pretensions of an unquestionable authority. And be it said 
that the command of a powerful technique is in itself no safeguard- Even mathe- 
maticians can fall into grievous error over questions such as these, and attempts to 
determine the relationship of series of phenomena often assumed on very insufficient 
grounds to be in some way connected border occasionally on the ludicrous. This 
points to the necessity of the saving grace of the uncommon quality known as 
" common sense " in the Director of a National Bureau of Statistics. 

From what has been stated, it must be obvious that, although the whole statistical 
effort and its general presentation must be controlled by one mind, it is impossible 
for the controlling chief to be equally expert in every branch of statistics ; consequently, 
the statistics of allied subjects must be entrusted to the direction of departmental 
chiefs, who deal with the more limited fields as special experts therein, and who must 
be qualified to grasp the essential features of the Director's ideas and apply them 
consistently with the entire scheme. 

Here it may be mentioned that the advance in statistical technique has been so 
great that it has become necessary to keep under review the general progress in statis- 
tical methodology, together with all mathematical solutions of statistical problems. 
This has given birth to a new journal, Metron, which will be published in Rome in 
January 1920. This journal will attempt to focus these, in order that statisticians 
shall have necessary indication of statistical advances throughout the world. 
Assuming that this publication achieves success, as I believe it will, its value to real 
students of statistics, and to everyone who makes systematic and proper use of statis- 
tical results, will be very high indeed : it will be indispensable to future statistical 
workers. And every detail is likely to be improved, for it is probable even that 



STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY. 21 

departmental statistics will be greatly advanced by the appointment of persons 
competent to make the compilations of their special subjects conform to modern 
requirements, and, on their own initiative, to subject in the departmental interest 
their results to critical analysis. 

Let us, then, suppose that an Organisation of Statistics such as has been suggested 
is completed ; that it is under a competent Statistical Director ; that all the necessary 
sources of information are available to him ; that he is cordially supplied with requisite 
data in the form desired. Can he produce a statistical anuuary which can afford 
help in the development of the people or Empire that creates his office? I answer 
unhesitatingly that, inasmuch as it can place at the disposal of students and publicists 
the necessary data for an analysis of public affairs in a convenient form, it can render 
a service of the highest value. It can offer them what it is quite impossible for them 
to build up for themselves viz., a conspectus of national and international affairs. 
At the present time an adequate conspectus does not exist for the British Empire. 
It is true that there does exist through private enterprise >a publication of very 
high value indeed viz., The Statesmen's Year Book, and this furnishes some of the 
material required. I confess to a very high admiration of this publication : it will 
probably always be required even if an annuary for the British Empire is created, 
by means of which the authorities of the United Kingdom, of India, and of the self- 
governing Dominions can keep themselves thoroughly informed as to the drift of 
Imperial affairs and of their place in that drift. 

What has been said applies generally, and would be true in any case. But with 
the unrest of the world and its financial, industrial, and social uncertainties, it becomes 
of transcendent importance. If we care for our Imperial destiny we are assuredly 
committed to that survey of the drift of affairs without which accurate knowledge 
is impossible. I think we may take it as virtually axiomatic that when the proper 
reaction of the Will follows on Knowledge, things will be well with a people : their 
destiny is favourably determined. Shall we watch our national affairs and endeavour, 
by wise appropriate action, legislative or other, to direct them, ar.d to intelligently 
co-operate >as in the forecasting of our private life with the forces that tend to 
make or unmake us ? The answer to this lies in the old aphorism : Quern Jupiter 
vult perdere, elemental prius. 

If we are not madly indifferent to our future, if national destiny stands for any 
thing to the British heart and conscience, I presume we will not leave this task undone, 
for one can rest assured that intelligent statistics and national destiny are closely 
correlated. 

To recapitulate : A Department of Census and Statistics, properly equipped and 
directed, in charge of a Statistician of adequate powers, supported by an appropriate 
organisation of all data derived from departmental sources, can compile and analyse 
the statistics of a nation. It can do this in such a manner as to render criticism of 
the national drift possible, it can make the place of the nation in world affairs intelli- 
gible, it can reveal the movements of the nation in such a manner that these movements 
can be facilitated if advantageous, or be inhibited if detrimental. Thus, rightly used, 



22 STATISTICS AND NATIONAL DESTINY. 

statistics can powerfully contribute to a favourable issue, and enable a great people 
to take its appropriate place in the affairs of that larger world of which it forms 
a unit. 

After the reading of the paper, the following discussion took place : 

Dr. C. B. V. DRYSDALE said that some six years ago he himself read a paper 
before the Institute showing the extreme importance of vital statistics to the Empire 
in general, and expressing the hope that the Institute would do something towards 
obtaining a thorough correlation of all Imperial statistics. When some years ago 
he received a few of Mr. Knibbs' monographs he ventured to express the hope that 
we should have an Imperial Bureau of Statistics, and that Mr. Knibbs would be our 
Empire statistician. He still retained that hope. Continuing, Dr. Drysdale emphasised 
the vital practical importance of statistical methods in present circumstances. If 
it were to be made a practical reality, the League of Nations must have some rela- 
tion to numbers hi the various countries. Supposing we had a League of Nations, was 
each to content itself with the boundaries now laid down ? If not, what was to be 
the guide ? Either you must take the view that the nations must content them- 
selves with the territories laid down and regulate your numbers accordingly, or say 
that the frontiers must be represented according to numbers. It was clear in any 
case that we ought to have some knowledge of the numbers we had to deal with, 
and he suggested, therefore, that before we could promulgate any scheme worthy of 
the name for dealing with these questions of war and peace, statistical information was 
essential. 

The Hon. E. LUCAS, Agent- General for South Australia, said that during the eighteen 
years that he had the honour of sitting in the Legislative Council of South Australia, 
one of the books which he found particularly useful was Mr. Knibbs' "Commonwealth 
Year Book." If Members of Parliament were not properly informed in regard to the 
statistics of their country and of other countries, how were they to do their duty intelligently ? 
It was high time, he agreed, that we had a compendium of information relating to 
the whole Empire, worked out on uniform lines. We wanted to realise more than 
ever before that the Empire was a unit, and that the interests of all its members 
were identical that we were one people, with one king, one flag and one destiny. 
We ought, therefore, to correlate the Empire so that if there were deficiency hi one 
part it could be made good from another. 

Mr. GEORGE Ho WELL said that Mr. Knibbs had touched on one of the most im- 
portant problems affecting the destinies not only of our Empire, but of the whole 
world. For example, Russia was in a state of chaos, but was rapidly coming forward 
to resume a position in the world's affairs, economically, politically, and socially. Any- 
one who had studied the economics of Russia would realise that hi the year 2000 
the population would be well over five hundred millions. We were arranging a 
commission to consider the elimination of the germs of disease, which in the past 
had played so great a part in the equalisation of population. When that had been 
done the populations of all countries would greatly increase. He had made a proposal 
to the Education Authorities in this country with regard to the future education 
of the rising population. We had a great population for the small territory repre- 
sented by Great Britain. Canada had a great expanse. In Australia we had also about 
three million square miles of territory, and in that vast continent of the southern 
seas a population of only five million people. He advocated a special school a 
finishing school, as part of our education scheme one Australian, another Canadian, 
and so on. When a young man finished his general education, he should be asked 
where he would like to go. If he said " Australia," he would be told "Very well, 
finish in the Australian School," and so on. 

The CHAIRMAN said that, in his interesting address, Mr. Knibbs had laid stress on 



LORD JELLICOE IN NEW ZEALAND. 23 

the necessity for periodically taking stock. This was what any sane and sensible 
individual or firm regularly did. We should learn the lessons of the War. We needed 
to take stock from time to time to study in what directions we were strong, and 
in what directions we were weak, and to see how each province of the Empire could 
supplement others, to consider what each province wanted, and how, in fact, we should 
shape ourselves so that we might be self-supporting. It was perfectly clear that 
the first preliminary was a statistical survey accurate, clearly arranged, and up-to-date. 
Again, we wanted some measure of uniformity in the Empire. It was an Empire 
of diversities, and he hoped always would be, but we wanted some general standards 
or we should fall to pieces. Mr. Knibbs had offered a sober, simple suggestion for 
one feature of uniformity. We should have a common system of statistics. If the 
Empire was to go forward we must have some co-operation, and here Mr. Knibbs 
had shown us a way in which we could co-operate without any possibility of friction. 
What he gathered the lecturer would have was an Empire Bureau of Statistics to give 
us material on which to form a judgment with regard to the life, trade, and resources 
of the Empire. He believed himself that this would make for United Empire, and 
also, in a small but substantial way, towards the peace of the world. It would be a 
contribution also towards the League of Nations. If the nations all took stock of 
themselves and their neighbours in the same way, they would learn what each other 
was, and learn to appreciate each other. He asked the meeting to join in thanking Mr. 
Knibbs for his address. 

Sir HAEEY WILSON seconded the motion. It struck him, he said, in the course 
of the reading of the paper, that there already existed a means of putting into effect 
one of Mr. Knibbs' main proposals, because, as he understood, an Imperial Secretariat 
was already at work on problems which arose in the, intervals between the meetings 
of the Imperial Conference, and, in his opinion, the collection and presentation of statistics 
might very well be made a function of the Secretariat. Here, at any rate, was a body 
which, assisted by an expert of Mr. Knibbs' ability, should be able to prepare reports 
which would be of the greatest possible value to the whole Empire. 

Mr. KNIBBS replied briefly, and the proceedings terminated. 



LORD JELLICOE IN NEW ZEALAND. 

ON the occasion of the visit of Lord Jellicoe and H.M.S. New Zealand to Canterbury, the 
Fellows of the Canterbury Branch of the Royal Colonial Institute entertained at luncheon 
at the Canterbury Club, Christchurch, the Admiral and his staff, and the officers of the New 
Zealand. The Chan: was taken by Mr. S. G. Raymond, K.C., one of the Vice-Presidents of 
the Branch, and the company numbered upwards of sixty. After the toast of the King 
had been duly honoured, the chairman, in proposing the health of the Guests, said : 

" Gentlemen, the toast which I wish to present to you is one that in every assembly of 
our countrymen to-day would be greeted with acclamation and enthusiasm. It is the toast 
of Our Guests, Admiral Viscount Jellicoe, his staff, and the officers of His Majesty's Ship New 
Zealand. We know that the Admiral is here primarily on a visit of duty. He is here 
to advise us what precautions we should take as to the future of this country. New 
Zealanders are under no illusions as to their position. They know that they are on the 
very fringe of the Empire, and that, if the Navy fails, they will be the first to go. Recog- 
nising this dependence, the vast majority of New Zealanders also recognise the corresponding 
obligation to support the Navy, and to bear their proper share of responsibilities entailed 
in that support. Doubtless, in the journey which the Admiral and those associated with 
him are making, it is necessary for them, in arriving at conclusions on naval policy and naval 
problems, to take into account the total social and political make-up of the Dominions 
through which they pass. Each Dominion has ita own peculiar characteristics. Our 



24 LORD JELLICOE IN NEW ZEALAND. 

guests will find in this Dominion a unitary system of government in contrast with the federal 
systems prevailing in other Dominions. They will find here a nation almost entirely of 
pure British stock, and they will find a freedom from racial problems. They will find a 
country small in area, but with a great littoral and with excellent fisheries ; a country which 
we devoutly hope will produce seamen for our Navy and Mercantile Marine. Even in the 
South Island, in the Provinces of Canterbury and Otago, we hope that there will be much 
to interest them. Each of these Provinces has its own peculiar history ; each has experi- 
enced reactions against some of the ideals of its original founders, yet each bears indelible 
traces of those high principles which inspired those founders. We in Canterbury the 
Canterbury Branch of the Royal Colonial Institute the first Overseas Branch of the Insti- 
tute, extend the most cordial greetings to our guests, and wish them long-continued success 
in their glorious calling." 

After the toast had been honoured with much enthusiasm, Admiral Jellicoe replied as 
follows : 

I must first express on my own behalf, and on behalf of the officers of my staff, and the 
officers and men of the New Zealand all of us representatives of the British Navy as a whole 
our grateful thanks for the kind words spoken by the Chairman, and for the kind recep- 
tion accorded to them by the members present. We are accustomed now to hearing enthu- 
siastic words spoken about the British Navy, and rather feel there is a danger of our suf- 
fering from swollen heads, so it might be a good thing if occasionally a cold douche were 
applied to us to prevent anything of that sort arising. 

I was reading quite recently the April number of the Journal of the Royal Colonial 
Institute. There was an article in it by Mr. Edward Salmon, and curiously enough he went 
out of his way to quote from words of mine that I had used some time before. It was the 
only time that I had seen words of mine quoted. I had happened to mention (in a speech, 
I think, at the Albert Hall, talking about sailors) that it was a libel to say a sailor had a wife 
in every port, and that what I wanted to see was a home in every port. He made use of 
this expression to point the moral that the Royal Colonial Institute should have a branch 
in every city in the Empire. I am sure I entirely agree with him. The work which the 
Royal Colonial Institute does is of extraordinary value for the Empire. As the Chairman 
has said, the Christchurch branch was the first Overseas Branch, I am not sure that it is not the 
only Overseas Branch south of the Line at the present moment. Even so, it is an example 
of the forward policy of the Dominion of New Zealand as exemplified in the motto, 
" Onward," that appears on the bridge of H.M.S. New Zealand, which was a motto 
that His Majesty's ship, the gift of the Dominionj did her best to carry out during 
the recent War. The Royal Colonial Institute, as everybody knows, is out for unity of 
Empire. It is out for an Empire policy. It is doing invaluable work in that respect, and 
in these days, when events have shown what unity of the Empire means when, in the early 
days of August, 1914, the world was shown, and Germany was shown, what unity of Empire 
means there can be no question of the extreme value of any body which promotes and 
emphasises that union. I often wonder whether, if Germany had realised how the Empire 
was one what unity there was between all members of the Empire and whether if we 
had taken the strong line, and told Germany that we were in it if she came in if war was 
declared I have often wondered whether there would have been any war at all. At any 
rate, it is very well that the world should realise in future that the Empire is one, 
and that anything which happens to any one part of the Empire means that the whole 
Empire is in it, right up to the hilt. And I cannot help thinking that the British League 
of Nations is the strongest instrument for peace in the world in the future. 

But, of course, even a British League of Nations is not of much use unless it has force 
behind it, and therefore I trust that that force will always be present in the British League 
of Nations, and that the force will quite certainly include the supremacy of the sea. I 
think everybody in the Empire realises that it is absolutely vital to the existence of the 
Empire that we should be supreme on the sea. But though it is generally realised, when 
it comes to putting your hands in your pockets, people are not quite so convinced of the 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 25 

necessity of keeping up that supremacy. And in the days to come money is likely to be 
very tight, and it will be a great temptation to people who are governing the country, and 
who, for very proper reasons, think that they are the best people to govern the country 
and the Empire it is quite natural that those people should feel that asking for money 
to keep up a supreme British Navy is not the best way of keeping themselves in power. 
You cannot help sympathising with that feeling occasionally. 

I do not know that it is realised how the heart of the Empire which is at present, and 
will remain for some years to come, the United Kingdom and London the particular town 
in the United Kingdom how the heart of the Empire is absolutely dependent on sea power. 
I was asked to-day why it was necessary during the War to send New Zealand Shipping 
Company's vessels, particularly the Rotorua, up the Channel from Plymouth, when she had 
a cargo valued at something like a million sterling in the way of frozen meat why it was 
necessary to send the ship up the Channel in face of the German submarine menace ; the 
reply was that you cannot feed London in any other way. The question was 
raised before the War as to how far East Coast ports, and particularly London, could 
be supplied by rail from Western ports, and it was reported that even if the ports in 
the West were developed, the rail communication was incapable of dealing with the neces- 
sary supplies to feed London. 

The question was naturally further investigated during the War, at the instigation of 
the Admiralty, but the difficulties of developing Western ports and railways were then 
greater than ever, and little could be done, and that is the reason that the food had to go 
up the Channel, at immense strain to our naval resources, during the late War. And that 
is why I say that the heart of the Empire is more dependent on sea power than any other 
portion of the Empire, and in England people are beginning to realise it. Out here, I 
think New Zealanders realise that they are dependent, if not for security, at any rate for 
prosperity, on sea power ; security, of course, if such a thing happened as invasion ; pros- 
perity certainly, because your trade cannot leave or enter your shores unless our Navy is 
supreme and can keep the ocean roads open. I had to state on one occasion (in 1917) 
that we were carrying on the War as if we had command of the sea. We had not got it. 
The German submarines had it at the moment ; and yet we were sending troops overseas 
by thousands and hundreds of thousands, and sending supplies after them in entire dis- 
regard of the fact that we had not command of the sea. It was courageous, but laid an 
infinite strain upon the Navy, and it was a very difficult problem for us during those summer 
months of 1917, how to keep the sea routes open, because of the immense menace of the 
German submarine. One never knows in future what sort of new menace may be opened 
up on the sea. There are other things besides submarines that may cause trouble in the 
future, and therefore I always hope that the warnings of Naval Officers, who are in a position 
to know what dangers may confront us (that is to say, the Sea Lords at the Admiralty), I 
always hope that attention will be paid to then- warnings, and that, backed up by the efforts 
of people in the Dominions overseas, the British Navy will be kept supreme on the sea in 
spite of any ideals which may, or may not, come to fulfilment. 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 

CANADA. 

The Prince Of Wales' S Ranch. The Beddingfield Ranch, west of High River, which 
has been purchased by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, is one of the oldest in the country, 
having been taken up first as a homestead in 1883. It consists of 1,600 acres of 
freehold and leases. It is believed that most of the stock at present on the ranch 
will be disposed of, and a selection of suitable animals, consisting of pure-bred Short- 
horn cattle, pure-bred Shropshire sheep, and a few thoroughbred horses from His Royal 



26 ROUND THE EMPIREj'NOTES. 

Highness's farm in England, sent out to stock the ranch. Ex-service men, 
both Imperial and Canadian, are to be employed on the ranch. 

Emigration from the United Kingdom. During the first half of the fiscal year 
1919-20, that is to say from April 1 to September 30 inclusive, the number of settlers 
entering Canada from the United Kingdom was 33,597 compared with 1,642 during 
the same period in 1918. In the four years preceding March 31, the total emigration 
from the United Kingdom to the Dominion was only 30,036, this small total being 
attributed to the War. The record number of British settlers went to Canada in 
1912-13, when the total was 15J.542. It is expected that when shipping becomes 
normal again, there will be a still larger increase in the number of settlers leaving 
the Mother Country to settle in Canada. 

Pine Tobacco Crop in Ontario. The Ontario crop has been harvested without 
damage by frosts this year, and is the largest and best crop that the Province 
has produced for some years. The Tobacco Division began the work of securing 
the exact acreage planted to tobacco each year in 1916, and has issued an annual 
report each autumn. The total acreage for all varieties in all tobacco-growing dis- 
tricts of Ontario amounts to 9,226 acres, which it is estimated will yield 10,709,400 Ib. 

Position of the Dominion Fisheries. Canada is said to have the most extensive 
and best stocked fishing waters in the world. They include 6,000 miles of Atlantic 
and 7,000 miles of Pacific coast, as well as 220,000 square miles of fresh water. Her 
territorial fishing grounds extend from the Bay of Fundy to the Strait of Belle Isle 
on the Atlantic coast, and from the Fraser River to Prince Rupert on the Pacific 
coast, besides the Great Lakes and the other inland waters. The fishery equipment 
is worth 7,433,865, and there are as many as 60 fish hatcheries. The fleet is com- 
posed of 2,055 vessels and 42,236 small boats, manned by 71,646 men, in addition 
to 22,808 employed on shore, and 744 fishing without boats. The fishery value in 
1917-18 was estimated at over two hundred millions sterling. 

AUSTRALIA. 

Resumption of P. & 0. Sailings. It is hoped that the P. & 0. Company's 
regular fortnightly mail service with Australia will be resumed after the projected 
sailing of the Mantua from the Thames on January 3. This vessel will be the 
second of the Company's " M Class " mail ships to be reconditioned after war service, 
the first being the Morea, which sailed from the Thames on October 18 for Australia. 
The Mantua, which had been used as a mercantile cruiser during the War, was released 
by the Government soon after the signing of the Armistice, and has since been at 
Barrow, undergoing the necessary alterations before resuming passenger service. It is 
expected that the two ships Naldera and Narkunda, which were partially fitted 
by the Government as mercantile cruisers, will shortly be available for the Australian 
Mail service, and the Delta and the China, which were employed as hospital ships, are 
now being reconditioned in London. The Company stated recently that the usual 
mail services to China and India, as well as to Australia, will be re-established as 
soon as the necessary ships are released by the State. 

Irrigation Farms in New South Wales. The scheme embarked upon by the New 
South Wales Government for settling 1,500 soldiers on the Irrigation Area at Griffith 
within a period of two years is meeting with success. A number of soldiers have 
already obtained full possession of their blocks, and the outlook is most encouraging. 
The conditions of settlement are, that the ex-soldier who wishes to take up dairy 
farming, or au orchard, must satisfy the Commissioners that he has the necessary 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 27 

qualifications. He will then be subject to three months' probation on the settlements, 
and his right to acquire a farm will be based upon the results of his apprenticeship. 
During his preliminary training he will be paid award rates for that class of work, 
less cost of board and residence. One hundred soldiers are at present going through 
this period of probation, and are doing well in the work of clearing the farms and 
preparing the land for cultivation. Settlers receive advances as provided in the N.S.W. 
Returned Soldiers' Settlement Act. This includes 625 for clearing, fencing, draining 
and water supply, the purchase of stock and implements, and the erection of buildings. 
In addition to this, advances are made from time to time as are found necessary to 
bring the farm to a proper state of production, always provided the settler does 
his part intelligently and energetically. The N.S.W. Government is also taking over 
between 40,000 and 50,000 acres of what is recognised as one of the best grazing 
areas of the Riverina, for the purpose of soldier settlements, together with 2,000 
acres of orchard country in the Hawkesbury district. It is understood that the 
latter will split up into about 51 orchard farms, and ex-service men are to be em- 
ployed at award rates to prepare the farms. 

Drought in New South Wales. It appears that the reports concerning the drought 
conditions in New South Wales have been exaggerated, and it is now announced that 
the statements as to towns being deserted are entirely without foundation. The 
railway system which covers the whole of the eastern and central districts of the 
State, as well as portions of the western districts, is running an uninterrupted normal 
service, and although there has been very considerable movement of stock to grass 
lauds In the eastern district, this is the usual resource of pastorah'sts in dry spells. 
While the year is undoubtedly a bad one, the drought is not regarded as being more 
severe than that of 1902, and preparations for resisting the present drought, and minimising 
its effects, are much more complete now than they were then. There have been 
scattered thunder-storms in various parts of the State, and it is officially reported 
that conditions show signs of improvement 

NEW ZEALAND. 

Cook Anniversary Celebrations. Captain J. R. Kirk, M.B.E., Hon. Corresponding 
Secretary at Gisborne, writes as follows : " On October 8, local Fellows of the Royal 
Colonial Institute celebrated the 150th Anniversary of the landing of Captain Cook 
on the soil of Poverty Bay. The gathering was attended by about two thousand people, 
and is the largest ever present at a Cook Anniversary gathering. As Official Representative 
here of the Institute, I presided ; but opportunity was taken of the visit of Mr. H. H. 
Wall to the district to get him to lay a wreath on the Cook Monument on behalf of 
the Institute, while Mr. John Saxon Barton, Stipendiary Magistrate, delivered an 
address appreciative of the great and intrepid navigator. All the local bodies of the 
district, together with the Navy League, Overseas Club, Victoria League, Veterans, 
Returned Soldiers' Association, Poverty Bay Institute and Schools were represented, and 
tendered floral emblems as a tribute of respect and admiration for the memory of the 
gallant Englishman who secured these islands for the Empire." 

SOUTH AFRICA. 

Mail Service re-established with Great Britain. The Union-Castle Company states 
that the regular weekly mail service between Southampton and South African ports 
has practically been resumed already, though it will probably be some time before 
conditions are normal hi regard to securing passages, owing to the long waiting list 
of those wishing to return home to South Africa. There are said to be some 14,000 
names on the Company's waiting list at the present time. The ships now available 



28 BOOK NOTICES. 

for the South African mail service number four, and the addition of three others 
is expected very shortly. The steamers were employed during the War either as 
mercantile cruisers or aa troopships, and played a prominent part in transporting 
British and American troops to Mesopotamia, and also in conveying American troops 
across the Atlantic. The vessels of the " Intermediate " class were mostly used as hospital 
ships. 

Diplomas for Women. The Transvaal University College, Pretoria, is establishing 
a two years' diploma course for women in dairying, horticulture and poultry, a generous 
gift of 1,500 a year for three years having been made to the University for this 
purpose. This is an excellent beginning, and offers a reasonable hope of an organisa- 
tion of far-reaching importance to the women of the country. The Transvaal University 
is to be congratulated on having realised the urgent need of educational development 
in this direction, and on allocating the funds at its disposal so wisely. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

Hopkins, J. Castell. The Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs, 1918. Pp. 833. Toronto : 
Canadian Annual Review, Ltd. 1919. $6. 

"The Canadian Annual Review," of which this is the eighteenth issue under the Editor- 
ship of Mr. J. Castell Hopkins, has in a sense grown out of the small and comparatively 
unimportant " Dominion Annual Register," published during the years 1878-1886. Although 
it is the legitimate successor of that publication, it greatly exceeds it both in merit and 
in the scope of its contents ; for whereas the former was in the main a chronicle of Canadian 
affairs, the latter embraces most of the important' events in which the British Empire, 
as an Empire, is directly concerned, and is also a chronicle and critical appreciation of 
Canadian affairs. Nothing precisely similar is published in any other country, the nearest 
approach being the British " Annual Register," which is more a compendium of facts 
than a thoughtful, readable, and logically-presented review of the world's history. On 
various occasions we have called attention to the " Canadian Annual Review," and emphasised 
its importance as a book of reference that should be in every well-equipped library, and 
in the collections of many private individuals and business firms. The present edition 
fully confirms our opinion. 

Mr. Castell Hopkins opens his " Review " with an account of the last stages of the War, 
and of the part taken by the British Empire and the United States. This occupies some 
250 pages of closely printed matter and contains everything that is of moment, political, 
sociological, and military, in connection with the events of 1918. The opening section is 
followed by chapters on Socialism and the Labour Problem, in which there is an important 
section dealing with the rise and growth of Bolshevism, and by two chapters on the 
Canadians at the Front, and Canada's War Government and National Policy It will be 
seen, therefore, that fully half the volume is occupied with affairs of interest to others 
than Canadians. The other sections deal with purely Canadian matters and form an in- 
valuable record of Dominion affairs. 

De Samichrast, F. C. The Making of America. Pp. 343. London : P. S. King & Sons. 1919. 

The author of this book is an Englishman who is Associate Professor Emeritus of 
Harvard University and writes, therefore, not only with peculiar insight into the American 
point of view an insight that has been lacking in certain British historians but also 
with a full understanding of the past history of this country. Mr. De Sumichrast's ambition 
in publishing this volume has been to enable Britons to understand the evolution of the 
great Republic of the West, to know how separation, both political and social, came about, 
and how gradually the two nations drew together again and learned to appreciate each 
other, after a century of more or less painful estrangement on both sides of the Atlantic, 
but more largely on the American side. It is clear from Mr. de Sumichrast's narrative 
that much of the ill-feeling towards Great Britain that especially characterised the period 
of the American Civil War, and thereafter for some years, was due, in large part, to the 
illogical behaviour of Britons themselves and to the attitude of the British Government 
towards the young Republic, then in the throes of internal regeneration. Probably, however, 
the author does not take sufficient account of the Irish element in America in connection 
with the ill-feeling that existed in the United States, nor pay sufficient attention to the 



BOOK NOTICES. 29 

same element as a discordant factor in the relations between Canada and the United States. 
But on the whole, " The Making of America " presents a very fair account of the events 
that have fashioned the American nation into a great world-power, and the author is 
to be congratulated on a successful attempt to infuse the virtue of impartiality, that is 
so often lacking in American histories, into a book designed to strengthen the entente 
between British and Americans. 

Cranworth, Lord. Profit and Sport in British East Africa. Pp. xvi-503. Maps and illust. London : 
Macmillan & Co. 1919. 21s. 

This is a revised and enlarged edition of Lord Cranworth's former book " A Colony in 
the Making," and is particularly welcome at the present time when attention is directed 
to British East Africa as a country of settlement. Lord Cranworth has written largely 
with the view of giving practical information to prospective settlers, and chapters are 
devoted to the agricultural possibilities of the Protectorate, to the cost of starting farming 
and to the probabilities of ultimate success. On the question of agricultural settlement 
his remarks are particularly sound. Unlike others who have placed the minimum capital 
that a settler should possess as low as 500 an absurd estimate in the opinion of those 
best qualified to judge Lord Cranworth states that at least 2,000 is requisite for a man 
going out to East Africa and settling on his own and farming by himself. The only 
alte: natives he suggests are co-operation with three or four friends or taking a job until 
the necessary capital is saved. In uttering this warning against the too rosy estimates 
that frequently flow from the pens of interested parties, Lord Cranworth has performed 
a distinct service , for with his long experience of the country, and his knowledge of present 
conditions, Lord Cranworth's opinion is of more than usual value, and should serve as a 
warning to those who would embark upon agricultural enterprises insufficiently provided 
with capital. To the sportsman this book is also of considerable interest, but its chief 
value, as has been indicated, is to those who desire to know what are the actual con- 
ditions of the country and would appreciate and understand the difficulties that confront 
the new settler. 

Mookerji, Radbakumnd. Local Oovernment in Ancient India. Pp. xviii-229. Oxford : Clarendon 
Press. 1919. 12s. 6d. 

In a preface to Dr. Mookerji 's extremely able study of administration in Ancient India, 
Lord Crewe points out that India enjoyed from the earliest dawn of her history a singularly 
complete system of local government. Dr. Mookerji, although dealing with a past era, 
demonstrates conclusively that it contains many lessons for the present. He shows that 
since local institutions most nearly concern the greatest number of people, self-government 
should logically start in that sphere, and thus demonstrates that, in his opinion, 
steps on the road to complete responsible government can best be commenced from the 
lowly, but useful, sphere of local government. " Any form of provincial or central govern- 
ment," he states, " that is organised merely from above, however mechanically perfect it 
may be, will fail to take a real root or gather to itself that vital force without which 
it will be a mere lifeless machine, unless it is grafted in some way or other upon the 
spontaneous groupings of the people themselves as represented by their local pelf-governing 
institutions." If self-government, he continues, is the road to efficiency in administration, 
it should certainly be applied first to a sphere which directly touches the daily interests 
of popular life and its real welfare: 

Kitto, P. H. The Province of Saskatchewan : its Development and Opportunities. Pp. 153. 
Map & Illust. Ottawa : Department of the Interior. 1919. 

This is one of the publications issued by the Canadian National Resources Intelligence 
Department. It is invaluable to those who desire to know something of the resources 
and development of the Province of Saskatchewan. 

Gwatkin- Williams, Captain R. 8. Problems of the Red Desert. Pp. vii-304.- London : Thornton, 
Butterworth, Ltd. 1919. Is. 6d. 

In this interesting volume is narrated the story of the men of the Tara, which was 
torpedoed in the Bay of Sollum, at the edge of the great plateau of the Libyan Desert. 
It will be remembered that they were taken prisoners, carried to Bir Hakim, and kept 
there until rescued by an Armoured Car Division, under the Duke of Westminster. Captain 
Gwatkin- Williams relates these adventures in a book of more than usual interest, because, 
whilst it deals with an obscure episode in a great war, it is in a very real sense a living 
document, and will appeal directly to those who do not care for ordinary histories. 



30 



EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 

The Industrial Development of the Empire. 

ONE of the most remarkable features in the economic development of the world in 
recent years has been the steady and rapid growth of manufacturing industries in the 
great Dominions and in India. Many causes have been at work to bring this about. 
First, there is the economic law that a country possessing raw material in quantity 
will develop, if possible, the industries which can use that material. Then there is 
the question of the shortage or high cost of sea-transport, and in this connection 
countries so far removed from the chief industrial centres as Australia and New Zealand 
may be instanced. The growth of populations and the establishment and development 
of large towns has provided an assurance of local markets as a substantial basis for 
manufacture. Speaking of population, India of course stands in a peculiar position. 
With plentiful raw materials and labour, as well as densely populated home markets, 
it only had to reach a certain stage of social development to bring all these automatically 
to bear upon the need for local manufactures ; that point has been reached, and 
development is proceeding with redoubled speed. Another general cause is the 
difficulty which many oversea buyers have experienced of having their precise local 
requirements satisfied by manufacturers in Europe or America. In this regard, South 
Africa has long been a sufferer. Canada has had, in its proximity to the great in- 
dustrial centres of the United States, an additional stimulus, in which both the spirit 
of emulation and the influx of capital and experience have played very considerable 
parts. All these causes were in existence before the War, but all of them, especially 
those which arise from questions of transport, were intensified and strengthened by 
war conditions, with the consequence that the rate of development has been accelerated 
beyond all hopes or prophecies, and not only that, but many ideas which might have 
remained ideas, or at most have taken many years to go beyond the stage of tentative 
enquiry, have taken shape as flourishing industries, with factories and machinery in 
being and fully occupied. 

The Change in Dominion and Indian Needs. 

The trend of this industrial development in the Oversea Empire has shown itself 
very clearly in the nature of the enquiries received by the Trade and Industry Com- 
mittee. Canada, which before the War sent numerous enquiries asking for agencies for 
British-made goods, has gone to the other end of the industrial scale, and those queries 
which emanate from the Dominion at the present time are almost wholly concerned with 
the sale of Canadian manufactured goods in other parts of the British Empire, especially 
in connection with India and British possessions and spheres of influence in Asia. 
India, in the pre-war period, provided a large volume of enquiries, 90 per cent, of which 
were in respect of the disposal of raw material from India in this country. During 
the year 1919, these have sunk to less than 20 per cent., the remainder including a 
few agency enquiries but consisting chiefly about 80 per cent, of the whole, in fact 
of enquiries for machinery and information in respect to the establishment of new 
industries. Enquiries from Australia, which before the War asked for machinery 
and agencies in about equal proportions, are now divided, in that the newly developed 
parts of the Commonwealth are enquiring as to the disposal of raw material, whilst 
the established centres, though still sending agency enquiries, are mainly interested 
in plant and machinery. From other information, it is to be feared that a 



EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 81 

growing volume of machinery enquiries is being directed rather to the United States 
than to this country. 

In the period before the War, the question of co-ordinating Empire trade and 
organising means to do so was one rather of academic interest than of practical effort 
to most business people, and the warning of those whose concerns gave them a wider 
view of such matters (amongst whom the Institute was always prominent), was a 
voice crying in an uncomprehending wilderness. The War and its rapid development 
of economic thought and action brought illumination on this topic, and the establish- 
ment of the Department of Overseas Trade, and such bodies as the Federation of British 
Industries and the British Empire Producers' Organisation, is at least an earnest that 
some definite attempt is intended by Government and by the commercial and industrial 
world, in regard to developing an Empire attitude toward economic questions. 

The Whole-Empire View of Industry. 

But if the attitude at home, before the War, was sceptical with regard to Empire 
commerce, what was it toward anyone who had the temerity to suggest that the 
oversea Dominions would develop within a few years their own great industrial systems ? 
Yet this was the fact and, rightly regarded, it was not only not a menace, but actually 
a great opportunity for the manufacturers of the British Isles. At first, the attitude 
of some of these was a little inclined to be hostile, but those who saw with any accuracy 
into the future rapidly became convinced of the advantage to the Empire as a whole, 
and to their individual firms, of effectual participation by them in this movement, 
wherever it showed promise of growth. The Trade and Industry Committee has 
preached this doctrine before, during, and since the War, and though in many cases 
it may seem to be preaching to the converted, there are still more unbelievers than 
there ought to be, and those that believe do not always evince their faith in works. 
The stage at which the movement has now arrived justifies the statement that partici- 
pation in it, wisely and with due regard to the widely varying demands of the different 
Dominions, will probably become the largest factor in Imperial economic unity. In 
many cases manufacturers who have established markets will have to build branch 
works if they are to retain their position ; in others, industries new to the particular 
Dominion are urgently demanded, for which the initial enterprise and experience must 
come from this country or some foreign one ; and the hands which open up the source 
of that stream will probably control its whole broadening course. 

The question before manufacturers is, whether or not they will participate in the 
opening and in the succeeding prosperity of the young and growing industries oversea. 
That those, industries will grow, no one any longer entertains any doubt. All that 
remains is to discover in what way they may be made essentially British in their 
development in their standards, and in their possession of that intangible but most 
valuable of assets, commercial morality. 

Two ways of bring ; ng about a just attitude toward this great question of Empire 
industrial development have recommended themselves to the Committee. First, 
it has been highly important that manufacturers should be thoroughly convinced 
of the necessity, not only for agreeing to the principle that this industrial develop- 
ment should be made and kept altogether British, but for taking practical steps to 
participate, as far as their respective industries are concerned, in the development 
itself. In each Dominion, and for each industry, different requirements appear, 
and an endeavour has been made to collect for each enquirer upon these lines, first- 
hand, accurate information in regard to his particular industry and its possibilities 



32 CORRESPONDENCE. 

of development in various parts of the Empire ; on the other side, the numerous 
suggestions which have been addressed to the Institute by Fellows oversea, pointing 
out opportunities (especially those which are so tempting as to be in danger of cap- 
ture by foreigners), have been placed before manufacturers and recommended to their 
investigation. 

This is referred to merely to show that the channel for information is open to 
the enquirer, whether oversea or in the British Isles ; but, however well equipped and 
however careful, information bureaux can take a matter no further than a certain 
point. To bring this great movement to a successful issue depends not only on the 
will, but on the good- will, both of those who desire to see British industries established 
in their own part of the Empire and those in Great Britain who wish to establish 
their branches oversea. The opportunities do exist, and so do the channels for 
obtaining sufficient accurate preliminary information to know whether further and 
detailed inspection is worth while. The rest depends upon the genuineness of the 
parties, and both for the sake of Empire economic unity as a whole, and for the benefit 
of the individuals participating, it is greatly to be hoped that an effort, a genuine 
effort, will be made by individuals on both sides. 

Training Oversea Students. 

The second important element in conserving this movement in British hands, 
is the question of education in industrial matters. The whole future of many over- 
sea industries will be in the hands of men who obtain their initial training in countries 
other than those in which they establish their industries. That these may have 
every opportunity to obtain that training in British factories is the subject of a 
special service of the Trade and Industry Committee. A full account of this 
service will be published in our next issue. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Institute's Name. In your November issue Mr. J. R. Kirk of Gisborne, New 
Zealand, suggests as the new name for the Royal Colonial Institute the title " Royal 
Institute of Empire." It will not do, it is too clumsy. The title must contain only 
three words, and the three words most appropriate are " Royal Britannic Institute." 
This name covers everything. 

-.,.. McLEOD STEWART. 

Ottawa, November 24, 1919. 

The suggested change in the name of the Institute is a matter of real importance, 
not only in regard to India and to the Dominions, but also, I venture to suggest, 
in regard to our status in countries not British. Having resided both in a British 
colony and in a foreign country, I have felt that the Institute's present title is too 
restricted. This feeling is evidently shared by many Fellows of the Institute. I 
therefore venture to submit for consideration the following title as being compre- 
hensive, and as entailing the alteration of only one word in the Institute's present 
title, namely, " Royal British Institute." 

XT CHAS. 0. WORK. 

November 18, 1919. 



ESSAY COMPETITION. 33 

Coffee Cultivation. I notice that Mr. Koester has written you in reference to my 
advocacy of choice coffee cultivation in Queensland. I clearly stated, at the meeting 
to which he refers, that the absence of abundant labour prohibited large coffee estates 
being established there, but that, in my opinion, much could be done by small holdings, 
i.e. in mixed farming let there be a few acres of coffee. I have a letter from one such 
smallholder who for twenty-five years has had from four to six acres in coffee. I 
quote him. " My yields have never been less than 10 cwts. clean coffee per acre. . . . 
It has always paid me well. ... I have frequently picked 20 cwts. per acre." This 
small holding is within one mile of the Pacific at an elevation of less than 400 feet 
above sea level. 

My object at the meeting last June in the Royal Colonial Institute was to make 
known to this outpost of our Empire, as one long familiar with coffee from all pro- 
ducing countries, how welcome in all markets such produce as I have seen yearly 
since 1913 from Queensland would be. A great need exists for a large increase in 
supplies of choice coffee, and I am looking forward to Mr. Koester stimulating the 
production of such in Alta Vera Paz. For nearly thirty years I have had intense 
pleasure in handling this choice variety, and the outlet for such is almost illimitable. 

ROTTTS FARRAB. 



ESSAY COMPETITION. 

WITH a view to encouraging the progress of Imperial Studies in the schools of 
the Empire, the Council of the Royal Colonial Institute has decided to award every 
year medals (silver and bronze) and prizes of books for the best essays sent in by 
boys or girls who are pupils at schools either in the United Kingdom or in the outer 
Empire. The competition for 1919, which closed at the end of July, was a great 
improvement on that of the previous year, no less than 424 essays being sent in. 
The adjudicator of the prizes was Professor H. E. Egerton, Beit Professor of Colonial 
History, Oxford. The results, which were announced at the Council Meeting on 
November 18th, were as follows : 

CLASS " A." Subject : " Sea Power as the Basis of Empire." 
First Prize. Silver Medal and Books to the value of 3 3s. 

Harold Frederick Hutchison, the Liverpool Institute. 
Second Prize. Books to the value of 2 2s. 

Albert Ernest Wright, King Edward VII School, Sheffield. 

CLASS " B." Subject : " The Life and Work of Clive as Empire Builder." 
First Prize. Bronze Medal and Books to the value of 2 2s. 

Robert Wilby Kershaw, Latymer Upper School, Hammersmith. 
Second Prize. Books to the value of 1 11s. Qd. 

Joint Winners : Alexander J. Smith, Higher Elementary School, Victoria Docks, E. 
Dorothy Sills, County School, Sittingbourne. 

The following have also received Honourable Mention : 

CLASS " A." Gertrude P. M. Rees, St. Anne's, Abbots Bromley. 
Francis Hanna, Stonyhurst College, Blackburn. 
Vera G. P. Guyon, Mortimer House School, Clifton, Bristol. 
Herbert Betts, Nottingham Boys' High School. 
Victor Chelliah, St. John's Institution, Kuala Lumpur, F.M.S. 
Leslie W. J. Powley, The County School, Tottenham. 
Albert E. King, Waitaki High School, Oamaru, New Zealand 
Ronald W. Rodwell, Wyggeston Grammar School, Leicester. 
Leila A. Hurle, Girls' High School, New Plymouth, New Zealand. 

D 



34 NEW PREMISES AND JUBILEE FUND. 

CLASS " B." Ivy Avery, Mixed Council School, Lingfield. 

Charles G. Addingley, The King's School, Pontefract. 

Muriel G. Jarrett, County School, Sittingbourne. 

Leicester C. Webb, Waitaki High School, Oamaru, New Zealand. 

Douglas Chandler, King Edward VII School, Sheffield. 

William G. Oliver, Higher Elementary School, Victoria Docks, E. 

Alfred Morley Hall, King Edward VII School, Sheffield. 



HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 

AT the meeting held on November 20, the subject of the work of the Institute, which 
had been discussed at the meeting held on November 6, was further considered. 
Major Hely Pounds, who had proposed the adjournment of the discussion, opened the 
debate in an interesting address, in the course of which he dealt with the building 
proposals of the Council, and suggested that the walls of the vestibule and the large 
room should be panelled, so that leading historic Empire events might be illustrated 
on them in oils or mosaics. He submitted a number of suggestions dealing with future 
aspects of the Institute's work: such as the fuller use of the Press London, Pro- 
vincial, and Overseas for propaganda purposes, the fuller employment of lecturers 
capable of dealing with popular audiences, the adoption of a Junior or Cadet Section, 
the holding of Branch Conferences in the Provinces, and Quarterly Meetings at the 
Institute, to discuss the current work of the various committees, and to receive 
suggestions from the Fellows, &c. 

The Chair was taken by Sir W. Grey-Wilson, and the various suggestions of Major 
Pounds and others were discussed by Capt. Slack ; Capt. Wood, who recommended 
a change of name a proposal that did not apparently commend itself to the meeting 
generally Mr. D. H. Macartney, who referred to the social and educational possibilities 
of the Institute ; Capt. Grant Webster ; Dr. G. R. Parkin, who spoke in eloquent 
terms of the great work the Institute had done, and of the possibilities which lay 
before it, as the inspiring centre of our Imperial life ; Mr. W. B. Worsfold, who gave 
some interesting particulars of the work of the Imperial Studies Committee, and showed 
that it was the desire of that Committee to promote the study of Empire history in 
schools, colleges, and universities, as well as in the large centres of population, in every 
possible way. 

Sir Harry Wilson briefly replied to some of the criticisms which Major Pounds and 
other speakers had made, and assured the meeting that the Council would be glad to 
consider any suggestions that the Fellows might submit, which had as their object 
the welfare of the Institute. 



DONATIONS TO THE NEW PREMISES AND JUBILEE FUND. 

THE munificent contribution of 25,000 has been made to the Jubilee Building 
Fund of the Royal Colonial Institute, through its President, His Royal Highness 
the Duke of Connaught, by Mr. Hugh R. Denison, a leading citizen of New South 
Wales and Managing Director of The Sydney Sun. The gift has been made by 
the donor "as a Life Fellow of the Institute, and believing in its value as a means 
of strengthening the threads which connect the various parts of our Empire together." 



r. Hugh R. Denison, who is one of the most prominent men in the business life of 
Sydney, has for long been a generous supporter of movements designed to strengthen the 
bonds of the Empire. He gave 10,000 towards an Australian gift battleship for the Royal 



Advertisements. 



.l /C. .'. 'iSLTL 



n 




meets -with an accident each year. 

ONE person in every seven a victim to accident. Many fatal, all more or 
less serious. These figures quoted from official statistics clearly show the 
need for men and women to effect adequate insurance. In the case of 
illness the above proportion may be even greater. 

Almost every day reports of fatal and serious accidents appear in the Daily 
Press, yet many people, whilst wisely protecting themselves against loss by fire, 
burglary, etc., neglect to cover themselves in respect to the far greater risk 
of personal accident. 

How would you be affected if YOU met with a serious accident or contracted 
a dangerous illness ? It is a matter which calls for careful consideration NOW. 

An accident may happen to you any day, and no precautions can ensure 
immunity from disease or illness. 

Prudent men and women protect themselves by effecting an insurance cover- 
ing such risks, and thus relieve their minds of all monetary anxiety an insurance 
which need cost but a quite nominal sum but which assures substantial benefits 
none can afford to ignore. 

Send a postcard to-day for full particulars of the " British Dominions " series of 

insurances issued at most attractive rates. There are ten different tables -vith premiums 

ranging from HI- per annum (covering fatal accidents only) upwards providing for liberal 

benefits which vary according to premium and risks covered. Please ask for " Accident, 

Sickness and Disease " Insurance Prospectus. 




Head Office : BRITISH DOMINIONS HOUSE, 

ROYAL EXCHANGE AVENUE, LONDON, E.G. 3. 

The most progressive OSce for all classes of Insurance. 

Branches and jj gents throughout the United Kingdom. 

ASSETS EXCEED 17,000,COO 



35 



NEW PREMISES AND JUBILEE FUND. 



Navy when Germany's menace became clear. This was converted into a fund for the 
construction of an Australian Naval College. Mr. Denison was the principal financial con. 
tributor to the Syndicate which enabled Sir Douglas Mawson to explore the Antarctic, 
and the founder of the Australian War Chest Fund, which raised hundreds of thousands 
sterling for comforts for the Australian troops. He has subscribed largely to the Australian 
War loans and many thousands of pounds to the Australian Red Cross, the Anzac Memorial 
Fund and other patriotic funds. He was a member of the Central War Loan Committee 
and of the New South Wales section of the Commonwealth Victory Loan. He founded 
the United Cable Service (Australasia) in order to assure Australia of a plentiful service of 
Imperial and foreign news. Mr. Denison was a delegate from the Sydney Chamber oi 
Commerce to the London Conference in 1912, and is a director of many Australian in- 
dustrial companies. He has taken an active part in public life, having sat for some time 
for North Adelaide in the South Australian House of Assembly. At his stud-farm he 
bred some very successful race-horses, and with the famous Poseidon won the Melbourne 
Cup, the V.R.C. Derby, and the Caulfield Cup (twice). 



SIXTH LIST. 



Previously announced .:%. !l 

Hugh R. Denison, Esq. 

W. B. Sheppard, Esq. . ., 

J. Allen Taylor, Esq. 

R. D. Coggan, Esq., O.B.E. 

Maurice N. Forster, Esq. . 

G. Read, Esq. 

Mr. & Mrs. A. S. Haynes . 

John E. B. Guild, Esq. . 

His Honour J. R. Holmes, B. L 

Stanley Buckley, Esq. 

James J. Law, Esq. . . 

A. G. Mullins, Esq. . 

H. E. Sir George Smith, K.C.M.G. 

J. B. Powell, Esq. . 

Hugh C. Marshall, Esq. 

A. E. Graham, Esq. . 

J. Pooley, Esq., J.P. . .' 

Fred J. Eyre, Esq. . 

Captain R. Grant Webster 

Peter Waite, Esq. 

E. G. Walker, Esq. . 

F. Norman Riley, Esq. . .. 
H. S. Chipman, Esq. . ,'^ 

G. Lincoln, Esq. 

Alderman Arthur Bennett, J.P. . 
National Bank of South Africa, 

Ltd 

R. B. Grenfell, Esq. . 

Wilfred A. Matthews, Esq. 

A. H. Noble, Esq. (1st instalment 

of $50.00) .... 
G. Bert Day, Esq. . 
H. P. King, Esq. 
A. S. Birch, Esq. 
Douglas King, Esq. . . . 
J. B. Taylor, Esq. . 
Donald Ross-Ross, Esq. . . 
Sir W. H. Beaumont 
H. W. Chambr6 Leech, Esq., 

LL.D 

G. J. Innes, Esq. 

George F. K. Ball, Esq. . 






a. 


d. 


. 17,455 


1 





25.COO 








2 


2 





2 


2 





10 








5 








5 








2 


2 





3 








3 








2 


10 





5 








1 


1 





10 








5 








3 


3 





1 


1 





1 








3 


3 





2 


2 





26 


5 





1 


15 


6 


1 


10 





5 


5 





5 








1 


1 





105 








5 








10 


10 





| 

5 


15 





5 


5 





2 


2 





2 








10 








5 


5 





1 


1 





5 








5 








3 


3 





2 


2 






J. Alex. Moor, Esq. . 

Hon. E. P. T. Hammond . 

Q. B. de Freitas, Esq., M.R.C.S. . 

L. Allerton, Esq. 

A. B. Lambert, Esq., C.B.E. 

Captain George Foucar . 

Morris A. Sutton, Esq. . . 

H. A. Verity, Esq. . 

H. Persse Hudson, Esq. 

E.S.B 

Professor H. E. Egerton, M.A. . 

R. B. Hector, Esq. . 

British Dominions Emigration 

Society .... 

Randolph Rust, Esq. . . 

Captain H. E. Schwartze . 
Hon. Mr. Justice P. J. Sproule, 

B.A 

Ernest W. Edwards, Esq. . 
H. J. Woram, Esq. . 
Mrs. Ada B. Allen . 
Collected by Mr. A. Elly, of 

Singapore .... 
Warren Weedon, Esq. 
Captain C. H. Armitage, C.M.G., 

D.S.O. (1st donation) 
Col. Hon. Sir James Burns, 

K.C.M.G. M.L.C. (on behalf of 

Messrs. Burns, Philp & Co., 

Ltd.) 

D. E. Theomin, Esq. 

Hon. George Fowlds, C.B.E. 

Lt.-Colonel L. E. Barnett, C.M.G., 

F.R.C.S.E 

John Deans, Esq. . . . 
Alfred E. Harding, Esq. . 
J. Alberto Fleming, Esq. . 
H. P. Sykes Wright, Esq. 
A. B. Curlewis, Esq.. 
L. S. Grachy, Esq. . 



s. d. 

1 1 

1 1 

1 1 

1 1 

10 10 Q 

10 (] 

500 

500 

1 1 C 

2 2 Q 
550 
220 

500 
500 
500 

220 
1 1 
110 
110 

600 
500 

10 10 



50 
10 10 
10 

10 10 
500 
220 

10 10 
220 
110 
110 



42,918 2 



Advertisements- xvi 



Your Investments. 

Have you carefully considered your present 
Investment Position? 

Is your Capital Safe ? 

Are you getting sufficient income return from 
your Capital ? 



You are invited to join 

THE BRITISH INVESTORS 
ASSOCIATION, LIMITED. 

4 London Wall Buildings, London, E.G. 2. 



Directors : 

The Right Hon. LORD MORRIS, K.C., P.C., D.C.L., Chairman. 

ROWLAND F. W. HODGE, Esq., M.I.N.A., M.I.C.E. 

SIDNEY VAN DEN BERGH, Esq. 

Lt.-Col. E. G. H. COX, C.B.E. 

Joint Managing Directors : 

ARTHUR G. COUSINS, Esq., C.B.E. 

EDGAR G. GUBBINS, Esq. 



A recent Publication issued by the Association is " Underwriting 

for the Investor." A copy will be sent free of charge to all 

applicants mentioning this paper. 



36 



THE EMPIRE SOCIAL CIRCLE OF THE R.C.I. 

ON December 8, a meeting was held in the Smoking Room at 8 P.M. to arrange for 
the formation, at the instance of the House and Social Committee, and with the full 
and cordial approval of the Council of the Institute, of an Empire Social Circle. Col. 
Sir George McLaren Brown, K.B.E.j presided ; and there were present a number of 
representatives of the various Government agencies in London, the Colonial (London) 
Press, and Fellows of the Institute. After a statement by the Hon. Secretary of the 
House and Social Committee (Mr. E. T. Scammell), the approval of the meeting was 
given to the proposal, and a general committee was formed to give it effect. Among 
those who took part in the discussion were the Agents General of British Columbia, 
Ontario, and Quebec, and representatives of New South Wales, New Brunswick, Tas- 
mania, South Australia, and India. Mr. C. H. Chomley of the " British Australasian," 
who, prior to the War, had been the secretary and organiser of the Australian Social 
which had met at the Institute every month, and on the lines of which the present 
proposal was based, heartily commended the movement, and promised the support 
of himself and his friends. It is proposed that the meetings be held on the first Thursday 
evening in the month at 7.30 or 8 o'clock, and that the membership consists of 
Fellows of the Institute and Members of Government Agencies, and other offices in 
London, actively interested in the Empire. The membership fee for the Session (October 
to July) will be 5s. The opening meeting is to be held on Thursday, January 8 the 
first Thursday being New Year's Day at which the Hon. J. G. Jenkins will preside, 
and Mr. F. C. Wade, the Agent General for British Columbia, will deliver a brief 
address on " Some Problems of the Empire." ^ 

At the close of the meeting on December 8, the following resolution was proposed 
by Major Hely Pounds and seconded by the Chairman : 

" That this Inaugural Meeting of the Empire Social Circle of the Royal Colonial 
Institute, at which are gathered representatives of all the Oversea Territories of the 
Empire, begs to offer to His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, its sincere con- 
gratulations on the magnificent success of his recent tour in Canada. It further tenders 
Ffis Royal Highness a hearty welcome home to the Old Country, and expresses the hope 
that his prospective visits to other parts of the Empire may be as pleasant to himself, 
and as advantageous to them, as the lengthened journey, which has now so auspiciously 
closed, has proved to be to the Dominion of Canada and the Empire at large." 



BRANCH NOTES. 

THE INAUGURATION OF THE SHEFFIELD BRANCH. 

IN the auspicious circumstances afforded by an attendance thoroughly representative 
of every phase of Sheffield industry, a local Branch of the Royal Colonial Institute 
was launched on December 15, when, at the invitation of the Lord Mayor (Councillor 
S. Roberts), who was accompanied by the Lady Mayoress, a meeting was held at the 
Town Hall. 

The Right Hon. LORD MORRIS, K.C.M.G. (late Prime Minister of Newfoundland), 
who was the principal speaker, said the Institute, which had been established over 
fifty years, had probably done more than certainly quite as much as any institution 
in the British Empire to bring about the good feeling of fellowship, kinship, and 
brotherhood, and everything that goes to create that sentiment which in the past 
had welded together the far-flung portions of the British Empire, and to-day was 
very largely keeping it together. There was an appropriateness in establishing a branch 



Advertisements. 



xvn 



aiinnnnmniiiiTiiiiiii 




PETER 

DAWSON'S 

scotch 



ODDEST 
& BEST 



PETER DAWSON, LTD. 

Distillers, DUFFTOWN & GLASGOW. 



LIMITED. 

Registered in the Transvaal (with which are 
incorporated the Bank of Africa Limited, 
the Natal Bank. Limited, and the National 
Bank of the Orange River Colony. .Limited) 

Bankers to the Union Government in the Transvaal, the Orange 
Free State, and Natal, and to the Imperial Government. 

EVERY DESCRIPTION OF BANKING BUSINESS transacted with 
the Cape Province Natal. Orange Free State. Transvaal Rhodesia. 
Nyasaland East Africa Protectorate. Uganda Zanzibar. Portuguese 
East Africa. South-West Africa Protectorate and the Belgian Congo, 
and with the Bank's Agencies in New York and elsewhere 

OVER 4OO BRANCHES IN AFRICA. 

Agents at Amsterdam Pan* Koine and the Principal dues of the World 





London Offices 
Circus Plfcce. London Wall. 

E.C.2. 
IS.St.Swithln'sl.ano.E C 4 

West End Office 

25. Cockspur Street. S.W. I . 

Nev> Yprk Agency 

10. WALL STREET. 

India BOMBAY. 

Antwerp i 

SB, PLACE OE MEIR. 

Head Office- PRETORIA. 



37 BRANCH NOTES. 

in Sheffield because for hundreds of years Sheffield and its manufactures and its great 
captains of industry had been identified with the trade relations with the overseas 
Dominions. When the Dominions went into the recent war against England's enemies 
it was not in response to any call from the Mother Country, but spontaneously in 
defence of a great principle, and because the people of those Dominions always recognised 
themselves as an integral part of the Empire and looked upon Great Britain as " Home." 
To-day the obligation to keep alive and develop that sentiment was greater than ever, 
because the War had left an aftermath of trouble and difficulties which it would require 
all the faith and resources of the united peoples to overcome. Sheffield, which did 
so much in the War, would be looked to for pioneer work in this connection also. 
Empires and States were in the melting-pot ; a country that to-day appears strong 
might to-morrow be in ruins ; and it was necessary to readjust the affairs of the 
country and the Empire to meet these changing conditions. Upon Sheffield and other 
great trade centres rested this great responsibility of removing the unrest which was 
so prevalent. The Royal Colonial Institute, with its membership of 15,000, provided 
an unequalled means for accomplishing these ends. 

Major J. R. BOOSE, C.M.G., Travelling Commissioner of the Institute, explained 
the objects of the Institute, and referred to the working arrangements made with the 
Sheffield Chamber of Commerce. He congratulated the members on having obtained 
the co-operation of so enthusiastic an honorary secretary as Captain Douglas Leng. 

Sir HENRY HADOW, Vice-Chancellor of the University, in proposing that a Branch 
of the Institute be formed in Sheffield, said that in the far-off days before the War 
this country had one characteristic which rather astonished its Continental neighbours 
a combination of intense pride in our national and Imperial assets with a contented 
and complaisant ignorance of what they were all about, and what they mean. " We 
were, for instance, enormously proud of Shakespeare and compassionately sorry for 
those benighted foreigners who had not got any Shakespeare, but we did not read 
him, and we did not know the names of his plays. If you want a pleasant Christmas 
game of forfeits this year, just ask anybody to write that list down and see what 
happens. And in the very same manner we were enormously proud of that Empire 
on which, as we say, the sun never sets, or on which, so far as we know, it seldom 
rises. But we were again contentedly ignorant of its size, extent, commercial value, 
government and geography and all the great facts which make that Empire what 
it is and which make it such an extraordinarily valuable complement to the Mother 
Country." The Royal Colonial Institute was a means of remedying that ignorance, 
and what was, perhaps, of even greater importance, providing opportunities for inter- 
change of personal knowledge, personal introductions, and meeting places for visitors 
between the Mother Country and the Dominions. The more intimately this country 
and the Dominions got to know each other the more certain and sure would be those 
bonds of affection and comradeship which were the real connecting links which held 
together the different parts of the Empire. The relations between the Mother Country 
and the Dominions must be based on affection and a common understanding and 
mutual respect, and the more the work of the Royal Colonial Institute could be 
extended the sooner that ideal would be realised. It was because of this he had the 
greatest pleasure in proposing that the Sheffield Branch be formed, and that the 
executive committee (with power to add to their number) be the Lord Mayor, Sir 
William Ellis, Sir Henry Hadow, Colonel Charles Clifford, C.M.G., Mr. William Clark, 
Mr. Arthur Balfour, Mr. Peter MacGregor, Mr. Albert Senior, Mr. Walter Tyzack, and 
Mr. R. T. Wilson. 

Sir HARRY BRITTAIN, M.P., in seconding, said the finest example of a League of 
Nations had been the co-operation of the British League of Nations, which had done 
more for the advancement of the world than any other combination which had ever 
existed ; the Royal Colonial Institute was one of the strongest links in that combination. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 



Advertisements. 



XVlll 



ft 



" 



Hill Wanderings in Lakeland/' 



account of Two Sporting Runs on a New 1920 





Thirty " 



By GEORGE D. ABRAHAM. Reprinted from "The Autocar." 



" Spurning the new road as too tame, our sporting 
driver dashed off to the left at Seatoller, and up the 
old steep storm-shattered way to Honister Hause. 
The ascent was made in remarkable style. The 
writer has seen nothing more wonderful in motor 
mountaineering. Up and up the trusty car climbed 
easily and so silently that the soft song of the 
neighbouring mountain stream could be heard 
distinctly, and soon we were out above the tree line, 
and speeding towards the summit." 

Extract. 



to Motorists 
upon request 



The Daimler Co., Ltd. 
Coventry. 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 



THE Public are WARNED 
against purchasing Belsize 
Cars WITHOUT 
THOROUGH INSPECTION, 
as we find that several of our 
old cars have been altered and 
offered to the public as new 
1919-20 models for immediate 
delivery. 

Prices have been asked much in 



excess of our 1920 List prices, 
and we advise all prospective 
customers to verify chassis 
numbers and particulars of 
types. 

We offer the co-operation of our 
staffs in Manchester & London 
to assist in ascertaining the 
identification of any car offered 
for sale as a new car. 




ELSIZE 

BELSIZE MOTORS LTD., Clayton, Manchester. 

London : The Belsize London Agency, Ltd., 2-3 Duke St., 
St. James's, S.W.I. Address for repairs and spare parts: 
33, Augustus Street, Cumberland Market, London, N.W.I. 



38 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

The LORD MAYOR, in proposing a vote of thanks to Lord Morris, said that in these 
days of internationalism the older sense of nationality and imperialism was almost 
in danger of going out of favour. It might be that we had been too nationalistic, 
perhaps too Imperialistic, in the past, but he thought it would be a bad thing for 
the future of mankind if the old spirit of patriotism and pride in one's own country 
and love of Empire, which had meant so much to us in the past, were allowed to 
die. 

Mr. FRED BUTTON, a Vice-Prssident of the Institute, moved a vote of thanks to 
the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress, and urged Sheffield to support the Royal Colonial 
Institute in view of the great future for Oversea trade expansion. 



OBITUARY. 

Colonel Sir HENRY|MCCALLUM, G.C.M.G., R.E. 

WE regret to have to record the death of Colonel Sir Henry McCallum, at the age 
of 67, on December 1. As private secretary to Sir William Jervois, Governor of 
the Straits Settlements, Lieutenant McCallum, who had received a commission in 
the Royal Engineers, after passing out at the head of his year from Woolwich in 
1871, began his colonial career in 1875. After a brief spell of service with his Corps 
at Hongkong and Singapore, in 1877, he became Deputy Colonial Engineer to the 
Government of the Straits Settlements in 1880, becoming Colonial Engineer four 
years later, and holding the post until 1897, when he was appointed Governor of 
Lagos. In 1898, he went as Governor to Newfoundland, and in 1901 succeeded Sir 
Walter Hely-Hutchinson as Governor of Natal. Six years later, he was transferred to 
Ceylon, where he remained as Governor until ill-health compelled him to resign in 
1912, since when he had lived in comparative retirement at Camberley. 

Sir Henry McCallum was possessed of a considerable driving force and a most 
genial disposition. He showed marked administrative capacity in his various posts, 
and threw himself whole-heartedly into the work that lay immediately before him. He 
became a Fellow of the Institute in 1883, and always took a keen interest in its work. 



NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

THE FOLLOWING HAVE BEEN ELECTED: 

Resident Fellows (54) : 

Major C. W. Arnett, M.C., A. O. C. Blake, J. H. Buchanan, A. Devereux Buckmaster, 
C. B. Crisp, T. W. 8. Edwards, Harry Fletcher, Arthur Hebden, Wingate Lawford, Capi. 
Hugh A. Litttejohn, M.C., Welbury M. Mitton, P. H. K. Prossor, Ebenezer Bamsay, C. A. 
Beverley Robinson, A. W. Towse. j 

BIRMINGHAM. John Canning. 

CAMBRIDGE. Adrian Abrahams, J. D. Carnegie, H. R. Davidson, Col H. J. Edwaras, 
C.B., C.B.E., Lieut. Hugh H. M. Fraser, Major A. A. Macnab, C. E. R. Sherrington, Major 
F. Sowrey, Capt. H. C. Watty, V. O. Walsh, W. B. Wregg. 

LIVERPOOL. John A. Coaney, A. S. Edwards, J. O. Howard, Thomas Me Arthur, 
Lt.-Col. J. J. Shute, C.M.O., D.S.O. 



Advertisements. xix 



PAUL WINN & CO. Ltd. 

72 Mark Lane, London, E.C.3. 

IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS 



OF 



Produce, Chemicals and Foodstuffs 

ESTABLISHED 1883. 

Bankers: BARCLAYS BANK, LTD., 170 FENCHURCH ST., E.G. 

Correspondence from reliable Shippers invited; open 
to make advances upon their Consignments. 

Cables : " SNOWWHITE, LONDON." Codes : A B C, STH EDITION AND PRIVATE. 



Tents and Complete Equipment 
and Outfits for all climates. 

As supplied toH.M. Government for East, West and South Africa. 

S. W. SILVER & CO., and 
BENJAMIN EDGINGTON, LTD., 

1 Duke Street, London Bridge, S.E., and King William 
House, Eastcheap (Monument) - - LONDON, E.G. 



(Phone, RKGENT 214-) 

MAULL & FOX, Ltd. 

187 PICCADILLY, LONDON, W. 

PHOTOGRAPHERS to the 

ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE. 

Make a specialty of Portraiture in all its Branches. Artistically finished 

Permanent Enlargements, miniatures painted by hand on ivory, portraits in 

oils on Canvas. Amateurs' films and plates developed and enlargements 

made. A visit to the Galleries is cordially invited. 




39 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

MANCHESTER. F. Ryder, T. Sadler. 

SHEFFIELD. The Rl. Hon. The Lord Mayor, H. M. Elliott, Herbert Foulston, (Capt. 
Douglas C. Leng, William McLean, R. T. Wilson, E. B. Worthy. 

SUSSEX. W. C. H. Blake, Alfred Brierley, Lt.-Col Fred. Bull, O.B.E., F. T. Dives, 
Col. C. Harrison, C.M.G., C.B.E., F. W. H. Hill, Capt. F. Nevill Jennings, M.C., S. P. 
Johnson, George Kilner, Alderman E. H. Leeney, J.P., R. L. McMaster, Cuthbert Raddiffe, 
A. H. Saulez. 

Non-Resident Fellows (51) : 

AUSTRALIA. 0. W. Berry (Sydney), 0. J. Boudry (Melbourne), R. H. Rattray, L.R.C.S. 
(Sydney). 

CANADA. W. A. Carrothers (Winnipeg), T. F. Mcllwraith (Hamilton), 0, Stuart 
Seaton (Victoria, B.C.). 

NEW ZEALAND. John Anderson (Christchurch), James Berry (Gisborne), J. F. 
Buchanan (Little River), 0. L. Evans (Gisborne), Norton Francis (Christchurch), W. Q. 
Maclaurin (Gisborne), Geoffrey W. A. Norton (Auckland), M. L. Reading (Christchurch), 
Qeo. E. Rhodes (Christchurch) 

SOUTH AFRICA. R. N. Curnow (Kroonstad), J. E. Duerden, Ph.D. (Grahamstown), 
William Houston (Cape Town), Arthur J. Martin (Port Elizabeth), P. R. Midgley (Maseru], 
H. P. Ponsonby (Cape Town), L. Virtue Tebbs, M.R.C.S. (Matatiele). BRITISH EAST 
AFRICA. Capt. Claud H. P. O'Hagan (Nyeri). FEDERATED MALAY STATES. B. J. Eaton 
(Kuala Lumpur), L. E. Haynes (Telulc Anson), A. W. Just (Kuala Lumpur). JERSEY. 
W. Whitaker Maittand. MARSHALL ISLANDS. J. E. Burleigh (Nauru), M. Thorn (Nauru). 
NIGERIA. William Dales (Jos). RHODESIA. F. H. Going (Bulawayo), Ryder V. Tivy 
(Livingstone). SAMOA. Arthur Loibl (Apia). STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. Lieut. Stephen 
Oswald de Souza (Singapore). SUDAN. H. T. Mullins (Khartoum). ARGENTINE. A. L. 
Blake (Santa Cruz), W. McRobert (Buenos Aires), F. L. Merriman (Buenos Aires), J. H. 
Wood (Buenos Aires). BRAZIL. J. C. Bdfrage (Sao Paulo), W. Whyte Gailey (Sao Paulo), 
David Muirhead (Rio de Janeiro). CHINA. R. G. H. Cole (Shanghai), E. Mortimer Reid 
(SJianghai). DUTCH WEST BORNEO. C. P. Adamson (Pontianak), T. Morgan Griffiths 
(Pontianak). PORTUGAL. Albert F. S. Rowe (Lisbon). SIAM. Herbert Lewis (Patani). 
VENEZUELA. Commander Vincent M. Cooper, R.N. UNATTACHED TO ANY COLONY. 
LL-Col. Geo. Simpson Pitcairn, C.M.G., J. M. Whdlens, A.M.I.E.E. 

Associates (36) : 

Mrs. M. L. Blackburne (Christchurch, N.Z.), Mrs. Olive Grissell, Mrs, W. D Lysnar 
(Gisborne, N.Z.), Miss Gladys S. Pott. 

SHEFFIELD. Edward Bramley. 

SUSSEX. Miss W. R. Ashby,^Mrs. A. M. L. Aspinwall, Mrs. Walter Bailey, Mrs. 
Dennis Baines, Miss E. F. Blake, Mrs. A. Brierley, Mrs. Fred Butt, Mrs. Cameron Churchill, 
Mrs, F. T. Dives, Mrs. Maurice Drury, Mrs. F. E. Elger, Miss A. H. Elwes, Miss A. E. 
Hancock, Mrs. L. L. Harman, Mrs. M. L. Hewitt, Mrs. B. A. Hitt, Miss A. C. T. Hitchins, 
Mrs. R. H. Hooper, Miss R. G. Howard, Miss Jessie James, Mrs. F. Nevill Jennings, Mrs. 
M. K. Kirk, Mrs. R. L. McMaster, Mrs. E. Montgomery Paterson, Mrs. Cuthbert Raddiffe, 
Mrs. M. G. Ram, Miss M. B. Richards, Miss M. H. Archer Smith, Miss L. E. Stagg, Miss 
W, E. Swifte, Miss M. L. Wallis. 



OBITUARY. 

The following deaths of Fellows and Associates are noted with regret \ 

Neville W. Jackson, R. C. Warriner, Miss F. L. Watson, H. S. Milborrow, Col. 
Sir Henry E. McCallum, G.C.M.G., R.E., Mrs. E. M. Moore, F. W. Sumner, H. E. Easton, 
Lady Allardyce, Richard Garland, J. T. Arundel, Miss S. H. Appleton, C. W. Bennett 
R. S. NevUle, K.C., R. W. Craig, Herbert Inglis, H. T. Warner, Hen. J. J. Thomas 
C.M.G., J. E. Davenport, Andrew W. Rutherford. 



NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 



40 



ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE FIFT^-SECOND SESSION, 1920. 

The following Addresses and Papers have already been arranged, and the Meetings 
will be held at the Central Hall, Westminster : 
TUESDAY, JANUARY 13, at 8 p.m. Paper by F. C. WADB, ESQ., K.C., Agent-General for 

British Columbia. 
TUESDAY, JANUARY 27, at 3.30 p.m. "Tropical and Sub-Tropical Diseases," by Dr. 

Louis W. SAMBON. Sir PATRICK MANSON, M.D., G.C.M.G., F.R.S., will preside. 
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 10, at 8 p.m. Paper by Sir EDCIAR R.BOWBING, High Commissioner 

for Newfoundland. 
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 24, at 3.30 p.m. " Child Emigration," by KINQSLEY FATRBRiDaE. 



PAYMENT OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

Rule 20. All subscriptions shall be due and payable on January 1 in each year. 

Ride 21. No Fellow shall be entitled to vote, or enjoy any other privilege of 
the Institute, so long as his subscription shall be in arrear. 

Fellows and Associates are therefore reminded that the Journal ceases to be 
forwarded when subscriptions are in arrear for over six months by Resident 
Fellows, and over twelve months by Non-Resident Fellows. The easiest method of 
paying the annual subscriptions is by standing order on a banker or agent. Printed 
forms can be obtained from the Secretary. 



PUBLICATIONS BY THE INSTITUTE. 

Lord Milner's Visit to Manchester (April, 1919). Reports of the speeches delivered by 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies on that occasion. Price 6d. 

Four Lectures on " The Education Schemes of the United Kingdom and Dominion 
Forces." Price Is. 



The above is a copy of an 

envelope -which contained 

the follozving 

LETTER. 

Dear Sirs, 

I am writing this to thank 
you for the trouble you took 
in getting my Uniform off 
last week ; it arrived in 
ample time, and was in 
every way satisfactory. I am 
much obliged. 

Yours- faithfully, 

Major, 

RAP 



We leave clothing to ready-for-wear shops. We are 
practical Tailors who dress our customers, and depend 
upon their introduction and recommendation. Come to 
us and we will give you good cut ! good workmanship ! 
and good materials! 



For Town! Sport! and Travel! 

ROSS, TAILORS 

AND 

BREECHES MAKERS 

Outfitters and Shirt Tailors 



22 George St., Hanover Sq. 

LONDON, W. 1 :: And EXETER 



'Phone 



1312 Mayfaiv 



All through the late war the high standard of their Pure 
Wool Waterproofed Cloths, as exemplified in the " Ports- 
mouth " and " Roscut " Coats for Sport and 
whose reputation is world wide, was maintained. 



41 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES THROUGHOUT THE EMPIRE 

AND THE ARGENTINE. 

For the convenience of Fellows, arrangements have been made whereby subscriptions 
can be paid into any branch of the following banks : Africa. African Banking Corpora- 
tion, National Bank of South Africa, Standard Bank of South Africa. Argentine. 
The British Bank of South America will accept subscriptions at $11 fixed 
exchange for 1 Is. Australia. Commercial Bank of Sydney, Commonwealth Bank of 
Australia, and Australian Bank of Commerce (New South Wales and Queensland 
only). Canada. Bank of British North America, Bank of Montreal, Canadian Bank 
of Commerce, Dominion Bank, Royal Bank of Canada. Union Bank of Canada. 
Ceylon, China and Hong Kong, Malay States, Straits Settlements and East Africa. Chartered 
Bank of India, Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, National Bank of India. West Africa 
or West Indies. Colonial Bank. 



LIST OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

The list of Fellows for 1919, corrected to September 30, is now ready, and copies 
can be obtained at 2s. 6d. each. 



ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

ARRIVALS. 

Argentine. C. E. W. Duley. Bahamas. H. E. W. Grant, C.M.O. Belgian Congo. 

F. H. Turney. British East Africa. J. V. Gray, A. C. Macdonald. British Guiana. 
W. 0. G. Pearce. Cameroons. F. E. Trotman. Ceylon. A. D. Prouse. China. 
H. H. Cook. Egypt. G. D. B. Templeman. Falkland Islands. 'Major F. J. Newnham, 

G. W. Boyle, Sir Douglas Young, K.B.E., C.M.G. Federated Malay States. J. H. 
Clarke, 0. P. Dakeyne, H. Gordon Graham. India. G. B. Goyder. New Zealand. 

F. W. Payne. Peru. J. L. Harper. Uganda. D. G. Tomblings. West Africa. A. 

G. Boyle, C.M.G., C.B.E., F. R. Freeman, Sir Francis -Fuller, K.B.E., C.M.G., J. H. 
Koens, A. J. Langley, R. P. W. Mayall, M.A., A. R. Richards. 

DEPARTOTIES. 

Argentine. J. T. Cornish, A. S. Hume, R. H. Modlin, H. M. Taylor. Australia. 
Miss C. Francis, C. Guthrie, H. Courtenay Luck, T. J. McMahon, David Reid, G. C. 
Richardson. British East Africa. J. H. Harcombe, L. E. Wainwright, Capt. G. N. 
Hall. British Honduras. Capt. T. R. Starkey. Burma. G. Reynolds. Canada. 
A. C. L. Adams, Lieut.-Colonel F. W. G. Anderson, S. Barraclough. Chili. S. Wright. 
Columbia. F. N. Riley, H. G. Rumsey. Cyprus. M. Gimson. Federated Malay States. 

F. F. Faithfull, A. C. Jameson. India. Major F. W. Armstrong, A.V.C., D. Stanley 
Proctor. Malta. W. E. Boyten. Mauritius. J. M Brodie. New Zealand. A. W. F. 
Caccia Birch, M.C., W. C. Caccia Birch, C. L. T. Gordon, W. J. King, John H. Rhodes, 

G. H. Scholefield. Nyasaland. Capt. H. W. Ross. Rhodesia. P. T. Halsey. Seychelles 
His Hon. Chief Justice E. R. Logan. Singapore. Ven. Archdeacon F.' G. Swindell. South 
Africa. A. T. Babbs, Capt. J. J. Bisset, Lieut. G. H. Child, Major W. V. Coates, C. B. 
Cooper, Major H. M. Downes, Dr. E. G. Dru-Drury, S. Evans, W. H. Fuller, W. G. 
Graham, James Littlejohn, Cullis Relly, A. Rendatt, Sir J. B. Robinson, Thomas Scott,' 
Comr. C. F. W. Struben, O.B.E., C. Neumann Thomas, Miss Neumann Thomas, H. A. Wright. 
Spain. Capt. T. H. Wood. Sudan. R. A. Sanderson. Tasmania. Harold Hawkes. 
Teneriffe. A. G. Spragg. Uganda. A. E.Weatherhead. United States. E. G. Marsh. 
Venezuela. Comr. V. M. Cooper, R.N. West Africa. A. E. Altrop, Capt. C. H. Armitage, 
C.M.G., D.S.O., H. R. Biltcliffe, A. C. Christtieb, C. Fowler, Hon. Mr. Justice J. E. Green, 
W. H. Grimsditch, F. Talfourd Jones, Capt. F. A. Kovachi, Capt. M. G. Lewis, H. S. 
Meilandt, A. W. Philips, H. L. Sweet, Hon. A. P. Viret. 



Printed by S{M>ttiraxx>dc, Battantyne & Co. Ltd.. Colchetter, London and Eton.' 



UNITED EMPIBE ^ 

THE ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE JOUBNAL 

VOL. XI. FEBRUARY 1920 No. 2 

The Institute is not responsible for statements made or opinions expressed 
by authors of articles and papers or in speeches at meetings. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

PUBLIC interest during the past month has shifted suddenly from 
the consideration of home politics to the major preoccupation of 

foreign affairs. The Lord Chancellor, it is true, has 
.^T 6 . 1 sought to stimulate political discussion by denouncing 

the Coalition Government or system to which he 
belongs as invertebrate, and adumbrating the formation of a National 
Party, unmindful of the fact that the name has already been appro- 
priated, and that any attempt to raise General Page Croft's following 
to the status of its title would imply the perpetuation of the Coalition 
under another name. A dispassionate inquiry would probably show 
that the Coalition Government has been more successful at home, 
since the Armistice, than in the realm of foreign affairs. Certain it 
is that, at the moment of writing, the thinking section of the British 
public is more concerned with the bankruptcy of the Allies' policy 
in regard to the situation in Kussia. The Government's plea that it 
has not been acting single-handed in this matter, and that it cannot 
be held responsible for a policy which is the resultant of a variety 
of counsels that, in the interests of the maintenance of the Grand 
Alliance, commanded attention, no longer carries conviction. When 
Great Britain's contribution to the Allies' common stock of wisdom 
has been merely to blow hot and cold alternately, to vacillate, to 
compromise, little wonder that the belief gains ground that there 
may have been room for a stronger and better-informed policy. 
Possibly now, as during the War, the very magnitude of the danger 
will prompt the British people to rally round the Government in the 
hope of endowing the latter with some of its own strength of mind. 
In the meantime the situation in Russia seems to go from bad to 
worse. 



44 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE confident predictions of a few months ago, that Bolshevism 

was a spent force, have been rudely falsified by the march of events. 

Only the most lugubrious pessimist can believe that 

The Poison ^ Bolshevist order of things has come to stay per- 

B^T he ism manent fy J ^ u ^ ^ or tne present it is a very potent 
factor, after the manner, may it be, of poison gas, which 
must ultimately be lost in a pure atmosphere. Thanks to the irresolu- 
tion of the Allies, who have sacrificed their pride and principles in 
order to follow the path of least resistance, Bolshevism is to-day 
paramount throughout European Russia, has established itself over 
the greater part of Siberia, and threatens the Middle East and India. 
The menace to Central Europe can be relied upon to rally adequate 
forces in opposition before much more damage has been done. In 
Central Asia the danger is exclusively Great Britain's, and on her 
alone devolves the onus of effective resistance. The Paris Confer- 
ence has considered the subject, but its first measure, the reopening 
of trade relations with Russian co-operative societies, suggests that 
the goal in view is to be reached by any devious course, rather 
than by a straightforward one. The man in the street is inclined 
to adopt a simple line of argument : Bolshevism is either a good 
or a bad thing ; if it is bad, it is assuredly as grave a menace 
as ever Germany was, and requires to be faced with the same 
determination to compass its defeat at all costs. The fact, how- 
ever, remains that there is a growing opposition in the country 
to armed intervention in Russia, which has to be reckoned 
with. 

THE Soviet authorities in Russia are shrewd enough to recognise 

their opportunity in the spirit of unrest that the War has left behind 

in the world. There is nothing in common between 

unrest in Bolshevism and the Arabs ; but unless the Arab question 
the Middle r -n j n Vc j -*. 

Tjj aS 4. is handled in a statesmanlike manner, we may find it 

a most sensitive conductor for the spread of Bolshevist 
doctrines to Egypt and India. It is impossible to feel satisfied with 
the situation created by the Paris Conference in Syria and Mesopo- 
tamia. In spite of the most ample warnings, France has been allowed 
to take control of Syria, with the result foretold from the very first. 
The Arabs are up in arms against the French ; the movement has 
affected even the Lebanon, which was the stronghold of what 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 45 

sympathy the Republic could muster for itself in those regioDS. It 
is true that the Damascus Government repudiates Arab acts of hostility ; 
but the event has justified its anxiety. The trouble on the north- 
western confines of Mesopotamia may be altogether distinct from 
Arab antagonism to the French, and has behind it, more probably, 
Turkish intrigue. It cannot, however, be dismissed as lightly as 
official reports tried at first to dismiss it. A grave position has been 
created, and something more than mere repressive measures will 
ultimately be needed, if peace is to be brought to the Middle East. 
For the present, the French appear to have pinned their faith on such 
measures, and the immediate future can only be viewed with some 
uneasiness. 

THE Council of the League of Nations held its first sitting on 
January 16. Invitations had been issued in the name of President 
Wilson ; but as the United States have not yet 
f N ti s ' r& tifi e( l the Treaty of Versailles, they were not repre- 
sented at the gathering. M. Leon Bourgeois, who 
presided, claimed that the day would go down to history as the date 
of the birth of the New World. If this is to be so, the Council of the 
League will have to prove itself of very different mettle from that of 
the Paris Conference which brought it into being. There can be 
no doubt that the hope of all that is best in the world, which has been 
so grievously disappointed by the Paris Supreme Council, is centred 
in it. The Peace Conference comprised, inevitably, members of the 
Governments of the day in the various Allied countries ; they may 
have been the best interpreters of the national feeling behind them, 
but they were called upon to handle a multiplicity of questions of 
which they had no real knowledge, and at no time could they remove 
their eyes from the political barometers of their own countries. The 
Council of the League of Nations, if it is to command confidence, 
must show that it can approach all questions dispassionately and 
with expert knowledge. It will receive from the Paris Conference a 
legacy of ill-adjusted settlements many of which have no elements 
of permanency in them. If the peace of the world is to be laid on 
surer foundations than those on which it is trying to balance itself 
at present, some of these so-called settlements will have to undergo 
drastic modifications. Will the League of Nations, through its Council, 
be equal to the task ? 



46 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE settlement of the Adriatic question has continued to elude 
Allied Statesmen, even after the apparent eclipse of d'Annunzio's 
popularity in Fiume. Trieste and Fiume serve practi- 
fcaly cally the same hinterland, which is predominantly Slav. 

Italy, having been given Trieste, knows well that, if 
Fiume were to be in Yugoslav hands, the western 
port would rapidly decline. A further dilemma is that, with the 
two ports under Italian jurisdiction, there would be a considerable 
likelihood that the Yugoslavs would ultimately boycott both, and build 
a fresh Adriatic outlet for themselves elsewhere. While, therefore, 
the d'Annunzio episode served a useful purpose, it is plain that Italy 
would prefer a compromise which secured a long lease of life and 
prosperity for both Trieste and Fiume. The interests of the two 
towns can only be adequately promoted, if they remain, as they 
were in the past, under the same jurisdiction as the great hinterland. 
This is impossible in the case of Trieste, and the next best solution 
would be to place both ports under the League of Nations, with some 
safeguard for an equitable distribution of the trade and traffic of 
the interior. If Italian amour propre prevents the surrender of Trieste, 
we may expect Italy to improve the occasion by seeking compensation 
elsewhere for having had to relinquish her aspirations in the Adriatic. 
There has been a revival of the colonial claims based on the under- 
taking given by Great Britain and France in 1915 to consider the 
extension of Italian territory in Africa, in the event of the ex-German 
colonies passing under British and French control. It will arouse no 
surprise that the Italian demands do not err on the side of moderation. 
The suggestion that the British and French should hand over territory 
which would allow the Italians to hem ID Abyssinia on all sides, except 
for a portion of the western boundary, ought not to be entertained 
for a moment ; but there is a disposition to give the port of Kismayu 
in Jubaland to Italian Somaliland. Again, Italian claims in North 
Africa extend as far as Lake Chad; but there would seem to be no 
reason why France should part with more territory than would remove 
certain obvious anomalies in the frontier lines of Libya. 

IN Egypt the Nationalist boycott of the Milner Mission is showing 

signs of being undermined. The declaration of the objects which 

the Mission has in view, in desiring to hear the opinions 

of all classes and interests, went a long way towards 

convincing all but the extremists that nothing was to be gained, and 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 47 

much might be lost, by not having their case officially presented to 
Lord Milner. Zaghlul Pasha, from his retreat in France, may order 
his followers to maintain an intransigeant attitude, but his influence 
has passed its zenith. The Mission has behaved with all the tact 
that was to be expected from its able leader ; and this circumstance, 
following upon the determination finally shown by the authorities 
to deal more firmly with outbreaks and riotous demonstrations, has 
had its effect. It will have helped to remove some of the bad im- 
pression created by the preoccupied and somewhat thoughtless regime 
which, during the War, acted as if the Egyptians must necessarily 
be of the same mentality as ourselves. From the fact that Lord 
Allenby has felt justified in absenting himself from Cairo for some 
weeks, it may be inferred that the general outlook in Egypt is held to 
have improved materially since the arrival of the Mission. 

RETURNS of the fighting forces of the Empire in the Great War 
show that 7,000,000 men passed through the ranks of the British 

army, exclusive of the quota contributed by India, 
^ a f ^ . and of coloured troops from various Colonies. The 

figures for the French army are known to be greater ; 
but the preponderance of the numbers of the British Navy and Mer- 
cantile Marine will reduce the disparity between the total man-power 
of the two countries. As things were, however, there is no room for 
any comparison ; to all intents and purposes the resources of the 
two peoples were pooled, and Great Britain, as the chief arsenal and 
workshop of the Alliance, had to regulate her fighting strength to her 
working capacity at home. Her actual army represented 12'4 per 
cent, of her total population, a figure, it will be noted, a long way behind 
that of New Zealand, with some 20 per cent., but in advance of Canada 
and Australia with 8' 6 and 8 per cent, respectively. Here again the 
statistics have an interest in themselves, but are of no value for, and 
in no way justify, any comparison between the relative efforts of the 
component parts of the Empire. With its big urban population, and 
overwhelming proportion of men in the position of employees, as 
distinct from being " on their own," tie Mother Country would 
naturally expect to be able to provide armies, even apart from con- 
scription, more easily than the Dominions, where conditions of life 
are different. In the case of New Zealand, the high percentage is at 
once a tribute to the efficacy of compulsory military training and 
reveals the Dominion at the most virile stage of its development. 



48 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE preparation of an " airway " to the Cape has followed close 
upon the successful flight to Australia. It has proved a more difficult 
matter for the Air Ministry, as it may be also for those 
ir wno use the route. Climatic conditions across Africa 



p 

present more formidable obstacles to flight, as the 
line from Cairo to Cape Town crosses the equator in the interior of 
the continent at a distance from the moderating influence of the sea. 
The various zones, however, provide more or less established atmos- 
pheric features, and in time science and experience will combine to 
simplify the pilot's task. As was to be expected, the provision of 
aerodromes in the heart of Africa has not been easy ; and at first 
there will of necessity be a close season for flights. Winter promises 
to be the more favourable time of the year, and for this reason it will 
be a disappointment if we do not hear that an attempt has been made 
to cover the 5,000 miles from Cairo southwards before the summer 
sets in. The use of the route for anything approaching a regular 
commercial service can only come later. A few pioneer flights will 
show what remains yet to be done in regard to ground organisa- 
tion. Fortunately those who undertake them will know that they 
can count on a very attentive hearing at the Air Ministry for their 
recommendations. 

A BOOKLET by Sir Charles Lucas, entitled " The Gold Coast and 
the War " (Oxford University Press, 2s. net), is of special interest to 
Fellows of the Institute, apart from any connection 



with that Colony. It has been compiled from very 

ample material supplied by the Gold Co ast Government, 
and is in fact a sample and instalment of the contents of the large 
work on " The Empire at War," which the Eoyal Colonial Institute and 
the Oxford University Press have in active preparation. The small 
volume contains a brief account of the Togoland campaign, and it 
illustrates the greatness of the effort made by every part of the Empire 
in the life and death fight for the security of the Empire and the 
freedom of the world. It was arranged, through the kind interest 
taken in the work by the Colonial Office, that the material required 
to do justice to the war work of the Colonies and Protectorates should 
be compiled on the spot and placed at the disposal of the General 
Editor, and that in the event of any of them desiring to have a 
separate record of the part which they played in the War, and the 
extent to which they were affected by the War, it should be forth- 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 49 

coming. The firstfruits are the little book which is now given to the 
public. 

THE City is taking kindly to the Colonial borrower again, as in 
the days before 1914. Both the Nigerian and Queensland loans 
were oversubscribed; the Gold Coast followed suit, 
and then West Australia, which proposes to raise 
1,500,000 sterling in 5f per cent, stock at 98, redeem- 
able 1930-40. The yield is, therefore, 5f, which compares favourably 
with the Queensland issue of a 6 per cent, stock at 98 105. There 
appears to be a fairly steady market for these safe issues, so long as 
the amounts asked for are not too large and the borrowers do not 
tumble over each other. We are thus likely to see a good number 
in the future. They appeal, of course, to a quite different class from 
the ordinary gamble, which is very much to the fore, and the regular 
industrial home security, which remains as prolific as ever. It is a 
smaller but a steadier class of purchasers that goes for these small 
Colonial loans, which are an ideal " widows' and children's security." 
If the matter could be investigated, it would probably be found that 
the stock is held in much smaller blocks than the ordinary industrial. 
It will be interesting to notice whether any of the new tropical 
possessions of the Empire make their bow in Lombard Street in the 
next year or two. Development requires capital, and capital is more 
likely to be found in the City than in the pockets of the League of 
Nations. 

SOME extraordinary figures have been published as to the amount 
of currency now in circulation in the United Kingdom. The amount 
of legal- tender cash at the end of 1919, including 
92 > 000 > 00( > in Bank of England notes, 358,000,000 
in Treasury notes, the estimated silver currency of 
50,000,000, and the copper, which can only be roughly estimated, 
was well over 500,000,000 sterling. At the end of 1918 the amount 
was 394,000,000, and at the end of 1916 a mere 259,000,000. A 
simple calculation shows that the amount, by crude statistics, averages 
10 per head of the population, and since children under ten seldom 
get beyond copper or small silver, and the wealthy carry out most of 
their transactions by cheques, the actual proportion to each adult 
individual outside the rich is probably nearer 15 than 10. Some 
attribute this portentous increase entirely to the cheque tax, but 
it will not do. The real cause is the lack of cheque-booksin other 



50 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

words, the fact that most of the money is now being earned and spent 
by the classes which receive their wages and pay their bills in cash. 
If the average working-man could be induced to deal with a bank, 
the currency could easily be reduced by at least a quarter, which 
would quickly result in considerable deflation of prices ; but as things 
are, he is no more likely than the rest of us to change his habits, with 
the result that every increase in wages and increases are announced 
every day means obviously a further increase in the amount of 
currency required to pay them, with unfortunately its logical con- 
sequence, a further depreciation of paper and an increase of prices 
over and above that which is brought about by higher wages. 

THE suggestion made in some quarters that the Government are 

coining more silver and copper, and printing more paper, than is really 

required, is obviously inaccurate ; perhaps, in some 

ices an cases intentionally inaccurate. There is, in fact, a very 

Expenditure. ', . 7 . 1 , . ' , , J 

real shortage of silver (due to the high price of the 

metal) and of copper (due to the rapacious appetite of the penny- 
in-the-slot machine), and any shortage of paper would be bitterly 
resented by the very people who accuse the Government of printing 
too much. Where the process will end it is impossible to say. But 
it does not seem that anything can be done to stop it, since we are 
not a hoarding race, and trade needs financing ; and the more active 
trade is, the less we hoard and the more money is required both for 
personal and business purposes. To say, as some financial writers 
do, that the cure is to spend less, is to ignore the fact that food prices 
have gone up by over 20 per cent, since last June, and that to spend 
less, means to eat less, which means in the end to work less not a 
very profitable undertaking. The amount spent on luxuries, despite 
the outcry in the press, is small in comparison with the necessary 
expenditure, and it must not be forgotten that a great deal of the 
increased expenditure of the working-classes, so frequently denounced 
on platform and pulpit, goes on boots and food for the children, who 
are better fed, clothed, and shod than before the War, when wages 
simply did not allow it. It will hardly be suggested that the additional 
expenditure is bad for the strength of the country as a whole, since 
the next generation will be more virile and healthy than its underfed 
predecessors. If we can get by that means a new England, as we 
seem in process of getting, we need not worry overmuch about economic 
doctrines. 



51 



IMPERIAL UNITY AND LEGAL RESEARCH. 

DURING the War the desire for Imperial unity has developed in all parts of 
the Empire. As to the methods by which it should find expression in the 
government of the whole there are many differences of opinion. While this 
problem is being threshed out, influences are steadily at work to strengthen 
the bonds of union. Some of them operate so quietly and unostentatiously 
that they are liable to be overlooked in the consideration of matters which 
attract more public attention. Among the most noted are the laws which 
govern us. The average individual hardly realises the extent to which the 
actions of his daily life are influenced by the laws of the State of which he is a 
citizen, though D.O.K.A., with its far-reaching regulations, impressed that 
fact upon many who had not previously realised it. It may be that the 
impression will remain when the actual enactment is no longer in force. 

With the notable exceptions of India and South Africa, the whole Empire 
is proud of its heritage, the common law of England, and even India and South 
Africa are considerably influenced by it. The development of that common 
law by the Courts of the Empire moves along the same lines, and there is 
singularly little divergence in their decisions. The unifying influence of the 
Privy Council as the supreme appellate tribunal of the Empire is generally 
recognised, though on more than one occasion public attention has instead 
been directed to some conflict of opinion ; for example, between the High 
Court of Australia and the Privy Council. But, after reading widely in the 
decisions of the State Courts as well as the Federal Court of Australia, I have 
been much impressed with the extent to which the English decisions are followed 
and treated with the greatest respect, though there is no legal obligation 
to accept those of the Courts below the Privy Council. The English and 
Empire "Digest" of the cases decided in the courts of the Empire, containing the 
English decisions by the side of those of the Courts of the Dominions, now in 
course of publication, will facilitate, and no doubt tend to increase, the adoption 
by the various Courts of each other's decisions. It may be that in course of 
time the English Courts will derive assistance from the decisions of the Courts 
of the Dominions in interpreting Dominion legislation, of which the provisions 
have been adopted by the Parliament at Westminster. 

Ten years ago I edited, for the Society of Comparative Legislation, four 
volumes containing a survey of the legislative enactments o the British 
Dominions from 1898 to 1907. In an introduction to them Sir John Macdonell 
observed : 

" The history which the various Statute Books summarised in these volumes 
record seems to be everywhere similar. With much diversity in detail in this mass 
of legislation, it is surprisingly homogeneous ; it has the same aims ; it generally 
adopts the same means. Almost all the Legislatures are making similar experiments, 
all making similar resolutions . . . the form of legislation is being standardised. I 
may add that the same ethical level is being adopted. . . . There is also much 



52 IMPERIAL UNITY AND LEGAL RESEARCH. 

conscious and direct imitation of English models. . . . Any important measure which 
has been enacted in one part of the Empire is pretty sure to be enacted sooner or 
later in another." 

Year by year, since the Society was founded twenty-five years ago by 
Sir Courtenay Hbert, this annual summary of legislation, in which some foreign 
countries have been included, has been published, oftentimes under great 
difficulties. The last issue contains a record of the work of more than sixty 
Legislatures, supplied by more than forty contributors with knowledge of local 
conditions, including twenty-four Parliamentary draftsmen or law officers. 
The reviews of legislation for the last ten years show that the movement 
described by Sir John Macdonell has tended to become more reciprocal. In 
the inquiries preparatory to the enactment of legislation at Westminster, there 
is an increasing desire to ascertain what has been done to deal with similar 
problems in the Dominions. The recent report (Cmd. 422) of the Lord 
Chancellor's Committee which inquired into the working of the office of the 
Public Trustee, for example referred to an arrangement in the office of the 
New Zealand Public Trustee in connection with the investment of capital 
moneys as being worthy of adoption. On the other hand, the New Zealand 
Public Trustee would have been very glad to have been as successful as his 
English colleague in allaying the opposition of the legal profession, which was 
described by a New Zealand Commission reporting upon the office as " a spirit 
of hostility." 

While, however, there is a readiness to profit by the experience of other 
parts of the Empire, and even to inquire into the laws of other countries, there 
does not exist any machinery for acquiring the information in a simple 
and expeditious manner. Lord Haldane's Committee on the Machinery of 
Government (Cmd. 9230), appointed by the Minister of Keconstruction, came 
to the conclusion (p. 6) : 

" that in the sphere of civil government the duty of investigation and thought, as 
preliminary to action, might with great advantage be more definitely recognised. It 
appears to us that adequate provision has not been made in the past for the organised 
acquisition of facts and information, and for the systematic application of thought, 
as preliminary to the settlement of policy and its subsequent administration." 

They recommended accordingly (p. 25) : 

" That a considerable development of Intelligence work as a clearly differentiated 
part of the organisation of administrative Departments is required wherever the work 
of the Department as a whole extends beyond very modest limits, and that whenever 
the Intelligence work of a Department is placed upon a distinctive footing, the follow- 
ing functions should prima facie be considered suitable for assignment to the staff 
engaged upon these duties : 

(1) The conduct of special inquiries into, and the preparation of reports upon, 

matters affecting the business of the Department. 

(2) The care and maintenance of a Departmental Library. 



IMPERIAL UNITY AND LEGAL RESEARCH. 53 

(3) The continuous study of the methods of administration prevailing in regard 

to the same subject-matter in other parts of the United Kingdom (where 
a separate system of administration prevails), in the Empire, and in 
foreign countries. 

(4) The scrutiny and circulation in the Department of statements of general 

interest bearing upon the Department's work, whether from particular 
branches of the Department, from other Departments, from the Press, or 
from other sources." 

If these proposals are carried out thoroughly in respect to legal research, 
but without any correlation of the activities of the different departments by 
some central organisation, the result almost inevitably must be that there will 
be considerable duplication of material, and also, to some extent, of work. 
These recommendations have, naturally, been followed by some activity in 
this direction. But no central co-ordination is in operation, and I learn already 
of two Government departments who are busily engaged in forming collections 
in the realm of law on almost identical lines. I have no doubt that an 
authoritative inquiry would reveal further duplication of effort, such as 
undoubtedly exists in the four Inns of Court. On the other hand, it was possible 
for the Board of Trade to present to Parliament a short time ago a paper dealing 
with anti-dumping legislation (Cmd. 265), which stated that no information 
was available about the operation of Australian and South African Acts on the 
subject. If there existed some central organisation for legal research, to which 
the Department could have turned, Parliament would not have had to publish 
such a lamentable confession of ignorance ; since it appears, from another 
report which has just been issued, that the information was in the possession 
of at least one Government department, not to mention such private sources 
as the library of the Eoyal Colonial Institute. 

These are merely examples which could be multiplied without difficulty, 
and serve to show the need for some central body concerned with the 
organisation of legal research. The Machinery of Government Committee 
suggested that there is good reason for extending what has been done for 
scientific and industrial research to other fields in which thinking is required 
in aid of administration. It is submitted that law is a field particularly suitable 
for the adoption of some similar arrangement, and that the needs of the time, 
combined with the necessity for economy, call for action in following a precedent 
which is generally admitted to have been successful. 

In a paper read before the Eoyal Society of Arts (Journal of the Eoyal 
Society of Arts, February 21, 1919), the Secretary of the Department, Sir Frank 
Heath, explained the steps which led to the constitution of the Committee of 
Industrial and Scientific Eesearch. It was realised that, if research was to be 
organised effectively, it must cover not only the whole United Kingdom, but 
also be able to co-operate with other parts of the Empire. The Lord President 
of the Privy Council was accordingly selected as the responsible Minister, as 
the Privy Council is the only Department which has relations with the whole 
Empire. " Parliament," added Sir Frank Heath, " voted the Minister or, 



54 IMPERIAL UNITY AND LEGAL RESEARCH. 

rather, a Committee of the Privy Council of which he was Chairman a sum of 
money to spend on the encouragement and organisation of scientific research 
not a fixed sum, but an annual sum susceptible of increase. By an Order-in- 
Council all proposals for spending money for these purposes stand referred to 
the permanent Commission, which is called the Advisory Council for Scientific 
and Industrial Research." To this body of permanent experts who are not 
Civil Servants is delegated the responsibility of thinking out a policy. They 
are an integral part of the machine with a permanent staff, who are kept 
continually informed of departmental activities. 

{ In explaining the modus operandi of the Committee, Sir Frank Heath 
observed, " that it has been possible on more than one occasion to remove 
overlapping already in existence, and to bring the workers under different 
Departments into a co-ordinated plan of attack " (p. 202). After three years' 
experience the Advisory Committee record in their Annual Eeport (Cmd. 320) 
that : 

" if the organisation of research for public purposes is to be effective and economical, 
it is necessary to arrange for a central clearing-house, which will be cognisant of the 
several lines of research undertaken by different Departments of Government, and 
a central body connected therewith capable of undertaking or organising research, 
which it is agreed can best be conducted by one agency in the interests of all (p. 13)." 

On a small scale the summary of legislation to which reference has been 
made illustrates the value of co-operation. Besides being useful for social 
reformers and students of current problems, it is a meeting-place for Parlia- 
mentary draftsmen who possess a record of each other's solutions of legislative 
difficulties. 

Upon a Committee for Legal Research there would devolve three main 
duties : 

(1) The arrangements for reports upon the legal aspects of any subject under 
special investigation. 

As in the case of the Committee for Scientific Research, it would not 
necessarily follow that the Committee would conduct the inquiry, but it 
might (a) leave the inquiry wholly to the Department, (fe) co-operate with it, 
or (c) appoint someone to make the report. It is a common feature of the 
Reports of Royal Commissions, Parliamentary and Departmental Committees, 
that they contain particulars of the laws of other parts of the British Empire 
and foreign countries, and their operation. Many voluntary organisations are 
also seeking information of a similar character. 

The work of the Society of Comparative Legislation is sufficient to show 
that a central committee would have many opportunities to secure information, 
and be in touch with workers in all parts of the Empire interested in the 
particular subject of inquiry in ways which are not open to a Commission or 
Committee creating, de novo, all its machinery for a specific purpose, or even 
to a particular Government Department. The Society's Journal shows the 
wide range of subjects dealt with by contributors in different parts of the world 



IMPERIAL UNITY AND LEGAL RESEARCH. 55 

whose contributions are given voluntarily to its pages. The Society has thus 
made a beginning in collecting material and establishing relationships in all 
parts of the Empire upon which a central committee similar to the Committee 
of Industrial Research could build, and soon be in a position to advise as to 
the most economical and effective method of acquiring legal information. 

(2) The second duty of the Committee would be to organise the supply 
of material for legal research. The Machinery of Government Committee 
advocated the creation and maintenance of Departmental Libraries. They 
would thus perpetuate and accentuate the existing state of affairs. Moreover, 
as a general rule there is at least one exception Government Departments 
neither possess libraries nor librarians. They only have collections of books. 
The Times, in its notice upon the death of Sir Augustus Oakes, Librarian of 
the Foreign Office (August 21, 1919), said, quite accurately, I understand : 

" The description of ' Librarian ' as applied to the holder of the post he occupied 
is more or less a misnomer, as the work of the Librarian's Department is mainly con- 
cerned with the custody of Foreign Office archives, confidential papers and treaties, 
and with the preparation of memoranda on historical events, international cases, and 
treaty questions." 

If the policy of creating new Departmental Libraries is to be carried out, 
it should undoubtedly be accompanied by a stocktaking in the form of a 
combined catalogue of what is already in existence, and that can only be 
done by a central organisation with authority. An attempt may be made to 
give just a brief outline of the present position. 

Under the regulations of the Colonial Office, there are twelve libraries hi 
London receiving all the Ordinances of the Colonies not possessing responsible 
government. They are the House of Lords, House of Commons, Board of 
Trade, British Museum, Bar Library, Law Society, the four Inns of Court, 
the Eoyal Colonial Institute, and the Privy Council. The Ordinances sent to 
each amount to about six hundred per annum. A few arrive in annual volumes, 
but the majority are sent in twos or threes. They have to be acknowledged, 
collated involving quite an amount of correspondence to keep them complete 
and indexed which even on a modest scale takes a substantial amount of 
time and all that has to be done twelve times over, not to mention the binding, 
which at present prices is becoming a serious item of expenditure. As a matter 
of fact, I believe that there are other libraries besides those mentioned in the 
Regulations which receive the Ordinances of the Crown Colonies. 

In addition, the Dominions supply their Acts gratuitously probably to 
the majority of the twelve libraries, and some of them, quite reasonably and 
naturally, have been raising the question whether the number cannot be 
reduced in the interests of economy. In the interpretation of these statutes, 
the Courts throughout the Empire have delivered many volumes of decisions. 
If the contents of all these twelve libraries were put together, it would not 
be possible, I believe, to form one collection containing all the statutes and all 
the reports of the different parts of the British Empire. Under the auspices 



56 IMPERIAL UNITY AND LEGAL RESEARCH. 

of the Royal Colonial Institute, I have no doubt that I shall readily obtain 
assent to the observation that, if that is a correct description of the present 
position, it is a standing disgrace to the Metropolis of the British Empire. 

The Society of Comparative Legislation has from time to time advocated 
the formation of a Library containing : 

" The Acts, the Ordinances, the Codes themselves, the reported decisions of 
the Courts, the works of the textbook writers, commentators, historians, and jurists. 
legal pamphlets and reviews (often containing most valuable matter) from all parts 
of the world, Blue Books, White Books, Yellow Books ; in a word, the whole literature 
of Law collected together in some conveniently central building, catalogued and 
made freely accessible to all bonafide students." 

Twelve years ago, when that description of the desired library was given 
in the Society's Journal, the cost was estimated at 20,000. Now the cost 
would be at least five times that amount, and then it would probably be incom- 
plete, for it is not merely statutes and reports which are required, but also 
the supplementary literature, including especially the material for the study 
of the operation of legislation. For the practical man is not much concerned 
with law reports, though he takes more interest in the findings of the Courts 
than he used to do, but he wants to know about the workings of laws. Let 
me give an example. 

Many of us are concerned with the serious state of the finances of the 
hospitals, not only in London, but all over the country. In several cases their 
present incomes are thousands of pounds less than their expenditure. It appears 
to be inevitable, therefore, that sources of income other than voluntary con- 
tributions should be sought, and it would be useful to turn to the experience 
of the Dominions where State and rate aid are in operation. In one or other 
of the twelve libraries to which I have referred, no doubt the statutes can be 
found, but under the Acts, as a general rule, the Department concerned is 
required to make a report to the Legislature. Where can a set of those reports 
be found ? The only way available at present, so far as I am aware, is for 
anyone interested to send inquiries to all the Dominions. No doubt the 
information will be required for the purposes of an official inquiry, and then it 
will be duly collected and tabulated in a Parliamentary paper. The direction 
of a Committee of Legal Research would secure that this material would be 
available and kept up-to-date, presumably in the Ministry of Health. 

It is beyond my present purpose to suggest the extent to which a Committee 
of Legal Research would find that the material for the study of the laws of 
foreign countries is wholly inadequate, but an exception must be made in 
favour of the United States, since much of the legislation both of this country 
and the Dominions is influenced by and influences the legislation of the States 
of America. The Bar Library contains the statutes, and the Inns of Court 
among them contain a large portion of the Reports, but by no means the 
whole. It surely is not unreasonable to suggest that this is a matter which, 
having regard to the present relations of this country with the United States, 



IMPERIAL UNITY AND LEGAL RESEARCH. 57 

is entitled to Government attention, and which might properly be dealt with 
by a Committee of Legal Eesearch organising the collection of material. A 
small, very small, step has been taken by the Society of Comparative Legisla- 
tion to form a catalogue of the existing supply of American law books to be 
kept for reference in its chambers in the Temple, which are centrally situated 
within easy access of the main supplies of legal literature. When this is the 
position in regard to the non-British nation with which our relations are so 
close that we hesitate to speak of it as a foreign country, it is possible to surmise 
the extent of the deficiencies in the material for the study of the laws of other 
countries. 

(8) The third duty of the Committee of Legal Eesearch would be the 
dissemination of information. In England there are periodicals available 
where serious matters are treated for the information of the general reader 
in a way which is not apparent to the same extent in the literature of other 
countries. But Legal Eesearch is entitled to an organ of its own, and the 
increasing circulation of the periodical issued by the Society of Comparative 
Legislation, under the title of Journal of Comparative Legislation and Inter- 
national Law, shows that there is a cordial reception waiting for a Journal of 
Legal Research. The membership of the Society includes Government Depart- 
ments and Libraries in all the Dominions, India and the Crown Colonies, State 
and University Libraries in the United States, Chambers of Commerce and 
voluntary organisations at home, besides individual subscribers, by no means 
confined to the legal profession, in all parts of the world. There are fresh 
opportunities for such a publication which, while receiving official recognition, 
would reach a wide and varied circle of readers. The International Labour 
Office and other organisations connected with the League of Nations will have 
their own publications concerned with labour problems, but it is obvious that 
the information in them will need to be disseminated throughout the Empire. 
Few people outside the immediate circle concerned at the present time know 
the admirable volumes issued by the Labour Office in Washington. It is of 
value to have a publication dealing with legal research, and therefore covering 
a wide range of subjects of common interest, circulating so as to reach those 
particularly concerned with the making, administration, reform and drafting 
of laws, besides those interested from a more academic standpoint in legal 
research. 

Besides consolidating and developing the work which has been done for 
a quarter of a century by the Society of Comparative Legislation, a Com- 
mittee of Legal Eesearch would form a centre to which the Secretariat of the 
League of Nations might turn for information upon legal matters. It has 
been suggested that a large library of foreign law will be required in order to 
provide material for the research required in that connection. That, again, 
is a large and expensive undertaking which could hardly be attempted at 
the present time, but it will readily be admitted that the resources of the 
Empire should be adequately organised to supply what is required for the 
work of the Secretariat. At present, the only available body to fulfil this 



58 THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 

function is the Society of Comparative Legislation, though the lack of any 
kind of assistance from the Home Government places it in the position of 
attempting to make bricks without straw. With the exception of grants to 
the total amount of seventy-five guineas from Gray's Inn, the Law Society, 
Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, and the Eoyal Colonial Institute, it is entirely 
dependent upon the membership subscription of one guinea, which must 
primarily be devoted to the publication of the review of legislation and the 
Society's Journal. In connection with the financial aspect of the subject, 
there is little doubt that a Privy Council Committee of Legal Eesearch would 
have funds placed at its disposal to further one or other of its objects. The 
growing membership of the Society of Comparative Legislation in all parts 
of the world, which is larger now than at any previous period of its history, 
shows an increasing appreciation of the value of legal research even on the 
modest scale which has been possible for a purely voluntary organisation. 

I submit, therefore, that the time is opportune for the recommendation 
of the Machinery of Government Committee to be carried out for the con- 
stitution of a Committee of the Privy Council for legal research, whose three 
primary functions would be (i) to organise legal research work, (ii) to co-ordinate 
and develop the supply of material for research, and (iii) to disseminate its 
results. Thus would be aided the making of sound laws for each part of the 
Empire, and strength would be given to law as one of the great bonds of Imperial 
Unity and the advancement of the common wealth. 

C. E. A. BEDWELL. 



THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP:* 

By ELLIS T. POWELL, LL.B., D.Sc. 

IF you ask the ordinary man how the present King comes to occupy his Royal position, 
and why His Majesty is able to claim the allegiance of the citizens, he will doubtless 
find the reason in the fact that King George is the son of King Edward, and the grandson 
of Queen Victoria. But this is obviously not an exhaustive answer to the question. 
It only pushes the query a stage further back. What was it that gave King Edward 
and his illustrious Mother their right to the obedience of the lieges ? Thus cornered, 
the citizen will reply (at all events, if he has any knowledge of constitutional history) 
that the King holds his supreme position by virtue of the provisions of the Act of 
Settlement, passed in the year 1713, which fixed the Kingship of these realms in the 
Protestant descendants of the Electress Sophia of Hanover. That lady was selected 
because, as the granddaughter of James I., she was the senior Protestant representative 
of the ancient kingly line of these realms. So that, confining ourselves for the moment 
to the constitutional aspect of the inquiry, we can affirm that the claim of King George 
to the homage of British citizens rests upon a disposition made by Parliament. To 
put the fact in another way, King George reigns by a Parliamentary title. 

* Paper read at a Meeting of the Royal Colonial Institute held at Central Hall, Westminster, on 
January 13, 1920, Sir George B. Parkin, K.C.M.O., LL.D., in the Chair. 



THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 59 

When we have said so much, however, it is quite obvious that we have only touched 
the veriest fringe of the problem. During the hurricane of war which lasted from 
1914 till the Armistice men came by thousands and tens of thousands from the ends 
of the earth to fight under the banner of Britain. When the war was over and King 
George's eldest son visited the Dominion which lies nearest to these islands, he was 
received with a rapturous enthusiasm. Wonderful to relate, it did not die down 
when he crossed the frontier between a British Dominion and a lost British colony, 
the present United States. The scenes in New York seem to have been the outcome 
of feelings just as fervent as those exhibited in Canada, except, of course, that the 
element of allegiance was present in the Canadian displays, while it was necessarily 
absent from those on American soil. We shall hear of the same enthusiasm in Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand when, in due course, the Prince of Wales pays his projected 
visit to the island Empires. India, we may be sure, will offer its loyal tribute in its 
own characteristic fashion. 

What is the real explanation of these wonderful outbursts ? Surely it is impossible 
for us to persuade ourselves that even our extremely capable Young Man, with his 
winning charm of manner and his perfectly inimitable smile, was received in Canada 
with such unequivocal manifestations of affection and devotion merely because an 
ancient statute, now over two hundred years old, provided that certain constitutional 
powers should be vested in his exalted father, with every human probability that they 
would ultimately descend to him ? In these days, when the searchlight of publicity 
and the probe of human curiosity are turned upon and into every terrestrial pheno- 
menon, we must see that the explanation of these amazing manifestations is not of 
merely constitutional origin. They are obviously inspired by something, whatever 
that something may be, much more potent and impressive than the enactments of 
a bygone Parliament two centuries ago. The purpose of our inquiry this evening is 
to see if we can formulate a theory which will explain not only the concentrated unity 
and devotion of the people of these islands around the Throne in the direst crisis of 
their history, but will also account for the simultaneous rally of their kinsmen from 
the furthest ends of the earth, drawn by common and unstinted attachment to the 
same sacred symbol. 

Let us briefly glance, for a few moments, at the evolution of the English, and later 
the British, Kingship. Like other factors of the social complex, the Kingship is an 
evolving institution. Originally a family or tribal jurisdiction, it was designed for 
disciplinary and protective organisation against the common foe. The title to the 
supreme position was primarily that conferred by seniority. But when the social 
organisation grew larger, its interests wider, and its perils consequently more numerous 
and menacing, the King tended to become the elective head. Hence the hypothesis, 
which may or may not be etymologically tenable, that the King was in such circum- 
stances the cunning one. He was not, in our modern sense of the word, the adept at 
stratagem and trickery, but simply the knowing man. Our own Anglo-Saxon monarchy 
was, to some extent at all events, elective in this sense. Thus burdened with the 
responsibilities of State, the King was granted large landed resources for their 

F 



60 THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 

discharge. The glamour of these great possessions, and the prestige attaching to the 
family of their possessor, tended to make the Royal Family a caste apart, and helped 
to set the hereditary principle a-working. But in the course of centuries there were 
expensive foreign wars, as well as increasing expenditure at home, and these drained 
the Royal resources dry. It became impossible for the King to finance the State, 
as he was expected to do, out of his own pocket. He was compelled to seek the finan- 
cial assistance of his subjects. But when he asked for money, his subjects began to 
stipulate for the reform of abuses. By the time of Henry IV. (1399-1415) it was a 
constitutional principle, royally, if reluctantly, recognised, that the reform of abuses 
must be one of the conditions of a grant of supplies. The Monarchy had undergone 
a transition. The King had ceased to be the knowing man, endowed with exceptional 
skill and prestige. He had become a kind of managing director, whose share- 
holders refused to finance the concern unless its policy was trimmed to satisfy their 
requirements. 

Then came the sanguinary disputes arising from a disputed succession to the 
Crown, and fostered by German conspirators, which we call the Wars of the Roses. 
By the time they had ended, with the defeat of Richard III. at Bosworth in 1485, 
our feudal nobility 'had been practically annihilated, and the country was utterly 
weary and exhausted. It wanted a strong central government and no more disputed 
successions, so that it might throw itself heart and soul into the religious, intellectual, 
and commercial renaissance which was lighting up the whole horizon of the western 
world. Henry VII. was prepared to guarantee stability and quietude, though he was 
by no means scnipulous in his choice of the means of doing it. Under his ruthless 
but capable rule the country sunk into tranquil and thankful acquiescence. His work 
was taken up by two consummate students of our national temperament, his son 
Henry VIII. and his granddaughter Elizabeth. By the time that Elizabeth died, 
in 1603, the embryonic constitutional Monarchy of the Lancastrians, as Henry IV. 
knew it, had been transformed into the Tudor absolutism. There had been another 
change in the character of the Kingship. The Royal managing director of Lancastrian 
days, jealously watched and checked, had been evolved by circumstances into an all 
but autocratic chairman at the head of the national board-table. The elective prin- 
ciple was gone, and the theory of Divine Right had taken its place. 

This was the state of things which James I. found in existence when he arrived 
from Scotland. Unfortunately, James had no such profound knowledge of the English 
character as Elizabeth, herself English to the finger-tips, had possessed. He got the 
country into a condition of unrest and suspicion. His son, Charles I., brought civil 
war upon himself. His head fell on the block at Whitehall, and the English Republic 
came into being. Only eleven years of Puritan government brought the recoil to 
royalty, and a reaffirmation of the theory of Divine Right. Charles II. returned from 
his continental exile amid the frenzied acclamations of the entire nation. But he, 
careless, immoral, voluptuous, threw away the Stuart heritage. He kept his own 
seat secure, but in less than three years after his death his obstinate brother, James II., 
precipitated the catastrophe and became a fugitive from the anger of his subjects. 






THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 61 

Then the statesmen of the day offered the Crown to James's son-in-law, William III., 
on terms embodied in the Bill of Rights, which is, to all intents and purposes, the 
fundamental document of the British Constitution. 

The date of the Revolution 1C88 marks the establishment of Constitutional 
Monarchy in its modern form. It signalises still another modification of the Kingship. 
The monarch is now an executive head bound down by principles accepted by him 
as the condition of his appointment. The subjects dictate the terms upon which 
alone they will consent to be governed. The principle of heredity, once regarded as 
all but inviolable, loses its sacrosanct character. James II., the hereditary king, was 
driven from the country. His son-in-law, possessing no personal title whatever to 
the Crown in himself, was placed on the throne, not as the consort of his wife, the 
fugitive monarch's daughter, but as king in the full sense of the word. Then the 
inevitable happened. William III. died without issue. His sister-in-law, Queen 
Anne, did the same, though in her time she had borne seventeen children. The 
spectre of a disputed succession to the Throne, which had been " laid " for the last 
two centuries, began again to disturb the imaginations of Englishmen. In an effort 
to prevent the recurrence of so disastrous a state of affairs, Parliament passed the Act 
of Settlement. This settled the Crown on the Electress Sophia of Hanover and the 
heirs of her body, and in that line it still remains and devolves. This marks one 
more change in the character of the Kingship. It is transformed into a species of 
elective, not perpetual, presidency. The King reigns by a Parliamentary title. 

The events of the next 120 years tended to weaken the hold of the Monarchy upon 
the affections of the nation and to minimise its share in the work of administration. 
George I., coming from Hanover, spoke no English. Consequently he ceased to 
attend Cabinet meetings. The sovereignty was put into commission. This arrange- 
ment created what has now become a constitutional convention, involving the absence 
of the supreme head of the National Executive from all meetings of the National 
Executive body. George III. was involved in responsibility for the loss of the 
American colonies, and in his later years lost his reason. William IV., who closed 
the series of monarchs between the advent of George I. in 1714 and the accession of 
QueenVictoria in 1837, was simply a bluff sailor, knowing very little of statesmanship, 
though he lived in an era of impetuous and sweeping reform. There was as yet no 
sign of the new Kingship, the nature of which we are to consider. Little wonder is 
it that many experienced observers anticipated only a short reign for the simple girl 
who was roused from her bed early on a summer's morning in June 1837 to be 
informed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Prime Minister that she had 
become the Queen of England. The Republic, so many people thought, was at the 
door. 

The reigns of Queen Victoria and of Edward VII. brought a mighty Imperial 
awakening, to which the Royal Colonial Institute, with its motto " The King and 
United Empire," has made no small contribution. The position of the Throne was 
immensely strengthened and consolidated. In truth, the whole character of the 
Kingship underwent a fundamental change. The Kingship was recognised as no 



62 THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 

longer a delegation of the supreme administrative authority the Saxon, Norman 
and Angevin theory ; nor yet a personal potency the Tudor ideal ; nor a more or 
less impotent nucleus of constitutional pageantry the scheme of those who established 
the Hanoverian dynasty by the Act of Settlement. The Monarchy became a mystic 
adumbration of the Imperial Self. The Monarch no longer stood for himself, but 
shadowed forth a mighty spiritual entity, the Imperial Soul, which loomed gloriously 
behind his transient mortal figure. The whole Empire, including many of our 
Oriental fellow-subjects, steeped for thousands of years in knowledge of the deeper 
secrets of life and mind, awakened to the change. Within a comparatively few 
years from its inception men were to throng from British Dominions in the uttermost 
parts of the earth to defend the new ideal from profanation and to perpetuate it as 
the radiant point of an Empire's devotion. And a little later, when the heir-apparent 
to its dignity was to visit the nearest of the great Overseas Dominions, his visit was 
to signalise an unprecedented outburst of enthusiastic devotion to the Imperial Soul, 
the Imperial Self, which in due course he is destined to represent upon the throne 
of his fathers. 

Let me attempt a rather more precise description of what I mean by the Imperial 
Soul. When we incorporate a company we create a legal personality which is totally 
different from the personalities of the respective shareholders. A company can 
appear as plaintiff or defendant in the courts of justice. It can own property, carry 
on business, sow and reap, buy and sell, formulate a policy and carry it out. As the 
years go on all the original shareholders may die one by one, but the company, as a 
company, survives them all. Nobody has ever seen a company, though one cannot 
obtain the materials for a meal, or furnish a house, without doing business with such 
an entity. It has always been the fashion, up to the present generation, to regard 
this personality of the incorporated company as a purely legal fiction. There really 
was no personality, said the lawyers, but it was convenient for legal purposes to 
imagine one, and to regard the company as being, in fact, a person capable of suing 
and being sued. 

This doctrine might be all very well if its application began and ended in the 
realm of those commercial companies which, it has been cynically said, have neither 
bodies to be kicked nor souls to be damned. But it is quite obvious that the legal 
theory does not suffice for one moment to explain the appeal which is made and the 
esprit de corps which is engendered by great corporate bodies which have survived 
for many generations, like the Church, the universities, and the learned professions, 
like medicine and the law. Some of these are corporations in the strictly legal sense : 
others only by convention. But, as we all know, their corporate influence upon all 
their members is incalculable. Members of the great Christian corporation which we 
call the Church have, in thousands of instances throughout the ages, felt themselves 
bound to go to imprisonment and to death rather than be false to their allegiance. 
The corporate unity was explicitly declared by the greatest exponent of Christianity 
when he said that its followers were members one of another. And again, the devotion 
to Oxford or Cambridge, or to the great ideals of the Bar, which wields so tremendous 
a prerogative over all their members, is obviously something which cannot be merely 



THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 63 

allegiance to a legal fiction. Within the last twenty or thirty years the real truth 
has begun to dawn upon us. The existence of these corporations calls into being 
some real psychological entity in the background, analogous to that which in its 
widest manifestation psychologists call the World Soul, and which they denominate 
the corporate spirit when their language is of narrower scope. Nowadays the cosmic 
memory, as a possession of the World Soul, is scientifically discussed in circles where, 
half a century ago, the very idea of such a function would have been scouted with 
derision and disdain. In fact, I believe we have reached the point where we may 
affirm, as the result of centuries of human experience, that when you have a number 
of men and women united for a corporate purpose, swayed by a corporate devotion, 
commanded by a corporate allegiance, then their yearnings, their struggles, their hopes, 
their homage and their service do generate some mighty psychological entity, akin 
to a Spiritual Personality, in the background. They are not the devotees of an 
empty legal fiction, but of a pregnant psychological fact. 

These doctrines have behind them no mean or visionary intellects, but, for example, 
the endorsement of the late Professor Maitland, one of the keenest legal intellects of 
our time in this country, and of Professor Gierke, one of the leading jurisprudents of 
modern Germany. Maitland, quoting Gierke 's theories with approval, translates him 
as saying that the corporate entity " is no fiction, no symbol, no piece of the State's 
machinery, no collective name for individuals, but a living organism and a real person 
... it is not a fictitious person it is a group-person and its will is a group- 
will." 

It seems to me that it is impossible even provisionally to accept theories like these 
in their relation to the Christian Church, to the universities, to commercial corpora- 
tions, and to a body such as the Royal Colonial Institute, without seeing that they 
touch even more intimately a vast corporate association like the British Empire. 
I submit that the idea of the King, as the exalted head of a caste apart from the rest 
of humanity, has been replaced by the knowledge that he is, in our age, only the 
adumbration of a mystic psychological entity, far more real than if it were a physical 
being. Behind the mortal figure of the King looms the immortal sublimity of the 
Imperial Self. That it is a deathless spiritual identity, an actual psychic personality, 
sacramental in its mystery and potency, we need not hesitate to affirm. Thither 
the devotion of the Allied Empires ever turns. Contemplating one of our great 
State ceremonials, the proverbial visitor from another planet might imagine that he 
witnessed a nation doing homage to its Bang. But, in truth, both King and nation 
would be bowed in reverent salutation before a supreme Imperial Intelligence 
psychically generated by the patriotic yearnings of unnumbered men, an Intelligence 
which is greater than the King, and is destined to survive, in beneficent activity, 
long after this King and this people alike have been gathered to their fathers. 

For Britain and her Allied Empires this Imperial Intelligence, this proudly 
conscious Imperial Self, is to be the dominant inspirational force of the Twentieth 
Century. It has flashed upon us with the sudden mystery and splendour of an Aurora 
Borealis. It points to unimagined heights of Imperial achievement. It shows the 
way to unprecedented, potentialities of Imperial intimacy. The idea of the Colonies 



64 THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 

as distant lands, with which we had only a vague concern, is as dead as the wiredrawn 
theories of the Schoolmen. They are of us, and we of them, all members of one another. 
To say the words is no longer to enunciate a pretty analogy, as a mere stimulus and prop 
to the apathetic intellect. It is to define a psychological truth, as absolutely unchallenge- 
able and as universally and inevitably operative as the law of gravitation. The 
Empire is an evolved organism, possessing an undying corporate consciousness resident 
in a living Imperial Soul. It is capable of satisfying the tests which demonstrate its 
possession of this endowment. It can correlate the act of the moment with permanent 
interests and general principles. It exhibits all the characteristics of a sentient 
creature, as manifest in a " persistent unified behaviour, a power of profiting by 
experience, a creative capacity as a genuine agent." On the foundation of premises 
like these we may confidently advance to the predication of the fundamental axiom 
of Imperial prosperity that only in mutual homage, only in united devotion, to the 
Imperial Self, combined with the utmost attainable freedom of independent growth 
and action on the part of the several members, are the materials of worthy aspiration, 
welded consolidation, and political permanence to be discovered, utilised, and per- 
petuated. No transient physical personality, flitting across this mortal stage, and passing 
away almost before its lineaments have been discerned,could have evoked the magnificent 
enthusiasm of the great Dominions, perhaps the most tremendous and transcendent 
of all the terrific phenomena of the War. To remove the Kingship would be to take 
the keystone from the Imperial arch, the linch-pin from the Imperial chariot wheel. 
The day when that is done will witness the beginnings of a catastrophe which will end 
with a down-dashed Empire, where once stood the puissant world-power that dared 
handgrips with the might of Prussia. 

Perhaps I may add that in America itself there is a dawning appreciation of the 
advantages conferred upon us by this allegiance to what I have called the Imperial 
Soul. Just before the outbreak of the War I spent some time at Niagara Falls in the 
company of a venerable American gentleman who had known every President from 
the time of James K. Polk, who went to the White House in 1844. On the last evening 
that we spent together my friend asked me what I thought was the weakest point of the 
American Constitution. I told him that in my opinion it lay in the fact that the 
President had come to be elected by a direct vote, contrary to the intention of those 
who framed it. 

" No, it is not that, ' ' said my venerable friend, " it is not that ' ' ; and then he went on 
to say that the weakness of the American Constitution lay in the absence of a permanent 
personal nucleus for the patriotic devotion of the citizens. 

" Our Presidents," said he, " flit across the stage one after the other, and vanish 
into the oblivion of private life. The result is that there is no personal core around 
which patriotic sentiment and devotion can centralise, and yet no people on earth 
stand so much in need of it as we do. You have it in your King, raised above all 
Party strife and shadowing forth the reality which is behind all your constitutional 
machinery, and behind the ceremonial and pageants by which you dignify it. We are 
totally without this personal nucleus." 



THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 65 

He was over 90 years of age, so that his closing utterances to me were very impressive. 
" Mark my words," said he, " I shall not live to see it, but you will witness the ultimate 
reunion of the Anglo-Saxon peoples under one flag. The greatest force operating to 
bring it about will be our consciousness of the necessity of a personal nucleus of 
patriotism capable of rallying the homage of the people in the very highest sense." 

A personal nucleus ! Therein lies the tremendous potency of the Kingship in the 
vast realm of social psychology just opening before American eyes. The same truth 
is being driven home to us with irresistible impact. Our kinsmen, of many creeds 
and of none, did not come across the ocean to spend their lives for the individual King, 
but for the stately and consecrated reality of whom he is but the deputy. That which 
they dimly descried in life they comprehend completely in the fulness of the immortality 
which has crowned their sacrifice : 

." In spirit limitless they know, 

Untrammelled by imperfect clay, 
That they in one obedience bowed 

To own the same majestic sway." 

In the realms of Imperial achievement, as in the sanctity of individual relationships, 
it takes a soul to touch a soul. Still more does it take a soul to touch countless millions 
of souls. Behind our Kingship there is something centripetal, something consolidating, 
something that inspires and responds. It is towards this deathless spiritual identity, 
at once so shadowy and yet so real, that all the Empire's millions turn just as the 
yearning of untold myriads goes out to that other Figure which, age after age, attracts 
even in its agony the passionate devotion of the best of the human race. And it was 
surely not coincidence, but design, which at the supreme crisis in world-history joined 
under one Imperial flag the fearless and practised Indian adepts of Eastern mysticism 
and the restless British conquerors of the material resources of the earth. All the 
best authorities agree that Britain as a Republic would not hold India for a year. The 
mystically magnetic grip would be loosened, and the Oriential planet would fly ofi 
from our system- The other Allied British Empires Australia and Canada, for 
instance would in all probability become fugitives, too. Surely, in the perpetuation 
and consolidation of these alliances, consummated under the majestic aegis of the 
Imperial Self, we possess another reminder of the splendid destiny that is before us, 
and of the inscrutable Divine Pilotage which has guided our forefathers, and still 
guides ourselves, towards it ! 

Never yet have the eyes of humanity been enlightened by the sight of a world-Power 
built upon Freedom. Rome never conceived, much less attempted, such a consum- 
mation ; and none but Rome has ever possessed the resources for its attainment. 
None, that is to say, until the birth of the conscious Imperial Intelligence of Greater 
Britain. Within the ample orbit of this new star in the political firmament there are 
to be found the twin essentials of permanent human progress. On the one hand is the 
gigantic power of the allied British Empires for that is what the Dominions are 
annually growing in scope and puissance, and capable of being turned with irresistible 
energy against any endeavour to fling humanity back towards the ape, the tiger, and 



66 THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 

the despot. On the other is the complete internal freedom of these immense 
democracies, endowed with the capacity of continuous adjustment to environment 
which is the prime condition of prosperity and happiness in every organism. Politi- 
cally and geographically they attain the ideal of the anonymous Elizabethan dramatist : 

" Thy Empire limited with Nature's bounds ; 
Upon thy ground the sun doth set and rise, 
The day and night are thine, 
Nor can the planets, wander where they will, 
See that proud earth that hears not Britain's name." 

External strength and internal freedom focussed upon a Mystic Nucleus of patriotic 
devotion are the attributes of political immortality ; and Britain, when she confronted 
and conquered the colossal cataclysm which ushered in the twentieth century, had 
grasped them, both, though she was perhaps not completely conscious of her achieve- 
ment : 

" For lo ! the kingdoms wax and wane, 
They spring to power and pass again, 

And ripen to decay ; 
But Britain sound in hand and heart 
Is worthy still to play her part 
To-day as yesterday. 

" Not till her age-long task is o'er 
To Thee, God, may she restore 

The sceptre and the crown. 
Nor then shall die ; but live anew 
In those fair daughter lands which drew 
Their life from hers, and shall renew 

In them her old renown." 

That is the meaning of the new British Kingship. And what should be the qualities 
of the ministers who, in homage to the Imperial Self, are chosen to aid in the consum- 
mation of that splendid destiny ? Once in our island story, when we had grown weary 
of Republicanism, the King came to his own again. Simultaneously an unknown poet 
of 1660 essayed to picture the ideal servants of King and country, and struck a note 
so pure and lofty that it would not have misbecome the lips of an archangel charged 
with the proclamation of a new dispensation to mankind : 

" Let whom we name 
Have Wisdom, Foresight, Fortitude, 
Be more with Faith than Face Endu'd ; 
And sturdy Conscience above Fame. 

" Such as not seek to get the start 

In State, by Faction, Power or Bribes, 

Ambition's Bawds. But move the Tribes 
By Virtue, Modesty, Desert. 

" Such as to Justice will adhere 

Whatever great one it offend : 

And from the embraced Truth not bend 
For Envy, Hatred, Gifts or Fear. 



THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 67 

" That by their deeds will make it known 

Whose dignity they do sustain ; 

And Life, State, Glory, all they gain, 
Count it Great Britain's, not their own. 

" Such men are truly Magistrates, 

They neither practise Force nor Forms, 

Nor do they leave the Helm in Storms, 
And such as they make happy States." 

If Charles II. had chosen such men as counsellors, the history of the Stuart line might 
have ended in glory instead of obloquy. But if the King of England, himself the 
minister of a Supreme Personality greater than himself, ia guided in the coming years 
by such men as the unknown poet pictured, then the mystic Voice may say to him, 
as of old to the son of Rechab, that his Royal line " shall not want a man to stand 
before Me for ever." 

For the poetic ideal I have gone back two centuries and a half. For the expression 
of our own hopes and prayers, in the presence of this new conception of Kingship, let 
us go back yet another century, to the original form of the prayer for the King, familiar 
to us all for its opening words, " Lord, Our heavenly Father, high and mighty, King 
of Kings, Lord of Lords, the only Ruler of Princes." As offered for Edward VI., in 
the far oS Tudor days, that prayer is singularly apt as an expression of our petitions 
for George V., the human adumbration of the mighty Imperial Self that hovers 
gloriously behind him : 

" Kepe him Farre of from ignoraunce, but through thy gifte leat prudence and 
knowledge alwaie abound in his royall hert. So instructe hym (o Lord lesv) reyning 
upon us in erth, that his humaine majestee alway obey thy divine majestee in feare 
and drede. Indue him plentifully with heavenly geftes. Grant him in health and 
welth long to live. Heape glorie and honoure upon hym. Glad hym with the joye of 
thy countenance. So strengthe hym that he maie vanquish and overcome all his 
and our Foes, and be dread and feared of al the ennemies of his realme." 

And with those ancient and venerable words, sanctified by the lips of our forefathers 
in days when Britain was but a shadow of her present glorious self, and with an 
invocation on behalf of him who is, for us, the nucleus of an Empire's homage, I may 
appropriately end this imperfect analysis of the characteristics of the New British 
Kingship : 

" Spare all your flattery, speed him with your prayers, 

And here in London, as the peace-bells ring, 
While the crowds gather, and the trumpet blares, 

Cry we ' God strengthen,' as ' God, save the King ! ' " 

After the reading of the paper, 

The CHAIRMAN (Sir George Parkin) said : We shall all join most heartily in thanking 
Dr. Ellis Powell for his remarkable and, to my mind, profoundly interesting address. 
I confess to a feeling of difficulty in speaking upon it. He has lifted us into a some- 
what rarer atmosphere in this matter of the Kingship than perhaps we have 
ever consciously realised before in regard to it. Anybody who is able to look back 
to the reign of our great Queen Victoria, for instance, will be conscious of the extra- 
ordinary feeling which grew around the kind of loyalty which may attach to the 



68 THE NEW BRITISH KINGSHIP. 

Throne. When the news came of her death I was residing in one of our great Canadian 
cities a' city of, perhaps, 400,000 inhabitants, extremely few of whom could ever 
possibly have seen the Queen, and yet when her death was announced a visible pall 
was thrown over the mind of everybody in the city. You can scarcely account for 
that by mere reference to a person. There must have been something behind the 
mere personality of the Queen which could touch people in that way ; for what was 
true of that great Canadian city was equally true of the whole round of the Empire, 
and the world as a whole came near to one universal sob. It seems to me that 
Dr. Powell has offered some explanation of that phenomenon. Consciously or un- 
consciously we look behind the person to the thought to the soul of the nation to 
which we belong, the nation to which our hearts turn, whose life and principles we are 
prepared to fight for, and, if necessary, die for, and I think that on the whole the psychic 
force which lies behind this extraordinary feeling is explained in the way Dr. Powell 
has indicated better than in any other. 

At the Canadian Club last night we gave a great banquet to the young Prince of 
Wales on his return from a wonderful tour in which he awoke an enthusiasm which 
swept not only over the Canadian people but even over the great Republic to the 
south, who long ago threw aside the idea of Sovereignship. It was a large and repre- 
sentative gathering. It was perfectly clear to me that in the feeling that every in- 
dividual present entertained towards this young, charming, and still youthful Prince, 
who expressed his ideas so clearly, spoke with such evident sincerity, and held up 
such genuine national ideals I say there is something behind that feeling that went 
much beyond what his mere personality meant. There was a warmth of enthusiasm 
and an intensity of sympathy, an eager hope that the young Prince would move 
along the lines on which he has started towards higher and greater things, and that 
in doing so he would realise the ideals in the minds of everybody who was listening 
to him. What was behind that ? I must confess that, while some parts of Dr 
Powell's address seem to embody a lofty idealism, and are perhaps the result of a 
vivid spiritual imagination, I am not at all sure that he does not explain, better than 
anything I have known stated in the same form before, the kind of feeling which all 
of us so sincerely entertain when we sing " God Save the King" as we have done 
through all this great struggle a feeling that behind the personal King was a grave 
principle of national life, and of loyalty to the ideals of our race and of our civilisation 
a feeling that the King's person is a mere adumbration of the wonderful spirit I 
scarcely know what to call it which lies behind the national life. I should only get 
astray by pursuing the matter further, because the subject is one which requires close 
thought and most delicate treatment. 

Mr. EDWAKD SALMON, speaking with some knowledge of the papers read before the 
Institute for the last thirty years, considered that Dr. Powell's paper was quite 
exceptional both in subject matter, and treatment. In the course of that paper Dr. 
Powell uttered two notable sentences one, " I submit that the idea of the King, as 
the exalted head of a caste apart from the rest of humanity, has been replaced by 
the knowledge that he is, in our age, only the adumbration of a mystic psycholo- 
gical entity, far more real than if it were a physical being. Behind the mortal figure 
of the King looms the immortal sublimity of the Imperial Self." And the other, " The 
idea of the Colonies as distant lands, with which we had only a vague concern, is 
as dead as the wire-drawn theories of the Schoolmen." He would like to see those 
two sentences inscribed upon every document that went out from the Institute. They 
ought to be enshrined in all our hearts. He remembered that in the debates which 
took place in Parliament in the eighties, or early nineties, Lord Morley, one of our 
greatest students, when the grants for the Crown were under discussion, said that 
the Crown was the living symbol of the loyalty and unity of the British Empire. 
That was a Radical witness to the truth which was found in Dr. Powell's paper. 
Perhaps the difference between the idea of Kingship in the past, and the idea of 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 69 

Kingship as embodied in our own Sovereign, might be illustrated by a reference to 
Martin Hume's "Philip the Second." In that wonderful biography, the writer 
said that Philip failed because he regarded himself as a junior partner of the 
Almighty. It was precisely because King George did not regard himself in that 
light that he was the power he is. In his reference to the Imperial soul, Dr. 
Powell had given them an indication of the real fact, the spiritual fact behind the 
loyalty to the Throne. King George had struck our American visitors as a true 
democrat. When everybody was working himself to his utmost during the five years 
of world strife, King George, according to the testimony of Mr. Lloyd George himself, 
was probably the hardest worked man in the Kingdom. It was because the King 
had so absolutely identified himself with his people that we had arrived at that great 
psychic fact which Dr. Powell had brought out so beautifully in his paper. 

If, Mr. Salmon continued, the great Labour Party (which before very long might 
be in power at Westminster) only studied the constitutional history of the Monarchy, 
and would make itself the expression of the people's will as did King George if 
Labour would take a hint from the Monarchy, he could not help thinking that Labour 
and Monarchy would come together to preserve this country of ours as the greatest 
embodiment of national aspirations the world had ever known. 

Mr. H. C. MACFIE (New South Wales) testified to the true Imperial spirit which 
prevails in the outlying portions of the Empire. In the particular portion with which 
he happened to be identified there were, he said, three, and even four, generations of 
people, many of whom had never been to the Old Country at all, and yet they were 
true chips of the old block. 

After speeches by Major Hely Pounds, who referred to the intense patriotism of 
the Dominions, and by Mr. W. S. Clayton Greene, who was sceptical as to whether 
the doctrine of the Imperial Self had any meaning in it, and uttered a warning against 
dogmatism on these matters, Dr. Ellis Powell replied to a vote of thanks moved by 
the Chairman. He pointed out that he had desired not to offer anything in the 
nature of dogma, but to formulate a theory as an explanation of a phenomenon 
which is absolutely undoubted. 

A vote of thanks was also given to Sir George Parkin for presiding, and the pro- 
ceedings closed with the singing of a verse of the National Anthem. 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 

The World's Supplies of Wheat. The Bulletin of the Imperial Institute deals at 
length with the important question of the future of wheat production, with special 
reference to the Empire. The annual production of wheat in the world prior to the 
War amounted to about 110,000,000 tons, the largest producers being the Russian 
Empire, with an output of 22,000,000 tons, and the United States, which provided 
nearly 19,000,000 tons. During the War the production in Europe, as a whole, and 
in Russia, in particular, decreased considerably, but outside Europe there was a great 
expansion. The acreage under wheat in Canada, the United States, Argentina, India, 
and Australia in 1918 was over 25 per cent, larger than the average acreage for the 
five years before the War, and it is considered that at the present time there is a 
sufficiency of wheat, even without the help of Russia, to meet the requirements of the 
world. As regards the future also, there is reason for optimism. There are vast areas 
of land suitable for wheat-growing yet to be opened up in Canada, Australia, South 
America, Siberia, and other countries, whilst the present low average yield of 13 bushels 
per acre is open to great improvement. In recent years the increase in the world's 
production has been due to a great extent to an increased yield per acre, and there 



70 ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 

is every reason to believe that, with the introduction of improved drought-and-rust- 
resistant varieties, the rise will be even more rapid in the future. 

The Cape to Cairo Railway. An interesting proposition was put forward recently 
by Mr. H. Wilson Fox, M.P., regarding the use of train-ferries on the lakes of Central 
Africa, similar to those used on the Great Lakes of America. The distance from Cape 
Town to Cairo, as the crow flies, is 4,200 miles. He suggested that if the whole route 
were regarded as divided into three zones, Bulawayo might be taken as the northern 
limit of the southern zone, and the north end of Victoria Nyanza as the northern 
limit of the central zone. A line of approach to the north might be taken from 
Bulawayo to Salisbury, and thence to Beira. From Beira arrangements are already in an 
advanced stage for the construction of a line over a distance of about 190 miles to 
the Zambesi near Sena, and the decision was taken recently by the Colonial Office to 
extend the existing Nyasaland Railway from Luchenza northwards to Pagonas on the 
south-eastern shore of Lake Nyasa. An extension of only three miles farther would 
carry the railway to Malindi, and from there the train could be carried by train- 
ferry to the north end of the lake to Mwaya. The construction of a line from 
Mwaya to Bismarckburg (Kasanga), at the south end of Tanganyika, over a distance 
of about 200 miles, would present no special engineering difficulties, and thence the 
train could be carried by train-ferry to Kigoma, the terminus of the railway from 
the coast which runs from Dar-es-Salaam to the interior. The lake routes, vid Lakes 
Nyasa, Tanganyika, and Victoria Nyanza, run practically north and south, and 
represent about 850 miles. He stated that whereas it would cost about 5,000,000 
to construct railways over this distance, with prices as they are at present, it should 
be possible to establish a system of tram-ferries at a cost of 1,500,000. 

CANADA. 

The Third Victory Loan. The Third Victory Loan has been another remarkable 
success, and complete returns are expected to bring the total subscriptions up to 
close upon $700,000,000, last year's total being $695,000,000. The amount asked 
for was $300,000,000, and every Province has exceeded its quota, Ontario having 
subscribed $354,000,000. The total subscriptions to Dominion War Loans now amount to 
$2,085,000,000, of which not more than $100,000,000 have been subscribed outside Canada. 

Canadian National Railways. The Canadian National Railways have announced 
certain improved and increased services on their main lines, the most important of 
which probably is the extension of the daily train service now in operation between 
Winnipeg and Edmonton, through to Vancouver. It is also intended to operate the 
east-bound train, Winnipeg to Toronto, on Sunday, which will give a daily train service 
between Winnipeg and Vancouver. It is expected that the new station at Vancouver, 
which has been under construction for the past two years, will be opened to the 
public, and trains operated in and out of the new terminal. The new steel equip- 
ment for the National lines is modern in every detail. The first of, approximately, one 
hundred new steel passenger cars have been delivered, and it is expected that the entire 
order, comprising six classes of cars, will have been completed by the end of January. 

St. John's Harbour. An arrangement has been made between the Immigration 
Department of the Canadian Government, the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the 
Canadian Pacific Ocean Services to provide accommodation for C.P.O.S. liner pas- 
sengers landing at St. John, N.B. The new building, which was to be completed by 
January 15, will contain a large well-lighted and heated room for the examination 
and checking of passengers' baggage. Another part of the building will be the passenger 
entraining station. Passengers by the C.P.O.S. liners will thus be able to pass 
straight from the ship into this warm building, have their baggage examined and 
checked, and step into the waiting train without any exposure to the weather. 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 71 

Field Crops. The total yield of wheat in Canada for 1919 is now placed at 
193,688,800 bushels, including approximately 174,000,000 bushels of spring wheat, and 
19,000,000 bushels of fall wheat. Upon the acreage sown, the average yield per acre 
is 10 bushels for spring wheat, 23 J bushels for fall wheat, and 11 J bushels for all 
wheat. In 1918 the total yield of wheat was 189,075,350 bushels, or 11 bushels per 
acre. For oats, the average yield per acre for Canada is 27 bushels, for barley 22 
bushels, and for rye 14 bushels. The yields in 1919 for the three prairie provinces 
are estimated at 161,419,000 bushels of wheat, 246,856,000 bushels of oats, 46,412,000 
bushels of barley, and 5,954,000 bushels of rye. Wheat, weighing 67 Ibs. to the bushel, 
believed to be the heaviest ever inspected in Alberta, has been examined by the 
Government grain inspector at Calgary. This wheat was graded No. 1 hard, and was 
of the Marquis variety. Another farmer in the same district had a yield of 28 bushels 
to the acre, on 129 acres, and one near Athabasca is said to have secured a yield of 
80 bushels of wheat and 110 bushels of oats per acre. 

AUSTRALIA. 

Intercourse between Australia and America. One interesting development in the 
growing relations between Australia and America has been the interchange of visits 
from parties of lads representing the Young Australia League of Western Australia 
and the Columbia Park Boys' Club of California. The fourth party of fifty lads from 
the latter institution recently arrived in Western Australia after an adventurous journey 
due to the after-war shipping difficulties and delays, as a consequence of which it 
took them four months to get from San Francisco to Perth (W.A.) via Japan, Singapore, 
and Java. It is claimed that, for the first time, Australia is now known from one 
end to the other of the United States. 

British Capital in Western Australia. According to an official report just received 
from Western Australia, an excellent opening exists for British participation in the 
State whaling industry, which hitherto has been practically monopolised by Norwegian 
companies, three of which have been operating there for some years. In Western 
Australia alone the extent of their operations may be ganged from the fact that during 
the 1912-16 seasons they captured whales which produced over five million gallons of 
oil and about 1,500 tons of fertilisers, to the value of 430,000. It is also stated 
officially that the farming of turtles is to be undertaken in that State. An exclusive 
licence for an area on the north-west coast of Western Australia, extending from 
North- West Cape to Cape Lambert, has been issued already to a number of English 
investors who are interested in the scheme. 

NEW ZEALAND. 

Issue of Victory Stamps. A new series of six postage stamps has been issued r in 
New Zealand. The stamps, which are uniformly printed on white wove paper with 
the customary watermark " N. Z. and Star," bear the word "Victory" and the dates 
" 1918-1919." The design of the fal. shows an allegorical female figure with a laurel 
wreath in her hand, seated upon a lion, whilst on the Id., carmine, appears a smaller 
vignette of Victory, with the British lion in attendance and palm branches on either 
side of the picture. On the \\d., orange, is a Maori's head, flanked by sprays of 
black fern ; and on the 3d!., deep brown, one of Landseer's lions, with the rising sun 
in the background. " Peace and Progress," a classic female figure and a child carrying 
sheaves, forms the subject of the &d. design, printed in purple ; and a three-quarter 
face portrait of King George, in uniform, flanked on either side by figures of lions, 
and surrounded by sprays of fern and native Maori carvings, is the subject of the 
highest value, 1*., vermilion. 



72 BOOK NOTICES. 



SOUTH AFRICA. 

Union Statistics. The Office of Census and Statistics of the Union of South Africa 
has issued a half-yearly abstract of Union statistics, containing the latest available 
information regarding production, trade, transportation, finance, &c. The volume, 
which is the first of the kind to be issued in the Union, is the beginning of a series 
which it is intended shall be published at half-yearly intervals, and the statistics which 
it contains will be of great value to the industrial and commercial community and 
to those interested in the economic development of the Union, and in social and 
political matters. From the preliminary figures of the last industrial census gratifying 
increases are denoted in respect of the factory production for the year 1917-18, the 
value of output for that year from 5,907 establishments being 61,928,665, as compared 
with 49,457,414 from 5,305 factories in the preceding year. 

INDIA. 

Indian Princes in Council. In creating a permanent Chamber of Indian Princes, the 
difficult question of membership has been decided primarily upon the salute list. The 
States differ widely in size and importance, Hyderabad, for example, having an area 
of over 82,000 square miles and a population of 13,000,000, while others consist merely 
of a few villages. The rulers of all States (and they number over 80), who enjoy a 
permanent dynastic salute of eleven guns or more, are to be entitled as a right to mem- 
bership of the Chamber. Including some of the Burmese Chiefs, there are some 
thirty-three rulers entitled to a salute of nine guns. Of these, those who enjoy practically 
full internal powers are to be admitted to the Chamber, while in the case of the 
others, the Government of India will investigate and decide whether to grant the 
internal powers required in order to qualify for admission. The heads of all States 
qualified for admission to the Chamber will be designated Ruling Princes, while the 
others will be known as Ruling Chiefs, and the membership will probably be well over 
100. Attendance and voting in the Chamber will be voluntary, since the Princes and 
Chiefs have not been unanimous in desiring the institution of a more formal assemblage 
than the annual conference of the last few years. The Chamber will be a consultative 
body, not an executive one, and the Government will safeguard the interests of the 
absent rulers by ascertaining their views before acting on the resolutions of the 
Chamber. The direct transaction of business between the Government of India and 
any individual State will not be prejudiced in any way. There will be a Standing 
Committee of the Chamber, which will be competent to initiate questions affecting the 
States generally, or the common interest of India as a whole, for the consideration of 
the Viceroy. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

Botha, Colin Graham. The French Refugees at the Cape. Pp. viii-171. Cape Town : Cape 
Times, Ltd. 1919. 

Contrary to the general impression that the Boers of South Africa are of pure Dutch 
descent, there is an element of French origin amongst the so-called Dutch population of 
the Cape. These are the descendants of Huguenot refugees who towards the end of the 
seventeenth century settled in South Africa, and eventually lost their identity in the pre- 
vailing Dutch population. Mr. Graham Botha, of the Cape Archives Department, has 
issued an interesting monograph dealing with these refugees, from which it will be seen 
that, though their numbers were not large, they were nevertheless the forbears of many 
important South African families, such, for instance, as the Joubert, Malan, Marais, Potje 
(Potier), Pienaar (Pinard), De Villiers, Roux, Rousseau, Retief, Du Toit, Viljoen (Villion), 
Foure, Du Plessis, and Cronje (Cronier) families. It is interesting to notice how completely 
these French families became merged with the surrounding Dutch immigrants, adopted 
their language, and otherwise lost their national identity. The Abb6 de la Caille, who 



BOOK NOTICES. 73 

was at the Cape in 1752, found that only some of the children of the original immigrants 
spoke French, and he was informed that in another twenty years no one in Drakenstein, 
where considerable numbers of French had settled, would be able to speak their original 
mother tongue. Later, when Sir John Barrow visited the Cape he noticed " the remarkable 
fact that not a word of the French language is spoken or understood by any of the peasantry, 
though there may be many still living whose parents were both of that nation." The total 
suppression of French in South Africa, although it has survived in Quebec, Mauritius, 
Louisiana, and other former French Colonies, by a simple and unprogressive language like 
the Cape Dutch, was due to the necessity for transacting business with the Dutch who 
were the predominating element, and were thus able to swamp the small French community. 
Mr. Botha's monograph, although of some historical interest, is of more value to the 
genealogist than to the historian, but it serves to remind us that South Africa owes much 
to the Huguenots who introduced, amongst other things, the cultivation of the vine and 
olive, and the manufacture of wine and brandy, just as the Dutch themselves were re- 
sponsible for those fine avenues of trees that are such a feature of the Cape Peninsula. 

Pieris, P. E. Ceylon and the Hollanders, 1658-1796. Pp. xvi-181. Map. Tellippalai, Ceylon : 

American Ceylon Mission Press. London : Luzac & Co. 1918. la. 

Those who had the pleasure of reading Dr. Pieris's former book on the Portuguese 
in Ceylon will turn to the present volume with anticipatory interest, because they will 
know that it will bs a scholarly production, well written, and full of in'ormation. The 
period dealt with by Dr. Pieris is of mor* than usual interest as it marks the transition 
in Ceylon from the mediaeval to the modern, and shows how the Dutch, after they had 
displaced the Portuguese, set a^out to redeem the wreckage left by their enemies, and to 
transform Ceylon into a thriving trading community under the control of the Netherlands 
East India Company. Although Dr. Pieris does not go into that mass of detail which 
seems requisite to the modern historian who writes of colonial matters, his book is a 
thoroughly adequate treatise on this special period. It is the better, perhaps, for the fact 
that the author, in seizing the essentials, has rejected much that should only appear in 
an ordinary chronicle or book of reference. The reader, whose knowledge of Cingalese 
history may be of the slightest, is at once at home with his subject, and is able to follow 
the narrative down to the capture of Ceylon by the British without any undue strain 
upon his attention. 

Lucas, Sir Charles. The Gold Coast and the War. Pp. 56. Map. London: Humphrey 

Milford. 1920. 2s. 

This is a useful book, forming part of the larger history of the Empire at War 
in which the Royal Colonial Institute and the Oxford University Press hope to give a 
comprehensive record of the co-operative effort of the Empire in the Great War. It is 
based largely upon official reports, including Sir Hugh Clifford's exhaustive message to the 
Legislative Council of the Gold Coast in October 1918. Sir Charles Lucas shows how im- 
portant, both actually and relatively, was the part taken by the Gold Coast Colony in 
the operations that led to the fall of Togoland, and how all the men and all the funds 
for reducing that Colony, and administering the British sphere of occupation, were found by 
the Gold Coast. In addition, the cost of the Gold Coast Regiment, when serving in the 
Cameroons, was met from the Colonial Treasury, while the Legislative Council voted 200,000 
to the Imperial War Relief Exchequer and invested 500,000 in the British War Loan. 
Moreover, private subscribers gave over 80,000 to war and relief funds, and eleven aeroplanes 
were presented to the War Council. 

The Voyage of a Vice-Chancellor. Pp. 130. Cambridge University Press. 1919. 

Dr. Shipley, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, in this little book gives 
a most amusing and witty account of his visit to the United States and Canada during the 
autumn of 1918 as a member of the British University Mission. His book, which is a 
personal diary, need not be read by anyone in search of solid information respecting the 
United States, but it will appeal to all who can appreciate the " light fantastic toe " in 
literature. It is interesting to find that so much of human nature and of the joy of life 
can be combined with the dignified professorial character, and to learn that, after all, pro- 
fessors are only human. " For more than sixty days," writes Dr. Shipley, " we went up 
and down a vast country, seeing so many Presidents and Professors that those amongst 
us who had not hitherto had the privilege of visiting the United States formed the idea 
that all its cities are University Cities and that all the inhabitants are Professors an idea 
very awful to contemplate ! " 

Cundall, Frank, and Joseph L. Pietersz. Jamaica under the Spaniards, abstracted from the 

Archives of Seville. Pp. 116. Map?. Kingston: Institute of Jamaica. 1919. 
The idea of the present volume is not so much to give a history of Jamaica under the 
Spaniards, as to indicate the kind of information that is contained in the Archives at Seville 



74 BOOK NOTICES. 

and to give abstracts from the documents preserved there. The work of searching these im- 
portant Archives has been performed by Miss I. A. Wright, and the translations have been 
made by Mr. J. L. Pietersz, Chairman of the Institute of Jamaica, Mr. Cundall, the Librarian 
so well known for his books on Jamaican history and bibliography, having arranged and 
edited the collection. Hitherto comparatively little has been known about Jamaica during 
the Spanish period. The importance of the present collection is shown by the fact that 
whilst previously the names of only three Spanish Governors were known, seventeen others 
have now been added to the list. 

Wheeler, L. Richmond. Desert Musings. Stockwell. 2s. net. 

" Written " (as the author explains) " during a long and weary period in the Sinai 
Desert, when the British West Indies Regiment did its full share of the fatigues of a pro- 
tracted campaign without being allowed the privilege of actual battle," these verses are 
characterised by the robust patriotism, the sincerity, and clear manly outlook which befit 
a soldier poet. Among the most significant are "England, Mother of All," admirably expressive 
of devotion to the homeland ; " For all Souls," a touching and melodious thanksgiving for the 
valour of the dead and a prayer for the bereaved; "The Horses," a spirited tribute to 

" the horses, the strong fighting horses 
That drag at the guns and the trains of supply " ; 

and the sonnet "Pride of Birth." This last is a modest but heartfelt reminder of what we of the 
British Empire owe to our ancestry ; the pride it expresses is that pride of race which is 
founded on high traditions of noble chivalry and unbroken valour. Such pride is a spur to 
action, a curb to arrogance and it is not inconsistent with deep personal humility. 

Imperial Institute Monographs on Mineral Resources, with special reference to the British 
Empire. No. 1 Manganese Ores, by A. H. Curtis. No. 2 Tin Ores, by G. M. Davies. 
London : John Murray. 3s. 6d. each. 

These are the first of a series of monographs dealing with the mineral resources of 
the British Empire, and prepared under the auspices of the Mineral Resources Committee 
of the Imperial Institute. They form an amplification and extension of similar papers 
that have been appearing in the " Bulletin of the Imperial Institute," and give a general 
account of the occurrences and commercial utilisation of the more important minerals, with- 
out entering into details of mining or metallurgical processes. Their value is greatly en- 
hanced by extensive bibliographies which refer the reader to the chief publications dealing 
with the minerals under review. 

Bodes, Jean. Dix cms de politique chinoise ; la fin des Mandchous. Pp. 268. Paris : Felix 
Alcan. 1919. 5.85 frs. 

For some years China has been passing through one of the greatest crises of her history. 
Neither the Reform Movement, badly directed, nor the Revolution, has been successful in 
establishing a strong government in the place of the former monarchy, but they have plunged 
the country into a state of anarchy that continues almost without interruption. The 
situation of China to-day is such that it is difficult to see how this ancient but ruined 
Empire can, by its own efforts, manage to set its house in order. To understand the im- 
portance of the problem of national regeneration, it is necessary to know something of 
the material and moral conditions of the country. It is with this end in view that M. 
Jean Rodes has written a series of works under the title of " Dix ans de politique chinoise," 
of which the present volume forms the fourth. M. Rodes deals with the final phase of 
the Revolution and with the policy of Yuan Shi-kai in connection with the overthrow 
of the Manchu Dynasty. 

Hughes -Hallett, F. China Looking West. Pp. 60. Ulust. London : Church Missionary Society, 
1919. Is. 

In this little book the author describes the work of the Protestant Missions in China, 
and states that the present period calls for special effort to meet the needs of a vast 
population whose moral outlook appears to be less stable than it was. 

Jnstitut Colonial de Marseille : Les Amandes et FHuitte de Palme ; preparation, commerce, 
Industrie ; TInquete du Comite Anglais des graines oleagineuses. Pp. xxiv-346. Marseilles. 
1920. 

This is a most important publication, issued by the Colonial Institute of Marseilles, and dealing 
more especially with the palm-kernel industry of West Africa. M. Emile Baillaud, the 
General Secretary of the Institute, and M. Antoine Stieltjes, are responsible for the volume 
as a whole, and are to be congratulated on the production of a work that is not only of 
considerable technical merit, but is also of interest as presenting the French point of 



CORRESPONDENCE. 75 

view in connection with the exploitation of vegetable oils. With the political and economic 
aspects of this question it is impossible to deal in this short notice, but it is evident that 
the authors are not altogether in favour of the general policy of the French Government ; 
and also that they are of opinion that the industries founded upon the utilisation of vege- 
table oils in France need a complete and thorough reorganisation in view of developments 
that have taken place elsewhere. The views of M. Emile Baillaud are more especially 
emphasised in an article in the current issue of the " Bulletin des Matieres Grasses." A 
considerable portion of the present volume is devoted to an analysis of the evidence given 
before the British Committee on Edible and Oil-Producing Nuts and Seeds, arranged under 
suitable headings, and containing the answers of the various experts who were examined 
by that Committee. This is followed by a section describing the machinery used in the 
industry, by appendices dealing with the preparation of palm-oil in the Ivory Coast and 
Gabon Colonies, and in Togoland and the Cameroons, and by statistics of the exports of 
vegetable oils from the different producing countries and the imports into countries of con- 
sumption. The whole work is one of great value to those who are interested in these 
important industries. 

Young, J. M. Stuart-. Candles in Sunshine : Poems selected from Twenty Years' Work. 
Chosen and edited by Charles Kains-Jackson. Pp. xix-324. Portraits. London : Arthur 
H. Stockwell. 1919. 10s. 6d. 

"When I'm weary of the nakedness and squalor of the street, 
Waft me to the Niger River, 
Where poor mortals need not shiver, 
And the fashions do not worry ; 
Where the weather does not cheat, 
And there's little cause for hurry 
On life's beat." 

Thus sings Mr. J. M. Stuart-Young in a book of poems of more than average interest. 
Mr. Young is well known in West Africa, and those who know the author, and many who 
do not, will read his poems with peculiar pleasure. They are occasionally a little crude, 
both in form and substance more especially those entitled " Life and Incident " but 
there are occasional short poems of quite exceptional merit. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

The New Premises and Jubilee Fund. Among the various recent contributions 
to the New Premises and Jubilee Fund is one which, from my point of view, is 
specially interesting. It is a gift of 5, earmarked for the main door-handle in the new 
building. 

It has always seemed to me that, in order to realise our aims, it is important for 
would-be contributors to be assured that their subscriptions, whether small or great, 
can most gladly be applied to some particular part of, or some special feature in, the 
enterprise. Some may like their money to be used for building, some for endowment. 
The Library may specially appeal to some ; and among them, again, one contributor may 
like his gift to be applied to the framework of the Library, to the bays or the shelves, 
and another may prefer to add to a standing fund for the purchase of books. Con- 
tributors in some particular Colony or Province may like to form a group, and identify 
their Colony or Province in the manner suggested, and the gift need not be made in 
money. It can be made in kind, as for instance in timber for panelling, mahogany for 
the table in the Council-room, marble for the entrance-hall and so forth. 

I submit that the interest in the new home, when completed, will be very greatly 
magnified if all parts of the building avowedly testify to the co-operation of the many 
diverse lands, products, and sons and daughters of the Empire. 

C. P. LUCAS, 
Chairman oj the Council. 
G 



76 CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Institute's Name. In the current number of UNITED EMPIRE there are two 
proposals, for changing the name of the Colonial Institute, which appear to me well 
worthy of our consideration. They are "Royal Britannia" or "Royal Britannic" 
Institute. The latter would include not only those who were in India, and other parts 
of the British Empire, but also those Britishers living in Brazil, Argentina, and the 
United States, &c. 

I have never liked the word " Institute," and much prefer " Society." The first 
savours of a village hall for teas and meetings. 

" The Royal Geographical Society " sounds well. Why not " The Royal Britannic 
Society: Headquarters, Britannia House, Northumberland Avenue, London " ? 

N. BOWDEN-SMITH. 
16, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. (Admiral.) 

As I observe from UNITED EMPIRE that the alteration of the name of the Royal 
Colonial Institute seems to be up for discussion again, I beg to record my opinion 
that if it is altered, the best, shortest and most expressive title would be " British 
Empire Institute." There can be no object in putting the word " Royal " before the 
words " British Empire," as the King is the head of the British Empire, and when 
that ceases to be the case, which please God it never will, then will commence the 
crumbling to pieces of our great Empire, when the services of our Institute, which has 
done such good work in helping forward the feeling of unity and good fellowship 
amongst the various portions of it, will no longer be required, and it will cease to 
exist. 

M. CHURCHILL, Colonel. 
The Granleys, Cheltenham. (.4 Fellow of 22 years' standing. ) 

I see by the number of the Journal to hand, that the question of the Institute's 
name is still being raised. May I suggest " Royal Commonwealth Institute " ? We 
are a glorious Commonwealth, with one King as head of all. 

F. S. GARRATT. 
Woodend, Crowhurst, Sussex. 

The Founder of the Bank of England. Your correspondent, Mr. J. G. Taylor, . 
in his reference to my article entitled " An Ill-starred Imperialist," asserts that William 
Paterson was not the founder of the Bank of England. 

It may be expedient, therefore, to point out to him that the following works of 
reference and authority take a contrary view to his :- 

(1) The "Encyclopaedia Britannica," which states unequivocally that the Bank of 
England was founded by William Paterson. 

(2) The " Dictionary of National Biography," which describes him as " chief pro- 
jector of the whole scheme." 

(3) Thorold Rogers' "First Nine Years of the Bank of England," which says that 
Paterson was credited with having devised the Bank of England. 

(4) Henry Warren's " Story of the Bank of England," in which the author, writing 
of Paterson, says : " His chief claim to distinction, however, undoubtedly rests upon 
the fact that he founded the Bank of England." 

Montagu, of course, was responsible for the Parliamentary incorporation of the 
Bank of England, but that does not entitle him (except in the eyes of Mr. Taylor) 
to be described as the " real founder " of the Bank of England. 

Mr. Taylor sapiently remarks that to credit Paterson with having created the 
union between Scotland and England would be absurd. Why then does he suggest it ? 
I certainly did not. 

WILLIAM LANG. 



77 



INSTITUTE LUNCHEON TO SIR CHARLES WADE, K.C., AND 
SIR THOMAS ROBINSON, K.C.M.G., K.B.E. 

THE Hon. Sir CHARLES D. WADE, K.C., and Lt.-Col. Sir THOMAS B. ROBINSON, 
K.C.M.G., K.B.E., on their retirement from the offices of Agent-General for New 
South Wales and Agent-General for Queensland respectively, were the guests of the 
Royal Colonial Institute at a luncheon held at the Connaught Rooms, on Friday, 
January 16. Sir CHARLES LUCAS, Chairman of the Council, was in the Chair. 

After the toast of " The King and the United Empire " had been honoured, the CHAIRMAN 
referred to the death of Sir Edmund Barton, alike in political life and on the Bench of 
the High Court a great Australian citizen, in character as in figure an upstanding, 
outstanding, broad and gifted man, and he asked the company to stand for a moment 
in silent tribute to his memory. 

In proposing the toast of " Our Guests " the CHAIRMAN said : We are met together 
to speed with every good wish two parting guests two men of much public service 
and very many private friends. It seems to me that the art of proposing a toast 
is much like the art of painless dentistry, but more difficult. You have to draw 
the patients without hurting them, but without using gas. I have approached the 
task with the aid of various biographical dictionaries in which these eminent men 
appear, and I claim endowment for research. I have come to the conclusion that 
the toast must be proposed " jointly and severally." I use this legal term to please 
the learned King's Counsel on my right. But the toast proposed jointly is a toast 
of immense bulk. It is almost impossible for any one man adequately to invoice 
it. I am now trying to use a term familiar to the merchant prince on my left. But 
take and compare the two men and see what variety Australia enlists in her 
representatives, and how delightfully the Old Country and Australia dovetail into 
one another. Sir Charles Wade represents the oldest State in the Commonwealth 
the Mother State of Australia. Sir Thomas Robinson represents the youngest colony 
in birth the great progressive State of Queensland, which honoured itself by sending 
Mr. Fisher to be three times Prime Minister of Australia. But though Sir Charles 
Wade represents the oldest State of the Commonwealth, he is himself in age ten years 
younger than Sir Thomas Robinson. I find to my delight that Sir Thomas was born 
in the same year as myself. It was a great year, and I am proud to be his twin. 
Sir Charles Wade has held office for all too short a time. He wants a better climate 
than we can give him, for the climate of the Mother Country has a habit of pouring 
cold water on- men and things. Sir Thomas Robinson has held office for an 
exceptional time, testifying to the confidence felt in him both in Queensland and 
in this country. Sir Charles Wade was born in Australia and is going back to 
Australia. Sir Thomas was born in London, and we hope to keep him here for the 
rest of his days to weep for Australia beside the waters of Babylon. While Sir 
Charles Wade came to England, to graduate with honours at Oxford, to be called 
to the Bar at the Temple, and to become an International football player, Sir 
Thomas Robinson went to Australia to achieve great commercial success and to 
gratify his military instincts as I read in the biographies a combination of commerce 
and military pursuits which has been somewhat conspicuous in the making of the 
Empire. Combining these two men, you get an admixture of England and Australia, 
law, politics, letters, sport, commerce, military service, and of two right good fellows. 
Such is the salt which seasons the British Empire. A word about them severally. 
It is, I always think, a compliment to the Mother Country when the former Premier 
of a State or Dominion becomes its representative in this country. We have two 
distinguished examples in Mr. Fisher and Sir Thomas Mackenzie, and Sir Charles 
Wade is a third. In political life no one would deny to him the quality of courage, 
resolution, high integrity, and patriotism, which he showed in joining hands with 



78 INSTITUTE LUNCHEON TO 

political opponents in fateful times of the War. He is now leaving the scrummage 
of politics to take his place on the Bench, and all will agree as to his personal and 
professional fitness for judicial office. In his short term as Agent-General by common 
consent he has been exceptionally successful, largely because he knows both peoples 
so well, and has been one of the kindly interpreters always so much wanted and who 
do BO much good. His book on the " Problems of Australia " should be invaluable 
for guidance to us. I sum him up as a most sterling man in public life and a 
most sure and kindly friend. Sir Thomas Robinson, I think, is the only Australian 
representative in this room who has held his office throughout the War, and we are 
all agreed how great his services have been and how deservedly honoured. The 
work he has done in feeding our armies, in my opinion, entitles him to a free luncheon 
every day of his life. Personally, I should describe him as the most kindly and 
accessible of officials. I have never been to his office without being under the 
impression that he was glad to see me. What he looked like after I left the room I do 
not know ; but I do know that it has always made me glad to see him, and I think 
that it is a very great asset to have at the head of an office a man of this kind, 
and that numbers of people have put a good mark against Queensland simply and 
solely for the reason that the head of the Queensland office has for ten years been 
a kindly, friendly, able man who has treated business as a pleasure. Such are our 
two friends. May their shadows never grow less. They are not likely to grow less 
if Sir Charles Wade retains his present robust figure and Sir Thomas Robinson still 
has control of the food supplies. 

The toast was drunk with musical honours. 

The Hon. Sir CHARLES WADE cordially recognised that the tribute to Sir Thomas 
Robinson and himself was proof among other things of the warm interest that was 
taken in the part which the Agents-General played in the development, constitutionally, 
commercially and, possibly, socially of the great commonwealth of nations making up 
the British Empire. Personally, he had not the usual qualifications of the globe-trotter, 
but he thought that he had been sufficiently long in this country to understand the 
enormous complexity of life nowadays and the serious nature of the problems which 
had confronted us in the War and which still confronted us in the process of reparation 
and reconstruction. Speaking generally, of all the lessons to be learned in the last 
few years none had impressed him more forcibly than the manner in which this country 
met two critical periods of its history namely, when the news came of the great 
retreat in March 1918, and when people stood up to fight for themselves and then- 
rights on the occasion of the recent railway strike of this country. In the first case 
the fate of the nation was in the balance, yet, in spite of the anxieties and the 
possibilities if not the probabilities, one might travel through London on the morning 
when the news was first published without having any idea how serious was the 
situation. The spirit of the nation was never " rattled," the people never lost con- 
fidence in their leaders, political or military, and he himself and many others were 
profoundly struck by the calm confidence of this country and the determination to 
replace all losses at whatever cost and in no way to handicap those in authority by 
any captious criticism or ill-conceived comment. We underwent a similar experience 
only a few months ago when the country was in danger of government passing into 
the hands of people who had not that respect for civil laws under which alone a 
country could thrive and progress and be free. Again there was the same calm con- 
fidence. Every man who was able, and every woman too, set about this task of caring 
for themselves and of helping to provision the country, letting the world see that 
although there might be evil thinkers the heart of the country was sound and staunch. 
Continuing, Sir Charles Wade said : Just one word on a matter in which I am specially 
interested, and that is the enormous, momentous, silent revolution in the relationship of 
our Dominions to the Mother Country. Within the memory of many persons present 
the colonies were regarded as a costly undertaking and even as an encumbrance. In 



SIR C. WADE AND SIR T. ROBINSON. 79 

the last few years you have endowed them with all the powers of self-governing, 
independent nations. I trust that freedom and liberty will never be misused or abused. 
Step by step in rapid succession, representatives of the Dominions have been admitted 
to the Cabinet Council of the Imperial Government. They have taken their place in 
the Councils at Versailles. They signed the Treaty of Peace and they are entitled to 
rank with the same status with the same powers of speech and vote in the League 
of Nations as any foreign power. I feel that almost a revolution has been accom- 
plished quietly accomplished not under the fires of public controversy or by the 
action of Parliament, but by the simple executive action of far-seeing, wise and liberal- 
minded statesmen, and that by this means you have the extraordinary relationship 
of practically independent nations with the cohesive link of unity of empire under 
our gracious Monarch. Our path in the future, I think, is to preserve equable, harmonious 
relations between those what I may call centripetal and centrifugal forces. Can we 
maintain that attitude of freedom together with a loyal cohesive attachment to this 
country as in days gone by can we preserve that silken thread without the iron bond 
of a written constitution ? I think myself that on those lines we ought to develop, 
and, ever improving, ever liberalising, become the greatest nation the world has ever 
seen or read of. At the same time I have been troubled more than once during my 
short stay here at the absence of steps, simple in kind but all important, to build up 
and maintain the relations of sentiment, sympathy, and common interest. In my 
opinion we ought to devote ourselves to overcoming the handicap of distance, expediting 
transport, cheapening communication, and teaching our children the geography, history, 
and institutions of those growing Dominions which are becoming more important as each 
decade rolls by. Unfortunately these are things which everybody takes for granted. 

Lt.-Col. Sir THOMAS D. ROBINSON said that he was much pleased with the happy 
way in which Sir Charles Wade spoke of the extraordinary spirit and resolution which 
this country displayed during the trying days of the great War. There were indeed 
very trying times times when the food position in this country was exceedingly serious. 
He thought the Government were wise to take the public into their confidence as far 
as possible, but even so the surprising thing was the wonderful way in which the 
nation assisted when the system of rationing became necessary. He himself sincerely 
trusted that rationing and control, then absolutely essential, might not be continued 
beyond the point when they could safely be dispensed with. Sir Thomas Robinson 
then referred to the busy life led by an Agent-General, and instanced, among the 
duties that he had been called upon to discharge, the selection of professors for univer- 
sities, of schoolmistresses and of wives. He left it to the judgment of the British 
public to say whether with the experience they had had of Government interference 
in commercial matters it was safe to go very far in that direction. Personally he was 
inclined to think that any ambitious schemes on the part either of Commonwealth 
or State Governments should be undertaken with great caution. There had been ideas 
about establishing a universal mart for the sale of produce somewhere in the neighbour- 
hood of Australia House. It had been talked about by people who might have learnt 
something better. The way in which he thought produce should be marketed was by 
getting as near as possible to the buyer. If buyers were accustomed to a certain 
locality, that was probably the best place for the wares. Again, a Government official 
could not be an expert in wool and wheat and timber and meat and a thousand other 
things. Specialists were required to deal with these matters. Moreover, people who 
had products to sell wanted to have the right to find fault with their representatives, 
if they did not do their duty. He thought that while official people should be always 
at hand to help commercial men as far as possible, they should leave them to handle 
the commodities in which they specialised, because in the majority of cases they would 
do it better than any Government official. 

The health of the Chairman was drunk on the motion of Mr. ANDREW FISHER, and 
the proceedings terminated. 



80 

EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 

The Industrial Education of Oversea Students. 

THE great movement perceptible throughout the Dominions to establish and maintain 
their own manufacturing industries was discussed in this section in December. For 
the success of these new undertakings it is necessary that those who direct them 
should gain their experience in factories in some country where similar industries 
have long been established. The methods and standards which are impressed upon 
these individuals at this stage will be those which will govern the industry in its 
growth, and influence the direction of its development. Not only is this the case, 
but in all engineering and electrical industries, a person trained in a foreign country, 
after returning to the place of his birth, and eventually reaching a consultative or 
controlling position, will naturally influence all such orders as come within his power 
in the direction of those methods and standards with which he is familiar. 

If, therefore, any large numbers of students from the Dominions were to complete 
their industrial education and form their factory experience in foreign countries, 
the effect upon the whole movement toward an Empire industrial outlook would 
be little short of disastrous. That foreign countries have seen clearly the advantage 
of training these future leaders of industry upon their own lines there is no lack of 
evidence, and complaints have been received from Oversea which indicate that 
applicants find it easier to go to foreign factories than to obtain their vocational 
instruction in the country they speak of as " Home." The truth, however, is that 
though there is a great deal of willingness on this side to train young men of promise 
from the Dominions, no one had ever given this willingness general effect, nor was 
there any machinery through which those desirous of availing themselves of such 
training could make their wishes known and have them considered. This, the Institute 
has endeavoured to do, and a comprehensive scheme has been launched whereby 
applications from suitable persons can be considered and an effort made to find for 
them manufacturers willing to take them upon the terms and for the purposes they 
have in mind. The co-operation of both the central and provincial or state gov- 
ernments in the Dominions has been most willingly and warmly given, and to all the 
Education Departments copies of a questionnaire have been provided for the use 
of applicants under the scheme. The Universities oversea have been approached 
as well and many expressions of commendation have been received. The questionnaire, 
a copy of which is printed below, has been framed with a view to ascertaining the 
precise requirements of candidates, in order that each case may be dealt with on its 
merits and according to the particular needs of the applicant. The experience of 
the Enquiry Bureau, and the constant touch in which it keeps with manufacturers, 
qualify the Institute particularly to undertake this task. Many manufacturers 
have expressed the keenest interest, and the great associations of manufacturers 
are also very willing to help in what is a work of Empire-wide significance. 

It would be as well, perhaps, to remark that the scheme is not to act in any sense 
as an employment bureau. What is suggested is that the type of young man who 
in character, in tastes and in attainments, promises to play a strenuous part in the 
development of industries oversea, should be given every opportunity of obtaining 
practical experience in this country. There is no fund to supply the expenses of 
students, but it is the intention of the Committee, where a candidate desires it, to 
attempt to find for him a manufacturer who will pay him at least a living wage with, 
if possible, the prospect of increasing payment with increasing usefulness. Appli- 



EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 81 

cations under the scheme can be made direct to the Trade and Industry Committee 
at the Institute or through any of the Universities or Education Departments in the 
Oversea Empire. The questionnaire, which explains itself, is as follows : 

The Questionnaire. 

(1) Full name and address. 

(2) Date and place of birth. 

(3) Nationality of parents. 

(4) Have you any relatives concerned in an industry similar to that in which you 
desire training ; if so in what capacity ? 

(5) Education, stating degrees and diplomas (if any). 

(6) Works or business experience (if any). 

(7) Type of training desired (stating nature of industry in which experience is 
required, noting carefully any particular branch in which you desire to specialise). 

(8) Please state precisely your financial requirements (whether, for example, you 
wish to be paid a living wage throughout or part of the time, or whether you are 
prepared to pay a premium if such is required). 

(9) Have you an appointment in view in at the end of your training here ? 

(10) Or do you desire to return to in a branch house (if any) of the firm 

by which you may be trained ? 

(11) Or do you wish to practise or trade individually, or to set up a business of 
your own, at the conclusion of your training ? 

(12) Please state as exactly as possible the precise aim and purpose you have in 
view, if not already set out in (9), (10) and (11). 

(13) Do you wish to attend university courses whilst undergoing training ? 

(14) Please furnish two references as to character, working experience and general 
efficiency. 

British Motor-Cars and Oversea Buyers. 

The after-the-war demand for British-made motor-cars has been so great that 
the question of export has become a very difficult one. Many makers report that 
they have disposed of their output for two to three years ahead. It is, however, 
the practice of some firms to set aside a definite number of cars or else a definite 
proportion of their output for oversea customers, realising, as they do, that whatever 
may be the case at present, it will be necessary for future success to develop Empire 
markets, and, if necessary, to assemble and even, in some cases, to manufacture in 
the Dominions. The difficulties in changing over from war to peace conditions 
have caused many firms to proceed cautiously and to avoid unnecessary innovations 
in their models for this year, and though it would be difficult, perhaps, to point to 
a single model that was exhibited at the Motor Show, especially designed to meet 
oversea requirements, nevertheless, many features are of great value in that con- 
nection. The pressed steel disc wheels, which were so much in evidence, should stand 
hard wear ; higher clearance, too, is a feature ; very many engines now have detach- 
able cylinder heads, facilitating the removal of carbon deposit ; many chassis have 
been reduced in weight without loss of strength. All of which are important matters 
to the oversea user, especially where there are bad roads, and repair depots are few. 
A largely adopted practice, which experience alone can approve or condemn, is 
that of fitting the change-speed and brake levers directly over the gear-box instead 
of at the driver's right hand. Other changes of design which may be remarked are 
in the increasing adoption of overhead engine camshafts, cantilever springs, and 
aluminium scuttles fitted to the dash (for the purpose of accommodating the in- 
creasing number of instruments) as a chassis maker's attachment. On the whole, 



82 TRADE NOTES. 

the outlook for the future may justly be regarded as hopeful, and there is a conscious- 
ness among manufacturers of the necessity of developing in the Oversea Empire, 
which is unmistakable. Several manufacturers have now the necessary resources 
to enable them to undertake systematic mass production of characteristic British 
cars. The threatened American motor-car invasion of the Empire is not at present 
serious, nor does the prospect for the future seem very alarming. Labour troubles 
in the United States, the protection of import duties, high freights and disappointing 
deliveries, have made American prices less attractive than formerly, and though at 
the present, all that they can import can be absorbed, it is doubtful whether, under 
more normal conditions, any foreign car will be able to compete with the best 
class of medium-powered British makes. 



TRADE NOTES. 

THE MERCHANTS BANK OF CANADA have secured premises at 53 Cornhill, formerly occupied 
by the Disconto-Gesellschaft, which they will shortly open as their London branch under 
the management of Colonel J. B. Donnelly, D.S.O. The bank is one of the oldest of the 
Canadian banks, with 364 branches throughout Canada and head office in Montreal. 
The capital and reserve fund amount to $14,000,000 and total assets, $198,000,000. 

The DAIMLER COMPANY, LTD., furnish an interesting account of three of their models 
to suit the requirements of three classes of car users. The first, the owner-driver's 
model, is the " Light Thirty." Among its special features are efficiency in acceleration 
and hill climbing. The chassis weight is 25 cwt. and the price 1,675. The second 
model is the 30 h.p. especially produced to carry closed bodies. The chassis is long 
enough to carry a body made for seven passengers. The chassis weight is 27 cwt 
and the price 1,810 complete. The third model is the 45 h.p. (Special Limousine). 
This is, of course, the Daimler de Luxe, and the car is fitted with the Daimler-made 
Limousine body. The chassis weight is 29 cwt. and the price of the complete car 
2,100. The engines in all the Daimler models are of the Knight Sleeve Valve type. 

An interesting record of war-work and Peace reconstruction appears in a risumi of 
the activities of BELSIZE MOTORS, LTD. 

" The month prior to war being declared we were one of the largest motor-car 
firms in the British Isles, our output being at that time over fifty vehicles per week, 
ranging from the 10/12 h.p. two- and four-seater car to three-ton lorries and fire- 
engines. Within a very short period after the declaration of war, the whole of the plant 
and resources were changed over to the production of heavy lorries for war purposes, 
and between the end of 1914 and early 1916, 300 transport lorries were made and 
delivered to the British and Russian Governments, besides many ambulance cars. In 
the summer of 1915 came the urgent demand for shells, and it was decided to devote 
part of our plant to this class of work. In a very short time, we were delivering 
our full contract numbers. With the cessation of hostilities, we began a gradual 
change to our previous conditions and trade, and the whole of the Firm's organisation 
is once again concentrated on the manufacture of motor-cars and vehicles : but owing 
to the difficulties, common with most firms, we have decided for the present to manu- 
facture one type of chassis only, i.e., 15 h.p., which will be sold as : Two- and four-seater 
car, private landaulette, taxi-cab, jobmaster landaulette, or delivery van and lorry. 

Messrs. W. AND A. BATES of Leicester have issued the following statement of the 
history of the firm : Established in 1863 in the early days of the Rubber Industry, 
we are one of the oldest india-rubber manufacturers in the world. Our first product 
was india-rubber thread for the elastic web trade, of which Leicester was the birth- 
place. This was one of the earliest commercial uses of rubber. On the invention of 
the bicycle, the first moulded solid tyre for bicycles ever produced was made by 
Bates. When this tyre was superseded by the cushion tyre, we were again in the 



HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 83 

forefront, and the business developed rapidly. With the invention of the pneumatic 
tyre, we were chosen to make the first rubber strips for its manufacture, under the 
Dunlop patent. On the expiry of the patents in 1904 we immediately concentrated 
on the production of the complete pneumatic tyres on a large scale. From that date 
the business has steadily progressed ; and, to-day, we have one of the largest outputs 
of cycle tyres in the world. We have six home depots, and our overseas connection 
includes three subsidiary companies in Belgium, Holland, and Italy, and we have 
agencies in most foreign countries, and in all our oversea dominions. Our latest 
development is the manufacture of solid tyres for commercial vehicles. 



HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 

THE meeting held on December 4 was one of unusual interest, as it concerned the 
question of " Colour and Climate, in Relation to Health and Work." The speaker 
was Mr. H. Kemp Prossor, the well-known expert in questions relation to colour 
who has recently become a Fellow of the Institute. The Chair was taken by Colonel 
H. E. Rawson, who in 1918 gave a very striking address (which was published in UNITED 
EMPIRE), illustrated with many interesting views, on " The Sun as an Empire Builder." 

The Chairman expressed his hearty concurrence with the opinions of Mr. Kemp 
Prossor, and referred to the Light and Colour experiments he himself was still carrying 
on in the vegetable world, which might have their physiological counterpart in the 
sphere of human life. He considered that our nervous system was materially affected 
by the rays of light and colour, and he therefore thought that a very useful purpose 
would be served by the consideration and adoption of the views of men like the 
speaker, and of the " International College of Chromatics," of which he was a leading 
member. Mr. Moor Radford drew attention to the fact that cellular action absorbs 
colour in plants, and instanced the brilliant colours to be seen in the tropics. 

Dr. J. J. Pool, Principal of the College of Chromatics, spoke of the excellent work of 
Mr. Kemp Prossor, and referred to a book on " Colour and Health," recently published, in 
which the subject would be found fully treated (a copy of this book will be placed in the 
library of the Institute). Dr. Cowan Guthrie gave one or two striking illustrations of 
the beneficial effect of the use of violet and red rays in the treatment of various forms 
of disease. Mr. J. F. Ryder, Surgeon-Dentist, showed how blue light might, in certain 
circumstances, be used as an anaesthetic. The Hon. Secretary (Mr. Scammell) made 
some reference to the case of tuberculous ex-service men, which has formed the subject 
of a recent Government Report on Tuberculosis, and to the possible treatment of such 
cases by emigration to suitable localities in the Dominions, where the climatic conditions 
are more favourable than here. 

A cordial vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Kemp Prossor, on the proposition of Sir W. 
Grey- Wilson and Mr. A. Montefiore ; and, by resolution, the desire was expressed that 
his paper should appear in extenso in UNITED EMPIRE. 

THE meeting held on Thursday afternoon, December 18, when the subject of Comparative 
Legislation was considered, was one of the most important of the series of meetings 
organised by this committee. It was expected that the Home Secretary, the Rt. Hon. 
E. Shortt, K.C., M.P., would preside, but, owing to the death of his brother, he was 
unable to be present. In his absence the Chair was taken by Sir Albert Gray, K.C.B., 
K.C. Among those who were prevented from attending were' Lord Haldane, Lord 
Phillimore, Sir Courtenay Ilbert, Sir Frederick Pollock, Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, Sir 
W. Beveridge, and the Chinese Minister. The ground covered by the speaker, Mr. 
C. E. A. Bedwell, Hon. Secretary of the Society of Comparative Legislation, in his 
address is the subject of an article in this issue. 

Those who took part in the discussion were the Chairman, Sir Albert Gray, Sir 
Charles Lucas, Sir Harry Wilson, Sir Mackenzie Chalmers, The Hon. J. G. Jenkins, Mr. 



84 OBITUARY. 

Harold Macfie, Major Pounds, Mr. Newton Crane, Dr. J. W. Grice, and Mr. A. E. 
Poley. Sir Harry Wilson, in his speech, referred to the Law Library of the Institute. 
" We are contemplating," he said, " a very large extension of the building here, and 
one of the schemes which we have before us is the question of providing much better 
accommodation for the Law Library. In fact, the committee of the Library will be 
sitting very shortly to consider the provision of adequate accommodation for our law 
books, and when that committee sits, I am sure we shall be indebted to Mr. Bedwell 
if he will give us his assistance and advice on the subject." 

The meeting closed with a very hearty vote of thanks to the speaker and the Chairman. 



OBITUARY. 

THE RIGHT HON. SIR EDMUND BARTON, G.C.M.G. 

AUSTRALIA has lost a great citizen by the sudden death of Sir Edmund Barton, in 
the Blue Mountains, on January 7. He was nearly seventy-one years of age when he 
died, almost the same age as Lord Forrest at the time of his death. Born and educated 
at Sydney, he graduated at Sydney University with a brilliant record, was called 
to the bar of New South Wales, and in 1879 entered the Legislature. He was at one 
time Speaker of the Assembly, and at another Attorney-General in Sir George Dibbs' 
Cabinet, but he was never himself Premier of the Colony. After the death of Sir 
Henry Parkes, he became the protagonist of the cause of Federation in New South 
Wales. He was leader of the National Convention which finally drafted the constitution 
of the Commonwealth, and he headed the delegation which accompanied the Bill to 
England, to watch over its passage through the Home Parliament. When it had 
become law, he was the first Prime Minister of the Commonwealth, and represented 
Australia at the Imperial Conference of 1902. He held office for two and a half years, 
then, in September, 1903, he left politics to become the senior puisne judge of the 
High Court of Australia, and so he remained till his death. A fine public orator, he 
was termed a tribune of the people, but he was much more than a popular advocate. 
He stood out in character and intellect a man of high aims and broad vision, and 
one whose personality made for harmony in regard to great issues. He gave un- 
grudging and invaluable service to Australia at a critical time, and has left behind 
him the record of a high-minded, accomplished, and most patriotic son of the Empire; 

At a meeting of the Council held on January 20, the following resolution was proposed 
by the Chairman, Sir Charles Lucas, and unanimously passed : 

" The Council of the Royal Colonial Institute have heard with deep regret of the death of 
the Bt. Hon. Sir EDMXTND BAKTON, G.C.M.G., Senior Puisne Judge of the High Court of 
Australia. As a leader of the Federation movement in Australia and first Prime Minister 
of the Commonwealth, he rendered great and notable service, and his name will ever stand 
high in the annals of Australia and of the Empire." 

MR. MATTHEW MACFIE. 

It is with much regret that we have to record the death of Mr. Matthew Macfie 
at Melbourne, on December 31. Elected a Fellow of the Institute in 1889, Mr. Macfie 
took an active part in the life of the Institute from that date until he went to Australia 
in 1900. 

His principal contribution to the Institute's records was a paper read on December 10, 
1889, entitled " Aids to Australasian Development." The paper attracted the notice 
of the Colonial statesmen of the day, and was widely commented upon by the news- 
papers, both in London and abroad. Mr. Macfie was for a long period City Editor 
of the London Standard, and subsequently became one of the foremost writers in 
Australia upon questions concerning public finance and kindred subjects. His eldest 
son, Mr. H. C. Macfie, is the Institute's Honorary Corresponding Secretary at Sydney, 
and is at present in England. 



THE INSTITUTE'S CHRISTMAS LECTURES. 85 

MRS. CHAMBERLAIN. 

All those members of the Institute who know and appreciate the many and great 
services of the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Chamberlain, will have heard with deep regret of 
his recent bereavement. Mrs. Chamberlain's death took place, after a long illness, on 
Sunday, January 25, and the funeral service was held at the Parish Church, Streatham, on 
the following Thursday. Wreaths were sent by the Council and the Staff, with expressions 
of sincere sympathy, and the Institute was represented on the occasion by Sir Harry 
Wilson (Secretary), Mr. J. Farrow (Chief Clerk), and Mr. E. G. Parker. 

It is with regret that we have also to record the death on January 24 of LORD PLUNKET, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., K.B.E., at one time Governor of New Zealand and a Fellow of the 
Royal Colonial, Institute since 1911, the death on January 18 of Mr. H. F. REEVE, C.M.G., the 
Institute's Honorary Corresponding Secretary in Gambia, and the death on January 25 of 
Mr. JOSEPH S. O'HALLORAN, C.M.G., formerly Secretary of the Royal Colonial Institute. 



BRANCH NEWS. 

SUSSEX. 

Sir Charles Lucas, Chairman of Council, gave the first of a series of addresses 
at Boyle House, Hove, on January 29, the subject being " The Evolution of the Empire." 
The Annual Meeting of the members of the Branch took place on the preceding day. 

HANTS AND DORSET. 

Arrangements are being made for meetings of the Branch during the coming 
months to hear papers or addresses on Imperial subjects. The Branch has acquired 
premises of its own in the building of the Bournemouth Natural History Society. 
Mr. William G. Boul has accepted the office of Hon. Secretary, in succession to 
Dr. de Castro, who has become Hon. Treasurer. 

BRISTOL. 

Mr. Edward Salmon read a paper on "The Romance of Empire" at the meeting 
of the Bristol Branch on January 5. There was a good attendance of the members, 
and the review of the salient facts in British Empire Development from Cabot to the 
rally of the Dominions and India in the Great War was followed with eager interest. 

Mr. T. W. H. Inskip, K.C., M.P., presided, and in an admirable speech urged that the 
Empire should be allowed to develop along natural lines without too much interference 
from the politicians. The lecture, which appealed peculiarly to Bristol, the jumping-off 
place of the early Merchant Adventurers, was well illustrated by slides. 



THE INSTITUTE'S CHRISTMAS LECTURES. 

CROWDED audiences testified once more to the popularity of the Institute's Christmas 
Lectures for Young People, which were held on three days during the first week 
of the New Year. It is very evident, moreover, that the interest attaching to them 
is not confined to the youth of London. The first of the three lectures, with Mr. 
Ben H. Morgan in the Chair, was given on New Year's Day by Mr. F. R. D. Onslow, 
who chose as his subject " Sumer is Icumen In," or " Wild Life in Springtime." 
A most interesting series of lantern slides introduced the audience to various scenes 
and stages in bird, animal and flower life from January to June. These were ex- 
plained by Mr. Onslow, whose manifest devotion to all forms of wild life was no less 
appreciated than his quiet humour. 

On January 5, Mr. W. Herbert Garrison gave an illustrated lecture on " Volcanoes 
and the Fire Belt." Mr. R. D. Douglas McLean presided. The wonders and the terrible 



86 



NEW PREMISES AND JUBILEE FUND. 



results of volcanic action were admirably depicted on the screen, and Mr. Garrison 
covered a wide expanse of ground. He defended the American Professor who had 
been accused of predicting the end of the world on December 17, but who, according 
to the lecturer, had rightly drawn attention to the occurrence of sun spots at that 
time which would exercise a noticeable influence on the earth's weather conditions. 
The occurrence of earthquakes was explained, and for the freedonv of the British 
Isles from them Mr. Garrison gave due credit to Mount Hecla. 

The following afternoon Mrs. Julia W. Henshaw, of Vancouver, told " A Story 
of the Pacific Coast." Sir George Perley, High Commissioner for Canada, was in 
the Chair. Mrs. Henshaw, who showed many beautiful coloured slides, described 
her experiences on a tour of exploration in the interior of Vancouver Island, with 
its great mountain vistas, its wonderful valley and rivers and its profusion of flowers. 
Her enterprise in exploration has been commemorated by the British Columbia Govern- 
ment in the name of the Henshaw River. 



DONATIONS TO THE NEW PREMISES AND JUBILEE FUND. 



SEVENTH LIST. 



Previously announced 
Dr. A. McKenzie 
James H. Milne, Esq. 
Henry Bromley, Esq. 

F. A. Ritchie, Esq. . 
J. Martin Stuart, Esq. 
P. A. Grassick, Esq. . 
Ernest W. Josselyn, Esq. . 
Arthur R. Pontifex, Esq. (second 

donation) . 

Sir E. Bickham Escott, K.C.M.G. 
Rev. Charles T. Keadley, M.A. . 
Mrs. Way land, on behalf of the late 

Mr. Arthur E. Wayland . 
A. Gascoigne Rutter, Esq. . 
H. E. Major Sir J. R. Chancellor, 

K.C.M.G., D.S.O. . 
T. H. Dudley, Esq. . 

C. O. Gilbert, Esq 
Sir Frederic Maxwell . 

D. Maclver Miller, Esq. . . 
Captain J. E. Bird, R.E. . 

R. B. Duncan, Esq. . 
R. E. Lett, Esq. . 
W. L. Ware, Esq. 
S. R. Spencer, Esq. . 
Sir Edward Davson . 
Messrs. R. Nivison & Co. . 
R. A. Harricks, Esq. . 

G. Macpherson, Esq. . 

The Hon. John Gowan-Stobo 
Hon. Mr. Justice W. P. Michelin 
Hon. Claud Severn, C.M.G. 
A. G. Layard, Esq. . . . 

E. W. Rutherford, Esq. 
G. H. Butterworth, Esq. 
Owen H. Walters Esq. 
W. Lamond, Esq. 

Miss C. Hendry 
G. McClatchie, Esq. . 
E. J. Lake, Efq. 

The Most Rev. The Archbishop of 
Sydney .... 






s. 


d. 


42,918 


2 





5 


5 





5 








3 


3 





5 


5 





2 








1 


1 





5 








1 


1 





3 


3 





2 


2 





1 


1 





1 


1 





10 








5 








5 








2 


2 





2 








1 


1 





1 


1 





1 


1 





10 








3 


3 





100 








250 








5 








5 








2 


2 





2 


2 





50 








1 


1 





1 


1 





5 


5 





5 








1 


1 








10 


d 


10 








1 


3 






1 1 



The Hon. Sir J. H. Symon, 
K.C.M.G 

P. W. Crewe, Esq. . 

F. Fraser Lawton, Esq. 

Sir H. L. Galway, K.C.M.G., 
D.S.O. ... . 

T. Boland Morley, Esq. . . 

A. D. Pickford, Esq. . 

W. F. Rogers-Rowland, Esq. 

Lt.-Colonel R. Gardner Warton . 

Captain L. Clive Smith 

E. Whitney, Esq. 

C. S. Richardson, Esq. 
Gustav Sonn, Esq. 

A. J. Campbell Hart, Esq. 
Dr. S. R. Haworth . 

H. C. Weatherilt, Esq. ., ,. . 

F. G. Hughes, Esq. . 

F. A. Readman, Esq. . 
Rev. W. H. Townsend 
Gilbert Morse, Esq. . 
Dr. A. Cowan Guthrie 
Edward Salmon, Esq. 

R. M. Cunningham, Esq. . 

Arthur Weldon, Esq. 

Oswald Swete, Esq. (first donation) 

B. Wolde, Esq. (first donation) . 
Captain Sydney G. Cave . 

P. H. Hecker, Esq. 

G. Hope, Esq 

R. F. Turnbull, Esq! . 

F. A. Lakeman, Esq. 

W. E. Giblin, Esq., M.B. . 
Percy J. Marks, Esq. 
Hon. Joseph Baynes, C.M.G. 
Robert H. Wood, Esq. 
Allister M. Miller, Esq. 

G. C. Latham, Esq. . 
R. Lindholm, Esq. 

C. A. Armitstead, Esq. 
Major R. H. Struben, O.B.E. 
C. E. Gage, Esq. . 



s. d. 



105 








10 


10 





5 


5 





5 








2 


2 





5 


5 





6 


5 





1 


1 





1 








10 


10 





5 


5 





3 


3 





2- 


2 





1 


1 





1 


1 





5 








5 








1 


1 





5 








5 


K 


Q 


5 


5 





5 








2 


2 





1 


1 





1 


1 





5 








2 


2 





1 


1 





1 


1 





10 








1 


1 





1 








50 








10 


10 





5 


7 


6 


2 


2 





2 


2 





1 


1 





3 


3 





1 


1 






43,729 14 6 



Advertisements. 





THE 

T WAY 

TO INVEST YOUR DIVIDENDS 

A BUSINESS MAN'S 
OPINION OF THE FINEST 
INVESTMENT OBTAINABLE 

" When I receive my dividend warrants I allocate the amounts to a fund 

for premiums for an Endowment Assurance Policy. 

" After very careful consideration I am satisfied there is no other form of 

investment combining so many advantages with such absolute security. 

" Offers of new Companies' shares do not tempt me. I want my interest 

money to go where I know it is safe, and to build up a reserve for the 

future. 

'' I've effected a pretty big Endowment Assurance Policy because it ensures 

that I do not waste the money that I receive as interest. Not absolutely 

needing it now I have the satisfaction of knowing that it is accumulating 

for the time when I shall need it : it is my duty to build up a fund for mr 

retirement. 

"In addition it provides me with all the benefits of life assurance extra 

provision for my family in case of my death and other advantages which 

every business man will appreciate. 

"It is without doubt the safest, easiest way of accumulating a capital sum 

for future use. The principle id absolutely sound interest is continuously 

accumulating and tJiere's no risk. That's how all my interest money 

is re-investing itself ; and I've yet to learn of a better way." 



Send a postcard to-day for particulars of this sound and attractive 
method of investment and insurance. 

Address : LIFE DEPAETMENT. 




32, MOORGATE ST., LONDON, E.G. a. 

HEAD OFFICE: 

BRITISH DOMINIONS HOUSE, ROYAL EXCHANGE AVENUE, 
LONDON, E.G. 3. 

Branches and Agents throughout the United Kingdom. 

ASSETS EXCEED 17,000 S COO 



87 



BELGIUM AND THE R.C.I. 

His Majesty the King of the Belgians has conferred on Sir Harry Wilson, Secretary 
of the Institute, the Cross of Commander of the Order of Leopold II. for services rendered 
to Belgium in connection with its colonial interests during the War. Sir Harry Wilson 
received his decoration on January 14, from the hands of the Belgian Ambassador at 
the Belgian Embassy. 



ESSAY COMPETITION. 

THE Council of the Royal Colonial Institute, with a view to encouraging the progress 
of Imperial Studies in the schools of the Empire, have decided to award in the 
Summer of 1920 medals and prizes of books for the best Essays sent in by boys 
or girls who are pupils at schools either in the United Kingdom or in the Outer 
Empire. See Regulation No. 1 below. The Essays will be adjudicated upon in two 
classes : 

CLASS A. Essays submitted by candidates of 16 years of age or over on 
July 31, 1920. 

CLASS B Essays submitted by candidates above the age of 13 and under 
16 on July 31, 1920. 

The Competitions will be governed by the following Regulations : 

1. The competitions are open to pupils of any school in the British Empire, and 

to the children of British Subjects who are pupils at schools outside the 
British Empire. 

2. The Essays should be written on one side only of foolscap paper, with an 

inch and a half margin on the left-hand side. Typed copies are admissible. 

3. The length of the Essays must not exceed 4,000 words in Class A or 3,000 

words in Class B. 

4. Each Essay is to be marked with a motto or other distinguishing sign, and 

accompanied by a sealed envelope bearing a similar motto or sign and containing 
the full name, address, and age of the candidate, and authenticated by the signature 
and description of the Head Master or Mistress of the school. The whole should 
be enclosed in an envelope marked in the left-hand corner " Essay Competition, 
Class A. (or B.) " and addressed to " The Secretary, Royal Colonial Institute, 
Northumberland Avenue, London, W.C. 2." 

5. The prizes will be awarded by the Council after consideration of the Report 

of the appointed examiners, and the decision of the Council will be final. 

6. Essays sent in for competition cannot be returned. 

N.B. Candidates are advised to avoid the too frequent use of quotations in their 
Essays. 

Essays for the competition in 1920 must in any case reach the Institute not later 
than July 31, 1920. 

The Prizes and Medals to be awarded will be as follows : 

CLASS ' A.' For candidates of 16 and over on July 31, 1920. 

First Prize. The Silver Medal of the Royal Colonial Institute, together with suitably 
inscribed books to the value of Three Guineas. 

Second Prize. If there be a sufficient number of candidates, suitably inscribed 
books to the value of Two Guineas. 



Advertisements. 



2 QUESTIONS 

Will Test Your Investment Position. 



1. IS YOUR CAPITAL SAFE? 

2. IS THE INCOME YOU RECEIVE 
FROM YOUR CAPITAL SUFFICI- 
ENTLY HIGH TO COMPENSATE 
FORTHE RISKS YOU ARE RUNNING ? 

If you feel any difficulty in answering these Questions 
you are invited to join the 

BRITISH INVESTORS 
ASSOCIATION LTD. 

4, LONDON WALL BUILDINGS, E.G. 



The Directors are : 

THE RIGHT HON. LORD MORRIS, K.C..P.C., D.C.L., Chairman. 
Director, General Accident, Fire& Life Assurance Corporation 
Limited. Chairman, Investment Registry Limited. 

ROWLAND F. W. HODGE, ESQ., M.I.N.A., M.I.C.E., Chipstead 

Place, Sevenoaks, Kent. 
Chairman, Messrs. Jos. T. Eltringham & Co., Limited. 

SIDNEY VAN DEN BERGH, ESQ., Mark Lane Station Buildings, 

E.C.3. 

Director, Messrs. Van Den Berghs, Limited. 
LT.-COL. E. G. H. COX, C.B.E., 60A Redcliffe Square, S.W. 

Joint Managing Directors i 
ARTHUR G. COUSINS, ESQ., C.B.E. 
EDGAR G. GUBBINS, ESQ. 




THE ASSOCIATION HAS RECENTLY ISSUED 
A PUBLICATION : 

" Underwriting for the Investor," which is full of valuable 
and interesting information for Investors. It also explains 
generally the business of the Association, how it can help 
you, and how you can join if you wish to do so. A copy will 
be sent free of charge to all applicants mentioning this paper. 



88 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 



CLASS ' B.' For candidates above 13 and under 16 on July 31, 1920. 

First Prize. The Bronze Medal of the Royal Colonial Institute, with suitably 
inscribed books to the value of Two Guineas. 

Second Prize. If there be a sufficient number of candidates, suitably inscribed books 
to the value of One and a Half Guineas. 

The subjects prescribed for the Competition in 1920 are the following: 
CLASS ' A.' " Trace the Causes of the War of American Independence." 
CLASS ' B.' " The Life and Work of Cecil Rhodes as an Empire Builder." 



THE IMPERIAL STUDIES COMMITTEE. 

SIB PHILIP HUTCHINS, Chairman of the League of the Empire, wishes the statement 
made on p. 579 of our December issue to the effect that the League of the Empire 
is represented on the Imperial Studies Committee to be corrected. Although certain 
leading members of the League serve on that Committee, the League is not officially 
represented upon it. 

NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 
THE FOLLOWING HAVE BEEN ELECTED: 

Resident Fellows (87) : 

E. C. Albrecht, D. H, Allport, Capt. O. P. Beeman, Alva Benjamin, M.B., Ch.M., 
Sir T. Fowell Buxton, Bart., John W. Clark, E. F. Cole, Edward James Dove, Major 
Peter Maxwell Edgar, O.B.E., E. F. Knapp Fisher, W. Dalziel Fisher, Sir Albert Gray, 
K.C.B., K.C., W. T. Grey, G. E. Gribbon, H. F. Hallet, Professor J. C. Hearnshaw, 
F. H. Holdsworth, A. H. Horrell-Wills, George Howell, F.G.S., F.R.G.8., J. M. Hunter 
(Agent-General for Queensland), G. W. H. Knight, W. J. MacCarthy, Charles B. J. 
MacDonnell, Capt. D. H. Pearson, D. D. Pinnock, G. E. B. Pottinger, J. T. Pringle, 
Ernest Proctor, Charles Reed, Major Eichard Rigg, O.B.E., J.P., J. G. Ronald, Regd. 
H. Shorto, M. A. Spielman, A. I. Swindells, C. C. W. Turner, J. J. Virgo. C.B.E., 
Flight-Comr. F. H. Warmington, D.8.O., D.F.C., N. 8. Williams. 

CAMBRIDGE. J. D. Borham, Benjamin Chilton, F. P. G. de Smidt, Peter Giles 
Guy, W. M. Henderson, R. L. Kay, R. E. Money-Kyrle, W. W. McKeown, M.C., 
Douglas MacNicoU, The Hon. Laurence P. Methuen, T. E. Moulsdale, Alan S. Parkes, 
Professor J. Holland Rose, E. J. Stedman, Major H. W. V. Temperley, O.B.E.. T. G. 
Thomas, B.A., A. F. Williams. 

LIVERPOOL. W. A. Ball, A. K. Barnes, G. W. Blundell, J. K. Catto, P. B. 
Cruttenden, D. R. Jones, F. C. Minoprio, De F. Pennefather, M.P., J. M. Woodville 
W. J. Ward. 

MANCHESTER. Alderman Tom Fox (Lerd Mayor). 

SHEFFIELD. Frank M. Hearnshaw, Arthur J. Ward. 

SUSSEX. 8. Adams, Lieut.-Col. P. G. W. Eckford, Major-Gen. C. I. Fry, C.B., 
John G. Gibbins, F.R.I.B.A., Brig. -Gen. L. N. Herbert, Lt.-Col. A. Pemberton How, 
A. J. Hutchinson, A. C. Jeffery, D. L. Legge-Wilkinson, C. W. Matthews, Col. Sir 
W. H. Mortimer, K.C.B., G. Moseley, J. J. Mullaly, M.I.C.E., A. Orlebar, M.B., 
M.R.C.8., Col. Henry G. Pilleau, H. Roger s-Tillstone, M.D., John Thornton, C. E. 
Whitcher, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.8. 

Honorary Fellow: 

Right Rev. Bishop W. H. Stirling. 

Non-Resident Fellows (67) : 

AUSTRALIA. Brig.-Gen. Sir Robert M. M. Anderson, K.C.M.G. (Sydney), R. V. 
Billis (Melbourne), C. E. Carroll (Launceston), R. D. Elliott (Melbourne), C. Laurence 
K. Foot, W. M. Laycock (Sydney), R. H. Modlin (Sydney). 



Advertisements. 



xvn 



iiilMtiiriiiiirniiiniiii IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIHI 




PETER 
DAWSOtfS 

scotcb 



OLDEST 
& BEST 



PETER DAWSON, LTD. 

Distillers, DUFFTOWN & GLASGOW. 



LIMITED. 

Registered in the Transvaal (with which are 
incorporated the Bank of Africa Limited 
the Natal Bank. Limited, and the National 
Bank of the Orange River Colony .Limited) 

Bankers to the Union Government in the Transvaal, the Orange 
Free State, and Natal, and to the Imperial Government. 

EVERY DESCRIPTION OF BANKING BUSINESS transacted with 
the Cape Province Natal. Orange Free State. Transvaal Rhodesia. 
Nyasaland East Africa Protectorate. Uganda. Zanzibar. Portuguese 
East Africa. South- West Africa Protectorate and the Belgian Congo, 
and with the Bank's Agencies in New York and elsewhere 

OVER 400 BRANCHES IN AFRICA. 

Agents at Amsierddtu Pans koine and the Principal Cities of the World 





London Offices 
Circus Hlfcce. London Wall. 

E.C.2. 
1 8. 5t. Swithin's Lane. E C 4 

West End Office 

25. Cockr-pur Street. S.W.I. 

New 'iprk Agency 

1O, WALL STREET. 

Indta BOMBAY. 

Antwerp ' 

66, PLACE DE MEIR. 
Hoad ONIoo-PRETORIA. 



89 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 



.W. 0. Bixuvwnt, B.A. (Victoria, B.C.), W. H. McGuffin (Calgary). 
NEW ZEALAND R. B. Johnson (Canterbury), K. F. Reed (Te Araroa), George 

A. U. Tapper (Chriatchurch). Capt. E. Wiseman (Ashburton). 

SOUTH AFRICA .4. L. Lochkiad (Vereeniging), Charles McNeil (Johannesburg), 
Simon,' Stuart (Krugersdorp). BRITISH EAST AFRICA. A. B. C. Gibson. BRITISH 
GUIANA. Surgzon-Gzneral J. H. Conyers, F. F. Ross (Berbice). BRITISH HONDURAS. 
Duncan Eraser. BRITISH NORTH BORNEO. R. M. Macalpine (Labuan). BURMA. 

Capt. J. H. Green (Rangoon). CEYLON. R. L. W. Byrde (Colombo), Whitlington 

B. Bush (Norwood) CHANNEL ISLANDS. Capt. W. P. Loader, R.N. (Jersey), 
Lieut.-Colonel R. Gardner Warton (Jersey). EAST AFRICA. R. W. Taylor, O.B.E. 
(Dxr-es-Salaam). FALKLAND ISLANDS. W. Atkins (Port Stanley). FEDERATED 
MALAY STATES. Eiward Bigot (Kuala Lumpur), H. F. B. Churchill (Perak), Hugh 
Fraser (Negri Sembilan), Charles F. Green (Kuala Lumpur), J. W. Lewis (Kuala 
Lumpur), C. F. McCausland (Port Dickson), Benjamin Purdy (Kuala Lumpur). FIJI. 
John, F. Osborn (Levuka). GOLD COAST COLONY. Harry Arnot (Abosso), Wilfrid 
Ckiiivick (Accra). HON3 KON3. Ernest V. Bishop, S. F. Pinchin. INDIA. 

C. A. Birnett (Madras), Lieut.-G. S. Cameron (Calcutta), W. H. Edwards (Calcutta), 
0. H. Walters (Lahore), H. F. Wheeler (Calcutta), R. C. Wood (Madras). MAURITIUS. 

If. J. L. A. Ronillard (Curepipe). MESOPOTAMIA. Major C. F. J. Galloway 
(B^hdad). NIGERIA. Lieut. R. B. U. Sutherland, R.N.R. (Lagos). NYASALAND. 
Abraham Cohen (Mikolongwe). RHODESIA. David S. Cleveland (Gwelo), C. A. B. 
Colvile (Salisbury), N. S. C. Hughes (Salisbury). SEYCHELLES. P. B. Petrides. 
STUA'TS SETTLEMENTS. H. K. Hewison (Singapore), A. E. Baddeley (Singapore). 
UGANDA. Frank Pettingill (Kampala). ARGENTINE. G. H. Burbush (Entre Rio*), 
G. R. Gibbs (Buenos Aires). BRAZIL. Capt. C. H. N. Ashlin (Sao Paulo). CANARY 
ISLANDS. Capt. W. L. Herd (Tenerife). GUATEMALA. Capt. H. N. Lunn. ITALY. 
H. H. Hit/liar (Firenze). RUSSIA. .F. J. Bell (Moscow). SUMATRA. /* C. Evans 
(Binjizn Po-rba). UNITED STATES. Capt. C. W. G. L. FitzWilliam (Hammond), 
UN ATTACH 3 3 T3 ANY C3LONY. Capt. W. M. Powell. 

Associates (59) : 

Mrs. A. M. Bwsridge, Mrs. Frederick Dutton, M.B.E., Mrs. C. W. G. FitzWilliam (Ham- 
m-)nd, U.S.A.), Miss B. C. Gordon, Mrs. F. E. Leigh Hunt, Mrs. A. M. Prossor, 
Mrs. Annie Roida, Mrs. Bernard Tripp (Timaru, N.Z.), Miss L. Trollope (Orange 
Free State), Miss Mary R. Smith. 

BOURNEMOUTH. W. G. Boul, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., Mrs. G. de Castro. 

SUSSEX Mrs. S. Adams, Miss M. C. Basden, Miss I. K. Basden, Miss M. F. 
Basden, Mrs. G. Biyley, Miss M. A. Beddard, Miss J. Boiver, Mrs. S. B. Boyle, 
Miss G. Clarke, Mrs. A. Colman, Mrs. J. H. Conyers, Miss L. Cotterell, Miss M. E. 
Davis, Mrs. E. M. Edmunds, Mrs. A. B. Ellon, Mrs. I. J. Farquharson, Mrs. F. K. 
B. Fry, Mrs. F. S. Heming, Mrs. E. M. C. Higginson, Mrs. M. B. How, Miss E. M. 
King, Mrs. R. King, Mrs. E. L. K. Legge- Wilkinson, Mrs. Bowen May, Mrs. H. 
Morton, Mrs. C. A. Mullaly, Miss A. S. Needham, Mrs. W. J. Newell, Mrs. E. M. 
Noblett, Miss G. E. Norton, Mrs. M. Orlebar, Mrs. C. F. Pilleau, Miss B. E. V. 
Polhill-Turner, Lady Pontifex, Mrs. E. H. Robinson, Mrs. C. E. Rosser, The Hon. 
Mrs. Scott, Miss M. M. Sharp, Mrs. E. L. Smith, Mrs. E. M. Swifte, Mrs. E. R. 
Tyler, Miss C. Ullathorne, Mrs. S. A. Wheeler, Mrs. E. M. Whitcher, Miss L. W hitter, 
Miss E. J. Whitter, Miss A. Willis. 

Bristol Associates (42) : 

Capt. C. Barrington, Mrs. C. L. Bateman, Miss B. E. Beacham, Miss E. H. Bernard, 
J. Bingham-Hall, Miss A. T. Board, Miss 0. M. Brittain, C. H. Brooks, Miss A. G. 
Bush, Miss E. C. Campbell, A. Gary, Mrs. A. Gary, Miss M. T. Castle, Mrs. M.A.K. 
Charley, Albert H. Coombes, Miss K. J. T. Easton, Miss A. M. Fairchild, Lt.-Col. 
H. G. de L. Ferguson, Miss A. Froes, Miss A. L. Grant, Miss M. Grant, Max H. 
Hoyland, C. J. P. C. Jowett, Robert C. Nott, E. J. Parnell, Mrs. Perry, Capt. G. W. 
Radford, Guy C. Rawson, Lieut. S. L. Sloan, R.N., Mrs. S. L. Sloan, Dr. W. Stuart 
Slock, Miss L. M. Stokes, R. Sykes, Arthur J. Tipping, J. W. S. Toms, T. P. Walker, 
M.A., E. S. Webb, Miss H. Webb, Miss M. L. Wethered, J. Wickenden, Miss D. H. 
Williams, John Wooler. 



Advertisements. 



xvni 



OCEANIC STEAMSHIP CO. 



To AUSTRALIA 

Acrost America and via San Francisco- 

Round the Word Tours and Circular Trips quoted on application. 



Connecting Steamers every week, 
Official Agents for all Lines. 



* * -... 



Agents for Great Britain and Continent : 

J. JACKSON & SONS, 

ESTABLISHED 1866. 

7 & 8 Charing Cross, LONDON, S.W, 1. 

Corner of Northumberland Avenue and Trafalgar Square. 
Telephones: GERRARD 9795, 9796, 9797. " Telegraphic Address ; " RIGHTAWAY," WESTRAND, LONDON. 



LONDON : 



LIVERPOOL: 

18 Chapel Streer, 7 & 9 



City Office: 6 2 King & SaL'sXSS 



William Street, E.G. 4. 

Telegraphic Address : 
"OCEAJAXONY, CANNON. LONDON" 

Telephones: AVENUE 27 & 6151. 



and Princes Landing 
Stage Baiting Room. 

Telegraphic Address; 

" ABKOAD," LIVERP OL. 

Telephone : CENTRAL 8223. 

BANK 4933. CENTRAL 201. 



SOUTHAMPTON: 
Bank Chambers 
(Oppo?ite Southwestern Hotel), 

7. 8 & 20 Oxford Street. 

Telegraphic Add : "ABKOAD." 
Telephones I 1795 and 642. 

Storage : 7 & 8 Oxford Street, 
Southampton. 



BANKERS and AGENTS, with Correspo-.iden s throughout the World, 
DRAFTS ISSUED. MONhY EXCHANGED. 

FREIGHT HANDLED. BAGGAGE SHIPPING. 

STORING AND INSURANCE. AERIAL, FLIGHT AGENTS, 

MOTOR TOURS. 



THOMAS LOCKER & CO. 



WARRINGTON, ENGLAND. 



LTD, 



WIRECLOTH MANUFACTURERS AND METAL 

PERFORATORS 

"DOUBLE-LOCKED" 
BRAND 




SPECIALISTS 
In all descriptions of 
Woven Wire and per- 
forated Metal Screens. 



90 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

APPOINTMENT OP VICE-PRESIDENT. 

Mr. Hugh R. Denison of Sydney, New South Wales. 



APPOINTMENT OF HONORARY CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

Mr. W. L. Simon, Medan, Sumatra. 



OBITUARY. 

The following deaths of Fellows and Associates are noted with regret : 
W. T. Wilson, James Hardy, Hon. Sir Philip O. Fysh, K.C.M.G., James Angus, 
Benjamin Wood, Sir Edwin T. Smith, K.C.M.G., H. K. C. Fisher, Rev. C. B. Tyrwhitt, 
Charles Guthrie, Wm. Rufus Kirkman, E. L. Harrison, Hon. R. Huyshe Eliot, M.L.C., 
A. Napier Ledingham, M.B., J. Gipson Clark, Dr. George Clifton, J. W. Wilson, 
Henry F. Reeve, C.M.G., S. Groundwater, E. O. S. Scholefield, Capt. A. C. Harms- 
worth, J.P. 



ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE FIFTY-SECOND SESSION, 1920. 

The following Addresses and Papers have already been arranged, and the Meetings 
will be held at the Central Hall, Westminster : 
TUESDAY, FEBRUABY 10, at 8 p.m. Address by Sir CHARLES LTJCAS, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., " The 

Meaning of the Empire to the Labour Democracy." 
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 24, at 3.30 p.m." Australia and Child Emigration " (with Lantern 

Illustrations), by KTNGSLEY FAraBRiDGE. 
TUESDAY, MARCH 9, at 8 p.m. 



PAYMENT OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

Rvle 20. All subscriptions shall be due and payable on January 1 in each year. 

Rule 21. No Fellow shall be entitled to vote, or enjoy any other privilege of 
the Institute, so long as his subscription shall be in arrear. 

Fellows and Associates are therefore reminded that the Journal ceases to be 
forwarded when subscriptions are in arrear for over eix months by Resident 
Fellows, and over twelve months by Non-Resident Fellows. The easiest method of 
paying the annual subscriptions is by standing order on a banker or agent. Printed 
forms can be obtained from the Secretary. 



PUBLICATIONS BY THE INSTITUTE. 

Lord Milner's Visit to Manchester (April, 1919). Reports of the speeches delivered by 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies on that occasion. Price 6d. 

Four Lectures on " The Education Schemes of the United Kingdom and Dominion 
Forces." Price 1*. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES THROUGHOUT THE EMPIRE 

AND THE ARGENTINE. 

For the convenience of Fellows, arrangements have been made whereby subscriptions 
can be paid into any branch of the following banks : Africa. African Banking Corpora- 
tion, National Bank of South Africa, Standard Bank of South Africa. Argentine. 
The British Bank of South America will accept subscriptions at $11 fixed 
exchange for 1 Is. Australia. Commercial Bank of Sydney, Commonwealth Bank of 
Australia, and Australian Bank of Commerce (New South Wales and Queensland 
only). Canada. Bank of British North America, Bank of Montreal, Canadian Bank 
of Commerce, Dominion Bank, Royal Bank of Canada, Union Bank of Canada. 
Ceylon, China and Hong Kong, Malay States, Straits Settlements and East Africa. Chartered 
Bank of India, Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, National Bank of India. West Africa 
or West Indies. Colonial Bank. 



Advertisements . 



xix 



"Hill Wanderings in Lakeland/' 

An account of Two Sporting Runs on a New 1920 



Light Thirty " 



By GEORGE D. ABRAHAM. Reprinted from "The Autocar." 




" Spurning the new road as too tame, our sporting 
driver dashed off to the left at Seatoller, and up the 
old steep storm-shattered way to Honister Hause. 
The ascent was made in remarkable style. The 
writer has seen nothing more wonderful in motor 
mountaineering. Up and up the trusty car climbed 
easily and so silently that the soft song of the 
neighbouring mountain stream could be heard 
distinctly, and soon we were out above the tree line, 
and speeding towards the summit." 

Extract. 



Copies Free 
to Motorists 
upon request 



The Daimler Co., Ltd. 
Coventry. 



ft 

ft 

ft 
ft 
ft 

ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 



We leave clothing to ready-for-wear shops. We are 
practical Tailors who dress our customers, and depend 
upon their introduction and recommendation. - Come to 
us and we will give you good cut ! good workmanship I 
and good materials ! 




7%e a>oz>e ts a cogy of an 

envelope which contained 

the following 

LETTER. 

Dear-Sirs, 

I am writing this to thank 
you for the trouble you took 
in getting my Uniform off 
last week : it arrived in 
ample time, and was in 
every way satisfactory. I am 
much obliged. 

Your* faithfully, 

=....,..., Major, 

RAF. 



For Town! Sport! and Travel! 

ROSS, TAILORS 

AND 

BREECHES MAKERS 

Outfitters and Shirt Tailors 
22 George St., Hanover Sq. 

LONDON, W. 1 :: And EXETER 



'Phone 



1312 Mayfair 



All through the late war the high standard of their Pure 
Wool Waterproofed Cloths, as exemplified in the " Ports- 
mouth " and " Roscut " Coats for Sport and Travel 
whose reputation is world wide, was maintained. 



91 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

PHOTOGRAPHS OF FELLOWS. 

Messrs. Maull & Fox, of 187, Piccadilly London, W. 1, are the official fphotographers 
to the Royal Colonial Institute. 

LIST OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

The list of Fellows for 1919, corrected to September 30, is now ready, and copies 
can be obtained at 2s. Qd. each. 



ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

ARRIVALS. 

Argentine. W. S. Kenny. Australia. S. S. Cohen, Capt. M."' Minter. Belgian 
Congo. Major J. A. Clark. Brazil. H. L. Wheatley. British East Africa. W. Woods. 
British Guiana. Hon. E. C. Buck, Rt. Rev. C. T. Gallon, G. R. Garnelt. British 
North Borneo. -.R. M. O. Cook. Canada. Lt.-Col E. R. Wayland, C.M.G. Ceylon. 
J. A. B. Carver. Chill. W. Hugheston Roberts. China. A. D. MacDonald, Capt. 
H. E. Middleton. Federated Malay States. E. M. R. Callard, P. J. Cowey, A. R. 
Ingram, G. H. Nash, V. W. Ryves, J. A. Shipway, H. S. Whiteside, B. Wolde. India. 
B. J. Corcoran, E. Havinden, R. H. Parnell, Rev. W. A. Sawtell, C. G. Powell- 
Jones. Jamaica. Robert Johnstone, C.M.G. , I.S.O., Capt. A. H. Vince. Java. J. L 
Mitchell. Mesopotamia. N. K. McCandlish. New Zealand. J. P. Maxwell, J. 
Armstrong Neame, Lieut.-Col. A. T. Watson. Nyasaland. Laurence Smith. Paraguay. 
F. J. Knight Adkin. Rhodesia. #. A. Baldock, M.B.E., Rt. Rev. F. H. Beaven 
(Lord Bishop of Rhodesia). South Africa. John Hardy, A. Viner. Straits Settlements. 
T. U. Ryden. Togoland. H. B. Popham. Uganda. Sir R. T. Coryndon, K.C.M.G., 
Rev. H. B. Lewin, G. C. Strathairn, M.B. United States. J. B. Whyte. West Africa. 
.R. A. G. Beaven, P. H. Beeham, R. E. Burns, W. E. B. Copland-Crawford, A. J. Dolman, 
E. C. Oilman, A. H. Hodges, H. Ince, A. C. Jenson, Lt.-Col. A. E. Johnson, D.S.O., 
E. J. Macquarrie, F. Mitchell, A. L. Owen, A. P. Reeve, C. Sounders, A. R. Slater, 
C.M.G., C.B.E., Major H. Vischer, C.B.E., R. Whiteley t T. Williams. East Africa. 
A. M. D. Turnbutt. 

DEPARTURES. 

Argentine. Major W. H. W. Hine, H. McL. Martin, F. J. Williams. Australia. 
Major M. H. Lmvther Clark, O.B.E., H. D. Cohen, D. L. Dowdell, J. Fred Downer, 
R. D. Elliott, Mrs. J. Macfarlane, A. H. O'Connor, F. G. Sargood, Major R. H. 
Strong, O.B.E., Major C. A. Swinbourne, Sir Charles G. Wade, K.C. Brazil. W. A. C. 
Henderson. British East Africa. Major W. B. Brook, S. E. J. Howarth, Comr. R. M. 
Reynolds, R.N.R., Thomas Rule, M. Sorabjee. British Guisna. M. B. G. Austin. 
British North Borneo. B. St. Maur Hill. British West Indies. A. N. M. Benn, 
Sir W. K. Chandler, Dr. Alan Kidd, Capt. G. E. L. Poulden, L. R. Wheeler. Canada. 
A. Le R. Burt, H. Edwards, E. G. Frere, K. K. S. S. Mackenzie, J. F. Mountain, 
Major H. P. Snellgrove. Canary Islands. F. C. Clarkson. Ceylon. C. 0. Ockenden, 
Capt. A. W. Seymour, J. A. Varey. Chili. F. T. Genth, A. M. McDonald. China 
John E. Hall. Costa Rica. W. McAdam. Federated Malay States. W. L. Conlay, 
Capt. A. Reid, W. D. Scott, Hon. H. A. Smallwood, C. C. Spencer. Greece. -A H. 
Martin. Hong Kong. E. V. Bishop, S. F. Pinchin. India. T. H. Matthews, Harold 
Parker, J. R. Pearson, C.I.E. New Zealand. C. L. Clifford, Capt. E. M. Finlayson, 
Comr. B. L. Hewitt, R.N. Portuguese East Africa. L. J. Wilmoth. Seychelles 
Dr. L. Virtue Tebbs. South Africa. J. H. Champion, Allan Dyall, Lieut. G. Forster, 
A. H. Hayward, C. L. Kretzschmar, Dr. W. Macdonald, Dr. A. McKenzie, P. 
McMahon, R. H. Parry, Capt. H. M. Pearse, Hon. C. F. M. Ramsay, Major C. D. 
Robinson, A. H. Smith, A. Blomfield Walker, Major R. H. Struben, O.B.E., E. H. 
Poole. Spain. E. G. Phillips. Straits Settlements. L. D. Garrard, Sir Laurence 
Guillemard, K.C.B., F. W. G. Rippon. Tcgolfnd. J. A. Spencer. United States. 
L. M. Nalder. West Africa. E. L. Bray, E. BusfieU, A. R. Canning, A. Carter, W. K. 
Duncan, G. Farmer, Capt. J. Condra Hamilton, E. C. Hodgett, F. W. Leat, Leonard 
Leighton, J. W. Milne, Rt. Rev. Lord Bishop of Accra, L. G. Perkins, Capt. G. A. E. 
Poole, M.B.E., L. A. W. Powell, A. Fairfax Scott, P. G. Wood. 



Printed by Spottitwoode, Dallantyne & Co. Ltd., Colchetter, London and Eton." 



UNITED EMPIEE a 

C( 

THE EOYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE JOUENAL 

VOL. XI. MAECH 1920 No. 3 

The Institute is not responsible for statements made or opinions expressed 
by authors of articles and papers or in speeches at meetings. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

VARIETY and sensation have not been wanting in the world 

panorama during February. The Bolshevists have swept all before 

them from Vladivostok to Odessa and Archangel, 

A world am j nave added another horror to their record bv the 

ST1PV6V' > > J 

execution of Admiral Koltchak. But they are showing 
more and more anxiety to arrange a sort of peace ; they have come 
to terms with Esthonia and have made advances to Lettland and 
Poland, which Poland at least rejects. Mr. Lloyd George has explained 
the expedient reasons which induced the Allies to resume trade relations 
with certain societies in Russia, whilst refusing to entertain any idea 
of recognising the Bolshevist regime. The situation is befogged, but 
feeling is undoubtedly growing that some arrangement must be patched 
up with the de facto power in Russia. The problem is only one of 
several to be settled by the Supreme Allied Council which has 
transferred its meetings to London. The important decision to 
leave the Turks in possession of Constantinople has been taken. 
Opposition to any such concession derives strength from a fresh 
series of Armenian massacres. French finance is reported to have 
reinforced Moslem sentiment against the expulsion of the Turk. The 
Allies have made their demand for the surrender of the ex-Kaiser 
by Holland and of a long list of war criminals by Germany. But 
Holland and Germany object. The ex-Kaiser might be sent to the 
Dutch East Indies, where he would be less potent for mischief ; and 
the difficulty of forcing the Germans to give up the lesser war criminals 
has induced the Allies to agree to their being tried before a German 
Court. The Adriatic difficulty has been aggravated by Mr. Wilson's 
refusal to recognise any arrangement made by Great Britain, France, 
and Italy to which he was not a party. He signalised his return to 
control of affairs by dismissing Mr. Lansing, whom he charges with 
unconstitutional practices. At home Parliament met on February 10 



94 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

in circumstances which it was believed meant the speedy break-up 
of the Coalition, but Mr. Lloyd George's Government has been 
supported by overwhelming majorities. Mr. Asquith returns to the 
House as member for Paisley. He fought the seat on old Liberal lines, 
and the real significance of his victory arises more from his opposition 
to extreme Labour than to the Coalition. In France M. Poincare has 
handed over the reins to his successor, M. Deschanel, and both the 
retiring and the new President have exchanged greetings with 
King George, pledging the future union of France and Great Britain. 



LORD Grey of Fallodon's " personal opinion and nothing more," 
given to the world in a two-column letter to the Times, it was hoped 

would change the prospects of the Peace Treaty in the 

America, United States. He brushed aside all charges of bad faith 

a 7^ easue or desire to repudiate signatures, and insisted that the 

Dominions ac tion of the reservationists was dictated, not by party, 

but by America's traditional dislike of entanglements. 
Better America as " a willing partner with limited obligations," he 
said, than America " a reluctant partner who felt that her hand had 
been forced." President Wilson was reported to be very angry at 
Lord Grey's intervention, but the effect on American opinion was as 
a breeze sweeping over a fog-bound land, and Mr. Wilson has since 
shown some desire to meet Senatorial views. The American objection 
to the votes of the British Dominions, which every enemy of Great 
Britain in the Republic has maliciously denounced to audiences wholly 
ignorant of the terms of the Covenant, was met by Lord Grey in a 
spirit as conciliatory as it was firm. There can be no qualification of 
the right conceded to the British Dominions. They have " a special 
status, and there can be no derogation from it." But Lord Grey 
would go certain lengths to satisfy American opinion. The difficulty 
is, " we can neither give way about the votes for the Self -Governing 
Dominions, nor can we ignore the real political difficulty in the United 
States." He does not believe that, in practice, disputes will ever 
arise, but he adds significantly, " we have no objection in principle 
to an increase of the American vote." The reception given to Lord 
Grey's letter has afforded proof of essential goodwill on both sides 
of the Atlantic. 

ANXIOUS as is everyone, who appreciates what an Anglo-American 
entente stands for in the world to-day, to satisfy legitimate American 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 95 

objections, wherever possible, neither Great Britain nor the Dominions 
can for a moment consider the question of depriving them of what 

they won by their instant and constant sacrifices in 
Tlie e the War. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South 

Dominion Africa have spoken as with one voice. General Smuts, 

to whom the drafting of the League Covenant owes 
so much, made it clear, months ago, that South Africa will insist on 
all her rights. England, representing the Empire, is a permanent 
member of the Council, but there is nothing in his view to prevent 
South Africa, or any Dominion in certain circumstances, from being 
elected to that body. Mr. N. W. Rowell, the President of the Canadian 
Privy Council, Mr. Meighen, the Minister of the Interior, and others, 
have done their best in various speeches during the past month to 
prevent any sort of misunderstanding of the Dominion standpoint. If 
the British Empire, as Mr. Rowell forcibly suggested, has six votes, the 
seventeen American nations, who are or may become members of the 
League, would have seventeen votes. They would, doubtless, exercise 
them, under the Monroe doctrine, at least as solidly as the Dominions 
under the segis of the British Empire. American criticisms, however, 
were long ago answered by President Wilson himself. It is only in 
the Assembly that the British have six votes : in the Council the 
British Empire is a unit, and the United States in the Council has 
equality with the British Empire. 

BON VOYAGE to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales on the second instal- 
ment of his series of Imperial visits. The West Indies, New Zealand, 

and Australia are busy preparing to give him the warm 
f Sp. ? mce and loyal welcome which would be assured in any 

case, but is doubly assured as the result of the wonder- 
tour through Canada. If one half of the stories of the Prince's meetings 
with the Australians in France and Egypt be true, his reunion with 
those whom he delights to call " my old comrades " will be peculiarly 
cordial fully rivalling even his Canadian experience. The Prince 
has explained to his Anzac friends in London with what pleasure 
he embarks on this new trip. He is proud of the fact that the 
Australians at the front called him "Digger," and as he returned 
from North America a Canadian, so, no doubt, he will come back from 
the South Seas an Australian and a New Zealander. He will find 
at the Antipodes plenty of scope for the exercise of his great oratorical 
gifts. Could anything have been happier than his meeting last month 
with the Cornishmen ? He pictured the Cornishman helping to build 



96 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

up the Empire, but keeping ever in his heart a tender thought for his 
" Little Grey Home in the West." It is just this blend of the local and 
the Imperial, so well understood by the Prince, which makes the British 
Empire the power it is, and distinguishes it from all other Empires. 

THE fourteen thousand members of the K.C.I, should be fourteen 

thousand missionaries preaching the gospel of the British Empire, 

which Lord Rosebery years ago described as the world's 

Tne Gospel or rea test secular agency for good. Such an address as 
of Em.T)ire 

that delivered by Sir Charles Lucas, and printed in 

this issue, should command an eager rally of the faithful. The theme 
is fascinating : " The meaning of the Empire to the Labour Demo- 
cracy." Unfortunately the message was listened to by only a small 
audience, which loyally did its best to make amends for paucity of 
numbers by enthusiasm of appreciation. The Central Hall should have 
been packed to overflowing. For the fact that it was not, the wretched 
weather and the opening of Parliament were partly responsible. 
Neither meteorological conditions nor State pageantry provides an 
adequate excuse for absenteeism. What the Empire too often 
anathema to the tub-thumper stands for, Labour does not always 
realise, and many even of the faithful cannot always explain. None 
who study Sir Charles Lucas can doubt that the Empire is as necessary 
to the homes of the humblest of Britons as to civilisation itself. Demo- 
cracy has become the trustee of an Imperial heritage. If Democracy 
is to be true to its trust, education as to both past and present is indis- 
pensable. The lower soil in the garden of State has become the top 
soil, and whether it produces rank weeds or fruit and flowers depends 
upon the seeds sown. That Democracy is sound when wisely culti- 
vated, the Empire proved in the world's greatest war. It will remain 
sound only if it grasps the basic facts and principles which inspired Sir 
Charles Lucas's address. 

AMONG impressions which have been brought home to some quarters 

from the International Labour Conference at Washington, is one 

which is not altogether reassuring. It is that the Home 

Wanted, a British representatives did not show any particular 

Common desire to discuss with the representatives of the Self- 

mpire Governing Dominions and India the subjects for the 

Policy Conference before they came to be dealt with by the 

Conference. There was, in short, so it has been said, no 

tending towards a common Empire policy, even in matters in which 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 97 

a common policy is possible. It may well have been that the Home 
representatives were at pains not in any way to suggest interference 
with the Dominions, or to minimise the principle of the Six Nation 
Vote. But the procedure appears certainly to point towards a weak- 
ening of the unity of the Empire as a whole, and when the next Con- 
ference is held it is to be hoped that the International discussions 
may be preceded by Empire discussions. Here is a promising field 
for the work of the Britannic Industrial Alliance. 

WITH any movement having for its object the promotion of soli- 
darity among British communities in foreign lands, the Koyal Colonial 
Institute instinctively sympathises. The strong and 
Ah* ^d representative Committee, appointed under the Chair- 

manship of Sir Charles Eliot, to devise a common policy 
and advise the Foreign Secretary with regard to Britons abroad, was 
therefore assured of welcome. What the Committee has to do is to 
suggest ways and means of extending and confirming the work carried 
on during many years by the Royal Colonial Institute and the Patriotic 
League of Britons Overseas, now incorporated in the Overseas Club. 
In practically every country in the world there are Fellows of 
the Institute, in several there are Honorary Corresponding Secretaries, 
and in some, such as the Argentine, the bond of fellowship has achieved 
the object aimed at, by the creation of an extremely flourishing Branch. 
Registration is suggested. The best form of registration is surely to 
become a Fellow of the Institute. Thereby " British ideals " will be 
made " better known to foreign countries." British schools, Chambers 
of Commerce, clubs, and propaganda through a local British journal, 
are all desirable, but they would be supplementary to existing agencies. 
When the Institute headquarters have been enlarged " according to 
plan," the opportunities for furthering the excellent purpose of the 
Foreign Office Committee will be proportionately augmented, and there 
will be in existence that " great Imperial Club or Institute," which 
Sir Thomas Mackenzie suggested recently is still needed in London. 

IT is one thing to blaze a trail : it is another to take immediate 
advantage of the process. The most striking commentary on Major- 
General Sir Frederick Sykes' intensely interesting 
a(1( }ress on Imperial Air Routes, which Mr. Macfie 
reviews in this issue of UNITED EMPIRE, is provided 
by the troubles of the Cape to Cairo flight undertaken by The Times 
and other machines. The difficulties encountered by them all 



98 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

must have been foreseen, but they did not deter even one who 
is not an aviator from embarking on the great enterprise. A 
foretaste of what the development of aviation over waste and 
wilderness may mean to science was promptly forthcoming in 
Dr. Chalmers Mitchell's discovery of the volcanic field between 
Old Meroe and Berber. There were many starters in the flight 
to Australia, but Sir Ross Smith alone succeeded. His account 
of his troubles proves that, however much has been accomplished 
in opening up possibilities, more remains to be done. Yet Mr. Holt 
Thomas, given a reasonable amount of encouragement, is prepared, 
apparently, to inaugurate an England- Australia air service, and 
asserts that he is perfectly sane when he says that Australia can be 
brought within five days of London ! The maker of aeroplanes is 
as daring in his theories as the aviator in his performance and 
the performer will, doubtless, in due time, translate the theory into 
romantic fact. Meantime the aeroplane has afforded new proof of its 
military value in Somaliland. Lieut. -Colonel Amery's account of the 
swift and crushing attack on the Mullah who has given trouble for so 
many years, shows that in military operations as in travel the aero- 
plane is capable of accomplishing in days what otherwise would take 
so many weeks or months. 

AT a time when the British Empire is beginning to realise that 
it contains within its own boundaries practically all the natural 

resources needed for the sustenance, the comfort, and 
mpire ^ Q we j-f are o f j^ s peoples, the report of Sir Henry 

Birchenough's Committee on Cotton has, outside 
Lancashire, apparently administered a 'shock. Great Britain has 
been dependent on the United States for 85 per cent, of its cotton 
supplies, and every year the United States itself consumes a larger 
proportion of its own cotton. The crisis has not come upon us like 
an economic thief in the night. It has overtaken us because so many 
have closed their ears to persistent warnings. For. twenty years past 
the British Cotton-Growing Association has been doing its best to 
educate the Empire to a proper comprehension of the danger. Its 
efforts were backed half-heartedly, and the Empire has not enjoyed 
the same measure of good fortune in cotton that came to it in wool 
and rubber. British policy in regard to Empire cotton has been as 
shortsighted as in regard to Empire sugar. Now that the crisis is 
understood, thanks to the masterly and exhaustive report presented 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 99 

by Sir Henry Birchenough and his colleagues, every one from the 
cotton-spinner of Lancashire to the humblest of housewives is 
thoroughly alarmed. An Empire opportunity has been missed, and 
we have now to do in haste, and at heavy cost, what might have been 
done at leisure on more economical lines. It is recognised that the 
Empire could grow all the cotton it requires, of whatever quality, 
but expert research and patient effort in cultivation are necessary. 
The Imperial Government, Lancashire, and the Colonies and 
dependencies, must share the burden. Sir Auckland Geddes has 
announced that the Government approve in principle of the Com- 
mittee's report and are prepared to give 10,000 a year for five years 
as recommended ; Lancashire is ready to raise a trade fund up to a 
quarter of a million sterling by a levy on every bale imported, and if 
necessary on every spindle employed ; and the Colonies selected for 
cotton cultivation might ultimately contribute out of the profits which 
would come to them. 

THE Council of the League of Nations has decided to call a 

World Conference to consider the crisis in international finance. A 

further collapse of the exchanges has unfortunately 

_, xc , , ange been the main financial feature of the month ; the 
.t roDlems 

pound has declined in New York to between thirteen 

and fourteen shillings ; it is at a discount in Holland and Spain, and 
at a high premium in France and Italy, while the mark is worth rather 
less than a penny, and the Austrian krone (which in pre-war days was 
about equal to a franc) is worth very much less than a penny. The result 
is necessarily a paralysis of normal trade, wild gambling in paper money, 
and other unhealthy symptoms in the body economic. The premium 
on the pound sterling in Paris and Rome hampers our export trade to 
France and Italy ; the discount at which it stands in New York hampers 
our imports. In the latter case, indeed, the consequences may even- 
tually be beneficial, particularly from the Imperial point of view. 
It has induced Canadian traders to turn their attention to com- 
merce across the Atlantic rather than across the border. "We hear 
a great deal of talk about Imperialism," said the President of the 
Saskatchewan Grain- Growers' Convention recently, " and this is our 
opportunity." At the moment, the exchange leads to serious increases 
of prices, especially in bread and tobacco ; but this in turn should 
lead to more wheat being grown at home in the interests of national 
safety, and more tobacco being grown in the British tropical colonies. 



100 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

As regards home-grown wheat, the Government has already declared 
its intention in the King's Speech, and the passionate opposition of the 
old Free Trade element to the development of home agriculture has 
amused rather than alarmed England ; the contention that it will weaken 
the country to grow more food within these islands, and that we should 
put our trust in the League of Nations rather than in the British farmer, 
will hardly carry much conviction. As a matter of fact, the home 
population is increasing so rapidly nearly half a million a year that 
it is extremely unlikely British agriculture will be able to do much more 
than keep pace with the number of new mouths awaiting its products. 

THE United States have proffered some doubtless well-meant 

advice to Europe on its financial stress. But the recognition that 

the interest of the States would be confined to advice, 

u-u ^ e j m & and not extend to the assistance of the Continent, 
the Burden. , . . ... 

perhaps deprived that advice ot some of its cogency. 

So far as Britain is concerned, of course, no external assistance is 
required or desired ; our Budget will more than balance, we shall 
float no more external loans, and shall now find it possible to reduce 
our indebtedness. But, in addition to that, we cannot leave Europe 
helpless, and the burden of restoring Continental life to its normal 
economic state promises to be a little heavy for a country that has 
already shouldered a very considerable proportion of the cost of war, 
both in life and money. The British Government is prepared to 
give another 10,000,000 in European relief, and Canada has generously 
expressed her desire to do her part. It was hoped that the United 
States would have seen its way, in its own interests not less 
than in those of the world at large, towards joining with us in this 
work of restoration and assistance ; but since other views have pre- 
vailed at Washington, there is nothing for it, as Mr. Chamberlain 
has suggested, but for others to shoulder the burden. Home 
industrial production continues to increase satisfactorily month by 
month, which is the best guarantee that conditions will right them- 
selves in England, and the annual speeches of the leading bankers, 
which are the most authoritative expressions of opinion available, 
have been uniformly optimistic during the past few weeks. Beyond 
that, we must do what we can for Europe, not only from ethical 
motives, but also because a starving and revolutionary Continent is 
by no means an asset to Great Britain. Fortunately, there are signs 
that this duty is generally recognised by all parties in the State. 



A MESSAGE TO THE DOMINIONS. 

By Admiral of the Fleet Viscount JELLICOE, O.M., G.C.B. 

ON my return from the Dominions, whilst memory of the wonderful welcome 
given to the officers and men of H.M.& New Zealand, as representing the Eoyal 
Navy, is still fresh a welcome that will live for ever in our hearts I should 
like to say how deeply we appreciated the extraordinary kindness extended 
to us in every Dominion. The people literally took us to their hearts and 
their homes. No one who took part in the cruise is ever likely to forget 
our kinsmen overseas. 

Certain features of the tour are outstanding. First, the depth of the loyalty 
which we so constantly witnessed loyalty to King and Empire, and love of 
the Motherland. Second, that the great promise which the Dominions hold 
out for the future, combined with the virility of the people, should ensure 
prosperity to all who cast in their lot with these far-flung portions of the 
Empire. Third, no one can see, as we have seen, the efforts which are made 
to bring home to the children of the Dominions their dependence upon sea 
power for their security and development, without realising that these efforts 
must inevitably lead to a fuller understanding of the part which the Navy 
has taken in the building up of the Empire, and must continue to take if the 
Empire is to be retained. I think, therefore, the people of the Dominions 
would agree with me in the opinion which I hold, that one of the strongest 
ties binding together the distant parts of the Empire is the Eoyal Navy, whether 
that navy be maintained solely by Great Britain, or whether there are con- 
stituent portions which, whilst they have their home hi Dominion waters, 
will act in the closest co-operation with the fleets of the Mother Country. 

It is a great privilege to me to feel that the Journal of the Eoyal Colonial 
Institute will be the medium through which this message will be conveyed 
overseas. The Branches of the Institute overseas always have exercised, and 
will continue to exercise, the very best influence in binding ever closer the 
ties which unite the different portions of the Empire, and I should like to take 
this opportunity of wishing increasing success and prosperity to the Institute's 
overseas Branches, as well as to express my admiration for the work they have 
done. 




102 



IMPERIAL AIR ROUTES. 

AT the latter end of last year I presided at a reception given to upwards of 
1,000 returned airmen in Sydney. As each speaker at that meeting concluded 
his remarks anent the wonderful deeds performed by these gallant men, I 
was puzzled as to what was to be their ultimate fate in civil life. Since that 
time I have come to the seat of the Empire, and I find that the authorities in 
England, concerned with Air Administration, are likewise perplexed. I should 
like to ask the Air Ministry in Great Britain, whence the principal Aviation 
propaganda is expected to originate, two questions upon this much vaunted 
subject of Imperial Air Eoutes : 

1. Have any well-defined efforts been made by the Imperial Government 
to retain by subsidy, or by other practical means, the already existing (but 
slowly vanishing) and highly equipped aeroplane manufactories in Great Britain ? 

2. Are the authorities alive to the fact that the potentialities of Commercial 
Aviation and a consistent " blazing of the track " through the air around the 
Empire, in both of which they profess to believe, are impossible of realisation 
without direct Government aid ? 

Major-General Sir Frederick Sykes, Controller-General of Civil Aviation, in 
his masterly and comprehensive address delivered before the Eoyal Geographical 
Society on February 2, made it vividly clear that the time has arrived for 
grappling with both hands the question of Civil and Commercial Aviation. 
The Controller-General stated : 

It is sometimes difficult not to forget that when the war broke out the science 
of aviation was but a dozen years old. The controlling factors in aviation are still 
imperfectly understood, but there is something very striking in the strange sequence 
of events whereby the problem of flight was solved just in time to assist in the conduct 
of the war and in the achievement of victory gaining in the process incredible impetus 
to its development. 

The science of aeronautics is now endeavouring to spread its young wings in the 
service of peace and for the expansion of industry not only in the Imperial Common- 
wealth, but throughout the world. For the far-flung battle line it hopes to substitute 
a world- wide commercial network. Even before the Armistice, steps had been taken 
in this direction. In June, 1918, I prepared and read a paper to the Imperial War 
Cabinet, when the policy of uniting the various parts of the Empire together by air 
was discussed. 

It will be noticed that Civil Aviation, although so indifferently understood, 
was receiving some attention even when the War was at its height in 1918. 
The Air Ministry therefore cannot be taunted with having failed to keep the 
subject before them, even though only from an academic point of view. 

Then Sir Frederick describes the work done by the Survey parties and the 
flights undertaken to Egypt and India in November 1918. He says : 

The first flight to Egypt and India was made under my directions by Brigadier- 
General A. E. Borton and Major-General W. G. H. Salmond in November, 1918, i 



IMPERIAL AIR ROUTES. 103 

order to demonstrate the practicability of reinforcing the Air Service in India by air 
from first Egypt and later, if necessary, in special cases, from home. Then directly 
the Armistice was signed I issued instructions for the pioneer work of opening up the 
India to Australia and the Cairo to Cape routes to be undertaken by General Salmond. 
To carry this into effect, General Borton was sent to survey the difficult stages east of 
Calcutta to Australia via Burma, the Malay Peninsula, and the Dutch East Indies, 
and to prepare a scheme for the establishment of landing grounds. At the same time 
three survey parties started on similar work between Egypt and the Cape. 

It will probably be remembered that the route to Australia beyond Bangkok 
was condemned by those sent to survey the track for aerodromes and suitable 
landing stages. Fortunately for Sir Ross Smith and his adventurous colleagues, 
the Dutch Government in Java came to the rescue and practically completed 
the air route to within a comparatively short distance of the goal, thus enabling 
the London-Australia journey to be successfully accomplished. 

The official statement that the Air Convention has been concluded and 
signed by many countries, including neutrals, giving freedom of air passage 
over various places, is of considerable importance to those interested in Civil 
Aviation. Sir Frederick Sykes says : 

Meanwhile, during the winter of 1918 and the spring of 1919, the Empire Com- 
mittee of the Peace Conference assisted in the discussion and solution of many problems. 
Not only were Imperial air matters considered in Paris, but also much thought was 
given to international relations, which resulted in the International Air Convention 
first conceived in Great Britain, and much assisted by a valuable report drawn up by 
the Civil Aerial Transport Committee. Agreement was also reached on the establish- 
ment of an International Committee for Air Navigation. 

The Convention, which has now been signed by all the Allies, except the United 
States, Japan, and Canada, allows aircraft of one contracting State freedom of innocent 
passage over the territory of another ; forbids the flight of an aircraft of a non-con- 
tracting State over the territory of a contracting State ; and lays down detailed 
regulations based upon those already adopted in this country. Certain neutrals, such 
as Holland, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian countries, have signed or are considering 
agreements on the same lines. 

The Controller- General is most optimistic as to the information gleaned 
about aviation for Home Defence during the War and its application to Civil 
Aviation in the future. By a process of co-ordination of various Departments 
of State and of the Dominions, much useful knowledge has been gained and 
information collected and tabulated. Sir Frederick says : 

At home during this period of growing co-ordination, information has been 
collected, experience gained, and a general knowledge of the possibilities of civil flying 
has been built up. The Meteorological Office has been linked with the Department 
of Civil Aviation, the Imperial Communications Committee of the Cabinet is kept in 
touch with wireless requirements, and general co-operation between the Air Ministry 
and other Government Departments, such as the Colonial Office, India Office, Post 
Office, Foreign Office, and the High Commissioners for the various Dominions has 
steadily improved. An Advisory Committee under the chairmanship of Lord "Weir 



104 IMPERIAL AIR ROUTES. 

has been appointed for the consideration of various problems. In some of the 
Dominions Air Boards have been constituted, and I hope that before long the rest 
will follow suit. 

During the five years of war, progress in the art of flying, in research, production, 
training, and organisation has naturally been governed by naval and military require- 
ments. As a result of this, our Air Forces have become and will remain a principal 
factor in Imperial defence, and, should we be compelled again to wage war and we 
cannot disregard such a possibility air power will give the best and most rapid return 
for the expenditure of national resources of man-power, material, and money. More- 
over, as the rapid assumption of the offensive is generally the leading principle in 
warfare, so will the strategic air offensive be the dominant factor in air power. 

If an Empire air power, both Service and Civil, is developed, organised, and co- 
ordinated, our supremacy in the air may in the future be more valuable in assisting 
to maintain the peace of the world than our supremacy on the sea has been in the past. 
If I may, I will quote a few words here from a lecture I gave about two years before 
the war : " The navies of the world will have to relinquish their present proud position ; 
their role is that of a floating defence. The Air Service, built up from joint Army, 
Navy, and Civilian foundations, is in the foremost line. Fortresses, arsenals, dockyards, 
Government offices, factories of war material, are protected from the air." 

The report clearly shows that the venue of civil and military aviation within 
the Empire is forcibly removed, owing to geographical and weather reasons, 
from Great Britain to Egypt. In other words, after the aviator has left the 
treacherous and variable weather of Europe well behind him, and he flies 
into the sub-tropical climes of Egypt and Asia, he is more or less in favourable 
weather zones and safe landing country. 

The situation of Great Britain from the standpoint of Civil Aviation differs geo- 
graphically from that of most other nations. The sea is but one hour's flight from 
the heart of England. Fog, the notorious variability of our weather, the fact that 
England lies on the periphery of the system of which Egypt, as I will show later, is 
the hub, all militate against successful aviation. Yet, from the broader aspect, the 
Empire is, geographically, in an unequalled position for establishing air depots, refuel- 
ling bases, and meteorological and wireless stations in every part of the world. 

The most divergent geographical conditions obtain between the different parts of 
the Empire : Canada and India ; Newfoundland and Egypt ; New Zealand and 
South Africa. The same is true of each of the component parts, some of which, such 
as Australia, embrace a continent and a full quota of continental geographical and 
meteorological variations. As the problems involved in each section of all the great 
routes vary so greatly, it devolves upon those associated with the air development of 
the Empire to take a broad view, and, while realising that underlying principles are 
similar, to recognise that the same policy for the whole is impracticable. 

I propose now to touch upon a few of the points which present themselves in con- 
nexion with the general development of Imperial routes. The first which occurs to 
me is that Egypt for some time to come must be the " hub " or, as I have long called 
it, the Clapham Junction of the India, Australia, and Cape routes, and the heart of 
the whole system of their expansion. You may recall that the Government has 
recently decided primarily to help in developing the Egypt to India route, and I think 
you will agree that this decision is a wise one. The route to Egypt from England is 
still complicated from international, meteorological, and technical points of view. 



IMPERIAL AIR ROUTES. 105 

Further, it may be desirable to leave this field open, temporarily at all events, for air- 
ship development. 

The Cairo to Cape route is at present less likely to pay commercially. The great 
span from England to Newfoundland and Canada will necessarily be the last or next 
to the last if one includes the Pacific to be developed, owing to the great physical 
and meteorological difficulties to be overcome. 

The route between Egypt and India, on the other hand, holds out many advantages. 
The weather conditions are, on the whole, stable. The time of transit by sea from 
Port Said to Bombay under normal conditions is nine days ; the journey by air, flying 
by daylight only, takes four days from Kantara to Karachi. Sea transit, it is agreed, 
could be much accelerated, but I am informed that the cost of this would be very 
great. For example, special oil fuel ships would be required, and the damage to the 
banks of the Suez Canal, even to increase the speed from the present seven knots to 
an average of ten, would be excessive. Moreover, steamship companies would hardly 
attempt to compete when it was known that by air transit, with the establishment of 
a relay system, and by flying night and day, the mail from Port Said could be delivered 
at Karachi in thirty-six hours. An additional advantage is that the Government of 
India has already established a Civil Air Board, under the Department of Commerce 
and Industry, and is organising internal civil air routes for the carriage of mails. 

There would be an even more remarkable saving of time in the journey between 
Cairo and Baghdad, which by air takes only ten hours, but by the existing sea route 
via Bombay and Karachi as long as three to four weeks Geographically, too, the 
conditions are, on the whole, favourable, and an important factor there are valuable 
potentialities for branch lateral systems into Persia, Mesopotamia, and Turkey. 
Finally, this route has been chosen for exploitation Urst, because it was thought that 
in order to obtain experience and data in the quickest possible time for the furtherance 
of Imperial aviation generally, the simplest part in the great and complicated machine 
should be tested first. 

Before this article is read it is possible that the aeroplane may have safely 
negotiated the Cairo-Cape journey. As Sir Frederick Sykes points out, it is 
interesting to note that this is an " All Eed " air route, and virtually the only 
long distance one which is all British owned, with the one exception of the 
trans- Australian air journey, within the Empire. 



CAPE -CAIRO. 

Perhaps of all the aerial routes which I have touched on, none appeals more 
strongly to the imagination than that stretching from Cairo south over the vast Sudan 
on through the huge and tangled stretches of Equatorial Africa and across the veldt 
to Cape Town. The stepping-stones of this great all-red route have been actually 
placed, and pioneer machines are now on the way. 

It will be realised that to have established a chain of aerodromes through the length 
of the continent of Africa, a distance by existing methods of travel of 6,223 miles, to 
have successfully contended with the geographical and physical difficulties, is no small 
achievement. From Cairo the course of the Nile is followed to Wadi Haifa, and thence 
across the desert to Sheriek, from which place the Nile is once more the airman's guide 
to Khartum. Across the desert areas from Cairo to Khartum, natural aerodromes, 



106 IMPERIAL AIR ROUTES. 

requiring little improvement, are readily available. The southern end of this zone 
marks the terminus of the Egyptian-Sudan railways at Senaar. With the Sudd 
districts of the White Nile, an area of some 35,000 square miles of swamp, and the 
forests of Southern Sudan between Khartum and Mongalla, the difficulties of aerodrome 
construction are very materially increased. 

Between Mongalla and Jinja, which it is interesting to note is 2,132 feet above sea 
level, on the northern shore of Lake Victoria, an emergency landing ground has been 
established at Nimule, on the southern boundary of the Sudan. From Jinja, Lake 
Victoria is skirted on the east shore, and the next stopping place is Kisumu, on the 
north-eastern corner of the lake an important point, connecting as it does with the 
East African Railway to Nairobi and Mombasa. The stage Kisumu to Mwanza takes 
us to the southerly end of Lake Victoria, there being an intermediate landing ground 
at Shirati. Though all this section of country is far from easy, greater troubles lie 
ahead. 

From Lake Victoria to Abercorn, in Northern Rhodesia, via Tabora (the late capital 
of German East Africa), is a difficult piece of country. A large stretch of Central 
African forest is unpleasant to contemplate as a possible enforced stopping place, 
although, owing to the energy of our survey parties and the good will of the local 
authorities, even here, emergency grounds have been made available at Shinyanza and 
Zimba. It is interesting in considering a portion of country of this description to 
draw a comparison as to the possibilities of a journey by the ordinary means available 
as opposed to an aerial journey. For instance, Mwanza to Tabora, some 170 odd miles, 
would involve a trek of anything from five to fifteen days, with all the attendant 
difficulties of porters, etc. ; the aeroplane will probably accomplish the same stage in 
about two hours. 

From Abercorn, there is a further difficult stretch to Broken Hill, and an emergency 
ground has been prepared at N'dola. The journey from Abercorn to N'dola is 341 
miles. This is the longest stage without a prepared emergency ground on the entire 
route, but the intermediate country has been surveyed, and more than one place 
reported on as offering landing facilities in the event of necessity. 

From N'dola to Broken Hill and onwards to Pretoria via Livingstone, Bulawayo, 
and Palapwe (where we have benefited so much from the assistance of Chief Khama), 
the route roughly follows the railway, and although the dense forest country in the 
neighbourhood of Livingstone naturally presents difficulties, the journey, in view of 
the many facilities which are now within reach of every stopping place, is not a bad 
one. The next aerodrome is at Johannesburg, which lies 6,000ft. above sea-level, the 
greatest elevation on the route. From here there is a gradual falling in the elevation 
of the aerodromes to Cape Town. Bloemfontein, Victoria West, and Beaufort West 
all have aerodromes on the route, and, in view of the difficulty of the Zwarte-Bergen 
range, which it is necessary to cross before reaching Cape Town, an emergency landing 
ground has been established at Touws River. This has been found necessary because 
the top of the mountain range referred to which will necessitate a climb of well over 
7,000ft. is often covered with low clouds, rendering the actual approach to Cape 
Town somewhat dangerous. Generally speaking, the latter stages of the journey 
across the Transvaal and Cape Colony have not presented anything like the difficulties 
encountered farther north, the more open nature of the country lending itself better 
to the requirements of the aviator, although frequently the veldt country with its 
rocky kopjes has made the selection of landing grounds difficult. 

In considering the whole route, it is interesting to record that there are no fewer 
than 43 prepared aerodromes, giving 42 stages of an average length of just over 124 



IMPERIAL AIR ROUTES. 107 

miles each. Of the 43 aerodromes, 24 are at present organised as petrol and oil stations, 
giving an average journey of 226 miles between refuelling bases. The total distance 
to be covered is approximately 5,206 miles. In Africa, special consideration has been 
given to the inauguration of a mail and passenger service from Cairo, along the course 
of the Nile to Khartum, and on to Kisumu, on Lake Victoria. Under present con- 
ditions certain stages of this journey have to be conducted by carriers, a method both 
slow and expensive. It appears that here, at any rate, the most economic mode of 
travelling would be by air, particularly as it seems doubtful whether a Cape-to-Cairo 
Kailway would pay over this section of its line. 

Though work must be continued on the India-Australia route, the next in order 
of attraction and offering the greatest results is that from Egypt to the Cape. South 
Africa offers potentialities which it is impossible to assess. The route is " all-red," 
and so avoids any possible international complications. There is a great gap of 
some 1,900 miles between the railway terminus at Senaar, in the Sudan, and N'dola, 
the most northerly station in British territory on the railway from the Cape ; and 
Central Africa, that unknown land of which we read in our youth, the scene of the 
adventures of our great explorers, Livingstone and Stanley, Burton and Speke, awaits 
the coming of the pioneers of the air. I hope, and feel sure, that a British firm and 
British enterprise, having secured the blue ribands of the Atlantic and Australian 
flights, the third great flight, from Cairo to Cape Town, will also be achieved by a citizen 
of the Empire. The great chain between India and Australia has to be developed. 
It is possible that this route might also be made all-red by the use of Christmas Island, 
but, apart from the difficulties of making an aerodrome there, we are singularly 
fortunate in having the cordial co-operation of both the Dutch Government in Holland 
and of the Governor- General of the Dutch East Indies. 

Sir Frederick gives a brief description of the aerodromes and the difficulties 
of the route from England to Egypt. He avers that there is only a distance 
of fifty miles of country around Mont Cenis which presents any very serious 
obstacles to flying throughout the entire route. The island of Crete, which 
was the scene of the disaster to two intrepid flyers who attempted the journey 
to Australia, is not recommended as ideal from an aviator's point of view. 

The route which will eventually be used between the Home Country and our 
Egyptian aerial hub requires special treatment. The practicability of Malta as an 
intermediate landing-ground is being considered, so again ensuring an all-red route 
as soon as a range of 1,300 miles has become a normal effective flying stage. In the 
event of this stage being better adapted to the employment of airships, a base at 
Malta will also be a necessity. The great saving in time will be effected beyond 
Egypt, whether it be to India or to the Cape, though, of course, there will be a greater 
saving when the time of transit between England and Port Said at present five days 
is also reduced. 

Last, but by no means least, of the Imperial routes which requires development, 
is one which I have already mentioned from England to Canada a step which will 
bring us into more immediate touch with the other great half of the English-speaking 
world. With air communication established between England and Canada, the last 
link of the world chain may be forged. Airships or seaplanes may have developed 
to the point where the passage of the Pacific between Canada and Australia will be 
a practical proposition. Such a possibility may well influence the growth and direction 
of Canada's air effort. 



108 IMPERIAL AIR ROUTES. 

Another route which cannot be neglected is that between England and the West 
Indies, with the Azores as a stepping-stone. From some central point in the West 
Indies a connecting service of flying-boats could be usefully employed for the distri- 
bution of mails. 

CANADA. 

Sir Frederick Sykes is confident that by ordinary commercial intercourse by 
air the stupendous virgin lands of Western Canada stretching right across to the 
Pacific can be opened up and developed. 

He is not, however, so sanguine about regular aeroplane services being 
established across the Atlantic between Ireland and Newfoundland. This 
is where the commercially constructed types of Flying Boats and Seaplanes 
will become useful. Facilities for petrol and oil supplies en route were made 
for the safe conduct of the Atlantic flight of the U.S. Navy Seaplanes last year, 
and similar systems of petrol supplies could be permanently established in the 
islands of the Atlantic. 

The difficulties of the Transatlantic journey are well known. But these are 
difficulties which have been surmounted, and will gradually diminish. From Cork, 
in the South of Ireland, to St. John's, Newfoundland, is a journey of 1,935 statute 
miles, although the actual point to point journey from the extreme west of Ireland 
works out at materially under 1,900 miles. Once in Newfoundland, the journey to 
the mainland is relatively simple some 600 miles to Halifax thence to Quebec and 
Montreal. 

Great possibilities are open for the development of aerial routes from Montreal 
across the continent, touching, for instance, at Toronto, Port Arthur, Winnipeg, 
Saskatoon, Edmonton Vancouver being the ultimate goal. The use of flying-boats 
in Canada will undoubtedly be greatly developed owing to the large amount of open 
water in innumerable lakes, and after what has already been accomplished in the 
establishment of aerial routes, it does not call for much imagination to conceive 
a flying-boat route spanning the entire continent. 

Canada, as a whole, offers a good example of the geographical conditions affecting 
ordinary commercial intercourse by air, and the utility of aircraft in providing the 
means of developing virgin lands where neither railways nor telegraphs have yet 
penetrated. For instance, an air route employing either land or wa'ter aircraft might 
be established on the line of the Great Lakes, linking up the commercial centre of 
Montreal with Port Arthur, the gateway of the West ; then onwards to Winnipeg, 
whence lines could radiate into the North- West. Or again, an air organisation 
could assist the settlers, who are ever pushing their habitations and carrying civilisation 
into the northern districts of Quebec, Ontario, and the Prairie Provinces. 

The Controller- General enunciated the policy of the Government as regards 
the Air Routes which are to be charted. He stressed the point, so much 
appreciated by aviators, that nine-tenths of the air problems are ground work ! 
This will mean that the much-despised man during the War the " Ki-Wi " 
(the non-flying airman) will come to be recognised as a most useful person. 
Considerable attention is to be directed to ensuring safety for night flying, 
both for Service and Civil air requirements. Sir Frederick alludes to the 
gratifying results which must accrue to aviation generally within the Empire 



IMPERIAL AIR ROUTES. 109 

by the appointment recently of Air Boards in the various Dominions, and their 
readiness to co-operate with the Air Ministry in all matters of flying. It is 
pointed out how important this must prove to be when questions arise of the 
interrelation of Service and Civil Aviation. 

Sir F. Sykes concludes by furnishing seven succinct points as to the possible 
requirements needed to place aviation upon a satisfactory Empire basis. 
He admits, as everybody associated with the subject does, that we are still in 
an experimental stage. He gives, however, no encouraging note throughout 
the address as regards the vital necessity of immediate State aid in the way 
of subsidies for mail and commercial transport work. Perhaps this may be 
forthcoming under a more radical regime ! 

EMPIRE POLICY NEEDED. 

What of the future ? We are still at the experimental stage of aviation. It is 
essential that those who are responsible for its development show imagination and 
foresight. It is not sufficient merely to keep abreast of immediate requirements. 
Sound finance and an economic system are the bed-rock of Imperial commercial 
aviation. Though charges are at present high, the great speed of aircraft, the absence 
of road or rail wear and tear, are both in its favour. Increased public confidence 
and consequent increase in traffic will rectify cost. 

But in the meantime, how is the machine to be kept working ? It must be 
recognised that though private enterprise must itself be vigorous and independent in 
its methods, at the beginning, the British aircraft industry cannot live unsupported. 
Direct assistance is a necessity. Subsidised competitors are in the field. France 
is straining the pace, Italy is pushing her interests, the United States is grappling 
with the problem ; Germany is making feverish efforts. The signposts are clear. 
An Empire policy must be formed. In the no distant future, after the crucial 
domestic problems arising out of the war have received first treatment, the Imperial 
and Dominion Governments must define and adopt a considered policy towards 
aviation. 

It is not enough to believe as I firmly do that aerial transport being right is 
bound eventually to succeed. The seasoned tree can stand alone the shooting 
sapling must be stayed. Some of the requirements of aviation on an Empire basis 
are : 

1. The maintenance of a highly efficient fighting force. 

2. The expansion of commercial aviation to promote British trade and to supple- 
ment the fighting force when necessary by a reserve of personnel and material, know- 
ledge and experience. 

3. The co-ordination and co-operation of aerial communication throughout the 
Empire and its relations to other countries. 

4. The organisation of routes, aerodromes, ground communication, and meteoro- 
logical services on an Imperial basis. 

5. The energetic promotion of research and encouragement of design. 

6. Money to assist the institution of experimental mail services. 

7. The encouragement of land survey, forest patrol, and other work in which 
aircraft can be utilised. 

This year will, I hope, go down to history as marking the birth of a sound, virile, 
and truly Imperial air policy. 

K 



110 THE MEANING OF THE EMPIRE 

I have taken this opportunity of quoting Sir Frederick Sykes' address 
so liberally, for the reason that it is the first time an authoritative public 
statement has been made by the Air Ministry as to the future policy concern- 
ing Civil Aviation. The question which still baffles me is as to what is to 
become of the highly trained tens of thousands of the very choicest and most 
valiant of our young men of the Empire, who are expert Service Flyers and who 
could be converted into expert Civil and Commercial Aviators, if they so 
desired, in a short space of time, and if the various Governments throughout 
the Empire would come to their assistance by subsidising the already existing 
aeroplane companies and firms engaged in this jeopardised industry. 

H. C. MACFIE, 
President Australian Aero Club (Sydney). 



THE MEANING OF THE EMPIRE TO THE LABOUR 
DEMOCRACY:* 

By Sir CHARLES LUCAS, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

THE Koyal Colonial Institute, as we all know, was founded over half a century ago, 
with the warm support of both parties in the State. There were then only two parties. 
It was founded to awaken an interest in the Overseas Empire. At that time, 1868, 
few in this country had any knowledge of the Colonies and India : fewer still cared 
about them. Knowledge and interest are still sadly limited, but they are wide- 
spread compared with fifty years ago. Our original membership was under 200. 
It has now risen to over 14,000. Branches of the parent Institute have come into 
being, and we are out more than ever to promote sane, sober, systematic study of 
the Empire its races, resources, institutions, and problems among the democracy 
of the United Kingdom, for we believe that the future of United Empire depends 
upon whether or not the coming generation of citizens in the Motherland will be an 
understanding people. Our work in truth is mission work. If all our 14,000 members 
were missionaries of Empire, the labourers would still be too few for the harvest. 
But how should the Gospel be preached ? That is what I am concerned with to- 
night. My theme is the meaning of the Empire. What does it stand for ? What 
is, or ought to be the meaning of the British Empire to citizens of the United 
Kingdom, and especially to the working class democracy who are now becoming 
trustees of the Empire and all that it means ? 

The eyes of democracy are fixed on the present on the gain and loss of the 
immediate moment. They have occasional highly coloured glimpses of a democratic 
future, but they care little for the past. Yet this is the Old Country. Because it 
is the Old Country, it appeals with so much strength to our brethren beyond the 
seas. Everywhere in town and on countryside the past is with us, in our going out 

* An address delivered by Sir Charles Lucas, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., at the Central Hall, Westminster, 
on Tuesday, February 10, when the Hon. J. 0. Jenkins took the Chair. 



TO THE LABOUR DEMOCRACY. Ill 

and coming in. Leaving this hall to-night, we shall pass by Westminster Abbey. 
There has been an abbey there for eight and a half centuries ; it is the resting place 
of creative men who made our commonwealth ; it tells eloquently of a noble past, 
from which the present, including the Empire, grew. To preach the Gospel of Empire 
aright, there must be a living sense of a past which is still living, a sense of continuity 
and growth, and that sense must be implanted in the new democracy before it is 
too late. " Where there is no vision the people perish." 

THREE GROUNDS UPON WHICH THE EMPIRE HAS BEEN MISREPRESENTED. 

Before the War, among the working classes of Great Britain there was a some- 
what widespread suspicion of the Empire, which has not yet been wholly laid to 
rest. It was due, I think, partly to the exaggerated terms in which unwise friends 
of the Empire advertised it, partly to the teaching of extreme partisans on the other 
side. The phrase " Little Englander " was coined, as though it were a sin in a man 
or a nation to be great, as though we did not live in Great Britain. The grounds of 
suspicion may be summed up as three. 

(a) The Empire was supposed to be the embodiment of militarism, and the out- 
come of force. 

(6) It was supposed to be the special perquisite of the capitalist class, to have 
been acquired and to be maintained in the interests of the few. 

(c) It was supposed to be in some sort a device of the few for diverting public 
attention and public money from the needs of the home democracy by encouraging 
vainglorious and expensive schemes abroad. 

On these grounds it was contended that democracy had no use for Empire. What 
are the answers, if any ? 

I. THAT IT is THE EMBODIMENT OP MILITARISM THE ANSWER. 

The militarism argument, that Empire is the product of force, is, I think, largely 
due to the word Empire. One of the weaknesses of democracy is a tendency to be 
dominated by words and phrases. A great philosopher has said that " words are 
wise men's counters, they do but reckon by them, but they are the money of fools." 
Democracy is not wholly composed of wise men, and words are too often taken not 
as counters, but as sterling coin. The word Empire has a military sound. You 
remember Gray's line : " Hands that the rod of Empire might have swayed." " Rod 
of Empire " has an unpleasantly forcible ring to those who are old enough to 
remember school days when the rod was not spared and the child was not spoiled, 
when training involved much determination, but not for the boy self-determina- 
tion. Empire is made a bogey, as though all Empires were made on the same last, 
like so many regulation boots. Empires differ in kind according to the peoples who 
make or own them. Not only is there more than one kind of Empire, but there is 
more than one kind of force. As the War has taught us, there is righteous force and 
there is unrighteous force. Without righteous force all communities come to nothing- 



112 

ness. What is the use of laws if they are not enforced ? How can they be enforced 
without members of the force policemen ? 

But now let us come to the question how far is the British Empire the result 
of force, and how far is it held by force ? I am not going for one moment to maintain 
that force has not played a great part in the history of the Empire, but I am con- 
cerned to maintain that to speak wholesale of the Empire as the result and embodi- 
ment of militarism is wholly untrue. No doubt, wars have contributed largely to 
the acquisition of Empire. But what gave us Australia, for instance ? It came by 
settlement not by war. There were and there are some Aboriginal natives in Australia 
very few in proportion to the area. It may be said that we dispossessed them. 
If so, it has been a case of the tenants getting the better of the landlords, a proceeding 
which nearer home is nowadays in some circles thought rather creditable than other- 
wise. But there are one or two parts of the Empire now thickly peopled where there 
were no inhabitants at all till the English came. The Island of Barbados, for instance, 
or the Bermuda Islands. They could not have been conquered, there was no one 
to conquer. The lands could not have been stolen, there was no one to steal from. 
Some parts of the Empire have come by free gift. Those of you who know Malta 
will remember the Latin inscription at Valetta which tells that Malta was confirmed 
to Great Britain by the voice of Europe and the love of the Maltese. Over and over 
again lands have been offered to the British Government, and refused. What was 
German East Africa was offered to us by the Sultan of Zanzibar, who owned the 
coast line. It was refused by the British Government: the Germans came in, and 
we had trouble enough to turn them out again. Not only have possessions been 
refused, but they have been voluntarily given up, as in the case of the Ionian Islands. 
These islands came to us after the Napoleonic Wars, and in the middle of last century 
we gave them up to Greece, for the young peoples of the world regard England as a 
kind of wet nurse to rear up lands and peoples, and when they are going concerns 
to hand them over a curious kind of militarism. 

In the making of the Empire one of the most powerful agencies has been missionary 
work and missionary influence. Missionaries have constantly been in favour of the 
extension of the Empire. Militarism again, it will be said, grab and force under 
the camouflage of religion. Not so, the reason is perfectly sane and sound. The 
best safeguard for native races against tyrants of their own race or white adventurers 
is British Rule. In Westminster Abbey there is a memorial stone to the Pioneer 
of British Penetration into Central Africa, David Livingstone. He was the anti- 
podes of militarism, but he was not afraid of using force when force was needed. 
He preached a crusade against the Arab Slave Trade. It is due to his influence, and 
to men of his type that our Empire has been extended into Central Africa. It may 
be asked what business had they in Central Africa ? Their business was to bring 
freedom and they brought it. 

What has the War taught us as to the Empire being the result and embodiment 
of militarism ? I ask you specially to note its lesson, which is this, that while a great 
deal of the Empire is the result of war, less than is commonly supposed is the out- 
come of conquest, and comparatively little is the result of premeditated conquest. 



TO THE LABOUR DEMOCRACY. 113 

Take the case of Cyprus : That island was occupied peaceably in 1878 by agreement 
with Turkey, who owned it in virtue of conquest. It was occupied on a kind of lease, 
Great Britain paying an annual sum. When Turkey went to war with us lately, 
we took the island and it is now British Territory. This is the result of war, but 
there was no conquest. The Turkish inhabitants were given the option of remaining 
Ottoman subjects, or becoming British, and with great good sense, as I think, all but 
a handful became at once British. On the other hand there has been more conquest 
in this last War than in any of our previous wars deliberate conquest by arms, by 
force. We have conquered large areas of the earth's surface, in Asia, Africa and 
the Pacific. Yet no one in his senses maintains that we went into the War to add 
more lands and peoples to the Empire. We conquered in self-defence, and what 
happened in this War happened in former wars, as in the wars with Napoleon. We 
conquered and we extended our Empire in fighting for life and freedom. I am glad 
that we shall keep much of what we conquered. Why ? Not because I want to see 
more of the map of the world painted red, or for the purpose of militarism ; but 
because under British Kule lands and peoples will have freedom and justice which 
would not have been their lot under German or Turkish Dominion. 

An Empire which is the result of force, and the embodiment of militarism, can 
only hold together as long as there is a sufficiency of force for the purpose. The late 
War was a supreme test of Empires whether they were founded on the rock of freedom 
and consent or on the shifting sands of force. Our Empire is not far short of one- 
fourth of the land surface of the world. It is composed of the most diverse elements, 
lands, climates, races, religions. Every evil agency was set at work to stir up strife 
intrigue, lies, .gold. How would it have been humanly possible for the people of 
these islands fighting for their lives to hold it all by force ? What has been 
the record ? They all came in to uphold the Empire of their own free will came 
in, in the words of the Australian statesman, " to the last man and the last shilling." 
By a kind of homoeopathic treatment, the War has for ever given the lie to the doctrine 
that the British Empire is the creation of force and the embodiment of militarism. 

II. THAT IT is A CAPITALISTS' JOB FOB THE FEW NOT THE MANY 

THE ANSWER. 

The second ground on which the Empire is maligned is that the Empire is a 
capitalists' job, for the benefit of the few, not of the many. What have the people 
to do with it ? What do the people get from it ? It is true that the Empire is in a 
large degree the result of trade and trading companies, and that trading companies 
are composed in each case of a limited number of men. But what is the objection 
to trade and traders ? Men and women are not angels or devils ; they are human 
beings, and human beings rarely act from one motive alone. The ordinary capitalist, 
like the ordinary workman, wants to better himself. Quite right too. But it does 
not follow that he does not want also to better his country and his people. What 
is the meaning of this perpetual contrast between the few and the many ? The 
few are some of the many ; the few are more necessary to the many than the many 
to the few ; and the future of democracy depends upon recognising the fact. How 



114 THE MEANING OF THE EMPIRE 

can the people rule except by choosing representatives or delegates that is by 
choosing the few ? How can there be an army without officers ? 

The argument that the Empire has been acquired by the greed of the few in the 
interests of the few, rests upon a wholly false interpretation of history. It implies 
that for three centuries the Empire has been the result of design, " according to plan," 
as the Germans used to say. There was no design ; it has been the result of natural 
growth. If it had been of set design it would not have been, as it is, a conglomerate 
of endless diversities. A great writer has said that England acquired an Empire 
in a fit of absent-mindedness. It has been, in the Bible words, " as if a man should 
cast seed into the ground and should sleep and rise night and day and the seed should 
spring and grow up he knoweth not how." As an acorn grows into an oak, ending 
in something very different from and immeasurably greater than the first beginning, 
so it has been with the Empire. These islands bred an adventurous, sea-going, 
prolific race, whose instinct took them overseas. At any one time it was the few 
who crossed the sea ; the many stayed at home ; but the few had the race at their 
back. In bettering themselves they bettered the race, and the islands widened 
into an Empire. 

When I am asked, " What is the good of the Empire what do we get from it 
what has it done for us ? " I answer : (1) For good or ill the British race would have 
it so. (2) The Empire is not to be judged by profit and loss. I for one will never 
appeal to the pockets of my fellow citizens. There is one standard only by which 
to try the actions and the institutions of the children of men, and that is the standard 
of justice and of truth. But what have we got from it ? Look at the self-governing 
Dominions and if they are self-governing they cannot possibly be held by force 
what of Canadian corn, Australian wool, New Zealand meat, new homes under the 
old flag and so forth ? The present distinguished High Commissioner of the Common- 
wealth, Mr. Fisher, was three times Prime Minister of Australia ; before he went 
to Australia he was an Ayrshire miner. Sir Joseph Cook, by origin a Staffordshire 
miner, has also been Prime Minister of Australia. Mr. Hughes rose from the ranks. 
They were the few mark you they went out to better themselves, and they did. 
But they also bettered the land to which they went and the land from which they 
came. Ask them whether Australia is the perquisite of the few and of the capitalist- 
Turn to our tropical possessions. Have you ever reckoned up how many of the 
necessaries of our life come from the tropics ? Tea, coffee, sugar, cotton, rubber, soap, 
candles, tobacco (for all good things end in smoke) ; they are nearly all produced 
on the family estate. What of the War ? Where would we have been without the 
fighting men, including the Indian Army, and the manifold resources of the Empire ? 
What do we get from the Empire ? The War answers the question. 

III. THAT IT is A DEVICE TO DIVERT ATTENTION FROM HOME BETTERMENT 

THE ANSWER. 

The third objection is that the Empire has diverted money and attention wanted 
for the betterment of home conditions. It is true that the Empire has cost money, 



TO THE LABOUR DEMOCRACY. 115 

but it has also brought in money. It is true that it has from time to time involved 
us in war, in the course of three centuries, but without it we must have had wars, 
and should probably have been far less able to survive them without our Empire. 
As to its diverting attention How much time in normal years does the House of 
Commons give to Indian and Colonial questions as compared with Home matters ? 
Never in the world's history was there an Empire which, in proportion to its size, 
encroached so little upon the public time and the public purse. It is true that, on 
occasions in history, rulers have diverted peoples from reforms at home by launching 
their country into outside adventures, and democracy has to be on its guard against 
this danger ; but, on the other hand, it is quite possible for a people to turn their 
eyes too exclusively within. Old gentlemen like myself are apt to be perpetually 
thinking of their ailments, and are prone to come to the conclusion that their ailments 
are the fault of somebody else. The remedy is always said to be " You must be taken 
out of yourself." Democracy is fond of putting out its tongue and feeling its own 
pulse, it wants to be taken out of itself, hence the value of the Empire. Take the 
illustration of a self-centered people not, it is true, a democracy the German people. 
Did not the War prove them to be at once extraordinarily clever and extraordinarily 
stupid ? Clever with an unscrupulous cleverness never surpassed, yet committing 
actions which any British child could have told them would set the whole world 
against them. Why ? Because they were taught and trained to think only from 
within to see the world only from the German point of view and through very 
German spectacles. If the Empire had done nothing else, the fact that it has brought 
the British race into contact with all sorts and conditions of mankind and thereby 
widened our outlook is sufficient justification for it. 



THREE GREAT IMPERIALISTS AND SOCIAL EEFORMERS MR. CHAMBERLAIN, 
LORD GREY, LORD MILKER. 

I have known rather closely three great British Imperialists, in whose minds 
true appreciation of Empire went hand in hand with social reform at home. The 
first was Mr. Chamberlain. He set himself to the betterment of Birmingham before 
he took in hand the wider task of developing the Empire, and Birmingham honoured 
and trusted its great citizen all the days of his life. The second was Lord Grey, our 
late much loved President, who was Governor-General of Canada. The two passions 
of his life were the British Empire and Industrial and Social Reform at home. The 
British Empire was to him the most beautiful thing in the world. He saw in it " a 
vast and almost boundless home for honest men." He saw in it " room provided 
for British genius to expand for ever and ever." " There need be no poverty or 
overcrowding," he said, " if we make intelligent use of the Empire." The third is 
Lord Milner, whose close friend in Oxford days was a pioneer in social reform, Arnold 
Toynbee. Here are words used in one of Lord Milner's addresses. Social reform and 
Imperialism " are inseparable ideals absolutely inter-dependent and complementary 
to each other. How are you going to sustain this vast fabric of the Empire ? No 



116 THE MEANING OF THE EMPIRE 

single class can sustain it. It needs the strength of the whole people. You must 
have soundness at the core health, intelligence, industry, and these cannot be 
general without a fair average standard of material well-being." Betterment at 
home and an overseas Empire are not antagonistic to one another ; they are firm 
and sure allies in the cause of the happiness of men. 

WHAT is THE TRUE MEANING OP THE EMPIRE ? 
ANSWER I. IT HAS BEEN THE GREAT CARRIER OP FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY. 

But now, leaving objections, let us look a little wider. What is the true meaning 
of the commonwealth of peoples which we know by the name of the British Empire 
for everyday citizens, for you and me ? Let me put it in this way. Suppose Great 
Britain and her people were here and now blotted out for ever, by what would she 
be remembered among men ? Surely most of all by her work beyond the seas. Why ? 
Because of conquest, annexation, military glory ? No. For none of these things. 
Men would point to the free peoples of the West and South who have come from 
Britain's womb : they would point to India, growing through British rule alone for 
the first time into a well-ordered people, rising to the level of self-government. They 
would point to open ports and freedom of the seas, to Labour in power in Australia, 
to coloured races answering to British rule. What is the meaning of the British 
Empire ? It is this in the first place. It has infected the whole world with freedom 
and democracy. 

ANSWER II. IT is THE GREAT INSURANCE OF DEMOCRACY. 

To plant democracy is one thing and a great thing. To secure it when planted 
is another. What is the meaning of the Empire ? It is the great world-wide in- 
surance of democracy. We come back to force once more. We have had before 
our eyes the spectacle of unrighteous force collapsing before righteous force. Only 
force has done it. As long as the world lasts there will be evil in it, there will be at 
intervals of time epidemics of crime among nations like outbreaks of influenza. 
Strength is the only real safeguard. In the words of the American statesman " eternal 
vigilance is the price of liberty." Weakness is not consistent with freedom. 
Independence means not being dependent, not living on sufferance ; those who would 
remain free must be strong. We hope the strength will be given and force supplied 
by the League of Nations, but the surest League of Nations is already within you, 
it is in our Empire. I said a short time since, that we would have been less able to 
survive our wars if we had not had our Empire. Taking the late War, history will 
say that England saved not only her own freedom but the freedom of the whole world. 
How ? First and foremost by her fleet. Our first line of defence is our navy stronger 
by far than any other and, in spite of alleged shortcomings, on the whole, when the 
crisis came, as ready for immediate action as was the German army. For note that the 
War has taught us the lesson that in a scientific age numbers and wealth avail nothing 
without preparedness and organisation. No nation can compete with the United States 



TO THE LABOUR DEMOCRACY. 117 

in potential strength, which before the War ended was being converted into amazing 
actual power. But America came into the War with a small army and little or no navy. 
A year and more went by before her strength could be felt, and this great power would 
have been impotent in the War had not Britain commanded the seas. Our home 
democracy knows well how helpless are numbers without organisation, how meaningless 
is organisation without force in the background. Trade Unions are provision made 
beforehand for defence in case of industrial war an insurance of the rights of workers. 
Similarly the British navy is an insurance of British democracy, and the navy is one 
with the Empire. For the fleet has always safeguarded the whole Empire, and they 
know it. On the other hand, the Empire has largely made the fleet. It is inconceivable 
that our navy would ever have grown to its present strength and efficiency, had not 
the possession of an overseas Empire made it a standing permanent necessity, with 
all the oceans for its training ground. 

ANSWER III. THE EMPIRE is WHAT BRITAIN HAS DONE THE DOERS AND 

THE TALKERS. 

What is the meaning of the Empire ? It is the most wholesome and effective 
antidote to the weaknesses of democracy. It is an expression of deeds, not of words. 
The Empire is what Britain has done. Good or bad it is the result of action. Sailor 
and soldier, explorer, trader, missionary, settler, miner, tiller of the ground, keeper 
of sheep they did it working men, not talking men the few, not the many. Yet 
the talk went on long words, self determination and the like, about the Empire which 
the doers made. Are all peoples on the same plane ? Will resolutions make them 
the same ? Will you hold a plebiscite or referendum of the races of Central Africa ? 
If they self determine to go back to slave-trading, will you undo what has been done 
and move that David Livingstone was a mischievous busybody ? Then the talkers 
justified themselves with another long phrase the internationalisation of the tropics. 
Did those who moved resolutions of this kind, or who accepted them, deign to consult 
anyone who knew tropical lands and peoples ? Did they stop to ask whether inter- 
national administration had been tried and found to be a disastrous failure, that 
divided authority is the worst possible expedient if the happiness of the coloured races 
is the consideration ? Looking over the records of the Nigerian Council yesterday 
I found that at their meeting on December 30, 1918, the gentleman representing the 
native community of Lagos said : "It has been suggested that the African Colonies 
should be handed over to an international Board. May I ask, Sir, if this Board is 
going to be a chess-board . . . every member of that board would want to play a 
game of chess on that board with us as pawns. For fifty-five years our beds have 
been comfortably made in the British Empire and there we are going to lie." Words 
are no panacea for human evils. Life is more than a debating society. It has a 
residuum of real living in it. It is the doers, most of them uncounted and unnamed 
not the talkers, who have left the world better than they found it. Working men 
in the best sense, the few, not the many, made the Empire and will always guide and 
lead the world. No delegates elected for power of speech could ever have built up 



118 THE MEANING OF THE EMPIRE 

the Empire. No crowd, however well-intentioned, could ever have taught the world 
the lesson of freedom. What the many can do is to choose leaders aright and follow 
them when chosen. Too often nowadays they choose well, but follow badly, or not 

at all. 

t 

ANSWER IV. THE EMPIRE STANDS FOR COMMONWEALTH NOT FOR CLASS DIVIDED 
ALLEGIANCE OF THE WORKING CLASSES. 

What is the meaning of the Empire ? Throughout the years of the War two con- 
flicting voices were heard in the democracy of Great Britain. One was the voice 
of class, the other the voice of country. Working men were perpetually invited to 
choose between two forms of allegiance. Is the working man primarily a manual 
worker, a member of a class, or is he primarily a British citizen, a member of a nation ? 
" How long halt ye between two opinions ? " Those who advocate the claims of 
class freely use the word international, implying that they are on broader and higher 
grounds than those whose horizon is bounded by country. But is that so ? The 
very word international implies distinct nations. If a nation perishes, class perishes 
with it. If class allegiance implies perpetual friendship between manual workers 
of all countries, it implies perpetual hostility between citizens of each country. In 
private life the family tie, blood relationship, is prescribed by nature. The nation 
is a big family with natural ties of common blood, common language, common soil, 
the same traditions, customs, laws. The boundaries of nations are compara- 
tively clear. It is quite certain where is the Englishman's home, and where the 
Frenchman's. But the bounds of class are like the Western Front in the last three 
months of the War ; they are shifting every day. Every day men and women 
are passing from one class to another. Class can destroy Empires, as the case of 
Kussia has shown. Citizenship, family feeling, alone, can prolong their life. The 
British Empire is the greatest illustration the world has seen of co-operation on family 
lines the greatest because not only has the strength of the blood tie been proved 
to the uttermost, but also the bond of citizenship has transcended the limits of race. 
Throughout the widely sundered provinces, a sense of common citizenship and 
recognition of a common Sovereign constitute a bond of brotherhood which holds 
together the most diverse races, all members of a single commonwealth in the 
literal sense partners in common weal, common peace, common danger, common 
security. 

THE COMMON SOVEREIGN. 

A human tie, a family feeling unites them, and one great ingredient in it is the 
common Sovereign. I do not for a moment think that the fabric would hold together 
without a person at the head of it without a human embodiment of the whole. 
To Eastern races, especially the Princes and people of India, the King is of the very 
essence of Empire. Eepublics have personal heads and spokesmen, often, as in the 
United States, with much more power during their term of office than has our King. 
But a President elected by the party machine has far less of the human element, is 
far more part of a machinery, than is a King. The human element may be a danger 



TO THE LABOUR DEMOCRACY. 119 

if the King is unchecked by the people, but as we have changed the meaning of Empire, 
so we have changed the meaning of King. Our King is the personal head of a house- 
hold, embodying the State, guided by chosen ministers of democracy, and assuredly 
in the present case instinct with care for all that tends to the well-being of the people. 

CLASS OBLITERATED IN THE PRESENCE OP DEATH. 

The great touchstone of realities is the presence of death. For four years and 
more, in John Bright's memorable words, the Angel of Death was abroad in the land, 
and we heard the beating of his wings. We all knew, only too sadly, that he is no 
respecter of persons. In town and country, in castle and cottage, the empty chair 
told the same pitiful tale. Where did class come in ? Did the men, who day after 
day and night after night went over the top to meet death half-way, carry class with 
them ? Did officers and men squabble about the many and the few ? All were 
working men in that side by side they went into action. All were capitalists in that 
one and all made the same great investment of their all. Class was gone, but country 
remained. English were to English in the supreme moment what none other could 
be, and the graves in France and Flanders, in Mesopotamia and by the Dardanelles, 
tell that whatever may have been their divisions in life, in death they were not 
divided. 

THE MISSION OF THE BRITISH EACE. 

I am an old-fashioned man. I believe that an all-ruling Providence has given 
to every people its talent, its specific work to be done, that to our people has been 
given the work of carrying justice and freedom through the world. I do not claim 
for them any immunity from wrong-doing. Like other peoples they have sought 
and found profit and gain. But I find the weak peoples of the world looking to and 
trusting England. I find British justice a proverb among nations ; and in my own 
personal life I have realised with thankfulness and pride how fair-minded and kindly 
are our people. I look upon the British Empire as an agency for the improvement 
of the world, and I believe the world to be a better world for the fact that the British 
have peopled some lands with their own race and taken the rule of others into their 
own hands. 

POINTS FOR THE LABOUR DEMOCRACY. 

Of this Empire the Labour democracy are now becoming the trustees. What 
will they do with their trust ? I have tried to emphasise three points : 

(1) That the Empire is the result of deeds, not of words. 

(2) That the Empire has been the work of the few, not of the many. 

(3) That though it has been the work of the few, they have represented the race, 

not a class ; they have widened the circle of the race and in doing so have 
enlarged the bounds of freedom. 



120 THE MEANING OF THE EMPIRE 

Nothing should appeal so strongly as the Empire to the working man, because 
it is a triumph of work. Nothing should appeal so strongly to democracy, for it is 
the greatest engine of democracy that the world has known, and the young democracies 
overseas have gone in front of our own. Nothing is more opposed than Empire to 
class distinction and class outlook, for its basis is the widest possible form of brother- 
hood. That is the meaning of the Empire. Its meaning is one of duty, of service, 
of responsibility, not of gain. It calls on us not to pull down but to carry on, to 
hand on to the little ones of to-day what has come to us, stronger, better, worthier 
than ever. It rests with us, in Lord Grey's words, " to fashion it as a power for the 
peace and happiness of mankind such as the world has never known." I ask you 
to study it for yourselves. Take nothing for granted from me or any one else. Yet 
I have tried to speak very honestly to-night, and I say with all reverence and humility, 
that study of the Empire, knowledge of men who have worked for the Empire, above 
all, counting up of those who have died for the Empire, have made me thankful to 
Almighty God that I have been born into the British stock, and I say, in the Psalmist's 
words : " My lot is fallen into a fair ground ; yea, I have a goodly heritage." 

The CHAIRMAN (the Hon. J. G. Jenkins) regarded the paper as one of the finest 
productions ever given before the Institute. In fact, from the historical point of view, 
as well as from the general treatment of the subject, they could not have had a more 
interesting address. It would, he hoped, be printed and widely circulated and carefully 
studied by every citizen of the Empire. In many instances, as had been pointed out, 
this country had been almost compelled to become the guardian of native races in 
different parts of the world. In Sir Charles Dilke's Life we were told how in spite 
of the representations made by Mr. Chamberlain and Sir Charles Dilke, under the govern- 
ment of Mr. Gladstone in 1880, valuable territory in East and West Africa was allowed 
practically to slip from our possession, and subsequently, in order to obtain Zanzibar, 
we surrendered Heligoland to Germany, an island which played so important a part 
in the recent Avar. He had himself had a considerable experience of British rule over 
natives. In the Pacific Islands, the marked difference between the treatment of natives 
by the British and Germans, and others who had colonies in those regions, was well 
worthy of consideration. Sir William McGregor, who was at one time Governor of New 
Guinea, was perhaps one of the best Missionaries of Empire that ever went from Great 
Britain. For example, the German method of punishing the native of New Guinea 
was to give him the cat and cut down his cocoanut tree. Sir William McGregor, on the 
other hand, took him in charge and compelled him to plant more cocoanut trees for 
the benefit of the future inhabitants of the island. In this connection, the Chairman 
paid a warm tribute to still another notable man of the Empire, Sir George Grey, 
and to the influence which he exercised in Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. A 
great many people confused the British with the Continental or German idea of Empire. 
Thus " Empire " and " Imperial " had become very unpopular terms. The history 
of our relations with the Dominions overseas was, he hoped, gradually dispelling these 
notions. It was not a well-known fact that a man in any condition of life could go 
to any one of the Dominions with the possibility of rising to the highest position, and 
that what we call the Empire was in fact a great democracy. He heartily endorsed 
the view that the fact that we had as head of the Empire a monarch who was not 
a party politician, was of the greatest value in cementing the various peoples of the 
Empire together. 

Mr. C. JESSON, M.P., regretted that there was not a larger audience to listen to 
Sir Charles Lucas' really interesting paper. He wished candidly to say that, in his 



TO THE LABOUR DEMOCRACY. 121 

opinion, the fault lay with the Institute. It had been too exclusive, too much of a 
mutual admiration society, and had not done enough towards making known to the 
masses of the people what was the real meaning of Empire. He took his own case 
as typical of thousands and thousands of workers in this country. He had been 
engaged in the Labour Movement for the last thirty years, and for the whole of that 
time he had never known anything in the way of propaganda in regard to the possi- 
bilities and meaning of the Empire. On the contrary, he had heard a great deal against 
the Empire. For instance, Lord Milner had always been held up to him as a sort of 
arch-criminal in this matter the man who was responsible for the South African war, 
and so on. Since then he had known Lord Milner and had found him to be one of the 
finest democrats and one of the most broadminded and intelligent men he had ever met. 
People had been misled by hearing one side of the story without being told the other. 
When the War broke out we saw all our splendid overseas soldiers trooping over to 
Europe to fight for the old country. If there was nothing in the idea of the British 
Empire but an Empire in the ordinary acceptation of the word, would they have 
done that ? 

Continuing, Mr. Jesson said we were going in for reconstruction and increased 
production, but even then there would be something more to do. We were not a 
self -supporting country. From his own study of the possibilities of the situation, 
he believed there was very little we required which we could not find within the 
four comers of the Empire. If we were to have a League of Nations that was going 
to be successful, the first thing to do was to consolidate all the Free States composing 
the Empire. We wanted to trade within the Empire as far as possible. In short, 
he said, there had got to be a great scheme of propaganda before they could reach 
the people of this country, and he was hoping that some day the Council of the 
Institute would come down from their perch and organise such a scheme. 

The CHAIRMAN said they were grateful to Mr. Jesson for his remarks and he could 
assure him that the Council were at all times ready to come off their perch and 
engage in the work of propaganda. 

Sir FRANCIS YOTTNGHTISBAND agreed with previous speakers as to the great value of 
the address. He thought himself that we ought to raise our conception of what a 
missionary of Empire really was. Those of them who went out into the Empire 
concerned themselves, he thought successfully, with improving the material prosperity 
of the people ; establishing justice, imbuing them with ideas of freedom and helping 
them to stand on their own legs, but he thought that in years to come we should 
have to go beyond that. There was a still higher work. We had to get more in 
touch with the leaders of the people in many different branches of life the leaders 
of thought, of art, and of society society in the broadest sense of the word. One 
felt after long years of service that we had, somehow or another, devoted ourselves 
too exclusively to the political and administrative side of the work, to the neglect 
of the side which he had just indicated. He corroborated very emphatically what 
the lecturer had said as to our not having, certainly in the majority of cases, extended 
our Empire simply by means of force. He looked forward with the greatest possible 
interest to the forthcoming visit to India of the Prince of Wales, whose charming 
personality would renew the ties of monarchy, and would be of the greatest possible 
service to the Empire. 

Dr. Watson Grice, Mr. Donald Begg, Mr. Edward Salmon, Mr. A. F. Somerville, and 
Mr. H. C. Macfie also took part in the discussion. 

A hearty vote of thanks was given to the lecturer on the motion of Sir George Parkin, 
seconded by Mr. G. Howell. 



122 
UNKNOWN NEW GUINEA.* 

By Lieut. E. W. PEARSON CHINNERY. 

PAPUA or British New Guinea comprises the S.E. portion of the island of New Guinea. 
Its total superficial area is about 90,540 square miles, while its coast-line is estimated 
at 3,664 statute miles. A series of mountain ranges, two of the peaks of which exceed 
13,000 feet above sea-level, extend N.W. and S.E. through the centre of the mainland 
and form the watershed of an extensive system of rivers, many of which are navigable 
for small launches of shallow draught. 

Useful harbours lie dotted here and there along the coast-line, and it is in the 
vicinity of these that European interests are generally located. Situated as it is in 
the tropics, Papua is subject to the climatic conditions of such regions. But, being 
just outside the hurricane belt, it escapes severe gales which have so distressed some 
of its less fortunate neighbours. From the point of view of health it differs little 
from other tropical possessions. Malaria is prevalent, but with ordinary precautions 
the white settler may preserve a fairly good standard of health. A great deal depends, 
however, on the nature of his occupation and the degree of exposure to heat and 
infection for one engaged in never-ending pioneering work among the swamps and 
mountains on a diet of tinned food has infinitely more to fear than one who works in 
comfort in the European settlements on " fresh " food- Diet, indeed, largely regulates 
the condition of health, and one should keep his body well nourished. White 
settlers, however, readily adapt themselves to conditions, and the average death-rate 
is not high. 

The Territory is administered by a Lieut. -Governor (J. H. P. Murray, C.M.G.), and 
an Executive Council of five ; three unofficial members are added to this number to 
form a Legislative Council. The laws of Queensland, with a set of local ordinances and 
regulations, are applied and administered by the judicial and magisterial staff to a 
native population approximating half a million, and a white population averaging 
1,500. The majority of the white settlers are centred round Port Moresby, Samarai 
and Woodlark Islands, towns which are connected with Australia by wireless, and 
which are visited about once a month by steamers trading between what was German 
New Guinea and Sydney. 

The stores in these towns supply the needs of settlers, and the hotels provide board 
and lodging for about 8 per month to residents or persons passing through. Each 
town possesses a hospital and medical staff, and as most of the economic development 
is taking place within a short distance of them, they are convenient centres for 
commercial interests. 

For purposes of administration the Territory is divided into several large areas, 
each in charge of a Eesident Magistrate or Assistant Resident Magistrate. Detach- 
ments of native constabulary, armed with carbines, are stationed in the various 

* Paper read at a meeting of (he Royal Colonial Institute held at Central Hall, Westminster, on 
November 26, 1919, the Right Hon. Andrew Fisher, High Commissioner for the Commonwealth of 
Australia, in the Chair. 



UNKNOWN NEW GUINEA. 123 

divisions, with white (patrol) officers to assist the Magistrates. The members of the 
constabulary and their N.C-O.s are all natives of Papua who have been trained at 
the Constabulary Headquarters in Port Moresby. They are an excellent body of 
men, and in many instances have performed work which in a regular service would 
merit high recognition. The Headquarters or Government Station of each division 
is situate in a place most convenient for the purpose of administration. 

In the terminology of the District Officer districts are divided into three classes : 
(1) Settled districts ; (2) districts not under control, and (3) unknown districts. 
The first comprise those places in which the Government is represented by a village 
constable, chosen from the people themselves. In some parts an officer regards as a 
" settled district " any place into which he can venture without being greeted by a 
shower of arrows. Districts not under control are those whose inhabitants have not 
absorbed Government laws, though they may have been visited. Unknown districts 
are those usually indicated by an expansive motion of the hand and vague nod of the 
head. No one knows what is there. Wild, rugged mountains, rivers and gorges, 
tangled, almost impenetrable, jungles, poisonous reptiles yes ; but coal, oil, and 
other wealth, wild men and women who knows ! 

The new District Officer arrives on the out-station to take over from his predecessor, 
who, possibly having worked himself ill, is proceeding on the first leave he has taken 
perhaps for some years. Together they go over the map and then take it outside on the 
verandah of the office (which serves also as Court-house) the better to get their 
bearings. Thus the relieving officer is shown the various portions of the district. 
But why is it that they stand silently gazing at the space marked unknown ? Why 
is it that even with his leave now in view the tired man keeps his eyes wistfully on 
the cloud-crested mountains in the far distance ? Why does he pine for just a little 
more strength to " stick it out " 1 And what queer spell is that which the newcomer 
feels drawing him irresistibly towards the dark regions ahead ? It is the lure of the 
unknown ; the subtle charm which keeps men at their post when even health has 
failed them Nature's ally to the cause of Empire. The call of duty takes men to 
the uttermost parts of the earth, but to him whose lot it is to be cast into the lone- 
liness of Papua's mosquito-infested swamps and jungles, Nature has given a priceless 
boon the lure. What free man could stand this life, year after year, who did not 
feel it ? 

There are three powerful forces working towards the conquest of unknown New 
Guinea. The first is the responsibility of the officer for the good conduct of his 
district ; the second is the peculiar charm, with which Nature has encircled her 
mysteries ; and the third is the Empire's need. The time has come when all potential 
assets of the Empire must be examined and developed- What little development has 
taken place in New Guinea has given indications of great promise. Gold and valuable 
oils have been discovered in certain parts of the interior. In many of the mountain 
ravines large forests of pine occur. Economic plants such as rubber are widely 
distributed. The mangrove swamps of the western coast-line are rich in tannin. 
Indigenous fibres abound everywhere. And no doubt organised investigation would 



124 UNKNOWN NEW GUINEA. 

disclose many other valuable assets. As plantations and other institutions employing 
native labour develop, their expansion will call for more native labour. To meet this 
need also, unknown districts must be opened up and their inhabitants led to believe 
in the Empire's interests, so that they too can voluntarily take part in the march of 
progress and share in its benefits. 

"With such forces to stimulate them, and the laws of the administration to guide 
them, the District Officers set out on their important missions into the unknown. 
What happens to them there would fill many volumes. With one aspect only I shall 
deal, and that is the savage. 

Primitive man has to be found and taught to abandon those of his practices which 
oppose the standards of Government. Rude institutions have to be studied and 
developed, until they fall in line with the needs of progress. The energy that man for 
generations has devoted to the welfare of his own small community must be directed 
into larger channels, so that not only his own but other communities will expand 
and advance. And generally a relationship of mutual trust and confidence must be 
established between the inhabitants of unknown regions and the Government. When 
this has been achieved, the District Officer can be said to have brought his district 
under control. Then other forces enter the life of the " new people." With full 
confidence in the Empire to which they have offered allegiance, they depart for 
service into other parts of the Territory. 

When each man leaves his village he appoints friends to fulfil the functions that in 
tribal life were his. Thus, during his absence, the whole of his interests will be in 
other hands. While he is far away among strange people, eating foods that are new 
to him, doing work for which perhaps he is not suited (a muntain man, for instance, 
doing work usually performed by coastal men), he probably wishes very often that he 
had not left his village. Is it any wonder that in such moments he will depend on 
his employer for comfort and stimulus, just as formerly he relied on his District Officer. 
I have found that employers of native labour, whether officials or commercial men, 
have a very live sympathy for their " boys," and will go to any length to promote 
contentment among them. But more than this is required. Every man in charge of 
native labour, particularly if the natives have come from a distant part of the Territory, 
should look upon each man as one who, like himself, is actuated by a desire to help 
progress. He should realise that many miles away the evolution of a community 
(which perhaps has recently come under control) depends on the training of this very 
native. As far as possible, he should study each labourer and allot him a task in which 
he will take a genuine interest. Each labourer was possibly but a short time before a 
cannibal or head-hunter who, through the patience and understanding of his District 
Officer, was transformed into a willing labourer ; his new employer must remember 
this, and with patience and understanding promote his further development. He 
must provide amusements for him during his hours of freedom, and generally strive 
to maintain his interest and happiness during such period of service. And he must 
return that native to his home when such service is ended, not only with his trade 
goods, but with unshaken faith and confidence in the British Empire and its interests, 



NATIONAL LAYMEN'S MISSIONARY MOVEMENT. 125 

which, with his trade goods, will be shared by his village people. If each one who is 
taking part in the training of a native subject fulfils these obligations the future of 
our interests is assured. 

Papua is a country which depends for its development on the labour of the natives. 
The District Officers, at great risk and hardship, with the tools of sympathy, under- 
standing, and justice, are building loyal citizens and willing workers out of fierce 
cannibals and head-hunters. Let those who continue the tuition of these transformed 
savages keep ever before them the same fundamental principles of Empire building 
sympathy, understanding, and justice. 

The Chairman (the RT. HON. ANDREW FISHER), who expressed pleasure at seeing 
such a crowded gathering, introduced Lieut. Chinnery as a young Australian who, 
having spent ten arduous years in an almost unknown land, knew his subject thoroughly. 

Speaking later, the Chairman said that in plain and simple language Lieut. Chinnery 
had given them the results of an enterprise of conspicuous daring and success. His 
own experience, having been three times round the world, had taught him a number 
of things, among them, that if you felt in any way lonely in your own native country, 
you might take a trip round the world and be all the better for it. 

Captain BARTON mentioned that, dating from some twenty years ago, he had 
spent eight of the happiest years of his life in New Guinea, and said he had listened 
with the greatest interest to Lieut. Chinnery's address. He found that the conditions 
with regard to the administration of native affairs were much the same now as when 
he left the place. In his opinion, the native was the greatest asset we had in New 
Cruinea, owing to the fact that the development of New Guinea would undoubtedly be 
on agricultural lines. It was therefore to be hoped that those in charge of the adminis- 
tration should be possessed of those qualities with which Lieut. Chinnery was evidently 
so strongly imbued these being courage, patience, and sobriety, and also sympathy 
for native customs. 

Lord LAMINGTON said, that as a former Governor of Queensland and having in 
that capacity visited parts of New Guinea on two or three occasions, he had been deeply 
interested in the address. At that time the Lieutenant-Governor was Sir William 
MacGregor, one of the most remarkable men in the Empire of his time, and one of his 
main principles, as those who knew him would agree, was the protection of the native 
races. This he did most successfully. At that time the Imperial Government was 
not very convinced that Australia could safely be entrusted with the care of native 
populations, but Sir William MacGregor considered that Australia had shown herself 
well qualified to undertake such a charge. It was clear from the lecturer's own words 
that he was a close upholder of the principle of treating the natives well, and of 
giving them every fair consideration. 



THE NATIONAL LAYMEN'S MISSIONARY MOVEMENT'S APPEAL. 

THE following appeal was issued by the National Laymen's Missionary Movement 
of 3, Tudor Street, London, E.G. 4, as a " New Year's message from the Prime 
Ministers of the British Commonwealth of Nations." It was countersigned by 
ol. Sir Eobert Williams, M.P. (President), the Bt. Hon. Viscount Bryce, O.M., on 
behalf of the Advisory Council, and the Kt. Hon. Sir Albert Spicer, Bart., of the 
Executive Committee. The National Laymen's Missionary Movement would be highly 
gratified if any friends overseas who share the view that the message is vital to the 

L 



126 ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 

policy of reconstruction, would arrange to give it wider publicity in their own land. 
In England, the Headmasters of Public Schools are having boldly printed copies 
hung up in the Schools. 

To OUR FELLOW CITIZENS or THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

The War, in shaking the very foundations of ordered civilisation, has driven all 
thoughtful men to examine the basis of national and international life. 

It has become clear to-day, both through the arbitrament of war, and through 
the tests of rebuilding a life of peace that neither education, science, diplomacy nor 
commercial prosperity when allied with a belief in material force as the ultimate 
power, are real foundations for the ordered development of the world's life. These 
tilings are in themselves simply the tools of the spirit that handles them. 

Even the hope that lies before the world of a life of peace protected and developed 
by a League of Nations, is itself dependent on something deeper and more fundamental 
still. The co-operation which the League of Nations explicitly exists to foster, will 
become operative in so far as the consenting peoples have the spirit of goodwill. 
And the spirit of goodwill among men rests on spiritual forces ; the hope of a 
" brotherhood of humanity " reposes on the deeper spiritual fact of the " Fatherhood 
of God." In the recognition of the fact of that Fatherhood and of the Divine purpose 
for the world which are central to the message of Christianity, we shall discover the 
ultimate foundation for the reconstruction of an ordered and harmonious life for all 
men. That recognition cannot be imposed by Government. 

It can only come as an act of free consent on the part of individual men everywhere. 

Responsible as we are in our separate spheres for a share in the guidance of the 
British Empire as it faces the problems of the future, we believe that in the acceptance 
of those spiritual principles lies the sure basis of world peace. We would therefore 
commend to our fellow citizens the necessity that men of goodwill who are every- 
where reviewing their personal responsibilities hi relation to the reconstruction of 
civilisation, should consider also the eternal validity and truth of those spiritual forces- 
which are in fact the one hope for a permanent foundation for world peace. 





ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 

CANADA. 

Production of Woollen Goods. A great impetus has been given to wool-growing 
in Canada, owing to the difficulty in obtaining raw material frcm the usual sources. 
Whereas in 1913, 73 per cent, of the woollen goods used were bought in England, 
about 60 per cent, are now purchased in Canada. In the fiscal year ended March 31, 
1917, 2,895,787 yards of tweed were imported frcm the United Kingdcm as compared 
with 571,732 yards in the year ended March 31, 1919. This cordition necessitated 
greater reliance upon the Canadian mills, and it has effected a maiked change in the 
position of that branch of the Canadian textile industry. 



ROUND THE; EMPIRE NOTES. 127 

[^/British Columbia Apple Crop. The apple crop in British Columbia is reported to 
be 60 per cent, greater than in the previous best year. Large quantities of applee 
have been exported to the United States, the buyers there having contracted for 
the crop on the trees ; as well as about 350 car-loads to Ontario, 150 to Great Britain, 
and 80 to New Zealand. Growers are elated at the success of their products in the 
United States, as open competition with the American apple is no mean ordeal. 

Record Year at McGill University. McGill University achieved its record enrolment 
last year when 2,552 students were admitted, compared with 1,728 in 1913-14, which 
was the biggest entry previously recorded. Students in arts number 516, an increase 
of 26 over the previous record ; science 643, an increase of 63 ; medicine 642, an 
increase of 262 ; while commerce, dentistry, and law have increased over 100 per cent. ; 
and the number of students in each faculty exceeds that of all other sessions. 

AUSTRALIA. 

New Shipping Line. It is announced that a new line of steamers to run direct 
between Australia and China will shortly begin operations. It is to be known as the 
China-Australia Mail Steamship Line, and will inaugurate its service with the steamers 
Victoria and Gabo. The latter, which will be mainly a cargo carrier, left Sydney 
about October for Manilla and Hongkong, and the Victoria, which will have ample 
passenger accommodation, will follow. Melbourne and Hongkong will be the terminal 
ports for the new line, though it may possibly be extended to Shanghai later on. 

Housing Scheme in New South Wales. In connection with the State housing 
scheme, experiments in the use of concrete are being tried extensively. It is claimed 
that by using this material houses may be built much more rapidly than when stone 
or brick is employed, that the cost is considerably less, and that the buildings will 
pass the most rigid tests. Two concrete test houses are being built at Matraville on two 
different systems. One is to be a " pre-cast " house, the various parts being moulded 
and set up in a hard state ; while the other is to be an example of the " monolithic 
house," that is, one in which the concrete is poured into holding boxes of the icquisite 
size and shape. In fact, one house is being built " dry " and the other " wet." This 
demonstration in the use of concrete is being undertaken by an expert from America. 
The New South Wales Government has acquired an area of 12 acres at Marrickville, 
one of the suburbs of Sydney, for the purpose of building homes for the public. The 
allotments will be available for building immediately. Their value will average between 
150 and 170. 

Western Australia's Development Policy. In connection with the recent successful 
flotation in London of the Western Australian Government Loan for 1,500,000, which 
was largely over-subscribed, it may be stated that, according to an official announcement, 
the Loan Expenditure by the Government for the year ending June 30, 1920, is 
estimated at 4,939,914, but this total includes 1,250,000 in connection with the 
soldiers' repatriation and settlement, which is to be recouped by the Commonwealth, 
leaving a net State expenditure of 3,689,914. The whole of this Loan Expenditure 
is being devoted to development work of various kinds, such as railways and tramways, 
harbour and river improvements, water-supply and sewerage, roads and bridges, and 
the encouragement of agriculture generally. With a population of a little over 500,000 
the State proposes to spend no less a sum than 2,211,000 on a comprehensive land- 
settlement policy for returned soldiers. 

SOUTH AFRICA. 

Home Manufacture Of Cloth. The freight shortage brought about by the War has 
made South Africa realise her dependence upon overseas countries for the supply of 
manufactured articles of one sort and another, and the universal problem of home 



128 CORRESPONDENCE. 

production is engaging much attention. A company is at present being formed to 
manufacture cloth, whereby the South African farmer will be provided with a ready 
market for all his wool, and the public gradually relieved from the necessity of paying 
the enormously high prices charged for imported goods. As it is, many thousands of 
tons of wool are sent annually to England to be manufactured into cloth and re- 
imported into South Africa at a considerably enhanced cost. 

EAST AFRICA. 

Possibilities and Resources. Regarded as a whole, British East Africa (with an 
area of 200,000 square miles), Uganda (which is about half that size), and what was 
German East Africa (with an area of 380,000 square miles), together form a territory 
of vast proportions and possibilities. European settlement is not possible everywhere 
throughout this land of promise, but where it takes hold, there is no doubt that 
the country will amply repay development. Given perseverance and industry, the settler 
can be independent in a few years ; but just now he is still handicapped by war 
restrictions. For instance, coffee cannot be exported, which is a serious thing for a 
country where the net income from this source in a single year was estimated by the 
Government to exceed 300,000 for one district. The settler naturally has a good deal 
of ground to make up. Cattle-rearing is by no means an easy task in East Africa, as 
local diseases involve much care and experimental inoculation. The climate is excellent, 
and the scenery beautiful, while sport is abundant. The productive possibilities are 
very great. Coffee-growing will always be one of the most attractive industries, as 
it is not attended by much risk, and yields a high return. Wheat, sugar and tea are 
all fairly satisfactory crops, and sheep and pig breeding promise well. By importing 
stallions, East Africa has succeeded in rearing excellent horses and ponies, many of 
which were requisitioned for war service. The production of wattle has been con- 
siderably developed lately, and will combine with other industries such as flax, sisal 
hemp, dairy produce, tropical and sub-tropical fruits, soap, cotton and copra, to 
ensure future prosperity. The vital need is the development of local railways. 

CEYLON. 

The Plumbago Industry. A new policy has been inaugurated in Ceylon regarding 
the lease of Crown lands for the production of plumbago. In future, instead of 
putting up the leases at public auction, the Government will recoup itself by charging 
a royalty per ton on all plumbago mined, and leases will run for fifteen instead of for five 
years. Those interested in the plumbago industry held a conference in Colombo last 
November to consider the best means to be adopted to protect the local output against 
foreign competition, notably from Madagascar. After hearing the views of delegates 
from different parts of the island, it was decided to recommend the Government 
to suspend the Customs duty on plumbago for some reasonable period. Meanwhile 
arrangements are being made by a Committee to organise the industry on a more 
business-like and practical footing. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Founder of the Bank of England. In reply to Mr. William Lang's letter 
in February UNITED EMPIRE, I am well aware and who is not ? that many books 
of reference attribute the founding of the Bank to Paterson. Encyclopaedists and 
such like nearly always " credit " him with that achievement, as Thorold Rogers 
quite correctly states. But it is somewhat different with genuine historians, who are 
more concerned with facts than with popular delusions. In Macaulay's " History 
of England," for instance, Montague receives his proper meed of praise as the " creator " 
of the Bank of England, and there is not much to choose between creator and founder. 



EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 129 

Burton, too, in his " History of Scotland," when speaking of the alleged services 
of Paterson to the banks of Scotland and England, says: "With neither of these 
adventures, however, was he practically connected. His name is associated with 
them in a traditional rather than an official or capitalist shape." 

Seeing that the legislative and constructive part of the scheme was carried through 
by Montague, and that its financial success was due to the influence and energy 
of Godfrey, there does not seem to have been much left for Paterson. But Mr. Lang 
can easily settle the point if he wishes. He has consulted four learned works and 
is therefore, I presume, fully acquainted with what Paterson did in the proceedings 
which established the Bank, and we shall all no doubt be interested in knowing 
what his efforts consisted of. Mr. Lang omitted to give this information in his previous 
letter, but perhaps that was an oversight. 

J. G. TAYLOR. 
12 Burdon Terrace, 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The Institute's Name. Please record my vote AGAINST changing the name of the 
Institute; it is now well known all over the world, and to change its name would be 

extremely harmful. 

E. H. GKAKT 

(A member of nearer fifty than twenty-five 
Cheltenham, February 14, 1920. years' standing). 



EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 

Railways and Industrial Development in South Africa. 

THE remarkable growth of manufacturing industries in the Union of South Africa 
has raised in the minds of business men there the question of transport almost before 
all other considerations. With the scattered supplies of coal and iron, and with the 
widespread markets, transport is the vital link in making these necessary factors 
economically available. The official attitude, then, toward the question of railway 
development will naturally be watched with very great interest, and a recent report 
on the railways and harbours for the year ending March 31, 1919, made by the General 
Manager, is an instructive and valuable document. There seems to be a full recog- 
nition in official circles of the dependence of the awakening progress of the Union 
upon efficient railway service, and it is comforting to those industrially interestep 
in the country to find that a bold policy of railway development is advocated, and 
emphasis given to the urgent need of proper transport for the support of her own 
industries by a country so sparsely populated as the Union. Local production is 
the King Charles' head of all South African publications, and parts of this Railway 
Report might be extracts from a report on the growth of industries. The prosperity 
derived by Great Britain, Germany, and the United States from their possession of 
available coal and iron is held up as an example, and while it must be recognised 
that the Union has very large supplies of both, it cannot be denied that railway develop- 
ment, both wide and rapid, is needed to make them practically accessible. 

One of the chief difficulties in South Africa, as everywhere else, is the shortage 
of rolling stock and general railway material, and the three prize vessels which have 
become the property of the Union Government are being used almost exclusively for 
the conveyance of this much-needed material. In respect to wood supplies, the 
question has again arisen in South Africa as to the possibility of using local timber 
for sleepers and also for harbour purposes ; but the perennial difficulty of imperfect 



130 EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 

seasoning again interferes. With so many wood-working industries as" are coming 
forward in South Africa now, the question may be permitted as to when this vital 
problem of seasoning is going to be thoroughly settled ; for it is a handicap, at the 
very outset, of all those industries using wood as a raw^material. 

"Transport should Meet, not Govern, Trade." 

There are two further questions connected with transport which require consider- 
ation, if the Union is to attain to that industrial growth at which she is at present 
aiming. First is the question of the electrification of railways, which is to be the 
subject of a special report at an early date ; and which, for itself, and in connection 
with power development, is of vital importance to the industrialist. The second 
is the much-discussed question of subsidiary mechanical road transport, feeding the 
railway systems. Experience varies so much in other countries that it is difficult 
to determine the chances of success in Africa, but it seems probable that large 
loop routes for commercial vehicles, under the control of the railway system, would 
provide an outlet for agricultural districts at present undeveloped for lack of 
transport. 

As has been suggested; nowhere is railway development so intimately bound up 
with industrial progress as in South Africa, and for this reason one sound feature 
of the Union Government railway programme is the decision to issue bulletins dealing 
with " railway matters of public interest " as they arise, and not waiting for the 
formal periods of report. On the aesthetic side, too, a new departure in railway 
architecture is to be commended. The country stations being built are now designed 
to follow the old Dutch South African homestead type. This is perhaps the first 
systematic effort ever made to avoid the uniform hideousness of this kind of 
building. 

The report which, for its industrial importance, has been considered in this 
section, is altogether an admirable production. One extract from it explains the 
spirit which informs the control of the Department, and might well serve as a motto 
for the guidance of all transport ministries : " Transportation facilities ^should 
meet, and not govern, trade." 

The Inquiry Bureau. 

It may be interesting to the reader to know something of the types of inquiry 
which come before the Trade and Industry Committee for consideration, and the 
following, which have been taken from recent inquiries, may perhaps exemplify the 
varied kind of work which has to be dealt with. 

The first, and perhaps most frequent form of inquiry, is that which is concerned 
with the buying and selling of commodities, raw or manufactured, direct or through 
an agent. One of these in the current month was a South African inquiry for the 
disposal of maize in Balkan markets. In this matter, the Committee was able to 
suggest the alternatives of operating through a London firm or dealing direct with 
the market in question. Another inquiry was for the purchase of silk and gum 
from within the Empire. Known sources were placed at the disposal of the inquirer, 
and a very wide and interesting investigation is being carried out in regard to opening 
up other sources of supply within the Empire. Paper textiles presented a difficult 
little problem for some time, but the Committee, working through its connections 
with the manufacturing industries, was enabled to find for the inquirer a firm manu- 
facturing this somewhat narrowly specialised product. 



EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 131 

A second group, and one which in view of present tendencies is perhaps the most 
significant, consists of those inquiries which are for machinery and for information 
bearing upon the development of some local industry in the Overseas Empire. An 
inquirer in the Solomon Islands has been provided with information and details 
of machinery in regard to the coconut and copra-working industry. Details and 
suggestions in regard to the making of briquettes and the requisite plant have been 
sent to British East Africa ; whilst India is a constant source of inquiry for British- 
made machinery and plant for very diverse purposes, from sugar-making to the 
chemical coating of paper. Another inquiry bearing upon Oversea industry was 
that from an important motor manufacturing firm, desiring to be put in touch with 
local sources of information in Canada with a view to opening a branch factory there. 
To show that machinery inquiries do not all work one way, the Committee was able 
to give to a London buyer the name of an Oversea firm, which has established itself 
in England and manufactures machinery for the making of cement and concrete blocks. 

An interesting little group of inquiries surrounds the cinematograph trade and 
its bearing upon the Oversea Empire. Action has been taken in co-operation with 
Australian bodies to induce producers in this country to pay more attention to the 
willing market in the Commonwealth, and not leave it to be given over entirely to 
the indirect propaganda of the great American Film Companies. A film descriptive 
of the delights of a famous and beautiful Atlantic island is on its way to England 
to be exhibited through the offices of the Committee. Particular information as 
to the needs and openings for British films in at least two great Eastern markets 
is being obtained. A student has been introduced, under the Oversea Students' 
scheme, to the mysteries of this attractive occupation, and a South African inquirer 
has been put in touch with those who can probably satisfy his requirements in regard 
to this trade. 

And then there is that large and complex collection of inquiries grouped under 
the heading " Sundry Inquiries." These alone exhibit a curious but fascinating 
variety. It is not proposed to deal here with the students' inquiries, which were 
described in this section in the February issue. 

One inquirer wished to find a solicitor practically conversant with the intricate 
subject of Oversea Empire tariffs. This was successfully answered. The conditions 
which surround the bricklayer was another difficult question, which the Committee 
was able to deal with, giving information as to various countries. Full information 
in respect to the Australian shipping strike was required and collected for a Fellow 
of the Institute, and the possibilities of new sources of Egyptian asphaltum (which 
is not Egyptian at all) were obtained with some difficulty and suggested to an inquirer. 
Various subjects, from wireless telephony to allegations of German propaganda ; 
and from matters involving correspondence with a Swedish scientist, to those 
necessitating letters to a professor in the University of Tokio, have been considered. 

The lighter side has also had its share in the many-faceted activity of the Trade 
and Industry Committee, and the endeavour to trace for a dignitary of the Near 
East the film, which he believed portrayed him taking part in a London ceremony 
of some importance, lightened with some entertainment the usually prosaic labours 
of the Committee's office ; nor was the selection of an authority, competent to edit 
a poster so that it should not offend Chinese susceptibilities, altogether devoid of 
interest. 

The foregoing will serve, perhaps, to show the various subjects which have to be 
dealt with in the ordinary course of the work of any organisation which sets out to 



132 BRANCH NEWS. 1 ; 

reply to inquirers from the seven seas ; and will perhaps forward the object with 
which, frankly, they have been quoted, of giving the reader confidence in submitting 
his inquiry, however difficult it may seem, to the endeavours of the Information 
Bureau. 



BRANCH NEWS. 

BUENOS AIRES. 

The Local Committee of this Branch recently entertained Mr. H. G. Mackie, C.B.E. r 
His Britannic Majesty's Consul- General, prior to his departure for England on leave 
of absence. Mr. Mackie has long been a prominent member of the British community 
of Buenos Aires, and in the midst of his arduous official duties gave his valuable co- 
operation in furthering the interests of the local Branch of the Institute, of which 
he was the Chairman. The work of Mr. Mackie on behalf of the Institute, backed 
up by the energy and enthusiasm of the Honorary Secretary (Mr. William Warden) 
has resulted in the formation of a strong and popular Branch, ever ready to extend 
hospitality to visitors to the Argentine, and to play a prominent part in philanthropic 
and charitable movements. For eight years Mr. Mackie has occupied the office of 
Consul-General, and his departure from Buenos Aires has evoked expressions of regret 
from all sections of the British community. 

SHEFFIELD. 

The Sheffield Branch, which was formally inaugurated as recently as December last, 
has already started upon what promises to be a most active career. By arrangement 
with the authorities of the Sheffield University a meeting was held on February 6, 
when Professor K. H. Vickers, who holds the chair of Modern History at Durham University, 
gave a lecture on " The League of Nations and the Concert of Europe." Sir Henry 
Hadow, Chairman of the Branch, presided on the occasion and the meeting was 
well attended. At its termination a meeting of the local Fellows was held, when it 
was unanimously resolved that Mr. William Clark be invited to be the representative 
of the Branch on the Council of the Institute at Headquarters. The success of the 
Branch is now assured, and its meetings will provide opportunities for the exchange 
of views with visitors from Overseas and others. The Honorary Secretary, Captain 
D. C. Leng, will gladly supply any information regarding the Institute and its activities 
to those who may wish to co-operate in the great work which it was founded to 
promote. 

HANTS AND DORSET BRANCH. 

It has already been announced that this Branch has acquired premises of its own 
in the building of the Bournemouth Natural History Society, Christchurch Road. 
The formal opening has now been fixed for Wednesday, March 10, when the function 
will take the form of a " House Warming," and the occasion will be utilised to hold 
the annual meeting of the Branch. Any Members of the Institute, who may be 
in the neighbourhood on that date, will receive a cordial welcome from the Local 
Council, which is so ably presided over by Sir Daniel Morris. It is worthy of mention 
that the expenses incurred in furnishing the local headquarters have been wholly 
subscribed by the Members of the Branch. Since its foundation the Branch has 
shown commendable activity in the organisation of meetings, for the discussion of 
subjects of imperial interest. 

MANCHESTER. 

The Travelling Commissioner visited Manchester last month for the purpose of 
meeting the Local Committee and discussing with them various questions affecting 



Advertisements. 



B.D. 



i 







2,OOO - YEAR - OLD - WISDOM 

"All men, when prosperity is at its height, ought 
then chiefly to consider within themselves in what 
way they shall endure disaster." TERENCE, Phormio. 



The wisdom expressed over 2,000 
years ago by the famous old Roman 
Poet and Dramatist has lost none of 
its significance to-day. 

Terence, through literary ability, rose 
from the position of Slave to be one 
of the most honoured men in Rome. 
During his career he must have 
experienced poverty and probably 
adversity. Hence his warning to the 
prosperous ! 

Men and Women to-day in the height 
of their prosperity should give 
thought to this. Business now good 
may go wrong. Advancing age or 
illness may incapacitate the most 
willing worker. Uncontrollable cir- 
cumstances may place the one-time 
prosperous in a condition of penury. 
But the man (or woman) possessing 
an adequate endowment assurance 
policy can face 1:he future with 
equanimity. He can be certain of 



receiving if alive a capital sum at the 
age of 50 or 55 (which, if desired, 
could then be commuted into an as- 
sured income for life). During the 
whole period in which he is accumu- 
lating this fund for his retirement 
he is also affording provision for his 
wife and family. Because, should he 
unfortunately die before the policy 
matures, the whole capital sum, to- 
gether with the profits due to that 
date, would be paid without further 
liability to the person or persons 
entitled thereto. 

Endowment assurance is recognised 
by shrewd business men and women 
as the best possible investment. If 
best for them, it must be good for you. 

'Particulars of this sound and advan- 
tageous method of investment can be 
obtained at any of the "British 
Dominions " Branch Offices, or from 
the " Life " Dept., 32, Moorgale Street, 
London, E.C. 2. 




HEAD OFFICE: BRITISH DOMINIONS HOUSE, 
ROYAL EXCHANGE AVENUE, LONDON, E.C. 3. 

ASSETS EXCEED 17,OOO,OOO. 



133 HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 

the future of the Branch. The need of suitable accommodation has long been felt, and it 
is a matter of much satisfaction that, thanks to the co-operation of the directors of the 
Manchester Ship Canal, quarters will be provided in the Canal Company's building, con- 
veniently situated in the heart of the city. To the regret of the Committee and the 
Fellows generally, Mr. W. H. Himbury has found it necessary to resign the office of 
Honorary Secretary of the Branch. His services have been invaluable, and his loss will 
be keenly felt, but it is hoped the Branch will continue to enjoy his active support as a 
member of the Committee. His successor in the office of Honorary Secretary will be 
Mr. James S. McConechy. 

SUSSEX. 

The first Annual General Meeting of the Sussex Branch was held at Boyle House, 
Hove, on Wednesday, January 28, when Sir George Casson Walker presided over a 
large attendance of the Members. The report dealt with the period covering July 
1918 to December 1919, and recorded the fact that on December 31 last the 
membership consisted of 228 Fellows and 384 Associates, making a total of 612. 
The activities of the Branch, during what may be termed the period of construction, 
were necessarily restricted, but a lecture was given in the Brighton Art Gallery, on 
December 5, 1918, by Mr. Edward Salmon on " The Romance of Empire," and during 
the autumn of 1919 three lectures, open to the public, were given in the Hove Town 
Hall. Arrangements are being made for a second series of lectures to be given in 
the Hove Town Hall during the next few months, a.id for fortnightly lectures to be 
delivered in the Institute Building, to Members and their friends. The first of the 
latter gatherings was held on January 29, when Sir Charles Lucas, Chairman of the 
Council of the Institute, delivered an address on " The Evolution of Empire." 

Alderman A. R. Sargeant, who was Mayor of Hove from 1913 to 1919, has been 
elected Chairman of the local Council in succession to Sir George Casson Walker, and 
Sir Berry Cusack Smith, Vice-Chairman. The Branch is situated in Third Avenue, 
Hove, where Fellows and Associates of the Institute, visiting that popular seaside 
resort, will receive a cordial welcome. 

LEICESTERSHIRE, 

A General Meeting of the members of this County Branch will be held during 
the last week of March, when steps will be taken to increase its usefulness and to 
add considerably to its present membership. The Headquarters of the Branch are 
in the Leicestershire Club, which is centrally situated in the Borough of Leicester. 

VANCOUVER ISLAND BRANCH. 

The first Annual Meeting of this Branch was held in Belmont House, Victoria, on 
December 11, when the following Committee was elected : Eon. Vice-President, His Honour 
the Lieut. -Governor, Colonel E. G. Prior ; President, C. T. Cross, Esq. ; Vice-President, 
Hon. D. M. Eberts, K.C. ; Hon. Secretary-Treasurer, Major H. W. M. Rolston ; Major 
H. B. Tyrwhitt-Drake ; S. J. ShaUcross, Esq. ; Captain E. D. Clarke ; F. M. Rattenbury, 
Esq. ; Captain W. H. Logan. A Meeting of the Executive Committee was subsequently 
held for the purpose of drafting the Constitution and By-laws of the Branch. It 
is anticipated that the Branch will be placed on a firm foundation at an early date, 
and will render substantial help to the parent organisation. 



HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 

THE meeting on Thursday, January 8, was of an exceptional character, as it was 
convened to hear an address on "The Elizabethan Sea Kings and the Struggle with 
the Dominion of Spain," by Mr. Denison W. Allport. The speaker sketched in a 



Advertisements. 



xvi 




PETER 
DAWSON'S 

scotch 



OLDEST 
& BEST 



PETER DAWS ON, LTD. 

Distillers, DUFFTOWN & GLASGOW. 




Bank of the Orange Ri 

iera to the Union Government in the Transvaal, the Orange 
- Free State, and Natal, and to the Imperial Government. 

EVERY DESCRIPTION OF BANKING BUSINESS transacted with 
the Cape Province Natal . Orange Free State, Transvaal Rhodesia. 
Nyasaland East Africa Protectorate. Uganda. Zanzibar. Portuguese 
East Africa. South-West Africa Protectorate and the Belgian Congo, 
and with the Bank's Agencies in New York and elsewhere 

OVER 400 BRANCHES IN AFRICA. 

Agents ai Amsterdam Pan* Rome and the Principal Cine* of the World 




and 




London Offices 
Circus Plftce. London Wall. 

E.C2. 
1 8. St. Swithln's Lano. E C 4 

West End Office 

25. Cockspur Street. S.W.I. 

Nev> Yprk Agency 

10. WALL STREET. 

Indta BOMBAY. 

Antwerp 

SB. PLACE DE MEIR. 
Head Office PRETORIA. 



134 HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 

masterly way the story of the Sea Kings of the Elizabethan era Drake, Frobisher 
Hawkins and others whom he regarded not as pirates but as the defenders of England 
against the predatory power of Spain and as the pioneers of British -continental and 
overseas trade. After the lecture, Mr. A. P. Poley, who presided, gave some interesting 
historical particulars of the action of Philip of Spain, in his treatment of England, and 
endorsed the lecturer's opinion, as to the character and services to their country of 
the Sea Kings. The Hon. J. G. Jenkins proposed the vote of thanks to Mr. Allport,. 
and expressed the opinion that it was the best lecture that had been delivered in that 
room. The resolution was seconded by Mr. James Baker, and was enthusiastically 
adopted by the large number of Fellows and their friends present. 

On Thursday, January 22, the Hon. J. G. Jenkins, who had recently returned from 
the important mission to the United States, which he had undertaken as the repre- 
sentative of the London Chamber of Commerce, gave his " Impressions of America, 
its People, Industries and Works." In the course of a breezy and most instructive 
address, the speaker conducted his audience to New York, thence to Atlantic City,. 
to the International Congress there, which he had been commissioned to attend, where 
he met English, French and Italian representatives, and over three thousand leading 
merchants, manufacturers, bankers and other commercial men of America. From 
Atlantic City he took his audience to Philadelphia, and described the ship building 
operations on Hog Island and the Baldwin Locomotive Works ; thence to Baltimore, 
which is spending an immense amount of money on the increase of its port ; next to 
Washington, with a glimpse at Congress and the Senate, to Pittsburg with its great 
steel works, to Cincinnati, where the playing cards are made, to St. Louis, one of the 
principal cities of the West, to Kansas City, the centre of the great live-stock interests, 
to wonderful Chicago, the largest city for its age in the world, to Detroit, where Ford's 
immense motor works are located, to Cleveland, the original home of the Rockefellers, 
to Akron (Ohio), the rubber manufacturing centre, in whose works there are 70,000 
employees, to Niagara, whose falls supply electric energy to a distance of 170 miles, 
to Buffalo and Rochester, the home of Eastman's Kodak Works, and to Boston, 
where soldiers were policing the city and evidence was afforded of the attitude of 
America to " direct action." Thence to New Haven and back to New York. During 
the address and in the discussion which followed, reference was made to a " dry " 
America, and some striking facts were elicited aa to the present and prospective 
aspect of that much debated question. Sir George R. Parkin, who presided, gave it 
as his strong opinion, which Mr, Jenkins confirmed, that America would remain " dry," 
not for sentimental but for practical reasons. Sir George also argued forcibly, that, in 
the industrial competition we should have to face with the United States, we must 
be united at Home and in the Dominions, and by increased production and the 
adoption of improved methods must do all we can to maintain our supremacy in the 
markets of the world. " Efficiency and energy " were, he considered, the great needs 
of our times. With these, the Empire, with its great resources, would be unassailable. 
Sir Harry Brittain, in expressing his concurrence with the views of the Speaker and 
the Chairman, referred to the honour which His Majesty had recently conferred upon 
Sir George Parkin, and to the " magnificent effect " of the visit of His Royal Highness 
the Prince of Wales to the United States. He strongly favoured trade co-operation 
with the States, and the encouragement of close relations between the two countries. 
Hearty votes of thanks to Speaker and Chairman concluded a most successful meeting. 



N.B. In the January number of UNITED EMPIRE, in the report of the discussion 
on the work of the Institute, held on November 20, it was stated, inadvertently, that 
Captain T. Holmes Wood had recommended a change in the name of the Institute. 
That suggestion was actually made by another Fellow, and was characterised by Captain 
Wood as immaterial. 



Advertisements. 



PAUL WINN & CO. Ltd. 

72 Mark Lane, London, E.G. 3. 

IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS 

OF 

Produce, Chemicals and Foodstuffs 

ESTABLISHED 1883. 

Bankers: BARCLAYS BANK, LTD., 170 FENCHURCH ST., E.G. 

Correspondence from reliable Shippers invited; open 
to make advances upon their Consignments. 

Cables : " SNOWWHITE, LONDON." Codes : A B C, STH EDITION AND PRIVATE. 



West Africa an a fi Tropical Countries. 

Specialists in COMPLETE OUTFIT AND KIT. 
CAMP FURNITURE & EQUIPMENT, PROVISIONS. 

EVERITT, PENN & CO., Ltd 

16 PANTON ST., HAYMARKET, 

LONDON, S.W.1. 

Telephone No. : GERBAED 2706. Telegrams : " TBOPIKITS, CHARLES, LONDOF." 



AN IMPORTANT NOTE OF INTEREST. 

Our Unique System that gives Immense Satisfaction to our Clients. 
One salesman with expert knowledge of all tropical requirements will attend 
to your outfit from start to finish. You are not passed through a dozen depart- 
ments to divide your orders amongst as many assistants. With us your sales- 
man seas everything through from your airtight boxes to mosquito boots. He 
will examine everything and supervise packing for shipment. You know that 
you are being well looked after and that your order is having the personal and 
expert attention it requires. Result Absolute Satisfaction. Call or write 
about your needs. 



ALL GOODS SUPPLIED AT LOWEST CASH PRICES. 



135 



EMPIRE SOCIAL CIRCLE. 

A MEETING in connection with the above was held at the Institute on Thursday 
evening, January 8, at which the Hon. J. G. Jenkins presided. Among those present 
were the Hon. E. Lucas, Agent-General for South Australia, Brigadier-General Manley 
Sims, Agent-General for Ontario, and a number of other representatives of the various 
agencies and offices actively interested in the Empire. 

Brigadier-General Manley Sims gave an able address on " Some Problems of the 
Empire," especially dealing with the question of an Imperial Parliament which he 
regarded as essential to the solution of the many problems we have to face. 

There was an interesting and animated discussion following the address, in which 
Major Hely Pounds, Mr. C. H. Chomley, Mr. James Baker, Mr. H. C. Macfie and Sir 
Harry Wilson took part. The discussion was adjourned to February 5, when among 
those who spoke was the Hon. J. M. Hunter, the new Agent-General for Queensland, 
who expressed his pleasure at the character and objects of the Circle. The next 
meeting will be held on Thursday, March 4, when it is hoped Sir Hamar Greenwood 
will speak on " The Trade of the Empire." 

The object of the Circle, as stated by Mr. Jenkins, is to bring together repre- 
sentatives of the High Commissioners and Agents-Generals Offices and the various 
Shipping and Transport Companies and Banks for the purpose ol discussing matters 
of Imperial interest and of getting to know each other. The movement promises to- 
be a great success. 

All who desire to join the Social Circle should communicate with the Hon. 
Secretaries (Mr. E. T. Scammell and Major Pounds) at the Institute. 



DONATIONS TO THE NEW PREMISES AND JUBILEE FUND. 



EIGHTH LIST. 



Previously announced , 
Lieut. A. Middenway . . 

W. Miller, Esq. 
N. K. Pearce, Esq. . 
Laurence A. Russell, Esq. . 
A. C. McGrotty, Esq. (second 
donation) . 

Harold G. Watts, Esq. 
Robert Gray, Esq. 
Dr. J. L. Prain 
W. D. R. Christie, Esq. 
A. W. Garbutt, Esq. . 
H. D. Carver, Esq. 
J. K. Morrison, Esq. . 
F. G. Pratt, Esq. 
J. R. T. Crampton, Esq. . 
W. S. Wetherell, Esq. 
Pat Boyle, Esq. 
Captain S. A. G. Taylor 

E. G. Green, Esq. 

F. N. Tucker, Esq. . 
Arthur G. Hicks, Esq. 

R. N. Bland, Esq., C.M.G. 
A. J. Dishman, Esq. . . 

L. Oliver, Esq 

H. E. W. Grant, Esq., C.M.G. 





. 43,729 
3 



s. d. 

14 6 

3 

1 


2 



2 








1 


1 





5 








5 








1 


1 





1 


1 





1 


1 





5 


5 





5 


5 





1 


1 





1 


1 





25 








5 








1 


1 





2 


2 





10 








1 








5 


5 





5 


5 





2 


2 


e 



Robert C. Dickson, Esq. (of 
Sumatra) .... 

Sir Joseph Outerbridge 

R. 0. H. Spence, Esq. . . 

Charles T. Allen, Esq. 

Maung Tsoe Maung, Esq., T.P.S. 

B. F. Conigrave, Esq. 

H. S. C. G. Beckett, Esq. (Erst 
donation) .... 

Captain H. H. Sandeman (first 
donation) .... 

S. C. Ambrose, Esq. . 

Mrs. R. H. Sawyer 

R. S. D. Goodwin, Esq. (in 
memoriam of his nephews, 
2nd Lt. D. J. F. Bradbury, 
Royal Lancaster Regt., killed 
in action, Nov. 15, 1916 ; and 
Lt. B. W. Goodwin, South 
African Regt., killed in action, 
Apr. 29, 1918) 

Commander R. Murray Rumsey, 
R.N., I.S.O 



s. d. 

10 o a 

10 

i i a 

20 

10 

110 

500 

200 
1 1 

i i a 



550 
220 



43,895 2 6 



Advertisements. 



XVUl 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 



THE Public are WARNED 
against purchasing Belsize 
Cars WITHOUT 
THOROUGH INSPECTION, 
as we find that several of our 
old cars have been altered and 
offered to the public as new 
1919-20 models for immediate 
delivery. 

Prices have been asked much in 



excess of our 1920 List prices, 
and we advise all prospective 
customers to verify chassis 
numbers and particulars of 
types. 

We offer the co-operation of our 
staffs in Manchester & London 
to assist in ascertaining the 
identification of any car offered 
for sale as a new car. 




BELSIZE MOTORS LTD., Clayton, Manchester. 

London : The Belsize London Agency, Ltd., 2-3 Duke St., 
St. James's, S.W.I. Address for repairs and spare parts: 
33, Augustus Street, Cumberland Market, London, N.W.l. 



0QBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 



HOUSE and SOCIAL COMMITTEE 

OF THE 



THE EMPIRE AT WAR ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE 



A History of Imperial Co-operation up to 
and including the Great War 

Edited by 
SIR CHARLES LUCAS, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

(Chairman of Council) 

'THE ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE has mads 

* arrangements with the Oxford University Press for 
the publication of a standard work under the above title, 
whicn will consist of six volumes (demy octavo) rangipg 
in size from about 300 to 600 pages and fully illustrated 
with maps and plates. 

VOLUME I (300 pages) will contain an account of Imperial 
Co-operation in war time from the early days of the Empire 
down to August 4 1914. inc uding the participation of the Colo- 
nies and India in previous Empire Wars, the development of 
the Overs :as Forces and systems of Defence, and the beginnings 
of Imperial co-orilinatijn for Defence purposes. 

VOLUMK II (600 pages) will be devot. d to a general history of 
the Great War, with special reference to the part played in the 
various naval and military operations by the Overseas Forces 
of the Empire. 

VOLUMES III to VI inclusive will be separate histories of all 
the activities of the different parts of the Empire the Self- 
Governing Dominions, India, the Colonies, the Dependencies 
and the P electorates during the years of the Great War, in- 
cluding military efforts, po itical measures and conditions 
finances, gifts in money and kind and so foith. These volumes 
will be allotted as follows : 

Vol. Ill (400 pages). Canada, Newfoundland, West Indies- 

Vol. IV '400 pages/. Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands. 

Vol. V (400 pages). South. East and West Africa. 

VOL. VI (50) pages). India, Egypt and the budan, and the 
Crown Colonies other than those already nam^d. 



BBBBBBBBOBEBBBBBBBEJBB 



On the second and fourth Thursdays 

each month, meetings are held in the 

Smoking Room under the auspices of 

the above Committee. 

NEXT MEETING MARCH llth. 

Hon. Sec. : E. T. SCAMMELL 

EMPIRE SOCIAL - CIRCLE 

of the 

ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE 

OBJECTS 

For Social Intercourse and the Informal Discussion 
of Empire Topics. 
MEMBERSHIP 

Open to all who, Officially or Commercially, are 

actively interested in the Empire. Fee 5j. for 

Session January to July. 

MEETINGS 

The first Thursday in the month, at 7.30 for 8 p.m. 

Discussion 8 to9. 1 5. Light Refreshments 9. 1 5 to 1 0. 

N.B. Applications for membership should be made to the 

Hon. Secretaries or Treasurer of Circle. 



136 



OBITUARY. 

MR. JOSEPH S. O'HALLORAN, C.M.G. 

To the great regret of his many friends, both at Home and Overseas, Mr. J. S. O'Halloran 
<iied at Cheltenham on January 25 last, at the age of seventy-eight. He was born in 
Adelaide, South Australia, on March 29, 1842, and was the eldest son of Captain W. L. 
O'Halloran, one of the earliest settlers in South Australia. At the age of seventeen 
he entered the Civil Service of South Australia, as clerk in the Audit Office, and was 
subsequently promoted to the Clerkship of the Legislative Council. In 1871 he came 
to England. Hi a official connection with the Royal Colonial Institute began in 1881, 
when he was appointed Assistant Secretary and, two years later, was promoted to the 
Secretaryship, which office he resigned in 1909. He continued, however, to take a 
keen interest in the work and development of the Institute up to the time of his 
death, and was always accorded a warm welcome, when visiting the Institute, from 
those who retained happy recollections of the good work he performed for a period 
of twenty-eight years, as well as from his former colleagues on the staff. Mr. O'Halloran 
was married in 1886 to Alice Mary, daughter of the late Mr. Henry Simpson, of Ridge 
Park, Adelaide. A wreath bearing a suitable inscription was sent on behalf of the Council 
to Mrs O'Halloran, coupled with a letter expressing their sympathy in her bereavement. 

THE HON. H. B. T. STRANGWAYS. 

The Hon. H. B. T. Strangways died on February 11, in his eighty-eighth year. He 
was the last survivor of the South Australian Parliament elected under the 1856 Con- 
stitution. He was distinguished in the public service of the Colony, among the achieve- 
ments to his credit being the overland telegraph from Adelaide to Port Darwin. Several 
places in South Australia are named after him. He was one of the earliest members of 
the Royal Colonial Institute, and always took keen interest in its progress and proceedings. 
His portrait was published among those of Past and Present members of the Institute in 
December, 1918. 

SIB JAMES A. GRANT, K.C.M.G., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S. 

Sir James Alexander Grant, K.C.M.G., who died at Ottawa on February 7, aged 
eighty -nine, enjoyed the distinction of being the first doctor to enter the Dominion 
Parliament, to which he was elected in 1865 as a supporter of Sir John Macdonald. 
He was President of the College of Physicians at Ottawa in 1869 and of the Dominion 
Medical Association in 1872. He was physician to successive Governors-General from 
Lord Monck to Earl Grey, and was made K.C.M.G. in 1887 in recognition of his 
services to Princess Louise. His interests were widely varied, but he was primarily a 
great Canadian, taking pride in Canada's part in the Empire. 

CAPTAIN L. J. BEIRNE. 

Captain L. J. Beirne of the 1st Battn. Essex Regt. was born at Boyle, co. Roscommon, 
Ireland, in 1874. He served in the South African War on the staff of General Sir 
J. G. Maxwell. Taken over by the Civil Administration of the Transvaal at the end 
of the War, he held various important positions until 1912, when he resigned and 
returned to England, where he obtained the appointment of Secretary of the Canadian 
Chamber of Commerce in London. In the early stages of the War he rejoined his 
old regiment (the Essex) and served with the famous 29th Division in Galh'poli. 
Later he went to France, and was badly wounded at Thiepval in 1916. After twelve 
months under hospital treatment he retired from the Service, and was appointed 
head of the Intelligence Department of the Federation of British Industries. But 
he never entirely recovered from the effects of his wound, and he died in hospital 
on January 27. For a short time he capably filled the positions of acting Librarian and 
acting Secretary of the Trade and Industry Committee of the Institute. 



Advertisements. 



six 



filler 



Motor 
Carriages 



with the Daimler Sleeve- Valve Engine 

FOR years a Daimler will maintain its full power with less 
attention than that required for any other type of engine. 
There are no valves to grind, no springs to renew, no tappets 
to adjust, no loss of compression, and always that silence which 
denotes perfection of engineering and a minimum of wear, 

The superiority of a Daimler is known to every user. 

The Daimler Company, Ltd., Coventry 




Lowest cost 



per mile 




CYCLE 
MOTOR CYCLE j 
MOTOR CAR j 
& SOLID BAND I 
-.J 



Buoyancy, speed and 
long mileage are regular 
features of all Bates tyres. 
Skilfully made from the 
pick of the best materials 
in the world. Real 
rubber! That's the 
secret of the popularity 
of Bates. You buy 
Bates they're better ! 

Write for our free booklet 
and address of your 
nearest agent. 

W.& A. BATES LTD. 

ST. MARY'S MILLS, 
LEICESTER. ENGLAND. 



187 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

LIEUT. -COLONEL J. D. CKAWFORD. 

A well-loved figure in Montreal disappeared in Lieut. -Colonel J. D. Crawford, who 
died on January 17, aged eighty-four. He was one of the original members of the 
Montreal Stock Exchange, and commanded the 5th Royal Scots when the regiment 
was re-established in the seventies. He was active in the scientific and sporting move- 
ments of Montreal, and when the War broke out offered his services in any capacity, 
notwithstanding his years. Three of his grandsons fought in the War. 



NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

THE FOLLOWING HAVE BEEN ELECTED : 

Resident Fellows (19) : 

Hon. Arthur Bailey, W. Bullock, F.R.G.S., C. H. Carpenter, O.B.E., Earl of Cork and 
Orrery, L. F. Davidson, Major-Gen. Sir John Fowler, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., S. L. 
Fumise, Vice- Admiral Alfred E. A. Grant, W. H. Hewitt, B.A., B.Sc., A.R.C.S., John 
Nivison, D. T. Timins, O.B.E., M.A., F. J. Wylie. 

BOURNEMOUTH. Herbert V. M. Cotes. 

CAMBRIDGE. A W. Milholland, H. C. Pierce. 

SUSSEX. Alfred Fox, Sir John L. Otter, Copt. A. B. Wales, Capt. A. E. Winton. 

Non-Resident Fellows (149) : 

AUSTRALIA. L. M. Harvey (Adelaide), G. B. Hewer (Sydney), G. F. Hewer 
(Wingham), H. B. Jackson (Perth), Capt. G. S. Kingsell (Sydney), A. 0. Neville (Perth), 
Major F. K. Officer (Melbourne), R. W. Standish (Sydney), A. F. Wreford (Perth), 

A. T. Wreford (Perth). 

CANADA. -John W. Hobday (Toronto), F. 8. Parsons (Toronto). 

NEW ZEALAND. -F. Hayter (Burke's Pass), H. Lighlband (Christchurch). 

SOUTH AFRICA. A. P. Everitt (King William's Town), E. C. Everitt (King 
William's Town), Capt. Laurie MacCulloch (Durban), John Mowlem (King William's 
Town), A. H. Southed (Pretoria). BAHAMAS. ,/. M. S. Yates. BARBADOS. 
J. D. Chandler, E. T. Cox. BRITISH EAST AFRICA. F. G. N. Alexander (Kericho), 
C. W. Allen (Nakuru), W. C. Allen (Nairobi), M. L. Anderson (Nairobi), J. A. Angus 
(Nairobi), A. C. Anstey (Nairobi), Henry Armstrong (Nairobi), Major S. Armstrong 
(N. Kenia), G. W. Arnell (Nairobi), A. E. Ashmead (Nairobi), C. K. D. Scales (Nairobi), 
J. H. Day Beaks (Naivasha), G. J. Beech (Nairobi), E. W. Bennett (Kericho), E. B. 
Sevan (Nairobi), Major A. Braithwaite (Nairobi) , J. F. Butter (Eldoret), H. Cane 
(Limaru), W. J. Carter (Mombasa), A. R. A. Cartwright (Njoro), R. A. Clutterbuck 
(Njoro), Lt.-Col. R. P. Cottings-Wells, C.B.E., D.S.O. (Kiambu), H. C. Coltart (Njoro), 
F. J. Cousin (Nairobi), G. Crawford (Nakuru), Capt. H. M. Crofts (Eldoret), D. Darling 
(Nairobi), J. S. Davis (Nyeri), C. C. Dawson (Chania Bridge), C. N. Day (Nairobi), 
C. M. Dobbs (KericJio), A. F. Duder (Nakuru), W. Eardley (Kericho), Capt. H. Eckstein 
(Nairobi), E. P. Evans (Nairobi), G. Fletcher (Nairobi), W. H. Furlonger (Nairobi). 

B. G. Gascoigne (Nairobi), Major L. Gascoigne, D.S.O. (Nairobi), W. M. G. Guinness, 
B.A., M.D. (Kericho), K. L. Hardy (Nzoya), E. C. Harrison (Nairobi), E. L. Healey- 
Tutt (Uasin Gishu), J. G. Hewett (Nairobi), S. 0. V. Hodge (Nairobi), W. Hogarth 
(Kericho), R. Holmes (Nakuru), H. Izard (Nairobi), W. Kearney (Nairobi), Major R. L. 
Kennedy (Nakuru), H. Kettles-Roy (Nairobi), L. F. King (Nairobi), R. S. King (Nyeri), 
L. E. Laurence (Fort Ternan), Major-Gen. K. E. Lean, C.S. (Nakuru), W. A. McClelland 
(Nairobi), R. McGeorge (Nairobi), Major A. C. E. Marsh (Nakuru), Colonel A. Masters, 
C.B. (Nairobi), J. F. Parker (Chania Bridge), D. P. Petrie (Njoro), P. W. Pitt (Eldoret), 
R. H. Pringle (Nakuru), R. H. P. Ranger (Nairobi), N. L. Richards (Eldoret), W. H. 
Ridge (Nairobi), F. J. Roberts (Nairobi), F. C. Shaw (Ulu), Capt. A. G. Southby 
(Kericho), R. Southby (Kericho), Capt. F. W. Stringer (Nakuru), J. R. S. Stuart 
(Nairobi), J. W. Tait (Eldoret), W. P. Todd (Nairobi), P. D. Townsend (Eldoret), 
E. J. Tyack (Nyeri), P. C. White (Nairobi), F. D. Wilkinson, M.C. (Lumbwa), H. J. 
Wisdom (Nakuru), L. A. Wisdom (Nakuru), N. C. Yonge (Kericho). CYPRUS. 



A dvertis&ments . 



xx 



CD IF 

GD 
GO 
03 
ED 
QD 
03 




03 
03 
03 
EJ 
ED 
C3 
03 
03 
03 























QD 
E 
El 





Getting Back & Looking Forward 

Export Licences are being granted 
and we are now able to offer 

COMPOUND FERTILIZERS 

with 

AMMONIA 

PHOSPHATES 

POTASH . | 

to meet Planters' requirements until supplies of our Dissolved 
(soluble) Guano and Raw Peruvian Guano are again available. 

........-,.,.,,. ,. fi3 



The Anglo-Continental Guano Works, Ltd. 

Dock House, Billiter Street, London, E.G. 3 



The above is a copy of an 

envelope which contained 

the following 

LETTER. 

Dear Sirs, 

I am writing this to thank 
you for the trouble you took 
in, getting my Uniform off 
last week ; it arrived in 
ample time, and was in 
every way satisfactory. I am 
much obliged. 

Yours faithfully, 

Major, 

R.A.F. 



We leave clothing to ready-for-wear shops. We are 
practical Tailors who dress our customers, and depend 
upon their introduction and recommendation. Come to 
us and we will give you good cut 1 good workmanship ! 
and good materials ! 



For Town! Sport! and Travel! 

ROSS, TAILORS 

AND 

BREECHES MAKERS 

Outfitters and Shirt Tailors 
22 George St., Hanover Sq. 

LONDON, W. 1 :: And EXETER 



'Phone 



1312 Mayfair 



All through the late war the high standard of their Pure 
Wool Waterproofed Cloths, as exemplified in the " Ports- 
mouth " and " Roscut " Coats for Sport and TraveJ 
whose reputation is world wide, was maintained- 



138 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

F. N. Houry (Limassol), 0. L. Houry (Limassol), N. Houry (Limassol). FEDERATED 
MALAY STATES. E. 8. Biddlecombe (Negri Sembilan), H. T. A. Biddlecombe (Port 
Swettenham), H. W. Reid (Perak), E. Vernon (Perak). GAMBIA. T. F. O. Mayer 
(Bathurst). GOLD COAST COLONY. Capt. J. R. Braddick, M.C. (Half Assinie). 
INDIA. Viscount Tamworth (Karachi), Colonel J. K. Tod, C.M.G. (Bombay). MAURITIUS. 
Commdr. 0. A. de L. Cowin (Beau Bassin). NIGERIA. D. H. Robertson (Kaduna), 
O. H. Robinson (Warri). NYASALAND. Capt. E. K. Borthivick, D.S.O., M.C. (Luchenza), 
C. H. Wade (Zomba). RHODESIA. H. L. Baxendale (Mazabuka), J. R. W. Digby (Gatooma), 
W. H. Fisher (Kalene Hill), C. C. Townsend (Salisbury), R. B. Millar (Salisbury), L. T. 
Tracey (Salisbury), R. S. Twigg (Salisbury), Lt.-Commr. A. E. Wainwright, D.S.O. STRAITS 
SETTLEMENTS. Hon. Mr. Justice F. Barrett- Lennard (Singapore), J. C. Shaw (Singa- 
pore), E. J. B. Watson (Singapore). TANGANYIKA. L. R. Cooke (Songea), W. B. 
Lloyd (Dar-es-Salaam), R. Napier-Clark (Dar-es- Salaam). UGANDA. W. M. Carnie 
(Jinja), Capt. W. Graham (Jinja), J. E. Lawson Walton (Mubendi), W. W. Younger 
(Fort Portal). CHINA. C. H. Brangwin (Swatow). GERMANY. Capt. T. Robbins, 
M.C. (Berlin). HOLLAND. V. R. Los (The Hague). ITALY. C. L. K. Wright 
(Genoa). PORTO RICO. 8. J. Cannicott (San Juan). UNITED STATES. P. A. 
Beren (Chicago), J. Keddie (Winnetka), R. H. Parry (Chicago), R. H. Parry, Jun. 
(Chicago). ARGENTINE. L. Freeth (Mendoza). UNATTACHED TO ANY COLONY. Capt. 
W. C. Collins, J. Alex, de Cruez. 

Associates (18) : 

Mrs. E. L. M. Atlee, Mrs. F. Bright-Williams (Nyeri), Mrs. L. F. Goldsmid, Mrs. 
E. M. Moseley, Mrs. B. C. Reuss (Sydney), Mrs. Alan Thompson (Karura). 

BOURNEMOUTH. Mrs. H. Moorhead (Boscombe). 

SUSSEX. Mrs. M. G. Burkigh, Mrs. M. E. Clarke, Mrs. J. D. Collins, Mrs. 
A. 8. Fermistone, Mrs. B. Hallett, Mrs. F. Heddk, Miss E. E. Matthey, Miss E. F. 
Matthey, Mrs. A. C. More, Miss C. Nichols, Mrs. B. E. Toomer. 

Bristol Branch Associates (28) : 

Miss L. Andrew, 8. F. Andrews, Mrs. 8. F. Andrews, Mrs. A. Burrow, Lt.-Col. J. B. 
Butler, D.L., Miss E. G. Clapham, Mrs. Coe, Mrs. 8. Crealy, Capt. A. J. T. Dutson, 
Mrs. A. Edwards, Mrs. K. Givynn, Lady Knollys, F. Lambert, T. L. Lane, Mrs. T. L. 
Lane, G. Lawson, Mrs. M. Mole, H. G. Nutt, Miss N. K. M. Read, Alfred J. Rees, 
Mrs. A. J. Rees, Mrs. H. Skewes, Mrs. F. Scutt, Major 8. G. Simpson, M.A., Miss E. 
Stockfish, J. J. B. Vicary, Mrs. L. Walker, Miss M. E. Winterton. 



OBITUARY. 

The following deaths of Fellows and Associates are noted with regret : 

F. E. Turner, J. P. De Villiera, W. King Fraser, Rt. Hon. Lord Plunket, G.C.M.G., 
K.C.V.O., K.B.E., Z. A. Lash, K.C., LL.D., J. S. O'Halloran, C.M.G., Capt. L. J. 
Beirne, Edward Pope, Major Walter A. Burn, G. R. Colbourne, R.N.R., Kaid Sir 
Harry Maclean, K.C.M.G., Sir James Grant, M.D., K.C.M.G., Charles L. Shainwald, 
E. Aubrey Hart, Robert Brown, Lt.-Col. J. D. Crawford, Hon. H. B. T. Strangways, 
W. Oswald Gilchrist, E. A. Brunner, Hon. A. F. Goodridge, Wm. Speers. 



ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE FIFTY-SECOND SESSION, 1920. 

The following Addresses and Papers have already been arranged, and the Meetings 
will be held at the Central Hall, Westminster : 

TUESDAY, MARCH 9, at 8 p.m. "Universities in Canada and in the United States," by 
A. E. SHIPLEY, D.Sc., F.R.S., Master of Christ College, formerly Vice-Chancellor of 
the University of Cambridge. 

TUESDAY, MARCH 23, at 3.30 p.m." Through the North-West of Australia," by A. 0. 
NEVILLE. 

TUESDAY, APRIL 27, at 3.30 p.m." The Conservation of the Wild Life of Canada," 
by C. GORDON HEWITT, D.Sc. 



Advertisements. 



xxa 



THOMAS LOCKER & CO. 



WARRINGTON, ENGLAND. 



LTD. 



WIRECLOTH MANUFACTURERS AND METAL 

PERFORATORS 



"DOUBLE-LOCKED" 
BRAND 




SPECIALISTS 
In all descriptions of 
Woven Wire and per- 
forated Metal Screens? 



LOW & BONAR, Limited 



DUNDEE, 

SCOTLAND. 

Speciality . 

Patent Elastic 

Fibre-lined Cotton 

Bags, Jute Bags, 

Wool Packs, &c. 

Patents No. 4,4046 

and No. 18,072. 
Securing absolute 
purity of contents. 







Gable Address : " Lobo, 
Dundee." 

Codes used: A. B.C., 4th and 

5th Editions, Al, Lieber and 

Bentley's. 



Damp-proof Bags, 
Wate r- p roof Ba gs. 
Fire-proof Bags, &c. 

Shippers of all 

classes of Jute and 

Linen Fabrics. 




. 



, - 




Manufacturers of SACKS and BAGS of LINEN, COTTON, and JUTE for ail purposes ; alM 
of WATERPROOF CANVAS TARPAULINS, specially prepared for different climates. 



139 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

PAYMENT OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

Ride 20. All subscriptions shall be due and payable on January 1 in each year. 
Ride 21. No Fellow shall be entitled to vote, or enjoy any other privilege of 
the Institute, so long as his subscription shall be in arrear. 

Fellows and Associates are therefore reminded that the Journal ceases to be 
forwarded when subscriptions are in arrear for over six months by Resident 
Fellows, and over twelve months by Non-Resident Fellows. The easiest method of 
paying the annual subscriptions is by standing order on a banker or agent. Printed 
forms can be obtained from the Secretary. 

For the convenience of Fellows, arrangements have been made whereby subscriptions 
can be paid into any branch of the following banks : Africa. African Banking Corpora- 
tion, National Bank of India, Bank of British West Africa, National Bank of South 
Africa, Standard Bank of South Africa. Argentine. The British Bank of South 
America will accept subscriptions at $11 fixed exchange for 1 1*. Australia. Com- 
mercial Bank of Sydney, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, and Australian Bank of 
Commerce (New South Wales and Queensland only). Canada. Bank of Montreal, 
Canadian Bank of Commerce, Dominion Bank, Royal Bank of Canada, Union Bank 
of Canada. Ceylon, China, Hong Kong, Malay States, and Straits Settlements. Chartered 
Bank of India, Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, National Bank of India. West Africa. 
Bank of British West Africa and Colonial Bank. West Indies. Colonial Bank. 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF FELLOWS. 

Messrs. Maull & Fox, of 187, Piccadilly, London, W. 1, are the official photographers to 
the Royal Colonial Institute. 

LIST OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

The list of Fellows for 1919, corrected to September 30, is now ready, and copies can 
be obtained at 2s. 6d. each. 

ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

ARRIVALS. 

Argentine. H. G. A. Mackie, C.B.E., A. W. Towse, Philip H. Straw. Brazil. 
John A. Davy, H. Stuart Turner. British East Africa. W. McGregor Ross, Lt.-Col. 0. F. 
Watkins, O.B.E., D.S.O. Canada. -.F. Cranddl. Federated Malay States.! 1 . Gordon Croal, 

A. J. Dishman, Dr. W. J. Dixon, K. M. Grist. India. E. E. English. Nyasaland. 
Rt. Rev. Bishop of Nyasaland, A. Jay Williams. Rhodesia. C. Dewhurst. Straits Settlements. 
George Hardman, James Mairs. Sumatra. R. C. Dickson. United States. H. F. 
Parker. Uruguay. C. W. Bayne, C.B.E. West Africa. A W. Cardinall, A. V. Farrow, 
G. H. B. Mercer, Dr. B. Moiser. Zanzibar. P. Shearman Turner. 

DEPARTURES. 

Aden. A. G. Finnimore. Argentine. J. M. Denovan, C. E. W. Duley, Colonel 
t' ,? Truman > G.B.E. Australia. #. Shirley Chapman, C. W. Russett Brazil 
E. G .Paton. British East Africa. - S. F. Deck, G. E. L. Hancock, Capt. H. Hutchinson, 
5 ' '. J ' Madean > A - Madden, Walter W. Ridout, P. E. Wolffe. British Guiana 

B. H. Gamfort. Burma. Richard Smith. Canada. Major E. L. Calverky, Lt.-Col. 

ZL? fT"S., a W n V ilS n' FaUdand Islands - ~ R ' B - Basde y- Federa *ed Malay 
States. -A 8. Bailey, C. L. Chapman, R. J. B. Clayton. Grenada. fl. C. Otway. 

^SSrlff !**'* ' T , ayl ^' H Dg K S H - E. Goldsmith. Mauritius. - W. P. 
Mbels The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Mauritius. New Zealand. Captain A. McLean. 
Nyasaland. - A. D Easterbrook, W. J. Roper. Rhodesia. - H. L. Goodhart. Serbia.- 
Major C. Hardwicke. Solomon Islands.- tf. B. Hitt. South Africa. - Julian Addison, 

KT vT' Q t n *> H o', 8ir Charhs P ' Crewe > K - C -M.O., C.B., Sir Percy Fitzpatrick, 
K.LM.U. Sir H. Ross Skinner, H. L. Sumner, Lt.-Col. Benjamin Young. South-West 
Africa. -Captain J. D. Shand. Straits Settlements.-^ W. L. Tottenham. Switzerland.- 
P. Harman Mitts. Tanganyika. H. H. Alsop, S. S. Dams, C.M.G. Uganda. ^. E. 
WJ UL TK L v' C l 7' S' St0n0r ' WeSt Africa '-- Bdmar, A. J. Dolman, 
J.'H Writers'. ' ^ H ' T ' MaTCh > J " E * SpitZer > Oe - 

PHHte* by StxttiraxxxU, Ballantyne & Co. LU.. Colchctier, London and Bton. 



UNITED EMPIRE 



VOL. XI. APRIL 1920 No. 4 



The Institute is not responsible for statements made or opinions expressed 
(by authors of articles and papers or in speeches at meetings. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

A coup d'etat in Germany, and the occupation of Constantinople by 
Allied forces under British command, are the outstanding events of 

March in Europe. Dr. Kapp and General von Liittwitz 
Action and geem to tave caug ] lt p res ident Ebert a"nd Herr Noske, the 
Reaction. , , , ^ _, 

supposed strong man of the Bauer Government, napping. 

The Government fled, and for five days Dr. Kapp was in possession 
of Berlin. It was believed that the movement was monarchist ; it 
certainly was Prussian ; it was countered by a general strike, and blood 
was shed in Berlin and other cities. The abortive revolution lasted 
just long enough to call Spartacist forces into play, and Germany is 
faced with fresh chaos needing careful handling, if sheer Bolshevism 
is not to be the outcome. Delay in settling constitutional questions 
by the Ebert-Bauer-Noske regime was the excuse put forward by 
Dr. Kapp ; delay in making peace is said to be accountable for 
the Turks' recovery of their old spirit of recalcitrance. Lord Curzon 
and M. Andre Tardieu both more in sorro v than in anger attribute 
many of the difficulties of Europe to American delays, thus making 
precisely the same complaint of American diplomacy that Admiral 
Sims has been making of American methods in warfare. What- 
ever the explanation, events in Cilicia rendered it necessary for 
the Allies to act, and to make it clear to the Turks that cessation of 
the massacres in Armenia is a condition of their remaining in possession 
of Constantinople. The French are having trouble in Syria, which is 
also attributed to Constantinople. The Emir Feisul has been pro- 
claimed King of Syria. How far his acceptance of the crown is com- 
patible >vith his engagements hilst in Europe, is uncertain. Paris has 
misgivings. 

N 



142 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE American Senate, having adopted so many reservations to 
the Peace Treaty, including one specifically objecting to the votes of 
the British Dominions in the League of Nations, ended 
The U.S. A. ^g j on g d e k a t e by rejecting the Treaty altogether. 
^ . f The Senators have not taken either of the courses sug- 

gested by the President to enter the League seriously, 
or to retire gracefully. Feeling is general that President Wilson has 
brought much of the trouble on his own head. He advocates democracy 
and acts autocratically. America, at any rate pending the Presi- 
dential Election, is profoundly unwilling to give up the detached role 
in international affairs, and Mr. Wilson proposes no compromise. The 
Senate's appeal has, unfortunately, not been wholly to reason. Its 
refusal to agree to the claims of the British Dominions, in conformity 
with their new national status, sprang either from prejudice or from a 
desire to embarrass the President. That status was consecrated on the 
battlefield, confirmed by the Covenant of the League of Nations, and 
will receive yet further recognition in the reported decision to appoint 
a Canadian Ambassador to Washington, who will be second only to the 
British Ambassador. It is a stroke of irony that the United States 
should be the first to receive a Dominion Ambassador. The inter- 
national and Imperial position of the Dominions opens up many 
avenues for thought and discussion, some of which are indicated in 
the March Number of the Round Table, some by Captain Richard Jebb 
in his article " Conference or Cabinet ? " of which the first part appears 
in this issue of UNITED EMPIRE. Empire Problems lose none of their 
interest, practical or speculative. 



SIR AUCKLAND OEDDES has been appointed British Ambassador at 

Washington. McGilTs loss is the Empire's larger gain. He would have 

made an excellent President of the University ; he will 

Anglo- certainly make an unexceptionable representative of His 

OL Tnr\ f^yi f*O Tl 

Husband Majesty in the United States. The spirit in which he 
goes to America, " to interpret to that great country," 
as Lord Curzon said, " the mind of Great Britain" was fully manifest 
in his remarkable speech at the Pilgrims' dinner. Sir Auckland 
disclaims the gifts of the magician, but he is convinced that the 
essential condition of the working of the magic of peace, so necessary 
to save civilisation, is that " the British Community of Nations and 
the American Community of Federated States " should sail forward 
in " chummy ships " to the uncharted seas of the future. He is 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 143 

keenly alive to the psychological differences, the varying angles of 
vision, which make it difficult for the two countries always to see 
world affairs in an identical light. Both stand for the movement 
which would make the world a better place to live in. " Let us," 
he said, " stick fast to, let us keep firm hold on, the big things that 
history has to teach, that somehow, perhaps at times sub-consciously, 
both peoples have driven the furrows straight and true and most 
astonishingly parallel in their efforts to cultivate civilisation. There 
is no evidence that I know of to suggest that either is contemplating 
a departure from its traditional husbandry." A great speech, as 
opportune as it was eloquent and tactful. 

MR. McADOO is not the originator of the idea that Great Britain 
should relieve herself of part of her war indebtedness by handing 
over the West Indies to the United States. It was 
The West started months ago on this side of the Atlantic, and 
was promptly disposed of by Lord Milner and Colonel 
Amery. But it seems to have taken root on the other 
side, and Mr. McAdoo, an ex-Secretary of the Treasury, whilst 
confessing that the islands are " more than ever important " to 
the States, coolly assumes that " Great Britain would not object " to 
any such bargain. Mr. Lloyd George's statement in Parliament will 
perhaps have convinced him that Great Britain not merely objects, 
but refuses even to consider the question. It is surely a little strange 
in the mouth of an American, and in these days of so-called self-deter- 
mination, that not a word is said as to the views of the West Indies 
themselves. Great Britain in the past has not always been too 
sensitive of West Indian interests when they conflicted with her own 
economic predilections, but the thought that she would ever make 
them a pawn in international finance, like some spendthrift mother 
prepared to barter family heirlooms in order to refill her depleted 
purse, can only spring from sheer ignorance of British sentiment. 
Mr. Gideon Murray and Sir Sydney Olivier have both protested 
energetically against the periodic repetition of a suggestion equally 
inopportune and insulting. Sir Sydney Olivier makes the reassuring 
statement that in the West Indies schemes of incorporation are only 
discussed " when these journalistic or political kites are flown." The 
kite flown in England was journalistic; that flown in America is 
political. So long as the West Indies recognise them as kites, and do 
not mistake them for serious portents, we can afford to treat them 
with the contempt they deserve. 



144 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE Nationalists have been decisively beaten in the South African 

Elections, but unfortunately no rival party has won a victory. General 

Smuts has to look for support from both Unionists 

The South an( j Labour, or, at any rate, support from one and 

, abstinence from hostile voting on the part of the other, 
Elections and .,, . ...,.. T v mi_ AT , 

their Moral 1S own m P aru ament. The Nationalists 

will command 43 or 44 votes, and the South African 
Party 40 or 41. Labour has scored heavily, and are 21 strong, 
whilst the Unionists are no more than 25. The indications are 
that the Government will be supported by the Unionists, for fairly 
obvious reasons, and by Labour, on condition that the Prime Minister 
gives practical effect to the economic programme outlined in the 
speech from the Throne at the meeting of the new Parliament. 
Without close co-operation between the three, amounting to a coalition 
in fact, if not in name, the life of that Parliament must be short. 
There seems little prospect that Mr. Hertzog will drop his Republicanism 
in order to bring about reunion with the South African Party. Yet 
the elections have proved that Republicanism does not take root in 
South Africa more easily than in other British Dominions. The 
story that Queensland agitators in 1917, during the Conscription 
Referendum, engineered a movement in favour of an Australian 
Republic is ridiculed by Mr. McEwan Hunter, the Agent-General for 
Queensland, who, as a member of the Government at that time, never 
even heard of the movement. The St. Patrick's Day statement in 
New York that Canadians are seriously talking of establishing a 
Republic was merely intended to tickle the rebel palate of de Valera. 
Mr. Bourassa long since discovered that in Quebec a Nationalist 
programme leads to nowhere as it has done in South Africa. 

COLONEL AMERY'S enthusiasm in the cause of Oversea Settlement 
increases with experience of its excellent working. The Govern- 
ment are showing the keen interest in the movement 
which is urged by the Oversea Settlement Committee 
in their report for 1919. The Oversea Settlement Office 
has found its engagements and its correspondence grow at a rate 
which has involved the trebling of the staff. Expenditure over the 
next two years is expected to be at least 1,000,000 per annum. The 
scheme is admirable to give the right class of men and women the 
chance of finding a home and new opportunities in the Dominions to 
the benefit of Dominions and settlers alike. Colonel Amery naturally 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 145 

desires to see those who leave British shores settled within the 
Empire. "One Englishman who goes to the Dominions," he says, 
" is worth twenty times as much as one who goes outside the British 
Empire." That always was true, and always will be true, whether 
regarded from the point of view of war or commerce. It is curious 
that the chief criticism of Oversea Settlement should come from 
the Labour Party. It never seems to occur to Labour that the 
difficulties Trade Union methods are creating for many thousands 
of workers in Great Britain, particularly returned soldiers, accounts 
for their desire to try their luck overseas. The only criticism we have 
to make is that the movement should be described as Emigration. 
Migration is not only correct, but carries with it a very different 
atmosphere for the Briton who is shifting his home from one part of 
the Empire to another. 

ONE of the first results of the new status of the Dominions, and the 
logical development from their recognition as independent nations 

within the Empire, is the proposal to amend the British 
The ^ ^ North'America Act. The Dominion Parliament will seek 

power to enact laws having the same extra-territorial 
Territorial en?ec ^ as laws enacted by the United Kingdom. 
Limits. Equality of status within the Empire can be secured 

in no other way. Professor A. Berriedale Keith, in a 
letter to The Times, indicates the " exceptional importance " of this 
constitutional step. The necessity for removing the limitations 
imposed by Canada's purely Colonial status, as he says, first became 
obvious ten years ago, when Canada proposed to create a naval force 
of her own, " since it was clear that the Dominion Parliament had 
no adequate power to regulate a force destined to operate outside 
the territorial limits of Canada." Professor Keith sees difficulties 
ahead, though he does not regard them as insuperable. ; ' If Canada 
obtains the same right of extra-territorial legislation as is possessed 
by the United Kingdom, cases may arise to which both a Canadian 
and a British law may be applicable. As matters at present stand, 
the Canadian law, if divergent from the British, would be void in so far 
as it was repugnant to it, but the whole doctrine of invalidity on 
the ground of repugnancy is like the doctrine of the British power 
of disallowance of Canadian legislation in contradiction with the 
Dominion's claim to autonomy, and must in due course be formally 
repealed. Conflict between British and Canadian jurisdiction will 



146 

then fall to be dealt with on the basis that each Legislature will confine 
the extra-territorial operation of its legislation to those British subjects 
over whom it normally exercises control, so that Canada will legislate 
for Canadian British subjects when outside Canada." 

THE latest effort of constitutional and political ingenuity an 
honest attempt, as we firmly believe it to be to devise a Home Rule 

measure that Ulster can accept, that shall concede every 
Home Rule, legitimate demand of the Nationalists and that shall 
Version a * ^ e same ^ me safeguard the integrity of the Empire, 

seems only to have started a new crop of difficulties. 
It proposes to create two legislative bodies one for the six North- 
Eastern Counties of Ulster, the other for the South and West of 
Ireland, with an All-Ireland Council for dealing with matters of 
common interest. The Council would, it is hoped, prove the bridge 
to ultimate unity. Mr. Asquith meets the scheme with an unqualified 
negative. The Sinn Feiners refuse to discuss it. Sir Edward Carson, 
notwithstanding vigorous objection on the part of the Irish Unionist 
Alliance, says Ulster is prepared to give it a chance if her opponents 
in the South and West will agree to work the measure " for the 
benefit of all classes, creeds and conditions of men, and with a pride 
in the Empire." Sir Horace Plunkett, the Chairman of the Irish 
Dominion League, says it is the worst of the four Home Rule Bills, and 
advocates the calling together of a Constituent Assembly to draft a 
scheme which shall be acceptable to all Ireland. His proposal was 
promptly characterised by Mr. John Dillon as unworkable and danger- 
ous. Through such a maze it is difficult to steer a definite course. 
Ireland's minimum demand is Dominion status, as though she were an 
Australia thousands instead of tens of miles from Great Britain's 
shores. Yet with all this conflict of view some way out must be 
found. Outrage and murder are of daily occurrence and Ireland's 
situation, as Mr. Dillon says, is urgent and desperate. 

THE decision of the Government to repay the first part of its war 

loan to the United States, and to ship 100,000,000 of gold across 

the Atlantic if necessary for that purpose, has Had a 

ome ing good effect on the general financial situation. The 
on Account. ? ,. . . , r , 

immediate consequence was a rise in the JNew York 

exchange, which at once reflected the improvement in British, and 
indirectly in European, credit. It will not, of course, be possible 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 147 

to repay the whole of our debt to America for many years, but 
by careful finance at home it should not be very difficult to reduce 
it appreciably year by year. It appears to have been assumed in 
certain quarters that the desire as well as the capacity to repay loans 
demanded under the stress of war which after all was waged in the 
interest of every Ally, and not of Britain alone was lacking, and an 
extremely fanciful picture of Britain as reposing idly in a slough of 
despond was painted which had no shadow of reality. How far from 
actuality that picture was may be seen from a study of the financial 
columns of the London papers. Every day during March several 
fresh issues have been announced, many for a million pounds and 
over. Most of them appear to be sound and useful undertakings, 
which will add to the . productiveness of the country ; it may be 
noticed incidentally that by increasing employment at home, they 
will do a great deal to diminish the flood of enforced migration 
which some had feared as an immediate consequence of the war 
The extraordinary demand for labour at home makes it now more 
than probable that only those who prefer overseas to home life 
will migrate ; and this natural or economic solution will provide 
precisely the type that the Dominions most require. 

ANOTHER result of the home demand for capital may be less 

welcome for Dominion statesmen. Whatever else may happen, so 

long as the industrial activity at home continues, the 

Speculative resoiirces o f the banks will be strained, and the general 

Securities ra ^ }e ^ m * eres ^ w ^ remam high- The tendency now 
is for it to go higher month by month, and this will not 
render the path of the Colonial borrower too easy in Lombard Street. 
The flood of new industrials is steadily depreciating gilt-edged 
securities, both British and Colonial ; this will only be temporary, 
no doubt, but while it lasts the depreciation of capital and the 
increase of interest must be taken into account. It will still be 
worth while for Colonial Governments to borrow in the City for 
necessary public works, of course, and fortunately there is a class 
of solid investor who prefers these staid Government loans to the 
inevitable risks and chances of more speculative industrials ; but 
there, is no disguising the fact that the fashion for the moment is with 
the latter. At the same time, the tendency will be in the long run to 
swing back to the gilt-edged, and the partial abolition of double 
income-tax a grave injustice which the recent increase of taxation 



148 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

has made intolerable recommended by the Income- Tax Commission, 
will do something, if not very much, to assist that tendency. 

ONE direction in which Dominion co-operation with the Mother 
Country might be developed is in the financial assistance that Great 
Britain is called upon to give to China. This assistance 
^ o: )3 j\ is under the control of a Consortium of Banks, in which, 
'before the War, British, French, Japanese, Russian, 
and German Houses participated. American banks had previously 
withdrawn from the combination, but now, under the altered con- 
ditions prevailing, with German and Russian Banks eliminated, are 
rejoining the Consortium, with a much more powerful organisation. 
There would seem to be an opportunity, therefore, for strengthening 
the British group, which is confined to four or five banks. The 
inclusion in their number of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, 
as well as of a Canadian and a South African bank, would be a tact- 
ful recognition in the sphere of finance of the new political status 
of the Dominions. It must not be overlooked that while the future 
development of China holds out great potentialities for British trade, 
the advantages of proximity to this vast market rest with Canada 
and Australia both of which are in a position to supply many of the 
wants of China. 

AMALGAMATIONS, both political and commercial, are now very 

much in the air. In State affairs a new party, as yet unnamed, is 

evolving under our eyes at this very moment; while 

B Amal- ^ e f us i on O f b an k s insurance companies, and similar 
gamation ... , , , ., ~ , . 

Scheme organisations, is of almost daily occurrence. Our late 

President, Earl Grey, was a great believer in the same 
process being applied to patriotic societies, and everyone who is 
intimately acquainted with their activities, knows how much money 
and energy is wasted in the overlapping of their efforts. A short 
time ago the Overseas Club, which had done admirable work in col- 
lecting large sums for patriotic purposes during the war, joined forces 
with the Patriotic League of Britons Overseas ; and still more recently 
entered into a working alliance with the well-known League of the 
Empire. The Council of the Royal Colonial Institute wisely realised 
that the competition between the Overseas Club, thus strengthened, 
and our own ancient and honourable body, was nearing danger-point, 
more especially with two appeals in existence for separate Memorial 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 149 

Buildings to carry on work of a practically identical description. 
They consequently decided, last summer, to appoint a strong com- 
mittee to meet representatives of the Overseas Club, and to consider 
whether amalgamation was desirable and practicable. This Joint 
Committee, after sitting almost continuously for more than six months, 
has now presented a unanimous report in favour of amalgamation, 
which lays down a workable basis for the fusion of the two societies, 
and has been accepted in principle by their respective Councils. The 
Report is now in the hands of the lawyers for digestion into an agree- 
ment, which in due course will be submitted for the approval of special 
general meetings of the members of both the bodies concerned. 

THE Scheme, in its bare outlines, has already been informally 
presented to the Fellows of the Institute at two meetings held in 
the smoking-room, under the chairmanship of Sir 
c Godfrey Lagden, who has been the tactful and tireless 

Chairman of the Joint Committee. He commended it to 
their favourable consideration in a speech of high idealism, pointing 
out the necessity of expanding the work of the Institute, and broaden- 
ing its bajsis to meet the growing needs of these democratic times. 
Other speeches were delivered in a similar strain, and notably by 
Mr. Evelyn Wrench, the founder of the Overseas Club. He described 
the origin at Ottawa, under the direct inspiration of Earl Grey, of 
that vigorous organisation, and gave a full and candid explanation of 
his motives for now desiring it to take its place in one great imperial 
society. Divergent views were expressed with some warmth by 
other speakers, who seemed to fear that the prestige of the Institute 
might suffer by closer contact with its energetic rival. On the whole, 
however, the discussion was valuable in clearing the air, and affording 
an opportunity for the correction of certain not unnatural misappre- 
hensions. At its conclusion a resolution was passed, since endorsed 
by the House and Social Committee, recommending the Council to 
defer further action until a referendum had been taken on the subject, 
both at home and overseas, and this will be duly considered at their 
next meeting. 



151 



IMPERIAL AVIATION. 

MB. WINSTON CHURCHILL'S statement on the Air Service Votes, that " Civil 
Aviation must fly by itself," and not expect "the Government to hold it up," 
was, we gather, a little rhetorical. It was certainly not very intelligible, in 
view of the fact that the Air Estimates include more than a million sterling for 
Civil Aviation, and another million and a half for research and experiment. 
Perhaps Sir Frederick Sykes's remarkable address on "Imperial Air Routes" 
had induced too great expectations. Or perhaps the Ministerial dictum was 
intended as a counterblast to Mr. Holt Thomas's new book * which everyone 
interested in civil aviation will certainly study. Mr. Thomas was fortunate 
in securing an Introduction by Lord Northcliffe, whose views are not Mr. 
Churchill's. Lord Northcliffe says : 

" Our hope of the future lies in the fact that Great Britain and her associate 
nations Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and India have in 
their services the best flying men in the world, who, backed by the Mother 
Country's skilled mechanics and business men, may be relied upon, if properly 
encouraged by the public, to maintain for us the same place in the air that we 
have held on the sea for so many centuries. Let us see to it that the Govern- 
ment realises the vital necessity of the maintenance of civil and military flying. 
First to-day, we must remain first for all tune." 

Every expert, without exception, has maintained that, whatever the merits 
and chances of commercial aviation, the hope of military aviation is wholly 
dependent on the encouragement given to the civil branch. Mr. Churchill's 
announcement has caused something like consternation. If the promoters 
of commercial aviation despair of the future because support is denied them, 
what, it is naturally asked, will become of military aviation ? The two are as 
interdependent as the Siamese Twins. In commerce, as in war, aviation must 
be buttressed by the Government, if it is to maintain the traditions already 
established. In commerce, as in war, aviation must be Imperial, and it can only 
be Imperial as the result of Imperial'support. Again and again we have been 
assured that aviation will be a new link in the cause of United Empire. Is 
it conceivable that the Imperial Government should be the one body to refuse 
to lend a hand in forging that link ? We cannot, and will not, believe it. 

How eagerly pilots and manufacturers of aircraft respond to any encourage- 
ment, and seize any opportunity for pioneer work, is strikingly illustrated in 
the Atlantic, the Australian and the African flights. It is a proud thought 
that the first aeroplane to fly from a British Dominion to the British Isles, 
and the first to fly from the Mother Country to Australia, were both British, 
and that there has been the most sportsmanlike rivalry among British pilots to 
be the first to connect Cairo and the Cape by the track which the Air Ministry 

* Aerial Transport. By G. Holt Thomas. Hodder & Stoughton. 30s. net. 



152 



IMPERIAL AVIATION. 



had blazed in anticipation. Our readers are indebted to Sir Frederick 
Sykes for the special maps of the air routes from London to Port Darwin, and 
from Cairo to the Cape which are published hi this issue of UNITED 
EMPIRE. Full of romance as they are to-day, the time possibly is not 
far distant when Great Britain, Australia, and Africa will look upon them 
as primitive, which, of course, is exactly what they are. In them we may see 




THE AIR ROUTE FROM CAIRO TO CAPE TOWN. 

the beginnings of those All-Bed Air Boutes which the Imperial Air Fleet Com- 
mittee, before the War and since, has been active in promoting. 

Nothing in the story of Africa, from the time of Van Biebeck to Bhodes 
and Stanley, is more deeply moving than the efforts to complete her conquest 
from the air. The African desert seems to have defied the aerial pioneer as 
surely as it defied the attempts of all other pioneers ; but it will yield to him, as 
to them, when the reserves at the command of science and civilisation are brought 
to bear. And We have Dr. Chalmers Mitchell's Word for it that, notwithstand- 
ing many unpleasant adventures and narrow escapes, he is quite prepared 
to try again with the same pilots, the same machines and engines, improved 
for work over the deserts which hitherto they have not been called upon to 



THE BROTHERHOOD OF VALOUR. 153 

negotiate. Engine trouble in novel conditions, accounted for the general failure 
to get right through. The engine which serves over civilised and temperate 
lands is apparently as susceptible to African influences as man himself. What 
a picture of the African desert, the land of immemorial decay " the most inter- 
esting, fascinating, and deplorable country imaginable" we get from Dr. 
Chalmers Mitchell's graphic pen ! 

Colonel van Eyneveld had particularly hard luck. When he reached 
Buluwayo with his Silver Queen II, he had done the worst part of the journey. 
He was happily able to complete it in a machine sent to him by the Govern- 
ment. He deserves all the congratulations he has received. With all one's 
admiration for the pluck and enterprise of The Times pilots, mechanics, and 
passenger, it is impossible not to feel that the first man to fly from Cairo to 
the Cape flight is appropuately one of South Africa's own gallant pilots. The 
experience gained by the various competitors, in the race over the length of 
Africa, has been invaluable. There can be no question of not following up their 
efforts. The Dominions are energetically developing their local aerial resources 
in order to bring widely scattered centres of activity into closer relation. It is 
for Great Britain to see that aviation bridges the vast spaces of Empire and 
converts Sir Frederick Sykes's Imperial Air Koutes into busy realities. 

H. F. WILSON. 



THE BROTHERHOOD OF VALOUR: SOME ASPECTS OF 
THE PALESTINE CAMPAIGN. 

" WE may not be a military nation," said the Iron Duke of Wellington, 
" but, thank God, we are a warlike people." And if (or when) a future 
Thucydides or Xenophon records for all time the achievements of our race 
in the World War of 1914-18, he will need the tongues of men and of angels 
adequately to describe one of the most gallant, most inspiring, most honourable 
and chivalrous of all our national exploits the freeing of Jerusalem. 

While public attention in England was concentrated chiefly on the 
Western Front, very much less than justice was rendered, by the home-keeping 
public, to that Egypt-Sinai-and-Palestine campaign which, by degrees, 
they are now learning to understand. Mr. Massey's excellent book on " The 
Desert Campaigns " * gripped the attention of many who had only cursorily 
read his articles in the press ; then his " How Jerusalem Was Won" f carried 
the thrilling narrative up to the dramatic moment of General Sir Edmund 
Allenby's entry into Jerusalem (the twenty-third entry by a conqueror in the 
course of the long eventful history of the Holy City) ; and in a subsequent 
volume he promises to tell of the " tremendous feats of arms " which in 
1918 overwhelmed the Turks, drove them through 400 miles of country, and 
proved anew that " despite all the arts and devices of modern warfare," 

* By W. T. Massey, Official Correspondent of the London Newspapers. Constable, 1918. 
6s.net. f 1919- Constable, 1 Is. 



154 THE BROTHERHOOD OF VALOUR : 

despite aviation and all the elaborate new mechanisms and inventions, cavalry 
remains, and always will remain, an indispensable arm of the service. 

To give even an outline of the events comprised in Mr. Massey's narratives 
is not possible within the cramped space of a magazine article. It must suffice 
to comment upon a few outstanding features, and to urge that every Public 
Library throughout the Empire should acquire the books in question. In 
that the writer's aim has not been to obtrude his own personality or emotions, 
but to " give an idea of the immense value " to the Empire of the " courage 
and fortitude," " indomitable will, self-sacrifice and patriotism " of the 
British soldier of all ranks ; and in that he has not merely described what he 
saw, but has been at pains to try to understand and convey the strategic 
reasons for, and significance of, each action, his work is at the same 
moment instructive, as well as vividly entertaining, to civilians, and should be 
satisfactory to men of action. Moreover, he shows graphically that no matter 
how disunited Britons may appear in time of safety, no conditions could have 
been more harmonious, no unity more whole-hearted than the spirit which 
held together those troops whose united efforts freed Palestine, after four 
centuries of Turkish misgovermnent and oppression. Twenty-four years ago 
a British General spoke memorable words which we do well to recall to-day : 

It is my anxious wish to bring forcibly before you what we doubtless 
all acknowledge, but which is so seldom publicly urged, that we soldiers, whether 
English, Scotch, Irish, Canadians, Africanders, or Australians, are alike portions of 
one great whole. We together form that power in the British. Empire which is called 
the British Army, and we all claim as an equal birthright the name of " British 
soldier."* 

" From over the Seven Seas," says Mr. Massey, " the Empire's sons came to 
illustrate the unanimity of all the King's subjects .... English, Scottish, Irish, and 
Welsh Divisions of good men and true, fought side by side with soldiers of varying 
Indian races and castes. Australia's valiant sons constituted many brigades of 
Horse, and, with New Zealand mounted regiments, became the most hardened 
campaigners in the Egyptian and Palestine theatre of operations. Their powerful 
support in the day of anxiety and trial, as well as in the time of triumph, will be 
remembered with gratitude." 

To each different unit Mr. Massey endeavours to do justice. West Indian 
Infantry gunners from Hong- Kong, Singapore and South Africa Kroomen 
boatmen from West Africa Earatongans from the South Pacific the Egyptian 
Labour Corps each and all are shrewdly estimated and appreciated ; while to 
the old Regular Army to the trained and seasoned soldier, and the new but 
no less gallant volunteer the Imperial Camel Corps, the Air Force, and, not 
least, the Royal Navy; he does fitting honour. The brotherhood of arms 
has established a new communion between the soldiers returning to their 
homes in all quarters of the globe, and " instead of wrecking the British Empire, 

* Major (now Lieut.) General Sir Edward Hutton, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. " Our Comrades of 
Greater Britain." An Address to the Military Society at Aldershot, NOT. 24, 1896. Reprinted 
in "The Defence and Defensive Power of Australia." Melbourne, 1902. 



SOME ASPECTS OF THE PALESTINE CAMPAIGN. 155 

the German-made war should rebuild it on the soundest foundations : affection, 
mutual trust, and common interest." 

History repeats itself, we are told ; but also, as a distinguished British 
General pointed out, " history is full of surprises." It is not so very long since 
it was customary to class the freeing of the Holy Sepulchre among extinct 
ideals, and even refuse all credit to those of our race who in the past had 
laboured and fought for it. Most notable target for the contempt of popular 
modern historians was King Eichard Coaur de Lion. That he had been the 
ablest military engineer of his time the greatest leader and that, in the 
contest between the West and the East, he won such respect from his opponents 
that the Sultan Saladin declared, if Allah willed for Jerusalem to be lost, 
he would rather lose it to King Eichard than to any other sovereign in 
Christendom did not propitiate those civilian critics, who were wont to see 
in the Crusaders nothing but " a gang of greedy adventurers." It has 
required centuries of time, and the united prowess of the British forces of 
to-day, to complete what King Eichard was so tragically baffled of achieving. 
After his victory at Arsouf, the victory which opened up the way to Jerusalem, 
his Allies, rather than allow the English King the chief glory of the capture 
of the Holy City, deserted in vast hordes to their ships thus compelling a 
truce and rendered vain all the stupendous efforts, all the heroic conquest 
over obstacles, for which King Eichard 's name is still remembered to-day in 
Arab song and story. 

When, on his homeward way, betrayed by his nominal ally and secret foe, 
Eichard chafed and champed in a German prison, little could he have foreseen 
that not for seven hundred and twenty-six years would his aims for Palestine 
be fulfilled at last, by an Army in which East, West, North and South would 
meet in loyal co-operation, under a leader as skilled, as vigorous and resolute 
as himself, but born under a much more fortunate star. 

When, in June of 1917, General Sir Edmund Allenby took over the chief 
command from General Sir Archibald Murray, much had already been achieved in 
preparation for the great objective ; and in the victories of-Eomani, Magdaba, 
and Eafa opening up the way into Palestine the " Desert Column " of 
Australian Light Horsemen had revealed their quality in a way to which Mr. 
Massey does full justice, as also he does to their brilliant and popular British 
Commander, Lieut.-General Sir Philip Chetwode. But in alluding to the 
way the Australian Major-General (subsequently Lieut.-General) Sir Harry 
Chauvel took over the command of the Desert Corps, when Sir Philip Chetwode 
was appointed to the 20th Army Corps, Mr. Massey omits to say that it was 
General Chetwode himself who chose his successor, and that this appointment 
was the highest compliment yet paid to a Colonial Army Officer by a very 
distinguished cavalry leader of the old British Eegular Army. How amply 
this choice was justified should be a cause of legitimate pride to every 
Australian. 

The famous charge of the Dorset Yeomanry the successful operations of 
the Imperial Camel Corps (first composed of volunteers from the Yeomanry) 



156 THE BROTHERHOOD OF VALOUR : 

the many exploits of the English regular Cavalry caused no astonishment to 
anyone who knew our old Army ; nor were we surprised that the Indian troops, 
descended from great warrior races, proved worthy of their ancestry. But 
the zeal and vigour of the new Cockney soldier, under tremendously difficult 
conditions, was in the nature of a revelation ; and so also, to a certain section 
of the home public, was the inspiring prowess, the discipline, and sustained 
efficiency of the Australians. But to whoever this capacity of the Australians 
may have been a revelation, it had been long foreseen by General Sir Edward 
Hutton. Even as far back as twenty-three years ago, he said : 

" The Australian seems to be endowed by nature with a military instinct. . . . 
This may be accounted for by the fact that a large section of the population are 
descended from naval and military forebears, who in the early days obtained grants 
of land after their term of service had expired. Be that as it may, this military 
instinct, added to a quick intelligence improved by a sound national education, 
makes it comparatively easy to turn out excellent soldiers of all arms. Good as the 
Infantry and Artillery are, the arm of the Country is undoubtedly the Mounted 
branch. . . . Fine horsemen, hardy, self-reliant and excellent marksmen," the 
Australians are " the beau ideal of Mounted Riflemen ... It has been said that the 
weak spot among Australian troops is discipline ... I am credited with being a 
strict disciplinarian ; so you will perhaps believe me, when I assure you that through- 
out the three years I commanded the New South Wales troops I never heard an 
insubordinate word." 

The General reminded his audience that " the better and more intelligent 
the soldiers, the better and more capable must be the officers." * (It is no 
secret that, in an Australian volunteer army, discipline is as largely a personal 
matter as it was in the Highland armies of Montrose and Claverhouse.) " No 
man, be he a Cromwell or a Napoleon, could drive Australian troops, but a 
strong and capable leader, no matter how strict, could lead an Australian 
Army to emulate aye, and surpass if need be the finest and most heroic 
deeds recorded in the annals of British Arms." * " This Continent of Australia," 
said General Hutton, speaking at New South Wales in 1894, " must hereafter 
become a great and powerful country, if only its inhabitants follow in the 
footsteps of the great race which has given them birth." Warning his hearers 
that Australia must not expect to achieve her apotheosis without meeting 
the " stern ordeal of war," he pointed out " that love of country, self- 
abnegation, and devotion to duty " were the attributes which would " make 
the future, destiny of this people as great, as useful, and as glorious as that of 
the parent stock." 

It is significant that Sir Harry Chauvel, destined to the command of 
the largest cavalry force under one leader since the days of Darius a force 
contributing so vitally to the success of General Allenby's plan of campaign 
is a pupil of General Sir Edward Hutton, whose words in praise of Australia 
in 1894 and 1896 may have appeared to Englishmen to be unduly optimistic, 

* " Our Comrades of Greater Britain." 



SOME ASPECTS OF THE PALESTINE CAMPAIGN. 157 

but which were most inspiring to Australians. It is much to be wished that 
General Chauvel's narrative of the operations under his command might be 
reprinted in England, though so little does he obtrude his own personality 
that the civilian reader might hardly realise the iron will, the keen unerring 
military instinct, the stern devotion to duty and the innate genius for leadership 
which went so far towards the winning of the victories he records so modestly. 

When, after the War, General Chauvel in England was on the eve of 
returning to Australia, he was publicly congratulated by General Hutton 
on achievements which perhaps only another man of action can fully 
appreciate. His reply was an example of that knightly humility which recalls 
all the finest and most gracious traditions of Christian chivalry. Next to the 
privilege of being of service to his King and to the Empire, he said, he ranked 
the satisfaction of having won the approval of his former chief. And in a 
few terse but deeply impressive words he alluded to General Hutton's devotion 
to Australia, and Australia's gratitude to General Hutton, whose prophetic 
vision long since had foreseen capacities to which the Great War ultimately 
gave full scope. To one of the audience, at least, nothing could have been 
more graceful, more gallant, and at the same time more frank and utterly 
spontaneous, than the manner in which the Australian leader laid his own 
laurels at the feet of the English General under whom, in South Africa, he 
had seen his first active service. 

For the vigorous way in which the Turk was driven back, rallying again 
and again, to be again overcome ; and for descriptions of the country and 
climate, the water and transport problem, and all the stupendous difficulties 
heroically and cheerfully overcome by the combined forces of the Empire, up 
to the memorable noon of December 11, the hour of the famous entry into 
Jerusalem, the reader should follow Mr. Massey's narrative, and he will have 
his attention gripped from first to last. 

Very impressive the moment when General Allenby " who, by capturing 
Jerusalem, helped us so powerfully to bring Germany to her knees, and humble 
her before the world " entered on foot by an ancient way, the Jaffa Gate, 
called by the natives Bab-el-Khalil, or " The Friend." 

This gate (as we learn from other sources *) had been unopened for many 
years, and when the moment came for General Allenby to walk as conqueror 
into the Holy City, the Arabs saw hi this event the fulfilment of a prophecy 
that when the Nile had flowed into Palestrae, a leader from the West would 
drive out the Turks. 

The crowd to welcome the British General was larger than the throng 

which had gazed on Kaiser Wilhelm in 1898, and thicker than the gathering 

which assembled at the Damascus Gate to hear the ominous proclamation of 

the Young Turk Constitution in 1908. When the British came in as deliverers 

% 

* " A Brief Record of the Advance of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, under the command of 
General Sir Edmund H. H. Allenby, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., July 1917 to October 1918." Published by 
the Palestine News, Cairo, 1919. 

O 



158 THE BROTHERHOOD OF VALOUR: 

there was " no great pageantry of arms, pomp and panoply, no display of the 
mighty strength of a victorious army," neither " thunderous salutes " nor 
" shouts of triumph over a defeated foe." 

" A small, almost meagre procession, consisting of the Commander-in-Chief and 
his Staff, with a guard of honour, less than 150 all told, passed through the gate 
unheralded hy a single trumpet note." Yet when General Allenhy went into the 
Mount Zion quarter, " the population saw in this epoch-making victory a merciful 
guiding Hand, for it had been achieved without so much as a stone of the City being 
scratched or a particle of its ancient dust disturbed." 

The reading of the proclamation announcing (in English, French, Arabic, 
Hebrew, Greek, Russian, and Italian) the safeguarding of all the sacred sites, 
was a proud occasion for Eastern as well as Western warriors : Jerusalem, 
Saladin in 1190 pointed out to Bichard Coeur de Lion, " is the place from whence 
the Prophet Mahomet made his night ascent to Heaven, and it will be the 
gathering place of our people at the Great Judgment." 

" I have asked many men who were engaged in the fight for Jerusalem," 
says Mr. Massey, " what their feelings were on getting their first glimpse of 
the central spot of Christendom." Some people imagine that the stress of 
warfare removes from the mind the early lessons of peace and goodwill. 
That is a fallacy. Every officer and man to whom the war-correspondent 
spoke confessed to having been 

" seized with emotion when, looking from the shell-torn summit of Nebi Sam will, he 
saw the spires of the Mount of Olives. . . . Possibly only a small percentage of the 
Army believed they were taking part in a great mission ; not a great portion would 
claim to be really devout men, but they all behaved like Christian gentlemen. . . . 
When Jerusalem was won and small parties of our soldiers were allowed to see the 
Holy City, their politeness to the inhabitants patriarch or priest, man or woman, 
trader or beggar rebuked the thought that the age of chivalry was past ; while the 
reverent attitude adopted by every man when seeing the Sacred Places suggested 
that no Crusader Army or band of pilgrims ever came to the Holy Land under a more 
pious influence." 

Whatever may be the future of Palestine and, as Mr. Massey observes, 
we are apt as a nation to give away in council what we have won by the sword 
the glory of having liberated the Holy City from the Ottoman dominion must 
remain for ever on record as a predominantly British exploit. " Not to us, 
but to God the glory." Yet God is not called upon to fight for .cowards; and 
those of us who, from disabilities of age, sex or health, were unable to take 
active part in the World War, should never forget that it is to the genius of 
the leaders, the valour and endurance of our fighting men, and above all to 
their spirit of loyal unity, that we owe our own safety, life, and more than life. 
Had the combined forces of Germany and Turkey triumphed in Palestine 
and swept as conquerors into India, and " Hadji Guilloum " (Kaiser Wilhelm) 



SOME ASPECTS OF THE PALESTINE CAMPAIGN. 159 

been able to command the vast resources of the Orient, the whole course of 
history must have been altered. 

It may be hoped that no reader of Mr. Massey's books, indeed no subject 
of our King-Emperor, will ever again scoff at the freeing of Palestine as " a 
mere side-show." Eather should it be regarded as one of the clearest tokens 
of the blessings attendant on that unity in diversity so far removed from 
German uniformity which our enemies hoped to break, but which was never 
stronger than under the tremendous ordeal of war, the tester of soals. Its 
moral and spiritual importance is world-wide, and the strategic value of what 
was achieved was vital to the salvation of the world from Prusso- German 
domination. 

" I regard it as incontrovertible," Mr. Massey asserts (writing at the end of 1919), 
"that the Palestine strategy of General Allenby, even apart from his stupendous 
rush through Syria in the autumn of the last year of war, did as much to end the 
war in 1918 as the great battles on the Western Front ; for if there had been failure 
or check in Palestine, some British and French troops in France might have had to be 
detached to other fronts, and the Germans' effort in the spring might have pushed 
their line farther towards the Channel and Paris. If Bagdad was not actually saved 
in Palestine, an expedition against it was certainly stopped by our army operating on 
the old battle-grounds in Palestine. . . . High as the British name stood in the East 
as the upholder of the freedom of peoples, the fame of Britain for justice, fair dealing, 
and honesty is wider and more firmly established to-day because the people have 
seen it emerge triumphantly from a supreme test." 

But " the wind blows vehemently upon lofty places," we have enemies 
seeking to undermine our prestige ; and, as often in the past, some of our 
adversaries are none the less dangerous because of our own household. It 
behoves us all to resolve that having successfully come through the tremendous 
ordeal of war, we do not discard in peace those qualities of loyalty, devotion, 
patience, fiery zeal, and sympathetic unity without which victory in war is 
impossible and for want of which peace can be no peace. 

United we stand, divided we fall ; and to help to maintain this unity of 
spirit, to carry into peace-time the comradeship and chivalry evolved in war, 
should be the aim of every member of the Eoyal Colonial Institute, every 
subject of His Majesty throughout our widespread Empire on which the sun 
never sets. 

E. M. TENISON. 



160 

CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

RESOLUTIONS OF THE IMPERIAL CONFERENCE. 
No. I. of 1907. 

That it will be to the advantage of the Empire if a Conference, to be called the 
Imperial Conference, is held every four years, at which questions of common 
interest may be discussed and considered as between His Majesty's Government 
and His Governments of the self-governing Dominions beyond the seas. The 
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom will be ex-officio President, and the 
Prime Ministers of the self-governing Dominions ex-officio members of the 
Conference. The Secretary of State for the Colonies will be an ex-officio 
member of the Conference and will take the chair in the absence of the President. 
He will arrange for such Imperial Conferences after communication with the 
Prime Ministers of the respective Dominions. Such other Ministers as the 
respective Governments may appoint will also be members of the Conference 
it being understood that, except by special permission of the Conference, each 
discussion will be conducted Ky not more than two representatives from each 
Government, and that each Government will have only one vote. 

That it is desirable to establish a system by which the several Governments 
represented shall be kept informed during the periods between the Conferences 
in regard to matters which have been or may be subjects for discussion by 
means of a permanent secretarial staff charged, under the direction of the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, with the duty of obtaining information for 
the use of the Conference, of attending to its resolutions, and of conducting 
correspondence on matters relating to its affairs. 

That upon matters of importance requiring consultation between two or 
more Governments which cannot conveniently be postponed until the next 
Conference, or involving subjects of a minor character or such as call for detailed 
consideration, subsidiary Conferences should be held between representatives 
of the Governments concerned specially chosen for the purpose. 

No. VII. of 1917. 

That the Imperial War Conference desires to place on record its view that 
the Resolution of the Imperial Conference of April 20, 1907, should be modified 
to permit of India being fully represented at all future Imperial Conferences, 
and that the necessary steps should be taken to secure the assent of the various 
Governments in order that the next Imperial Conference may be summoned 
and constituted accordingly. 

No. IX. of 1917. 

The Imperial War Conference are of opinion that the readjustment of the 
constitutional relations of the component parts of the Empire is too important 
and intricate a subject to be dealt with during the War, and that it should form 
the subject of a special Imperial Conference to be summoned as soon as possible 
after the cessation of hostilities. 

They deem it their duty, however, to place on record their view that any 
such readjustment, while thoroughly preserving all existing powers of self- 
government and complete control of domestic affairs, should be based upon 
a full recognition of the Dominions as autonomous nations of an Imperial 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 161 

Commonwealth, and of India as an important portion of the same, should 
recognise the right of the Dominions and India to an adequate voice in foreign 
policy and in foreign relations, and should provide effective arrangements for 
continuous consultation in all important matters of common Imperial concern, 
and for such necessary concerted action, founded on consultation, as the several 
Governments may determine. 

IN the above Resolutions .the Imperial Conference has twice laid down the 
lines of its own re-constitution, first in 1907, and again in 1917. It is 
noteworthy, and characteristic, that on neithe"r occasion has the Conference 
attempted to introduce or propose any new principle in the relationship 
between the United Kingdom and the self-governing Dominions. On both 
occasions it has accepted the relationship which was found* to exist as the 
result of unpremeditated evolution, and has sought means whereby that 
relationship might function more effectively. 

THE " SPECIAL " IMPEEIAL CONFERENCE. 

After the Armistice, in 1918, it was expected that the special Conference 
prescribed in 1917 would be held in the ensuing summer last year. But the 
Peace Conference was protracted ; and presently it became apparent that the 
scheme of the League of Nations would introduce new and perplexing 
complications into the question of the future constitutional relations of the 
component parts of the British Empire. Mainly for that reason, we may 
suppose, the special Conference was postponed, in order that the statesmen 
concerned might have time to find their bearings afresh. It was confidently 
announced that the meeting would take place this year. But at the time of 
writing no date has yet been fixed ; which suggests that the embarrassment 
of the new situation has not sensibly diminished. 

Judging by the newspapers, the nature of the coming Conference is liable 
to be misunderstood. In Canada, especially, the idea of sending a 
parliamentary or popular delegation, rather than ministers only, seems to 
have found some support. Such a procedure would be irregular, and not 
called for by the circumstances. The capital Resolution of 1907 has limited 
the membership of the Imperial Conference to responsible ministers in the case 
of the regular sessions, and to themselves or their nominees in the case of 
" subsidiary " or special meetings. There was good reason for this limitation. 
In its inception, in 1887, the Conference included representative men of all 
descriptions, not ministers or even politicians exclusively. The result was a 
mere debating society % irresponsible, and lacking that power to execute its 
own resolutions which rests in the aggregate authority of Governments in 
Conference. So the experiment was not repeated. Subsequent meetings were 
restricted to responsible ministers, or their nominees ; until, in 1907, this 
principle was embodied in the capital Resolution. 

NOT A CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION. 

Apparently the idea beneath the suggestion of a popular delegation is that 
the coming Conference will, or might, draw up a new constitution for the 



162 CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

Empire, and ought therefore to be based on a wider representation of the 
peoples concerned than can be afforded by Governments, which are party 
creations. But in no circumstances is the Conference likely to take upon 
itself that task. What it may be expected to do is to decide definitely whether 
any new constitution is required. Of that question the Governments, being 
the people most recently concerned in the working of the present system, 
ought to be the best judges. Should they decide that the existing system 
the product of an evolution motived by national liberty is" wrong in principle, 
and that a fundamentally different system ought to be adopted, no doubt 
they would recommend the same procedure which has been exemplified in the 
history of Canada, Australia and South Africa, where special Conventions for 
drafting a new Constitution were appointed or elected, with some plan of 
popular ratification to follow. 

NEW MEN. 

As we shall see presently, Eesolution VII of 1917, regarding India, was 
revolutionary in character. It is difficult to believe that it could ever have 
been adopted but for the circumstance that the majority of ministers attending 
this Conference were new to the institution, and that the secretarial staff, 
which might have been expected to warn them of pitfalls, was also new, none 
of the same names appearing in the list of the previous session in 1911. Of 
the ministers, only Sir Joseph Ward and Sir Edward (now Lord) Morris, 
representing the two smallest of the self-governing Dominions, had attended 
before. Sir Joseph Ward was a real veteran ; but his weakness on questions 
of constitutional principle had been manifested in the debate on Imperial 
Federation which he initiated in 1911. The Premier of little Newfoundland, 
Sir Edward Morris, would not be expected to have so lively a sense of Dominion 
autonomy (which was compromised by the Indian resolution) as, for example, 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier or Mr. Alfred Deakin, had either of those statesmen been 
spared to return to the task which they had attempted with so much 
distinction in 1907. 

As to the secretarial staff, the internal evidence suggests that they had not 
had time to assimilate the previous records of the Imperial Conference. A 
student notices that in 1917 the form of the Eesolutions, which generally begin 
with " The Conference " does this or that, differs from the more concise form 
adopted for the records at previous sessions ; and that the new draftsmen 
are uncertain whether the Conference should be " it " or " they." The 
reference, again, to " the Eesolution of the Imperial Conference of 20th April, 
1907," seems to betray the new hand, because people accustomed to deal with 
the work of the Conference had long since acquired the habit of identifying 
past Eesolutions by the number and year only as is done at the head of the 
present article the practice of numbering the Eesolutions having been intro- 
duced for the sake of this convenience. These trivialities are symptomatic. 
Of more direct importance is the omission, in Eesolution IX, to define the 
nature of the " special " Conference. Since the capital Eesolution of 1907 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 163 

expressly authorised the holding of " subsidiary " conferences for exceptional 
purposes, an organisation imbued with a sense of its own tradition, continuity 
and development would surely have invoked the authority of that Eesolution, 
thus avoiding the necessity of any subsequent discussion as to the form of the 
special meeting. 

THE ALTERNATIVES. 

The main question for the special Conference has virtually been decided 
in advance of its meeting. There are really only two alternative plans for 
the future governance of the British Empire. One is to maintain and develop 
since human affairs never stand still the pre-war system of consultation and 
co-operation between autonomous Governments, which was tending in the 
direction of a Britannic league of independent nation states owning a common 
Crown. The other is to adopt the principle of an empire super- state, to which 
Britain and the several Dominions would, in theory at least, be subjected in 
equal measure. Historically, the former plan represents the instinctive ideal 
of the Dominions ; the latter that of Britain, where the popular mind (if any 
such thing can be postulated at all) instinctively imagines Imperial Federa- 
tion to be a scheme which, in due constitutional form, would allow Britain 
to continue running the Empire while " Our Colonies " at last would " pay 
their share," with the privilege of " having a voice " before Britain decided 
what should be done. In- literature the conception of Imperial Federa- 
tion has a long history, and probably the theoretical aspect of it has been 
explored to the full. Comparing Mr. Lionel Curtis' " Problem of the Common- 
wealth " (1914) with Sir George Parkin's " Imperial Federation " (1892), it 
appears that the intervening years had left the project very much where it 
was. If anything, the old difficulties of the scheme have only become 
accentuated by Mr. Curtis' expedients for meeting them. In particular, the 
experience of the war has now demonstrated that no central government 
could be endowed effectively with the sole power to carry on war without 
having authority to control the whole civil life of the federated States. It 
has become abundantly clear that even apart from military affairs the 
minimum powers requisite for an empire super-state would be incompatible 
with the free national development of the peoples subjected to its authority. 
However cleverly disguised with the language of liberty, Imperial Federa- 
tion can only be a system of subordinating each part of the Empire (with 
the possible exception, in practice, of Britain, by dint of her preponderant 
population) to the control of the remainder. The essence of the scheme is 
not national liberty but imperial government. 

IMPERIAL FEDERATION REJECTED. 

Already there has been a remarkable consensus of authoritative pro- 
nouncements against this plan, which was enjoying a great vogue in Britain 
at the time of the outbreak of war. The lead was taken by General Smuts 
when, in supporting the Resolution of 1917, he said : " If this resolution is passed, 



164 CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

then one possible solution is negatived, and that is the Federal solution. The 
idea of a future Imperial Parliament and a future Imperial Executive is nega- 
tived by implication by the terms of this Eesolution." Eeturning to their 
respective countries, most of the oversea Premiers sooner or later expressed 
themselves in the same sense ; and in Britain a notable utterance by Lord 
Milner, as Secretary of State, supported the same view. More recently, the 
publication in Canada of the Memorandum of the Dominion Premiers re- 
jecting the centralist principle in connection with the naval reorganisation 
of the Empire, may have served to remind us that for forty years this question 
of naval control has been the pivot, open or hidden, of the constitutional 
controversy. If the normal or peace control of the Britannic naval forces 
is to be centralised, this necessarily means a super-state. If a super-state 
is not desired, the normal control must remain distributed among the Govern- 
ments supplying the naval forces, implying an alliance or league of Sovereign 
nation-states ; and that is what the Memorandum seemed to demand. 
Assuming that the recent utterances of the Prince of Wales, referring to his 
Canadian tour, may be taken -to reflect the trend of well-informed thought 
in Britain, even here it is widely felt for the time being that Imperial Federa- 
tion is really impracticable, and that the method of closer union can only be 
sought in the conception of a League of nation-states'. 

THE LIMITS OF EEFORM. 

With all the indications thus pointing the same way, we may take for granted 
that the special Conference will decide that no new constitution is required. 
But it can hardly fail to accept also the implication of Eesolution IX of 1917, 
that the pre-war mechanism is inadequate. Assuming that the Governments 
are to remain independent, and remembering that in the interval they have 
been proclaiming a " new status " of larger independence than before, it is 
clearly necessary that the methods of consultation and concerted action should 
be made more effective than they were. 

Coming thus to its real business, the Conference would naturally bring under 
review the special arrangements which were made during the war, and con- 
sider whether they may be adaptable to the needs of the peace era. 

For the purposes of the war the principal innovation was the erection,, 
alongside the Imperial Conference, of a practically duplicate body, under the 
title of Imperial War Cabinet. Nothing has been revealed as yet in regard 
to the origin of this plan ; nor does the present writer pretend to any inside 
knowledge. But if the circumstances of the time are considered in the light 
of the previous history of the Imperial Conference, the explanation does not 
seem difficult to conjecture. 

SUPPOSED INADEQUACY OF IMPERIAL CONFERENCE, 

What the emergency demanded was a system of consultation and co- 
operation, between the Britannic Governments, which should be both con- 
tinuous in time and comprehensive in scope. As regards continuity, the 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET ? 165 



Besolution of 1907 had prescribed regular meetings every four years, and 
" subsidiary " meetings, if necessary, between. Thus the Imperial Confer- 
ence was, by implication, an intermittent institution only. In the atmos- 
phere of that epoch, with Sir Wilfred Laurier always casting his decisive 
influence against any and every proposal to expand the machinery of imperial 
organisation, the conception of the Imperial Conference as a continuous institu- 
tion, which was congenial to such less timorous statesmen as Mr. Deakin and 
Doctor Jameson, could not take root. The authorisation of subsidiary Con- 
ferences was a concession to the feeling that the interval of four years was 
too long. But it was never contemplated, by the principals, that either the 
regular or the subsidiary Conference should be anything more than a special 
meeting of short duration. While nothing was ever laid down to limit the 
duration of the Conference, the assumption always was that only with diffi- 
culty could the Dominion Governments spare ministers to visit London, even 
for a short time. In 1917, therefore, when the new British Government under 
Mr. Lloyd George, reversing Mr. Asquith's policy, wished to associate the 
Dominion Governments with the conduct of the war, the prevailing notion 
about the Imperial Conference was inimical to any idea that this body itself 
might be turned for the occasion into a continuous war council. Moreover 
it was desired to bring in India, which was not possible in face of the capital 
Eesolution of 1907. 

Nor did prevalent notions suggest that the conduct of war was a matter 
appropriate to the Imperial Conference. It is true that the range of common 
interests with which it should deal had never been explicitly defined, and in 
point of fact the range had been continually extending under pressure of succes- 
sive circumstances, as may be seen by a glance at the agenda lists and resolutions 
of the quadrennial sessions. The conservatism of British ministers which Was 
no less marked when the Liberal Party was in power had, indeed, attempted 
to rule out Foreign Affairs. But the tide Would not be stemmed. In 1907 
the Conference insisted on discussing the New Hebrides Convention and the 
Newfoundland Fisheries dispute ; and in 1911 it not only discussed the Declara- 
tion of London but passed a resolution. Pressed by the Dominions, especially 
Australia, the British Government Was constrained to concede that a Dominion 
Government ought to be consulted beforehand, in regard at least to any decisions 
of foreign policy affecting its interests particularly. It subsequently Went so 
far as to offer the right of direct and constant access to the Foreign Secretary, 
to any Dominion Minister who might be appointed by his Government to reside 
in London for this purpose. From the right of individual to that of collective 
consultation, i.e. recognising the jurisdiction of the Imperial Conference, Would 
only have been a small step, had the War not nipped the growth. 

But since this development had not matured, the British official point of 
view in 1917 must have been that the Imperial Conference had no business with 
foreign policy, such as Would necessarily preoccupy any council of war. 

On the other hand, the precedents of the Imperial Conference in relation to 
Defence were substantial enough to have suggested, had other conditions been 



166 . CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

favourable, that this organisation might very -well become a continuous council 
of war while the emergency lasted. Questions affecting co-operation for defence 
of the Empire had been dealt with at every session of the Conference, excepting 
that at Ottawa in 1894, up to 1911. On the latter occasion, the Declaration of 
London Was dealt with ; but, in regard to other defence questions, the venue 
Was transferred to the Committee of Imperial Defence, which was temporarily 
enlarged by the admission of Dominion ministers to its membership. The 
motive of this change, which appears to have been predetermined somewhat 
arbitrarily by the British authorities, was never satisfactorily explained. But 
since the Committee of Imperial Defence is a centralised body, its members 
attending simply as advisers to the British Prime Minister, who reserves the 
right of deciding policy, the attempt to substitute it for the Imperial Conference 
of independent Governments may be regarded as an incident in the revival of 
Imperial Federation, which was being promoted actively in London at that 
time. Despite this set-back to its growing authority, the Imperial Conference 
had supplied the constitutional means to by far the most important achievement, 
in the domain of Britannic organisation for defence, before the war. It was 
technically a " subsidiary " Conference, called under Eesolution I. of 1907, that 
concerted the naval and military defence plan of 1909, which in history stands 
out as the Britannic effort to prepare for the impending armageddon. It 
produced at least the Koyal Australian Navy, and that framework of a common 
military organisation which made possible the Britannic army of 1914-18. 
Viewed in this light, the Imperial Conference had already functioned as a council 
of war. 

A DEPARTMENTAL DIFFICULTY. 

But the actual fitness of the Imperial Conference for adaptation to the 
required role may not have been the determining consideration at all. It often 
happens (unhappily) that in political affairs the most momentous decisions are 
swayed by considerations hidden from the public view, and by concessions to 
the infirmities of human nature. The Imperial Conference had always been 
managed by the Colonial Office. If the Imperial Conference was to run the 
war, the war would be run by the Colonial Office. Apart altogether from any 
prejudices likely to be felt by other departments concerned with the war, that 
situation might well seem absurd. One solution would have been to transfer 
the Imperial Conference from the office of the Colonial Secretary to that of the 
Prime Minister. This, however, had been proposed more than once in previous 
years, and had always aroused the most strenuous opposition of the Colonial 
Office. Outsiders may deplore what seems to them the petty narrow-minded- 
ness of departmental jealousies ; but it may be replied that no self-respecting 
institution cares to be shorn of its responsibilities, especially if it feels conscious 
of work well done. At any rate we may safely conjecture that if, as may be sup- 
posed, the proposal to transfer the secretarial duties of the Imperial Conference 
to the Prime Minister's office was revived in 1917, it was found that this could 
not be effected without a departmental disturbance which could not help to 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 167 

win the War. And yet it was obvious that the Britannic war council could only 
be attached to the Prime Minister himself, as president of both the Imperial 
Conference and the Committee of Imperial Defence. Probably we may find 
here the real origin of the curious compromise which, while leaving the Imperial 
Conference with the Colonial Office, set up another council of the same Govern- 
ments (plus the subordinate Government of India) under a different title, for 
the purpose of attending to the war. 

THE " IMPERIAL WAR CABINET." 

In such circumstances, the choice of a name for the duplicate body could 
not have been easy. But the announcement that an " Imperial War Cabinet " 
would be created had the immediate effect of totally misleading a large and 
important section of the British press as to the constitutional significance of .the 
new plan. It was triumphantly noised abroad that a "real" Empire 
Government had been suddenly brought into existence, in the shape of a 
council which was to be the " supreme executive authority " of the Empire 
as a whole. The implication was that the separate Governments would no 
longer remain individually responsible for the action of their respective 
countries in the War, but would somehow assume a collective responsibility ; 
such being the recognised connotation of the term " Cabinet " throughout the 
British Empire. 

A further consequence of the new name was not what its British authors 
since there is no evidence that the Dominion Governments were consulted in 
advance- could have desired, although they ought to have possessed the 
knowledge and insight to foresee the certainty. Throughout the Dominions, 
especially in South- Africa and Canada, the opponents of closer Britannic 
union hastened to seize this new and cogent argument in support of their 
contention, that the persistent aim of British policy was to undermine the 
autonomous development of the Dominions and subject them to some new 
form of centralised imperial government, such as they knew was being planned 
by a vigorous group of federalists with the warm support of the Northcliffe 
Press, which Was now championing Mr. Lloyd George. 

In reality, there was nothing in the new name, unless it may be taken as 
evidence of an intention which was bound to fail. If we disregard the equivocal 
position of the Indian representatives, the so-called Imperial War Cabinet 
was nothing more or less than the Imperial Conference applied to the abnormal 
circumstances of a world-wide war. In constitutional principle the new body 
Was precisely similar to the old. It consisted of the same men, admitted by 
virtue of their ministerial office, representing Governments which retained 
unimpaired their exclusive responsibility to their own Parliaments. Its 
executive powers were precisely those of the Imperial Conference. If, because 
the Imperial Conference possesses no unified executive authority, it cannot 
be said to possess executive powers at all, the same applies to the Imperial 
War Cabinet. If the Imperial War Cabinet may be said to have possessed 
executive powers, in the sense that in the aggregate the executive authority 



168 THE BRITISH IX THE FAR EAST. 

of the participating Governments was co-extensive with the Empire, the 
same applies to the Imperial Conference. In this respect there Was no 
difference of principle between the two bodies, nor did the Imperial War 
Cabinet signify any innovation beyond a further extension of the field in which 
the Imperial Conference had been accustomed to work. The real signifi- 
cance of the development in 1917 was that it marked the collapse of the 
barrier which the British instinct of imperial ascendancy had endeavoured 
to maintain against the rising demand, from the Dominions, for some control 
over their foreign relations. Noteworthy, also, Was the genuineness of the 
belated effort to provide for that continuity of consultation which had been 
spasmodically discussed, through many years, without tangible result. But 
there was no substitution of any new type of organisation. The organ of the 
Britannic League remained what it had been, a Conference of mutually 
independent Governments. It did not become a Cabinet of Ministers with 
collective responsibility, binding them to stand or fall together. 

RICHARD JBBB. 

[To be continued.'] 



THE BRITISH IN THE FAR EAST.* 

By Professor C. A. MIDDLETON SMITH, M.Sc., M.I.Hech.E., Taikoo Professor of Engineering 
in the University of Hong-Kong. 

THE purpose of this paper is to discuss the work which has been accomplished by our 
own countrymen in the Far East. I hope to interest Britons " at home " in the 
amazing changes which are taking place in China, and I venture to submit that 
Anglo-Saxons have been mainly responsible for the changes that have taken place 
during the past hundred years. There is not time to go over the history, even of 
recent times ; I have considered, the romantic aspects of the impact of British ideals 
of energy and freedom upon the static and autocratic State, sometimes called Cathay? 
in a book which is now in the press. I must assume that you know of the monopoly 
at Canton of the Old East India Company, which ended, about eighty years ago ; also 
that you are aware that Hong-Kong, at the mouth of the Canton river, is the British 
base in China, and that it is a Crown Colony, with a Governor appointed by 
the King. I feel quite sure that you will understand that, in the early days, 
Hong-Kong caused a great deal of bother to the Imperial Government. The Chinese 
ceded a barren island in order to keep the British out of Canton, but no one, except 
a few British traders and sailors, regarded, the island as anything but a temporary 
base. In the first few years of occupation it was terribly unhealthy : one-third of a 
British regiment died in one year, and that was nothing unusual. But the little stream 
of British trade from the Canton river has spread all over the Far East. 

* Paper read at a meeting of the Royal Colonial Institute held at Central Hall, Westminster, on 
December 16, 1919, at 3.30 p.m., Lieut. -Colonel The Eight Hon. Sir Matthew Nathan, Q.C.M.O., in 
the Chair. 



THE BRITISH IN THE FAR EAST. 169 

Anglo-Saxon Energy. During my seven years of residence in the Far East, 
I have had time to notice the very great contrast between the energetic Anglo- 
Saxon and other nationale. Usually the British seem able to retain their charac- 
teristics of energy and enterprise, and yet they adapt themselves to the peculiar 
conditions of life in that part of the world. In the Straits Settlements and Hong-Kong 
British administration and Chinese natural ability have accomplished almost the 
impossible. The success of Shanghai and other treaty ports in China can be traced 
to the same causes. In 1841 Hong-Kong was the home of a handful of pirates. 
It was just a barren rock forming one side of a magnificent natural harbour. 
Sir Frederick Lugard once related that a Chinese friend of his said that China 
ceded to the British an island of granite and had since received a mountain of gold 
in return. Certainly the Chinese have benefited more than the British from the 
splendid results of the co-operation, in Hong-Kong, of the two races. Science has 
transformed Hong-Kong as it has changed England. There are still the summer heat 
and the great humidity, traceable to a tropical position and the granite formation of 
the island. But there are now electric fans, ice, and a ceaseless war with disease. 
Hong-Kong cannot be recommended as an ideal resort in the summer, but it is healthy 
all the year round and the climate is delightful in the winter. 

The British Base. An. American writer, who lived many years in the Far East, 
has expressed the opinion that " Hong- Kong stands as a monument of British luck and 
pluck in the Orient." People who visit the Colony may differ about the relative 
proportions of " luck," or " pluck," of the British in accomplishing such remarkable 
development in this gateway of the Far East ; but, whatever the cause, the effect is 
there for all the world to see. For Hong-Kong is a monument, set in the tropic seas, to 
a people whose " home " is distant 10,000 miles away. The maritime instinct of the 
race made those men who had been in the trouble with Chinese officials in the forties 
use a little island, which can be circumnavigated in a small steam launch in five or 
six hours, as a base. It was the magnificent roadstead which lies between the island 
and the mainland that made them pick out Hong-Kong for the purpose. Rising up 
in glory out of a sea of wondrous hue, it reaches a height of nearly 2,000 feet ; and on 
its topmost peak is the flag which guarantees freedom for men of any creed or colour 
who live under its protection. Trees and palms and flowering shrubs all deck the 
sides of the monument with a wealth of colour seen only in the tropics. No scene more 
perfect was ever painted than that which at times surrounds the island at sunset 

From the wide verandah of my house in the University grounds, I often look out 
upon the glorious view. I see also evidence of the activity of my own countrymen. 
The shrieks of the fussy steam launches which swarm in the harbour three hundred 
feet below, and the " purr " of the luxurious motor-cars, as they race round the 
terraced roads between the house and the sea-level, remind me of the Western energy 
and machines which multiply our time. The turbine-driven liner, standing out like 
some leviathan amidst a curious swarm of insects, which are really sanpans, junks, 
launches, and motor-boats, has come from far-away Vancouver, bringing its complement 
of tourists, business men, mails, and cargo to this Emporium of the East. Above the 



170 THE BRITISH IN THE FAR EAST. 

yellow funnels rise up the barren hills of China, and behind them, the expiring centre 
of a thousand shafts of light, the sun goes down. It seems to be falling upon that 
other city, only ninety miles away, which stands as a monument of another country/ so 
near in space, so far in thought, from this active Western Colony. For Canton is China, 
and Victoria, as the city of Hong-Kong is called, is a picturesque chunk of Britain set on 
an island in the wide Pacific Ocean. Canton was static for centuries ; even now it ia 
a city of a million with scarcely a wheel. Hong-Kong is a place with dockyards 
where standard ships are built, vessels larger than are launched in any other part 
of the Empire except Great Britain. The British originally went out to the Fa 
East for trade purposes. I think it was until the year 1857 that the Governor of the 
Colony of Hong-Kong was Superintendent of Trade, and he was also the representative 
of Her Majesty the Queen in all diplomatic matters in the Far East. 

Since those days there has been a tendency to split up the work among the Govern- 
ment Departments, and the complaint is made by merchants in China that there are 
now three separate Ministiies which have control over their activities. Hong-Kong 
is the headquarters of important " hongs," and of course Hong-Kong is under the 
Colonial Office. The directors of the Union Insurance Company and of the Hong- 
Kong and Shanghai Bank live in the Colony, and there are a number of companies 
which are practically local concerns. Thus, to a very great extent, the Colonial Office 
is concerned with British trade in China. The Foreign Office until recently was 
the only Government Department which was concerned with trade in other parts of 
China ; now there is also the new Overseas Department of the Board of Trade. 
Perhaps, in time, the latter will be the only ministry concerned with the Far East. 

There are British firms in China who have established connections for many years ; 
some of them go right back to the days of the " free traders in Canton," a small body 
of men who vigorously attacked the monopoly of the East India Company, and who 
brought it to an end at about the time when Hong-Kong was ceded to Britain. An 
old-established reputation is most valuable in so conservative a country as China. 
Firms with traditions have had practical experience of the curious trade conditions 
of the Far East. 

The British merchants of this generation seem to be fully alive to the fact that the 
war has brought about new conditions, and the very noticeable feature of their policy 
has been the formation of British Chambers of Commerce in practically all of the 
important Treaty Ports. 

Western Learning in China. It is well known that the Chinese are a conservative 
race, and that they do not easily change their ideas. There is a native saying that 
" China is a sea that salts all of the rivers flowing into it," and I find that this peculiar 
conservatism of the Far East affects many of the British after they have been resident 
there for some years. I suggested recently, at a meeting of the China Society in 
London, that there are two types of mind the static and the dynamic type and the 
Chinese are essentially of the static type, while the Anglo-Saxons are dynamic. Of 
course you will find among Anglo-Saxons men of the static type of mind, and you 
will find them particularly amongst men in the Far East who have resided there for 



THE BRITISH IN THE FAR EAST. 171 

many years. Now this static type of mind opposes change of any description, and 
argues that it is much better to leave the Chinese alone, in their own way of life. My 
past experience leads me to doubt whether it is very much use to attempt to argue 
with men whose outlook is so utterly different from my own. But I am bound to 
repudiate the idea that scientific men will do any harm by spreading knowledge in 
China. On the contrary, I believe that they will do an immense amount of good. My 
conviction is, that the Chinese nation may be compared with a hungry man who is 
sitting in a room containing a locked cupboard, for which he has no key. In China there 
are vast mineral resources which can be used to improve conditions of life in the coun- 
try. The key is a knowledge of Nature's laws. There is water-power which can be 
made to replace man-power. There are waste regions which may be reclaimed for 
agricultural purposes. To give one example, Mr. G. D. Jameson, the engineer of the 
American Eed Cross, has estimated that in the Hwai Basin 17,000 square miles of 
valuable agricultural land could be reclaimed at a cost of four millions sterling. The 
land-tax alone would pay a handsome dividend. The result of the development of 
the natural resources of China will be an improvement in the scale of living ; that will 
inevitably increase the purchasing power of the people, and that soon in turn will 
develop external trade. In this connection I wish especially to draw attention to a 
recent speech by Sir John Jordan, the highly respected British Minister at Pekin. 
At the opening of the conference of the British Chambers of Commerce in China, he 
said that in spite of the unrest, which was a hindrance to commercial development, 
the trade of the country last year was greater than ever before. The credit of the 
country was fundamentally sound, and he gave it as his opinion that China would soon 
embark on a great industrial career. There was no fear, he said, that Chinese indus- 
trial developments would prove a menace to the industries of this country, and en- 
couragement of such developments would be a wise policy. It is most gratifying 
to read Sir John Jordan's assurance that the Chinese are turning to Great Britain 
for help on all sides, and he believes that there is a great chance for British enterprise 
to supply technical and financial assistance for the increase of production and wealth 
in China. 

When first I went out to the Far East I was amazed at finding any opposition 
amongst my own countrymen to scientific progress. I seemed suddenly to have 
stepped back into days when Huxley and others had to fight the forces of ignorance 
and blind opposition in this country. Since my return, I have even discovered that 
there are men in eminent positions, men of the highest principles, and of great ability, 
who have doubts as to whether it will benefit the world if the natural resources of 
China are developed. I can only appeal to them to reconsider the whole subject, 
and to try and understand the facts which scientific men can put before them. I 
appeal especially to the British missionaries in China, because I am convinced that, 
as Stevenson said, " gas lamps are the best nocturnal police." The political unrest, 
largely due to economic causes, can only be cured by the spread of scientific know- 
ledge. Railways and modern communications in China are the finest auxiliaries for 
the spread of any knowledge, and if, as I am sure is the case, missionaries believe that 



172 THE BRITISH IN THE FAR EAST. 

all that is necessary to persuade tlie Chinese to think as they do is a clear presentation 
of their case, then surely they should welcome dynamic means of locomotion, and 
such modern engines as newspapers and the printing press. 

In 1912, when addressing for the first time the Institute of Engineers and Ship- 
builders in Hong-Kong, I suggested that the then newly founded University of Hong- 
Kong might be regarded as a lighthouse for China. I have written so much about 
the University that I only wish to say that I am thankful that the most progressive 
Chinese and British now believe in it. The standard of the London University has 
been reached and maintained. 

British Engineers in China. I have already suggested that Hong-Kong is a 
model to the great country to which it is adjacent. I must pay a tribute to the Public 
"Works Department of the colony for the magnificent engineering work which it has 
carried out ; the splendid system of water supply and the fine roads alone would 
justify any praise. There are a large number of other details with which it is con- 
cerned. The colony has become habitable for Europeans, largely because of the 
work of the pioneers of science. In that connection I may be allowed to mention 
that our Chairman this afternoon, Sir Matthew Nathan, will always be remembered 
in Hong-Kong as a dynamic Governor who did things. He was almost entirely 
responsible for the building of the Kowloon-Canton Eailway, and I can only hope 
that he will use his influence so that the connection of this railway with Hankow 
may be no longer delayed. There are British engineers in other parts of China, 
especially in Shanghai. Mr. Kinder is generally known as the pioneer of railway 
construction, and it is worth recording that sixty years ago a famous British 
engineer from India prepared a scheme for building railways all over China- 
Unfortunately the static mind killed the scheme. In the last few years there 
has gone to China a new type the British commercial engineer- and there will 
be many more of that type out there in the near future. They are technical 
men whose purpose it is to sell products of British engineering workshops to the 
Chinese, and I venture to suggest to them the necessity for encouraging the scientific 
training and education of young Chinese. I have tried to make arrangements 
so that our Hong-Kong graduates may have some experience in Great Britain, 
and I trust that my informal negotiations with the Federation of British 
Industries will bear fruit. This Institute can also help. There have been 
good orders for our workshops from China : Shanghai and Hong- Kong have 
employed many of our workmen on machinery for local industries. I heard 
last week of an order for a 5,000 kw. turbo -alternator secured, for a works at Preston. 
I have one further appeal to make to these British engineers in China, and it is that 
they should not treat with contempt the customs and the outlook of the Chinese. 
If we dynamically trained people complain of the ignorance of the static minds con- 
cerning scientific work, we, for our part, cannot consider ourselves in any sense edu- 
cated unless we have some acquaintance with the splendid literature which the people 
of Asia have evolved. My complaint is that Asiatics so often pay only lip service 
to it. 



THE BRITISH IN THE FAR EAST. 173 

The British in Japan. The problem of Japan presents many difficulties, and it is 
always with the utmost diffidence that I attempt to discuss this remarkable people. 
I am aware that the Japanese are not always as popular as could be wished by them- 
selves and their friends in the Far East. On the other hand, I have a very great pride in 
the fact that the pioneers of engineering education in that country were the British, 
and I find that Japanese applied-science circles are distinctly pro-British. Sir Alfred 
Ewing, one of the first scientific men to go to Japan, is still alive, and he did valuable 
service for his country in an advisory capacity during the war. A small band of 
young men, of whom he was one, went out there many years ago, and they included 
in their ranks Ayrton, Perry, and Dyer; men who became famous. They had 
a far greater influence upon the future of Japan than is generally recognised. They 
transformed the country into an industrial nation. Japan has always been 
politically, an honourable ally to this country, but it would be absurd for us to 
suppose that every Japanese is pro-British, or that every Briton is pro- Japanese. 
There are so many possibilities of misunderstanding when there is trade competition, 
that every endeavour should be made to remove false ideas. I do not propose 
to discuss details, but it is certain that the sooner grievances are examined and 
settled the better. Looking at the subject from a very broad point of view, I see 
nothing for regret in the fact that the Japanese have been taught to develop the natural 
resources of their own or other countries. The fact that they have been very good 
customers in the past of this country during that development, and that they are still 
very good customers of this country, should make us sympathetic and pleased to 
welcome the nation among the Great Powers. But that should not make us afraid to 
draw attention to any infringements of our own rights in the Far East. We have 
always stood for " the open door and no favour," and if, as has been suggested, the 
Japanese should give preferential railway rates to their own traders in Manchuria, when 
everyone ought to be treated the same, the British in China want those " at home" 
to know the facts of the case. I must confess that I have only spent a few months in 
Japan, and know very little of the trade conditions of the country, but I have been 
impressed by the great industry and the patriotism of the Japanese. During the 
last two or three decades they have come much more closely into contact with 
Europeans. They have enormously extended their trade, and they are to be found all 
over the Far East. Nations, like individuals, find that " good-will " is the most 
valuable asset, and I venture to suggest to the far-sighted Japanese that they 
should emphasise that fact. In China, Japan's trade has made great progress. 
In 1913, her share in the export trade was about 20 per cent., and in 
the import trade about 25 per cent. In 1918, it was over one-third of the 
export trade, and almost one-half of the import trade ; but there is any amount 
of room in China for all nations, and I do not think that the British need have the 
slightest fear of Japanese competition if they themselves still possess the old national 
characteristics of enterprise, industry, and adaptability to changed conditions. The 
trade returns for China show that if the Chinese can obtain British goods they prefer 
them. 



174 THE BRITISH IN THE FAR EAST. 

Chinese British Subjects. There are some millions of the Chinese race who are 
British subjects. They live in Singapore, Malaya, Borneo, and Hong-Kong. They 
are under no illusions as to the practical results of British administration in the Far 
East. They are very shrewd business men. They know, by experience, that they 
obtain a splendid reward for industry when they arc sheltered by the shadow of the 
Union Jack. For the Far East can produce evidence of the romances of industry, 
with Chinese as leading characters, such as would have delighted the late Dr. 
Samuel Smiles. In Hong-Kong, I attended some of the funeral rites of a wealthy 
merchant named Cheung Pat Sze. The benevolent Chinese was greatly respected and 
his memory is still revered. He had reached a ripe old age ; he had fulfilled the am- 
bition of his race by leaving numerous offspring to mourn his loss, and, later on, to 
worship at his tomb. He had, as a young man, left Swatow, a penniless emigrant 
for the South. He had prospered in Malaya. His commercial activities spread into 
many latitudes. He had estates in Sumatra, rubber plantations in the Straits Settle- 
ments, a glass factory in Hong- Kong, a business in Canton, a wine factory in Chefoo, 
North China, and probably business interests in Shanghai. He proved what the 
Chinese merchant can do with a good Government. 

Statesmen, sinologues, and tourists, who have written about the Far East, have 
regarded the Chinese from the particular angles from which their own experiences 
have enabled them to see most clearly. My life work has been engineering ; I have 
continuously studied the methods employed for the utilisation of the resources of 
Nature for the use and convenience of man. From that point of view the Far East 
is wonderful. In no part of the world has Nature been more bounteous with her 
gifts. The Far East, especially the sub-tropical Far East, will be transformed, 
and the change will provide wealth which will enrich, not only its own inhabitants, 
but Europe, America, and the other parts of Asia. 

From out of this Aladdin's cave will come stores of mineral and vegetable 
wealth. Sources of energy as yet untapped will drive the wheels of industry in coun- 
tries educated enough to utilise them. It is as if this sub-tropical Far East will become 
a new and important power-house for the planet and will supply motion needed to 
keep the machines of industry at work. 

And the only thing necessary for the prompt conversion of so much that is at 
present waste into that which is necessary and useful for mankind is the application 
of scientific knowledge. For unless we have the requisite knowledge and machinery 
we cannot take advantage of these valuable gifts of Nature. 

From the unknown, gorgeous East there came, in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, tales of gold, precious jewels, spices, and costly merchandise. The love of 
adventure and religious enthusiasm sent the pioneers East and still further East. 
First of all the Portuguese and the Dutch, then the French and the English, ploughed 
Far Eastern seas ; and from the end of the sixteenth until about the middle of the 
nineteenth century the sailing ships from Europe adventured forth to win the wealth 
of the Orient. An Englishman ruled Java and carried the flag of the Empire to 
Malaya. 



THE BRITISH IN THE PAR EAST. 175 

Many of the possessions in that part of the world which once were British are now 
Dutch, but the Federated Malay States remain as a monument to the wisdom of Raffles. 
The British merchants in the Far East retain the old love of adventure, and many of 
the British in that part of the world have a generous enthusiasm, which might well 
be called religious, for all that is humane and progressive. They believe, most 
sincerely, that the Chinese will benefit immensely by a great increase in trade with 
Anglo-Saxons. They think that a peaceful and prosperous China will absorb 
machinery from British workshops and assist, in many ways, Europe in the difficult 
time of reconstruction. 

The Raw Materials. -The great problem which faced all of the nations of the earth 
when the war was over was the supply of raw materials. It faces them now. The Far 
East offers an almost boundless store. Only knowledge, security and enterprise is 
needed. Anglo-Saxons have done the pioneer work in countries off the West of the 
Pacific Ocean. It seems to be the destiny of the race to unlock the mineral treasures 
of China. The language of commerce in the Far East is inevitably English, for the 
great majority of the schools teaching a foreign language or " Western learning " 
use that medium of instruction. There will, naturally enough, be competition be- 
tween firms from the old country, Australia, Canada, and the United States, but 
it will be a splendid thing if the Governments obtain fair conditions for the 
competitors. 

Scientific men seldom concern themselves with international politics, but the world 
is becoming smaller and smaller because of the methods of communication carried 
out by the engineer. He may reasonably demand of any League of Nations, or 
other authority that may be formed, that he shall be allowed to develop the natural 
resources of the world for the benefit of mankind. 

The CHAIRMAN, in introducing Professor Middleton Smith, said : The establishment of 
Hong-Kong University is probably the most important work of one of the most 
distinguished Governors of this British Colony of the Far East. It should do for 
British civilisation what the centres of Latin learning did for the Western Roman 
Empire, that is, hand down through the generations the best elements of a culture so 
universal as scarcely to be foreign wherever established. Of the immediate prospects 
of Western learning in the Far East as distinct from the other manifestations of 
Western civilisation it is difficult to speak with certainty. On the one hand, the 
Chinese have shown no great aptitude for the assimilation of Western ideas ; on the 
other, they have not hitherto been specially encouraged to study Western learning for 
its own sake, though learning is probably more honoured for its own sake in China 
than in any other country of the world. In this latter connection the more the men 
that go from this country to China have high educational qualifications, the greater, 
I think, will be the respect in which we shall be held there. We flatter ourselves, I 
hope truly, that they already respect Great Britain as being, on the whole, a country 
of just men. Most of you here will know the tale of the three Easterns who were 
discussing the probable results of the world war. One did not wish to see the dis- 
appearance of Germany and the loss that that meant to science ; the second did not 
wish to see Turkey crushed and valour for ever after take a lower place ; the third 
hoped that England would not go down for then justice would vanish from the world. 
The justice that the Eastern looks to receive at our hands is not, I think, merely or 



176 THE BRITISH IN THE FAR EAST. 

mainly the justice of the Courts, with their complicated procedure and high payments 
to pleaders, but the sense with which they credit the average Englishman of right 
judging between conflicting interests and fearlessly acting on that judgment. There is 
one other qualification for dealing with the peoples of the Far East, of which it is 
not possible to over-estimate the importance, and that is good manners. It is scarcely 
exaggeration to say that manners are part of the religion of the Chinese, and that 
the quiet dignity of these people, and of the Japanese, requires the same bearing in 
those who wish to do business with them. The Ear Easterns do not understand people 
in anger. 

The discussion was opened by MB. BEN H. MORGAN, who said : I am sure we have all 
listened with the greatest pleasure and attention to Professor Smith's lecture. He is a 
very old friend of mine, and when he was offered the post of Professor of Engineering 
at Hong -Kong University I knew he would make a mark for himself in that part of 
the world. We engineers owe a great deal to him. When he went out there he found 
a very poorly equipped engineering laboratory. Before he had been there very long he 
received offers of equipment from America and other foreign countries, notwithstanding 
which he came back to this country shortly afterwards, and, going over the factories here, 
selected a very fine British equipment for the Hong-Kong University. In that work the 
Royal Colonial Institute was able to offer him some little assistance. Mr. Smith has referred 
to the question of encouraging Chinese students to gain experience in British factories. 
That is a very important matter. In the United States they do everything possible to 
attract Chinese, Japanese and Indian students into their factories, in order to gain training 
and experience, because they know that when they get back to their own country, and 
take responsible positions, they favour the standards and practices with which they had 
been familiar during their training, and I quite agree with the Lecturer that we should 
do everything possible to encourage Chinese students to become proficient in engineering, 
chemical and other work in this country rather than allow them to go to other coun- 
tries for that purpose. Mr. Smith has dealt with the question of trade. The trade 
of China at the present time is carried on with the greatest possible difficulty diffi- 
culties, many of them, which might be overcome if we had a more progressive Government 
in this country. Take the question of cables. It is preposterous that we should 
have to wait six, eight or ten days for a cable from China. The whole position 
might be easily remedied. During the war, when military operations were everything, 
one could understand the congestion occurring, but there is no excuse for the condition 
of things which now prevails. A cable from India, for instance, may take six days to 
come over. It is quite impossible to do business with the Far East as long as these 
delays occur. The exchanges fluctuate to such an extent as to make the transaction of 
business absolutely impossible. And all this time we are not making use of the tremendous 
wireless organisation we have throughout the Empire. As a temporary expedient we 
could organise wireless services through our battleships lying in harbours all over the 
world. I am told by one of the highest authorities that that is a perfectly practicable 
proposition, and that, in that way, the Government could relieve the whole of the con- 
gestion of which we complain. It is perhaps an extraordinary idea to put before the 
Admiralty, but it is much more vital to us to stimulate our export trade at the present 
time than almost anything else of which I know. 

ME. H. T. MONTAGUE BELL : One of the most valuable features of the address was 
that it approached the subject from a double standpoint, which is too often missing 
in the consideration of Far Eastern affairs that is to say, robust confidence in the 
part Britain can and must play in that part of the world, and, at the same time, 
practical sympathy with the people of the Far East. I was interested in Professor 
Smith's references to the subject of Japan. He couched a lance, tipped perhaps 
carefully covered with cotton-wool, in favour of a better understanding with Japan. 
There is a notable distinction between the two countries China and Japan which 
perhaps will help us to understand the difference in their development. The Japanese 



THE BRITISH IN THE FAR EAST. 177 

have always profited by their aristocracy. They have possessed a wonderful 
aristocracy small in numbers, perhaps which enabled them to lift the country in 
an incredibly short time from medisevalism to the status of a first-class power. The 
proletariat have lagged behind, and do still, with the result that in the relationship 
between British traders and Japanese you are up against a condition of things which 
falls far short, of course, of the standard we expect. The Chinese, on the other hand, 
so far as one may generalise, have a splendid proletariat and have been handicapped 
by the upper class, which has retarded, I think I may say, their development. Of 
course, I am speaking in general terms, but the result is you find that the average 
Briton in the Far East takes very kindly to the mass of the Chinese, but grumbles 
at what he suffers from the Government. The problem with regard to China and 
Japan is distinct. If you can understand the two points of view I have put before 
you, I think you will obtain a key to our future dealings in that part of the world. 

MK. C. F. CHIDELL agreed with the statement that in the course of the next 
few years the East would occupy a great deal of the attention of the Western World, 
and he pointed to the developments that are going on in China, which, with its 
essentially intelligent and hard-working population, must make a profound difference 
to ourselves and our descendants. He predicted that a time would come when China 
would not only supply herself with many of the articles with which we now supply 
her, but compete with us in neutral markets. On the political aspects of the question 
he referred to Japanese attempts during the war to gain dominion over China 
attempts which were happily frustrated and said that although he had no animus 
against the Japanese, we had to consider these matters from an impartial standpoint, 
and that the facts could not be overlooked, nor their results on the future of our 
Empire as a whole, and particularly on our Colonies, except at great peril. 

MK. GEOKGE HOWELL expressed regret that anyone should question the bona fides 
of our ally Japan. 

PROFESSOR MIDDLETON SMITH said, on the question of the industrial development 
of China, that we were a sporting race, and that he hoped we should take defeats 
as well as take victories. He did not in the least dread commercial oriental competition 
for this generation or for generations to come. It was quite impossible to deal with the 
whole subject of Japan. In every country there were different factions, and so in 
Japan there were pro-British and pro-others. It was for us to reinforce as far as 
possible all the Pro-British forces. The position with regard to China was not yet 
settled. It was to be hoped that the matter would be settled amicably, and he was 
sure that we and our American friends would stand for everything that was just. 

The CHAIRMAN, proposing a vote of thanks to the Lecturer, referred to the question 
of Japanese industrial competition. He was recently on a War Cabinet Committee 
which took evidence in connection with the position of women in industry. There 
was certainly a fear of Japanese competition in various trades, such as cotton and 
pottery, owing to the cheap wages. There was also a fear of competition from the 
United States, where certainly wages were not low. The Japanese conditions of 
labour were also spoken of as a danger to the standards of life in other countries. 
Since then, as one of the results of the Peace Conference, there had been a Labour 
Conference in the United States with a view to get better conditions for labour in 
all parts of the world, and in that Conference, fortunately, Japan was represented. 

A vote of thanks was given also to the Chairman. 



178 

THE CENTENARY OF THE 1820 SETTLERS IN CAPE COLONY.* 

IN 1819, following on the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, the industrial unrest 
due to the introduction of manufacturing machinery, and the generally unsettled 
state of affairs in Great Britain, the Imperial Government, encouraged thereto by the 
Governor of the Cape, voted a sum of 50,000 for an emigration scheme to the Cape. 
Some 3,900 souls availed themselves of the opportunity to go out to the unknown 
land, said to be flowing with milk and honey. They left by some seventeen vessels of 
500 tons burden, after being ice-bound in the Thames for several months. The 
Chapman, after a perilous voyage, was the first vessel to arrive on the bleak shores of 
Algoa Bay on April 10, 1820, to be shortly followed by the rest. On their arrival at 
Algoa Bay the settlers were met by wagons, supplied at the request of the Governor, 
and then began their real trials and hardships. 

Settlements had been allocated to the various parties, and they were transported 
by the wagons and dumped down on the veldt, which was infested with wild beasts. 
Few of the settlers had any experience of agriculture, and their difficulties were added 
to by having to erect their own houses or huts with nothing but the crudest tools. 
The Kaffirs constantly raided the settlements, and when the settlers started to make 
headway, their crops were attacked by rust and other diseases. Then came the 
drought of 1823, and this virtually ruined the settlements, obliging the settlers to 
start afresh. 

Nevertheless, the hardy pioneers won through, and to-day there are some 150,000 
descendants of this good British stock scattered over the Union of South Africa. 

April 10, 1920, will be the Centenary of the Arrival of the 1820 Settlers, and being 
of such national importance to the British section of the South African public, it 
was decided fittingly to commemorate the event. To do this, the following very 
comprehensive programme has been outlined by a meeting of delegates from all over 
the Union : 5,000 for the erection of a Settlers' Commemorative Temple, designs for 
which have been submitted by various architects (the design awarded the first 
premium was by Messrs. Herbert Baker, Kendall and Morris, of Cape Town) ; 10,000 
for the completion of the Settlers' Hospital, to cost 66,000, the balance of which is to 
be put up by the Union Government ; 35,000 for the establishment of Scholarships ; 
90,000 for an Immigration Scheme; 10,000 for administrative expenses and 
celebrations. 

Since this programme has been drawn up, it has been definitely decided to postpone 
for about a year the Centenary Celebrations, owing to the fact that very large calls 
have been made on the public purse due to the late War, and also to a very bad drought, 
and the resultant high cost of living. Further, the General Parliamentary Elections 
make it impossible for the Governor-General and Cabinet Ministers to attend. Another 
reason for the postponement is the hope that arrangements will be made for His 
Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, to be present in 1921 and formally inaugurate 
the Celebrations. 

I am not going to dilate on the several items of the programme, most of which 
speak for themselves, but would like to go into the details of the Immigration Scheme. 

Firstly, the question is bound to be asked, what can be done with so paltry a sum 
as 90,000 ? The idea is to use this sum to obtain options on land suitable for irri- 
gation, which is the secret of good farming in this country, more especially agricul- 
tural farming. Assuming that the necessary land can be bought at say 1 per acre 

* We have much p]easure in publishing this article, and trust that the purposes of the 1820 
Settlers Cenbena'y Committee may commend themselves to our readers. EDD. UNITED EMPIRE. 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 179 

and that it will cost 2 per acre to put it under water, your prospective settler with 
(say) 500 capital can purchase 100 acres at 3, and hold a capital of 200 for working 
expenses. The sum of 300 goes back into the original fund, and a new irrigation 
scheme is immediately put in hand. 

To a large extent farmers in this country are dependent entirely on the annual 
rainfall, and hold enormous tracts of land running into thousands of acres ; and when 
droughts, such as we have recently experienced, visit the country, there is a very heavy 
resultant loss, and unless the farmer be firmly established it means ruin. Where 
sound irrigation arrangements exist, settlers holding small allotments of 60 acres have 
made a really good living. 

Above all things, what we require in South Africa is more Britishers of the right 
type, as we have to counteract the undoubted menace to British ideals and traditions 
from the so-called Nationalist Party. On the other hand we do not intend to induce 
Britishers to come to this country and leave them to fight out their own salvation. 
We wish to pave the way for them to make good. 

Further, we are at present trying to work up an Advisory Board consisting of two 
prominent farmers from each district in the Union, whose particular business it 
would be to glean all the information possible about their own district, such as the 
suitability for various classes of farming, cost (whether reasonable) &c., of farms 
which may come into the market, this information to be disseminated through a 
London Bureau which we intend to open. This will obviate the necessity of intending 
immigrants with capital approaching land or estate agents, or being victimised by 
unscrupulous promoters of settlements at inflated prices. 

It is also being arranged that progressive farmers throughout the Union will agree 
to take intending settlers on to their farms, and give them a certain amount of tuition 
in South African conditions of farming, say for six months or a year, during which 
time they could look round for a suitable farm and would be further advised by 
members of the Advisory Board. 

There are 57 Committees working for the scheme throughout South Africa and 
British East Africa, including all the principal towns, such as Cape Town, Johannes- 
burg, Kimberley, Durban, Pretoria, Pietermaritzburg, Salisbury, &c. 

I feel sure that UNITED EM PIKE will support this movement. We have to raise 
a sum of 150,000 to carry out our programme, and with a little publicity my com- 
mittee are confident that many men whose lives have been identified with South 
Africa in the past, and many who have made their money here, will wish to subscribe 

J. DE M. OVERBEEK, 

City Chambers, Grahamstown, Cape Colony. Organising Secretary. 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 

CANADA. 

Commercial Credits. It is stated that out of the commercial credits (which amount 
in all to $100,000,000) extended by Canada to France, Belgium, Roumania, and Greece, 
$62,000,000 were unexpended at the end of last year. Future credits will be dealt 
with according to the merits of each case as it arises, and the Canadian Minister of 
Finance will be responsible for all decisions regarding the same. 

Complete Records of Trade during the War. The Annual Report on the Trade of 
Canada, issued by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, is the first detailed statement of 
trade covering the whole period of the War. Every detail of Canadian trade for the 
fiscal years 1915 to 1917 inclusive has been prepared by the External Trade Division 



180 ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 

of the Bureau from returns published by the Department of Customs. Imports and 
exports are classified for the five years, with countries of origin or destination. Tables 
show trade under the British Preferential and French Treaty tariffs. The volume is 
fully indexed. 

This Year's Harvest. The Canadian Bureau of Statistics states that the area sown 
to fall wheat in Canada for the harvest of 1920 is estimated to be 776,400 acres, as 
compared with 714,700 acres last year, representing an increase of 9 per cent. An 
indication of the high opinion American farmers have of the seed value of Canadian 
wheat, is that between 100,000 and 150,000 bushels have been sold by the Canada 
Wheat Board for seed in Montana. The price paid was $3.25 per bushel, which is 
believed to be the highest realised by the Wheat Board. Canadian seed growers are 
reported to have captured the entire clover-seed trade from Germany, so that the 
world's supply this year will come from the Dominion. 

Canada-Bermuda Wireless Service. The Department of the Canadian Naval Service 
at Ottawa announces the inauguration of a commercial wireless service between Canada 
and Bermuda. It has been established between the Canadian radio-telegraph station 
at Barrington Passage, Nova Scotia, and the British Government station at Bermuda, 
and is open for public service. 

NEWFOUNDLAND. 

Growing Trade with Canada. Some years ago it seemed probable that the bulk of 
Newfoundland's trade was destined to fall into the hands of the United States, but 
lately it has been highly encouraging to note the growth of cordial relations with 
Canada, the practical expression of which has been a steadily increasing trade between 
the two Dominions. The returns for the fiscal year 1918-19 exceeded those of any 
previous year. Since 1915 the external trade of the island has more than doubled, 
the total for 1918 being valued at $57,046,463, compared with $25,487,666 in the 
former year. The increase applied to imports and exports alike, and the products of 
the fisheries during that time increased by nearly 80 per cent. 

AUSTRALIA. 

Forestry in Queensland. Queensland is a State with vast timber resources. The 
area of the timber reserves in existence at the beginning of 1918 was 2,804,967 acres, 
while new reserves comprising an area of 24,560 acres were gazetted during the year. 
Certain reserves were recently converted into State forests, whereby the number of 
State forests and national parks established under the State Forests and National 
Parks Acts was increased from 73 to 83, the total area of reservations being now 
1,195,880 acres. Investigations with regard to the marketing of the secondary woods 
of Queensland were made, and a number of these woods were introduced successfully. 
The Forest Service also placed on the market a bark substitute for the imported 
Quillaia. 

Big Steel Enterprise. An important development is taking place in Western 
Australia in connection with the steel industry, namely the establishment of a local 
plant for the manufacture of supplies for which the State has hitherto been dependent 
upon importations. The Australian Electric Steel Company, whose headquarters are 
at Sydney, New South Wales, is responsible for this new enterprise in Western Australia. 
A seven-acre site has been selected at West Guildford, and the Company expects to 
begin operations immediately. The Company already has contracts in hand from the 
Federal Government and also from the State Governments of New South Wales, 
Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia, besides orders from the mining companies 
in most of the States to- replace material which has previously been imported from 
overseas. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 181 

A New Commercial Asset. In Western Australia rabbits are no longer regarded as 
a pest, but on the contrary they have become an important asset, both the carcases 
and the skins having acquired increased value for export. In consequence, the 
authorities have found it necessary to draw public attention to the uneconomic character 
of the old methods of poisoning wild rabbits and otherwise destroying them. Some 
time ago shipments of 500,000 lb. of rabbit skins from Australia, and 50,000 Ib. from 
New Zealand, realised an average of 7*. Qd. per lb. in the United States, and more 
recently a consignment of skins sent to the St. Louis market realised an advance of 
15 per cent. An increasing demand for both carcasses and skins is also reported from 
England. 

SOUTH AFRICA. 

Formation of a Sugar Association. After negotiations extending over a period of 
two and a half years, an amalgamation of the sugar planters' and mill owners' organisa- 
tions has been accomplished, the result being the formation of the South African Sugar 
Association. The amalgamation should be of the utmost value to the industry. 

Prize Fruit Exhibit in London. The Council of the Royal Horticultural Society of 
Great Britain awarded the Banksian silver medal to Mr. A. Canham, Trade Com- 
missioner for the Union, for the fine collection of fruit exhibited by South Africa at 
the Society's Show at Westminster. The exhibit included peaches, plums, pears and 
nectarines, the colouring and splendid condition of the fruit being remarkable. 

WEST INDIES. 

Prospects in British Guiana. An interesting letter has been received from British 
Guiana which deals hopefully with existing conditions there, and predicts that the 
country is at last on the eve of important developments. The most vital need is an 
increased population, and it is understood that the efforts of the Colonisation Committee 
which visited England last summer have paved the way for the introduction of native 
labour from India. Greater attention is being paid to sanitation in all its branches, 
and the authorities are earnestly tackling all questions relating to the improvement of 
health conditions generally. The Government has had a preliminary report made on 
the water-power resources of the Colony, and operations for prospecting for mineral oil 
by the sinking of wells under expert direction are to be started shortly. The extensive 
bauxite deposits are now attracting attention in Great Britain, and a declaration of the 
Government's policy in regard to the mining for this ore is anxiously awaited by the 
public. The Demerara Bauxite Company has obtained Crown Leases, and also controls 
a considerable area (some 20,000 acres) of freehold land on the Demerara River. A 
crushing and drying plant is being erected on the river at Mackenzie, about seventy 
miles from Georgetown, where ocean-going steamers can load the ore for transport 
overseas. The output of diamonds during 1919 was 16,706^ carats, some of the stones 
being of fair size and exceptional quality, and owing to the inflated value of diamonds, 
especially in the United States, they often fetch as much as 20 a carat in the rough. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Native Unrest in the Pacific. The tide of Labour unrest which is sweeping over 
the world is destined to affect native as well as white labour. Though conditions are 
dissimilar inasmuch as the question of a "living wage" is not applicable to native 
life there is a very real grievance to be adjusted, and unless this is done rapidly both 
traders and employers of native labour in these islands are liable to find themselves 
in serious difficulties. 



182 CORRESPONDENCE. 

The native has now grasped the fact that he has to put in two days' work in order 
to purchase an article which was his in return for one day's work in 1914, also that 
he has to bring 20 Ib. of copra to the trader for the same supply of tobacco which 
was his for 10 Ib. of copra five years ago. 

The native mind works slowly, but he has learnt things about labour wage and 
trading methods since the days of R. L. Stevenson. He has also seen quite a lot of 
the white man's way of " sitting down " in Australia until wages are raised. Though 
he is not bothered about the "living wage" question, he sees no reason for paying 
double for everything now that the War is over and receiving only what he got in 
pre-war days for his raw material and for his labour. 

During the War the natives here gave freely to War Funds, and every island 
offered its young men for Active Service. Victory, to them, was assured from the start, 
and was over -long in coming. In November, 1918, Germany was beaten, and an early 
return to normal times, cheap living, and light taxation, was expected. 

Though more than a year has passed, the native is faced with ever-increasing cost 
of all imported goods, a considerable rise in native taxation, and a continuance of 
pre-war labour rates and the pre-war copra price of l^d. per Ib. The satisfaction of 
victory gave way to surprise, surprise became anxiety, anxiety is merging into sullenness 
and resentment. 

Those interested in trade and Native Labour in the Pacific will do well to realise 
something of the native point of view before the remedy is forced into the natives 
own hands a remedy which may paralyse, at least for a time, such important industries 
as Phosphate of Lime and Copra. 

E. C. ELIOT, Resident Commissioner, Gilbert and Ellice Colony. 

Corresponding Secretary, R.C.I. 
Ocean Island, December 19, 1919. 

Papyrus and Water. Travelling about in Central Africa, namely in Northern 
Rhodesia, Nyasaland, B.E. Africa, East Africa and Uganda, I have noticed that where 
Papyrus grows there is always water to be found. Is the papyrus due to the water, 
or is the water due to the papyrus ? 

Should the water be due to the growth of papyrus, the planting of papyrus along 
the banks of rivers which only hold water in the wet season would turn waterless 
stretches in Central Africa into well- watered country. 

This may be of interest to those who are studying the water supplies in Africa. 

Kampala, Uganda, RUPEKT L. L. HART. 

January 8, 1920. 

For " England " read " Great Britain." In your " Editorial Notes "for March, you write 
under the heading, " The Dominion View " : " England, representing the Empire, is a 
permanent member of the Council." This is a complete misrepresentation of the 
position of England in this question. Internationally, there is no " England." By 
the great Treaty of Union of 1706-7, England agreed to give up her existence as 
an independent and separate Kingdom for ever, on condition of Scotland doing the 
same and uniting with England under the name of Great Britain. I trust you will 
give publicity to this letter, and so help to dispel what, I regret to say, is a far too 
common and offensive idea of the position of England in the British Empire. 

Edinburgh. T. D. WANLISS. 

[We apologise to Scottish susceptibilities for a terminological and constitutional inexacti- 
tude, due to a slip of the pen. EDD. UNITED EMPIRE.] 



183 



EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 

The British Industries Fair and the Oversea Buyer. 

THE British Industries Fair this year, like Gaul of old, was divided into three parts. 
The principal Exhibition was held in London, and included glass, cutlery, leather, 
printing, furniture, musical instruments, and the main general divisions outside of 
those special matters which were the subject of the Birmingham and Glasgow Exhibi- 
tions. Birmingham had hardware, rubber, heating and cooking apparatus, brassware, 
paint, firearms, and bicycles. At Glasgow were shown textiles, chemicals, and food 
products. It will be seen that in the two latter, exhibits were more or less divided on 
geographical lines ; each town being the centre of those industries which, in a very 
broad way, are grouped about it. The division had certain advantages from the point 
of view of the oversea buyer. First, that he was close to the actual works in the trade 
concerned ; second, that the Exhibitions were necessarily more compact and therefore 
more easily covered ; and so if a buyer's interest lay wholly in certain directions, it 
would be easier to make a comparative study than in an immense aggregation of all 
industries. But the position of the oversea buyer is much broader than that of the 
purchaser at home. He has to buy, in most cases, from several different industries, 
and this fact, combined with the obvious difficulty of keeping the lines of demarcation 
between industries perfectly clear, has made it a somewhat trying arrangement from 
the purely oversea point of view to say nothing of the unnecessary addition to 
expenses. 

An oversea buyer often wishes to carry on his negotiations with manufacturers in 
different industries at the same time, making use of the inevitable pause in one in 
order to be active in another, and of this advantage he is deprived by the present 
arrangement. One case in particular may be instanced as having come before the 
notice of the Trade and Industry Committee. A buyer wished to establish connections 
in soft goods, fancy leathers, and small brassware, and, to get full advantage of the 
Exhibitions, he would have had to spend the limited time at his disposal in moving 
rapidly between the three centres. 

The principal drawback from the oversea point of view was, perhaps, the fact that 
the three Exhibitions were held simultaneously, and occupied so short a time. It 
would be better to extend the time limit in order that buyers might visit all three ; 
or, better still, to hold the three Exhibitions in three consecutive fortnights. 

A Great Inter-Empire Trade Factor. 

These objections, however, are purely from the oversea standpoint, and no doubt 
experience will remedy them. Apart from them, the Exhibition was an unqualified 
success, and reflects the greatest credit on the Department of Overseas Trade which 
organised it, and these Annual Fairs must become a very great factor in inter-Empire 
trade. It is always difficult to keep a trade exhibition free from the mere onlooker, 
but the Crystal Palace was particularly well guarded in this respect, and very few 
people found their way into it who had not definite business with the exhibitors. 
Ample facilities for the information and entertainment of oversea buyers were afforded 
by the Department. Whether the exhibitors were as much alive to the significance 
of oversea trade in the nation's economic future as were the management, may, perhaps, 
be questioned. Many of them are wisely looking beyond the present artificial demand 
and quietly consolidating their oversea arrangements ; but not so all, and the attitude 
toward the oversea buyer showed this in some cases. The exhibits, too, while being 



184 EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 

a revelation of the working ability and recuperative powers of manufacturers in this 
country, were not always especially directed to oversea demands ; and many stalls 
were superintended by persons who had very vague notions as to what those demands 
are, or even of the existence of the people making them. 

It was interesting to note the excellent exhibits of optical glass, chemical glassware, 
and fine porcelain for chemical purposes ; in all of which we were woefully deficient 
before the War, but which are now being made in admirable qualities by British 
manufacturers. English cutlery, of course, needs no bush, and it appeared here, for 
the first time since its makers have been freed from munition work, in a very wide 
and excellent range. Fancy goods were stronger than one would have imagined 
possible from pre-war experience, especially fancy leather goods, which covered all 
the varieties that, before the War, were virtually an Austrian monopoly. The main 
feature of the Exhibition, however, was the display of British-made toys. Here the 
manufacturer in this country has made extraordinary strides, and every kind of toy 
was displayed at the Exhibition, from the cheap gaudy-coloured varieties which were 
obtained formerly from Germany, through all the recognised Continental grades, to 
the best of the Parisian types, and including the substantial class of mechanical and 
constructional toys which has been peculiarly English in its conception and growth. 

For the benefit of inquirers, the Crystal Palace Exhibition was very carefully 
studied by a representative of the Committee, and considerable information was gained 
of manufacturers' intentions and their outlook upon oversea Empire requirements. 
It was endeavoured also to bring to their notice the great importance of developing 
their Dominion and Colonial trade, and, where necessary, establishing branches of 
their factories oversea. This advice was pointed by, and found ample illustration in, 
the forthcoming Canadian Exhibition. 

Canadian Manufacturers an Exhibition in London. 

When anyone has been proclaiming a fact, over a long period, to a sceptical audience, 
it is gratifying to find material evidence of its existence suddenly before the world. 
The Canadian Industries Exhibition, to be held at the Agricultural Hall from June 3 
to June 15 next, bears such a relation to the industrial movement oversea, the growth 
of which this Committee has so long and so earnestly impressed upon the business 
community in this country. Time and again manufacturers have been urged to use 
their experience in developing branches of their own industries, and to take advantage 
of the wakening industrial life oversea. Here at last is tangible evidence of the strength 
ot this industrial growth in at least one of the Dominions. When the late Chairman 
of the Canadian Mission in London, Mr. Lloyd Harris, returned to Canada, Mr. Greville 
Montgomery went with him in order to observe Canadian industry in being, with a 
view to organising the Exhibition on this side on his return. The Exhibition is sup- 
ported by the Canadian Trade Commission, the Canadian Mission, and the Canadian 
Manufacturers Association, and a stall has been taken by the Trade a,nd Industry 
Committee of the Institute, in accordance with its policy of fostering oversea industry 
and in order that its work may be rendered more widely available. 

The Exhibition will include ready-made wooden houses, wood-working machinery, 
furniture, pianos, grain elevators, tractors, separators, hardware and steel goods, 
confectionery, textiles, furs, and many other articles of Canadian manufacture. A 
contrast with the state of production in this country, where supplies of manufactured 
goods keep no pace with the demand, is afforded by a statement in the Press, that all 
the exhibitors at the Canadian Industries Exhibition avow themselves in a position 
to give quick deliveries. 



BOOK NOTICES. 185 

In view of the development of secondary industries proceeding at so rapid a rate 
in the Dominions, it is to be hoped that the pioneer work done by Canada will soon be 
followed up, at any rate by Australia and South Africa ; and to any careful student 
of the economic growth of the Empire there is nothing Utopian in the expression of 
a wish that the passage of a very few years may see an Exhibition of the industries of 
the oversea Empire side by side and in friendly competition with the existing Annual 
British Industries Fair. 

The Law and the Exporter. 

Among the many agency inquiries which come before the Trade and Industry 
Committee, a considerable amount of misunderstanding in regard to legal relationships 
is frequently to be noticed. One of the most usual of these is the precise position 
in which the seller of goods stands in respect to a buyer who is, in fact, purchasing 
on behalf of an Oversea principal. There is a belief firmly fixed in the minds of many 
business men that the buyer in such a case is responsible alternatively with the principal 
for whom he is acting that is to say, that he can be sued in the case of any difficulty 
over the contract. This is an altogether erroneous belief, but it arises from a 
presumption, sound in law. For various reasons, and in certain circumstances, 
there is what one might call a naked presumption that the buyer, in such a case as 
above outlined, is so liable ; but the evidence required to upset this presumption is 
so very small that it is not one upon which the Overseas merchant can in any way 
rely. It has even been argued though never made the subject of a decision that 
the words " as agents " in very small type, beneath the signature of a buyer such as 
has been described, would be sufficient evidence to rebut the presumption. It is 
possible, of course, to avoid any trouble of this kind, where there is any doubt in 
a merchant's mind, by stipulating expressly that the agent, as well as the foreign 
principal, shall be liable, which defines the legal status and avoids the danger of 
what appears to be a somewhat common misapprehension. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

Journal of the Parliaments of the Empire. Vol. i. No. 1. January 1920. Pp. viii-226. Empire 

Parliamentary Association. 7s. 6d. 

The Empire Parliamentary Association is to be congratulated on the initiative it has 
taken in issuing a journal containing summaries of the principal debates in the Parliaments 
of the Empire. Apart from its future historical value, and its present obvious advantages 
for purposes of reference, the journal will be of the greatest service as a mirror in which 
will be reflected the opinions of British and Overseas statesmen on current policies and 
contemporary events. Considerations of space will naturally prevent the Editor, Mr. Howard 
D'Egville, from dealing exhaustively with all the many topics that arise in connection with 
the governance of the Empire, but an examination of the current number will convince the 
reader that there can be few subjects of importance which will escape attention. The 
preparation of a summary of this nature calls for a wide and intimate knowledge of public 
affairs, their comparative values, and their particular place in the economy of the Empire. 
It says much, therefore, for Mr. D'Egville's qualifications that the journal is admirably 
balanced and that the quotations therein cover a wide field of investigation. 

British Dominions Year Book, 1920. Edited by Edward Salmon and James Worsfold. 

Maps and illust. Pp. 320. Published by the Eagle, Star, and British Dominions Insurance 

Company. 1920. 

The new edition of the British Dominions Year Book contains a number of articles 
of considerable interest, notably Mr. Wyatt Tilby's review of " Changes and Tendencies 
in the British Empire," from which it is apparent that the author is not exactly enamoured 
of the League of Nations. A special feature of this book is the excellent series of political 
maps showing the effects of the Peace Treaty. 



186 



OBITUARY. 

SIR THOMAS ANDERSON STUART, K.B., M.D. 

SIR T. ANDERSON STUART, who died in Sydney, Australia, at the latter end of February, 
in his 64th year, was for upwards of 36 years Professor of Physiology and Dean of the Faculty 
of Medicine at the Sydney University. He was educated at Edinburgh University, taking 
First Class Honours in 1880. Two years later he received the gold medal, and was elected 
President of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh. In 1883 he was called to Sydney 
to found the Medical School at the University. At one time or other he filled practically 
every office in his profession in New South Wales. He was knighted in 1914. Sir Thomas 
was the first Vice-President, and one of the founders, of the New South Wales Branch 
(recently revived) of the Royal Colonial Institute, which was inaugurated in 1914 as the 
result of Major J. R. Boos6's visit to Australia. 

LiEUT.-CoLONEii E. A. STEELE, D.S.O. 

The R.A. Institution Leaflet for January contains an account of the late Major 
(Acting Lieut. -Colonel) E. A. Steele, D.S.O. , who died at Omsk, Siberia, in October last, 
whilst serving with the British Military Mission. It will be read with interest by 
the many friends he made in South Africa whilst serving with the Anglo-Belgian 
Boundary Commission 1912-1914. He joined up on the outbreak of War and was 
. severely wounded at Festubert in 1915, but returned to duty and was dangerously 
wounded in September 1916. He went to Siberia in 1918, and succumbed to the 
rigours of the climate. An Army Order, issued at Omsk by Lieut.-General Dietrikhs, 
mourns the loss of one who " died for an ideal the re-establishment of Russia as a 
Great Power, and the salvation of those who still struggle under oppression and the 
lash in Soviet Russia." 



DONATIONS TO THE NEW PREMISES AND JUBILEE FUND. 



NINTH LIST. 



Previously announced 
Sub-Lieut. N. G. Wait, R.N.V.R. 
Benjamin Wilson, Esq. 
Lieut. J. Grant Henderson 
M. A. de Bauw 
Lewis Haslam, Esq., M.P. 
W. W. Hind-Smith, Esq. . 
A. C. McGrotty, Esq. (third 

donation) .... 
A. A. Barry, Esq. 
J. Finden Brown, Esq. 
Professor W. J. Lewis 
A. O'Gorman Munkhouse, Esq. . 
R. J. Seeley, Esq. . 
T. W. Hoseason, Esq. 
A. G. Moreton, Esq.. . ' . 
Ainslie J. Robertson, Esq. 
Charles G. Ryan, Esq. 
H. H. Boyd Stewart, Esq. 
Dr. C. A. LaTouche Brough (first 

donation) .... 
J. W. W. Hughes, Esq. . 

F. J. Crossle, Esq. . 

G. Hope, Esq. 
A. Gidley, Esq. 



. 


a. 


d. 







s. 


d. 


43,895 


2 


6 


C. W. Bresland, Esq. . . 


1 


I 





2 


2 





A. Pawsey, Esq. 


26 


5 





1 


1 





R. W- Bridgeman, Esq. 


2 








5 








R. Hancock, Esq. 


2 


8 





2 


2 





Lt. -Colonel A. K. Rawlins.C.I.E., 








100 








C.B.E., D.S.O. 


5 


5 





1 


1 


i P. H. Dennis, Esq. . 


1 


1 











G. B. Pearson, Esq. 


25 








2 





1 Mrs. T. H. Bullock . 


1 








1 


1 


F. A. Wells, Esq. . 


2 


f> 





10 


10 





J. P. Maxwell, Esq. 


2 





e 


1 


1 





Leslie Elliot, Esq. 


2 


2 





5 


5 





Mrs. William Houghton . 


3 


3 





1 


1 





E. Sayer, Esq. 


1 


1 





2 


2 





T. G. Cross, Esq. 


5 








1 


1 





W. T. Shapley, Esq. 


3 


3 





1 


1 





L. F. Bibra, Esq. 


1 


1 


D 


3 








J. Sybray, Esq. 


1 


1 





1 


1 





Frederick Elder, Esq. 


5 














T. E. Bevan, Esq. 


2 


2 





25 








Warren Weedon, Esq. (second 








1 


1 





donation) .... 


5 








1 
1 


1 
1 








44,155 


18 


6 



UNITED EMPIRE 



APE1L 1920 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 

FOR THE YEAE ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1919, 

TO BE PRESENTED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING AT THB 
CENTRAL HALL, WESTMINSTER, 

On Thursday, April 29th, 1920, at 3 p.m. 

1. A FURTHER considerable increase in membership can be recorded by the Council 
in their Fifty-first Annual Eeport. It reached a total of 14,705 on December 31, 1919, 
as against 13,733 on the same date in 1918. The gross increase was 2,044, but deaths 
and resignations brought the total down to a net increase of 972. This increase was 
largely due to the work done by the Organisation Committee, but many new members 
have been nominated by the Honorary Corresponding Secretaries and as a result of 
individual application. A number of resignations were the result of the financial 
stringency of the times, from which all classes are suffering. 

Including the year in which the war broke out, the total net increase of the 
Institute's membership in the past six years (1914-1919) has been 4,579, an average 
yearly increase of 763. This is a record which few, if any, other institutions could 
probably equal. 

2. The year following upon the Armistice of November 1918 has been one 
of much industrial unrest in most of the European countries as well as in the 
United States of America, and Great Britain has been by no means exempt from 
similar manifestations of the aftermath of war. But it has also been marked by 
a large increase of production of many classes of commodities and a consequent 
reduction of the unfavourable balance between imports and exports. Though the 
great war is over, minor disturbances have occurred in various quarters, and this 
(coupled with higher pay and enhanced cost of all necessities) rendered any very 
considerable alleviation of the naval and military burdens of the Empire for the time 
being impossible. The unwillingness of the United States of America either to ratify 
the Peace Treaty or to accept any mandates of territory from the League of Nations, 
has undoubtedly prolonged the condition of uncertainty which still prevails, and 
has had the effect of postponing the settlement with Turkey. The other outstanding 
features of the past year were the recognition of the self-governing Dominions of 



188 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

the Empire as separate States in a great British Commonwealth by the signatures 
of their representatives being affixed to the Treaty of Peace, and by the admission 
of each Dominion as a full member of the League of Nations ; and the remarkably 
successful tour of H.K.H. The Prince of Wales through the Dominion of Canada, 
which included a visit to the United States. 

JUBILEE DINNER AND APPEAL. 

3. The Jubilee Dinner, which took place with H.K.H. The Duke of Connaught 
in the chair on May 23, 1919, was an unqualified success, despite the unavoidable 
absence at Paris of some of the leading guests. Subsequently an appeal was issued 
in August to all the members of the Institute for contributions to a new Premises 
and Jubilee Fund of 300,000, with the object of purchasing additional premises 
in Northumberland Avenue, so as to reconstruct an adequate home for the Insti- 
tute on an extended site, and for the creation of an endowment fund for the better 
prosecution of its activities. H.R.H. the President had previously outlined the 
Institute's immediate necessities in his speech as chairman at the Jubilee Dinner- 
The response to the appeal has already been gratifying, a total of 44,000 having 
been received to the date of this report, including a noble donation of 25,000 from 
Mr. Hugh R. Denison of Sydney (N.S.W.). Meanwhile negotiations were instituted 
by the Council for the purchase of the freehold and leasehold interests in Avenue 
House, adjoining the existing building, and other steps were taken to ensure the 
control of the greater part of the whole island site. Building operations cannot of 
course commence until the entire site has been secured and until, as the Council 
hope will be the case during the present year, contributions approach more closely to 
the total sum required. 

CHARTEE OF INCORPORATION. 

4. Recent experiences have shown that the Institute's Charter of Incorporation 
as now framed dating back as it does so far as 1882 is in many respects not suited 
either to present conditions or prospective developments ; and the Council, after 
full consideration and enquiry, are satisfied that a Petition to His Majesty in Council 
for an amended Charter can be made successfully. They hope shortly to be able 
to lay before the Fellows for approval the necessary legal documents in connection 
therewith. 

PROPOSED AMALGAMATION WITH THE OVERSEAS CLUB AND PATRIOTIC LEAGUE 

OF BRITONS OVERSEAS. 

5. Owing to the conviction that it was desirable to prevent overlapping with the 
work of other Patriotic Societies, and more particularly in regard to the building 
schemes of the Institute and the Overseas Club and Patriotic League, the Council 
appointed certain members of their body in June last to meet and confer with 
representatives appointed by the latter Society as a Joint Committee. This Committee, 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 189 

after sitting continuously, except in August and September, under the chairmanship 
of Sir Godfrey Lagden, drew up a report to the effect that amalgamation was both 
practicable and desirable, and laid down a basis for agreement. The report was 
duly considered and adopted in principle by the Councils of the two Societies, subject 
to the further elaboration of details, and to the approval of their respective members 
at special meetings. The meeting of the Fellows of the Institute for the consideration 
of the scheme will be held after the Annual Meeting, on a date to be announced later, 
and the Council express the earnest hope that their proposals, when presented, will 
meet with the approval of the Fellows as being in the best interests not only of the 
Institute, but of the Empire as a whole. 

FELLOWS, AFFILIATED MEMBERS, AND ASSOCIATES. 

6. During the year there have been elected 691 Kesident Fellows, 744 Non-Resident 
Fellows, 2 Affiliated Members, 404 Associates, and 1 Honorary Fellow, in addition 
to 202 Associates who have joined the Bristol Branch, making a total of 2,044. These 
figures may be compared with 688 Resident Fellows, 778 Non-Resident Fellows, 

2 Affiliated Members, 133 Associates, 589 Associates of the Bristol Branch, and 

3 Honorary Fellows, or a total of 2,193 in 1918. On December 31, 1919, there were 
3,423 Resident Fellows, 8,915 Non-Resident Fellows, 19 Affiliated Members, 2,330 
Associates (including 1,219 in the Bristol Branch), and 18 Honorary Fellows, or 14,705 
in all, of whom 2,484 have compounded for the annual subscriptions and qualified as 
Life Fellows or Life Associates. 

HONORARY FELLOWSHIP. 

7. Sixty Rhodes Scholars from the Overseas Dominions have been made Honorary 
Fellows during their residence at Oxford, and Honorary Fellowship has also been 
granted to 25 Overseas Sailor and Soldier Scholars. 

ACCOUNTS. 

8. The Annual Statement of Income and Expenditure, together with the Balance 
Sheet, duly certified by the auditors, forms an annexure to this Report. For the 
first time the Annual Statements of the Institute's Branches are also appended. The 
accounts show the income and expenditure, and the capital assets and liabilities at 
the close of 1919 for the Institute and its branches. The total income of the Insti- 
tute for the year amounted to 19,899 14s. Id., not including rents 2,260 which 
have been transferred to the New Premises Fund. This shows an increase for the 
year of nearly 2,500. Notwithstanding this, the great rise in nearly all items 
of expenditure occasioned a deficit of 1,945 Is. Id., to meet which, as well as an 
estimated deficit of 1,300 in 1920, the Council have recently issued an appeal to the 
members for a voluntary levy. They have done this in preference to proposing a rise 
in the rate of subscriptions, though pressure of circumstances will probably render 

such action necessary at a later date. 

Q 



190 



THE 1 REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



9. The following table and the diagram on p. 191 show the increase of membership 
and the annual income in each year since the foundation of the Institute : 



Date. 


dumber of Fellows, 
Associates,* and 
Affiliated M embers, t 


Annual income (exclusive of Building and 
Conversazione Funds, but inclusive of 
Life Compositions and Entrance Fees). 


To June 11, 1869 


174 


a. d 
1,224 14 5 


1870 


275 


549 10 8 


1871 


210 


503 16 4 


1872 


271 


478 10 4 


1873 


349 


1,022 9 1 


1874 


420 


906 12 11 


1875 


551 


1,038 15 8 


1876 


627 


1,132 3 3 


1877 


717 


1,222 11 3 


1878 


796 


1,330 13 11 


1879 


981 


1,752 18 2 


1880 


1,131 


2,141 8 10 


1881 


1,376 


2,459 15 6 


1882 


1,613 


3,236 8 3 


1883 


1,959 


3,647 10 


1884 


2,306 


4,539 10\ 


1885 


2,587 


5.220 19 




1886 


2,880 


6,258 11 




To Dec. 31, 1886 


3,005 


6,581 2 6 




1887 


3,125 


6,034 3 


j 


1888 


3,221 


6,406 11 5 



a 


1889 


3,562 


7,738 7 11 


| 


1890 


3,667 


6,919 7 6 


| 


1891 


3,782 


7,362 2 10 





1892 


3,775 


6,966 12 4 


3 


1893 


3,749 


6,458 18 6 


*S 


1894 


3,757 


6,691 19 




1895 


3,767 


6,854 2 11 




1896 


3,929 


7,315 5 9 


1 


1897 


4,133 


7,588 15 7 


}g, 


1898 


4,139 


7,114 4 2 


cS 


1899 


4,153 


7,053 10 2 


J3 


1900 . . . . 


4,208 


7,142 8 3 


- 


1901 . . . 


4,228 


7,154 1 9 


i 


1902 


4,407 


8,042 6 1 




1903 


4,460 


7,740 4 9 


1 


1904 


4,472 


7,628 15 8 


j3 


1905 . ; ... 


4,491 


7,536 10 9 


"o 


1906 


4,487 


7,323 6 7 


H 


1907 


4,437 


7,467 13 6 




1908 


4,438 


7,203 7 4 




1909* 


4,527 


7,434 6 7 




1910 


5,010 


8,275 16 O/ 


1911 


5,608 


8,597 13 2 


1912 


7,177 


11,217 18 1 


1913 


9,088 


12,918 17 4 


1914 


10,126 


12,738 13 


1915 


10,904 


13,306 10 9} 


1916f 


11,666 


14,831 8 l( Including 


1917 


12,117 


14,848 19 1 f rents. 


1918 


13,733 


17,580 11 2j 


1919 


14,705 


19,899 14 7 





* Associates were first introduced in 1909. 

f Affiliated members were first introduced in 1916. 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

DIAGRAM OF PROGRESS SINCE DATE OP FOUNDATION TO DECEMBER 31, 1919 



191 







15000 




14,705 






/- 


14,000 




13.733; 


/ 






/ 


- 


13,000 




12,117, 


/ 




12,000 




11,66 
10,904, 


'/. 


- 


- 


-- 


11,000 




10,126, 


/ 


- 


- 


- 




10,000 




9,0 88 / 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9,000 




n 




- 


-- 


- 


-- 


8,000 




7.177, 


-- 


- 


-- 


- 


- 




-- 


7000 

r f\r\c\ 




s,e 

5.0! 
4,527 

4,1 8 9^- ' : ^\ 


>0 

/ 


7 


[ 
















6,000 
5,000 


















3(2 2 !x 




























4,000 






























3,000 

o ne\r\ 


























/. 


















-- 


- 


- 




-- 


Z.UUU 

1,000 


7 ?r 


















^^* \ 




























n 



1868 



1878 



IC88 



<898 



OBITUAKY. 

10. The Council have to record with great regret the death of 247 Fellows and 
32 Associates during the year 1919, the names of whom have been regularly published 
in UNITED EMPIRE. They include the following Vice-Presidents : The Earl 
Brassey, The Right Hon. Sir Albert Hime, K.C.M.G. ; and Councillors : Sir Duncan 
C. Baillie, K.C.S.I., Sir William D. Gibbon (Bournemouth Branch). 



192 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Council further deplore the death of the following Honorary Corresponding 
Secretaries : G. J. Altman (Vladivostock), F. J. Barnett (Solomon Islands), Herbert 
Robinson (Albany, Western Australia), W. J. Sallust Smith (Gibraltar), John T. Small 
(Toronto) ; also of J. T. Arundel, Senator Hon. Sir H. M. Beck, M.D., Sir T. Fowell 
Buxton, Bart., Sir S. Guy Calthrop, Bart., W. L. Docker, Sir John E. Denniston, 
Sir G. Lancelot Eyles, K.C.M.G., Sir James E. Fairfax, Sir Hugh Fort, Hon. Sir 
Philip 0. Fysh, K.C.M.G., The Viscount Gough, K.C.V.O., C. Guthrie, Sir Edward 
Holden, Bart., Hon. Mr. Justice W. M. Hopley, The Lord Inverclyde, The Right Hon. 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, G.C.M.G., Hon. Sir John McCall, K.C.M.G., M.D. (Agent-General 
for Tasmania), Sir Daniel McCabe, Colonel Sir Henry E. McCallum, G.C.M.G., Hon. 
Sir Samuel McCaughey, The Right Hon. Sir WiUiam MacGregor, G.C.M.G., C.B., 
Hon. J. G. Maydon, Sir E. Montague Nelson, K.C.M.G., Sir Edward Parkes, The 
Lord St. Oswald, The Right Hon. W. P. Schreiner, C.M.G. (High Commissioner for 
South Africa), G. M. Theal, LL.D., Sir William H. Treacher, K.C.M.G. 



ELECTION OP VICE-PRESIDENTS AND COUNCILLORS. 

11. The following Vice-Presidents have been appointed during the year under the 
provisions of Rule 26, subject to confirmation by the Fellows: H.H. The Maharajah 
of Kolhapur, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., G.C.V.O., H.H. The Maharajah of Mysore, G.C.S.I., 
H.H. The Maharajah Rana of Jhalawar, K.C.S.I., The Lord Leverhulme, LL.D., Sir 
Gerald Strickland, G.C.M.G., Hugh R. Denison, Esq. 

The following Councillors have been appointed during the year under the provisions 
of Rule 26, subject to confirmation by the Fellows : C. Jesson, Esq., M.P., Lt.-Col. 
Sir Francis Younghusband, K. C.S.I., K.C.I.E., and owing to the death of Sir William 
D. Gibbon, Mr. J. R. Brazier was appointed the representative of the Bournemouth 
Branch upon the Council. 

The Council, in accordance with Rule 67, submit the names of gentlemen nominated 
to fill the vacancies in the offices of Vice-Presidents and Councillors : 

President. Field-Marshal H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught, K.G., K.T., K.P., &c. 

Vice-Presidents. The following retire pursuant to Rule 27, and are eligible for 
re-election : Marquis of Aberdeen and Temair, K.T., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., Rt. Hon. 
A. Bonar Law, M.P., Colonel George T. Denison, Earl of Dunraven, K.P., C.M.G., 
Fred. Dutton, Esq., Lt.-Gen. Sir J. Bevan Edwards, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., Rt. Hon. 
Sir George T. Goldie, K.C.M.G., Hon. Sir Wm. Hall-Jones, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., Hon. 
Sir Thomas Mackenzie, K.C.M.G., Earl of Meath, K.P., Lord Morris, K.C.M.G., LL.D., 
Rt. Hon. Sir Gilbert Parker, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D., Sir George R. Parkin, 
K.C.M.G., LL.D. 

Honorary Treasurer. Robert Littlejohn, Esq. 

Councillors. The following retire pursuant to Rule 27, and are not eligible for 
re-election this year : Sir Harry Brittain, K.B.E., M.P., Colonel H. E. Rawson, 
C.B., Ellis T. Powell, Esq., D.Sc., LL.B., Hon. J. G. Jenkins. It is proposed that 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 193 

the Hon. J. G. Jenkins, on his retirement as Councillor, should be appointed a Vice- 
President. 

In accordance with the provisions of Rule 27, the Council have nominated the 
following gentlemen to fill two of the above vacancies : Major J. Hely Pounds, 
Donald Begg, Esq. 

In view of the possibility of amalgamation with the Overseas Club and Patriotic 
League it is not the Council's intention to propose the addition of any further members 
to their body on the present occasion. 



MEETINGS. 

12. The Evening and Afternoon Meetings of the Institute have been regularly 
held at the Central Hall, Westminster. The Special Christmas Lectures for Young 
People were very successful. The following Papers were read and discussed : 

" British Traits and Ideals in Relation to our Colonial Development." By 
' The Right Hon. Lord Leverhulme, LL.D. Chairman, Sir Frederick D. 
Lugard, G.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O. 

" Agriculture in the Tropics for ex-Soldiers." By Professor P. Cannody, 
F.I.C., F.C.S. Chairman, Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G., D.Sc. 

" Railway Development in Australia." By T. R. Johnson. Chairman, 
Sir Charles Lucas, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

" Agricultural Organisation in Relation to the Colonies." By Major E. A. 
Belcher, C.B.E. Chairman, Sir Percy FitzPatrick, K.C.M.G. 

"The Apotheosis of Democracy." By G. E. Maclean, Ph.D., LL.D. 
Chairman, The Right Hon. Sir Gilbert Parker, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D. 

" Empire Food Production." By The Right Hon. G. H. Roberts, M.P. 
Chairman, the Right Hon. Viscount Milner, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. 

" Unknown New Guinea." By Lieut. E. "W. Pearson Chinnery. Chairman, 
the Right Hon. Andrew Fisher. 

" Statistics and National Destiny." By G. H. Knibbs, C.M.G. Chairman, 
Sir Charles Lucas, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

" The British in the Far East." By Professor C. A. Middleton Smith, 
M.I.Mech.E. Chairman, Lieut.-Col. the Right Hon. Sir Matthew Nathan, 
G.C.M.G. 

" The New British Kingship." By Ellis T. Powell, D.Sc., LL.B. Chair- 
man, Sir George R. Parkin, K.C.M.G., LL.D. 

" Tropical and Sub-Tropical Diseases." By Dr. Louis W. Sambon. Chair- 
man, Sir Patrick Manson, G.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S. 

" The Meaning of the Empire to the Labour Democracy." By Sir Charles 
Lucas, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. Chairman, Hon. J. G. Jenkins. 

" Australia and Child Emigration." By Kingsley Fairbridge. Chairman, 
the Hon. J. D. Connolly. 



194 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL; 

" Through the North- West of Australia." By A. 0. Neville. Chairman. 
Sir Charles Lucas, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

" Uganda." By Sir Eobert T. Coryndon, ' K.C.M.G. Chairman, Sir 
Henry Birchenough, Bart., K.C.M.G. 

CHRISTMAS LECTURES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. 

"Sumer is Icumen In" or "Wild Life in Springtime." By F. R. D. 
Onslow, B.A. (Oxon.). Chairman, Ben H. Morgan, Esq. 

"Volcanoes and the Fire Belt." By W. Herbert Garrison, F.R.G.S. 
Chairman, R. D. Douglas Maclean, Esq. 

" A Story of the Pacific Coast." By Mrs. Julia W. Henshaw, F.R.G.S. 
Chairman, the Hon. Sir George Perley, K.C.M.G. 

MEETING FOR LADY ASSOCIATES. 

13. A Joint Meeting of Fellows and Associates was held in the Library of the 
Institute on May 7, when Mr. A. Mansbridge read a paper on " A World As"socia- 
tion for Adult Education," and the chair was occupied by Dr. A. P. Newton. 

LUNCHEONS. 

14. A Luncheon at the Holborn Restaurant took place on August 13, when the 
members of the British Guiana Deputation were entertained. Sir Charles Lucas. K.C.B., 
K.C.M.G., presided. 

Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Tumor were entertained at an informal Luncheon given 
by the Institute (through the Empire Land Settlement Committee) at Prince's Hotel 
on May 7, prior to their departure on a tour through Canada, New Zealand, and 
Australia, during which Mr. Tumor had undertaken to act as representative of the 
Institute in connection with the question of the settlement of ex-service men on the 
land overseas. 

RECEPTIONS AND DINNERS. 

15. The Annual Reception was resumed this year for the first time since the 
commencement of the war. It took place on July 1 at the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington, and was well attended, in spite of the inclemency of the weather, 
which prevented the opening and illumination of the gardens, as had been intended. 
The bands of the 1st Life Guards and the Coldstream Guards were in attendance, and 
concerts were given in the Central Hall and Reptile Gallery. The guests were 
received by the Chairman of Council and a large gathering of the Vice-Presidents and 
Councillors. 

The informal Dinners given by the Chairman, on behalf of the Council, at the 
Grosvenor Hotel before the evening meetings have been regularly continued, but 
up to the present time it has proved impossible, owing to the absence of suitable hotel 
accommodation, to resume the Institute's ordinary Dinners. 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 195 

FINANCE AND GENERAL PURPOSES COMMITTEE. 

16. The Finance and General Purposes Committee has met at frequent intervals 
throughout the year under the chairmanship of Sir Godfrey Lagden, and has greatly 
facilitated the business of the Council. 

ORGANISATION COMMITTEE. 

17. During the year the operations of the Organisation Committee have been 
considerably hampered by after-the-war conditions, especially in the matter of the 
housing of Branches. At Manchester and elsewhere it has been difficult to find 
accommodation where Fellows can meet and enjoy facilities for the interchange of 
ideas, correspondence, and the usual social amenities. The trouble is being slowly 
but surely surmounted, and a much happier state of things is assured for 1920 and 
henceforth. The Chairman's scheme for recruiting overseas, as well as at home, has 
been sympathetically considered, but in view of the prevailing economic difficulties, 
it was decided to limit the Committee's efforts mainly to Great Britain for the time 
being. Many evidences have come to hand from overseas of the desire of Fellows to 
promote the interests of the Institute and the Empire locally by forming Branches. 
Melbourne, Brisbane, Gisborne, Singapore, Mauritius, Johannesburg, Toronto, Jersey, 
are among those which have either inaugurated a branch movement or expressed a 
desire to do so. The visit of Admiral Viscount Jellicoe to New Zealand, where he 
was entertained by the Christchurch Branch of the Institute, has no doubt 
quickened interest in the movement. 

At home two new Branches have been founded, viz. at Cambridge and Sheffield, 
and the Liverpool Branch was formally constituted. Negotiations with the Cambridge 
United Empire Club were satisfactorily concluded after a visit by Sir Harry Wilson 
and Major Boose, and the Club has now been absorbed in the Koyal Colonial Institute 
Cambridgeshire Branch. Major Boose's visit to Sheffield was not only a first-rate 
success in the prompt establishment of a Branch, but has resulted in a co-operative 
arrangement between the Sheffield Chamber of Commerce and the Trade and Industry 
Committee of the Institute, from which both will benefit. The Sheffield Branch was 
inaugurated in December, Lord Morris, Mr. Fred Dutton, and Sir Harry Brittain 
being present at the proceedings as representatives of the Council. 

A brief summary of the work performed by the various Branches during the past 
year is subjoined : 

UNITED KINGDOM. 

BRISTOL. 

Bristol has the privilege of being the pioneer Branch so far as the Provinces 
are concerned. It has worked consistently since its formation in 1915 in promoting 
the great cause for which the Institute was founded. Its activities have been as marked 
as usual. Its members on all occasions show an enthusiasm in its work, and set an 
example which might with advantage be followed in other parts of the United Kingdom. 



196 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Its patriotic founders, Mr. and Mrs. T. J. Lennard, are ever ready to give their 
support to all movements of Imperial concern. Whenever accommodation is required 
for any good and deserving object, the building of the Bristol Branch is available. 

Gatherings of a social and educational kind have been held from time to time 
in the Institute Building during the year. The sessional arrangements included the 
following papers : " Steps Towards Unity," by Dr. Arnold Thomas ; " The Government 
of the Empire," by the late Earl Brassey ; A lecture by the Bishop of Bristol on 
" Robert Browning." " Bristol and Music," by Mr. George Riseley. " Empire Develop- 
ment," by Lord Cannichael ; " The British Empire and National Ideals," by Captain 
J. H. Lancaster; "Romance of Empire," by Mr Edward Salmon. "Egypt and the 
War," by Major E. W. Lennard. 

There have also been social gatherings of the Members at which admirable musical 
programmes have been carried out. 

In addition to these sections of the Branch's work, it has issued a Year-book, 
which contains not only the papers and addresses delivered during the Session, but 
also the six prize essays written by the young people of Bristol on the subject " Bristol's 
Share in founding our Colonial Empire." As an appendix to the Year-book the full 
text of the Peace Treaty has been included. The Year-book affords fine evidence of 
the vitality of the Bristol Branch. 

The membership continues to increase satisfactorily, notwithstanding the very difficult 
conditions which Bristol, like every other city, has had to face since the war. 



LEICESTERSHIRE. 

During 1919 the Leicestershire Branch was merely marking time, but with 1920 
there have been welcome signs of activity and revival of interest in Imperial affairs. 
The visit of the Hon. Sir John Cockburn, K.C.M.G., M.D., in March, when he delivered 
a stirring address on " Empire Trade and Empire Union," was much appreciated, and it 
is hoped will be the first of a series. 



MANCHESTER. 

During the year strenuous efforts have been made to obtain suitable quarters for 
the housing of the Branch, but, owing to the great scarcity of office accommodation 
in Manchester, success was not attained till quite recently, when quarters were secured 
through the help and co-operation of the Manchester Ship Canal Company. 

The outstanding event in connection with this Branch was the visit of the Right 
Hon. Viscount Milner, Secretary of State for the Colonies, who was the guest of the 
members of the Manchester Branch on April 10 and 11 last. Lord Milner delivered 
two epoch-making addresses, the first at a luncheon given by the Members of the 
Branch, and the second at a joint meeting of the Members of the Branch and the 
Manchester Chamber of Commerce. The Branch has every reason to be proud of his visit 
and of the invaluable statements on Dominion and Colonial affairs which were sub- 
mitted to them by so eminent an exponent of Imperial policy. 

Owing to stress of work connected with his business, Mr. W. H. Himbury haa 
been compelled to resign the office of Honorary Secretary of the Branch, and has 
been succeeded by Mr. J. McConechy, who has already taken over the duties. Mr. 
Himbury, for several years past, has been the official representative of the Institute 
in Manchester and has rendered most useful and important services in that direction. 
His loss will be keenly felt, but it is satisfactory to know that he will continue to 
give his help and co-operation as a Member of the local Council. 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 197 



BIRMINGHAM. 

A large amount of useful work has been done in the Branch in connection with 
the Colonies and Colonial representatives, and also in obtaining information from different 
parts of the Empire, which has been transmitted to Midland manufacturers and business 
men. 

Some little part was taken in helping to provide an aeroplane, named the "City 
of Birmingham," for South Africa, under Lord Desborough's scheme for an Imperial 
Air-Service, and the machine was duly presented to the South African Government 
on the Flying Ground at Castle Bromwich. 

In Birmingham the chief difficulty is in obtaining rooms. There have been no 
suitable quarters vacant during the past two years, and so far we cannot see anything 
promising in the future. The official Address will be delivered as heretofore and a 
meeting will be arranged by engaging a suitable hall for this function. 

Arrangements were being made to receive Lord Milner at Birmingham, but, owing 
to his absence in Egypt, they fell through. It is hoped that the engagement can be 
renewed at a later date. 

Plans have been set on foot for a series of addresses by eminent Colonial 
administrators, at intervals of two months, and it is also under consideration to establish 
a weekly luncheon for the Midland members. 



HANTS AND DORSET. 

At the opening meeting of the Branch last year, Sir Merton Russell-Cotes, F.R.G.S., 
J.P., a Resident Fellow, and Alderman E. E. Bishop, also a Resident Fellow and 
Mayor of Bournemouth, were elected Vice-Presidents, and the report of Major Boose's 
visit from November 26 to December 5, 1918, compiled by 'the Hon. Secretary, was 
ordered to be recorded in the Minutes for reference. In the following month the 
" Rules for Branches," as received from the Secretary of the Institute, were considered 
and approved. 

On March 4 an interesting address by Mr. Ben H. Morgan, on " Trade and Industries 
within the Empire," was delivered in the King's Hall of the Bath Hotel. In the 
same month the First Annual Meeting of the Branch was held, when Sir Win. Duff 
Gibbon and Major G. A. Dolby, F.R.G.S., J.P., Mayor of Poole, were elected 
as additional Vice-Presidents, and Mr. James R. Brazier as Chairman of Council in 
succession to Sir William D. Gibbon. 

On May 27 an excellent lecture was given by Miss Edith A. Browne, F.R.G.S., 
the subject being " Cacao, and all about it," with photographic illustrations and 
'specimens of the raw material and many of the forms into which it is manufactured. 
During the second week in September the meeting of the British Association was held 
in Bournemouth, and many of the members of this Branch took an active part in 
the proceedings, Sir Daniel Morris being appointed to act as President of Section K. 
(Botany). The Winter Session of the Branch was opened on October 14, by Sir 
Bickham Sweet Escott, K.C.M.G., with a lecture on " Fiji, the Western Pacific Islands, 
and the Prospects of their Future Developments." An illustrated lecture was given 
by Mr. James E. Liddiard, F.R.G.S., on " Samoa, the Lovely Island Home of Robert 
Louis Stevenson," in which reference was made to its previous political history and 
its surrender to, and occupation by, a contingent of troops and war vessels from New 
Zealand in the earliest days of the late war. 

Notice of the determination of the use of the room in the Municipal College, which 
the Branch had occupied for nearly two years, was received for the end of September. 
A Special Meeting of the Council was held to discuss "The Reconsideration of the 
Housing Question," the result being that the following resolution was carried unanimously : 



198 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

" That the terms of the agreement for the renting of a suite of rooms at 39 Christ- 
church Road, with the use of the Lecture Hall, be accepted as from January 1, 1920." 
This " Home " for the Branch, 'furnished and ready for occupation, has now been 
opened, with the result that the membership will be considerably increased, and that, 
small as it is, the building will offer to the Members of the Institute in Bournemouth 
many of those conveniences which had been hitherto practically unobtainable. 

In December Dr. George de Castro's resignation of the Hon. Secretaryship, on 
account of ill health, was accepted, and confirmed as from the end of the year 1919. 

The death of Sir William D. Gibbon, the local Representative on the Council of 
the Institute, took place in April last to the great regret of all the Members. 

During the year there have been eight meetings of the Council, three Special 
Meetings for Lectures, and the Annual Meeting and on December 31 there were 
eighty-nine names on the membership-book, forty being Resident Fellows and forty- 
nine being Associates, on balance an increase of three Resident Fellows upon the numbers of 
the previous year. 

SUSSEX. 

The Sussex Branch of the Royal Colonial Institute found itself at the commence- 
ment of the year 1919 with 102 members and the reversion of the splendid house 
presented to the Institute by Lady Boyle, as soon as vacated by the War Office, who 
had commandeered it for a Red Cross Hospital. This gift opened up a new future 
for the Branch. It was felt that it was more suited for a club than an institute, 
so the Branch Council, taking into consideration that there are few commercial or 
business enterprises in the county, determined that the Branch should be developed 
on social lines, as being more likely to advance the interests of the Institute ; the 
success achieved has shown the wisdom of the course adopted. 

The hospital was no't demobilised till late in March. Most of the summer and 
autumn were occupied in preparing the Headquarters for the reception of members 
and consolidating the Branch in every possible way, so that by the end of the year 
no less than 612 members had been enrolled and the Branch firmly established. 

Little propaganda work was possible, but three public lectures were given in Hove 
Town Hall in October, November, and December respectively ; they were very well 
attended both by members and by the general public, and were instrumental through 
the Press in making the Branch widely known in the neighbourhood and the county, 
and so preparing the way for future extension. 

A series of lectures to be given in the Headquarters of the Branch was also arranged, but 
circumstances compelled a postponement of this programme to the beginning of the year 
1920. 

LIVERPOOL. 

The formal constitution of the Liverpool Branch took place on March 21, 1919, 
and, as in other cases, its progress has been considerably handicapped owing to the 
inability to obtain suitable offices for carrying on the work. Active steps are now being taken 
to obtain suitable accommodation, and when this is secured the Committee are hopeful 
that good progress will be made. 

At a luncheon given by the Branch, Lord Leverhulme and Sir Charles Wade, 
Agent-General for New South Wales, were the chief guests, and the Chairman (Mr. 
David Jones) in welcoming them referred to the recent birth of the Branch and pointed 
out that anything the city could do to promote intercourse and good fellowship with 
the Overseas Dominions and Colonies would be a step in the right direction. 

The earnest desire of the local Council is to secure premises which will serve as 
a club house, library, &o. 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 199 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

The formation of the Cambridgeshire Branch of the Royal Colonial Institute was 
authorised by the Council of the Institute in London on October 14 1919. The ten 
signatories of the application for the formation of the Branch formed the provisional 
Committee of Management, which remained in office until a Committee and Officers 
for the year 1920 were elected at a General Meeting on December 4, 1919. H.R.H. 
Prince Albert and H.R.H. Prince Henry have recently signified their willingness to 
become Patrons of the Branch. 

The Cambridgeshire Branch took over the lease of the house occupied by the 
Cambridge United Empire Club in St. Edward's Passage and bought the furniture 
of the Club, with the help of a loan from the Royal Colonial Institute. The programme 
arranged for the Michaelmas Term of 1919 included an Inaugural Dinner on October 31, 
at which the Vice- Chancellor (Dr. Peter Giles) was in the chair, and excellent speeches 
were delivered by Lieut. -Colonel L. S. Amery, M.P., Under Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, and Sir Harry Wilson, Secretary of the Royal Colonial Institute. Due recognition 
was made of the services of Colonel Edwards and Captain Mason in starting the 
Branch. There were also two debates at the Institute on Imperial subjects, and an 
address by Sir Charles Lucas on " The Meaning of the Empire," at the Arts School, 
which was much appreciated by those who heard it. The Branch membership on 
December 31, 1919, was 69, including four Honorary Fellows and three Life Fellows. 
Much interest has been aroused in the University, and it is hoped that before long 
the membership will be considerably increased. Active steps are being taken towards 
improving the Branch premises, and arranging dinners, debates, and lectures for the 
members. 

SHEFFIELD. 

The Sheffield Branch was formally established on December 15, 1919, when, at the 
invitation of the Lord Mayor (Alderman S. Roberts) a meeting was held at the Town 
Hall. The chief speaker was the Right Hon. Lord Morris, who gave an instructive 
address on " Empire Trade and Empire Union." In the course of it he stated that 
the Institute had probably done more than any institution in the British Empire to 
bring about the feeling of good fellowship and brotherhood, with everything that 
goes to create the sentiment which in the past had welded together the far-flung 
portions of the British Empire, and to-day was very largely keeping it united. Sir 
Henry Hadow, Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University, has become the first Chairman 
of the Branch, and the Hon. Secretary is Captain Douglas C. Leng. A representative 
Local Committee has also been appointed. 



OVERSEAS. 
ARGENTINA. 

The Branch of the Institute in Buenos Aires has, as usual, been prominent during 
the year in organising entertainments of different kinds, by which the Fellows of the 
Institute have been brought together and the hospitality of the Branch accorded to 
various visitors. The Branch continues to increase most satisfactorily, and during 
the visit to England of Mr. William Warden, the energetic Hon. Secretary, the oppor- 
tunity was taken of discussing with him various questions affecting its further development 
and future progress. 

Mr. H. G. Mackie, C.B.E., H.B.M. ConsuI-General, who was also the Chairman of 
the local Branch, has recently arrived in England. Prior to his departure, he was 



200 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

entertained at luncheon by his fellow members, with whom he had worked on behalf 
of the Institute for several years past. 

The Branch during recent years has taken a prominent part in philanthropic and 
patriotic movements, which have made it one of the most popular British institutions 
in the Argentine. The hope has been expressed in many quarters that a formally 
constituted Branch will be in existence at an early date, which will form a centre where those 
of British nationality can carry on the great work of promoting closer relations amongst 
British subjects, not only resident in the Argentine, but visiting the country from time 
to time. 

CHRISTCHTTBCH, NEW ZEALAND. 

Considerable activity has been shown during the year by the Canterbury Branch, 
which is the oldest Oversea Branch of the Institute, and has always been foremost 
in the promotion of Imperial work. During the past year a Trade and Industry 
Committee has been appointed to draw up suggestions for co-operation with the London 
Committee, and the following resolution was carried at a meeting held in April last : 
" The Canterbury Branch of the Royal Colonial Institute compliments the management 
on the work of the Trade and Industry Committee, which is recognised as a valuable 
addition to the work being done by the British Trade Commissioner." 

On the occasion of the visit of Viscount Jellicoe to Christchurch, the Fellows of 
the Branch of the Royal Colonial Institute entertained the Admiral and his Staff 
and the Officers of H.M.S. New Zealand at luncheon at the Canterbury Club, when the 
Branch extended to their distinguished visitors a most cordial greeting. Lord Jellicoe, 
in replying to the chief toast of the day, expressed the opinion that the Royal Colonial 
Institute should have a branch in every city of the Empire, and that the Institute 
was doing invaluable work in promoting the unity of the Empire. The gathering was 
one of the most enthusiastic ever held in Christchurch, and reflects much credit on 
the Secretary of the Branch, who undertook the work of organisation. Mr. Basil 
Seth-Smith, in his report for the year, states that keen efforts are being made to 
increase the number of Fellows and thus show the sympathy of the Province of 
Canterbury with the great work that the Institute is doing. 

VANCOUVER ISLAND, B.C. 

This Branch was formally constituted in February, 1919, at the request of a large 
number of Fellows resident in Victoria and its vicinity. The first annual meeting was 
held in Belmont House, Victoria, on December 11, when the following Committee was 
elected : Hon. Vice-President, His Honour the Lieut.-Governor, Colonel E. Q. Prior ; 
President, C. T. Cross, Esq. ; Vice-President, Hon. D. M. Eberts, K.C. ; Hon. Secretary- 
Treasurer, Major H. W. M. Rolston ; Major H. B. Tyrhwitt-Drake ; S. J. Shallcross, Esq. ; 
Captain E. D. Clarke ; F. M. Rattenbury, Esq. ; Captain W. H. Logan. A meeting 
of the Executive Committee was subsequently held for the purpose of drafting the 
constitution and by-laws of the Branch. It is anticipated that the Branch will be 
placed on a firm foundation at an early date, and will render substantial help to the 
parent organisation. 

BRITISH GUIANA. 

With the cessation of hostilities, the British Guiana Branch began to show a keen 
desire to resume the activities necessarily to some extent suspended during the war. 
The Branch celebrated Empire Day with more than ordinary enthusiasm, and proved 
itself representative of the Colony in its rejoicings at the defeat of Germany's effort 
to become master of the world. An influential deputation headed by Dr. J. J. Nunan, 
who has always shown the greatest interest in the Branch, came to England in the 
summer to discuss questions of settlement and development with the Colonial Office 
and the India Office. 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 201 



THE LIBRARY. 

18. The additions to the Library numbered 7,783 books, pamphlets, parts of 
volumes, &c., compared with 5,439 during the previous year ; about 69,000 newspapers 
and magazines were received and filed, the majority being sent subsequently to the 
British Museum ; and 1,446 letters were written and 1,092 acknowledgments of books 
sent to the donors. Of the additions to the Library 6,820 were presented by their 
authors or publishers, by the Imperial and Overseas and Foreign Governments, by 
learned and other Societies, and by numerous private donors. To these the Council give 
their thanks for the support thus accorded to the Library, and also to the proprietors of 
newspapers and magazines who have generously supplied copies of their publications, 
and by so doing have enabled the Council to maintain what is undoubtedly the most 
complete collection of current Overseas periodicals in existence. Over 890 newspapers 
and magazines are regularly received at the Institute. On December 31, 1919, the 
Library contained 134,771 books, pamphlets, and maps. A fine portrait in oils of the 
late Lord Strathcona was presented by Sir Ashton Lister, M.P. ; and other pictures, 
drawings, and prints of an interesting character by Mr. C. J. Ross, Colonel Powell, 
Mr. A. Hebden, and Sir Harry and Lady Wilson. Exhibitions of water-colour drawings, 
etchings, and Japanese colour prints, lent by Sir Harry and Lady Wilson, and of 
coins, lent by the Librarian, were held in the Library. 

Early in April the Librarian returned from the Admiralty to his duties, and in 
June Mr. Jackson also rejoined the Staff after an absence on military duty of over 
four years. During the Librarian's absence Colonel Pitcher, as mentioned in last year's 
report, kindly consented to act as Honorary Librarian. The work of cataloguing 
the Library has been proceeded with by the Library staff, and there are now about 
145,000 catalogue cards. The large collection of maps has been catalogued in part 
by Miss Simpson in preparation for the Map Room which is to form part of the new 
building. The card catalogue is proving of great use, particularly in connection with 
the study of the economic products of the Empire and in relation to the work of the 
Trade and Industry Committee. In this connection the Council wish to draw attention 
to the large classified collection of newspaper-cuttings that is being formed, and to 
point out its usefulness to general inquirers, journalists, and others interested in 
contemporary movements within the Overseas Empire. 

Increasing use is being made of the Library, not only by Fellows of the Institute, 
but by inquirers sent by Government Departments, by the great commercial societies 
and other corporate bodies, and by students of the London University and other 
Universities. Numerous investigations have been made on behalf of the Federation 
of British Industries, the British Empire Producers' Association, the Ministry of 
Labour, the Ministry of Food, the Zionists' Organisation, and other bodies. During 
the war, and until the signing of Peace, extensive use of the Library was made by the 
Admiralty Intelligence Division, many hundreds of books and reports being loaned 
for the special use of the Geographical Section, and the Library was found to contain 
numerous publications that could not be obtained elsewhere in London. In view of 



202 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

the continuous increase in the number of books, and the generally congested state of 
the shelves, extra accommodation for the Library has been provided for in the plans 
of the new building, and it is the intention of the Council to bring together, so far as 
may be possible, the collections of books into one large room instead of their being 
scattered in different sections of the building as is the case at present. 

The Council regret to record the death of Captain L. J. Beirne, who for a short 
time performed the duties of Acting Librarian. 

" UNITED EMPIRE." 

19. The Journal has been edited throughout the past year by Sir Harry Wilson 
and Mr. Montague Bell, with the exception of three months while the latter was absent 
on a tour through the Balkans. His place was ably filled by Mr. Edward Salmon 
for that period. During the latter half of the year the Council sanctioned an 
increased number of pages, and the increase has been maintained to the date of the 
Keport. Mr. Montague Bell has, to the great regret of the Council, recently resigned 
the editorship in order to devote more time to The Near East, and Mr. Salmon is 
again acting as co-editor. The income from advertisements was larger than 1918, 
the total being 1 ,479 6s. lid. as against 1,249 5s. 3d. ; but the cost of production 
still continues to be abnormally high. 

KELATIONS WITH OTHER SOCIETIES. 

20. Cordial relations have been maintained with the Victoria League and the 
Overseas Club and Patriotic League, to which the League of the Empire has recently 
been affiliated ; and the Joint Committee of the three first-named bodies has met twice 
during the year for the consideration of matters of common interest. 

IMPERIAL STUDIES COMMITTEE. 

21. The Imperial Studies Committee has further expanded the scope of its activities 
during the past year. 

In January, 1919, the following Sub- Committees were constituted : 

Sub-Committee A (Universities and General). Dr. A. P. Newton (Chairman and 
Secretary), Professor Egerton, Professor Pollard, Mr. H. Gunn. Dr. A. E. Shipley, 
late Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, was afterwards co-opted on the 
Committee. 

Sub-Committee B (Secondary Education and Continuation Schools). Mr. C. H. K. 
Marten (Chairman), Miss Escott, Mr. J. B. Johnson, Mr. M. J. Eendall, Mr. W. H. 
Hewitt (Secretary). Mr. C. H. Blakiston, of Eton College, was afterwards co-opted. 

Sub-Committee C (Elementary Education and Training Colleges). Mr. J. B. Johnson 
(Chairman), Miss Drayton, O.B.E., Mr. L. Jacob, Mr. J. A. White, Dr. Watson Grice 
(Secretary). 

Sub-Committee A has supported a proposal to found a clearing house for students 
and scholars of the Empire in connection with the Universities Bureau of the Empire, 
and has drawn up revised regulations for the award of the Gold Medal of the Institute, 
to take effect in 1921. 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 203 

Sub-Committee B conducted an enquiry into the number of questions in Imperial 
History and Geography set in various school examinations. Mr. Arthur Pott's 
pamphlet dealing with the results of this investigation was sent to the various authorities 
responsible for these examinations, with the result that there has been an increase 
in the number of questions set on subjects relating to the Empire. On the suggestion 
of the Sub-Committee, Sir Frederick Lugard consented to deliver a lecture on " The 
Moral and Material Progress in our Tropical African Empire," and Mr. H. J. Mackinder, 
M.P., gave a course of lectures on the Empire to teachers, both under the auspices 
of the London County Council Education Department. The Committee is now 
interesting itself in continuation schools. 

Sub-Committee C is engaged on an important scheme for promoting Study Circles 
in Imperial History and Geography amongst teachers and others in the London area. 

An outstanding event was the transfer in August of the property (in slides, lectures, 
photographs, paintings, &c.) of the Visual Instruction Committee of the Colonial Office 
to the Imperial Studies Committee, with the approval of the Secretary of State for 
the Colonies. 

In order to manage this very valuable apparatus for spreading a knowledge of the 
Empire amongst educationists generally the 

Visual Instruction Sub-Committee was constituted as follows : Miss Drayton, O.B.E. 
(Chairman), Mr. H. Warre Cornish, Mr. J. B. Johnson, Mr. C. H. K. Marten, Mr. W. 
H. Hewitt (Secretary). Later the Sub-Committee was strengthened by the addition of Sir 
Everard im Thurn, Mr. C. H. Blakiston, and Mr. A. F. Fairgrieve. 

Lord Meath has generously presented his fine set of slides on the Empire to the 
Imperial Studies Committee. 

The Visual Instruction Sub-Committee has arranged for the issue of a new and 
revised set of lectures and slides on the United Kingdom under the editorship of 
Mr. J. A. White, and it purposes the revision of the other lectures and slides and the 
publication of lectures on Tropical Africa. It is anticipated that a great impetus will 
be given to the study of Imperial History and Geography by this development of the 
Committee's activities. 

Acting on suggestions from various quarters, the Committee has published a " List 
of Books bearing on the Economics of the Empire," the preliminary draft of which 
was prepared by Dr. Watson Grice. 

An important extension of the work of the Committee grew out of a suggestion 
of Mr. E. Denham, Director of Education, Ceylon, who attended a meeting of the 
Committee on the invitation of the Chairman, and steps are now being taken to bring 
the Imperial Studies Committee into direct relations with the heads of the Education 
Departments in the Dominions, India and the Crown Colonies, and Protectorates. 

An enlarged panel of lecturers, already published in UNITED EMPIRE, has been 
organised by the Committee, and lectures have been given under its auspices at the 
following University Centres : Bangor, Bristol, Edinburgh, Nottingham, Sheffield. 

In September Dr. Newton left London on a tour of the Universities of the Empire. 
Reports to hand show that his journey is achieving great success. During his absence 



204 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

the organising work has been undertaken by Mr. W. Basil WorsfoJd, and Mr. W. H. 
Hewitt has acted as Secretary. The Committee has recently sustained a severe loss 
by the death of Mr. Arthur Pott. 

ESSAY COMPETITION. 

22. The Essay Competition for the Schools of 'the Empire was very successful, 
upwards of 400 Essays being sent in. A substantial increase in the number of com- 
petitors is anticipated this year. The Silver Medal was won by Harold Frederick 
Hutchison, Liverpool Institute, with an essay on Sea Power as the Basis of Empire , 
and the Bronze Medal by Eobert W. Kershaw, Latymer Upper School, Hammersmith, 
with an essay on The Life and Work of Clive as an Empire Builder. The presentation 
of the medals, books and certificates was made by the Chairman of Council, Sir 
Charles Lucas, at the Evening Meeting on December 9. The subjects for the 
next competition are : Class A (over 16) Silver Medal, Trace the Causes of the War of 
American Independence. Class B (under 16) Bronze Medal, The Life and Work of 
Cecil Rhodes as an Empire Builder. 

TRADE AND INDUSTRY COMMITTEE. 

23. The Committee, under the Chairmanship of Mr. Ben. H. Morgan, has met 
regularly throughout the year, and its office has been engaged upon a rapidly 
increasing volume of work during the whole period. 

In addition to the ordinary meetings, the following were held : 

(a) A Conference of Representatives of Oversea Governments and commercial bodies, 
to discuss the proposal for a Shopping Week in which goods of Empire origin should 
have preference of display and recommendation. The question was approved by the 
Conference, and the suggestion has been made to the various Governments and other 
bodies concerned that such a week should be held throughout the Empire -in the week 
in which Empire Day falls in 1921. 

(b) A special meeting to consider the promotion of British Cinematograph films in the 
Oversea Empire. The Committee has been very active in this direction, dealing with 
numerous enquiries and publishing a considerable amount of Press matter for the 
encouragement of the movement. 

(c) A special meeting to consider the infringement of British trade marks by foreign 
firms in the Oversea Empire. Arrangements have been made to collect evidence on 
this head from the correspondents of the Committee oversea. 

At the desire of the Council, the Committee nominated Mr. Ben H. Morgan 
to represent the Institute on the Publications Committee of the Imperial Mineral 
Resources Bureau, and Messrs. A. S. Bull and Ben. H. Morgan to represent the 
Institute on the Administration of the British Empire Exhibition. 

Sub-Committees have been formed to deal, respectively, with Imperial Com- 
munications and Shipping. 

The Enquiry Bureau has had a year of greatly increased activity, the range of 
enquiries covering every subject of industrial or commercial importance, and every 
part of the Empire. The closest co-operation has been maintained with all bodies, 
official or commercial, dealing with trade and industry ; as a result the Committee 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 205 

has been able to act very effectively as a clearing house for enquiries on any economic 
question. 

After long and careful preparation, the scheme for obtaining training in British 
factories and businesses for industrial and commercial students from overseas has been 
launched, and in the short time that it has been running seventeen enquirers have 
received the questionnaire for filling in ; four applications are now in manufacturers' 
hands ; and positions have been .actually found for seven applicants. It should be 
added that, in each of these positions, the applicants were offered payment by the 
employing firm during the period of instruction. The scheme has received the warm 
approval of the Dominion Governments, and the Committee has interested very many 
important firms in this country. The value of this service, if progressively successful, 
can hardly be over-estimated, and all the indications at present are strongly in 
its favour. 

The Committee has been intimately concerned in fostering the remarkable recent 
growth of manufacturing industries in the Dominions by means of information and 
advice. 

A large amount of information in regard to the possibilities of aerial transport in 
the Dominions and Colonies was collected and distributed to persons interested. 

The Committee entered a protest against a proposed Joint Stock Bank Bill, which 
would have seriously impeded the operations of banks with Oversea Empire interests. 
Other bodies and banks also protested, and the Jill had since been allowed to drop. 

The Committee was among the first to supply Canadian buyers of West African 
cocoa with information enabling them to purchase it direct instead of through New 
York as had been the former invariable custom. The Committee strongly urged the 
necessity for direct transport between West Africa and Canada ; and the Canadian 
buyers following this up, it is understood that arrangements have been made by 
the shipping companies. 

An Empire Trade and Industry Section in UNITED EMPIRE is now conducted by 
the Committee, beginning in the December issue. The results from overseas have not, 
of course, yet had time to accrue ; but a very considerable number of enquiries from 
Fellows and others on this side have come to the Committee's office as a direct result 
of this section. 

Altogether, the .Committee has enjoyed a year of rapid and substantial progress 
and, by a policy of specialisation, has come to be depended upon as a board of reference 
by a large and increasing number of enquirers in regard to matters of trade and 
industrial importance within the Empire. 

STANDING COMMITTEE ON INDIA. 

24. This Committee has held occasional meetings, under the Chairmanship of 
Lord Carmichael and Lord Sydenham, and has made further suggestions to the Council 
on matters relating to India. During the winter, the Hon. Secretary and Sir Charles 
McLeod have been absent in India, and Sir Francis Younghusband has kindly acted 
in the place of the former. During the year the Maharajahs of Mysore and Kolhapur 



206 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

and the Maharajah Rana of Jhalawar have been appointed Vice-Presidents of the 
Institute. When occasion serves, it is hoped that a Travelling Commissioner may 
visit India and establish additional centres of influence there. 

STANDING EMIGRATION COMMITTEE. 

25. The Committee held one meeting during the year, when business of a formal 
nature only was transacted. 

The Society for the Overseas Settlement of British Women, which is now an 
amalgamation' of the British Women's Emigration Association, the South African 
Colonisation Society, and the Colonial Intelligence League, have nominated Miss 
Vernon to represent them on the Committee, in addition to Mrs. Norman Grosvenor 
and Dame Katherine Furze already nominated. 

A deputation attended to communicate a suggestion for Family Settlements Over- 
seas, which they wished to see established on the lines of the County Associations 
of the Agricultural Organisation Society, for the benefit of those who had been 
financially affected by the war. The Committee were in favour of the principle of the 
proposal, subject to the production of a well-devised scheme, which the deputation 
was invited to submit for consideration. 

The resignation of Mr. A. A. Pearson, C.M.G., who has represented the interests 
of the Child Emigration Society on the Committee since its initiation, was received 
with much regret. 

It has been thought advisable that the Committee should now resume its meetings 
in view of the probable revival of general emigration in 1920. 

EMPIRE LAND SETTLEMENT COMMITTEE. 

26. The Committee has met at regular intervals throughout the past year. Owing 
to the establishment of the Government Overseas Settlement Office and to the various 
Dominion and State Land Settlement schemes being now more or less completed, its 
main work has been confined to giving information and advice to intending settlers 
and supplying them with the latest publications issued by the Overseas Settlement 
Office and the Soldiers' Settlement Board of Canada. 

In connection with the various private schemes which have appeared from time 
to time through the medium of the Press, the Committee has issued a leaflet entitled 
" Advice to Intending Settlers," setting out the various points upon which they should 
satisfy themselves before purchasing land. 

Mr. Christopher Turnor, who was leaving for a tour round the Empire, kindly 
undertook to follow up Sir Eider Haggard's mission of 1916, and to report to the Com- 
mittee what progress had been made for settling British ex-service men on the land 
in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Mr. Turnor sailed for England on January 10 
from Australia and reached England on March 1, since when he has laid before the 
Committee the result of his investigations. 

Owing to the numerous enquiries for information from officers and men as to 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 207 

the prospects afforded them by settling on the land overseas, and the amount of 
capital they would require, the Secretary of the Committee, through the medium 
of The Times in June last, advocated that the Overseas Settlement Office should 
institute a series of lectures to officers intending to settle out of the United Kingdom 
by men who had had practical experience in different parts of the Empire, the lectures 
to be issued afterwards in booklet form for such officers who were unable to attend. 
The Overseas Settlement Office adopted this suggestion, and lectures on British East 
Africa, Australia, and South Africa have already been given with great success. 

In July last the Committee sent out an enquiry to the various Regimental and 
Divisional Associations, asking them if they contemplated forming Regimental Group 
Settlements for the men of their regiments who wished to settle on the land. The 
result of this enquiry was forwarded to the Overseas Settlement Office, in order that 
they might bring it to the notice of the Dominion and State Governments. 

The block of 2,000 acres of irrigated land for ex-service men in the Sundays River 
Valley, Cape Province, South Africa, specially reserved by Sir Percy Fitzpatrick to the 
Royal Colonial Institute through Sir Rider Haggard, has now all been taken up. The 
demand for this land has been so great that Sir Percy Fitzpatrick has had to increase 
the area to nearly 4,000 acres. The Secretary of the Committee has interviewed 
some 200 officers and given them details of this settlement. The settlement will be 
known as " The Royal Colonial Institute Block," and many of the officers have become 
members of the Institute. Last year Sir Percy Fitzpatrick came over and established 
an office in London in order to interview prospective settlers. Officers are forming 
groups of three and four, so that they may pool their machinery. 

By the deaths of Earl Brassey and Mr. Herbert Easton, the Committee has had 
the misfortune to lose two of its most active members. 

The work of this Committee has now terminated, in view of the appointment 
of the Overseas Settlement Committee by the Government. Great praise is due 
to Mr. A. R. Uvedale Corbett for the energy and enthusiasm he has shown as 
Secretary. 

WAR PURPOSES COMMITTEE. 

27. This Committee, although its main object ceased with the war, has continued 
its activities, owing to officers and men who had been previously helped to gain 
commissions, &c., making further application for assistance and advice in obtaining 
civil employment. The following is a summary of the results achieved by the 
Committee from March, 1916, to December 31, 1919. 

Number of Applications. 

Year. Fellows. Non-Fellows. Total. 

1916 51 49 100 

1917 62 108 170 

1918 45 89 134 

1919 16 67 83 

174 313 487 



208 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

(a) Applications for Commissions .... 245 
Results Commissions . . . . .82 
Cadetships .... 44 

Enlisted 22 

Rejected ..... 9 

157 
(6) Applications for Transfers .... 30 

Transfers obtained . . . . . . . .10 

(c) Applications for Munition work .... 14 

Posts obtained ......... 6 

(d) Applications for other forms of employment. . 155 

Posts obtained . . . . . . .32 

Commissions and Posts obtained Total . .... 205 

No information has been received from about 100 of the 487 applicants. In some 
cases they undoubtedly obtained what they required either by their own efforts or 
through introductions and recommendations given them by the Committee. 



HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 

28. The general meetings of the House and Social Committee during 1919 have 
been well attended, and the interest in the subjects discussed was fully maintained. 
The following is the list of speakers and subjects : 

Mr. F. C. Barley, " Our Consular Service " ; Captain Charles Slack, " India and its 
Development " ; Mr. Cyril G. Tregurtha, " Currency and Foreign Exchanges " ; Mr. 
Geo. T. Apps, " Land Settlement at Home " ; Mr. Rufus Farrar, " Coffee Cultivation 
in the British Empire " ; Major W. H. Warman, " Land Settlement Overseas and the 
Grouping System " ; Mr. H. S. Perrin, '* The Foundation of the League of Nations " ; 
Mr. Geo. de B. Ball, " The Economic Relations between the Producer and the Con- 
sumer " ; Sir Charles Lucas, " The Work of the Institute and the Jubilee Appeal " 
(the further discussion of which was adjourned to the next meeting) ; Mr. H. Kemp 
Prossor, "Colour and Climate in Relation to Health"; Mr. C. E. A. Bedwell, "Com- 
parative Legislation within the Empire." 

Those who presided at the various meetings were Mr. Ben H. Morgan, Mr. Eobert 
Bewley, Sir H. Rider Haggard, Sir John Taverner, Colonel Sir George McLaren Brown, 
Sir Harry Brittain, Mr. Rufus Farrar, Sir Charles Lucas, Sir Wm. Grey- Wilson, Colonel 
H. E. Rawson, and Sir Albert Gray (in the absence of the Home Secretary). 

The reintroduction in November of afternoon tea, which had been suspended 
owing to war conditions, was heartily welcomed, as it afforded an opportunity of 
social intercourse which had been lacking since its discontinuance in 1917. 

At the general meetings and the meetings of the Committee many suggestions, 
in the interests of the Institute, were discussed and passed on to the Council, who gave 
them, in most cases, their favourable consideration. Among these was the proposal 
to establish, under the patronage of the High Commissioners and Agents -General, 
an Empire Social Circle, which should meet on the first Thursday evenings in the winter 
or spring months, and which should be open to Fellows of the Institute and their 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 209 

friends, and especially the members of the staffs of the various London agencies and 
offices actively interested in the Empire. An excellent start has been made with 
this Social Circle, which promises well for the future of the movement. Thanks 
are due to Mr. Scammcll, who was the originator of the idea and has done 
excellent work in connection with it. Owing to its meetings being held on the 
first Thursday in the month, it has been deemed advisable to alter the days of 
the House and Social general meetings from the first and third Thursdays to the 
second and fourth, and to hold the meetings of the Executive Committee at the 
close of the afternoon meeting on the second Thursday. It is hoped that the 
Fellows generally will take note of this alteration. 



THE KOYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE LODGES. 

29. The great success attending the Royal Colonial Institute Lodge has necessi- 
tated the establishment of a second Institute Lodge under the title " United Empire 
Lodge," which was consecrated during the past year. Both Lodges are doing valuable 
work in enhancing the ties of Empire and craft, and making stronger the bonds of 
brotherhood and charity by bringing together the Resident and Non-Resident Masonic 
Fellows of the Institute. 

The new Deputy Worshipful Master of the Royal Colonial Institute Lodge is 
the Rev. B. G. Bourchier, and the first Master of the United Empire Lodge is 
Mr. Gilbert Taylor. 

Mr. Arthur Ross, who has occupied the office of Secretary to the R.C.I. Lodge 
for the past six years, has retired, and is succeeded by Mr. P. S. Atlee. 

Mr. Ross's services to the Lodge have been invaluable, and it is a source of 
satisfaction to the Brethren that he has now become Junior Warden. 

Brethren arriving from Overseas can obtain information regarding the Lodge at 
the Institute, and be assured a cordial welcome. 



BRITANNIC INDUSTRIAL ALLIANCE. 

30. A movement inaugurated at a dinner in the House of Commons on July 30 
of last year, has since resulted in the formation of a Society known as the Britannic 
Industrial Alliance. The Chairman is Mr. Havelock Wilson, C.B.E., M.P., the Vice- 
Chairman, Mr. Ben. H. Morgan, the Hon. Treasurer, Sir P. Vassar-Smith, and the 
Hon. Secretary, Mr. C. Jesson, M.P. 

The objects are : " To promote co-operation and industrial harmony with a view 
to developing the Empire's resources and furthering the cause of Empire unity." 
With these objects it is hardly necessary to say the Institute is in cordial sympathy. 
The Council has invited the Committee of the Alliance to use the Council Room for 
their meetings until premises of their own are acquired. 



210 THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

ORGANISING AND HONORARY CORRESPONDING SECRETARIES. 

31. The thanks of the Council are again due to the Organising and Honorary 
Corresponding Secretaries for their continued efforts on behalf of the Institute. The 
former have been recently appointed in some provinces and states of the Overseas 
Dominions. The number of the latter will, it is hoped, be largely increased as the 
result of the above appointments in the near future. The Council also desire to 
express their acknowledgments to those gentlemen who have been good enough to 
act on behalf of the Honorary Corresponding Secretaries absent on active service. 

COUNCIL, RECEPTION AND SMOKING KOOMS. 

32. The use of the Council Room has been granted for the meetings of the 
Britannic Industrial Alliance, the Family Settlements Overseas Committee, and the 
Australian Officers' Training Association ; of the Smoking Room for the New 
Zealand Returned Soldiers' Association ; and of the Reception Room for the New 
Zealand Military Chapel Scheme and for St. Dunstan's Day. The Reception Room, 
by the leave of the Council, is occupied on Monday evenings, between 5 and 
6.30 P.M., by the Lodge of Instruction of the Institute's Masonic Lodge. It has 
also been used by the Casual Club on Thursday evenings from 8 to 10 P.M. 

STAFF. 

33. The Council desire to record their acknowledgment of the zeal and devotion 
of the Staff, who have never flagged in their efforts to cope with the continually 
increasing volume of work due to the expansion of the Institute's activities. 

CONCLUSION. 

34. The past year has been a difficult one for the Royal Colonial Institute, but its 
difficulties have been from causes which have affected all Institutions alike. They 
are the necessary consequences of the war, and it must be assumed that by slow 
degrees more normal conditions will return. In the meantime it seems to the Council 
that their duty, and the duty of those whom they represent, is on the one hand to 
make a special effort to maintain present equilibrium, and on the other in no way to 
relax existing effort in the direction of permanent reconstruction. The Council 
recognise that a forward policy must necessarily provide abundant grounds for 
criticism, and must involve no little measure of compromise, if substantial progress 
is to be made ; but they are satisfied that the Institute cannot be carried forward 
" into new growth for the new need," and that it cannot be expanded, as it must be 
expanded, if it is to rise to the occasion and be true to its call, without at one point 
or another making concessions in detail in order to secure a broader basis and ensure 
a wider outlook for the coming time. 

(Signed) C. P. LUCAS, Chairman, 
H. F. WILSON, Secretary. 



BALANCE SHEET 

AND 

ACCOUNTS 



212 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Dr., BALANCE SHEET, 

LIABILITIES. .</. a. d. s. d. 

To Loan on Mortgage of 18 Northumberland 

Avenue 20,000 

Amount advanced to date, leas repayment!) 18,808 8 9 

,, Loan on Mortgage of 17 Northumberland 

Avenue 22,500 

Capital Account At Credit as at 31st Dec., 

1918 80,486 13 9 

Lest 

Bristol Property, vested with local Trustees ft.OOO C 

Transferred to New Premises Fund ... ... 210 

5,210 

75,276 13 9 

116,585 2 6 
New Premises Fund : 

Donations, Rente, Interest, and other receipts 

during the year 36,960 14 1 

Do., to 31st December, 1918, transferred 

from Capital Account above 210 

37,170 14 1 
Deduct 

Mortgage Interest and other out-goings in con- 
nection, with the New Premises during the 

year 3,454 12 9 

Expenditure less receipts in connection with 
New Premises to 31st December, 1918, 
transferred from Income and Expenditure 

Account ... 1,350 1 6 

4,804 14 3 

32,365 19 10 

Sundry Funds : 

Special Appeal Fund 223 12 9 

" Our Just Cause " Fund 124 

229 15 1 

,, Sundry Creditors 4,668 2 

,, Subscriptions in Advance 835 15 

Ltat Proportion due to the Branches ... 145 4 

720 11 



154559 10 5 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



213 



3 IST DECEMBER, 1919. ^ 

ASS3TS. e j e j 

By Freehold Property :- 

1. No. 18 Northumberland Avenue (including 21 Craven 
Street) 

Cost of site in 1886 30,620 

Cost of buildings thereon, as at 31st December, 1919 26,'l93 611 

2. Nos. 18-20 Craven Street- 6 l713 6 1! 

Cost of site and buildings thereon a* at 31st December, 

1918 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... jg Q-J J4 4 

8. No. 17 Northumberland Avenue (including 1,2 Craven 

Street) 
Cost of site and buildings thereon as at 31st December, 

1918 26,717 II 1 

Ltaa Additional repayments for fixtures ... ... 2 13 

25,714 18 1 

4. Hove Property: 

Site No. 6 Third Avenue, buildings thereon, Tenant's 

Fixtures, &o., as at 31st December, 1918 4,000 

Add Expended in 1919 ' 40 

_________ 4 040 

Furniture and Fittings : 

As at 31st December, 1918 2,259 8 6 

Cost of additions in 1919 101 \\ \\ 

2,361 5 
Lest Depreciation at 6% 118 l 

,_ T>_ _ ., 2 - 242 19 6 

Books Purchased : 

As at 31st December, 1918 11,370 15 10 

Purchases during 1919 185 13 1 

11,566 8 11 

(Note : Exclusive of Books presented as Donations to the 

Library, valued by the Council at 20,000) 
Cash at Bankers (belonging to Capital A/o) 345 14 \Q 

116,585 2 6 

Subscriptions outstanding, estimated to produce 835 

,. Sundry Debtors for Rent, Journal Advertisements, 

Postages in Advance. &o 1,417 4 n 

Investment (New Premises Fund) : 

4% Funding Loan at cost (4,000 nominal) 3,200 

Loans to Branches : 

Sussex , 900 

Cambridge 200 

1,100 

Cash at Bankers and in hand : 

New Premises Fund, Current Account 26,706 5 9 

Deposit Account 4,242 10 10 

Sundry Funds 229 16 1 

s. d. 31,177 11 8 

Lets General Fund overdraft... 5091010 

Belonging to Capital Account (see above) 346 14 10 

855 5 8 

30,322 6 

Income and Expenditure_Account : 

Excess of Expenditure over Income as at 31st December, 

1918 504 18 11 

Add Excess of Expenditure over Income, year to 31st 

December, 1919, as per account attached ' 1,946 1 7 



Leas Net amount paid on behalf of the New Premises Fund 
to the 31st December, 1918, transferred to that Fund ... 



2,449 18 6 
1,350 1 6 



1,099 17 
154.559 10 5 



ROBERT LITTLEJOHN, Hv*. Trtoturtr. 

We have examined the foregoing accounts with the books, vouchers, and other reoorda of the Institute, and 
find the sam to agree therewith. 

The Deeds of the freehold properties have been verified by us. Th Resolution of the Council, dated 
llth January, 1810, by which one-third of the Entrance Fees and payments for Life Membership were to bo 
capitalised, has been rescinded far th present. 

PRICE, WATBRHOUSB * CO., Chartered Accountant*. 
3'. Frederick 1 s Place. Old Jewry. B.C. % 
22nd'-Maroh, 1920. 



214 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Dr. 

INCOME. 

Subscriptions received daring Year : . d. 

Residents 5,166 4 6 

Non-Beidents 5,564 12 

Associates 728 18 

Arrears 825 



INCOMB AND 



FOB TUB YKAR 



Lest Arrears taken credit for 31st December, 1918 



i. d. 



12,284 14 6 
644 



11,640 14 
Add Arrears at 31st December, 1919, estimated to produce 835 



Bristol Branch 


12,475 14 6 
575 18 


Leicestershire Branch 


48 10 4 


Empire Club of Canada 


24 


Entrance Fees (whole amount) 


1,768 19 


Life Subscriptions (do.) 


3,246 16 8 






Journal 


1 479 6 11 


Sales 


52 3 6 










Interest on Deposit 




Balance, being excess of Expenditure over Income 





18,139 18 6 



1,531 10 6 

161 1 3 

77 4 6 

1,945 1 7 



21,844 10 2 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



215 



EXPENDITURE ACCOUNT. 
IST DKJBMBKB, 1919. 



Or. 



. d. f d. 

Office: Salaries and Pension 3,482 3 10 

Stationery ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 452 \ 7 

Printing 89 16 6 

Postages and Cabling 395 ig Q 

Miscellaneous 33 9 6 

4,483 7 5 

Library and Newspaper Room : Salaries 1 ( 089 2 4 

Newspapers and Annuals 258 4 4 

Stationery and Printing 31 6 4 

Binding 108 6 6 

1,484 18 6 

House: Wages, Hall Porters, Charwomen, &c 726 19 5 

Maintenance 389 13 11 

Bates and Taxes ... 979 7 g 

Insurance 81 7 6 

Fuel, Light, and Power 309 n n 

Telephone (less Receipts) 31 12 7 

Furniture and Building (Repairs and Renewals) 195 511 

Depreciation of Furniture (5 per cent.) 118 1 

2,830 19 11 

Journal: Paper, Printing, Wrappers, and Addressing 4,012 19 1 

Postages, Ac. 653 1 10 

Editor, Contributors, &c 680 

6,246 11 

List of Fellows : 34412 6 

Meetings : Expenses 184 17 8 

Reporting 50 19 6 

Advertising 32 8 8 

Printing 143 2 2 

Quests' Dinners 57 14 4 

469 2 4 

Organisation Department : Salaries 1,691 2 6 

Tours and Expenses 669 11 1 

2,260 13 7 

Trade and Industry Committee : Salaries 461 2 

Expense 13 16 3 

464 18 3 

Empire Land Settlement Committee 404 6 9 

Allowances to Employees on Service 54 18 4 

Local Committees 'Expenses 22 9 9 

Imperial Studies Committee : Grant to Dr. A. P. Newton, Organ- 
iser, for Lecturers, Ac 250 

Printing 68 10 

318 10 
Prize Essay Publication Expenses, &c 46 4 10 

" Empire at War ": Expenses and Typing 29 11 6 

Audit Fee, 1918 3919 

Refunds to Branches 1,813 6 2 

Legal Expenses 30 19 2 

Donations 60 3 

Income Tax (Schedule A and Inhabited Houae Duty) 726 17 1 

By Sussex Branch : Donation towards Furnishing 100 

Insurance and Repairs 34 8 6 

134 8 6 

Annual Dinner 92 14 11 

Reception \ 496 14 9 

81,844 16 2 



216 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 






3 a 
c.2 



a 



M 



'9 > 





. 

. ^ 

* 






JS-5S.2S 

Slli- 



- 

S a | 



M 



THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



217 



SUMMARY OF BRANCH ACCOUNTS. 
BRISTOL, 1919. 



Balance, Jan. 1, 1919 
Income . 
Donation 
Sundry receipts 



126 3 6 

706 8 3 

100 

92 12 6 

1,025 4 3 



Expenditure 
Balance 



927 15 4 
97 8 11 



1,025 4 3 



LEICESTERSHIRE, OCTOBER 31, 1918, TO DECEMBER 31, 1919 



Income .... 
December 31, 1918, Balance 



80 14 2 
28 17 10 



109 12 



Sundry expenses 
Rent 1917-18 

Cash balance, less owing to Head 
Office . 



Note. Rent for 1919, 50, has not been paid. 



7 5 10 
87 10 

14 16 2 
109 12 



MANCHESTER, JULY 11, 1918, TO DECEMBER 31, 1919. 

Expenditure 

Balance, War Bonds and Cash 



1918. Income . 
1919. 


. 529 9 10 
400 9 2 


Interest . 


12 15 3 




942 14 3 



88 9 4 
854 4 11 



942 14 3 



BIRMINGHAM, FEBRUARY 1, 1918, TO FEBRUARY 29, 1920. 

Income . . . . . 398 10 8 Expenditure . 

Balance . 



398 10 8 



109 10 4 
289 4 

398 10 8 



January 1, Balance . 
Income . 



HANTS AND DORSET, 1919. 

53 9 
57 18 10 



110 19 7 



Expenditure 
Balance . 



27 5 6 
83 14 1 

110 19 7 



SUSSEX, OCTOBER 10, 1918, TO DECEMBER 31, 1919. 



Income to September 30, 1919 . 
Balance, being excess of ex- 
penditure over income . 



275 3 

254 14 5 

529 14 8 



Expenditure 



Note. Loan to Sussex Branch from Head Office 900, 

Cash in hand : Building Fund . . . 102 10 3 

73 6 5 



175 16 8 



529 14 8 



529 14 8 



LIVERPOOL, 1919. 



Income . ... 1,111 14 2 



1,111 14 2 



Expenditure 



219 19 7 



Balance . . . 937 13 7 

Less owing Head Office 45 19 891 14 7 

1,111 14 2 



218 



HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 

THE meeting on Thursday, February 12, was addressed by Mr. C. B. Stanton, M.P., on 
" Industrial Unrest, and How to Meet it." There was an excellent attendance. Mr. 
Stanton referred to his early experiences as a miner's boy. He had formerly, he said, 
been a member of the Independent Labour Party, and had been an outspoken advocate 
of its policy. But the War had taught him many things, and had altered his views 
as to what should be the attitude of Labour to the community, while confirming his 
views as to the attitude that should be taken by the community to industry. He 
had, however, come to the conclusion that the course adopted by the " Syndicalist 
crowd " was utterly inimical to the interests of the country and to the true interests 
of Labour. On this point he spoke with great emphasis, alleging that the I.L.P. and their 
Pacifist supporters, who had done all they could to hinder the successful prosecution 
of the War, were playing the game of the Bolsheviks, and were encouraging class 
legislation of the most dangerous character. Propaganda should be met with propa- 
ganda, campaign with campaign. This was the course that was being adopted by the 
British Empire Union and the National Democratic Party, of which organisations he 
was a member. He strongly advocated the earnest support of these counter efforts 
by all who were interested in the welfare of their country, and enforced the duty of 
taking every available opportunity for advocating the gospel of good-will between all 
classes. Referring to the question of the Nationalisation of Mines, he expressed the 
opinion that Government control would injure and not help the industry. He made 
the interesting statement that hundreds of the shareholders in mines and ships were 
miners, whose interests would be jeopardised were the mines or other national industries 
controlled by the Government. While he strongly disapproved of some of the actions 
of the Government, he was of opinion that it was our duty to rally round the Premier 
and do away, as far as possible, with Partyism. 

The Chair was taken by Mr. Douglas Maclean. Among those who took part in 
the discussion were Mr. Reginald Wilson, of the British Empire Union, who spoke of the 
propaganda work of his organisation which, he thought, was worthy of the support 
of all who preferred evolution to revolution, and Capt. Borradaile, of the Middle Classes 
Union, who urged the necessity of cultivating a sense of corporate responsibility among 
all classes. Lord Clifford of Chudleigh added a few words of commendation of Mr. 
Stanton's address. 

A very hearty vote of thanks to the speaker was proposed by the Hon. J. G. 
Jenkins, who said that, in his opinion, "profiteering .had made more Bolshies in this 
country than anything else." He thought that the Government should be forced to 
take action to remove this cause of industrial unrest. 

Mr. Ben H. Morgan, Chairman of the Trade and Industry Committee, presided at 
the meeting held on Thursday afternoon, February 26, when Mr. Donald Begg, a 
member of the Committee, read an interesting paper on " German Strongholds in 
Argentine Trade." Mr. Begg emphasised the need for preparation to meet the great 
struggle with Germany and the United States in the competition for the world's 
trade, and particularly for that of South America. We must, he said, lay aside our 
old habits of uncompromising conservatism, of which he gave one or two striking 
illustrations, and resolutely face the new conditions. Great Britain was the first to 
recognise the Argentine, and up to 1916 held the lead in the trade of that country, 
which had now passed to the United States. As to Germany, she had succeeded in 
securing many strongholds prior to the War, and would certainly strive to regain her 
position when opportunity served. No time, therefore, must be lost by the development 
of special lines, and by studying the requirements of the Argentine market. Great Britain 
enjoyed better credit than any other country in the Argentine, both in regard to the 
quality of goods and honest trading, a fact that should encourage us in our efforts 



Advertisements. 




SECURE in your OWN HOUSE 



A specially advantageous plan of House 
Purchase by which Life Assurance helps to 
secure to you the house in which you live. 



The many advantages of House- 
ownership must be obvious to every 
tenant. Secure from the uneasy 
feeling that at any time he may 
receive notice to quit, the owner has 
the gratification of knowing that so 
long as the property belongs to him 
all the improvements he may make 



to the House and Garden are for the 
benefit of himself and family not 
for the landlord. 

Moreover, in the possession of a 
house he has a tangible security 
which once free from debt becomes 
a valuable asset which as a rule can 
be readily realised for cash. 



FURTHER ADVANTAGES 

The "B.D." plan of House Purchase is undoubtedly the most attractive 
devised. Not only does it enable you to secure your house, spreading the 
greater portion of the cost over a long term of years, but also provides 

ALL THE BENEFITS OF LIFE ASSURANCE 

because, should you unfortunately die before the payments are completed, 
the house is secured to your wife and family free of debt. 

Full particulars of this advantageous plan of House Purchase 'will be 
forwarded free to any address. The terms are generous and each proposal 
receives careful preliminary consideration before any expense is involved. 
Applications for advances of not less than 400 are invited. 



The most 

progressive 

Office for all 

classes of 

Insurance. 



EAGLE 

ITISf 

wsuRANCE 




COUMNYin 



Branches and 

Agents 
throughout 
the United 
Kingdom. 



HEAD OFFICE: BRITISH DOMINIONS HOUSE, 
ROYAL EXCHANGE AVENUE, LONDON, E.C.3. 

ASSETS EXCEED <17,OOO,OOO 



219 WELLINGTON CATHEDRAL MEMORIAL CHAPEL. 

to re-establish and extend our hold. He referred to our large financial interests in the 
railways and other industrial enterprises, and the need of enlarging these interests 
by employing reliable agents who knew the Spanish language, and by the development 
of our own banking facilities in Buenos Aires and other large centres. He concluded 
by describing a tour through the country and demonstrating its great possibilities. 

The discussion was opened by the Chairman, and supported by Messrs. Renfrew 
(from the Argentine), Towers (from Uruguay), McLeod, Maclie, and Pounds, and by Sir Harry 
Wilson, who referred to the excellent branch of the Institute which (thanks mainly to the 
efforts of Mr. William Warden, the Hon. Corresponding Secretary) had been established 
in Buenos Aires, and to the splendid response made by the British residents in the 
Argentine to the call to arms in the War. A hearty vote of thanks was passed to 
Mr. Begg for his most instructive address, and to Mr. McLeod for procuring a map 
of the country, of which the speaker made full use. 



THE NEW CHAIRMAN OF THE B.E.P.O. 

THE Chairman of the R.C.I. Trade and Industry Committee, Mr. Ben. H. Morgan, has been 
elected Chairman of the British Empire Producers' Organisation, in succession to the 
late Sir Duncan Baillie, K.C.S.I. It is significant of the good feeling which exists 
between the Institute and the other great bodies concerned with the development of 
the Empire that both Mr. Morgan and his predecessor, while occupying this dis- 
tinguished position, should have been at the same time Members of the Council of the 
Institute. Mr. Morgan's work in connection with Imperial economic affairs is too widely 
known among the Fellows of the Institute to need recapitulation here, and the progress 
of the Trade and Industry Committee, which has been peculiarly his care from its 
beginning, alone warrants a double form of congratulation: to Mr. Morgan on his 
appointment to this very important and influential post, and to the British Empire 
Producers' Organisation in obtaining for the guidance of their affairs the great practical 
knowledge and wide experience which he possesses. 



THE WELLINGTON CATHEDRAL MEMORIAL CHAPEL. 

THE Rev. C. F. Askew, writing from Church House, Westminster, S.W., has renewed his 
appeal for funds on behalf of the Military Chapel of St. George, which is to be built 
as an adjunct to the Memorial Cathedral at Wellington, N.Z. The object is to make 
the chapel a memorial for all time to New Zealand loyalty and New Zealand's part 
in the War. Of the 15,000 wanted, a considerable portion remains to be subscribed, 
and Mr. Askew would like to be able to cable during the visit of the Prince of Wales 
that the money had been forthcoming. The Times, in a leader endorsing the appeal, 
reminds its readers that, acting on a resolution passed at a meeting at the Royal 
Colonial Institute, Lord Plunket, Lord Islington, Bishop Wallis, Sir Ian Hamilton, and 
Sir Alexander Godley last summer signed and issued a letter inviting the public to 
subscribe to the Memorial Chapel. Marshal Foch has now shown his sympathy with 
the movement by presenting the standard which served with him in the last great year of 
the War. 



Advertisements. 



xvi 



PETER 
DAWSON'S 





OLDEST 
& BEST 



PETER DAWSON, LTD, 

Distillers, DUFFTOWN & GLASGOW, 






LIMITED. 

Registered in the Transvaal (with which are 
incorporated the Bank of Africa Limited, 
the Natal Bank. Limited, and the National 
Bank of the Orange River Colony .Limited) 

Bankers to the Union Government in the Transvaal, the Orange 
,- Free State, and Natal, and to the Imperial Government. 

EVERY DESCRIPTION OF BANKING BUSINESS transacted with 
the Cape Province Natal. Orange Free State. Transvaal Rhodesia. 
Nyasaland. East Africa Protectorate. Uganda. Zanzibar. Portuguese 
East Africa. South-West Africa Protectorate and the Belgian Congo, 
and with the Bank's Agencies in New York and elsewhere 

OVER 400 BRANCHES IN AFRICA. 

Agents at Amsterdam Pan* Rome and <he Principal Cities of the World 




and 




l.otultxi Offices 
Circus Plfcce. London Wall. 

E.C.2. 
1 8. St. Sw, ithin's Lane. G C 4 

West End Office 

25. Cockspur Street, S.W.I. 

New Yprk Agency 

1O, WALL STREET. 

Indta BOMBAY. 

Antwerp 

65, PLACE DE MEIR. 
Head Offlcv-PRETORIA. 



220 

NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

THE FOLLOWING HAVE BEEN ELECTED : 

Resident Fellows (36) : 

A. R. Aspinall, A. R. Atkey, J.P., M.P., A. S. Beattie, R. F. Bowie, C.B., R.N., 
G. Death, S. S. Dunn, M.B.C.M., W. Hayward, M.B.E., P. H. Kirkaldy, Major A. Wm. 
Lyle-Kidd, M. R. Neville, F. L. Nolan, Pickering Phipps, A. M. Rhodes, E. Sinclair. 

BIRMINGHAM. Percy Rowlands. 

CAMBRIDGE. Lieut.-Col. F. E. Apthorpe Webb, A. T. S. Dixon, R. G. Fordham, 
C. H. Treadgold, M.A., M.D., T. M. Jones, W. F. Lloyd, R. Wm. L. Pearson, P. H. 
Steek. 

LIVERPOOL. E. H. W. Butterworth, J. Chadwick, 0. Chappett, A. W. Duncan, 
J. Findlater, J. E. Proctor, H. H. Kilshaw-Quack. 

MANCHESTER. Harold Ledward. 

SUSSEX. Lieut.-Col. F. J. B. Priestley, Capt. A. G. Smith, F. G. Smith, Col. A. H. P. 
Turner, Hammon Wearne. 

Non-Resident Fellows (66) : 

AUSTRALIA. F. W. R. Braddock (Sydney), H. Mitchell (Jamestown), G. A. London 
(Port Moresby), W. H. Needham (Melbourne), A. E. Simpson (Adelaide). 

CANADA. E. L. Cousins (Toronto), Capt. L. S. Laferriere, M.C. (Quebec), C. G. 
Mitts (Three Rivers), W. L. Teeson (Montreal). 

NEW ZEALAND. Robert Bruce (Gisborne). 

SOUTH AFRICA. D. D. Brooks (Johannesburg), C. F. Delfos (Pretoria), A. H- 
Fleming (Pretoria), A. J. Friedlander (Cape Town), P. V. Pocock (Pretoria), A. E. P. 
Smith (Cape Town). BRITISH GUIANA. #. H. Payne (West Bank). CEYLON. 
H. J. D. Stokes (Moneragalla). FIJI. M. T. Maxwell. MALAY STATES. J 7 . Cunningham 
(Port Dickson), H. E. Davidson (Kelantan), G. A. de C. de Moubray (Remban), R. M. 
Duff (Perak), E. Fyfe (Tampin), S. Manley J. W. Gooch (Perak), H. J. Harris (Kuala 
Lumpur), F. W. Howl (Tanjong Malim), H. D. Kiddle (Perak), T. Latham (Kuala Lumpur), 
A. H. Lemon, C.M.G. (Selangor), W. N. Payton (Perak), A. G. Wilson (Selangor). 
GOLD COAST COLONY. H. A. Blencowe (Kumasi). INDIA. D. W. McQuillin 
(Ferozepore), P. D. Mitton. JAMAICA. J. Crook (Kingston), M. Y. Grant (Kingston), 
A. C. Mais (Kingston), E. M. Mais (Retreat), J. W. Pattinson (Kingston), H. H. St. L. 
Troop (Kingston). NIGERIA. S. B. Salter (Ilorin). RHODESIA. S. J. Boyd (Living- 
stone). SAMOA. G. E. L. Wesfbrook (Apia). STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. G. V. 
Abjornson (Singapore), D. Miller (Singapore), F. G. Ritchie (Singapore), G. F. Robson (Singa- 
pore). SUDAN. N. E. Macgregor (Tayiba). TANGANYIKA. D. L. Baines, O.B.E. 
UGANDA. W. Small (Kampala). ARGENTINE. H. P. Dee (Buenos Aires), S. E. 
Francis (Buenos Aires), C. A. Lett, Capt. H. Nixon (Buenos Aires), R. Smyth (Buenos 
Aires), E. W. Woods (Buenos Aires). CHINA. Cop*. H. E. Hillman (Shanghai). FRENCH 
WEST AFRICA. C. M. Lloyd (Ouilah). UNITED STATES. C. S. Cosby Oakes (San 
Francisco), T. B. Livingstone (San Francisco), E. H. G. Shepherd (San Francisco), 
W. W. Watt (New York). UNATTACHED TO ANY COLONY. Major W. A. Moon, 
C. G. K. Sharpe, M.B., H. Stanley Sly. 

Associates (40) : 

B. Cottinswood, Ethel Lady Turing, Lady Wolseley, Mrs. H. C. Macfie (Sydney), 
Mrs. Alfred Bazin (Montreal), Mrs. J. B. Learmont (Montreal), Mrs. Arthur Wayland 
(Tarkastad). 

BOURNEMOUTH. Mrs. Louisa J. Curme, Mrs. A. W. U. Pope. 

SUSSEX. Miss F. A. M. Bexfield, Mrs. G. L. Boag, Miss E. M. Bourne, Miss 
G. A. Burch, Mrs. B. A. Carver, Mrs. Ada Douglas, Mrs. Verbena Fell, Miss A. S. 
Foskett, Mrs. F. Fuller, Mrs. C. Gardner, Miss C. L. Holden, Mrs. W. Jackson, Mrs. 
M. Johnstone, Mrs. M. A. King, Mrs. Barron Lycett, Mrs. E. L. Mackintosh, Miss 
R. S. Nickolson, Mrs. C. G. Pascoe, Mrs. V. M. B. Priestley, Mrs. M. I. F. Ramsden, 
Miss C. J. Sage, Mrs. H. H. Sanders, Mrs. A. Sargeant, Miss M. C. Sibbald Scott 



Advertisements. 



xvn 




Motor 
Carriages 



with the Daimler Sleeve- Valve Engine 

FOR years a Daimler will maintain its full power with less 
attention than that required for any other type of engine. 
There are no valves to grind, no springs to renew, no tappets 
to adjust, no loss of compression, and always that silence which 
denotes perfect engineering and minimum wear. 

The superiority of a Daimler is nou;n to every user. 

The Daimler Company, Ltd., Coventry 




BRITISH EMPIRE GROWN TOBACCO. 

Rhodesian Cigarettes 



Rhodesian Turkish 
Rhodesian Virginian - 



- 8/4 per 100 

- 6/8 per 100 



N.B. Every Cigarette bears the Coat of Arms (as above) of the 
British South Africa Company. 



Matabele Tobacco 



15/- per Ib. 



Orders for quantities, not less !than 1000 Cigarettes, or 2 Ibs. Tobacco, 
can be sent overseas free from English duty, prices being : 



CIGARETTES Turkish 

Virginian - 

TOBACCO - 



56/- per 1000 \ Air-tight tins of 
421- per 1000 I 100 

r \ Ib. air-light tins 



9/- per Ib. 

Manufactured only by : 

JOHN WOOD & SON (fSffSSfSSQ LTD. 

2325 QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, E. C.4 



221 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

Mrs. F. E. Smith, Mrs. Gertrude Smith, Mrs. Outhrie Smith, Mrs. W. Taylor, Mrs. 
F. M. Tetley, Mrs. E. de Courcy Walford, Mrs. C. Wearne. 

Bristol Branch Associates (13) : 

Mrs. E. Adams, Mrs. F. H. Bowen, Mrs. Burrow-Hill, Mrs. Gibaud, Mrs. J. Gordon, 
T. A. Hettier, Mrs. S. Hunter, Mrs. A. T. Matthews, F. W. Perry, Miss H. M. Peters, 
Mrs. E. Ryan, T. Page Wood, Mrs. T. Page Wood. 



AP?OINTM3Nr OF HONORARY CORRESPONDING SECRETARIES. 

Captain E. O. Mousley, M.A., LL.B., Baghdad, Mesopotamia ; Mr. John T. Tebbutt, 
Three Rivers, Quebec, Canada. 



OBITUARY. 

The following deaths of Fellows and Associates are noted with regret : 
Right Rev. H. E. Jones (Bishop of Lewes), Albert E. Reed, J.P., Ronald Meiggs, 
Townsend M. Kirkwood, Rev. C. F. Thorndike, Lady Davson, William Hay, W. S. 
Mayne, Captain E. Napier Thomas, A. G. Graham, John Schofield, Frank Horsell, 
P. W. Holding, P. Haughton James, Senator Hon. S. Marks, Professor Sir T. P. 
Anderson Stuart, M.D., John Pearce, G. B. Leechman, Captain D. A. Wallbach, 
John A. Mara, Lady Paget, Maung Ne Dun, F. G. Haldane, Arnold E. Davey, E. B. S. 
Benest, S. B. Browning, Mrs. R. H. S. Scott, L. A. W. Beck, M.B., His Hon. Judge 
D. M. Walker, R. W. Burgess, F. E. Collier, George S. Welsh, Captain G. Le Sueur 
des Fresnes. 

ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE FIFTY-SECOND SESSION, 1920. 

The following Addresses and Papers have already been arranged, and the Meetings 

will be held at the Central Hall, Westminster : 

TUESDAY, APRIL 13, at 8 p.m. " The Organisation of Migration and Settlement within 
the Empire," by CHRISTOPHER TtjRyoa, Esq. Sir RIDES H^CKJARD, K.B.E., will preside. 

TUESDAY, APRIL 27, at 3.30 p.m. "Universities in Canada and in the United States," 
by A. E. SHIPLEY, D.So., F.R.S., Master of Christ College, formerly Vice-Chancellor 
of the University of Cambridge. 

TUESDAY, MAY 11, at 8 p.m. "Newfoundland as it is To-day" (with lantern illustra- 
tions), by Sir EDQAB BOWRING, High Commissioner for Newfoundland. 



PAYMENT OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

Rule 20. All subscriptions shall be due and payable on January 1 in each year. 

Rale 21. No Fellow shall be entitled to vote, or enjoy any other privilege of 
the Institute, so long as his subscription shall be in arrear. 

Fellows and Associates are therefore reminded that the Journal ceases to be 
forwarded when subscriptions are in arrear for over six months by Resident 
Fellows, and over twelve months by Non-Resident Fellows. The easiest method of 
paying the annual subscriptions ia by standing order on a banker or agent. Printed 
forms can be obtained from the Secretary. 

For the convenience of Fellows, arrangements have been made whereby subscriptions 
can be paid into any branch of the following banks : Africa. African Banking Corpora- 
tion, National Bank of India, Bank of British West Africa, National Bank of South 
Africa, Standard Bank of South Africa. Argentine. The British Bank of South 
America will accept subscriptions at $11 fixed exchange for 1 Is. Australia. Com- 
mercial Bank of Sydney, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, and Australian Bank of 
Commerce (New South Wales and Queensland only). Canada. Bank of Montreal, 
Canadian Bank of Commerce, Dominion Bank, Royal Bank of Canada, Union Bank 
of Canada. Ceylon, China, Hong Kong, Malay States, and Straits Settlements. Chartered 
Bank of India, Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, National Bank of India. West Africa. 
Bank of British West Africa and Colonial Bank. West Indies. Colonial Bank. 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF FELLOWS. 

Messrs. Maull & Fox, of 187, Piccadilly, London, W. 1, are the official photographers to 
the Royal Colonial Institute. 



Advertisements. 



xvi 11 



THOMAS LOCKER & CO. 



WARRINGTON, ENGLAND. 



LTD 



WIRECLOTH MANUFACTURERS AND METAL 

PERFORATORS 



"DOUBLE-LOCKED" 
BRAND 




SPECIALISTS 
In all descriptions of 
Woven Wire and per- 
forated Metal Screens, 



Cables : 

" Hawkins, 
Budgery, London" 



Marconi's 



Bentley's 



FERRER HAWKINS & CO. 

BASINGHALL STREET, LONDON, E.C.2 

Associated with William H. Knox & Co., Inc., New York 



Telegrams 

" Hawkins 

Budgery, Ave, 

London." 
Telephone : 
Central 2514 



General Import and Export Merchants 

IMPORTERS OF COLONIAL AND EAST INDIAN 
PRODUCE TO LONDON AND NEW YORK. 

Offers invited on c.i.f. Basis. Consignments. 

EXPORTERS OF IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS, MACHINERY, PRODUCE, CHEMICALS, AND GENERAL 
MERCHANDISE from UNITED KINGDOM, CANADA, and U.S.A. to the COLONIES, and all South American Republic*. 



Offers on c.i.f. Basis. 



Indents on Commission Basis 



iiimiiiiimniiiiiiiiNMiiiiiuiiiiiMiuimuiiuiiimiiiiiiuiiiiuuil^^ 



EVERITT PENN & CO., LTD. 

16 PANTON STREET, HAYMARKET, 
LONDON, S.W.I. 

Specialists in complete Equipment for East, West and Central Africa. It will pay you to let us 
quote for your requirements. We supply best outfit and kit at lowest prices. 



Telephone : Gerrard 2706. 

Telegrams : 
" Tropikita, Charles, London.' 



ENQUIRIES 
INVITED 



ESTIMATES 
SUBMITTED 



GOODS PACKED 
AND SHIPPED 



MAIL ORDERS 
BUYING AGENTS 



HEADS & SKINS 
MOUNTED 



TENTS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, MOSQUITO CURTAINS, AIRTIGHT BOXES, COOKS & CHOP BOXES, etc. j 

ItaiuuiNiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiimiimiiiiiMiiiiiiMiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiM miiliiiiiimniiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiMiHiiimiimiMiiuimiiiuii 



222 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

Their Royal Highnesses Prince Albert and Prince Henry have consented to become 
Patrons of the Cambridgeshire Branch of the Royal Colonial Institute. 

The King of the Belgians has conferred on Mr. W. A. Bulkeley-Evans the Cross 
of " Chevalier de 1'Ordre de la Couronne " in recognition of services rendered to 
Belgium in connection with its colonial interests for the period he was Director of 
the Exports and Imports Branch of the Ministry of Food. 

The Lord M*yor will preside at a mooting to be held at the Mansion House on Friday, 
April 16, in connection with the unity of the Empire and the expansion of the work of 
the Royal Colonial Institute. Among the speakers will be Viscount Milner, Lord Bryce, 
Sir Hainar Greenwood, Sir George Perley, Sir Thomas Mackenzie, the Right Hon. Andrew 
Fisher, and Sir Charles Lucas. Invitation cards may be obtained from the Secretary of 
the Institute. 

LIST OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

The list of Fellows for 1919, corrected to September 30, is now ready, and copies can 
be obtained at 2s. fid. each. 

ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

ARRIVALS. 

Argentine. G. H. Wallace. Australia. J. H. Fawcett, F. A. Lakeman, E. Truby 
Williams, Right Hon. Sir W. Q. Ellison-Macartney, K.C.M.G. Brazil. W. T. Barrett. 
British East Africa. /. Lewison. Camaroons. A. J. Findlay, H. E. Francis. Canada. 
Major L. H. Webber. East Africa. Ernest Adams, Capt. C. C. Eccles. Falkland 
Islands. H. W. Townson, J.P. Federated Malay States. Hugh Frasor, A. W. Just, 
J. Barr Sim, R. G. Watson, C.M.G. Kong Kong. H. S. Rouse. India. W. Fraser 
Clements, Lt.-Colonel A. J. Cooper, H. A. B. Vernon, H. A. Wray. Mauritius. 
J. J. Gibson, C. W. Jackson. New Zealand. B. Tripp, O.B.E., Mrs. B. Tripp. 
Nyasaland. Allan F. Kidney. Portuguese East Africa. D. Dishington. Rhodesia. 
E. Vernon Gabb. South Africa. H. Standish Ball, J. Burtt Davy, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., 
R. W. E. Hawthorn, Rundle Olds, Thomas Sheldon. Straits Settlements. N. K. Bain, 
Capt. T. Riley, E. Nixon Westwood. Sudan. E. McCash Reid. Sumatra. W. Ogilvy. 
Trinidad. C. F. Lassalle, M.D., C.M. Uganda. R. Cleminson, J. Dalton Milner, 
E. G. Morris, B. Spearman. West Africa. H. Arnot, John Cook, C. F. Grassland, 
W. K. Duncombe, L. S. Gruchy, E. A. Kendatt, W. H. Kingston, Capt. J. A. Neill- 
Green, Mr. Justice S. C. K. F. Nettleton, Douglas E. Preston, A. H. Unioin, S. Young, 
P. V. Young. Zanzibar. R. Armstrong. 

DEPARTURES. 

Argentine. G. C. Crispin, W. H. Crispin, F. J. G. Graham, C. G. Simons, Mrs. 
H. P. de Simons. Australia. Capt. H. L. Ball, W. Bowie, E. W. Pearson Chinnery, 
R. A. Christison, John H. Cooke, C. W. Fraser, A. Goninan, S. W. Griffiths, Mrs. 
L. M. Longbottom, H. C. Macfie, E. J. Marsden. Belgian Congo. C. H. Firmin. 
British East Africa. Lt.-Col. W. H. Franklin, H. Pickwoad, Capt. W. B. Preston. 
British Guiana. Dr. J. H. Conyers, Mrs. J. H. Conyers, M.B.E., H. Y. Delafons. 
British West Indies. Major J. A. Burdon, C.M.G., N. Scott Johnston,* G. E. Sealy. 
Cameroons. R. H. Balfour Blair. Canada. S. A. Bray,' E. W. Heurtley,'* Major F. J. 
Ney. Ceylon. W. A. De Silva, R. V. de V. Godfrey, A. D.\ Prouse. Chill. F. H. 
Townsend. East Africa. H. V. Meekcoms, Mrs. H. V."] Meekcoms, H. Malcolm Ross, 
Federated Malay States. E. S. Biddlecombe, H. T. A. Biddlecombe, N. D. Dalton, 
H. Gordon Graham, W. R. Sanguinetti, E. G. Trotter, S. IO. Twibill. Fiji. Dr. G. C. 
Strathairn. French West Africa. Hugh Black. India. IF. Archbald, H. D. Rice, 
H. F. Wheeler, A. J. Wright. New Zealand. R. B. Johnson, J. P. Maxwell, Lieut.- 
Colonel J. Studholme, D.S.O. 'Persia. W. Colder. Rhodesia. A. C. Hayter, Norman 
F: Pepper, A. L. Sclater, Edwin Taylor. Sarawak. H. C. Reis. South Africa. 
John Chrystal, C. L. Hankin, W. A. Rail, C. C. Robertson, F. J. Penn Smith. Straits 
Settlements. J. H. Clarke. West Africa. R. S. Baittie, R. A. G. Beavan, R. Cousin, 
W. J. Old. 



S&ottirwoode. Ballantyne & Co. Ltd., Colcheiter. London and Btnn 



UNITED EMPIKE f 

THE ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE JOURNAL 

VOL. XI. MAY 1920 No. 5 

The Institute is not responsible for statements made or opinions expressed 
by authors of articles and papers or in speeches at meetings. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

IF any party in Germany hoped by reactionary methods, or by 
persistent violation of Treaty obligations, to drive a wedge into Anglo- 
French relations, that party has added sharply to German 
disappointments. Chaos in the Ruhr district, follow- 
Relations * n & on *^ e a b r tive revolution of March, gave Germany 
what appeared to be an excuse for sending troops into 
the neutral zone ostensibly to restore order. No such step could legally 
be taken without the Allies' consent. That consent was withheld 
unless guarantees were given that the troops would retire when 
their mission was accomplished. Broken pledges made guarantees 
indispensable. They were not forthcoming, but troops were. France 
did not hesitate a moment. She occupied Frankfort and other towns. 
She acted without agreement with her friends. The United States 
objected, Great Britain and Italy protested, Belgium alone approved. 
The Press on both sides of the Channel magnified the difference into 
something verging on rupture, and for a few days there was real public 
anxiety. Notes were exchanged between the British and French 
Cabinets, mutually satisfactory assurances were given, and the net 
result is that Franco-British accord is more closely compact than ever. 
The German Government is, of course, shocked that its assurances of 
innocent and pacific motives are not accepted. German disarmament 
is the only guarantee, and how to ensure that has been one of the 
main questions the other being the Treaty of Peace with Turkey and 
the future of Armenia, Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia which the 
" Big Three " dealt with at San Remo. The Allies stand by the 
Treaty of Versailles, and Germany is to meet them at Spa to explain 
her difficulties and the steps she proposes to take to honour her bond. 
When Prussianism is dead, Germany can get on with the measures 
which Herr Miiller says are indispensable to the restoration of her 
economic life, and there will be some chance that the League of 
Nations will be able to inaugurate the " humane and beneficent work " 



224 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

of which the Duke of Connaught speaks in supporting the appea 
made by Viscount Grey and others for funds for the League of 
Nations Union. 

IN the Dominions, as in the British Isles, the truth about 
Bolshevism, fully revealed during April, will have acted as a tonia 
to common sense, even among those who are convinced 
The Truth t ] iat ^ capitalistic system must go. Its horrors, 
about -, . * T m j. i 

Bolshevism durm & two vears of Lenm-lrotsky supremacy, are 

proved by the stories of the war refugees who have 
been shipped to England with the indelible marks of the Terror upon 
them. Eussia, says one of them, is ruled by a little clique of some 
two hundred men. And this is the inauguration of democracy in 
the Empire of the Tzars ! Eussia has less freedom to-day than she 
had before the liberation of the serfs. Trotsky says frankly " free 
labour can only exist in a capitalistic state." Lest there should be 
any misunderstanding of this axiomatic confession, Mr. Lansbury, 
who visited Moscow on behalf of the workers of Britain, calmly fore- 
shadows martial law for the workshop as the indispensable condition 
of progress. "Discipline iron, rigid discipline of the workers by 
the workers," will compel every man from 18 to 60 years of age to do 
his bit. Ca' canny will be treason to the Commonwealth. None 
will be allowed food who has not worked for it ; the slacker will be 
a deserter and treated as such. That is the inspiring message which 
Trotsky and Lansbury have for the working men of the world for 
democracy in old and new countries alike. Bolshevism, thus naked 
and unashamed, revealed for the ugly thing it is, has proved too 
much for British Internationals. They were invited to join the Third 
International at Moscow, and voted against any such commitment by 
472 to 206. They realise that any pledge to participate in the 
Lenin-Trotsky regime means armed revolution. For that few of 
them are prepared: there are conscientious objectors among the 
fierce intellectuals of the Labour movement. Is the social revolu- 
tion, they were asked, going to be helped by putting rifles and 
machine-guns into the hands of pot-house habitues ? The answer 
was in the negative. 

MR. MACPHERSON'S resignation of the Irish Secretaryship and 

Sir Hamar Greenwood's acceptance of the most trying office in the 

Government, Dr. Macnamara's transference from the 

Coalition Admiralty to the Ministry of Labour, and other 

Ministerial changes, synchronised with certain vacan- 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 225 

cies to give several constituencies the opportunity of demonstrating 
to what extent the Coalition retains the confidence of the country. 
The by-elections afford a fair test of public opinion on (1) the differences 
between Mr. Lloyd George and Mr. Asquith, (2) the claims of Labour, 
and (3) the appalling condition of Ireland, where outrages have been 
supplemented by hunger-strikes which have compelled the Govern- 
ment to release prisoners who would add slow suicide to other horrors. 
Mr. Lloyd George at the National Liberal Club said that the work 
of the Coalition will not be complete till the peace of the world is 
restored, and that Labour cannot expect to be trusted till it disso- 
ciates itself from the extreme wing which favours Bolshevism. Mr. 
Asquith, in reply, appealed to Liberals to return to the old Party 
conditions, and denounced the Prime Minister for an attack on Labour. 
At Northampton, Carnberwell, Stockport, Basingstoke, Edinburgh 
and elsewhere the reply of the constituencies has been emphatic. 
Labour has scared the Moderates everywhere, except at Dartford, 
where a Coalition majority of nine thousand was converted by 
Labour into a minority of nine thousand. The miniature general 
election has resolved itself into a vote of confidence in the Government. 

MR. ASQUITH'S strenuous effort to discredit the Coalition in Parlia- 
ment was as signal a failure as were the efforts in the country. The 
second reading division on the Home Rule Bill gave the 
Government a majority of 254. The debate was chiefly 
notable for the manner in which Mr. Bonar Law insisted 
that to grant the right of self-determination to Ireland was to admit 
Sinn Fein's right to set up a Republic. Mr. Asquith would give 
Ireland Dominion Home Rule with reservations. It is remarkable 
that no one seemed to see that the Dominions have attained their 
present status through local Parliaments such as the Bill proposes 
for Ireland. What happened in Canada, in Australia, in New Zea- 
land, and in South Africa may well happen in Ireland. There must, 
however, be an important difference for all time, because Ireland is 
at Britain's very doors, and even Mr. Asquith would not give her 
full control of armed forces. Mr. Bonar Law stated that " the con- 
nexion of the Dominions with the Empire depends upon themselves. 
If the self-governing Dominions chose to-morrow to say 'We will no 
longer make a part of the British Empire/ we would not try to force 
them. Dominion Home Rule means the right to decide their own 
destinies." It is because that is true that there is still vastly im- 
portant work ahead for the Royal Colonial Institute; it is no new 



226 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

doctrine, no discovery on Mr. Bonar Law's part. But the statement 
has unfortunately been hailed in South Africa as justifying the 
separatist programme. 

BOTH Lord Jellicoe and New Zealand are heartily to be congratulated 
on the choice made of a successor to Lord Liverpool. Rarely has a 

Governor-General been appointed who has so recently 
-* discharged an Empire mission of first-rate importance. 

Possibly it was his visit that induced the Dominion of 
Wellington some months ago to suggest the appointment of a Senior 
Naval Officer in view of the development of New Zealand's naval 
policy. Wherever he went he was received with the enthusiasm 
befitting his services to the Empire. Tactful and cautious in speech, 
with a clear-cut perception always of the line of duty, he will know how 
to reconcile the susceptibilities of Dominion with the interests of 
Empire. The message to the Dominions, which UNITED EMPIRE was 
privileged to publish in March, admirable summary as it was of the 
principles animating his utterances during his tour, reflected his 
sense of the interdependence of the Dominions and the Empire. 

SINCE Daddy Neptune made his famous declaration to Freedom, 
that if he ever decided to live upon dry land he would select " Little 

Britain" for his terrestrial abode, he has never 
The Prince exercised his Oceanic rights with more complete 
O "E ft 3S ' autocratic assurance than when the Prince of Wales 

crossed the line on his way to New Zealand, where 
he was welcomed on the eve of Anzac Day. In a world of change 
and revolution, Father Neptune is unchanging. The Prince of 
Wales pays him homage as princes, if they were wise, have done 
in all ages, and submits to the picturesque indignities which he 
inflicts on all who seek a passport through his domain. Father 
Neptune is notoriously no respecter of persons, and on this particular 
occasion he asserted himself in a manner worthy of the best traditions 
of opera bouffe. The investiture he held could only be properly 
described by one who blended the qualities of a Marryat and a 
Gilbert. Hiawatha, if we may endorse the pretty conceit for which 
Mr. Albert Bartholeyns is responsible, adds to his many decorations 
the Order of the Equatorial Bath. Admiral Halsey is given the 
Order of the Old Sea Dog ; Captain Dudley North is made a Knight of 
the Aged Cod ; and Commander James Campbell a Knight of the 
Soused Herring in honour of his navigational precision and punctuality. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 227 

From Prince and Admiral to cook's boy there was none to challenge 
Father Neptune's authority. The honours he had to confer were 
accepted with the respect due to old time custom, and the heir to the 
greatest of Constitutional Thrones has added another link to the 
chain he has forged about British hearts, by his perfect submission 
to one who reigns wherever Britannia rules. 

GREATLY daring, Mr. Rudyard Kipling devoted his St. George's 
Day speech to the qualities of England. St. George's Day is the one 
day in the year, he said, when the English can creep 
out of their hiding-places and whisper to each other 
what they think about themselves. With delightful 
irony, he surveyed fifteen centuries during which " the Englishman, 
like a built-up gun-barrel, all of one temper though welded of different 
material," appropriated what he wanted from the practice and learn- 
ing of other races, until " under pretext of union, he was finally 
subjugated by the Scots." For all the " popular and well recognised 
defects of the breed," England is England still, and may be accorded 
her meed of credit for the up-building and preservation of the Empire 
which Mr. Kipling denies was born in a. fit of absence of mind. The 
moral of the address was summed up years ago by Mr. Kipling himself 
in the words of the South African soldier happily quoted by Sir Gilbert 
Parker : 

If England were what England seems, 
An' not the England of our dreams, 
But only putty, brass and paint, 
'Ow quick we'd chuck her. But she ain't. 

EVERY true Londoner must be an Imperialist, in the best and 

widest meaning of the term. The Metropolis, like the Empire 

itself, stands for ordered freedom and progress. 

Metropolis fi t London is a big place and the " lots o' people 

and Empire. ..,_! -, ,1 r 

in it have never experienced that sense 01 corporate 

unity which is felt by Sydney or Winnipeg or Birmingham. Yet 
the Mansion House meeting reported in this issue goes to prove that 
London only needs the call to take its rightful place as the head 
and heart of the Britannic Commonwealth. The Chief Magistrate 
gave an excellent lead, finely supported by the Colonial Secretary 
and the High Commissioners, in promoting the cause of United 
Empire. We gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness to the Lord 



228 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

Mayor. A meeting, that must in any case have been important, 
was made doubly important by Lord Miner's announcement regard- 
ing the next Imperial Conference, which he anticipates will be held 
in 1921. May we not hope that, as the result of the campaign started 
at' the Mansion House, the overseas members of that Conference will 
find London more keenly interested in its proceedings than here- 
tofore ? None can do more than London to cement what Lord Milner 
so aptly calls the moral unity of the Empire. The work which lies 
before the Royal Colonial Institute is at least as essential to-day 
as it has ever been, and the City of London has it in its power to make 
the way to the realisation of the Institute's larger programme, briefly 
outlined by Sir Charles Lucas, comparatively easy and expeditious. 

THERE is a very direct connection between the Mansion House meet- 
ing, the address delivered by Mr. Christopher Turner before the Royal 
Colonial Institute on the Organisation of Migration and 
Settlement within the Empire, and a luncheon given by 
P ess ^ e British Newspaper Proprietors' Association to Lord 

Atholstan, Chairman of the Second Imperial Press Con- 
ference to be held at Ottawa in August. Sir George Perley pointed out 
at the Mansion House that the ideal of Empire seems closer to those who 
live overseas than to those who live in the heart of the Empire. Every 
Briton who settles within the Empire is an element of strength, not 
only to the Colony or Dominion he selects for his home, but to the 
union with the Motherland. Hence, the plea advanced by Mr. Tumor 
in favour of the creation of an Imperial authority responsible for the 
organisation of migration. It is of first-rate importance that the men 
and women who, after years of war work, are on the look-out for oppor- 
tunities overseas should not go to foreign lands. The press can do a 
great deal to influence their movements by drawing attention to the 
resources of, and the openings in, the Dominions. Lord Atholstan 
reminds us that years ago the Americans rediscovered Canada, and 
at the very time that thousands of them were crossing the border 
thousands of Britons were seeking new homes away from the flag. 
" If the British press of those days," said Lord Atholstan, " was almost 
silent about the exodus, it was because it did not realise what the loss 
meant." The press has no excuse for ignorance to-day. 

AN important departure in the promotion of trade within the 
Empire will be made in June, when the first of the touring exhibitions 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 229 

which, are to visit the D ominions will leave England. It is, however, 
not only in regard to home export trade that efforts are needed. 
Sir Bickham Sweet-Escott in the Pall Mall Gazette 
Empire } ias pointed out that " the lessons of the late war and 

o on and ^ p resen t peace will not have been learned unless 
every part of the- Colonial Empire is encouraged to 
enter into closer commercial relations with the United Kingdom." 
This is particularly true of the tropical Colonies, and Lord Milner has 
on more than one occasion shown himself fully alive to the import- 
ance of leaving no stone unturned for their development in their 
own interests as in those of the Empire and of civilisation. What 
British enterprise has done in Malaya with rubber, British enterprise 
might do in tropical lands with cotton and tobacco. At present 
Oreat Britain is dependent upon the United States for the bulk of 
her supplies of both. The cotton industry is moving in self-defence, 
and big projects, including a cotton-growing trust, for supplementing 
supplies from within the Empire, are afoot. Tobacco might also 
become very largely an Empire product. The Imperial Government 
are certainly anxious to encourage its cultivation. Yet, Sir Alfred 
Sharpe points out, the Colonial Office puts an export tax on Uganda 
cotton and has approved the imposition of an export tax on Nyassa- 
land tobacco which, he says, neutralises the preference given to 
British Colonial tobacco in the 1919 Budget. It cannot be intended 
to take back with one hand what is conceded with the other, and the 
last thing the Colonial Office to-day would wish to do would be to 
throttle a Colonial industry of such promise as Nyassaland tobacco 
cultivation. The question was raised in Parliament by Sir J. D. Kees, 
and Lieut. -Colonel Amery's answer was that these export duties, the 
most convenient form of raising revenue, are in the main settled 
locally according to local considerations. In the more recent debate 
in committee on the Colonial Office vote, the Under Secretary has 
expressed the hope that the duties may not be of long duration. 

MR. AUSTEN CHAMBERLAIN'S Budget was like a spring gale very 
disagreeable, but with an undeniable bracing and health-giving 

quality. It increases taxation on beer, wine, and 
Features of , ' -,-, f , . i - r ,1 ^ 

the Budeet s P mts > a ^ * which, in view of the heavy consumption 

since they have been freed from control, can easily 
stand the increment ; the special additional duty on sparkling wines 
will not have surprised those who have noticed the extraordinary 



230 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

increase of the demand for champagne, or what passes for champagne on 
profiteering palates. Tobacco is left as it was, despite the increased 
consumption largely due to women imitating one of the major 
virtues of their menfolk ; but imported cigars are to pay a still 
further impost. This particular increase will be welcomed by the 
growing British-made cigar trade. The reformed income-tax will 
be the most popular feature of the Budget. It reduces the measure 
of that old iniquity, the double income-tax within the Empire ; it 
obviates the sudden jumps and inequalities which cause irritation 
and a feeling of injustice ; and it diminishes the burden of the married 
man with a family at the expense of the bachelor a fair discrimina- 
tion and one which will, for other than fiscal reasons, be approved by 
the million " surplus women." Failing the discovery of a method of 
taxing w r ar wealth, the Excess Profits Duty is raised from 40 to 60 per 
cent. ; an unfortunate provision, because it tends to penalise enterprise 
and to encourage inflation of prices and extravagant office expenditure. 

CRITICS attack the Budget on two grounds that while it makes 

adequate provision for repayment of debt, it does nothing to reduce 

the State expenditure, and that its provisions, par- 

~? v nc y ticularly the increase in the Excess Profits Duty, tend 
the Real J , .. . V 

Question mcrease the cost of living. On both grounds Mr. 

Chamberlain would probably plead guilty, but in 
the latter case with extenuating circumstances. The cost of living 
has risen independently of anything the State can do, and the 
slight additional effect of the Chancellor's proposals in that direction 
will weigh little in the scales against the very real necessity of 
national solvency. The increased cost of living is due to the 
double effect of a shortage of producers and an increase of con- 
sumers, caused by the losses of the war and the consequent 
loading of the population with non-producers at both ends of the 
scale of life ; but even the increased costs and wages have their advan- 
tage from a purely Treasury standpoint, as is shown by the greater 
revenue derived from tea, coffee, and tobacco. As to the excessive 
expenditure of the State, no real defence has been attempted of the 
overgrown Civil Service estimates. The Government seem to be 
afraid of the monster they have created ; they will cut down Army 
and Navy, but the new bureaucracy proliferates like some noxious 
germ. Taken as a whole, the Budget will very appreciably strengthen 
the financial credit of Britain in the world. 



231 



HIAWATHA'S RETURN. 

A POSTSCRIPT to The Song of Hiawatha, suggested by an incident in the visit 
of the Prince of Wales to the Far West. (Longfellow's words in inverted 
commas.) 

In the Song of Hiawatha 

Where it tells of his departure 

" In the glory of the sunset, 

In the purple mists of evening, 

To the regions of the North wind, 

Of the North-west wind, Keewaydin, 

To the islands of the Blessed," 

Spake these words ere he departed, 

Hiawatha, the Beloved : 

" I am going, my people, 

On a long and distant journey ; 

Many moons, and many winters 

Will have come, and will have vanished 

Ere I come again to see you." 

So he went. But longtime after, 
Many moons and winters after, 
" When the air was full of freshness, 
And the earth was bright and joyous, 
And on all shone golden sunshine, 
Westward toward the neighbouring forest," 
Came a wain with pale-faced people, 
" From beyond the big-sea-water, 
From the distant land of Wabun, 
From the brightest realms of morning," 
Came, as once before, the strangers, 
Came the restless Pilgrim people. 
And, among them, lo ! a young man, 
Who, although he showed no war-paint, 
Though he wore no belt of wampum, 
Brought to mind of every Eed-skin, 
Their beloved Hiawatha ! 
For, like him, he knew the secrets 
Of the birds and beasts and fishes 
That were seen in lakes and forests, 
Knew their names and knew their habits, 
" How the beavers built their lodges, 
Where the squirrels hid their acorns, 
Why the rabbits were so timid ; 
Called them all ' his little brothers ' ; 



232 HIAWATHA'S RETURN. 

And, like him, in the great forest, 
Where the red deer herd together, 
Killed for them a famous roebuck, 
Killed for them a deer with antlers ; " 
He was, like their Hiawatha, 
" Skilled in all the craft of hunters, 
Learned in all the lore of old men, 
In all youthful sports and pastimes ; 
In all manly arts and labours, 
Swift of foot as Hiawatha ; " 
Like him, too, his heart within him 
" Like a living coal was burning ; " 
And he was so said the strangers 
Son and heir of Wabun's chieftain, 
Come to greet his Western Brethren 
With a message from his father ; 
From the Lion-King, his father, 
Come to bring Goodwill and Kindness 
" The Pukwana of the peace-pipe ! " 
And to thank them for their succour 
In a dreadful war and glorious. 

"So he journeyed westward, westward, 
Left the fleetest deer behind him, 
Left the antelope and bison, 
Crossed the rushing Esconaba, 
Crossed the mighty Mississippi " 
And the laughing Minnehaha, 
" Minnehaha laughing water, 
Passed the mountains of the prairie, 
Passed the land of crows and foxes, 
Passed the dwellings of the Blackfeet, 
Came unto the Eocky Mountains, 
To the kingdom of the West wind, 
Where upon the gusty summit, 
Sat the ancient Mudgekeevis, 
Buler of the winds of heaven." 
Filled with joy was Mudgekeevis 
When he looked upon the young man, 
Saw the youth uprise before him, 
Like in face to Hiawatha. 
Welcome, said he, Hiawatha, 

To the Kingdom of the West wind : 
" Long have I been waiting for you ; 
Youth is lovely, age is lonely, 
You bring back the days departed " 



HIAWATHA'S RETURN. 233 

Of our well-loved Hiawatha ! 
With what pride I see re-living 
His sweet smile and graceful figure. 

Thus renewed was their old legend, 
For, again like Hiawatha, 
This young man had fought and conquered 
Foes, too, like Keneu the Eagle, 
Great war-eagle that defied him, 
Aided by another eagle 
Two-headed with bloody talons, 
Aided, too, by slim sea-serpents, 
" Lurking 'neath the deep sea waters," 
Aided also by the turkey 
Who was " puffed with pride and feeding, 
Who was swollen like a bladder," 
As was he they named the Storm-Fool 
When he took the form of beaver ; 
Like the beaver in the water, 
Like the brant up in the welkin, 
Like the Storm-Fool was this turkey. 
Like the eagles and the ravens 
Conquered were the evil spirits, 
" All the manitos of mischief" 
By the young man's Lion-father, 
And the friends who battled with him ! 

But above all were remembered 
Good Mondamin's words of wisdom 
When he said of Hiawatha : 
' You, you pray not like the others, 
Not for greater skill in hunting, 
Not for greater craft in fishing, 
Not for triumph in the battle, 
Nor renown among the warriors. 
But for profit of the people, 
For advantage of the nation ; " 
What more noble aim and duty 
Than to serve his loving people ! 

So they gathered round this young man, 
Greeted him with cries of welcome, 
Through their chief, Young Thunder, blessed him, 
Saying, We, stranger, thank you 
For your visit to our people : 
And we ask you to the other 
Kingly feathers that adorn you 
With the noble words declaring 



234 HIAWATHA'S RETURN. 



" You your people's servant only " * 
Now to add this wreath of feathers 
Best of those we have, and emblems 
Of our happy days departed ; 
And we beg of you to let us 
Choose you as our chiefest Chieftain, 
With the name of Star of Morning ! 
" Eound his neck they hung the wampum, 
As a pledge, the snow-white wampum." 

When their new Chief donned the feathers 
Eose a shout of joy as never 
Had been heard since Hiawatha 
Was among them. Then there followed 
Dancing, racing and rejoicing 
As in old days long departed. 

And an aged man among them, 
He, one of their sacred Medas, 
" Eadiant in his snowy tresses," 
Eaised his hand, and all were silent. 
See you not, with rapture cried he, 
This sweet, youthful, manly spirit, 
Who re-visits his loved people, 
Is our own dear Hiawatha ! 
Now returned, as he predicted, 
Our beloved Hiawatha ! 

" Then upon the ground the warriors 

Threw their cloaks and shirts of deer-skin, 

Threw their weapons and their war-gear, 

Leaped into the rushing river, 

Washed the war-paint from their faces, 

Clear above them flowed the water 

Of the Master of Life descending ; 

Dark below them flowed the waters 

Soiled and stained with streaks of crimson, 

As if blood were mingled with it. 

From the river came the warriors 

Cleaned and washed from all their war-paint : 

On the banks their clubs they buried, 

Buried all their warlike weapons. 

Gitche Manito, the mighty, 

The great spirit, the creator, 

Smiled upon his helpless children ; 

* Ich dien I a erve ! 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 235 

And in silence all the warriors 
Broke the red stones of the quarry, 
Smoothed and formed it into peace-pipes, 
Broke the long reeds by the river, 
Decked them with their brightest feathers, 
And departed each one homeward, 
While the Master of Life ascending 
Through the opening of cloud-curtains, 
Through the doorways of the heaven, 
Vanished from before their faces," 
In the smoke that rolled around him, 
The Pukwana of the Peace-Pipe ! 

ALBERT BARTHOLBYNS. 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

(Concluded.) 

POPULAR MISCONCEPTIONS. 

THE true position of the Imperial War Cabinet has since been made clear 
by Sir Eobert Borden * and other authorities, whose account of it would 
equally serve for an account of the Imperial Conference, so far as constitutional 
principle is concerned. Since, nevertheless, there continues to be a widespread 
notion that somehow or other a fundamental change was introduced, we may 
profitably examine the matter a little further. Misapprehension was facilitated 
by the general lack of interest in the work of the Imperial Conference ; coupled 
with the tendency, which until recently was conspicuous in certain news- 
papers, to belittle the Imperial Conference in the interests of a maturing 
scheme of Imperial Federation. Thus the notion prevailed that the Imperial 
Conference could only talk, as distinguished from doing things, and that herein 
lay the immense advance represented by the creation of the Imperial Wai- 
Cabinet. As we have seen, the supposed distinction has no constitutional 
basis. But perhaps the misapprehension was made easier by the difference 
of conditions between war and peace, to which the practice of the assembled 
Governments conformed. In peace time, the decisions of policy reached by 
the Imperial Conference were generally such as to require for their fulfilment 
separate action by the several Governments, after the meeting itself had 
dispersed. This would apply in the case of such matters as Preference, 
commercial interests generally, Shipping, Cables, Immigration, as well as Naval 

* " We meet there on terms of equality under the presidency of the First Minister of the United 
Kingdom : we meet there as equals, though Great Britain presides, primus inter pares. Ministers 
from six nations sit around the council board, all of them responsible to their respective Parliaments 
and to the people of the countries which they represent. Each nation has its voice upon questions 
of common concern and highest importance as the deliberations proceed ; each preserves unimpaired 
its perfect autonomy, its self-government, and the responsibility of its Ministers to their own elec- 
torate." ("Address to the Empire Parliamentary Association," London, April 2, 1917. ) 



236 CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

and Military Defence. Consequently, the Conference was seen only to talk, 
its executive functioning being lost sight of because the members had dispersed. 
Exceptionally, however, the decision reached by the Conference would be 
such as to demand action by the senior Government in behalf of all. Into 
this category would fall any decision as to foreign affairs, such as the Eesolution 
of 1897, requesting the British Government to denounce the commercial treaties 
with Germany and Belgium. Certain subjects, again, such as Naturalisation 
and Copyright, could most easily be dealt with by authorising the British 
Government to exercise the latent power of the British Parliament to legislate 
for the Empire. Strictly speaking, the procedure in such cases should be 
regarded as executive procedure of the Imperial Conference, no less than the 
procedure by concurrent legislation in the different countries. In the popular 
view 1 , however, it would appear as the executive action of the British or 
"Imperial" Government, rather than of the Governments in Conference. 
Under war conditions, the aspect was reversed. Action by the British 
Government, on behalf of the whole, became the normal instead of the 
exceptional procedure, because the subjects principally arising would either 
be matters of naval and military control, in which the Dominions had 
subordinated themselves (for the emergency) to British direction ; or foreign 
affairs, in which the principle is that one Government should speak for the 
league. And because the congress of Britannic Governments remained in 
being while its decisions were thus being executed, the executive action was 
more readily credited to the congress, instead of to the " Imperial " 
Government. 

Among minor misconceptions may be noted the ideas that the Imperial 
Conference necessarily deliberates in public, and lacks the expert advice of 
professional assistants, contrasting in both respects unfavourably with the 
Imperial War Cabinet. The former notion is not unnatural, because the Imperial 
Conference, in the past, has generally dealt with subjects not demanding secrecy. 
But whenever the subject-matter has been critical, as in the case of the New- 
foundland Fisheries in 1907, or Naval and Military Defence hi 1909, the pro- 
ceedings have been private. For the other misconception there is less excuse. 
At every session of the Imperial Conference, before the war, there was a full 
attendance of such civil servants, naval and military officers, or other experts, 
as might assist the members with their professional advice. 

DUPLICATION OF IMPERIAL CONFERENCE. 

Three innovations in " Cabinet " practice which were introduced by the 
Imperial War Cabinet were borrowed from the usage of the Imperial Conference, 
and thus serve to emphasise the similarity of these bodies. Minutes were kept 
of the proceedings, communiques were issued to the press, and an annual review 
of its work was published (recalling the review given of the Imperial Confer- 
ence in the annual report of the Dominions Department of the Colonial Office). 
But nothing has yet been given to the public about the demarcation of the 
respective spheres of the " Cabinet " and the Conference, which must always 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 237 

have been a matter of exceeding difficulty in the case of two bodies having the 
same membership and identical powers. The published summaries themselves 
indicate much overlapping, the same subjects being often discussed by both 
bodies. We may safely assume that the problem, being by nature insuperable, 
was never solved. 

Despite the expectation that the special Conference would be held this year, 
curiously little public interest has been displayed in the matter during recent 
months. The subject has almost ceased to be mentioned in the newspapers, 
and has been nearly ignored by the reviews. Presumably this appearance of 
indifference is only another evidence of the complete absorption of the war- 
weary peoples in the perplexities of their domestic affairs. The first announce- 
ment, however, of the intention to hold a special Conference did create some 
stir. Certain suggestions were made in the press which may or may not have 
reflected what was passing in the mind of Downing Street. The most important 
was to the effect that the Imperial War Cabinet, having proved successful, 
should be perpetuated under the name " Imperial Cabinet," the old Imperial 
Conference being abolished, and that the name Imperial Conference should be 
transferred to a new kind of Britannic assembly, comprising representative 
persons of all sorts, which should occupy to the Imperial Cabinet the same kind 
of relation as, under the Covenant, the Body of Delegates occupies to the 
Council of the League of Nations. 

Any plan of this kind is open to very serious objection. If, in fact, the change 
of name was made in the war as an expedient for meeting a superficial difficulty, 
and was not justified by any corresponding change of constitutional principle, 
why perpetuate a fiction which has been, and can only be, a continual source of 
individual misapprehension and Britannic discord ? 

It cannot be argued that the intrinsic inaccuracy of the term Cabinet is a 
small price to pay for the advantages of the change. No advantages have yet 
been adduced even if there were no disadvantages to offset them. No doubt 
in 1916-17, as in 1899-1900, there were in London enthusiasts for Imperial 
Federation, who misinterpreted the war rally of the Dominions ; imagining 
that it implied a new willingness for centralised government, whereas it really 
implied, or at least portended, a further stimulation of the national sentiment 
of each, making for a larger independence. Under that misconception the 
notion may have occurred that the introduction of the name Imperial Cabinet, 
even if not quite accurate for the time being, would facilitate and fittingly prelude 
the impending culmination, when a real Britannic Cabinet would rest on a real 
Britannic Parliament. However that may be, the notion has collapsed. Clearly 
there is no prospect of Imperial Federation in our time ; even if its devotees 
can persuade themselves that federalism still represents the modern ideal of 
international organisation. 

AN INCITEMENT TO SEPARATISM. 

On the other hand, the disadvantages of retaining the term Cabinet which 
could very easily be dropped when its prefix " War " must in any case be. 



238 CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

eliminated are insistent. At length it is beginning to dawn upon the British 
public, since the newspapers are tardily revealing it, that to-day there is, in the 
Dominions generally, more of republican or separatist sentiment than there 
was in 1913, or perhaps at any time in the present century. To the historian, 
the main cause of the recrudescence will probably appear to lie in the revival 
of Imperial Federation, which began about the year 1910, and culminated in 
this very attempt to establish the term " Imperial Cabinet " in advance and 
anticipation of the fact. At any rate it is historically true of the past that the 
cult of Imperial Federation has stimulated the cult of separatism, so that the 
two have been wont to wax and wane together. In Australia, for example, 
they reached their common zenith in the middle 'nineties, when the republican 
propaganda of the Sydney Bulletin responded to the vigour of the local branch 
of the Imperial Federation League, to which Mr. Alfred Deakin too rashly lent 
the charm of his personality and eloquence. Then came the rally of the Domin- 
ions in the South African War, surprising and delighting those in Britain who 
had begun to despair of the " loyalty " of " Our Colonies " because they would 
not pay naval hire. Anticipating his successors of 1917 who so signally failed 
to profit by his experience Mr. Joseph Chamberlain resolved to strike while 
the iron was hot. He convened the post-war Conference of 1902. 

The disconcerting discovery that the Dominions were even less inclined 
than before towards projects of Central Government was followed by some 
reaction among British public men and in the imperialist press, just as is now 
happening again. They began to listen to the alternative idea, originated 
long ago by the great Canadian premier, Sir John Macdonald, of the develop- 
ment of the Empire as a league of nation-states, on a footing of sovereign 
equality under the Crown. As always, the question of naval organisation 
was the practical and immediate touchstone. In 1908, two prominent 
Australians, returning from a visit to London, reported having found, to their 
astonishment, that people there seemed actually to favour the policy of an 
Australian Navy more than the Australians themselves. For the time being, 
the constructive autonomists could even claim an important press organ, the 
Morning Post consistently treating all questions of " Imperial " organisation 
from the standpoint of Britannic alliance. This phase culminated in the Naval 
Agreement of 1909 ; when for the first time the British Admiralty prepared 
and recommended an autonomist scheme of naval co-operation, instead of 
demanding naval subsidies, or merely ancillary craft, from the Dominions. Is 
it only a coincidence that republicanism Was practically dead ? 

But somehow the pendulum is always swinging. Eeaction set in when 
the opposition of the Canadian Conservative party to the Laurier naval 
programme, and their demand for a contribution policy instead, was seized 
upon in London as a sure sign that a centrally-controlled Britannic Navy was 
possible after all, and with it Imperial Federation. Within the narrow circle 
of those who take any real interest in Britannic affairs, a vigorous centralist 
propaganda arose, and in Britain carried all before it. By 1914 the autonomist 
conception had ceased to count. In that summer, shortly before the war, 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 239 

the Manchester Guardian issued a special " Empire Number." While the 
leading Liberal journal could afford several pages to Imperial Federation, 
there Was not so much as a hint that any alternative form of closer union had 
ever been mooted or was thinkable. 

History repeated itself. Out of the agitation in South Africa to follow 
the lead of the Canadian Conservatives (who had now gamed office), and vote 
a cash contribution to the British Admiralty, arose presently the armed 
rebellion. Because the British reaction threatened the development of the 
Australian Navy, it produced in Australia a " League to oppose Imperial 
Federation," which in 1909 would have seemed ridiculous. On Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier's death, a section of his English-speaking followers, with plenty of 
brains, openly turned to republicanism, asserting that there was plainly a 
" conspiracy " in London to undermine Dominion autonomy and subtly forge 
new fetters of imperial control. 

REPUBLICANISM OUTBID. 

A further development has now to be noted, The spread of the new 
separatism could not be a matter of indifference to the responsible Governments 
of the Dominions. In order to counter it without appearing to go back upon 
the autonomist creed, which is held just as strongly by those who find in it 
the clue to closer union, as by those who invoke it to destroy the Britannic 
league Dominion ministers were constrained to assert a " new status " for 
their countries, carrying every privilege which could be claimed for 
republicanism. Significantly enough, the vaunted new status does not refer 
to the Imperial War Cabinet, but to the League of Nations. It has even been 
alleged that, in the intention of the British delegation at Paris, the League of 
Nations was " to serve not only as the link between the British Empire and 
foreign Powers, but as the link also between the constituent nations of the 
British Empire itself." * Such a policy being dissolvent of the British Empire, 
the statement can hardly be correct. But that it should be made in good faith 
illustrates the mental impasse now reached by a school of thought which 
had persuaded itself that the Empire must either be brought under central 
government or go to pieces. It would almost appear that Mr. Lloyd George, 
having chosen to rely for advice upon this school, was told that, because Imperial 
Federation was not favoured, there remained nothing but the League of 
Nations though why a general league of nations should be found possible, 
when a Britannic league of nations was not, remains obscure. 

In short, the recent tendency of leading ministers overseas has been to play 
off the Dominion membership in the League of Nations against their own 
acceptance of the " Imperial Cabinet," which had become the symbol of a 
supposed apostasy. Thus the treatment of this vital subject is already on the 
slippery slope of party strife, which so often carries politicians further than 
they have meant to go. Exaggerations of statement must be expected and 
allowed for. General Smuts' striking remark, to the effect that the British 

* Round Table, March 1920, p. 237. 



240 CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

Empire came to an end at the outbreak of the war, is a case in point. 
Constitutionally speaking, nothing particular happened in 1914 to the British 
Empire, except that the Dominion Governments certified the British Empire 
by transferring their naval or military forces to its temporary control. Despite 
the alleged intention at Paris, the British Empire still exists ; and still awaits 
that adaptation of its mechanism to the purpose of a Britannic League of 
Sovereign-Nation-states which might rhetorically be described as marking the 
end of the " British Empire" that used to be. 

Surely the lesson of recent events is undeniable and urgent. If it is now 
desired to check the new separatism, the first step should be to drop the 
misleading official terminology, which has done so much to provoke and 
strengthen it, and to retain the old name Imperial Conference which never 
excited the same suspicion or antagonism for the collective organisation, 
however it may be improved in detail, of the Britannic league. 

PITY THE SCHOOLMASTER ! 

But the case against retention of an " Imperial Cabinet " does not rest 
solely on the mischievous effect of the term in the Dominions, important 
though that is. Political exactitude, so far as it may be attainable, is a common 
interest, of the Britannic peoples. They all believe in education, and that 
every citizen should understand the nature of the polity in which he is privileged 
to participate. Among their peculiar traditions is a certain pride in the special 
characteristic of the British constitution ; which has developed by a process 
of meeting needs as they arose, " broadening down from precedent to precedent," 
instead of being stereotyped by any fundamental enactment. Of this process 
there could be no better example than the Imperial Conference. To trace 
its evolution has hitherto been a straightforward task, alike for the historian 
and the teacher of youth. Pitiable indeed will be their lot, if the threatened 
changes are now confirmed. Either they must explain how it happened that, 
in 1917 or a few years later, the Imperial Conference came suddenly to be called 
the Imperial Cabinet, though retaining all the characteristics of the Conference, 
and bearing no resemblance to the recognised form of Cabinet in all Britannic 
states ; and how the name Imperial Conference was transferred to a new body 
lacking the essential characteristics which the Imperial Conference had acquired 
in its forty years of steady evolution. Or else, following the sensational press 
which was the contemporary of these events., they must justify the transfor- 
mation by inventing one fictitious character for the new Cabinet and another 
for the old Conference. Who should profit except the examination-wallahs ? 

MODERNISE THE IMPERIAL CONFERENCE. 

Perhaps it is hardly necessary to advocate that, with the abolition of the 
Imperial War Cabinet the secretariat of the Imperial Conference should be 
transferred to the Prime Minister's ofiice, leaving the Colonial Office free to 
attend exclusively to its true business of administering the Crown Colonies 
and other dependencies. This long-delayed reform has already been indi- 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 241 

cated publicly by Lord Milner, since becoming Colonial Secretary. The new 
secretariat which was created for the Imperial War Cabinet is generally reported 
to have worked efficiently ; though probably it has still to adjust its mind 
to the conception and policy of a Britannic league of Sovereign-Nation-states. 
Since, in effect, it has already taken over the most important part of the work 
in connection with the Imperial Conference, the completion of the transfer 
should be readily accomplished. 

Were it really desired that the Imperial Conference should be supplemented 
by some ancillary and larger body, representing the peoples in a wider sense 
than the Governments can be said to do, the invention of a suitable name 
should not be difficult. But the need seems more than doubtful. There are 
already the Empire Parliamentary Association and the Imperial Press Con- 
ference, which hold conventions periodically. What remains, beyond the 
scope of these institutions, for another assembly to perform ? 

Once we rid our minds of the confusion which has been fostered by the 
unfortunate adoption of the term Cabinet, we may readily perceive that the 
problem of reform in the system of Britannic government is in principle pre- 
cisely what it was before the war, and in practice can only be taken up at the 
point where progress was arrested in 1914. The main requirement is still 
to arrange a system whereby the co-operation of the Britannic Governments 
may be a continuous instead of an intermittent process in other words, to 
make the Imperial Conference a continuous institution in the same sense as 
not Parliament (which has recesses) but Government is continuous. 

CONTINUITY DESIDERATED. 

This problem is frequently imagined to have been created by the war. 
In reality it had a long history before. Up to 1907 the usual idea was that 
the object could be atttained by furnishing the Imperial Conference with a special 
secretarial organisation, which it had hitherto lacke"d, for collecting information 
and following the resolutions passed (by means of correspondence with the 
several Governments). The protagonists of this plan, especially Mr. Deakin, 
saw clearly enough that if the Dominions were to be recognised as equal in 
status rather than subordinate to Britain, the secretariat ought to be under 
the Prime Minister, the President of the Conference, and not the Colonial 
Secretary. That innovation being declined, a secretariat was created within 
the Colonial Office. It failed to develop vitality. Partly on that account, 
but mainly owing to the inherent inadequacy of any secretarial organisation 
to meet the actual need, another line of development began to be attempted. 
There was an old suggestion that continuity might be secured if the High 
Commissioners of the Dominions, resident in London, Were given an ambas- 
sadorial position, enabling them to deal direct on behalf of their Governments 
with any British Ministers, instead of through the Colonial Office. But the 
instinct of the Dominion Governments was against this aggrandisement of 
the High Commissioner's office, and against allowing considerable latitude 
to any representative abroad. At last the question was brought to a head 



242 CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

by Sir Eobert Borden's claim that, as a condition of contributing to the British 
Navy, Canada should be effectively consulted in matters of foreign policy. 
As already mentioned, the British Government then promised facilities to any 
Dominion minister who might be specially appointed to reside in London. 
Up to the war this offer had not been formally accepted, or formally acted 
upon by any of the Dominions ; though the Canadian Government appears 
to have made a tentative arrangement. That is where the matter has rested, 
and must now be taken up afresh. In the interval, the wonderful advance 
in aviation has shown that the principal difficulty of the proposal in the past 
will soon be greatly diminished. Even antipodean ministers will be able to 
flit home from London, and back to duty, without spending much time on the 
journey. 

THE INDIAN ENTANGLEMENT. 

Apart from the irruption of the " Imperial Cabinet," the Imperial Con- 
ference is confronted with two special obstacles to its further development, 
as a consequence of the war. One is the virtual pledge to admit India to 
" full " membership. To a student of the Conference, familiar with the pro- 
cess of its growth, this proposal can only seem premature and hazardous. 
As is recognised hi the Kesolution itself (No. VII of 1917) it involves a modi- 
fication of the capital Kesolution of 1907, which had confined the member- 
ship to Britain and the self-governing Dominions ; i.e., to fully autonomous 
states. Now, the very essence of the system lies in the mutual independence 
of the member Governments ; that is to say, in the freedom of each to decide 
what policy it will support or not support. Unless all possess that freedom, 
there can be no equality of status, nor equality of voting power. No sub- 
ordinate Government, like that of India still, can exercise a responsible vote. 
The only effect of its vote, if admitted, is to double the vote of the suzerain 
Government. 

Up to the present, the Government of India has not been autonomous, 
either in theory or practice, in regard to the major subjects which the Imperial 
Conference has been wont to handle, such as Defence, Trade, Immigration 
and Shipping ; not to mention Foreign Affairs, which we assume will hi future 
be dealt with by the Governments in concert. Logically, therefore, the implica- 
tion of Eesolution VII of 1917 could only be, either that the Government of 
India was to be enfranchised forthwith ; or else that equality would be pre- 
served by reducing the Dominions to the inferior status of India, and making 
the Imperial Conference the advisory organ of an imperial super-state. The 
first alternative is inconsistent with the new Government of India Act ; and, 
nowadays, the second has only to be stated to stand dismissed. The actual 
position, therefore, is sheer confusion. It is easy to believe that in 1917 the 
Dominion Premiers were eager to recognise and encourage the splendid loyalty 
of His Majesty's Indian subjects. As far as they were concerned, Resolution 
VII may, therefore, be regarded as the too impulsive expression of a 
generous sentiment. But when it is realised in India that the proffered recogni- 
tion is illusory that, in fact, Indian policy is still to be controlled by the 



CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 243 

British Government, so that India, after all, is not the peer of the Dominions 
the consequence can only be unfortunate. The mischief caused in South 
Africa and Canada by the adoption of the name " Imperial Cabinet " will 
have its counterpart of distrust in India through the effect, or non-effect, of 
this abortive Resolution. 

A GRADED MEMBERSHIP. 

Perhaps honesty is the best policy, even in dealing with oriental peoples. 
Since the Dominions cannot honour their pledge without degrading their own 
status, the best course might be to admit the mistake. Technically, a loophole 
of sorts is afforded by the terms of the Resolution. The " Imperial War 
Conference " did not consider itself to be the " Imperial Conference " proper. 
Accordingly it could only recommend to the Britannic Governments that the 
Resolution of 1907 should be modified, instead of itself passing an amendment 
straight away. Technically, no doubt, the Imperial War Conference ought 
to have been convened as a subsidiary Conference, which would have made 
the limitation of its powers constitutionally clearer. Anyhow, the loophole is 
there. One may doubt whether the evasion which it offers will be appreciated 
in India, but it is a case now of Hobson's choice. 

Taking advantage of the loophole, the best solution seems to lie in the 
expedient of recognising two degrees of membership in the Imperial Conference, 
namely full membership and partial membership. The distinction can be 
based on the fundamental principle of the Conference, that no Government 
is entitled to vote on any question unless it has freedom to decide and execute 
its own policy in regard thereto. Full membership would appertain to such 
Governments as could assert that right ha regard to the whole range of national 
policy, as not only Britain but the Dominions now claim to do. Partial 
membership would appertain to any Government which enjoyed freedom in 
regard to some matters but not all. For example, if the British Government 
now formally concedes the right of the Government of India to determine 
fiscal policy, untrammelled by dictation or pressure from Whitehall, then India 
could enter the Imperial Conference on equal terms with Britain and the 
Dominions whenever Preference was being dealt with. But if Defence or 
Foreign Policy were being discussed, the Government of India could not attend 
as a member ; it could only nominate representatives to explain its views. If 
this compromise would fail to satisfy the vocal minority which arrogates the 
authority of " Indian opinion," it would at least have the merit of honesty. 
And it would automatically enlarge the status of India in the Britannic league 
pan passu with the extension of self-government ; which, unless there is a 
revolutionary set-back, is likely to proceed more rapidly than the authors of 
the recent Bill have intended. 

THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

The second difficulty is the League of Nations. Under the Covenant the 
League is based upon the assumption of sovereign equality between the 
individual states which form its member-units. The Dominion Governments, 



244 CONFERENCE OR CABINET? 

therefore, uneasily aware of the separatist movement at home, and anxious 
to checkmate it by exhibiting, under the CroWn, the sovereign equality of 
their respective countries with Britain and all other nation-states, were 
impelled to claim separate membership in the League. It would follow 
logically that Britain likewise should enter as a separate member. But 
the dissolution of the British Empire would then be complete, inasmuch as 
the British Empire Would not figure at all in the League of Nations. That 
difficulty accounts for the existing compromise, whereby the Dominions have 
a dual footing in the League ; firstly, as separate members, and secondly, as 
members of the British Empire, which itself is a member of the League. But 
note the result. The United Kingdom is not a member of the League. Alone 
of the partner states of the British Empire, Britain Was content to merge her 
identity in that of the Empire. Therefore, in the League of Nations, Britain 
stands to the world as the possessor, controller or sponsor of the British Empire, 
including the Dominions themselves ; and thus the old centralism which it 
was the whole object of the Dominions to eliminate is technically not only 
preserved but reinforced. That being the case, it would be logical enough, 
after all, if the Dominions fell to the status of India, and the Imperial Conference 
henceforth became the advisory council of the British super-state. 

The present position may be briefly summarised. With their dual 
membership in the League of Nations the Dominions have secured a status 
which is inferior to that of Britain, inferior even to that of the secondary foreign 
states, a source of friction with the United States and (potentially) with other 
Powers, and obstructive to the development of the Imperial Conference as the 
organ of a Britannic League within the League. With all these practical dis- 
advantages the logical absurdity of the arrangement is scarcely Worth mentioning. 

BEVISION OF THE COVENANT. 

The situation does not seem to admit of effective reform by minor modifi- 
cations. The whole basis of the League of Nations requires to be revised. Had 
its authors been minded to profit by the experience of the Imperial Conference, 
which Was the one and only exemplar of the kind of league they desired, they 
would never have assented to the principle of membership by individual states 
as such, which in practice is an impossible basis for successful operation when 
the numbers are excessive. In the beginning, the Imperial Conference was an 
assembly representing between thirty and forty different administrations, 
and in that condition could never have accomplished anything. Gradually, 
by a process of grouping, the separate units in the Conference were reduced to 
six, and thus the organisation became workable. On the same principle, the 
League of Nations must be reorganised as an association of substantial units, 
the smaller countries being grouped either together or with their larger 
neighbours. Membership should depend, perhaps, on a certain minimum of 
population including colonies and dependencies. 

By this means the reorganised League of Nations might consist eventually of 



CANADA'S CARIBOO AND REINDEER INDUSTRY. 245 

no more than about a dozen memberships. At first, the aspect of the Council 
might be very much what it now is. But the secondary states Would have a 
more genuine position, each being associated with other states, large or small, 
sending a collective delegation to the Council, where, as in the Imperial Con- 
ference, the vote would be single though the spokesmen might be several. 

It would remain for each member-group to decide within itself as to the 
method by which its component states should influence the group decision and 
enable the adoption of a common policy in relation to the business of the League 
of Nations. The Britannic league, the exemplar of the League of Nations, 
would naturally be regarded as pre-eminently the model group, even if its 
internal working were not universally imitated. Its own peculiar problem is 
relatively simple. Instead of having to invent and adopt a co-operative 
organisation, it possesses one already, imperfect no doubt, but already justified 
by time. The lesson of its experience teaches that it works successfully so long 
as no one State aspires to dictatorship. Every example of successful Britannic 
effort has been the fruit of autonomist policy witness the fiscal freedom 
which reintroduced Preference ; and the military freedom which produced the 
Australian Navy in tune to save the situation in the Pacific, and once more 
belied the philosophy which had warned us that, unless a " local " navy were 
controlled by the Empire, it would never fight for the Empire. 

When international co-operation has become the political ideal of 
millions of people, having ultimate control over those who rule them, may it 
not be found that, more often than not, the power to dissent is itself the final 
reason for assenting ? Policies concerted in freedom will generally be carried 
out ; policies dictated by majority or other force will generally fail of fulfil- 
ment. Of the former system the Imperial Conference had become the 
guarantor ; of the latter, the " Imperial Cabinet " has appeared to many the 
sinister herald. 

Constitutionally false, historically misleading and politically mischievous, 
let the invidious term lapse with the war which occasioned it ; and let the 
important development of the Imperial Conference, which Was temporarily 
effected in this unfortunate disguise, become established and further advanced 
under the good old name. 

EICHARD JEBB. 



CANADA'S CARIBOO AND REINDEER INDUSTRY. 

IT may not be long before the English housewife, visiting the butcher on her 
morning household rounds, instead of the usual demand for beef or mutton 
will ask for cariboo steaks or reindeer chops. A new industry has been in- 
augurated in Canada with the widest possibilities, and soon the succulent 
meats of the reindeer, the cariboo, and the musk-ox will be found on every 
English dinner-table. Possibilities from the development of this gigantic 
new undertaking are difficult to grasp, so enormous is the scope. The vast 



246 CANADA'S CARIBOO AND REINDEER INDUSTRY. 

ranges of the south, long the haunts of the huge herds of beef cattle, are yearly 
becoming smaller and more congested as incoming homesteaders fence up the 
land for the growing of grain. The reindeer and cariboo ranches of the un- 
cultivatable lands in the North should furnish an adequate substitute, and 
instead of, or rather in addition to, the boatloads of Western Canadian steers, 
periodically reaching English ports, vessels with the meat products of the 
Canadian Arctic will be supplying the English market. 

In the vast, barely explored regions of Northern Canada, reaching into the 
Arctic circle, literally millions of cariboo and enormous herds of reindeer are 
ranging unmolested, and free from the toil of the hunters' gins. Contrary 
to popular conception, this area experiences a beautiful summer, and grows 
a thick, heavy vegetation which provides an adequate supply of nutritive 
food to these animals both summer and winter. This area comprises at least 
a million square miles, all of which is free, open range. For some time the 
commercial ranching of these herds has been advocated by men who under- 
stood the conditions of that region and saw the stupendous possibilities of a 
new meat -producing area. Vilhjamur Stefansson especially, the noted Canadian 
Arctic explorer, has been an ardent advocate, and he at length succeeded in 
getting the Canadian Government to appoint a commission to investigate the 
possibilities of undertaking developments along the lines he advised. This 
commission was headed by Dr. E. J. Rutherford, and Stefansson was a member. 
Their reports were most favourable, and the explorer in his lectures on the 
Arctic has ceaselessly pointed out the opportunities Canada is letting slip by. 
The Dominion Government, on the strength of this report, has drawn into con- 
ference all manner of advisers from those conversant with the far North 
traders, trappers, and members of Royal North-West Mounted Police northern 
detachments. 

Though this industry is a new one for Canada, it is by no means an innova- 
tion, the grazing steppes of Siberia and Lapland having been utilised for the 
purpose of raising reindeer for many years. The United States Government, 
too, set a precedent for the Dominion ten years ago, when they instituted huge 
reindeer ranches in Alaska. Two thousand of these animals were intro- 
duced, and in the period which has elapsed since that time they have increased 
to 40,000, and prove a considerable source of government revenue. 

So enthusiastic is Stefansson over the utilisation of these productive vasts 
he knows so well, that he states he is through with Arctic exploration, and wishes 
to devote his life to placing the breeding of these northern animals on a sound 
commercial footing. Recently in Winnipeg he laid before the Manitoba 
premier a scheme to turn the uncultivated portion of Northern Manitoba, 
Ontario, and Quebec into one vast reindeer farm. This plan is already before the 
Ontario and Quebec Governments, and the co-operation of the Federal Govern- 
ment is practically assured. He proposes to stock this enormous area with 
reindeer imported from Norway. This, he believes, would create an almost 
limitless source of meat supply and a source of immense profit to the pro- 
vincial Governments. There is no feed question to cause trouble and worry 



ORGANISATION OF MIGRATION AND SETTLEMENT. 247 

as in the case of cattle, and it is possible for one man to herd a thousand of 
these animals. The milk, flesh, and hides are all valuable reindeer meat, 
in fact, commanding a higher price than beef and the Canadian barrens, he 
asserts, can support 50,000,000 reindeer, worth an untold sum. 

In November 1919, following the passing of a special order in council, 
the North American Eeindeer Company, capitalised at $750,000, was formed 
with headquarters at Le Pas, Manitoba, and granted a concession of 73,750 
square miles of land north of the Churchill Eiver to graze cariboo and reindeer 
upon. This amounts to 48,000,000 acres, which is granted free from grazing 
fees in view of the somewhat experimental nature of the company's enterprise. 
The cariboo herds will be gathered in the spring, and a commencement made 
to stock the land with reindeer. The contract with the Government calls 
for the stocking of a herd of at least 1,500 reindeer upon the land before May 1, 
1921, and all these animals must be branded, and adequate precautions taken 
by the management for the prevention and cure of disease among the herds. 
After five years the company must furnish five per cent, of its herd to the 
Government at a price of not more than $50 per head. The contract also 
provides that the company should furnish three hundred head of reindeer to 
Dr. W. G. Walton, an Anglican missionary, who for over twenty-five years 
has maintained a mission on the east coast of Hudson's Bay. This is in 
consequence of the missionary's plea on behalf of his Esquimaux and Indians, 
who have suffered from the extensive migration of the reindeer, due to 
devastating forest fires hi that region. 

With the various Governments interested and private enterprise already 
undertaking developments, the new meat -producing industry can be considered 
well established, and the highly nutritious and palatable meats of the cariboo 
and reindeer, which have for so long been practically limited to the camp-fire 
meals of hunters, trappers, and prospectors, will soon be within the reach of 
the dining-tables of the world. Added to her already magnificent resources 
and vast possibilities of revenue, Canada has brought into being a new industry 
to maintain the premier place as the ranch of the globe. 

E. L. CHICANOT. 

THE ORGANISATION OF MIGRATION AND SETTLEMENT 
WITHIN THE EMPIRE.* 

BY CHRISTOPHER TURNOR. 

THE Organisation of Migration and Settlement witliin the Empire is one of the very 
biggest problems with which we are faced, and yet it is perhaps the problem that 
is receiving least care and consideration either from the public or the different 
Governments of the Empire. If it does not receive due consideration I submit that 
vital assets of the Empire the land and the people will not be developed as fully 
as they could and should be developed . It is a question not only for the Government 

* Abstract of a Paper read at a Meeting of the Royal Colonial Institute held at Central Hall, 
Westminster, on Tuesday, April 13, 1920, Sir H. Rider Haggard, K.B.E., in the chair. 



248 THE ORGANISATION OF MIGRATION AND 

but for the people, for unless the people are interested you cannot expect any definite 
action. For while, owing to the vastness of the problem, official action will always 
have a dominant influence, I want to see every use made of voluntary effort. The 
chief function on the official side will be to co-ordinate private effort which alone can 
bring into the work the human touch and that human element which it is so difficult 
for any official body to introduce. There are here and there bodies of individuals 
who are interesting themselves usefully in this matter. Unfortunately, however, 
there are other groups of private individuals which cannot be described as sound. 
Now the problem is of supreme importance for these reasons : 

Firstly, because our white population is small in comparison to the vast land area 
of the Empire, therefore, we must see that as far as possible all who leave the United 
Kingdom settle within the Empire : we cannot afford to lose citizens. 

Secondly, because the land of the Empire its greatest material asset is still in 
such an under-developed state that we shall lose our moral right to these great areas 
unless we can develop them more systematically and rapidly than in the past. 

Thirdly, because we must produce a much greater amount of food within the 
Empire if its citizens are to have an abundant supply at reasonable prices. 

The fact that with all our vast territories the Empire has not, up to the present, 
been self-supporting in the essentials of life constitutes the strongest indictment of 
our Imperial (and National) land policy. 

Fourthly, because we must be, in the main, a self-supporting Empire if we are to 
readjust the adverse international exchange. 

Fifthly, because we must produce the maximum amount of new wealth from the 
land if we are to recuperate rapidly from the effects of the war. 

Sixthly, because if we are to maintain the physical standard of our race, a sufficient 
proportion must be born and brought up in the country. 

If we are to develop our land resources and produce the largest possible amount 
of new wealth, we must have a much larger proportion of our people living on the 
land and cultivating it. In France, the agricultural population is over eighteen 
millions, while in our whole Empire we have an agricultural population of white race 
of only thirteen and a half millions. 

It is clear therefore that the first aim of the Imperial and Overseas Governments 
must be to encourage the development of the agricultural population. For the 
last seventy or eighty years there has been practically no organised migration, and 
millions of valuable citizens have been lost to the Empire ! I am not advocating the 
forcing of people from the United Kingdom. As regards the men who fought for us and 
to whom we are pledged that they shall receive land on which to live, I say that that 
pledge must be redeemed in regard to settlement at home. Even if under present 
conditions we cannot place them on land on strictly economic terms, still we must 
redeem the pledge. If there is loss the Government must regard this loss as a war 
bonus to the men. We must see that we offer to our men financial conditions quite 
equal to those offered by our Overseas Dominions. So far as I understand, the present 
conditions are not equal to those offered by our Overseas Dominions . 



SETTLEMENT WITHIN THE EMPIRE. 249 

Until recently, as I have said, there was little organised settlement, so very large 
numbers of those who went on to the land failed. In our present crisis, not only 
do we want thousands of new settlers, but we must have successful settlers, who 
shall become producers of food, with the least possible delay. With haphazard and 
unguided settlement the percentage of failure is high ; under highly organised settle- 
ment the percentage of failure can be (and actually has been) reduced to a negligible 
quantity. To secure the needed organisation the Imperial Government must take 
the initiative in creating an Imperial policy. And the first step should be the creation 
of an Imperial Migration and Settlement Authority with the powers necessary for 
dealing with the Overseas Governments, the shipping companies, and the great number 
of private concerns now handling migration. These must all be brought into line 
with the common policy and their work supplemented, if, indeed, not finally supplanted 
by the Imperial Migration Authority. In regard to guiding the flow of emigration 
no undue influence should be exercised. A great many of our people, however, as 
experience shows, have no very definite wish to go to one part of the Empire 
rather than to another. That brings me to the two main principles upon which 
this new policy should rest principles which have not been considered or acted 
upon in the past. 

Firstly, migration should be guided in the first instance to that part of the Empire 
where, from the strategic point of view, population is most wanted. 

Secondly, migrants should be settled in districts where, under properly organised 
conditions, they will become successful producers of food in the shortest possible 
time. 

Areas of less importance and suitability should be left, for the present. For 
example, in the Dominion of Canada, British Columbia, its western gateway, is the 
province which, from the strategic point of view, demands most rapid settlement. 
It also yields place to no other Province in the opportunities it could offer to the 
settler ; this is the settler's point of view. Taking a larger survey, a short study of 
the situation points to the vast continent of Australia as the part of the Empire, above 
all other, strategically requiring population. And the irrigated lands and rain-belt 
lands of Australia offer advantages to the small settler that cannot be surpassed. 

As the result of my tour through the different Dominions I did not get to South 
Africa I am of opinion that those parts calling out for population from the strategic 
point of view are also parts in which the success of the settler can be most easily 
assured. But how can population be guided aright and migrants settled aright 
unless there is an Imperial policy and an Authority with adequate powers ? It is 
not, as I have said, a question of urging population to leave the United Kingdom. If 
we do not fully organise and guide the migration which is bound to take place, it 
will not be migration within the Empire but emigration to foreign countries. Another 
reason for the creation of an Imperial Authority is that the whole process of organised 
settlement is a new one for the Anglo-Saxon race. 

Now, the fundamental principles underlying organised and scientific settlement 
are the same, no matter in- what part of the world the settlement takes place ; and 



250 THE ORGANISATION OF MIGRATION AND 

the penalty for ignoring any of these principles is an avoidable degree of failure in 
settlement. That is why a central and Imperial Authority is necessary. Without it, 
it will be impossible to secure the creation of the right conditions in every case, and 
if the conditions are not right, or only partially right, there will be failure that could 
have been avoided. Surely it is our duty to see to it that the men who have fought 
for the Empire are placed upon the land under the best possible conditions ? The 
principles referred to are : 

(1) That settlers shall be placed upon the land in groups or communities, rather 
than as isolated units. Experience has proved that less than 200 in a group is not 
fully economic. 

(2) That settlers should own their farms rather than rent them. 

(3) That adequate access to capital should be provided. 

(4) That expert guidance and supervision should be provided from the outset. 

(5) That co-operative buying and selling should be developed from the beginning. 

(6) That organised transport is essential to the success of the community. 

(7) That the community spirit should be encouraged so that the settlers can build 
up for themselves a strong community life. 

The State of California approaches the problem of settlement in an admirable 
spirit, and the report of Dr. Elwood Mead, the State Director of Settlement, gives 
what the objective in settlement should be so concisely that the opening paragraph may 
be quoted here : " The Californian Land Settlement Act provides for a demonstration 
in planned rural development. Instead of leaving things to happen, and then correct- 
ing conditions when they happen badly, this State seeks through this Act to create 
organised rural neighbourhoods in accordance with carefully thought-out plans." 
The group settlements created during the past few years in that State are most in- 
teresting and instructive ; a careful study of the experience in scientific settlement 
in other countries has been made and every helpful feature adopted. Australia, 
more than any other Dominion, has adopted the system of organised group settle- 
ment, and in nearly every State there are interesting closer settlements chiefly 
on irrigated laud with fruit-growing as the mainstay ; but the system needs develop- 
ing and should be applied to all branches of agriculture which are suited to the small 
farmer. It is not for a moment suggested that the Imperial Government should 
interfere in the administration of oversea settlement, but it is its duty to initiate a 
big and sound policy and to assist its development in every way. 

It is clear to me that we need a Central Emigration Authority, strong enough on 
the one hand to command the respect of the Overseas Governments, and, on the 
other hand, an Authority which can deal with shipping interests in this country and 
bring them into line, and which also will be able to co-ordinate and bring into line 
all the thousand and one associations and bodies which are dealing with emigration 
at the present time. It must all through be a question of organising and co-ordina- 
ting. It will not mean undue interference with the Governments Overseas. The 
administration of settlement Overseas must be entirely in the hands of the Overseas 
Governments, but I think it is open to us as senior partner to discuss general principles, 



SETTLEMENT WITHIN THE EMPIRE. 251 

and come to an understanding on what lines this policy shall be carried out. Unless 
we have a central Imperial Authority capable of doing that the policy of " drift " 
will continue. It will, of course, mean the expenditure of large sums of money, 
or rather, as I should put it, the remunerative investment of public money. It will 
be invested to produce the greatest possible wealth wealth in the widest sense of 
the term. I am told we are in a straitened position financially. My reply is that 
we must spend money in organising the producers of wealth ; we are spending vast 
sums upon the organisation of material wealth, but the producer is ten thousand 
times more important. Every potential producer of wealth must be placed where 
he can most effectively and rapidly become an actual producer of wealth. 

The whole future development of this Empire depends upon the right handling 
of this problem. I should add that in countries like Australia I would not rule out 
the settlement of our Allies in parts of the country which perhaps are not suited to 
an English population. I am thinking rather of the northern parts. The Italians 
are splendid workers, and in many parts of Canada encouragement of the settlement 
of Scandinavians would be all to the good. But we must ever keep in mind the 
necessity of saving every single British individual for the Empire, and we must have 
enough of our own people in these great empty spaces Overseas to leaven the whole. 

In introducing Mr. Tumor the CHAIRMAN (Sir H. Rider Haggard) said : I was 
asked to take the chair to-night as a " pioneer " of this movement. It is true to a certain 
extent I was a pioneer. It occurred to the Royal Colonial Institute, now some years 
ago, to appoint a committee to study this question of Empire Land Settlement. On 
that committee I served, and I saw, as others saw, that if any move was to be 
made, if anything definite was to be accomplished, something active and personal 
must be done, and I think it was I who had the honour of suggesting that a delegate 
should go round the Empire and get in touch with the Dominion Governments. In 
the end I was chosen for that purpose. We tried to get the support of the Govern- 
ment and the Colonial Office, which I think was then under the charge of Mr. Bonar 
Law, but we were unsuccessful. So we raised money ourselves, and I went. The 
journey round the world was undertaken in the middle of the war and therefore not 
under particularly agreeable circumstances, and I was glad when I found myself back 
again and alive. At that time this idea of organised settlement by inter-Empire agree- 
ment had not occurred, I think, to many in the Dominions, and when I began, especially 
in Australia, I found a certain amount, I won't say of hostility, but at any rate of 
indifference. I am proud to be able to say that when I left that indifference had 
been turned into the most cordial support. So it was indeed throughout the Empire. 
I interviewed at least a score of Governments and from every one of those Govern- 
ments as the emissary and on behalf of the Institute I received the most generous 
promises of support. In the past, as you know, emigration has been a most haphazard 
affair. Anybody who wanted to drift out of this country just drifted out according 
to chance, and I am sorry to say that hundreds of thousands of men and women 
of our best blood drifted out of the Empire altogether. That was a very wrong thing. 
I think Anglo-Saxon blood is something so precious that every drop of it should be 
preserved within the Empire. If that had been done in the past we should be a 
stronger Empire to-day. And I will go further and say that our only hope of saving 
this great Empire for the Crown and for Western civilisation in future is by preserving 
all, or as much as possible, of our Anglo-Saxon blood within its borders. Indeed the 
time has come when we ought seriously to consider what has been rather an unpopular 
business the redistribution of our Empire population. Within the next few years 



252 THE ORGANISATION OF MIGRATION AND 

there will be a great deal of emigration. I beg you to use all your influence 
to see that that stream is directed to lands where the British flag flies. I brought 
home great offers from the various Dominions. They were not all taken advantage 
of. The Government set up a committee it is true, and introduced a Bill into Parlia- 
ment which was afterwards dropped. But time went on and as Governments change 
very quickly in the Dominions these offers, I am afraid, have for the most part lapsed. 
But I will say this that the Colonial Institute and I did succeed in creating a certain 
favourable atmosphere as to this matter of Imperial Land Settlement. Mr. Tumor, who 
has followed on my footsteps, has, I am certain, succeeded in preventing that genial 
atmosphere from evaporating into nothingness. There is a great opportunity to act 
now, in conjunction with the Dominions, to make sure that every fit and proper 
person who leaves these shores will receive a welcome in one or other of those 
Dominions and have a chance of making good for himself and his family, thus at the 
same time strengthening the land to which he goes and the country which he leaves. 
We have only to look things in the face, which is what English people are rather in 
the habit of neglecting to do. We have only to look at Australasia, for instance, 
that vast territory held by some six or seven millions of inhabitants, less than the popu- 
lation of London. It is one of the richest countries in the world a country which 
with proper development would accommodate between sixty and a hundred million people. 
And we have only to consider what a temptation such a territory offers to more 
crowded parts of the earth, especially the Eastern parts, who know not where to turn 
for an acre of land or a loaf of bread. Let us reflect that after all the League of 
Nations has not yet established Universal Peace. Let us remember that, as in the 
past, troubles may arise in a world of troubles, and that the fate of Australia might 
one day be at stake unless Australia has a sufficient population, and, remembering 
that, let us do our best to help her to get it. Turn to South Africa there the very 
name of British immigration is unpopular with a large section of the inhabitants. But 
much can be done privately and, as an old South African, I say that if something is 
not done if efforts, successful efforts, are not made to populate that land, or rather 
to increase its English population, the gravest troubles may arise troubles upon which 
it is not now my object to dwell, but troubles which are very obvious to all of you 
who have studied Imperial affairs. 

The Hon. Sir ARTHTTB STANLEY, K.C.M.G., spoke of the great pleasure with which 
as Governor of Victoria he received Sir Rider Haggard some three or four years 
ago on his important tour, and felt that any assistance he was able to render him 
had been well repaid. He regretted that when Mr. Tumor visited Victoria he was no 
longer there to receive him and to show him the great wealth and potentialities of 
that part of Australia, but he was confident that the visit of men who held so high 
a name in agriculture and in the public life of this country would at all times be 
welcomed by those conducting the affairs of Australia. Speaking of his own impressions 
during the six years' residence in Victoria, he said that of course in the vast 
tracts so thinly populated behind the great towns the men and women had a somewhat 
different outlook, socially and politically, from those who inhabited the great cities. 
He was afraid that there could be no doubt that the masses in Melbourne considered 
that the city was overstocked and did not like unlimited, uncontrolled, unfettered 
emigration into the already somewhat congested labour market. But if one was to 
form his opinions solely from what was to be learnt in the vast centres of population 
he would have a somewhat distorted view. Some thirty or forty miles from Melbourne 
was a population who would receive the new comer with open arms. His experience 
of Australia amply confirmed all the desiderata which the lecturer had laid down. As 
regarded public and private settlement he thought much was to be said for both 
systems and there was room for both. He still felt himself something of an Australian 
and should always be proud to have been associated with people who had shown such 
vigour, remarkable both in peace and war. 



SETTLEMENT WITHIN THE EMPIRE. 253 

Lieut. -Colonel Sir A. WEIGALL, K.C.M.G., the new Governor of South Australia, said 
he could add only a few reflections on the question Mr. Tumor had so eloquently put 
before the meeting. He could express no considered views, in fact he was too old 
a political hand to make assertions without sufficient local knowledge, but he might 
say that both Sir Rider Haggard and Mr. Turner in their spheres and also Sir Arthur 
Stanley had in his opinion rendered great services to the Empire. I am about to 
occupy a position (he said) which I never anticipated in the least ; my whole life has 
been occupied with simple agricultural affairs in my own part of the country and 
with agricultural and national affairs in the great Council of the Nation. Until His 
Majesty and the Government saw fit to make me the present offer I had no opportunity 
of devoting myself to Dominion affairs, but by the kindness of my friends in the 
Colonial Office and in particular of the Agents-General, much valuable information 
has been imparted to me, and what strikes me most of all is the amount of 
things the Dominions know about us and how little we know about them. If I 
can do anything to get men of capacity and influence and experience, such as the 
gentlemen who have addressed us, to go and study on the spot what the Dominions 
are in this great Imperial family, I shall be only too happy and proud. In regard 
to the lecture I agree that community of interest in agricultural affairs is far more 
efficacious than individual effort, though at the same time I think you will agree that 
in Lincolnshire, for instance, our success of stock breeders has been largely due to 
individual enterprise. In Australia to-day they are far ahead of us in regard to co- 
operative effort. I hope that there is not that wide .gap between official enterprise 
and individual enterprise that there is at home. I am happy to think that in this 
country we are realising the value of co-operation. Never in the history of the world 
a world shattered as this has been by the experience of the last five years was 
there greater need for harnessing to our aid what nature can do for us. If that is 
so, the only way we can relieve ourselves from our difficulties is to ensure that in 
every corner of this great Empire we make the best of every good thing that Providence 
has given to us, and I know of no way by which agricultural production can be more 
increased than on the lines so eloquently put before us by Mr. Turner. 

The Hon. EDWARD LUCAS in the course of some very laudatory remarks on the 
address remarked that in his opinion Australia had distinctly benefited by the fact 
that men from home of probity, ability and experience had been appointed as Governors, 
and he hoped that the method hitherto pursued in that matter would continue. 

The Hon. J. D. CONNOLLY, Agent-General for Western Australia, considered that 
there was all the difference in the world between emigration and Overseas settlement. 
The emigration that we wanted was emigration within the Empire. In Western 
Australia they decided to go in for an all-British emigration policy, with the result 
that they had not had the foreign element, and with the result also in the matter of 
recruiting that they put up a better percentage by voluntary means, or as good a 
percentage, as England did under conscription. He claimed that a certain amount of 
credit for that result was due to the emigration policy. 

Mr. R. V. BILLIS gave some account of the work of the Australia Farms Limited. 
He mentioned that they had been able to provide a sufficiently attractive outlook to 
keep the men to the life, and that another principle was that the Company should 
exercise supervision over their work during the first three or four years. He thought 
that any Imperial scheme ought to combine the best elements of both private and 
public enterprise. 

Sir HENRY REW thanked Mr. Turner for having in so illuminating a way put before 
the public one of the most important questions they had to face. Having had some- 
thing to do with British agriculture himself, he could not help regarding organised 
emigration with somewhat mixed feelings. The fundamental facts we had to face 
were that this old country could never be self-supporting and that the British Empire 
might perfectly easily be made to be self-supporting. 



254 THE MANSION HOUSE MEETING. 

Major A. H. HORSFALL and Major POUNDS continued the discussion, and the Hon. 
G. JENKINS moved a vote of thanks to the Lecturer. 

Mr. TURNOR briefly replied and moved a vote of thanks to the Chairman. 

In responding, the CHAIRMAN said: I think we have had a very interesting dis- 
cussion. Mr. Turnor and Sir Henry Rew both commented on the overcrowding in the 
cities. My experience is that that phenomenon is just as bad hi every part of the 
Empire as at home. It is a most evil feature in Imperial life and at present I can 
see no exact remedy. The fact is that this movement urban-wise has its roots in 
human nature and largely in family human nature. After this awful war what we. 
want is more food grown, and therefore the interest of all concerned in the matter of 
the distribution of population should be directed to getting people on the land and 
keeping them there when you have got them. I will go further and make a bold 
prophecy. One of the great problems of the future will be the procuring of an adequate 
population on the land not only of England but of all the vast Dominions of the 
Crown. It is absolutely important therefore we should produce all the food we can 
in this country and also in the Overseas Dominions, and that we should get that food 
here as best we can, and to do that we must get the people on the land and make 
it attractive enough to keep them there. 



THE MANSION HOUSE MEETING. 

THE Lord Mayor of London presided at a meeting at the Mansion House on April 16, 
called to promote the cause of United Empire and the work of the Royal Colonial 
Institute in relation thereto. There was a large attendance, and among those present 
on the platform were Viscount Milner, Sir George Perley, Sir Thomas Mackenzie, the 
Rt. Hon. Andrew Fisher, Sir George Parkin, Sir Charles Lucas, Mr. and Mrs. Fred 
Dutton, Lord Balfour of Burleigh, General Sir J. Bevan Edwards, Alderman Sir G. Wyatt 
Truscott, General Sir Edward Hutton, Sir Charles C. MeLeod, Sir Walter Egerton, Sir 
Charles Hanson, Colonel Wishart, the Hon. J. G. Jenkins, Sir Robert Hadfield, Mr. R. 
Littlejohn, Sir Charles C. Wakefield, Colonel Sir Thomas B. Robinson, Sir John Cockburn, 
Mr. Ernest Noel, Sir George Le Hunte, Sir Harry Brittain, Mr. and Mrs. Lennard, Colonel 
A. Weston Jarvis, Sir Godfrey Lagden, Mr. R. D. Douglas McLean, Sir Harry and 
Lady Wilson. 

THE LORD MAYOR : This meeting has been called to promote the unity of the Empire 
a cause dear to the heart of all British citizens and especially dear to the heart of all 
citizens of London. In this cause the war was fought and won, and we are now 
concerned to win peace in the fullest manner and amidst all the elements of discord 
at present loose in the world to prove again the historical saying that " Britain saved 
the world by her example " the example of United Empire. The particular association 
on whose behalf this meeting is being held is the Royal Colonial Institute, whose motto 
is " United Empire." Some account of its work will be given by the Chairman of 
the Council, after which we shall have the opportunity of hearing speeches from 
distinguished statesmen and representatives of the self-governing Dominions, all in 
support of the Institute and of the great cause for which the Institute stands, namely 
" United Empire." 

Sir CHARLES LUCAS, K.C.B, K.C.M.G. : The Council of the Royal Colonial Institute are 
very grateful for this opportunity of bringing their cause before what is the highest Court 
for Appeals such as ours in the British Empire. In truth our plea is no common plea. 
We are not here in any sense to sue in forma pauperis but rather to peg out what we 
consider to be our rightful claims on London. The Royal Colonial Institute is the oldest of 
all the associations in this country connected with the whole Empire. It was born in 1868, 
the year after the birth of the first self-governing Dominion, the great Dominion of 



THE MANSION HOUSE MEETING. 255 

Canada, whose representative is on this platform. H.M. the King is our Patron. As 
Prince of Wales he was our President, as was his father before him. Our present 
President is H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, who graciously consented to take the 
post for the second time on the death of Lord Grey. Lord Grey a freeman of the City of 
London more than any one man inspired our present effort and drew the ground plan for 
the future which we have in hand. His outlook, which is ours also, was a vastly 
increased membership, commensurate with the growth of the Empire and of democracy 
within the Empire. "United Empire," , which is our motto, was his watchword. But 
he looked on it only from the noblest point of view. No thought of arrogance or 
domination entered into his mind. He looked on it, in his words, as " a power for 
the peace and happiness of mankind." We started with only 200 members ; we have 
now close on 15,000. From puny infancy the Institute has grown to lusty manhood, 
and is steadily growing year after year. We have penetrated into all parts of the 
world. It has been effective though peaceful penetration, and our activities are 
manifold as is shown by our many Committees. We cater for all for the scholar 
as for the merchant, for the man of thought as for the man of action, and we have a 
library as unique in the value of its books as it is in the inadequacy of their surroundings. 
But our home support is not commensurate with the support from Overseas, from which 
we draw two-thirds of our members, and though we have Branches in various cities 
of the United Kingdom, the first of which was Bristol, whose generous founder, Mr. 
Lennard, is on the platform, we are at present, in the very centre of the Empire 
in London, sadly under-represented and under-representation lends itself to mis-repre- 
sentation. Yet, of all the great centres on the earth's surface London is pre-eminently 
an Imperial city, and never did it wear its Imperial dress more becomingly or with 
more effect than in the years of the war. One great company after another opened 
its hall to~ the wounded Overseas soldiers whom we of the Institute were privileged 
to gather together and to bring to the hospitable halls of the city. All these men 
and thousands of others will want to revisit us. They have felt the lure of the old 
country and the old city and to minister to this homing instinct is our lifelong work, 
for it means United Empire. 

Our object to-day is, in the first place, to recruit more members in the Metropolitan 
area. The human tie is by far the strongest bond of Empire stronger by far than 
any constitution which the wit of man could devise, and as the central human association 
for United Empire we claim the fullest support in this the great human centre of 
the Empire. In the second place we would advertise and ask support for the new home 
which we have in hand. Like the British race we have outgrown our old home. 
Like the British Empire we are enlarging our borders. But we do not mean to 
emigrate, we propose on our present site to rear a more spacious, a worthier, a statelier 
building a building which will proclaim its mission outside and practise it within. 
We want this building for two reasons. We want to welcome the growing number 
of visitors from Overseas, not at entertainments in hired halls, not interviewing them 
round dark corners in the present congested building, but to welcome them in a house 
which is obviously a home, with room for all and equipped with ample facilities both 
for serious and for lighter moments. We want, further, to try to gather together in 
one central meeting-place all the various agencies that are working for the same 
object United Empire working on the same lines but holding aloof at present from 
one another. We believe in we are not afraid of coalition, either the word or the 
thing. We believe that United Empire requires united effort and we would substitute 
fusion for constant overlapping and purposeless competition. We would like the 
different parts of this new building to be subscribed for and to bear the names of 
the different parts and provinces of the Empire. We would like the building to tell 
the story the supremely great story of a Commonwealth manifold and yet one. We 
would like to see the building embody the world's greatest effort in co-operation and 
we would dearly love to see some room or section some central room or section of 

X 



256 THE MANSION HOUSE MEETING. 

the building associated to all time with the City of London. With the support which 
we shall now receive from distinguished speakers, I have a confident hope that this 
meeting will be rich and fruitful in result. 

The Rt. Hon. VISCOUNT MILNER, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. (Secretary of State for the 
Colonies) : I have to move " That every support should be given by London as the 
metropolis of the Empire to the expansion of the work of the Royal Colonial Institute 
in promoting the unity of the Empire." 

But for the present purpose I should hardly have felt justified in coming here this 
afternoon. It is about fifteen months now since I have been privileged as Secretary 
of State for the Colonies to preside over a department, the duties of which are more 
manifold and more onerous than any which can be adequately supervised by a single 
man. Nevertheless, during the first six months of my tenure of office I had to be 
constantly running backwards and forwards between London and Paris in connection 
with the peace negotiations, especially as they affected the Overseas possessions of the 
Crown. And recently again I have been absent from this country and from my 
office for about four months on another piece of public business, certainly important 
but having no very direct connection with my regular official duties. Now that I 
am back again I feel that I owe it to the Colonial Office, not to say the Empire, 
to stick pretty closely to my proper work. But this is no ordinary occasion, nor is 
the Appeal which the Royal Colonial Institute is making to-day one to which, either in my 
public capacity or as a private citizen, I could remain indifferent. Founded a little more 
than half a century ago the Royal Colonial Institute from small beginnings has steadily 
grown in numbers until it has now nearly 15,000 members. It has latterly started branches 
in other centres some of them, as I can certainly state from my own experience, very 
flourishing branches. But while its Overseas membership is growing and it is making rapid 
progress in the Provinces, the number of its members in the City of London and the interest 
felt in its work here are far from what they ought to be. That is not surprising, you will 
say. The City of London has so many Institutes and Associations for the promotion 
of various public purposes, its interests are so manifold and various that they jostle 
and crowd out one another. I agree. But that after all is an explanation and not 
an excuse, and the last thing to which the heart of the Empire can afford to be 
callous is the future of the world-wide Commonwealth of which it is the centre. My 
late deeply lamented friend, Lord Grey than whom this Institute never had a more 
enthusiastic or more devoted President set it before him as his aim, as he has often 
told me, to raise the membership to 100,000. That was a high ideal but I do not 
think it is unattainable, and for my own part I still hope to live to see it attained. 
But it is a long way from 15,000 to 100,000, and we shall not get there unless the 
City of London is going to give us a stronger lead. Now increased membership 
will of itself bring increased income, but in addition to income this Institute is in 
need of a large capital sum for the purposes which Sir Charles Lucas has so eloquently 
described. It asked last year for 300,000. It made a very good beginning, for it got in 
less than a year upwards of 40,000. But again it is a long way from 40,000 to 300,000. 

These are big figures, but they are really not big if you consider the magnitude 
of the object which the Royal Colonial Institute exists to pursue. That object has been 
described over and over again in words which cannot be bettered as " the unity of the 
Empire." What do we mean by that phrase ? The Empire tends more and more to 
become a group of nations each with its special interests, each developing along its own 
individual lines. That is inevitable in view of the great growth of the Dominions of 
which we are justly proud. It is the task of statesmen a difficult task, but I can 
conceive none higher or worthier to make the readjustments in the constitutional 
relations of the different parts of the Empire which the new status of the Dominions 
involves. In that connection there is just one thing I should like to say, though it 
lies somewhat outside the scope of our proceedings. In order to put an end to mis- 
understanding, I have seen it stated somewhere in the Press that the plan of holding 



THE MANSION HOUSE MEETING. 257 

an Imperial Conference to settle these constitutional questions, which was contemplated 
at the time when the members of the Imperial War Cabinet dispersed, has been 
dropped. Nothing of the kind. I can say from knowledge that it is not only the 
desire but the firm determination of all the parties concerned, to hold that Conference 
at the earliest possible time. The only open questions are questions of place and 
date. I, myself, have never believed that it would be possible to hold that Conference 
in 1920. Just imagine what it involves. Whatever the composition of any Imperial 
Conference, it is essential that the leading statesmen of the Dominions and especially 
the Prime Ministers should be members of it. But the Prime Ministers and the 
leading statesmen of the Dominions were over in Europe continuously for months, 
and some of them for years, during the later stages of the war and during the peace 
negotiations, as members of the Imperial War Cabinet. At the conclusion of peace 
their presence was urgently required in their several countries to deal with the post- 
war problems, which, as we know by experience well enough, are numerous and of the 
greatest gravity everywhere. It was more than could be expected of them that, leaving 
this country, as many of them did, in the latter half of 1919, after a presence here 
invaluable to our common cause, but involving much personal sacrifice a presence 
of months, and in some cases years they should once more absent themselves from 
their several countries within a twelvemonth. You must remember, too, that wherever 
the Imperial Conference is held, whether in London or in Ottawa, or in any other 
capital city of the Empire and I for myself see no reason why it should always 
be held in London it involves the absence of by far the greater number of its members 
from their respective homes for a considerable period of time. But nevertheless and 
despite these difficulties, I am perfectly sure that the parties concerned are resolved 
to hold the Conference as soon as possible, and though I do not want to assume 
the dangerous role of prophet, I as firmly believe that the Conference will be held 
in 1921 as I always believed it could not be held in 1920. 

But whatever the constitutional future, about which there are no doubt many differ- 
ences of opinion among members of the Royal Colonial Institute as there are among 
Imperialists everywhere, however similar their aim, one essential thing is what I have 
ventured to call the Moral Unity of the Empire. If the citizens of the divers communities 
which compose this superstate remain conscious of their relationship, if they feel the 
need and desire to continue on all great world issues to stand and act together, it will 
certainly be found possible to devise means to give effect to that desire in peace as it was 
found possible to devise those means in war. And as far as I can judge this sense of 
relationship, this desire for unity, is not weaker but is infinitely stronger after the common 
efforts and sacrifices of these late terrific years than ever before. But powerful as 
this sentiment is, it is nevertheless our duty to do everything we can to cherish 
and to strengthen it. The disintegrating effects of distance, of difference of conditions, 
in some cases differences of race, of divergent interests, of mutual ignorance of our 
several difficulties are not to be underestimated. We have got to counteract them 
by every means in our power by closer intercourse, by better acquaintance with one 
another, by the cultivation of mutual sympathy and tolerance and by co-operation 
in dealing with the new problems which confront us all. The more we know, the 
more we see of one another, the more clearly we shall recognise the number and 
the magnitude of our great common interests, and, more important still, our spiritual 
fellowship, based as it is largely on ties of blood and language, universally on our 
common achievements in the past, and our common attachment to the ideals of 
freedom and humanity and orderly and constitutional progress, for which the Empire 
stands in the world. Speaking yesterday to a meeting of Pressmen I ventured to 
point out to them how great is the responsibility of the Press of the Empire in 
this matter and how largely it can contribute to the maintenance of this moral unity. 
I say the same to-day to the members of the Royal Colonial Institute. Your work 
lies there. You are making an appeal to all those with whom love of Empire is a vital 



258 THE MANSION HOUSE MEETING. 

motive to enable you to discharge your work more efficiently, to increase the number of 
your branches and of your members, to enlarge and more adequately equip your home 
in London, as a meeting-place, as a place of study Sir Charles Lucas has justly 
referred to your unique library, which is of the greatest value as a centre of discussion 
and interchange of ideas among men coming from all the ends of the earth. To 
that appeal, if its nature is truly understood, I cannot doubt there will be a widespread 
and a generous response. 

The Hon. Sir GEORGE PERLEY, K.C.M.G. (High Commissioner for Canada): This 
Institute is really an Empire Organisation. It is an organisation which draws the 
greater part of its members from Overseas, and perhaps the idea of Empire is really 
closer to those who live Overseas than to many of you in the very heart of the Empire. 
As I have said on other occasions, " God Save the King " is sung with even greater 
gusto in Ottawa than in London itself, and I believe the same may be said of other 
parts of the self-governing Dominions. ,| On the subject of this resolution I say, with 
Lord Milner, support the Royal Colonial Institute, because anything that brings the 
different parts of the Empire closer together makes for good. It is after all the 
personal touch we want personal knowledge of each other. In business matters you 
all know how things often get mixed up hi correspondence which can only be straight- 
ened out by personal intercourse. Some people might say that many of you in this 
country are old-fashioned. You, on the contrary, might designate some of us Canadians 
as rather " fresh." But when we meet together what do we find ? We find that these 
are merely characteristics produced by the fact that this is such a wonderful old country 
and that we are new and in the making, and we find that our aims, our ideals, and 
our aspirations are the same. Lord Milner spoke about the Imperial Conference. I believe 
as firmly as he does that when that Conference is held a way satisfactory to all 
concerned will be found by which we shall hold together and always co-operate in peace 
as we have done in war. Whatever helps us Overseas helps you here. The Institute, I 
am glad to say, is taking an interest in the question of Emigration, about which Lord 
Milner and the Colonial Office have given such earnest thought of late. The war has 
taught us that any Briton who wishes to emigrate ought to go to some other part of 
the Empire and not to foreign lands. If that had been the case during the last fifty 
years the Empire would unquestionably have been even greater than it is to-day. 
Every Briton is a factor in the strength of the Empire wherever he lives within its 
borders. I am glad to speak these few words in support of an Institution which I 
believe has been most helpful in bringing us all closer together and making us understand 
each other better. 

The Rt. Hon. ANDREW FISHER said he had often wondered why the Empire should 
be considered as needing any patching up at the present time, and on that point 
he wished to enter a little protest, which was that we should be careful lest we 
misled foreign peoples and others not so well informed as ourselves into believing 
that we were not united. In his opinion we never were more united than now. More- 
over he would venture to remark that the people of the Dominions were of the same 
spirit as the people born in these islands. They did not want to hear any nonsense 
and palaver about what they had done. All that the mother country did to help 
the boys from Overseas when they were here and to make them comfortable and 
happy could never be repaid, "but if you begin 'patting' them and say, What good 
boys they were, then God help you. If there is going to be danger it is this danger in 
' patting.' " The Imperial Parliament passed laws, some of which affected every citizen 
hi the Empire, and he was afraid that perhaps the majority of public men had' never really 
seen the Empire. That was a weakness. There should be some Imperial Authority 
to say to the young men entering Parliament that they must go round the Empire 
say, in fact, " You must go round the Empire or go out," for not one hi ten knew 
anything about the Empire, and many of them did not even want to, though they 
were quite ready to tell any other country how to manage its own affairs. He there- 



THE MANSION HOUSE MEETING. 259 

fore said : " Send them round the world and there will be no further trouble." The 
number of things a man discovered when he had made three or four trips around the 
world were too numerous to mention. It was almost impossible, he believed, to 
make the Imperial Conference a migratory body. He did not see how public men were 
to get away, but he added, " Don't exaggerate the importance of public men ; 
they can be done without in the way most of us have to be done without when 
we are no more." He gave his whole-hearted support to the movement for developing 
the Institute. 

The Hon. Sir THOMAS MACKENZIE, K.C.M.G. (High Commissioner for New Zealand) said : 
Perhaps one of the reasons why the Colonial Office is so efficient at the present time 
is that the men controlling its destinies know a great deal about the Overseas Dominions. 
Never in its history has the Colonial Office been so efficiently managed. Apart from 
his great statesmanship Lord Milner is very familiar with these Dominions, and he 
is now assisted by a most efficient and energetic Under-Secretary, Colonel Amery, so 
that every question brought before the Department at the present time is sympathetically 
considered and, if possible, approached from the angle of the Overseas Dominions. 
I am quite sure the people of the old country hardly realise the credit due to the 
Institute for its excellent work over a number of years. I was indeed amazed to 
learn from my dear friend, Sir Charles Lucas, that two-thirds of its support comes 
from the Overseas people; for when you consider that you have nearly 60,000,000 
people in the old country and not more than 15,000,000 of white people abroad, you 
see how disproportionate is the contribution made by the old country towards the 
promotion of Imperial unity. The Institute is to be congratulated upon having as its 
Chairman Sir Charles Lucas. It often amazes me why a man of his ability and 
judgment and courtesy should not have been appointed Governor or Governor- General 
of some one of our Overseas Dominions. It was never more essential in the history 
of our Overseas Dominions that care should be taken as to the type of men we sent 
to them. During the war we had enormous assistance from the Imperial 
Authorities in connection with finance, and we also realise that one of the great out- 
standing questions at the present time in connection with our interests is the proper 
placing of our produce in the old country. When war broke out Australia and New 
Zealand willingly placed all their raw material at the disposal of this country alone on 
terms sufficiently low to enable those materials to be used either by the Army or by 
the people at reasonable rates. Now that the war is over a readjustment of conditions 
is essential, and on behalf of New Zealand I should say that we are not pleased with 
the way some of our produce has been handled, especially meat. This is of serious 
importance to us. You have vast accumulations here and abroad, yet our space 
has been usurped in the cold stores by some 50,000 tons of American bacon and other 
things to the exclusion of produce from our country with consequent delays to shipping, 
and yet in spite of expert advice and the earnest appeal of the Colonial representatives 
the Food Controller persists in a policy which congests supplies and interferes with the 
circulation of our trade. 

Regarding the destiny of our great Empire, I have thorough confidence in its future. 
We may have different troubles, but there is that united general support towards the 
Crown and the Empire which can hardly be estimated by people in this old centre. 
I have great pleasure in supporting the resolution. In the past the Institute has 
done splendid service. It is endeavouring to do still greater service in the future, 
and I hope the Institute will get from the citizens of London the support which the 
merits of the case demand. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Sir GEORGE PARKIN, K.C.M.G. : I am quite sure I shall carry with me the unanimous 
and cordial feeling of the whole of this large meeting in proposing on behalf of the 
Council a hearty vote of thanks to the Lord Mayor for having given us the use of 
the Mansion House this afternoon and for having consented to take the chair. I am 



260 THE MANSION HOUSE MEETING. 

equally convinced that in doing so he has interpreted rightly not only the feelings 
but also the interests of the city over which he presides, the greatest city in the 
world. One need not hesitate to say that the future greatness of London is involved 
in the continued unity as one Commonwealth of those vast regions over which our 
flag flies. It has sometimes been prophesied that hi the Westward movement of 
civilisation we are approaching the stage when we shall decay just as Babylon and 
Athens and Rome and other great cities of the East have sunk in the past. If we 
think of London merely as the metropolis of these small Islands in the Northern seas 
I am not sure that the flux of population to the West would not probably in time 
make that prophecy true ; but it is to me absolutely inconceivable that such a thing 
should happen if London continues to look upon herself not merely as the mother 
city of these Islands but as the mother city of those young as well as old nations 
around the Seven Seas of which she is the centre and inspiring force. There is in 
this vast outgrowth of our race and nation an element of continuous youthful vitality 
which seems to have in it, so far as human things can go, almost the promise of 
historic immortality. You will perhaps excuse me if this occasion tempts me to be reminis- 
cent. It is thirty years last November since I stood on this platform before a crowded 
audience, under the chairmanship of one of your worship's distinguished predecessors, 
to make a report of a tour round the world upon which I had been sent in order to 
study this problem of national unity. On the platform were many of the prominent 
figures of the time men like Cardinal Manning, Lord Rosebery, Lord Brassey, Lord 
Carnarvon and many others, who had met to endorse the great idea, then growing 
to be a power in this country, as to the necessity of educating the popular mind with 
regard to national unity. At that tune there was much need for such education. One 
of our great statesmen had said, " Perish India " ; another had said, " Would to God 
Canada would go," because of some friction on the American Continent ; while one 
of the most brilliant writers of the last generation, Mr. Goldwin Smith, was in Canada 
devoting his energies to the effort to separate that great Dominion from its allegiance. 
How far we have travelled since ! I had occasion sometimes to cross swords with 
that great writer. In one of his brilliant essays, in arguing for dismemberment, he 
suggested how Wellington, when he faced Napoleon at Waterloo in that great struggle 
against the then tyrant of the world, must have sighed for the two veteran peninsular 
regiments who had been hurried away to defend Canada in the war of 1812-14. Well, 
we have travelled far since then. For what has a century produced ? In the great 
war from which we have just emerged that Canada, which Mr. Goldwin Smith did 
not think was worth saving to the Empire, contributed six times as many men as 
the whole force that Wellington commanded at Waterloo. And what was done by 
Canada was done hi the same proportion by New Zealand and Australia, and from 
every corner of this Empire there was not the smallest colony that did not for the 
same great task drain its best resources of youthful energy. Do you think the culti- 
vation of the spirit which created that result does not mean something for this great 
city and its future ? Remember that the Royal Colonial Institute lives and has lived 
and is working for the single purpose of making people understand the relation and 
community of interest which exist between the different parts of the Empire. This 
City of London has interests so great that her great companies and corporations could 
to-morrow with half per cent, of one half the profits they make in a single year or 
two lay down the 300,000 for which the Institute is asking. Think of the institutions 
within a stone's-throw of this Mansion House the Bank of England, the most important 
steadying force of the world's finance, drawing its gold and silver from South Africa, 
Australia, and Canada ; the Stock Exchange, vibrating to every movement of the world's 
politics, production, and commerce ; Lloyd's, registering the ships that reach or leave 
every port of the world to all these national unity is a supreme interest. From a far- 
distant Colony Mr. Hugh Denison sends 25,000 as a single contribution, and there are 
numbers of men in the City who could do the same just as easily. (A Voice : " What 



THE EMPIRE AND THE BRITISH WORKER. 261 

about Scotland ? ") Well, of all the men who have got the good things out of every 
corner of this Empire to which I have travelled, the Scots are they. If ever there 
was a time when Scotsmen ought to forget their care for bawbees it should be when 
an appeal of this kind is made. I confidently appeal to them and to every section 
of this centre of the Empire to come forward in support of this great cause. 

The motion was cordially adopted. 

The LORD MAYOR : I am very much obliged to you for so enthusiastic a reception 
of this vote of thanks. It was a great pleasure to lend the Mansion House for this 
meeting and a great pleasure to preside, for I am one of those who believe that the 
ties of blood are far stronger than chains of iron. I have travelled a little in the 
Empire, and often have I heard people say, " Oh, Cooper, I am coming home next 
year," meaning they were coming to London. We shall welcome them very much, 
and when they do come I hope we shall have a fitting place to welcome them under 
the auspices of the Royal Colonial Institute. 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE AND THE BRITISH WORKER. 

DURING the war a number of public men, impressed by the lessons of that great 
conflict, and interested in the development of the resources of our Empire, formed 
" The Empire Resources Development Committee." The British Workers' League 
that was then took an active interest in that movement (several of its Council, 
including the writer, became members) and helped to do some useful work in popu- 
larising amongst the workers of the country the enormous possibilities of, and the 
scope for, the production of wealth and the employment of labour, in the development 
of those resources upon scientific lines. As a result of their activities, the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies, Lord Milner, set up an Advisory Committee to assist him, 
and to " enquire into the opportunities of economic development, to make such 
recommendations as to the principle and methods to be followed in such developments, 
and to examine and report on any particular schemes and suggestions which may 
be submitted to them." 

The moving spirits of this E.R.D.C. have now gone a step further, and have 
established an " Empire Development Parliamentary Committee," composed of 
members of the present House of Commons, for the purpose of assisting the above 
Advisory Committee set up by Lord Milner, and 

" To urge upon the Government, Parliament, and the Country, the importance of 
the following : 

(a) "That bread, fish, sugar and other food can, by Empire Development, be 

increased in quantity and reduced in price : 
(6) " That cultivation within the Empire of such products as sugar, wheat, and 

cotton, which we now purchase largely from America, will help to correct 

adverse rates of exchange : 
(c) " That, by State Partnership and State participation in Empire enterprise, we 

assist in raising the standard of living amongst all sections of British citizens, 

including Native Races, and widen the basis of our national revenue, and 

increase the income upon which taxation is collected." 

In addition to the above it is also proposed : " To act energetically in Parliament 
in support and furtherance of the above objects, informing the Government that the 
efforts they contemplate for the expansion of cotton growing, as instanced by the 



262 THE EMPIRE AND THE BRITISH WORKER. 

recent guarantee to the Sudan's Government Loan for that purpose, will receive 
our united support ; and, further, to urge the Government to encourage plans for 
irrigation, extension of railways, roads, river navigation, ocean transport, harbour 
accommodation, air transport, and the development of new oilfields, whether such 
plans are proposed to be executed by private or Government enterprise, or both, 
and when private enterprise is by itself unlikely to be able to carry a desirable project 
to a successful issue to render Treasury assistance, provided the financial conditions 
are sound and the supervision effective. 

" To foster the formation of similar organisations in connection with legislative 
bodies in other parts of the Empire, and to co-operate with any such organisations 
as may be established." 

This Committee already has a membership of between 150 and 200 Members of 
Parliament, and it is contemplated that within the next few months it will number at 
least 300. It is proposed to divide these up into sub-committees for the purpose 
of studying different projects, and when these are considered practicable, to place 
them before the Colonial Office and Parliament for their adoption. 

OUR FOOD SUPPLY. 

Undoubtedly one of the greatest problems in the near future will be the question 
of our food supply. Since the abolition of the Corn Laws there has been a marked 
decline in the production of food in this country, particularly of wheat, our staple 
food product. Side by side with the decline in the production of our own food, there 
has been an enormous development of those industries in this country that depend 
upon raw materials which have to be imported from overseas. So that we not 
only had to import four-fifths of our food supply from abroad, but also most of the 
raw materials we require for our industries, with the exception of coal. During the 
war the U-boat campaign brought us face to face with this situation, and more 
particularly with the penalties for our neglect of agriculture. We have now realised 
that mere cheapness, particularly our demand for cheap corn at the expense of the 
agricultural labourer, has its drawbacks. The " cheap loaf " drove our agricultural 
workers into our towns, where their competition for work with the town workers 
lowered wages and filled our slums. And now, after 60 years of agricultural neglect, 
the 4 Ib. loaf requires a Government subsidy of 45,000,000 per annum to enable us 
to purchase it at Is. tyd., which suggests that cheap things are sometimes the dearest 
in the long-run. More important still, the average worker is now realising that land 
that is not cultivated is not only not producing wealth, but it is not employing 
labour. 

This condition applies to all the uncultivated land within the British Empire. But 
as the British Isles are part of the British Empire, the first duty of the Empire 
Development Parliamentary Committee will be to encourage the development of 
agriculture at home, and the production of as much food as possible from our 
own soil. 

One of the proposals of the E.D.P.C. is to provide the people with an unlimited 
supply of fish all the year round at prices ranging from one penny per pound for such 
delicious fish as the caplin, to sixpence per pound for cod and salmon. This could be 
done by establishing sufficient cold storage in every village and town in the Kingdom, 
of 2,000 population and upwards, where fish and other perishable food-stuffs can 
be stored until required. Fish, which is obtainable in enormous quantities from 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 263 

Canada and Newfoundland and other parts of the Empire, as well as from our home 
waters, would be a good substitute for American bacon at 2s. Qd. per pound. 

Margarine, made from African ground nuts, is another product which the E.D.P.C. 
think can be marketed for about sixpence or sevenpence per pound. 

Sufficient cattle could be bred, in New Zealand and Australia and East Africa 
alone, to make the whole Empire independent of America for either meat or leather. 

COTTON AND OIL. 

While our greatest asset is undoubtedly the skill of the British worker, it is also a 
fact that Lancashire depends upon the importation of an unlimited supply of raw 
cotton for its prosperity. 

Hitherto that supply has been principally obtained from America. Now 
America wants all the cotton she can grow for her own needs. Consequently, it 
has become necessary for the Lancashire cotton manufacturers to look elsewhere for 
their raw material. How serious this shortage now is, and how necessary it is to find 
new sources of supply, can be gathered from the fact that " yarn which sold in 1914 
at 20d. per Ib. has now risen to 190d., which is nine and a half times the pre-war price." 
Sufficient cotton can be grown within the British Empire to satisfy the needs of the 
whole world. 

Oil is another raw material upon which British Industries, particularly the motor 
industry, largely depends. At present we are largely in the hands of the American Oil 
Magnates for this commodity, and unless we can get an unlimited supply, and at a much 
cheaper price, the development of the motor industry in this country will be held up. 
Again we turn to the vast resources of the British Empire for help in this matter. 
The Government's investment in the Anglo-Persian and other oil concerns is a step 
in the right direction, and one that will be supported by the E.D.P.C. 

Migration from one part of the Empire to another is also a matter in which the 
E.D.P.C. are interested. The Government of British Guiana are offering to grant free 
land to natives of India, and to help to establish them and their families in British 
Guiana, and to assist them to become cultivators of the soil, and to market their 
produce. The Committee hope that the time is not far distant when British citizens 
of all races will think no more of going from one part of our Empire to any other 
than we now think of going from Scotland to "Wales, or from England to Ireland. A 
united British Empire is the greatest guarantee for the world's peace, progress, and 
prosperity. 

CHARLES JESSON, 
Hon. Sec. Britannic Industrial Alliance, 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 

The Imperial Wireless Chain. It is eminently desirable that the long-talked- of 
chain of wireless stations throughout the Empire should be completed with as little 
delay as possible. Before the war an arrangement was entered into between the Post- 
master-General and the Marconi Company with a view to the provision of such a 
chain, but later on the Imperial Government came to the conclusion that the wireless 
stations to be erected at various points ought to be directly controlled by the various 
Governments concerned, and the agreement with the Marconi Company was cancelled. 
Now the Marconi Company has reopened the problem by issuing an elaborate booklet, 



264 ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 

giving details of a proposal for a network of wireless communications to serve the 
needs of the whole British Empire, which has been submitted to the Imperial Wireless 
Sub-Committee. The Company is willing to pay 25 per cent, of the net profits of 
each station into the treasury of the Government in whose territory it is located, and to 
surrender the stations to the Governments concerned free of charge at the end of thirty 
years, or at an earlier date on terms. 

CANADA. 

On Behalf of Returned Soldiers. Numerous reports are constantly coming to hand 
of the way in which demobilised men throughout the Dominion are getting to work. 
The Barclay Sound Fishing Company, composed entirely of returned soldiers, has been 
formed at Victoria, British Columbia, the object being the curing of herrings for market 
after the Scotch method. The Provincial Government has loaned the Company $10,000. 
A ranch established some twenty-five years ago by the Hudson Bay Company, situated 
about seven miles from Smithers, B.C., on the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, 
has recently been purchased by four returned soldiers. The ranch comprises 640 acres, 
of which 400 acres are under cultivation. The Hygienic Dairy and Farm near Matsqui, 
B.C., on the Canadian National Railway near Vancouver, has been bought for a training 
centre for returned soldiers. An application has been made by the Winnipeg Great 
War Veterans' Association for a charter incorporating the Association in a venture to 
assist disabled men to the extent of 100,000. The charter will permit the establish- 
ment and operation of a factory in Winnipeg for the employment of disabled men on 
woodwork and kindred trades. Reafforestation of Manitoba's wooded territory and a 
more progressive highway policy are among the objects the Association has in view. 

Cattle for European Countries. Canadian farmers are negotiating big deals in cattle 
with European countries. Heifers and cows from Canada are wanted to supply the 
devastated areas of Northern France, a contract that will amount to several thousand 
cattle; and 30,000 heavy beef cattle are to be sent to France during the first five 
months of this year. The National Agricultural Society of France has been granted 
a substantial credit by the French Government for the purpose of acquiring breeding 
poultry, and the Society is in communication with the Canadian National Poultry 
Council. An appeal is being made by the President of the Council to the Provincial 
Departments of Agriculture, Agricultural Colleges, and the Canadian Press, to do every- 
thing in their power to assist in acquiring the necessary information to carry on 
negotiations with the Agricultural Society of France, and to take advantage of the 
opportunity presented to place Canada in a favourable international light as a producer 
of breeding poultry. Purchases of pure-bred cattle have recently been made in Alberta 
by buyers from Italy, and a consignment of steers and cows was shipped to that 
country from Calgary recently. 

AUSTRALIA. 

Commonwealth Shipping. The Australian Government has announced its intention 
of building eleven ships of 12,800 tons each, and of conducting a fortnightly service 
between Australia and Great Britain. Negotiations are still proceeding between the 
Government and the shipbuilding yards. Also, it is reported that Tasmania intends 
to inaugurate a line of State steamers during this year, with which to carry on trade 
with the chief ports of the Australian mainland, and the State Government is now 
considering the project in detail. A manager is to be appointed for four years, but 
until he has had time to acquaint himself with the conditions and extent of the 
Tasmanian trade, no complete scheme can be set forth. In view of the prolonged 
interruptions, due to mainland strikes, it seems probable that the Tasmaninn Govern- 
ment will be pressed to embark on a big project which will ultimately embrace the 
entire passenger and cargo traffic of_the island. 



ROUND THE EMPIRE NOTES. 265 

Tasmanian Wheat. The steady decline in the production of wheat in Tasmania 
has reached a serious level. As far back as 1840, the first year for which records 
are available, the production was over 800,000 bushels, and the high -water mark was 
reached in 1898 when 2,303,000 bushels were produced, which allowed a surplus for 
export of 1,000,000 bushels. Since 1916 there has been a rapid and continuous decline. 
This season's production is only 141,000 bushels, and it is estimated that fully 1,250,000 
bushels will have to be imported from the other wheat-producing States to meet the 
needs of the population. This and last year's harvests are the two smallest on record. 
Yet growers are receiving 6s. 9d. per bushel, which is the highest rate paid for very 
many years. 

SOTJTH AFRICA. 

Need of an Afforestation Policy. The Union of South Africa will soon be perma- 
nently dependent on imports for all the timber it needs, unless a definite afforestation 
policy is steadily pursued. In 1913 the Union imported 17,500,000 cubic feet of timber, 
nearly 90 per cent, of which was soft timber derived from pines, firs, &c. In all 
probability the requirements of the country will be at least double in fifty years' time, 
and the natural forest resources will not produce 5 per cent, of this demand. Assuming 
that an acre of timber plantation will yield 100 cubic feet of timber per annum, which is 
a very conservative estimate, it would take some 350,000 acres to meet the probable 
needs of South Africa in fifty years' time. 

New Markets for Coal. The quantity of coal exported from the Union of South 
Africa last year was 1,208,000 short tons, valued at 1,033,000, as compared with 
856,000 short tons, worth 337,000, in 1913. Many new markets have been found for 
South African coal during the war, and considerable quantities were sent last year 
to Argentina and Uruguay, as well as to the British East Indies and Egypt, though 
consignments to Portuguese East Africa fell off considerably. On the other hand, less 
coal for bunkering purposes was shipped last year, namely 1,276,000 short tons, as 
against 1,452,000 short tons in 1913, although increased prices caused the value to rise from 
1,052,000 to 1,906,000. According to recent reports, contracts have been concluded 
for the supply of about 40,000 tons of South African coal to Rotterdam. 

WEST INDIES. 

An Agricultural College. In August of last year a committee was appointed to 
consider the desirability of establishing a Tropical Agricultural College in the British 
West Indies, and the report of this committee is now published. It is not surprising 
to find that opinion was unanimously in favour of such a step, which may well prove 
to be a turning-point in the history of the development of the West Indies. America 
long since recognised the importance of the scientific study of tropical agriculture, and 
has its colleges at Porto Rico and Hawaii. Expert advice and instruction are absolutely 
necessary if the Colonies are to compete successfully with foreign countries, and the 
benefit that will undoubtedly accrue from the establishment of a West Indian Agricultural 
College will affect not only the Colonies, but Imperial trade as a whole. It is hoped 
that the Imperial Exchequer will be willing to vote an annual contribution towards 
the maintenance of the College, and the Colonies are invited to make an annual 
subscription on a basis that would entitle them to nominate a representative to be 
on the governing body. The committee suggests that a fund of 60,000 should be 
raised by private subscription for the actual establishment of the College. 

Shipping Services to Jamaica. The increased trade between Great Britain and 
Jamaica calls for increased transport facilities to meet it, and the Jamaica Legislature 
is about to consider the question of a subsidised line of steamers between the Colony 
and the United Kingdom. The Royal Mail and Leyland Harrison lines, jdiich maintain 



266 CORRESPONDENCE. 

a connection between England and Jamaica, have been carrying large cargoes lately, 
but the Elder and Fyffe Company's fruit boats, from Liverpool or Avonmouth, bring 
no cargo whatever, only passengers, parcels, and mails. There are several lines of 
steamers that ply between the United States and Jamaica, but mails from Great Britain, 
sent via New York, take fully four weeks to reach Jamaica, instead of the fourteen 
or fifteen days when sent direct. In the case of cargo sent via New York there is 
often a long delay at the point of transhipment. It is announced that the Houston 
Steamship Company will shortly extend its shipping operations to the Caribbean. The 
Company's steamers will go to Jamaica from England by way of New York and Cuba, 
proceeding to the River Plate, and will return by the same route. They will give 
Jamaica communication with South America, which has not existed for years. Also, 
the Ward Line Steamship Company, which operated a service in the Caribbean in 
conjunction with the Hamburg-Amerika Company up to 1914, has decided to send its 
vessels from the United States to Cuba, Jamaica, and other points in the Caribbean. 
The Dutch West India Line has decided to extend its service from Holland to Jamaica. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Prospects in British Guiana. It is quite true that local folk in British Guiana are hope- 
fully optimistic as to the future, mainly owing (as the result of the war) to the present 
high prices on the spot for their small crops of sugar and rice. 

Baltimore seems to be the " head " quarters of the Northern Aluminium Company 
(which practically owns the Demerara Bauxite Company, supposed to be British but 
will be found more under the influence of U.S.A. than Canada), and they have bought 
up Sprostons Limited, with all their local steamers, dock, wharves, &c. The Govern- 
ment should be further urged to insist on the company manipulating the ore locally 
(as Newfoundland has done with its paper pulp) rather than allow its export in a 
raw state. There is not any real movement for proper development and colonisa- 
tion of the place as might be expected by this time. Cuba (half the size of British 
Guiana) is approaching a 5,000,000 ton sugar crop and a 3,000,000 population against 
British Guiana's 100,000 tons and 300,000 people. 

With security and safety, through permanent preferences and guarantees against 
dumping in British markets, decent wages could be paid to attract people to build 
up a 5,000,000 ton crop and a 3,000,000 population as in Cuba. The main trouble 
is that these still continue lacking. Until they come the West Indies cannot get 
ahead with full development. 

GTJY WYATT. 
Cheltenham, April 17, 1920. 

[Mr. Wyatt does not refer to the recent deputation to the Colonial and India Offices 
on the subject of Indian settlers for British Guiana, which, we hope, may have important 
results. ED. U.E.] 

The Amalgamation Question. Referring to the mention in the Editorial Notes of 
your last issue of the meeting in the Smoking Room, at which a Resolution for the con- 
sideration of the Council was passed recommending that a Referendum be taken upon 
the question of amalgamation with the Overseas Club and Patriotic League, I distinctly 
stated, as Chairman of that meeting, that whilst pledging myself to lay the Resolution 
before the Council, I wished it to be understood that I was in no way committing 
myself to it. 

GODFKEY LAGDBN. 
Royal Colonial Institute, April 20, 1920. 



267 



EMPIRE TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTION. 

Home Manufacturers and Empire Markets. 

THERE has been a slight but noticeable change in the general trend of trade during 
the past few weeks. There is evidence that gradually the overwhelming demand 
of home consumers is beginning to slacken, and although manufacturers in many 
industries are still committed for several months ahead, it is fairly safe to say that 
the majority are beginning to pay a closer attention to export than has been the 
case since the armistice. One could almost wish that the British Industries' Fair, 
organised by the Department of Overseas Trade, had fallen a little later in order 
to avail itself of this increasing tendency. However, those who are interested in 
the requirements of the Overseas Empire will welcome the change without being too 
critical. 

There has been noticeable among the inquiries of the various bureaux an awakened 
interest in the needs of the great Dominions in regard to goods manufactured in 
this country ; and in spite of the very remarkable growth of manufacturing in the 
Dominions themselves, there is a substantial demand of this kind at present existing. 

Canada's Demand for Quality. 

In spite of the very brisk campaign for goods " made in Canada," there is still 
a steady market for certain well-defined b'nes of articles made here. The recent 
report on Canada's imports of cotton goods was alarming to those who had not 
followed the movement of textile trades in Canada. A very substantial part of the 
piece-goods requirement is supplied by Canadian mills, but an even greater volume 
which formerly was obtained from Great Britain is being purchased in the United 
States. For cotton goods of the highest quality, however, and, in fact, for all high- 
class textiles, there is a steady demand. Groceries have featured especially during 
the last month, and for glass, china, and small hardware there is always a market. 

It must be particularly emphasised, however, that in all his dealings with the 
North American market for much that is true of Canada applies equally to the 
United States the manufacturer must base his competition upon quality, and upon 
quality alone. Under present conditions he cannot compete with the transatlantic 
manufacturer on his own ground in regard to price, but if he has an article of the 
highest quality to sell, in certain lines at any rate, there is always an eager market 
for it at a good price. 

The inquiries from Latin-America have included small tools, agricultural plant 
and machinery, wire and, though one hardly dare write it, builders' fittings. 

Australia and Machinery A Complaint, 

In Australia there has been as strong a demand as ever for machinery, and, indeed, 
a certain amount of resentment has been felt and expressed with that frankness 
which characterises the great Southern Continent, based on the allegation that 
machinery has been sent to foreign countries from Great Britain, for which there 
was an urgent and expressed demand from Australia. If this has occurred to any 
extent, it may be taken as the explanatory fact that the question has been one of 
transport difficulty ; for the new industrialist in this country is only too anxious to 
foster the growing manufactures in the great Dominions, and to supply them with 
British-made machinery, and to imbue them with British standards of production. 
One industry which may be especially mentioned that is in need of development 



268 HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 

in Australia, is the household china and pottery industry. Deposits of kaolin are 
known to exist in quantity in Western Australia, and it is believed that the quality is 
of a kind suitable for the purpose named. There is, in addition, a very heavy demand 
for these goods throughout the Commonwealth and in New Zealand, but as far as 
we are aware no industrial use is made of the china clay. 

Timbers of the Empire. 

The Department of Overseas Trade is to hold an Exhibition in July of the various 
timbers grown in the British Empire. This is an altogether admirable activity, 
and it is very much to be hoped that it will be followed, especially in regard to other 
Empire raw materials. Forestry in most of the Great Dominions is not very far 
advanced, and though in most cases the efficiency level of the forestry officers is high, 
the work is hardly placed on a scale that could be called comprehensive, and compre- 
hensive it must be if it is to be of any real substantial value. Two objections have 
been raised in regard to the timbers of the Overseas Empire. The first is that they 
are not classified thoroughly. This, of course, is a fault rising directly from the question 
of inadequate forestry arrangements. The second problem has to do with seasoning, 
and this, though arising partly from the same cause, is for the most part due to war 
requirements. It was impossible, especially in Canada, where enormous supplies 
were being passed through, to give the proper attention, and especially time, to this 
very necessary process. It is greatly to be feared that methods which were necessi- 
tated by the extraordinary demands of war grew in many cases into a habit and 
became the regular method of dealing with the wood, so that the position in regard 
to Canadian, Australian, and South African timbers of certain kinds is that they are 
insufficiently seasoned for the purposes of many trades. In all three countries, 
however, the wood-working industries are developing in considerable strength, and 
their requirements must necessarily react upon seasoning methods. 

It is satisfactory to notice that the Department is paying attention to that very 
valuable and increasingly important side of timber supply, the light, quick-growing 
woods used for wood pulp, or, again, in the production of industrial alcohol. 



HOUSE AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE. 

THE meeting on Thursday, March 25, was of a special character. Lieut. Ernest J. H. 
Boose, R.N.V.R., the son of Major Boose, delivered an address on " Our Navy on 
the Tigris," illustrated by pictures painted by himself. A full report of the address 
will appear in UNITED EMPIRE. 

The chair was taken by Admiral the Hon. Sir E. R. Fremantle, G.C.B., C.M.G., 
who remarked on his own experience of the great difficulties of navigation on the 
Tigris, and on the enormously good work which had been done in the recent war 
by the gunboats in co-operation with our troops. 

After the address Capt. Cook gave some interesting details of the work of 
inland water transport on the Tigris, on which he had himself been engaged, 
and the difficulties with which they had to contend in regard to the shortage of 
stores and foods and particularly of water; the establishment of dockyards, where the 
ships sent out in parts from England had to be put together ; and the construction 
of jetties and hospitals. He spoke highly of the work done by the men under him, 
in spite of the terrible heat, the mosquitoes, and the sand-flies, which often rendered life 
almost unbearable. He referred, also, to the beauties of Bagdad and to the relief 
it was to them all to see the well- cultivated gardens there. Colonel Pottinger and 



Advertisements. 



xv 



THE 

ALL-IN POLICY 

still affords the 

HOUSEHOLDER THE MOST 
COMPLETE COVER YET DEVISED 

For an inclusive premium of 5s. per 100 per annum (minimum premium 

7s. 6d.) it covers practically every serious risk to which the householder 

is liable in respect to the contents of his home. 



SPECIAL FEATURES. 

1. Saves Time, Money, Trouble. 

2. Obviates the inconvenience of paying 

separate premiums at different 
dates. 

3. Contains no arbitration or average 

clauses. 

4. Renewed free every sixth year if no 

claim has been made in the 
interim. 



IMMEDIATE BENEFITS. 



In considering the question of taking up this 
Policy it is well to remember that if you have 
policies in force terminating at different 
dates you can immediately enjoy the bene- 
fits of the "All-in" Policy, full deduction 
from the premium payable being allowed by 
the Company for the period in respect to 
risks for which policies are still in force. 



A Special "ALL-IN" Policy for Houseowners 
covers the building only for Is. Gd. per 1OO. 

WHAT THE " ALL-IN " POLICY COVERS 

Fire Mirror Breakage Loss of Rent Burglary Housebreaking Larceny 
and Theft Employers' Liability (injuries to servants, including casual 
labour) Damage to contents caused by bursting or overflowing of water 
tanks, water apparatus or water pipes Storm, Flood or Tempest Explosion 
of Gas, Boilers, Hot Water Pipes Lightning Thunderbolt Subterranean 
Fire Aircraft Earthquake Public Liability Linen at Laundry Riots, 
Strikes Insurrection Civil Commotion (excluding Ireland) Effects removed 
while on Holiday or in Store Effects of Family, Guests or Servants 
Cash and/or Bank Notes up to 25. 



Send to-day for full particular! and proposal Form. 



Head Office : 

BRITISH 

DOMINIONS 

HOUSE. Royal 

ss Avenue, 




COMftNY UB ~ 

ALL-IN " POLICY DEPARTMENT 



The most 

progressive 
office for 
all classes 
of insurance. 



E.c.3 4l, Threadneedle Street, London, E.C.2 

Branches and Agents throughout the United Kingdom. 

ASSETS EXCEED 18,OOO,OOO 



IBB 




269 



OBITUARY. 



Mr. Coleman-Hyman joined in the discussion, and Mr. Rathbone submitted a map 
of the country, which was studied with much interest. 

Sir Harry Wilson, in proposing a vote of thanks to Lieut. Boose, expressed the 
indebtedness of the Institute to him for the gift of one of his pictures, and to Colonel 
Jenkins for a similar gift. He took the opportunity of referring to the proposed 
Art Gallery in the new building, and appealed for the loan of drawings and pictures. 
Colonel Jenkins, on seconding the proposal, suggested that, in view of Sir Harry's 
remarks, it might be possible to arrange for a series of loan exhibitions, and said 
that he would gladly place some forty or fifty of his works at the service of the 
Institute as an indefinite loan. 

DONATIONS TO THE NEW PREMISES AND JUBILEE FUND. 



TENTH LIST. 





. 44,160 
2 

20 
100 
10 



Previously announced 

P Stevens, Esq. 

Spencer Williams, Esq. 

Sir R. Ashton Lister, C.B.E., M.P. 

H. W. Page, Esq. 

E. C. Hill, Esq. ... 5 

J. A. Davy, Esq. ... 2 

C. E. Welldon, Esq. ... 1 
Captain H. Heydeman (first dona- 
tion) ..... 1 

D. I. Parnell, Esq. ... 10 

E. O. Insley, Esq 3 

Dr. Standish J. Watson . . 2 

J. Monypenny, Esq. ... 3 

B. Le M. Andrew, Esq. . . 1 

T. C. Kerry, Esq. ... 3 

J. W. Peet, Esq. ... 2 

Captain S. A. G. Taylor . . 2 

A. R. Prentice, Esq. ... 1 

H. A. Stmson, Esq. ... 5 
Brig. -General Archibald Jack, 

C.B., C.M.G., C.B.E. . 5 

Sir John Archer, K.B.E. . . 105 

H. G. Beardall, Esq. ... 10 

Major W. H. Greene, O.B.E. . 5 

Lt.-Col. R. A. Finlayson, C.M.G . 1 

John Phillips, Esq. ... 6 

Captain W. B. Stanley, M.B.E. . 2 



8. d. 

18 6 

2 









2 

1 

1 
10 

3 

2 




3 
2 
2 

1 


6 




6 

1 
5 

2 



H. R. Biltcliffe, Esq. . 

Cecil J. Barnes, Esq. . 

W. G. Hannah, Esq. . 

C. Crawford Smith, Esq. 

N. M. Whitworth, Esq. 

L. A. F. Jones, Esq. . 

John Fox, Esq. 

A. E. Weatherhead, Esq. . 

Captain 0. H. Cooke (in memory 

of Captain C. T. Cooke, Cheshire 

Regiment, T.F.) . 
J. W. Holliman, Esq., I.S.O. 
C. B. Hamilton, Esq., C.M.G. 
Harcourt Malcolm, Esq., O.B.E., 

K.C., M.H.A. 
Cecil Pearse, Esq. 
H. J. Willis, Esq. 
The Ven. Archdeacon Walter 

Heard, M.A 

Leslie F. Watt, Esq. . 

F. Crosbie Roles, Esq. 
Mrs. E. Frances Elias 
A. Montefiore, Esq. . 
R. D. Gordon, Esq. . 
J. E. Aspinwall, Esq. 

G. E. Brunwin, Esq. . 



s. d. 

1 1 

1 1 

1 1 

12 17 

12 17 

500 

1 1 

1 1 



1 1 
1 1 
220 

1 1 

10 10 

1 11 6 

1 
110 
10 
220 
550 
1 1 
220 
I 1 



44,54(5 a 



OBITUARY. 

MAJOK Snt HAMILTON GOOLD-ADAMS, G.C.M.G., C.B. 

His many friends, both at the Royal Colonial Institute and elsewhere, will have 
received with deep regret the unexpected news of the sudden death at Capetown, on 
April 13, of Sir Hamilton Goold-Adams, the Governor of Queensland. His term of office 
in Australia having recently expired he was on his way home, accompanied by Lady 
Goold-Adams and his two children ; and on his arrival in South Africa he contracted 
a chill which developed into pneumonia and proved fatal. He was intending to spend 
some time in revisiting the scenes connected with his life in South Africa as soldier 
and administrator, but his proposed tour was cut short before it had actually begun. 

Sir Hamilton, who was born in 1858, entered the Army as Lieutenant in the Royal 
Scots just twenty years later. He served with the Bechuanaland expedition under Sir 
Charles Warren in 1884-5 ; and in 1893 he commanded the Field Force against the 
Matabele, being promoted Major in 1895. He began his career as an administrator in 
the post of Resident Commissioner for the Bechuanaland Protectorate. When the 



Advertisements. 



xvi 




PETER 
DAWSON'S 

6COtCb 



OLDEST 
& BEST 



PETER DAWSON, LTD. 

Distillers, DUFFTOWN & GLASGOW. 



LIMITED. 

Registered in the Transvaal (with which are 
incorporated the Bank of Africa Limited 
the Natal Bank. Limited, and the National 
Bank of the Orange River Colony .Limited) 

Bankers to the Union Government in the Transvaal, the Orange 
r Free State, and Natal, and to the Imperial Government. 

EVERY DESCRIPTION OF BANKING BUSINESS transacted with 
the Cape Province Natal. Orange Free State. Transvaal Rhodesia. 
Nyasaland. East Africa Protectorate. Uganda Zanzibar. Portuguese 
East Africa. South- West Africa Protectorate and the Belgian Congo, 
and with the Bank's Agencies in New York and elsewhere 

OVER 400 BRANCHES IN AFRICA. 

Agents it Amiieiddrrr Pan* Rome and the Principal dues of the World ( 




and 

*#&>* 

'jffMXW* 




London Offices 
Circus Plhce. London Wall. 

E.C.2. 
18. St.SwIthln's Lan. E C 4 

West End Office 

25. Cockspur Street. S.W.I. 

New Yprk Agency 

10, WALL STREET. 

India BOMBAY. 

Antwerp 

SB, PLACE OE MEIft. 
Hoad OHIoa-PRETORIA. 



270 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

Boer war broke out in 1899 he was in Maf eking, and went through the famous siege along 
with Lieut. -Colonel (now Lieut. -General) Sir Robert Baden-Powell, and was mentioned 
in despatches. In 1901 he was appointed Lieut. -Governor of the Orange River Colony, and 
received his K.C.M.G. in the following year. As Lieutenant- Governor, he played a 
notable part in the reconstruction which followed the conclusion of the war, and his 
intimate knowledge of stock-breeding and agriculture, coupled with his genial personality, 
made him a great favourite with the members of that community of farmers, both 
British and Dutch. In 1907, after the change took place in the local Government, 
he became Governor of the Colony, and remained in that position until 1910. In 
1911 Sir Hamilton was appointed High Commissioner for Cyprus, and did much to 
promote the agricultural development of that interesting island. At the end of 1914 
he became Governor of Queensland, and served in that capacity with much acceptance 
and success throughout the war. That he should have died in South Africa, where the 
greater part of his active life was spent, and where he had hosts of friends in all 
parts of the Union, gives a singular, though sad, completeness to a career of great 
usefulness and distinction. 

J. AETHTTB POTT. 

The Imperial Studies Committee of the Institute has lost a valued member by the 
death of Mr. J. Arthur Pott, which took place at Goodrich House, his residence in 
Herefordshire, on March 13. Mr. Pott, though ill-health prevented him from attending 
the meetings of the Committee, except very occasionally, wrote a most useful report 
for them on the neglect of Imperial history and geography in University and public 
examinations, and took an active part in other inquiries with regard to the teaching of 
these subjects in the schools of the country. He contributed both in prose and verse 
to the pages of UNITED EMPIRE. 

NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 
THE FOLLOWING HAVE BEEN ELECTED : 

Resident Fellows, 55; Non-Resident Fellows, 70; Affiliated Members, 2; Associates, 75. 

RESIDENT FELLOWS : 

Capt. W. S. H. Beddatt, G. W. F. DoU, J. 8. Drysdale, M.B.E., Col. Henry T. Fenwick, 
C.M.Q., D.S.O., M. V.O., J. G. Hancorne, W. Honeywill, Clarence Hooper, F.R.G.S., Handle 
F. W. Holme, L. Jacob, H. La Chard, F. L. Lucas, 'M.A., Major James McElwain, David 
Nicol, Clive Primrose, G. C. Redman, R. G. Robson, M.A., M.D., Capt. C. T. Shepherd 
Smith, Henry E. Walker, N. R. C. Warwick, O.B.E., Sir Capd WolseUy, Bart., John C. Wood. 

NON-RESIDENT FELLOWS : 

AUSTRALIA. A. H. Bailment (Perth), C. M. C. Bere (Southport), P. Russell Bray 
(Murwittumbah), J. C. Eldridge (Sydney), Col F. J. Hayter (Duntroon), W. D. McCrea 
(Turramurra), F. G. Manning, C. J. B. Symon (Adelaide). 

CANADA. G. Drummond Burn (Ottawa), Major C. W. Erlebach (Victoria). 

NEW ZEALAND. J?. J. Besivick (Christchurch), John L. Cope, B.A., F.R.G.S. 
(Wellington), H. J. Edwards (Gisborne), C. Kebbell (Alfredton). 

SOUTH AFRICA. B. R. C. Cavett (Cradock), Max Lewison (Johannesburg), W. G. 
Newby (Kimberley), B. 0. Schonegevel (King William's Town). BRITISH EAST AFRICA. 
Capt. R. Fotheringham (Nairobi), J. F. H. Harper (Ruvin). CEYLON. P. H. Gonnetilleke 
(Colombo), R. L. Spittel (Colombo). DOMINICA. His Honour Robert Walter, C.M.G. 
EGYPT. J. Messervy Norman (Port Tewfik). FEDERATED MALAY STATES. #. L. 
Armstrong (Ipoh), Percy C. Kebbett (Teluk Anson), A. M. Macphail (Sungei Buloh). GOLD 
COAST. J. S. Bignell (Accra), Lieut. C. H. Horsley (Tamale). HONG KONG. R. C. 
Eales, J. W. Gloyn. INDIA. B. H. Burton, L. H. G. Conville, A. C. E. Howeson (Calcutta), 
A. Courtney -Farran (Bombay), R. McCombe, Capt. H. Manley (Gwalior), G. Robertson 
(Calcutta), Rev. Wm. G. Robertson, S. T. Sheppard (Bombay), Major F. S. Whalley. JERSEY, 
CHANNEL ISLANDS: W. G. BeUingham, C. B. Buttfield, J. W. Du Pre, T. F. Pirouet, 
Col. F. H. Voisin, Capt. G. H. Voisin, E. P. Wells. MAURITIUS. J. 8. Morrison 
(Vacoas), R. Pezzani (Port Louis). NIGERIA. F. G. Jepson (Kano), H. J. Jervi* (Zaria), 



Advertisements. 



xvn 




Motor 
Carriages 



with the Daimler Sleeve- Valve Engine 

FOR years a Daimler will maintain its full power with less 
attention than that required for any other type of engine. 
There are no valves to grind, no springs to renew, no tappets 
to adjust, no loss of compression, and always that silence which 
denotes perfect engineering and minimum wear. 

The superiority of a Daimler is known to eoery user. 

The Daimler Company, Ltd., Coventry 




BRITISH EMPIRE GROWN TOBACCO. 

Rhodesian Cigarettes 



Rhodesian Turkish 
Rhodesian Virginian - 



- 8/4 per 100 

- 6/8 per 100 



N.B. Every Cigarette bears the Coat of Arms (as above) of the 
British South Africa Company. 



Matabele Tobacco 



IS/- per Ib. 



Orders for quantities, not less 'than 1000 Cigarettes, or 2 Ibs. Tobacco, 
can be sent overseas free from English duty, prices being : 



CIGARETTES Turkish 

Virginian 

TOBACCO - 



56/- per 1000 \ Air-tight tins of 
421- per 1000 J 100 

9/- per Ib. J or J Ib. air-tight tins 



Manufactured only by : 

JOHN WOOD & SON (?$??$??) LTD. 

2325 QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, E. C.4 



271 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

P. Merron (Kaduna), Cyril Pederson (Warn). RHODESIA. J. McLean (Salisbury), P. A. 
May (Livingstone), V. 8. Rowbotham (Salisbury). STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. R. Ingham 
(Malacca), H. Towner (Malacca). TANGANYIKA TERRITORY. 4. A. M. Ishenvood 
(Arusha). UGANDA. Capt. 0. J. Keane, D.8.0. ARGENTINE. F. Bluett (Buenos 
Aires), W. 8. Payne (Buenos Aires), W. J. R. Walton (Buenos Aires), J. Wilson (Buenos 
Aires). UNITED STATES. >7. Louder (San Francisco). VENEZUELA. H. Frazer (Caracas). 
UNATTACHED TO ANY COLONY. T. C. H. Anderson. 

ASSOCIATES : 

Miss Edith Armstrong, Lady Atholstan (Montreal), Miss A. L. Barker, Mrs. A. D. 
Blackader (Montreal), F. Ivor Bradley, Miss L. Chesterton (Montreal), Mrs. J. J. Craig 
(Epsom, Auckland), Mrs. 0. Goch, Miss E. T. Hill (Kampala), Miss A. K. McDougals (Mon- 
treal), Mrs. M. E. Main, Miss K. M. Norman (Nairobi), Miss L. Thomas, M.A. 

BRISTOL BRANCH; Associates : Miss E. M. Beck, Mrs. J. C. Beecroft, R. Blackmore, B. 
Brock, Miss O. R. Chudkigh, Mrs. L. Durie, P. C. Ford, A. 0. Gooding, T. O. Gunton, G. C. 
Hand, A. E. Hill, E. A. Hughes, J. E. Jones, H. A. Mansfield, Miss E. E. Morgan, A. H. 
Oxenford, G. V. Packer, Miss K. W. Pratt, Mrs. I. F. Pugh, S. H. Reutzsch, M.D., Mrs. E. 
M. B. Russell, 8. G. Turner, E. Warne, Miss H. H. S. Watkins, R. H. Webb, H. C. Wilson. 

CAMBRIDGE BRANCH. Resident Fellows : Lord Ashley, H. F. Bird, R. Branston, N. V. 
Brasnttt, K. B. Butten, R. H. Cholmondeley, R. M. C. de Calry, E. T. Dodd, L. G. Hayward, 
A. C. Haddon, Sc.D., F.R.S., J. 8. Johnston, J. H. Leycester, J. C. F. Newman, W. L. Parsons, 
R. E. Priestley, F. D. 8. Richardson, W. R. Hornby Steer, R. N. Stokes, Lt.-Col L. Tebbutt, 
W. M. Walters, J. L. Warner, J. E. A. Wheatter, H. E. Wyatt. Non-Resident Fellows : 
Alan G. McGregor (New Zealand), W. G. Peterson (Montreal). Affiliated Members : D. 
Graham (New York City), C. B. Humphreys (Mass., U.8.A.). Associates : Mrs. L. M. C. 
Branston, Mrs. J. Gillies. 

HANTS AND DORSET BRANCH. Resident Fellows : L. W. Bristowe, A. Tocher, Capt. 
H. W. Turner. Associates : Mrs. H. G. Bristowe, Miss H. Cressey, Mrs. L. M. Finlay, Mrs. 
C. B. Pontifex, Miss M. M. Rowland. 

LIVERPOOL BRANCH. Resident Fellows : Capt. J. V. Forster, Lt.-Col. David C. Pugh, 
D.8.0. 

MANCHESTER BRANCH. Resident Fellow : A. D. Sturrock. Associate : T. E. Cottier. 

SUSSEX BRANCH. Resident Fellows : Admiral Sir Lewis Beaumont, G.C.B., K.C.M.G., 
Col. W. H. Campion, C.B., D.L., E. A. W. Phillips, M.I.C.E., Col. G. T. Rawnsky, 
Hon. Dudley A. C. Scott. Associates : Hon. Mrs. L. 8. Bethett, Hon. Mrs. Gertrude Campion, 
Miss M. G. Campion, Miss V. R. Carr, Mrs. F. Cockburn, Mrs. A. C. Z. Cory, Mrs. A. 
Dalglish, Mrs. E. A. Feldtmann, Miss E. Forlong, Mrs. A. M. Gardiner, Mrs. M. Godfrey t 
Mrs. E. F. Harvey, Miss M. E. Hearn, Mrs. M. M. Hearn, Mrs. E. A. Hickman, Mrs. F. M. 
Lang-Gieve, Mrs. A. F. Lee, Mrs. A. D. McNeil, Miss H. M. Manuelk, Miss A. M. Manuette, 
Mrs. E. Moberly, Mrs. E. E. York Moore, Mrs. F. W. Myers, Miss E. F. Nicholson, Mrs. 
S. L. Phillips, Mrs. K. Ravenor, Mrs. F. M. Rawnsley, Mrs. M. Whapham. 

OBITUARY. 

The following deaths of Fellows and Associates are noted with regret : 

Colonel James Burston, Mrs. E. H. Eliot, Wardrop M. Hill, Capt. E. J. Wilkinson, O.B.E., 

F. W. Burch, J. A. Williams, Mrs. G. A. Gibbs, C.B.E., George Osborne, Alderman A. J. 

Smith, Major J. G. Maynard, T. C. Robinette, K.C., James D. McCulloch, R. S. Felton, W. C. 

Thomson, Major Sir Hamilton J. Goold-Adams, G.C.M.G., C.B., T. R. Fisher, Alfred Arthur 

Millington, Robt. Birtwistle, Dr. G. de Castro, Lady Russell-Cotes, S. L. Lazarus, J. G. 

Bartholomew, LL.D., James Smith, Mrs. T. J. Lang, John W. Barclay, H. R. Green, C. W. 

Hull, T. B. Morley, F. E. Tirbutt, William Flint, H. G. Garnett, J. H. Greene, A. Ogilvie. 

ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE FIFTY-SECOND SESSION. 1920. 

The following Meetings have already been arranged, and will be held at the Central 

Hall, Westminster: 

TUESDAY, MAY 11, at 8 p.m." Through British Columbia with Cinema ": Beauty Spots, 
Resources and Industries of the Riviera of Canada. Introduction by F. C. WADE, Esq., 
K.C., Agent-General for British Columbia. The Hon. Sir G. PEBLEY, K.C.M.G., will preside. 

TUESDAY, MAY 18, at 3.30 p.m. " The Cameroons " (with lantern illustrations), by L. W. G. 
MALCOLM, Esq. 



Advertkementi. 



PAUL WINN & CO. Lid. 

72 Mark Lane, London, E.C.3. 

IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS 



OF 



Produce, Chemicals and Foodstuffs 

ESTABLISHED 1883. 

Bankers: BARCLAYS BANK, LTD., 170 FENCHURCH ST., E.G. 

Correspondence from reliable Shippers invited; open 
to make advances upon their Consignments. 

Cables : " SNOWWHITE, LONDON." Codes : A B C, STH EDITION AND PRIVATE. 



FERRER HAWKINS & CO. 



Sfija. 

Codes Lieber's, 4 RASINfmHAI I STRFFT T ONIDON FT ? Telephone: 
ABC 5th. Bentley's ^ D/\Oli>Ujn/\L.I_ O 1 K.HH, 1 , LWlNUUiN, E.X.. Z Central 2514 

Marconi's Associated with William H. Knox & Co., Inc., New York 

General Import and Export Merchants 

IMPORTERS OF COLONIAL AND EAST INDIAN 
PRODUCE TO LONDON AND NEW YORK. 

Offers invited on c.i.f. Basis. Consignments. 

EXPORTERS OF IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS, MACHINERY, PRODUCE, CHEMICALS, AND GENERAL 
MERCHANDISE from UNITED KINGDOM, CANADA, and U.S.A. to the COLONIES, and all Sooth American Republic!. 
Offers on c.i.f. Basis. Indents on Commission Basis 

imiMiimmmiiiiiiimiJMMiiiimiimiiiiiiiiimiimiiimimiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiJiiJiimuumiuiiM 

lEconomic Trapicai Outfit and^JKit 

Telephone: Ge^d 2706 EVERITT PENN & CO., LTD. 

16 PANTON STREET, HAYMARKET, 
LONDON, S.W.I. 

Specialists in complete Equipment for East, West and Central Africa. It will pay you to let us 
quote for your requirements. We supply best outfit and kit at lowest prices. 

ENQUIRIES ESTIMATES GOODS PACKED MAIL ORDERS HEADS & SKINS 
INVITED SUBMITTED AND SHIPPED BUYING AGENTS MOUNTED 

| TENTS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, MOSQUITO CURTA^ BOXES, COOKS & CHOP BOXES, etc 

iuiirnmaiimunimmiimiimminimimiiuiimmiiniimmiiiiiiwuMuiuimiiiiiiiiiii^ 



272 NOTICES TO FELLOWS. 

PAYMENT OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

Rule 20. All subscriptions shall be due and payable on January 1 in each year. 
Ride 21. No Fellow shall be entitled to vote, or enjoy any other privilege of 
the Institute, so long as his subscription shall be in arrear. 

PHOTOGRAPHS OF FELLOWS. 

Messrs. Maull & Fox, of 187, Piccadilly, London, W. 1, are the official photographers to 
the Royal Colonial Institute. ^__ 

BADGE FOR FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

A Badge of Fellowship and Associateship is available for those who may desire to 
show their connection with the work in which the Institute is engaged. The Badge 
consists of a miniature jewel representing the orest of the Institute, in gold and 
enamel for Fellows, and silver and enamel for Associates. The Badge, with ring for 
attaching to the watch-chain, will be supplied to Fellows and Associates, at a cost of 
4. Qd. each, or with solitaire fitting for the button-hole at a cost of 5s. each, upon application 
being made to the Secretary of the Institute. 

LIST OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

The list of Fellows for 1919, corrected to September 30, is now ready, and copies can 
be obtained at 2s. Qd. each. 

ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES OF FELLOWS AND ASSOCIATES. 

AKBIVALS. 

Argentine. T. C. E. Fowler. Australia. C. Manners, A. Sanderson, M.L.C. Brazil. 
8. T. Bryan, R. N. Davies. British East Africa. Owen O. Frere. British Guiana. Rev. 
Canon W. J. Moody, A. F. White. British Honduras. IF. L. McKinstry. Canary Islands. 
A. P. Colquhoun. Ceylon. T. B. Kerr. China. Rt. Hon. Sir John Jordan, O.C.I. E., K.C.B. 
East Africa. A. C. Hollis, C.M.G., James Johnston, J. F. Walker, L. E. B. Pearse, W. H. 
Tanner. Egypt. A. R. Michell. Federated Malay States. Harold Bradshaw, G. T. Cargey, 
Colin H. Miller. France. Rev. E. H. Wittiams Ashman. Gibraltar. B. A. Fetherston Dilke, 
M.B., M.R.C.8. India. Lt.-Col. F. P. Maynard, H. 0. D. Turnbull. New Hebrides. 

E. Jacomb. New Zealand. A. R. Atkinson, Col. E. R. Logan, C.B. Rhodesia. S. W. 
Cooper, J. C. C. Coxhead. South Attic&.Hugh Anderson, E. Crage, G. Barfield, T. M. 
Steele. Straits Settlements. 0. P. Bradney, D. T. Lewis. Uganda. J. P. V. Jervoise, E. 
Richardson. United States; A. D. R. GaUoway, L. M. Nalder. West Africa. Norman S. 
Davis, J. Donnelly, E. C. Harvey, Major H. A. Lewis, M.C., R.E., Rt. Rev. M. S. O'Rorke, 
John W. Speer, W. A. Stacey, G. J. F. Tomlinson, G. A. C. Ulrich, J. W. Walsh. Zanzibar. 
J. Ernest Ray. 

DEPARTURES. 

Argentine. Major R. Cameron, Edward L. Lunt. Australia. G. J. Boudry, E. L. Evans, 
L. Hordern, J. S. Jeffery, R. Wilson Knox, Capt. D. Wood Milne, M.C., W. Gordon Sprigg. 
Brazil. J. A. Davy, J. W. Graham, E. J. Macdonald. British North Borneo. .B. M. 0. 
Cook. Canada. B. Le M. Andrew, E. G. Beaumont, F. Crandett, R. L. B. Jones. Canary 
Islands. H. Stuart Turner. Ceylon. E. H. Simpson. China. J. Maden. Cuba. 
Brig.-Gen. A. Jack, C.B., C.M.G., C.B.E. Egypt. J. Growder. Federated Malay States. 
W. R. Boyd, T. P. Coe, H. G. Dalton, A. Vernon Humby, E. W. Josselyn, Maclean Kay, C. L. 
Parsons, H. W. Reid. French Cameroons. C. W. Luff. Hong Kong. F. B. L. Bowley. 
India. Capt. F. Cook, P. J. Cowie, Capt. J. D. Lamb, A. Stapylton, Capt. R. W. F. Trevelyan. 
Morocco. Leonard C. Wood. New Zealand. Robt. Burn, Martin Chapman. Rhodesia. 

F. G. Bowler, J. S. Bridger, F. J. Clarke, J. W. Downie, Geoffrey Harrison. South Africa. 
Capt. 0. A. Cowin, Dr. N. L. Gebhard, G. C. N. Mackarness, J. M. Orpen, R. B. Purves, Capt. 
A. H. Richards, A. Johnstone Smith. Uganda. J. P. Tottand. United States. Lt.-Col 
0. F. Brothers, O.B.E. West Africa. Capt. A. Louis CasteUain, A. E. Cradick, B.E., F.R.G.S., 
H. D. France, Chas. Higgins, H. Ince, Capt. B. W. Macpherson, A. G. Moreton, Capt. J. Neitt- 
Green, P. R. Rowland, R. W. Scott, Dr. J. P. B. Snett, E. W. M. Williams. West Indies. J. E. 
Faddk, R. Johnstone, C.M.G., R. Sharpe, E. A. Turpin. 



fH*ted by Sfiottirwowl*. BaUtntynt * Co. LM., Cotchnter. London tnd Bio* 



THE ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE JOUBNAL 



VOL. XI. JUNE 1920 No. 6 



The Institute is not responsible for statements made or opinions expreased 
by authors of articles and papers or in speeches at meetings. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

KEEN though the civilised world may be to make the League of 

Nations a reality, Field-Marshal Sir Henry Wilson's warning that the 

war did not, and could not, end war finds justification 

of Pea^e ahlt East and West< At tlie be g mnm g of Ma 7 the revolu- 
tionary forces in Mexico sprang into vigorous life, and 

President Carranza, a fugitive, has since been murdered. America is 
debating the consequences with ill-disguised anxiety. About the same 
time Poland launched an attack on the Bolshevists, who have been a 
terror on her frontier for months past. Marshal Pilsudski and General 
Petlura joined hands, the Poles swept forward to Kieff, and the 
Ukraine freed itself from the Soviet yoke, for the moment at any rate. 
The Bolshevists are making an effort to overwhelm the Polish-Ukrainian 
forces as they overwhelmed Judenitch and Denikin. Not merely 
the peculiar friends of Lenin and Trotsky in England denounce Polish 
aggression ; Lord Robert Cecil is shocked that the League of Nations 
was not invoked to restrain the Poles from an attack for which he says 
they were notoriously preparing. The British Government is sharply 
criticised because it provided Poland with some of the munitions 
without which she could not hope to defend herself from Bolshevist 
machinations. Those who denounce Poland's action, curiously, 
are silent as to the Bolshevist seizure of Persian territory from the 
Caspian, and the trouble this may involve not only to Persia but to 
India. Bolshevist arms and Bolshevist propaganda will not make the 
way to peace easier in Central Asia. Neither will the recalcitrance 
which is bound to follow the Turkish Peace Treaty nor America's 
refusal to accept the Armenian mandate. That the Turks should 
be shocked at the terms imposed on them, and particularly at the 
handing over of Thrace and Smyrna to Greece, is in keeping with 
the belief of the criminal that failure in nefarious enterprise is its own 
sufficient penalty. Mr. Justice Ameer AH regards the Treaty " with 

a 



274 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

amazement," and Lord Chelmsford has issued an appeal to the Moslems 
which in itself is proof that the terms are hardly less drastic than the 
crimes of Turkey warrant. The one step forward towards a settlement 
of international differences is the decision of the amount, not yet 
revealed, arrived at by Mr. Lloyd George and M. Millerand at Lympne, 
which Germany must pay. The Spa meeting has been postponed for 
a month in view of the forthcoming German elections. When the 
German delegates meet the Allies they will find that Great Britain and 
France are of one mind, and that guarantees of good faith are the only 
way to economic recovery for Germany. 

MR. BONAR LAW'S statement in Parliament of the decision to give 

Canada direct representation at Washington confirmed the report 

mentioned in these pages two months ago. This is a 

distinct constitutional step forward, and obviously in 
Washington. ,. . ~. . . 

conformity with the new status of the Dominions. 

It is not so much a departure from practice as a supplement 
and a confirmation. Canada has on more than one important 
occasion, where her interests were concerned, been allowed a special 
representative. At Washington her interests are constant and many. 
Criticism of the new arrangement, curiously enough, comes from Canada, 
where it is objected that it has been made without consultation with 
Parliament. The point might surely have been raised with more 
effect at Westminster, but on this side there is approval only. Not 
the least noteworthy feature of the scheme is that when the British 
Ambassador is absent the Canadian Minister will take his place. In 
other words, the Empire will be represented by the Dominion. It 
is naturally asked what view the other Dominions will take. Sooner 
or later they will probably demand that they too should have 
special representatives. The appointment will give Canada a real 
opportunity to fill the role which so many think should be hers 
that of interpreter of things American to Great Britain and of things 
British to the United States. Mr. Bonar Law showed that the 
Imperial Government confidently expect from it closer co-operation 
and goodwill between the Empire and the Kepublic, and Mr. Eowell 
at Ottawa has asserted that it involves no loosening of the ties which 
bind Canada to the King and the Empire. 

LORD MILNER characteristically seized occasion at the Empire 
Parliamentary Association luncheon to Mr. W. A. Watt, the Common- 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 275 

wealth Treasurer, to make a suggestion which demands the serious 
thought of all concerned with the future relations of the Dominions 
and the Mother Country. Mr. Watt had expressed the 
Wanted an opinion that the directors of " John Bull & Company " 
5^ did not hold enough board-meetings. The firm, said 

House n8: Lor(1 ^ mer ' ha(i many branches with almost indepen- 
dent boards. The last few years have shown that a 
few hours' conversation will accomplish more than months of long- 
range correspondence. What is wanted is some sort of Imperial 
Clearing House for the constant interchange of information and views. 
' Would it not be possible," asked the Secretary of State, " for the 
Ministry of every Dominion to have at least one of its members always 
over here constantly available for discussion with his colleagues of 
the other Dominions and with some member or members of the British 
Government ? " Failing the presence of actual members of the 
Dominion Cabinets, some such Clearing House might surely be con- 
stituted of the High Commissioners. Only so can we guarantee, to 
quote Mr. Watt, that " the Empire's voice in international affairs 
comes from one set of lips." He instanced the importance of Australian 
views being registered in any future discussion with Japan, and the 
importance is in no way lessened by the frank admission that as a 
working machine the Empire is absolutely essential to the existence 
of the Dominions. 

SIR LOMER GOUIN'S too brief visit to London affords an excellent 
example of the value of personal contact. The whole Empire is proud 
of Quebec, but certain controversies in the last few years 

have led to ^apprehensions on botl1 sides * " Akeady 
wrong and biassed judgments are being revised," said 
the Prime Minister of the Province at the Canada Club. As Sir 
George Perley put it, there are naturally some differences of opinion 
between the two races who have made Canada what she is, but personal 
relations are always cordial. Sir Lomer Gouin has devoted his long 
years of public life to the eminently patriotic task of helping British 
and French Canadians better to understand each other's point of 
view. He is a disciple of Cartier and Wilfrid Laurier, and if he is able 
to claim justly that in 1920 the loyalty of French Canadians " will 
stand comparison with the loyalty of our forefathers who twice answered 
the call to arms, and helped to save Canada to the British Throne," 
the credit is largely his own. Quebec shares with the Dominion the 



276 EDITORIAL MOTES AND COMMENTS. 

brightest of economic prospects. As in British Columbia, of whose 
resources Mr. F. C. Wade gave a wonderful picture at a crowded 
gathering of the Royal Colonial Institute on May II, so in Quebec 
Nature of her bounty has placed unlimited opportunities at the com- 
mand of British capital and British labour, and Sir Lomer Gouin is 
as earnest as Mr. Wade in advocating that they should be exploited 
by and for the peoples who make up the British Empire. 

THE welcome given to the Prince of Wales throughout New 

Zealand was as cordial as that he received in Canada which is 

saying a good deal. His visit created unbounded 

k 5 ince enthusiasm. From war veteran to stricken invalid and 
of \^T sties. 

small child, the population, Maori and Briton alike, 

vied with each other to pay tribute to His Royal Highness as Prince 
and as man. During four weeks of panoramic progress he again 
" played up," as the King so happily said on his return from 
Canada. A leading member of the Government told The Times corres- 
pondent that the Prince could win any electorate in New Zealand. 
What could be happier than his suggestion that the evolution of 
Christchurch is " typical of the development of British democratic 
principles, a development which has made the British Empire a 
mighty bulwark of freedom and justice with an equal chance for all " ? 
The Mayor of Christchurch addressed him as Brother Digger. The 
visit has been full of symbols. The mounting of a foot-plate and driving 
oi an engine, the adjustment of a child's camera so that she should not 
miss her snapshot, the " You win ! " to the soldier who said his mates had 
laid a wager the Prince would not give him a cigarette what a series 
of texts for preaching the gospel of democratic and constitutional 
monarchy ! In Australia the Prince's reception has been all that could 
be desired. Certain sections of Labour have withheld their support 
from the arrangements for making the visit to the Commonwealth 
as memorable a demonstration as that of either Canada or New 
Zealand. Australia has many problems to solve. Mr. Watt is in 
London to deal with those which concern the Commonwealth as a 
whole ; Mr. E. G. Theodore, the Premier of Queensland, and Sir Robert 
Philp, the ex-Premier, and others are here to lay financial and con- 
stitutional questions affecting the State before the Imperial authorities. 
Whilst difficulties are being attacked at home, the Prince of Wales will, 
there is nothing very rash in prophesying, be creating an atmosphere, 
even in Queensland, which will make their solution easier than they 
might otherwise be. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 277 

To ascertain how far the lessons taught by the war have been 
earned and applied, was no doubt Lord Haldane's immediate purpose 
in opening a discussion in the House of Lords regarding 
the Committee of Imperial Defence, and its relation 
to the War Staffs of the Navy, Army and Air Force- 
Co-ordination and co-operation were the factors essential to success 
in the war. The co-ordination lesson is not new : it appears again 
and again in our Imperial history, and it has merely been emphasised 
by the introduction of the aerial arm. As for co-operation, the war 
showed above all what a common policy in military matters means 
to an Empire of free peoples. Is the Empire to have a General Staff 
which shall do for the whole what it is suggested a Joint General Staff, 
working with a Ministry of Defence, would do at home for the Navy, 
Army and Air Force ? Lord Curzon made two things clear : first, 
that no decision will be taken, or even attempted, till the Imperial 
Conference meets next year ; second, that much depends upon the 
League of Nations. The Empire has hopes of the League, but refuses 
to take risks pending their fulfilment. This much may at least be 
said. Whatever the extent and character of the armaments which 
it may be determined to maintain when the League has shown in 
what degree it can influence international opinion, and control inter- 
national action there will still be wisdom in co-operation for defence. 
The British League of Nations is a minor, as the League of Nations 
should be a major, guarantee that would-be aggressors will beware of 
entrance to a quarrel. 

LONDON, by presenting its freedom to Lord Jellicoe and Lord French, 

the twin commanders who bore the brunt of the responsibility in the 

opening years of the war, has completed the roll which 

Lord Jellicoe includes tte names of Marshal Foch, Lord Haig, and 

Lord French ^ or ^ Beatty, on whom devolved the burden of carrying 
through to triumph the work Lord Jellicoe and Lord 
French began. What Lord French said for the Army is true of the 
Navy. " It was too soon to pronounce a verdict on the teeming 
episodes of the greatest war ever known. Their deeds must be judged, 
as they would be accurately and faithfully, at the bar of history." 
What history will surely say is that both Lord Jellicoe and Lord French 
had the more anxious task if only because they had to face novel, if not 
unknown, conditions by sea and land. The escapes were many and 
narrow, no doubt, but the mistakes made by the enemy determined 
the issue. An incomparable Navy and an equally incomparable 



278 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

-Expeditionary Force, whose spirit was passed on to its successors in 
the field, were reinforced by the ships and men from the Dominions, 
and Lord Jellicoe had their part in mind when he said that he looked 
forward with the most pleasurable anticipation to his five years in 
New Zealand. ' We should," he added, " not let the strength of the 
Empire Navy fade away until we were certain that no menace to our 
sea supremacy existed in the world." The Institute will have its own 
opportunity of wishing " God Speed " to Lord Jellicoe at the Annual 
Dinner on June 11, as well as of greeting that brilliant General, 
Lord Home. 

DURING his visit to Canada, to attend the West Indies-Canada 

Conference, Lt.-Col. Amery will, it is hoped, be invited to consider the 

future position of British Honduras. If federation with 

some other British possession is essential to develop- 
Honduras. . , , f, T , 

ment, it would seem that Jamaica, from its comparative 

proximity, is more suitable than Canada, in spite of the fact that 
commercial relations with the Dominion have become established on 
a large scale. The West Indies, as a whole, have their commercial 
interests chiefly in Canada, but union with Canada is not generally 
regarded with favour. Many West Indians look forward to a 
West Indian Commonwealth in which all the Caribbean colonies 
shall be united. The British possession nearest to British Honduras 
is Jamaica, which is 700 miles away. The Colony's sea trade, therefore, 
is with Canada and the United States, and its inland trade with Mexico 
and Guatemala. Like British Guiana, British Honduras suffers from 
want of development, and the establishment of steamship communi- 
cation with the Mother Country should certainly enter into the general 
shipping scheme which is essential to the developments of the British 
West Indies. Some years ago, the idea of building a railway from 
Belize (the capital) to the Mexican frontier was considered ; but the 
Colonial Office vetoed the scheme, and substituted one for the establish- 
ment of a short line in the Stann Creek district, to assist the banana 
industry. British Honduras is celebrated for its timber, notably 
mahogany, and has unquestionably valuable resources awaiting 
development. 

THREE articles on Rhodesia, published in The Times, from the 

pen of Professor Eric Walker, of Capetown University, have appeared 

almost simultaneously with the announcement of the 

~D V* /"\ rl rMr* i v* 

result of the Southern Khodesian Elections, which 
produced an overwhelming majority in favour of self- 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 279 

government. One of the successful candidates was Mrs. Tawse Jollie, 
better known to our readers as Mrs. Archibald Colquhoun, whom 
we congratulate sincerely upon her election. Her forceful person- 
ality and remarkable gifts would add lustre to any parliamentary 
assembly. Later telegrams have described the interesting debate 
in the Legislative Council, which lasted for a week. By 12 votes to 
5, Sir Charles Coghlan's motion was adopted, asking the Imperial 
Government to establish responsible government, " which the Territory 
required for the proper development of its resources, and the freedom 
and prosperity of its people." The next move lies with the Colonial 
Secretary, who, as lately as last August, indicated that in view of the 
financial difficulty to be surmounted, responsible government was at 
present out of the question, though a suggestion of the representative 
variety might be considered. The financial difficulty does not trouble 
the majority of the Rhodesian Council, who argue that the country 
could not be saddled with any portion of the accumulated deficits 
due to the Chartered Company, except the Public Works Debt, which 
would be less than 1 ,000,000. Lord Milner will probably await the 
Report of the Cave Commission, which is overdue, before commit- 
ting himself to any further pronouncement on the subject. At the 
moment when Rhodesia has declared so emphatically for self-govern- 
ment, there is an almost dramatic fitness in the burial of Sir Starr 
Jameson beside Cecil Rhodes in the Matoppos. "With the exception 
of Rhodes," telegraphed General Smuts, " no man had a better right 
to be called the Founder of Rhodesia." 

THE heroes who succeeded in the Cairo to the Cape flight, and the 
heroes who failed, have been entertained on their return to London. 
Colonel van Ryneveld and Flight-Lieutenant Brand 

on botl1 of whom His Ma i est F has conferred the K - KE - 

Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, Captain Cockerell, Captain 
Broome, and their companions and assistants were pioneers in an 
enterprise which should be as conspicuous a mark in history as the 
rounding of the Cape of Storms by Bartholomew Diaz. The honours 
fell to the two South African pilots, but The Times pilots and machine 
accomplished something that would have been regarded as a Jules 
Verne dream less than a decade ago. At the Anglo-African dinner 
Mr. Churchill said he had no doubt the Cairo to the Cape airway 
would years hence be sure, safe, and regular, and we owe a debt of 
gratitude to " the men who showed the way." The experience gained 
from the failure of The Times machine has been not less valuable than 



280 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

that derived from the van Ryneveld-Brand success. From the Empire 
point of view the flight was of first-rate significance. As Prince 
Albert said at the luncheon given by the Imperial Air Fleet Committee 
to Colonel van Ryneveld and Flight-Lieutenant Brand, it means a 
new link in " the widespread comity of nations which forms the 
Empire." That link will be strengthened by Sir Hesperus van 
Ryneveld's appointment to control aviation in South Africa, whilst 
Sir Christopher Brand will remain in England. Mr. R. A. Blanken- 
berg, as Acting High Commissioner for South Africa, read an 
extract from a Minute of the South African Ministry to the Imperial 
Government showing how highly South Africa appreciates " the enter- 
prise and foresight " which, by laying out the aerial route, " made 
possible the accomplishment of the wonderful air journey from London 
to the Cape." 



THE situation in Ireland has gone from bad to worse. Crime has 
assumed such proportions that the Government have found it necessary 
. to augment the military forces. Meantime the latest 
of Home Rule Bills is running the Parliamentary 
gauntlet by large majorities. It requires courage to hope that it will 
bring ultimate peace. The Sinn Feiners regard it with open contempt ; 
the North accepts it, but with misgiving. The criticism to which it 
is subject is, however, not more severe than that which has fallen on 
the reports of the Speaker's Devolution Committee. It was probably 
not altogether an accident that the scheme for giving Home Rule to 
England, Scotland and Wales should appear whilst the Irish Bill was 
before the House of Commons. Devolution has become urgent. 
Local Parliaments alone can relieve the congestion of business, and 
leave the Imperial Parliament free to discharge ever-growing Imperial 
duties. It is, however, felt that any plan for creating a subordinate 
Parliament for England with 500 members is self-condemned, especially 
if, as the Speaker proposes, the members who sit in the Imperial are 
to sit also in the local legislature. Such a scheme would aggravate 
present troubles. If local Parliaments are to be created, then, it is 
urged, they must have a personnel different from that of the Imperial 
Parliament, and England must be subdivided, North and South. In 
other words, what is objected to in Ireland is advocated for England. 
Devolution is clearly a matter more complicated than the inverse 
process, with which the Dominions are familiar, of creating a federal 
system. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 281 

THE world is becoming anxious as to its oil supply. Motorists and 
motor manufacturers are eagerly debating the possibility of finding 

a substitute. There is a prospect of serious shortage 
' he ?!? lpire everywhere, which the coming of the oil ship will speedily 

aggravate. The American Bureau of Mines says the 
consumption of petroleum is increasing faster than production, and 
that American wells will give out in twenty years. Canada is warned 
by the Imperial Oil Company that, unless success attends the drilling 
operations in Saskatchewan and Alberta, she may find herself badly 
in need of fuel oil. Australia has entered into an agreement with 
the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, and the Commonwealth and Imperial 
Governments are co-operating in Papua in the hope of securing supplies, 
half of which will go to Australia. An Empire Motor Fuels Committee 
has been appointed by the Imperial Motor Transport Council to report 
on the whole question, with especial reference to the requirements of 
the British Empire. British efforts to discover new sources of supplies 
have started a not perhaps wholly innocent fear in America, that Great 
Britain is attempting to secure a world monopoly, and President Wilson 
has issued a report protesting against the British policy of exclusion. 
The report was helpful in securing the support of the Senate for a 
measure creating the United States Oil Corporation, for the develop- 
ment of new oil fields. Sir Auckland Geddes has neatly countered 
the suggestion of monopoly designs by pointing out that America 
controls 82 per cent, of the world's oil supplies, whilst British 
interests, in time of emergency, might control 5 per cent. 

THE upward race between prices and Wages continues, with signs here 
and there of a determined effort to arrest the movement. The upward 

tendency is due to a variety of causes, not all of which 
Prices and are g enera ]iy. recognised, and some at least of which 

can only be remedied by time. The universal shortage 
of raw materials is one factor ; faulty distribution is another. A 
further cause is that some industries which flourished before 1914 
seem to have been definitely killed by the war ; the beet-sugar industry 
in Germany and Austria, for example, appears unlikely to revive, owing 
to the fact that beet-sugar is cultivated best in large farms, and 
properties in Central Europe are now split up, with the result that 
small -holders cannot make beet an economic crop. Some beet is now 
being grown in England, and a factory has been started, Govern- 
ment capital assisting private enterprise ; but years must elapse 
before this can make an appreciable difference to British sugar imports, 



282 EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

and the demand is greater than ever. What is true of sugar is true 
of almost every commodity ; the demand is greater and the supply 
is less than in 1914. These are the ordinary economic considerations, 
to which must be added the financial considerations that money, like 
everything else, has 'advanced in price and diminished in amount. 
Nor is the outlook assisted by the proposed levy on war fortunes, 
which the committee report as practicable but undesirable, and bankers 
and financiers generally condemn as certain to inflict a heavy blow 
on credit and industry. 

BUT apart altogether from economic and financial reasons there 

are two social factors which are driving up prices. Productive labour 

is recruited from young men, and it was precisely 

young men who were killed in the war. For that 

Factors. , , r -i , rm 

reason there is a shortage of labour. Ine last time 
such a shortage occurred was after the Black Death in the fourteenth 
century, when there was more work to be done than workers to do it. 
The immediate result then was that Labour demanded better terms 
from the employers, and a similar cause is now producing a similar 
result. Shorter hours and higher wages are both forcing prices up, 
as they did in mediaeval England ; it is true that the twentieth century 
has a remedy which was not available under Edward III, since 
expensive labour conduces directly to the employment of machinery, 
which leaves wages high but reduces prices by increasing the output 
per man. But it takes time to install and obtain results from machinery. 
We are in the transition stage when labour conditions have been 
bettered but machinery has not brought down prices. The final 
and decisive factor in forcing up prices is only remediable by time. 
The population is larger than it was in 1914, but the producing popula- 
tion is smaller. The war cost us a million young men, and their 
places have been taken by over a million babies. Every child is a 
consumer for the first sixteen years of its life, and a consumer only. 
The old argument that every mouth that comes into the world brings 
with it two hands to feed it is entirely fallacious, for the mouth 
consumes from first to last, whereas the hands are capable only part 
of the time. It will take several years for this factor to right itself. 
Moreover, there appear to be indications that the birth-rate of the 
working classes is slightly increasing, owing to increased prosperity, 
and this more than makes good the seriously diminished fertility of 
the professional classes, who are limited in number and marry later 
and less frequently. 



283 



THE FIJI ISLANDS AS AN IMPERIAL OPPORTUNITY. 

IN the furtherance of any policy of Empire development, England would do 
well to consider the scope for advancement afforded by the Crown Colonies. 
Full of undeveloped resources, many of the islands of the British Empire offer 
excellent opportunities for a vigorous scheme of colonial expansion. 

Take, for example, the Fiji Island group. Here the Imperial Government 
has a possession ideal from a colonising standpoint. The land is extraordinarily 
rich and productive. At present its main products are sugar-cane, bananas, 
copra (from coconuts), tobacco, rubber, rice, sisal-hemp and maize. Sugar- 
cane cultivation and sugar manufacture have been exploited on a large scale 
by three big companies. Foremost is the Colonial Sugar Kenning Company 
of Sydney which operates at Nausori, Earawai, Lautoka, Nadi, Tavua and 
Sigatoka on the capital island (Viti Levu), and at Labasa on the next largest 
island (Vanua Levu). This company has sugar mills at Earawai, Lautoka, 
Nausori and Labasa. At the first three mentioned mills only brown sugar is 
produced, but a carbonising plant is now installed at Labasa which produces 
the white sugar as marketed. This company an Australian concern with a 
capital of three and a quarter million pounds possesses about 250 miles of 
railway lines, excellently built and run. A profit of three-quarters of a million 
pounds was made during the first six months of the war a ten per cent, 
dividend plus five shillings per share bonus being paid to shareholders, a Seven 
and a half per cent, bonus to the staff, and a large sum carried to reserves. I 
quote these figures to show that cane cultivation is a profitable industry. 

The other companies operating in Fiji in sugar are English and American 
companies at Navua and Penang both on the capital island, Viti Levu. The 
bulk of sugar produced in Fiji is sent to Auckland and Sydney, where there 
are huge refineries, but Vancouver receives a large quantity also. The culti- 
vation of sugar-canes is carried out on scientific lines. At each district centre, 
experimental laboratories are established for scientific research. New canes 
are annually produced ; these are usually the outcome of a system of hybridisa- 
tion. A new cane will be introduced from another country where, as a rule, 
the sample is indigenous, and it is " crossed " with a " cultivated " cane. For 
example, samples of canes are obtained from New Guinea and sent to Fiji, to be 
treated in conjunction with a standard cane or perhaps a hybrid. Eichness 
in sugar is the object aimed at. Soil analysis is another item which receives 
great attention in cane cultivation. Before a crop is planted, the soil is analysed 
to ascertain if it is sufficiently nitrified to crop, and also to ascertain if the 
necessary " cane foods " are there. I have seen virgin country given five 
operations of tilth before it is finally planted with sugar-cane. These operations 
were (1) " breaking up " with Pelican single-furrowed ploughs, (2) " cross- 
ploughing " with Secretary disc- plough, (3) planting with Mauritius bean, 
(4) ploughing in of bean when full grown, and (5) drilling (the Mauritius 
bean is planted as a green manure). The first cane crop from this field averaged 



284 FIJI ISLANDS AS AN IMPERIAL OPPORTUNITY. 

50 tons per acre ; the field was a " pocket " or " lead," from a river-flat up 
into the hills. I have known alluvial flat land on the Sigatoka River to yield 
66 tons per acre for the original plant crop, and this land was only put 
through three operations, viz. (1) breaking up, (2) cross-ploughing, and (3) 
drilling. The cost of production of sugar-cane varies according to conditions 
of country. Some places are more " weedy " than others, and so require more 
labour to keep clean. The question of pests also enters very seriously. It is in 
the combating of pests that the experimental stations have been so successful. 
The " Fiji Blight " is known throughout the sugar world. It has not yet been 
definitely diagnosed, if a fungus or a germ, but it has been effectively over- 
come. The method shows great thought and knowledge of the subject in hand. 
Cane crops were found to wither and shrivel, and the cause remained secret. 
Methods to overcome the unknown enemy were tried, and this is what was 
eventually done with success. An experimental plot was established on the 
mountains in Fiji (at about 8,000 feet altitude). After the cane had been 
matured here, and been " ratooned " at least twice, this experimental plot 
became the seed-bed from which the seed was drawn for planting down on the 
flat country. Subsequent seed-cane from crops grown from the " cold country " 
seed was found to be disease-resisting. It was a simple process but clever. 

The next big pest was the " borer." This grub enters a cane-stalk at the 
base, and goes right up the pith centre. If neglected, " borers " will soon take 
possession of a field. This pest is now fought in many ways : firstly, by the 
destruction of the beetles which are the egg-layers ; secondly, by destroying 
all borer-infected cane ; and thirdly, by the destruction of the chrysalis of the 
beetle. This last method is another victory for the scientists, and a following 
of the parasitic theory. A fly called " tachinid " is bred and liberated in the 
cane-fields. This fly attacks the " borer " where he commences as an egg. 
Other pests that cane growers had to contend with were field-mice and rats ; 
but the importation of the mongoose from India successfully rid the fields of 
these rodents. Incidentally, the mongoose has almost cleaned out the bird 
life in the island, for he is a great egg-thief .. 

The Fiji native is an inherent slacker ; naturally improvident, he is generally 
an unproductive unit. So undependable is he, as a producer, that planters have 
been compelled to seek elsewhere for labour. Hence the mixed population of 
Fiji. In 1916 the total population of the group was 159,321, made up of 4,552 
Europeans, 89,562 Fijians, 56,853 Indians, 2,515 Polynesians, 2,621 half-castes, 
others (including Chinese and Japanese) 3,218. The Fijian is not extravagant 
in his tastes, and nature has so abundantly endowed his islands with food supplies 
that he can live with a minimum of effort. The seas abound with fish and the 
jungle with fruits. 

The labour on sugar-cane plantations has hitherto been that of indentured 
coolies from India. These men (with a proportion of women) were brought 
from India, under agreement to work for three years. They were housed (and 
for thy first six months fed) by the planters. Wages were at Is. per diem for 
men t and 6d. for women. A recent commission, sent from India to various parts 



FIJI ISLANDS AS AN IMPERIAL OPPORTUNITY. 285 

of the world where indentured Indian labour was employed, reported adversely 
on the whole, and, although -the report was favourable as far as iijiwas concerned, 
the result has been a cessation of emigration under indenture system from India. 
The sugar planter is now dependent on the " free " Indian these are the old 
" time-servers " whose agreements have expired, and who remain as labourers 
in the islands. These free men, however, have demanded an increase in wages, 
and are causing quite a lot of trouble to cane producers who have been so 
accustomed to cheap labour. With the bigger concerns, such as the Colonial 
Sugar Befining Company, a co-operative system is being inaugurated It is 
what is commonly known in India as the " Zamindar " system. Under this 
scheme a planter sub-lets his plantation, in small areas, to small cultivators who 
do the actual cultivation. In Fiji the proprietor of the plantation may either 
be a white man, an Indian, or the Company. The Colonial Sugar itefining 
Company devote a great deal of attention to the " Zamindar " system. They 
have hard-and-fast agreements with their lessees, and divide the land into work- 
able areas, providing necessary residences and buildings for a small farm. The 
areas are so allotted as to leave the cane-fields fairly compact, in order that 
operations of tilth, cutting, etc., may be economically performed. Usually the 
bulk of horse-work (ploughing and drilling) is done by the Company, and the 
charges therefor made as a set-off against the crop. This system of share 
farming is proving a solution of the labour problem, and the results are better. 
A man will produce better results on a proposition in which he has a personal 
interest, as against one in which he is paid but a daily fixed rate. In addition, 
he has his own home, and can indulge in side-lines, such as production of maize, 
rice, tobacco and cattle. 

At the present time, when the question of absorbing the vast number of 
unemployed soldiers and sailors is all-important, I do not hesitate in suggesting 
action on the part of the Government in the direction of establishing farms in 
these islands, and settling thousands of men in a congenial and profitable occu- 
pation. The field for employment is immense, and careful enterprise on behalf 
of the Government would not only result in a solution to a great extent of the 
unemployed problem, but would lead to a wide development of an Empire asset. 
The present shortage of sugar also justifies a move towards the greater production 
of this commodity. There are many suitable areas in Fiji that are adaptable 
to any big scale of operations. Also I know that these "big sugar-producing 
concerns at present operating would welcome a Government-supported scheme 
for the growing of sugar-cane. The Colonial Sugar Befining Company have 
ever adopted the attitude of a " sugar manufacturer " as against that of " cane 
producer." They want the cane, no matter who grows it. I am convinced 
that they would hand over large areas of cultivated land to provide a nucleus 
of a scheme for the settlement of soldiers. 

It may be averred that the tropical climate of Fiji and other islands would 
preclude white men from working there. It is not the case in regard to the 
places specially mentioned. White men work as hard as any black man, if 
not harder. The drivers of locomotives, platelayers and bridge- builders oa 



286 FIJI ISLANDS AS AN IMPERIAL OPPORTUNITY. 

railways, engineers, boilers, fitters, and the hundreds of mechanics in and around 
sugar mills these men toil daily in circumstances less congenial than labour 
in the open on a cane-field. 

The geographical formation of the islands is such that the most productive 
land is situated along the coast and in river valleys. The country rises quickly 
from the seashore to mountains in the interior. The slopes of intervening 
hill-lands are usually covered with jungle, or with dense reeds. These 
reeds are of bamboo species, up to 12 feet high and | in. thick; they grow 
very profusely. When cleared, the country produces a fine grass which is 
excellent for sheep and cattle. On the island of Taviuni the cattle industry 
is well advanced. Not so on the major islands of the group, because the industry 
has not ready access to market, a necessary adjunct to success. 

Transport is the keynote to success of any enterprise in the islands. At 
present the communication between Fiji and the rest of the world is confined to 
three regular services, that of the Vancouver-Sydney mail steamers, and two 
colonial companies which send a steamer once monthly, each on a round trip to 
the islands. This gives a fortnightly service from Vancouver to Suva (Fiji's 
capital) and Sydney, and a regular fortnightly steamer from Sydney to Samoa 
and Tonga by way of Suva and Lautoka (Fiji) each way. The Vancouver 
steamers do not afford many facilities for produce, but the colonial boats 
cater for island trade, especially for the banana industry. Small steamers 
ply between the outlying island ports and the chief shipping centres Suva 
and Lautoka. The capacity of the colonial steamers is 5,000 tons, but most 
of this space is taken up with bananas. It will be readily observed that once 
a 5,000 ton steamer is loaded with 20,000 bunches of bananas, the balance of 
cargo space for other produce is small. 

I have mentioned the suitability of the hill-lands for sheep and cattle rearing. 
The climate on these highlands is- ideal, the drainage is so great as to obviate 
the possibility of foot-rot, and the natural grasses provide perennial feed that 
excludes any necessity for hand feeding. The wool on island -grown sheep is 
not so prolific as in colder countries, but it is of a good quality and fine texture. 
The huge quantity of frozen meat that is annually shipped to the Continent 
proves that a market is ever available for beef and mutton. 

There are several successful coconut and rubber plantations throughout 
the island group. The present price of copra (63 per ton) makes that product 
a very profitable one, and the same applies to rubber. Amongst many planters, 
mixed plantations are sometimes run. You will find coconut plantations with 
rubber trees interspersed ; the poor land will be producing sisal-hemp, and in 
many cases the head lands carry tobacco crops. The long period of waiting 
for coconut and rubber trees to become productive accounts for the introduction 
in the first years of the subsidiary crops, which as a rule disappear when the 
plantation comes into full bearing and an annual crop is ensured. 

Perhaps banana cultivation ranks next to the sugar industry as the most 
important in Fiji. The banana tree is an annual it is of the palm family- 
grown in plantations from a young shoot (from a parent tree), in rows from 



FIJI ISLANDS AS AN IMPERIAL OPPORTUNITY. 287 

12 to 16 feet apart. The tree matures and bears fruit within the year. Each 
tree has one bunch of bananas. Bunches (or stalks) vary in the number of 
bananas to each, but they bear from twelve to fourteen " hands," and a " hand " 
consists of a dozen bananas. The fruit is cut (in the bunch) when green and 
punted down the river to the " store " or market, where fruit-shippers take it 
over, having agreed as to purchase-price on the plantation. This price is gener- 
ally Is. or Is. 3d. per bunch. The bananas are then loaded in cutters or direct 
into the Sydney steamer, according to locality. A cutter is a small sailing- 
vessel very similar to a trawler. These boats then take the bananas to either 
Suva or Momi Bay, the ports of call for steamers. It is a fine sight to see the 
vast numbers of small cutters hovering round about the steamer, some along- 
side discharging their cargoes into the steamer or awaiting their turn. The 
cost to shippers for cutter freight is 3d. per bunch. The steamer to Sydney 
collects 6d. per bunch, so the total cost to the shipper is about 2s. per bunch of 
bananas. Hence the cheap fruit on Sydney markets (24 for 6d.). The steamers 
which carry this fruit to Sydney, Melbourne and Auckland have special storage, 
the air space being kept at a mean temperature of 70 degrees. Although 
picked, bananas ripen very quickly if kept in a dark place or warmth. The 
banana tree is a good grower, it does not need very much labour or attention. 
Keeping the plantation clean in the vicinity of the trees when young is the 
chief essential. 

The cultivation of maize is a very profitable business. I have known river 
flats (leased to Indians) that produced three crops in one year. Pine-apples 
are indigenous to these islands and would prove a profitable industry were 
access to market available. In Queensland it has proved to be a very paying 
concern. Pine-apples are easily grown, planted, like the banana, from 
suckers from an old plant. The pine-apple may be found wild in the jungle. 
Of the other fruits, the " mummy apple " or pawpaw would prove a marketable 
product. The pawpaw tree grows about 12 feet high ; it has a large leaf which 
grows straight out from a straight, single, symmetrical trunk. The fruit grows 
from the main trunk and is very like a melon in appearance. The centre is 
filled with a dark seed of pepsin flavour, whilst the flesh is yellow and of the 
consistency of a rock-melon. This fruit provides a wonderful breakfast dish 
and an addition to fruit salad. Its cultivation would pay handsomely, could 
the fruit be marketed reasonably. This also applies to lemons, oranges and 
mandarins, which grow profusely in the jungle. 

Surely, then, a country with all these attributes and possibilities is worth 
developing. It is a question of ways and means. I can only suggest the 
following of the lines so palpably marked out by the Companies operating at 
present. First the " Zamindar " system, substituting the Government for the 
Companies, and the discharged soldiers and sailors (officers included) for the 
Indians. 1 do not mean that we should get rid of the Indian, there is room for 
him as well, and he can be useful as a labourer. Apply this " Zamindar " system 
to all the pursuits possible in the islands sugar-cane, rubber, coconuts, bananas, 
sheep and cattle, and mixed farms. Further, on the question of transport, let 



288 FIJI ISLANDS AS AN IMPERIAL OPPORTUNITY. 

the Government again take a lesson from the Sugar Companies. These firms 
have built good roads in the districts they occupy. I have already mentioned 
the construction of 250 miles of railway line by one company alone. Then in 
regard to water transport, this same company has its own steamers. Two of 
these are large vessels specially built to carry sugar and molasses. Molasses 
is a profitable by-product from the sugar mills, and even with the large ship- 
ments sent to the Sydney refineries by the tank steamers I have seen trains of 
tank-trucks taking away the surplus stocks of molasses from the mills to dump 
into the sea. It will be seen, however, that in order to make any scheme for 
the development of the resources of these islands a success, a water-transport 
system must incidentally be instituted. Of course the proposal is a big one, but 
its possibilities are so great, and its success so absolutely assured, that the 
Government should at least seek data on the matters I have mentioned. 
A single commissioner sent to investigate could issue his report within six 
months. 

This idea of assistance to colonial industry is not novel, it would be only a 
continuance of the policy that the Government adopted when they subsidised 
the sugar factories at Antigua and St. Kitts. In the former instance the 
Government advanced a sum of 15,000 towards the total cost of 45,000 for 
the erection of a central mill hi replacement of the small local mills. The venture 
was an absolute success. The mill prospered, and the cane industry of Antigua 
was re-established and now is a paying concern. The planters are participants 
in the betterment of conditions and market, the Government has been re- 
imbursed with interest to the extent of the advance made, and the Colonial 
exchequers augmented by the increased Customs and Excise duties. 

The life in these island possessions of the Empire has a fascination and charm 
of its own, its freedom appeals to everybody who has once experienced it. Sport 
is usually plentiful, the climate is admirable for tennis and cricket, good 
shooting is often obtainable, wild duck and pigeon being plentiful. In Fiji the 
fishing is extraordinarily good ; " trolling " for deep-sea fish is full of excitement, 
especially when a large fish, up to 100 Ibs., is hooked. 

In conclusion, I earnestly draw the attention of the Government to these 
smaller overseas possessions and their possibilities in regard to developing the 
Empire and absorbing numbers of unemployed. The prospect opens up 
pleasant vistas of " soldier colonies " in luxuriant settings, where beauty and 
plenty abound, and nature is generous. Give these men a chance and they will 
work and avail themselves of the opportunity of making our colonies great 
national assets, and people these places with good English stock, ever a symbol 
of progress, and by setting up these smaller Dominions make us securer in our 
possession. 

G. S. KINGSELL. 



289 



CANADIAN WRITERS. 

CANADA has a literature of its own. That fact is not sufficiently recognised. 
Not merely have many authors of talent, a few, perhaps, of genius, been born 
in Canada, and lived and written there, but their books have a distinctive 
note, which may be detected and listened to as another voice than that of the 
literature of the home country or of the great republic to the south. It is 
this individuality which justifies our speaking of Canadian literature as dis- 
tinguished from English literature, with which it is, of course, continually and 
intimately related, just as we must admit the existence of a Belgian literature, 
though Maeterlinck, Verhaeren, Eekhoud, de Coster, and the others employ 
the French language. 

Because Canadian literature demands recognition not only as a section 
of English, but as the special product of the land, it is worth while considering 
the Canadian associations of some of the writers. Stephen Leacock, for example, 
is an exception. Though he is, strange to relate, considering his irresponsible 
burlesques and delightful parodies, Professor of Political Economy at the 
McGill University, Montreal, after taking the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 
which he characteristically explains siepiines that " the recipient of instruction 
is examined for the last time in his life, and is pronounced completely full, 
so that after this no new ideas can be imparted to him " though he is so far a 
Canadian, the particular type of humour of which he is such an irresistible 
exponent is foreign to the rest of Canadian literature. He may have some- 
times sought the subjects of his character sketches and stories among the 
dwellers in those little Canadian towns that " spread their square streets and 
trim maple trees beside placid lakes almost within echo of the primeval forest," 
but his broad burlesque and fantastic merriment is alien to his country. The 
humour of Canadian literature is more sedate. It has a thoughtful, 
sympathetic flavour ; it is touched with sentiment rather than satire. 

Such, for example, is the humour of William Drummond, a particularly 
characteristic Canadian poet, who wrote in the quaint patois of the " habitants " 
of French-Canada. His four volumes of ballads and lyrics, " The Habitant," 
" The Voyageur," " Johnny Corteau," and " The Great Fight," constitute 
the foremost expression of French- Canadian life in poetry, for Drummond 
is an authentic poet within his limits ; they are not at all so well known in 
this country as they deserve to be. Their patois offers difficulties to a reader 
with the slightest knowledge of French, and it is an essential element of their 
charm, providing a medium exactly suitable for the wistfulness, the queer 
humour, the mingled tenderness and ruthlessness of his stories and character 
sketches. William Drummond, a busy physician among the people of whom 
he wrote, had that insight into the lives and natures of the " habitants," which 
only comes from intimate association and the intense sympathy of a generous, 
congenial personality. His portrayal is true, so vividly redolent of their peculiar 
blend of idealism and materialism, humour and pathos, in a language adding 

2 A 



290 CANADIAN WRITERS. 

the precise shade of colour to his drawing, that one gets to know the French- 
Canadians as in no other books, as by no way else save life amongst them. 

Ealph Connor is another Canadian writer in whose books one can 
recognise the qualities of Canadian humour, though he was at Winnipeg and 
sketched the sterner, harder life of the dwellers in wilder areas of the Dominion ; 
the ranchers that ride over vast prairies, the lumbermen in the forests, the 
toilers on the great rivers. But his novels are so well known that it will be more 
profitable to speak of less famous authors. 

Such as Miss Pauline Johnson, whose father was Onwanonshyshon (anglice 
G. H. M. Johnson), the Head Chief of the Six Nations Indians. He was 
descended from one of the fifty noble families, whose federation by Hiawatha 
four centuries ago was the famous Brotherhood of the Five Nations. He 
married an Englishwoman, and Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake) was born 
on his estate in the Reserve in Ontario where the tribes still live. No writer 
could be more essentially Canadian than this singer of the legends and stories 
of her race, rejoicing in every romantic detail of their free life, passionately 
depicting the fierce warfare of the Indian braves in stirring ballads, dwelling 
with wistful regret on the mythological destiny of the Redskins after the last 
journey to the Happy Hunting Grounds, which no longer may be believed in 
with simple confidence. 

" Sailing into the cloud-land, sailing into the sun, 
Into the crimson portals ajar when life is done ; 
O ! dear dead race, my spirit too 
Would fain sail westward unto you." 

Miss Johnson is proudly conscious of her inheritance. She comes of the 
blood royal of the Mohawk tribe, and she exults in her ancestry. 

" Copper-tinted face, and smouldering fire 
Of wilder life, were left me by my race 
To be my proudest claim." 

Her poems in the two volumes entitled " The White Wampum " and 
" Canadian Born " deserve to be reprinted, for hers is a unique and genuinely 
poetic note in Canadian literature. One of the finest poems, " As Red Men 
Die," is passionately intense, almost painfully so, in its description of the death 
of a chief of the Mohawks who has been captured by his enemies. Amid the 
flames that circle about and gradually consume him, he dances the war-dance 
of his people. It is a vivid, lurid picture, that remains in the mind as if imprinted 
in lines of fire, of the unconquerable spirit of her people. Ihere is equal force 
in that stirring ballad of " Ojison," which relates how a warrior of the Hurons 
kidnapped the squaw of a Mohawk chief. With her hands bound, he sets her 
behind him on his horse and starts on the long ride back to his tribe, ('nnnmgly 
she pretends that his reckless bravery has won her love, and so well does she 
deceive him that he unloosens her hands that she may hold on to him on the 
reckless ride. As they travel in this fashion, she cautiously feels for the scalping 
knife at his waist, grips it quickly, draws it from its sheath, and plunges it to 



UGANDA. 

the haft in his back. So that she rides back alone to her tribe, leaving the 
aggressor stark beneath the sky. 

Many Canadian critics have announced Mr. Wilfred Campbell to be their 
greatest poet, but I confess his work awakens no such recognition in me. Mr. 
Campbell is certainly truly cultured. He is a versatile and distinguished man 
of letters, especially notable as a historian. He is a writer of noble verse, which 
was manifestly well worth doing. But I cannot be convinced that he is 
a poet, even so much as William Drummond or Pauline Johnson were poets. 

Of another temperament was Robert W. Service, with his violent melodrama 
in " The Trail of '98," his ballads after the manner of Kipling. But despite their 
great popularity, their indubitable colour and movement, his songs lack that 
touch of genius which Kipling manifests, the authentic note of inspiration, and 
it is only in a superficial sense that he may be called the Canadian Kipling. 
" Songs of a Sourdough " are not the real songs of a real " sourdough," but liko 
the cultured, polished verse of Campbell, they were certainly worth doing. We 
may perceive the cause of the failure of Service's work entirely to convince us, 
perhaps, in the fact that this man, who wrote of the wildest Canadian life in 
" The Spell of the Yukon " and the others, was himself a bank clerk in the 
cultivated, sedate, tranquil atmosphere of a Canadian city. 

Bliss Carman, though he left Canada for journalism in New York, was a 
real Canadian, and certainly in his poetry. For his work contains much that 
is unmistakable poetry, though he, too, lacks the culture of Wilfred Campbell. 
Bliss Carman has expressed the beauty of Canadian scenery as few others have. 
He writes with intense sympathy of the flowers " In a Grand Pre Garden," of 
the children and the homely folk, close to Nature, in far and lonely farm-houses, 
of the legends of the French-Canadians, of the woods and fields and open plains. 

ANTHONY CLYNB. 



UGANDA.* 

By Sir ROBERT T. CORYHDON, K.C.M.G., Governor of Uganda. 

THE country of which I am to speak is one of great interest, and, I believe, of a fine 
future. There is not time to take you on a personally-conducted tour through the 
Protectorate, in addition to even a brief review of its history, progress, resources, 
and future, but I would like to give you a general picture of the four Provinces before 
I deal with definite questions. I wish to impress the fact that I am speaking not 
as an enthusiastic Trade Commissioner would speak, or as an exact geographer, but 
in the broader spirit of a showman, and, I hope, a prophet. 

The population in 1918 was returned at : Europeans, 847 ; Asiatics, 3,467 ; and 
natives at about 3,350,000. The cattle, before the recent epidemic of rinderpest, 
were over 650,000. The area of the Protectorate cannot be given accurately as the 

* Paper read at a meeting of the Royal Colonial Institute held at the Central Hatt, Westminster, on 
Tuesday, March 23, 1920, Sir Henry Birchenough, Bart., K.C.M.G., in the chair. 



292 UGANDA. 

northern border has not been denned, but it may be taken, exclusive of water, at 
110,000 square miles. There were, in 1918, over two hundred European estates, 
chiefly coffee and rubber, in occupation. The " short rains " come about September 
to November, and the " long rains " about March to May. The rainfall at Entebbe over 
twelve years averaged 57-78 inches. The average maximum temperature at Entebbe 
for five years was 78-1, and the average minimum temperature was 62-2. The 
three chief languages spoken are Luganda, spoken in the central and south-western 
area ; N'gang, a Nilotic language, spoken in the north and north-east ; and a rather 
debased form of Swahili, usually employed by the Indians in their large native trade. 

Of the four Provinces the Buganda kingdom is the chief in history and interest. 
It is a green and forested country, the hillsides covered with bush and with banana 
plantations ; the valleys have either long belts of dark and heavy forest, or are floored 
with level papyrus ; where there is not forest or bush the country is clothed with 
impenetrable elephant grass from eight to fifteen feet high. There are few native 
villages except at the trade centres, and there they are combined with the buildings 
of the European and native Government, and with an Indian duka, or bazaar. Though 
the sun is bright and hot, the days are seldom oppressive, and the nights are fairly 
cool. It is a Province of light airs and breezes. The picture of rolling forested 
country and bright sun is linked with that of Lake Victoria, which, I may add, is 
nearly 27,000 square miles in area. The whole northern shore of the lake is deeply 
indented, clothed with forest to the water's edge and notched with papyrus swamps. 
Entebbe, the Protectorate capital, covers the point of one of these promontories. 
It is a pretty place that with a little imagination might be a small Mediterranean 
town. The streets are of dark red laterite, and admirably kept ; the close green 
lawns and flowering shrubs and absence of fe'nce and gate give to the village a fine 
air of comfort and homeliness. You may look out over an open sea with the dark 
line of the Sesse Islands on the horizon, and if your vision was strong enough it would 
carry you over two hundred and fifty miles of deep water beyond. It is always a 
difficult thing to try to put into words the elusive character of a country and its 
people. That of Buganda itself is one of beauty and opulence, of perpetual green 
and bright sun, and of the vast lake ; that of the white-clad natives is of a quiet 
people of great natural ability living easily in a rich country. 

The Eastern Province presents a picture quite different in physical features and in 
atmosphere. It is a more level country with little of the elephant grass and less 
forest ; the swamps are fewer, but they are larger and more noticeable. It is, or seems, 
hotter, and there is less of the red laterite or iron-coloured soil and more country of 
a light sandy appearance. Villages are bigger and the people move about more 
freely. The dominant physical features are the great extent of the sudd and papyrus 
covered arms of Lake Kioga, and on the eastern border the densely-populated and 
heavily-forested slopes of Mount Elgon. The general character of the Province is 
very different from that of the forested and plutocratic Buganda country. It is 
more virile and much more industrious and alive. The people are of several tribes, 
all less advanced and more savage than the Buganda, but better agriculturists and 



UGANDA. 293 

harder workers. Many of the men go half, or indeed wholly, naked. The strong sun 
and the glare are universal in the Protectorate, but that is all there is in common. 

Of the Northern Province much the same thing may be said, except that the 
Bunyoro district in the south, which marches with the Buganda kingdom, has much 
of the same character of forest and easy life. The further north you go from Bunyoro 
the greater the difference becomes, not only in physical features, but in native type. 
The people become less clothed, more manly, and better hunters and fighters ; until 
you cross the undefined border into still drier country among the people of the 
Southern Sudan. The Western Province is dominated geographically by the snow- 
capped Ruwenzori Mountains, and by the miles of open grass plains in the south- 
west. This cattle country has a character remote from any other in the Protectorate. 
It is typical of a purely pastoral people, intensely conservative, living entirely for 
and upon their herds of cattle, and taking no interest in agriculture or the affairs 
of the world. The country round Fort Portal under Ruwenzori is of great charm, 
with most beautiful crater lakes, and in the extreme south-west is the edge of the 
tortured and smoking volcanic country of Northern Ruanda. 

Entebbe is the seat of government, and its residents are almost entirely officials. 
Kampala, twenty-four miles away, is a busy and growing town, the centre of both 
European and Indian trade, the seat of the Native Government, and the headquarters 
of the three great Mission Societies. It is a prosperous place, and with a great future. 
The European portion is one of the five hills, Nakasero ; the large bazaar along the 
foot, a^d the European residences upon the slopes. Across the valley is Namirembe 
Hill, with the Church Missionary Society's buildings clustered round the top, and 
crowned by the splendid cathedral. This is a great building of brick, with chapels 
and buttresses, and surmounted by a noble dome, a landmark for miles around. 
Beyond Namirembe is Rubaga Hill, the seat of the Roman Catholic White Fathers 
Mission, shortly also to be crowned by a fine cathedral. Each of these buildings 
will hold 5,000 worshippers. The great bulk of the work was done by Baganda 
natives, and they are very notable tributes, both to the Societies they represent 
and to the zeal of the congregations. The famous Mengo Hill adjoins Rubaga. Upon 
it are the buildings of the Native Government, and the house of the Kabaka, the 
Baganda king, and of the great chiefs. The triangle of hills is completed by Nsambya, 
the headquarters o r the Poman Catholic Mill Hill Mission. 

I must at this point pay a tribute both to the Native Government and to the 
Public Works Department for the excellence of the roads throughout the Protectorate. 
When the White Administration began its work it found an admirable road system 
already in operation in the Buganda Province, and very wisely it carried on and 
improved the ystem and extended it to other Provinces. As now carried out it 
worth a moment of description. All roads are divided into one of four classes. The 
first consists of roads laid out, graded, gravelled, and maintained by the Public Works 
Department, and with metal and masonry bridges and culverts ; the second class 
are partly gravelled roads on which the permanent bridges and culverts are main- 
tained by the Public Works Department, while the Native Government keep* 



294 UGANDA. 

them clear of growth ; in the third class the Public Works Department provides only 
bridges, while the natives are responsible for all other maintenances and upkeep ; 
the fourth are entirely in the hands of the natives under the supervision of the district 
administrative officers. All are from ten to fifty feet wide, and many are bordered 
by avenues of trees which are the property of the Native District Lukiko, or Council, 
and are cut and replenished by it. A notable feature of the system is that all 
roads are carried across the frequent papyrus swamps upon broad and solid embank- 
ments. It was a light-hearted boast of the Provincial Commissioner of the Northern 
Province, but one capable of a great measure of justification, that there were 1,400 
miles of native roads in his Province, and that they were swept throughout every 
Monday. The usual access is either from the east, by the Uganda Railway, or from 
the north from Khartoum up the Nile across Lake Albert and Lake Kioga, to the 
town of Jinja and to Entebbe. The Uganda Railway (584 miles) climbs from Mombasa 
to Nairobi, the capital of the East Africa Protectorate, in the heart of the most 
attractive highland country ; thence over the Mau escarpment at an altitude of 8,300 
feet through rich and beautiful country, and down to Kisumu on Lake Victoria at 
3,726 feet. There the steamers of the Uganda Railway Marine will take you across 
to Entebbe in eighteen hours, and round the lake in six days ; they are in fact liners 
in miniature, from 800 to 1,000 tons, with clean decks, polished brass, and proper 
discipline. By the northern route from Khartoum the stern-wheel steamers take 
about fourteen days up the Nile to reach Rejaf, the highest navigable point of that 
part of the river. From Rejaf to Nimule (100 miles), which is the Uganda border, 
the traveller must safari ', that is, he must have his own tent and cook and camp 
outfit, though he may himself ride a bicycle or a donkey or be carried, if he can or 
must bring himself to do so, in a chair. This is, indeed, the only part where he need 
put foot to ground between Cairo and Mombasa. From Nimule, a Uganda paddle- 
wheel steamer will take him further up the Nile into Lake Albert, and across it to 
Butiaba ; thence by motor-car or lorry to Masindi Port on Lake Kioga (74 miles) ; 
thence by stern-wheel steamer to Namasagali (sixteen hours), thence by train 
(61 miles) to Jinja and Lake Victoria. 

Our neighbour on the north is the Sudan. The border has not yet been defined, 
and for the present there is no need to do so, for it runs through dry and thinly 
inhabited country through which there is little intercourse. North-east is the 
Turkhana country, also dry and remote and with a sparse and nomadic population. 
But the northern Turkhana, aided and abetted by adventurers from the turbulent 
southern borders of Abyssinia, are raiders and marauders of a determined kind, and 
the Governments of East Africa and Uganda have had to maintain two companies 
of the King's African Rifles in the constant and costly effort to maintain some sort 
of order, and to protect our own people further south. The eastern border runs from 
south to north across Lake Edward, thence along the crest of the Ruwenzori Range, 
thence along the middle line of Lake Albert. From the north end of the lake the border 
runs west, north and east again to the Nile at Nimule, taking in a rich and attractive 
district now known as the West Nile, formerly'the Lado Enclave of 'famous memory. 



UGANDA. 295 

Beyond this border is the vast area of the Belgian Congo. The southern border runs 
roughly from the western shore of Lake Victoria at the Kagera River mouth, west- 
wards to British Ruanda, to the northern edge of the desolate region of volcanoes, 
and then north to Lake Edward. South of this- border was lately German territory j 
now the portion adjoining Lake Victoria becomes the British Bukoba district, and 
the western portion becomes Belgian Ruanda. 

Having given a brief account of the short and troubled history of the country, 
Sir Robert Coryndon rapidly described the diverse tribes, their languages and 
customs : The outstanding feature is the dominant intelligence and capacity of 
the Buganda among the surrounding tribes. My predecessors were wise to take 
over the best of the native system of government, and to adapt and co-ordinate 
it to our own tried principles of equity and justice. The province is divided into 
sazas, or counties, and each saza into gombololas, or districts, and again into mirukas 
or wards. In each of these districts regular weekly Lukikos, or Councils, are held, and 
current business is dealt with, tax collection, agricultural and veterinary regulations 
small offences against the state, and so on ; proper records are kept, and a report is 
made regularly to the Lukiko above. It is one of the duties of our Administrative 
Officers in their frequent district tours to attend meetings, examine the books and 
records, and issue advice or blame or praise. The Saza chiefs meet regularly in Mengo 
and by this system of decentralisation close touch is kept upon all the native affairs 
of the Province. The Kabaka usually presides ; the Katikiro, Sir Apolo Kagwar, and 
the Ministers of Justice and Finance, and generally about forty chiefs, are present. 
Proceedings are conducted with admirable dignity and attention to business. Revenue 
is provided by a rebate of 20 per cent, of the native tax, and from this the Kabaka's 
liberal allowance is met, and salaries of the Ministers and all the chiefs, and payment 
for county inspectors and police, the cost of building material, stationery, uniforms 
and so on. The finance minister controls their expenditure of about 16,000 a year, 
and much work in connection with provisional and final land title and certificates, 
and in a dozen different directions, is carried out with very remarkable accuracy 
and sense of responsibility. The general principles of this system are being extended 
to the neighbouring peoples in the eastern, northern and western provinces as the 
horizon of their tribal responsibility widens, largely through the advice and guidance 
given them by resident Baganda agents. 

Here, I think, is an excellent example of the best results of indirect rule as opposed 
to direct rule. It is working with conspicuous success in Buganda, and is being 
adopted with sufficient rapidity throughout the Protectorate. One cannot see into 
the future, but the spirit and the progress of the last twenty years are a good founda- 
tion ; if the Imperial Government will not allow these rapid moving years to leave 
it behind in the race, and is determined to maintain a control as strong as it is just, 
it may look forward in time to an excellent example of a young country which has 
learned to govern itself with credit. 

The war did not actually cross our borders, but there was a constant and heavy 
demand for carriers for the campaign in German East Africa, and, later on, for more 



296 UGANDA. 

skilled assistance. I have not access to the figures at the moment, but I believe 
the Protectorate produced no less than 63,000 men for the Carrier Corps ; it is a matter 
for deep regret that so many of them succumbed to the hardships of a prolonged cam- 
paign in a country whose climatic conditions were so different from their own. The 
enlistment of troops for the King's African Rifles, and for the East African Mechanical 
Transport Corps was still more creditable. But the remarkable capacity of the 
Buganda for skilled work was shown most clearly in the long and admirable services 
rendered by the African Native Medical Corps. I am glad to say that 90 per cent, 
of this corps were natives of Uganda. 

The campaign, however, left a dreadful legacy to the Protectorate, besides the 
death roll in the field. The thousands of men who returned to their homes in every 
part of the country brought with them smallpox and cerebro- spinal meningitis, and 
to these diseases, plague was added later. They ravaged the country and carried 
off many thousands of people, and at a time when war conditions had reduced the 
whole of our staff, and particularly that of the medical department, so greatly that 
we could do little to fight the epidemics. Plague and smallpox are more or less endemic 
in certain areas, both on the lake shore and inland, and are not normally a cause of 
great loss or danger. Few of the usual tropical diseases are present to any great 
degree. I wish I could say the same of that grave blot on so many countries and 
peoples, I mean venereal disease. It is by far the greatest menace with which we 
have to contend, and it is impossible to over-estimate its importance or its danger. 
Our statistics show that in several districts one child out of every three is stillborn. 
In many districts the population is stationary, and in others the birth-rate, from this 
cause alone, is below the death-rate.' When war came upon the country, strong 
measures against the disease were in progress, and were showing very promising 
results, but direct work had to be abandoned for the time. I am glad to say, however, 
that both the Protectorate Government and the Colonial Office are fully alive to the 
gravity of the position, that funds have been and will continue to be found, and that 
every preparation is being made to reopen a strong and consistent anti-venereal 
campaign. 

To Europeans the climate presents, on the whole, no great dangers, or even hard- 
ships. The ordinary tropical diseases such as typhoid and dysentery are not present 
to any great extent. There is some blackwater and malaria, but the latter is not of a 
serious type. If, however, definite diseases do not, as a rule, threaten the official, 
the planter and the missionary with prompt and painful extinction, there is the ever 
present menace of the overhead sun, and the nervous conditions which will take their 
toll earlier or later of your patience and your vitality. The usual precautions, such 
as the use of proper sun helmets, should never be neglected ; but in any case the coun- 
try is a trying one, without frequent leave to Europe, and children should not be kept 
there for more than two or three years. 

From disease and waste in human life, it is only a step to similar wastage in live 
stock. The remedy in both cases is similar, that is a proper analysis of the position, 
a sound programme to deal with the endemic areas and sources of infection, an ener- 



UGANDA. 297 

getic organisation under the control of a thoroughly capable man, and finally, the pro- 
vision of funds by the Government to carry out the whole. It is in this case a purely 
business matter, and the initial cost need not, and generally cannot, come out of the 
normal revenues of the country. There is a drastic object lesson in progress in Uganda 
at this moment. Rinderpest began to spread two years ago west and southwards 
from an endemic centre in the Eastern Province, and largely through the agency of 
movements of wild game, it spread slowly but quite irresistibly to the southern border 
of Uganda, and is now threatening the Belgian Congo. It will probably destroy, 
before it is finished, 200,000 head of cattle. I hasten to add that this condition would 
probably not have come about had not the war diverted both attention and funds 
elsewhere, and depleted the technical staff so much that we could never take the 
offensive. As in the case, however, with human epidemics, I am glad to say the 
Colonial Office has taken the broad and sympathetic view, and plans are now being 
closely followed to provide funds and qualified veterinary staff to combat the position. 

I come now to the question of agricultural possibilities and development, and will 
say at once that the promise as to the future in this respect is very high. The Pro- 
tectorate, excluding for the present the north-eastern areas and the cattle plains in the 
south-west, is uniformly and highly fertile, with a fairly regular and constant rainfall, 
and is evenly populated throughout with amenable and progressive natives. 

The present main crops are cotton, rubber and coffee. The coffee is of very good 
quality, generally of the arabica type, and is not unduly liable to disease. The acre- 
age under cultivation is about 21,500, and the export last year was close upon 54,000 
cwts., valued at about 106,000. The world's demand for good coffee is strong and 
constant ; it seems very improbable that our breakfast tables will ever be insulted 
by any synthetic substitute. The position as to para rubber is not yet, in the minds of 
several planters, quite assured. There are, however, about 12,250 acres now in culti- 
vation, and last year's export of good quality rubber was 253,000 Ibs., valued at 
about 12,900. It is generally interplanted with coffee, and the enthusiasts in Uganda 
rubber are gradually cutting out the coffee as the larger trees come to the tapping 
stage. I am not at all an expert, but so far as our industry has gone I see no reason 
why rubber should not do well. It has hitherto been remarkably free of disease. 

But the crop upon which, I am convinced, the Protectorate will depend increasingly 
is cotton. It was started about eleven years ago by the then Governor, Sir Hesketh 
Bell, and has been steadily developed since by the Director of Agriculture, Mr. S. 
Simpson, with the valuable assistance of the district administrative officers. The 
crop last year was about 11,000 tons of seed cotton, of which about 35,000 bales, of 
over 400 Ibs. each, of good class lint was exported. I notice that the Mombasa cor- 
respondent of the Times states in a recent telegram that this season's crop is likely 
to reach the respectable total of 60,000 bales, but it is early yet to judge, and that 
estimate may be a little optimistic. The most important point in connection with 
Uganda cotton is that it is entirely native grown, and that from the native point of 
view there is no competitive crop. It is grown in half-acre and one and two-acre 
plots by thousands of small cultivators throughout the country, and is harvested 



298 UGANDA. 

a"nd carried to the ginneries by the natives themselves ; the perennial difficulty of 
securing sufficient native labour, therefore, does not enter. The policy as to ginneries 
was at first to erect powerful plants at the lake ports and to carry all cotton to them, 
but it is now to erect smaller ginneries in the -cotton-growing areas ; there are now 
over forty ginneries working or building, of which about twenty-five are owned by 
Europeans, and the remainder by Indians. The quality is a little below that of 
Egyptian, and a good deal higher than that of any other African or Indian staple. 
The length is from l to 1^ of an inch, and the present price in Manchester is now 
about twenty pence above " middling " American, making it about four shillings per 
pound. This heavy premium is partly due to last year's failure of the American 
long staple crop, but I see no reason why Uganda cotton should not maintain a pre- 
mium of at least one shilling over middling American for some years. The native 
growers are paid in cash, and for a crop of 50,000 bales this year, there will be distri- 
buted throughout the cotton areas in Uganda to the native growers, ginnery hands, 
and road transport workers, probably not less than five million rupees in cash. This 
figure alone will indicate the value of the crop to the Protectorate. The industry, 
like many others, is greatly dependent upon transport facilities, both within and outside 
the Protectorate, but I will deal with that point later. A large proportion of the 
country is well suited for cotton cultivation, and assuming an energetic Government 
staff and proper transport facilities (which themselves greatly depend upon the pro- 
vision of funds outside the normal revenue of the country), there seems no reason 
why the crop should not show a steady increase for a number of years to come. 

Besides cotton, coffee and rubber, there are valuable native crops available for 
development and export when transport is assured. The main development will 
probably be with oil seeds, for which there is an increasing world's demand. The 
chief of these are cotton seed, ground nuts and simsim, the latter a small rich seed 
and a hardy and good cropper. Beyond these, there is a large trade in hides and ghee, 
and it seems probable that if an outlet is provided, a very large trade could be done 
in these articles with the valuable country round Ruanda, which contains a population 
of approximately three million, and nearly three million head of cattle. 

Uganda has not escaped the perennial difficulty of an adequate supply of native 
labour for European employment. In some areas it is not acute, but in others the 
European shamba, or plantation owner, experiences a constant difficulty and constant 
loss from his inability to keep his estate cultivated against the ever-encroaching 
tropical growth of weed, and from insufficient hands to harvest his crops. It is a 
very familiar problem to African countries, and a never-ending source of controversy, 
and, I may add, of trouble to the various Governments. 

The East African Protectorates are passing through this phase of difficulty. I 
do not propose to enter this highly-controversial subject now, or there would be little 
time to review the matters of interest upon which I have not yet touched. I will 
only say that generally speaking the available supply of native labour, if it would 
come forward, is much more than adequate for the requirements of the employing 
community, and that the Government is fully alive to the importance, both for the 



UGANDA. 299 

sake of the industrial development of the Protectorate and of the natives themselves, 
of encouraging a sufficient flow of voluntary native labour to a properly controlled and 
paid service. 

If ultimate salvation in this, and in other similar directions, is to come from 
education, then the Protectorate is happily situated. It exhibits, I believe, the 
most encouraging results of any African country of sustained and devoted Missionary 
labour. This work is divided between the Church Missionary Society, the Roman 
Catholic White Fathers Mission, and the Mill Hill Mission. The headquarters of 
all these Missions, as already stated, is Kampala. Large and important stations 
and schools in charge of European teachers are scattered lavishly throughout the 
Protectorate, with hundreds of smaller sch