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UNITED PRESBYTERIAN 
MAGAZINE. 



NEW SERIES. -VOL. XXII. 




EDINBURGH: 
WILLIAM OLIPHANT AND CO. 

LONDON; HOULSTON AND SONS. GLASGOW; DAVID ROBERTSON. 
MDCCCLXXVIII. 



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PREFACE. 



rr^HE present may be called the i^e of periodicala. In staadiug iu certi^n 
-'- booksellers' shops aboat the beginning of any month, one is almost 
bewildered with the namber and Tariety of the jonrnala that are offered for 
sale. Even the reqairements of infancy are not neglected; and the child of 
a year old, as well as the patriarch of seventy, may find something in which 
to be interested. The skill of the noveliflt and the art of the limner are 
called into diligent requisition, and, by appeals to the eye and the imagina< 
tion, interest is song ht to be excited. In this respect how wonderfolly 
things have changed since The United Pretbyterian Magaiine was com- 
menced ! 

It is to be expected that new inflnences will produce new effects, and that 
what at one time was deemed satisfactory in a magazine may cease to be 
approved ; and the question of considering the situation may become 
imperative, for not only is excellence bnt adaptation to be aimed at. 

This, in the conduct of the Magoiine, will, aa heretofore, be taken into 
accoant. At the same time it will not lead to any radical change. It has 
never been our object to snpply onr readers with aenaational tales or 
pictorial illaBtrations, and we cannot see that it lies within onr province 
to do so. The adaptation which ne would geek hes in the presentation of 
Imtb, important in itself, and having a special bearing on our own Church, 
in sach a way as to interest and instruct. There are three closes besides 
the general reader whose sympathy and co-operation we earnestly desire to 
maintain and increase— these are onr miniaters, elders, and Sabbath-school 
teachers. These may be said to tie the most important factors in the work 
and Ufe of the Church. And what they seriously and ananimODsIy take up 
moat prosper. Papers specialty bearing on the work of the Christian 
minister and elder have from time to time appeared in our pages, and will 
coDtmne to do so. Daring the coming year, a series designed to be of 
interest and nse to Sabbath-school teachers will appear monthly, whilst the 
word for ' the Home ' mil also continue to be spoken. 



These are great and worthy objects, and they may well engage the best 
pens amongst ns. The United Presbyterian Chnrch cao boast of men of 
:alent second to none in any denomination, and its membership is so 
namerons and influential that it has only to will it to make the Magazine 
^hat bears its name eqna! in point of circnlalion to any of its class. 

We have very cordially to thank coDtribators for their able papers, and 
;o express the pleasure we have derived from the kindly interconrse to which 
hey hare given rise. On entering on another year, we look to them for a 
continoance of their valued aasistance. 

We would also express gratification at the reception of excellent papers 
'rom some of our younger brethren. The commingling of the hopeful aspira- 
aons of youth with the sage reflections of age is necessary to the life of 
every Chnrch, and should find fit and proportionate expression in the journal 
:hat is its recognised organ. Indeed, in the case of a denominational 
magazine, the endeavour should ever be to have the area, alike of those who 
write for it and those who read, aa large as the capabihties of the denomina- 
itself. 



Edikburgh, 2d Decemher 1878. 



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CNITED PRESBYTERIAN MAGAZINE. 



JANUARY 1, 1878 



tBxiQinul ^xtUlta. 



THE LATE DR. JAMES BRTCB. 
Dr. Jakk Brtce, whose death by an accident while he was geologizing on 
the shorea of Loch Ness last summer, mast be fresh in the recollection of 
man; in Scotland, was born at Killeagne, near Coleraine, in the north of 
Ireland, on 22d October 1806. He was the third son and fourth child of 
the Rev. James Bryce, a Presbyterian minister of the Secession body, and 
of what was then known as its Antiburgher section, a native of Lanarkshire, 
who had settled in Ireland five years previonsly. His father was a remark- 
able man, morally as well as intellectaally, — a man whose geniality of mamier 
and simplicity of character were nnited with a sensitive conscience and great 
firmness of purpose, as appeared in the resistance which he alone of all his 
brother clergymen in the north of Ireland maintained to the hnmiliating 
conditions on which the endowment called Reginm Donnm was bestowed. 
When all the rest had, one after another, submitted, in spite of complaints 
and protestations, he stood stedfast and faithfnl in refusing to accept what 
he beld to be dishonoaring to his ofGce as a minister of Christ Thns he 
became the founder of a Yolantary Chnrch in Ireland, which nltimately (in 
1858) became incorporated with the United Presbyterian Chnrch of Scot- 
land. Dr. Bryce's mother, whom he greatly resembled in face (she had 
been Miss Catherine Annan, of Abernethy, in Fife), was a person not less 
remarkable, thongh in a somewhat different way, gifted with a strong ima- 
gination, keen literary tastes, and an amoant of literary cakiration both in 
English and in the aacient classics which was rare in those days, and wonld 
be DDcommon even now. It was from these two instructors that nearly all 
his book education was received ; and indeed he could have desired none 
better, for his father was an excellent teacher as well as an accarate scholar. 
Meantime he was receiving ont of doors an education of another sort, which 
largely contribnted to form in him those mental qualities and tastes which 

' were conspicnons in his after life. While his father was occupied by the 
ecclesiastical work which his refusal of It^^um Donum had thrown upon 
bim, visiting and preaching to smalt congregations in various parts of the 

• conntry, and preparing young men for the work of the ministry, James was 
often free to rove in the company of Robert, a brother three years his senior, 
to whom he was through life profoundly attached, over the surrounding 
country, making himself familiar with all kinds of . natural objects and 
natural creatures. In these rambles there was acquired not only an ardent 

HO. I. TOL. XXII. FKVT BEKIES.— 



2 THE LATE DE. JAHEB BETCE. J^'iVierB""^ 

love of nature and of ont-door life, bnt that keen perceptive power which . 
was so Etrikirjg ad attribute of his intellect, and contributed bo largol/ to his 
scientific eminence. His mind, however, was always at work, and always 
easily roused to interest by a new subject. Two incidents of boyhood which 
illastrate this are worth recording. In his father's honsehold there was a 
Komao' Catholic serrant, who coald not read. The little fellow, then lesa 
than ten years old, was horrified at the idea of a grown-np woman so ^no- 
rant, and asked permission himself to teach her. This was wilEngly granted. 
He persevered with his self-imposed task, and in a few months was rewarded 
by seeing poor Jane sealed among the others at family worship, able to 
follow the reading of the Scriptures and join in the psalm. Not long after, 
when he was abont ten years old, his father decided 'that lessons mnst be 
more regular, and told him one morning that he was now to begin Latin. 
This encroachment on his freedom was at first very unwelcome ; and his 
eldest brother well remembers how, starting from the honse at half-past nine 
o'clock in the rborniag, he left the boy drying his eyes, and tnmtng into the 
school-room at his mother's persnasion, with a look which showed he telt it 
was right, thongh not pleasant, to sabmit. Returning early in the after- 
noon, he fdnnd a face fall of delight at the new study, which was pnrsned 
thenceforward with an ardour that only slackened when Greek — a language 
that had for him an even greater fascination — was entered on. 

At the age of fourteen he was sent to Glasgow "University, where his 
father and his eldest brother bad been before him, and enrolled in the senior 
Greek class. That brother was then begioning the medical coarse, which he 
afterwards abandoned to become a clei^yman, and under his charge the 
yoong stndent lived, protected by him from the sense of solitude and the 
temptations which might press on -a boy sent so early from a quiet home into 
a large city. The two following years were spent in Ireland ; and in 1823 
he again returned to Glasgow, entered the logic class, and gained what 
then was and remains Etill one of the highest University distinctions there, the 
Greek Blackstone Prize, awarded to the stndent who passes the best examina- 
tion in a number of Greek authors chosen by himself, which he is said to 
'profess,' and in determining which, regard is had both to the qoantjty of 
the profession and to the Eiccnracy of the knowledge shown in the passages 
which the examiner selects Sir D. K. Sandford was then Professor of Greek ; 
and of the stimulating teaching and coarteons manners of this eminent man 
Dr. Bryce retained throngh life a warm memory. He had not completed his 
conrse at Glasgow when the place of mathematical master in the Belfast' 
Academy, at that time one of the most important endowed foundations in 
Ireland, was offered to him by his eldest brother, who bad been appointed 
to the principalship of the same institution. He accepted it in 1826, bnt 
was obliged during a succeeding year to discharge his duties by deputy, in 
order to take the classes of natural philosophy and chemistry at Gla^ow, 
and to obtain his B.A. degree, which he did in 183S- Betnrniug then to 
Belfast, he devoted the rest of his life to the labours of his profession, — labonrs 
which became pleosnres to him, so great was his interest, not only in the 
intellectaal process of teaching, but in the minds and characters of bis indi- 
vidual pupils. As he was an excellent mathematician and a singularly clear 
expositor, his teaching of arithmetic, geometry, and algebra was always 
SQccessfuL But these did not prove to be the studies for which be had most 
affection. Geography was one of the subjects allotted to the mathematical 
department. He at once perceived what may seem obvious enoagh now-a- 
days, but must have then been thought a fantastic novelty, — that the physical 



"'IJ^iMi'^' TBB LATE DB. JAME3 BBTCV. 5 

side of geography in its most importast side, and that on vbicb fill the rest 
depends ; and that some acquamtance with geology js needed as a basis for 

the study of the physical strnctnre of the earth. With this view, he began 
to give the geography class two lessons every week in mineralogy and geology, 
— sabjects of which he had learned the ontlines from the lectnree of Dr. 
Thomas Thomson (the famons chemiBt) at Glasgow. Finding that to pnrsne 
geology be mnst know botany and zoology, he set himself, with the prompt 
energy that was so characteristic of him, to master both sabjects, and before 
long iotrodnced them also into his classes. Mineralogy, geology, and zoology 
he taught in the school honrs as part of the regular work, wtule for botany 
he opened each April a voluntary and gratnitona class, which met at 7 AJd. 
on several days in the week, inviting his pnpils to bring with them snch of 
their ststeia and elder brothers as might be willing to attend. Many of his 
friends in the town asked permission to send their sons also, and thus a large 
band of zealous young naturalists was formed, some of vvhom used, to accom- 
pany him on Saturday afternoons, or at sunrise on other days of the week, in 
rambles over the romantic hiils and shores that lie near Belfast, gaining from his 
companionship and example not only a knowledge of the science, bat a love 
for natural beauty which elevated and refined their whole character. The 
spirit thus awakened led the boys to form among themselves ^natural history 
society, of which they insisted on making him the president, and which soon 
acquired, by the exertions of its members, a valuable mnaenm. Meanwhile, 
the study of natural philosophy, which his brother the principal had desired 
to see introdnced into the school conrse, was not neglected. Dr. Bryce 
connected it with mathematics, as he had connected natural history with, 
geography, teaching the elements of mechanics, pneumatics, and hydrostatics 
both experimentally and mathematically, and carrying his papils on tO 
cheuustry and electricity. It was only the elements and general principles 
of these sciences that he had time to give, but elementary knowledge is a 
very different thing from superficial knowledge. Like all great teachers, he 
aimed at making the leading troths and doctrines thoroaghly apprehended, 
knowing that when this .hag been effected, the learner may be left to fill np 
the details for himself. 

In all that has been described, there would at the present day be nothing 
remarkable, except indeed the quality uid style of his teaching, for it is now 
pretty generally admitted that natnral history and physics onght to be tanght 
in every considerable school. But fifty years ^o such a view bad scarcely 
been heard of; and that it should not only have been formed byayoung and 
inexperienced man fresh from college, but carried out with such admirable 
SQCcess and popniarity, would of itself have stamped him as possessed of 
original power, and given him a place in the front rank of educational 
reformers. Throughout the rest of his professional career in Beltast, and 
afterwards in Glasgow, he adhered steadily to the same practice, and in this 
way was the means of forming an immense number of naturalists. With 
some of his pupils the study of nature remained merely an enjoyable taste, 
with others it became an absorbing pursnit But many in both classes have 
attributed to the stimnlna which they received from Dr. Bryce, no small part 
of the pleasure and the usefulness of their lives. 

Meanwhile, Dr. Bryce was no less earnest as an investigator than as a 
teacher. He had resumed, on his retnrn from Glasgow, his own geological 
studies, and soon began to explore the very interesting and then imperfectly 
known phenomena of the rocks of Antrim and Down. His first important 
discovery was of the remains of the Flesiosaurns in the lias formatian,- an 



4 THE LATE DB. JAMES BHTOB. ' jb. mbi"" 

Occoimt of which he contribated to the Philosophical Magazine in 1834, 
thereb; establishing the identity of the liasetrata of Antrim with tfaoBe of 
England. He was elected a fellow of the Geological Societies of Dahlia 
and London; and at the meetings of the British Association, of which he 
was one of the earliest memberB, was soon recognised by Morchison, Sedg- 
wick, Lyell, and other leaders of geological science, as one of the most 
enei^etic and able of its devotees. In Belfast itself he joined with several 
friends in establishing a Natural History Society, which stiU continues to 
flourish, and which, during the period of his residence in Ireland, owed its 
success mainly to the activity with which he discharged the duties of secre- 
tary, keeping up the interest of his fellow- workers, and always ready to 
prepare a paper himself when no one else conld be found to do so, or 
when the appointed lectnrer had failed. Although in those days a place of 
far smaller papnlation and commercial importauce than it has now become, 
Belfast was, after Dublin, the chief centre of intellectual life in Irdand, and 
numbered among its citizens many men of lai^e scientific and literary culture. 
In the society of these men, — several of whom were his intimate friends, — he 
passed eighteen happy years, prosecuting every summer his geological 
researches, till he became known as the highest authority on the geology of 
north-eastern Ireland, neariy every part of which he had visited, and maiaj 
of whose most interesting districts — as, for instance, that of the Giant's 
Causeway — he had described in papers contributed to the Transactions of 
the great scientific societies. In 1837 he married ; and the happiness of his 
domestic life was never clouded except in 18i2, by the death of his second 
child at an early age. 

In 1846 he was appointed to the mastership of the mathematical depart- 
ment in the High School of Glasgow, — the largest, and in some respects the 
most important, of the great pnblic schools of Scotland. Its arrangements, 
which have within the last year been altered, were then somewhat peculiar. 
- There was no rector ; each department was practically an independent 
school, managed by its head in the way he judged best. In the mathema- 
tical department, which comprised geography and arithmetic, the classes were 
so large that Dr. Bryce was always obliged to have two or three assistants. 
He organized it according to his own views, introduced improved methods 
of teaching and various plans for stimulating the activity of the pupils ; and 
though it proved impossible to find room in the too crowded day for a class 
expressly for the teaching of natural science or natural history, he gave 
occasional lectures to the geography classes on those subjects, and lost no 
means of awakening the interest of the boys in them. He had four great 
gifts as a teacher,^lncidity, ingenuity, vivacity, geniality. No one under- 
stood better that in all instruction tbe essential thing is to make the first 
principles of a subject thoroughly well understood j and it was a real intel- 
lectual pleasure to hear him explaining to a large class the theory of one of 
the rules of arithmetic, such as compound proportion, or the doctrine of 
decimals, — to watch tbe eager faces of the listeners as they followed step by 
step the explanation of the process and the apt illustrations which he inter- 
posed, till, when all was clear, they seized their slates to work out tbe sums 
which he propounded as examples of the principle they had now made their 
own. Arithmetic is sometimes spoken of as a vulgar subject, because it is 
commonly taught in a mechanical and rule-of-thumb way ; in his hands it 
became as beautiful an instrument of mental discipline as geometry or logic. 
Of the fertility with which he devised new and shorter methods of working 
the ordinary rules, the liveliness with which be roused the attention of a class 



lin'iST-' THB LATE DR. JAMEB BRTOB. 5 

wbeo it bad b^nn to flag in the hands of a less skilful assistant, the firm 
kindliness hy which he kept perfect order in classes of eighty or ninety boys 
withoat appealing to exercise any anthority bnt that of a friend who was 
interest«d in their progress, — of all these there is no space here to speak, 
bnt tbey are deeply fixed in the recollection of thousands of his former 
pupils. He often regretted >that the nnmbers at the school, the size of 
Glasgow, and the distance at which the boya lived from the school and from 
his own residence, made it impossible for him to have as mnch personal 
teowledge of them as he had bad in Belfast. Bat he neTertiieless took a 
great interest in their welfare ; was constantly occupied in finding sitaations 
for them in mercantile bonses, advising them after tbey left school, giving 
testimonials to those who songbt for edacational appointments, aometimee 
corresponding with those who had gone, as so many yonng Scotchmen go, 
to the colonies or India. !No man was more willing to spend and be spent 
in the service of others, and that in ways which the world, and often even 
his own family, knew nothing of. 

Absorbed as he was during the day by tiie duties of his profession, Dr. 
Bryce was an indefatigable worker in the evening bonrg. While at Belfast, 
he had published, in conjunction with a mercantile friend, a practical treatise 
on Book-keeping, and afterwards a treatise on Algebra, both of which have 
gone through several editions. While at Glasgow, he also wrote an Intro- 
duction to Mathematical Geography and Agtronomy, a book on the Decimal 
System, for whose general introduction into our coins, weights, and measnres 
he was a zealous advocate, aud a Cyclopedia of Geography. Thia last was a 
work of great labour, which occupied his leisure during many years. Such 
intervals of time as he could spare from these literary undertakings be filled 
up with the study of Italian, Gaelic, and Hebrew (for be always had a great 
taste for languages, and made himself, while still a youth, an excellent 
Qerman and a tolerable Irish scholar), and with the reading of books of travel, 
h<m which he took copious notes, to be afterwards used in his class- teaching 
of geography, and in tie preparation of the Cycloptedia just mentioned. 

While this furnished ample occupatiou for the workmg part of the year, 
he devoted some weeks in every summer to geological excursions, generally in 
the company of his two sons, whom he loved to associate in his own pursuits. 
In the years 1850 and 1853 he visited the lake country of Cnmberland, and 
wrote papers on the evidences of glacial action there, and on other geological 
phenomena of that beautiful district. Other summers were spent iu the 
Scottish Highlands, — several being devoted to a thorongh examination of the 
geology of the island of Arran, which resulted in the composition of a book 
in which he presented a very complete account of all that is most interestiug 
in it, including not only its fauna and flora, bat its pre-bistoric antiquities. 
Still later, he turned his attention to the Isles of Skye and B.Ba8ay ; and last 
of all to those remarkable strata in the extreme north-western Highlands 
which have of late years excited so much discussion among geologists. The 
results of these inquiries were embodied in a long series of scientific papers, 
wbich may be found in the Transactions of the British Association, of the 
Qeolc^cal Societies of London and Edinburgh, and of tbe Philosophical 
Society of Glasgow. Of this last he had become a member on his settling 
in that city ; afid during his residence there he was one of its most active 
members, serving always on its council, and for three years as its president. 
Tike annual addresses which he delivered as president are perhaps the most 
complete evidence now remaining of the gr«at range and variety of his 
scientific attiunments, which extended over nearly alt of the chief depart- 



6 THE LATE DB. JAUES BBTCE. ' jm.i.M'l'^ 

ments into which scientific Inqnirf faae extended itself. In them he renewed 
the work of the past year, and discussed some of the chief problems now 
presented to stadents of natnre, with & fahiess of knowledge and a sonoduess 
of judgment which wonid have been admirable in any one, but were doably 
remarkable as possessed by one who had only the fragments of his leisure 
to devote to these difficult subjects. 

In April 1873, Dr. Bryce met with a serious accident, the rnptnre of one 
of the tendons of the knee, which confined him to bed for many weeks, 
and at one time endangered his general health. This led to his resigning his 
o£Gce iu the Glasgow High School ; and iu the antumn of 1874 his resigna- 
tion took eETect, and be came to live in Edinbni^h, where two of his younger 
brothers already resided. There he speedily became a member of the Boyal 
Society and the Geological Society, and enjoyed the greater opportunities that 
were now open to him of literary and scientific work, while continuing to 
interest himself actively in whatever concerned the welfare of his old pro- 
fession and of Scottish education generally. Convinced of the importance of 
-organizing the profession in a body which shonld exert some control over its 
members, and be able to guarantee their fitness, he had oa far back as 
1847, taken part in fonnding the Educational Instttnte of Scotland ; had 
been one of its earliest presidents; and a warm advocate for the establish- 
ment of an UDsectarian, though religious, system of national education. 
Partly through the obstinacy or ignorance of the Goverament, partly from 
the apathy of the educational profession itself, which was too much divided 
by ecclesiastical partisanship to unite for a common purpose, the Institute, 
althongh it continues to exist, has not obtained the full official recognition 
, which it claimed ; and Dr. Bryce, who was himself very free from party 
passions, had latterly begun to feel that in the present state of parties there 
'was little likelihood of its success. He had, however, not relaxed in hia 
zeal for the preservation of the distinctive merits of Scottish education, which 
he regarded as having suffered grievously from the EngUsh Privy Council 
system. Wheo the Edinburgh Education Board van threaitened with 
extinction last winter, he was one of the first to set on foot an agitation for 
its maintenance, as offering some security that Scottish schools should not 
be wholly assimilated to the inferior type of elementary school which exists 
south of the Tweed ; and at the time of his death be was actively at work 
as one of the honorary secretaries of the association formed for that purpose. 
Himself a graduate of Glasgow University in days when graduation was 
mnch less freqnent there than it has now become (he took his M.A. degree 
in 1832, and received the honorary degree of LL.D. in 1857), he had always 
been anxious to see the rights of the graduates to a voice in the management 
of University affairs recognised, and their influence used to popularize the 
constitution of our Scottish Universities, and introduce vaiions reforms there. 
With this view he formed the Glasgow Graduates Association in 1862, — the 
first of the kind, if we are not mistaken, that existed in Scotland, — and, with 
the aid of a few like-minded friends, he kept the question before the public, 
until, by the University Act of 1858, the principle he had been contending for 
was admitted, though, as he thought, in too small a measure to produce all 
the desired results. He therefore continued to urge the claims of the 
graduates at the meetings of the General Council in Glasgow, in conjunction 
with his eldest brother. Dr. R. J. Bryce, and his valned friend Mr. Cleland 
Burns, and last spring gave evidence before the University CommissioDers 
upon the subject. 
Sprung from an old Covenanting stock, brought np in a pious home, and 



jl^ioS"*^^ THE LATE DR. JAHE8 BETCE. 7 

by hJB own matured confictioDs & firm Preabyteriaa and a siDcere Yoliuitarf, 
Dr. Bryce was throughout his life an active and earneBt member in Ireland 
of the Charch fonnded by hia father, and, after he came to Scotland, of the 
ITnited Presbyterian Church. While in QlaEgow, he was for many years an 
elder in the Shamrock Street Chnrch, of which he had been one (A the 
fonuders ; and in Edihbargh he was i^ain elected to tbo olderehip in the 
church at Morningside, of which Dr. Mair is pastor. Xo one conid be more 
zealous or faithful in the discbai^e of his presbyterial duties. In Glasgow, 
fatig^oed as be was by the labours of the week, he andwtook the manage- 
ment of t^e Shamrock Street Chnrch Sabbath school, organized it from the 
firet, and taught in it two hours erery Sabbath, even when his family, who 
feared the effect on his health, eudearonred to persuade him to leave this 
work to younger men. The supposed difficulties of reconciling the con- 
clasions of science with tlie truths of Christianity cast no shadow upon his 
pnre and truthfnl spirit. Although a thorough man of science, accepting 
everything which geology has proved, and never hesitating to defend it when 
assailed, he was none the less a simple and pions Christiuu. Nature and 
revelatioQ were to him only two different modes in which the wisdom and 
goodness of the Most High were set forth to men, and be never admitted 
' that there conld be any contradiction between them. Indeed, his love of 
nature and delight in her study were intensified by the clearness with which 
be saw God manifested in the beauty of the world and the skill of its work- 
mambip. 

After his settlement in Edinbm^h, a happy and peaceful old age seemed 
to be opening np before him. He was in the midst of friends who valued 
him, with leisure both for his scientific stndies, and for the church work, 
wluch be had gladly resumed under a pastor to whom he was attached ; 
and though he was over seventy years of age, his strength and vigonr 
seemed unimpaired. Many years of honour and usefulness might still have 
been predicted for him. But hnman predictions are rain. On the 10th of 
July last, he left Edinburgh for a geological expedition to Sutherlaodbhire, 
where he wished to investigate once more the fossiliferons strata of Assynt 
and Durness. On his way north he spent a night at Inverness, and started early 
OD the morning of the 1 1th for Foyers on Loch Xess, Landing there from the 
Steamer, he walked two miles along the loch to the pass of Inverfarigaig, 
a romantic little glen coming down to the loch on its south-east side, where 
there occurs an outburst of granite which he was anxious to examine. 
Rambling up the glen, he came to a spot where there has fallen from the 
gruiite clifi above a ranas of loose rocks, which hung, so to speak, on the 
steep slope that descends from the base of the cliff to the murmuring brook 
below. He halted under this mass, in whose appearance there was nothing 
to indicate danger, and tried one of the blocks with his hammer to see what 
the rock was. The stroke loosened the cohesion of the pile. Several 
blocks fell, struck him, and carried him six or seven yards dovra towards the 
stream. All mnst have been over in a moment ; so that there can have been 
DO suffering, and. probably not even the knowledge of what was happening. 
Terribly sudden as such a death seems, it was in reality more mercifal than 
terrible ; for he was spared the weakness and decay of age, and the bitter- 
ness of parting from those he loved. He had so lived as to be always 
ready to die; and he died in the pursuit to which so many of his beat and 
happiest hours hud beeeu given, a true martyr of science, wrestling with 
the secrets of nature like a soldier on the battle-field, under the shadow of 
the everlasting mountains which be loved so welL 



8 THE tATB DB. JAMBB BSTCE. ^'^'iTS^'^ 

This Is an imperfect record of a life which, though iu ooe seose calm and 
nneveotfol, was fnll of constant labonra-and efforte of maoy kinds, — a life 
whose reealtB onght not to be estimated merely with reference to the respeot 
and honour which they won for him ; for the reanlts of any noble life, and 
most conspicnonsly of a great teacher's, throngh whose hands tbonsauds of 
boys of the middle and upper class hare passed, perpetaate themselres 
among people and in places where his name has never been heard< The 
tastes and interests which snch a man implants in his pnpils, the elevation 
be gives to their thonghts and purposes, the example of devotion to duty, 
truthfalaess, kindliness, which he sets before them, — all these are ae mncb a 
part of bis contribution to God's work in the world, as any books he writes 
or any institutions he founds. And few teacbera have had snch oppor- 
tanities of doing that work as were his, or have used them so well. Of his 
scientific attainments and powers, especially his wonderfully keen observa- 
tion, something has already been said, as well as of the physical raergy which 
made him in bis yonnger days the best walker in Belfast, thinking nothii^ 
of thirty-five or forty miles in a day, and enabled him to the end of his life 
to scramble up the rngged peaks of oar Highland moantains. There was 
nothing he enjoyed so much as a monntain excursion,— the plants, the birds, 
the roclcs, were all known to him and dear to hiiu ; and bow great bis delight, 
when from the sammit a grand prospect disclosed itself, and he pointed out, 
far away on the horizon, other pinnacles which in former years he had scaled 
and studied I It was, one may suppose, the same imagmative quality in his 
intellect which made him so fond of poetry and history, that gave lum tfiis 
intense pleasure in natnral beanty, for ha had no turn for drawing, and com- 
paratively little interest in any form of art. 

Higher and rarer than all his intellectual gifts, were those qualities of 
character and heart by which, most of all, he lives in the loving memory of 
his friends. In him a perfect simplicity and hnmility and refinement were 
□nited with a brightness and gaiety of manner which brought cbeerfnl- 
ness into every company he entered. His temper had originally been warm, 
according to the report of those who knew him aa a boy ; bnt in middle 
life no one could have discovered this, and it was always sweet and 
equable. Constantly disposed to think the best of othera, and to find 
excQses for their faults or weaknesses, he was aingnlarly indifferent to per- 
sonal gossip, so that friends sometimes laughingly complained that it was 
no nse talldng to him abont his neighbours' concerns. Bat when either 
sympathy or active help was to be given to another, no one gave it more 
promptly or more delicately; and many instances have come to light, even 
since his death, in which his active benevolence had been at work, cheering 
and aiding and enconraging persons of whom his family had never heard, 
and who had no claim on him except that which was to him more than 
enough — that thdy were God's weak or unhappy children. Under the cordial 
frankness of manner which made him so popniar in society, there lay con- 
cealed an unbending rectitude of porpose, and the utmost constancy in his 
attachment both to those whom he had once made his friends and to the 
principles in wbicb he bad been brought np. Although life "had its disap- 
pointments for him as for most of ns, no experience of the world, no morose- 
ness of advancing age, ever dulled that genial heartiness, or soured the perfect 
sweetness of bis temper ; for it was a sweetness that came not only from 
nature, but from grace also, — the fruit of long years spent in unselfish service 
to his fellow-men, from his youth upwards looking to God and walking with 
God in tmstfal dependence on His promises. 



"■'^J^i'WiT'' PROrESaOE FLIKX AKD THE LOGIC OF THEI8K. 



PROFESSOR FLINT AND THE LOGIC OF THEISM* 

BT THE RET. JAUKB WARDROP. 

Is the pnrsait of trnth, when we come to the doctriDe of the existence and 
character of God, we reach the loftiest range of natural knowledge. From 
this knowledge being the loftiest, two tbiogs are the resolt Iq reference to it. 
On the one hand, the reward of attainlQg it is ybtj great, — great both specn- 
latirely and practically, — to the mind, for the benefit of itself acd all its other 
knowledge ; and to the heart, for the training of its affections, and for the satis- 
faction of its longings. On the other hand, the difficnlty of attainiDg a tbeietic 
doctrine in a reasoned or philosophical form is as great as ia its reword. 

A cnrsory acqaaintance with the specalatioDS of the great theists, from 
before Flato till after Pale;, will bring this difficnltjinto full viewj and the 
view will be deq>ened as that acqaaiotance enlarges. Hitherto, the diEQcnlty 
has been too great to be well surmonnted, so far, at least, as the eridence of 
the divine existence ia concerned. 

There is an observation which cannot fail to be made by all who attend to ' 
the paet progress of theistic iuTestigation, and which, in connection with a 
certain direction of thought that has grown exceedingly strong in the present 
day, may snggest a reasonable hope of some great adyance speedily to be 
taken by such investigation in the time to come. The result of any attempt 
made at the attainment of any kind of truth, depends on the degree of per- 
fection with which the true method of knowledge generally, and the true 
method of the apecial department in hand, have been observed. Our faculties 
of knowledge have been made subject to laws ; and if, by our processes of 
knowing, we are to get upsides with reality and have certain truth deposited 
in the mind, it is imperative that these laws be detected and obeyed. They 
are the method of knowledge, and method is the way to success in knowing. 
Now, the obBervation is, that all through the line of theiatic inquiry the 
methods of the inquirers have varied fundamentally from one another. Not 
only has one inquirer employed a fundamentally different method from' another, 
bnt the same inqnirer has employed fnudamentally different methods in 
succession, — nay, methods incompatible wilh each other, when employed' in 
the same field. This may indicate that the true method of Theism has not 
been, as yet, ascertained at all, or at leeist not distinctly enough to, be held 
with snfBcient steadiness. And this may be the secret of what failnre there 
has been in attaining a true speculative doctrine. ' Bnt if so, then there is a 
most notable current of thonght and progress in the present day, that at once 
hobls out hopefnl anticipations as to coming progress in the knowledge of this 
high subject. It is the method of knowledge that may be said to be the charac- 
teristic object of pursuit to the thinkers of the past generation and the present. 

There is a deeper and broader logic than the formal science of consist- 
ency between assumptions and inferences, — between the starting-points of 
knowledge and its further advances. There is the logic that deals, on the . 
one hand, with those primary constitaents and conditions of all knowledge, 
and, on the other hand, with those laws regulative of the processes of knowing, 
our observance of which guarantees the tr|ith and certainty of science. It is 
the mastery of this logic or method of knowledge that constitutes perhaps the 
most energetic attempt of modem philosophical thought. Taking up afresh 
the line which had been held in some firm huids, both in antiquity and in 
y Bobert Flint, D.D., LL.D. flUckwood A 



10 PKOFESSOB FLINT AND THE LOGIC OP THEISM, '""'■hi.tw^ 

the later Chrietian centnriea, whicli had been grasped especially by the hands 
of Des Cartes and Bacon', never more it wonld seem to be let go, modem 
. philosophers haTe turned from the objects by which the material and 
spiritual fforids attracted them to the direct efforts of knowledge back on 
the knowing agent itself to detect the modes and laws of its procedure, so 
as that, in the pnrgnit of truth, efforts of will might aid spontaneity and 
deliberate trial and sagacions application of method might carry the logic 
of nature more speedily aod more effectually to the goal of discovery. 

This torn in the direction of thonght has told with wonderfnl effect on re- 
snltsbothin science and practice in several Gelds. A reciprocal mo vemevlt and 
■ iuflaence have been going on. Every new discovery of trnth or fact turned 
the philosophical eye afresh, and with enhanced opportunities, back on the 
natnre of the process by which it had been reached ; while mutnally every look 
back on the organ of knowledge and its procednre gave new impetns, surer 
guidance, and added triumphs to the renewed attempts in direct science. 

It might be expected that philosbphy and theology, being the highest 
efforts of speculation, wonld be the last to catch their proper share of 
advantage from this happy direction of things. And so it has been. Physical 
science and Biological science have had their Bacon and Whewell and Mill 
and Jevon'a, as formal logic formerly its Aristotle. Theological methodic— 
the method of speculative theology and of Christian evidence and truth — still 
waits. It awaits its modern epoch, and the man who is to make it. But it 
is the fact that we are waiting for them,^the fact that theologians are 
taking a reflex direction, and are turning back to consider the method of 
their own science, and are labouring to make progress only through the 
traer detection and the surer application of all the elements of that method 
that is the promise of the present time for Theism." And somewhat above 
a tweheraonth ago, an annooncenieot was made to the public that might ahnost 
have suggested a question whether, if not the coming prophet of this scieoce, at 
least his forerunner, were not now at hand. It was the announcement of * 
new discussion of the subject by a distinguished Scottish philosopher and 
theologian. From the moment that it was known that the present Professor 
of Divinity in the University of Edinburgh was to deliver a ' Baird Lecture,' 
and that he had chosen ' Theism ' for bis subject, all who knew Dr. Flint, and 
had interest in theistie inquiry, looked forward to the man and the occasion 
with unusual interest. 

Dr. Flint's name was famous — famons all over the learned world, for 
speculation on matters of great profundity 'and much complication. Hia 
book, able in itself, and somewhat original to the English language, on 
Philosophy and History in France and Germany, had been translated into 
the languages of the most learned continental nations. It hud arrested the 
attention of all competent critics. It was but a fragment of what was to be; 
but the attention which it drew almosf invariably rose into admiration of 
the writer's unusual genins tor acutely threading a way through most 
intricate regions of inquiry, and hia equally conspion on s power of construc- 
tion and system. He seemed able to defy any amount ^f manifoldness or 
perplexity in the details submitted to hia handling. These accomplishments 
of the author seemed the very perfection of qualification for the new 
endeavours of the ' Lecture,' Tlic simple facts and faiths in the religious life 

■ Mr. Percy Strntt's ladwtUt Mtthod of Chrislian Jhobiit/ (Hodde'r & StonebloB, 
1B77) i» an intereating and BuggestivB book, and a eiga of ido time. Mr. JoBiah Mille" 
CArMiidnmn Organam, or the Indvctive Mtthod in Saiplure and Science, with its intro- 
duotory noUoa bj Dr. Gladstone, tbo well-known chemist and r.E.8. (Longmans, 1870), ■»• 
an ekrlier eigD- 



'"^TTibw'"' PEorEseoB flint and the logic of theism. 11 

of men, of which Theism JB' the designatioo, are like other eimple tbiDgs. 
When yoa look along tbem. to their borders, or their foundatioDs, op their 
gnarantees, or thdr relatioDB to other things, they have a tendency to ran 
iDto mazes of difflcnity or mystery ; and it requires aagacions insight, aonnd- 
ness of judgment, and broad and sympathetic views, to keep their simplicity 
and their truth from prejudice. But it was a combination of these very 
powers, in a degree not generally enrpassed amongst the learned, that was 
on the anticipated occasion to be brought to bear on the snbject. No 
wonder that keen interest ipread far and wide, and hailed the lectnrer forward 
to his task. Theism was now at last to have a favonrable opportunity for 
getting into the right way. There was only one thing imaginable that 
conld check ardonr, or give a moment's hesitation to the most sanguine 
anticipations. The occasion was a ' Lectore,' — a ' Lecture ' on a foundation 
of some hundreds of pounds, and one annually resuscitated. That it was 
'The Baird Lecture' was a matter of no consequence for the point alluded 
to. The word ' Baird ' has to do only with the pounds. It was the 
' Lecture' that brought with it the cause of hesitancy; and all lectures, of what- 
ever name, on a like foundation, are liable to the snspicio us concomitant. It was 
a ' Lecture,' though, with the pomp and circumstance of a rich and legalized 
foundation, yet, both for the anthor and for the subject, an occasional 'Lecture.' 
The possible suspense and surmise, therefore, could not be avoided : Had the 
coming lectnrer Etodied his subject only for the nonce t Was be an expert 
of previous and long standing in the field of knowledge which he was now to 
deal with, as he had been iu other fields in which he had won famef Had 
the mind, competent as it was, and worthy of the great adventnre, had time 
to be thrown out, and familiarly, over the broad details, and back on the 
deep principles, by which the subject to be discussed was, more than most, 
characterized 1 Was this great occasion, after all, in danger of turning out 
just such a business as has been often enough before witnessed in the hands 
of even the very greatest of specialists, when they transcended their special 
field, — as, for instance, when Charles Darwin or Thomas Huxley went in for 
metaphysic and theology, or Charles Hodge went in for Darvriuism and 
natural science, — was this great occasion to turn out a case of cram T That 
was the one hesitation that the circumstances of the case inevitably occasioned 
to the most confident believer in Dr. Flint's genius. But, after all, if the 
worst came to the worst, — if ' cram ' it was to be, — all the world had the refuge 
of remembering that it was in Dr. Flint's hand it was to be. If ever ' cram ' 
conld surpass itself, renounce its cmdeness, and do the work of leisure and 
maturity, it would be now. The recent examples specified need not darken 
the prospect. Besides, had not Dr. Flint's predecessor in the professorial 
chair produced perhaps his very best book on the occasion of the andden 
call of the very same 'Lecture'! And, moreover, so far as the standing 
bterests of Theism are concerned, such a man as Dr. Flint having once in 
BDch circumstances committed himself to the great subject, might be 
eipected to retain bis hold of it, and by future elaboration to atone for the 
insufficiency of a hasty effort, if for such atonement there should be left room. 
What, then, was the result 1 When the lecturer came to hie post, the eager 
interest that had spread through town and country, and had followed him 
from city to city (for the ' Baird Lecture ' is peripatetic), at last filled St. 
George's Church, Edinburgh, to overflowing, and greeted Dr. Ffint with the 
sight of an audience, one of the largest, most intelligent, and enthusiastic 
tlwit ever listened to lectures in the Scottish metropolis. As it was on the 
first night, so it continued throughout the course. Neither the audiences nor 



12 PBOFESSOB FLIHT AKD THE LOGIC OP THEISM, '""li^i^'^ 

the interest, nor, it m&f be added, the power of the speaker, waned till the 
task was finished. It may almost be said of Dr. Flint's Inminoas prelectionB 
on the abstruse snbject, what has been said of another celebrated conree of 
lectures given by a French philosopher in the French capital, — ' Two 
thoaaand auditors listened, all with admiratioD, many with ODthnsiosm, to the 
eloquent exposition of doctrines iatfilligible only to tihe few.' 

Bnt the result was not complete when Dr. Flint ceased to speak. We hare 
a book, — for the ' Baird ' foundation secures the permanence of its lectures 
in printed form ; and the book, if it brings Dr. Flint's disqnisilion on Theism 
before a wider, and we may even say a world-wide audience, will also laj 
them under the ordeal of a steadier and more searching criticism. Bat 
upon the whole, the general verdict may be anticipated. The book will b« 
regarded as one of the best books, perhaps the very best book of its genera- 
tion on its snbject, — a prediction, however, that need not in any one r^se 
conceptions of too exaggerated praise. The language is pure and vigorous. 
These lectures are in the best of the 'Queen's Enghsh.' The srraage- 
ment of the subjects, and the delineations, historical and dogmatical, are 
very clear, and such as to give luminons views. All is light round Dr. Flint's 
path. So far as he sees clearly himself, the reader always sees the mattw 
which he sets down in writing with exceeding ease and visibility. The 
points of thought that lie within the writer's reach are grasped with firm and 
conscious mastery. The ordinarily intelligent reader will have such a sense 
of intellectual gratification and benefit, that he will follow the author all 
through just as eagerly as the listeners hung on his spoken words. As for 
the interests of the more rigorous student, it is plain that Dr. Flint carries 
even into these lectnres, with their voluminous notes, a professor's cares and 
onsieties, as well as a professor's experience and accomplishments. There 
is much suggestiveness, and many various features throughout, that are not 
a little stimulating. The remarks and references in the notes give the 
Tolome much of the character of a student's handbook. Altogether, and 
but for one reservation, which however is a serious one, and must be taken 
np and dealt with immediately, no bett» manual on Theism could be'pnt 
into the student's hand. 

Such, then, has been the result of this ' Lecture,' and such the gain for 
the popular ear and for literature. But what now has been the resnlt for 
Theism t Does this book make an epoch for its snbject? or, does it at 
least put Theism into the way most fiavourable for farther advance T It 
must be owned that at this qnestion unqnalified approbation most cease, — 
nay, it must give place not only to criticism, but to disappomtment and 
complaint. Dr. Flint's ' Theispa ' is not an epoch-making book. In truth, 
even with respect to putting theistic investigation into a way favourable for 
progress, the book may become the occasion of some other book doing that, 
but no one can say it has done it itself. Nay, this book cauuot even 
liecome the occasion of snch a better book, except by the future author 
diverging somewhat radically from Dr. Flint's Imes, and rearing not only s 
new building, bnt on a new foundation. 

The supreme question for Theism is the following : Is the fact of God's 
existence intuitional or inferential T Is it a fact before and above logic, or 
is it a fact made out by logical reasonings T In other words, is the fact of 
the divine existence a fact which a critical and speculative analysis of the 
processes of the mind shows to be a knowledge native to the mind, or is it 
one which the miud concludes to through syllogistic reasoning 1 Or, in 
other words still, is the existence of God an existence which experience is 



"■'jIZT'ibS'^' PEOrSSBOB FLINT AND THB LOGIC OF THBIWi 13 

merely the occasion of revealing to qb, as one which we spontftneonsly recog- 
nise, or is it an existence onr knowledge of which is etrictl; a product ot 
experience itself T This is the critical qaestion for Theism, ^d all the 
hopes of an adequate and true epecnktive doctrine os the snbject centre on 
the affirojation firmly made, and rigoronsly acted on, of the fonner of the 
altematires thns variouely expressed, and on the denial equally strong and 
consistent of the latter of these alternatives. It is to be observed that a 
tnte logic of Theism depends on both the affirmation and the denial specified, 
because neither the one nor the other of the two alleged modes in which we 
may become cognisant of God's existence is, in the opinion of some, exhanst- 
ive of the possible modes in which the fact may be known. Dr. M'Cosh — 
and here we shall find Dr. Flint follows him^aubstantiates the existence of 
God by a mongrel evidence, that consists in a fusion of the intuitional and 
mferential together ; while Principal Tnlloch and Mr. Jackson hold that the 
snbject is sasceptible of both modes of evidence, not in fnsion but sncces- 
sion. Id opposition to all. this, however, it must be held, for it is true, that 
intnition is a witness that will give its evidence in company with no other 
witness whatever. It will stand alone, for it is all-sufficient when its testi- 
mony can be adduced ; or it will refuse to stand at all, and throw yon for 
yonr evidence wholly on other sources. It will not come with, before, or 
after any other witness in the canse. The first-born of reason will not share 
its birthright with another. Therefore, if theiatic evidence be intuitional, it is 
iutnitional alone ; if inferential, inferential alone. And, let it be repeated, the 
coming prophet of Theism must be an intuitionalist. He must have con- 
fidence in intuition, and stake his all on its strength. When will men make 
adequate and timeons resort to the place of principlee, and bnild on the 
divinely-laid foundation there, all that temple of science which God has laid 
h to uphold T When will they cease to suspect the very pillars of truth, 
and learn to love and trust them more than that frail refuge of knowledge — 
their own reasonings T When, above all, will they cease to rely on their own 
demonstrations even for the fundamental facts of existence, — nay, even for 
the chiefest fact of existence, the existence of the infinite One T Immediate 
knowledge— the uuproven but accepted and indefeasible assertions of the 
mind, are the only and sole witness for all the facts of existence, and among 
the rest for the existence of Qod. This evidence once given is final. It 
supersedes and makes inept — even it may be delusive — all other modes and 
processes that would pretend to a strict eatabhshment of the fact. Our 
knowledge of the fact of God's existence is not any of the following kinds 
of knowledge. It is not an inference, either deductive or inductive. It is 
not a hjfpothtait merely,^' the prehmiuary admission of an nncertain premiss,' * 
— that kind of assnmption or presupposition which, if you consent to take it 
with yon, will be fonnd able to give you an explanation of things, and which 
for its services in that way you are to reward with the position of established 
truth. It is not properly a postulate which you need or demand for the same 
task of unriddling the nuiverse, and to which, again, you give place only 
because it enables you to do this, and so saves yon from the misery of stand- 
iag before the unveiled Sphinx. The fact of God's existence is no one of all 
these. It is properly called a datum. It is something given in and to thought, 
and for the conscious possession of which the mind has to do not one whit 
else or more than to look critically into itself, analyse its own contents, and 
speculate on them. The fact of God's existence is not what men's interpre- 

Q able dJBciiBaion in the Briiiih and Fifieign 



14 PROFESSOE FLINT AND THE LOGIC OF THEISM. '""li'tK^'*^ 

tatioD of tt^iDgs is properlj said to demand, in order to be posBible and 
rational; it is what is ready given in the mind to be the life and reason of 
all their rational interpretation a. It is not what will do much or everything 
for the understanding of the nniverse, it only yon are permitted to assume it ; 
it is an element ot knowledge which the mind does not need to assume on 
safferance, but most take from itself, and own or deny itself. It is^in a word, 
not what can be logically' demonstrated or inductively established even if 
you would, and that becanse it lias at the deepest roots of all possible dedac- 
tion and induction both. Our knowledge of God is often called a postulate ; 
and other forms of expression are commonly used of a similar character, but 
similarly inadeqnate, if the exact point of truth is to be expressed. For 
instance, we are said to ' need God to account for the world,' or ' to make 
it iotelligible ; ' • we are ' under the necessity of assuming God ; ' ' the prin- 
ciples of onr nature demand God ; ' ' belief in the divine existence harmonises 
with the religious instincts of our nature.' Now, all these forms of expres- 
sion may be quite appropriate occurring in a certain line of remark, bQt 
tbey do not express the exact truth ; and some at least of those who have 
used them would be the first to say so — Calderwood, for instauce. They go 
no further than representing God as a hypothesis, or a craving, or a simple 
necessity. But we may need and not have, seek and- not get, crave and not 
be satisfied. Hamilton'swordsinreterencetoKant point out clearly what are 
awanting in such expressions. ' In the character he ascribes to this feeling 
or belief ' (intuitive of God), ' Rant,' says Hamilton, ' erred. For he onght 
to have regarded it not as a mere spiritual craving, but as an immediate 
manifestation of intelligence ; not as a postulate, bnt as a datum ; not as an 
interest in certain truths, or an inclination towards them, but as the fact, the 
principle, the warrant of their cognition and reality.' \ We have, besides, 
more given than we need. But the point here to be' noticed is, that what 
we are said to need is given so aa to anticipate the need. The datum may 
not be detected aa such, — few data are, and by few. The true source ot 
the fact may be nnobserved ; but it is as a datura, or possession of the miod 
nnderived throngh inference or throngb anything else from anything else, 
that the fact of God's existence meets the mind of the thinker on God. It 
is not a truth which yon reach only 'in a syllogiatica! way, deducing and 
collecting one thing out of another,' and which therefore never places thnt 
one truth directly before your eyes without the mediation ot the other ; it is 
that kind ot trnth which brings you directly face to face with the object, 
and which you know by its own self-revelation, not by the help of anything 
rtearer to you or clearer to yon. ' Angels are above syllogisms,' says Culver- 
well. ' Even amongst men,' he adds, ' first principles are above dispntings, 
above demonstrations.' The fact of the divine existence is to men like one 
of these principles. You do not reason yourself into a conviction of God's 
. existence. God is given before He is songlit. With Him yon may seek all 
else; from anything else, except only as famishing occasions and opportuni- 
ties, yon cannot get Him, It is with the reasoner who would bring God 
within the arms of bis thought by his logical processes, as it is with the 
spiritually awakened soul who would embrace God through the cry of 

■'We need God lo nmko (he world intelligible; 
(Fairbwrn'B Stadiet'). We lie»r alao of a 'proponsi 
laithMnOod, etc 

I Betd'B Worki, p. 793, The dt«p1y true and tkcute remnrka ol Coldervood (JIandiooi of 
iforal PhiUaophy, p, 87), and in contrast those of Hermes oited by Hftinilton (Beid, SpO-l). 
may be conaidered In relstioa to the matter ia hand. la the remarks in the text it id nut 
meant to refuse a plate to iuBtiact in the method of knowledge. 



""^"^u:*"' MACBETH; OK GROWTH IN EV1I« 15 

prayer. The real gift of Him has anticipated the efforts of both alike. 
The awakened sonl ia sore to find, wiih a ravishing sarprise at lost, that while 
he has been imagining himself seeking, he was all the while being songht by 
the object of his search, already his. And if the tbeistic logician does not 
recei?e a similarly glad surprise, it is hecaase his eyes are not yet sufficiently 
open to the troth of the case. Hastening, as he aopposes, toward the f Act of 
God's existence by his reaBoninga, he ia liable at any moment to have the dia- 
coTery bnrst on bia eyes that bis logical appliances already involve an,d rest od 
the fact which he is seeking to make rest on them. The inevitable reality and 
presence are already there. The thought of the thinker, like bis practic^ life, 
cut only live, move, and have its being in the God whom he is feeling after. 
All this is bnt simple assertion, — simple affirmation of one sole mode of 
evidencing the fact of God'a existence, — simple negation of all others. Qnes- 
lioDB radical and immense remain, — questions not always dealt with, or even 
always acknowledged as pending, when snch asaertions are made. It fs not 
enough to assert that Ood is an intuition. If tlie fact of God's existence be 
intuitively known, we must be able to lay our hand palpably on the divine 
intoiliou in the mind. We must detect the mind in the act of intaitirely 
knowing God. Such an analyais must be made as shall show in what pro- 
cess or processes it acts on the presupposition that God exists, — acts in soch 
a manner that the recognition by it of His existence ia seen to be the very 
condition of its action. By this the question put to the intnitional tbeist by 
Dr. Fb'nt and Dr. M'Coah, whether he can point ont a separate definite in- 
tnition of Ood, wiU at the same time be disposed of. It may be also asked, — if 
it be foand that we get God in multiplied mental data, how are these many 
and varied voices of intuition unified into an intnitive recognition of one 
Reing? Then, too, as to those many, grand, and far-gatbered facta of the 
muTerBe, and those sublime truths and thoughts of the mind, out of which 
thoBtieal demonstratora have been wont to draw their a posteriori and 
a priori argnments, what is the real relation in which that material stands 
to the fact of God's existence? — what is its fnnction with respect to our 
tnowledge of that fact, since we assert it is not that of logically proving itT 
These are questions which he, who asserts an intuitional and denies an 
iofereutial Theism, must couaider himself bound clearly and aatisfactorily to 
answer. Meanwhile, the one regret in reference to the ' Baird Lecture' 
on Theism is, that its author did not make the assertion and denial thus 
signalised, and baild the system of theistic evidence on the altered lines which 
should thus have been laid for it. The damaging element in the whole 
discussion ia that there is faltering at this critical point. So far as the stern 
necessity for a choice between the inevitable logical alternatives has been 
discerned, the wrong choice has been made. Dr. Flint is professedly an 
inferential tbeist. 

(To be continued.) 



MACBETH ; OR GROWTH IN EVIL. 

m BEV.' WILLIAM TOBNEK, SDINBURGH. 

A GOOD drama is a tme Christian parable, full of sptrttnal meanings and 
holy lessons. Like the parables of Scriptnre, it is a fragment taken from 
the qnarry of ordinary secnlsr history, and so polished and set as to show 
the reins of divine order and moral law whereby all human history is per- 
meated. By the clear exhibition of these, rather than by the pity and 



16 , MACBETH ; OB OBOWTH IN EVIL. '""Sl^^^!'^ 

terror it ezdtes, does tri^edy 'purge thesoal.' Tbedramas of Shakespeare, 
inasmach as they are pre-ecniDeut in their truth to catore and in the power of 
their delineatioDS, yield themaelveB with pecaliar facility to paraliolic uses ; 
and I make no 4>*>'0S7 '^^ l-Ixia attempting to torn to acconot, for the 
purposes 9^ moral inatrnction^ the great poem of ' Macbeth.' 
. That there is a process of growth in hnman life and history is a trnth 
iUnstrated in sereral of the parables of Jesns Christ, specially in those 
recorded in the ISth chapter of Matlhew. Id these, as also in Bnnyaa's 
well-known allegory, it is growth iu goodness which occupies the fore- 
ground. Bnt there is growth in evil as well as in good. In the one moral 
condition as in the other, there is ' first the blade, then the ear^ then the fall 
com in the ear.' In the career of the wicked as well as of the righteoos, ' it 
doth not' at first * appear what they shall be ; ' and many, like Kazael, have 
in the comparative innocence of their earlier days spamed from them with 
indignation the picture of that which thay have at last become. It is this 
growth in evil which I wish now to contemplate. For my sermon I find a 
text altogether saitable in James i. 18-15 : ' Let no man say when he is 
tempted, I am tempted of Qod ; for God cannot b>e tempted with evil, neither 
tempteth he any man ; bnt every man is tempted, when heis drawn away of 
his own Inst, and enticed. Then, when lost hath conceived, it bringeth forth 
Bin ; and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death.' ' Macbeth ' shall 
famial) the commentary on this text, and it is hoped that theuatural darkness 
and repulsiveness of the theme will be in no small measure relieved by the 
force and beanty of the poetical illnstration. 

In ' Macbeth,' as in the corresponding prose poem of Bnnyan, we have one 
principal character, the growth of whose moral nature is set off by jaxta- 
position with various other sabordinate characters. Macbeth is one of the most 
distinguished and trusted of the generals of Duncan, who is king of Scotland 
at a period when the country is exposed to the assaults of Norwegians, 
Danes, and other invaders. He has approved himself not only a valiant 
soldier and skilfu! leader but also a toyal snbject, and he bears throughout 
the kingdom an honoured name as the bravest of the thanes and the best 
support of the throne. We first meet Macbeth as he marches at the head 
of his troops, in company with another distinguished captain, Banquo, on 
their return from victorions fight with the Norwegians. The country over 
which they are travelling is a ' blasted heath,' and a tempest is shaking the 
heavens. ' So foal and fair a day,' remarks Macbetli, referring at once to 
the victory and to the storm, ' I have not seen,' On such a day, ' a baim 
might understand,' according to Bums, that ' the prince of the power of the 
air ' was abroad ; and so it proved for the two generais. As they struggle 
on through the fierce wind and rain, separated by the darkness from their 
army, a strange apparition presents iteelf. Three frightful hags stand before 
them, — the famous witches which, like so many other marvelloas beings, owe 
their existence in the world of fancy to the genioa of Shakespeare. These 
witches do not belong to the class of the weak and much-abused creatnres 
who currently bear this name; on the contrary, they are beings potent and 
dreadful, veritable ministers of darkness and denizens of the pit, armed with 
might to raise storms, to inflict diseases, to foretell the future,' and to tempt 
men to ruin. Accordmg to the Bible, temptations to sin come not from 
above bnt from beneath. It is ' an enemy ' — th^ adversary and destroyer — 
who sows tares in God's field, Infemalagencies, we are given to understand. 
are constantly at work, — 'principalitiee, powers, the miere of the darkness ot 
this world,' under the command of ' the god of this world, the prince of the 



■^jiniSwI'*' MACBETH; OB'GBOWTH IN BTH.. 17 

power of thB sir, the spirit that now worketli Id the cbildrea of disobediaioe,* 
who * goeth about aa a roaring lion, aeekioK whom he may deronr,'— and by 
these jn&nj of the childm of men ore blinded, infatuated, wdnced, and ' led 
oaptire' to' detraction. '0 foolish Oalatians,' aaja Panl in bis espoetala- 
tion with the erring, * who hath bewitched joQ T ' As it was with Ere in the 
garden in Eden, with Job amid his abundance in the land of Vz, with Darid 
on the throne m JemBalem, with Jeeni Christ in the wilderness of Jndea, the 
BtepB of the Scottish chieftun are now waylaid by infernal ^ency, preeentecl 
in a form each as it suits oar poet to call into hang oat of the * vasty deep' 
of his imagination, 

' Speak, if 70a can,' says Macbeth to the ' weird sisters,' ' what are 
je t ' — to which in snccesdon they reply, — 

' All bail, HubethI hdl (a thee, thuie of Glunb ! 
All hail, Uuibeth I h>U to thee, thue of Cawdor I . 
All bail, Haobeth i that ihall be klag hereafter!' 

Now this tlureefold salatation is a ' prophetic greeting ; ' — for in all 
temptation prophecy or at least promise is involved. ' Ye shaU be as Ood,' 
sud the serpent to Ere, ' knowing good and eril.' ' All the kingdoms of the 
world, and the glory of them,' said the tempter to Christ, ' I will give Thee, 
it Thon wilt fall down and worship me.' Macbeth had learned, bnt a little 
time before, that by the death of a relative he had become thane of Ql&mia; 
bnt the thane of Cawdor lived, and the king Uved, and yet by these h^h 
titles is he now sainted I The manner in which oar hero is affected by this 
prophecy gives as a deep insight into the secrets of his heart, and demands 
special notice. Says Banqao to hia friend, as the sonnd of the witches' 
salatation dies npon the air, — 

< Good air, why do yon etart, and aeem to few 
Thinga that do aaoDd H) fair? J'ttae nuns of trntlk,' 

be (wntinaes to the hags, 

* Are yB faotaeUcel, or thatindeed 

™, , -lyn. .., 

id greftt predict! ani 
Tba.1 he'saemV rapt wi'thaC' 

This starting and raptness of demeanoor discernible in Macbeth are tell-tale. 
It is plain that the witches' salatation has touched him on the qnick, and 
that the prospects which it opens up exactly meet the ideas on which hi» 
thoughts are secretly brooding. He is startled, alarmed, amased, gratified, 
to find the wishes that have been nestling in the very home of hia sonl thus 
procl^med aload, so nnexpectedly and so anthoritatively, by snpemataral 
visitants, ' 

In the heart of Macbeth, as of all men, there eziab' the instinctive desire 
of greatness, — a desire whiiji, like all oar natural principles of action, in eo far 
as it is instinctive, is of coarse not criminal. These natural desires, however, 
require the jealons oversight and firm control of reason and of conscience, leet 
they transgress their dne bounds and hasten with blind force to seize their 
objects. To these desires outward things appeal, and to them the god of the 
world addresses his temptations. Bat the appeal is vain unless tha desire be 
in an active and excited state. The soil is fertile only when it is prepared for 
the seed. The -last conceives only when it is eagerly ahve and ready to 
embrace the ofTered good. So long as onr natural ambitlonsness is curbed 
with a firm rein and held in check by the dominance in the soul of the 
principlefi of righteousness and the affections of brotherly sympathy, it 

MO. I. VOL. XXH. tnCW 8KEIES.— JANUABI 1S7S. B 



Which outwardly ye ahow ? My noble partner 
..andgr " 



18 MACBETH ; OE QBOWTH IN EVIL. '""'Sl'^^j?'^ 

presenta no hold to oatw&rd temptation. It is when this priDcipIe, instead of 
being mortified and controlled, is cberiahed and pampered, and especially 
when the imaginatjon becomes its minister and it is aUovred to conjnre np 
and to revel among the images of the possible and the probable in the v^j of 
selfish attainmeot, that it becomes a soil prepared fortheentertainmentof the 
temptation. Ifow, snch, I conceive, was at the time the morpl state of 
Macbeth. His Datnral ambitionsneas, instead of being repressed, had been 
inflamed bj his owd brooding thonghts, and was in an eager and snsceptible 
condition. The greatness be had already achieved had inspired the notiou of 
higher greatness as noir within bis reach, and his mind was prepared to 
receive confirmation of its own secret desires and snggestions as to the 
methods by which they might be gratified. His Inst had been warmed into 
actire life, and the greeting of the witches comes npon it to aid the conception 
and to give it definite form. Hitherto his ambition had groped in the dark ; 
now it has eyes given to it, and assumes the shape of a determinate purpose. 
This picture of the quickening into an evil purpose by means of external 
evil suggestion of a desire naturally innocent, when that desire has been in- 
flamed and fostered in secret, which is here given, is as true to Scripture as 
it is to nature and experience. In every case of transgression, the lapse into 
Bin has its real origin in the sinner's own soul. The course consaoimated 
in mg act takes its rise in my heart. ' We are tempted when we are drawn 
away of our own lust.' External agency may be, and has constantly been, 
appealed to by transgressors in the way of excuse or palliation, — the agency 
of God, or of the devil, of our parents, or of our circnmstances, — but the . 
appeal is vain. Kothing external to ourselves could act upon us as an 
effective temptation, unless the desire to which it is addressed were quickened 
by our own indulgent thoughts into active life. Shakespeare elsewhere shows 
that he had a deep discernment of this truth. We are, he says, ' merely oar 
own traitors.' 

' We are devils to onraelves. 
When we will Wtnpt the frajltj of our powera, 
Preeumiug on tbeii chtngeful potene;. 

In the history of the first sin, the woman, we are told, gazed npon the 
forbidden object ; and ' when she saw that the tree was good for food, and 
that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, 
she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat.' There has appeared during the 
coarse of the world's history only one man who was guiltless of tempting 
himself, and who in reference to all evil suggestion was able to say, ' The 
prince of this world cometh, and bath nothing in me.' It is instructive to 
mark the contrast drawn by the poet between Macbeth and Bauquo. It is 
the contrast bettveea the man who under temptation falls, and the man who 
nnder teiAptation stands upright. Banqno, too, like all men, is ' not witfaont 
ambition,' and when the witches address their words of promise to his 
companion, he is cnrion^ to understand if they have no promise for him : 

' If ;oQ ciQ look Into the Beads of time. 

And taj which grun will grow and which will not, 

8pe»k than to me who neither beg nor fear 

Tour faToura nor your hate.' 

He, too, has temptation addressed to him by the hags : 

' Thou ahalt get klogs, thoi^b tfaon be none.* 
And afterwards Macbeth also becomes his tempter, intimating to him a wish 
to speak with him in regard to the witches' prophecy, with ibe hint that if 
he will follow his counsel, ' it shall make honour for yon.' But the heart of 



"^J^aST^ MACBETH ; OK GROWTH IS EVIL. 19 

Buiqno is a garden better kept than that of his fdlow-captain, in which the 
rank growth of sin is carefollj watched aod restrained. We learn that he 
habitaally wrestles against the dominion of evil thoughts, and we bear Mm 
by nigbt offering np the eameet prayer, — 

* Heroifnl powers, 
BeeCnin In me the onned thoughls th4t nature 
Oirea way to in repose J ' 

Hence to Macbeth'a hint aliont receiving increase of honour, be rejoins,— 

'SoIloienODe 
Td aeskiDg to augment It, bot atitl keap 
Hf bosom fruicblsed and •llegiaace cuar, 
I shall be oonnselled.' 
Thus does our poet, in his parable, teach us that everything pertaining to 
character and life depends on whether ne hate or whether we choose ' the 
tbongbts of vanity.' It is the entertainment given to those desires which 
nature has implanted in db, especially when stimulated and appealed to by 
outward temptation, that determines oar career and-our destiny. 

As the story nnlolda, Macbeth gives more and more evidence of the pre- 
dominance which the ambitious last has obtained in his spuit. Banqno sees 
the witches vanish from sight with no feeling save that of natural astonish- 
ment, remarking simply but finely, — 

'Tbe earth hslk bubbles se the water hai. 
And these aro ot them. Whither are they vaniahed f ' 

.Macbeth, on the contrary, seeks to detain them, and is eager to hear more 
regarding the dignities they have predicted for him : ' Stay, you imperfect 
speakers, tell me more.' Evidently he is greatly interested and moved. The 
Imgs may be bubbles or not, but he is fully possessed with the idea that there 
ia something sabstantial and imponaut in their words. Recalling with 
indpieDt envy that a royal progeny had been promised to his companion, be 
says, ' Your children shall be kings ; ' to which, when Banqno replies, ' You 
shall be king,' he rejoins, < And thane of Cawdor too I Went it not so T ' 
Thna anzioQsly does he brood upon the ' cockatrice' egg ' which his lust has 
conceived, and we may fully expect that it will break forth into a viper. 

It is noticeable that often events fall ont so as to blind those who are 
irilling to be blinded. When men's hearts are fnll of some favourite last 
and are eager to be confirmed in the thought which it prompts, God m the 
arrangements of His providence often gives the occasion for the hardening 
they seek. Thns, in the language of Scripture, He ' sends them strong 
delnsion that they shonid believe a lie.' Thus did he harden the heart of 
Pharaoh, and thns also is it now with Macbeth. While his mind is yet in a 
state of ef^er excitement about bis great prospects, the thanes of Rosse and 
Angns appear as messengers from the king, conveying the royal thanks and 
congratulations upon the victory that had been achieved ; and says Rosse, — 

' For an earnest of a greater honour 
He bade me from him oaU thee thane of Cawdor, 
Id which addltloD halt, most worthy tbAie! 
For it is thine.' 
•■ Wbatr says Banquo in honest sarprise, 'can the devil speak trae?' 
This unexpected and epeedy verification of the prophecy is so mach new 
leaven poiued into onr hero's fermenting spirit : 
* Gtamis and thane of Cawdor 1 — 
Tbe greatest la yet behind.— Thanks for your piins^~> 
Do yon not hope your children shall be kings, 
When thosa who gave the thane of Cawdor to me 
Fromi»ed m lass to thee? ' CioOQ [c 



so MACBETH ; OB GEOWTH IN EVIL. - ^^KllMSMf^ 

To which Bays Buqno, — 

'That tnuM horoa 
HtEfet J«l aiikliidl« ]Pca Into lbs Uinnis 
BediUB tba tbkne of Ciwdor. Bnt '(Ib itnoee,' 



* And ofMadmM to wtn ni to our harm 
The luntrumeata of darkness t«ll dh truths, 
Win na -with honest triilsB, to totny n* 
In deepest conseqnenoe.' 

Tbis is a wise saying, and inrites remark. The devil, it is true, is ' a liar aod 
the father of it,' bnt it would be a great mistake to think that be ntters 
nothing bat falsehood. Lyii^ wonld lose its power to deceive were it not 
mixed with tmth. ' Ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil,' said the 
serpent to onr first parents, and certainly their transgression brought 
mlargement of their knowledge. The tempter is too skilful in his profession 
to deceive always. The fishes for which he angles are allowed to taste the 
bait. In the gambfing-hoiise of sin, the hnman players always win the first 
stakes. It will not do to base onr morality on the maxims of Belfisbneas, as, 
' Honesty is always the beat policy,' or 'Deceit is always a losing game.' . 
Of conrse it is so in the end, but it is never so in the beginning ; and the 
end, when at last ' the wheel comes fnll circle,' is beyond the range of present 
vision. Macbeth is ' won to his harm ' by the 'hoaest trifle' that the propbecy 
of the witches had so far come true. And so does it happen continually. 
The youth is tempted to one deed of licentious indulgence, and no disgrace 
^isnes ; and the next opportunity finds him ready to be more easily enticed, 
till his sonl ia fettered by inextricable bonds. The servant is prevailed on to 
appropriate a little of his employer's property, and no discloHnre follows for 
a while, till at last principle is overthrown, character is blasted, and prospects 
are mined. By some trifling gains — a few ponnds, an hour or two's in- 
dulgence, a little advance in position — are men blinded and bewitched so as 
to hire themselves to Satan's service, and acquire the right to his wages. 

Here is also to be noticed the power which a prophecy believed in exercises 
over the spirit. It used to be said that the late Emperor of the French was 
sustained under his repeated unsuccessful attempts to reach the goal he 
sought, by some prophetic annonncement that he should reign over France. 
It might appear as if such an assurance wonld lead those possessed by it to 
commit their future to the absolute control of the power from whom the pre- 
diction comes, and render them careless in putting forth effort to win the 
destined prize. The objection has been oft«n brought against the doctrines 
of the saints' perseverance and assurance, that they lend to repress moral 
endeavour and to encoarage indifference and sloth. But tbis is an idea 
altogether groundless. Universal experience proves that if the prize pre- 
dicted is really interesting to the heart and earnestly desired, the prediction 
stminlatee rather than represses effort. Jacob, who had the promise that 
be should inherit the birthright, was not the less vigilant that he shonid not 
be supplanted by his brother. Haza«I, immediately on hearing from the 
prophet that he shonid be king over Syria, set himself to make the promise Bnr« 
by the mnrder of his master. Macbeth is strongly mclined to beUeve that, 
having obtained a part, he is certain to obtain the whole of that which the 
weird sisters promised, and he is thereby stirred to most strennons endeavour 
to realize the -atmoBt of his ambitious desires. Nor is this all. A prophecy 
beUeved in often so acta upon the spirit as to weaken or annihilate the 
obligations of morality, and to lead the person in whose favour it runs to 



""taTTlm*^' UAOBBTH ; OR GBOWTH IX XVUm %l 

hum recourse to %dj meus, howerer unlawful, in order to gaia the predicted 
prize. Sach a prophec; is ofteo dealt With as if it left a maa free to practise — 
nay, as if it oSered a dirine sanction to — whatever mucrnpnlaas <w onbol/ 
methods he ma^ choose to adopt. Thos in part is to be explained the decwt 
practised apon the blind Isaac bj Jacob add his mother. And in view of 
this deprared tendency of the hoinan spirit, the law was laid down for the 
Israelites : * If there arise among yon a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and 
giveth thee a sign in a wonder, and the sign in the wondw come to pass 
whereof he spake nsto thee, earring, Let ns go after other gods which thon 
hast not knowo, and let ns seWe them, thou shalt not heai^en nnto the 
words of that prophet or tlut dreamer of dresmB [ for the Lord your God 
proreth yoa to know whether je ]on the Lord yonr Ood with all yonr heart 
and with all joar souL' That can be no prophet of God who tempts as 
away from Qod. That can be no heavenly InflaeDce which inflames unholy 
deaire and prompts to gnilty deeds. ' Prove all things ; hold fast that which 
is good.' By the one iuf alUble rale of righteoasneaa let as * tiy the spirits 
whether they are of Glod, beoaose many false prophets are gone Oat into the 
world.' Mactwtb forgot, if he knew, that the working of Satan is ' with 
all power and signs and lying wonders, and with ^1 deceivableness of 
uDrigfateonsness in them that perish.' Thns he mmea : 



m truth f T im thane of C&vdor. 
If good, <i*hj do I field to that eaggeatlon 
WhoM horrid image doth qd&i my hair, 
And DuJca m; »ated heart kuook at my ribs, 
Againat the bbb of natursP' 

Ahl Macbeth, verily that ^cannot be good' which thns even in taotaey 
reroltH thy conscience and appals thy heart I Recognise in this pertnrbation 
withia, the warniag of a mercifal God against thy ' fell purpose.' 

The words jast quoted show that in oar hero's soul bis Inst had already 
conceived, aa the meong of gratification, a fearfal crime — the murder of the 
kii^. True, he maintwna as yet a certain struggle against the horrid sug- 
geetion. The balance is still oscillating in his spirit. On the ooe hand, the 
appearance of serious obatacles to the accomplishment of the deed may turn 
him from the path of crime, but, on the other hand, the presentation of 
faciKties will certainly harry him on in the way of evil. Now, I have already 
remarked how frequently circnmstances occur to favour wicked desire, and 
to furnish occasion to those who seek occasion. We are sometimes ted to 
ask. Has the devil power over providence as well as over prophecy t Are the 
glimpses which Scripture allows us of the activity of Satan, in the trying of 
Job, io the sifting of Peter, and in the hindering of Paul, to be understood 
as reveaUng constant facts and laws of the unseen world t It is certain that 
in Has evil world circumstances are seldom fonnd uusoitable for sin. We 
remember the scene of temptatiou in the Book of Proverbs : ' Behold, there met 
hima woman,' etc., audamong the other inducements presented to her victim was 
this : ' The goodman is not at home, he is gone a long journey ; he hath taken 
a bag of money with him, and will come home at the day appointed ; ' — as if 
she had said. Bee how we are favoured by providence I It is trne that only 
the ' simple ones ' find in such providences an incentive to transgression. 
Those who, like Joseph, are wise and strong, however favourable the circnm- 
Btancee, flee from the temptation as from a serpent. Macbeth has hatched 
the serpent in his own bosom, and he has nnrsed it there too kindly to cast 



J2 Kfia or MT 13irRB88I01J8 OF A "ji viS*^ 

it from bim when !t begins to rear its head and show its frags. He ha« 
prepared himself to yield to the sohcitatioD of opportooitf, and b; this he 
is immediately addressed. The king himself meets him, and with many 
ezpreseions of gratitude and admiration annonnceB that he ia about to lodge 
wUh him that night in his castle. Here at once is promise enongh of 
opportunity. But inasmnth as in tbe heart of every man, and in a high 
d^ree in that of Macbeth, there are elements of goodneae, principles of 
gratitude, hospitality, loyalty, mnch of ' the milk of human kindness ' and of 
nature nobleness, which efen in the midst of favonnng circumstaacea might 
binder him from ' catching the nearest way ' at the destined prize, there is 
provided for bim, by tbe enemy to whom he ia selKng his sonl, an abettor and 
helpmeet in his perilons path. This is his own wife, who acts towards our hero 
the part that Jezebel did to Ahab, and who differs from her husband at this 
stage of their career in this, that while he ' dares do anything that may 
become a nan,' she dares do wbaterer is necessary to gain at once her end. 
I do not dwdl upon the magnificently powerful scenes, which most be 
femitiar to most readers, in which the poet represents this formidable 
coadjutor acting upon the spirit of her husband, stimulating the ardour of 
his ambition, repressing the rise of better feelings, strengthening his wavering 
courage, planning the method, providing the necessary explanations, and 
guiding in tbe execntion of the deed. In the case before ua, as in that of the 
irat fall, the stronger ia overcome and governed by the weaker. Macbeth is 
a man, and one not only marked by ability and force of character, but ooe also 
in whom reason, conscience, aud other high principles have large, though not 
large enoagb, control Lady Macbeth ia b woman marked by all a woman's 
eagerness and fire, in whose heart ambition, once appealed to and roused into 
activity, leaps up with a. resistless bound to catch the offered prize, and whose 
sonl seems altogether void of any elements of counterpoise, unless it be some-' 
thing, perhaps not a little, of a woman's tenderness. She goes and makes' 
all things ready for the commission of the crime in the king's chamber, gazef 
calmly on the sleeping victo, and says when she comes out,-^ 

' H&d be not reHsinbled 
M; tatbar u he slapt, I had dooet.' 

In that tsrrible hour, she is reminded by the aspect of the aged Duncan of 
her father's grey hab^, and her hand is stayed. At the same time, she is 
aware of this element of weakness, and preeciently fortifies herself against 
bdng overcome by the horror of the occasion. Amoi^ her preparations, 
she not only saturates with wine the king's attendants, — she is also careful 
to stimulate ber own nerves with the same potent Influence ; 



And thus between them the deed is done. The ambitions lust concdves, and 
in different ways, according to their natural differences of temperament and 
constitution, it ' brings forth sin.' 

(To he continued^ 



SOUE OF UT IMPRESSIONS OF A TRIP TO JAMAICA AND BACK. 

(Conttnued.) 

Mt two hOTSes are out of the buggy, and have struck work ; tiiey will proceed ii<j 

farther without a day or two's rest I cannot afford that time, and hire two fresh 

honee to cany me fourteen milee along the shore to Flint River, whwe I expect « 



""toTr^nf*'' JRIP TO JAMAICA A»D BACK. 23 

riding-borBe to be awaiting me for the remaimng nine milce ap-hill inlaad to 
BrownBTille. 

The two freah hones ore in the bngg7 ; we have got down the steep rough track 
hoot the hoDse to the road without breaking any one's legs or neck, aod are career- 
ing throiiKh the town about twelve o'clock. It eeems a veij busj place, aud haa 
a large solemn-looking courthouse in the oeutre of it ; fruits of all tropical kinds 
exposed for sale wherever vou torn your eje ; a great many bread shops ; drapery 
aiKl general store establienmenta great and small; and rum shops, alaa! not a 
few. People of all descriptions ate rife in the streets ; every pair of black-framed 
eyes, in shop or thoroughfare, eagerly turned on ns, and looking after us, wouder- 
ingwhat bockra that is. 

(Te i>aS8 along a level straight road for a while, then zig-zag round capes pro- 
trading into the sea, with great rocks on either hand, and the deep sea dashing 
heavy billows at ns, well aimed, but falling a few feet short, and wetting ua with 
the spray only. 

Flmt River is st hand about three o'clock. Looking along the road in front, I 
aee a young man apparently waiting for something or somebody. ' I gaess it is 
your brother-in-law?' You are quite right. He has been waiting for me for 
Bome time, two horses with him, and two coloured lads, — the hoTses to carry the 
two buckraa, and the lads on foot to carry the baggage. 

There is no town or village at Flint River, simply a wajsidestore. By the lonely 
Beaude 1 bid farewell to the negro youth who bu been my companion and guide 
all fheee fatiguing days, and has driven me safely over a long and dangerous road, 
where accidenta happen almost ss often as a buggy is driven on it. I felt sorry to 

Ert with him. He will rest his horses two days at Montego Bay, and then make 
. way home with them and the vehicle to Spanish Town. 

At this^me and place I sit on a hone's back for the fir«t time in my life. Tbe 
hoise, like most of its Jamaica kindred, is small, for which my bones, expecting 
soon to feel the ground, are thankful. The horse is very quiet, I understand, and 
sore-footed ; and with, the reins in my wrong hand, holding my white umbrella in 
the other, and my feet dangling out of the stirrups, very unlike a Scota Grey, 
except in the tint of mytwe«d clothing, I begin to ascend the mountain track. 

On leaving Montego Bay, Mr. Thomson warned me against getting wet if it 
slHjnld rain, as was not unlikely from the appearance of the sky above the weetern 
hills. That is the great danger to which new-comersare exposed. Ihadnowater- 

eroof, and be kindly lent me an old Eigbland cloak, which he said was the next 
est thing to that. We have nine mites to ride up and round about tbe hills ; not 
ten minutea on onr way, however, till I hear thunder in the distance. ' I wager 
anything you like you are going to have a deluge of rain.' I wager nothing, for I 
would iMe, as sorely as you speak the truth. Tbe thunder comes near in great haste 
lest I should escape, bringing forked lightning with it, and rain such as no mortal 
out of the tropica ever saw. Hapless rider ! No, not altogether haptesa ; tor I 
drew on the Highland cloak with all possible despatch, and held my umbrella as 
steadily as I could over my head. ' I guess you are under skelterin two minutes?' 
Nay, there you are mistaken ; there is no shelter nearer than four miles on, and 
although there are trees everywhere around us, they are themselves like clouds 
pomiDg down rivers of waters on tbe ground under tbem. Did I wish then that I 
had never left Edinburgh, or that Jamaica had never risen above the level of tbe 
■ea ? Not exactly ; but I must say that I felt somewhat anxious. Not a drop of 
run I had had all the way till now, and it was rather bard to think of being 
drowned wbeo so near the desired end of my pilgrimage. We have some rivers, or 
the some river, several times to cross ; and if this rain continue, we must ^ther 
Bwiin acToee or dnk to the bottom. At present we ore not near the riven, — high 
above where their courses could possibly be, and either ascending higher or winding 
lonnd the breasts of the hills on a high level. I cannot see tbe landscape now for 
tbe rain ; but before it come on I noticed that the country all round was a succea- 
sioQ of high hills and deep valleys, thicket or jungle everywhere from hill-top 
downwuda. It is tJie wildest distnct I have yet seen, aud the storm very mucn 
deepens that impression in my mind. Although a little perplexed as to how I was 
to protect mys^ from a wet skin and subsequent fever, yet I did really enjoy the 



^4 SOME OF MX IMPEEB8I01T8 OF A '■'"^'CmH^ 

vrild grandeur of nfttDre u it appeared to me then, in a fwdive state in the hilla 
' &iid vales and woods on the earth, and in on active atate in the thunderclouds in 
the heavens above. Thunder, oomparatiTely speaking, oaij whispen in Scotland ; 
in Jamaica it roan indeed, And to hear it, aa I did, reverberated amongst thorn 
hillB, was trul; awfuL The lightning, too, was such as I had never before seen, — 
a red-hot vividQeas abont it most appalling, and reoarring so frequently it seemed 
aa if tlie clouda had too many flaahea on hajid, and wished to get the fire oat of 
their fingers as soon as poafdble. 

It is said that the Prinoeea of Wales, when ahe flret bore that title, had very 
little experience in riding, and was heud to remark once, while riding with the 
Prince in or about London, — ' Oh, Bertj, Berty I don't go on de trot, or I ivill 
fall.' I confess that I Lad often to plead in a aimilar fashion witli my companion 
on horseback, for, as the storm increased, ha felt it advisable to get on qmcklv, and 
ao lUd I ; but when he went atnartly on ' de trot,' it was both ridiculous and diS- 
onlt for me, holding my umbrella up, my hat hanging by the elastic at the back 
of my neck, and my feet constantly ^pping out of the atirrup(i,-~it was both ridi- 
culous and extremely difficult for ma to follow him- He gave me little consolation, 
too, when he said that the rain, coming on at that time, did not usually cease till 
after nightfall 

Scripture repeatedly speaks of the ' sound of many waters.' You never can enter 
into the meaning of that expression until you have heard thunder-rain fall through 
the wildemees of trees, snd in a thousand streamlets down the hill-sides ^d 
over the rocky precipices, in such a wild tropical district as I waa then poaaing 
through. 

After making slow progress over five milea through run, we reach a place 
called ' Great Valley,' which appears like a great basin made up of large patches 
of green pastnres. In the midiUe of tliia valley is the house of its proprietor, only 
the distance of a gonahot from our road. We call there for a short while's rest 
and shelter, and are very graciously received and hospitably entertained. On 
taking oS my cloak, I find it has been a most complete protection from the rain. I 
am not at all wet, except from the knees downwarda, but that part is aa wet as 
water could make it We get a light dinner here and dry stockinge. The rain 
has ceased, and the thunder ; the blua sky appears here and there through the 
broken clouds, and we are on our borsea again, with four miles before us to 
Brownsville, and barely time enough to reach it before dark. 

The proprietor of Great Valley estate is a friend of the CarlUe family ; bnt even 
though wa had been entire stiangers, it would have been reckoned no breach ol 
propriety f or ns to come and refresh ourselves at the house. The hospitable cus- 
toms of the island warrant any stranger to enter and take rest and refreshment by 
day or night in any house on the wayaide that may be convenient f<a him. And 
I never heard that any dne'a generoeity, so free^ offered in this way, waa ever 
abused. 

The path from Great Valley to Brownsville is very mgged, and seems to get 
more ao as you go on.' I ' had often heard of the tad roada out. here, but never 
imagined them to be half so bad as they really are ; but this evening, after the 
raina, they are perhaps in a worse state uian usual. If you have not deep mud 
you have loose stones in the path, such aa you find in the forsaken bed of a moun- 
tain torrent, and the course of the path so far from level, that every five minutes 
an inexperienced rider is at his wits' end how to keep himself from being an out- 
cast, now by the front door of his horse's ears, and then by the back door of tiie 
tail I . At one time you are in an open place, and can see the country round ; »t 
another, you are in the mirkiness of thick jangle, the wet branches and brood 
leaves giving you a cq>ioug shower, or, like little roonkeya, lifting the hat bxnn 
your head. 

Coming near Brownsville, we pass through a deep ravine, and have to cross & 
flooded stream aeveral times. This feat of horsemanship I manage succeBafalif , 
or ratOier to the credit of the nobler animal under me be it apoken, f(»' it senna to 
know perfectly well what to do and where to go, and, I think, gives me aside look 
Bometimes, as if to say, ' What an awkward fool you are I ' 

We pnah on aa rapidly ac the de^ mod and other hindranoee will allow, for tbe 



*i!irail^^ TBIP TO JAJUIOA. ABD BACK. 25 

ann hu set, and the da^iiBai is fut thiekening aroimd na, Tb«n ii littlo or do 
Iwili^t ia thia 00011177, "^ '^ i" nnirholeaonia to be oat after MUwet, eepecuUf 
after heavj nun, when CTeiTtliiDg ia dripping, and tlie wet tniata are waoderiug 
about here and there aeeking for aontetluiig dtj to reat on. 

Old BrowneTiUe come* at lack I do not yet we the hooae, for then ia no Tillage, 
— only the church and manae, the negioea' caluna neatUng among the thicketa, iad 
icattered orae the hiUa and Tallejra. M7 guide oalla my atteotian to the apire of 
the church, which appears at soine distance high abore ui, ahooting abore the 
trees, and athwart the evenmg Aj. A ateep climb, then round a corner, and we 
are at it. But where is the maose ? There it ia, no more than riaible up on the 
JuU on your right hand, two or three hundred yards off. Up thia hill our htnaes 
aJmoat skip for joy at getting home again ; and halfway up, a slender, actire- 
looking man meets me, whoae face I am aore I nerer saw before, and yet I feel as 
if 1 knew it well. It is the face of a good man, whom having not seen 1 have 
leamt to lore nerertheless, through a Tery happy medium that stood like a clear 
crystal, or rather like a bright lamp of lore between us, — a most simple-minded, 
self-aacrifioiiig, unworldly man, whom 1 honour and lore none the len, but rather 
more, because he haa an old-foahioned twallow-tailed ooat on, and on his grey 
head a hat that seems to have passed through and suffered much in several Irish 
rebellions. 

In a few seconds I stand under the portico at the door of the house. From the 
time I set foot on the island till the time I left it was about seven weeks. Four of 
these were q>ent at BrowosviUe, one was spent at Kingston waiting for the sail- 
ing of the return steamer, and the remaining two were apedt moatly in the over- 
land journey from Kingston to Brownsville and back. 

Now that I had arrived at my deatination, 1 had oompoeare to look around me 
with an undisturbed and ateady eT& 1 found myself nested in a paradise of ver- 
dant hilla. It seemed as if tbe land had at one time been in a liquid state, and 
boiling mountains high, and the Almighty had commanded it to be itiit, and it 
ttood ttilL There it stood fast,— great heaving billows keeping their beads up firm 
dm the deep-sunk narrow valea between them, ever threatening to roll over as 
raves do into the intervening deep places, but nerer moving from the spot, and 
never changing their andent forms. The rioheat of all soft, velvety, many-shaded 
green mantlea covered them, feet, head, and shoulders ; and this mantle, I under- 
stood, was always there, changing, except in hue, about as little as the hills did, 
from month to month and from year to year. 

There is no plain surface seen from Brownsville, except the sea, which oocuines a 
smaU section A the north-eaat horizon. Over this blue surface, open to view by 
a depreaeion of the distant hills, you see a tiny white Bail pass occasionally. It is 
a drogher, or coasting vessel, gomg tif or from the harbour of Lucea, not far 
distant. 

I was I . . 

town or village is to be seen, for none ia in eziatenoe n 
human toil whatever, — not even the noise of waggon or carriage wheels, for there 
ia no road near wide enough or amooth enough for them to move on. There is 
neither bleating of sheep iior lowing of oxen ; no singing bird among the brancbea, 
nor graaahopper chirruping beneath your feet The only sound you hear ia the 
crowing of the- cock, or the sighing of tbe wind tiiroDgh Uie treea when it blows 
freddy, as it Dsually begins to do every day early in the forenoon. 

If it happen to be the rainy season, the morning breeae becomea a gale abQUt 
two o'clock, when the rain comes on, and then yon have a mighty chorus rising 
from thousands of nature's wind and water instruments. 

There ia a sweet ainging-biid called the nightingale, I believe, and plenty of 
grasshopper too, but I did not see or hear one td them. Animal life is everywhere ; • 
but for the most part it aeems mute, except when evening comee, and tbe cricket 
begins to make a noise similar to the whirring of a great many little wheels in 
rapid motion in everv comer of the room. At the same time the fire-flies begin 
to dance outside, and ^le blinkies to give an intermittent glare, like modeet little 
fairies that do not like to be seen too much. 

Here on the hill is the manse, a wooden building of two storeya, resting on tsick 



26 IMPHESSIONB OF A. THIP TO JAMAICA AND BiCK. ""JSL'Cim'**" 

SiUanafew f<et firomlhe gionnd; thraeiatlie chnrch, two or tbree bandied yirda 
own tibe hill ; beuda it is the sdioolmttster'a house ; and farther down and sloping 
to the right ii a deep glen, the home of many noiey streams and waterfalls. On 
the high ridgea of the billowy landscape beyond you can see a cabin here and there 
peeping from a grove of bambooH or cocoa-nut treu. The negroes, I am told, 
uBnolly baild their cabins as far retired from view as ponible, and near some of 
those trees whose high and Bharp-pointed leaves are supposed to be an attraction 
to the lightning and a protectiou n«ra it. 

Hearing of my arrival, many of the black and brown people come to see me at 
the manse. They think it incmnbent on them to pay visits of ceremony to the 
Stranger, — not mere ceremony, for there are t«acs <u kindness in their eyes, and 
many sincere benedictions i<x me on their tongnes. 

They seemed to be very simple in their manneis, and to have jjenty of time on 
their hands. They would come up and tit in some comet under the portico, not 
expecting to be spoken to for houn, and rather taking it sa a pleasure if they 
shonld have the hononr of waiting half a day, or even a whole one, on the minister s 
convenience. I speak of their expectations and babite rather than their expe- 
rience, for I never kept tbem waiting a minute if I could help it. I did not think 
they were indolent more than the average of men, but they felt do pressure to 
haste, or much activity. With a little labour they could get a living for them- 
selves and their families, and they had not much concern for means beyond that 
Ketired amongst the hills, apart from the centres of population and trade, the panic 
of mercantile fever had not stricken them; aud if the lost of money-making existed, 
it was only in a half-hnngry state. Generally they have a small plot of ground at 
a trifle of rent, and by a little bodily exercise on that, the generous earth yields 
them food convenient, in the shape of potatoes much larger than their heads. 
Their potato is a plant Called yam, the root of which is the staple article of diet. 

Stone people call these negroes Uiy, because they do not bustle about like your 
business men of Glasgow and Liverpool. This is not fair. Such a busy-ness is 
not desirable. Industry amongst us has become frantic, and we should not blama 
the tranquillivesof negroes because theyare not Btuned with our vices. If fattier 
Sam would w(wk harder, and bring his surplus produce to market, and drive a 
trade after the European fashion, he might grow rich and (at, sit in his arm-obaii, 
lie on his sofa, wear his gold eye-glasa, and read his TVniei every morning, and 
aft«r all have mnch less humanity in him than he has at present. I do not think 
you could take the existing quietude oat of his life without introducing something 
bnrtful to him as a moral and religious being. It is quite certain that in Jamaica 
at least, those town negroes who have fallen iuto Uie white man's ways of in- 
dustry are much inferior in character to those who live quiet lives of rural 
simplicity. 

My fiiBt Sabbath evening was spent in Kingston ; the next I was at Browns- 
ville, and preached in the former part of the day. Here you see a negro congr«- 
gation proper. In Kingston congregation there are veiy few blacks ; most are 
brown, and to an unskilled eye a good many are whi1«. Tbey are nearly iH black 
at Brownsville, and you see no fans waving there. The only thing like it is sin 
occasional slap on the face with a pure white handkerchief. The dresses of both 
men and women are generally very simple, neat, and clean. The congregation 
stand at singing, and such singing I never heard matched anywhere, — very big 
heart in it, bat very little music. They have not been truned to sing either in 
time or in- tune ; and, having usually very shrill voices, tbey sing or yell with all 
their might, before the Lord, in a method <A their own, which a stranger will take 
a long time to make out. It is hardly piMible for him at first to know what the 
words are which they sing, or what me tune is. They will sometimes rest cm one 
• syllable as if it were a whole line, or will creep along a line a third too slowty, and 
when done go over it twice i^ain. However, it did one's heart good to hear the 
big black organ, of 600 or 700 pipes, play at all in the Lord's prtuses, though it 
was sadly out of tune, and a sorrow to one's flesh. 

The Brownsville church is in the form of a cross, the pulpit in the cenb« of the 
broad end. In that pulpit, looking down on the crowd of black faces before 
and on utibet side of me, I felt my heart moved as I never did anywhere else. 1 



""llJtw!'^' THE LATE BET. TATID FOBBBBT, OLASOOW. 27 

remonbercd the wnmgi of tbaw poor people, — >1I except tlie jomig people and 
ehCdren having once been slnVea, treated then u mere cattle or mere maounea, and 
little better since tben by moat wbite people, — edticatioii too good tor tbem, — almoot 
a crime to apeak Undly tothem. Somehow I felt full of companion and brotherly 
kindneaa towards them ; they looked up with m much intemt and intelligenoe in 
tbeir eyes and faces. It ia true they had often heard of me, and I of tbem, and 
we were objeeta of great interest to one another. But, beaidea that, I thongbt I 
could aee qiut« well that Tery many of them had geuoine and very deep inteicat in 
the tnilh concerning Chriat.' They aeemed to me evidently lovera of J esua. I oonld 
aee the eye grow wet at the mention of Hia name, and one and another wonld nod 
his head approvingly when the trath waa spoken, and aay, ' Yts, maaaa ; quite 
r^t, roaaaa,' in church or prayer meeting. 

Aft«r a aerrice of the niual length, there ii an interval of five or ten minntca. 
Thai the Sunday echool meets ; opened with prayer by some black elder or teadier, 
and composed of nearly the whole congregation, old and young,— aclaaa of old 
men here, and of old women there. The vonng people are all able to read, more 
or lew. I qneetiooed some of them as to Uieir Biue knowledge, and they answered 
ae well aa children of any eougregalional achoot might be expected to do in this 
country. When the class teachiug is over, the minuter addrenes and catechiaea 
them on the lenon of the day, and the Scripture text for i^e day is repeated by 
individual elaaaee collectively in turn. It strikes the ear of a stranger very much 
to he» a class of children repeat the text all at once, fallowed perhaps by a claaa 
of grown-Qp men, with their deep rongh voioea. The whole services last from 
abont eleven till three o'clock, when tfae Sabbath school breaks up. Then the men 
mount their horaee, — for many come on horseback, — and the women and children 
retire on foot. A n^ro woman's experience on hotseback uanally begins and enda 
with the ride to the minister's bouse and back on her wedding day. 
(To be continued.^ 



THE LATE REV. DAVID FORREST, GLASGOW. 

Ur. Forrest was bom on 6lbJnne 1807, it above all gifts of earth. 'Oh for 

intheviUageofBroxbam.inLinlithgow- my father's aerotedness ! ' was one of 

ehire, and was the aizth child of a large his laat breathings on hia deathbed, 

family. Bis father, John Forrest, was It is not difficult, indeed, to aee how a 

a cooper there, — a poor man, bat of a nature so suaceptible of all strong marks 

detennined cast of character. No lurd of personality should have been moulded 

or farmer ia all the neighbourhood waa l^ one thua near tnd dear, ' without 

more respected. He was at the head of whose life it had not been.' In after 

every public movement Bat his chief yeara,Mr. Forreatfoundnokeenerdelight 

joy waa religion. More ' fervent in than in spending his holidays at Brox- 

apirit ' than diligent in business,' necea- burn. At sach times he made diligent 

si^ seemed to be laid upon him to con- rounds among the aborigines,— ^the 

secrate himself to God. He numbered people of other days. That which many 

among his friends John Brown of Long- wouldbavereckonedatoil, hefelttobea 

ridge, and Ebeneier Brown of Inver- recreation. Withoutdonbthewasmoved 

keithing, who in those' days of foot- thereto by the memoriea of childhood 

travelling used to call in passing that and voati, that to him were ' silver'd all 

be might convOT them apart of the way. o'er vith the thought of God, 

Hard pressed by the world, he rose The only school which Mr, Forrest 

above It. Such a man could afford his ertx attended was the village school. 

■on few external advantages, partly Fortunately there was then a capable 

becanae they were beyond his power, teacher in Broxburn named Bell, to 

partly becanse he did not realiae their whom children c^e fnnn a wide cir- 

trne meaning. But he bequeathed one onit. Yonng David naturally became 

legaqr, — liob for all highest purposes a favourite with Mr. Bell, and derived 

of man, and for ever Jnalieoame,— the from him much more than the usnal 

legacy of a devout and eameat qiirit. ratio of benefit. But, after all de- 

And ne who inherited that lega<7 priced dacttona are made, the bnlk lA Hr. 



28 THE LATE EEV. DAVID TOBBBST, OI^SGOW. '■" liJl^SiSr^ 

Forrat's education wu in & pecuUnr that flows tnm idtmla. In dveUiug-on 

sense self-edocfttiou. With beftDtif nl the sony haroo alt Mound as, we ftn^et 

euthoaiBsm we find him iX bis books to lift ap oar ejea ta the hiUs. It 

before the summer snii h&d riaen, and mjif indeed be questioned if the aub- 

readj, when the hour ft^ farm-labour ject of our sketch did not suffer thus. 

came, to take his place with the rest Mr. Forrest's fflinisterial life divides 

For seTeral years Ike acted m sohooU ilself iato two sectbnfi,--his ministry 

master at Avoobridge, neu Bathgate, at Tnxiu, and his ministry in Glasgow, 

carrying on at the same time his own Licensed in 1839, be reoeired a call 

prirata work as a student. Only by from the congregation of Troon, ia 

extra toil, both manual and mental, was Ayrshire, and wu ordained there in 

he enabled to attain his desire for the 1840. The congregation had jost beea 

mimstry. Thus early was he Introduced constituted, and, like every new under- 

to all those anxieties and disappoint- taking, required more than ordinary 

inents which deprive youth of its elas- effort and vigilance. Having, by dint 

tJoity and write the wrinkles of age- of such applicatian and self-denial. 

When his years were tender and his fitted himself for his sacred office, it 

spirit was fresh, he was bowed under may well be believed he was not listleas 

tie weight of a daily opprewon. Not in the performance of its duties. The 

that he ever dreamed of wavering in services on Sabbath, and the special 

allegiance to the one fixed aim. But calls of illness and death, give out a 

Uie scars of that conflict remained with meagre representation of his real work. 

him to the last. If the man cannot Very much of his time was spent in 

tetum to the sweet umplicity of the private intercourse. He was all the 

child, — if the thinker cannot see with better a pastor, that he was little felt 

the eyes of the illiterate ploughman, — to be one. The source of his influence 

iUithercsnhe who hss heard t£e groans was that marvellous charm of pmson- 

Df the dying, and whose soul has been ali^ which after ages cannot biing 

wrought wiih many woes, know the old to the test. We have often thought it 

lightness of heart ^ain. Such expe- etrsngetfaat the one agent which during 

rience comes, but goes not. life contributes most effectually to com- 

Af ter finishing Ins coiriculumat £din- fort and happiness, should of all others 

burgh University, Mr. Forrest entered most surely die with death. But bo it 

the United Secession HalL No hint is is. . There are men who cannot be de- 

giveu of any precise point at which he scribed — who must be seen and knows 

dedicated himself to God. Vfith such ip order to be understood. Of these 

a training, it is not to be wondered at was Mr. Forrest. Hot eloquent, or 

that he grew into grace. Hi. Forrest learned, or acute, he yet attracted ithoee 

now became missionary to Dr. John about him with a subtle and irresiBt- 

£rown, of Broughton Place, who no ible force. 'The style is the mao,' 

doubt took to hint more kindly on ac- says BufFon ; and we may adopt tiw 

count of the friendship of their fathers, phrase with a wider range of meaniag. 

In this position he' was introduced to It was his whole 'style 'that drew one 

all the sad world which lives unheeded to Mr. ForresL You saw in him not 

in the lanes and hovels of our cities, only breadth of balanced judgment. 

The sight of these gives the lie direct but a certain rare tendemees, sod 

to all empty ideaUsms. We are brought modesty still rarer. But all attempts 

back from the f ictnres of fancy's own to describe character are failures. Ton 

painting, to reolitdee dark and deformed, oannot communicate the incommuni- 

Nothing is more necessary for young cable. There is the same diffeceoce 

pceacbera than some slight mitiation between the reality and the descriptioi), 

into the knowledge of man's degrada- as there is between the flexible features 

tion. It gives the requisite toning of the Uving and the rigid face of death, 

down to the glaring and flashing coloura Mr. Forrest adhered to no special times 

of hope. It brings us face to face with in visiting. He went in ana out among 

the true problem of life, and the nature his people with the utmost freediMn. 

of the Christian solution. But, on the Nor did the secret of his power lie ia 

other hand, too much familiarity with making things ' pleasant allround.' He 

the grossest foims of wickedness damps [emeiul>ered warning as well as praise ; 

our courage, and destroys the elevation Imt social life looks not ao much to ^a 



•"ilT™?^' THE LATB REV. DAVID TOEBEBT, OLABGOW. 29 

doing of ft tiiiiig u to the way in whioli inenee vdaaaotirj opentioiH in the dii- 

it is done. l%ere ii a nreetnen of trict of St. Rollox, QIm^^ow. It moat 

manatx whidi oan bcMitifyeTenrebnko. tutTO been trying to patieooe to begin 

What in m&nj men wonld bare been life orer »fidn to oompletelj. Hia ten 

leBeated, waa received humbly from bim. yean' Mirioe at Tiooa girM bim no 

Hia natnre flowed ont apoo cbildran. adrantage. Here, aa before, he moat 

In the houHe or on the street they never act tbe pioneer, and under much leM 

^led of a kind word from him. He faTOniable oircomataneea. The adherents 

loved them for their (n)en-hearted inno- of the deninninatioD at Troon bad been 

eenoe, and they loved hinf for hia gentle- already erected into a oongr^ation, and 

Ben. Ferhapa, however, it waa at the chiefly reqalred oonBolidation ; but the 

aick-bed that Mr. Forreat waa moat nncleiu of the Olaegow congregation had 

priied. There bis character wu seen in yet to be fonnd. Not only lo ; they had 

' ita et>«ngeet and faireat light. He waa to be found in what waa without eioep- 

a pastor, not a preacher, and above all tion the nioet nniroprearionable dietnot 

tUnga ebe — a Barnabas. Hii depth of of the city. The mam at the inhabitantB 

hnmanity and wealtii of Christian ex- were proleasedly Roman Catholics, bnt 

p^euce fitted him pre-eminHitly to be really snnk so low as to have Uttle more 

the comforter of the dying and the eon- tlian Bomiab licence and intolerance, 

aoler (rf the bereaved. Few who have The Froteatant section in tiie neighboui- 

liatened to hia prayers can have for- hood not being of the olaaa who bear 

gotten how tme to the heart they were, an active part in religions work, shrank 

— how brimfnl of what the old divines froAi the difficulty of eetablishmg and 

called 'holy unction.' maintaining a regular charch. At 

InDecember 1848,Mr.Forreatniarried length, in 1856, a congregation was 

Elizabeth Weir, — one who, in the bean- formed, and Hr. Forreet inducted paet«r. 

tifol language of Scripture, did him Up to this time the meetings had been 

* good and not evil all the days of her held in a rather ungainly hall. It waa 

life.' now determined to erect a soitable 

For ten jears he laboured in Troon, building. This determination, however, 

till his health failed. The coneregation was not realized till 1861. In that year, 

to whom in his stiength he nadbeen the present 9t Rollox United Fresby- 

faitlifnl, were in his weakness faithful teriau Church was opened, and it waa 

to bim. They persuaded bim to try the etnphatically the erection of Hr, Forreet 

e^eot of a sea-voyage; so in August Seeing that the idea of reeMmiibility in 

1851, Mr. Forreat set sul for Amerioa. connection with the bnilding preeaed 

Be T«tarned aft«r a few months none heavily on the minds of some of the 

the better for the change. The general members, and might even have the 

d^reasion both of mind and body from disastrous effect of driving them where 

which he snffered at this period, may be such demands would not be made, he 

traead almoat directly to the excessive gave it plainly to be nnderatood that he 

■train of his stodent course. Moreover, idone was aocouutable for the expenses 

hie constitution did not seem suited to incnired. Andloyallyhekepthis word. 

the bitter air and boisterous winds of No bazaar eame to his aasietanoe. Daily, 

Tioon. Hia duty, therefore, waa plans, weekly, monthly, he pled thegood cause 

In 18fi2 he resigned his charge. Une personally with gentlemen. Nor did he 

may anderstand with what mixture of plead in vain. With the generous help 

fe^ngs ench a step would be taken, of tiie late Hr. John Henderson of Faik, 

Gladnesa there would be at the relief about £1200 were collected, — asumwhich 

from all sense of responmlHlity which fully defrayed the coat, — and the church 

lays leaden hands upon ns in our moody was entered on free of debt, 

moments ; but surely sorrow — deep.dull From 1861 till 1876, Mr. Forrest 

ganow — in beitig thus deprived, to all ministered in the chureh which he 

appearance for ever, of that which had could, but would not, call his own. 

been tiie long dream of youth and the The same pastoral faitbfulnees, the same 

■onroe of infinite self-sacrifice. direct and individual interest, which had 

Yet this sickneaa was not unto dea^. characterized his Troon ministry were 

Beoovery came, slow bnt real; and with manifest stilL The first part of the 

recovery the question of his future work, week was devoted to visitation; and 

After mnch wavering, he decided to com- what visitaticw I Stura narrow, long. 



30 .THE I-ATB EEV. DAVID FOEBE8T, GLASGOW, ^"^tt^"^ 

and filthy, led to bonaee email sod bftdlj ADxtetjr ; and she who bad been his stay 
aired. Nothing here to tonpt the Aoa- was goae. Still he laboured on, but 
sand nataral paaaions of man ; and if nature gave vay &t length. Earif in 
there was nothing attracUve as looked 1876. ha applied to the pn8l^i«r7 for 
at from an; earthly standpoint, in the aancFtance. luid in Angiut of the nme 
nature of the labour, neither were there rear the Kev. James H. Cruickahank, of 
any external in duoements. Hevhohad Weatrajr, Orkney, waa appinted col- 
laid the foundation* of the Lord's hoiwe, league and Buccewor. AlthoDgh Mr, 
had himself only the minimiun stipend Forrest still continued senior pastor, be 
from aU church sonrcea ; nor had he any was totally relieved from active duty, 
assistant in his toil.' Now-a-daya, when During the two years of his retire' 
all the denominations are so fully alive ment, Mr. Forrest exerted himself, d!t«n 
to the neoeasity of the strong helping when little able, to attond St. Rolloz. 
the weak, when the labourers aremulti- He would totter past many a church 
plied in proportion to the largeness of that he might worship once more there ; 
the sphere, one cannot comprehend at for though he lored Troon, I think St. 
first the obstacles' which Mr. Fonest Rollox lay nearest to hie affections. It 
had to face. For twenty years, single- was the child of his old age. These 
banded and with stinted supplies, he final years must have brought with tbem 
struggled against the fearful odds. Never a strange experience. He had wrooght 
was a better opportunity for any denomi- while strength remained ; and now, with 
nation to root itself permanently among the full consdousness of a well-spent 
the people. But it was impossible for life, he was resting from his labours. 
Mr. Forrest or for an^ man to perform But such enforced leisure has a painful 
satisfactorily both missionary and minis- element. Nothing is so galling to a busy 
t«rial work ; and it was especially im- man as to be compelled to retire and let 
possible for one borne down ^ physical another take his place. He feels as if 
weakness. Gradoally the Established there were no need for him In the world 
and Free Chorches wakened np to a at all. That is a large word, and difficult 
sense of the capacities of the Strict, to learn, — 

and each has now several regular ,™, _ , „ , , . a j -. , 

. I 1, i_ ,_i-, ci n 11 'They also Berve who only stand and wait. 
atcenciea. In all probabdity, St. Rollox ' ' ^ 

United Presbyterian Church would have The end came slowly. Most of the 

been greatly increased had it received past summer he was confined to the 

sufficient attention and support when hoose- This, with his Strong love for 

the field wss unoccupied. And this has the open air, — and never was that love 

not only its ecclesiastical, but ita higher stronger than in these closing days, — 

religious bearings. As thinfiis were, Mr. wss felt to be a great restraint. It 

Forrest was no niggard of efiort. With saddened one to see him turning agun 

noblest perseverance he stood to his and agiun to the window with a lace 

poet, knowing that the question for fnll of longing, hut a longing not to be 

him was not the ultimate fate of St. fulfilled. As is always the case, plain 

Rollox Chturch, but whether ha himself as the symptoms appear in retrospect, 

was filliug up his shore of duty. Hard they did not rouse in those about him 

though, the duty was, it had ita sunny any immediate sense of danger. He had 

side. This work, too — as all honest been for years subject to severe attacks 

work does — bronght its reward. If the of bronchitis ; and not even the doctor 

rooms were close and unpleasant, the thought that the trouble was in ite last 

inmates welcomed him with a ready stage. Mr. Forrest always spoke him- 

fcreeting. They felt him to be one like self as if he expected temporary recovery. 

themselves, and he lifted them by this ' I hope to have my feet on the grasa 

lever of sympathy. yet,'saidhetoafiiendwhohadsuggeeted 

From the death of his wife in 1870, that this illness would pass like others 

Mr. Forrest's health drooped. More, previous. But with September came 

perhaps, than be realized at the time, undoubted evid^ice of approaidung 

she had sustained him amid ooantlass deatL The prostration increased to 

disappointments. The difficulties of the qoiekly, that the moet tinwiUlng mtist 

work were as great as ever ; age was have been convinced of the issue. Still 

coming fast over him, and that tm- all was reserve and reticence on the part 

natural decrepitude that springs from of the sufferer. Till within thtee oays 



TiTwrr*"^ COBKESPONDEKCE. 81 

of his death, lie gave no hint of any ap- to hioi. ' Ko fear,' was hia replj ; ' but 

prehensioiiB in bia own mbd. Probably no great joy either,' Hia mind ran on 

the sabject was too painfal, and be the apparent failure of hia work, and oa 

avoided it not bo much for hie own aake, bis own persona] shortcomings. No 

aa for the eake of thoee who would find boaat wros uttered for one of all his good 

all too Boon tbe want of a gniding bond, deeda rendered up to God. Gentle thua 

But he did not pan without giving to the last, as became that gentle soul. 
his frienda to know bow in the Bupremeat He died on the 12th September. On the 

ot mmnents it went with htm. Calling 16th he was laid in Signthill Cemetery, 

his son and dnnghter to bis bedside, and by the aide of his wife. Few have gone 

donbtleaa with Bad remembrance that to the grave wearier, none more worthy 

their mother was gone before, he said, of its rest. He aleepewithin sight of the 

*Iave one another, I commend you to people for whom he laboured, Ab one 

God and the word of His grace.' Hia stands by his tomb, and lieteni to the 

only sister waa constantly with him, din ot the district, it is hard to realixe 

and he seemed to gather np all bis that this man's work shall outlive it all. 

brotherly affection for the departed ■ A common life, you will say. Ay, 

members of the family and lavish it on verily, in one aeuae Uie commoeeet, but 

her. On the day of his death, he fient in another the moat uncommon. Not 

for the doct<>r to come quickly that he great aa men couut great, yet certain, 

migfattbaukhim — human hand in human it but known, of the tribute of homage 

hand — befoN he died. If any unkind- from all. Here was patience and love 

neaa had at any time larked in his and the hope that makea strong,— a 

bosom, it was now pu^ed away. He spirit full of faith, and a heart kept pure 

who looked humbly to God for forgive- and humble. Silence— sacred silence — 

ness, would not enter his Father's pre- claims a life like this for its own. Let 

senee unforgiving. He waa ready to us not think there are none such, be- 

depart. ' I hope jt won't be long now ; causa we hear not of them. Many there 

bnt God knows beat.' There was no are, and well for us that it is so; for 

saint-like ecstaay,- — rather the reverse, they are the lives that ' make rich the 

' You have no fear, have you ? ' said one blood of the world.' 



Corrtspon&fin«. 

NEGATIVE PREACHING. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE UNITED PRESByTERlAK HAOAZIHE. 

Sitt, — Tu our day of what ia deemed Presbyterian Church. I have through 

progress, there is what many right- circntngtancea bad occasion to hear a 

minded individnala would consider a considerable numb» of our ordained 

backward tendency in regard to goepel ministers during the past twelvemonth, 

preaching, — the great desideratum beioK and, to the honour of our Chureb, there 

that DO certain Bound is given in regard wasin^eneralnouncerfatnsounif: Christ 

to some of the vital doctrines of the and His work were set forth in all its 

croA ; more especially is this the case fulness, — the sure foundation, Christ 

in regard to the substdtutionary work of and Him crucified, being fully spread 

the blessed Redeemer. out before t.he hearers, I may note 

Such preachers speak of Christ as particularly two of the fathers of the 

&e Saviour. They tell us of His blame- Church who came out in bold relief aa 

less life, they extol His exemplary death ; the advocates of the good old way. 

bnt they omit to tell us that the death One of them told us that the Bible 

of Christ was a tuhstituCianary death,— was full of the doctrine, and that, If Bub- 

that He (the eternal Son of God) died for Btitution was not in the Bible, then it was 

onr ains, waa made Bin for us, and that empty. 

without this substitutionary work we 'The other one told us of the divinity 

are nndooe, of Chriat, of His manhood, of His exem- 

I am glad to tbmk that so little of plary life, of Bis being onr infallible 

thtBvaguepreacbingexiaMintbeUpited feadier; but he held np also in bt^ 



82 EELIGIODS INTEIXICKICB. ""jIT^?* 

relief the ftrnduDeatal doctzina of tiw I caruMtlj hope Uwt oar own Chotiji 

atoniDg death which Jenu died. will contiutu to hoU forth in plaio tenni 

It ii refreetung to hear anch preMhing. the glorioni work of Chiist m our «ab- 

But it is a ud thov^t to know th«t itftnte, and that whatever divergence 

there ia any other sort; for it is a fact ma; have crwit in wili be apeediij re- 

that even among onrselveii there are moved, and that all our ministen will 

•ome who ful to give that certain eonnd be readj to adopt the langnage of Fan! 

BO neoenaiy in addreeeing thoee whoee when he H^ ' God fortod that I Btwald 

onlj refuge is the blood of Christ, — that glor; aave in the croea <rf oar IdxA Jesot 

blood which )■ the hope, and the only Cbriat.' 
hope, of aoj sinner. Sekei. 



JfnMigoic*. — Wixvdttt ^resbBicrian fi^^rc^. 



_ undtt. — Tbii pre 

4th December — the S . . „ . . 

moderator, Mr. Oribam rsponed that on the lams mbject in March. The anb- 

Mr. Campbell, late miuioDaiy, Jamaica, jeet of Sabbath tchoola and the nperia- 

had all bat agreed to labour for a time ai tendence orjoaDg peiaons were alio nndet 

miMionarj in Newtjle. It was agreed to diacnsiion. Id regard to the former, ike 

anthoriiB the committee to complete ar- Babbath School Committee wai iniiructtii 

rangemeoti with Hr. Campbell, labject to visit the varioai ichooli within ilia 

to the approval or the congrcfcalioD. Mr. bonods ; and in regnld to the latter, a 

Rose reported that Dn. MacOitI and naodinR committee was appointed to 

Mair had consented to be present at the attend to the mailer, and to report co tbe 

Cooferenco on Miaaiona, which wai agreed preabjter? from vear to jear. 

to be held on the Tneada; arter the third EditAwgh. — A meeting of thil preibf- 

Sabbath of January next. It wai agreed tery waa held on 4tb December, in the ball 

to remit to the committee to make ar- of the Tonng Men's Christian Auociitioi 

rangementg for holding a pnblic million- — Mr. Einlocb, of Weit Linton, taodc- 

arj meeting on the evening of the lame rator. Apelition waa presented from ihe 

da/, and to procure ipeakert to addreii congiegaiioQ of West Calder, craving Iba 

the meeting. Took op the Synod's remit preab/tery to appoint one of their nnmber 

on Sabbath schools. After a tengtbened to moderate in a call. It was atatedibat 

conveiaation on Sabbath ichoola and the memberehip of the congregation was 

ehildren'a eerrices, it was agreed that a 3B0, and that it was propoied to pi; i 

committee be appointed, consiatinB of the stipend of £!60 to ihe'minister, in addi^iin 

members of preebnerj within the boonds to the tiM of the manse, whieb i 

of Dnndee, and that they be empowered present In conrse of erection. The 1 



le of erection. The praiier 

lo noia a cunieience oi aii ihb mpariu* m ine petition wai granted, and the nib 

tendenta of Babbath schools and the Inst, fixed for tbe moderation. A letter 

presidBQts of children's services, to oon- was read from the Eev. James Eobeittoa, 

aider the whole snbject of Babbath ichools Newington, intimating that the ttite of 

and children's lervices, and to report to his heart's action had been lo leriosily 

the presbytery at ita nest meeting. The affected by four anccesaive bereaTemenU, 

conference was fixed to be held on tbe and by his attempting to reanme seiiltd 

2ath imi., in the ball of Dndbope Road reaidence in tbe scene of them, that inch 

Chnrcb. Took np the Synod's remit with residence had been at present nediciUy 

reference lo the diffasion of information Interdicted. Warm testimony was borne 

on the distinctive principle* and >ebeinei to the valne and incceis of Mr. BotMrt- 

of the denomination. After consideration, son's ministry, and the airangemenl oC 

it was agreed to appoint a committee to the eongregatlon agreed to. Under the 

consider bow the recommendation* of the arrangement which bas been made, Mr. 

Synod may be carried ont with most Robertioa is to retain his position a) 

efficiency. Meairs. Miller, Hay, Taylor, senior pastor, bnt the whole TespansibiliiJ 

and the olerk were appointed a oommitlee of the congregation is to rest on the 

— the clerk convener. junior minister. Mr. Bobertion ia lo 

i>iai/'ertn line.— This presbytery met on receive a stipend of £SO0, and Mr. Tonn; 

l^eadaj the 4th December— the Rev. Mr. £500. A call waa laid on the table of 

M'Leao, moderator. It was agreed to the presbytery from Infirmary Street eon- 



"■XTu^"'' RELIGIODS tNTELLIOBNCB. 33 

gregation, in fiiToar of tbe appointmiiit of oectiioD of tbe obterrasee of tbe Lord'i 

Hr. Bobeit Follock Watt, probationer, iDpper, it was nnaaimonilj asreed thai 

(9aB(toi*i >■ colIeagD* and incoeuor to tbe proteit and appeal, with ouiei papen 

tbe Rdy. Dr. Brace. The call wai nu- in conaeciloD with tbe matter to which it 

lained. Mr. White-Millar and the Hct. relate*, lie on the table till next meeting, 

Wm. Gilliei were, on a diTiiion, appointed and that a deputation of pretbrterj, 

to rcpreaent the preabjterj at tbe Miuion coniialing of Rst. Meain. Liad, Wbjte, 

Board. It wai ap^ed to iocreaiie the and Robaon, with Mr. MoniaoD, elder 

■alarr of tho clerk from £S5 to £bO, that (Mr. Bobwn, eonTener), meet with the 

of the treaanrer from £7, lOi. to £10, and MMion of Forree, and otbera connected 

that of the officer from £7 to £13. Mr. with the eonfiregatioD, on an earl; da;, 

Knox Crawford (elder) indnuited that the with the view of endeaToaring to bring 

eongiegaiion of St. James' Place had abont a deairabU itate of reeling in the 

iucreaied the salary of Dr. Morton to oonKTegatioo with reference to tbe matter 

£700, ineipeciive of the payment of hii in diipata. A circular havinK been read 

hfe aasiirancB policy. A report waa read from the S^od'i Foreign Committee, 

bj Hr. Moffial aa to the private conference Teeommending that, with the view of 

held recently with reference to miaiioni. imprcHing npon the mrndt of eongrega* 

It itated tbat there teemed to be a tioni the claimi of foreign miiiiont, 

general agreement in the conference that exchange* of pulpili, ai nearly nnlranal 

(he inhject ihonld oecnpy a prominent aa poeaibte, thonld be made, nndar 

place in the stated miniiiraiiona of the preabyterial arrangement, by the minitlert 

unctuai;: that every coDgregation shonld of each presbytery, it waa nnanimontlj 

be regarded aa ipso facU> a miiaionary agreed to adopt the propoied meainre M 

society, whose contnbntioni ihoold, if soon at mattert can be eonreiiientlj 

posiiUe, be co-exiensiTe with its members, arranged with ihii Ttew. Next meeting 

the coDtiibntiont being collected each was appointed to he held at Haira on 

month by book; and tbat in order to Tuesday after the tecond Sabbath of 

sustain and dcTclope the missionarj spirit Jannary 18IB. 

of the chorchcs, a general interchange of FtUiirh. — This presbytaijinetOB Tnea- 

pelpita should take place on some con- day, 4th December last—the Rct. George 

lenient Sabbath as the presbytery might Wade, moderator. The Rer. Hush 

decide, wtaendiscoursesshoaldbepreached Baird tendered his resignation of the 

dinetiy besrin'K on miuionar; work. On office of clerk, which he had held for 35^ 

tbe motion of Dr. Mair, seconded by Hr. years ; and Mestrs. Lambie, Dr. Ogilrie, 

Junes, tbe presbytery receiTed the re- and William Wilson (elder), were ap- 

port, thanked the committee who had pointed to prepare a miimte expreBsiva 

charge of the arrangementt, and approved of tbe presbytery's sentitneDta in refkr. 

at tbe Tecommendstions, — tbe third ence Eo Mr. Baird's long and faithfiit 

Sabbath of January being fixed at the serrices, Tbe Rer. Charles Jordan, 

date for tbe interebange of pnlpitt. A LL.B., of Denny loaobead, was elected 

moderation waa granted to the Sontb clerk in room of Mr. Baird. Bead and 

Side Church, to take place on the erening considered rarions proposals of the 

of 17th December — Mr. Robertson, Bread Foreign Mission Committee, baring for 

Street, to moderate. The stipend pro- their object tbe stirring ap of greater in> 

mited is £300. terett in tbe missions of tbe Church. Laid 

£lgia and Inveraeu. — This presbytery on the table copy of report of entrance 

met at S'orres on the 11th December — examination for admission to tbe Hall, 

ReT. John Wbyte, moderator. A com- from which it apneared that Mr. George 

manication waa read from tbe Kstion- Wm. Ure, a slndent within the bounds, 

clerk of tbe congregation of Nairn, in< had been admi tted as a first year student. 

timating that at a meeting of the con- Rct. Mr. Wade and Mr. Bay, Qlenbo, 

gregation held on tbe list November, were heard in relation to tbe visits of 

with referenee to the pecnniary affairs of ex-Prorost Morton, of Greenock, to 

the congregation in their present circum- various districts in the presbytery, with 

stances, in accordance with a lecommen. the view of widening the area of contri- 

dation of the presbytery at last meeting, bntion to the Surplus Augmentation 

it was resolved to delay taking any steps Fund ; and Ibanks were recorded to Mr. 

in tba matter in the meantime. A com- Morton for his kind services. Re*, 

munidttion having been read from a Messrs. Lambie, Allchiton, and Leckie 

member of the Forres session, intimating were appointed to prepare the presbytery'* 

that he waa prepared to withdraw his overture to the Synod on the Imposition 

protest and appeal againat a finding of of Hands. Appointed next meeting to 

the seasion with referenee to tbe use be held on Tueiday, Bth Febniarjr 1878, 

of fermented or nnfermented wine on at 11 ^.>. 



WO. I. VOL. ZZn. NET BBRIEB. — JANTIABT 11 



:lv.C00l^lc 



84 BBLIGIOnS IKTELLIGBSOE. ^"Il.twa'^ 

Olatgow, — Tb{« pncbjtei; held its mended minUlen and elden to embrace 

moDihW meetine oa Tuesday, 11th t-aj ^ToarablB opponnnitj vhich took 

December, when Mr. Stark ocenpied the place of taking part in special eerTices in 

moderatoi^i chair. Dr. Leckie laid chat eoDoection with tbeir onn congregations, 

the committee appointed to confer with or in concert vilh other congregations in 

Mr. F, Fergmon were not jet prepared to their own licinit?. Thaj further recom- 

presenC a report. Mr. Thomas Wbitelaw, mended ministers to hold cottage meetings 

Cathedral Street Chnrcb, intimated accept- either in town or country aa often aa 

aocB of ft call to King Street Churcb, Kil- opportunity offered in the conrse of their 

marnock. Dr. Scott intimated tbat the ordinary work. The speaker, in tbeconrie 

Aogmentation Fund wa^ at present £500 of a short speech, strongly advocated tbe 

higher than it was at the lame date last recammendationi of the committee to the 

year. Mr. Corhett made an appeal for consideration of the members of the 

funds towards tbe proposed scholarship presbytery. The report was adopted, 

in their Theological Hall tocommeinorBte Mr. Bogers having intimated that on 

the name of Dr. Eadie. Dr. Scott and acconnt of the state of his health he had 

Hr. B. T. Middleton urged the claims of to spend the winter in a warmer climate^ 

the Church Flanting Board, tbe operations muoh sympathy was expressed with bim 

'' ' -e being impeded by want of in the circumstances. Arrangements w~~~ 



money. The presbytery agreed tu express made for tbe supply of tbe pulpit, and 

anew tbeir sense of l^e importance of the Mr. Cairns appointed tnieriia moderator of 

scheme, and to appeU to tbe members for sesBion. 

fnbicriptions to complete the capital fund, Xi^mamocit.— This presbyteiy met on 

while they urged on congregations the 1 1th December — Rer. Alexander M'Dan- 

need for their making an annual contribn- aid, moderator. Appointed further sick 

Uon to the funds. aapply to Saltcoats, West. Mr. George 

Ktlto. — This pieebytery .met on Tne*- Copland reported that tbe Augmentation 

day, SOth NoTember— Rev. Mr. Fringle, Conmittee had held gstiEractorr meetings 

Jedburgh, moderator. A report in refer- in several congregations, and arrange- 

ence to tbe fonnation of an elders' aseocia- ments had been made for more at an early 

tioD hsTiilg been read, it was agreed: — date. Mr. Copland asked tbe presby- 

*In the spirit of the report from the lery's sanction, which was cordially given, 

sessions, the presbytery reoommend a to obtain a report from congregations by 

conference of elders to -be held, and they February, showing tbe efforts they had 

appoint the elders present to make the made to support the Augmentation 

necessary arrangements.' The committee Scheme, in order that a full report may 

appointed on the gronnds of tbis motion be given to the presbytery in ApriL The 

consisted of Messrs. Moirhead-fconveQer), clerk read the report of Committee on 

Fairgrieve^ Purres, £rooni£eld, Scott, Formation of Elders' Associations to pro- 

Porteoos, and Clark. In reference to the mote tbe Principles and Progress of the 

report on prest^pfrial visitation of con- Church, which suggested the formation 

gregationi, it wjas resolvedr— ' That the of four associations wilhin tbe bounds, 

presbytery, having taken into considera- with Ayr, Kilmarnock, Kilwinning and 

tion tbe Synod's .recoBimendation as to Mancbline respectively ss centres. The 

presbylerial vigiiraiion of tbe various ooi ' " ^ . j -i.. . 

gregations witbin its bounds,' recognist ,, „ - 

the importance of (hat recotnmendation associations. Found that the congrega- 

beiog carried oat, and tbey appoint a tions within the bounds had generally paid 

committee to consider how the end con- their oontiibutions to tbe Synod Fond, 

templated can be best secured.' A Agreed to request the few defaulters to do 

committee, consisting of tbe Bev. Messrs tbeir duty in this matter witboat delay, 

poison, Jarvie, Inglis, and HiUer, and Bead letter from Mr. Cuthbertson, stating 

Mr. Soott, Whitton, was then appointed, that tbe Holm congregation withdrew the 

The Bev. Mr. Poison reported that the application recently made for change of 

Evangelistic Committee liad met tbat site. As agreed upon at last meeting, the 

morning, and tbey bad drawn up a presbytery then entered into a private 

small report. Tbeie was present al the conference on tbe subject of missions. 

committee — Messrs. Inglis and Poison At the close of the conference, the presby- 

(miniaters), and Messrs. Scatt and Broom- tery resolved to strongly recommend the 

field (elders). Tbe report was to the formation of missionary associations, with 

effect that the committee resolved to ask an organized staff of eollectois in all con- 

the presbytery to record anew its sense gregations within the bounds; and that, 

of the needfulness and importance of as far as practicable, tbe JHUaiottarif 

special services for awakening a deepening Seeord be circulated monthly, and eub- 

iaterest in spiritual things j and it tecom- scriptions for mission purposes taken at 



BELIQIOUS INTELLI6EN0E. 



the wme ^me. Agreed fnribeT to remit 
■U other points on the mbject brottght 
berore the conrerence to the committee, 
with innnictiaiis to consider tbe-ing- 
geilionB that htiTe been msde, and bring 
up ■ report wilb practical reeommendi- 
lioni to the meeting of preabyterj ia 
Febraarj. BeceiTed a telegram itating 
that the Rev. Thomaa Whileiaw bad 
accepted the call from King Street. Ap- 
pointed his indnetion to take place in 
Kilnianiock,ODTharBdaj ths 3d January 
IST8. Bemitted eircolar from the Com- 
mitlea on Saperintendence of Toung 
Ppnona to a committee of preebjtery, 
with instraciiooa to take sCcpg to carrj 
DDt lecommendaliOQB of Sjnod. Ap- 
pointed nest meeting to be beld on the 
Beeond Tnesdaj of Febroajr. 

Faitks and QreeiKxk. — Tbit preabytery 
metaiGreenockoiiTueadaj,4thD6ceinl>er. 
Read extract minute of Home Board, 
ibac an annnitj of £50 had been granted 
to Mr. Monteith. Read letter from Mr. 
Borland, declining the call to Renfrew. 
Appointed the indnetion of Mr. Alex- 
ander Dnncau, in Roxburgh Street, on 
the ISth. A calL to Mr. Alison, Cnpar, 
from Alexandria, was EOBlained. Took 
op qaeadoDa of which Mr. Uaccae gave 
notice. It was carried bj a majoritj 
that the whole matter be taken np in 
a committee of the whole bonse. Whan 
the preabytcTy resnined, the finding was 
thit in point of procednre the pres- 
brteiy do not admit the right of Mr. 
Macrae as a member of Conrt to move the 
probjtery in the form of qnestions, and 
ibcj therefore refnae to entertain the 
qnestionB. Also, stronglj' disapprove the 
tune of the queitiona, aa well as the failing 
to obtemper the decisions of preabyteij 
in March last. Recall bia attention lo 
thii deliverance, and again enjoin him to 
give heed to the exhortations therein con- 
tuned ; and that be be admonished to 
this effect from the chair. 



- SetUrk (£^t).~Mr. George M'Callum, 
A.M., Glasgow, called 28th November. 

Edtuburgh (Smith Side).— Bet. 3. Kay, 
Free Chnrch, Coatbridge, called 17th Dec. 

Wat Colder.— RtT. James Wardrop, 
Crsigend, called 11th December. 

Kirkcaldy (Beiftei>W).— EeY. Isaac E. 
Harwiek, Ireland, called 17lh December. 

£eruHCk (Wallaee Green, £.P.)— Mr. 
George M'Callam, preacher, Glasgow, 
called 18ch December. 



Died, at Homdean, on the ISth Decem- 
ber, Rev. Tohn Stark, In the 53d year of 
his age, and the a9th of his ministry. 



Services in connection with the cente- 
nary of this congregation were held on 
Sabbath, 11th November, when Dr. Logaa 
Aikman, Glasgow, preached in the fore- 
floOD and evening. Oo Monday evening 
a service was held, the attendance being 
very large. Among the speakers were 
Prineipal Brown and' Profesior Balmood 
of the Free Church. 

In connection with these servicei, Hr. 
Reatt, pastor of the congregation, read 
an interesting Mcount of its history. 
Having adverted to the origin of the 
Secession Chnrch, be said in reference to the 
beffinning of the Belmont Street cause : — 

There were only 'seven,' it is said, to 
commence the canse — the sacred number. 
They were associated together as a 'pray- 
ing society,' — an institniion which was 
peculiar to these times, and had been so 
for a hundred years previously. Over the 
whole of. Scotland snch societies had 
existed, and rellgioas life had been cher- 
ished and strengthened, sometimes actually 
preserved, by them through the parishes 
of the land. These seven met in a hired 
room in the city during the week for 

r and Christ 
laving membership i 
^regation, eighteen miles dutaet, they 
joined there at least at the seasons of 
communion. Their increase was very 
slow, for 'Seoeder' was * name of re- 
proach then, and those who bore it had to 
endnre a measure of persecution. There 
is a tnulition that the Burgher Secedera 
required the presence of a town's officer at 
one period at their church-door to prevent 
disturbance, and that the Burgher minister 
could not appear on the streets even, 
without some Seceder of standing in the 
town with him. This 'praying society' 
may never have been thus disturbed, bnt 
the public feeling being such mast hare 
hindered its growth. However, ther 



Qrtmoct (Bosinirgk Street). — ReV. 
Alexander Dnocan, Mnirkirk, inducted 
18lh December. 






which, as far as audience v 
have been regularly crowded. In 1773, 
there is tbe first mention of this Frajlog 
Society in the records of the presbytery, 
and the mention occurs in connection with 
a petition for a supply of sermon, which 
was granted. 

Twice in 1776, and once in the April of 
1777, thesociety petitioned the presbytery, 
through the session of Craigdam, and 



36 KOTICE8 OF NEW PDBLIOATIOKB. '"'1i.'I«Si£*^ 

1 be congregated, Broirit, in tbo Spital Kiifc, declared that 
PS the reqneib wai to be a ne<r congref ation of the Secedun 
lirtuallj refused. The power of impocta- in and about AbertUen.' 
nitr, however, wai kaowa to theae people. For two yean ihereafler wonhip wu 
and beroie the latter year wai out thej continned in the Spital, and tben the eon- 
were again before the preabjter;. From gregatJon proceedel to bnild a charcfa. 
the recorde we make the following tnte- On rh« 2d April 1TT9, part of Caber- 
roting extract ah owing their sDccesa: — stone Croft in Belmont Street was taken 
'Ktilli, 12tk Novtmbtrl'm. — Entered in fen. Before the lame month waa 
upon the consideration of ibe reference ended the bnilding was in progresa, and 
from Craigdam and petition from Abei^ bj the first Sabbath of NorembeT it was 
deeo, and, after a considerable time waa opened for pablic worsbip,— an expedition 
ipent upon the subject, a motion was which shows there was energy among 
made and agreed to, Damely, That, as the theae people. No particalarv eziat as to 
people in Aberdeen have been for aome the coat of this church ; but thongli it 
time past, and preaentlj are, inaisting could not bave been great, eontideriQg the 
npon being diajomed from the congregar homely plainness of the atrncture, atill, 
tion of Craigdam, and erected into a rem embcring the fewneas of their nnmhers, 
congregation by themMlves, to be anpplied such escriGce* were neceaaarity required 
with sermon by the presbytery ; and as B« witness to the love these (atbera had 
the aet«ion of Craigdam in their reference for the ordinancea of the sanctnary. The 
declared that they are all agreed in the first minister of the cbnrch was Michael 
eipediency of said di^jooction, the que*- Arthur, inducted asth Jane IT81. The 
tion now be put. Disjoin the people in minister anceeeding him was • William 
Aberdeen who are presently under tbo M'Call, ordained 8th April IT89. The 
lospectionof the session of Craigdam from minister following him waa John C. 
said session and congregation, and erect Brown, LL.D., indacted Stih April IBSO. 
them into a congregation by themaeWea, As grandson of Brown of Haddington, 
to be supplied by sermon by the preaby- be came of good Secession lineage. After 
terj aa they can overtake it, or not? This thirteen yean in Belmont Street coogre- 
qnestion being accordingly put aa above, it gation, ha returned to the Cape, on Ms 
waa carried nemmt coatradicailt. Disjoin appointment as a profeasor of botsny. 
and erect. Wherefore the presbytery did. He has aince been minister of a eangregs- 
and hereby do, disjoin the people in and tion in Berwick-on -Tweed, and now, u 
about Aberdeen that are under the inspcc- witfaont a charge, he lives in Haddington. 
tion of the session of Craigdam, from said The present minister, David Beatt, was 
sesaion and eotigregation, and erect them ordained on ISth April 1865. The old 
into a congregation by themselves, to be building wa4 taken down in September 
supplied with sermon bj the preebyter; a* 1S6T, and a new church waa opened in 
they oan overtake it.' Jannary 1869, on the same site. The 
To complete this part of the history, we coat was over £3000, which alresdj has 
quote from a xa. diaiy kept by Jamea been nearly all defrayed. Considerable 
Aiken, shoemaker, who waa a mambei increaae in the memberibip hat taken 
and afterwarda an elder of the church, place in recent years, and, with several 
Thii diary baa been kindly lent me by Br. other marka indicating progress which 
Maitlaud Moir. Jamea Aiken notes : — need not he here enumerated, the eotigre- 
' Nowmbtr 3Sd, 17T7. — Mr. William gationmaybedeacribedaaveryproaperoos. 



lEoticcs \af ^bi publications. 

Piute's Qdeshon, ■ Whence art tbat the man who wu the moat noted 

Thoi]?' An Esaaj on the Feraonal saA determined persecDtor of the 

CUima aaaeil^d hj Jeaua Chriat, and _ Chriatjaua attddenly became one of tbe 

how to aocount tor them. By Jobm ' moat distinguished and aelf-denying 

Kbmkbdt, M.A., D-D., etc. advocates of the new faith. The little 

Gdintmrgh ; Dsild Doojiai ISTT. work before US has also a pecnliar value 

LoBD Lyttelton's fsmona tract&te ' On arising from the same clTcumstance. It 

the Couvemion of St. Paul,' has done contains an argament limitMl to one 

good service to the cause of Christian point The author laya hold on one 

truth ; and its peculiar value cooaiats indisputable fact, — the fact, namely, 

mainly in ita concentrating attention on that Jebub Cbrist put forth claima of a 

one indiapuuble fact,— the fact, oamelj, aapematural and tnuuaendental cadar, 

I . -...CooqIc 



""jiTrli**^' NOTIOES OP NEW PDBLlCATIONfl. 37 

And^owB, byftbrief boteompreheiuiiTe both hypotheses, he comes to the only 

and ezbaasUve line of argament, Ihat other, tiz. thntwhiehdeclsTestheclBhna 

this fActatampe with equal indisputable- asserted by Christ to be oiipnal and 

ness th« truth of the olaims which He true, Hid in an elaborate diadusion 

tfaoB asserted. shows how this supposition meets and 

It has been very often remarked in an accoanls for all the pecnliaril^ of the 

inddental way by ChriBtian apologiHtB, caae. The argument is conducted with 

that the high admiration of the cbaracter all Dr. Kennedy's well-known learning, 

of Jesus Christ, and of the morality eloqnenoe, and It^csl precision, and ws 

taaght by Him, which is frequently, ^hm be disappointed if tjie book doe* 

indeed usually, profeaaed by diabelievers not speedily take rank among the 

in tbe divine origin and supernatural standsH works in Christian apoL'tjetic*. 

charactcz of Cbriatianity, is really on 

their part a flagrant self-contradiction ; „ , „ 

/or j4us Christ did more than incnloat* St. Johk b Gospel Dmommd and Ex- 

and exemplify a singularly high and PwntKD AocosDixa to its fecdluk 

pnre morality. Along with this, He Charactbr. By 0. E, LlrrHARDT, 

claimed for Himself obedience and Profeaaor of Theology at Leipag. 

homage as divine, aserted eqnaUtj and TransUted by C. R. Gkkqobt, Ph.D., 

onenesa with God His Father, and Leipiig. Vol.11, 

amomed the place and titles of the Old Couhehtabt ON THE QoaPEL or Sr. 

Testament Uessiah ; and it is obvious John ; with a CBmoAi' Ihtko- 

that to disallow the trnth of these claiviB DUCnON. Translated from the second 

is to reduce this man of unblameable French Edition of F. Oodet, D.D., 

morality to the low level of a fauatio Professor of Theology, Nenchatel, by 

or impostor, chargeable with manifest S-TiTLoaandM. D. CusiN. Tol. IIL 

nntmthfnlness in one or other of its Edteburgti : t. * t. (Smrk. ibtt. 

Tarioua forms. In tbe hands of Parker, These two new volumes of the Messn. 

Renan, and many others of the same Clark's Foreign Theological Library 

general type of belief, the character of form a welcome Christmas boon to the 

Jesos CbJiat become* an inextricable students of the Apostle John and of the 

enigma,— a man of theporest character, 'New Testament The work of Dr. 

whocoostantly mingles with tbe loftiest Godet is now complete in its English 

monl teaching the assertion of falsehood, dreag; and this second volume of Pro- 

— a man most devout and reverential, feasor Luthardt' extends from chapter 

who doily utters profanity and bias- ii. ver. 12, to the end of chapter xi. 

phemy, — a man most humble and un- Both works are admirable, and may be 

selfish, who indulges habitually in the said to be equally valuable. Both are 

language of vain assumption and self- thorough in investigation, resolute In 

^orification, only to be saved from encountering difficulties, and honest and 

being stamped as daringly impious by earnest in tracking out the truth. Both, 

being relegated to the region of tbe likewise, are characterized by reverent 

absurd and the nonsensical. treatment of the divine word, by evan- 

This is the argument which Dr. gelical principle and spirituality of 

Kennedy developea. His treatise consists sentiment. But though much alike. 



: two parts, the one eontaininE an they are at the same time quite inde- 
ixpotition of what it was that Christ pendent, and in some respects very 
daimed, the other the argument based . unlike; and the difference between them 
on this foundation. The latter, which is perhaps sufficiently indicat«d by 
natnrallv occnpies the larger portion of saying that the one is German and the 
the won, takes account ^ the various other is French. Godet is probably 
methods which may be or have been calculated to be the more popular. The 
reported to by way of explaining these style is more lively and interesting, the 
extoiwrdinary claims. Two main hypo- translation is couched in more easy and 
theses are tajtenup and disposed of, — 1. ' flowing English, and doubtless also bis 
Thatwhichassumesconsciousdishonesty work is in a pre-eminent degree sug- 
in a greater or lest degree; 2. That gestive and original At the same time, 
which assumes that the claims put into tbe author has his special weakness, and 
the mou^ of Christ originated in a later it is neaily related to this point of pie- 
age. Having tried and found wanting eminence. In the straining after ori- 



38 



NOTIOEB OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



^tUtUtV' he not unfreqaently ' foils on 
the otlier side,' and deeenenles into 
BZftggention &nd artificiality. We find 
iDstaDCea of this in the Tolame before 
HB, at u 20, in the «spUnUioii of 
Christ's indignation or ' Bhnddering ' at 
the grave of Lazarus; at p. 275, in 
reference to the blood and water from 
the Saviour's aide ; and at p. 357, where 
is reproduced, though hesit&tingly, his 
•bwige idea that the Apoatle Jolu) has 
been exempted from death, and sorrives 
in the body in an inconceivable manner, 
after the example of Enoch and Elias. 
This over-Btraining Lnthardt avoids ; 
and hence, if more arid and lesa inte- 
resting, his work is on the whole more 
sound, jndioiouB, and reliable. We 
turned with interest to bia explanation 
of Christ's words (chap. v. 17), 'My 
Father norketh biuierto, and 1 work,' 
of wiiich the ordinary view, as found, 
e.g., in Trench and Alford, has long 
appeared to us inadequate and erroneous. 
We were pleased tA find that what seems 
to US the tme significance of the lan- 
guage is here clearly set forth. 'AH 
the action of God since the creation, or 
rather since the Sabbath of God which 
concluded the creation, is essentially 
related only to Christ and His work ; 
therefore it ia of a salvation -bringing, 
a redeeming kind. In tius Hense, then, 
Jesus spe^ these words. The re- 
demptive working and executing God'a 
saving will still continues, and is not yet 
at an end. Its Sabbath has not yet 
come.' In Godet'a exposition of the 
verse we find another example of his 
besetting ran as a commentator, — of 
straining after novelty, which leads him, 
after objecting to Luthordt's explana- 
tion, and by a very roundabout process, 
to an almost identical reeult : — ' The 
subject in question here is the work of 
salvation and the moral edacation of 
the human race. This divine work baa 
for ita basis the very cessation of God 
from His creative work in nature.' 

We regard both books aaindiapensable 
to thorough students of the Bible ; and 
when the next and concluding volume 
of Lnthardt is published, English 
readers will have in tlieir posseasion a 
very complete tkesauru* on the Fourtb 
Go^l. 



MESSRS. OLIPHAHT & CO.'S 
CHRISTMAS PUBUCATI0H3 FOR 

THE YOUNG. 1877. 
(1.) Heboes or Discovert: Living- 
stone, Franklin, Park, Cook, Magel- 
lan. By Saudel Mossuan. New- 
Edition, wiUi Portraits. 
This is a very handsome volume ; and 
as it reconnts in a clear, vigorous, and 
interesting manner the chief adven- 
tures of those great heroes of discovery 
whose names are given, it is sore to be 
very popnlar with young men, 
(2.) Polly Wtatt; or, Virtno it« 
own Reward. 
A pleasantly-told story, illnstrating 
the truth that life is a discipline, and 
consists in something bett«r than the 
abundance of temporal possesaionB. 
(3.) The Little Sand Bot ; or. Who is 
best off? A Tme Story, from the 
German of Othlie Wildernuth. 
This story is a fresh and vigorous deli- 
neation of character, and shows how s 
boy possessing mental power and moral 
purpose, even though bora in unfortu- 
nate circumstances, is sure to excel. 
(4.) Fked the Appbentice, trans- 
lated and adapted by Hrs. Ca»fbell 

OVEHKHD, 

Is also a book for boys, and urges to 
habits of self-restraint, induatiy, and 
integrity. 

(5.) The First Prhtter's Eablt DaY3 
Gives an interesting glimpse in connec- 
tion with t^e life of Gutenberg, of the 
origin and early history of the art of 
printing, and will prove informatory as 
well as attractive. 
(6.) Mias Troi:ble - the - House amd 

HER Adventures, by Sarah M. S. 

Clarke, 
Is a very lively and racy story, full of 
innocent merriment, and,_ with a tme 
appreciation of child-ltfe,' shows what 
even a child may do in making or mar- 
ring the happiness of others. 
(7.) Gideon Brown : A Tme Story of 

the Covenant, and of the Persecution 

in Scotland, as related by himself. 

Edited by Chakles Mackay, LL.D. 

Dr. Mackay, in his prefatory remailcB 
to this stwy, which originally appeared 
in the pages of a well-known magazine, 
says: 'It attracted much attention ol 
the time for its truthful pictures of ■ 



NOTICES OF KBW F UBLIOATIOKB. 



89 



Bbormy period in Scottiah huitor^.' The 
tjm«a <^ the GoTenaat still pomom a 
peculiar charm for the people of Scot' 
land ; and while this namtare will en- 
list the intereet of boys, it irUt &lso be 
read with profit by their Kmots. 
(8.) Black Harkt ; or, Loat in the 
Biiah. By RoBEirr Ricbardsoh. 

A book after a boy'a own heart. In a 
simple and natural way Mr. Richardson 
deatribes the advonturea of two boys 
who were lost in the bush, and who 
were recovered through the sagacity and 
perseverance of a noble-hearted negro, 
whom, with youthful love of mischief, 
they had often taken pleasure in teasing, 
but wboee worth they came thoroughly 
to appreciate. To tnis is appended a 
little story, — ' Joe Wilmot,' — which 
shows that even a boy's life can be 
happy, only when it is in baimony with 
the word of God. 

These eig^t volumes, with their beau- 
tjfol illustrations and admirable teach- 
ing, form a small Ubrary which yonng 
people vrill greatly prize, and from the 
penisal of which thej may derive much 
profit as well as pleasure. 

The Presbtteeias Montelt ; A Eeview 
of Biblical Literature and the Church 
Aspects of Public Questions. No. I. 
November 1877. 

Bdlabnrgb : PnbUshed sltbeolBsaof 7ni/Vf(i|>- 

If a joarnal were to call itself The 
Brititk Empire, tind were only to repre- 
sent the views of a very iDfiuitesimal 
part of the population residing in an 
obscure comer of said empire, it would 
ioBtly be thought to have erred in choos- 
ing its title. Into an error of this kind 
The Presbylerian Monthly evidently has 
fallen, for, in so far as it has a speci- 
al^, it represents only the opinions of 
a narrow section of the great Preeby- 
terian Church. 

Its animus and porpose may be 
gathered from the following extract 
from a paper entitled ' At Sea :' — ' The 
learned men to whom the Free Church 
was entitled .to look for guidance in 
dark and cloudy days have given her 
none. We assume that the days have a 
dark and cloudy look. " Not at all," 
they say, " we are only ' at sea.' " Pos- 
ubly they and we mean much the same 
thing ; but whether it be -so or not, 



every one knows that the Chnioh gave 
them places and honoara and power ; 
she put them in offices of trust, expect- 
ing that they would keep a good look- 
out for storms and rocks, and all dangen. 
With truetful simplicity she allowed 
them to go their own way, and to do 
their own liking, teaching as they listed, 
without fear or suspicion from her. But 
when she is in the midst of danger, or 
thinks she is, where are these trusted 
guides! With the utmost frankness 
they tell ne thay are " in perplexity, and 
want time to make up their minds." ' 

Bob : Soue CiAPTERa op his Earlt 
Life. By Uev. ALEXutsBR Magleod, 
D.D., Birkenhead. 

0]Xfri>v : ScottMi Tnmpflnnce Laajpie. 

Da MACutoD is well known to be • 
master of the art of addretaing children. 
Having intense sympathv with them, 
and a deep and true Imowledge of their 
nature, he irresistibly endiains thor at- 
tention when he speaks of them or to 

This little story is in his happiest 
manner. It has a pathos of its own, 
but, Bs told by Dr. Uadeod, it is ex- 
ceedingly touclung. It tells of the trials 
and trinraohs, ay, and of the sins too, 
of a gifted and nqble youth, who, by 
the force of his chwacter and the exer- 
cise of his art, rose from the humblest 
positbn to one ot honour. Whilst it ie 
written in the interests of temperanoe, it 
enforces other virtues also, and should 
be circulated by thousands. 

Tito Sooa : A Page of South African 
Mission Work, By Rev. JoHK Chal- 
mers, of the United Presbyterian 
Church, Caftraria. 
BdlMnnvh : Aiidni' ElJlot. LondoD : Hodder A 
StOBghUin, IBTT. 

Not a few <A the ministers of our 
Church who were in its Divinity Hall 
nearly a quarter of a century ago, re- 
member their sable fellow-student of 
that time, Tiyo So^. Mr. S(«a would 
have been interestmg on account of bis 
high character and excellent gifts had 
he been as one of ourselves, but the fact 
that he was of a coloured and heathen 
race invested him with peculiar interest. 
Great things were expected of him aa 
a missionary amongst his countrymen, 
and these expeetatioDs were reahzed 
during his too brief but bright career. 
It brought sorrow to many a heart whei) 



40 MOTIOES OP NEW PUBLIOATIOHB. '""fcl'^Sj"""' 

tidings reached Uiia conntrj' of the da&th them. The atjle ia simple uid Tigmoiw, 

of Tiyo Soga in the prime of intnbood and the tone kindly aiid affectionate, 

and in the midst of grenl and inoiewing The book aiso abounds in anecdotes, 

usefulness. whicJi are aptly introduced, and nai- 

The story of bis life is told by Hr. rated in a vivid and pointed manner. 

Chalmers in a most interesting and It is attractively got up, and adorned 

graphic manner. It cannot be ssid, in- with appropriate illustrations, and will 

deed, that Mr. Cbalmera' taste is always find, .we doubt not, a cordial welcome 

immaculate, and that tbe style may not in many a Cfariatiau home, and asaist 

oocaaionally be snaceptible of improve- many a Christian parent to make the 

meat; but these are small mattets, and evenings of the Sabbath what it is so 

are easily overlooked amidst so much desiraUe yet so difficult to do, — inte- 

of gennine interest and excellence. Hr. reettog and profitable to the children as 

Cholmera has a sincere affection for and well as to those of larger growth. 

admiration of bis subject, and he ia en-' 

tirely familiar with the scenes which he A Brief Histort op Methodisk and or 

depicts ; and this has given a point and Hbthodist MISSIONS IM South Afbica. 

power to bis narrative, wbicn cause it With an Appendix on tbe Living- 

to take hold of the reader and draw stonia Mission. By the Rev. W. 

him irresistibly along. Foe we have Cuffobd Holder. With Ulustro- 

uot only the bii^rapby of Mr. Sogo, tions. 

but much about his country and his Londcm^ PabUshedforliie AnthorHtUuWealaTu 

countrymen, and what has been done conferanoe Offlct istt. 

for them, — tbe book being very truly This goodly volume of upwards of dOO 

what it calls itaelf, ' a page in South pages may be said to condst of two 

African mission wc^.' books. The first part treats histori- 

It would be verj easy to quote many colly of Methodism; the second, of 

passages of great iulerest, but our limiu Methodist missions in South Africa, 

meanwhile forbid. We give the book, Wa ore somewhat at a loas to see why 

however, our cordial commendation, Mr. Holden thought it necessary to enter 

and assure our readers that ia its per- on such a lengthened account of Mediod- 

nsol they will not (Hily make or renew ism in such a volume. It wonid have 

acquaintance with a truly noble man beenbetter,wetbink,tohavewrittaktwo 

and missionary, but acquire a great Beparatebooks,and tbiswouldbavegiven 

deal of information of a very interesting greater unity. But whilst we scarcely 

kind in regard to misHionary labours approve of Mr. Holden's plan, we have 

and scenes, in an important part of a only [a^tse to give to his performance. 

continent which is continiiing incicas- He is well acquainted with the subject 

ingly to attract the attention and en- of which he treats, both in the first aJod 

gage the efforts of the inhabitants of second port, and sate forth a great deal 

this and other civilised and Cliristian of valuable infonnataon in a clear, 

lands. vigorous, and interesting manner. Hnch 

may iK here learned of mission irork in. 

BibleEchoes: Addresses to the Yonng. SonthAfrioa; whilst the appendix on tiia 

By Bev. Jaubs Wells, A.M., Qlasgow. LivingstcHiia Mission gives a detailed 

Landon : JunM IHitwt. 187T. account of one of tbe most recent and 

Ih a prefatory note it is said : ' The most interesting efforts in the direcUoD 

following addiosnas were delivered at of African regeneration. ■ 

the monthly Babbath afternoon service The account given of the degraded 

for children. The special aim was to state of mon^ of the tribes is affecting 

interest the young, and also to be useful and humiliating. Mr. Holden, however, 

to their parents and teachers who at- shows that men even of the lowest type 

tended tbe sarvioe.' of humanity — men whom some onthro- 

' We have to congratulate the author pologists would clam with the ape and 

on the success which has attended his the baboon — have been converted aiid 

efforts. He has tnvdnced one of tbe wonderfully elevated. He takes a hope- 

Tery best books for tbe young which ful view of mission work even unoBgBt 

we have seen. Parents and Sabbath such, and tbe success which attended hn 

school teachers may find much in the own labours justify him in doing so. 

nlume tbat will be greatly helpful to The volume ia ad«ned bj some veil- 



noncES or hew publications. 



exeentedeugrftvingB, which halp to nuke 
the namtiTe all the more intelligible 
and impremye. Altogetlier, the book 
ia one ca greU intereBt, and will find, wa 
doubt not, msnj appraoiatiTa naden. 

Thi Jews in belation to the Church 
AND TSE WoBLD. A Couna of I.ee- 
tores by Bey. Profewor Cairns, D.D,, 
Rer. Canon Cook, D.D., iter. Pro- 
feeaor Lbathes, A.M., Right Rbt. 
Bishop CijiuoHTON,D.D., Re». Donald 
Phaser, D.D., Eer. Profeeaor Beatts, 
A.H. With a Preface bj the Kiicht 
Ber. Bishop PiinaCLAQGHTOH, D.D. ' 



The conversion of Israel is an object 
which miut be yeiy dear to orery 
Christian heart, and all wise and well- 
directed efforts for its attainment trill 
be hailed with Batiafaction and gratitude. 

The little Tolnme before ns is an 
attempt in'this direction. The lectures 
are six in nomber, on subjects deeply 
iatereflting in themselTcs, and bearing 
directly on the attdtude of the Jews to 
Christianity. The names of the writers 
■re a guarantee for the great ability and 
thoroughness with wbich the work is 
done, tor all are men who have de- 
■erredly won for thanselvas a place of 
povei in the Christian Church. 

f)ar readen, howeTer, will naturally 
tan most readily and delightedly to 
tie first lecture by our own Professor 
Gainu. His subject is, ' The greateeC 
historical marvel, and how to ancoant for 
it.' In tjisconrstag on this subject, Dr. 
Gaims says, ' It falls to me, therefore, 
in tbe place of these lectnrea, to consider 
Christianity, including Christ Himself, 
as a sign and a wonder in history npon 
any theory of explanation whatai>eTer ; 
and especially to examine the theory to 
which a Jew is shut up so long as be 
disowns Christianity, and regards it 
either as deloaion or impoetore.' 

Th« order followed is thus aet forth : — 
'I shall, in condocting this argument, 
tbeo, ask three queetioDS. FirsI, How 
came GbriHliuiity as a distinctive doc- 
trinal and moral system? Secondly, 
How came the historical character and 
future of Jems Christ? and thirdly, 
How came the historical success, preva- 
lence, and influence of Christtanity, with 
itsproBpectasndtendendea,aacontraBtod 
with tfae present state of Judaism?' 

On these the author diKCOuiBcB with 
great earnestness and in a most sympa- 



thetio I 

cogency 

thonght. The entire vcdume will be 

welcomed by many as a help towards 

bringing to the M«eaah the peode 

who have such a deep interest m His 

Scripture Illustrations frou tee 
Ddvgstig Life of the Jews and 
OTHER Eastern Nations. By the 
late John Eadik, D.D,, LL.D. 
Edited by John C. Jackson, Minister 
of Elgin Street United Presbyterian 
Church, Glasgow. 
[oofton i Qliuov: WllUun CoUint, Sou, 
*Co. 1877. 

Mr. Jackson in his preface says, ■ The 
distingnishing feature of this book is 
the abundant illustrative extracts from 
the works of travellers, historians, and 
other writers which are appended to the 
several articles. The interest and value 
of these extracta will be acknowledged 
by readers for personal im{»wemeDt, and 
by tliose who may have occasion to use 
them in the teaching of others. Such 
appropriate extracts from a very wide 
range of ancient and modem writers, 
as an unusual amount of learning has 
furnished, form a peculiarity which 
gives great and permanent value to the 
work. For many years it was ^e 
author'a habit to note such passages in 
his reading as seemed suitable for the 
illustration of Scripture ; and these 
quotations are fruits of his reseauvh. 

* The Tolnme, which was designed by 
the author to be the first part of a large 
work on Scripture illustfation from 
different sources, is a complete work in 
itself, and by far the Larger part of it 
received the author's final revision. To- 
wards the latter part of the volume, 
materials the author had provided have 
been incorporated by the editor, who has 
also added one or two chapters of his 
own to complete the work.' 

The utility of such a work wiU at once 
be acknowledged; and of Dr. Eadie's un- 
equalled qnaUlicationa for its perf orman oe 
there con be only one opinion. The 
editor has done his port corefallT and 
well; and as it is got up in a handy and 
compact form, it may be a kind of vade 
meeum with teachers of Bible classes and 
Sabbath schools. Thojr will find in it a 
mineof wealth, by digging in which th^ 
may easily find much wherewith to enrich 
their tAauiing and interest their scholars. 



42 NOTICES OF MEW PUBUOATIOIfB. '""Sl^SiJI'"^ 

A YoDNa Hah's Difficulties with his libte gaide? If so, then the diniiit; of 

BiBLf. B7 the Ber. W. France, D.D., Chriat ig clevl? and triumphanllf estab- 

Author <M ' The ChiiatiaD in the lished. Bnt if the loose uotimiB which 

World.' Third Thonsaad. ftlmoet all SociiuuiB and Arione enter- 

LoDdoDt HodderkStongliloii. IBTT. tainreBpectingtheHnUiorityof theScrip- 

1 „,^ .._ .„. ... „it„„n„. iii*t» *°™8 ^ admitted, then the cause of 

A FEW months ag», this attractive little „j.i,„i„.„ :. ,.,^^ ' j .„ o^^r.^^ „ „* 

TnlumB was fnvmimhlv nntiMd in these orthodoxy IB gone, and our Sftvionr moat 

^«™ r„^ !^™ 1^ Tr^. tw be regarded aa merely s creature. We 

^^tt' ^^.- \ v,^ ,^^ ?I cordiSly welcome, therefore, aU able, 

another edition 1«b been called for. It i^^^f^^ j„dicioua elucidation of th^ 

la ,ery well fitted to be of een^ce to ^^^^^'^t ^^^ ^^„ conflideation. 

young men of anin^Lmng tura of nund The anthor^n hie preface wyu he ' cUima 

who may be beset Vdifficultiee which ^^^^ ^^^^^^ The ^ topice, 

are set " array now in nrnch of our ^ ^ bo fir aa he knows, not in the 
^"ISfv^^r* W^^-h^JlT. '"-nie^rier. have been diecn«ed ebe- 

^'Tn^uS^la^J^th:; where n,ore thoroughly -d by. abler 

™o lu i»> uKiui uu~»u .Ml. u V hands. He haa merelj collected into » 

It may contmii, incnMingly to d.epel ,„jic„„p,„„,ti„dii,ibnt«ithrot»h 

;■ .'? JT, T'l °. T 'T* ""J loSr.bich «,Uom come nnte 

men to the bdiet of tie tnith u ,t a ^, »p„^, „, „„„„^ „^^^ ,^„ 

treatise is intended tor such readers, 

and not for the learned.' In this he 
A Treatise oh the Inspiration of forms, we think, a rather modest 
THB Holt Scriptures. By Charles estimate of hia own performance. But 
Elliott, D.D., Professor of Biblical the book is no doubt of a popular. 
Literature and Ezegeek in the Pres- rather than an erudite character. 
byterian Theological Seminary of the The work is divided into three parts. 
North-West, Chicago, Illinois. 8»o, The first, consisting of six cbapteie, 
pp. 295. treats of mattera somewhat general 
Edinbnrgiii T. ind T. ci«rk. B8 Qmrge StaMt. ^^d preliminary. The Second, entitled 
1^7'- ' Proofs of the Inspiration of tiie Bible,' 
This is not directly a book on the contains seven chapters. And the third, 
evidences of Christtiani^, but is closely in which there are four chapters, treats 
allied thereto. The author at oaee re- of ' Definitions, Theories, Distinetions, 
pndiates all idea of Atheism and Pan- Nature and Extent of the Inspinttion <d 
theism, and holds that there is one the Holy Scriptures.' A wide field is 
living intelligent moral Agent, who thus presented, and a multitude of topia 
created, preserves, and governs the are brought nnder consideration. The 
world. He also assumes that Chris- author is a Theological Professor, and it 
tianity is essentially a true, or rather seems to us that his treatise is well 
the true, religion ; and finding that there adapted as a first book for students, — 
is a certain book, called the Bible, which not by any means for settling tbeii viewi 
claims to be inspired of God, he proceeds on the all-important subject of inspira- 
to handle the subject of inspiration, tdon, bnt for opening up to them the 
which he does with a good deal of regions they have to traverse, for direct- 
minuteness and fulness. No competent ingtheir attention to the difficnltiesvrith 
judge will doubt that it is of paramount which they will hare to struggle, and 
importance to have clear, correct, de- for guiding tliem to quarters from which 
oided, satisfactory views on that much- assistance may be expected. A great 
agitated topic ; for in truth many of number of writers, ancient and modem, 
our theological controversies, even in and those of gre&t celebrity, are ijuoted ; 
the highest departments, binge mainly and to Dr. Elliott's credit be it said, 
on the question, Are the Scriptures the his quotations and references are made 
word of God, and of supreme authority? with singular exactness, — generally not 
For example, the inquiry as to the doc- only the volume, but the page he has in 
trine weoughttoholdrespectingtheper- view being indicated. Students will 
son of Christ, Is He, or is He not, truly know how to appreciate this precisenesa. 
God? resolves itself at once into this The book is thoroughly sound accord- 
other. Are the Scriptures a divinely- ing to what is now fashionably c&Ued 
Bunctioned and an abatdute and infal- the traditional scheme. Indeed, it will 



' jlTuiw*""^ NOTICES OP NEW PHBLICATIOKS. 43 

be proDoimced nltnt-ortbocloz bj maoy dered that the 'Wegtminrtw Confeedon, 

who are themselvea regarded as not on- which jb usually more prone to excess 

bearably wide of the truth. The author than to defect, inskes (cbap. I. sect, 
inaista etroDgly not only on the poasi- . 5) no reference to miraclea among the 

bility, bnt the leaJity and the necessity, grounds for our accepting the Scriptarea 

of mirsclee. ' On the eapposition,' says as the word of God. Might we venture, 

he, 'that a revelation baa been given, the in these days of reTision, to enggest that 

' only method of attesting it, so far as we it might be worth while to consider 

know, ia by miracles. Belonging to the whether certain texts of the New Tes- 

sapernatural, it requires supernatural lament, such as John t. 36, x. 37, 38, 

confirmation. Hence a history of reve- xiv. 10, 11, xt. 24, etc. etc., would not 

Istjon most be expected to contain nai- jostify a clause referring to the mighty 

ratives of supernatural events.'' Now works of Gbnst, and of many of His 

it seems to ns that there are two oppo- servants in the apostolic age, as proving 

site extremes on this point, both of that their words were the words of God? 

which ought to be avoided. There are A false miracle clearly proves nothing 

many, called advanced thinkerg, who, except that the person who attempts to 

though they do not deny the reality of palm it on us is an impostor. A ques- 

miracles, but give them a sort of quasi- tionable miracle can scarcely be regarded 

admiseion, nevertheless hold them to as furnishing evidence. But independ- 

be of no authority as evidences of oni entlv of the teetimony of Jesus Christ 

religion. The only ground on which on -Uiis point, and following merely the 

they believe the gospd is, that it speaks light of nature, we cannot but think 

to their inward consciousness, furnishes a that if we are constrained to admit that 

transcript of what thev find written on a real miracle haa been wrought, con- 

the fleshly tables of their hearts, and sistency requires ns to recognise the 

tells them, as Christ told the woman of penon who wrought it as holding a 

Samaria, all things whatsoever they did. commission from on high. We agree 

There are others whoselineof argument with the late celebrated John Foster, 

is altogether different. They can place that God will not cause the great bell of 

no dependence on these intuitional the anivene to be rang for one who has 

notions. They look entirely to the out- merely an ordiuary sermon to deliver. 

ward tokens and indications God has We concur with our author, then, in 

given that certain persons have a mes- attaching importance to the evidence 

sage from Him to deliver. It is well from miracles. 

knowa that this was the view held by Dr. Elliott has undertaken a work 

Dr. Chalmers, when, in 1813, he wrote much called for by the (nrcamstances of 

his celebrated article ' Christianity' in the times ; for infidelity, or what we 

the £dinburgh Eneyciopadia, and when consider as little better, has made 

the great change took place in his theo- lamentable progress among persons who 

logy and in his professional career. He are anxious still to bear the Christian 

tiius laid himself open to an ill-natured name, to be ranked among the disciples 

but Bubetaatially just criticism by Dr. of the Saviour, to hold offlcee in the 

Meanw of Aberdeen ; and had the can- Church, and to eat the bread provided 

door and good sense afterwards to tor its servants, but who, nnder the name 

acbiowledge that he hod erred by under- of the 'higher criticism,' evisc^ate 

valoing and excluding the internal evi- Christianity of its vitals, and leave it 

deuces. Surely we should be thankful a mere lifeless trunk. Such persons, 

for ail the kinds of evidenoe which are however, are generally among ' the 

presented to us ; and let every one avail learned,' for whom our anthor telle us 

himself of the sort that chiefly carries that he does not write. There can be 

conviction to his own mind. Proceeding no doubt, at the same time, that among 

on this principle, we seem to take mode- ' common readeis,' for whom he says 

rate groond when we say that if miracles he does write, there prevails a sort 

be not necessary, they are at all events of shakiness in the reUgious belief of 

more tban harmless. They are, in fact, numbers, who, though they are not 

to say the lesst, highly useful ; and as altogether moved away from the hojw 

mnch may be nnderstood to be implied of the gospel, are afflicted with a hesi- 

in the fact that God has furnished them tancy which disturbs their peace and 

tons. Indeed, we have sometimes won- hinden their progress in the divine 



44 , NOTICES OP SEW PDBLI0ATI0K8. '""Stl'n^'* 

life. Sucli, we fear, ia & ch&racteTiBtio HOMB LIFE IN ANCIENT PALESTINE ; or, 

of * this more learned, but not wiser nor Studies on the Book of Ruth. Bj 

better age.' It ia proper to recollect, Rar. Andkew Thomson, D.D., E^- 

bowever, that this unsettJedneBs in the burgh. 

eoDvictioiis of the unlearned does not Luidon: ThotDuNai»n«Soaa. 
result wholly or chiefly from facts We heartily commend tbia beautiful 
ascertained, nor from trains of thought little volume to oai readers, satisfied 
prosecuted by themselves. It is to be that none will lay it aside till it is 
traced munly to certain sceptical or finished, and, judging from our own 
infidel specmationB indulged in by feelings, that there awaits it a wide 
peraons of education, posmbTy of talent, and cordial welcome. It requires many 
and eagerly promulgated in speeches, gifts and qualities to make a success- 
newspapers, magazines, and other ful expositor of a book like Bath ; 
periodicals. It is in this way that a but Dr. Thomson here shows that he 
noziousleaTenisdiffused throughout the possesses them; and notie of hia works 
community. Now, let a book, however will, we think, have a ^eat«r popolaiity 
well fitted to pat to silence and to shame oratrueruBefulnees. Without attcmpt- 
theae perrerters of the public mind, be ing to re-«iite the incomparable natrs- 
prodnced, and such a book ia juat totally tive, which would be as great a breach of 
useless, indeed unintelligible, to people taste as to reproduce the story of Joseph 
of common education, — people not and hia brethren, Dr, Thomson throws 
truned to such inquiries. On the other in many interesting elucidations, — not » 
hand, let a book somewhat like the few of them drawn from his own eiperi- 
Tolune before us, — a book avowedly enoes of Eastern travel, — aodshowsevrai 
*int«ndedforcommonreadeiB,' — bepre- more than his usual felicily in setting 
sented, then, admirably adapted as it forth the numberless applications of the 
may be for the purpose specially con- eiquiaito Bible picture to the religion of 
templated, it is pounced on by the other everyday life, especially on its domestic 
class, and held up to contempt and and social side. The strength of the 
ridicule, all which being duly assemi- book lies in the genuine and healthful 
nated through their organs, only affords avmpatby with the living human heart 
them an additional triampb. that palpitates in every line of the 
The task here undertt^en is really a wonderful original, and also with the 
diScultoue. We are humbly of opinion, deep remedial working of grace, even 
however, that the most wise and ex- amidat the shadows of Old Testament 
pedient method ia to go directiy to the history. No mere tourist or litersry 
root of the matter. Let the defendeis artist, however accomplished, conld have 
> ot the faith be fully equipped with all written this work, which is the fruit ol 
manner of true learning. If anything manifold Chriatian and paatoral ezperi- 
which will not atand the meet stnct and ence, and which divines the past, from 
rigorous investigation be found to have graveandlovingcontactwiththerealitiei 
crept into any doctrinal system, let it ofthepresentaHkeinnatureandin grace. 
at once be expelled as no article of He attraction of true godliness, and its 
religion, and then let all the vital truths power to sustain, comfort, and bleea 
of the goBpel be shown to stand on amidst the floods of sorrow and the 
pedestals of adamant. From the nature alternations of shade and annshine, is 
of the case, moral considerations must the great moral which, with graceful 
be largely taken into account; and there and skilful handling of the Old Testa- 
is a world of moral argument on otir meet materials, runs through the work 
^e. Conscience strongly beais testi- with an ever-rising earnestness, and a 
mony to the truth of Christiaaity. But special affectionateness of appeal to the 
we cordially thank Dr. Elliott for his young; and no painting of scenery, or 
well-meant and really, able production, analyaiaof feeling, or diacussion of moral 
and hope that, under God's blessing, it right or wrong, or presentation of 
will contribute largely to the object be gospel truth, stopsshort of this practical 
has in view. issue. It is here that Dr. Thomson 
ia most true to the use of Scripture, 

which is to leave more than the chann 

e of the most perfect art, — 
3, to persuade, and to maka 



""jiTrwnl"'' NOTICES OF NBW PUBLICATIONS. 45 

wiaennto BalTation. II tbe Bible were to tho faith uidwonbip of Naomi's God. 

not in itself in every part a sermoD, we Her fhith had, tw it were, been bom of 

ooold not make it so ;■ and Dr. Thomson, ber love. More might; than a thonaand 

hmng at eTerj torn Bummoned, aa it arguments had been the datlj ipectaole 

were, the actOTH in this lovely narrative of a holy life. What a beaatifnl teati* 

utccwelvely to preach to old and young, mony to the attraotive and wioning 

hta reached ita deepest spirit, and VP'"^' '>^ > consistent religion* conrse I 

^Sosed its richest bleasiiig. Amidst The young Moabiteas bad been " won 

ita many and varied merita in ioterpre- by her holy convenation, coupled witli 

talioD, desdiptioD, colouring, and style, fear." Naomi had not only kept her 

we account this pracUcal aide of the own futh pure ia the midst of a nation 

volomo the crowning one, and believe of pollutM. idolatera, — her soul, .like 

that thoB it will make ita moat lasting Gideon'a fleece, was wet with the dew 

mark, and realize ita meet abnndant of beareo, while all aroondwaaparcbed 

(rnitfnlneaa. and desolate, — bat her faith had been 

We anbjoin one or two qwumens of reprodaced in this beautiful proselyte, 

thia attractive Bible atndy : — who had resolved to go with her " tmat 

The Asylum in Moab. — 'Measured beneath Jehovah's wings."' — Fp. fig, 

according to oar modern notions of dis- 59. 

tance, the land of their migration was Tie Social Probltm and iti Curt. — ' It 

not far oB; tor we onnelves, when ia indeed one of the worst symptoms in 

standing and looking eastWBfd from the our modern social state, that the two 

neigbbonrbood of Bethlehem, have seen grealclasseaoftheemployersaudtheem- 

the blue mountains of Moah riaing in played, especially in out manufacturing 

ragged and lofty grandeot beyond the cities and villages, have come to be so 

aaphaJtite lake. But one' of the first widelyseparatedithatthereiBsolittlefelt 

things we have to do in endeavouring to reciprocity of interest and motnal oon- 

realiio events which occurred in those fidence and regard, that theaervant has 

countries three thousand years ago, is come to be looked upon too much as an 

to sweep from onr imaginations all hireling, and the maeterasanoppreesor; 

thonghta of macadamiiied roads, rail- and the whole relation between the two 

ways, and bridges spanning ravines to be estimated and summed up by so 

and deep rivers, and to bring up in much labour on tbe one hand, and so 

their stead rugged paths, dangerous much wages on the other; in short, tiiat 

fords, and alow movements by means there is too little of that spirit at work 

of the aaa or the mule. Thus it was that now-a-days, which drew forth those 

Moab, though geographically near, was seemly aatutations between Boai aodhia 

jet practicaUj a far-off wid foreign reapers on the harvest-field at Bethle- 

land, and stood quite out of the common hem. The machine of modem society, at 

route of travellers from tbe north, south, least in the relation of which we are now 

and ^vest of ancient Palestine. And speaking, moves with harsh and grating 

there waa another kind of distance pro- sound. Now we do not stop to inquire 

duced by the recollection of feuds and how this Btat« of things has been bronght 

ammoailies between the two countries, about, — whether by false theories of 

oentoriea old, and by the fact that the society, or by mutual wrongs, — but most 

people of Hoab were 'wholly given to certainly it is only by the more universal 

idolatiy,' exercised vrith theuaualaccom- presence and power of true religion 

poninieDtaof impurity and cmeltr in the amongbothnUaater and servant, that the 

temples of their idol god ChemoeL Bat evil can be effectiutlly remedied. It is 

men may not too nicely cbooee their not mere political economy that can heal 

harbotir in a storm.' — Pp. 26, 27. and sweeten these bitter waters. It is 

Soiil-Hittory of Ruth. — ' In the tent not Jeremy Bentham, but Jesus Christ' 

of her mother-in-law, in the land of —Pp. 101, 102. 

Moab, she had vritnessed the silent and Hebrew Faith in Imnuirialily. — ' " He 

beneficent influence of her religion upon hath not left off His kindness to the 

her disposition and conduct ; she had liviae and to the dead.'' Her meaning 

become impresBed with its beauty, and plainly is, that kindness to her and Ruth 

even convinced of ita divinity ; and now waa kindness also to Elimelech and to 

gmdnally to the knowledge of heareuly Mahlon, for " true love in good men dies 

Stings had risen from the love of Naomi not with the dead." Thia is one of 



46 MOHTHLT BBTKOSPeCT. ""'Sl.tTMj?'^ 

maoj panageB in the older reveUtion, qnationable m^ans to compass t, good 

whidi indicate the belief of devout end, and nmniog the hazard of sacri- 

laneUtea in the soqI'b immortality, fii^g a good name in the nee (rf a 

Those who have died in faitii are linng, too bold aind pnilooa artifice. We may 

eonicioiB, and blesed. If fiaa truth generally siupect the fxodenee, if not 

does not gleam through Mich words as the virtue, of an act when it needs to 

those of Naomi, what do they mean? be concealed; and in the trembling c^ 

It is a parti of that essential theology Boaz, when he became aware of his 

which underlay the whole Levitical poeition,asweIlasinthechargeof8ecrecy 

system of temporal rewards, and was to which he gave to Satb, we perceive that 

BOTvive it. Kad the delightful thought this was his judgment as well as onis. 

groTS out of it, and rests upon it, that In the light of these explanations, we en- 

we can still reach the dead through the tirely cononr in the sa^cious remark of 

Uving.' — P. 132. the eicellent Bishop Hall: "-If every 

Naom'* Error. — ' Bat here our act of an holy person should be onr mle, 

defence ceases, at lesst in respect to we shonld have crooked lives. Every 

NsMui. While we vindicate her inten- action thatisreportedianotstfughtways 

tioDS, we are constrained to censnre her allowed. OurconAes were very ancer- 

measores ; while we acquit her of tain, if God had not - given ne rales 

designing evil, we most blame her for whereby we may examine the examples 

not " abstaining from all appearance of of the beat sainte, and as well censure as 

evil." There was too much of conning follow them.'" — Pp. 147, 148. 
and stratagem about the ^pearance of Gotpel in Ruth.— ' Especially in the 

the whole transaction, l^ere was a Ooel or kinsman redeemer we may be 

forcing of providence whrai there should vividly remijided of Christ, " that ever- 

have been a trustful wailing on it ; a lasting lover of our uuworthy race," who 

cutting of a short wayto a desired issue, became "bone of onr bone, and flesh of 

instead of moving in the way which God our fiesh," wrought ont our salvation, 

might open for her. There was, indeed, and, at the vast expense of Ris own 

the entire absence of such falsehood death, redeemed for ns the heavenly in- 

and cruel deception as stained with a heritance which by our sins we had 

crimson mark the conduct of Rebekah forfdtedinto the handsofdivine justice, 

and Jacob when they stole the blessing and which, but for His interposition, 

from the dim-idghted and unsuspecting must haveremainedforfeitedforever.' — 

Isaac, but there was the using S Pp. 211,212. 



CLERICALISM. 



At a meeting held with our students by members of the Synod's Committee Mi 

Diseetsblishment, Dr. Ker used the word ' clericalism,' and pointed to France as an 
instance of the struggle which was going on against this terrible domination. Hr. 
Rogers, who eo ably represented our English Dissenting brethren at the great 
meetings held in Edinburgh and Glasgow, took up the same thonght, and pursued 
the same line of observation thus, aa reported in the newspapers : — 

' Mr. Rogers went on to express the belief that they were on the eve, if they 
were not already in the midst, of one of the most terrible conflicts between clerical- 
ism and human liberty that the world had ever witnessed. In France, they saw 
a great and noble people — a pec^le who had proved their right to be free by the 
patience with which they had endured the petty meanness and oppreesion to which 
they bad been subjected — harassedand vexed at every point, their mdustrycrippl^ 
their commerce hindered, their political progress checked, for the purpose of grati- 
fying priestly ambition. If they asked what was the cause of French evils, he did 
not find it iu the subtle intrigue of the Due de Broglie or the rough brutality of 
M. Fourtou, — he did not find it in the ambitious speculations of pret4:nders to the 
throne, — he did not find it in the duU-headed, dogged stupidity of the man who by 
ft fluke won his presidency, as by a fluke he won his (mly batUe. If he went into 
tiie Marshal's cabinet, he might find i\ in Madame ; and if he found it iu her, he 



""jiDTTrwS"^' MOHTHLr EBTaOBPEOT. 47 

could trace it back to tlie inapiration of her confeasar, acting nnder the diredion 
of tlie Ystican. What, he aaked, was the lewon they had to leani from what was 
to be seen in France, Belgium, and elsewhere ? It woa einpl; this, — that the oaij 
possible hope for haman freedom was to teach the State to have nothing to do 
with the government of the ChurcL What was going on upon the Continent was 
going on to a Terf large extent, though iu a different degree, in England.' 

These statements have given great oSence in certain quarters, and it has been 
affirmed tbat they discover both ignorance and ill-feeling. Clericalism and State- 
dmrchiam mean, it is said, entirely different things. Let it be asked, however, 
whut is meant by ' clericalism,' and it will be seen that the difference is one simply 
of accident or degree. ' Clericalism ' means the domination of the dergy. la 
Bomao Catholic countries, this domination is certainly more pronounced and mis- 
ehievona than in Protestant countries; hut it exists in Protestant countries where 
there is a Chnrch by law esUblished. This gives the clergy a power which without 
it they could never posgess. Hence one of the great objects of Popish priests is 
always to get the cinl power placed at their service or under their control. How 
thin is often done, and how it works, is witheringly exposed by Hichelet, in his 
book entitled, Priests, Women, and Families. The process described is something 
like the syllogism that used to improve and amuse youthful students of logic, be- 
ginning and ending with, ' My little son rules the world.' 

It is certainly not pleasant to be placed in such company ; butitisto be observed 
that in this connection it is a principle that is affirmed, not particulai deeds that 
are charged ; and the principle is, that wherever a religion is supported and enforced 
by iegal enactment, you have in a greater or leas degree tlie evil of clerical 
Dsuipation and domination. 

THE POPE AND THE QUEEN. 
Fob some time past, the people of thia eonntry have been called on to witness an 
nnwonted and unexpectea spectacle, — the Pope rejoicing in the goodness of tiiis 
ooontry, and writing, it is said, an autograph letter to Her Majesty, eipressive of 
gratitude for kindneaeeH past and expected. Those who believe that Her Majesty 
is 'Defender of the Faith,' and that the Church of England is the bulwark of Pro- 
testantum, are a little or not a little distressed at this, and think that a kind of 
hvooT is ehown to Papists which they do not deserve, and which may be fruitful 
of evil reaotts. 

These feacB, however, are groundless. It is true that Popery is a subtle system, 
and tbat Jesuits are not to be trusted, even when bearing gifts and speaking fair 
words. But still let justice be done to ei^ ; and if we treat Papists in amanner 
which excites their astonishment, and in which they woald not, were they in our 
circumstanees, treat us, this only shows that we are true followers of Him who baa 
taught us not to bring out adveraary to the flames, but, by returning good for evil, 
' to heap coals of fire on his head.' 

It seema that the Pontiff is very desirous, »e yet his work is done, to establish 
a Papal hierarchy in Britain. A quarter of a century ago, something of the kind 
now proposed was attempted. At tbat time meetings were held aB over the 
country, and a strong ' No Popery ' feeling ezcit«d. It was thought at the time 
that some good Voluntaries had almost lost their Voluntaryism, and in their horror 
of Rome were willing to call in the aid of Ocesar as a defenca Those, however, of 
clearer and cooler heads saw the folly of this, and, whilst as strongly anti-Popish 
as their brethren, were not thrown into a state of unnecessary alarm. Notably 
among these was the late sagacious Dr. Johnston Of Limekilns. At a great meet- 
ing in the Music Hall, Edinburgh, he defined the situation admirably and calmly, 
and caused great and uproarious mirth by styling the proposed bishops ' Tulchan 
Bishops,' and explaining what that meant, 

la these days there is little excitement. We do not hear now~a'days of pre- 
cocioas and apprehensive, children looking into dark pools, and suggesting that 
they are ' fine places to drown Papists in,' as we did then. 

And is this because we imagine tbat Popery has <^anged its nature? We know 
it has not. But many things have happened unce then ; and we see forces at work 



48 MONTHLY BBTROSPECT. ' ii. ow**' 

ogainBt which Popeiy U striving in tuu, aod baTe learned to canmder the decrew 
of the Vatican, however impodng, aa potBeaaed more Urgelj of the shadow than 
the subatauoe of power. 

THE WAR. 
It waa anppoaed that if nothing else pnt an end, tor a seasoD, to thia deplorable 
Rueso-Turkisb war, the rigour of winter woald intervene and compel the com- 
batants to rest for a while from their dreadful work. Such, however, has not 
been the csae. The carnage has never Bta7ed ; and how great tiiat haa been, may 
be estimated from the fact that even before the fall of Plevna the Ruauans alone 
had lost upwards of 75,000 men. When that atrongbold fell, it was anppoaed that 
the Turks most neceaaarily yield and terms of peace be proposed ; but even amidst 
appalling and unparalleled aufleringa, thej refused to accept a fate that seemed 
inevitable. 

It was evident, however, after thia tbat all hopes of Turkej ultimately triumph- 
ing — s hope iudalged and expressed by many in this country — was at an end, and 
preparation a muat be made for peace on Bussiaii terms. 

Whilat it is cause for thankfutneas that our own country has been prevented 
from engaging in thia terrible war, the action of a sectum of tlie people and td 
Government itself cannot be approved. It has in some qnarters brought ns into 
disgrace, and mayhap also into danger greater than we imagined. It now remains 
to be seen what honour is to be rendered us by the nations of Korope, and what 
part wiU be taken by ua in the negotiations that must soon ensue. 

THEOLOGICAL LEARNING IN SCOTLAND. 

Professob Flikt, in an address delivered to the students attending the Theological 
Society connected with the University of Edinburgh, took for his sabject the state 
of theological learning in Scotland. He regarded that atate aa not at all satisfac- 
tory, affinned that we were dependent on the men of other conntdes for really 
learned bot^s, and that we had prodoced no worthy commentary on Soriptiiie far 
200 years. 

Professor Blackie, in two lengthened and very characteriatao epiatlea, directed 
attention to the utterances of ' £e erudite divine,' and emphasiied hia remarks. 

Concerning thia matter we have aome reaaon for congratulating onrselves. Our 
Church in its early days had other work to do than to train learned divinea, and 
yet it always honoured learning, and out of its poverty made moat praiaewortiiy 
attempts to secure an intelligent ministry ; and it succeeded to an extent that ia 
cause for gratitude. Just look at the very kind of books in which Dr. Flint says 
we are so poor— learned commentariee. This is a branch of learning whick some 
of our profeHOTB have cultivated with marked enccem. The commentaries of Dr. 
John Brown and Dr. Eadie are well known, and t«Btify to an amount of learned 
and successful labour which would have been remarkable in any circumBtanoaa, fant 
certainly is to be much admired when it is remembered that it formed only a part 
of the duties of these distinguished men. 

Profeaaor Flint observes that the fault of our ignorant o(Hidition lies not with 
the men who have occupied our theological cbairs, but with the ^stem, — neither 
time nor means having been given tiiem worthily to pursue their stodies. Thia 
may be brought as a reproach against our State-endowed UniversititB, but it can- 
not apply to US ; for in the paat we were constrained by circumstances to unite 
the duties of the pastor and the professor, but as soon as it was possible the sepa- 
ration, which had always been felt to be desitable, waa made. And now we h&va 
reason to be grateful for a theological inatitntion nobly equipped with tmly able 
and learned men, by some of whom valuable contributions have been made to 
theological literatiire in the paat, and from all of whom much may be expected in 
the future. 

Printed by HuitRaT aw Oibb, II Queen Street, and Pabliabed by Wiluah 
OurKAXt AMD Co., 24 St. Qilet Street, Edinbnigb, on the Ut of January 
1W8. 



miTEJ) PRESBYTERIAN MA&AZINB. 



FEBRUARY 1, 1878 



(i^riginal Articles. 



PROFESSOR FLINT AND THE LOGIC OP THEISM. 

BT THE KEY. JAMES WABDEOP, 

{Continatd from page 15.) 
How completely Dr. Flint binds himaelf to an inferential Theism is apparent 
from the following sentences : — ' No man can jndge fairly as to whether or 
not there is a God, who makes the question tnm on what is the sigDificance 
of a few particular facts, who is mcapable of gathering np into one general 
finding the reanlts of innmneralile indications.'* ' The entire argument for the 
dinne existence, which ia at present under consideration, can be no stronger 
than the strength of the proof which we can adduce in favour of its (the 
world's) having had a beginning ; and the only valid proof of that which 
reason can hope to find most be derived from the esamination of the universe 
itseE' t It is unfortunate, I repeat, that Dr. Flint is an inferential Theist, 
otherwise Theicm might have owed as much to him as some other subjects 
do. Final defeat is assuredly in store for all attempts at a speculative Theism 
made along the road of inference. Though inferential Theism has produced 
works of genius and stored the world with what shall be a possession for 
ever, it h^ hitherto been something like a logical disaster. Attempts from 
intuitional ground hare not been numerous, systematic, or protracted enough 
to permit the same being said of them, even thongh their success may not yet 
be fiual. Bnt that must be said of the inferential system, if a long and 
arduous past is to be allowed to speak on the point. The failure of that 
system seems confessed by the very course which it has more lately been fain 
to take. Once on a time the a-priorisls aud the a-posteriorists formed very 
mncbttwo separate camps, as if either party were by itself competent for the 
task 6i theistic proof. The attempt now is in some way or other to amass 
all conceivable proofs into one vast and imposing cumulus of evidence.^ A- 
jiosUriorist, a-priorist, and intnitionalist, are now sought to be amalgamated. 

• P. 63. t P. 101. 

t 'luitbwd of BaverU proofs of ths existence of God, oali/ one proof it paiiibU,ot wMchthe 
diHarent Bttcailed proda are porlious.'— CArM(ia» Titiim. tBnrnetc Prize Easfty.) By 
R- A, ThompBon, M.A. KiTingtoDB. 1855. Vol. i. pp, 292-3. Tha proof is givan m ono 
Mntonca, but a, BenteDCO a p»ge ■nd > hali long, pp. 296-7. Dr. Flint speaks simikrly, 
I'P- S3-5- 

HO. II. VOL. XXII. SEW SBBIES. FEBRUARY 187B. , - D . 



50 PKOPESSOa FLINT AND THE LOGIC OF THEISM. '""^'TTure!'*^ 

The combination, however, is doomed to give way. Inferential Theism, 
whetber it found on a posteriori or a priori argnmente, mnst stand or faU 
alone ; and fall it does by the trial of history ; and fall it must by inherent 
necessity. Logically, it is incompetent. Metaphysically, what else conld 
be expected of it? When the qaestion is odc of metaphysic or of facts 
of existence, tlte instrument of knowledge is an analysis of the given, not a 
syllogism from the given.* 

It were to have been wished that Dr. Flint, in professedly taking the posi- 
tion of an inferential Theist, had thought it worth his while to give a moment's 
attention in a preliminary way to an explicit statement of what inference in 
this subject is, and what iTituition is.. Deliberately to have faced the task of 
sacb an explicit statement on the two sides might have helped the reader at 
certain tamsintbediscassion, and possibly even the writer; and besides, of the 
two positions, the mferential one, when it was set more in its naked trntb, might 
have presented the prerogative claimed for it in a more challengeable light; 
while the intuitional, by being more definitely conceived, might have sustained 
less prejudice at the author's hands,— if not, vice versd, the aathor at its 
hands, Bnt even before both these points, the meaning of the word ' proof 
would need to have been clearly settled. Dr. Flint says, 'The grounds or 
reasons which we have for our beUef (that there is one God; etc.) must be to 
us proofs of God's existence.' And he quotes Ulrici to the same effect; 
' The proofs for the existence of (lod coincide with the grounds for the belief 
in Ood. They are simply the real grounds of the belief established and ez- 
ponnded in a scientific manner. If there be no snch proofs, there are also 
no snch grounds,' etc. ' Those who affirm,' Dr. Flint adds, ' that God exists, 
and yet deny that His existence can be proved, mnst either maintain a posi- 
tion obvionsly erroneous, or nse the term proof in some extraordinary sense, 
fitted only to perplex and mislead.' + All this shows the need of settling the 
meaning of ' proof.' It is only when proof means — what it does not mean in 
these quotations — inferential or strictly logical proof, that the intuitioaalist 
denies that God's existence either can or needs to be proved. If ' proofs ' 
are equivalent to grounds of belief, as they are here taken to be, no in- 
tnitionalist denies that God's existence can be proved. The intuitionalist 
equally with Dr. Flint has grounds of belief. An immediate knowledge of 
the fact — that, 'estabhshed and expounded in a scientific manner,' is his 
ground. But this meaning of proof, though Dr. Flint's, is not the ordinary 
or logical sense of the term. ' Proof is the deduction of the material tmtii 
of one judgment from the material truth of other judgments.'^ Who, then, 
nses the term in ' some extraordinary sense, fitted only to perplex and mis- 
lead,' is apparent. 

It is somewhat similar with the other words specified, inference and mtui- 
t'um. More definition is desiderated. That it is so as to the former, the 
' note ' on pp. 424^5 will show. In that ' note ' Dr. Flint breaks a lance 

" 'No mattBT of fact can be a niBllfr of demonatratioQ in the liighest se.eae of fhe term.' 
' Etality must be tested, not by tboueht, but by intuition.' — Maoasl, Miiaphytica, ed. 1860, 
pp. 278 ftnd 373. ' Demonstration in MetaphyaicB, in any proper sense of the term, is a Tain 
dream.'— Prof. Yeitch in Mind, No. G, p. 222. ' The application of tlie mathematical tuethod 
to philosophy fixes for ever an impasiiable gulf between knowing and being, beuaiise it elimi- 
nates from knowing those menial atterliont or necenari/ beiiefi in regard to facta, on tehich 
oar only crmclusiom at to Being can eoer rrit.' ' The foundation trnttis of eiistenco can only- 
rest on intuitiTe belief. '^.In ExasHnatioa of Prof. Fei-rier's Thtoiy of Knomng and Bona. 
By Bev. John Cairns, A.M. Edin. 1856. Pp. 8 and 12, 

+ Pp. 53-60. 

t Ueberw^, Loffie, sec. 135. 'From the nature of Probation, it is evident that Probation 
without inf erenoe la impossible.' — Hamillon, Lectures, vol. iv. p. 38. 



^"f.\TuK^' PEOFBSSOK FLINT AND THE LOGIC OF THEISM. 51 

with Aristotle. It is not needfal here to enter into the subtleties of the logic 
of ioference * It is eaoagh iu the cause of Theism to say that in any infer- 
ence, immediate or mediate, the inferred knowledge is always in thonght 
second to some other knowledge. The latter is acqnired firat, and is indi»' 
peaeabiy to be acquired first, if the other ia to be acquired at all ; for thia 
other is, by some longer or shorter process, to be derired from it.f In on 
inferential system of theistic evideoee, accordingly, the fact of God's existence 
is not a first knowledge of the mind, self-evident and underived. It is logic- 
all; BecoQd to some other knowledge, and gets its gnarantee or substantiating 
endeace from that other. It is true, if that other is true. "Now, when it ia 
J said, we know where we are ; we know what is meant, and what 

i be meant, when Dr. Flint professes himself an inferential Theist To 
mm, the fact of God's existence is not a fact self-evident and given intuitively 
to the mind. There are other facts logically, and not merely chronologically, 
before it, from which it is a derived consequence. 

As to the definition of the other term — intuition. Dr. Flint omits a 
deliberate statement of what it is also. And not only so, but while his re- 
jection of intuitive Theism is not made to follow on any criticism of it that 
can be called either, systematic or adequate, he exhibits in occasional expres- 
sions which he employs an appreciation of it that is certainly not ample, 
hardly even accurate. In fact, considering the importance ot the question, . 
Wb&t is the true logic of Theism? — considering what is the character of the 
constructions and defences of an intuitional Theism that are already raised, 
and what, therefore, was necessary to cover Dr. Flint's advance to his own 
position,j — considering, too, the aims and tendencies of thought on this 
whole subject, both in theistic and antitheistic ranks, the student will certainly 
require at this point something very different from what this book gives, not 
merdy in amonnt of attention, bnt ia rigour of thinking. 

What gays Dr. Flint in bis scanty and scattered criticism of the intni- 
tioial system f It may be well to look at some of his remarks on the system 
which he rejects, before taking our stand finally to see the author build np 
hia own system and to scrntinize his work. 

He begins with a statement that seems, indeed, to take the question out of 
the bands of both the inferential and intuitional inquirer alike. ' The proofs 
ot God's existence,' he says, ' must be simply His own manifestations. They 
can neither be, properly speaking, onr reasonings, nor the analyses of the 
principles involved in our reasonings.'J What are called Gfod's manifesta- 
tions of Himself are so to us only as being thought by us. God's works and 
ways, apart from being thought, are not manifestations ot Hfe existence to 
any ijeing. And they are thonght as such manifestations either in the form 
of reasonings or of principles involved in reasonings. Speculative Theism is 
inevitably either inferential or intuitional. Dr. Flint's statement would de- 
stroy the question altogether, by leaving no functions for man's mind at all 
in gathering the evidence of God's existence. 

In the one passage that deals in any connected way with an intnitive 
Theism, Dr. Flint makes the following statements. Speaking of those Tbeists 

f ib.. vol. i. p. 59. UeTjerweg'H Lonic, BCCB. 74, 82, 99. Bhnto, A IHacoarie an Tivlh. 
King & Co. Lond. 18T7. Ch. vi. A efanrp disoueaion. 

t It ia UDgular that neithtir Hr. Noah Porter (_Elemtnli of InttUetttud Scienee, part iv.) nor 
Prof. Henry Calderwood (Phil, of ihe /n/6n*(e, 3d ed.) Ib rolerred to or met. Audialur et 



.:f:i.v, Google 



52 PROFESSOR FLINT AND THE LOGIC OF THEISM. ^"'siJu'mS^'' 

who ' join with Atheists in deDjing that God's existence can be proved,' he saya,* 
' I confess I deem this a most erroneous and dangei'ons proeednre. Snch 
Theists seem to me not only the best allies of Atheists, but even moreeffective 
labonrers in the cause of unbelief than Atheists themselves. They shake 
men's confidence to a far greater extent in the reasonable grounds of faith in 
God's existence, and substitute for these gronnds others as weak and arbi- 
trary as any Atheist conld possibly wish. They prononnce illegitimate and 
invalid the arguments from effect to cause, from order and arrangement to 
intelligence, from history to providence, from conscience to a moral governor, 
— an assertion which, if true, infallibly implies that the heavens do not declare 
the glory of God, Then, in place of a universe revealing God, and a son! 
made in His image, and a humanity overmled and guided by Him, they pre- 
sent to na as something stronger and surer, an intuition, or a feeling, or an 
exercise of mere faith.' Now, as to the alleged atheistical tendency of intui- 
. tional procedure, which is. almost the familiar cry, ' the Church is in danger,' 
the tables may be turned. Is it not possible that one's original certainty as to 
God's existence may be shaken for the first time only when it is discovered that 
we mnst necessarily lead proof for it ? ' Early dogmatic instructions,' says 
Professor Calderwood,t giving personal reminiscences,' made a due impression, 
and found a response in onr mind ; bnt these arguments (to prove the exist- 
ence of God) for the first time startled ns with the suspicion that the con- 
clnsion might be false. Left to ourselves, there was no difficulty ; steering 
through these arguments, there was doubt and uncertainty.' ' The very fact,' 
says Christlieb, ' that a direct certainty of God exists in onr minds per se, is 
the most simple refutation of Atheism.'J To tell the Atheist, as the intni- 
tionalist can do, that he is unnatural and self- contradictory, is more effec- 
tive than only to tell him, as the inferential Theist can do, that he reasons 
badly. 

Dr. Flint's next sentence, in the passage above, planges into absolute 
scepticism by calling intuitions ' weak and arbitrary.' 'fhe analysis that 
eliminates these first principles of knowledge may be weak and arbitrary, but 
let intuitions once, by a competent process, be eliminated from the composite 
of human thinking and acting, and the props of heaven are not more settled 
or sure. They bear up the heaven of knowledge. Intoitions are from the 
Creator's own hands direct. God made iutnitions ; man made reasonings. 

As to the arguments from effect to cause, etc., the intnitionahst certainly 
does pronounce snch arguments illegitimate and invahd. And both Dr. 
Flint and he must do so or be condemned of logic. Fach of the pairs of 
terms mentioned gives the two terms of a relation in thought, and between 
the two terms of a relation there is no argument legitimate or possible. 
Will Dr. Flint say there is, and break a lance here with Hume and Sir W. 
Hamilton too, as he did lately with the Father of Logic ? What remains 
of the quotation is surely quite inept. 

It is said on the page foUowicg the last quotation, ' An intuition, a feeling, 
and a belief, are very different things ; and not much dependence is to be 
put on the psychology which is unable to distinguish between them.' That 
is trne ; but it looks as if Dr. Flint, had he himself duly remembered the 
distinction he so signalizes, conld hardly have made some of the statements 
which he has made on the previous ill-fated page which has been quoted. 

Dr. Flint further says, 'Theism is perfectly explicable without intnition, 

as the evidences for it are nnmerons, obvious, and strong.' S Now, not to 

speak of the fact which Dr. M'Cosh — Dr. Flint's predecessor in argument — 

• P, 80. t ««. of iht Iffinit^ 1st «d. p. 70. t ifo-fen, Doubt, p. 141. g F. S3. 



'""^^fwnl"' THE POPIBH HIEKAECHY IN SCOTLAND. 63 

remembers so well, that there is not aDjtbiiig that is explicable perfectly or 
at &11 withont intoitiou, aod keeping to the sense in which Dr. Flint nsee the 
expression, the qaeation, in the first place, what we need or do not need as 
evidence, is irrelevant, — the scientific question is ; What is the evidence which 
ne have ? In the second place, Dr. Flint himself in uiother place says, 
^ The a posteriori arguments fail to satisfy either mind or heart nntit they 
are connected with, and supplemented by, this intuition of the reason — 
inEmty,' * 

Dr. Flint speaks also of the necessity of provii^ that the snpposed intni- 
b'on of God is an intuition ; and he asks, ' Is that proof likely to be easier, 
or more concliuive, than the proof of the divine existence T ' How the im- 
mediate perception of God, he adds, is to lie ' vindicated and verified,' 
' especially if ihexB be no other reasons for t>elieviDg in God than itaelf, it Is 
difficult to conceive.' t Bat the relevant qnestion, again, is as to the natore 
and validity of onr evidence, not a,s to its facility. And with reference to 
* other reasons' for God's existence needed to supplement the intuitive, it 
will be time enough to examine the statement when once Dr. Flint has ex- 
plicitly made it, that what has intnitive evidence needs or admits any other. 

Another objection to intaitive Theism is thus stated : ' The history of 
religion, which is what onght to yield the clearest confirmation of the alleged 
mtnitioa, appears to be from beginning to end a conspicnons contradiction 
of it.' 'If all men have the spiritual power of directly beholding their 
Creator, have an immediate vision of God, how happens it that whole nations 
believe in the most absurd and monstrous gods f ' ' The various phases of 
polytheism and pantheism,' it is addod, ^ are inexplicable, if an intuition of 
God be universally inherent in human nature.' % If Dr. Flint could have 
Kud that there had been no God at all, absurd or rational, monstrous or 
heantiful, — no polytheism or pantheism or other theism among the nations 
or some of them, — he would have said what was to his purpose. What he 
bs£ said is clearly all that the mtuitioual Theist needs for his purpose. The 
'appearance of contradiction,' therefore, between intuitional Theism and the 
' tustory of religion,' must be a deceitful appearance. All men have a rehgion 
and a God. § To adapt the language of Culverwell, ' I never heard of a 
nation apostatizing from these common notions, from these first principles.' || 
^Moreover, how would Dr. Flint ai^ue from the moral phenomena of the 
world as to fundamental moral principles, if he followed the line he takes 
here in reference to Theism 1 As to ^ an immediate vision of Qod,' ' face to 
face, witbont any medium,' f and so on, it may hurt all accurate notions in 
the case, it cannot help them, to use such phrases. 
(To be continued.) 



REVIVAL OF THE POPISH HIERARCHY IN SCOTLAND. 

BY REV. JOHN BOYD, D.D. 

Fob some time past there have been frequent intimations in the newspapers 
that the Pope was intending soon to complete bis long cherished purpose of 
bringing again the whole of Great Britain under his pontifical sway. He 
would have done this in 1850, when he issued his celebrated ' Edict from 
the Plaminian Gate,' ia which he declared that he annexed England to the 
See of Rome as an integral part of his ecclesiastical empire ; but the exclu- 
sion of Scotland then, from that scheme for extending Papal authority and 

'P. 291. tP-82. tP. 83. STylor, P;-inai*».C^<flure,vol. Lp. 377. 

11 A DiKOurie, etc., p. 117. "f Pp. 81, TG, sad 335. 



54 EBVIVAI. OP THE ''"ftk'?^?^ 

dominatJOD, was not the result of accident, bat of design. The Coart of 
Rome was only feeling ita way ; it was jnst trying the experiment how far it 
conld Ycntnre to push its pretensions, without exciting the indignant hostility 
of the Protestant people of Britain, To have extended the measure to 
Scotland, would have been to endanger its success. A full dose of pontificaJ 
presumption might be too much for pnbUc endurance. By attempting too 
mach they might peril all i and knowing well how far the Ritualistic party 
had lowered the tone of Protestant feeling of England, and familiarized the 
minds of a lai^e portion of the people with Popish dogmas and ceremonies, 
the Pope and his advisers conclnded that the attempt was more likely to be 
saccessf ai if, in the meantime, it was restricted to the southern portion of oar 
island. The extension, however, of the scheme to Scotland was never aban- 
doned or lost sight of; as soon as it conld be done safely, and withont 
arousing against it the well-known Protestantism of Scotland, there was no 
doubt bnt it woold be attempted. And, as is now well known, the Scottish 
Roman Catholic bishops have been most anxious to get their present gvati 
relation to their Church altered ; so that they also might, hke their ED<;liBh 
brethren, be members of an episcopal hierarchy created by express pontifical 
anthority, and conferring on them full diocesan anthority over their respec- 
tive sees. Moreover, if pnblic report is to be believed, Cardinal Manning hu 
been labouring most zealously to effect this object, with a view, donbtleas, to 
extend the area of his own authority, and rule as head of the Roman Catholic 
community over onr whole island, as well as to elevate the Scottish portion 
of the Church into more direct relationship to Rome than it has enjoyed since 
the Reformation. 

With her usual astnteneas, Rome has been gradually and sedulously pre- 
paring the way for the full and complete development of her plans, and to fanu- 
Uarize the Scottish people with Romish titles and hierarchical pretensions, so 
thattheissningof thecomingEdictmay not take tbem altogether by surprise. 
His Holiness, a few years ago, created Dr. Eyre of Glasgow an archbishop, and 
conferred upon him metropolitan dignity and anthority ; and althongh his title 
is altogether illegal, it is to be regretted that it has been so quietly ac^niesced 
in by a large portion of the people of Glasgow ;* and as, like his brother 
Archbishop Manning, he has, since his elevation to archiepis copal position, 
been somewhat freqnent in his attendance at and taking ptu^ in public meet- 
ings, Papal dignitaries are no strange things among us now, and when the 
Pope establishes the new hierarciiy we shall soon become familiar with the 
irhole rank and file of the episcopal fraternity. 

It is, we think, very mnch to be regretted, that so many of the Protestants 
of this country feel very little concern abont the doings of the Pope and his 
Court in relation to this matter. They admit that it is both impudent and 
presnmptaouB for Pope Pins ix. to send his Bulls into our land, and map ont 
oar country into as many episcopal dioceses as he thinks fit. But why, they 
say, trouble ourselves, or make any outcry on the sabject. They are only 
his own subjects, the members of his own Church, that are affected by it ; it 
touches neith.er our civil nor religions liberties as Protestants ; and if he 

' YeiyUtel; we imetalkinf; with a friend on this aubjeut ; he Informed as that he bw, on 
mote ociwcions thaa one, met Dr. Ejro in the houses of Proteatunt fneode, sad that he had 
heard him addreesBd liy ihera ae • jour Gracp,' se if his Papal appointment had actually 

gven bim the fltatus of a peer of the realm. 8ucb toadyism la not onlj lamenUbly went 
It niterlj unwarrantable. An English archbishop being by ruj»l appDlntnieDt » peer of 
eq^al titniidiitg to a dube, he is entitled to bo addressed aa 'your Grace;' but as a Romish 
•tchbUhup Dr. Eyre bae no rmht whateTer to be so designated in Pioteetant Scotland. The 
title BO applied to bim is an ntter and on warranted misnomer. 



^"JTiitt'^-' POPISH HIEEABOHY IN SCOTLAND. 55 

chooses to alter the ecclesiastical relations of his own people, why need m 
interfere in the matter. Bnt soch views we regard as very greatly mietaken, 
and betray only the ignorance of those who express them of the policy of the 
Chorch of Rome, and the ^ect which this act of the Pope will most sssoredly 
have on the religions and political standing of erery Roman Catholic in 
Scotlsod. For it will, to a certainty, change the relation in which the Roman 
CathoUc GommnDity will stand to the ciTil goTemment and laws of the coan- 
tr;, and modify the allegiance which they will in fntnre give to them. To 
Bee this clearly, we may state that since the R«formati(H), Scotiand hae bees 
r^rded as a missionary district only of the Roman Chnrcb, and not an n^ 
tepA portion of the Pope's ecclesiastical empire. And although its bishops 
hiTe in later times been styled '' Vicars Apostolic,' still they are no more than 
missionary bishops, with titles not territorial, bnt taken from extinct Seea — I'w 
partibas in/ideUum = Castabsla, Etruria, Anazarba, and snch like, are the 
tities borne by them. But the moment the Pope's threatened Bull comes into 
<^ratioD these titles will be dropped, and others of a territorial kind, each 
as Glasgow, Edinbni^h, St. Andrews, et«., will be asEnmed by them, and 
the jnrisdictioB which they shall be empowered to exercise mil be according 
to the common or canon law of the Church of Rome. 

That we are right in this description of the operation and effects of tji« 
rawtion of the Papal Hierarchy in Scotland, is proved by a reference to the 
Bull of 1850, by which the Pope created the English Hierarchy. And as 
the proposed pontifical invasion of Scotland is a mere extension of that of 
England, there is no donbt bat it wilt be effected in the same way, and ths 
'Brief for its erection will, in snbstance at least, be a mere copy of the 
former. If, therefore, we examine the wording of the English Boll, and look 
at its purpose and design, we cannot be far mistaken as to what the forth- 
CDnuBg one for Scotland will be. The English Ball was brought by Cardinal 
Wiseman from Rome, and was in lofty and magniloquent phraseology en- 
titled, ' Edict from the riaminian Gat«.' In this document the Pope dfr 
dared that he annexed England to the See of Rome as an integral part of his 
ecclesiastical empire. He also divided the whole country into twelve dioceses, 
over which he placed as many prelates, with Cardinal Wiseman as their 
Metropolitan, by whom they were henceforth to bo ruled ' according to the 
laws o! the Church of Rome.' The main design, however, of the Ball was as 
usual stated in lofty and imposing terms ; for while it professes to seek only 
the ' spiritual good of the flock of the Lord in England,' its nnmistakeable 
object was to extend the Papal aothority and dommation in Great Britain. 
In this memorable document the Pope tells us, that ' having besought the 
assistance of the Blessed Yirgiu Mary, Mother of God, and of the saints, 
whose virtues had made England illustrious,' be now, ' in virtue of that am- 
plitode of apostolical power entra8t«d to him by our Lord Jesus Christ, 
through the person of St. Peter the Prince of the Apostles,' 'decreed the re- 
establishment in the kingdom of England, and according to the common laws 
of the Church, of a hierarchy of bishops, deriving their titles from their own 
Sees.' The Bull then went on to partition England into territorial dioceses, 
and appointed bishops over them, ' with full episcopal jurisdictioD,' the same 
as that which prelates exercise in Roman Catholic coontries. Along with 
the pablication of this 'Edict,' Cardinal Wiseman issued a 'Pastoral Letter;' 
ukd aa we are likely to have something of the same sort issued to as in Scot- 
land, it may not be amiss to look at the terms in which the new Cardinal 
Archbishop set forth his official dignity and functions. ' We govern,' he 
says, ' and shall continne to govern, the counties of Middlesex, Hertford, and 



56 BEVITAL OP THE '^"H.^Tife?'^ 

Essex as ordinary thereof, and those of Surrey, Sossez, Berkshire, and 
Hampshire, with the islande uinexed, as administrator with ordinary jariB- 
diction.' We solicit special attention to the lofty tema in which ^e new 
Popish Metropolitan enunciates the extent of his anthority and role. ' We 
goreru,' says he, not the Roman Catholic members of bis owa chnrch only, 
residing in the coDnties specified, bnt he governs these counties themselres; 
in other words, he claimB to mle over all the inhabitants of these counties, 
DO matter what their creed, or the ecclesiastical denomination to which they 
m^ht heloDg. That this was the real meaniog of his language is clearly 
proTed by the cardinal's own newspaper, the Tabla of the day. ' The Pope,' 
it said, ' has made Westminster an archiepiscopal See, and has given to Dr. 
Wiseman, now a cardinal, jurisdiction over the souls of all men living within 
the limits of Ms See, except Jews, Quakers, and nnbaptized Protestants.' " 

Of the intrusive and presnmptnons charact«r of tiiis act of the Yattcan 
there can scarcely be two opinions amoi^ consistent and well-iostmcted 
Protestants. It was the first time since the Reformation that any pope had 
dared to send bis edicts and briefs directly to this country to any large 
portion of oar people. This was a liberty which onr forefathers, who had 
learned from bitter experience what Popery was, were obliged to restrain and 
forbid. Even so early as the time of Richard ii., in 1392, and Henry iv., 
in 1405, the English Governments of these periods were so pestered bj 
persons procuring Bulls from the Pope, which interfered with, and, in some 
instances, superseded the operation or the common laws of the land, that 
several statutes were enacted by Parliament in order to pnt down tiie evil; 
and all persons were prohibited, nnder the severest penalties, from bringing 
any Papal Bulls into the realm ; and that this was a moat necessary and 
wholesome restriction, must be obvious to any one who calmly and intelli- 
gently looks into the matter. The inliibition of such Bulls was no iuvasion 
of freedom of conscience, bnt a defence of public liberty and law gainst 
foreign aggression, ' A Papal Bull,' as Dr. Wylie well observes, f ' is not 
a matter of religions profession, bnt of civil obedience. The question it 
raises is not whether a Church shall have the right to commnnicate with its 
members on matters of doctrine, bnt whether a foreign prince shall be at 
liberty to send his edicts into this country and enjoin them upon the con- 
sciences of his adherents under the highest penalties.' This was a liberty 
which, taught by long and painfal experience, no Roman Catholic Govern- 
ment allowed to its priestly subjects. In France, Spain, Austria, Sardinia, 
"Naples, and even the States of Italy, no BuU or rescript from Itome could 
be recdved and published by the bishops, without being first submitted to 
the civil Government for consideraliou and sanction.} In Great Britain and 

* Wby 'Jem, Qu^keiB, and nnbspttzed ProleaUntB' aro excepted may not be ver; 
ertdcut to thoaa ol our readers who are nnacqualDted with the peoaliar phiaaaologT of 
Popery. Ths Pope as bead ol the Charch claima to have authority aad rule over all bu- 
tiled perflonB, no matter to what sect they may belong. Protestant baptism is perfectly 
valid in the Chnroh of Borne. Even that by a servant girl is so, proTided that she in 
doiiiB: it uses the formola of words wbich ths Chnrch has appointed, and in the aame sense 
in which the Ohnrch ii»eB them. As explained by PrnfoBSor SleTm of Hajnootb, on hb 
examination before the Parliamentary Committee in 1826, the following ie the aspect in 
whloh Iha Ghuroh looks at the matter. All baptized pecsoDB belong to the Church of Christ 
The Pope is the supreme head and ruler of the Christian Church. Ergo, all baptized per- 
sons are subject to his anthority. This was the ground of the claim which, in Ai^at 187S, 
the Pope made on the Emperor William of Clermany. But the Emperor as a Proteetant re- 
fused in his reply to acknowledge it, and gave anah excellent reasons for his nfosal, that 
the Pope had caost assuredly the vorst of the correspondence. 

t WyTia'a Borne and Civit LxberUi. o. 89. 

jBer.J 



""'fttT^'lB^'*^^ POPISH HIEBABOHT IN SCOl'LAllD. 57 

Ireland alone, sioce the passing of the Catholic Emancipation Act, has the 
Pope the fullest Uberty of sending what Boils he pleases into the coontrf, 
and commanding the obedience of all Romanists to whatever he enjoins. 

At the time when the Roman Pontiff was thns invading onr Protestant 
land, and setting np his claim to rnle anpremely over onO'Sixtb oE the entire 
popniation of England, Ms abettors and defenders att«mpted to mitigate and 
ezcnse his impertineuce bj affirming that he had done no more than had 
be^ done hy the Episcopal Chnrch m Scotland, which has parcelled ont 
Scotland into what it calls dioceses, and to the bishops of these dioceses 
has given territorial titles, taken from the chief cities or towns of the districts 
orer which they preside. And as this plea has within the last week or two 
l>een revived and nsed by two of onr leading Scotch newspapers to justify 
tlie Pope, shonld he carry his threatened purpose of reviring the Scottish 
hierarchy into effect, and as we shall in all likelihood have it repeated to as, 
it may be as well that we look at it. And, in reply, we wonld only say that, 
however plausible this defence is, we have no hesitation m declaring that the 
two cases are not at all analogons, but are widely and altogether dissimilar. 
The Scottish Episcopal body, like all the Dissenting denominations, is a 
purely spiritual society. Its organization is wholly spiritoal, and any power 
it ctui exercise over its members is spiritual also ; and although its bishops 
have assumed territorial titles, these titles neither carry nor involve civil or 
temporal jurisdiction. They are, in fact, mere titles of courtesy, and beyond 
gratifying the episcopal conceit of the wearers, and imparting to them a 
sort of nominal and fictitious lordliness and dignity, they have no civil 
iofloence upon either the members of their own flock or the community in 
general.* But with the Chnrch of Rome the case is perfectly different : she 
is not a purely spiritual society. Her constitution is of a very mized kind, 
80 that the secular element mingles as largely in it as does the spiritual. 
Hh pontifical head is not only an ecclesiastical bishop, bnt a temporal 
prince, and in both characters he claims a primary and supreme authority 
ever all his subjects, and possesses a divine and infallible right not only to 
dictate to their faith, but to direct tmd control them in every department of 
th^ conduct, and that, too, in all things, whether as it respects private or 
domestic life, or the exercise of their political duties and obligations. 

meat, entitled 'B«port from the Select Committee appointed to Keport the Nature and 
StibMuice ot the Laws oud Ordinances existing in Foreign Slates tespecting the regulalian 
of their Bomui Catholic gubjecta on Eoclesieetical Matters, and their Intercouiee with the 
jBeeofRoina,'onlflred to bo printed by the HouBO of Commons, 28th Juno 1816. 

• A most IndierouB Instance of Boottieh Episcopal bumptiousness was given hy the BO- 
«tl)ed Bishop of Brechin, Dr. Forbes, amidst the excitement occasioned by tbe Fipal 
invasion of 1S50. This prelate emitted a solemn protest against the erection of the English 
hierarchy, on the ground of its being 'an unbrotherly act' for one bishop to invade the 
province of another ! His special veiatiDn was that the Bishop of Rome had intruded into 
the dioce«e of his brother bishop, the Bight Rev. Fither in Qod, William, Lord Bishop of 
Brechin, as he magnificontij styied himself! These Scottish bishops seem specially to 
delig;hl in the title of 'Uy Lord/ while the late Dean Bamsay, who knew the true ecde- 
siutical styles of Bcatlatid better than any of them, always afflimed that the title bishop 
WIS the 01^7 one tbey had an; right to. A recent case ooourred only a few months ico 
which, to outsiders, seemed not a little amusing. It was a correspondence betwoen the 
Scottish Episcopal Bishop of Edinburgh and Bishop Becklea, Bishop of the English £pis- 
CDpal Churches in Scotland. Tbe complaint of the Ediubni^h prelate was that his Episcopal 
brother had intruded most uncanonioolly into his diocese, whereas he had no such thing aa 
a diocese in the proper sense of that term. His diocese does not extend beyond his own and 
the other congregations who acknowledge hia prelatic authority, and submitted to it. 
Bishop Beokles was as free to preach and epiacopise in Edinburgh and neighbourhood as he 
was: and the way in which in their letters they addressed each other as ^My Lord,^ was 
■musing. Neither of them had tbe sligbtest right to such an appellation, and their be- 
lonung each other woe a manifestation of a Diotr^ihedan orarlag after prs-emineQce, which 
k... ..... .„ ]j^ liettet have avoided. 



58 MACBETH ; OE, GKOWTH IH EVIL. """"uTms^ 

Besides, the re-establishment of the Boman hierarchies in England and 
Scotland cannot possibly be regarded as a purely spiritnal act on the part 
of the Pope, or as designed merely to enable the Roman Catholics of Great 
Britain to enjoy more fully the spiritual benefits which a closer and more 
direct relation with the Vatican will secnre for them. Snch reasons are 
mere pretests, and are only blinds to conceal the real parpose which the 
Pope and Court of Kome have in view. 

{To be concluded in. next.) 



MACBETH; OR, GROWTH IN EVIL. 

BY KEV. ■WTLUAM TURNKB, EDINBintOn. 

( Contimied.) 
Sin, the progeny of last, is the mother of death. With exceHent propriety, 
in the apostolic description of the fatal process, is the deed of transgression 
distinctly marked as the pregnant middle point. The act of sin forms a 
crisis in the progress of the soal in evil. At that point the sinner commits 
himself to unrighteousness. Having for a while dallied with temptation, be 
then yields to its sway, and declares himself an enemy of God and a rebd 
against His government. There may have been before, as there always is, 
more or less of traitorons desire and guilty scheming ; bnt then the seal is 
set to the deed of treason, and the standard of revolt is raised. By fhff act 
of sin a man is jndged. Upon that his own conscience fastens, by that his 
character before the world is determined ; and in the day of final account 
God will try every man ' according to his works.' Doubtless, as already 
indicated, there is an element of evil in the disordered affection, and the root 
of the whole deadly growth is to be sought in the hidden Inst. But if the 
plant has its root in the conceived desire, it has its flower in the outward 
act. In the act is embodied the whole vital enei^y of the man with all that 
is morally distinctive in his previous history ; it is the oatcome and con- 
summation of that hfe which has theretofore been growing in secret. As 
plants are discriminated and classified by their flowers, so by their works is 
the position of men among the subjects of God determined ; and as by the 
flower the seed is formed and brought forth, so likewise does sin give birth 
tp a progeny of its own. At that point retribution commences; the wages 
of sin there begin to be realized, thongh for a season they may be redQced 
and modified in character and amount by the forbearance and mercy tA 
God. ' Sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death.' 

This crisis is very clearly marked by Shakespeare in his parable. Every 
drama, according to the old canon, mnst have a beginning, a middle, and 
an end, and Macbeth has its middle in the murder of the king. This is 
the turning-point alike in the development of the plot and in the growth of 
the character of the leading actor. In view of this he excladmB, when at 
last temptation has fully prevailed, — 

* I UD settled, ind bead np 
Each corporal agent to this torible feat.' 

It is a weak and superficial exegesis which seeks to limit the significance of 
the death spoken of in the Bible as the natural issue of sin to one particnW 
result, — snch as the dissolution of the body, or that extdnctipn of personal 
existence of which some dream. Sin is a pregnant blossom, and the froits 
which it prodaces are manifold as they are deadly. It enters the sonl like 



""FATima^' MACBETH ; OS, GROWTH IN ETIL, 59 

one of those poieoD germs of which phjsicisnB tell ns, which, entoriog the 
body, peaetr^tes into the btood, and there forthwith developea into a myriad 
deadly spores, scatteriog fever, exhaustion, and pain thronghont the t^jBtem. 
The death of which the nataral completion is death eternal at once bef^iDs 
to opa^t«. * His own iniqnities shall talie the wiclied himself, and be shall 
be holden with the cords of his sioa.' He is ' dead while he lives.' In the 
words of Canon Farrar, — ' The penalty ... is a geonine child of the trans- 
gresNon. We receive the things that we have done. There is a dreadfal 
coercion in oar own iniqaities. There is an inevitable congmity between 
the deed and its conseqnences. There is an awfnl germ of identity in the 
seed and in the fruit. We recognise the sown vrind when we are reaping 
the harvest whirlwind.' The immediateness of the penahy is inimitably 
expressed by Macbeth himself in his monologne as he broods donbtfnlly and 
hesitatingly on the contemplated crime ; — 

'If it were don^ when'lU done, then 'twere well 

Could trammel up the conEeqneuce, nud catch 
With his BurceBus socoess. — lb*t but tbis blow 
Might be the be-all, and tiie end-all here, — 
But here, upon this bsnk and ahool #f time, — 
We'd jump the life to come. Bot JD this case. 
We at'll have judgment herp, that wfi but teach 
Bloodj iaBtructions, which being taught return 
To plague the iavcnter. TbuB even-bandeil juntfcs 
Commends the ingredieDts of our puisoned cbalioe 
To our own lips.' 

This immediate retribution is the immediate reaction of the fixed laws and 
imbetiding principles of the nniverse of Qod apon the creature who daringly 
becomes a transgressor ; and as this reaction touches the transgressor at 
vBiions points, so the retribatioo assnmes various forms. The death, while 
ont in principle and essence, appears in different modes of manifestation, 
j'ost as those malarions spores of which I spoke, while all sprang from the 
same germ, operate in different ways according to the medium in which they 
are developed and the organ which they affeci. Some of the more marked 
of these forms of manifestation, as here depicted by our poet, let us now 
contemplate. 

They may be ronghly classified into the objective and the su^ective. In 
r^ard to the former, it is to be remembered that in the system of the world, 
even according to those who disavow belief in a personal Qod, there is a 
power that ' makes for righteonsness.' Even on this sin-disturbed earth, 
where ' all is vanity,' the transgressor of the laws of righteousness is not 
permitted to have everything his own way. For example, he finds imposed 
upon him, as by flseil law, a terrible necessity to go on in sin. Very 
speedily he is forced to recognise the fact that without renouncing the very 
prize by which he has been seduced, there is no retracement possible for 
hnn. Macbeth, indeed, by his daring crime, secures his immediate object. 
Things at first appear to proceed altogether in his favour. Duncan's two 
B0D9, Malcolm and Donalbain, fearing for their ovrn safety, slip ont of the castle 
as soon as the murder comes to light, and flee — the one to England, the other 
to Ireland j and it is concladed (hat they have been the instigators of the 
crime. Macbeth, as the most eminent among the nobility, is acknowledged 
as king, and crowned at Scone. And yet even to reach this his immediate 
end he discovers that the one terrible crime is not sufficient. To the murder 
of the king be finds it indispensable to add the murder of the two attendants. 
In addition to this ' double murder,' be is necessitated, even upon the spot. 



60 MACBETH ; OB, QBOWTH IN EVIL. '"'"'i^'mw&^ 

to act the part of a dissembler and deceiver, and to preteod great grief and 
infinite rt^e at tbe sight of his own act. Forthwim he mnst addreea him- 
self to yet more desperate crimes in order to secure to himself and to his 
posterity the prize for which he has played so deep a stake. He remembers 
that the witches have promised to his friend Banqno a race of kings, and 
Banqno therefore, with his son Fleance, is doomed to die. As these and 
other similar deeds begin to father themselves npon their trne anthor and 
the suspicions of his snbjects become more and more openly expressed, be ig 
driven farther and farther oa in the career of crime, till murder becomes Us 
daily employment, and he is continually occupied in planning new schemes 
to rid himself of the new occasions of anxiety and fear which arise aroond 
him. He finds that, save at a cost which be cannot contemplate, — tbe cost 
of utter temporal disgrace and rain, — he mnst go forward on the path he 
has entered. He recognises and faces the dreadful necessity, and girds 
himself to meet it, — 

' Come, fsM, Into tbs list, 
And chunpion me to tho uttannce.' 

It is one of the most common and most prevailing of the argoments 
addressed by the tempter to thf young and the unwary, — Just this oace,aQd 
all will be well ; only this one dishonest act, and your fortune will be made 
for life ; only this one taste of illicit indulgence, and your cravii^ wilt be 
satisfied. He who yields to tbe temptation will infallibly find himself 
deceived. AfasaJom, when he became a rebel against his father's authoritj 
and grasped at his crown, had imposed on him the degradation of obeying 
the vile and crafty counsel of Ahithophel in regard to the women of his 
fatb^'s palace ' in the sight of all Israel.' Gehazi, after be had by lying 
to the Syrian captain obtained the gold and raiment he coveted, behoved ta 
lie again to his master in order to secure the spoil. Deeds of dissimalation 
and of dishonesty, of oppression and of cruelty, inevitably bring other like 
deeds in their train. No important object can be gained by a single act, 
nnd if unrighteousness is the path that leads to the object we seek, then we 
must go through with it, and mnst tread the path faithfully and persever- 
ingly. Not only so, it is for the evil-doer a dire necessity that to all nn- 
righteonsness falsehood mnst be added. It is not merely that falsehood is 
needful to shield from disgrace, — even where the sinner has become in- 
different to disgrace, he must, if it be possible, disguise himself to gain the 
good he desires. For in this world there are certain principles, — principles 
of mutual justice, trust, aETection,— which form the cement of society, the 
open and proclaimed violation of which renders him who is guilty of it an 
outlaw. Hence, even those most r^ardless of righteousness must pat on 
the appearance of righteonsness and ' feign themselves just men,' if they are 
candidates for any of the forms of good which society offers. By the stern 
decree of Heaven hypocrisy is a vice which waits like a shadow on every 
other crime that men commit. All wrong-doers are doomed to live nnder the 
cloud of conscious falsehood. Evidentiy he can have pursued but for a 
short time the career of the transgressor whose lite is not, even in so far as 
ontward success and comfort are concerned, a conspicnons failure. There 
is nothing so difficult to maintain as consistency in falsehood, and the more 
sins we commit, the more lies we tell, so much the more ardnous is it to 
retain hold on the confidence of those aroond us whose help is indispensable. 
Very speedily the men who say, ' We have made lies our refuge, and undff 
falsehood have we hid ourselves,' are doomed to see their ' refuges ofiies' 
swept away. If they are not prepared forthwith to forfeit their selfish gains 



'fttiTis^'' MACBETH; OB, QBOWTU IK EVIL. lil 

snd to throw up tbe game of traDsgresaioii and deceit, — if they cannot make 
up Uieir mind to say, like the prodigal, ' I will arise and go to ray father, 
and will say nnto biin, Father I have sinDed,' and, like Zacchens, to re- 
Dotmce the wages of nnrighteonsDeBa and to restore fourfold, their career 
can eod in nothing bat disaster and defeat. 

I have jnst adverted to the impoaaibility of retaining the confidence of 
men while parsning a course of wrong-doing, and consequently of secorely 
enjoying any of those forms of good which depend on the help and sympathy 
oi our fellows. The loss of reputation, of esteem, of affection, the enconn- 
teriDg of general aversion and suspicion, the doom of Cain, — to be driven 
forth as ' a fngitire and a vagabond,' with the fear ' every one that findeth 
me shall slay me,' — this in itself is a bitter element in the retribntive con- 
seqaences of transgression. This Macbeth in fnll measnre realizes. Not- 
withstanding bis efforts to avert suspicion from himself, and to direct -it 
towards tbe two sons of his victim, the truth is speedily sarmiaed, and secret 
whisperings begin to circulate. Says Banqno : 

< Thou bait it now, King, Caffdor, Olamis, 
Ab the weird sisters promlaed, and I fear 
Thou pltty'dst most louU y for 't' 

The thanes also hint to one another in guarded language their common 
suspicions : 

' How it did grieve Macbeth ! did lie not straight 
In pious r»ge the two dfllinqu«iila tear 
That wero ths elsvea of driok, tbe thralls of sleep ? 
Was not that nobl; done ? Ay, and wisely too ; 
For twould hftvo tmgered suy man alive ' '' 

To hear the mail deny it. Bo that I say 
He baa home all things well ; and I do think 
That had be Duncan's sons under hia key, 
As an't, please HoavEn, he shall not, they should find 
What 'tis to kill a father.' 

As the usurper advances tn his career of blood, the disaffection towards 
liim becomes mor« and more universal and pronounced. A widespread 
revolt springs up i^ainst his authority, and a formidable opposition, 
gatherii^ round one of the king's sons, is oi^anized. All honest men begin 
to exalt in the increasing embarrassments by which the tyrant, as he has 
come to be called, is being hemmed in. Says Angus: 

' Now does he teel 
Hia secret murders sticking on his hands. 
Now minately revolts upbraid his faith-breach. 
Those he commands move only In commaDd, 
Nothing in love ; now does he feel his titlo 
Hang loose about him like a giant's roba 
Upon a dwarfish tliief.' 

The criminal himself experiences the intense misery of .knowing that he is 
nniversally hated, and that his death vrill be hailed with general joy ; 
< I have hved long enough, my way of life 

Is fall'u Intu the seal', tbe yellow leaf; 

And that vihich should accompauy old age, 

As honour, love, obedience, troope of friends, 

1 must not took to have, but in their stead 

Curses not laud but deep, mouth-honour, breath 

The man who engages in a course of transgression may lay his account wilh 
having his misdeeds, even in this world, chained home upon him. It is a 
<;omiQon saying, 'Mnrder will out;' but the same irrepressiblenesa characterizes 



62 MACBETH; OB, OEOWTH IN EVIL, ^ ""si. i^IS?^* 

all wickedDeSB. Dishonesty, licentions indulgence, secret tippling, covetous- 
ness, inconsistency of condact in every form, will come to light, £0 as to be 
recognisable more or less certainly and thron);hout a. larger or smaller 
circle, throogh every veil, however plauaible, of orthodox profesMon and 
pharisaic scrupnlosity. As man has been made for and lives in society, so 
every breach of that law of righteousness and love which is society's proper 
bond becomes known to others, and calls forth their resentment and mis- 
trust. Those only who respect the interests of their fellows and seek thrar 
good receive at their hands honour and affection, ' Scarcely ' even ' for a 
righteous man will one die; peradventnre for a good man some would even 
dare to die.' The principle enounced by Jesus Christ is of universal 
application, — true for this world as for that to come: ' With what measure 
ye mete, it shall be measured to you again.' And there is profound and 
universal trnth in tbe words of the Hebrew psalmist : ' With the merciful 
thou wilt show thyself merciful; with an npright man thon wilt show 
thyself upright ; with the pure thou wilt show thyself pure ; and with the 
froward thou wilt show thyself froward.' 

It is a still more painful experience for the criminal to find himself 
deceived in his expectations of worldly hononr and happiness, mocked by 
the infernal powers that tempted him to transgress, and disappointed ia 
relation to the very prize for the sake of which he has defiled his conscience 
and destroyed his peace. Not unseldom, even on earth, is such disappoint- 
ment realized ; not unseldom are sinners doomed to feel that the objects foe 
which they have bartered away their soula are eluding their grasp, and that 
they have ' sold themselves foi' nouj^ht.' It was a bitter thing for a clever 
man like Ahilhophel to discover that his boasted wisdom was being turned 
to foolishness, that his able counsels were bursting like bubbles upon the 
Etream, and that there remained for him nothing in this world but to go 
home and hang himself. It was a dark day for the proud, energetic, self- 
reliant Saul when at last he was forced to have recourse to the help of the 
poor witch who had contrived to elude his own pious zeal, and when ftom 
this quarter also there came only threatenings of disaster. Macbeth, too, is 
made to feel that the prize he has aimed at is escaping from him. The 
assassins who are hired by him to murder Banqno and his eon Fleance 
bungle their work ; Fleance escapes, and the murderer puts new ' rancours 
in the vessels of his peace' for an unaccomplished purpose. Thus one aftflr 
the other his plans fail, and he discovers that the master to whom he has 
sold himself has deceived and is mocking him. Under the gloom of his 
thickening troubles he betakes himself to those ' weird sisters ' who had at 
first allured him into the way of crime. The interview is not of a 
tranquillizing kind, as we may judge from the words uttered by him as they 



Where ate thej ? Gone ? 


Let this pemicic 


Sland aye nccnraed in th 


Galendu; 


iDfected be the air where 


oa thej ride, 


And doonf d all those th 


t trust them.' 



Yet does be obtain from the consultaljon with the hags 
One d'iclares : 

' Kone ot woman born sliall horm Macbeth ; ' 
anotiier : 

' Macbeth shall never vaaqnished be, until 
Great Biraam wood to high Duneinane hill 
Shall come agaioet him.' 



woogic 



"""KiTi""^'' THE END OP THE CHBI8TIAN MINI3TRT. 63 

First the one st&j, bowerer, and then the other, disappoiote his hope. The 
fresh promises are fuuud in the tiial to be only fresh enticemeDta Iniing him 

on to his fate. Kept in the letter, the; are broken in the spirit, and at last 
he is forced to own that he is being made the sport of hellish deception. 
Seeii^ the inevitable doom drawing nigh, he exclaims,^ 

'1 pull is nuolation, ■.mi begin 
To doubt the equIvgoSitiiui of tbe Seed 
That lies like truth.' 

' Bo tboae juggling fiendfl no more belioved 
That pslter niih ua in n daublo sense, 
Th»t keep tba word of promiie to the ear, 
And bfsak it to onr hope.' 

Like BjTon'g Manfred he has to complain : 

' Tbo spirits I have raised abandon me, 
The spells that I have studied baffle me, 
The remedy I recked of torturea me.' 

His nndannted courage degenerates into desperate and brutal fierceness: 

'TheyliBvetiedraotoaBtftke; I cwnot fly, 
Bat, bear-like, I maat flgbt Ibe ooureo;' 

and he dies in tbtf fall conacioneness that he has been cheated in regard to 
everything yalnable and desirable in the hope by which he had been indnced 
to swerre from the path of virtnc. ' So are the paths of all that forget 
God, and the hypocrite's hope shall perish ; whose hope shall be cnt off, and 
whose trust shall be a spider's web. He shall lean npon his house, bnt it 
shall not stand ; he shall hold it fast, but it shall not endure.' 
(To be continued.) 



LTER BBowN, A.M., soorn csukch, 

Yoir are this day set apart to the ministry of the gospel over this infant cocgre- 
gatJon. If time had permitted, I might haTe referred somewhat in detail to 
the circnauianccs, so peculiarly interesting, attending your entrance upon this 
pitstot&te. It surely augurs well for the success of your ministry here, as well as 
mdicatea the self-sacrifieing eovnt in which you give yourself to this work, that 
while other and most invitjng fields of labour were at your command, — rich gardens 
of tbe Lord, already well enclosed, and well cultivated by the hands of previous 
husbandmen, — you yet preferred, in association with a tew earnest spirits, now the 
members of this congregation, to strLke your plough into the open common. You 
lutre come here not to build npon another man's foundatjon, but first rather 
to lay the foundation, and thereupon to build. The cousiderations that have 
prompted yon to this choice must surely have been such as could only have place 
in a mind largely possessed with the mind and will of Christ. You have addressed 
foOTself to a task moat difficult and arduous ; but you have this for warrant and 
hope, that you are moving along the line of the divine commission, and He who 
has marked out your work for you will bless and prosper it. 

In altering upon any important work, it is of the utmost importance that we 
farm to ooreelvea a clear and definite conception as to what the work is, and that 
«e keep its high airoa ever before us. This is especially true of the work of the 

■ This Ehoich IB the result of efforts of friends of Church ££tenaIon in MelroM Presbytery, 
*ho have done Ihelr work admirably. Tbe new cause, under its lealous and able young 
KuiUtar, is full of promise. The ordination, which took place on iZlii November last, was 
P*!ciiliBilj> interesting. 



64 THE END OP THE CHHISTIAN MINISTRY, ""ri'ruie!'*^ 

Christian miniatry, which may be made to sccompliBli nmch good, in a lover 
sphere, in the way of educating men's morals and manners, and yet fails entirely 
of its proper purpose if it fails to bring umiera to Christ. A vague ministry — 
a ministry that deals in loose and colourless doctrine, or that wastes its energies 
from day to day in a sort of miBcellaneous do-nothingism — is not only a UBeless 
ministry, but a positive iDJory to the cause of truth ; and this, too, especially 
at a time when the failures and shorteomings of Christian ministers are made 
the most of, and are oft£n studiously spoken of as if they did not belong to the 
individnab simply, but were inherent in the system wUch they so unworthily 
represented. Let me ask you, then, ta set clearly before you what you have 
got to do. Yonr object is to faring sinners to Christ and to salvatioD. As 
a saved man yourself, you can sorely hare no lower aiia than that — certainly you 
can have no higher ; for it is this high aim that brings you into direct sympathy 
with Christ, and with all that He has already accomplished or is now achieriug 
in His mediatorial character. Yon have thus a high work, a definite one work to 
do, which 1 trust you will ever keep before yoo, and pursue with a holy and 
undeviatiug pertinacity. The advantage of such a lofty and definite object aa this 
wiU be to nni^, as well as consecrate, your labours as a nuDister of uie gospel 
They will no longe' have a fragmentary and deeoltory character, when per- 
formed at the call of so lofty and definite a purpose. Besides, to bring sinners 
to Christ and to salvation, in the condition which Paul proposed to himself, when 
he Bfud that his aim was to present every man perfect in Christ Jesus, — to do thi& 
will be found sufhciently exhaustive of your energies, and sufficieatly com^sehen- 
tdve of the various portions of your work, whatever form almost they may assume, 
I think it is the late Mr. Jameson of Methven who, aft«r remarking on uie multi- 
tude of men and processes involved in fashioning a pin, goes on to dilate, in hia 
own charming way, on the complexity and elaborateness of the operation by which 
a Boul is perfected for Christ. In order to achieve this result, all the miniatrationB 
are necessary which you can supply in the pulpit and in pastoral visitation, in the 
Sabbath school and Bible class, at the sick-bed and in the house of mourning, 
as well as in performing other details of ministerial work which cannot here be 
partioulariied. And braides, the effort to accomplish thia great end of your 
ministry will not leave you much time for trifling occupations or faahionable 
indulgences, even though such things were becoming in a minister of tbe go^l, 
or it could be conceived possible that you had any taste for them, when fnm day 
to day having resting on you the care of immortal souls. 

Such, then, is the end and aim of your work as a minister of Jesos ChrisL 
For the accomplishment of this end, you have a divinely contrived instroment, 
which this day is pat into your hands, and which, like all other of the divine 
contrivances, is perfect in its adaptations, and, unless deceitfully handled by 
speaker or hearer, unfailing in its resnlto. The gospel is declared to be the 
power of God unto salvation ; and the preaching of the gospel is the agency by 
which this power takes effect. If, therefore, the power of God would operate 
through your ministry, and accomplish its grand saving results, the following 
things mnst be attended to :— 

And first, as God's method of bringing salvation is by a message, so the message 
must be faithfully reported. In plain language, preach the gospel. In the 
present day, the cry has been raised from varioos quarters that the pulpit is losing 
iXa power ; and the remedy suggested by many who are loudest in the ray, or 
rather oatcry, is one that, instead of remedying, would vastly aggravate the evils 
complained of. The proposed cure for mbisterial incapacity, in so far as it does 
condescend on something definite and positive, would seem to lie in the direction 
of displacing the old gospel by something new, — the newness consisting for tbft 
most part in this, that what is most distinctive of evangelical truth is to be left 
out. The remedy proposed is thus worse than the disease, granting that such a 
thing eiists. How, indeed, can it be otherwise, when we consider that it comes 
from men who,, openly or covertly, are hostile to evangelical religion, who, it 
may be, have lost faith in the supernatural, and with whom nothing is more 
common than to ignore those facts concerning human nature on which the 
entire gospel, as a remedial system, is built? Happily for the gospel, and for 



oMMp™*j««^] ^jjp g(j^ jp jg jQ gg ATTAMED. 65 

laan's nndjin^ interest therem, theee great faots of hnmui natore an too rtrong 
for modem cnticiam. While Dien lire sod labour, and sin and BoSer, tkey wiS 
eagerly cr»ve and welcome that old gcspel, which, I tniat, it will erer be joat 
^ght, as it is your eallins,' to proclaim within theae walls. Whatever be new in 
the lona of yooi teaching, let the maUer of it be old. ' And rememberiuK that not 
only d<Ka the gospel disclose the one dirine remedy, but is also itself the best 
nmolder of its own plan, see that you model your preaching after tlie Bible ideal, 
beginning where the Bible begins, and ending where it enda ; making that central 
wtich it makes centeal, and enbordinating aU else to that ; laying well the ground 
of your teaching in the sad facta of human guUt, depravity, and inability, and 
baiidisg thereupon the bleaaed doctrines of grace ; preaenting the truth in its own 
fine pn^rtians, and in its various and perfect adaptation to human need ; showing 
bow it coven the whole facts of human life and ezperience, and how it sapplies 
the requisites and the guarantees for a ateady and progressive advancement in 
the divine life ; blending in your prelections the doctrinS with the practical, the 
general with me particular, and showing how the goapel, while a liberal dis- 
penaer to all, has nis own portion to each individoal soul ; in fine, canjiiig on 
your hearers, step by step, and frcan stage to stage, of their Christian eooiee, 
and, as ^on do so, ever noldiug up tlie cross as tlie governing power in die 
whole Bpiritaal movement, like the pole-star, which, wherever men sail, and 
whithersoever they traffic, holda the commerce of the world in its eye. 

Need I aay, secondly, tltat not only must you faitUully report the messase 
entmsted to you, bat yon must seek to enforce it, — more especially by we 
power that resides in you as a man and Christian. Of course the mesaage 
itself will carry ita own testimony to an eager and susceptible listener ; but 
God iiaa so tied together tlie messenger and the message m the moral effects 
produced by preaching, that the two cannot be separated without producing 
results that are eith^ impotent or injurious. Speaking generally, 1 might 
obBerre that all that you are in yourself and in your attainments ought to 
^ve effect to your preacMng. Your Bcholarahip, your wide reading, your 
cnltore, your mental force, your knowledge of biunan nature, your sympathy 
with modem thought, etc,— all these will have their place in the cumulative 
moral effect, as tending to give freshneaa, preciMon, livingness to yonr thought, 
ju Tell as that mod^n tone and colouring aud direct practic^ force com- 
petent to one who makes daily use of eyes and ears, — who is & modem among 
oia books, and a living man among living men. But, passing by those elements 
of effectiveness, or ratiier umply taking them for granted, let me remind yon 
in a sentence how immensely, now iuciuculaUy, the force of your message is 
multiplied by personal example and influence. When a Christian man speaks 
Chri^ian truth from a pulpit, being what he is, he speaks it with a power 
that ia quite nnique. It is not merely that he commands the force derived 
from the undoubted earnestness of the moment, which, as it comes from con- 
victioa iu the speaker, is likely to produce conviction in die hearer, hut 
behind this there is all the momentum produced by that energetic thing 
called personal godliness. This, when it becomes the seconder of the speaker^ 
appeals, sometimes gives the force of arrows or cannon-balls to feeble utter- 
ances, — ^yea, more frequently it resolves itself into that power of the Holy 
Ghost by which the word spoken is felt to be not the word of man, but the 
word of the living God. And this power of personal godliness not only ever 
stands behind the speaker to give force and efficacy to what he says, but it 
becomes a ctmstant sermon, preaching for him at all times, silent or speaking ; 
becomes the geoerativo force by which he moves otliers to good, — a sort of 
standing testimony, or living body of Christian evidences, which, while Hie 
good man lives and labours, lifts up its protesting voice against prevailing 
ungodhnesB, and gives the lie to the sneer or the scoff of the infidel. And 
this it does not the lees effectually, that the influence of the godly minister's 
character is often not so much obtruded upon public uotjce, being rather 
.olently diffused through the general life of the community, like the purity of the 
atmosphere, or the fragrance of flowers. 

All this leads up to my third and last remark, which I shall do little more than 

HO. II. VOL. ZXn. NEW SERIEa.— Fi 



66 THE END OF THE CHBI8TIAN MIHISTBT, '■ rHi^toK'*^ 

announce, — this, riz., that if you wonld do real work for G!od, — effectiTB work, — 
you must be a inaj3 of piayer. It is only under this omdition that the goepel cm 
become the power of Gfi)d to your hearers — the power of God iinto galvstioa. The 
WTinK power of God operates in and by your message; but how? Only through 
Qod Himself giving testimony to the word of His ^race. And as this testimony ig 
iiio result oi a divine operation that takes place m the mind of both speaker and 
hearer, in the one case giving utterance to the truth, and in tlie other givtug it 
entrance, bo the preacher's first and last appeal must be to tlutt divine Spirit wb» 
at first inspired the saving message, and whoee office it now is to make it spiritually 
intelligible and convincing. Without prayer, yon are powerleffl as a preacher, for aU 
your success is drawn frtm the region of the divine energy ; and indeed, when you 
conaideT your work as a whole, and the podtion in wMcb that work places you as 
standing between the living God and the souls of sinfnl men, — that God in you 
and by you may accomplish in them His saving power,— it will more and mare 
appear that prayer must be the very atmosphere in which you live your life sod 
jKrfonn your mmistfy. The more you realize the import^ce and magnitude of 
the task set before you, the more will yon feel your need of divine wisdom and 
divine support, and the more earnestly will you seek them. Tou will not be 
deterred from your work bj Uie greatuesa of it, or by the formidable character of 
poBSible or conceivable difficulties. These difficulties are there to be overcome. 
If they were less than they are, you would in all probability be less able to master 
them, for you might then be tempted to lean upon an arm of flesh for tliat which, 
lightly measured, can only be accomplished by the omnipotent grace of God. 
TMs day, in view of the future aud of the duties that lie before you, yon may he 
tempted to aay, 'Who is sufficient for these things?' But it is good for you to 
take this measure of your work and of yourself in relation to it, for it is when 
you most dislmst yourself that you are led to repme the deepest confidence in 
God. In this deep confidence I trust you will begin your work and cany tt aa 
from day today. Andif, in the outset of your ministry, or at any time in tbecomse 
of it, you should feel discouraged by difficnlties or borne down by the sense of 
weakness, let this thought come to you for comfort, that such painful eiperiencet 
ate the price we have to pay for the blessed discovery of God's grace as being tiut 
which is always sufficient, and which, when perfected in ns, is only made perfect 
in our weakness. 

And now, in addresslDg a few words to the congregation, I trust I shall not be 
misunderetood if I should err on the side of brevity, as if that implied that the 
eounsels and encouragements that might be addressed to yon were fewer or less 
full than those that have been addressed to your minister. It is precisely because 
your duties and privileges mn parallel to his, that 1 do not again traverse the 
ground I have already gone over, but trust rather to your power of self-reflection 
and self -application to give to the remarks already made, that turn that wiU mak» 
them profitable to yon as well as to your minister. 

This remark being made by way ^ explanation, I shall now content myself with, 
three observations. 

Audfirst, having called your minister to do very special work in this town, — the 
work of extending and bunding up God's cause in this place, — I trast you will give 
him all maimer of encouragement and help in this work. If be is to succeed with 
any measure of success, and with such measure of success as we from his chaisctec 
and gifts anticipate, it must be mainly through the power which he is enabled to 
wield tduxiugh his pulpit ministrations. I trust, therefore, that you will not depend 
upon him doing, or doing more than is needful, that work whidi belongs to you as 
much as to him, and which, when your hearts and hands are united, you will be 
able to accomplish so well, if not without his personal co-operation, at least with 
only so much of it as is necessary to make you feel his hand in all your ^iritual 
movements, and with bo little of it as will still make him feel that the best of hib 
time and strength ia still reserved for his stmly. What I mean is, that it is impoa- 
sible for him, both to preach well every Sabbath, and at the same time to be 
found itinerating those streets so many hours almost every day, in the effort to lay 
bold of and bring under the means of grace the careless and ignorant round aboat 



■^ MiTSfeS^^ -AND HOW IT IS TO BE ATTAINED. 67 

TonrdooiB, Both miniater and people moat do thrar best to flQ tliia honse of Ood ; 
bat this will be best done b^ each takiiiR UieiT own mj, — joar nunister by tbe 
powerful advocacy of Cfaristian troth which yoa bare permitted him to excogitate 
Ktd elaborate in l£e Becret proceaeea of silent meditation, and joa t:^ ohar^^ng 
youraelf with the du^ of seeinK to it that, as jonr miniater haa found for jaa a 
aermcHL, bo joxx have foond for him an audience. 

Secondly, in proeecntjng tJie woA of Church Elxtension in tbia place, I troat yon 
-will do BO in a right aprit, eapecially in a spirit of brotherly goodwill to neigh- 
bonring congregatioDa and Churches. I tbiok I ma^ aa^ for yon that yonr great 
object in amociating together aa a distinct congregation u to advance the came of 
Christ in Galashiels, and this in anch a way that yoor growth aa a congr^iation 
will not affect injnrioiiBly, bat otherwise, the interests of other Churchea. in doing 
this, joa are not forbidden to cbeiiah a denominational apirit. I trust yon will be 
loyal to yoor djatmetiTe prinatdea aa a portion of the United Presbyterian Choni, 
and faithful in maintaining and extending them in go far as yon are able. Nor are 
jon forbidden to cnltirate tboee feeling and aympathiea that will prompt yon to 
have a very special regard for eveirthmg that concerns your welfare aa a congre- 
gation. AH thia, however, mnst be kept in strict anbordination to that whit^ 
ongbt to be the aim of aU the Ghnrches and of all the denominations, aa they 
attempt, each one of them in its ownway, bnt all together in Mendly aympaUiy and 
co-operation, to accomplish the work of onr common Lord. There is a riralry 
that is admisiible into Church life, bnt it is not Uie riralry that is begotten A 
eelfiahneas or of the desire to prosper at the expense of othms. It ia anch rival^ 
aa oo-exiata with mutnal esteem, as it provokes to emulation in a cause in which 
the servicee done by each are a common ^ood to all. In giving utterance to these 
sentimenta, I am eare I am only expressing the mind of the presbytery, both in 
lespeet of the spirit that animated them in iuangurating thia Church Extension 
movement, and also in respect of the spirit in which they would have you carry it on. 

I would only Bay, in conduaion, that if yon would grow as a congregation, — in 
munbera and in apiritoal force and influence, — it must be as the result of a growth 
that ia inwud. Your own apiritutd. life, therefore, must not be neglected under 
the ministrations of the aanctnary and other means of grace enjoyed by yon of a 
more prirate kind. It is only on the condition of there being life in yonr souls, — 
eameat, energetic, growing life, — Uiat yon can become the spring of life and heiding 
to others. Where there is vitiil godliness welling np from the heart of a Christian 
people, it operates, and cannot but operate beneficidly. diffuaing sweet and whole- 
some inflnencee all around, like unto what yon aometimea see in traversiDg the 
country, where, in the midst of aome barren waste, you come upou a spot of 
deUdonB greenneea, and leam that tbe creator of this verdure is some pnre and 
living spnng that bubbles up from beneath. And if spring of piety can thus 
make thenuelvea felt when welling forth in this quiet and unstudied way, what 
may we not ezpeot from you, when you oranbine and organize your spiritnal 
reeonrcea, — when yon take the spiritnal life and energy that God has given yon, 
and torn it into channels where it will become serviceable and powetful, like 
unto the flowing river, which, mark you, ia not only living but moving, — Uvea 
becaoae it moves, and because it moves it makes tite most of its vivifyii^ energy, 
turning mill-wheels in its progress, and oreating a firoitful and smiling vaUey 
wherever it flows? 

I close these remarks by congratolating you 
stances under which, as pastor and people, you 
have many well-wishers who bid you Gcd-speedon your heavenly errand; yon are 
united among yonrselves, and full of hope and courage ; and, over all, yon have 
tbe benediction of a Master who ia wise and atrong and kiiid. As yet yon are but 
a tittle flock ; bnt if so, yon have all the protection and encouragement that belong 
to feeble things and small beginnings. I will ju>t speak of you, however, as few 
or feeble, lest I might misrepresent you. Were this your actual condition, I think 
1 might conatmct a very fair prophecy out of it, aa I called to mind'the nnmber of 
grand reanlts that have ahaped themaelves ont of raiall beginnings, — called to mind 
that all great growths are bnt mustard-aeeds at the starting. I mi^ht even have 
reminded yon that God seems to have a speraal delight in beginning Hia gieaA 



68 SOME or MT IMPBEBBIONB OP A ^""'Sl't^raf^ 

enterprises in a feeble way, or at least in a mj tiiat aeema utterly inoommen- 
nmte vith the gnnd reeolta tiiat are to follov. Bat I will not offer j^on the sym- 
pathy that would better find its justification were we here to-daj to inBognrate a 
much smaller and feebler movement than yon represent. Altboogh an infant con- 
gremtion, yon have nerer known the feebleness of infancy. Yon start to-day a 
go<xlIy compaay, — not numerous, certainly, bnt strong in that in which ntuntxn 
are often weak, — strong in union, in heartmen, and in seal for the c&nse of Ohiifit^ 
together with no email measure of ability for carrying it on ; and I trust, too, strong 
in all those higher elements of spiritual force, whidt ere the guarantee that yon will 
grow both Tiaibly and spiritually, — that the history yon b^in to-day will be a his- 
tory honourable and endnring, — a portion of God's everlasting memorial when Ee 
wiitee up tie people, — that the tree, as yet only a sapling, which this day we 
water with our prayers and benedictions, and invoke the blessing of God to rest 
upon, it, will become as a tree of life to many, and onder its bro&demng shadow will 
afford rest and refreshment to very many souls for generations to come. 



SOME OF MY IMPRESSIONS OF A TRIP TO JAMAICA AND BACK. 
(^Continued.') 
I HAPPENED to witness a Presbyterial viaitatiMt at Brownsville. It was the fint of 
t&e kind that had taken |dace, and it took place iHi a week'dsy. The congregation 
was summoned to church at a certain hour. They turned oat well, men, women, 
and children, the elders occnpying a long seat nearest the platform in frcmt of the 
pulpit This was what woold be called in Calabar language a palaeer day. Ihe 
object was to inquire into the state of the congregation financially and otherwise, 
and to stir up to more liberality in giving for the cause of Christiaiuty, and greata 
zeal in other branches of Christian duty. The Presbytery met ; the proceedings in 
church were opened with the usual sernces, and a discourse by the late Hr. Hums, 
whose brief mmislry was full of vigour and full of promise. Then, after varions 
questions had been put and answered respecting congregational affairs, the elden 
were called up, one by one, and asked such questions as these : Have yoa been 
regular in visiting the members of your district, the sick especially ? Have you 
held any meetings with your people ? Have yon talked with any anzioos ones ? 
Have you had to deal with any backshdere ? and so on. Then each one in turn 
would stand up unhedtatingly, and make a speech longer or shorter. One would 
say he had done what he could,{though sensible of many shortcomings and sins; 
another would frankly confess he had been very remisa, bntiif God spared him, 
would be more careful in future ; one said he would hold prayer meetings ofteoer if 
the people would make better roads to their houses, there was no getting at them. 
Iliis, I noticed, produced a good deal of half-uttered indignation in some of the 
congregation. It was wpitHing to see how their feelings changed as a popular or 
unpopmar elder rose to give an acconnt of his stcwardshu). I wonder what tJie 
effect would beif ccdling the elders to account in presence of their people was made 
the practice at home? The tneeting proved very successful. There was an 
improvement noticed in the collections on Sundays afterwards; and one interesting 
result was that at a fixed hour every evening the church bell was rung, calling all 
within BOnnd of it to family worship in their houses. 

I may say here that I thmk verynighly of these poor negroes. They have never 
yet had a fair chance of showing what they are capable of. Religion is congenial 
to them. They do love their spiritual teachers. Their devout men have a twoA- 
able power of ezpreffiing themselves well in {irayer or otherwise. They are fond of 
religious talk, and quote Scripture with correctness and propriety. Is it wonderful 
that they have many sinful infirmities — thatltiiey may be found sometimes cunning, 
false, thievish ? The wonder lather is that so many of the good qualities of a msn 
and a Christian are shown by a race tiiat have beau treated for generati<xiB like 
dogs. For take the noblest race on earth, treat them ai despicable, and they will 
become so. How does God treat us ? He treats us as most valuable creatures, «nd 
it is only when we begin to feel that that we begin to be ashamed of sin. Let ga 
treat the negroes as God treats us, and they will soon advance to tiie front rank of 
human races. 



MTirimi*^' TEIP TO JAMAICA AND BACK. 69 

Owing to the extreme he&t and the rain, I woa not aUe to go Abost aniMiffat tite 
people so nmch as I could hsTe wished. Itwaa the hottett time oi an ezcqituintdlf 
Dot jear ; it irsB tbe lainy Beason abo ; and as I wished very deron^' to disappoint 
tlie eniectatiDiia]of frienda at home, who were qnite sure that I would get smiBtroke 
or yellow ferer, I exposed myself as little an poeaifale. But there were few men in - 
the congregation or.district whom, in one way and at one time or other, 1 did not 
meet and convnse with. Generally they seemed inttdligent, sober-misded, waim- 
Iwaited. In that district dmnkenness scarcely erists, and the immoralilT' common 
inmost other plaoes has almost bem turned oat of ooimt«nance. Vitiiin sndina 
of five miles from Brownsville Chnreh there are four otbeis, Baptists or HethodSsta: 
bnt a good many people living retired in the jungle attend no plaoe of wonlup. I 
hare been told that none are so well instructed in religions ttoMg as those oon- 
neeted with our Pimbyterian congregations. The Baptists md Methodists are 
more anxiona to excite emotion than to impart knowledge. In truth, their ministeiB 
generally may be excused for not imparting much uiowledge, for they poneu 
scaicdjr any. Yeir many of them are black men of poor education and high 
excitability ; and the few who are genoinely good nmam so briefly in one place, 
that in general the impreesion they make soon passes away. Few BpiBoopalian; 
seem to hare a care for giving either impulse or instruction in religions thmgs to 
th^ black brethren. Th^ would seem to be in doubt whether negroes have souls 
woitii wmng, or any souls at aU. Onr Presbyterian miMionaries aim at raising 
religioua feeUng on the baaiH of sonnd Bible knowledge. In pnrauing this aim th^ 
have tMjed moat laboriously, and they hare not laboured m vain. Some blame 
them tor not producing greater results in so many years' time ; but their accnsers 
do not seem to know the kind of work they had to do, and the amount of work 
th^ have done. By merely working on the feelings of the people they might 
easilj have formed large congregations, built large spiritnal houses without any 
fonndation, and prodni^ a black ministry of a Tery zealous and inefficient Idud. 
But they preferred to act on the safe principle of rearing nothing except on the 
Bohd rock. Consequently their work baa not Deen noisy, but it hra been genuine ; 
the reeolta are not showy, but they are satiefactory to all who know anything abont 
them. Some would have you leave these black people to aonihilatioD, and call your 
worit of saving them as foolish and hopelees as Qie attempt to make ropes of sand. 
OUiwB, again, tell yon that yon have done enough for them ; that a Khite ministry 
is too expenaiTe for them to have it, and they must provide cheaper material for 
thenaaelveB or want~Done speaking so who have had tme information or personal 
experience in the matter. The negro is capable of as hi^ things as the white man 
haa reached; bot ^ black ministry befiH« it can be trusted would be an unspeakable 
disaster to the Church. 

Biownsvilte Station was founded by Hr. Watson, a veteran in the mission service 
irbose praise I heard sounded wherever I went in Jamaica. In Kingston, in Lucea, 
at Brownsville, not a few made kind inquiries after him, and recced with much 
gmtitude the eminent serviced he had rendered them in bygone years. Especially 
m the country districts, where his earlier eSorts were made in times of slavery, I 
found his memory most fondly cherished by the old, and his name, in the eyee of 
the young, illuminated with something like the glory of romance. I met old men 
and women who told me how nobly he advocated their cause, and imperilled himsdf 
for tbeir sakee in times of political tribulation. 

At Brownsville there is a veteran miBsbnary etill. His hair has grown grey in a 
serrice of about 36 years ; bat his eye is not yet dim, nor his natuml force almted. 
His piety — not lees than his yean, 81 — makes him revered by all in the district, as 
the patriarch Abraham must have been by hia numerous hoiuehold. He is a seer 
among them ; and they repair to him for eonnael in difficulties of all kinds, as they 
did of old to the Loin's prophet, saying, ' Let us go up to the hill to the man of 
Qbd.' He is a remarkable man in many respects — for his activity and eneig;^ of 
body and mind, being so old — for hia indomitable perseverance — hia mechamoal 
inventivenesB and skill — hia learning — and if I put it last, not least, his Christlike 
simphcity and generosity. He wovSd set himself to rebuild the church aa readily 
as he would preach in it, if it should be destroyed by fire, earthquake, or hurricane. 
He visits the sick, holds prayer meetings, mends nrnds, builds bridgeB, makes sun- 



70 IMPEBSBIONS OF A TKIP TO JAMAICA ASD BACiK. '° SVtwtf^ 

dUla of manifold BhApes and neu ; tiao makes dictioiiaries of the Hebrew, Syriae, 
aod Ghttldee tongoea, bcgitui both to learn and to teach Spaoish at ihe same 
moment, traaalatee the l^k of Job, bone into the Fynuoiog, and occawonally 
makea amah with his pen at European her«ai«fl. I ahonld not meudoa his fulings ; 
bat tbia is one of them, that in calcolatiiig the price of any work or thing he 
almost always does it so that he himself snail be a loner. He pays the monef 
unaprudgiDgly, and turns round to fall into the same mistake again. Eternal hope 
spnngs exnltinglj in his bosom, even when his purse is empty and the black 
workmen are at his door on Btrike for their wages. His great failing — and one lea 
which I do not blame him — is, that he cannot, or will not, underBtand that all moi 
are not as willing to work for Christ, and ^>eiid all for Christ, as he is himsell 

He had begun to build a schoolhouBe when 1 arrived. Hitherto the church had 
been used for school pniposes. A schoolroom wag needed, and it most needs be 
provided. The Hieaion Board would giant some money for it ; what more was 
needed he would give himself, or get readilj from generous friends. The achod- 
house is now finished, 1 believe, at about fliiee times the coat he calculated on ; 
and though he has to hold out his empty hands to the four winds, he is quite happy 
over the completion of the work, and at the sight of the great dial on like top of die 
house — an instrument of his own invention, lUkd intended to act as a public dock. 
He is a rare, and long may he continue to be a living, monument of human 
perseverance and divine hope. 

Connected with Brownsville Church there are two schools, one beside the chnidi, 
the other at Fondside, abont two miles off. One of the teachers is black, the other 
brown ; both men of intelligence and piety, and well qualified for their professional 
duties. All the schools la Jamaica are now under Government inspection, — this, 
and a system of competitive examination lately introduced, have made an immense 
improvement on education. Every child at school there is being educated as well 
as children commonly are, or are abont to be, in thin country. Amoogsl the 
n^roes, the learned and literan- classes are the boys and girls. Father Sam is 
h^lessly old, and big brother Joe carea for none of these things. 

It has been remarked that the negro reaches his mental and^ednoational maturilj 
in bc^hood. He makes eztraordinaij progreas till the verge of manhood, then. 
makes a stand, and sticks there for ever mer. I believe the reason is, that afta 
boyhood he gets little or no encouragement in the way of education, and there are 
no public means provided. He falls to work tlien, and the whit« people are not 
very anxious for his development as a thinking being, for they suspect it would 
on^ make him work leaa and seek higher wagea. 

In that land aristocracy does not go by Mood, but by colour. As you proceed 
from iet black towards pure whito you get into the upper classes of society. Here, 
too, tlie extremes meet, for white and black are more friendly than any <^ the 
intermediate ranks. The distinction is too broad there to admit of envyings and 



It is the joy of all varieties of colour to admire and imitate the whites. Far 
more hcmourable. Sambo thinks, to copy a whito man's vices than a black man's 
Tirtoes. Sometimes the imitations, b^g made without understanding, are very 
ludicrous. One day Mr. Carlile noticed a red shirt or petticoat hung out oon^- 
caoQsly on the top of a pole at a cabin door. On inquiring what it meant he was 
told that EMkiel'a wife had jnst died, and it was a flag of distreaa I 

The negroes are fond of giving their children Scripture names. There is scarcely 
any n^ne, good or bad, in the Tocahnlaiy of prophets, priests, and kings, that you 
do not find some of tlwie children of Ham rejoiemg in, A good woman, after she 
bad exhausted the patriarchs and the twelve apostles, turned np the Bible for a 
Christian name to her next bom son, and, without knowing it, fixed on Beelzebub! 
How could her innocent, with such a name, be admitted by baptism or any other 
rite to the visible church ? I hare been told that it is the habit of some, in seeking 
immea for their children, to turn np the Bible and fix on the first one they see. 

I have alluded to the simple manners of the people. I may here give an instance 
which shows also how reai^ some of them are to forgive mjnries. A woman of 
strong mind and muscle had a provision ground bnide her house, and into tioB plot 
an mihappy man, cd smaller dimensionB than she, one day came creeping irith the 



fi. Tuwr^ AK APOSTOLIC PBATBa-IJJ>DEK. 71 

nefarioQa intent of talUDg what was not his own. Sbe saw the culprit and seized 
him, and tben, instead of rabinittiiig bim to the cruelty of public joEitice, and the 
miaerj of fine or impriaonmeat, thia fair Judith, for his good, dragged Holofcrnee 
bj the hair (£ the head oi otherwise — some aa.j carried him on her nhoulderB — to 
her own honse, g&ve him a good beating, and married him 1 This maj, after all, 
hare been done by way of further punminent, for I am sorry I cannot add, what 
the romance nsnally eaii with, that 'thev lived happily ever after.' 

Ton will not be snrpriBed to hear that tlie negroes do not always live in peace and 
aunty. And there is tma good effect of a pare atmosphere, that people can scold each 
other eatisfactorily at great diatances, where it would be tedious to come to blows. 
The tongnea of angry women in Jam^ca ore half a mile long at least, — I mean that 
women oan stand at their own doois, on opposite hills, so far apart, fire angij 
speeches at one another, and fight it out quite conveniently without straining their 
■voices or uaing their nails. 1 have heard of a place named Harmony Hall, where 
military music of this kind was almost constantly made by two black Amaions, 
inamed Hary Gentle and Mrs. Iiove. It is a sad state of things when love and 
sentleueaB, to prevent fighting, most lire on separate hills, and even then turn 

~iuony Hall, their native glen, into a valley of discord with their ill-regulated 

« several marriages at Brownsville while I was there. The happy pair 
Mid th^ friends all come on horseback. Ton will scarcely find a woman rioing 
on any other occasion. Horses and muJes are cheap, and every householder has 
-one at least, which he must ride to church, be it ever so near. The wedding part; 
.are liandsamely dressed ; Che colours not bo glaring or so nntasteful in their com- 
binations as I had expected. Very few of the young people are unable to sign 
their names. If you officiate, you have to pay particular attention to names and 
persons, or you may chance to find the wrong parties with hands joined, and taking 
solemnly, but unintentionally, the vows upon themselves. One case I have heard (A 
where the parties somehow got disarranged and the knot was almost tied round the 
wrong couple. Man and woman stood beside each other, the ring had been put tm, 
the man had answered affirmatively to all the vows pat to him, and now the vows 
vae being put to the woman, when suddenly a tight flashed upon her darkened 
^inderBtanding and ahe cried out, ' Stop, stop, parson, this is the wrong man ! ' 

Sometimes a bridegroom, who has really no objections to the yoke, will be too 
ignorant to know how to give his assent, or too confused to know when to give it, 
and iJie bride herself has been seen putting her hand to the back of his bead and 
making it bob down mechanically at the proper times. If not exactly according to 
law, I do not tiiink this mode of assisting the ceremony could reasonably be 
objected to. 

I witnessed no negro funeral I understand that on such occasions both men 
and women attend, and engage in religious services, singing especially, over the 
grave. There are no graveyards in the country districts. Th^ bnry their dead 
where they will, or can, and mark the spot by a plant, called Dragon's Blood, with 
dark red leavee. 

There are still lingering some vestiges of old African superstition. Not long 
since, in the neighbourhood of Brownsville, when the body of a murdered man was 
dog up for inquest, a knife was found beside him in his coffin, put there in case he 
might find it useful in punishing his muiderer in the other world. Their main 
superstition is called Obeahism, something like witchcraft. It is supposed that 
Hnne persons have a secret power of inflicting evil, or of counteracting it. They 
are called Oheah-men, and are in secret dreaded by nearly aU, though most people 
-openly make light of them. 

{To he concluded in next.) 



AN APOSTOLIC PEATER-LADDER. 

Eph. iii. 16-19. 

See Apostle Paul, as eveij godly man thoroughly believed i 
must be, as every gospel ambassador value and Ihe power < 
should be, was a man of prayer. He accordingly for himself a 



72 AN APOBTOLIO PEAYEB-IJLDDBE. '""Si.^fc?'^ 

the prayers of others, atwl gsve to others Step lit of tUs apostolic ladder of 

K large place in lusown sapf^catioiiB. prafer: 'That He would grant you l« 

His epiBUes contain some fine niecimenB be strengthened with might bg Hi* Spirit 

ot Bnch intercesnon, on behalf of Ihose in the inner man' Here, aa all throagb, 

to vhom. he was writdng, or among each eipre»ioa has its wealth, of sng- 

■whom he bod laboured; and nothing gestiTeneH. Three points present them- 

conld be finer than that which is in selves: What! Hovit Wieret ' 

these verses for pattern to ns. It is 1. That Ha would gi«nt yoa — mhatf • 

indeed so grand in scope, and has such ' To be strengthened icilh might.' And 

a weight and wealth' of idea in every bo ha who preys reckoned them to be 

clause, that we can now only essay to in themselves Htreogthlees, to have no 

catch up a few surface snatchea of the inborn or self-^oouraUe resourcea ot 

treasure. might ; and so it behoves ug to rei^on 
in regard to ourselves. Apt enoogh we 

There is a Jirst elauie, which may be are io think onrselvee inherently strongs, 

said to cover and qualify — to cast its self-sufficient, — perhape jost when there 

glow of supernal snn-lmghtneSB over — may be the most reason to know oor- 

all that follows : ' That He would grant selves feeble and nnstable. And then 

Siu, accordingto tie riehet of His ghry.' how some eword-point of temptation iw 

ere is the measure of the apostle's tribulation can be made to pierce the 

asking and desire on behalf of 'the wind-bag of onr self-delusion, and turn 

saints ' and ' faithf nl ' at Ephesus. And oui pride to shame J But, as this same 

what a measure this was to fashion his apostle in beautiful paradox elsewhere 

petition by 1 what a fountain for mortal expresses it, ' When I am weak, then 

man, for creature of any degree, to draw am I strong : ' when most oompietelj 

upon ! We recall the word of king emptied of self-trust and self-bMsliiig, 

AJiasueruB to hte queen, when he had then am I free to be filled with 'power 

reached toward her the golden sceptre ; from on hi^' ' He giveth power to 

' What is thy petition, queen Eether? the faint; and to them tliat cave no 

and it shall be granted thee ; and vhat might He incresaeth strength. £vm 

is thy request? and it shall be per- the youths shall faint and be varj, 

totmeA, even to the half of the king- and the yoong men shall utterly M: 

dom.' The half of AbaBoeros's kingdom but they that wait upon the Xxiid ahall 

of ' a hundred and seven and twenty renew their strength ; they shall monnt 

Cvinces,' was a mighty range to draw up with wings as eagles ; they shall mn 

n, as things are measured on the and not be weary, and tJiey shall walk, 

earth. Bat what was it in comparison and not faint.' 

with that which the pleader's plea here 2. To be strengthened with mighW 
takes hold of? "Ihe riches of His hoiaf ' Sy His Spirit.' That is, Iha 
glory,' who has heaven for His throne, Holy Ghost, the third Person of the 
and the earth for Hie footatool, and the ever-blessed Trinity, on whom it de- 
universe of worlds for tiie range of His volvee, according to connsel and anange- 
dominion I There, believer, is a bank ment among the divine Three, to be 
to transact with j there is a fountain to the immediate source, the directly effi' 
have recourse to I Yon sun in the dent author and Bustuner, of life and 
firmament may pour itself forth, may energy and goodness in man. Cbriet 
.bum itself out, to blacknese ; but ' the the Son, by His ' obadieuee unto death,' 
lichee of His glory ' who kindled it into is the procurer of all that makes up the 
splendour are unreckonable and in- word salvation. The Holy Spirit, by 
exhauslable — for ever. immediate influence and operation, is 
Under the golden glow of this initial the applier to the individaal soul and to 
measuring clause, let ue take survey of the collective Church of that which was 
the several petitions. Together they once for all procured. And therefore 
roa^ remind us somewhat of the ladder this third Person, equally with the 
which Jacob saw, — itn foot resting on second and the first, shall be included 
the earth, its top hiding itself in the in the everlasting dozologies of the lan- 
inflnite depths of the radiant heaven, eomed. 

Some four or five steps of a sublime 3. Strengthened with might liy Bis 

prayer-ladder are here, each introduced Smrit — where .' ' In the inner man.' 

by a ' that ' or its equivalent. ' The inner man ' aa contrasted with tbe 



"•"JJ^^Tiwf"*^' AU AP08T0U0 PBATBE-LADDBB. 73 

ont^. "The inner man,' our taie mU, indeed bo th&t 'tbe game mind' which 

which pmperlj detennineB and rapre- was in Him is Inminoos in iu — that 

senta what we are, and what we atall menfoan reoogniM in na verj ' epistlea ' 

be ; which renden va capable of fellow- of Him ? 
ship with God, of beanng ^e likenen 

of God, of poeseHing ' Ute power of an SUpSd: *That ye, behtg rooted and 

oidleBB li£&' ' Might in the inner man ' groanded in loot, mag he able to eompre- 

ia Bomething far other and nobler tiian kend with aU taiatt lehat U the breadth 

ini^t in ue onter. The latt^ mav and length and dtptk and height.' Faitii 

coiuiatwith^emoet abject and thtnoogh and lore are twin tiateiB, are inceparable 

and hdplcRB enalarement, aa witneea matea in the hotuehold of the graces ; 

the sbrajg man Samion laid to Bleep on and hence the close following of tiie one 

the Uep of Delilah ; the former, which npon the oUier here. What God hath 

the E^MBtle makes the matter of hia thos joined together, let none presume 

intereoBion, oanies ils pooetaor into to Bonder. 

tiie experience, the eniorment of 'the The 'for this canse' of ver. 14 re- 

glonom liberty of the cMdren of God.' snmed the 'for this caose' of Ter. 1 ; 

Lord, howsoever it maj be in respect of and the proper connection and spring 

oar fleahhf frame, grant onto na ' to be of thia prajei accoidinglT is in the 

strengthened with might bj Thj Spirit doaing reraea of the pre^ding chapter, 

in the inner man ! ' Throa^ that cloee of the preceding 
chapt^ tite fignre of a bniloing pre- 

Step 2d of this apoatolic ladder of vails, — a hoi; temple, whereof every 

prayer: ' That Christ nay dweU in govr believer is a living stone. And in 

hearu by /aitk.' GhriBt in Hie visible beantifol correepondeuce thereto, in 

peraon is not now near bat far. The thia stage of the sapplioation, tiie fignro 

neavHia have received Him ' until the of a building, in somewhat different 

times of the restdtntdon of aU thinga.' manner of r^erence and relation, be- 

Bnt ' might in the inner man ' bringmg comes evident and conspicnoos. The 

iarOi fruit of faith, becoming vigour of words ' rooted and gronnded ' already 

faith, what marvels it is capable of ac- bring up the idea of a bnflding ; and 

WDaplishing I Yea, aa Jeans Himself then there are these fonr express terms 

nid, ' Nothing shall be impoadble ' to of measurement, 

it 'Faith,' ve read in another epistle, ' Breadth and length and depth and 

'is the substance of things hop^ for, height '—it ie not said of what. How 

the evidence of things not seen.' It is the elHpsis to be gapplied? What, 

makes the unaeeu as if visible, the in using snch termB, had the apostle 

distant B8 if near. It can in a maimer directly in his eve 7 Some understand 

lift the Bonl into heaven before the time, 'the love of Christ' by anticipation 

or bring heaven with its best things &om the following claose. Others think 

down intothesool. Heaven's beet tres' of the smiitnal temple whereof thepre- 

sore to the apprehension of the renewed vious chapter had spoken, — the wide 

nature is Gbnst; and divinely infused embrace of 'the whole family,' the 

ene^y of faith can cause the heart to Christian brotherhood, in its imity of 

know Christ as a very dweller wiUiin it. love. Otiieis suggest tiie divine nsdnire 

Christ a ' dweller in the heart of faith : ' and character, pointing to the sublime 

what establiahment and sense of security utterance of Zophar the Naamathit« is 

in that ! what peace and j(^ and hope the Book of Job : ' Canst thou by 

in that — earnest and f metasta of the searching find out Ood ? canst thon find 

coming glory I Most worthy aspiration, out the Almighty unto perfection? It 

truly; most covetablc posseBaion 1 How is as high aa heaven; what oanst thou 

far are we giving evitusee that it is so do ? deeper than hell ; what canst thou 

with us ? U Christ be within, then He know ? The measure thereof is longer 

will and must betray His presence ; than the earth, and broader than the 

will and must cast forth gome radiance sea.'. On the whole, the best int«r- 

and aparkle of His beauty throngb look pretation seems to be the divine pnrpoge 

and word and deed ; will and must of grace, which is the apostle's central 

leave the trail of His own purity and theme in the epistle ; the scheme of 

gentUneas and goodness and devoutuess redemption, whitm it is the grand design 

over Uie footprints of our goings. la it of the gospel to reveal. 



74 AN APOSTOLIC PBATBE-LADDBB. '""SiTC^f'^ 

In reg&rd to thiB bnildiiig, there is to and jomble. How difFereut when, ve 

be noticed — the toxoAittioa of it, tbe haTe entered within, uid have got onr 

compua of it, and what ia said and enp- foot planted on tbe dirine pavement of 

plicated aa to the Ephesian belieTere in love I Then, ae from a gloilouB vantage 

relation tiiereto. 1. "The foundation, gronnd, the eje can take in proportions, 

or, as we ma.j rather say, the flooring and range over dimensionB, and trace 

of it : ' Kooted and grounded in love.' oat ever more and more marvel tA 

Ton can understand God's love to as, wisdom, and righteooaness and mercy, 

or our love to Him, oi love that flows ' Shall be aUe to comprehend with all 

from heart to heart upon the earth. Bunta.' Yet we are here already brooght 

SaOier, perhaps, in such coanection we in mind that the full dimensions are tn- 

need not distmgaiBh tiiese, but tMnk comprtliensibk, immeasurable, even » 

of tiiem as blending into one complete God's own etemily and infinity. The 

idea, <Hie inseparaUe whole, somewhat ' stractoie, as we mnse, expands and 

as in that sublime saying of another expands, till the ontermost bonndaiies 

apostle : ' Crod is love ; and he that on all aides have widened ont and away 

dwelleth in love, dwells in God, and beyond the utmost range of our ken, 

God in him.' 2. The eon^xin of 'Uie and room is left for no leas than an 

building, particularized in the fonr eternity of exploration. But jost as we 

measurementB of ' breadth and length begin now our survey of God's pnipne 

and depth and height.' The divine of grace from this inner paving <A lore, 

purpose of grace — in its ' breadth,' taotd are we preparing to join with 'aU 

as tbe necessity of man, and the ex- aainta' and angels in the grander le- 

nanse of the world's nations ; in its searches, the vaster and all-ravishing 

' knglh,' long as the two eteniitJes,^ discoveries, in the Jerusalem above. 
the eternity of tie past, in which it was 

deriaed, and the eternity of the future, Sltp ith : ' And Co know the lone of 
through which it shall stretch onward Christ, which passeik knowledge.' Here 
in bleaaed fruition j in its 'depth,' deep still tie image of a bnilding ma^ be 
even to the uttermost of human sin and present to our thought ; bat now it is 
-woe ; and in its ' height,' high as the love altogether, as one complete en- 
^tudes of the everlasting glory. S. closure — around, above, beneatlL It is 
What is said and supplicated tn relation the same biulding as before, but urn- 
thereto: 'That ye, being rooted and plifled, sublimated, glorified' in the con- 
grounded in love, may be able to cwn- ception of it, till all around us tiere 
prehend with ail sainla.' First, the shows tbe one golden splendour of 
' rooted and pounded,' as preparatory ' love.' And more eipressly than be- 
to more. This implies being within, in fore, the thought of vaatnees, incom- 
eontraat with them that are without; prehensibilitrf, infinity is present, — 'the 
being fixed, settled, planted within. lo'veotCbiwt which patsethlknowhdge;' 
And settled and planted in what ? ' In which the utmost research of tbe hignest 
love.' How expressive, how instructive, created intelUgence, of all created io- 
how admonitory, tbisl There is no telligences combined, will fail to erobnkce 
Bach thing as being within God's circle and range through. No contradictioa, 
of grace and salvation, and being in a however, it is, but only a characteristic 
holdfast position there, except as oeing and beautiful paradox, when the apostle 
in the fixture and embrace of love, prays for tbese Ephesian Christians, and 
except as shedding around yon a very for ug in aud through them, to be ' en- 
mnsu; and fragrance of love. And abled to know this love which pissetb 
then, as following on this, springing knowledge;' to know it in part, though 
from this rooting and grounding in love, ^ey could not grasp it in whole; to 
— 'able to comprehend with alt tainti know it as a Bwoet, rich, ravishing 
what is the breadth,' etc. Love is that reality to the heart, though the under- 
beyond aU to give steadiness and clear- standing could let down no pltunmet 
neas and penetrating power of vision, adequate to fathom it, could give fwth 
as well as firmness of footing, in the no measuring-line that would compass 
tilings of God. To ' them that are with- it around, 
out,' the schema of grace, the mystery 

"iness, is a mysteiy indeed,— a Step 5th and last of tliia laddor ef 



le, too much a tdiapeless confusion prayer: ' FAof ye mit/ht befitledKithall 



^"mtTult^' THE GLEANEB. 75 

the'Julneti of God.'' This last we tnaj whole work and warfare of tius etxtiHj 

well take for a climax of intaroeMioii, — pilgriiuage. Let na plead for tLe ' in- 

a ladder-top piendug and hiding iteelf awelling of Christ in our hearta by 

away in a firmament of impenetrable faith,' for more and more liTelf ex- 

gloiy. ' Filled witb all die folneM of perienoe and realiiation of it ; Uiat so, 

<^od.' In Ute literal and prosaic genae, whaterer of darkncaa and tempest Uteve 

anch petition might be characterized umj be witiiont, aummer's calm and 

aa a climax of abe^dit?. As well think bri^tnees may powess the aonl'a inward 

to gather the fulneaB of the ocean wateia habitation. iLet ns seek and strive tor 

into the hollow of a shdl, — as well the ' rooting and groonding in lore,' 

imigine to focns the entire expanse of that tkoM, from God's chosen point of 

sdv light and splendour into a human beholding, and with the clearness and 

C7e,— astosappOBeamortalcreatnre, or sharpness of vision which love and 

all creatnrea mortal and immortal, be- nought else can give, we ma^ begin to 

coming in anj strict sense ' filled with aurvey the proportions and dunenmona, 

all the fulness of God.' But what can and search out tike marvels, of God's 

be and is petitioned for is, to have the purpose of grace, and become braced 

divine fulness in ita manifoldneas and for those grander explorations which 

untold licfaneas and exhaustlessnesB of are to be me work and the jor of the 

bleanng, for a free, open, unstinted ransomed on the other side of death. 

weU~spring near at hand, ponring itaelf Let us entreat to have * liie love of 

forth, BO to apeak, runnmg iteelf in, Christ ' in its vastnees, and richness, and 



t c^)acitv', of the he^ia that nees of self-expenditure, more and more 

'tviuiii,- becoming an all-saffidng, all- nnveiled to our minds, more and more 

Ba,tiBfyiag portion throngh the life that for an influence and power upon onr 

now is, and then merging into tbe hearta ; consuming from within us all 

' folnesa of joj ' in Ood's onTsiled pre- eelfishoees and sin, and turning our life 

srace for evermore. "E'"' ^^ earth into one ' whole burnt- 
onering ' of loyal service and gratefnl 

Thus have we sought to climb stop praise. And let as beseech, finally, as 

by ctep this apostolic ladder of inter- the crown and enm of all aapplioatioa 

eeutify Bopplication. A stody it is in and desire, that ' the fulness of God ' 

itwli, equal and worthy to engage the may be to us the ever-ready fountain of 

beet powers of our undeistanding ; bat supply in all our need ; yea, may be tn 

A model, at the same time, for oni ns, ' acoocding to the riches of Hia 

liearta to take hold of, and torn to glory,' ' a well of water springing up 

account, and offer np in the fellowahip into everlasting lite.' 

of the E0I5 Ghost, each for himself. And 'now unto Him that is able to 

and all tat one anotiier. Let ns entreat do exceeding abundantly above all that 

for the inward ' Btreugthening with we ask or think, accordingto the power 

might by the Spiri.t,' that so we may that worketh in ns, nnto Him be gloiy 

become firm as a rock against ^ in the Church by Christ Jesus, through- 

presErure of evil, and vigorous and out alt ages, wrald without end. Amen.' 

buoyant and l^ve for fulfilment of the D. M'L. 



C|^* ^leaner. 

dos't be too CI 



Wbatever you do, never set up for a cridc We don't mean a newspaper one, 
bat in privato life, in the domestic cirde, in eodety. It will not do any one good, 
and it will do yon harm-— if yon mind being called disagreeable. If you don't like 
any one's nose, or object to any one's chm, don't put your feelings into words. 
If any one's manners don't pletee you, remember your own. Feo^ are not all 
made to anit one taste, recoUsct that. Take things as you find them, unless yon 
can alter tbem. Even a dinner after it is swallowed cannot be made any better. 
Continoed fault-finding — continnal criticiBm of the conduct of tikis one and the 
apeech <k that one, the dress of the other and the opinions of t'otiker — will make 

C;oo>;lc 



76 THE OLEAITER. '^''TXI'iSii!'^- 

home the anhappieet place under the eiui. If jonore never pleased with anyone, 
no one will be pleased irith yon. And if it is known yon are h&rd to anit, few will 
take pwna to anit you. — SeUeUd. 

LET aol OB, HOW A SOUL IN DABEHESS FOumt CHRIST. 

Dr. Spencer, in conTermng with a lady who had s long while been seeking tilie 
SaTioat weftrisomely, asked how it was that at lengtb ^e found Him. He thtu 
narrates tiie seqtiel : — ^Hany moDths after, I had an opportoniiy for oonTenataon 
with my ptBaeT cri ng friend. I made aootiier attempt to learn (as I had some- 
timaa tned to^leam before) what it was that kept her ih her nnbdief for so long a 
time in those dark days of her wearisome seeking. 

'Yon have aded me that,' she said, 'more than onoe befwe, and I nerer oonld 
tell you. I have often thought of it, but it always seemed mysterious to me. I 
beliered the Spirit had led me, bat I did not know how. Bat a while ago, in one 
of v^ backalidings, I thonght t found ont something about it.* 

'Well, how was it?" 

' I was in a cold state,' said Bhe ; ' I had lost all the little light I ever had. I 
knew I had done wrong. I had too much neglected payer ; my heart had beoome 
worldly ; and for a good many weeks I 'nas in tronue and fear, for I knew I had 
wandered far Srota QoA. Then I thought I felt jnst as I used to before T had aoy 
Iiope, when I was coming to your house so much. And tiien I tried to reooUeet 
wlut I did to come to tlw light at that tjme, so as to do the same tMng now. But 
I couldn't remember anything about it. However, while I was trying, one thing 
oame to my mind which did me some good. Tou know your sermon that ycm 
preached just b«f ore I came to have any hope, — I don't remember the tort,— but it 
Tsa aboat wandering sinnen lost on the mountains ? ' 

' No, indeed, madam, I have no recotlectaon of it.' 

' Well, I cant tell ;on what it was ; I cant repeat it. Maybe I can tell enoogli 
to make you remember. I know you lepreeentod us in that sermon as kst sinnos, 
lost in the woods, wandering over mounts after moimtain, in dark and dsngnoos 
places among the rocks and precipices, not knowing where we were going. It 
grew darker and darker aa we were groping along, sometimes on the brink of a 
dreadful precipice, and didn't know it. Then some of ns began to fall down tbe 
steep mountains, and thou^t we shonld be dashed to pieces — I know / thondit 
BO. Bat we caught hold ot the bushes to hold onreelTes up by them ; some bnuieB 
would give way, and then we would oatch others, and hold on till they gave way, 
brote, or tore up by the roots, and then we would catch others, and othera. Dwit 
you remember it, sir? ' 

' Partly ; bnt go on.' 

' Well, you said our friends were calling to us, as we hung taf the boshes on 
the brink, and we called to one another, "Hold tm — hold an." Then you said this 
cry, " Hold on — hold on,'' might be a very natural one for anybody to make, if he 
should see a poor creature hanging over the edge of a precipice, clinging to a littJe 
bnsh with all his might — if the man didn't see anything else. Bat you said there 
was another thing to be seen, which these " hold on " people didnt seem to know 
aoytliing about. Yoa said the Lord Jesus Christ was down at the bottom of the 
precipice, lifting up both His hands to catch us, if we would consent to fall into 
His arms, and was crying out to us, " Let go — let go — let go." Up above, all 
around where we were, you said they were erymg out " Hold on^-iold on." Down 
below, yon swd, Jesus Christ kept crying out " Let go— let go ; " and if we only 
knew who He was, and would let go of the bushes of sin and self-righteouHneas, 
and fall into the arms of Christ, we should be saved. And you said we had bett^ 
stop our noise, and liilen, and hear His voice, and lake Hie advice — and " let go." 
Dont you recollect that sermon, sir ? ' 

' Yes ; only you have preached it better than I did.' 

' Well, when I remembered that sermon last spring, in my dai^ backslidden 
state, I tried to obey it. I " let go " of everything, and trusted myself to Christ ; 
and in a little while my heart was comforted — my hope oame back again. And 
afterwards, when T was wondering at it, I thoaght perhaps it was just so when 
you preached that sermon a great while ago, when I was first led to hare a hope 



^"'Slialirt^^ HOME OIBOLH. 77 

of BslvatioD. But I nerer thonght of it before ; I don't know how I foond pekoa 
and hope the first time, if this was not the wvf. I suppoae ve iukve to make our 
dioice whether to "hold on" to iomething which cant aaTe qb, or "let go" and 
fail into Ihe hand* of the Lord.'' 

The eSorte of a t^al apirit are diiectlr the o]E^K>Bite of «u eraagelieal faith. 
Bt natare, every unner lewrta to the law. It cannot Bare him. He most let oo 
of that, and fal] into the anna of Christ FoitAnvea, and Jeiua Christ iadiewde 
object of f«ith. 



I" 



fams €xxdt. 

' Give hb thii dky our dkUy'bra&d.' — Hatt. t 



'TfE must piaf to those we live hjl' shrivelled tree, wiiich he hoped was a 

The drcnmstances in which these woidi piece of bread which a previous traveller 

wraeutteied were the following: — There had left; hastening forward, he eagerly 

had been an election of a member of seized it, bn( . on doing so exclaimed in 

Fatliament, and the contest had been bitter disappointment, ' It is only a 

very keen, and it was supposed that pearl 1' Pearls ma^ be for ornament, 

some things not of a very nononiable bat bread is a great necessity. 

Und bad been done to induce people to It will be observed that we are here 

vote contrary to their principles, and not taught to pray for 'great things' 

even in violstioa of their promise. A — the luxuries of life. If these cone to 

poor man against whom a charge of ns legitimately, they are to be used, as 

unfaithfulness wfts brought answered the all else is, for the glory of God and our 

charge by astog these words, which, it own highest good ; but we are not to 

seems, are occasionally quoted as an setoarheartonthesethinga. Andifany 

excuse or palliation of wrong-doing tor think that the petition is too humble in 

the sake of promoting our worldly its nature and limited in its range, let 

interest. them remember that, whilst frugality 

'The phrase, however, expresses, when has been an honour and a source of 

li^tiy understood and need, a great blessinc to individuals and to nations, 

truth. We must and oufht to pray to luxury has been the sure precnrsor and 

Him we live by. In God ' we live and procuring cause of their decline and 

jooYt and have our being,' and to Him deetmction. 

io prayer all flesh should come, in order It is, however, not ' bread,' but ' our 

that they may receive the blessings that bread, ' for which we are taught to pray. 

relate to the life that now is, as well as In the word of God we are dearly and 

those tiiat relate to that which is to unmistakeably told that God appoints the 

came. bounds of our habitation, and assigns to 

'Give us this day our daily bread,' is each his lot. The conditions and posses* 
one of tlie petitions which form part of aions of men are various; but it is not 
the prayer which our Lord taught His for the Ghrisbian to envy thtwe who may 
disciples; and thus wears emboldened to in comparison with him be rich and in- 
come to God as supplicants for the supply creased in goods. The spirit of envy is 
of wants wliieh, indeed, are often alike not only unchristian, it is insatiable, 
pressing and distressing, and which, An indolent, discontented, envioos man 
nevertheless, we are apt to imagine as was in the habit of going to a hill from. 
things beneath the notice of the Almighty which he surveyed the goodly posses- 
One, aions of a neighbouring squire, and on 

in meditating on these words, we ask looking around turn he would exclaim, 

you to consider these three points: — 'Why wasnot Ibornheir tothisestate?' 

I. Tbe Subject of the Petition — Suppose, however, that this man bad 

' Our daily bread.' — Here every word is been born heir to the British throne, he 

ugnificant. ' Bread ' has been called would have asked, ' Why was not I bom 

' tiie BtaS of life. ' It is necessary not heir to the whole world ? ' and even had 

only for the satisfying of hunger, but he possessed it, like another Alexander, 

for -Uie support of our existence. A would have wept because there was not 

hungry Arab traversing the desert saw another world to be pcssessed. It hu 

before him something underneath a been said, 



...Ck>(^i;5lc 



78 HOME OIBOM!. '""Sl^rS?^ 

> Who UvM to nature cuely vlU be poor, ezelaimod tbftt it had been built by his 

Who Uvu to iMcy arety mil be rich.' power, and for hia glory. Very apeedily 

Indeed, the man who 'liTGS to fancy' and Tsry completely, however, was he 

will always be pooi, whatever his ma- shown his error. He was burled from 

terial poesesdoDS, — ^poor in contentment his proud elevation, and reduced to the 

and submisBion to the will of God. level of the beasts of the field, until be 

It is not only ' oar bread,' but ' our was made to know that he, in common 

daili/ bread,' for which we are permitted with all the kings of the earth, was la 

to pray. The children of Isnd had the dependent on the King of Ungs as the 

manna given them day by day continn- meanest of his snbjects. 
ally. They who gathered only a day's That was a wise as well aa pioog 

snpply lacked nothing; those who inscription which Queen Elizabeth 

gathered more had nothing over, or caused to be put on the medals tiiat 

^nd it tarn only to rottenness. Now were struck in honour of -^e great 

surely in this, as weU as in such ezhor' victory achieved by the fleet of England 

tations as, 'Take no thought for the over theself-styled'inTincible Aimada' 

morrow,' ' Sufficient onto the day is the — ' He blew uritk His winds, and th^ atre 

evil thereof,' we are taught that there tcatured,' 

may be an evil in hoarding np wealtb This year we have been very sttikiii^y 

for the time to come. It is tme that in taught how dependent we are on the 

dependence on God for the future, as power of Ood. The farmer, in the 

well as the present, a prudent provision sesson of Bpring, cast the seed into the 

may be made for days to come, but this smI, bnt the snn withheld its shining, 

is very different frota heaping np riches, and the clouds poured forth their rain, 

as if tiieir possession rendeKd us inde- and it was made clearly manifest tbst 

pendent of the daily care of God. and there is a power greater than that of 

made us no longer the recipients of Hit man's, and which is necessaiy to make 

bounties. the work of man effectual. 'Thotr 

JI. The Petition itself — ' Give ns.' openest Thy hand,' says the Fnhniit, 

— Here we are taught that whatever we ' and sappliest the wants of all hving.* 
receive from God comes not on account 8. 0/ GraHlitde. — No spirit is mow 

ol any merit on our part, but solely on hatefol than that of ingratitade. To 

account (^ mercy on His. Many lessons, rec^ve mauy and precious and mott 

therefore, are t&ught us by this con- necessary ptts, and yet to mnrmoi 

aideration. Thus — ^ <...., i . ,. , . 



1. A Letaon of Hmaiiily. — What have 
wethatwehavenotreceived? Thepride to the common affairs of life, deemed 
of birth is one of the meat common and utterly detestable. And yet how prone 

Eotent forms of pride. It is supposed we are to feel and act in this manner in 

y not a few that the world ia divided regard to God ! ' From Him cometh 

into two classes, — men of birth, as the dowli every good and perfect gift.* Bat 

phrase is, and men bom of parents whilst swift to perceive what is supposed' 

humble and obscure. And 'men of birth' to be lacking, we are slowto note the 

{dume themselves on the circumstances abundant and suitable snpply. 
of their nativity, as if there were any On one occasion a person said to a 

merit in being Inm the son of a king, friend, ' I experienced a great mercy this 

or demerit in being bom the son of a day. I was riding over a bridge, and 

beggar. And as to wealth, that fmit- my horse stumbled, but fortmiat^ re- 

fnl source of pride, whether it comes by covered itself, and so we were saved 

hereditary possession or is acquired t^ from falling over into the river.' 'I 

our own efforts, it equally is the gift of also,' was the reply — 'lalsoexperienceda 

God ; and in the contemplation of richee, great meT<^ to-day. 1 passed over tiiat 

however great, the feeling ought ever to bridge, and my horse did not stumble.' 

be not that of seU-eUtion, but humility. We note tha one stumble, but forget the 

for therein is seen not the result of our hundred times when there was no atnm- 

labour, bnt the beneficence of God. bling. The moments of miaenr and 

2. Of Dependence. — When Nebu- days of sicknesB are keenly felt and 
cbadnezzar surveyed Babylon, with its long remembered, but the hours ol 
marvellDus hanging gardens-and magni- happiness and years of health find no 
ficent palaces, he was greatly elated, and place in our memory. But this m not as 



""nZtluST-' HOME OIBOLE. 79 

it ought to be ; and in the review of the the verj poor and feeble. Urns we an 

bDoatiea of Cjod's proTidence as well aa taught that, whilat the rich are to rive 

the bleflBings of His ffrace, we ahonld call out of their abundance, and aoooKung 

npoa our RonlB and all that ia within to their abondance, the poor are to giro 

OH to bo Btdrredupto praise and magnify ont of their poTertr, and according to 

His name. their pOTerty. Wliile the poaseaaor of 

4. Of FespomibiHty.—Tb» Lord be- five talents is to lay them out to watj, 

stows gifta upon ug that they may be bo that he may gire a good acconut oi 

ri^tly osed, and for the use we make of them at laat, the pfrnsninr of only one 

them we ahall be called to acconnt. talent is not to wrap it in a napkin and 

The gifts of providence are meant by bury it in the earth. ' Talents one or 

God to bo ao uaed se to promote our many ' are equally the gift of Qod, and 

health and increaae our strength, and for their nae we are «qnally reaponmble. 

fit us in these lespecta for the work of III. The Spibit in which this 

life. They are not to be employed PETITION is to BE fssssstsd. — In re- 

fflmply to pamper a carnal appetite, or ligion it ia the ipirit that qnickenelh ; 

in the way of laznrious inanlgence. the fieah profiteth nothing. 

Wo mmt eat to Utb ; bat to lire only to It ia of great importance not only 

eat is despicable. Of old a Soman that prayer be made to Qod contanuaUy, 

satirist described the men of his genera- but that it be made aright. Now, m 

tion. aa ' bom aimply to ccaisnme the reference to the manner in which this 

fcoilaof the earth, '—utterly oblirioos of prayer ahoold be offered, these three 

the end of life, and failing to devote it pouitB are to be earefolly noted : — 

to B noble purpose. And when such is 1. A Spirit of Haly Boldneu. — We are 

tbo case, the day of destroction is nigh. a|tt to imagine that there is something 

Bat we do not make the nae God dignified about prayers for apirifual 

means ostodo of His gifts, if we keep blesBings,andthatweinaybeencoaraged 

them to oorselTes, even though they to come boldly to a throne of grace 

are not spent after the fashion of the with them, whilst temporal bleannga, 

glutton and dronkard. God means ua b^g of inferior value, are to be men- 

to be His ahnonen — stewards of Eia tioned, if at all, only with bated breath. 

bountdes, and it is required of a steward Bnt the folly of thia is shown by various 

that he be futhful. Trom the whole considerations. Thus our Loid speaks 

spirit of the gospel, — from many of its of temporal blessings as in their ^aco 

moat urgent precepts, and from the absolutely necessary, and worthy alike 

example of Him whom we call Lord and of our honest efforts and earnest prayers. 

Master, — wo learn that it ia onr duty, ' Our heavenly Father knoweth we have 

and ought to be felt to be a delight, to need of these things.' And as if to 

miiiiHt«T Co the poor and needy. assure us that we cannot be too miunte. 

When Sir FMlip Sydney was sorely and should not regard any temporal 

wounded at the battle of Zutphen, he gift aa too trifling to be made a subject 

reqnealed a draught of water, and just of snpplication. He save, 'The hairs of 

as no was putting it to his lips a poor your head are i^ numbered.' 

dying soldier was carried past, and Again, what important influence on 

looked wistfully up. The gallant com- our spiritual condition have not oar 

mander, noting this, at once took the temporal circumatancea 1 How many 

vessel from his lips, and, handing it to are there who even at the time of their 

his fellow-sufferer, said, ' Thy necefimties devotions have their minda utterly dis- 

are yet greater than mine. This was liactfid by corroding care about ways 

atmlynobleandChriat-likedeedjandon and means! They cannot tell how they 

the great day of account it is men who themselves and those dependent on than 

have done deeds like this that are to are ' to eat and drink, and wherewithal 

be held io honour. For ' he that gireth they shall be clothed.' And anxiety 

a cap of cold water to a disciple in the about these things—caUed emphatically 

name of a diadple, shall not lose his the necessaries of life — is oft«n so 

reward.' baraamog as to drive away the spirit of 

And observe here, how it is not said piety, and unfit the soul for communion 

that only great deeds are to be held in with Qod. Is it not well, then, to make 

remembrance, but the giving of a cup earthly care a means of heaven^r dis- 

of cold water,— a gift poesible even for cipUne, by coming directly to God with 



80 HOMEdBOLE. ""S.^w;'^ 

wtuLt HO dntreaaefl lu, and aak Hia aid? things ' ibtb woe working t<«etiier tot 

And we are emboldened thiu to come, hit eood. The lartketttee thon^t it 

for it is said, ' How ihall He who spared would be well with them if the^^ad a 

not His own Son, butg&Te Him up unto king like the snirounding nations ; bat 

the de&th for us All, not wit^ Him also though God declared it waa not Hia will 

freely gire jon aD t^ungs? ' that thej should have one, and it would 

2. IinpUeit Faith, — It is said that 'he hetac their hurt, jet they continiied to 

that Cometh to God must believe that chunonr Tmtil God permitted titeaa to 

He is, and that He is the rewazder of follow Uieir own devices, and soon the; 

those that diligently seek Him.' diseoveiad that God is wiser and moie 

We readilj acknowledge the reoaon- mercifiil than man. 

ableness and neoeAitjr of this in t-Mord ' Get money,' it has been said, 

to things epiritnal, bnt we have di£- ' honestly if yoa can, but get mcaiey.' 

eulty in realizing it in reference to How many, acting on this advice, have 

tilings tempoToL But the promise of found to their cost that tbur wealth 

God extends to the latter as well as to broughtwith it only a corse! ' Havine 

the former. Indeed, His children have a food and raiment, therewith be content^ 



which the men of the world have not, from hombiwt dicomstonces to a posi- 

even when their com and wine do most tion of afSuence and bonooi, tel& ns 

abound. God hath entered into covenant that he had been at the table-of tKinces, 

with them, and assured them that they and shored the meal of the day-Mbonrex 

that fear Ihe Lord shall lack no good by the roadside, and he found tbat 

thing. ' My God,' says the apoetle of haziness was very equally divided, — 

the Gentiles, ' shall supply all your that the rich bad their Borrows and the 

needs, according to the riches of His glory poor had their joys. 

in Christ Jesus.' 'The Lord God is a Bat apart nom this, how true and 

sun and shield,' says the Fsalmist touching the reason urged in Holy Writ : 

David. ' He will give grace and glory ; ' It u cwtun that as we brought Dothing 

He will withhold no good thing &om into the world, so we shall t^ nothing 

them that walk uprightly.' God is a out' Surely, then, 
covenant-keeping God. For, says the ' Ha builds loo low, 

PBolmist, ' I have been yonng, and now Who boilda beoeath the skioa.' 

am old, yet have I never seen the And it ought to lead ns to be submis- 

righteous foiBaken , uor his seed begging sive to the will of God in all things, that 

bread.' Thus faith has the sorest it is to meeten us for ' mansions in the 

ground on which to rest, even when oni skies ' that He gives or withh<dds ; for 

prayer relates to ' the life that now is.' assuredly giving doth not impoveri^, 

S. Devout Submasion, — Christ in all and withh<3ding doth not ennch Him, 

things left ns an example that we should and were it for onr real good He could 

follow in His atepa ; and the one thing as easily give us storehouses replenished 

which He most brightly and conspicu- with abundance as a crust of bread. 
ously exemplified was a spirit of devout From this petition, then, we see how 

submission to His Father's will. With wide the range of prayer. It embraces 

Himitcverwaa, ' Not my will but Thine the temporal as well as the spiritual — 

be done.' 'the common round, the djulr ta^,' 

And surely, when we conuder how as well as the observance of rehgion — 

wise as well as loving God is, how short- the body as well as the soul — 'dailj 

sighted we are, we may see reason for bread ' as well as ' the riches that 

Bubmisdon even in the most trying cir- endure for ever.* Snrely, then, we laxj 

cnmstances. For God is good — be 'careful for nothing, bnt in every- 

' Good whan Ha gives thing, b^ prayer and supplication with 

Not IssB when Ha denies; tliauksgiving, Id) our requests be made 

E*Bn croe«e»from His Bovoraign Land known to God.' And if we do so amid 

ArebtoBsii^siiidiBgaisB.' ^ ^ trials and tribulation of ow 

Jacob, as he was about to go down to present earthly lot, ' the peace of God, 

Egypt in his days of trouble, said, ' All which passeth all understanding, shall 

these things are against me,' but soon keep our heart and minds through 

discovered that they were among 'the all Ciinsl Jesus.' BaI£BHO. 



ftiiTwni^' COERESPONDENCE. 81 

CorrespirniJtnn. 

VOLUNTARYISM. 

TO THE EDITOR OK THE DNITGD FRE3BTTERIAH MAGAZINE. 

Sm,— I am one of mimj who fondlf followed out, tenda directly to the aop- 
flittered onrBelfee that the cause of Vol- port o( these institutions. Indeed, many, 
untaipsm bad got a considerable lift vithoutanycallbeingaddreHedtothem, 
while Lord Hartington wbh here. But Toluateer snch suicidal arguments. It 
things, especially in Edinburgh, seem would be tedious and otbOTwise iuoon- 
noff to wear a rather sombre aspect.* Tenient to notice such arguments in de- 
The trouble arises partly, I believe, from tail ; but I beg tA be excused for oSer- 
our bcbg twitted and taunts for ^eged iug a simple and obvious remark, namely, 
ID cODsistencieH and fallacies, practical and tbat this is one of many subjects on which 
(heoreticAl, by certain persons, some of it is inexpedient for very many people to 
whom candidly avow hostility to Volun- theorize. There is, in foot, no need for 
toryism ; and others, we sespect, equally discussiou. Let us base our demand for 
fasting it in their hearts, who profess abolition on the plain, palpable fact that 
great admiration for it in a higher and a decided majority of toe peo^e of Scot- 
more transcendental form than we have land do not belong to tho Established 
yet attained to. It would surely be of Church, and are presumably unfavour- 
importance tocntofE occasion from those able to it. For pouticians (tmd it is with 
who thos discourage our friends and fur- them alone that we have to do} that 
nish welcome aid to our opponents. Mere ought to be perfectly sufficient, 
cavils deserve no attention. But I may Our American brethren, though vastly 
advert to a few points which seem to acute, seem to me to have missed the 
claim consideration. mark a little. They have exceedingly 
And first of all, a loud cry is raised improved the notonons 23d chapter of 
agaiast those who demand the aboli- the Confession of Faith ; but they have 
^n of ecclesiastical Establishmcnta and not brought it up to any standard. They 
yet plead for teaching religion in State- contend that ' it is the duty of the civil 
supported schools. The Right Rev. Dr. magistrate to protect the Chnrch of our 
FtuQ is reported to have said, on a late commonIiord,without giving the prefer- 
public occasion, that those who abject ence to any denomination of Christians 
to the teaching of religion to adults in above the reat, in such a manner that all 
churches maintained by the State, and eoclesisstical persons whatsoever shall 
yet plead for teaching religion to the enjoy the full, free, and unquestioned 
young in schools supported by public liberty of discharging every part of their 
rates,aieiustiychargeBbJewithstraiDing sacred functions without violence or 
at a gnat and swallowing a camel. Num- danger.' Now, provided these eccleaiaa- 
beisof our party concur with him in this, tical persons keep within the four comers 
How desirable is it, then, that this stum- of the law, th^ are certainly entitled to 
bling-block were taken out of the way, this liberty. But all other persons are 
either by abandoning the practice com- entitled to a similar liberty on the same 
plained of, or by showing simply and condition. The reason why persons en- 
«learly to public apprehension that it is gaged in religious worship are not to be 
perfectly defensible on principles of the molested is not that tiiey are diachargiug 
purest Voluntaryism ! a most solemn and momentous duty ; but 
Again, wo are told that numbers who the reason is that they arc assembled in 
clamour for the abolition of Establish- their own premises, or in premises of 
ments have only to be asked on what which they have legal possession for the 
ground they maEe that demand, in order time being, and that tbey are engaged in 
to their being found assigning some rca- a lawful occupation. And exactly the 
son which is not only altogether futile, same privilege belongs to persons trans- 
but which, when fairly and logically acting the business of a bank or of a 
railway company, or even in acting or 
■ At the sumo time, it ja oncDnraging to _;t„™,!_„ ufavB. 
i-l«er»e that «« Liberal candidates for "'Sf^UK PJf.yS- «„„„„■- i.tj„ 
Parliameniaiv seata throughout the country The Rev. Sir Henry Moncreiff lately 
generally declare for DiBestabUahment. propounded a scheme which Mr. iaylor 
BO. II. VOL. XXII. MEW SEIUE3. FEBRUARY 1ST8. F 



82 COERE8PONDEN0E. '■ iSL™nSr^- 

luues eeema to have in sabiitance adopt- that a deputation from IJiese, inclDding 

«d, to the effect tliat the Church of Dr. Begg, Dr. Kennedy of Dingwall, and 

Scotland should be disendowed, and that Buodry others, have had an uttcrriew 

no other sect should he endowed; but with the Lord Advocate, and have re- 

that several sects, including, I suppose, preaeuted to him 'that whilst spproving 

all evangelical Frosbfterians, should be of the abolition of patronage, they hold 

ettablUhed, or, as it is Hometintes ex- it to be the dutj of the rulers of the 

pressed, recognised. Nov, lamnotsillj nation to ascertain and remove all re- 

enaagh to trouble you with tile informa- maioing obstacles which prevent a right- 

tioQ that I do not nnderatand what is eous adjuHtment of BxistiDg difficnlties, 

meant ; bab many, looked np to as leaders in accordance with the claims and prin- 

of public opinion, have prononnced the ciples of the Free Church ; and tfaey are 

whole scheme imintelligible, and others persuaded that any additional delay ia 

have used stronger language. Every aacertaining and removing these causes 

peraOQ in die realm is recognised. The of evil may result in veiy serious and 

moat abject pauper is recogniaed as hav- irreparable ooasequenoes.' Witli people 

ing a right to ^e poor's-house. The of lliiH stamp we need to keep no terms, 

humblest artist is recognised as entitled They avow uiemselves opponents. Tiiey 

to eat hia own bread, to wear his own told his Lordship, ' that whUst entirely 

dotbes, to rest under hia own roof, and, opposed to the theory of YolantaryiEn], 

moreover, to grow rich by honest means — or a denial of the duty of nations and 

if ha can; and if any one make an assault their rulers, as such, towards true re- 

on him, or on anything that is his, the ligion and the Church of Christ, — this 

scoundrel, if he can be found, is recog- being inconsistent with the word of God, 

niaed by being apprehended and brought the principles of the Free Church of 

to trial, and it convicted, fined, im- Scotland, and inferring the moat dmger- 

piisoned, or bamshed, or in an extreme ous coosequeneefi, they alw repadiat« 

case subjeeted to capital punishment, all proposals to devote to secnkr purposes 

That is civil recognition, and to what theecclesiasticalrevenueeofthecountiy, 

otlier kind of reoognitioa is any citizen which they regard, both on the ground of 

Sititled ? No doubt, if the endow- reason, hiatory, the treaW of Union with 

menta were taken away, all that would England, and the Free Chtnch Claim of 

remain woald be of very small im- Bights, as belonging, for religious pur- 

portance. But it is manifest that poses, to the people of Scotland.' All 

pemons holding this reco^tion-theory t^ is nothing new, and does not sor- 

are precluded from signmg Diseetab- prise us. But it is well to keep in miud 

lishment petitions, or taking any part the movement that is being made, 
in true utd proper Voluntary move- A report has been in circulation lor 

menta. If t^ Free Church be induced some time that the Lord Advocate has it 

to adopt this notable theory, their con- in his heart to propose some nteaaura for 

sistency, so far as words are concerned, opening still wider the door of entraoce 

may be preserved, but for all practical to the Establishment, and presenting 

purposes they are no more on our side certain baits from within. But I must 

than when Dr. Chalmers proposed to not lengthen this already too ItKig letter 

vmte ' No Voluntaryism ' on their foun- by further referring to this scheme. It 

dation-stone. will be time enough for us to oonsidec 

Conferences of a certain section of the device should it actually be brought 

Free Churchmen were lately held at forward. — I am, etc., 
Glasgow and Inverness, and it appears EFFtsrcs. 



AN IMPORTANT CRISIS. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE DNITED PHESBTTEBIAN X 

Sir, — The Chnrcb in this countiy is in much less occasioD. Ferlu^ the reason 

the midst of a great crisis, and no of no notice being taken, comes from the 

Ghmchman seems to he noticing the very element that gives to the occasion 

fact, or at least no one is giving any its specialty both of character and of 

sign. Certainly an alarm has often been danger ; for the crisis J speak of arises { 

aoimded far and near when there wa« from nothing more noisy or perceptible, , 



COBEBSPONDEMOE. M 

yet nothing less f onutdable, than the anbtln", more iireristible power for good 

ethereal Q)eoulationB of certain influen' or evil on hnTnon life, direct from hnmBa 

tial leaders in philoeophj amongst «.. sonrceB, thui what comes from tlie 

It is made manifest what this crieiB is, philosophy of the pfailosopben. And, 

by these tliTee notable phenomena: let it be obseired, it ia the highest 

Jinl, that Ut. Green has written ^e philoBopby that hsa this inflnenoe in 

' Introdnctkm ' which he hae written to the highest degree, — riz. met«phj«ic or 

Hume's Treatwe on HtiTnan X'atKre, ontology, — the scienoe of the ezisteneee 

and ie ooneeqneiitly the philosopher that conatitnte or control the oniTerse. 

irhidi that pOTfonnance showa him to The course and channel of this inflnenee 

be; mcond, that Profeseor Gaird, of iBobvious«nddirect,howeveTleogthened 

Giaagow University, has written the it may be. The abstract doctrines of 

ndendid work which he has WTitt«u on the metaphysician fiist shape scientific 

£aiit, and is tiierefore the kind of theology into a chaiseter eoiresponding 

philosopber and teacher which that to themselves, and then the scientific 

work implies ; and third, that a yonng tbeology of the learned works thronsfa 

theok^cal professor, in one of the two paths downward on the life of me 

colleges of one of the most orthodox general mass. It moulds, on the one 

Chnrohee in Ghriatendom, has written hand, the religious doctrines expounded 

as he hae done in the corrent number of to the people by the teachers of the 

jtftnd on tbeothertwomentioned works, Chnrch; on the other hand, it deter- 

and is therefore a theologian of such, mines the opinions of the fourth estate 

type as 4^ pbilosophy of that criticisin in the land,— theUterateniewhofashion 

would require and determine him to be. into their own likeness all such of onr 

These phenomena, and one or two fellow-men (and they are not few) se 

things lessobtrasive, or perhaps I should take them for guides, philosophers, and 

say less transparent, make the crins friends. Thus the ontological schemes 

grave enongh. In fact, its gravity, I of the phtloaophers, exprnsed in what 

conceiTB, can hardly be exaggerated. A seemannintelligiblejaT^ntotheartissn, 

great noise is being made about certain nevertheless reach even hie lowly path 

'oses,' — the Smith Case, the Fergnson at last, and by an insidioiis inflnenoe 

Cue, the Dods Case, the Hocrae Case, determine his thought and life according 

The thing eesentjal ta be looked to is a to their own character. ItisawMiderfiu 

current «b strong as it is deep that has manifestatioii of the solidarity of thought 

sot into our national thought in philo- and truth, that metaphysical doctrines 

Sophy, and of which these eonunotions — doctrines that deal only with what 

we bat ripples on the surface,— all and seems farthest removed from vulgar 

except the laat-mentJoned case, which, capacity and concern — should never 

though the noise of it be reverberatang exhaust their influence tiU thw have 

from the Clyde to Taymouth, is too penetrated through sU the intellectual 

much on the surface to have felt the strata that lie between, and reached and 

force of any undercurrent of thon^t moulded the details of the whole indi- 

If it were true that the highest in- vidnal life of tbe nation. Bat so it is ; 

tereste of a nation's life depended not at and because it is so, it is high time that 

all, or bnt little, on the prevalent philo- the Church and the world holh were 

Bophyof the day, — that those influences, looking to themselves in GrealrBriUun. 

mtellectual and moral, which lie nearest The philosophers are upon them. If one 

the sources of nationtd welfare, had but of our UniversitJes in Uie east sounds a 

a remote connection with the specula- retreat to Berkeley, and another in the 

tiona of the philosophers, — the fact that west finds in Berkeley an advantageous 

Hegelianism had burst somewhat sud- base from which to hasten the army of 

denly and with such imposing force over his students by forced marches to Hegel, 

Great Britain would be a fact of no what is to be the result in onr Theo- 

mornent, and there would be no call on logical Halls, in the pioos homesteads 

moralieta, politicians, philanthropists, or from which our stndents are drafted, 

theologians tarabling tbemaelves about and in the pulpits of our churches? 

it But wherever the idea spreads that Philosophers like Green, Caird, and 

idulosophy is indifierent to practical Lindsay do not teach and write in vain, 

interests, it spreads a great and mis- Few professors can inspire such en- 

chievona delusion. There is no surer, thusiasm into all competent students 



84 OOHEESPONDKNCE. ^""'Si.'irSi'^ 

tiiat come under th^ inflaence. And clwore vill be made all the aooner, 
if our Btudenta &t national Uuiveisities through the practical bent of the British 
are to have laid in their minda, and laid tnind. And the fall ma; be as sudden 
amid circometances nod infloences of as the me. But the fall into -what? 
attraction and persaaeioa never to be Kiie however htgli Hegeliuiiam maj, 
forgottea or lost, a foundation of philo- and fall however hooq, in proportion to 
SDi^y whoUj incompatible with the tlie extent in which it baa leavened 
orthodox theology of our Halla, are not learning and opinion, its fall will be a 
the hopes and results of orthodox proportionately extensive lapse into that 
teaching, and with these, thoee of onr abyss from which so spiritoal a pbilo- 
pulpits, and with these again, those of sophj might seem the farthest ranoved, 
our national character and institutions, — the dirt-philosophy. 
tremendouslf endangered ? If the Such is the crisiB. And now what 
professors are Hegelian, the stadents conise shoald the friends of a diSerent 
will be Hegelian; if the students are and better-fated philosophy— what course 
Hegelian, me ministers of the Church should the cbceen guides of theological 
are in danger of being bo; and if the education and of the Church adopt? 
ministeiB of the Church, then largely, Sometimes, when the Hegelianism of a 
too, the people — so far, that is, as the theological professor is mentioaed to 
thing is within their reach — will be those whom it most concerns, they but 
B^elian too. And what does a Hegelian shake their heads, admit the giarit; of 
theology, literatnre, and people mean ? the juncture, and piteoaaly complun, 
Hegel had two wings wherewith he did ' Who is to answer him ? ' Mr. Editor, 
£y. There is a left wing to his body I have actually seen and heard it so. 
andaright, — awingthat coveredFeuer- Now, certainly it is an 'answer' that is 
bach and Strauss, as well as that which needed, and one of power; and it were 
gave shelter to less formidable men, — well it came quickly. But arc we in so 
less formidable, perhaps, because of sad a way in Scotland, is tlie crisis so 
less logically consistent development, inevitably fatal, is Scottish philosophy 
Whether it be the right wing of Hegel- so fallen , that there are no means of pro- 
ianism that is concerned in the British viding this indispensable answer? Aboat 
invasion, or the centre, it is to be re- twenty years ago, such an answer, 
membered that that philosophy, in swift, sare, and strong as a thunderbolt, 
throwing out its expansions, and especi- warded off from the chur of Sir W. 
ally as meeting in these days a favour- Hamilton a philosophy kindred to 
ing influence from natural science, has Hegel's, thatwasabouttotakepossesdon 
always given disproportionate strength of that pre-eminent seat of philosophical 
to the left wing. If Hegelianism is education. Much about the same time 
destined to run its course in these lands, another hand was laid in arrest on cer- 
the result elsewhere will he repeated tain tendencies of Sir W. Hamilton's 
here ; and eventually we must no doubt own philosophy that were held to re- 
look to having amongst usmanymore quirere-direction, anditwasfoundcom- 
of the Feuerbach and Strauss type than petent for the task. Now, in the presence 
ofthetypelesB formidable. The attrac- of a crisis more momentous than any 
tive subtlety of Hegel's dialectic, — the of the kind ever known in Scotlaad, 
gorgeous pageantry of his world-build- might we not naturally look to the same 
ing, — the commanding spectacle of in- quarters for defence ? Oh for a touch of 
tellectual power, harmony, and beauty tbeeebanda! — they are not yet vanished, 
which the whole fabric of bis system Oh for the sound of these voices! — they 
seems to exhibit, — even the faculty for are not yet still. !Piey are on ocoaaions 
ecouomical construction in all the of need heard sounding like trumpets, 
practical arts of human life so charac- There was never such need as now. Is 
teristic experimentally of so abstruse a a false philaswhy to flood the land and 
'philosophy, — all these tend for a while swamp the old philosophy, theology, 
to bedame and betray the minds of and religion too, and no effort be macU 
both good and great men. But the to stem its advance? Are the young 
whole is a dream. Its unsubstantial men, whom the strange exotic allures, to 
characterbyandbvdiscloeesitaelf ; and be left to suppose that it contains bat 
the rocket ifalls naked, (Aiom, and light- tratii, since those who know truth are 
leas to the ground. With ns this dis- offering no opposition ? The philosophy 



»••] 



RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE. 



85 



of Heget has not hitherto been trana- such philosophy is ullowed to t«te root 

planted to our shores, or at least taken and flourish at last amongst ns, it will 

' root in the ScotUah character.' It be bnt small satisfaction to men com- 

coald ' floorisb only by disintegrating patent to prevent the calamity, — if 

and destrimng tlie qualities of our preventod it could possibly be, — that 

native mind,' and those institutions and they did not malce the most limeoos and 

systems of religion and tmth 'whick the most streauous efforts in their power 

reciprocally have nursed and been noned to defend the old truth and to expel the 

by these -national idiosynctades. If new error. "~ 



^rdtUx^mct.—Wimitla ^ttsbstcrian €^X(^. 



1. fboceehinos. 
Banfftlare. — Tbii presbyteij met at 
Banff on the 4th December. The Rev. 



Mr. Eogerson, coBreDeT of presbytery' 
Commutes on Hissioni, gave in a report 
contuning a nriea of recommendalioni. 
Theie were diieasaed, aloag wilb allied 
gnbjects broDghi before the pr.esfajtery 
from convener o( Synod's Committee on 
Sabbath Schools, and from the Foreign 
Secretaiy. A decision wai deferred till 
next meeting. — This preibyteiy met at 
Eclih on the Bth Jannary. A calk from 
Tsrkastad, Caffraris, was presented to tha 
Bev. Alexander Miller, Cabracb. Meiir). 
Wall and Taylor, commissioners from 
Csbrech, nrged the eaineat desire of the 
congregation for Mr. Miller to stay 
snieagtt them. Thereafter, Mr. Miller 
istimated his deciaion to decline the call, 
snd it was set aside. Aathorit; wss 
Itranieil for the election of four elders st 
Findochty. Besnnted coniideration of 
recommendations by Mission Committee, 
which -were adopted in the following 
fonn-. — 1. Tbst s misiionaiy ssiocistion 
be fonned in every congregation. 2. 
That the aystem of moDtblr collections 
be adopted where praoticabte. S. That 
psrtiea deairieg the JKitnonary Seeord 
■honld be supplied bj the collectors, the 
upenaes to be defrayed in aocb manner 
u each assoclstion may determine. 4. 
^t reqaescs for prayer made by mis- 
■iDaaries be attendsd to at the prayer 
meeting or during pnblie worahip. 6, 
That ministers, at least once annually, 
exchange pulpita for the pnrpoae of having 
the claims of foreign misuons preseoted 
to their congregations by other roieea as 
wall aa their own. S. That a brief atate- 
ment be printed and diatiibnied among 
nembsrs giving acconnts of misaionary 
Gelds and those who cnltirate tbem. T. 
That, if practicable, a presbyterial con- 
feienee be held in connection with the 
Usui meetings of the misiionaiy aa- 



II was Bgreed that dspnta- 
tions from the presbytery visit the 
chnrchea and deliver addreasea on Sab- 
bath schools, miasiona, the schemes and 
principles of the Chnrch, and finance. 
Heasra. Maefarlane, Simmers, snd 
M'BaiA were appointed a committee for 
csrrying out these visits. Kexi mea^ng 
to be hsU at Portsoy, on let Tneaday of 
March. 

Bemnek. — It having pleated Qod in Hie 
providence to remove by death the Kev. 
John Stark of Homdean, on the 14th of 
December, in the 53d year of his age, and 
the 39th of his ministry, the preabytery 
met at Homdean on the 19th December, 
on the occasion of hla faneral — Che Rev. 

A. B. Bobertson, moderator. The Rev, 
Gilbert Heikte, of the preabytery of 
Paisley and Greenock, and the Bevs. W. 
Limoni, J. Batherford, O. H. Main, and 

B. Brodie, of the Presbyterian Church of 
England, being present, were ssaocisted 
with the preabytery. Mr. Stsrk'a name 
was taken from the roll ; and the Bev. Q. 
Kerr was appointed Co condact - the 
devotional exerciie* in the chnrch, and to 
give the funeral address. The Bev. Dr. 
Bitch ie was appointed to preach the 
funernl sermon on the Sabbath following, 
and declare the charge vacant. The 
Bev. F. Ueams was appointed moderator 
of session during the vscaney ; and the 
supply of probationera was fixed to begin 
on the second Sabbath of Jannsiy. After 
the impreasive aeivices in the church, the 
fnneral, which was a very large one, left 
for the burial-place ofthe family at Chim- 
side, — The presbyteir met ag&in on the 
athof Jsnnary— theBev. A. B. Robert- 
Bon, moderator. Dr. Ritchie reported 
that he had preached at HomdeHn, as 
appointed by Uie presbytery, and declnred 
the charge vacant. The lata Rev. John 
Stark having been appointed at last 
ordinary meeting to represent the Presby- 
tery at the Hisalon Board of the Synod, 
the Rev. P. Meanis wss chosen in his 
room, and intimated hia acceptance of the 
office. The- Rev. A. B. Roberuon was 



86 



BBLIQIOnS IHTELLIOENCE. 



^p^nUd to diipenM the commnnioii at 
BomdDMi oa the luM S&bb&th of Peb- 
Tuuj. Collections for the Sjnod Fund 
were reported. The committee id corre- 
spondence with congregations in [he lonih 
iMTing Dot yet Bnished their hnainen, Dr. 
Bitcbie'i name waa labBtitated foi that of 
tke late Ber. John 8t>^ and the Be*. D. 
Ken WM made eoDTener of ihii eom- 
mittae. The Her. B. C. Inglie was cfaoaen 
treaiojei of the preabTterj, in room of the 
Ule Ber. John Scark. A petition wai 
read froa Middleaboiough congregation 
praying for diqanction from this presby* 
tery, with the view of their joining ihe, 
Darlington preebytery of the Presbyterian 
Church of England. After Eome coneidera~ 
tioB of the proper mode in vhleh thii 
petition ihoold he granted, it i»a« agreed 
to comply with the prayer of the petiuoo, 
Wd report thia fact to the Synod. The 
B«r. A. B. Bobertion, eonveoer, gne a 
npoit of the proceedings of the Misaion 
Committee, from wbieh it appeared that 
11 majority of the congregations of the 
preit^tny eontribnte monthly, throngh 
drilectora, for miiiionary purpogeg. Ar- 
ntngementa were made for a conference 
OD miiBlons, at Ayton, on the Bth of 
April ; and it was agreed to invite all the 
«lden to be preient. The Bet. W. 
Wilson'* name waa added to the com- 
mittee, io room of that of the late Rev. 
John Stark. Arrangeneats were made 
for further snpply of the Bct. Jomei 
Hmower'i pulpit at Eyenonih, u be is 
■till reonlring relief. 

Sduaurgh A meeting of this preeby- 
tery was held on Tuesday, 8lh Jannary, 
in the hall of the Youuk Men's Christian 
Aiaociation. Mr. Datid Marshall, Eas^- 
Calder, waa appointed moderator for 
the enining six months, and took the 
duir. Mr. Watt, prubatioaer, Eilmaura, 
to whom a call bad been addressed by the 
oongregation of Infirmary Street to be- 
come colleague and auccaswr to Dr. 
Bnice, intimated his acceptance of it, and 
the induction waa fixed to take ptaee on 
t^e 13th February, at iwelre o'clock — 
Mr. Anutrang Black to preach. Dr. 
Bmce to preside, and Mr. Gardiner to 
■ddreas paator and people. Mr. Boben- 
mM (Bread Street) reported that at a 
meeting of the new South Side Coogrega- 
tioo, it had been agieed to call the ReT. 
John Eay, Free Charch, Coatbridge, to 
the pastorate of the chnreb. The call 
wai signed by thirty-four memhen and 
eight adherents. It waa sustained. Mr. 
Bi^aldsoQ laid on the table a call from 
the congregation of Wesl-Calder to the 
Bev. Jamea Wardrop, Craigend, Perth. 
Xhe call was sustained. Mr. Dewar re- 
qsMttd the pnsbyterj to giro iia appiOTal 



to an application to the Home UiMion 
Board (or aid towards the support of a 
missionary at Musselburgh, stating that 
the popnlatiun in and around it waa some 
lO.OUO, and that there were only about 
SODO chnrch-goera. The presbytery ap. 
proTed of the application. 

QIaigoie. — This presbytery met on 
Tueaday, 8th Jannary—BeT. Dr. Black, 
moderator. Dr. Edwards gave in an 
interim report in reference to Mr. Fergn- 
son's case, and stated that correapondence 
bad been held with Mr. Ferguson in re- 
fersnce to the basia of the proposed con- 
ference; nod this having been agreed ou, 
it was expected aaid conference woold 
be held in a day or two. The report wM 
approved. Dr. Seott made a statement in 
reference to the financial position of the 
Church. The total income of the Ctanrc^ 
he said, for missionary and beaevolaat 
purposes, waa in 1876, £104,011, St. Sd., 
and in 1BT7, £91,833, Ui. ad., showing a 
deficiency of £12,179, 3a. 3d.; which wu 
accounted for in this way, that while in 
lB7e, £17,954 bad been received for the 
Hall Capital Fnnd, in 1877 only £3014 had 
been received, showing a decrease of 
£14,940; and as that exceeded the defi- 
ciency on alt the others pnt together, ihey 
would nnderatand that the fanda were, on 
the whole, in a prosperous stale. The 
income for foreign misaions last yeu wu 
£3S,aS2, 2s., and the expenditure £38,401, 
18«. 3d. ; but there moat be carried over 
from the reserve fund created by the lata 
Mr. Alexander Paton, according to the 
terms of his trust-deed, £30SS, ao that 
there was a snrplua of £S974; and diia 
was independent of the sum of £2766 
contributed for the lodian Famine Fund, 
of which only £44 had oa yet been ex- 

anded; so that altogether the Foreign 
lesion Fnnd bad a balance at its creffit 
at the present time exceeding that of the 

Ereriou* year by somewhere abont £5700. 
n relation to the Augmentation Fund, 
the balance at lat Jannary 1877 wai 
£6125, 10s. tod., the ineome for 1677 was 
£16,236, 18s. 3d., the intereat on the fond 
was £300, and there most be carried from 
the reserve fund £7B8, 15s., so that tho 
total income was £24,031, 6s. Id. for the 

Ssar. The expenditure waa as follows : — 
npplemwl to stipends, £7657, 6s. 9d.; 
granla to oongregationa, £457, 13a lld.l 
subsidy to England, £1214, 2b. Sd.; BX- 
penSBB, £876, I la. 5d.— in all, £10,SOG^ 
14a. 5d., leaving a balance of £13,825, 9a. 
6d. ; from, which had to be deducted £6500 
for the working balance of 1878, and con- 
sequently tbe amount available waa £7315, 
98. 6d., or £144, 18a. Id. leas than last 
year. Only, aa that deficiency coold b« 
fully made up by the proponioit of % 



OO 



BGLIQI0U8 INTELLIGENCE. 



87 



leKfbc^ let ft)Mrt daring the jeu u an 
addition to the reierre fund, there nsi no 
doubt a, valiie of a share in the tarplni 
fand -TCoold be u before £40, and conie- 
qneotlj the minimnm gtipeod £S00, with 
manse, or allowance of £30 for house rem, 
would bo made up as in former j'eare. 
The Cborch owed a deep debt of gratitude 
to Mr. ;UorioD, of Greeaock, for hl« matt 
generoDB and untiring servicsB in this 
matter. Of the ETangelistic Fund, Che 
income had been £596S, and the expendi- 
ture XSS06. TheAgedMinialers' Annnitj 
Fund bad an expendicnre of £S313, and 
an income of £2038. The Tbeologicat 
Hall Fond had had an expenditme of 
£3745, and an iDCoae of £3413, 69. 9d., 
the expenditure baring been increaied 
by the changes effected on the hall. The 
presbyter; awarded Br. Scott a. special 
vote of thanls for hia Btalemert. The 
clerk (Dr. Greorge Jeffrey) intimated that 
on the ra-arrangemcnt of the preabyEery 
thirty-three lessioni had reported^fonr- 
teen in faTOoi of a divisiaD of the city, 
eleven in faroor of maiacaiuing the in- 
tegrity of the presbytery, six in favour of 
remaining nnchanged so far as they them- 
selveg were conceraed, and two in faTonr 
of a presbytery of Dumbarton, in the 
erent of a re-arrangement being con- 
sidered expedient. The above claasifica' 
tion being objected to by leveral members 
■s inadequately 11; presenting Che BCBsional 
relama, a committee was appointed, with 
Mr. Roberts as convener, to prepare a 
report on the subject, ll waa agreed to 
ask the Synod Committee for an ei- 
tenrion of the time within which the re- 
turns lanst be lodged. The prtabytery 
agreed to moderate in a call loan assistant 
and sncceaaor to Dr. Edwards in Green- 
head Chnrch on 21st inat. The Kev, Mr. 
CaistaiTS intimated his reaignation of the 
convenership 0! the Sunday Schools Com- 
mittee, an office to which Mr. Corbett was 
elected. The committee on Stornoway 
and the Isles, stated that the palpit of 
Stornoway had been supplied during the 
summer montfaa, and that the congrega- 
tion of Portree was ready to moderate in 
a call. Mr. Andrew Moniaon was also 
recommended for appoiutmeut as calecbisl 
for Lismore. The clerk afterwards read 
Tcqueatu for moderation from the congre- 
gation of Stornoway and Portree, which 
were agreed to be laid before the Mission 
Board. The report of the committee was 

XinbcoHy. —This presbytery met at 
Kirkcaldy on thef4th December— Rev, 
R. Dick, moderator. Intimation having 
been made that the Rev. A. F. Forrest, 
Stirling, had declined the call addressed 
to him by the congregatioa of Bethel- 



fisld, the call was accordingly set asido. 
A petition from the congregatiou rf 
Bethelfield for a moderation was granted, 
spd the Rev. Hr. Thomson was appointed 
to preach and moderate in a call un the 
evening of Monday the 17th December, 
worship to begin at balf-past seven o'clock. 
Agreed to recommend the proposal of an 
exchange of pnlpits for the purpose of 
advocating; the claims of missions. The 
remit of Synod regarding the formation 
of elders' associations waa taken up, and 
the scheme approved of. — This presbyteij 
again met alLeven on 11th December. 
A petition from Crail for a moderation 
was granted, and the Rev. Mr. Smith ap- 
pointed to preach and moderate iu a call 
on the evening of Monday, 1 7 th December, 
worship to begin at seven o'clock. ^Th« 
presbytery met again at Kirkcaldy on tke 
3lh Jannary. Mr. Thomson reported 
that he had preached and moderated in a 
call in BethelGeld Chnrch on the night 
appointed, and gave an account of hia 
procedure, which was approved of. The 
call, which was addressed to the Ber. 
Isaac E. Marwick, Loanends, Ireland, 
wM subscribed by 368 membera in full 
commnnion, and 60 adherents. The pret- 
bytery agreed to sustain the call, and to 
forward it to the presbytery of Ireland, 
along with the reasons for tranBlation. 
Mr. Smith reported that he had preached 
and moderated in a call at Crail. The 
call was addressed to the Rev. J. C. 
Jackson, Elgin Street Chnrch, QIaegow, 
and snbscribed by 92 members. Mr. 
Smith's conduct was approved of, and the 
call suatained. It waa aleo agreed to for- 
ward the call and relative documents to 
the presbytery of Glasgow. 

OribKj.— This presbytery met at Kirk- 
wall on the 7th jannary — Mr. Allardice, 
moderator. The clerk read a letter Irom 
the Hume MisBion Board aoaonncing that 
a grant of £30 had been made to the 
Shapioshay congregation in aid of ex- 
penses incurred daring the vacancy. The 
receipt from the Shapinahay treasurer for 
the amoont was also laid on the table. A 
petition was read from the Shapinshay 
congregation asking for a moderation in 
a call, and stating that the congregation 
were prepared to give £100 of stipend, 
with a manse and garden, and four weeks' 
holidays. It was unanimonaly agreed to 
grant the prayer of the petition. Mr. 
Webster was appointed to preside at 
the meeting to be held on Tuesday, the 
2Sd, at 12 o'clock noon, or the Brat 
favourable day thereafter. The presby- 
tery unanimously agreed to the following 
petition 10 Parliament: — 'That, taking 
into consideration the present position 
of the Eastern Question, the despotie 



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BELIOIOUS INIELUGBNCE. 



chvacl«Tof Tarkiih nilr, sod the diui- 
trooB cliarBCIer of lach govecnnieoL oa 
the CBiueB of ciTil and rBligioDS libertj, 
no stepe be taken in tbe vtj of giving 
eilhei moral or maceii*! gnpport Eo ibe 
Tnrkiah Government.' The petition tu 
ligned bj the moderator and clerk, and 
lent to iif. Lung for presentatioa to 
Parliament. Mr. Kirk wood then aab- 
mitted a icheme.of cvangeliitic meetingi 
to be held within the bounda of tbe prei- 
bvtery during the next three weeks. He 
alio reported that the Home Minion 
Board had appointed two etangeliati — 
Heian. linddouki and Mandle — to co- 
operate with the presbTtery in ihii work. 
The scheme was cordiall; approved of, 
and the thanks of the pteabycery were 
Riven Co Mr. Eirkwood for preparing it. 
The pieabyterj' then met in private. 

Perth. — Thia preabjiery met on the 
IBth December — Mr. Lyon, moderator. 
Beceived from Bolbeggie a petition for a 
moderation, with a reqneat that tbe prea- 
byierj applj, on behalf of Ihe congrega- 
tion, for H second hearing of Measia. 
Bobenson and I/aarie, probatlonan, be- 
fore the moderation took place. Ap- 
pointed Mr. M'Neil to moderate in a call 
at Balbeggie on Monday the S8th January 
1878, pi^ic worEhip to begin at two 
o'clock afternoon. Inatracted the clerk 
to correapond with the Diatribntion 
Committee about a rehearing of the 
piobationen named. The preibytery'a 
Committee on Misaioni reported on tbe 
paper on foreign miaaiona handed to it 
at last meeting, recommending, lat, the 
adoption of the Synod's suggeaiiona as to 
an exchange of pulpits when the cauae of 
wid miaiians ia pleaded; and 3d, a pres- 
byterial conference on foreign misaiana, 
to which all lbs elders within the bounds 
of the piesbyteiy shall be invited, as also 
the offlce-bearera of congregational mia- 
sionary committeea. Agreed to wait for 
a report from this committee on the 
matters of Church extenaioQ, etc., re- 
mitted to it ; and, ou the request of (be 
convener, aaaociaced the committee on 
the state of religion with thia committee 
in the buiineis remitted. Mr. Wardrop 
was nominated to serve on the Synod's 
Hiatlon Committee for the four years 
ending May 1883. Appointed next 
meeting to be held on tbe 12th Febmary 
187S. 



nmucTioRi. 

KUnua-Ttods (King Streti). — Ber. 

Thoma* WbiteUv, A.H., of Cathedral 



Street Church, Glaagow, inducted Juiiun 
3d. 

Alexandria.— ReT. Jame« Aliaen, of 
Boston Cbnrcb, Cupar -Fife, indnctid 
January 8tb. 



Died, at Brooklyn, New Tork, on 15ib 
December 1877, Bev. David Inglia, D.D,, 
LL,D., formerly of Peuriib, Englud, 
latterly pastor of the Befoimed Cbotcb, 
Brooklyn Heighla. Dr. Incilis was ' 
in Greenlaw, Berwickshire, in 
entered the University of Ediobnrgli 
in 1837, waa licensed as a, preicber 
in 1B4A, and after a abort ministry in 
Penrith, went to America, and there bad 
a distinguished and successful career u 
a faithful and eloquent preacher of the 
goapel. Mr. Parker. Sunderland, ia as 
interealing biographical sketch of Dr. 
Inglis, given in a sermon preached on liie 
occasion of bis death, says : — 'Hevunne 
of seven preachers brought np in till 
father's Chorch. Only three aurviie,IlT. 
Taylor, aecretary of the Scottish Boani of 
Education, Bet. P. Landreth, and mj- 
seir. Tbe late Ber. John Biddel, o[ 
Moffat, an aioiable and accomplished 
minister J Mr. Alexander I-ockie, who 
lived and died a preacher ; bis brolber 
James, and now Dr. Inglja loo, have 
passed away.' 



Tai annual meeting of this society was 
held in Wellington Street Church, Glas- 
gow, on SBth December 1877. The Bev. 
FrofessorDuff, LL.D., honorary president, 
occupied the chair. 

Kr. William Watson, secretaiy, anb- 
mitled the annaal report, which stated 
that tbe schemes of effort adopted by tha 
society for the pait year— namely, ths 
Presbyterian Mission at OsionI, Upper 
Egyp^ and tbe Home Mission in Arthnr 
Street, Edinburgh — had been attended 
with great success. There had, however, 
been a alight deerease in the collectiont. 
The aum collected during tbe year 187S- 
76 amoonted to £16G6, 6a. Sid., while 
thia year there had been raised£1374, Us. 
Id.— « decrease of £391, 13s. 7id. The 
report further stated that the schemes of 
effort for 1877-78 were— (1) The Bom« 
Mission in Edinburgh ; and (a) The 
American Freedmen'sMitiion, with special 
reference to the training of a native 
itty for Africa. 

the ... 

In reference to foreign n 



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BELIQI0D8 INTEIXI6EKCE. 



that tfae ialerest tnien in ibete, tbe liber' 
alii}' nith nhich ihej were inpported, the 
number and abilitj, and the leal and piety 
of tbe meo wbo nndertoolc the work, and, 
above alt, tbe great sncceBi wbicb had 
been acbieved, were amongst tbe most 
bopefal and encouraging signs of the 



nbich had a 



Ailer poin; 



mded m 



i tbe neigh bonring islands, 
and alio in Madagascar, India, China, and 
elsewhere, he went on to say thai, noiwith- 
iCandiog the work done, they were still in 
the da; of small things, and they mnst not 
forget tbe sacred obligations under which 
they lay to make known tbe goapel to 
every creature. In regard to home 
miision work, be was glad to say that as 
diTiDitT students tbe members of the 
United Presbyterian Theological HaU 
engaged in this work themseWes. Having 
given a short account of the miision in 
Anbnr Street, Edinburgh, he stated that 
it had been resolved to devote towards that 
object a som of between £100 and £1S0 
every year; and when they next came 
before tbe Cbnrcb to advocate the claims of 
Biddle Onirersity, North Carolina, with a 
view to provide a native ministry for 
Africa, he hoped the liberality of tbe 
people would BUow the interest taken by 
them in the home operations carried on 
bj the itndentE. 

Tbe meeting was afterwards addressed 
byBer. Dr. M'Ewan, London, Rev. Wm. 
Graham, Liverpool, Rev. Mr. Campbell, 
Geelong, and Professor Cairns. 

As this was tbe first meeting of this 
society held in Glasgow, a special interest 
attached to it. The audience was large, 
and listened with marked attention to the 
addteuei of the various speakers. 



non or accoiosodatioii to bi 

VTOEO FOB IHB OKI 

CHDBCH IN TBE KBW FBEMISBB, 

CUnX TBSKACB, BDtaBtlXOa. 

I^Tbeologieal Bail. 

1. nve class-rooms for ttadents. 

3. Five professors' rooms. 

One of the class-rooms to bo large 
eoougb to bold ISO siadenta; and the 
other four class-rooms to accommodate 50 
nudents each. 

Oue of the professors' rooms to be large 
enoDih for the meetings of tbe Senatus. 

3. In addition to the above, a room is 
to be provided for an Elocntion class, large 
cnangh to hold aboni iso. 
H — Library. 

At prcMnt, the librat; in S Qneen Street, 



Edinburgh, contains npwards of 19,000 
volumes, and il accommodated in three 
rooms,— one 5S feet by 16, another SOJ 
feet by 13i, and the third 16} by 14}. 

In addition to the present library, the 
library of the late Professor Eadie has to 
be accommodated in tbe new premises. It 
consists of 9000 volumes, and would re- 
quire a separate room for ilielf, Olher 
additions are likely to be made to the 
hbrary, and provliion mnst be made for 

Tbe whole front of the first floor of the 
present building towards Casile Terrace 
will be sec apart for the library, and a 
room on each side in case of further ex- 
tension, which meanwhile may be made 
available for olher purposes, such as 



Ul.~Synod Hall. 

1. A new Hall, to be seated for £000. 
The court reserved for members will be 
seated for 750, the pnblic to be accommo- 
dated in B gallery or galleries. Tbe seats 
will be something like those in the Free 
Assembly Hall, but to be ■ little wider 
and more comfortable. Connected with 
the Synod Hall will be provided — 

2. A room forthe Moderator ofSynod ;. 

3. A Synod Clerk's room ; and 

4. A voting clerk's room — all on tbe 
and 



5. Three or four committee rooms. 

There will be accommodation for<voiing 
by division lobbies, at least a« conieniem 
w that in the Free Assembly Hall. 

IV.— Synod' a Trautarer. 
I. A public office will be provided for 
the Treasurer of the Chnrch on the ground 
fiooT, in which his clerks will be accommo- 
dated ; and 

3. A private room connected therewith 
for tbe treasurer. 

V. — Jfission Board. 

1. A Board Room, Bufficieiit to aceom- 

modaie 50 members. 

2. A room for the Foreign Secretary. 
a. A room for the Home Secretary. 

4. A room for the Foreign Secretary's 

VI. — Refreehmmi Rooms and LavatoTim. 

VII.— J Fire-Proof Safe Hoom. 
yDl.—Svff,ciaU atxommodalioi 



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90 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. ' nl iTini^ 

The Pope, The KiHGS. AND The People: gation of Itites held in the Vatican on 

A Hiatorf of tiie Hovement to make the 6th of December 1864. at whiclt 

the Pope Governor of the TVorld, hy a PioB u. broached the Infallibility pro- 

UmTereal ReconHtmctiou of Society; poaal; andthea heprocecds todetail the 

from the Issue of the Syllabus to the consequenceB of ibe movaraenta and 

Close of the YaUcan CouDciL By mauiBaviea connected with it daring 

WiLLIAH Arthur- 2 vols., pp. 952. the succeeding years. 

London iuulBetcut:WimBiDi[Diieii9& Bon. 1x77. It is impossible to speiA too highly 

Hr. ARTHtJB, ia his preface, obserres : of the diligence of out author. He has 

' Nothing but a conviction that Gie spared no pains in getting information 

movement here traced is of an import- of a reliable kind from every available 

ance for which ordinary terms are not aonrce — Popish and Protestant. Only 

imadeqaateespreasion would have justi- one wholly in earnest could have under- 

fied me, in my own view, in giving to gone the enormous atnoont of l&bonr ia- 

tiie study of it years of a life now far volvcd in gathering and reproducing the 

advanced. If the authors of the move- facts here recorded. And these facts 

ment are not deceived, the generation are set forth with a deamett, vigour, 

that will come up after I am no more and impressive aess which caaaot fail to 

will witness a struggle on the widest tell powerfully on the mind of the 

acale and of very long duration, during reader. 

which will disappear all that to us is The book, indeed, may be regarded 

known as modem liberties, all that to rather as one for the Ihoagfatfal and in- 

Bonie is known as the modern state, and telligent student of contemporary events 

at the close of which the ecclesiastical than for the greatmajoritj; but through 

power will atand alone, presiding over the former its teachings donbtlesa will 

the destinies of a reconstituted world, reach the latter, and domuch at once to 

Not at all believing in the possibility of enlighten and to stir them up to practical 

this issue, I do not disbelieve in the pos- concern in a matter whicn relates to 

sibilitj of the struggle. To avert any their dearest interests, 
such repetition of past horrors, to turn ■ — — 

the war into a war of thought,— a war Crkistiah Sdhsets; or, The Last Honn 
with the sword of the writer and orator, of Beliereis. By Jambs Fleuihc, 
instead of that of the Zouave and the D.D. 

dragoon, — is an object in attempting to London: Hodder ft Stongliton. I87T- 

serve which, however hnmbly, a good The author of this book very justly ob- 

man might be content to die.' serves in his preface, that many even of 

In this pasB^e we have the keynote God's true people are through fear of. 

to the whole work. Mr. Arthur is pro- death all their lifetime subject to bond- 

foundly impressed with the belief that a age, and that this is as undesirable as it 

r it struggle is before us J and though is unnecessary. One way of meeting 

Bontem^tes ultimate defeat to die this is to show the entire adaptation of 

Papal power, yet he fears there will be the gospel to overcome that fear by in- 

?'eaTS of trial, as Popery will, in the spiring us with glorious hope ; anuther 

uture as in the past, leave no stone un- is to show how this hope has proved effi- 

turned in seeking tiie object on which it caoioos in the experience of multitudes, 

has set its heart. Perhaps there are and enabled them to triumph. TJie 

those who may imagine that Mr. Arthur lBtt«r is the plan pursued by Dr. Fleming, 

mt^ifies the danger and thinks too It has been said one fact is worth, a 

highly of tiie power of Rome, and forgets tbouaand arguments ; and here we havv 

the operation of other powers that are many facts, carefully and skilfullj 

hostile to it. But all will agree that a selected, and set forth in a clear and 

grave crisis is before us ; and as fore- interesting manner. We have brief 

warned is forearmed, it is well that we accounts of the deathbed scenes and 

have the information which is contained sayings of Christians in every rank and 

in these elaborate volumes. of every age— all of them of a peacrful, 

Mr. Arthur begins his narrative with not a few of them of a jubilant, kind. 
an account of a meeting of the Congre- The volume is beautifully got Op; and 



"■"pSbrus^"^ H0TI0B8 OP NEW PUBLICATIONS. 91 

as the type ia large and l^ble, it will be attempt; and aa it is, these Bermona 

found very suitable for peraons who are prove that be was a pre»clier of no mean 

nettfing lie dark Tallej, and who there- order, and entirely worth; of the high 

iwe ba.ve a special interest in its in- ojnnion entertained of him by the flock 

stfuctive and consolatory contents. to whom he ho faithfully and loTJngly 

miniitered, as well as bj those who in 

Faitb in God. Sermons by the late wider spheres were occasionalljfaToured 

Rer. Jame3 Hamilton, M.A.,Cockpen. with his serricea. 

Edited by the Eev. William Scrym- 

geoar, Glaagow. The Mount : Speech from its Engliah 

Edinbargii: T. AT.ciKk. 1877, Heights. By Thomas SiNCL*JB,M.A., 

Ms. ScRTMGEOnR has succeeded in writ- author of ' Lore's Tnlogy,' ' The 

lag aa esceptioaally excelleat biograpbi- Mesaenger,' etc. 

ml t&ebch of his friend. It is linely London : Trubnci & Co. ibts. 

sympathetic »id appreciative in spirit. This is a book which will meet with a 

sJiA vigorous and graceful in ezpression, very different kind of reception from 

Mr. Hamilton's gifts and graces aa a different kinds of people. Some will 

man aud a minister are graphically de- tesa it aside at once, and deolare.it to be 

picted, and the story of struggle with unintelligible, or egotistical nonsense ; 

native debility and ever-recurring illnesa others wtU see in it much depth of wis- 

is touching!; told. Within brief space dom. Aristotle's definition of virtue is 

the experience and environments of Mr. of wide appUcation, and perhaps the 

Hamilton aie set forth so as to enable right opinion is the one that lies midway 

one to form a very intelligent opinion as between these two extremes, 

to tbe kind of man he was, and the work Mr. Sinclair uDderstands by the Mount 

which he aeoomptished. the height from which oar great oi 

The sermons, preached in the ordinary greatest writers apeak, and in this volume 
course of Mr. Hamilton's ministry, here he essays to weigh their speech and 
given are of superior merit. They are ahow its value. This he tells us he 
freeb and vigorous, highly evangelical means to do in a frank and fearlcfls 
is sentiment, and pervaded by a rich manner, and he hsa kept his word. One 
unction which must have made tbem feels a little startled at first by the 
very impressive in their delivery. We familiar and confident way in which the 
confess, however, to a feeling of dis- (real or supposed) weaknesses and limi- 
appointment in reading them in certain tatious of such liii majore^ as tShoke- 
r«^>ects. Mr. Hamilton, we are told, speare,Goethe,Carlyle,etc,axeeiposed. 
had been severdy exercised by the This doabtless will be fdt to be offensive 
deeper problems of life and religion, by some of the admirers of these great 
and^ alter sore travail, reached an as- writers ; whilst the frequent obscurity <d 
snredfutii. He was, it is said, a thinker thought and speech in which Mr. Sin- 
first and then a preacher. Now we do clair pleases to indulge in this as well 
not oftm find him disooursing on fltst as in his poems, will prove a hindrance 
principlw, or grappling with those diffi- te the comfort and ei^cation of others. 

cullies which specially beset the thought- 

fnl mind. Indeed, the sermons are, ss Home to God : A Guide on the Way. 

perhaps was to be expected from the By Saxuel P£AIt30N, M.A., of Liver- 

cjrcnmstanoee of their delivery, quite pooL 

popular in their cast of thought and way London: Tha RcJigums Tract Boolety. 

of putting tilings. Thus in the first, This little volume is somewhat similar 

which gives its name to the volume, we in purpose te the well-known and mueh 

find only a little said at its cloee about appreciated volumes of Doddridge and 

f^th being the condition of successful Angel James — ' The Rise and Progress 

Ctmstianlifeandlabour, but no attempt of Religion in the Soul,' and 'The 

is made to show bow faith works and Anxious Inquirer.' Mr. Pearson begins 

becomes the mighty power which Christ by pointing out the soul's need, and 

affirms and experience proves it to be. how this can be met by Christ. It is 

We have no donbt, however, that it very affectionate in spirit, oleor and 

WIS in Mr. Hannlton's power to have single in langoage, and comprehensive, 

produced disconmes of a more intellectual considering its brevity, in the range of 

kind, bad he felt justified in making the topics tooched. It cannot fail to be 



98 



MONTHLT BETROSFECT. 



both attractiTe and nsoful to the deeply 
int«TeBtuig claBs to whidi it is addressed. 
It might, however, have been improved, 
in view of its purpose, by introdncing 
some well-cboBeQ and well-told examplea 
of those who diligently and Buccesefully 
have Bonght the wh; to Zion. 



An Exposure of Popery, With Special 
Reference to Penance and tJie Mass. 

L By the Ute William ANDERSOti.LL.D., 
Glasgow. With an Introdaction by 
EeT, John Oaicns, D.D. New and 
lievised Edition. 

Londnn ■ Bwider ll e(«nghlon. 
Elilnbutgh : W. OUphBQt & Co. 13TS. 

It waH our privilege to hear Dr. Ander- 
son deliver several of the lectures con- 
tained in this volume, and over a consi' 
derable number of years our recoJloction 
of the enjoyment we derived is very 
vivid. The audiences were completely 
taken by storm, and roused at once in a 
high degree alike to indignation and 
contempt. Dr. Andeison's was such a 
powertol personality, and he bad snch 
strongly marked individoality and so 
much intensity of conviction, that his 
Utterances gained much by his mere 
presence and manner of delivery. 

Tlieee lectnres, however, have proved 
full of interest and instmction in their 
printed form. Tbey have a nnmber of 
eicellencea not to be found in the writ- 
ings of any other mau. It would be 
easy to point to some who argue as con- 
clusively, and whose knowledge of the 
subject is as extensive and correct; it 
would be impossible to point to any one 
who has the same power of invention 
and scornful delineation, and especially 
who has the power of blending tQl these 
elements into a consistent whole. The 
book is notmore fitted to impart informs' 
tion and beget conviction, than it is now 
to ronse to wrath and now to excito 
contempt for the miserable mummeries 
HO scathingly expressed, and for those 
who could perform and promote them. 



The time for their republication in a 
compact and attractive form is oppor- 
tune. We see Gitoalism, which w eim- 
ply Popery without the Pope, making 
rapid progress, and eiert^g a migb^ 

Kwer, in the Church of Enghtnd. Wc 
BT of attempts being m^e for the 
establishment of a Papal Hierarchy in 
Scotland; and we aretoldbymtmfwlii) 
profess to be specially charitable uid 
enlightoned, that Popery is qaite blame- 
less now-a-days, and worthy of lU 
manner of toleration. Now it ie of im- 
portance to know what Popeiy really ii, 
and to remember that thoagh it has a 
Protene-like power of changing itsfoim, 
it is ever and unalterably the same. 

Dr. Cairns, in his very able and appu- 
priate introduction, emphaticolljpciDU 
out the dangers to which we are eipofcd 
in this direction. 

The volume is enriched with a terj 
excellent portrait of Dr. Andenon, and 
an auh^raph letter. It is dedicated to 
that powenuUy rioquent Italian eipoeer 
of Popish errors, Alexandra Givam. 
who says : ' It shall be a pleasure and 
an honour to me, the dedication of the 
book of dear Dr. Anderson, who waemy 
helping hand, and one of my best MO 
most prominent supporters, when 1 te' 
tured in Glasgow, August 1851. He 
waa ever since alway friendly to mfl and 
my mission. His memory is sweet W 
my heart, and will be lasting with mf 
life." 

As the sole object of Uie present re- 
issne of these admirable lectures is M 
assist in the battle in which we are en- 
gaged with a foe which is gathering 
its strength for a conflict, subtle in jH 
mode, but of supreme eameatness in ils 
spirit, it is highly desirable that it sbonld 
be scattered broadcast over the length 
and breadth of the land; and we ue 
grateful to learn that special fscilitiei 
are offered for its getting inte the h*3ii> 
of ministers of the gospel and tlwe 
whose position makes them inSnenlisl 
in forming and guiding pablic opinioii, 



^mi^llS Ittraspeci. 

THE DUKE OF AROrLL ON DISESTABLISHMENT. 
In the January number of the Contemporary Sevieia, the Duke of Argyll discovne* 
on t^ subject of Disestablishment to the extent of forty-eight pages. The pro- 
feesed object of his Grace is to enlighten the people of England on a sabject c^- 
ceming which, according to him, they are much m the dark, and cot very {spM'^ 



MOHTHtT BETBOSPEOT. 98 

D be to set forth the 

^ M present state. The repeal of what he eaUs 

' the great Jticoblte Act of Patrons^ ' has dooe eTerjthing that waa neceasair to 
make the Chiuch a model of perfection and the home of liberty ; and waxing rery 
vann in his adminUoa of this, he becomes confideat in lus eipectationa and 
cordial in his solicitatioos. Thus, near the dose of his length/ paper, he exclaims, 
'It is the whole people of Scotlaod who have gained the day. It is for them, or 
lor as many of them as choose to do ao, to enter in and take poasession. They 
may do so if they like, with drums beating and banneis flying. Or, if they do not 
formally join, they can work alongside in peace, for there is room for all. What 
diTided them is gone. What haa always united them alone remuns. Or if 
there be any step which can be taken, or any other measure which can be adopted, 
to make this plainer than it now is, I can only say that no one would be more 
ready than myself to lend it a helping hand.' 

To tlie same effect, in speaking of certain Episcopalians who think Presby- 
ttrianism miworthy of being established, and who, therefore, would have no 
objection to see the connection at present existing between Church and State in 
Smtland abolished, he says : ' It is for Presbyterians of Scotland generally to say 
whether this is a result which Uiey dedre to see accomplished. To seek for it is 
no doubt a consistent course for those who have adopted the opinion that all 
Church Establifihments are in themselves necesaarUy evil. They may safely count 

Jn the natural result, that when the Scottish Church has been disestablished, 
Presbyterians would nnite with the opponente of the Church of England. No 
doabt this would be the inevitable result But not holding that Established 
Churches are nnjust to those who have seceded, and not desiring to see these re- 
sults attained, I am in favour of the policy whidi historically haa been the policy 
of all Liberal politicians in Scotland, namely, that of adapting the Church Estab- 
lishment as completely as possible to the hereditary traditions and opinions of the 

Ic is, of coQtse, quit« out of our power, in the brief space at our command in a 
mere retrospect, to enter into minute and exhaustive criticism of the various im- 
portant points touched, and opinions expressed, in this elaborate ducal manifesto. 
It has recdved, and will receive, attention on the part of those who feel their posi- 
tion assailed or misinterpreted. Our friends, alike of the Free Church and the 
Liberation Society, will do well to set his Grace right as to several matters in 
■hich they are specially concerned. 

We may, however, note one or two points in reference to which this earnest 
champion of the Church of Scotland has errod. 

Heavers that everything that caused secession oi disunion has been removed. 
Now, it ought to have been known to him, and fully acknowledged, that the Free 
Chnich assert that something more than the removal of Patronage is necessary to 
make the Church really free. And that they are right in this is proved by a refer- 
ence made by the Duke himself. He descants on the Westminster Confession of 
Faith, and goes somewhat out of his way to show how its authors have misinter- 
preted the teaching of Paul. Bat the point in question is : Has the Church of 
bcotland the power to alter its Creed without* the sanction of the State ? The 
Bnke is constrained to acknowledge that it has not. And seeing this is the case, 
why talk of the freedom of the Church, when it cannot and dare not do that which 
is of vital importance, and necessary to its very existence as a Church enjoying 
that liberty wherewith Christ makes His people free ? 

Then as to Voluntaries, the plea that everything is made right is still more futile. 
The noble writer seems to find it difGdnlt to believe that Voluntaryism is a prin- 
ciple conscientioualy held by many in these lands, and that their efforts are mo- 
tived, not by any ill-will to, or envy of, the Eatablished Church, but by a strenuous 
sense of duty. And if his Grace, and those who think with him, could only believe 
this, then they might understand how the efforts of Voluntaries in behalf of Dis- 
establishment are worthy of quite another name than attempts at spoliation. 

Altogether, the paper bears mark of hast* and uncertainty. Its ststemenle are 
often contradictory, and its argumentation inconclusive. It will not induce the 
Liberal party to assume the role which has been assumed by the Tories, namely, 



94 MONTHLY EKTH08PECT. ^"""Jt™!^ 

that of the coDBetratoTS of tbe Charcb as by law ettabliah«d. OKtendbl; it has 
been 'writt«ii in the interestB of conciUatioa, bat it will be acoept&ble only to tbtm 
who do not need to be coaciliated, and it is qaertionable if it will be acceptable 
even to them ; for the men whose placeof congregatiiift is 22 Qneeo Street, bale in 
politics strODg CooBerratiTe proclivitiefl, and hare more faith in the frieDdship of 
& Tory than a Whig Goremment ; and we believe in tbie matter the B^^ par^ 
in tbe Free Ohorch agrees with them. It will not then, eren in these diieeboie, 
prore oonciliatoty, whilst in otbers it will provoke mingled feelings of diaappoint- 
ment and diBsatisfaction. 

PRESBYTERIES AND CALLS. 

A KiTTEa of great iroportatice in connection with all our congregations is to get 
the right man into the right place. Obviously this is not only a matter of imporlr 
ance, but difficulty. We Bee that it is not always secured ; the spectacle of the 
square man in the round bole is not of infrequent occurrence in the Church tx well 
as in the world. 

How, then, is this evil to be rectified 7 We oleerve that of late a comidKible 
number of ministers under call in the Free Church have left the matter is tie 
hands of the Presbytery, and been ruled by the fresbyterial deciaon ; tad ipiDEt 
this there is and ought to be no law. 

We observe, however, occasionally cases of another desdiption, and notably ow 
lately, in which the minister strongly expressed his wish to change his qthersDl 
labour, and the Presbytery refused to give effect to his wishes. Nalunlly the 
commisaioners from the disappointed congregatjon were dissatisfied, and sppeded 
from the Presbytery to the Synod. We trust the Synod will reverse tie dedaon 
of the Presbytery, and allow in this matter liberty of individual action. 

Our reasiHis for this, briefly, are these — 

1. A man's own right to himself. It may be said that when a man cooDeete 
himself with a Church he promises obedience to the powers that be in that Church. 
Quite true ; but these powers may be exercised ultra aires of any society, and b 
seekmg to benefit the Church a wrong and injury may be done to the indivJdnaL 
And this, we believe, is so in the case under consideration. 

2. A man's knowledge of himself and his surroundings. It is true, indeed, (hat 
self-knowledge is one of the kinds of knowledge that is moat difficult of attiin- 
ment, and our neighbours may see in us symptoms of strength or weaknen oC 
which we ourselves are unconscious. Bot, at the same time, a man may hare a 
knowledge of himself which he cannot eomnmnicate to another, and this knowkdp ' 
may wisely lead him to action ; and if that action be legitimate in itself, it is cot 
for another, even though that other be official, to step in and say, I am wiaetthan 

3. The ^il results to the man in connection with the sphere of labour to irhich 
he has relnctantly been sent back. A congregation is not likely to welcoice a 
minister whom they know to be with them by constraint, and not of a williiig 
mind. The true bond between minister and people is the bond of love, and this 
bond is sure to be seriously affected by a declaration on the part of the mioeta 
that he would prefer to labour elsewhere. It is not pleasant tor himself, and it ii 
not for the good of the cause, that be should be placed in circumstanceB in which 
there is the possibility, at least, of altered countenances and alienated atfectioni- 

Our Church, therrfore, we think, acta wisely in leaving tiie respondbilitj of 
decision in such cases with the minister himself ; and if occasionally the Presbytery, 
bad it been called upon to decide, might have given a judgment to be prefeiied to 
that arrived at, there is this to say, that imperfection attaches to all human f^- 
ceduie, and there is at least this consolation, that the rights of tlie Cbristiu 
minister, as well as those of the Christian people, have been conserved. 

AMONG THE MASSES IN EDINBURGH. 
Theks fies before us a little pamphlet jnet issued, entitled ' History aikd Freseit 
Portion of Sydney Hall Congregatiooal Charch,' which is replete witti intew^ 
It is written in a very graphic and impressive manner, and vividly sets fcstb the 



""XTr^"^^ MOBTHLT BETBO8PE0T. 95 

work in which the Chnrch ia engaced, uid ita BarronndiagB. Ite pastor ia Mr. .A. 
D. Bobertoon, and its place of wonhip is that which was fonnerl; occupied by the 
Free Tron oongiegatioD, High Street. Ita agenciea are mch as we find in coimectioii 
■with all churchefi of a limilar character; but in none do we meet with a more esinest 

fiorpose, and a closer hand-to-hand fight with evil in ita nio«t loathsome forma, 
ts work ia among the lapied mastet. There are, it ia aaid, 50,000 who neglect 
the meana of entce ia Edinburgh, and the ignonnoe of aome of than is incredible. 
ThDB, it is said, ' A poor girl, dying of consumption, being aaked if she knew Jesoa, 
said, "Isn't that a bad man?" When aaked what made her think ao? aherepUed, 
" I nevei hear it except when men and women are cursing one another." It ia a 
miatake, however, to Buppoee that these aweltering, aeeihing masses are composed 
only of the ignorant, or thoas who have been always near their bordera. Thus, it 
ia said, * We have found the man of letters, showing that echolarahip and education 
is not alwaya a safeguard; the lawyer, the phyaician, the poet, — ay, thoae who 
had been aet apart with holy hands for God's service in Hia CJnnrch on earth. We 
hOiTe met men, who in their day bade fair to rival the worid with tiieir genins, 
caught np in the teeth of ainfnl luat, and tMaed back into the dena of the city ; 
-workmen with rare power and skill, who amoog thfii fellowa were eonaideied 
chiefs to lead, — good fellows, — dashed by ain down among the worthleas. Add to 
these, thoae of t£e gentler aei, — the fur and beautiful, the graceful and aocom- 
pliahed, the tender and delicate,---now blasted and blighted, destroyed almoat 
beyond hope, — in Satan's workshop, these acqairements giving them more power 
for evil. Then there are the children, the innocent, helpleaa infanta, as they grow 
Dp in the midat of thia hotbed of ain. The qoeation of aaving them from falling 
ia a qnestion an archangel might well ponder and consider. How to save the 
children I ' 

The chief cause of all thia is just the same sad tale, drunkenneea ! And there 
»re in such localitjea ae theee in which Hr. Robertson laboura aoch facihlaea for 
getting drink, ae makes them a very famace of temptation. On this point the 
report thns speake : ' Dninkennese has a strong hold in our district, perhaps greater 
than in any othra place in the city. Before you can reach the honaea in one of the 
wynda, you have to pass between two public honaea ; having passed these anarea, 
yon come to a house of ill-fame ; the next ia a hard-ale shop or ahebeen. When 
showing one of the magistrates the people and their homes, on seeing their wretch- 
ednesa, he aaked why they drank so much 7 The poor women thus qneationed 
looked at him in wonder, and aaid, " Did you see the twa pnblic-honaee our anthori'- 
tieB aet down on the richt and left hand aide at the close month 1 Did ye aee that 
awf n' house as ye entered the close ? and did ye see that hard-ale shop at the foot 
of the st^r? And if ye have seen these, surely I dinna need to tell ye why we 
drink aae much. It'a no fair -o' the bailies to surround ua puir folk wi' aae mony 
temptations." She did not know at the time she was speaking to a magistrate, 
anxious to relieve her of the temptation to ain. In the next stair, asking a man 
why he did not atop drinking, he replied, " Ah, air, it has got sic a grip o' me ; it's 
no easy ! " ' 

But whilst there is much to sadden, there is also not a little to gladden in the 
account of the work prosecuted amidst scenes so trying and unfavourable. Here 
is an example : ' Before closing tlua report, let me relate one case of a soul depart' 
ing in peace after a bng dark struggle. Not long ago 1 was asked to go and see a 
young woman. I found her very weak, and there was every appearance of death 
being near. Consumption had been doing ita work, and had nearly finished it. 
On getting into conversation, I found she knew her Bible very well, though abe 
did not know Jeaus as her Savioor. Her prayers seemed of no use ; she was heart- 
sick in her anxiety to be saved, and no rehef had come. Her mother spoke of her 
being always a good child ; but that was no aatiafaction. Such was her atato 
when I saw her. On learning the above, I told her she did not believe the Bible 
to be the word of QodI She looked hard at me, and asked me to explain what I 
meant. I told her she did not believe it to be true ; for if she did, then she would 
need to toll me how she was so very anxiona, if it waa God's word, and if it was all 
Imth. This made her only the more anxious to know what waa my meaning. I 
then began by showing her that if she really did believe this Bible to be God's 



96 MONTHLY RETB08PECT. ' pliiTwa **■■ 

word, and aU tme — true that God so loved the world ; true that Jeans came to 
flave the lost ; true tiiat He died for oar buib eccordiDg to the Scriptures ; true that 
He came not to call the righteoua, but Hinaers — all that true, and you sav you 
believe it ? do you believe it, aud have no peace ? Wait a moment, she said ; let me 
see '. Oh, I see it all now ! Jesus has done all for me I Yes ; that is true ! Hov 
fltrauge I never saw it before! Bless the Lord, my soul! She lived eight days, 
and died rejoiciDg in Jesus her Saviour.' 

Surely those who are engaged in such work richly deserve, as they greatly need, 
the warmest sympathy and most liberal support of all to whom the cause of Christ 
and the salvation of perishing souls is dear. 

ENTERPRISE SALES AND BAZAARS. 
Fob some months the attention of the citizens of Glasgow has been strongly turned 
to a kind of commercial activity which goes by the enphuiatic name of ' Enterprise 
Sales.' It is affirmed, however, that they ought to be called simply ' Lotteries.' 

Tbe evils resulting in many ways from these Bales led to an opinion as to their 
legality being asked of the Lord Advocate. His decision was certainly oufavonr- 
^ble to them, and yet it is contended by some that it is not easy to bring them under 
the sweep of legal action ; and we believe, though the nuisance is abated, it is not 
entirely removed. 

A special and, as we think, painful interest attaches to this subject from its too 
«loee relationship to bazaars held for religious and benevolent purposes. It is an 
undeniable fact that the lottery system prevails in coonectioa with many of them, 
and is defended on the groond that but for this many articles would never be sold, 
and the bazaar prove altogether a pecuniary failure. 

It will be observed that those who speak after this fashion do not attempt to de- 
fend or vindicate their action on the ground of principle. With them the question 
is simply one of profit and loss, and lotteries are practised because they are profit- 
able. But surely it does not need to be argued that mere material profit may be a 
great spiritual loss ; and if this can be proved to be the case in this connection, then 
in consistency the practice ought to be abandoned. And that there is spiritual loss 
is emphaUcsIly affirmed by many who have witnessed the proceedings now animad- 
verted on and mourned over them. 

Bazaars conducted on ordinary business prieciples may be easily defended. We 
saw lately, in connection with an advertisement announcing a bazaar, an aceurance 
given that ' it was for the honest sale of honest work.' Now, there may be ' a more 
excellent way ' of obtaining money for religious purposes than even a bazaar of this 
description. Still, it all were so, much of the reproach that now attaches to them 
would be wiped away. 

THE STATE OF THE COUNTRY. 
For some time past, confessedly, this country bos been passing throngh a serious 
ordeal. The late harvest was disastrons, specially to the agricultural classes, bnt 
involved many others in distress. Trade, m almost every department, has been 
deeply depressed, and over all there has been * the shadow of a fear-' The Eastern 
Question, with its possibilities of a terrible and extended war, has been occupying 
men's minds and oppressing their hearts. Meetings of an earnest and impres- 
sive kind have been held all over the country, with the view of leading or keeping 
the Government in the paths of peace. Amidst circumstances of unusual excite- 
ment Parliament met by special command. The Speech from the throne, whilst 
speaking of peace, made also allowance for the contingency of war, and asked for 
conditional preparation. How necessary, then, not only the exercise of utmost 
vigilance by all lovers of peace, but earnest prayer to Him in whose hands are the 
hearts of men, that so dire a calamity may be averted ! 



UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MAGAZINE. 



MARCH 1. 1878 



<$ri0inal %,ti'uUs, 



RELATION OP STUDENTS' MISSIONARY ASSOCIATIONS TO 
THE STUDENTS THEMSELVES. 

AKADDBB3BDEL1YSRBD ATTHE ANNUAL UBBTIKa OF THE ffTtTDBHTB' HIS8I0K- 
ABT ABSOCIATIOK ID OX-ASflOW, 26tH DRCBKBER, BT RET. WILLUH 
GRAHAM, LITEBFOOI.. 

I COULD eaeily indulge in expressing tlie joy of comiDg, at tbe reqneat of the 
MissioDary ABsociatioa, into tlie heart of our. young atndent life, — a joy 
springing from remembrances of more than thirty years since, and from tli^ 
sense of being more than ever a student still. 



- 'OL, I ff qI tha cresoent promise of my spirit hath not set! 
Ancient founts of Jnepiretion well through all my fmoy 






I shall come straight to the work of the evening ; and though I know I am 
addreasing not so much an audience of students of theology as one of a more 
mixed character, I shall yet keep to my original intention of saying some- 
thing specially adapted to students. I know, moreover, that if my words 
reach the hearts of Christian students, they wQl not fall far short of all 
Chiistian hearts. 

My subject, then, is the relation which a Theological Missionary Associa- 
tion uatnrally has to the studies and character of the students themselyes. 

I. Let ns look at the relation which such interest in missions bears to 
Christianity as a system of divine truth.- There are two ways, as you are 
aware, of looking broadly at Christian truth. The first is, that it is not 
diiine truth at all, — for the very sufficient reason that there is no Qod,orno 
God that is known by men, or no Qod that can reveal Himself to men. 
This, of course, we dismiss at once. Enough that the gospel has to face 
such a system, and carrying, as it does, the great spiritual ttuths of God, 
redemption and immortality, in its bosom, its very attitude arrests the atten- 
tion J its very first truths, when contrasted with this miserable irreligion, or 
rather superstition, look the more noble in the sight of every true soul, and 
especially of every young and earnest spirit. But there is another view of 
Christian troth, namely, that though divine, it is no more divine thaa other 
religions systems are, or if so, is only the highest form of the natural and 

iro. ni. TOL. xxn, hew sbbies. — ^makch isjs. g 



98 students' missiouaet associatioks. ■^"'IK. mk^"^ 

etractnral deTelopmeot of religion. Miseions bridg the stadent rigbt in 
front of the world-BystemB of religion, and put the ipmsima corpora, the 
elemeutttry spiritaal qnestions, before hia mind. Well, here it ia something 
—it ia mnch — that Christianity ia felt and acknowledged to be the highest 
religion knowD, that it has the noblest conceptions of Qod, and has done 
noblest work for man- -And on the ground of comparative rehgions — anew 
and most snggestive atady — I think missions look well again ; for if men like 
Goethe, Hegel, Schelling, Carlyle, and eren John Stnart Mill, prononnca 
Christianity to be far beyond every present position, and hkely to remain 
ever so, then it follows that studenta engaged in miasions have before them, 
alike for study and for spreading, religion as well as Christianity iu 
its grandest aspect. But it is more so when we come to the claim that 
Christianity rises not only aloft, but ia alone in its origin and truth among 
all religions. 

Putting both of these views together, I think it is plain that aa intense 
interest in missions becomes a most lominoas and quickening stndy of the 
theological system of Christian troth. It becomes so in three ways, — it 
broadens, intensifies, and vitalizes the Christian system, and in doing so 
gives the atndent a hold of Christian truth which, always invalaable, will 
calm and gnard him amidst the roaring storms and changeful eddies that at 
thia time trouble the river of hfe, as, through all and in spite of all, it makes 
glad the city of God. 

First, it broadens tbe ChristiJlQ system, and so makes it wide as well as 
deep, like the Atlantic. It rescues it from the conflicts, some of tbem very 
important in their place, of denominations. I do not speak merely of Scottish 
sects, nor even Protestant sects. I shall add, it broadens outside of the 
Popish and ProtestaDt controversies, and it sets Chiistianity, however cor- 
mpted,faceto face with heaths systems of all sorts at home and abroad, — 
whether the heathenism of a British man of science who worships no Ood, or 
o! a Calabar savage who worships the devil It seta Christianity broadly, 
where it was set of old in the Acts of the Apoatlea, over agaiost philosophic 
Pantheism or Positivism, aa well as the varied natioDal polytheisms. Kever, 
I hold, does Chriatian truth look so. well as when so confronted; and it is so 
to the student in missions. You can see at a glance how its divinenese, its 
humanity, its noble simplicity, its matchless love, its supernatural holiness — 
in one word, its celestial quality— proclaim it queen — incessu paluit dea. 
Are we to prefer the Brahminism or Buddhism of the East, the Pantheism 
or Materialism of the West, to snch a aystem ! One steady look instructs 
and demonstrates as no esposition can. For Christianity has priuciples 
without which men neither have grown nor can grow up to their fuU stature. 
It brings a God who is at once Creator, Redeemer, and Sanctifier. It t^te 
man up in bis deepest wants,'and puts a, complete remedy within him and an 
immortality of perfection before him. Missions bring both testimonies 
together, — ' the testimony of man's soul naturally Christian,' as TertulUan 
with deep wisdom, and with words that have become classical, calls it, as 
well as the testimony of the Divine Spirit, with its self -evidencing divinity of 
the truth. The statne of Minerva, aa it was shaped in the studio of Phidias, 
and surrounded by captions microscopic eyes, was reviled and rejected. 
This was too mncb, that too little; in fact, it was no goddess at all. But 
Phidias knew better. He knew that when placed aloft in ttie sunny Greek 
sky, all would pronounce her, in her m^estic breadth and beauty, as she 
blessed tbe city, to be divine. So with the gospel, Kemove it from the 
pitiful sqnabbles^of word-critics and sectarian microscopiats, lift it in the 



ito.TiiM'^ BTtJDBHTS MISSIONAHT A8800IATIOS8. 99 

light of heaven from which it came, in the attitade of blessing the whole 
world, then it looks divine, — then we know and adore ita Bopreme symmetry 
and greatnesB. 

Second, while it broadens, it intensifies the Christian system. Call it 
narrow if yon will. Well, then, it is narrow as truth, as right, as God and 
man. It is felt to be not only supreme, bnt sole. For missions, as well as 
all spiritoal work, bring oat this fact, that what are called the peculiar 
trnths of the gospel — peealiar as his crown to a king, His divinity to 
Christ, and His atonemei^ to His death — are not only the great spiritual 
princ^Ies, bat the great spiritual working forces. 

Third, Christian missions add to these two points a third, and one most 
needed, especially by students. The mommt I see a great Christian doctrine 
coming back upon me from the passionate intellectual and spiritual straggles 
of a great Papist like Pascal, or, on the other extreme, reflected from the 
new-quickened glow of a poor nnidea'd savage, yet now haying but one vital 
Christian truth, no longer a slave, but, likg Onesimns, 'abrother beloved' in the 
Lord, that moment the doctrine, so dry and dead on the pages of the system, 
starts into life and thrills me when flashed in its divine power and splendonr 
from souls so different. Doctrines thus seeu march before us like victorious 
soldiers, with their breadth of shield, sluup edge of sword, and life of Christ 
Himself. 

II. Bnt Christian nussions do more than explain, and so instruct, — ^they 
also prove the Christian system. The best apologetics for the gospel or the 
Qospcds are the Acts of the Apostles. Christ on the cross ia the system 
itself, but Christ on the cross drawing all men to Himself ia more than the 
systrai — it is its demonstration. Plato was once asked by a disciple, ' What 
is motion T' and, unable to reply, he rose up, and walking before him, said, 
' That is motion.' ' What brings to God must have come from God,' is a 
true maxim of the great Christian apologist Alezcmder Yinet; aud so we 
feel that the great demonstration of Christianity — its standing and con- 
stantly-repeated miracle — is Christendom. Take last centory, for example. 
Bishop Bntler made his apology for Christianity in his most thoughtful 
book, The Anaiogy. But Wesley and Whitfield made one far better, by 
showing the power of the gospel in causing men to rise up and walk in new- 
ness of life. Better, too, one Calabar saint than all the evidences of Faley. 
Give us again the old lives of the early Christians, who exclaimed, ' We do 
not speak great thii^s, we live them,' and Christianity would bo felt to be as 
divine as it was at the first. The apostolic fathers wrote their defences of 
the gospel, but their martyrdoms were better than their ^writings. As Dr. 
John Duncan said, ' They homed batter than they wrote.' It ia the necessity, 
and it is a wise necessity, of theological atndents, that they mnst deal for 
the most part with thonghta and books ; bat here is the needed corrective. 
Yoor systems of medicine are well in their place, they cannot be dispensed 
with ; but ehnical surgery expfeins and proves by applying. So in the 
great world-hospital it is Jesus going about and healing all manner of 
diseases that stamps Him with the great name of God onr Healer. ' There- 
ioK' says Professor Gairdner, of your Glasgow University, in an address to 
students, ' therefore I can aee in your Missionary Association not only an 
additional means for good among the poor, bnt, rightly employed, an import- 
ant adjunct to the trtaning of the young divine in the University.' 

III. Christian missions impress the imi^ination by placing Christianity in 
new forms of noble hvee. After all, men's 'hearts throb moat loyally, and 
with an uncontrollable euthnsiasm, before heroic and transcendent virtues. 



100 students' MIS8IOHAET ASSOCIATIOlfS. '^""X^bJI* 

It is not yonr ordiaaiy danba iq painting, but your divine Raphaels, that kee]> 
art alive, and awaken a generona and glorions enthnsiasai. A Dante or & 
Milton is worth more than a hondred or « thonsand minor poets. So 
ffliaaions send out from their large moulds the noblest shapes of ChristiBD 
character, and thereby, among other things, keep quick the pnlses of yonng 
Btndent eonls. Two things in my life I shall never forget. How cau It 
They are a cherished memory, and belong to the most uplifting parts and 
powers in it. It is now more than thirty years since I used to meet- the 
yonng founder of yonr Missionary Asaociation, Andrew Shoolbred. Stricfen 
' with consumption, he nursed, in his lonely Dunfermline sick-room, year by 
year, the thought that has summoned us here to-night. His genins, of an 
ever-refining and unselGsh character, invented this society in his dying honis, 
and, as he could not speak his thoughts, he committed it to the care of his 
and onr noble friend Dr. Cairns and myself to propo§e in his name. 
Shoolbred is dead long ago, but he lives still. His body moulders b the 
grave, but in yonr society his sonl is marching on. And even earlier, when 
I was a student in Glasgow College, and as I attended. the Missionaty 
Society, Wilham Burns, the president, used to speak kindly to me, and pnt 
into my hands the Life of Henry Martyn. The Cambridge student, riESog 
from science and classics into the consecration, and higher than the poet's, 
the saint's dream, and giving himself in India to years of self-sacrifice aod 
at last a death that recalls a martyr's, the life of that Cambridge studoit 
revealed to me a glory and beauty in a Christian life that stamped itself [on 
my yonng imagination, and made tears and yearnings of a sacred love and 
pity to start forth. And the man WiUiam Bums, who gave me Marljrfs 
Life, — what a painting of supreme nobility lies spread on the canvas of his 
own exalted and homble life I Yonng Themistocles conld not sleep when he 
heard of the deeds of Miltiades ; and I pity the student who is not roused to 
a moral energy and spiritual elevation by the great masterpieces of grace 
which the canvas of missions holds. The poet says of the boundless magni- 
ficence and wonders of the landscape, and much more may we say of tbo 
sublime and attractive heroes of Christian missions, — 

'Ob, fbo can these renounce, nndhope to be forgiven!' 
Lives such as those of Martyn and Bnrns, — lives also as those of JndsoD, 
going alone into the jungle of Buddhism, and that fine Englistunfm from 
Oxford, Bishop Patteson, making himself the menial servant of poor savage 
lads, and John Williams and David Livingstone, and that' grand chief 
among men, Moffat, — hves such as these lift np the standard of heroic 
thought and action in the Church, are sovereign over the kindling aspira- 
tions and breaking dawn of yonng generous souls, and keep Christian effort 
from sinking down to poor copies of past deeds and gifts, or cowardly sab- 
servience to an unconverted world. Chalmers in your Tron Church, in bia 
mightiest swoop of passionate eloquence among the remotest stars, moves ns 
less than Chalmers in the West Fort of Edinburgh, more passion&tely 
eloquent among degraded sonls at our doors. 

rV. Missions also make ns feel the oneness of the Church. What care I, 
when souls are saved, that Martyn was an Episcopalian, or Jndson aBaptiEl* 
or Bums a Presbyterian! These minor divisions are, in the light of the 
immense truths and claims which tower aloft in missions, no more seen than 
the little glen that divides two great mountain ranges. I think the knowledge 
that other Christians than ourselves save souls, is a dearer and more glorious 
thought than that our little body did so. You do not place your telegraphic 



"""SirumJI^' students' MISBIONABT AS800IATIOW8. 101 

wiree on the surface or amidst the wsves of the Atlantic. The law is, that 
the deeper the wire is laid, the more it ia insnlated from distarbing winds 
and dividing waves, — the clearer and swifter shall be the electric throb and 
speech. And ao in miaaions: the great Eapreme troths with which they deal 
cannot be spoken on the surface or through waves — can only f«8s swiftly 
and clearly from God to man, away down where diviaiona are loat in the 
calm and mighty depths of common Christian truth, A dying man, a 
heathen sonl, does not need a large creed — would only be perplesed by a 
sectarian testimcmy ; and atndents feeling this, rise from the denominational 
into the nniveraal Chnrch. Enough j the trnths that unite the sonl to Qod, 
unite Bonla to each other. 

T. Of coarse misaioDS keep before the stadent's mind the needs of the 
world ; and the constantly present senae of a real sinful world craves for and 
quickens the aense of a real redeeming love. Hence it ia in colleges and halts 
that missions have been chiefly fed. Students of Zona under Colnmba, and of 
Jarrow under Bede, daring the splendid, almost pentecostal, era of missions 
in the seventh century, — students of America, like Judson and Pliny Fish, — 
Scottish students, like Alexander Duff and William Bums, — these and many 
more have maintained the staff of missionaries, kept alive the zeal of the 
Church, and brightened the dark face of heathenism all over the world with 
the light of Cbriatiauity. A Theological Missionary Society becomes, if not 
a special chair in the Hall, yet a breath of life for all the chairs. It 
burnish^ the weapons they supply, and keeps straight before the quickened 
heart the battle-fields to which they point. 

In fine, missions keep the hearts of students, and indeed of the whole 
Chnrch, near to God, and in doing so they crown and transfigure all the 
benefits we hare already pointed out. Said Niebuhr, as quoted by Neander, 
' Again and again have I said, I know not what to do with a metaphysical 
God, and that I will have no other bat the God of the Bible, who is heart 
to heart.' Never are we so compelled to draw near to the depths of God's 
love and power, as when in fullest yearning, but in utjter weakness, we 
seek to draw other sonls to Christ. Then the watchword of John Wesley 
becomes our refuge and strength, — ' The best of all is, God is with us.' In 
mission work we must fall back on onr resonrces — on onr onmipotent 
Savionr God, with His promises ringing clear and victorious over all the din 
and defeat that thicken around, with His inexhaustible might of spiritual 
influence, above all, with His infinite love, that makes Him both gospel and 
missionary of the gospel. ' The Chnrch,' said the great French preacher 
Lacordaiie, ' sprang out of the broken heart of Christ on the cross j ' and 
thither it must ever retreat for refreshment and power. The divine beat of 
ttut heart will send life and movement into i^i. True for all others, this is 
snpremely true for our students and those of the Church Universal, — the 
hopes of the present generation, the leaders of that which is to come, — that 
in all theory and practice of Christian tmth, in all work on other souls at 
home or abroad, as well as in all high, devoted thonght on the problems of 
hnm&nity and revelations of God, they may learn the inezhanstible meaning 
of the few and simple words of Lnther, which he himself had proved in his 
double task of thonght and deed : Sene preccaae at bene studviKe — the good 
student must be great in prayer. 



D.q.tizecl by Google 



102 PB0FES80R FLINT AND THE LOGIC OF THEISM. ^"Xm'Ci^'"' 
PEOPESSOR FLINT AND THE LOGIC OP THEISM. 

BT THE REV. JAU£S WABDROF. 

{Continued from, page 53.) 
As bearing on Dr. Flint's notiona of what an iDtaitional Theism ia, may be 
quoted the remark which be mokea on a statement of Dr. Hodge. Dr. Hodge 
supports the 'innate and intnitiTe knowledge of the exiBtence of Qod by an 
appeal to the fact,' ' that a sense of dependence and accooutability to a being 
higher than themselves exists in all minds.'* 'This,' Dr. Flint remarks, 'is 
far from being equivalent to the eonclnsion that God is intoitivelj known.'! 
So far as Dr. Hodge's statement goes, it bears conclDsively on the intmtive 
knowledge of God. In general, if a sense of dependence reigns, as it do«e, 
within every sphere of man's existence, physical, intellectnal, moral, and 
religions,— if it can be shown by analysis that in the contents of these and 
allied states of consciousness there are implied and revealed to knowledge 
both the existence and character of an Infiiiite and Supreme Being, — doei it 
not follow that the fact of God's existence is an immediate assertion of the 
mind, that an intuition of God is established, and Theism is a datnm, not 
an inference 1 

This remark on Dr. Hodge recalls another sentence of our author, in 
which he says, ' I more than question if we have a right even to ascribe to 
conscience an immediate intoition of God.'^ This is req)ect for intoitioD — 
almost a faltering in its favonr. But there is a rally on the following page, 
' Morahty is the direct object of conscience. God can therefore only be the 
presupposition or postulate of conscience, — can only be given iu conscience 
as implied in morality. This, 1 say,' says Dr. PKnt, ' is an obvions objec- 
tion to the assertion that God is immediately known in conscience. It is an 
objection which has not been got over, and which, I believe, cannot be got 
over.' Bat this is rallying only in manner. A ' postulate ' is not an inference. 
If, however, God be the presupposition or postalate of conscience, Dr. Flint 
might easily get over what objection there can remain to the immediate 
knowledge of God's existence in conscience. If the hnman mind spontane- 
ously places itself immediatdy under an objective law and lawgiver, is not 
that immediately to know the supreme moral roler T ' That we know the 
Supreme Being as moral Governor,' says Calderwood, ' we consider no lees 
clear than that we believe in His existence.' ' These two, the knowledge of 
moral principles, and the knowledge of a supreme moral Governor, are the 
two inseparable terms of a relation.' § 

Another pass^e of onr anthor must be noticed. He says, ' The infer- 
ences ' which 'the theistic process involves are, like those which Weber, 
Helmholtz, and Zolber have shown to be implied in the perceptions of sense, 
mvolantary and nnconsclons. If not perfectly instantaneous, they are bo 
rapid and spontaueons as to have seem^ to many intuitive. And in a loose 
sense, perhaps, they may be considered so. Not, however, strictly and pro- 
perly, since the idea of Deity is no simple, bnt the most complex of ideas.' || 
Here, as to the analogies of sensitive perception, it wonld require to be much 
more definitively settled than it yet is what are perceptions primary and 
direct, and what are perceptions so 'second' as to be 'inferred,' ere we 
could bnild securely on them in theistic inquiry. Besides, if the inferences 
claimed by the inferential Theist are not only ' rapid and spontaneoiis,' but 
■ Smt. Theologv. Part I. oh»p. L * F, 3i5. t P- 21G. 

§ Phil.i'/tU InfinUe, pp. SOO and 201, ial. cd. _ || p. TO. 



""TKJrr&r^ PHOFB8SOH rUHT AND THE LOOM OP THEISM. 103 

* in?oli]ntai7 ajid nncooBcions,' the intnitional TheiBt; is not pnt to much 
diflScnlty by them. Their rapidity and spoDtondty indicate rather the ui> 
BtinctiTe realization of Qod by the mind along with iteelf cmd natnre tbm 
a logical transition. This latter accounts for the ' rapidity,' and better 
interprets the ' spontaneity.' As to a ' loose intnitioii,' there is no each thing 
Id the hnman misd any more than r ' weak ' or an ' arbitrary ' one. Men 
may hare a loose idea of what on intnition is, bat there is aothii^ which God 
hascreated that weare left to interpret bysach an nnheerd-of agent^as a 'loose ' 
intuition.' A ' loose intuition ' is niiat an erring (xmsdence was to Kant—' 
' a chtmara.' The last statement in this citation, that a complex idea jost Yij 
being complex cannot be intnitire, is a statement repeated (p. 61) by Dr. Flint. 
If the fact be bo, then certainly the idea of God cannot be iatnitive. But, 
on the same supposition, what of snch ideas as self and the external world T 
No fact of existence conid, on that ground, be intnitively known. All 
sxistmce mnst be inferential, — an a priori decision too premature and riolent. 

As a last iUostration of how Dr. Flint deals, with an intnitional Theiun, 
he is foand repeatedly and in varied forms making the representation that 

* onr idea of God is no more or otherwise intnitire than onr idea of a 
fellow-maa' ^ We have no direct or immediate knowledge, no intoitiTe or a 
priori knowledge, of the intelligence of onr fellow -creatures, any more than 
of the intelhgence of onr Creator; bnt we hare a direct personal con- 
Bcionsness of intelligence in onrselres which enables os confidently to infer 
that the works both of God and of men can only hare originated in intelli- 
gwices.'* If Dr. Flint, mstead of appealing to the uialogy of onr know- 
ledge- of each other's existence, had appealed to either or both of two other 
andogies, — onr knowledge of onr own existence, and onr knowledge of the 
existeace of the material world, — and if he had ^hown in these cases that 
they are inferential, he wonld have brought before ns what lay at first sight 
at Icoet closer as an analogy to the caee in hand thsfn does onr knowledge 
of each other's esist^ce. Self, the world, and God, are the three great 
metaphysical spheres ; and to have shown the knowledge of any one of them 
to rest on inference would certainly have been to addace a plausible, if not 
even an exact, analogy for the other two. But Dr. Flint pasaeB by these 
two, the knowledge of self and of the world, and selects onr knowledge of 
onr fellow-men's existence in order to parallel therewith onr knowledge of 
God's existence. To do this ia to introdnce two elements of difficulty that 
serionsly stand in the way of the argoment being helped by the analogy, 
and that, besides, tend nnnecessarily to complicate the whole matter in hand. 
The first difficulty is— although our knowledge of each other's existence 
were shown to be inferential, is that snch a knowledge as bears any helpful 
analogy to our knowledge of God t If it were held to do so, what would 
be made of the knowledge of self, and the knowledge of the nnirerse, 
as analogies f They could not be denied to be analogous, bnt they are 
both— aibnittedly, I suppose — ^intuitive, not inferential. There wonld 
thus arise a complete contradiction among the analogons knowledges. 
Two analogies there would be of intuitive knowledge, one of inferential. 

The second difficulty occurs in reference to onr knowledge of each other's 
existence being taken to be inferentiaL It is certainly somewhat startling 
to be told that we only infer each other's existence as living and intethgent 
beii^s — we do not directly know it. It is cnrious to think that it needs 
some reasoning to convince Dr. Flint of the equally indubitable and redoubt- 
able fact of the existence of Dr. Phin. Yet it wonld seem there must be 
■Pp.»l,T9,77 I CnOOolc 



101 PBOPESSOB rUNT AND THB LOOIO OF THEISM, '"^i.!;^** 

difficnlt;. Dr. Beid seemB to wavKT. He first aays : ' This belief ' (that 
one's ' neighbour is a living creature ") ' stands apon another foundation tban 
that of reasonuig.' Bnt then, inimediatelf, ' setting aside this natural con- 
viction,' he reasons for the concloaion just as Dr. Flint does, and even draws 
the analogy, as the other does, between this knowledge and that of the 
existence of Ctod. The ratiocinatire process by which this ' natnnd convic- 
tion ' of one's ' neighbour being a living creatnre' becomes a logical conse- 
quence, is in Dr. Flint apparently this. Where there are ' signs,' ' marks,' 
or ' effects ' of mind, there mind exists : bnt there are snch in the beings 
we call onr fellow-men : therefore they are intelligent beings. This is pre- 
ciBely the argument from causality, employed to establish men's existence to 
each other, that ia employed to substantiate God's existence to alL The 
argument is illogical in both cases ahlte. The first proposition in each is 
not a generalization from experience, but a mental assertion which we make 
on all pertinent occasions, equally of those cases that are to be inferred, as 
well as of those from which we think to infer them. We cannot, therefore, 
logically found on the one proposition the existence of-our fellow-men, or 
on the other the causation of the world and the existence of Ood. We 
necessarily and consciouBly possess at the beginning of the process the 
knowledge which we pretend to get as its result, for the two terms of each 
proposition are one in knowledge. Men thus do not live to each other on 
syllogisms. Another man's mental existence is to me as immediate a percep- 
tion as his bodily existence. I know my fellow as a whole directly aa I 
know myself. And as, when I realize myself or anght else in thought, I find 
myself and all else living and moving and having bcang in an infinite suprrane 
existence and presence; so, snbordinately, in thinking the external world, 
I think myself living and moving in it as in a finite and dependent system, 
while on the presentation to me and the perception by me of other beings like 
myself, the thought of hmnanity straightway enfolds me, and I realize myself 
living and moving in the bosom of a common brotherhood of men. Logical 
process of inference towards any one of these facts of existence — there is 
none. 

Dr. Flint's destructive criiici^ thns reqnires reconsideration. It is 
almost worse with his couBtrnctive system, — at least in its main and dis- 
tinctive featiire. To that system we now turn. 

Dr. Flint's system of theistic evidence as a whole seems to be peculiar to 
lumself, and to Dr. M'Cosb, who has, indeed, the greater responsibility in 
connection with it, as being the first to proponnd it. The cluef peculiarity 
of the system, which will be signalized in due time, will be found not so pro- 
nounced in the other author with whom Dr. Flint claims affiliation.* Dr. 
Flint begins with the statement that ' the real evidences of God's existoice 
are His works and ways — all those facts which cannot be reasonably con- 
ceived of as other than the mEuufestations of Ood.' 'According to this 
view, the evidences of God's existence are countless,' ' At the same time 
they concur and coalesce into a single all-comprehensive argument, which ia 
just the Bom of the indications of God given by the physical nniverse, the 
minds of men, and human history.' f After these statements he gives a 
concise vidimus of the complex proof,} and then prosecutes it in detail, 
devoting five lectnres to what are ordinarily called the cosmological, the 
teleological, and the moral arguments, — stating them and answering objec- 
tions. All this is done fully, eloquently, and interestii^ly. £ut after the 



''■'5u?1^^8^'"^ PROFBSSOB TXIHT AHD THE LOGIC OF THEIBM, 105 

ai^nments are all in .ordw, marBhalled in full force, the author, looking 
critically at hie own work, owns that ' although perfectly conclnsire so far 
as they go,' these argoments ' do not even in combination yield ns the fall 
idea of God ; ' ' they do not prove Him to be infinite, eternal, absolute in 
being and perfection.' Bnt ' we are coneciona tliat we have these ideas of 
infinity,' etc. ' We may be doabtfnl as to whence we get these ideas,' ' bnt 
we cannot question or deny that we have them ; ' and ' they must be pre- 
dicable of some being.' What remains to be done, therefore, for the perfect- 
ing of the argmnent, is to inquire, ' Are we rationally warranted to assign to 
Ood those attribntes which are called absolute or incommnnicable 1 ' This 
question, ' what has been already proven' is said to ' make it comparatively 
easy to answer.' And ' reason,' it is added, ' after it has reached a certain 
Bt^e of cnlture, has never found this a difQcnlt qaestion.' * It is noder- 
stood by the reader that Dr. Flint then proceeds to show, what it is thus so 
easy to show, that these ideas of infinity, etc., mnst apply to the Being of ' 
his inference. But how he does this is not qnite clear. He turns at once 
to the celebrated a priori arguments for the existence of Ood. He states a 
number of them, from Plato's to those of Clarke, Lowman, Kamsay,| and 
thrai sums np with the assertiOQ that they constitate a reductio ad aisurdum, 
so that > disbehef in an infinite, self -existent, eternal Being, necessarUy implies 
belief in the untmstworthiness of all our mental processes,' i.e. implies 
absolute scepticism. Yet this result cannot be the warrant we tve wfuting 
for J for, irrespective of the fact that the a priori arguments conclude to one 
sort of being, while Dr. Flint's a posteriori ai^uments conclude to another, 
he had alrcEidy, before he entered on these a priori argmnents, said that 
' Theism, according to his view of it, was not vitally interested in their fate-t 
' I am not prepared,' he also says, ' to maintain- that any one of them is 
conclusive thronghout,'§ Where, then, is our warrant ? Where is the 
link that is to join on the necessary supplement of infinity to the finite issue 
of Dr. Flint's argumait for the existence of the infinite God? It is perhaps 
most directly given in this sentence -, ' The first and ultimate Being, and not 
asij derived and dependent being, must obviously be the infinite, eternal, 
and perfect Being.' | Aad witi this Dr. Flint's evidence for the fact of the ' 
existence of God infinite, eternal, perfect, is completed. 

It must be maintained that this argmnent, with all the eminent ability of 
tlie discussions m' which it is developed, is, in result, wholly null; in ita 
essential and distinctive feature, little lees than vnphilosophicai. 

Snch an ai^oment is, indeed, an amazing attempt. What does it pretend 
to do but this : to find the fact of the existence of Qod in one class of 
phenomena by one process of knowledge — an inference, and the attributes of 
Qod in another class of phenomena, through a totally different process of 
knowledge — an intuition ? Look at that process. In the former part of 
the argument you have the Bdng inferred without the distinctive attributes 
that qualify Him ; in the latter part, the attribntea given without the Being 
whom they qualify. That is the essence of the argument; and donbtless it 
is its condemnation. Is such a process a psychological, or is it a logical, 
or is it any possible account of the genesis of the notion of God ? I venture 
to say that among all the vagaries of philosophical effort, there is not much 
to match this one. Dr. Flmt has hardly a true conceplJon of what actually 
takes place in bis hands, under his manipulation of either part of the pro- 

• Pp. 264-6, 290-1, + Pp. 2G9-2B8. t V. 267. 5 P. 289. 

IIP. 266. SoH'Coalii/nAiaiMJ, p.199: ^We believe tLat He who mBdeall things, and 
who is thus powerful, ttins iMuevolent, thus I10I7, is, and miut be, Uie Inflnile, the Perfect.' 



106 PHOFESSOB FLINT AND THE LOGIC OF THEIBJI. '■""^'i.t^^'^ 

ceas. On the one hand, the Being whose existence is said to be inferrecl 
from the facts of natnre is not the Ood of oar ideal at alL Dr. Flint sboold 
have averred, not merely tUat the a posteriori aEgomenU did ' not yield ns 
the fall idea of Qod,' bat that, their shortconunga being vrhat.they wre, 
tbey did aot give na Qod at aU. On the other band, the ideas of the mind 
nhich it is sought to attnbute to the Being inferred, so sb to elevate Him to 
the perfection of our ideal, and which are looked apon as abstractions 
waiting to ' fasten on ' * this being when once the process of inference is 
completed, are not free for snch treatment or sneh fnnctions. They are 
not waiting as abatractiocs — a snpposition little lesa th&n absurd. They Are 
already, tu they mnet be, inherent in another Being,— the Bang with whose 
existence they were first and are always revealed to the mind, and who ia no 
other than the Being Himself — the infinite, eternal, perfect God, for whom 
Dr. Flint is making so strange and annecessary a search. 

Bnt before further remark on Dr. Flint's argument, it is requisite to 
notice one or two points of detail in the conception and statement of the 
a posteriori portions of the process, and in his dealing with the a priori 
ai^uments. ' 

Dr. Flint has not thrown the a posteriori arguments rigorously into the 
form of syllogisms, as Dr. Tnlloch has done, at least in what that writer 
calls the inductive evidence, i.e. in the case of the cosmological and teleo- 
logica,l arguments. The process, however, in respect of these arguments, is 
as really syllogistic in the one writer as in the other. And when a process 
is really of an inferential nature, or held to be so, there are advantages in 
making it formally syllogistic. The thinking is by this ipeuia both expUcated 
jiud tested the better. 

As to the ai^oment from conscience, taking it in the terms in which Dr. 
Flint has stated it, it is clearly to be held to be, aa already indicated, what 
Dr. Tulloch in his treatment of it has called it, a 'moral intuitive argument,' 
. that is to say, whilst it is most vahd evidence of the fact of God's existence, 
it is rather an aasertion of that existence than a demonstration of it. Fasring 
to it from the other arguments. Dr. Flint might well have joined Dr. Tnlloch 
in Baying, ' We are no longer merely to be concerned with facts from which 
we are warranted to infer divine wisdom and goodness, but with facts which 
in a peeuhar sense reveal to us God, which bring Ood before ns intnitively 
rather than in the ordinary indnctive way. We enter among those prime 
elements of our spiritual constitntion which are the appropriate organs of 

■ the theistic conception.' f 

Of Dr. Flint's other two a posteriori argnments, that founded on cansality 
is tantamount to this : — Every event has a canse^ the world is an event, 
therefore the world has a cause. N'ow, besides the admitted fact that this 
argument does not conclude to the Being whom we caU and worship as God, 
it has logical characteriatics that make it invalid otherwise. The first pro- 
position is a fundamental principle of thought, awakened into consciousness 
on the presHitation to the mmd of any finite object whatever. The first 

■ object that awakened it could not obviously be concluded from it to have a 

• Dr, M'CoBh'g eipreasion, /ii(«i(ioiij, p. 199, 

t Thritm, p. 262. Hod Br. TuUocb, jiiatead of first Betting forth a peiteriori iodacUvB 
argumeiila, >t once begun with an iHielUcliial intuitive argument (to use bU Own mode of 
speech), hsd ha then pat his 'monl intuitive ergumeat' second, end Uet oi all fallowed up 
with B, religiinu intuitive argument, and had ho then shewn that he bad been working all 
liie while iinder the shadow of an aU-embraaing intuition of Ood, and that when intuitive 
revelation was available, logical Inference was «qnall7 inadmiesible and euperflaoos — had 
he done this he would have been a different and a ver; much better theiet than what ho 
actuallj has done will allow oB lo call htoi. 



^ILTi^tT'^ PBOrBSSOB FLINT AHD THE LOGIC Or THEISM. 107 

cause. Bat the worid might be that object. Wh;, then, should the world's 
haring a canae be made an inference depending on itt All EimiJar prin- 
ciples of mind are eimilarly incapable of being made tbe premises of 
inferential knowledge.* As to tbe second proposition, Dr. Flmt says we 
have no right to asenme the world to be an event, and he makes the stress of 
the causality argnment to rest on the j»w)f from observation and experience, 
that it is a matter of fact that the world had a beginning. The growth of 
scieoce is bnt the drawing out of this proof, he says. Now, not speaking of 
what right we may have or not hare in the matter, it is at all events certaia 
that the mind does assome and cannot bat assume the world to be on event, 
does so aboTe and before all indnctive inquiry and reasoning whatever. Tlis 
■mod thinks all its objects of existence within the relation of finite and 
mfinite, dependent and snpreme, finite cansed and infinite canse, bodies re- 
strtcted and apace immense, things endaring and time and God eternal. It 
thinks thns, and it realizes self and its contents and tbe world and all tilings 
therein under the finite term, at once and immediately, spontaneonsly and 
necessarily. Prove by logic the world an event I Prove also by logic self 
SQ event, and expose the preposterousnees of the whole thing. We get both, 
self and the world, as having eventuated in getting both as having existence. 
la so far as we set aside the conception of the world's being an nnbegmning 
thing, or of its being an infinitely regressive and unbeginning sncceasion of 
things, and in so far as we place it before our conceptions as a creature that 
has passed into space and time from an infinite will and power, we do it all 
by immediate mental assertion. Then, the world being accepted as an event, 
the notion — event, cannot be conceived any more than the notion — effect, 
can, except along with its correlate canse; and once more logical argument 
13 precluded, unless it be that yonr mind cannot get from one end of a stick 
to the other vrithout a reasoning. 

In passing from the cause ai^nment to that from design. Dr. Flint makes 
11 Etatement of a singnlar charact«r. After speaking of onr knowledge of 
onrselves as canses 'accompanying reason in its upward search, nntil 
it rests in the cognition of an ultimate cause, and enabUi^ us to think of 
that cause as the primary all-originating will,' be proceeds, ' but the prin- 
ciple of causality alone, or by itself, is qnite insuf&cient to lead tbe mind np 
to the apprehension of Deity.' ' The evidences of intelligence must be com- 
bined with the evidences of power, before we can be warranted to infer more 
from the facta of the universe than the existence of an ultimate force.' f 
What f a will, and that the primary all-originating will, but no intelligence ! 
We have indeed heard of a nisas or incipient will in the nniverse.} Bnt 
then it did not do the work of the will developed and perfect. Here, how- 
ever, is will, even a causative will, that is yet mere force. Dr. TnHoch, with 
truer philosophical instinct, says : ' We recognise mind as already implicitly 
given in force — the higher, aa already contained in the lower, phase of the 
theistic conception." 'Wot only does adaptation as a fact give mind, but 
force (canse) already in onr view, however obscurely, gives it. The study 
of design in creation does not, as we hold, add intelfigence for the first time 
to onr original causal belief.' § Philosophers may be allowed to doubt 
vhether the idea of cause can be construed withont the element of intelli- 
gence. II But they must not be allowed the same liberty in reference to will. 

■Porter, 7B(rftertBB:&«oee,eeo. 248. f P. 66. 

t Ea, HarlesB, SaM. of Chr. Eihict, seo. 5 ; eomp. Bchopenbaner's PAUok^s ; Deberneg, 
niA^HU., iL 255. 

S raei™,p.68. 

S Frauds Bowen, Lovtll Ledui-u, 1848— First Oonree, LeotuKi f-7i Mai^^^^^l^ 



108 PBOPBSSOR FLINT AND THE LOGIC OP THEISM, '"jto. iTSl^ 

WiU necessarily implies mtelligence, nay personal iotelUgence. ' Will con- 
BOt«s intelligence,' saya Lewes. 

When Dr. Flint comee to the design argument itself, he deals with it 
exactly after the type of his treatment oE the one from canse. He saya, ' the 
ai^nment is aoi frtm hnt to design. To assume design, and then to aflSrm 
that every design mnst have a designer, is manifestly not seriona reasonii^, 
bat a play npon words. To assume design at all, is to assume precisely 
what one is most bonnd to prove. . . . Design has no existence except in 
mind. There is no design in the sky, or the sea, or the land ; there are only 
law, order, and arrangement therein, and these things are not designs, 
althongh they imply designs.'* Dr. Flint thns, exactly like Dr. Tnlloch,t 
seeka to correct the error of the design reaaoners, and to re-establish the 
argoment by snbstituting the word ' order,' or ' adaptation,' for the word 
deaign ; so that the argument would stand thns, in Dr. TQlloch's words : — 
' Order nniversally proves mind, the works of natore discover order ; there- 
fore the works of nature prove mind.' It is not apparent how this is more 
' serious reasoning,' or less ' a play npon worda,' than the syllogism it is to 
anperaede. The ' order' or ' adjustment' of thia argument is still such as is 
the correlate of mind. Therefore all the mere play upon words of the old form 
remains. As with the causal argument, that the world comes nnder the law 
of a parposive adjnstment in the whole and in the parts is what does not need 
proof-t And when purposive order ia accepted Aa an attribute of things, 
the existence of the pnrposer is no inference. He is already in possession of 
thought. In fact, he was brought by thought to make the world to that 
effect an intelligible world. After speaking of the order and adaptation, 
proportion and co-ordination, that prevail everywhere in the physical and 
moral worlds, Dr. Flint himself asks, 'Is thia state of things intelligible on 
any other supposition than that of a designing mind T ' S Thia, and not a 
few similar modea of 8pe<Bch throughout the diacusaions in these lectures,!] 
are conformed to a totally different method of aettling'the evidence of Qod'a 
existence from that professed by Dr. Flint. The materials which the a 
posteriori ai^um^ta employ whereby to reason ont the fact of God's exist- 
ence, have indeed a close connection with the knowledge of that fsict. But 
the connection ia not a syllogistic one. That knowledge ia not an extract 
from these phenomena. The sonls of men do not come to the dehberate and 

temp. Remetr, July 1870; CoJderwood, Conlemp. Rentm, Sept. 1870, and Handbook, p. 166; 
HoisolieU, Aitronomi/,.e)\a.^. vii. ; Veitoh, Lucreiim and the Atomic Thtory, 1876, pp. 77-Sa; 
Hamilton's Reid, pp. 66, 76, 78 ; Comp. Lewee' Froblenu oflAfe and ifind, Prob. v. ToL ii, 
pp. 344-412 ; Irons, Tht Whole Dootrint of Final Catua, Lond. 1836, pp. 61 tqq. ; A, a. 
WeJlace, Natarai SeUi^on, 2d ed. pp. e6&~e ; Murphv, Sd. Batei o/Failh, pp. 201 tg. 

* P. 154. f namn, pp. 12 el leq. 

i ' This Idea of Seal cause is not deduced from the phenomena b; tessoiiing', but ia 
nsBumed as lbs only cbsditioii nnder which we c&n reason on such snbjecta at ilL . . . The 
fnnduneDtal ideas (space, time, forco) are not generated bnt unfolded, not extracted from 
the external irorld bat evolved from the world within. In like macnar this idea of an end, 
this notion of adaptation, may become much more clear and impressive, by seeing it exem- 
plified in parliEuIar caset. But still, thongh su^eated and evoked by special oasea, it ia 
not furnished by them. If it be not anpplied by the mind itself, it can never bo lomoaJly 
deduced from the phenomena. It !a not a portion of l^a facta which we study, bnt it is a 
principle which connects, includes, and renders them intelligible.'— (Wha well, PhUasoplm of 
the Induclite Sciencea, VoL i. p. 620 etteq.) 'Is there not another law of the human mind aa 
deeply implanted, as full of necessitv, as the other ' (that of cause) F 'Does not the homaa 
mind ask incessantly and inevitably for what purpose?' 'The laws of intelligenca aa 
known to us in thehaman mind, bear aa deal a testimony to purpose as to cause.'— -<lTanu;li 
in B. and F. Ev. Rtvitv, No. 94, pp. 667-8.) Among hia four oauaes, Aristotie gave Ifae 
hleheat pre-emiaencojo the what fort— (^Sae Porter, tc. sees. 298-800.) 

H Pp. 1^, 166-7, 187. Is it light to say, one thing impliet, involva, ai n^pOM* another, 
whenltiameant that that other u ft logical inlereDcelromit? 



""itoTt^Bw"' THE POPISH HIBBABCHY IN SCOTLAND. 109 

scientific ctmtemplation, of nature, empty of the tbonght of Ood. God t 
that supreme word had nerer been intelli^ble to the ear, had the seose and 
content^ of it not lain originally in the booI. ' All heaven lies about as in 
onr infancy.' * And the thought of the Lord of Heaven lies nithin the sool 
ready to be awakened on the fii^t awakeni[^ of conscions mind. Like the 
thoDght of self and of the nniverBe, that thought accompanies the action of 
onr mwtal life all through, and it comes of the spontaneities of thought, not 
, through the enforcementB of logict 

(7b be eontiniied.') 



REVIVAL OP THE FOFISH HIERARCHY IN SCOTLAJID. 
bt the ret. john botd, d.d. 
Pabt Second. 
The whole history of the Papacy, in this country, for the last half centnry, 
clearly proTCs that the great object which the Romanists of the present day 
have set themselres to achieve, is the anbTcrsion of our Protestant laws and 
institations, and the substitution in their room of Papal mle and domination. 
Cardinal Mauumg himself, One of the ringleaders in tbis nefarious and un- 
principled conspiracy, has distinctly admitted the truth of these averments. 
Writing in the TiAlet of date 6th August 1859, he says: 'If ever there 
was a land in which work is to be done, and perhaps much to suffer, it is 
Iiere. I shall not say too much, if I say that to subjugate and subdue, to 
coDqaer and rale, an imperial race, we haVe to do with a will which reigns 
tbroughout the world as the will of old Rome reigned once; we have to 
bend and break that will, which nations and kingdoms have fonnd invincible 
and inflexible. Were heresy (by which he means Protestantism) conqnered 
in England, it would be conquered thronghout the world. AH its lines meet 
here, and therefore in England the Church of God must be gathered m its 
strength.' ' Surely a soldier's eye and a soldier's heart would choose, by 
intnilion, the field of England. It is the head of Protestanttem, the 
centre of its movements, and the stronghold of its power. Weakened in 
England, it is conquered throughout the world,' This is certainly plain 
speaking, and, however great its audacity, no one can doubt the -sincerity 
and earnestness of the writer. He opens, as it were, his heart to us, and 
lets us see what the real aims and objects are which he, and the party 
with whom he is now allied, have set themselves to accomplish. In the exn- 
berance of his expectations, he clearly lets us see that in all the dealings of 
the Papacy with Britain, its one grand object is to quench the light of Scrip- 
tural truth and freedom now enjoyed by us, and bring back heretic Britain 
once more to the faith of Rome, and to entire snbniiBsion and subjection to 
its Pontiff, These are Uie auns which Rome has in view in resuscitating the 
olden hierarchies of England and Scotland, and, disguise it as she may, these 
are the ends she is determined, at all hazards, and in spit« of all opposition, 
to accomplish. Long and untiringly has she laboured and conspired to 
achieve these ends. Every means that can help them forward she employs ; 
and she is not at all scrupulous as to their nature or character, if they can 
only aid her in attaining that universal domination over the kingdoms and 

* Comp. EetUngeT, Aptlogit Ja ChrutanlhuBU, Bd. i. p. 106. 

f Horpby, apeakiDK o[ the apotltriori arguments, rayi, 'It ll only In » teatniotl unEA 
that Ihen on be c«U«d uvumsota. They ars properly means whereby lAowledgo Sowa 
on the mind.' fn. AxH o/^otlA, pp. 321-2. 



110 BBVIVAL OP THE '""K.^ifeJ"^ 

peoples of the world, on which her whole heart ia set, ^'o one sees thk more 
clearly thaa Mr. Gladstone, and no one has denounced it in stronger or more 
fitting terms than he has done. In his Vatican Decttes he says, ' The language 
of the authorized and faronred Papa! organs in the press, and of the Ultra- 
montanes (now the sole legithnate party of the Latin Chorch) thronghont 
Europe, leads me to the painfn! and revolting conclnsion, that there is a fixed 
purpose among the secret inspirers of Roman policy to pnrsne, by the road 
of force, apon the arrival of any favoorable opportonity, the favoarite project . 
of re-erecting the terrestrial throne of the Popedom, even if it can only be re- 
erected npon the ashes of a city, and amidst the whitening bones of the 
people.' " 

The correctness of these views ia fnlly confirmed by the very terms of the 
Papal BdH of 1850. In the conclnsion of that document, the Pope Bete all the 
regnlarly-constitnted lawful authorities of the empire at defiance, for he de- 
sl&res his new law to be in force in spite of any denunciation or repudiation 
of it by the civil power. Nay, he very coolly decrees that any opposition 
given to it, no matter by what authority, would be without any force what- 
ever. In other words, he affirms that his decree was to override, set .aside, 
and take precedence of the very statute law of the realm. His words were, 
— and they are well deserving of the closest attention and study, — ' We 
likewise decree that all which may be done to the contrary by any one, who- 
soever he be, knowing or ignorant, in name of any authority whatever, sfaaU 
be without force.' And that this new law of the Pope was regarded as hav- 
ing actually overridden and nullified the statute law of the land, as far at 
least OS Roman Catholics were concerned, was broadly asserted by the lead- 
ing Popish organs in Great Britain and the Continent. As a specimen, we 
may quote from Cardinal Wiseman's own organ, the TabUt, of 26th July 
1851. Speaking of the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill which had just been enacted, 
it says :— ■ 

' Neither in England nor in Ireland will the Roman Catholics obey the law, 
that is, the new law of the Imperial Farliameut. They have, or are likely (d 
have, before them two things called law, which unhappily (or rather happily) 
contradict each other. Both cannot be obeyed, and both cannot be dis- 
obeyed. One of them is the law of God, the other ia no law at all It pre- 
tends to .be an Act of Parliament, but in the ethics of legislation it has no 
more force than a solemn enactment that the moon ia made of green cheese. 
It is not a law, but a lie, a parliamentary lie, which the very ntterers know 
to be false. ... Of these two things, we need hardly say which shall be 
obeyed and which disobeyed. The law of God, that is, the Pope's command, 
will be, or rather has been, and is being, carried into effect. 'The parliamen- 
tary lie will be spit upon and trampled under foot, and treated as all honest 
men treat a lie, — that is, that it be vigorously disobeyed.' 

Not was this a solitary outburst of a fierce and frenzied TJltramontaae 
bigot, whose entire submission to Papal aothority had led him so utterly to 
ignore his loyalty and duty as a subject ; it was, we r^ret to say, a fair 
sample of the utterances of a large portion of the Popish press both in Eng- 
land and Ireland. The Catholic Vindicator was even still more reckless and 
disloyal. The following quotations are proofs of it : — 

' Rather than that our loyalty to the Holy Apostolic See should be in the 

least d^ree taruished, let ten thousand kings and queens (and Queen Victoria 

included) perish as guch, — that is, be deposed from th«r thrones and become 

mere individuals, as we have lately seen in the case of a Catholic sorerdgs. 

■ VMiaan Deerrti, p. SO. 



. liiTw"'**"' POPISH HIBBABOHY IN SCOTLAND. Ill 

We shoald not, of coqrse, have epoken bo Etrongly aa this nnder ordinary cir- 
cmnstaitceB ; bnt when the Pope and the Qneen are placed in antagonism to 
each other, as has been done lately, and it is intimated that Her Majesty will 
DOt accept a dirided allegiance, we are compelled to say plainly which allegiance 
ife consider the mast iTnportant ; and we would not hesitate to tell the Qneen 
to her face that she must either be content with this divided allegiance 
or none at all (ao far as Catholics are concerned), for it is perfectly certain 
that, come what may (the rack and the tortnre, the instrnment nsed by Her 
Majesty's predecessors in their conflict with Popery), we shall never do other- 
wise than strictly obey the sovereign PontilT, whoever may presume to forbid 
it, and in their puny insignificance pronounce the Acts of the Tiear of Christ 
unll and void.' • 

One other extract we will give from this same CaihoUc Vindicator. It is 
defending the conduct of Cardinal Wiseman, who, almost immediately after 
hiB retm^ from Rome as bead of the revived hierarchy, actually removed from 
the canon of the mass the prayer for Qneen Victoria which had hitherto been 
in it ; and he caused the obnoxious passage to be expunged from all the 
DUEsals in use throughout bis diocese. As might have been expected, this 
most significant and startling act on the part of the Pope's representative in 
EDgland, could not but provoke unfavonrable comments in the constitutional 
organs of the day. The Vindicator came Iwldly forth in defence of the Car- 
dinal's conduct, and thus writes : — 

' Eoff does ike Church regard Qneen Victoria uid other heretical sove- 
rc^Bst Has her name much prominence in its services T Nay, is it there at 
M Did not the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster omit the prayer for 
ilie eovereiga (which is only intended for a Catholic sovereign) at Sonthwark 
Cathedral on Good Friday t Of conreehe did, for the simple and very ob- 
vious reason that Queen Victoria is not a member of the Christian Church, — 
of that Church which, if we refuse to "hear" and obey, we are at once 
classed with heaiJiens and publicans (these are the words of Almighty God) ; 
and hence Qneen Victoria is only prayed for generally (in the prayer for 
"heretics and schismatics") with other Protestant unbelievers. . , . Let 
na never forget that, whatever her boast«d anthority may be, it is as MAing, , 
md las than, nothing, compared to that of the Vicar of Christ,' 

It may, however, be said that these were only the ravings of some disloyal 
ficebrande, who had no proper idea of the respect and allegiance due t« rulers, 
or of the obedirace which subjects owe to the laws of the land in which they 
live. The more respectable and better instructed Catholics never, snrety, 
could have indorsed, or in any way sanctioned, such insane and treasonable 
ntterances. But truth compels us to reply that the statements of Cardinal 
Hanning, thoi^h perhaps less riietorical, were equally decided in exalting the 
elms of the Pope above all civil laws whatever, and demanding from all 
Romanists obedience to his commands in preference to the statute laws of 
their own country. In his reply to Mr. Gladstone's .Sbposiuiod'on, when 
speaking of the Decrees of the Vatican Council, he says, in plain terms :— 
' Once published, these Acts enter into the domain of faith and conscience, 
and no human legislation, no civil authority, can efface them. The two 
hundred milliona of Catholics will know the Decrees of the Vatican ConnciJ, 
and to know them is to obey.'t And in writing these words Dr. Manning 
was only repeating over again the substance of what, on Sunday, October 3, 

■ Pot thia snd the enoooeding eitract we are indebted to Dr. Wjiie, Rent and Civil 
■ iMtr^ pp. isz, 163. 

t MamSng's Vatican Dtcna, p. 21. 



1 12 REVIVAL OF THE ""Si'i^l^ 

18G9, he had, by the Pope's commaad, read in the pro-cathedral of Eenshig- 
ton, to the coDgregatioii there and then assembled. The words were not hia 
own, bat the Pope's, who, in the Lnciferiao and God-forgetting pride and 
presumption of Ms heart, thus enanciated his claims ; — ' I acknowledge no 
civil power, I am the sabject of no prince; and I claim more than this, I 
clMm to be the supreme jndge and director of the conaciences of men, — of 
the peasant that ^Is the field, and the prince that sits upon the throne, of 
the honsehold that Uves in the shade of priracy, and tiie legislator that 
makes laws for kingdoms; I am the sole, last, supreme jadge of what is 
right and wrong,' • 

Insolent, dai'ing, and even blasphemous as these claims are, the Romaa 
Catholics of this country seem now not only to accept of them, bnt are 
ready to act apon them. Since the revival of the English hierarchy in 1850, 
there has beeu a great and marked chaise in the feelings and language of 
Roman Catholics in reference to the laws of this land, and in the all^iance 
which they are willing to give to its sovereign. Before that event, they 
were like other British subjects, ready and willing to avow, on all proper 
occasions, their respect for the laws and their loyalty to the Crown, Bat 
since that period, a great, if not a complete, change has come over them. 
As Mr. Glladstone asserts, they have ' placed their civil allegiance at the 
mercy of the Pope.'t In other words, their loyalty to the sovereign of this 
realm is depending entirely o:i the pleasure of the Roman Pontiff. As long 
as he allows them to be loyal to the laws and the Crown they will be so ; bat 
whenever he pleases to demand it, allegiance to him most precede and 
supersede all othei' allegiance. At the opening of the premises attached to 
the pro-cathedral, Clifton, Lord Clifford, who presided, and in the presence 
of a number of Popish bishops and other ecclesiastics, proposed as the first 
toast, ' Our sovereign Pontiff, the Pope.' The health of the Queen followed, 
bat evidently as occupying a lower place, and being less importaut than the 
former.^ In the great meeting held in St. James' Hall, some few years ago, 
onder the presidency of Dr. Manning, among other noble and reverend 
speakers. Lord Denbigh boldly and unqualifiedly declared that the Catholic 
Church had higher claims on him than his country. Twice in the course of 
his speech he characterized a sentence in the Queen's Speech as ' a down- 
right lie ; ' and he concluded his speech in these words : ' I utterly repudiate 
such a thing as nationality. I am nothing but a CathoKc ; an Englishman, 
if you please, but a Catholic first.' This disloyal utterance from a man who 
thus publicly ignored his British citizenship, Cardinal Manning at the 
Clifton dinner adopted, and said that ' it clearly defined the position of 
Roman Catholics, and that Lord Clifford, in holding the sovereignty of the 
Pope as superior to the authority of the Crown, was only avowing the fealty 
due by himself and his co-religionists to the Pope of Rome.' § 

Other proofs of a similar kind, as to the change that has taken place in 
the loyalty of the Roman Catholics to the laws and Oovemment of Britain, 
we could easily adduce, for they are legion, but our space will not allow, 
and those we have advanced are, we think, sufficient for the purpose. 

The question, then, which now presents itself to our conrideration is this, 
whether it is right or safe, as it regards our civil and religions freedom, to 
allow the Pope to revive the Romj^ hierarchy in Scotland, as we may rest 
assured that its unhappy fruits will be similar to those which the Bull of 
1850 has produced in England. God forbid that we ^onld refuse to our 

■ QladBtone'i Valicaa D<ciia,v. 10». 
t Tbe TaMet. 9tli December 187$. 



ii.«p«fc^M.O POPISH HIERAKCia' IN 8C0TLAKD. 113 

Soman Catiiolic coontrfmeD the same religions liberty that we onrselvefl 
{losaess. We at once acknowledge their indefeasible right to hold, teach, 
And prop^ate their religions opinions. Bnt we are fully satisfied that, 
since the issuing by the Pope of the Syllabus and the Dogmatic Decrees of 
the Vatican Council, and the requiring implicit obedience to tliem as 
esseotial to salration, the Roman Catholic religion has been radically 
changed, and eo also has been the relation in which Romanists now stand to 
the laws and crown of Qreat Britain. The Pope is now their liege lord. 
His commands to them are supreme, and obedience to him precedes all other 
civil allegiance. In this aspect of it the Roman Catholic religion has de- 
generated into sheer UltramontaniBm, or, in other words, Jesuitism; and that 
ia not a rehgion at all, bnt a foul conspiracy against the civil and religious 
liberties of the hnman race. Its aim is to exalt Papal rule and domination 
above all civil aathority and law. As described by themselves, their design 
is to subvert both our civil and rehgions freedom — take from ng onr Bibles 
and oar evangelical privileges, and bring back onr land again to the mental 
darkness and thraldom of Rome. Nothing will satisfy the Pope bat 
absolnte and universal, snpremacy. ' Modem progress, liberalism, and 
civilisation,' he denonnces, and declares his determination to ' arrest and 
crush;'* the light and science of the nineteenth century he is resolved to 
quench ; and all that knowledge and education which have made onr northern 
home the admiration of the world, and the name of Scotchmen to be 
esteemed and respected in all lands, he is determined to restrict, and dole 
ont only as he and his fmestly agents shall think fit. These are bnt a few 
«f the ends which the Pope has in view in resuscitating among as his 
hierarchy, and it is for the people of Scotland to say if they will sit calmly 
£ti]], and allow their dearest and most valuable hberties to be threatened 
with invasion and overthrow by a foreign despot. Shall we quietly permit 
a body of conspirators, who make no secret of their designs, to settle down 
in onr midst, begin to dig their mines, and plant their batteries, in order to 
blow ap our Protestant' constitution, put a stop to onr worship, and violate 
the sanctity and parity of onr domestic circles as soon as they think them- 
selves strong enoagh to do so, or can find a favourable opportunity. Rome, 
we all know, has 'most skilful and insidious sappers and miners to do her 
work — men who have no scruples of conscience whatever when the interests 
of their Chnrch are to be served, or the will of their pontifical master is to 
be obeyed — men who, in defiance of the provisions of the Catholic ReUef 
Bill, are gathering in ominous numbers in oar land, and whose only principle 
of action is to advance, no matter at what cost or sacrifice, the universal 
domination of- their Chnrch. These men must be watched, and they must be 
told that there is a point, even in the endurance of Scottish Protestantism, 
beyoDd which they will not be allowed to go; and that the public safety, and 
the civil and religious liberties of the laud, are not to be endaogered or 
overthrown by their plots and machinations. Scotland has too long en- 
joyed the blessings of civil and religions freedom, she knows too well their 
iaeetimable valae, and the noble sacrifices made by our forefathers to secure 
them, willingly or easily to part with them. We all love and cherish them 
too highly to allow Rome to rob us of them without resistiug her, if need 
be, even to the death. A crisis of no common kind is plainly approaching, 
and it becomes the Protestants of this land especially to gird on their 
armour and prepare for it. The Papacy has once more declared war 
against all that trae freemen hold dear to their henrts, and Cardinal 

^ ■ The SylUbus, 80th paragrapb. 

KO. III. VOL. XXH. KEW SKRIES. — -HABCH 1878. n 



114 PRESBYTERIAN CHUECH OF VICTOKIA. '"°X.''"!^'"" 

HaDDing has shown ns that BritaiD bas been selected as the principal 
. battle-field. Let us then prepare, in a right and proper spirit, for- the defence 
of our most valued liberties and privileges. Let na not listen to, nor be 
influenced by, those journalists, who, wilfnlly ignorant of the true nature and 
wilea of the Papacy, try to laugh us out of our anxieties and apprehensions 
They cry ' Peace, peace,' while the enemy is knocking for admission at our 
gates ; and, like the silly Trojans of old, would counsel us to admit into our 
very citadel the Popish horse with its cargo of unscmpnloas conspirators 
and traitors, to impose on us a bondage to which that of Egypt or 
Babylon is not to be compared. What we do most need just now in 
this land is a true Protestant at the head of our Government — one who 
knows what Popery is, and who has the manliness and the principle to 
grapple with the many-headed hydra, and arrest its insidious efforts to 
subvert and destroy our best and noblest liberties, God in His all-wise and 
merciful providence will, we trust, raise up, and call forward to the front, the 
men suited for the times, and fitted for the work which onr nation is re- 
quiring, lie has done this before in times of perplexity and peril, and we 
may rest assured that lie will do so again. At ail events, it is the duty of 
all Scotchmen to be up and doing in the coming crisis. We have Acts of 
Parliament still unrepealed in our Scottish Statute Book which are most 
explicit on this subject, and we can demand that they be not allowed to lie 
, dormant and inoperative. By the Act of 15G0, the Pope's jurisdiction aod 
hierarchy in Scotland were aboUshed in all time coming, ' on the pain of 
. banishment, and that the contraveners hereof may be called before the 
Justices or Lords of Session, and punished therefor,' The Act of 20th 
December 1587 ratified and confirmed the aforesaid Act. These two Acts 
form the principal fonndation of the- Claim of Right of 1680, and the 
Revolution Settlement ot 1688. From the oath of allegiance fixed by this 
last Act, we would only quote one paragraph, which expresses what, at that 
period, was regarded as the national sentiment on this subject: — 'I, A, B., 
do swear that I do from my heart abhor, detest, and abjure, as injurious and 
heretical, that damnable doctrine and pt^ition that princes excommunicated 
or deprived by the Pope, or any authority of the See .of Rome, may be 
deposed or murdered by their subjects, or any other whatsoever ; and I do 
declare that no foreign prince, person, prelate, state, or potentate hath, or 
ought to have, any jurisdiction, power, superiority, pre-eminence, or autho- 
rity, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm. So help me, God.' - ' 

Such are at this moment the unrepealed statute laws of onr land, and we 
would earnesHy hope that our Government will not, as was done in England, 
allow them to be violated and outraged with impunity by that insolrat and 
aggressive system, which, in all ages since its rise, has proved, itself to be 
the antichrist of God, the sworn foe o( civil and religions freedom, and the 
very curse of mankind, 

PBESBTTERrAN CHURCH OF VICTORIA, 

BY AK AUSTRALIAN mKISTER. 



Fon many years there has been, on every occasion of the sitting of the AaseUiblT, 
a heavy thunderstonn, accompanied 1^ a great deal of rain. On this ocoasioii the 



weather has continued unseasonably dry, uneveiitful, and cold. So also for some 
years there bas been always before t£e Aseembly some burning question, the 
diflcussion.of which caused both noise and beat This year there has been nothing- 
in the slightest degree sensational, — nothing but dry bnainees gone about in the 
cooleat manner imaginable. 



""'it^.'i^m.'"' PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OP VICTORIA. 115 

The Hodenttor^ openmg address, indeed, yi&B full of fervour. He dwelt on tbe 

anbj'ect of union, and spoke of the bene&cUl effect whicli tbe example of diia 
Cborsh had on onion movements in Scotland, and imeisted on the dutj and 
necwsitir of union among all Churches of similar creed and fonn of government, in 
Tiev of the powerful and subtle infidelitT with which religion had at preseot to 
contend. He concluded by referring to the gratifjdng results of recent eyangelistie 
effoita, and niging.the ne^ for thorough CDnaecration to the great work to whi^ 
the Christian Chnroh is called. 

In the course of the debate and business tiansaations which followed, however, 
the onl? electric spark produced was sent forth when Dr. Cairns gave the 
GcTemor'H back a heavy mb in the wrong direction, in oonsequence of his occa- 
tioiudlj travelling 1^ rail on Sunday, — a kind of transgr«Hion of the Fourth 
GonDumdmeDt very coounon among Presbyterian churofa-goen in and around 
Melbonme; but the learned Doctor, justly, admired for his fearleas conaoientioiit- 
ne«s, cannot bring the Governor before any session or presbytery. He has sounded 
tiie vaming trompet not only in reference to tJie Qovernor's failings, but also in 
regard to a more important matter, — the heterodoxy of memben (or a member 
esch) of two pTegbyteries of the Ghnrch. To an unprejudiced bystander it seems 
scarcely fair for a man in the Doctor's powtion to blow, even by a ude wind, out- 
side of a Church conrt, on the ecclenastical reputation of gentlemen who have 
eimilar credentials to his own ; if he has anything to say of &em, he ahoold aay 
it There his oharge can be met. His little brochure has brought oat another, 

C' "shed by a gentleman, who is said to be the only minister in the Synod of tbe 
Chnrdi of Victoria, justifying his conduct in keepmg i^art from' tJie United 
Chnrcb, seeing that now, twenty yeaiq after the union, there is this rumour about. 
me of its miniaten, who in ScotUnd was a member of the Established Churdi. 
Thns it will be seen that the demooi«tic and levelling instttutions of this colony . 
do not always destroy eictaaivKietiB and narrow- mindedneee. 

But to retom to the Assembly. Perhaps tjie moat importantofitadoiiigs was the- 
resolution toappointaprincipal in its Theological Hall. A considerable sum of money 
vu raised for the Hall, on tue uDderstandbg that so soon as possible an eminent 
scholar should bo brought from Scotland to fill its principal chair. In pnnuance 
of this nnderstanding, the present moveme^ has been made ; and although many 
members of {he Assembly seemed to think that the present profecsois were quite 
up to the standard to be desired, it is probable that such a proposal would have 
been made even tfaongh there had been no previous understanding of this kind, 
for this reason among others, that the reputation of such a principal may be 
^pected to draw students from the other colonies. This will likely be t^o case if 
the gentleman fixed upon (Dr. Goold) accept the invitation; and it is most 
desirable tiiat it should be so, as a scholu' of bis reputation might otherwise fret 
at the small nomber of his pupils. The salary affixed to the office is not certainly 
>ery attractive, it being but £800 a year. A honse is, however, to be built for- 
his residence, wid a college is proposed to be erected for the use of the students, on 
ten acres irf Kionnd ia the immediate neighbourhood of Melbourne Univeiaity. 
The Episcopalwn Church has had a college on their ground in the same neigh- 
booihood for some 'years, and a canvas for £10,000 for this pUiTKMe is immediately 
to be made among the wealthy Presbyteriaos in the colony. Meanwhile theis is a 
aifrital of £14,500, the interest of which is available for the expenses of the 
Theological Hall, besides wliat gubscriptions may be received from year to year. 
tJoder the present arrangement the expenditure reaches about £S00, and the four 
professors make the most of the short session they have to work in. Mr. Stobbs 
seemed to hrt the nail on \iie head when he said, in the course of the ooDversation 
on this subieot, that what was most wanted was a more thorough literary trainiag 
for the students, the present professors being, in Fiis opinion, amply sufficient for 
the woii to be done. This may be so just now ; but a nrofessor like Dr. Goold 
might so<»i doable or treble the number of students (which was sixteen last year), 
and might be expected, by his advice and supervision, to stimulate those preparing 
for entnnce into the Hall to the attainment of a higher literary standard. 

No one in the Church eam be more anxious for the success of this proposal than 
Dr. M'Donidd, the convener of the Home Mission Committee, who is indefatigable 



llli PBE3BTTEEIAN CUURCII Or VICTOEIA. """iiJ'Ctsit"*'' 

in bis appeals to the home Churches for able men to till up the vacancies in this 
Chnrch, In response partly to these reqiuets, there have been during the past' year 
tiro.arrivals from the United Pret^tytenan Church, One from the Free Choroh, and 
one from the Established Church of Scotland, while there have been eight accessions 
from other qnarters ; but, as the couTeoer complains, ' several of tiie preachen 
dedare themselves unable to goawaj to any coneiderabledistancefrom Melbourne j 
Bome of them are in feeble health ; some of them make their, own arrangementa 
with ministers in charges to supply during a temporarj' absence ; ' in short, not a 
few of the preachers must have come to this colony under a misapprehension of 
what they might expect, and seem not to be of the mettle required for the bush. 
And then the city coogregatioiu require very great guns indeed ! There are now 
five <A these Melbourne charges vacant, and tweuty-four id the country, some of 
the latter being huge enough for Episcopalian dioceses, and seven of them not vet 
organized. Dr. M'Donald has only nineteen preachers for these vacaudes. No 
wonder that he says that ' it is mainly the success ' (of the committee in opening 
new preaching stations) ' which is embarrassing.' The troth is, however, whatever 
may be the reason for it, that Qie preachers who are sent to these preaching 
Btations would in many cases require an independent income, and that witJiout 
this i( must be sometimee embarraBsing for them also to make the two ends meet. 
Wherever chBrges are formed, and able to give a stipend of £200 a. year, the 
Sustentation Fund comes to their aasistauce with £60 a year. 

This fund has proved a great boon to struggling country congregaliona, which it 
• has in some instances stimulated to increased efiort, and in none diminished tie 
endeavour to act conscientiously. Of 141 charges in Uie Church, thirty-six receive 
tins assistance ; last year, thirty-eight congregalians were on the list, the difference 
' arising from there being more of these congregations vacant just now. The 
receipts have been smaller this year, but a larger amount has come from coDgr^»- 
tions. There are, however, only seventy-six congTeeations in connection with the 
scheme,— a ^ct wliich was adverted to in a very teUtng speech by Mr. M'Bain, the 
convener, who is one of the few wealthy elders ,of the Church who take an active 
public interest in its affairs. The income of this fund was £1890, and its ex- 
penditure £1805. 

Two of the present vacancies have been occasioned by death, and consequently 
there has been an increased charge on the Widows and Orphans' Fund, which has 
now twenty-three widows and forty children on its list, to whom it p^s £1411 in 
the year. Notwithstanding, the capital sum shows an increase of £860 during the 
ye«r. 

. The Tnflrm Minist«rB' Fiind has now five names on the list of its annuitants, but 
has also grown by £360, after paying all demands. 

The Heathen Missions seem at last to be growing in favour wilb the Church, 
nearly £3000 having been raised for them dnring the year. About £600 is owing 
to the extraordinary effort made by Mr. Paton, referred to last year, and £200 to 
four subscriptions not promised regularly ; still there is an advance of about £400 
above the previous ordinary collections. This improvement is no doubt partly 
owing to Uie assiduity of a new convener (the Rev. M. Macdmald, late of Nairn), 
and, it is to be hoped, partly to the increased interest in religion excited by the 
evangelistic services that have been held in this colony during the past year. 
NoF can it be supposed but that the effective appeals of Mr. Paton awakened an 
interest ip mission effort which is not to be ganged by the amount of money 
collected by himself. That the last has perhaps be^ tJie chief moving power, is 
indicated by the increase having been confined to the New Hebrides Missions, 
which show £2309 of receipts. Part of this is for a third missionary, who is 
expected to he obtuned fioin the Theolomcal HaU in about a year. "There has 
been S snggesUon made by the New Hebrides missionaries, that laym^ might he 
employed successfully in the work, which may be fruitfnL Meanwhile the fear of 
these islands being annexed by Trance to ber convict colony of New Caledonia, 
has drawn forth ui anxious appeal to the home Government U antJcipaM France 
in this movement. The 120,(KK) natives would greatly prefer a Britdsh protectorate, 
and the missionaries are afraid of the events of Tahiti being repeated. A few 
years ago they deprecated the idea of British coffee planters settling on these 



"""M^m^^ THE LATE REV. JOHN 8TABK, HOBNDBAK. 117 

islandfl, in ease of their injuring the monJilj of the B&tirM. Nov the? ue 
tbrekteDed with a real danger to their progrsBS, and even to their eiiBteDoe. A 
petition was adopted by the Awemblf to the Queen, asking for her interpoaltion. 
A. edmilar petdtion hu been wnt br the PreabTtnian Ohurch of New Booth Walei. 
Both prajen are backed hj the Qovemtnenta of the reepective colonies, an>) it ia 
most oeairable that meoibera of Parliament, deeiroiu of protecting the mercantile 
or misBtoiuuy enten>riee of the country, abouid call the attention of the Lenalatore 
to the Bobject. No doubt the propoul of Dr. Dnff to make the New Helirides 
Miaaion a common field for all Presbyterian Chnrchea, will canae ipecial interest 
to be manifeated in this matter by thoe Churches both in America and the United 
Kingdom. The Beuior miadosB^ (Ur. Inglit), now on a visit to Britain, will no 
donbt make hia voice heard ; and it will be the more telling, inaimuch as he haa 
token with him £700, collected by the natives of Aneiteyum, for the puipose of 

Cing an edition of the Bible in their language,— that book which the advent of 
iah misaionariee, with a State power at their back, would at once bnnith. 
The Miesion among the Aborigines at Ramah Yuck continues to proaper ; and the 
Bev. A. Msckie has been appointed to preach as often aa possible at a Qovem- 
ment station not far from Malboume, where he has an audience of eiity or seven^ 
black people. At Ramah Yuck there have been several deaths, all of than 
hopeful,— one of them triumph SDt,^aFter a consistent Christian course of seventeen 
years. The Chief Justice of the colony. Sir William Stawell, visited Uie station, 
and addressed tiie Sunday scholars ' in very encouraging terms.' The Chinese 
Hisrion contiimes aa before its unobtrurive labours, having bad four evangelists 
mider tiie instmctioirof the convener (Rev. R. Hamilton) daring half of the year, 
and employed in evaBgdistio work among their oountrymen during the other halt 
There baa rattier been a falling off in the contribations thia year, which the con- 
vener attributes to the efforts made for the New Hebrides Hiiuion, but tbew 
shonld rather have had aa enoouragiug influence. 

This session of the AaaemUy has been an easy one for the Moderator, the Rev. 
R. Hamilton, of Helbonme. The quiet flow of business talk went on without a 
rqtple to diitorb the eqnanimity of the president, who was thus deprived (perhaps 
not mach to his chagrin) of the opportunity of showing his abUity to steer through 
eddies and rapids. On the other hand, his moderatorship will be memorafate for 
deration, harmony, progress, and cheerful hope. 



THE LATE REV. JOHN STARK, HORNDEAN. 
The Bev. John Staik was bom at Ayton, Berwickshire, on the 30th January 1835. 
His father, the Rev. James Stark, was a much -respected minister there for fully 
half a centnry. He was thus a son of tbe manse ; and he enjoyed in early life the 
tneetiinable advanta^ of the truning of eminently pious parents. When the writer 
of this Botice first visited this home he was channed with the great intelligence, 
wiadom, and modesty of the head of tiie family, who had become venerable in 
veara, and ripe in Christian experience. He was fortunate, too, in his partner io 
fife, who not only made his home happy to himself and his children, but who wag 
ever ready to wdcome strangers with those kindly tones which bespoke a warm and 
loving h«ut, Mr, J(fhu Stark owed much to his parents ; and the excellent 
qualities of both reappeared in theb son. It must have been extremely gratifying 
to both parents to find their son afterwards settled in the ministry in the same 
presbytery with his father, and within a few miles of the home of his early days. 
When his mooter became a widow, she found a home in the manse at Horndean, 
where he had the honour and happiness of cheering th'e calm and sweet evening of 
life to a mother whom he had so much reason to lore with a grateful and fond 
afTeetion, He had not long to cherish the memory of his parents after they had 
both g<Bie to glory ; but ho could truly say of them, — 



The SOD of parents passed bito the skies.' 



il8 THE LATE BET. JOHN 8TABK, HOENDEAN. '■""St^m!^ 

He bore an honoured niuae, and hud a pious anoestry. HU grandfather and Uiiee 
d his father's unoles gave each a aon to the miniatrf of the gon>el. His faUier's 
cousiDH were the Bbt. Dr. Jamee Stark of Dennyloanhead, the Ber.'Thomu Staric 
of FotreB, and the Rar. Dr. Andrew 8tuk of New York, — all esunent preaoheTshnd 
paatora in their varioue spberea. 

In hut boyhood Mr. Stsrk was quiet, thou^htfnl, and much given to reading. He 
attended the parochial school oi his native village, and there laid the foundation of 
thoae nperioT classioal attainmenta he afterwarda reached. In eari; yoath be 
fiHined tl>e purpoee to devote his life to the work of the Christian ministrj ; aad 
in proeecutioa of this purpose be entered the Edinbut^h UniverBity in his fifteenth 
year, — an age too early, as he afterwards confaBed, to obtAm the full benefit of his 
oolle^ onrricalum. Be attended fire setsions, however, which ia one more than is 
naual ; and he pasiied through his classee with much credit. 

It ia not known at what period he experienced the great change by -whioh 
believers in Christ pass from death to life. Probably it waa at ao early a period 
thkt he could not remember when the leva of Christ became the ruling prindple t>t 
' his life. He was reeerved on the subject of his inner religious experience ; but HO 
ane who knew him after he became a student could fail to see the moat unqueetion- 
aHe evidence that he was really a child of God. Dr. Ritchie of Dunse, in the funeral 
sramon preached at Homdean, and afterwards published, sa^ : ' It was betweoi 
his first and seoond sesaiona at oollego that I first became acquainted wiUi hira. I 
waa than a gueet in his father's house for a fortnight, just before my ordination to 
Ule Christian ministry, and had full opportunity cd seeing him in daily hmne life. I 
WAS greatly struck, even at that early period, with his modesty, Kffeotiouatencaa, 
and youtbful intelligence ; and from that day to this, I have been attracted to him 
with a growing admiration and love. He has been to me a choice link of coimac' 
tion with many cherished memories of beloved friends and brethren, wtlit wh<»u I 
have held sweet counsel in his early home, in the days of othm years.' 

Mr. Stark entered the Diviaity-Eall of the United - Seceesion Ghnroh in 1842. 
The Junior Hall met in Glasgow that year, and, as censor of the Hall for the year, 
I had a good deal of intercourse with the students, a circumstance which brought 
me first into aoquaintonoe witb Mr. Stark ; but with none of my iellow-Mudents 
has the aoqoaintance tiken formed ripened into a hiendsbip bo close and endearing 
as with him. At that time there were six sons of miniatera of the f^rasbyCery <tt 
Berwick who were students at the Hall, including Mr. Stark, ^namely, David Inglis, 
aon of the Her. David Ingli!) of Greenlaw ; Alexander Bobertson, son of the Rev. 
James Roberlaon of Wooler ; William Faxton Young, son of the Rev. William Young 
of Berwick; William Inglis, son of the Rev. David M. Inglia of Stockhridge ; ana 
William Diekson, sou of the Bev. George Dickson of North Suuderiaud. In four of 
t^&e families there were more sons than one that devoted themselvee to the work of 
the minis&y. tliere were other students from Berwiokshire who were not sons of 
the manse, of whom Frofessor Gaims ia one. During Mr. Stark's first »»eioit Or. 
Eadie oonducted the class of Biblical Literature, but he was not app<»nted to the 
chair tiU next Synod, when Dr. Mitchell resigned from age and infirmity. The 
other profesBora under whom he studied divinity were Professors Brown and 
Harper. He entertiuned a profound respect for his distinguished tcaohera, and they 
had not a more faithful and diligent student under their care. Dr. Brown's father 
and grandfather were both ministers, and he always manifested great interest in 
those of his students who bad chosen their father's urotesfiion. He seemed particn- 
larly pleased with Messra. -Stark and Young from the Presbytery of Berwick. Me. 
Stark's singular modesty rendered him superior to any feeliog of pride from any 
attention or approbation he raoetved. He took much interest in the private 
devotional meetings which were held among the students. The annual sesaiMia of 
6he Hall at that time were of only eight weeks' duration, and he spent the int«TvalB 
between his five sessions in teaching. When acting as tutor in a private family in 
Perth, he suffered from a severe rbeumatic fever, whioh left eEFeota that continued 
with him throughout life, and led to hia too early death. He enjoyed the esteem 
and confidence of his fellow-students, of which he received a decided proof when 
chosen lo be censor of the Senior Hall during his last session. 

Having completed his course of study, he waa taken on trials for licence by the 



o.t«j^F«*^.] jgg i^jj, jjgy^ JOHM STAKE, HOENDEAH. 119 

FresbjteiT of Berwick on tbe 26th of October 1847, tuuJ ftfter delirering &11 hii 
tiiale to the satUfactiou of the preabytery, he was licemed to preach tbe fiospel od 
the 18tb of Janiur; 1348. On the Sabbath following he pteachod id his father's 
pulpit, chooBing for oae of his texts, ' To'day, if je wUl be&i His voice, harden not 
your hearts.' His prabationer's course was <^ comparativelj short doration. In 
Amdl 1849 he occupied the pulpit at Homdeon with such acceptance, that be was 
called on the 18th of Jane following to be colleague sud succcaaor to the Rev. 
ViUiam Lee, who was l^en in the forty-second year of bis ministry, snd who had 
become unfit for pulpit duty on account of age and infiimity. 'Mr. Stark cordially 
accepted this call, and was ordained at Horndean on the 10^ of October foUoVring, 
Jiia Tenerable colleague bsTing offered the ordination pr&yer. 

Tim Qongregalioo of Horndean was organized in 1785, tmd Mr. 8tArk was only its 
third minister. Tbe village of Horndean belongs to theparishof I.Ad;kirk, and the 
4iCHigregation is drawn from this and-theneighbonring parishes of Hutton, Swinton, 
and WhiUome. Ministers were violently intzuded into the parishes of I^ykirk 
and HuttOD in the course of eighteen months preceding the secession of ' Tbe Four 
Brethren ' from liie Established Church. A similar intrusion took place at Duuae 
in 1738 -, and the seecders in Ladykirk unit«d with those of Dunse in obtainiog 
suKily of sermon, — the first preachers sent to them being Ralph and Ebenezer 
BnikiiM in 1739. As Hie ministers of I<adykirk and Hutton proved to be unaccept- 
able, botJi on account of their life and doctrine, the seceoers in these parishes 
incTea«ed in number, and, presuming that tliey were able t« support public 
ordinances among themselves, they ap^ed for ana. obtained supply of sennon from 
the Afisoeiate (Burgher) Presbytery of Eeko.in 1784. Their first church waa 
built in 1786, and t£e Bev. Alexander Galderhead, their first minister, was ordained 
in tbe following year. In the beginning of the present century preachers were 
very scarce in the United States of North America, and appeals sent to this country 
for help m^ with but partial success, until the celebrated Dr. Hason of New York 
was aent as a deputy to Scotland to procure a supply of paston for pressing 
vacanciee. Hr. Calderhead was one of those who responded to the earnest and 
cJoqueat appe^ of Dr. Hason, and acoompanied him to America in 1802. Thus 
were the congr^ation deprived of tbe rained services of theii first minister; and 
th^ had also to suffer a long vacancy of five years, for it was only after four uu- 
socceesful calls to other preachers that tbey obtained a much -esteemed pastor in tbe 
Bev. William Lee, who was ordained on the 25th of August 1807. From tiiattime 
fgr iiM»« than seventy years th^ were never vacant. 

The eoene of labour that fell to the lot of Mr. Stark as minister of Horndean ia 
ranuttkably beautiful. The parish of Ladykirk haa an area of 3300 acres, one- 
fonrth of which is in perennial pasture of the richest quality, — by a deed of entail 
e^Ksited by the grandfather at the present proprietress this portion cumot be 
{toughed up. Tbe parish stretchee along the l^uks of the Tweed, which are 
nowhwe more lovely than here; on theopposite side rises ' Norham's castled Steep,' 
and ' Cbeviot's_meuntains lone ' present a majestic background- The neighbour- 
hood » rich, too, in historical associations. 

In hia first sermon after his ordination Hr. Stark Struck tlie keynote of hia whole 
ministry, when he preached from Eph. ill, 8 — 'Tbe unsearchable riches of Christ.' 
Compftring this wiUi hia last discourse to his people on Dec 2, 1877, we find that 
heclMed his ministry that day with a lecture on John xii. 29-33, which led him to 
ape«k otUie attractive glories of tbe cross of Christ ; and he dosed the discourse 
with a description of the glory and song of heaven. His aged colleague was 
iwrdly able to render him any assistance in public duty ; but during the five years 
of tke coU^(iate charge their harmony was cordial and complete, and they were 
like-minded in moet things. There was a remarkable similarity of character 
' ' n them, and no room for that jealousy which is often the curse of collegiate 



e who knew Mr. Stark in private life could fail to see that he was a man 
M sincere and deep piety. As be entered the Theological Hall the year after me, 
and the whole of hia ministerial life nas spent in my immediate neighbourhood, I 
WM intimately acquainted with him for many years, and entertained for hiro 'Uie 
most cordial affection. To know him was to love bim, and his more intimate 



1:J0 THE LATE EEV. JOHK STABS, HORNDEAN. ""'ai.^iM?'"^ 

friends vill never forget him. At the Hall he appeared to be singularly modeatj 
vith an eaTDeat piety and mature judgment quite beyond bia years. Tboee who 
knew his cjcellent father were wont to say that tie son owed much to paternal 
influence, and the remarkable resemblance between father and son grew with years. 
At Synod and Preshytefy they were always seen together. After his father's 
death, however, he took a more activo inter^t in the business of the Presbytery, 
and expressed his opinion more freely on the subject under consideration. Obe of 
his most intimate companions at the Hall vae Mr. David Inglis, son of the minister 
of Greenlaw. Mr. Inglis emigrated to Oonada, and became a prominent and popu- 
lar preacher there ; he was afterwards theological professor, and at the time of bis 
death be was pastor of a church in Brooklyn, New York. Dr. Inglis visited hiB 
early and ronch-eeteemed friend last summeratHomdean, and hissomewhat sudden 
death took place the day after Mr. Stark's. Nothing ever occorred to cause me to 
lower the high opinion I formed of Mr. Stark when a Ktudent, but everytiiing' 
tended to confirm and heighten it. His life was a sermon which all men coald 
read, and his high-toned spirituality in private life vastly augmented the infloence 
of his public inslructionB. Some men unfortunately neutralize the effect of their 
pulpit ministrations by the inconsistenoies of their private life-; but with him there 
was a weight of character that prevailed more than words. Bis constant sim iraa 
to imitate the Master whom he served, in whoee holy and devoted life every day 
was a Sabbath, every scene a sanctuary, and every journey an occasion of tiAefnl- 
nees. Amiability was the most prominent feature of his charact^, and it was so 
marked as to draw all bearte towwds him. He was for many years associated with 
the late Bev. James Anderson of Norham, bis nearest neighbourin the ministry, — 
a noble pair of brothers, singularly alike in almost every respect, both of them 
possessed of such warm and loving hearts that any coldness or nismiderstandiiig 
between them yna absolutely impossible. Both appreciated the affection in the other, 
which in reality was mntnal; and either might have said of the Other, asDaridsaid 
of Jonathan, ' Thy love to me was wonderful, parsing the love of women.' It wu 
one of the greatest privileges of my ministerial life to be intimately tosociated with 
both as near neighboun, and to observe the strength of their mutual affection, 
which seemed so warm and cordial that other men could only imitate where ft 
appeared impossible to equal. Every visit to them was a teeaon in Chriiituw 
lore. 

Mr, Stark was in failing healtb for some years, and, like his dear friend, Dr. 
Inglis, whoee feeble step I noticed last summer, he appeared to be Betting prenut- 
tnrely old. He presided over the congregation at Homdean for rather more than 
twenty-eight years. This was a comparatively long period of ministerial serrioe in 
a world snch aa ours, where life is so fleeting ; bat as he had not completed hia 
fifty-third year at the' time of hie death, we might have hoped for many years yet 
to come of faithful and efficient service in the vineyard of the Lord. As the Bev. 
D. Kerr remarked, in his touching address at the luneml : * The spring-time noA 
snmmer of youth bad just softened into the mellow richness of antumn, when the 
fvU. fruits of his ministry were about to display themselves in a lovely harvest, to 
the joy and comfort of his people. But just then, when their and our hopes were 
at their height, did it seem meet to his heavenly Master, in the exercise of Uja 
infinite and adorable wisdom, to call him away from the loved scene of bis labonr 
here to his rest and bis rewaid, from the service of the Chorch below to the glory- 
of the Church above, from his family and friends on earth to the more (^OTioos 
company of the redeemed on high, in the house not made with h3ndB.' His deatii 
eame on all his friends as a painful surprise. On the last Sabbath on wbioh he 
appeared in the pulpit hia people saw that he was imwell, but he seemed only to ban 
caught a severe cold, and no serions results were antidpated. He was unable to 
deliver the second of the two discourses which formed the double service. Thefar> 
mer of these discourses has already been referred to, for the purpose of oomparinif 
Ilia first with his last discourse in the Horndean pulpit. Faithful to duty, he was 
found at hia post when the harbingers of death were hovering around him. Thoorit 
seriously unwell during the previous week, he fully prepared two discourses for. 
what proved to be his last service in the pulpit. The text of hia undelivered discourse 
is Romans i. 14, ' I am debtor both to the Greeks and to the Barbarians, both to 



'^^•'J^Tilmr"' THE LATB BEV. JOHM 8TABK, HOHKDEAN. 121 

the wise and to the tinwise ; ' snd the general divisions are — (1) The debt vhich the 
apostle BcknowledgM ; (^) The waj ho acknowledges himself a debtor ; (3) The 
mumer in wbicb he became a debtor. The will was present bnt the deed was not 
performed. He probablj hoped ere long ta have the privilege of delivering to hit 
people tbe meeeiige he had prepared for them ; bnt, all unlnoifn to himself, the 
service of earth wbh ended, and the song of heaven was soon to begin. On the 
following Sabbath bis place was supplied b; another, and it was known that he was 
Berioue); ill. He suffered from a complicated bronchial attack from which he par- 
tial!; recovered, bnt disease of *he heart prevented his full recovery, and was the 
Cximate canse of his death. From the time he left the pulpit he woe confined to 
, and was able to spetA but little. On Friday the 14th of December, his son, 
&t hie dictation, wrote a letter to the clerk of the preebyterj req'neBting bim to 
make arrangemente for the supply of his pulpit hy the presbytery. With his nnial 
amiability and cousideratioD for others, he added that he waa sorry to trouble the 
{HVabytery about supply when there was already one pulpit to provide for (referring 
to Eyemoutl)) ; but in Ae state in which he then was he felt that it conld not be 
aTOided. -He added that he was prepared to acquiesce in a proposal made at the 
previous meeting of presbytery. His miud was tbns occupied with the affairs of 
the Church militant up to the honr when his Lord saddealy called him away to the 
Cburch triamphant. In the afternoon of that Friday his breathing became very 
oppreosive ; a fatal issue was then for the first time anticipated by himself and his 
t»Buij, and about half-past nine o'clot^ his spirit paased peacefully away to iti 
home in heaven. 

' Tbe voice dmt mldntght oame, 
He atsrled up to heir ; 
A morUl aiTOw pierced his frune, 

Ha fall, but felt DO ten. 

Tbe p^DS of death u« past, 

Labour and aorrow ctaee ; 

And life's loDg varfiire closed it last. 

His soul is iQutid in peace. 

- Soldier of Chriat, wril doue ! 

Praise be (hy new employ ; 

And while eternal sgee ruD, 

Kaet in thy Saviour's joj.' 

The parting scene is too sacred for deeeription ; and tbe change came too snd- 
dsnly at last to allow many parting words to be spoken. But there waa time to 
te^e an affectionate farewell of hia partner in life, and tbe two members of his 
family, who were present to witness the closing scene ; after which he was too 
weak to say much of bis younger sons, who were from home at school, and he 
oonld only utter the request, ' Send them my love.' The word love waa the last 
on his lips, as it had been deep in his heart during all bis life on earth ; and, after 
uttering it, he passed away to his home flbore, where all is love, and joy, and 
peace, where there is no more parting, and no more tears. It is profoundly 
Vftddetiine to think of the irreparable loss which his death has brought to tbe 
h<fti>e, which was so lately blessed with the preemce of such a husband and 
father. But the God of the widow and tbe fatherless will be with them. Hay the 
God of all consolation comfort their sorrowing hearts! Bis eldest son complete! 
his course of stndy for the ministry with the present Bession of the Hall. May his 
father's mantle hi\ on bim, and then the father will live again and speak in the 
miniatry (d his son. ' He sleeps a holy sleep ; saynot that good men die.' It is 
Maaonable to entertain high hopes of a family that have received the precious 
heritage of the example and payers of so excellent a father. 

In the acts of his public life Mr. Stark commanded the respect of sU who knew 
him. His great modesty prevented his taking a prominent part in public meet- 
h)gs, bat he felt much interest in pablie questions, and bis accurate information 
on public matters was freely oommanicated in his intercourse with his people 
and the public generally. He wsa not much of a party man, bat he bad the 
courage of his convictions ; and he not only held them firmly, but also eiprened 
them ^eely, yet be did so with a coondneas of judgment aiKl candid considera- 



122 THE LATE BEV. JOHK BTAEK, UOBSDEAK. ^"h^'i^?™- 

tioii of ih» vieiwB and feelings <d others which Beonied tlie ceapeot even of his 
opponents. He was streDnonaly oppoaed to the introdtictioD of political maUere 
into Cburck Coorts, even when these mattera had an ecctesBstitial bearing ; and 
when his biathreD in Synod or Freebftery occasionally iotrodueed such queedmis, 
and thus took a difEeient oonne from that which he approved, he sabtfied hie 
coDBcientioas coaTicttons by recording his dissent in the minQtos. His amiability 
was not allowed to relax the firmness with which he followed what he believed 
to bo the path of duty. He regarded the fmoclufle as a sacred trust, and he 
therefore faithfully re<x>rded his vote on every eleotioa of a member, of Failia- 
ment for his county. Tbe profound respect in which he was held by the public 
was manifest in the unusually -larce attendanoa at his funeral. * Deront men 
carried ' him to his tomb, 'ajid made p^at lamentation over him.' 

As a member of Pr^hyttr^ be was much eeteemed by all his bratfaien. He 
attended the meetinss with great regularity, and took an active and intelligent 
int«rest in all the deliberations. W-e were accustomed to list^U'With much defwenoe 
to his remarks, without perhaps considering how mueh we were indebted to him ; 
but strangers invariably noticed the wisdom of his counsels. For a number of 
years he discharged the duties of treasurer of the i^^abytecy, and, after bbe 
death of the late Bev. J<dm Peden of Berwick, be was pivpoBed amoDg otben 
for the vacant office of the clerkship, the duties of which had been mMt effi- 
ciently discharged by Mr. Feden ; but his came was witlidrawn at hie own 
urgent request, though we all knew that be would have made a most efficient oIoIe 
had he been appointed to the office. His father had held that office at a fortaec 
period, and he was equal to his father in soundness of judgment, and even 
superior to him in suavity of manner. At the meeting immediately preceding 
his dcatb, he was appointed to represent the Fresbjtery for four years in the 
Miaaion Board of the Synod ; ana, a few weeks before, he had been selected, 
along with the father of the Presbytery, to visit a congregation in the soutli ; 
as these two brethren were considered the most suitable men to manage a businees 
there which required very delicate handling. The correepondence in this case 
was most judicioualy conducted by Mr. Stark ; and when the report'of the depu- 
tation was sent to toe Home Hission Committee, the committee expressed ' tneir 
Batiafaction with tlie csrefnl and thorough maimer in which the deputation frran 
the Presbyteiy of Berwick had fulfilled their commisaion.' The difficult task 
was performed to the entire satdsfaction of both the Freabytcry and tbe Miamon 
Board. When the Presbytery proceeded to appoint otben to supply the places 
his death had left vacant in committees and otlierwise, they became more fully 
sensible how much they were indebted to him. It Was a great sa^action to 
me Ui be associated in the same Presbytery with him and several other fellnw- 
students, who, however, are all away from it now, with one exception. WbUe 
I mooEnhis loss, I cherish tbe sweet remembranoeof anuulwokea friendship, which 
death ham only interrupted for a time, to be renewed, I truM, in the sanotoaiy 
abova I had engaged before his illness to preadi for him on tbe 18tii i% 
December at Wbitsome, where a monthly servioe was kept np by him. in eMilial 
co-operation with the Free Church minister of Allanton, both during the miniatiy 
of the Uie liev. Mr. Fairbaim and that of tbe Bev. Mr. Maclean, the preMnt 
miniater. Hewasto accompany me to Whitaome,but his iUnesa intervfflied after ha 
had made all the necessary airangements, and his deatJi had taken place ere tba 
evening of tJie meeting arrived. I conducted tiie service alcue, and endeavoured 
to improve the sad event by preaching from the text, ' The memoty of the just 
■B blessed.' During tbe service I observed that the people were muoh aSeoted 
by the thought t^atthey should see his face and hear bis voice no miH«. Uis 
evident that he was mudi loved, not only by Jus own people, but by all who 
were in the hi^t of attending these and other meetings withm tbe bounda of }iis 
congregation. 

Those who enjoyed tbe benefit of bis ptatoral labours are better qualified to 
speak of them than I ap, but I know-from tite testimony of oth»B that he faith- 
mlly taught the people ' publicly and from bouse to house,' declaring ' tbe wbola 
coimael of God,' and ' rigbUy (Svidiug the word of truth.' Thia merely agrees 
with my own experience in occasionally bearing himi HJapteaohingwaaeminsBflfr 



•"^■fiMi^' THE GLASGOW BLDEBS' A680CIATION. 123 

lublical and practical. He waa ever ready to pEeach. at viUagea or farma, for the 
pnrpoee of reaching those who ware unable or unwilling to attend the oanotaaiy. 
All thst remains to his people now is the remembrance of precioua inatruction and 
a holj example. 

I hare thna referred to Mr. Stack in hig Tsrioiu relations, — [oirate, public, 
preebyterial, and paatoral. His sodden and unexpected death was notioed in many 

Eilpita in the neigbbourhood, and tribntes were paid to his loved mcnmiy. The fol- 
wmg jost taribttte is from a prirate letter by tne Rev. Dr. Gaima : — ' I share tjie 
onivcaaal r^ret sod sorrow caiaed by the removal of our dear and belored friend, 
I bad known him. from hia boyhood, and ever shared hia conGdenc^. He was one 
of Ae purest, most unselfish, and genuine characters I have ever known, and his 
inteRiTty and Btrai^tforwardness wen as admirable as his kindness and affection. 
Id dl t^ nlatens of life he was moat exemplary, and 1 con understand what 
a teirible blank hia removal will be to his own loving family. I had .many 
(^innrtunitiGB of seeing how faithful fae waa as a minister, and how fully his people 
retamedhiaaffeddon. In the I^esbyteiy, yon know how thoronghiy honest he was, 
and how much we all relied on hia ind^nent. He had great publio spirit, and naa 
SB stedfast in his attendance on puoUc duties ae if he had not lived so much, in 
one sense, out of the world. The root of all hia noble qualities was his genuine 
religion, hia faith in his Saviour, and love to His cause, which were the same aa far 
as I can go beck in remembering him. Indeed, he had the excellences botii of 
his father and of his mother — the strength of the one and the gentleness of the 
otiier. May God comfort, aa He aioae can, hia bereaved fami^ and floc^, and 
give us all with right feeling to say, ' ' Mark the perfect, and behold tl>e npngfat ; 
tor the end of that n>an is peace." ' 

Tlte death of Mr. Stark in the very midst of hia activity and usefulnete hsa a 
loud voice to all preachers of the gospel, sa well aa hearers. The period of service 
on the one hand, and of privilege on tJie other, ia short. The death of others 
a^noniahes as to watoh, and work, and wait for the coming of the Lord to call 
as awi^. We must work diligently while it is day, ' foe the night Cometh wheB 
no msa can Vork.' P.M. 

THE ' GLASGOW UNITED PRESBYTERIAN ELDERS' ASSOCUTION.' 

As showing an example to the elders are valuable in encouraging the elders 

of oar Church in the energetic and to a more general attendimce cm our 

able manner in wliich they are con- higher coarta than hitiierto — a more 

ducting their meetings, there have been energetic and active tntereet in all that 

printed in these pages papers which pertains to the welfare of the United 

ttavB been read befoK tbia Aasociatiou Presbyterian Church. Might there not 

on subjects int«reeting and instructive to be ■among the eldership of our Ohnroh 

all who fill the hoDourable office of a an associaticm repreeentativB in its 

' ruling elder.' It has long been aa charaet^r, having its headquArten in 

ackaowledged want that there was a Glasgow or, Edinburgh, where repreoen- 

lack of union among the elders of our tatives from all the sessions or preaby- 

Chuich, DO united co-operation on teries mwht meet at stated intervale and 

matters connected with their ofhce, discuss those subjects which are more 

whereby they might be stimulated to a immediately interesting to the eldera, 

olearer and more efficient knowledge and where tliey might originate matters 

of tiior duties. By the interchange of whereby the ^cienoy and influence of 

brotherly greetings a chosen bond of the eldera might be greatly increased? 

Doion might be encouraged and atimu- With this end in view, the Ghogow 

bted, so that their weight and power United Presbyterian Kldera' Aasocia^ 

mi^t be more- felt in Ae courts of our tion have remodelled their Constitution, ' 

Ohnich. We have no desire to under- and during the acBsion of 1876 and 

estimate the influence of our cldeis in 1877 Ihey have discussed such eubjects 

onr higher Cbarch Courts, yet we must as the fi^owing: — 
admit that they do not attend so faith- 
fully to their duty in this respect as The elder in relation to disc^line and 
they might do ; and such associations church courts. i 



124 THE GLEANEB. '"ISi vwi**' 

The prindples of the United Preaby- the dirtincdve prinrajdes of out 

terUn ChnTch : wberein do they Church. 

differ from other Presbfteritui How may apiritiul life be moBt pro* 

Churches? moted in oar eongregatioiie? 

The elder in rdation to hia district. And how ni&y elders best promote a 

The eldw in relstiou to the admvx- wise difltribution of Chiutiaa work 

meot of our Church. in the congregation ? 

, . . . ., . ^ i _,' i iL ■ We call the attontion of the eldCTS 

And dunog th.8 DKsent w.Dter their t^^„^(,„t our Ohnreh to this Aswii- 

attention hw been directed to- ^^_ Ind tiie good work they are doing 

Elden' BSSOci&tioDS, and bow may in Glasgow ; and feel eatisGed that help 

elders best co-opeiste in Mcnring or advice required for the'f<ff)ustJon oi 

effidency in Chnrch goremment. . kindred aaaooiationa tbronghont the 

B^eeentation of elders in higher country will be readily given by com- 

Ohnrch Conrta. ■ municating with the preddeut m seerft- 

The eMers' inflaeuce in disseminating tary in Qla^w. 



C^e (gleaner. 

A KIND WORD : WHAT IT MAT DO, 

In one of the excimions which Dr. Judaon made while in Bnnsab, he Btopp^ i> 
B Tillage on the rirer Solwyn. 

As he stepped on shore, he noticed a tall, fine-looking woman standing new IIk 

D' e of bmoing. He approached her,- offering his hand and inqniiing for kr 
th. 

' Well, my lord,' ahe replied. 

He had time for bnt a few words more when he waa called back to the bokt, 
and left her with hia blesmng. The woman gazed aftw him in mnbe amaxement 
Never before had ahe received such courtesy from any man. Thongh a prioNH, 
fluch was the degradation of woman in her country, abe had been btated as a 
slave. 

Soon her brothers came, and ahe said to them ' I have seen one of the soqb « 
Qod.' 

'Did he speak?' 

* Yea, and he gave me his hand.' 

'Did you take the hand of a foreigner?' 

' Yea, for he looked like an angel. 

The brothers took her home to her husband, who was the chief of the provioM' 
He was very angry with her, and beat her. 

That night she was called to att«nd a heathen ceremony, but ahe said, ' No, no. 
Ever since I was a child I have aerved Satan and Guabama, and they have nerw 
prevented my husband from beating me. This man ^oke to me kindly, and gare 
me his hand. His God muat be Ihe God. Hereafter I worship Him.' 

True to her pnrpoae, she began that night to pray to the unknown God of tie 
white foreigner. Her prayer was this : — 

'Mighty Judge, Father God, Lord God, Honourable God, the Kighteoos One! 
In the heaveua, in the earth, in the mountains, in the seas, in the north, in tlK 
east, in the weat, pitg me, 1 pray. Show me Thy glory, that 1 may know TliN 
who Thou art' 

Thia prayer she offered for five years, never again making offerioga to idota c 
demons. At length a misaionary came to diat boiighted village. ' She nn to 
him,' the narratiTe aaya, 'tuid aat at hia feet for nine days.' What days those 
were to her ! 9he had been gropmg in darkneas, and now light beamed upon ber. 
She waa hungering and thiiating, and now bread from heaven and the water of 
life were offered to her. She had laboured and was heavy laden, and novA* 
could come to Christ and find resL She did come, and oh bow gladly 1 Tba 
SaviooF revealed to her was just the Saviour she needed. He was infinite in 
compasffion, and had power to save to the nttennost. She cast herself at the foot 



'1u.!i^i™.""' RELIGIOUS INXKLLIOEKCE. 125 

of the cross, and found pesM in belieTing. Henceforth ghe was not bet ovn. 
Rfae lived for tbe precious SsvioDr vlio hod died for her. 

When, fwxm after, a female missionaiy came to laboar for that people, she took 
her to her own home and aided her in every possible way. Very soon there was 
n teformation in the Tillage. Tbe men, from being bocehanalians, became a Ood- 
fearing people. 

Guapung — for that waa the name of this remarkable woman — was the means, 
with the help of the female miiaionary, of tbe establishment of a Christian church 
in Dong Yhan, from wbioh two other chnrches soon proceeded. This church waa 
the first ta build its own chapel and support its own pastor. Guapung establisbed 
the first district school in the prorince, and supported it. She laboured much 
tiith the motheiB to teach them humane ways of training their children, and all 
ehe came in contact with she sought to win to Christ She had great power with 
every one, for she heraelf llred on tite word of God, and seemed to catch the 
tones of the ' better land.' 

Trace back this useful Christian life, 'and you will find ita beginning in a l-'md 
Christian word. — The Christian Bevittr. 

DECISION IK RELIOIOK. 

It is said that Huth was' Btedfastly minded' to go with her mother- iu'lav, and there 
is much significance in tbe well-qhosen language. Ibmeans that ehe set her face like 
a flint to her noble puipose ; that there was no division in her mind, or lialancing 
of motives ; 4jiat what she sud carried with it the full consent of her whole sonl. 
There was no saying, like the man spoken of in the Gospel history, ' Lord, suffer 
me first to g6 and bury my father,' in. which the omniscient eye detected a heart 
not rig^t with God. It waa her deliberate choice, from which all the riches and 
honoius of the world, if they bad been laid at her feet at that moment, would have 
been impotent to move her. Wecannot imagine a happier representation of decision 
in religion than this. . . . 

And this thorough decision saved Ruth from much veza^n and trouble. Those 
who appear half-hearted in their consecration expose themselves to a legion of 
tempters. Lingering within the border-land, they keep within the arrow-mark of 
Satan. Keeping in tbe suburbs of Sodom, they are in dasger of coming within 
the sweep of ite consuming fires. — From fiome Life m Paltetine ; or, Studies in the 
Book of Ruth, by the Bev. Andrew Thomson, D.D. 

THOMAS CARLTLE. 

In a private letter, i portion of which was recently published, Carlyle thus ei- 
ptessw himself about Darwin : — A good sort of a man is this Darwin, and well 
meaning, but with very little intellect. Ab, it's a sad, a terrible thing to see nigh 
a whole generation of men and women, professing to be cultivated, looking around 
in a purblind fashion, and finding no Qod in this universe ! 1 suppose it is a 
reaction from the reign of cant and hollow pretence, proteBsing to believe what in 
fact they do not believe. And this is what we have got to! All things from frog 
spawn ; the gospel of dirt is the order of the day. The older I grow, and I now 
stand on the brink of eternity,' the mOre comes back to me the sentence of the 
Catechism which I learned when a child, and fuUer and deeper its meaning 
becomes, ' What is the chief end of man ? To glorify God, and to enjoy Him for 
No gospel of ^rt, teaching that men have, descended from frogs through 
1 ever set ttiat aside. 



conference on missions, to be followed by 

FBESnrTBBiAL PBOCBEniKCB. g pnblic meeting in the evening, and that 

vlfp(nf«eH.— This presbytery met on 2d tbiBbedoneontfaadayormeeiingin April, 

Ociober, iihen it was agreed to hold a .the Mission Commiitee to attand to the 



120 BELIGIOUa INTELLIQENCE. ' MK.LW& 

necenary acr&DgementB. Tbe call rrom Dutiuga eoosiderablepart oF theiedeniat 
Mordannt Street Charch, GImkow, to the presbTterj held a. conference on the 
Bev. B.Hall,Old Meldrum, wAjt^en Dp; subject of foreig a miiiaiaiis, with ths view 
and all parlies being pieaent anil beiae , of aicertaining in what manner the con- 
fully heard, Ur. Hall accepted the call, gcegationi were fulGUicg their datj ia 
and was loosed from his charge at Old that important matler, and also what 
Meldram. Mr. Dancan was appointed' means might be beit for stimulating their 
10 preach the church racint, and Mr. zeal and liberalitj. After a free and fall 
Aachterlonie was appointed moderator of interdhange of sentiments, the MiMioa 
Bession during the tbcadcj. — On 13th Committee were instmated to draw np a 
NoTeieberthepreabyler;iiietpror«na(cE, statement ofthe pisctical snggestiona that 
when a petitionfrom43 persons at Wood- had been throirn oat, and to lay them on 
side in fall aoinmanicin, and 3i adherents, the table at next meeting. . The remit of 



was presented, requesting lo be formed Synod anent the laperiDtendeace of yonng 
into a congregation under the soperia- persons changing (heir places of residence 
tendence of tbe presbytery. .Agreed to was considered, and all sessions were re- 
intimate tbU petition to the vaiioas ses- commended to use diligence in carrying 
sions likely to be alfected. Intimation oat the •instractions contained in the 
was made of the steps taken to secare a icheme. After some routine business, tbe 
station in Banchory, by pnrehasing the preshytei; agreed to hold their next 
chapel, manse, and garden lately held by meeting at Arbroatb on tbe 51b day of 
tbe Congregationaliate. — On lltbDecem- Marcb. . 

ber tbe presbytery again met, and, in ao- Cupar.— This presbytery met in the 

cordauce with the reparts from sessions, classroom of Bonnygatfl Church, llth 

agreed 10 grant tbe petition of tbe parties Becamber 1877 — Mr. Uaco wan, moderator 

at Woodside, and Br. Bobson was ap' pro lem. The clerk reported that he 

pointed to preach there on the 181b, had received a call, with relatire papers, 

and congregate them, appointing also tbe addressed to the Rer, James Alison, of 

sub-committee of the Mission Committee Boston Church, by the congregation of 

" " ' Alexandria. He mentiooed at the same 
time tbal as he was under an engagement 
to go from home on the Sabbath imme> 
Qiately after rsceiTing the call, he had 
requested Mr. Anderson, of Ceiea, to 
preach at his mbstilnte in Boslop Cbt^ch, 

.0 manage this matter. It was and give notice of this call, according to 

agreed to insert the following in the . the rules of the Church. It was agreed 

minaces in reference to the suddeu death to hold a meeting, at which to receive Mr. 

of Bailie Urqobart:— 'The presbytery Alison's decision, on the 25th December, . 

desire with sorrow to record ibe death of intimation of said meeting to be given to 

Robert Urquhart, one of its members, all conaemed. Agreed at next ordinary 

&nd Co acknowledge their sense ofloss in meeting to nominate a minister beloc^ng 

bis remoTaL IdCDliSed all his lifetime to the presbytery to lerre on the Missioa 

with the United Presbyterian Church, be Board for tlie four years ending 18S2. 

took a deep interest in all that tended to Several remits of Synod were considered 

its well-being and progress, and was ever and disposed of. — This presbytery again 

ready lo t^e bis full share in the met on 25th December in the same place 

management of its affairs. The presbj- — Mr. Hair, moderator. Mr. Anderson 

tery would express gratjtade to Qod for reported his conduct lo regard to tbe 

theyesraof service their deceased brother call to Mr. Alison, which was approved 

was enabled to render, and they would of. Commissioners from tbe Presbytery 

seek lo lay to heart the lessons borne home of Greenock and Paisley, and fhim the 

to them by his sudden death.' congregations of Alexandria and Boston 

Arbroath. — This presbytery', met at Chnrch, Cnpar,were present; and the call 

Brechin on the 15th January — the Rev. having been pat into Mr. jUison's hands 

Alexander Campbell, moderator. A re- by the moderator, he (Mr. Alison), in- 

Cwas given in from the presbytery's timated his acceptance of it, and it was 
ion Committee, stating that arrange- agreed to dissolve the connection between 
menishsd been' made for holding apnblic him and the Boston congregation. The 
meeting in Arbroath on the 2Ist ibst., in members present expressed their regret 
connection with' tbe general movement at parting with Mr. Alison, and their de- 
over the Church for imparting a. freih sire for his success in his new charge, and 
interest in regard to onr foreigu missions, after prayer tbe decision was formally 
at which meeting the Kev. Drs. UacGill announced to the parties by tbe moderator. 
and Mair were expected lo be present. Appointed the next meeting to be held 



mJ^'i^"' helioious intbixigbncb. 127 

in th« Bftme ]>lace on the Tuenla? after addrssMd bj the depuCiu of the Forci^' 

the aecond S>bb«tb ot^abmij 1BT8. Hiuion Committee uid oihen. 

i>utv2ei!.— Tbii preibytery met on Tnoi- Sim/erTnUne.—Tha pregbTterr met on 

d»y, sad Jsnunry— the Ker. J. A. Mnrrsy, Tneiday tbe a2d Jannwy— the Bbt. Mr. 

moderstor. The Kav. Jemei Qraham Duobar, moderator pro (em. The clerk 
reported tfast Hr. B. Smellie, iCndent in 

dlrinity, had been cboien bs miiaionaiy 

bj the Newtylo oongrepilion, and that supply wai granted for the oezc foor 

the committee waa waiting Mr. Smellie'a weeki. Arrangemenls were made for an 

acceptance, which had not yet been re- exohange of pulpits in February, to bring 

ceired. Tbe interim report waa Tecei»Bd. before the congregationa the claimi of 

Commiisionere/rom the Weat FortMisrion foreign miniona, and for a conferenoe on 

Chnrch compeared, who intimated that the aame in l^rch. It wai agreed to 

the cburch in Hawkfaill, lately occnpied petition Parliament for the total repeal 

by Martyra' Bree Charcb congreiation, of the Caotagioai DJaeaaea Acta. A 

bod been aecnred for the Weal Port Chnreh circular from Dr. Hntton on Diaeltsb- 

eoDgregatlDn. The commisaionen asked Itshment waa read, and allowed to lie on 

that the name of the Weat Port Miaaion the table till next meeting of presbytery, 

Chnrch be changed to Hawkhill Cburoh. which takes place on Taeaday the 13th 

The preabytoiy cordially agreed to grwit March. 

the reqaest. The clerk, on behalf of the EdMntrgh. — A meeting of this preiby- 

Conmlttee on the Diatinctire Principlea tery was held on Gtb February — Ber. Mr. 

of the Cboreh, reported that the committea Barlas, Mnuelburgh, moderator. Dr. 

agreed to recommend, that an exchange Brace read a circular, which had been 

ofputpita take place among the miniateri reoeired from Dr. Huiton, chairman or 

of the presbjteiV, with the riew of bring- the Synod's Committee on Diaeatabliah- 

ing the diatinctire principlea and schemes ment, asking tbe presbytery, in the present 

of the denomioation before the rarious favonrable state of the pnblic mind, to 

congregariona. The presbytery received take atepa (o adranco the qneation of 

and adopted the report, and inatracted Disestahtiabment,Hnd toadoptsuchmeans 

the committee to arrange for carrying ont aa were best suited to promote an intel- 

the excbsTige. It waa agreed to appoint ligent intereat in the principles and iaaoes 

Heaars. Millar, Connel, Dmmmond, inrolTod aa these were regarded by tbe 

miniiters, aod Logic and Willox, elders, Church. The circular was remitted to 

a committee— Mr. Logie, convener — to the Committee on DisestabUahment. Mr. 

consider the whole labjeot of Chnrch Robertaon, Bread Street, in accordance 

extanaion, and to report. Bead a note from with notice giten at the beginning of the 

tbe convener of the Sjnod's Committee meeting, moved—'' That thii preibyterj, 

on DiaMtablishment, calling the atten- baTingtakeninlocousiderationthepresent 

tiqn of tbe presbytelj to the importance important crisis in the aETairs of Eastern 

or taking advantage of thr present fa. Europe, and seeing that there is a hope 

Tonrable state of the public mind. It of the termination of the war which has 

was agreed to appoint Mesare. RotuU, been desolating that r^on, hnmhly peti- 

MillBr,GBotvB, mintstera, and Mr. Thomas tioo Barliamaot to adhere to the prin- 

Mitchell, elder, a Committee on Disestah- ciplea of strict neutrality, and to use all 

Ushment,— Mr. Mitchell, convener, — and legitimate influence for the secnring of a 

to remit B«v. Dr. Hntten's note to tbe speedy and righteous peace.' The motion 

committee. According to previoua ap' was agreed to. — At a meeting afierwarda 

Sintment, the presbytery heUl a con- held in private, it was agreed to sanction 

'ence on foreign miasions. The Rev. the opening of a new station for preaching 

Dra. Joseph Brown, HacGilt, and Mair, in Fortobello^ in Regent Street Halt, idndly 

irero present as a depntalion ^m the given to the presbyterf by Mr. Thomson 

Foreign Miaaion Committee. The Rev. of the Free Chnrch for that purpose. 

Alexander Miller introduced the subject Also at tbia meeting, the Rev. William 

by reading a paper on the topic of con- Boberison, D,D., of New Greyfriars, Bav. 

ference. The deputies next addressed the Mr. Fraser, of Free St. Bernard's, and 

presbytei;, enforcing the claims of foreign Charles Guthrie, Esq., Advocate, gave 

missions. Several members of preabyteij addreaaes on the aocial state of the city. 

afterwards addressed the meeting, and at — This presbytery again met in Inflrmaiy 

tbe close a hearty vole of thanks was Street Church, on the I3th Fcbmary, for 

accorded to the depntieefor their addresses, the purpose of ordaining Mr. B. P. 

— A public social aeeting was held in the Watt as colleague to the Ear. Dr. Bruce. 

evening in the Hall of the Toung Men's The Rev. John Young, A.M., Newington, 

Christian Assoeiation. Mr. Jamea Logic preached; Rev. William Bmce, D.D., 

occupied the chair. The meeting was presided at tbe ordination ; and Rev. 



128 



RELIGIOUS INTELLIQENCE. 



[naiMPiwb.iiim. 



Andiew Gardiner, D.D^ addretwd tbe 
nenly-ordainsd miniiCer and the eangre- 
KBtion. Tbe fact of the death of Est. 
Dr. Duff, the eminent miiiionar;, having 
been brought before the presbjiterf, it 
waa agreed that the preabytefT, a* inch, 
ihonid bo present at his fpnerd, irhich 
wM to take place on the folloiriag Monday. 
i%in and /nuerneM.— This preabyterj 
met at Nairn oD ttie 15th January. Mr. 
Morrison, elder, ai conTsner oF tbe Prei- 
byteiy'g Aagmcntation Fond Comaiittee, 
gare in a report itating. the anmi con- 
ciibnted by the raiioni congregations in 
the presbytery daring tbe put year in aid 
of the Angmentation Fand, from which it 
appeared that there bad been an increus 
ID the amonnt raised. The prejbytery 
tendered their tbanka lo the committee for 
the ironble they bad taken in the matter, 
and more eipecially to Mr. Morrieon for 
his exertions in behalf of the scheme, and 
their satisfaction in the progress that had 
been made dnring the pait year. It wai 
agreed that the ooumlttee be continued, 
And that it be recommended to them to 
hold on an early day their annual con- 
ference on the subject of augmentation, 
inTiting to the said conference repreien- 
■ " ' 'a congregations 



n from the \i 



been read from the congregation of Camp- 
beltown (Ardersier) requesting the mode- 
ration ^of a call on an early day, Mr. 
Aobion was appointed to preside in tbe 
moderation of a call on Tuesday the SSth 
Jannaij, at T f.k. Mr. Baitlie, Itndent, 
baTing deliiered to the satisfaction of the 
preabyteiy tbe remaining parti of bis trial 
exercise for licence, be was licensed to 
preach the gospel. Mr. Waisoa, in name 
of tfae commitlee appointed at last meet- 
ing to arrange matters for exchange of 
piupits by the ministers of the precbyterj, 
with tbe Tiew of impressing on the minds 
of oongregations the claim* of foreign 
missions, propoied a Bcbeme of arrange- 
metits, which was approved of by the 
presbytery. Mr. Macdonald having stated 
that his congregation had nnanimoosly 
resolved on tbe bnilding of a new church, 
to be erected in Branderburgh, as being 
a more eligible site for the congregation 
senarally, and had entered cordially into 
the measure in the way of liberal sub- 
scriptions, it was unanimously agreed to 
eanction tbe proposed movement, and to 
recommend the case to the favoorable 
' oonsideration of Christian friends wbo 
may have it in their power lo aid tbe 
congregation in their commendable efforts. 
Mr. Kobson, as convener of the com- 
mittee appointed at last meeting to meet 
wiib the ForrM session .and others con- 
nected with die congregalioa, with refer- 



ence (o the oie of fermented or unferinin ted 
wine on occasion of the observance of the 
Lord's Supper, intimated that the com- 
mittee were not prepared to report at this 
meeting, bat will do lo at next meeting, 
which was appointed to take place at 
Forres on Tuesday' after the second i}ab- 
batb ofFebrnarv. 

OaJiowas. — This presbytery met at 
Newton- Stewart, 8 th January, and was con- 
stituted by Rev. B. Hogarth, moderatorpro 
(em. Mr. Thomas M'C. Fleming, M.A., 
Whithorn, delivered a homily, and was 
examined ia divinity. These were cor- 
dially sustained as parti of trials for licence; 
and Mr. Fleming having'now given in all - 
his trials, he was licensed to preach the 
Rospel as a probationer in the Dnited 
Fresbyterian Church. A letter was read 
from Dr. Mair auent superintendence of 
joang persons changing their reiideacet. 
It was agreed that ^e clerk should com- 
manicate with Dr. Mair on tbe subject, 
and that the ministers be requested to eall 
tbe attention of their congregations to it. 
Next meeting was appointed to he held at 
Newton -Stewart on Tuesday after the first 
Sabbath of April. 

Qlaagoa. — The monthly meeting of this 
presbytery was held, 12th Pabmary — Dr. 
Black, moderator. A nnanimoos oall 
from Qreonhead Church Co tbe Eev. Jobn 
Steel, Free Chnrch, Eirkintiliocb, was 
suBlained by the presbytery. A o^ was 
laid on the table from tbe Crail congre- 

Sition, in favour of tfae Eev. John C. 
ackson, at present eolleatrua to the Aev. 
David Macrae, Elgin Street Chnrcb, 
Glasgow. Ur. Jackson intimated bia 
acceptance of the call, and the preabytery 
agreed to release him from his present 
charge. Mr. Thomson, of Plantation, 
was appointed moderator for the next six 
months, and took the chair. Mr. BobeitE 
gave in retains regarding the propmed 
tearrangamenl of the presbytery. From 
the returns, t3 congrega^ons were ia 
favonr of the proposal, and II against. 
On tbe question of the division of the 
city, S9 sessions were in. favour, and S3 
against. As Co the proposal to have > 
Soath Presbytery for cbe city, S6 sessions 
were in favour of the •change, and S3 
against; but of the IS congregations on 
the south side of the city, 13 were in 
favour, and only 2 against. A niajoiigr 
objected to the esiablishment of a Dum- 
barton Presbytery, and the other conntry 
congregations at present under the Glat- 
gow Presbytery did not acquiesce intho 
prosposal to be severed from the presby- 
tery and attached to Hamilton or Paisley. 
It n ' * ■■ ■ ■ 



KELIGIOUS IKTELUQBNOfi. 



129 



of presbTterr. It wu agraed, at th« 
reqnett of forij'isTen meroben of the 
mifnon at HoDDt Florid*, that thej alionld 
be ei«at«d into a congregation. Hr. 
Boehanan reported that, notvitbitanding 
the depreuioii of trade, there bad odIj 
been a ralliDE off in the amoant receiTcd 
in bebalf of As Angmeatation Scheme to 
the extent of £100, and that decrease wa> 
largely due to the diminiihed coutribn- 
dosi from the Glasgow Fre<b;teij. The 
miniinum stipend throaghont the Church 
would remain at £200 per annum, with a 
manse. The Est. Dr. Leckis havins 
^Ten in the report of the procesdingi of 
the committee in the caae of H«v. Fergn* 
Fergmon, and B£r. Fergnion having been 
hewd in connection with it, the folTowiDg 
iMolalion waa agreed to b; a majorit; :— 
That tfae preabjter; initmct Dr. Jeffrey, 
the clerk, to prepare a libel agaiatt Mr. 
Fergtuon, and lay it on the table on the 
36th of this month. 

Irdand (summary of Mwnil m/tt^gs). 
—This presbjteiy met at Belfait on 19th 
Jannarf, and waa conitltnted. Hr. Mar- 
wick'a proposal to publish annaally all 
financial details of the congregations was 
agreed to, and the Sthtieiicsl Committee 
was instrncted to deriie efficient means for 
iti execution. Apetitionon theCootagions 
Diieaaea Aot hod been sent. Mr. M'Lay 
had moderated in a call to BailyfVenis on 
Iba 11th June, to Mr. Thos. EddiagtOD, 
H.A., which was laid on the table. Mr. 
U'Lay'a conduct was approred, and peti- 
tion by GommisBioDer to stutain was 
nnanimoosly granted, and trials preBcribed. 
The presbytery agreed to hold id next 
meeting at Cnlly backer, to aid Mr. 
Fleming in meeting difficnUies felt by 
some abODt receiving baptism ; and they 
agreed to bold an eranglistic meeting in 
the evening, to be presided orer by Hr. 
Sniythe, and addressed by Hr. M'Lay and 
Mr. Mnrray. — This presbytery met at 
Callybackey on 14tb An^st. Circnlars 
were read from Qlasgow Freibytery and 
Dr. Tonng. Dr. MacOill's circular anent 
for«gn millions was remitted to Mission- 
ary Committee. The members of - the 
Hiarionary Finance and Augmentation 
Comnittees were readjosted. Hr. Sd- 
dington read a thesis on Election, and 
waa examined on theology. Both were 
cordially snstained. His ordination was 
fixed for Toesday, the 4lb September, at 
Ballyfi^ttis, and brethren appointed to 
condaet. Mr. Duulop, elder, Colly- 
backey, stated fully the origin and nature 
of the difficulties felt aboiit baptism. After 
a full sxpreaiion of opinion on the points 
raiaed, it was tinauimonsly carried to 
adhere strictly to the rule of the Chnrcb, 
ttaM baptism is not to be given to a cbitd 

KO. ni. VOL. XXII. NEW gElllEB. — 1 



nnless one of tbe parents be a member in 
full communion ; and two brethren were 
appointed to confer with those who had 
difficnltiea, in terms of the motion, and 
report. — The presbytery met at Bally- 
frenis on 4th September, and was con> 
stituted. Mr. Hnirhead, Stranraer, and 
Ur. Elarrower, Eyemonth, being presenr, 
weTB inrited to correspond. The edict 
for ordinalidn of Hr. Eddington, properly 
certified, was again served, no objection 
being taken. Mr. M'Lay preaebed on 
Matt. r. T, and Dr. Bryce, Hr. Fitapatriek, 
and Mr. Marwlck took part in tbt ordina- 
tion serrlees, Hr. Eddingtott waa cor- 
dially welcomed, and his n ->-•-' ■- 



gation of Dublin should be invited to join 
the presbytery, in the event of a redistri- 
bution of presbyteries at next Synod. — 
The presbytery met at Belfast on 4tb 
December, and was constituted, The 
report about Collybackey was reserved. 
It was resolved officially to invite tbe 
Dublin session to nnite with the preaby- 
lery, and Mr, H'Lsy was requested to 
represent tbe presbytery. Circnlars anent 
examination to the Hall, Sabbath schools, 
transmission of Synod's general fund and 
foreign missions, were read. All were 
being attended (o. Dr. W. Speers, elder, 
Belfast, oF fiO Old Lodge Koad, was 
appointed convener of Committee on 
Superintendence of Young People. The 
committees in August were continned 
Ibroagfa IST8, and Mr. Eddington ap- 
pointed moderator, nho took the chair. 
The Missionary Committee reported that, 
with the exception of one congregation 
that was taking a mode of its own, 
missionary associations, monthly colleC' 
tioni, a deputation of two ministers to 
each congregation, a sermon on missions, 
and a conference on misaioos, had been 
arranged for. Mr. Eddington was author' 
i zed, with the remanent members of Bally- 
frenis session, to proceed with the election 
and ordination of elders, according to the 
laws of the Cborcb. Mr. M'Lay produced 
petition to Home Board, and ptinted 
clrcnlar anent the erection of a larger and 
more suitable church in Belfast. The pre«- 
bytc^ expreued gratification with tbe pro- 
posed erection and tbe Bubscriptions of tbe 
congregation, and hoped that the prospect 
ultimately of a second congregation in 
Belfast could be kept io view in connec- 
tion with their existing premises; and 
empowered the moderator acd clerk, in 
' ' recommendations to 



IbeMission Boardi 
lie. — A pro rt nata 
was held at Belfast 
to consider a call ( 



1 the Christian pnb- 
aeeiing of presbytery 
n SStb Januan ISIS, 
I Mr. Marwick from 



130 BBLKMOUS INTELWaEKCE. "^ it^iwi^ 

BethelfiaU, Eirkeildy, and was daly oba' pointed to viait saoh congreeation, and 

•tttnied. Tha Rer. J. U. Thomwn, bring the dobjects commended bj the 

EinghoK), being preMitt, was invited to Sjnod before Cbe oborcbes — thii for one 

correspoad. The condaot of the Tuodera- year ; and that conferences wiih the offioa- 

tor in calling the meeting waa approved, bearers might be held before or ailtor the 

Font eemntuwioBcn ^om each congrega- addreieei. Ii wm moved, leeonded, and 

tioD beiag preisnt, the extrapt minnte agreed to, that the leporC be received, and 

from Kirkekldy Pretbjteir was read ; the allowed to lie on the table nntil the report 

■tepi taken to inform the congregation of the Miiiionarr Committee had lieen 

ef Loanendi, inmtnon a congregational beard. Mr. Cairnt, convener, inbmittod 

nesting to prepare replies to reuons the report of the Committee on Uiisims. 

of translation, &Bd name commiaaionere, It stated that the committee had taken 

ware narrated. Reaeons and replies hav- np and considered the followiag poiotf 

iog been -read, and Ibe commianonera in the Synod's minnte of Tilaj last — riz., 

liaviog answered qnettions and made 1. The instroctiona to the Presbytery Mi»- 

ilfttements, Ur. MarwiA declared his aionary Committee to examine as to how 

Bcoeptance of the call. The presbytery miasionat; contribntionB were eolleet^ Is 

warmly expressed their appreciation of the different congregations, with the re- 

him as a miniaCer and a co-presbyter, to- commendation to have monthly eotttribn- 

geliier with tlieir regrets at parting and tiona by means of collectors ; S. To hare 

hopes of his continued success, aa was the schemes of foreign loiisiona broaght 

then loosed from the pastorate of Loan- before the people annually by interchange 

«ndB, a moderator of session appointed, ofpnlpits; and 3. The importance of har- 

and the clerk iastmcted to adc aopply of ing an annttal report of the presbytei^ on 

preachers. foreign missions. Discnssions t<vik plaea 

£eIfo. — Thispreshyter^metonTuesday, as to whether the objects songht by thii 

16th January — Rev. Mr. Pringle, mode- committee and tha Visitation Committea 

rater. The following report by the Com- conld not be combined. It was nUimatelj 

mittee on the Elders' Conference was agreed by a majority that they conld, and 

Bubnitled by Mr. Muirbead, the convener: that, instead' of separate visitation 



-' I'have to report that the elders have fast days, the objects sought night be 

met, considered the matter remitted to ns attained by the interchange of pnlpita bj 

At last meetingof presbytery, — namely, an members of presbytery on a fixed Sabbadi, 

elden' conference, — and have decided that the second Sabbath in March being pr».. 

a conference will be held in Kelso. The ferred. The members were left to maJu 

foUotring gentlemen have been appointed their own arrangements for the ezereiMC 

At the meeting to make all the necessary Motions .regarding British nentrality in 

arrangements as to the way and time for connection with the war in the Boat, and 



the carrying oat of this conference : of the continonDce of the Scottish Ednca- 
John Hogg, B. Porteous, George Melrose, tion Board, were negatived, on the groni; '' 
Thomas iScott, William Parres, and Alex- that, as a presbytery, they shonld ni 



ander Mnirbead, convener.' Mr. Jaryie intermeddle with such matters. Theatten* 

moved the reception of thia report, aud tion of the members was called to (he 

the expression of the presbytery's satis- necessity of the annual statistical reUimB 

faction with the result of the committee's being made by the Slst instant. A letter 

conference. The motion waa nnanimonalj was read from the Bev. George Hnttoo, 

carried. Mr. Jarvie submitted the report convener to the Synod's Committea on 

by theCommitteeontheVisitationofCon- Disestablishment, kmongst] other thing! 

Eregations. It stated that the presbytery requesting the name of the convener of 

ad recogniaed the importance of the the presbytery's committee on that nnb-. 

Bynod's recommendations being carried ject. The foTlowiog were appointed a * 

ont, and instructed the committee to con- committee ; — The Bev. Heasrs. Poison suid 

sider how the end contemplated could be Pringle, minietera ; and Mr. Clark, elder; 

best secured. Tbe remit from the Synod Mr. Pringle, convener. 

for presbyteries contained three topics for PaUlej/ arid Qremoclc. — This presbytery 

' enforcement on the congregations — 1, The met at Paisley on Tuesday, 16tb Jannary 

denominational principles of the Church; — Hr. Hialop, Helenebn^h, moderator. 

2,TbeBChemes«ftheChureh;and3. Vital Read letter from Mr. Campbell, Bt. 

godlineas. Having considered the whole Andrew Square, Greenock, rengning the 

snbiect and tbe action of this presbytery paatoral charge of the congregation. 

aa long ago as 1843-49, when all tbe con> Appoicted intimation 1 ' ' - ' 



I long ago as 1843-49, when ^I tbe con> Appoicted i . _ 

gregations were visited, the committee congregation, and to hold a apecial meeting 

were of opinion that fast days now, as on the 39th. It was reported that aboat 

theo, beat answered aa the time of viaita- 60 mBmbers of the congregation had witfa- 

tion ; that two members shonld be ap- drawn. Read reasons of dissent by Ur. 



NOTIOEa or HEW PUBLICATIONS. 



Macrae. Agreed that thejba not inserted 
in the minntea, od aoeonnt of the toDs 
and Ungoage of the Kaaoa*. O-imnted a 
modeMtioQ to tbe congMgation of Locb- 
winnoch. Ap]x»nted committees to tx- 
tmat Gsitain diitdeu with tbe Tiaw of 
ttaitiDK new eanfragatians or ttatioiM. 
ThirtT- p^nooi were formed into a new 
eonen^ation, noder the name of Ciane 
Park congrej^tian, Port-Olaagow. 

Siiriinff.— Thio presbytery met on the 
4th December 1B77 — Rev, VT. Scot!, 
mi>deraior. A great part of the diet n'Bs 
taken np in conference on miBaionarf 
snd eTan&aliitie work, and a committee 
was appointed to carry out the objects 
of the confraence. Mr. George Arnold, 
ftaduM of diTinity, gare Ifae remain- 
ing puti of his tniiite fca licence, ithieh 
were anitained. After prayer by Bev. 
W. MAcUren, the moderator declared 
Mr. Arnold duly licensed to preaeb 
the gospel, and addressed the young 
licentiate ia a sinoalarly beaatifnl and 
appropriate form. The Ker. A. F. For- 
rest, Stirling, was elected moderator for 
neit 'year.— The presbytery met again in 
Airae gfeeftim at Bridge of Allan, on a4ih 
DecemtieT— Bev. W. Maelaren, modarator. 
Ur, Charles Christie, M.A., DnnbUne, 
stndeot of divinity, was examined by Mr. 
Unir, Nid uoaaimonely certified to the 
Theological ComniitBee. NaU meeting 
to be iKid on the 6th Febrnary. 

Campbeltm (ilnferaer). — Bfr. A. B. 
Boberuon, praacher, called January 39tli. 

&lanoui(&r«a»A«ui).— Bev. John Steele, 
Free Chnnch, Eickintilloch, called to be 
colleagne to Bbt. Dr. Edwards, Janoary 
Slat. 

ShapinAag {Orkney). — Mr. John Brown, 
prescber, called. 

- Mr, A. B. Robertson, 
?,' called. 



Altint {SavA).—iij. George Haoallam, 
A. U., ordained February 96th. 



The University of Si. Andrews has con- 
ferred the degree of Doctor of Diviniiy ou 
tho Kev. Andrew Gardiner, A.M., of Dean 
Street Church, Edinburgh. 



Died at 
Robert Ferri 

Died at Jappa, January I9Ui, Rev. A. 
C. Ealberfard, senior minister of Nortb 
Richmond Street Cbareb, Edinburgh. 



Edinbargh (In/trman/ Siiwi).— Mr. R. 
P. Watt, preacher, ordained as colleagne 
to Ber. Dr. Bruce, Febmary 13tb. 



Febmarr flih, Bar. 



Avery interesting meeting in connection 
with this congregation was held in the 
Corn Exchange, on the evening of Toes- 
day, a Sd Jannary. TbecbairwasoccDpied 
by Bev. Mr, Pringle, the janior pastor; 
and addresses of a saitable kind were 

S'lVenby Bev.Mc. Anderson, Free Church, 
railing, Bev. Hr. Poison, Blaekfrian 
Chureb, and B«t. Dr. Morton, Edin- 
burgh. As the senior pastor, Rev. Mr. 
Barr, had completed the rorty-foartb year 
of his ministry, the congregation and 
friends of Mr. Barr testified their high ap- 
preciation of his character and services, by 
presenting him, in very ealogistic terms, 
with an excellent likeness of himself. 
Mr. Barr, in acknowledging the gif^ 
espretsed gratitude for &e Bpontaneity, 
cordiality, and nnanimity wbicb it repre- 
sented. Se spoke- of the past hisCoij 
of the congregation, and rejoiced in its 
present prosperity ; and congratulated 
them on the cordial relations between the 
pastors, as well as between the pastors and 
people. Tbe meeting, which vae attended 
by S50 persons, was of the most agreeable 
kind, and was composed not only of mem- 
bers of the congregation, but of sister con- 
gregations in the town and neighbonriiood. 



|toti«s n£ Itcto publications. 

Tbe Hear and the Far Yiew, ajto from a liring preacher of marked indi- 

^OTHEE Sermons. By Rev. A, L. viduality of intellect, of as marked 

Simpson, D.t)., Derby. calture, and beat of all, of marked and 

Bdinlmigli : Douglas. 1878, Vf. viii. 2*8. almMt pathetic consecration of aU he 

IS and baa to his function as a miniater 
This is one of a rery race tjye of gift of tbe gospel. It has nothing of the 
to the ChnrcheB-~a volume of Sermona ineritably unfinished and fragmentary 



132 NOTICES OF NEW PDBLICATIONS. '"lEi.Ttfe?'^' 

character of poethumoDa books, — not deal more than 'good wotcIb' on 'pn- 
exceptinK even such bb Bobertaon of aent duties &nd fatnre proapectB in 
Brightons or EdmoDd L. Hull's, — still these SermoDS. They intermeddle 
leas has it aught of the weary looseness wisely, gravely, tenderly, often with 
of 'reported' aermoDSgintowmchtheso' a sweet, soft winningness and persoa-' 
called short-hand writer imports himself siveneas, with the profoandest fkcta 
rather than reports. It bears throagh- and problbne of nature and human 
oat evidence of elect choice from the nature and destiny. For its metaphyaic 
preacher's matarest and hest, not a alone, aud irrespective of its wdghty 
mere collection of what lay readiest, teaching. ' Success in Sin ; how it 
As a result, the sermons are few — comes, and what it is,' ia worthy 
fifteen only — and the bulk of the of special note ; and kindred with it 
Tolnnie slender ; but in this, aa in are ' Striving against Sin ' uid ' Hao'e 
minority-votes in times anch aa these. Obligation to receive the Teaching of 
one has to weigh and not merely count. Christ' These three snoceed each other, 
It is altogether ao modest, unpretentious and vindicate the author's statement 
« book — not even taking the form of an that the motif ot the order waa 'variety 
octavo — and has slipped so quietly ont, of theme, together with a certun feeling 
that tiiere ia a danger ot its being of fitness in sequence' [^c(] 'too dim.' 
overlooked. If our voice might reach The ' Near and the Far View ' has not n 
our brethren, our counsel should be few beautiful things beautifully worded. 
— get these Sermons, study them, Indeed, there are in it and othera ex- 
incorporate them into head and heart quisitely -wrought, almost jewelled illua- 
and conscience, keep them as an ideal (rations. 'Christian Stewardship' is 
to be reached, and see how high tiiink- infinitely preferable to prevalent hard- 
ing is combined with simple wording, and- fast-line advocacy of (so-called) 
simple vrording with deepest feeling. Christian proportionate giving; ' The 
deepest feeling with unmistakable evan- Sackcloth Int«rdicted,' if it rest on a 
geiicalism, and unmistakable evangeli- somewhat unreal text, is a bright and 
calism with ainewy strength, and wistful brightening present-day topic ; for to~ 
appeal with no viugar damorousnees. It day men need to leom that the 'm/ of 
is gladdening to find Dr. Simpson walk- salvation ' ia an uMmate force, as light 
ing in the. 'ancient pathways,' giving to lightning. 'A Bruised Reed, and 
forth no ' uncertain sound,' true to the Christ's Treatment of it,' is detightfuUy 
creed of his Church, and his Church's tender and soothing. Aiid so one might 
creed the everlaatong truth to him, aud go over all. Snffice it to invite special 
neither afraid nor ashamed to affirm attention to other two truly greit 
and reiterate uncompromisingly and sermons, 'The Triumph of Christ's Caosft 
onmutilated the 'old, old atory,' that a Necessity,' aud 'No Chriat if not 
places the DEATH of Chriat supreme Jeaua.' Well may the United Fresbyte- 
over even His life. There is an in- rian Church feel pcond of such a volume 
gennity that is ingenuous in the per- as that of Dr. John Eer, and eqnallj. 
vading 'Near and Far View '—the may the Preabyterian Church of £^g- 
terrestrial and the celestial, the human land rejoice that among her miniatera is 
aud the superhuman, the earthly need Dr. Adam L. Simpson of Derby. Em- 
aod the heavenly provision, the mortal phatically, and without reserve, we 
emptiness and the divine and gracious commend this book as one of the most 
fulness, mingling and intermingling in notable additions to our aermon litera- 
every aeparate sermon ; so that to na ture of recent years. It will live, 
the author's explanation is no subtlety, A. B. G. 

but simple matter-of-fact, whan be teiUs 

j«; 'The tiUe gtan to the rolome t,b L«vmo»i Pn.isis. A Costri.u- 

hu ten .0 Biv.a not «mply b.»™. „„ „ „, CniiciaH of thi Pim<- 

,t u tilt of the ilnl reraoo, but ata 3 g^„^ ,y„ CmTins, 

tac.™, It »emr. dacnpliv. m ngeur.l j Pb.D., L«p.ig. Witk ■ Pretax 

,.jol . work ,el.tmg to™ent dotiu j 'p^, lJiiA!<il)li.insCB, D.D. 

imd future proepecta, B phrase which in „., . ^„^^„,., 

ita meaalog dinSa little' il at all, from MaiiTOb : T. a T. citI. i.». 

that ot "The Near and the Far View.'" Tins little hookwe very earnestly recom- 

Vcry lowlily put! bat there is a vast mend to the attention of onr scholarly 



"" liiTi'iS."*' NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIOHS. 133 

readen, &nd especially of thoae of tbem Numben are of pott-exilic origin, due, 
who may be inclined to regard wiLh it may be, (o Etra as the author ; and 
favour the vievrs of that Bohool of inter- are to be regarded as partiMQ wrltiiiga, 
preters represeoted by Oraf, Kareer, compoaed in the interest of tbe priestly 
Euenen, etc. It is well fitted to ahow, family then in the uceodant ' They 
byway of aample, how feeble are tbe are "documents,"' says Kueoen RKain, 
gronnOB on which the main positions of ' 'oflegialatiTe and historical tenor, which 
theseinterpretersrest, andhow arbitrary were written in a priestly spirit and 
is their method of procedure. in the priestly interest, and therefore 
Dr. Cnrtifls coufioee himself to one probably by priests, as they treat of 
p(»nt, viz. tbe statements found in tbe what directly concerns them and belongs 
Old Testament regarding the Leritical to the sphere of their, labours.' 
priesthood. The point may appear a This is a sample of the higher oriti- 
ssiTow one, but by the investigatioDB cism and of the scientific treatment of 
and theorizinga of the critics referred the books and history of the Old Testa- 
te, it has b6en made to assame a poei- ment, or of Darwinism in theology. It 
(ion of very considerable, if not of first- is obvious to remark that this fuller 
rate, importance. Ooe of their chief developroent of the higher criticism has 

C'ltions, as is well known, is that the struck tbe feet from beneath one of the 

k of Deuteronomy was composed, not mun arguments, employed by the same 

by Hoses, but by on uokoown author criticism at an earner stage, to prore 

who made use of the name of Hoses, tbe post-Uosiuc and late origm of 

and who lived in the days of Josiah, Denteronomy. It nsed to be alleged 

king of Jndah. 'WepoBsessinDeuterO' that the style of this book was onUkc 

nomy,' says Knenen, ' tbe prDcramme the style of Hoses in the other books 

of the Mosaic party of that day. Now ascribed to him, being more rhetorical, 

it is oUeged that this book is not only ornate, and modern in character. But 

different in style from the preceding now it has been determined that nothing 

Pentateacbal books, but also gives a in Hebrew literature is certduly known 

very different representation regarding to belong to Moses or his age, except 

the Levitical ordinances and arrange- perhaps the Decalogue and one or two 

ments. In the words of Professor R. lyrical compositions ; and since we have 

Smith, ' The Levitical laws 6'.e. tbe laws thus no means left us of judging of 

contained in the three middle books of Moses' style, there is evidently no 

the Pentateuch) give a graduated hier- ground, so far as style goes, of refusiog 

archy of priests and Levites. Deutero' to accept the testimony of Deuteronomy 

nomy re^rda all Levites as at least itself to its Mosaic origin. .Thegenuine- 

possible priests.' Having satisfiedthem- ness of Deuteronomy is not the subject 

selves that 'Deuteronomy regards all of Dr. Curtiss' treatise, and is not sub- 

themembersof the tribe of Levi as com- mitted to special discusnon. His object 

patent for the priesthood,' these critics is to ^ow uiat, accepting the traditional 

next propose the alternative, — ' This views regarding tbe dates of the Fento- 

Soolity la title is either the abolition teuchal and historical books, there is 

the former privilege of tbe sons of nothing in their statements in reference 

Aaron, or the endowment of the eons of to the priestly arrangements that can 

Aaron with tbe privilege is tbe abolition fairly be held as inconsistent with these 

of tiie former equality ; ' and the latter -views, Tbe discussion is conducted 

of dttfe suppositions is the conclusion with much, scholarly ability, with great 

at which they have arrived. With this care and candour, and, we think, on the 

conclusion there is necessarily associated whole with perfect sQccess. There is 

a very startling displacement in the certainly discernible a want in point of 

received traditional chronology of tbe literary finish, and an occasion^ iudis- 

HoBoicbookK Finding that the Deutero- tinctneas and ooufuscdness of st^le 

nomic sacerdotal arrangements are Nm- which is somewhat damaging to luad- 

pte than those of the middle portions ness of argument. But ' the author's 

of the Pentateuch, they condnde, in investigations into the subject-matter 

rirtne of the theory of evolution, that have been thorough, and iu some depart' 

they are also earlier, — thus reaching the ments very painstaking; and as the 

■orprising critical resnlt that a part of result of bis calm and diligent inqmr;^! 

Exodus, ^ Leviticus, and most of he states the following: — '(1) That it 



134 NOTIOBS OP NEW PUBLICATI0H8. '""hIIJ'mitk'^' 

was neither the intention of tie Deutero- reaaonable eiplftnation of a diffiealty 

nomiat to confer the privilege of the ia snSdant to avert the attack on an 

priesthood opon all LeTites, nor to ez- eetabliBhed position ; and howeverdeair- 

clude all other penoDB from it ; (2) That able it may be to be able to go further 

theterm "prieflt8-Levites''ianfledwhen and to demonBtrate the tmth, yet in 

erideDttv o^ descendantaof AaroQ are many cases, eepecially in queationa of 

intended. Hence we have no right to ancienthiBtOiTandcriticiBm, this logical 

claim that every Levite might become a defence is all to nhich the candid in- 

priest. While the regulationa nbout quirer is able to attain. 

tithes and firstlinga are not easy of 

explanation, yet they admit of adjoat- „ „ „ 

m^t.' Cbitigal and ExBOCTiCAt. Handbooi 
Of conwe there are other and deeper to "« GospeL' op Matthew. By H. 
qneationa, queations such as these :— f- V^-, Meter, Th.D., etc Trann- 
fa the derelopment theory applicable as '»*« &<"» ^e Suth Edition of the 
a guiding principle in the interpretatioo GenMn by Rer. Pttek Christie: 
oftheBiblicalwritings? Arethefindinga The Tranala^n revised and edited by 
of the higher criticMra cooiOBtent with Fbedkrick Crombib, D.D., Profeasar 
beliefinamiracnlooa revelation and a " Biblical Cntjciam, St AndrOTra. 
line inspiration, — wljich lie behind the ''"- ^• 

disoussiona in the volume before us? Critical and Eieqeticai Handbook 
Here we have only some Airmishing to the Acts of the Apostleh. By 
at the ontpoats; the main battle lies H. A. W. Meier, Th.D., etc. Trana- 
elsewhere. This Dr. CurtiBa is fully lated from the Fourth Edition of the 
aware of; he acknowledges that it is not German by Rev. Paton J. Gloaq, 
by SQch guerilla warfare that the great D.D. The Translation revised and 
controTeray is to be settled. But to edited by W. P. Dickson, D.D., Pio- 
waive aside this detail of argamenta as fessor of Divinity, Glasgow. Vol IL 
not touching the heart of the question, ^ _ 

1 , J ■ .J - t V Edinbomh ; T. * T. Cl«ik, 1ST7. 

aa only ' a disconnected senes of hypo- uti . .» .v .. «ii. 

thetical solutions,' as mere ' catch solu- It ia not neceasaiy to do more th«n 

tions,' is to mistake and misrepresent signalize the fact of the appearance of 

the whole matter. The assanlt on the these two new volames in the series of 

traditional position, in so tar as it is not Meyer's New Testament CommentarieB. 

openly based on metaphysical and philo- The comment on the Acts of the 

sophieal gronnds, is really made np of a Apostles is now complete, and we haW 

detail of difficulties— an array of objec- here also the first volume of that on the 

tions, based on apparent ducrepancies gospel of Matthew reaching to the close 

of statement and representation— in the of the seventeenth chapter. In botil 

Scriptural books. Evidently the con- volumes, as in those that have preceded 

servative critic renders an important them, the translating aad editing an M 

service to his cause when he follows the carefully done aa to put the EngUab per- 

attack into these particular details, feetly on a level with the German reader^ 

showing that the contradictions alleged and to reflect the highest credit on ttte 

are no contradictions, and furnishing accurate acbolar^ip of the gentlemen 

reasonable sclotions of the alleged diffl- concerned, Meyer's Handbo^ is for 

cnltira. Logically this is all that re- scholars, and to them it ia invahiablet 

qnirea to be done in order to the main- specially* for its strietnes* of mettiodt 

tenanceof the traditional position, "fhe ita expgetical acumen, and its wealth of 

received doctrine is in poascBsion of the reference and of citation. For trae 

field, and reata on independent evidence, scholars it is not neceanry to add tiiat 

made op of a large consenaua of testi- it needs, in the nse of it, the eoaatiBt 

mony — human and divine. That evi- exerciseof eircnmepectionandconndeift- 

dence must be fairly met and disposed tion, — these always think and jodgt 

of before the doctrines of the critical for themselves, calling no man mnatw 

school can be established ; and Uiis ia not Beaders will find, for eiampls, is ths 

to be done by any array, however for- beginning of the volume on HattliM^ 

midable, of objections and diffiooltiea, in the author's treatment of the seoond 

unless they reach the length of evincing chapter, what is very qneaUonable in 

atsolute contradiction. Lc^cally, any ground and in tendency; and not* 



NOTICBS OF HSW PUBLlOATIONa. 135 

•B throughout vould have uid lea than tiiey did aaj 

about the preaching of the word, and 

more about baptism in niation togalra- 

o ™ D ^ T ™^1?° ^'^ difficult to resUt the force of tie follow 

SCKIFTDRE. Bj Key. Jaues M'Ker- ^^ :_Speaking of Petet oommandin^ 
GomeliuH and his friends to be baptixet^ 



i«abi>t. London. _' They did not reoeiTe the Holy Qhort 

The able niiniater of CamiAiU Chmch, in baptisiu ; but because thef nad nr 
BinninghaiD, has done well to pitbliah ceivea tbe Holf GhoBt, the^ wen 



It is the merit of the advanced BitualiatB battle between the High and ETangelicil 

thst iiurj have the coniage of their con- parties baa to be fought otm the 

Tictionfi. In En^and thej do not mince doctrine of the Lord's Supper. It is 

the Btatement of their news. Their etr- trae the puaages ai the woid on which 

poaitioD and arovala are as explicit aa the High Church tcachera relj appeal 

language can make them. And what to lean to their tide only when th^ an 

the]' azpound and avow — inpriac^kat greatly strained ; but bymeaiuof it«rtt> 

least — is notdistingaishable, byaoumoo tion and boldtie« in Itarating, it » 

people, from Popery. The author of certain tiiat they hare canMdth^ news 

these lectures can see no distinction ia to strike a deep root in the Engliih 

tbata. from Popery, and he judges their Episcopal Ghurcn. And they are sin- 

fiewB by their own statements. cerely l"*M Ht. U'Kervow therefore 

Taking the fonr litualiatic doctrines, does well to be as earnest as he is in his 
—Me Chruliaii Miniitry, Baptitm, ikt repudiation of their news. He haa joit 
LorcPs Table, Confasioit and Abtottt- idened to Dr. Puaey : ' However ma- 
lum, — Mr. M'Eerrow in each caae first oerely and devoutly that system of 
■ddnces a body of ritualistic state- doctrine may be held to whidi hia name 
menta, and by this be makes plain haa given one of the modem deaigoa- 
what doctrine the High Churchman tioos, Presbyterians unite with othor 
latches. Then he {troooeds to test the EvaugeUoal Christians, both within and 
doebine by So^tore. We greatly ad- without the Churcb of England, in pro- 
mire the fainieaa with which the tasting againet the idea of aaacnunenlal 
doetrinea are marshalled and set forth \ salvation ; in denying the power ef 
and we still more admire the thorough " priesta " to present upoo au earthlj' 
iifting they receive by the free breath altar the sacrifice of the body and blood 
of SoiptDie; We would gladly quote of the Redeemer, whosaglorifiedbodviB 
laigety fr<Hn the lectures, but the ^laee in heaven, and whom the heavM ue 
at our di^>oaal makes it impossible to do received until the Idmea of the rentatution 
this except in a fragmeutatr mannw. of all things ; in condemning the snper- 
nie first lecture com^tely (usposes of stitious importance attached to the 
tfaa doctrine of Apostolical SucoeosioD. elements of the eucbarist, and tbe pos- ' 
tha aooatles wote men set apart tor a turing, and muttering, and aspeot of 
wedal tsak, via. to witness of the mycteiiouanees, and pretence of miracle- 
BeaoiTeetiaa of Chijst, and they could, warkiog with which the " Sacrament of 
in the ve^ nature of things, have no the Altar,'' aa they term it, is observed: 
■ncccwoM in thia task. The only snccet- in repudiating those claims on behalf 
■ion concedvable is that of faith and- of a sacrificing priesthood, falsely so 
life ; but in tlus there is nothing of the called, who imfSy that there is, and odn 
UBseriptunl priestly element, and there- be, no tme obeervaiuie of the great 
fore it will not serve tiie ends of Hi^ ChrtBtian rit« eauept wheu they preaide ; 
Gkniefa teachers^ in waning against the inevitabla taa- 

It seems difficult for any one to renit denoy of High Church doctrines and 

Uw fwQe of Idle remaA which Hr. practices to create iilusion as to our per- 

M'Knraw makes in hie second lectare : sonal niritual state and onr relatioa to 

* If the doctrine of baptismal regeneia- God, who has never eaid tbat tbe sacn- 

tiion w^ true, baptism would oocnpy a ments, although of His own appointment, 

much mora prcmiinent [daee in the Hew 'ai« essential to salvation, but who haa 

Teatameutthanitdoes, and the apostles said: " He that believeth on the Son 



136 NOTICES OP NBW POBLICATIONS. ""u^^m'*^ 

bath evetlaatiDg life, aad he that be- Hamilton'B 'Hieorr of Knowledge,' 
lieveth not the Son aluUl not aee life, Draper's ' latelloctuol DevelopmeDt of 
bat the -wrath of God abideth on him." ' Europe,' Wheedon ' On the Will,' 
Biaiag in eamestneBS, Hr. H'Kerrow Renan'a 'Life of Christ,' "The New 
reaches his greateet ferrour in tiie admir- Faith of StrancB.' 
able closing lecture on Absolution and It will thus be seen that while there 
ForgiTeness. But we moBt content onr- is a considerable diversitv of topics, yet 
selves b; giving a mere fiwnent from thej have all a real and intimate rela- 
tiie verj close : — ' Ood makes throngh tion. It will also be ooufeesed that, for 
men the offer of forgiTenesa, although their adequate treatment, abilities and 
He never makes through men the appli- leaming of no ordinaij kind are re- 
cation of foigivenees. He tommisaiona quired, 
those who know the method of salvation Dr. Frentias, in his Introduction, 



to speak of it t^i others, to inatnict them sajs : ' A conviction of the ' superior 

in what Jesus Ghriat has done, and to quality and permanent valne <n I^. 

nrg« them to receive the offered and Smith's writings has led to the present 

inestimable blessings of the gospel of His selectjon. It is called Faith and PMla- 

graee. lie Holy Spirit will accompany tophy, because that title fitly indicates 

the faithful and prayerful preaching ot its general character. Almost every- 

the word. When " repentance toward thing in it belongs to the one or Qit 

God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus other of these two noblest spheres of 

Christ," are acknowledged to conetitut« human thought. And Dr. Smith wsE 

the substance of the sacred commission, entirely at home in them both. He 

that commiceion, thongh exercised in delighted to grapple with the hardest 

weakness, may yet be discharged in problems of speculative scieaice, and be 

humblehope tbatit willbeusefultomaD did so with an ease that showed how 

ftnd acceptable to God. But when fallible congenial they were to the native bent 

and ernng mortals presume to claim and temper of his mind. He delisted 

divine prerogatives, God will not bless still more to discuss the moat d^cnlt 

them iu their "attempted usurpation of questions of the Christian faith, and he 

that which He has never giveu ; and the did so with a spiritual insight, a breadth 

day which shall declare every man's work and vigour of thought, a wise diacrimi- 

mil make manifest their gross pres'ump- nation, and a zeal for truth that showed 

tion and sad delusion ; and then the him to possess the genius as well as the 

wood and hay and stubble of ritualistic culture and learning of a finished theo- 

doctrince and observance will perish in logian. The following pages bear wit- 

tiie fire that shall try every man's work ness to all this, and no lesa to the fine 

erf what sort it is ; and if there has been, hterary skill, logical acumen, and ad- 

thongh mixed with grievous errors, a mirable sense with which he was w(Hit 

chihuke faith in Jesus, that will abide, to eoforce hia opinions on these high 

and^that alone.' themes.' 

This testimony is true, and will be 

endorsed by the carefol and competent 

Faith AND Philosopht; Discourses and student of these pages. We notice. 

Essays. Br Henrt B. Smith, D.D., however, considerable diversitr in the 

LL.D. Edited, with the Introductory manner in which Dr. Smith treats his 

- Notice, by Geobge J. Prentiss, D.D. BubJecU. Sometimes he is copious and 

nj. V u.n..m™^ , .^^ eloquent; sometimes, and more fre- 

».u.»„i.,T.*T.a„i. «.. P,.m. ,„%, condensed ind «!To,. Hi. 

The snbjectadiscQBsed in thisiimKtrtant address which gives ita name to the 

rolume are as follows : — ' The Relation volume is a specinien of the one ; his 

of Faith and Philosophy,' 'Nature and paper on Sic William Hamilton's 

Work of the Science ot Church History,' ' Theory of Knowledge ' is a specimen 

^ The Ueformed Cburchea of Europe and of the other. We confess we feel mncb 

America in relation to General Church more satisfied with him when he ad^fa 

History,' ' The Idea of Christian Theo- the latter mode, and think be iqipears 

logy as a System,' ' The New Latitudi- to far greater advantage. 

narians of England,' 'The Theological It is quite impossihle for ns within 

System of Emmons,' ' Christian Uoion our limited space to enter into minute 

and Ecclesiastical 'Beunion,' Sic William criticism ol a volume so large in its 



NOTICES OP MEW PUBLICATIOKfl. 



dimesuoDB and extensive in its range fire wide divergences amoDS men of 
of eabjects. Suffice it to saj, it is Bcienoe on vital qaeations. Tlie views 
thonraghlf evangelicaJin sentiment and which suit the knowledse of to-day 



finely spiritul in tone. Dr. Smith has might be uraet b^ fieah discoveries I 

the pow^ of making hiimtlf felt in morrow. No theory at the present 

the printed page, and the rouler feels hour can be reckoned final. Meanwhile 

that the testimony of his friends is true ws can wait with confidence the resulU 

when they describe him as a man of of fresh investigations, iu the annranoe 

mre exaltation of nature as well as of that the word of God and His works 

mind. The work, therefore, is one are in perfect harmony.' 

which ia every way is eminently fitted 

to be uaefol. It is at once in a high 

degree iotellectnally invigorating and Heathen Enqland, and what to do 

morally elevating. It should, speaally ™B rr. By William Booth. 

in these days of eameit sjid all-search- London : a. v. Pirtrtdg* ft co. istt. 

ins ioquiry, be iu tiie hands of all «... n 11.1 

•.»UiJ«l riekm. ^U, Ima, ud find J"".!""'; '°'f'^, ~ * ""'•■"Mr 

.tudoitoftfcologr. wh,ohlaj«otj.t.ufflo»itly.mpr«»rf 

°' IU, VIZ. tliftt there are tens of tboiiaands 

in England who at« eatianged from 

Notes on the Book of Genesis : Ei- religion, and live as grtwalj as the 

planatoiy, ExpceitoiT, and Practical, heatheoa in foreign lands. There is 

By Ber. James Inolis, Anthor of the siso set forth what Mr. Booth conceives 

•BibleltEtCjc]onedia,'the'Sahhath *« '«' ^^ remedy. It consista in a 

School ' etc. system of evangelistic effort which, it is 
ajlinned, has been successful in the case 

Edlnboigh and London ;O.U&lngUB. of moltitudes. Now, in Speaking on 

Tsu attractive little volume hears cvi- "" "''f? °'fi" ""'' j' "mns to lie 

dense of being the result of much enplcjed in this eonnectKin, due allow- 

csnifnl and snSessfnl study. WiUiin "f "°'? >» msdo alio for natuiJ 

Wef space Uieio is condeniod a great "'' !>"»»• ,*"™? °' '''" "?> 

ded ollmatter of an • eiphmatory, ope™l>ons,. and swift and wbolesJe 

.xp«ilory, and practical ' kSnd. Tii condonation of mean, not ei.ctlj 

esjtoatiois are Jways ludd, the prac- f"'^ ? "J'. V!" .■ " S-^ 

ticSriiltations just and perliient, "J'^'^ At the «mo time we tlink 

while in the eijositor, dement 'f Mr. Booth's method were le« es.cl- 

diilenlties are fuilj faid aiS solved >"' ,|»J ""f", mtelligenl, the icult. 

where wlution is poanbl., snd when '"'^ f« "•' 1|~ »'"'""»'7. " "» 

this Is not lb. eaae,^ne.tlr «iknow- f <>• ,•*?." specmien of bow things sre 

lodged. The volnm. is enriched by done by him we give the followmg from 

vslHsble quotations from th. writing PWlOO: Aaanmmpl.oflhor.pidity 

of author; of eminenc and anUioriij, ,""' "''•I' P"?" . °i.' ."i^ i, 

and altogether may b« profitably mild '»" T^' '° ''"""' "Si ""^ .f" 

either ^ the privil. cEristisn or the *•" '»' *«"• " T'' •,»"";« 

pshhc tiicber ^'^ described by the evangehat who 

In conn«alon with lb. Book of conducledit. Sijly-.ii men and women 

Geneais, one of the difiieultie. that baa K'" '. ^ '"K *"■ "f "J, °" fT 

been iSgdy eanvused U the ' sii days ' " %''.• "« "»"" '""^ i. "* '>■• 

olereatfcn. Mr. Inglia summarise, the hencdiction wu pronounced in siity- 

vsrious argumenta Sr eipluiatiom, by ■•™ "»»f". "i "" "'»' '«'»" 

which these difficnities have been at- P^'^'^K i-od. 

tempted to he met, and thus judidotuly 

ctnidndes; ' All these interpretations The Messenoer for CHn.DREN. Yearly 

are burdened with obiectionB, scriptnnl Volume, 1877. 

or scientific, of whicn it i. impoBsibl. ' . „ 

to giv. a satisfactory smamaiy ii this ■«"«"' »«"" » »»"«i.»"- 

plscft Th.y may be foimd m works To condnot a monthly periodical in such 

which treat on the anbjeot at lengtli. a manner aa really to interest children 

^kigy is an advancing acimice. Thwe ia no Msy malter, and is indMd a 



138 



HOTICBS OSt MEW PUBLICATIONS. 



fe&t of rare accompliBhment. We hare 
therefoie to congntuUte the conductorB 

of the MesMnger on th6 lacccflB which 
hBB&ttended their effoTta. Initsmonthl; 
form this little nmga.inc has its attrac- 
tioDS for the Toung, aoil now, in the 
■hape of a beautifoUy got up Tolnme, it 
vill he welcomed by ta^aj. It ii pro- 
foBely illostrated, and has a& excellent 
vanietj of norratife and didactic matter, 
aud intereatiDg accounta of Chiiatian 
wock both at home and abroad.' 



welcomed by a large circle of readers ; 
aud we have no doabt it will be tha 
means of doing much good both in tha 
way of Btimulating and guiding mnlti- 
tndes of joung men iu a coiuse which, 
whilst it is full of peiils, is jet, as in 
the case of Sir Titus Salt, shown to ba 
one which may be pursued with un- 
blemished integrity, as well as most 
desirable iwolta. 



Sir Titus Salt, Babonet: His Life 
and its LesBona. By Rev. R. Bal- , 
OABNiE, Minister of the South Cliff 
Church, Scarborough. With Por- 
trait and Photographic tlluBtration. 

Londun : Hodder & Stougbtoi. 1017. 

Thekg are several indiTiduals ambitious 
of writing a great poem, and sereral 
also who woiud gladly paint a grand, 
enduring picture, or execute some 
supreme work of art. But it m'UBt be 
allowed that such aspinitiona are con- 
fined to comparatiTely few, A much 
more common object of ambition is that 
of amassing a large fortune by means of 
sacceesful enterprise, and living and even 
dying with the reputation of possessing 
great wealth. Seeing that in this com- 
mercial age, and in this money-loving, 
money-mt^ing country, this is large^ 
BO, it is well that men striving ^ter 
wealth should strive after a noble 
fosbion, end after the manner of the 
best eiamples. TVe, therefore, very 
mnch rejoice in the publication of the 
life of Sir Titus Salt. He prospered in 
his way as few have done, and acquired 
riches to a degree that entirely distanced 
many strong runners in the race for 
riches. Bat it is moat satisfactory to 
know that he was ever actuated by the 
highest principles of honour, and that 
be expended with a wise and princely 
generosity the wealth he hod so indus- 
triously acquired. 

The boolc is specially addressed to 
young men. For the writing of it Mr. 
Balgarnie hss special qosMcations — an 
intimate knowledge of its subject, and 
- - ^■--- -- ■ .ebe- 

a precious and a pregnant 
one, and the lessons wliich he inoiiU»Ies 
are otthehi^MBt value. Wa ctaifidently 
aatidpate that the book will b» warmly 



The object of the editor of this serial is 
to furnish information of a kind that is 
not generally known respecting Scrip- 
ture teita, places and customs, etc. As 
a specimen of the object of the publica- 
titm and the kind of infonnation su^ 
plied, we give the following : — 

' A Tbadition AccouNTiHa for Moses' 
SLOwmas of Sfkech (Ex. iv. 10). — The 
way in which the- Jews account for the 
defective oratorical poweis of Hosea is 
ingenious. Th^ say Uiat when Moses 
was on infant m the court of Egypt, 
Pharaoh was one day carrying him in | 
his arms, when the child suddeolv laid 
hold of the king's beard, and plncked it 
veryroaghly. At this Pharaoh was very 
angry, and ordered tlie child to be 
killed. The queen, however, interfered, 
representing to the king that the child 
was BO young, he could not have known 
what he was doin^^ — that, indeed, he 
could not distinguish a burning cool 
from, a ruby. Pharaoh ordered the ex- 
periment to be tried, and when the ruby 
and the burning coal were plaoed before 
him, Moses took up the coal, and, child- 
like, placed it in his mouth, and burnt 
his tongue. This procured his pard(Mt, 
but it caused the impediment in his 
speech in after years.' 



' THE Tkbth Scottuh 

Sabbath School Cohventioit. Bdd 

in Glasgow on the 11th aud l^tb 

October 1877. 

OlMgow : UsuBd br Oa QlMgow Babtiath ai]lM«I 

The Sabbath Sckoid Conrentian, hdd in 
October last, was fait to ba one of the 
most satisfaatory and saoeaHfut of ito 
gathninga. An aoooont of ita proassd- 
ings has now been pobliahcd, and it wis 



'"H^m"' NOTICES OF SEW PUBLICATIONS. 139 

be found to be Yttj naeful, not only to of indifference to him. He feels how 

the loathful and inexperienced teachen, strongly man p&nta for btesaedneH, how 

but to those ako of nuttarer years. A. capable of it he Ib, and yet how seldom 

great many excellent sugg^tions are it is roalized ; but withal, he ie hopeful, 

thrown out, and plans and principles of and the ' Days of HeaTen upon Earth ' 

action given, by those whose position which we now enjoy an the earnest and 

entitles tliem to speak with fuithority, the foretaste of what is in store for tho 

and whose warm interest in Sabbath race in the better days to come, — the 

Bchools hsB been proved by yeaiB of golden age that lies, not behind, but 

Kdf-sacrificing laboaiB in their behalf. before us. Pursuing yonr inquiry, yon 

An intereating featora of the publi- find that the preacber is poseened of 

catioo is a series of diagrams of places intellect of a high order, and that allied 

for holding meetings for the purpOHe to this are powers of imagination which 

of Sabbatb -school inHtruction, oy Mr. bespeak die trae poet. And so, with 

Charles Inglis. lu this matter we are these various faculties combined, we 

only in the day of small things, and have, what Dr. Macleod undoubtedly 

Endly behind our American brethren; is, a preacber of very prooonoced indi- 

but the Bobjeot ia now being seriously vidu^ty, having for his hearers a won- 

laken up, and Mr. Inglia' efforts in this derful cbarm. The charm we believe 

as nell as ui kindred directions will to be that of genius, — a gift indefinable 

prove eiceedingly helpful. and indescHl^ble, but whose presence 

is uomistaieably and delightfully felt. 

Dr. Macleod's manner is worthy of 

Dats of Heaven upon Eabth, and BpeciaJ notice. It is chaiacterised ~bj 

OTHEB Sermons. By Alexander great versatility. His style ranges from 

Uacleod, D.D., Author of 'Christua the homely and familiar to the eloquent 

Consolator Talking to the Children.' and impassioned. He has rwd widely, 

, , J , V, . .. ,. ~, *^<J looked around on every side with a 

London. Daidy.iBi,i»i*r, SCO. 18T8. j^^j^g ^j observant eye; and the 

Wbeh Dr. Macleod's sermons were put stores of knowledge which he has thug 

into our hands we happened to be per- accumulated he uses with much felicity. 

iisingthose of a very popular preacner. The incidents he records, and the pictures 

As we read the discourses of said he gives of nature and human nature, 

preacher, we found ourselves wondering impart a delightful freahneas to his 

at the various kinds of popularity, aod work. In reading it you feel you are 

asking what is the secret of it in such a not moving amongst empty shadows, 

man as this. He might have lived in but amongst living realities. Men and 

any age, or boen placed in any circum- women whom you know speak to yoa 

Btuices. He speaks neither to tbe head from his p^e, and tell of joys and 

nor to tbe heart. Here we have only sorrows which you yourself have ex- 

vspid generalitjee expressed in turgid perienced. 

language, — mere ' souud aod fury,' sig- We had mwked several passages for 
lifytDg nothing. quotation, specially a juat and thought- 
la passing on to the pages of Dr. fnl stslenient on the great question of 
Uacleod, we felt as if we had quitted a the divine sovereignty and a highly 
nuTow enelomra, in which there was poetic description of the glorious »wak- 
profmnon of dry and withered grass, for ing of the earUi onder the magic touch 
the gresu flelda, inwhich everything was of spring, as iUustrative of Dr. Macleod's 
redolent of life uid clothed with b^nty. powers in ditfereut spheres; butthe^aoe 
In itading these aemums, yon feel meanwhile at oni conunand oomp^ a> 
HrtiRlj interested, and are insensibly reluctantly to forbear. 
drawn on from page to page, without Dr. Macjeod has already won for him* 
Hopping to inqiure tbe reason or caring. seH an honourable place among the best 
to oritidK. Bnt when yon ask wherein religions mithors of the day. This 
hes the great stMngth of the preacher, volune will enhance his reputatimi. 
yon And the answer at hand. The first ' It will rank with the prodactions of 
thing Hut strikes yoa i»his intensity of oor most diatioguished preachers, sad 
feelitig. Ha is in deepest sympathy give to him a yet more cherished plaoe 
vith every varying phase of human life, in many a Christian home and Gtuutiaii 
—nothing that oonocnis man is ao object heart. 



140 



HONTHLT BBTBOSPECT. 



Our HouEBiiTOMD, ftnd Kindred Poems. 
Compiled by Ellen E. Miles, 

Olaj^w : Itevid Biyce ft Son. 1878. 

Tills Terr tasteful little Tolnme cODBistii 
ol a collection of poems whose theme 
is ' Out Home Bey oud.' The poems 
dwell on tbe unsatisfactory state of our 
earthly abode, and of ouraelTea whilst 
liere below, and in contraBt sins of the 
perfect blessedness of beaven. They are 
all Bcriptural in seDtiment, and some of 
them display no littie poetic power. It 
is a booK ia which the weary eonl will 
find much to solace it, and at once dis- 
pose and enable it to sing with gladness 
M it trsTelB to the land of rest. 

The MoNOOBAFn Gospel: Being the 
Four Gospels arranged in One' Con- 
tinuous Narrative in the Records of 
Scnptnre, without Omission of Fact 
or Repetition of Statement. By G. 
IVashinoton Moon, F.R.S.E. 

London : Hatcturd. ISTB. 

Mr. Moon begins this version of 'the 
■weet story of old ' with Luke's account 
and concludes with John's, tbe inter- 
vening narrative bei: 
in form ; but whetbe: 
ceeded in securing the true chronological 
order, will of course be questioned. 
ConsiderinK that the whole nairatjve is 
• a combined and recouHtructed gospel of 
the four evangelists, the last sentence 
Btrikea one as ^ng not quite in Keeping 



with the facta of the case. It is — 'This 
is the disciple which testifietii of these 
things, and wrote these things ; and we 
know that his testimoay is trae.' Of 
course John is the writer here, and he 
refers only to bis own narrative. 

Mr. Moon, however, has shown great 
diligence in the work of compilation, and 
as the record is quite consecntive, and has 
all the interest attaching to tbe life of 
the Divine One, we luTe no doubt this 
beautiful Utile volume will be a favour- 
ite with many. 



I : S. W. Routledgs & C> 

TuESE publications in their monthly 
form find a large /:lasB of appreciative 
readers, and as here collected afford a 
kind of reading that u at once arousing 
and instructive. 



Light ik Darkness; or, The Miuer's 
Tale. A True History. Third Edition. 

Edlnbnrgli : Johostone, HDulai, & Co. 

This is an account of how some miners 
employed themeelvcs while subjected to 
terrible and enforced confinement by 
reason of an accident which happened in 
tbe pit in which they were worKmg, and 
shows how, even in such darkness, the 
light of the gospel may shine so as to 
cheer and sustain. 



CHURCH PLANTING IN GLASGOW. 

The ihird annual meeting of the Association formed for this impOTtant purpose, 
waa held on the ITth December last, and the published report of its proceedings 
now lies before ua. We regret to observe that the Association is still hampered in 
its acljon by reason of the sum originally aimed at, and which is necessary for its 
tiiorougbly satisfactory working, not having yet been realized. That sum is £20,000. 
Of this a little over £11,000 has been raised. This deficiency is to be regretted. 
It is true that the past year has been a trying one, and that trade has been alike 
unsettled and depressed; still it is wonderful what can be done by vigorooa and 
self-sacrificing effort. Our friends in the Free Church are engaged at present in 
making a laudable attempt to raise £100,000 for Church Extension purposes. We 
observe Dr. Adams, at the last ordinary meeting of tbe Glasgow rresbTtery, 
Tc^rtB that towards this £56,000 have already been raised. This speaks well 
tiAa for the spirit and resources of that Church, and must be regarded by ns 'with 
pectiliar satisfaction, as evincing the practical power of Voluntaryism. This iLoble 
example may therefore exert onus a stimulating influence ; and it is well that the 



■^teJLii^ MONTHLY BETEOBPEOT. 141 

ttro ChnrcheB, h&ving laid aside the proTocatjon that was wont to be felt oonceraing 
volontarjism, shonld noite under tia lieoltiifal and eKpanrire influence ' to provoke 
oDe another to Ioto and ^ood worka.' 

Speaking on the peculiar ol&imB of Olae^w on iia as a denomination, and ^TJng 
reaaoM why we aboald apeei&llf exert ourselves in behalf of this Aasociation, Hr, 
Dobbie of Lansdowne Church thus spoke, and his word ia rerilf a word in 

'Ko Christian can think earneatlj upon tliis matter of Churcli Extension out) 
evangelistic effort witlioul recognising that there are circumstances which are 
fitted to press home the obligation to engage in it aa a veiy solemn one. Allow 
me in a word to refer to tmo of these. The Arst is the position of Glasgow as » 
citf , alresdj' bo popnloug, and which is growing so rapidlj. ft is true we hare 
almoet innmneraole churches, and that a great deal of evangelistic effort ia being 
pot forth ; bat no one who knows the city can doubt that, even with the present 
population, these are inadequate. New churches require to be bnilt in new 
localities, while in the old parta of the city, which are deTisely crowded by the 
poor, evsngeliatic agency on a much more extensive scale than we have at present 
is nrgently needed. And then, when we remember that a population equal to that 
of a considerable town is annually added to the city, it will be apparent iJiat there 
19 constant demand for energy and liberality on the part of the chnrches to meet 
the spiritual wants which are growing all around them. 

' Tne other conmderation to which fhave referred is not a local one — not peculiar 
to Glasgow — and ia of enormous practical importance in reference ia centres of 
large and increasing population. It is, that whatever money is required in the 
effort to extend the Church of Christ in tbia land, must be supplied volvnlanly by 
those to whom that cause is dear. All are agreed that this is a fact in our time 
ind country. However it may have come about, whether one regards it with com- 
placency or regret, the time is past when national funds can be looked to as a 
aomcefnmi which the Church can draw for ita purposee. In the mattor of rxleri' 
lion, our own and other voluntary Churches have only anticipated what all Churcher 
are required, willingly or unwillingly, to practise now and henceforth. This, 
tben, being the state of the caae — the work which this Board has on baud beiog so 
much required, and the material means of prosecuting it beiuK to be looked for 
odIv from the willinghood of Christian people — surely the memners of our Churcii 
Till not be appealed to in vain ; surely they will endeavour to give to others the 
gospel which they feel to be so precious to themselves, and -n'hich, by its widest 
diffnsioD, will not make t)ieir share the less, but more ; surely, since God has put 
honour upon our Voluntaryism in the past, and enabled us by it to do so much in 
the way Of maintaining and extending evangelical religion at home and abroad, 
they will, out of gratitude and loyalty, resolve that now, when in the progresa of 
tluBgs that principle falia to be so widely applied, and to issues so momentous, it 
ehtdl in their hands saffer no injuslice.' 



THE CHURCH SESSIOK. 

■ The Session ' is one of the most distinctive institutions of Presbyterian ism. It 
is one which we believe to be not only eminently scriptural in its character, but 
one which is admirably fitted to be useful, and which in a high degree has been 
useful in the history m the Church. Naturally the Seawon represents the best men 
ia the congregation, and may be supposed to comprehend them ; for they have 
been elected by the free suffrages of their fellow-members to their office, on the 
ground of proved excellence of character. A good Session is one of tbe greatest 
bleadngs which a congregation and a uiinieter can possess. Suppose the minister 
liimself to be full of zeat, if all his eiforte after evangelization at home, and the 
diffusion of tbe gospel abroad, are coldly regarded by his Session, what a depressing 
effect this has upon liim, and what a counteractive influence they exert ! But if, 
lite Bamabaa, they are ' good men, full of faith and of the Holy Ghost,' and ready 
for every good work, how it cheers their pastor's heart, and holds up his hands ! 
TbcTC are many ways in which members of Session may be useful in a congreja- 



142 MONXHI-T BETROSPBCT. ' mS, jTwa"^ 

tion, which are not opeo to the nuDUter. Non-offidftlly aa well u officially, th^ 
io&y exert a uightj power for good ia Bpheree into which the minister may never 
be called to enter. 

The qnesUon then ocean, and deaerree to be carefully conaidered. What are the 
powen that are vested in the Sesaion, and with what part of congregational w<aik 
and arrangemeut may they intermeddle or superintend ? 

We observe the Rev. Dr. Fatten has a word on this subject in the laat noinber 
«f Ths Preibylerian Messenger. Some indeed may tdiink that he ascribes to 
Sesmons too ext«nure powers, but a careful examiuation will lead such to see that 
the lines indicated by him are those that must be observed if confusion and 
disorder are to be avoided. He says ; — 

' Everything in the management of a Presbyterian church, so far as worship is oon- 
cemed, is in tbe hands of the Seaaion. Unnecesasry questions are sometimes aaked 
as to the extent of the Seesion's Jurisdictiou. Some seem to favour the idea <rf 
putting some interegts out of the Session's reach, and of appointing extra com- 
mittees to share the Session's responsibilities. Some are disposed to regard the 
Sabbath school aa a separate institution. Some think the cboii: gallery is meant 
to hold another select committee, with powers which place them teyond aeauonal 
jurisdiction. Now the truth is, that the men whom the people elect to amHolt for 
the interest of the church, and who ara solemnly set apart for the office of mliiig 
elder, are the men who should manage the church's affaurs. Everything pertaining 
to spiritual affairs that can in any way be mfcde a matter of legialation belongs, 
according to our ^tem, to the Session. Whether membecs shall be leooived into 
or dismissed from the church ; whether a certain mode of instruction shall be 
adopted in the Sabbath school ; whether tbe pastor or a subatitate shall superin- 
tena the school, and if a substitute, whether he shall be appointed by the ^eaion 
or elected by the school ; what coUecticms for benevolent purposes shall be taken 
up ; whether the church building shall be osed for other than religions pnrpoaea, — ■ 
all these are gnastionB of which the Session haa the right ta take oognizauoe. And 
inasmuch as the people in all other matters speak through their repreaentatires, it 
is of great importance that the right men ahould fill the office of ruling elder, and 
that, when elected and ordiuned, they should have th« respect and confidence of 



POPERT. 
At this time this subject is engaging special attention, for two reasons. One is 
the death of the Pope at tbe ripe age of eighty-six. His name is indistolobly 
• connected with tbe now ootorious Syllabus, and the utterly unacriptural and in- 
credible dogma of Infallibility. And ao, though personally a man of peace, anA, 
accordiog to Cardinal Manning (aa we have aaen it atated), even somewhat wesk, 
it happened to him to be the centre, if not the source, of very important under- 

The other reason to which we refer is the propoaed establishment of the Papal 
Hierarchy iu this country. A portion, of the community have been roused to 
wrath in connection with this event, and call for very stern measures to prevent it. 
The great majority of the country do not quite sympathize with them, and posseM 
their souls in peace. This, in the case of many, arises from no indiSerenoe to tbe 
evils of Popery, or any conviction that it has changed its nature ; they believe that 
were circumstances to favour, the evil deeds of bygone days would be repeated. 
But they are convinced tbat the times are changed, and so changed that whatever 
Popery may do aa a spiritual, the day of its temporal power is over and gone, at 
least in these lands. 

And not in these lands only, hut in others where it is supposed to reign supreme, 
influencea are at work, of a silent but sore and powerful kind, which are sapping 
ita strength. One of these is the spread of Protestant truth in many parts of^the 
Continent, We observe, for example, a very interesting account of a Protestant 
movement in Haute-Mame, in France, given in a recent number of L'EiKmgeiiste, 
the organ of the French Wesleyans. And while this account is interesting in itself, 
it is still mwe so when it is remembei^d that it indicates a spirit which ia widely 



'■'fcTTiiS"'' MOHTHLT BETSOBPBOT. 143 

prevideBt, and Epeska of a state of tbiogR which is likely aooo to obtain on a Inrgen 
■c»le. 

' Some mODt^ ago, L'Svangelittt briefly annannoed that a commiuie of Hbt:!^- 
Mbius had jnit pasBed over almoBti entirely to Proteetantism. Thonsh it tooic 
place qoiBtly, the fact deeerved to ba more fully related. The fear of ^cing the 
munic^al eonncil in diSonlCies, leeiiig it is at the head of the moTemeut, and of 
baying onr eairicee, which are not yet autiiorized, interdidwl, are the sole cstiaet 
of D^ deky in transmitting a fuller acoonnt to yonr readers. 

' Crenay ia a little oommnne of from three to fonr hundred inhabitants. It is 
edtaatcd between Chaamont and Langraa, and flfty-tbree kilometres from Join- 
TiQe. For a voiy long time past, Mons. the Gnr^ had only a few persona at hia 
services. There was not one single Protestant in the village ; it wag known only 
&ii a Protestant service was observed at Chanraont every second Sabbath of the 
month. 

' On the 13th of May, two leading men of Crenay went to Cbaumont, to ask of 
the pastor, in tho name of the great majority of the villagers, the services of his 
nuciatTy. Some days afterwards, I made my first visit to our uew cO'religioniats. 
It was a week-day. To avMd all subjeot of complaint, and in order to keep to the 
Btrict letter of the law, it was agreed that whilst waiting for the authoiizatioii 
vhich was necessary for our assembling, our services should be limited to twenty 
petsonH. Let our readers remember that thia was on the second day after tbe 
16di of May. At the hour appointed, the large room where we were to assemble 
Iras literally invaded by a large number of auditors. I was then obliged to 
pcoceed to a painful operation, i.e. to count twenty peTBonB> and to promise to 
tiiose who withdrew that their turn would come soon. After prayer, Igave, first 
ol all, pretty full explaaatjons of the principles of Frotestantisni, and the manner 
in which onr religious services were conducted. I read afterwards the Confenion 
of Faith of tJie Methodist Church, then preached, and concluded by prayer. 
Three aervicefi of tliis Itind were. held successively, lasting from two to two and 
a ludf honrs, without any interruptiou than was caused by the coming and going 
of the listeners. Not being able for more, I took leave of our friends at the iii£ 
of displeasing those who were waiting the fourth and £fth turn. I may remark, 
that Qie hearers of the first divisions who withdrew, passed into a neighbonring 
loom, where they could hear everything through a half-open door. My second 
Tifflt was toliave taken place a fortnight after, but two members of counml having - 
come expressly to JoiaviUe to beg of me to come the following Sabbath to Crenay, 
I did mA hesitate, in order to comply, with their request, to comitermand the 
service at which I was to preside at Joinville. It was a holiday. At half-past 
ten, 211 persons, nearly the half of whom were men er young people, had 
usembled to hear the word of God. This service will never be esacetj from my 
remembrance. Scarcely had the words, " Let us pray," been pronounced, than 
the whole aasembly as one man fell on their knees. I never remember to have 
seen more devout attention. We were not this time separated into groups of 
twenly persons. It would have been very difficult, not to say very cruel, to <ivide 
thus these 200 auditiffs,! so anxious to worship together. Thanks to circum- 
Btsnces, into the details of which I shall not enter here, we were able, not without 
some threats, but without any serious trammels, to assemble ever since twice a. 
month. As there are entire families who come to these services, the greater 
Dumber of the houses ia the village ore closed during worship. All these 
fimiUes have entirely renounced Catholiciam. I may add, that not only have we 
not had to lament one single defection during ^gbt months, but that ihe move- 
ment b^pna to extend to the neighbouring villages. 

'I cannot finish this letter, already rather long, without saying. some words 
about an exceptionally good day that I spent at Crenay a short time ago. As 
this movement was being pretty severely judged in the neighbourhood, our friends 
wished to show that they nad not renounced truth for error, but on the contrary 
they had renounced error to embrace truth, A favourable opportunity pre- 
sented itself, and they aeized it with eagemesa. There wns to be a holiday inthe 
Tillage, and on this occasion each family was to have visitors from the surrounding 
villages. Onr friends said to each other, "Let us have a service, even two if 



144 MOKTHLT RETROSPECT. Jri'iTlK?""' 

poeuble, on our holiilAj, uid let ua bring oar gaeiia witb as to it." It w« tlidi 
manner of Bajing, m Philip to NatLanEiel, " Come and see." The hoKda^ took 
place, bat it vaa of a thoroughly rdigiooa nature, for tlie dajs being ehort, tiic 
morning and afternoon services filled np nearly the whole da;. After the after- 
noon service, at vrliich there were apwarda of 260 persons, several Btrangers cam« 
and ihook me warmly bj the hand, and said, " We eiiall see each other again." 

' At the other extreme division of t^e Department, in the section of St Dizier, 
my excellent colleague, M. Maraeille, baa had the-joy of Beeing nnmeroDB listeners 
gathering around Mm in difFerent localities to hear the wora of God. Oh may 
Qie Lord, by His powerful grace, make of these new-comers true dtsciplea of 
Jesus Christ, and that, like their Divine Master, ih&y may be eoabled to say, " The 
zeal of thine house bath eaten me up." ' 

OBITUARY. 
There have passed away lately, at not a very advanced period of life, two men 
whose names were very familiar within, and also to some extent b^ond, the 
bordffis of tiie Free Church — Dr. John Nelson and Dr. Andrew Cameron. They 
were, in many respects, very snlike ; bat both were men of mark. Dr. Nelson 
was remariuble, perhape, for what he was, ratber than for what he did. He was 
a man of high iotellectaal power and great attainmeats. These he never pat to 
use, as might have been wished, in the way of anthorahip. Bat they gave weight 
and dignity to his character, and made his inQuence powerfol for good in the 
boay, l£rivmg town in which, for about tweaty-aix years, he faithfully discharged 
the duties both of the preacher and the pastor. He was one of those men whom 
a chorch delights to know it pogseaaefl, and to whom it turns its eye with unobtru- 
sive but very real admiration. 

Dr. Cameron's name is intimately associated with periodical literature. He vaa 
the editor of the Christian Treasury, and afterwaras of the Family Treaturi/, as 
well as for a time of Tie British and Foreign Evangelical Seview. Mr. Spurgeou - 
calls him ' The prince of editois.' This refers more especially to his coanection 
with the first- mentioned joomals — ina/orle lyingja catering for the general pnblic, 
rather than for scholars by profession. The success, however, which he achiered 
in his own peculiar walk, not only made his own periodicals very popular, but 
' gave a stimulns to that claaa of uteratnre. Wbat be sought to provide for his 
.readen was papers of a kind that would be felt to be really iaterestiog withoat 
fewng sensational, and every one who looks into the past volumes of the Trtaaunet 
alMve named will see how well he ancceedod. He seems to have been bom as 
well as made an editor ; for in Australia he engaged in the same work in which 
he was so largely oconnied at home — The Southern Cross being, we believe, 
originated as well as cosdoctcd by him. 

In reference to the death of Dr. Doff, the veteran missionaiTi it may very tnily 
be said, ' A prince and a great man in Israel hath fallen.' Wbea the news of bis 
death reached the city in which for some years past he lias lived, and as hit 
strength permitted him laboured, all the sections of the Chorch at once united ia 
expresaiog their sense of a common loss, and in their accord to pay a tribute of 
respect to his memory by following his remains to the grave. 

Dr. Duff, at a tune when missiona did not occupy the place of boaour in onr 
land which th^ now do, devoted himself with entire coosecration to the advance- 
ment of the Redeemer's kingdom abroad, and gave to it powers which would have 
placed him in Uie foremost rank in the Church at home. It would be difficult to 
speak too highly of the impulse which he gSve, both by his example and appeals. 
to the canse of missions ; and the story of his life, which, doubtless, will yet be 
fittingly told, will form one of the most interesting, instructive, and striking 
chapters in their history. 

Printed by Udbbat anD Gibb, II Qneen Street, and Fnblished by WitLMV 
Oliphart Ant> Co., 24 St. Giles Street, Edinburgh, on the Ist of Mtrcb 
1878. 



UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MAGAZINE. 



APRIL 1, 187 8. - 



^tisxnul %xi'tcU». 



PROFESSOR FLINT AND THE LOGIC OF THEISM. 

BY THX BSr. JAHES WARDBOP. 

(Concluded from page 109.) 
So far we have found that, in respect of the a posteriori Brgomeats, neither 
ia the inferential process valid, nor, though the inference were valid, is the 
inferred being God. We tnm now to Dr. Flint's dealing with the other 
class of ai^nmentB. 

Tbe a priori arganientB for the existence of God have given occnpation to 
the greatest minda of all ages. To these minds that kind of evidence haa 
be«], aa a tbeme of thoaght, irresistible. The loftiness of the flue's spirit 
found a point of attraction in the native sublimity of the subject. Bnt 
though philoBophj' might give much of the impetns that nrged oontemplative 
men to Boch forms of iuqniry, — thongh it seemed to be an inevitable ten- 
dency for meditation in tbe higher regions of philosophy to culminate at this 
infinite altitude, — there were not wanting practical elements to aid in giving 
wing to pure speculation. The limitations and restrictions that attach to the 
state of man in this world, — the derangemmt, not to say rnin and helpless- 
ness, of his moral nature, — his physical evils, — and withal not the necessities 
only, but the potentialities of his being, — all these have given motive power 
to these profonnd eearchings after God. The best and most thonghtfal of 
men, reaUzing aa they did most the world's, distress, and best able as they 
were to rise to the idea of a refuge, seemed instinctively to turn for that 
refnge to the thought of God. This thought they felt that they carried in 
their own minds, and it seemed implanted there, not only to beckon upward 
the seeker of truth, bnt to be a hiding-place against life's despair. 

So far as there was error in this line of investigation, — and that error has 
been neither of the kind nor of the degree which has been frequently repre- 
sented, — it lay not in directing inquiry to such a qaarter for the fact of the 
existence of God, bnt in the form which the inquiry took. The Geld for 
speculation was open and legitimate. It was the form of speculation that 
too often was mistaken and faulty. Yet who is it, looking from tbe platform 
of an adequately-reasoned intuitional philosophy, such as modern advantages 
easily enable bim to occnpy, — who is it who does not feel, in trying to think 
himself into sympathy with the lofty speculations on this subject of anch men 

KO. IT. VOL. XXIL NEW 9EBIZ8. — AFRII, 137B. K 



. 146 PEOFE880B FLINT AND THB LOGIO OF THEIBM. ^""i^rrTim;'^ 

as Plato, AngasUne, Anselm, Descartes, Cadwortb, John Howe, and Samnel 
Ctarbe, that if the philosoph; of this generation had been at hand in the days 
of those giants, the world would have heard perhaps of a priori thoaghts of 
Ood, but never ot a priori argomenta for God's existence T 

It may be that it is utterly unreasonable to expect, under the conditions 
of the ' Baird Lecture,' or indeed of any other ' Lecture,' an adequate treat- 
meiit of the a priori arguments. What has tasked the subtlety of the 
subtlest, and well tried the patience of the patienteat of thinkers, cannot 
admit of 4he resalts being competently exhibited either on short notice or in 
short space. The difficulties of the subject are manifold, intricate, and 
extreme. No little time is needed to mature thought on the subject, and to 
lead to intelligent and assured conriction. It is only the intimate knowledge 
which comes of long and leisurely rumination that can raise the reviewer or 
critic here above mere generalities of statement that are both haphazard and 
vague, pithless and profitless. That kind of electric touch of thought and 
statement that can send a penetrating light through the most inward mazes 
of a subtle body of thot^ht, and make its dsxk places luminous, and facili- 
tate an nnderstanding of the whole by a true guidance at the critical turns, 
can be given only by the hand of one who has himself been enabled to thread 
every recess, and who knows by experience at what points the guiding light 
is needed, and what kind of light it must be to make the way sure and easy. 

However competent the author of this ' Lecture ' may be to deal with tbe 
subject of tbe a priori arguments onder such conditions as would give fair 
play to gennine ability, it is quite clear that in the present attempt he has 
not been working nnder these conditions. The opportunities that faroor 
genius have been awanting. Hence the critical judgments expressed in 
reference to the logical value of the a priori arguments are very hesitating, 
ill conceived, and unsteady.* Dr. Flint's very conception of what an a 
priori argument is, is far from being unchallengeable. ' A priori proof,' he 
says, ' is proof which proceeds from primary and necessary principlea of 
thoQght.' t Is it ? He further says : ' A priori proof ia based on the prin- 
ciples that underlie and govern all intellectual activity.' Again, is it so T 
If proceeding from, or beii^ based on, such principles means employing 
them as media of proof, as supplying middle terms, the definition is certainly 
not accorate. Try it 1 Try it by Anselm's argument ; try it by Descartes'. 
The former is : We have the idea of a Being than which none can be 
greater ; snch a Being cannot exist solely in the nund,— He mnst exist also 
iu outward reality j otherwise we should have the idea of a being greater 
than the supposed greatest, viz. tbe Being conceived as existing both in the 
inward and outward world. The latter is : God is the absolutely perfect 
Being; but existence is a perfection; hence existence is inseparable from 
God's eesoice, and hence God exists. It is plain that neither of these 
arguments is conducted in a manner corresponding to Dr. Flint's definition. 
We mnst not be led astray-as to what an a priori reasoning is from a con- 
sideration of what a priori thought is. A priori reasoning does not fonnd 
on the fundamental laws of thought any otherwise than a posteriori reaeaaiog 
does, or, indeed, than any other process of thought whatever. 

It IS impossible to form or to impart an adequately discriminative and 
appreciative view of the real tendencies and the true place in the history of 
liteiBm of the a-priorieu, without attending well to a distinction that is all 
too little above-hoard with Dr, Fhnt, — the distinction between dealing ivith 
the conceptions of the mind in the way of determining their contents by 
■ Fp. 267, Ses, S80, 281, 286, 286. t P. 69. 



''■'!:;«rw»*'^ phofbssoe sxint and the logic op theism. 147 

analjsis, and dealing with them in the war of .detenniniii^ their consequences 
b; inference. From Plato to Clarke there nave been two tendencies of thonght 
amoi^at the a~prioristt. The one tendency waa to find the existence of God 
aa a fact given intuitively to the mind ; the other was, to find in the mind od\j 
BQch ideas as seire to show syllogiatically that God mnat esist. These two 
tendencies are not always strictly diBtinctive respectirely of different thinkers 
or of different epochs of thought The same thinker often, the same epoch 
perhaps always, has felt both influences together, and has conseqaently 
oscillated between intuition and inference as the method of theistic evidence. 
It is becanse these great students of the snblimer conceptions of the hnman 
mind did not steadily keep in view the distinction between an intuitional and 
inferential Theism, that it is so incnmbent on their critics and historians to 
do 80, if tbey are to present aright the trne character and progress of the 
course of thonght with which they are dealing. Dr. FUnt, in passing from 
those theists whom he represents as having followed the ' Platonic argument 
from necessary ideas,' and the list of whom he concludes not merely with 
Leibnitz, Bossnet, F^nelon, and Cousin, but with Ulrici, Hettingen and 
Lnthardt, Saisset uid Simon, Thompson and Tulloch, — in passing from 
these to the arguments of the stricter ontologists, Anselm and the rest, 
Br. FUnt says he is passing to ' arguments of a much more format natnre.' 
In this expression the reader may feel that there is. touched on something 
which deserves more fnll and explicit mention, bat which only an intnition- 
aUst, perhaps, might be expected to signalize. There is a line of thought on 
theistic evideDce, well marked by an intoildonal tmdency, running from 
Plato, throngh Augustine, Anselm in hli earUer views, Descartes in one* of 
his arguments (not the one given above). Lord Herbert with his ^nnirersal 
notions' as ' revelations of God,' Cousin, Porter, Calderwood,! which even 
from the first sdzed with a more or less conscious grasp the true principles 
of theistic evidence, which has undergone well enough defined stages of 
development, and on the maintenance and perfection of which depends, it is 
not too much to say, the ultimate accomplishment of this task of ages. 
Ilie whole is thinking of a Platonic type. Bnt, at the commencement with 
Plato himself, and onward to Herbert, if it is to be called, as Dr. Flint 
implies, informal bi^umentation, it most be distinguished farther as Theism 
of an informally intuitional character. Dr. FUnt says Plato was ' analytic 
and inductive.' The first epithet is to be accepted. That mastermind, who 
initiated in a pre-Christian age a type of theological thii&ing that Christian 
ages shall never abandon,- but only, with the help of supernatural light, shall 
pnrify and perfect, dealt with intuitions, not syllogistic inferences. His 
dialectic was a metaphysic. % 

In the speculations on the natural revelation of the being and attr^iutea 
of God, with which we meet in this line of Platonic thinking, there are some 
of the grandest triumphs that have crowned the efforts of the human roind. 
And meanwhile the coorse of these speculations ends in not unworthy hands, 
as names already mentioned show. It lies now, too, under the clearer and 
more discriminative light of modem philosophy. An intuitional Theism is no 
longer informal in its efforts, or unconscious of itself, as it has been. And 
having come to selt-couscioosnees and self-control and self- direction, it will 
the sooner claim its prerogative and perfect its office in the scientific estab- 
lishment of the fact of the divine existence. 

' * Jn the third MedUation. 

t On CUrke In this oonneotloii, see Oolslon, Baiii of if oral A»'M£«, Edin. 1854, pp. 106, 
comp. p. 128. 

t Botlw, £«rt«rM on tht But. of AncxeiU Pkihtophg, 2d ad. 1874, pp. 42, SSB, 312, 844 Mg. 



148 PBOPESSOE FLINT AND THE LOQIO OF THEISM. '"1,*;^''™'^?'^ 

The odI; other matter io the treatment of the a priori ai^nments needf ol 
to be noticed, is what ia said in reference to the real Talne ol these argumentB. 
Dr. Flint eaya : * ' The a priori argnments have a value independent of their 
tmth and of their power to prodace couTiction. Tme or false, persoasiTe 
OF merely perple:fiiig, thej are admirable means of diaciplining the mind dis- 
tinctly to apprehend certfun ideas which experience cannot yield, yet which 
muHt bo comprehended in any worthy view taken of God.' It is well to 
signalize this diecipline. It ia ralaable. Bnt it is to be observed that it is 
dne entirely to the kind of material with which the argnments deal, not to 
the logical form in which they deal with it. Nay, the discipline that resnits 
would be purer of all damaging accompaniments and more effectual, if that 
material were dealt with in simply analytic processes that had no thonght 
of reaching the fact of Q^6'b existence by inferential' reasoning at all 

But the special value of the a priori ai^nments, according to Dr. Flint, 
IB of another kind than that jnst mentioned. He lays the emphasis of strong 
and reiterated statement on the following view. Whilst he admits that the 
principles on which these argnmmts rest do not directly involve the existence 
of Qod,— that they may be faulty as logical evolutions of the trnth of the 
divine existfiuce from ultimate and necessary conceptiona, — yet he holds 
that they so imply God's existence, ^that whoever denies it is rationally 
bound to set aside the fundamental conditions of thought, and to deem con- 
scioasnesB essentially delusive ; ' that ' they concur in manifesting that if God 
be not, the human mind is of its very natnre self-contradictory ; that Ood 
can only be disbelieved in at.the coat of reducing the world of thought to a 
chaoB.' He admits ^ that the argumrats iu question do not amount to a 
direct positive proof ; ' bnt he says ' they constitute a rtductio ad abiurdwn, 
which is JQSt as good.' f 

Now there ia aomething hei-e not made quite plun. Let it be admitted 
that the a priori argumenta ' do not amount to a direct positive proof.' Yet 
they were constracted as direct proofs ; and if as direct proob, in what way 
is it that they come to constitute a rtductio ad absardian f The fact of 
the divine existence, when made to rest, where alone it can rest safely 
and firmly, on mental assertion and assumption, is, just as all first principles 
are, susceptible of what logicians call apagogic or indirect proof. Every 
form of the denial of God's existence may be taken and abown to be absnrd, 
— shown to be, as Dr. Flint says, tantamount to a denial of the trustworthi- 
nesB of the ultimate mental processes, and therefore of ultimate truth.^ Bnt 
the indirect proof of a thing by the direct proof of the absurdity of the 
opposite, amounta to an eetablisbment of the real truth and existence of that 
thing onlf when it ia either already given as real in some direct process, or 
at least by hypothesis assumed to be so given. The a priori arguments 
accordingly could only have the value which Dr. Flint ascribes to them, if 
theistic evidence had that value which he denies to it, the value of ultimate 
truth and fact. 

How far is Dr. Flint himself from this position, in, for instance, tvro remark- 
able passages cited below T 3 

In short, the old a-priorists were retained within a round of syllogistic 
reasonings on Theism, for want of an adequate intuitional philosophy to lead 
them out. Dr. Flint persists in remaioing somewhere and somehow iu that 
round, in spite Of the ready escape which such a philc^ophy has now laid to 
his hand. 

P- 288. t PP- 267, S68, B86-8& 



ITj^iMi ' PBOPE88BOR FLINT AMD THE LOGIC OF THEISM. 149 

It onJ; remains now to Bay a very little in extenBioQ and sapport of the 
general criticisin already given of Dr. flint's own syetem of theiatic evidence. 

While Dr. Flint frankly concedes that the a poiuriori ai^nments, even in 
combination, do not 'yield as the fall idea of 6od,' he does not appreciate 
the magnitade of that failure, or what it entails. The failare is nothiag less 
than the final defeat of the attempt to demonstrate a posteriori Qod's exist- 
ence. Since these argnmenta, manipnlate them as you vrill, cannot be made 
to yield a being who has the distinctive attributes of God, that is as mach 
as to say that any being whom they may yield is not God at all. Dr. Flint 
Bays ' the ai^nments which we have been considering are not merely proof 
that God is, bnt indications of what He is.' ■ It is a true principle that the 
that Qod is and the what God is ^re revealed t(^etber, bnt it is a principle 
that bears disastronsly on Dr. Flint's main procedure. It is bef^nse his 
system of theistic evidence violates this principle that it is condemned. And 
it violates it twice; for it Grst, by a posteriori argoment, finds the being 
without the distinctive attributes, and then, in intnitions of infinity, etc., 
finds the distinctive attributes withont the being. 

Thns the a posteriori argaments are not proofs that God is, becanse they 
arenot indications of what distinctively God is. We are in search of a 
being who is infinite and eternal, and of snch a being these armaments know 
nothing. That is the natnre and extent of the failore of the a posteriori 
arguments. 

Now, what does this result entail? What should it have entailed in Dr. 
Flint's handsT Plainly, when the attempt to demonstrate God's existence, 
from what are called His works and ways in creation, had broken down, ' 
only one thing conid be done either hopefully or legitimately. Inquiry 
most change front. Having failed in the object of its search in the line on 
which it was moving, it most begin anew. That object it mnst now seek in 
a new quarter by a different method. Or at least, if Dr. Flint, with his 
strongly inferential proclivities, might not be expected to change his method, 
he might at least have been expected to seek, with the out-and-out a-priorists, 
both the being of God and His attribntes, by ai^oiag from the ideas of the 
human mind. One or other of these courses was the only conrse philo- 
sophically open. But neither of them has Dr. Flint chosen to follow. He 
takes a new conrse, but in snch a direction that he moves without the 
warrant of philosophy, and from under the defence of logic altogether. He 
does not regard his previous result as invalid. He confesses only its insuffi- 
ciency; and all he has to do, bethinks, is4o make ap its defects from another 
qoarter. He' maintains that he has got the fact of the divine existence by 
nia a posteriori reasoning ; all he wants is the distinctive attributes of that 
existence, and these attributes it is the object of his further efforts to supply. 
That is to say, having fonnd the being one where without His distinctive 
qaalities, he is now to find the distinctive qualities another where without the 
being. Such a result on theone hand, such a qu^t on the other, was nev«a' 
heard of within the borders of philosophy before. 

Dr, Flint has this amount of common ground with the (tpriorists, that he 
has recourse, like them, to those ideas ot infinity, eternity, perfection, etc, 
that are found to form part of the contents of the human miud. But he 
differs from them wholly in the manner in which he makes those ideas sub- 
servient to the demonstration of the being Euid attributes of God, Tbey 
r^arded these ideas as bringing along with them (inferentially at least) the 
real emteuce of which they were the attributes: he regards them as not . 

• P. 264. 



150 PROFESSOtt FLINT AND THE LOGIC OP THEISM, ^'"i^'i^tn^ 

bringiDg with them theu' sabject at all, bat only as ' fasteniog on ' Him when 
broaght to them from elsewhere. They regarded these ^stract ideas as 
occupied in qnaUfyisg the real exiatence to which the; belong, and sepu-ated 
ther^rom only by mental analysis : be regards them as not found bo occupied, 
bat as pore abstractioos waiting for employment, — pore predicables, whence 
originating he says it does not matter, awaiting the opportunity of predi- 
cating the attributes of their subject when somehow He shall be discovered. 
With the a-prioritta there is no violation of the principle that the being 
and the attribates of 6od most be found together, — that entity and quid- 
dity must not be divorced ; with Dr. Flint, the violation is notorioas and 
the divorce complete. With the a-prioriits, it ia the inherence of the 
ideas concerned as attributes directly in the subject which they qualify 
that is considered to give cogency to the argoment : Dr. Flint's argn- 
ment requires that they be found nninherent in any l>dng tilt the inTeren- 
tial being of the a posteriori argoments is presented to them to ' fasten on.' 
The a-priorist» get from the ideal to the real by a method which Dr. Flint 
.says ' may be impossible, certainly is dif&calt ' : but Dr. Flint himself, reversing 
the process, gets from the real to tbe ideal by a method which all the world 
will say is certunly impossible. Once more, as to the qaestion of the origin 
of the ideas of inGuity, etc., the a-prioritts dealt too little with that question. 
If they had dealt nitli it more deliberately and strennonsly and in a psycho- 
logical manner, the tendency in their speculations to an intnitional form of 
evidence might have been greatly strengthened. There was, aa in Descartes, 
an incliiiation merely to regard the qaestion in a metaphysical manner, and 
ask whence could snch ideas come bnt from a being who was iofimte 1 And 
eo far as this was argumentatively urged for the fact of the existence of 
such a being, the argument was as really a posleriori as any drawn from tbe 
causation of the world, or of any abject in it. What should be done in this 
matter is to inquire closely into the psychological origin of these ideas. 
The way in which Dr. Flint deliberately and persistently treats this question 
is one of the most singular elanents of his whole procedure. He not only 
declines to enter on the inquiry as to the origin of these ideas, bnt he asserts 
and reiterates the assertion that the question of their origin is of no w«ght 
in the case.* Is it sof On the contrary, that qaestion settled setties the 
case. What is the psychological origm of the ideas of infinity, eternity, etc T 
They are abstractions. How do abstractions come into the mindT By one 
mode of origin alone, — by mental analysis of concrete being. They do not 
make their apparition in tbe mmd, no one knows hoWj and then are stored 
up tbere like ghosts in limbo waiting for a body. The mind is a laboratory 
for tbe formation of abstractions and the retention of them too, but its 
process of formation is simply finding them as 'given qnaUties of given 
existence, looking at th«n when it chooses by itc| abstracting faculty apart 
from the ezistfiuce, apart from which, however, they neither arise nor 
eiist. If then, they arise in this way with concrete existence, from what 
concrete being is it from which these abstract ideas have been ab- 
stracted f The intnitionalist replies in one word — God, And Dr. Flint 
is actually found unclothing the infinite God natnrally given to the hnmaa 
mind of His characteristic attribates, in order to make into a God tbe 
imperfect finite being of his a posteriori logic. Moreover, how can any 
man go through that whole circuit of subjects that, farnish the argn- 
menta of Dr. Flint's a posteriori chapters, and yet never come into the 
presence of the iaSnite and eternal Onet How can he even enter on 
• Fp. 2B5, 290, 800, 



'^^'lAm*^^ PH0FE8S0E FLINT AND THE LOOIC OP THEISM. 151 

sncb a ronnd of contemplatioD, withont feeliog bimsolf orershadowed and 
embraced by the very presence wfaich it is held shall be accessible only at 
the close T Are meo left to search for the infinite God far and wide throngh 
nature, and not find Him t — to call for the absolute Being to the heights 
above and to the depths beneath, and yet hew no answcnng voice till they 
come to the dim and placelesa land of abstractions T The theory of know- 
ledge of the Baird Lectnre on Theism is not of a kind to serve for true 
guidance in theistic evidence. It is not tbas that men know, nor after this 
fashion that we know Qod. Qod is immediately known, and He b imme- 
diately known in the standing relations, cognitive, moral, and religions, 
which He has established between Himself and us. He and we are cor- 
related, and correlated through many lines ; and it is along these Bnes of 
correlatian that our immediate knowledge of Him finds its spnere and takes 
effect 

But to work out the theistic evidence constrnetively along this path wilt 
be more fitly reeerved for an occasion other than that of a criticism of the 
Baird Lectnie. What was to be done principally in these papers, was to 
take advantage of a new experimeut in inferential Theism, which has aacceeded 
no better in the essential attempt than any made before it, in order to bear 
a new testimony against wasting time longer in a profitless direction, and in 
favoar of concentrating effort where the way is more practicable and hope 
shines brighter. 

In Gonclnsion, let ns finally discard k^ical demonstrations of the existence 
of God from the field of philoaophical effort. Henceforth, let neither the 
possibility nor the desirability of such demonstrations even colour onr 
speech. Certainly it makes one feel as if the foundations were in peril or 
already destroyed, to bear about establishing, by processes of reasoning, 
what Dr. Flint himself calls 'the principle of principles,' the causal grotmd 
of tiie universe, the existence of the moral mier of men and of the object of 
the world's religions worship — God. There is something better than demon- 
strations to be the basis of onr belief. Clarify and deepen the knowledge 
of God's existence, and illustrate the attributes of His natnre from Hia 
works and ways as far as may be, — bring, in addition, the heavenly light of 
the enpemaliiral revelation, and bring the homefelt spiritnal experience and 
conecions divine fellowship of God's saints, to bear in drawing ont and 
setting forth in open day the recognition in the human mind of God, — let 
that recognition by all available means be illuminated and intensified ,^bnt, 
for the- knowledge of His existence, let that rest on ite true ground, on 
which it is as indemonstrable as it is indubitable, and as indubitable as is 
onr own existence. We have only to discover God, not demonstrate Him. 
As Bosanet says, here we mast find the trnth, not make it. By the ultimate 
relations of thought already alluded to, we conqoer in knowledge a saper- 
sensible world, — we are introduced into God's presence. The terms in each 
relation — God and man — belong to differeut and contrasted spheres of being, 
which the relation that holds betweoi them serves immediately to connect. 
The transcendent sphere of being openly discloses its existence by casting 
through those known relations its shadow over the empirical; and the 
empirical sphere, through the same relations, lays hold on the reabty of the 
transcendent. The two are brought into indissoluble onion and conscions 
communion by a bond of many strands. Looldng along the lines, we do not 
see, beyond sensible things, an empty void, nor, where we gaze for the 
ruling centre, do we find an eyeless socket. The infinite Being, as nniveraal 
canse and ruler, is known. These pregnant relatjens, to the practised eye not 



152 MACBETH ; OB, GBOWTH IK EVIL. ^"a^iTw?"* 

dimly descried Ijiag along tbongbt's upper bordei«, aod poinUog still onward, 
are the eager hands which the sodI stretches ont into the farther world of 
being, and which are clasped there bj the hands of an uuwering absolntfi 
tTQth that no eye hath seen nor heart conceited otherwise. SaCfa natire 
apprehensions — convictions spontaneona, homefelt, and irresistible — are 



Sach is onr first contact with Qod in conacioas knowledge. It does, 
however, little for ns, if it be both first and last. It can do little even for 
itself. It is a knowledge that can hardly bring itself to open day, or 
maintain existence, mnch less make God a practical power in human life. 
For that, other contact with Ood through the medium of other knowledge 
is indispenaable. This natnral revelation finds its highest worth in rendering 
ns capable of a revelation supematDraJ, and hastening us towards it. This 
having come, in i( and in the effects of accepting it in fall faith and sympathy, 
we have a contact with Ood that at last salves all riddles in clear divine 
light, and meets all wants in the communion of divine love. — 'Mere Theism 
Inenfficient,' is the title of Dr. Flint's excellent and beantifnl cloaing 
chapter. 



MACBETH; OR, QROWtH IN EVIL. 

BY BET, WILLIAU TURHER, EDraBUBGB. 

{Continved.) 

The subjective, or spiritnal, consequences of transgression, to which we now 
turn, are still more important than the objective or externaL The nature of 
man, like the system of the world, has been fashioned in correspondence 
with the laws of righteonsnees ; and as the violation of these laws provokes 
a reaction from the potencies of the one, so also does it from those of the 
other. In the spiritnal sphere, and that with an inunediateness and inevit- 
ableness even more marked than in the external, ain ' worketh wrath' and 
' bringing forth death,' acting as an element of disturbance and destmction, 
and iixing in the sensitive organism of the soul envenomed and deadly 
arrows. It is the word of the divine wisdom — ' He that sinneth against 
me wrongeth his own soul.' 

In the sodI the seat of snpreme aathority is held by conscience, the power 
that Epeaks of duty and says: Thon onghtest to do this, and onghtest not 
to do that, — the representative in each man's bosom of the law of Hin) who 
mieth over all Now conscience, while it may be disobeyed, is not by dis- 
obedience dethroned or even on the instaut silenced; rather occasion is 
thereby given for a fresh and load assertion of its authority. Therenpon 
the prescription of the right is replaced by aecusati'ou and denunciation,-^ 
Thon hast done what thon onghtest not to have done ; thou art a guilty 
creature, and deserves! pnnishment. This self-accusing and self-condemning, 
this sense of gnilt, ia for the sinner the first-bom of his sin, the first instal- 
ment of his woe. Henceforth, till satisfaction is rendered, ' all darkness is 
hid in his secret places,' and ' the arrows of God drink Dp the spirit.' Of 
all the subjective fruits of transgression, the feeling of guilt is the chief. 
It is the destruction of peace ; It is the mother of mistrust and fear ; it stops 
intercoarse with God, and shuts, the lips of prayer i it distorts the mind's 



"XSriBi"' MACBETH; OB, 6BOWTH IN EVIL. 153 

apprehension of the Aiviae character, and eclipses all joy and confidence in 
Ibe divine goodness; it often calls np spectral fonna heton the terrified 
imaginatioD, ' scares with dreams, and terrifies with visiona ;' it gives birtii 
to superstition and all its miserable and odions progeny; it beclouds the 
intellect, debases the affectioDS, perverts the will, qaenchlDg the light, and 
sappiDg the strength of the soal. The deed of sin may trnly be called a 
soicidsl act, and the sense of guilt is the pain of the gash which the self- 
raorderer inflicts. 

This primal and palmary reaalt of sin is very conspicnonsly set forth in 
the parable of onr poet. Of coarse it is not to be expected that in one 
drama the whole of transgression's eyil brood can be delineated, bnt in no 
adequate representation of a sinner's progress can the feeling of gnilt fail to 
occnpf the pre-eminent place. Jndas foand that in selling his Master, he 
iiad sold hie own son! ; and Macbeth likewise discovers that in slaying the 
libg, he has slain bis own spiritnal peace. His natnre, as we have ^een 
ah^y, is one cast in a noble monld, with heart kind and with conscience 
clear and sensitive; moreover, this marder ia for him the first great trans- 
gresBioD, and to this high-handed style of sin his nature is as yet nninared. 
Hence the inevitable reaction within is in his case pecnliarly vehement and 
terrible. Even before the act, and as he addressee himself to the horrid 
task he has nndertaken, he finds his steps beset by phantom teirors and 
str&Ege alarms. His fancy deceives hhn with the image of a dagger point- 
ing the way, ' the handle, towards my hand,' and he knows at the same tune 
tiat he is deceived, — 

' There's no BDch thing : 
It is the bloody bQBiuens which informt * 

Thus to mine eyes.' 

Already he is filled with an nnwonted mistrust and fear,— 

•Thoo sure md firm-set eartbj 

ray Ihay walk, for few 
ly wliere-Aibout' 

As he comes forth from the chamber ' the deed ' — his deed, his own sin — ^is 
'before him,' filling his' thonghts, hannting his steps, meeting his ear in 
(Tery sonnd, ereD in the ' owl's scream and the cricket's cry,' — 

'IVs done the deed: Didst thoa not heir s noise P' 

On the instant, like the first transgressors, he feels himself barred from 
uterconrse with Ood. 

> There's one did liagh in his slesp, and one cried, Unrder > 

That tfaay did wake each other. I stood and heard thsm, 

But they did say their prajfers, and addressed them 

Again to aleep.' 
^ One cried, God hlesB ni 

Aalt--'--' 

LisU „ 

When they did say Qod hleas ubT 
'But wherelore ootjd 1 not proDOnnoe Amenf 

I had-moet need of blessingf and Amen 

Stack in my thioal.' 

Voices in the air haant his fancy, proclaiming his horrible gnilt. He nnder- 
Blands that in his crime he has done more than destroy a human life,— that 
(be stab inflicted on his sleeping king and gnest is a stab on ' the innoceiit 
sleep,' uid on everything in the world that is holy, peaceful, and happy, — a 



154 MACBETH; OR, OaOWTH IN EVIL, '^ ^^iTtnt!^ 

mUcrcant blow aimed at the order uid eerenity of Qod's uniTeree j and he 
knows that the whole system of natnre reseDtB tbe deed, and is risea np 
agaiost tbe man who has thus dared to inrade its Banctities and to break its 
peace. 

' Metbouglt I howd ■ voles fl»y, Sleep no more 1 

Mubeth b>tb moHered sleep, the innooent sleep, 

Bleep that knits up the ravelled sleeve of «re,' etc 
'Btillit cried, Sleepno-more!— to ill the house,— 

Qluoia hath murderad sleep, mnd therefore Cavdor 

Shall Bleep no more! Macbeth Hhall sleep oo more I ' 

He cannot bear to look upon or think of his own work, — , 



' Thas conscience doth make cowards of ns all.' In the words of Scripture, 
' The wicked flee when no man punmetb.' Macbeth, in virtne of what be has 
done, has on the instant become, and feels himself to hare become, atterty 
another man; all hie natural courage, strei^th, and manliness gone, the 
vision of gnilt erer before his ejes, tbe "• fear that bath torment ' ever gnawing 
at bis heart, — 

■ Whenoe is that knocking I 
How i*t with mo th»t every noise sppals mo? ' 
What bands are these? Ha! theyplnck out mine eyes. 
Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood 
Clean from mj bsadP Hal this m; hand will rather 
Tbe mnltitndmous seas incarnadiue, 
1 Making tbe green one red.' 

We are r^niaded by this pictnre of the old 6reek fable regardiog the hero 
who, after slaymg many, at lost slew himself by putting on the robe dyed 
with blood which he himself had shed, and which the wife who lored him 
presented to him. The blood of the king becomes to Macbeth like Deisnira's 
robe to Hercales, — it cleaves to his s[»rit, and bnrns as it cleaves, and the 
writhings and twistings of bis agony only make it cleave and bum the more 
firmly and fiercely. 

Macbeth thns learns tbe trath, ' The sonl that simteth dies.' ' Oh, fall of 
BcorpiooB,' says be, ' is my miod.' Of little acconnt, I fancy, with him in 
bis mental angm'sh woald have been that philosophy, now somewhat preva- 
lent in certain circles, which teaches that man is a machine, that circnm- 
stances determine conduct, that the will is a fettered slave, and that all 
feelings of obhgation and of gnilt are illnsory. And to all men is this a 
vain philosophy, — at least when they are not speculating but acting, not 
spinning theories in their closets, bat serionalj occapied out in the world 
with its affairs. Bushnell has well observed that the whole interest of 
human life, whether contemplated in reality or in representation, whether in 
history or in the drama, depends upon a belief in human freedom. Children 
may gather round puppet-shows, bat grown men will not linger beside anch 
gpectactes. If it were possible for as to believe that we and all our fellows 
are so many machines whose acts are controlled by strings held fay some 
great exhibitor, it is obvious that the emotions naturally awakened by tbe 
spectacle of hfe would at once vanish. On that understanding the excite* 
ment of Macbeth as he exclaims ' I've done the deed,' the remorse of Jndas 
when he said ' I have sinned iu that I have betrayed the innocent blood,' the 
penitence of David when he owned ' I have sinned against the Lord,' and of 
Peter when ' he went out and wept bitt^ly,' must at once a^ipear utterly 



"''!riu"'i'w"'^ ' MACBETH ; OB GKOWTH IN ETIL. 155 

preposterons. If one man, Mr, Jobs Stoart Mill, deliberately declares in a 
book of philosophy that he has do consciousness of being a free agent, at 
least David, Pet«r, Jndos, and Macbeth — or Shakespeare, to whom the 
Macbeth of whom we speak owes his existence — with all who are interested 
in their acts, and feel in sympathy with their sentiments, have a dUferent 
coDBCioasnesa. And for Mr. Mill himself,— did he never resent an injosticef 
did he nerer blame a calpriti had he no indignation for snch characters as 
that of Macbeth, and for such acts as those of David, of Peter, and of JadasT 
We know the contrary. And if so, then in the face of his own philosophy 
be really proclaimed himself free, undn believer in freedom. The reasoning 
of Panl is incontrovertible — 'Therefore thou art inexcusable, man, who- 
soever thou art that jndgest; for nhereia thon jndgest another, thoa 
RODdemnest thyself.' 

The intense emotional excitement accompanying the commission of great 
crime is, like all other strong emotions, essentially transient, and so it appears 
in the representation of onr poet. The first keen smart of a woand does 
not last, — even when the hnrt is not healed the character of the saffering 
changes. The injary which sin inflicts npon the spirit may not be cared, 
and gangrene and mortification may be doing their work, while the pain of 
the wonnd may have almost or altogether ceased. In attempting to trace 
the sinner's progress, we find that at tiiis point more than one possibility 
present themselves. One issue from evil, and the only happy one, is opened 
np to every transgressor throngh the revelation of divine mercy in Christ 
JesQs. All wilfnl sinners are symbolized by the prophet who fled away 
from the presence and from the land of Jehovah in the ship of Tarshish. 
They desert, like him, the firm land of submission and obedience, they 
commit themselves to the nostable and perHoos deep of self-will and rebellion. 
A mighty tempeet suddenly falls upon them, the winds of God's wrath howl 
aronnd them, and the billows of His avenging judgments leap up to engulf 
them. Tbeir sky is darkened with the murky clouds of remorse and fear 
that roil np from beneath the itorizon as from an infernal pit. The tempest 
is Qod'a messenger, ' the elands are the dust of His feet.' * He rides upoii 
the whirlwind and directs the storm,' and the noise of the winds and waves 
is re^ly proclaiming in the sioner's ear, ' Thon art the man.' If nnder the 
suffering and trouble that have come npon him the wayward child ' comes 
to himself,' and says, ^ I will arise, and go to my Father,' then there is pardon 
for all the past, and a glad welcome to the home and heart which he hod 
forsaken. It is a real esperience which is described in the 32d Psalm — 
' When I kept silence, my bones waxed old throngh my roaring all the day 
bag. For day and night Thy hand was heavy npon me : my moisture is 
turned into 4be drought of summer. 1 acknowledged my sin unto Thee, and 
mine iniqnity have I not hid. 1 said, I will confess my trangressions nnto 
the Lord ; and Thon forgavest the iniquity of my sin.' For Ood ' delighteth 
m mercy i' and says our poet : 



It is growth in un, however, not salvation from sin, which forms onr snb- 
ject. Setting ande this possible issue, open on earth even to the greatest 
sinner, there yet remains to be considered certain diff'erent modes in which 
the deaXh accompanying sin derelopes itself in the sinner's spiritnal coustita- 
tion. One is that in wluch the crimiiul is qnickly driven to self-destruction. 



156 MACBETH ; 6E, GEOWTH IN EVIL. ^ U^^riTriw""^ 

Of this we have a conspicaons example in Judas Iscariot, and Shakespeare 
famishes another in Othello, — 

' One, whose lumd, 
Liks the bftBe JudeiiB, threw & pearl away 
Bicher thou all hia tribe.' 

However the deed of suicide under the preesnre of remorse is to be con- 
strued, it certainly famishes a most impressive demonstration of the potency 
of conscience in the baman soal. Even though it be nnderstood to mean 
only the seeking in death of escape from the anguish of self-tormenting 
blame, (his angnish mnst be traly intense and intolerable when it drives a 
man to cast away Kfe, and to rnah into the darknsss of the hereafter in order 
to be ' anywhere, anywhere, oat of the world.' But this, I am persuaded, is 
not the trae interpretation of the act. Jndas when, by hanging himself, be 
' went to his own place,* can hardly be supposed to have anticipated there a 
welcome relief from mental agony. It would, indeed, be m intolerable 
reproach to the government of the Eternal, to say that it is so slack and 
feeble as that nnder it criminals have in their own hands the power, by a 
single bibw directed at their own oi^anism, to defy its sanctions and to 
escape from the punishment which they feel themselves to deserve. It is 
certain that the act was not thns interpreted by Shakespeare. Othello, - 
speaking to his mnrdered wife, and just before his self-murder, exclaims : 
' When ws ahall meet at oompi, 

This look of tbiue will hurl m; aonl from heaven, 

And fiends will snatoh at it ; ' 

and forthwith he bursts out in a lava-torrent of fi^ce self-jndging ; 

' Whip me, ;e devili, 

From the posseseios of tbis heavenly eight ! 

Blow me about in winds! roast me in eulphar 1 

Wash me in steep-down galls of llqnid Are.' 

Thus if, as we know there are, there be certain natures and certwn mental 
states in which conscience leads men to shrink from death, and makes them 
rather ' fardels bear, to grunt and sweat under this weary life,' than face the 
terrors of ' that undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveller returns,' 
there are other natures and other mental states in which the operation of this 
great spiritnal power is exactly the opposite. In these it drives to death ; it 
prompts the criminal to court destruction ; it inspires him with a yearning 
for the punishment which is his due. The criminal, conscieuce-smitten, 
is a house divided against itself, as he is represented by our poet in bis 
Bickard iiLi — 

' Is there a mnrderer here ? No ;— Tee ; I nd : 
Then fly,— what, from myflell ? Qreat reason i why f 
Last I rorange. What? myself on myseUf 
1 love myself. Wherefore? for any good, 
That I myself have done unto myself? 
Ob, ho ; ^as, I rather hate myself, 
For hateful deeds committed by myself.' 

Thus hating himself, he feels that earth is not his place ; that its comforts 
and its bounties, the warm air and the sweet light, the greenness of fields and 
the joys of social life, are not for him ; and he hastens away lo anticipated 
judgment, that he may taste the one only satisfaction still possible to him, — 
the satisfaction of renderii^ satisfaction to the outraged law of God's 
universe. His self-morder is like the despairing cry of the dying unbeliever, 
' Thon hast conquered, Galilean !' — it is the looking eternal jnstice in the 
face, and crying out, I yield myself to thee. 

(2*0 he conti/iiied.) 



l^iin.' ' THE LATE EEV. JAMES KIRKWOOD, A.M. 157 

THE LATE REV. JAMES KIRKWOOD, A.M.« 

Mr. Eirswood was so long laid aside from the discharge of ministerial 
duty, that it may almost be said that a generation grew np that knew him 
not. Bnt, notwithstanding this, traditions of hiseloqneDceas a preacher, and 
power as a prominent though nDoatentationa ecclesiastical leader, were to be 
found in abandonee, especially in that section of the church to which he 
beloi^ed. We do not wonder at a wish being expressed for the publication 
of some of the disconrsea which had been deliveral to large and delighted 
aadieaces. They amply justify the high estimation in which Mr. Kirkwood 
was held, and their present publication. It has often happened, when the 
discoarses of a popular preacher were published, that much disappoint- 
ment was the result. When they had not the advantages of the rich and 
commaading voice, the effective sympathy of the a}>eaker, and the ezcite-v 
ment cans^ by these, they were found to be commonplace in thoaght and 
tame in expression. Bnt such emphatically is not the case with the sermons 
before us. Most effective when delivered, they are felt to be interesting and 
iDstroctive in no ordinary degree when read quietly by the fireside. They 
were composed ere the present tnrmoil of religious thoi^ht had begun; and 
yoa are not, as in many modem discourses, continually brought face to face 
with the theories of Darwin and Huxley, or of Atfgnate Oomte and Matthew 
Arnold. But they deal with the eternal verities of onr holy faith, and may 
be read with profit in any age, whatever may be the special aspects of 
religion which it seeks to emphasise. 

The doctrines set forth are eminently evangelical. Mr. Eirkwood might 
have made his motto that of Paul, ' God forbid that I should glory save in 
the cross of our Lord Jesua Christ.' His manner, whilst entirely faithful, ia 
winning and pleading rather than denanciatory and stera His was a large, 
genial, and tolerant nature; and it was more congenial to him to be a 
Barnabas than a Boanerges. At the same time he is eminently practical, 
and if he preaches the cross he onmistaheably and powerfally proclc^ms that 
' when once seen it ia death to every rice.' 

One is struck by the frequent and feUcitons nse which Mr. Kirkwood 
makes of Scripture. A beautiful text, aptly quoted, comes in often aa the 
close and the culmination of an eloquent poss^e, and makes it wonderfnlly - 
effective and impressive. 

Mr. Eirkwood b^an his career as a preacher when the fame of Robert 
Hall was at its height, and his sermons were deemed modeb of pulpit 
eloquence. We think we can trace the inBnence of that great master on 
him in the formation of a style at once elevated and simple, terse and 
eloquent. When one thinks of the many years during which Mr. Kirkwood 
exercised the ofQce of the ministry, and the large audiences which it was his 
privilege to address, it is with feelings of gratitude that one notes the varied 
excellences and sterling worth of his discourses — discburses so eminently 
fitted to bring men to Christ and induce them to lead Christlike lives. By 
their publication, he being dead yet speaketh ; and they will be pemsed, we 
donbt not, by many with pleasure and profit — perused also with moistening 
eye by the survivors of a former generation as they vividly recall to them the 
form of ' the old man eloquent,' whose voice they will hear on e&rth no more. 

Although Mr. Eirkwood was a power In his day in his own chnrch, and in 

• 8«nnonB hj the late Hev. Juinas Kirkwood, A.M., St. James' Place TTnited Freflbytoriin 
Chnrch, Edinbnixll. Published at the renoest of the Session. Edinburgh : Andrew Elliot. 
1878. 



158 THE LATE EEV. JAMES KiaKWOOD, A.M. "^"i^liri^"'"" 

wider circles, yet ' he courted the shade;' aod therefore the ontetandiog facta 
of his life were few, bnt these have been loringly aad gracefally set forth by 
Dr. Douglas, and are as follows : — 

' ' The Rev. James Kirkvood was bom at Strathaven, about sixteen nules south- 
east of Glasgow, I2th November 1788. His father was miniBter of the Relief 
Cbarch there, and was well known for his seholarl; attainments, his excellent 
boBinesB habitk, his soand Cbristian principles, and his sincere love of evangelical 
trulb. His mother having died within a year or two after his birth, hia early 
training devolved apon his father. He was ihoa brought ap imder religioos in- 
fluences of the purest kind ; and, being his tether's ^most constant oompanion, in 
consequence of there beiug no other children, it is not to be wondered at that, at a 
very early age, he devoted himself to the work of the ministry, or that, with the 
stimnlating intellectual example of a father so distingnisbed, he soon gave promise 
of a brilliant career. 

' His early education was received in his native town. At school he wsb dis- 
tinguished for his diligence and proficiency, while out of school he was always 
ready for a game. His home studies were superintended by his father, who, in 
addition to his school work, du]j[ assigned him a portion of Scriptnie to be com- 
mitted to memory, and repeated in the evening. This lesson for his father never 
was neglected. . One of bia playmates nsed to tell, that every evening, as the bell 
rang eight, young Eirkwood disappeared. It did not matter wbeVa he was, or at 
what stage the game might be. The appointment in his father's study to recite 
his Bible verses for the day was puamount to alL When he bad made anch pro- 
gress at the StratJiaven school as warranted his entering college, he matricolated 
at the Ifniversity of Glasgow. Here he was on terms of intimate fri^idship with 
many who afterwards occupied prominent positions, both in the church and m the 
world; but, so far as we know, all these faaveprecedodhim to the grave, and, with 
■ them, all reminiflcences of his student life have also gone. At the dose of his Arts 
cnrricniom he obtained the degree of H.A., an honour which was then of mudi 
less frequent attainment than now ; and that he obtained it with distinction, is con- 
clusive of the success with which his studies had been prosecuted, seeing he wss 
then only in his eighteenth year. 

' It was not till ^e year 182^t: that a Divinity Hall was instituted in connection 
with the Relief Synod. Till then, her students were necessitated to receive their 
theological training at one of the National TTniveisities. Accordingly, Ur. Kirkwood 
returned to hia Alma Mater, and in 1806 entered on those stndies which were 
more directly to fit him for the work of the mmistry. In the Divinity Hall 
be distingoished himself as ho had done in the 1it«raTy classes. Indeed, on the 
authority of one of his compeers, who rose- to great eminence in the church witii 
which he was connected, we can assert that he was one of the ablest students of his 
time. Tlioagh Geology was now his chief, it was by no means his only study. Mr. 
Kirkwood well knew that, to be a successful expounder of divine trutli, knowledge 
of all kinds is indispensable. Ev»'y subject, therefore, that had a baring, direct 
or indirect, on the great end and aim of hia life, had its due share of his attention. 
Thus bis mind became stored with a fund of general information such as few 
pOBsessed, and which be turned to good account through all his after life. 

' On completmg his theological course, and eitw the usual eiaminationa by the 
Relief Presbytery of Glasgow, he was licensed to preach the gospel 6th No^mber 
' 1810. The promise of his early boyhood was soon realized in his refined bete, his 
clasfdc style, his intellectual power, his thorough eameetness, and the other qualities 
that ever afterwards characterised him as a preai;her. With such qualifications, the 
unsettled life of a probationer was to him of short duration. Within five months 
be received aoall&om the Relief Church at Riccartoo, a village near, but separated 
from, Silmamock by the river Irvine. To this charge he was oidained 25th July 
1811, not then having attained his twenty-third year. Riccairton eongregation 
had been formed in consequence of a secession from the Estabbsbed Churdi, 
caused by the patron's having refused, on the occasion, of a vacancy in 1800, to 
give the people their choice of a minister, as he had previously promised. Tlw 
original seceders had been joined by others holding like principles, and the congre- 



iirtTHM."" TUE lATE EEV. JAMES KIBKWOOD, A.M. 159 

gstion WBB now lafge atid inflDential. No boodct had the young miuister been 
settled among them, than his style of preaching attracted large numbers from the 

neighhouring town, and tlte conntr; cocgregation became one of the moat important 
in Uie provinoes, connected with the denomination to which it belonged. 

' Thongh the Riccarton chnroh was oonTeniently situated for the ran] popolation, 
it was fouod to be too far distaot for the townapeople, who now formea a large 
part of its membership. In 1814 or 1815, it was therefore taken down, and re- 
built in King Street, Kilmarnock, which waa considered a more eligible site. Here, 
in the midat of a large population, a wider sphere of aaefulueM was opened up. 
Pastoral duties were increased, but the fidelity and seal with which tnej were 
discharged, brought their reward in the still greater infliienoe of both the minister 
and the congr^ation. King Street Belief Church then attained apofiitiou of which 
any minister might Justly have been proud. Referring to Mr. EirVwood's ministry 
tliere, one of his successors writes : " Hia fine taste, sound judgment, eloquence, 
and weight of character, gave onr church a standing which commanded for it the 
respect of aU classes of Sit oommunity." The same eoirespondent adds, " I bad 
inany opportunities of hearing bis name mentioned, and always with admiralion 
and respect, by the moat intelligent and moat judicious of the people. Competent 
judgefl BDolte of his lecture* as unequalled by tbe lectures of any preacher in the 
west of Scotland." Such teatimoDT, after a lapse of fifty-nine years, sbowe how 
deep was theimpreedonhehadmade, while an^ occaaional visit toliis former flock, 
during these years, was alwan boiled with latisfsction and del^ht 

'When in Riccarton, Mr. Kirkwood married Elizabeth Currie, the daughter of 
William Currie, Esq. of Trynlaw, cue who proved herself to be an amiable and 
prudent wife, an affectionate mothv, and a true friend. Of the marriage there 
were eight children, fire of whom still survive. Mrs. Kirkwood died 6tb June 1851. 

' WiSi the year 1818 commenced a new epoch in Hr. Kirkwood's life. On the 
5th &f January his father died. By his death the Strathaveu congregatiou were 
deprived of a faithful and beloved pastor, and, naturally feeling anxious to obtain 
another with like gifts and qualifications, they directed thotr attention to Kil- 
mamock, and, by a unanimous call, endeavoured to secure the son as successor to 
the fstiier. About the same time Mr. Kirkwood was also called to St. James' Place 
B^et Church, Edinburgh, to be colle^ue and successor to the Rer. Thomas Thom- 
eon, its first minister, whom illness had laid aside from active work. Mr. Kirkwood 
accepted the call to St. James' Place, and was transkted on the 17th December ift 
the same year. St. James' Place Church, though now completely surrounded by 
houses, and approached only by narrow lanee and steep streets, was then iu an open 
Htuatkin, staaiUiig on a gentle eminence, known as St Ann's Mount, whose grassy 
sbpea have long since disappeared. The congregation ui)der Mr. Thomson had been 
largeand flonnshing. But during his long illness, its numbeta liad oonsiderably ' 
decreased, ajnd the necessity for a successor was therefore urgent. Tery bodd, the 
nevij inducted minister from the wept realized the highest en>ectations of those 
by whom he had been called ; and the church, whitji is one of the largest in Bdin- 
burgh, was again crowded, Sabbath after ijabbath, by highly intelligent and 
appreciative audiences. 

'Mr. Kirkwood's popularity as a preacher waa<d no ephemraal kind. Early 
promise was fully sustamei^by his oontinued weekly ministrations. The following 
senntma will show with what care he prepared for the Pulpit^ <uid how far he was 
fnnn "serving God with dist which cost him nought." Though none of his lecturM 
have been preserved, those who were privileged to hear them, as the writer was, 
will readilr bear testimony to their equally careful [n«paiation, their profound 
research, tneir interesting and instructive character, their unique complet«neefi, and 
'th^ never-failing practical utility. Mr. Kirkwood did not profess or pretend to 
be deeply skilled in ezegeds. Consequently his lectures did not partake much of 
this nature. Be took the common translation as the people read it, and founded 
his expositions on the version which his hearers had lying before them. A marked 
feature of his preaching was his thorough uumistakeablenees of meaning. His 
diction was always elegant, terse, and graceful, and he bad *' the rare art of being 
understood and relish^ by. the lesa intellectual part of an audience, as well as by 
the more cnltirated and r^ned." If he argued, ne argued logically ; if he osed an 



160 THE LATB EEV. JAMES KIEKWOOD, AJH. ""-^Tiat^ 

illiutntion, It waa never far-fetched or inappropriate ; if he reproved, he reproved 
iritii firniiie<M, never with sererity ; if he warned, it was vith ufeotdoa and conceni. 
The great Tichneu of scriptand language in hii eennons, and particularly in his 

E' rayers, is also noteworthy, and may be acconnted for from the manner in which 
is mind was imbued with the Word of God in early life. His clear and powerful 
voice commanded the attention of the largest audienceg, and his sfciU in modulating 
it was such that, however large was the church in which he preached, all could 
hear with ease and pleasure. His manner of preaching was never lapturoua, far 
less was it ever dull, or devoid of animation ; and the effect which it produced was 
deep and lasting. One who had been connected with St. James' Place Cbnrch 
in early life writes : " Though it is over thirty jeare sioce I heard Mr. Kirkwood 
preadi, some of his sermons made such an impression on my mind then, that I 
remember them to this day ■ " and, doubtless, tnere are many more, both in this 
land and elsewhere, to whom his memory is bleAsed. 

' In 1812, Mr. Kirkwood delivered a aeries of diacouraee on the " Christian 
Armour," founded on Paul's words to tbe Epheaians, . " Wherefore take unto yon 
the whde armour of God," etc (Eph. vL 13-18). Never did diacoursee give more 
general satisfacticm, and the congregation unanimously requested their publication. 
Mr. Kirkwood waa gratified by &e kind wiah expressed by his people, but, with an 
aversion to publicity which was characteristic of him sJl his life through, he could 
not be induced to accede to ^e request. A few years afterwards, he re-delivered 
the same series, and again the demand was made for publication, but with the same 
result. To those who may miss these sermons from the present volume, it will be 
sufficient to explain that some of them were not preserved. Two of them, hoW' 
ever, on " The Sword of the Sjiirit," will be found at pages 216 and 230. 

' Mr. Cirkwood took a warm interest in all matters of public importance, and was 
a rec<^nised leader in the counsels of the Church. The Relief Synod was not a 
large one ; but in Hr. Kirkwood's time, it comprised in its membership men who 
would have come to the front and teen looked up to in any church. It was an 
honour to be associated, in the condnct of affairs, with such men as Mr. Thomson 
of Eutchesontown, robust, shrewd, practical ; Dr. Thomson of Paisley, singnlarly 
prudent and judicious ; Dr. Struthers of Anderston, sagacious, observant, expert in 
forms of procedure ; andothers, scarcely lessableandinflnential. A denomination, 
with such leaders, had no reason to be ashamed to lift its head among the churches. 
It has served its day, and .passed away, but the names of its leading miuistera are 
still household words in the families that were connected with it, ana snrvivora yet 
linger among us^ who recall theae names with fond admiratioa. 

' In 1820, in consequence of certain regulations made in the Divinity Halls of the 
Univeiaitiee, which affected the religious freedom of the students who were DiS' 
senters, Mr. Kirkwood overtured the Synod for the appointment of a professor of 
divinity from among its own members. This overture, after having been rab- 
mitted to the consideration of preabyteries and seasions, was, with a slight modifica- 
tion, adopted without a vote in 1823, and in 1S21 the Rer. James Thomson of 
Paidey was elected profeesor. Mr. Kirkwood also took an active part in bringing 
about the union of the Secession and Relief Churches, and, although unable, from 
the infirmities of age, to contribute towards the negotiations for t£e union of the 
Free and United Presbyterian Churches, he was a w'arm friend to that proponed 
union, and regretted that it was not carried out. He was a staunch YoluntaiT, 
and an ardent advocate for tlie liberties of the Christian Church ; at the same time, 
in any good or philanthropic work, he was always ready to co-operate with minis- 
terial brethren of all denominations. In the Church courts he spoke seldom, and 
never very long ; but, as Dr. Chalmers would have expressed it, he was a man of 
weight; and when he spoke, his word was with power. His fine judicial insight 
led him te seize the salient points of a question, aiid his rare power of ludd ex- 
position presented these in a light which generally carried the court with him in 
the motion with whii^ he concluded. Twice he was honoured with the highest 
distinction whidi the Church has it in her power to beetow. He was chosen 
Moderator of the Belief Synod in 1S29, and, after the union of the Secession and 
Relief Chtuchea, was elected to be the second Moderator of the United Presbyteriaa 
Church in October 1847. 



:I.V.C001^|C 



""'SJST^'^' MEM0BIZ8. 161 

' As Mr. Eirkwood'i hwlth bad been for some time in a veiy infirm state, the 
congregation thongbt it pmdent thnt he ohonld be relieved of part of the datiea of 

the poatOTate, and, aocordjngly , the Bev. J. Logan Aikman (now Dr. IiOgau Aifcmnn 
of (jloBgow) waB i»dained aa hia colleague, 12th November 1845. ¥ot some years 
after Mr. Alkman'e oidination, Mi. Eirkwood waa generally aUe to preadi once on 
the Sabbath, and engage in oUier ministerial work tbrooghont the week. In 1666, 
the etate of his health demanded comfdete rest. It was therefore arranged that ho 
ehonld hepceforth be freed from all active duty in connection with the congregatioD, 
bat that ue shonld still retain his status aa senior pastor. Dr. Aikman removed to 
Glasgow in 1856, and the Rer. Dr. Drummoud (now of London) was inducted as 
his snccessor in 1858. During the incumbency of Dr. Driunmond, and also during 
the earlier years of that of his successor, Dr. Morton, Mr. Kirkwood was able to 
wait upon divine ordinances with wonderful rega'arity ; but a tew years before hi« 
death, this exertion wasloo great for him, and then, within the house of God, his 

' On tho occasion of his Jubilee in 1861, a large congratulatory meeting was held 
in tbe church. Many ministers conneoted with the city, and also man^ from a 
distance, were present, and bora testimony to the high respect and admuation in 
which he was held, while the congregation, by a suitable address and a gift, teetilied 
their continued affection and esteem. On hia attaining the eiity-aecond year of his 
ministtT, being then the father of the United Presbyterian Church, his portrait 
was presented to the Synod, and now adorns the walls of the Edinburgh Presbytery 
Hall, 

' Mr. Eirkwood was an enthusiastic admirer of natural scenery, and was conse- 
quently fond of outdoor exercise. A walk in the conntry, or a da; at a river-aide, 
rod in hand, was to him a source of true pleasure. He continued to takejin early 
morning walk till far advanced in life ; and it was a sad proof of his declining 
strength, when he was forced to give it up. For nearly tnree years before his 
death, he was almost entirely confined to me house, but he was cheerful, happy, 
and contented. He was pleased to see an old friend, but desired more to be aloae, 
and spoke oft«n of l(is approaching death, repeating the words, "'I ana ^oing the 
way of ail the earth." About the middle of July 1877, he was seiied with 
hnuichitis, and to this disease, in his eofeebled stat«, he very Boon succumbed. 
The day before he died, he did not appear to be worse than he had been, nor did 
hehimself saythat he wasBO. Ontheeveningofthatday, the 26th July, when seated 
with hia daughters for tea, he most affectionately thanked them for the great kindness 
they had always shown to him. He made no allusion to bis approaching end, but, 
instead of asking the usual blessing on the meal, offered up a most fervent prayer, 
commending them to the care of their heavenly Father, which led them afterwards 
to anppose he must have felt that death was drawing near. He retired to rest 
about bis usual hour, but still did not complain. Early the nest morning, a slight 
change in bis appearance was observed, and his daugbtors were summoned to nis 
bedside. He never spoke, but appeared to fall asleep, and at six o'clock, without 
a pang, or without a sigb, hie spirit departed, and ne entered into rest. Thua 
catnly, on the 27th July 1877, did Mr. Kirkwood pass away in the 89th year of 
bis age. Of li'm how justly may it be said, " Mark the perfect man, and l^hold 
tilt nprigbt, for the end of that man is peace ! " ' 



MEMORIES.' 



The favourable reception which Dr. Brace's little volume, entitled Hebrew Odes, 
received when it appeared a few years ago, has induced him to come forward again 
in poetic gnise. Tlie subjects dealt with in the former volume, aa its name implies, 
were chiefly taken from or relating to Scripture themes. In the present instance 
he treats of other subjects, and the first poem is one of considerable lengtAi, and 
tells a story of touching and romantic intareet. 
'iha gentle and studious inmate of the Manse, it tells us, brings bis aged father 

■ Xemorif : A Tale and Oilier Fotmt. By Williun Bnicf , D.O., Aothor of Stbitw Ode; 
etc Edinburgh: David DongUs. 1878. 

MO. IV. VOL. XXII. VW.W BSKIES. — APBIL 1878. I. 



162 MBMOHIES. "^Ijan?^ 

to spend Ida declining yean irith him. Thd fatlier lutd tivo relstires, a brothei 
and BJBter, to whom he was tonderlT attached. The broker, however, liad .gcaie 
to a foreign ^re, and diaappmntea the ineitangni^iaUe hope of the old man that 
he would yet letom. The auter paid an aiintiid visit to the Muse, and 1»0Qght 
with her her dangbtec Amf. The miniater lovefl Amy, bat aeee no ajmptom of 
recognitJoQ or retarn on her part ; and at last they were all atartled oy her 
iaforming'tiiem of her marriage, and deeply grieved by her refusal to diacloae bet 
hnsband's name. In the coniee of time she droopa and dies, and leaven behind 
her a lovely and happy child, who came again to cheer the Bolitnde of the Manse. 
This child becomea a favoarite with all, and spedaUy with an old aeaman, named 
Daniel Grieve, with whom she takes freqnent and ha^y walks by the sea-shore, — 
her love of the sea b^aa a, perfect paaaion. On one occasion, on their walk Uieir 
attention is called to a ship in the distance, which Daoiel av^red to have been in 
the same place Bome five years ago. A severe tempest wi^cka the vessel near the 
shore. When Daniel is abont to die, he sends for the minister, t«lle htm of a box 
which had been saved from the wreck, which he judged onoe bebnged to a gallant 
and high-spirited yonth who was with him in the same vessel for a year. The old 
man paaaes peaotfully away ; the box is opened, not without a certain shrinldng 
from the task, and is foond to contain the certificate of Amy's marriage with the 
jronth to whom Daniel had referred, who followed the occupation of a sea-rover, 
and was no other than the son of the old man^ brother, who was away in foreign 
lands, and thns also Amy's own cottsin. TJnfortnnately, owing, we suppose, to Us 
occupation, he extracted a promise from Amy not to disclose his name till he 
returned, as he hoped, with ample means to enable them to live together in peace 
and plenty. The marriage certificate, however, briogB great reUef to her former 
lover; aad he regrets ever having permitted himself to mtertain other than 
. qvroving thonghta of her. 

Meanwhile Eva, Amy's attractive daughter, grows into womanhood, and is 
h^pily married to the youthful and exoellept laird of Aeton Grange, a place in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the Hanse, which thus a^in becomes the abode 
of the minister alone, — now a solitary old man, with pensive thon^ts of the past, 
bat hwpy hopes of the changeless home above. 

Such is an outline of the tale, and even from it, brief though it be, it will be 
seen that it has deep interest and power to eirate the reader's sympathy. 

In the oouisB of the narrative, which is riven in a very sweet and simple and 
nnaifected manner, there ever and anon nscdi out figures of much beauty, and 
occur thoughts and reflectJODS which bespeak at once a mind of much elevaUon 
and a loving hearts 

Having given a brief account of the subject <rf the principal poem, we may coD, 
Cor the sake of our readers, eome of the pasuges with which the narrative is 
adorned. 

The Hanse round whidi these Memoriei cluster ia situate bj the sea, and its 
varied upeets are keenly noted and vividly described. Of the Manse itself it is 
said: 

< Ths widemue slope of the headluid ends 

At the brink of the brattling rill, 
Where ila seiword ourrant snirply bands, 
Oomiug down from the pasturs hill ; 
And m7 M&ubs is built, where its guden-pale 
Leavee a narrow ^atii by th* streun. 
I look from mj window adown Uie vals. 
To the b*7 where the flsherman'i shallop and sail 
. O'er the sunlit waters gleam. 
Tis a beautiful scene, when the sommer's crown 

On the lap of ftutuniTi fallff ; — ■ 
Thevale; mnd the old mill balfwaydown, 
Wltli Its gre; nnganuahed wkUi ; 
And Ibe fishars' town, with their botts aiid geu' 
On the shelving beach where the rada Btoua pier 



Buns out Irom the level land ^ 
And (be tide-BtrsBin ripplisg, bine and cleai 
On the long white carve of sand. 



C tOO^'Ic 



0[ in wintar tiiiM, vheii the itonn-vriDd avm; 

And rooaee the lem Iron lt« «laep, 

I vatoh the oonne at Uie pntt mvea 

Thftt oome rolUng ia from the dsae ; 

Eoir the; rush am the iketriei that piud tbs b>f , 

And orer the burier bomtd, 
Then huten ihors-wud ia spraT ud foam. 
Like Bt«adB of tho wUdemeas gaUopiitg home 

From their diaUct pastor* srousd.' 

One of QiB uotdceable featores of the poem ia iU deep iympathr with tlie poor 
in tbeii stnigeleB and trials, but ibe aotlior takes no pesaimiat Tieir of ^ieir 
dtnatioD. In tiie Word of Troth it ie 'the rich and the poor who meet together; 
UeLoid b the tnaker of them alL' And here it in finelf recognised, that not onlf 
the ^OOT have tho heTitag& of a common nature with Uie rich, but hare also 
sources of coDBoIation under the tfitJs of life vhich ora Hie lot of nuui. Thna he 
wys: 

' The Btr&ggliag oottagee, ten in all, 

Lie inland a rood or more. 
With the moBB on the ohink of tlie rongh-built wall, 

And the brown tiiatoh orer tho door. 
Can evan the poor be at rest In homes 

So aBiraw and comfortleas? 
All I hearts may be sad under gUttaring doBKS, 

When these have tbdr mirtMnlnsas. : 

The daily toil and tha oommon oare 

Will lighten tha bonds of loTe, 
The bnrden nnitelh the hands that bear. 
And Uie lowly are promised a plentiful share 
Of the peace daws that drop from abore.' 

In connection with tbii manly and in(«lligeiit sympathy with the poor, Ve find 
afond clinging to the joya of domestic life. The idea of home, as portisTed in 
tliese pages, is a high one, and aa when realized it satisfies one of the deepest 
wants of the heart, bo when there is disappointment it is cruelly felt. Of this onr 
author thus speaks : 

'Harhome! ah! homel ia that' the word 

By which sncb pleasant thoughts are stirred, 

Whioh [alls upon the ear like note 

Of mosic from the Unnefs throat, 

What time the Boft'ning gleam of day 

Qives softer cndence to ita lay; 

Which falls iy>on the heart like smile 

W snmmer on some happy isle, 

Where trampling strife has nev^ mirred 

The golden flower-cnpa on the sward, 

Wbera loved and loving imea are blest 

With safety, oheerfolness, and rest ? 

Tlie lonely sorrowers who see 

Ho friend where friends were wont to bo, 

Who hear no foot-fall on the stair, 

^D rnatle in the old arm-chair, 

May dw^ where they have dwelt before, — 

Bat ahl 'tis home to them no more. 

Where there are none to love and tend. 

No face of kin, no voice of friend, 

To comfort os when we are sad, ' 

To share our mirth if we are glad. 

To watch ua as we go and come, — 

We oalt it, bat it is not, borne.' 

It is a familiar Bay ing, that ' extremes meet.' This ia trae in refweoce to age bm 
Tell u other things. It has oft«n been noticed how tenderly attached the aged 
ue to their grandchildren, — finding in tihem wonderful gifts, and granting tliem 
iadolgeneea which tJiey never thought of allowing to their own aond and daughters, 
ud rejoicing over them with a great and even toaching kind of joy. In connec- 
tion with the veteran saaman, Daniel Grieve, and the playful Eva, this mutual 
relation of age and childhood is thus truthfully and oharmingly described : 



' OUldhood ukd iga — 'tis atruige to aee 
How near they axe in BTinpithy. 
The mciTT yoaiigst«TB Iotb bo well 
To heeir tiie tatas that old mm tell, 
'Sor iratb their glee in doubt uid feu 
Because the silvery burs ktb near. 
The old ao fondly itoop to ruide 
The pattering footsteps at their aide; 
And weary hearts that seek tepoee 

Wnold lany hara awhile, 
If gladdened In their jonmey's dose 

Sy obildhood'H numy smile. 
To theB«^ life's busy toils are done; 
To thosa Ihej Hbtb not yet begoQ ; 
And baply, when the din and strife 
That T8I the stirring noon of life, 
Have passed and left the failing foroe 
To mnse along a calmer course, 
In kind old hearts tbere best remain 
What feelinge make them young again ; 
While, in the child's unripened thought 
An instinct of imprssMon,— wrought 
Wa know not how. we art: not whanca,— 
A glaam of trustful innocence. 
Bids It believe that toys and playa. 
And fairy tales and holidays, 
An interest from age may share. 
Which toiling manhood cannot epare.' 

' W« hare aftid thftt ' tbe Hanae ' etood near the Bea. This tact given colour and 
complexion to the poera, tud ia ioterworeti with the whole story. It ia in some 
impotent leepeots a T&le oE the Sea as well ae of the Manse, and it thne fittingly 
cloaea: 

'I took upon thee now, sea, 
Bending thy waves, io melody. 
To bfu the golden fringery 
Of eve's robe in the West. 
Beantj and power are given to thea ;' 
But changing aye, so fitfully, 
Thou art too changeable to be 
The emblem of blemitj,— 

For that Is rest. 
Rest, but not sombre night, 
Nor Blambrous idleneea ; 
Life rest, all pare and bright, ' 
And etrong and weariless. 
For aye the beat 
Of baey feet 
Ib heard upon the golden elreel. 
And aye the tone 
01 praise alone 
la eehoing round the Bapphir* throne. 
Beat there ie life replete with thought, 
That soars far ranging, undistraugbt, 
And Btrong to search the bfdden springs 
Of >U unutterable things. 
Beet there is life untiring aye, 
, At work in everlasting day, 

Where earnest labour asks no ease. 
And mighty atforts only pleaee. 
In that bright, busy land shall be 
No shadow, no nncertainly, 
No night, no sea.' 

Several of the smaller pieces, anch aa ' Hetty Leighton,' and ' Pleaaant 
Thoughto,' ahow not only much power of rersification, but are rendered with 
great spirit and energy. We, however, prefer to eonclade with the one entitled 
' Welcome Viaitora,' aa exhibiting a mood which ia a freqnent one with our anthor, 
and which be happily haa by nature, and also has wiaefy learned by sage experi- 
ence, viz. that of appreciating the higher and rarer pleasures of life, but resting 



^X^CmlT-^ IMPBBSeiONS OP A TBIP TO JAMAICA AND BACK. 165 



'When the o»k from ita wftilar alaep Kw*k>i^ 
And the cheitnut bough Into (oll^a brwike, 
When the primroM doiu iU crawn of bloom, 
And the alu-efad dklay deoka tfae tamb^ 
The Bwmllow oomsB o'ar the glUteriog mun 
To her neat bene&th the earcB ligaiii. 

'I lore to be&r her twitterlag song, 
In the quiet honr, when the daya srs long; 
Though it has not the vkijing faill of the lay, 
Whioh the linnet pipes on the bnmble eprar, 
Nor the gaab of the Isrk'a glad stralD on high, 
Twixt the green of the esith and the blue of the Aj. 



' That chirmpiug note, eo eSortleu, 
Seenu bom of a genue happineaa ; 

» the song vhich a mother's lOTlng heart, 



Takidr no thooeht about sfcill or art, 
Will chant by the norsery fire, to pleaM 
Ths childiea oInsleriDg roond her knees. 



Will chant by the norsery fire, to 
Ths childiea oInsleriDg roond bo 

When the harebell fades on the dark'oing hill, 



And the fruit is reddening npon the thorn ; 
The bird of the swift wing knowa her time, . 
And speeds avay to a warmer clime. 

' But the redbreast oomss from the pathleaa irood, 



' There ara joys that belong to the snnuner day. 
Let na grat^nlly um them while still we may ; 
It they pass when the SDnbeama no longer ahloe, 
We need not regret them, we ahoald not repine j 
For the dnrker ssason f n tarn will bring 
Some friends tUat are welcom?, some TOlcea that elng.' 



SOME OF MT IMPRESSIONS OF A TBIP TO JAMAICA AND BACK. 
(CmelaSed.) 
I fOUHD some good (raits of the rerivol which happened there eleven or twelve 
jtm igo, — meu uid nomen who had been awakened then, and remained bo. It 
imtn that at that time almoet aver; one was ia a fever heat of excitement, and 
w most extiaordinary tbiogs were done and said. For aboot a week the people 
mmmed the church, and would not leave it night or day. Bagsfnl of bread had 
to be lent for io keep them alive. The; woold have died sooner than go for food 
IfaraKlvce. Moat of their time was spent in walking and singing in procession 
mud the inside of the church. The religious frenzy felt bj a great many was 
liHle better than a bodily distemper, and they were soon found worse, religiously, 
tliui before. Bnt much permanent good was done. The net bad a great haul of 
ttd fish in it, bnt the good were numerous enough to characterize the work as a 
good irork, and a work of God. Not a few of the best in Brownsville congregation 
■m pointed oiit to me as God's children bom in revival tiroes. 



166 BOMB or MT IMPMB8IOS8 OF A ' j!Snti^* 

I bad some further pnclice in honemambip &t Biownsnlle. My frienda thae 
were good and fearless riders, and my hoiae nufortniiatelT was more willing tiun 
I to £l1ow them, as thej dashed on through miry slougha, by tiie edge of preci- 
pices, or np the side of steep and rugged bilk. To give mytielf due credit, I never 
did fall OB, nor faU far behind the tail of their hoiBes, nor keep very far forwaid 
from the tail of my own. It would have done good to ray anxious friends at home 
to SM me flying on, my white umbrella and white hat in faithful attachment to 
me, but in very useless positions, my bruised fingers holding on by the front of 
tlte saddle, my feet I don t know where, and jny too eameat eyee looking for a soft 
plaoe to fall on. 

' Lucea, where tbe nearest mission station of the United PTeabyterian Church is, 
lies at the sea-idde aboat nine miles from Brownsville. Several ttmee 1 rode dom, 
Btarting eaily and arriving about nine, very much exhausted by the heat, which 
grows more intense, whilst yon grow more tired, aa the day advances and yon get 
mto the low-lying regions. Coming down from the bills, at a turn of the i^ 
Lucea buista on your view magniflcently, — a wide bay, shaped like a horse-shoe, on 
the weetddeof which lies the town in a groveof cocoa-nut trees; Ibe houses, moedy 
white, but some red and yellow, peeping out very jw^ttily from Hie green foha^ 
on the hill-side, or standing in lines ot cluBtere on the seashore. Mr. 'Wafeon is 
revered by the old in this place ; and Mr. Campbell, k,tely retired from the missioii, 
ia most highly esteemed by all. He was long a laborious and snccee^nl missionaiy 
here ; organized and .conducted the Sunday school to perfectiwi, and baa left an 
impression that will be distinctly felt tor generations to come. Mr. BaiUie, in the 
station at preeent, is also an admirable missionary and an accomplished man. I 
believe he could draw a tooth, amputate a limb, manage a cattle pen or sngu 
factory, or work the telegraph, as well aa he can preach the goepel, and that ia ' 
Kiying a great deal. He is a moat devoted servant of Christ, and as euch HOitB 
b^de all waters, scarcely ever meeting a person on the road without an eStat to 
commnnicate a gospel word in season. Never did I feel brotherly kindness Under 
than his to me. It was in hie bouse I met the late Mr, Hanna, and since 1 left 
Jamaica the shadow has fallen on himself by Mrs. Baillie's death. His house ia 
beautiful, commanding a fine view of the distuit Brownsville bills, and overlookiiig 
the sweetly embowered town, the ample bay, and the open sea. BAniiful ! but 
desolate I for the desire of his eyes is gone horn it. I preached twice in Mr. 
Baillie's church, which is a commodious bmlding, and quite fiUed at the Sabbath 
services. Our mission cause there seems in a very patwperoua condition. 

I found the return journey from Lucea to Brownsville much more pteaaant. Ton 
leave earlir in the morning, and though the heaf increases as you go on, you are 
getting higher into the freah air and cool breezes ot the hills. If possible, no one 
starts on a journey in the late aft«moon, or travels in the evening, in Jamaica. 
Sunset invariably happens about six o'clock, and with sunset almost immediately 
darknesB falls. There is no twilight to speak of. In a cemetEOy the other day 1 
read this announcement on a bowl : ' The gates are open at daylight, and closed 
exnctly at dusk.' I was amused with the phrase ' exactly at dusk.' I thought it 
might do for Jamaica, where sunset, dusk, and darkness are almost one ; but in a 
land of lengthened tvriKghts such as this, to say ' exactly at dusk ' seemed to me 
as odd and indefinite aa to say, ' exactly somewhere between John o' Groat's and 
. London.' 

Bearding the white population of Jamaica generally, there is not much to be 
said, if one must speak farourably. Their distinguishing Christian feature is that 
they are given to hospitality, — if Christian it can be called, for it does not aeon to 
be associated with any other fruits of the Spirit. If professedly njigioiie at all, 
they seem to be mere formalists. Their manners ar« very highly cultured ; the 
ladies especially are proverbial for the queenllness of their style, b^g p<rfiiAied to 
a very high degree, — a remarkable grace in all their movements, muiie in their 
iQ>eech, good taste in tlieir dress, and in their minds, apparently, the delicacy tA 
good feding that culture ^ves to a true woman. But, after all, uie only thorangh 

S:inciple -Uie whit«s have, commonly, is what they have learned from him whom 
nnyaii calls Mr. Civilitv. There is not much humanity, and there is ksaeo^lineM 
in their inward parts. Moat of them g^e ^e cold shoulder even to Hot&Xj, and 



"■"SJ^TiwiT"' TBIP TO JAKAIOA ASD BACK. 167 

Ui^faate Iiegftlitj. "^y we proud, — I think eelfiah,— and their highest um would 
■eem to be to make life u eaty &ud enjOTsble m poeaible, and to be M as littie 
tioable and exp&aa as poasibla for the goad of otheie. The white ma% together 
with slareiy and nun, na^ been the bane of the ialand. It ia aaid the estates an 
dens of immorality. Go t^i them, and jaa hear the white man cnne the negroes 
sod detail their sins, which are i^ia-gij the offspring and image of his own, in a 
different c<doiir. 

There is a book written by Horace Bnshnell, D.D., America, and entiS^ The 
Sierai Usa o/aotM Dark Thing*. 1 do not know that he had the Jaiaaica negroes in 
viewwhoihe framed that title, but I know that he could not derote a chapter to a 
more appropriate subject, the Jamaica white people being judges. The African 
n^io, the Cuboa negro, the American negro, Uiey aaj, are all bad, but the 
Jamaica negro is worst of all. That man or woman of th^ should be fit for anv 
aaral nae whaterer, is to the Creole white mind incouceiTable, and, if held at al^ 
to be hdd among the number of iDScratable mjEteries. 

What -could yon eipect of a race thus judged and thus treated? The white 
peofde speak to them as heartlessly as they speak to hated dogs, and if a Uaek 
man of ajHiit shows only a little tncijgnatiou at the insults heaped upon him, ke is 
condemned for insufferable pride. You can easily uDdecBtand, from tjus state of 
things, what and how great difficulties our missionaries have to oontend with in 
seekii)^ to lead and keep these people in the way of righteousness and both, foe 
the imitative tendency of the negro leads him to copy the very rices from which 
in his white superior he suffers most indignity and crusty. 

In most districta it is almost hopeless for a bkck, however righteous his cause, 
to go to law with a white ; and yet the negroes are very fond of going to law, 
be tiie colour of their opponents what it may. Judging from their contributions, 
they are much more in lore with law than with gospel. Obadiah the carpenter, 
who gives three -ha'pence oi a threepenny-piece once a month to the church 
Gcllector, will luit grudge the saving of many years to have the satisfaction simply 
of going to court with his ndghboar Ahab the taior. It matteiv little whether 
or not there is a fair prospect of success. The pleasure is not so much in the 
desired result as- in the law piooess. The matt^ about which these two good 
mm plea is the ownership of a miserable hen or a few inches of unprofitaUe 
ground; and you may sometimes find two brothers, Moses and Aaron, carryine 
on an expensive case at law as to which of them is to have an article that both 
know quite well belongs to neither. 

The record of what I saw- and heard and experienced in Jamaica mnst soon 
dose, or mn on for ever. Gulliver's travels are not altogether to be depended 
on, and if I tell you much more you will have the same opinion regarding mine. 

The tioM soon came when I had to tie up my straps for the home jonniey. 
Gcsng, I was alone ; returning across the water, like Jacob, I became two bands. 

Onr last Sabbath at BrownsvUIe was a day of much weeping amongst the people. 
Ou^be week-day previous to our d^arture, they came up to the house ia great 
nmubers to ^ve and reeeire ^ew^ presents, and some lingered long about the 
open door with benedictionB on their lips. It was a sore parting for us all. 

It was arrauKed that we shonld leave Brownsville on Monday morning, to reach 
Kingston for ia6 home steamer on tite Saturday following. At an early hour 
there are fire bota» ready at the door, as the misaionarv and his wile intend to 
accompany us as far as Luces. We are mounted, and slowly descend the ' dear 
old hill' in sileoce, and where the road turns wet eyes look — perhaps their last — 
at the dear dd bouse on the top of it. There are other wet eyes at many of the 
caliin doors beside our path, and many kind hands ware farewell to us. 

On Wednesday morning, at the head of Lucea Bay, at the bridge over the rirer 
that flows into it, our party of five breaks up. Two ride up that same road we 
came down lately, and three are carried off in the direction of England as fast ae 
two fresh hocses can draw tbem. 

That erwing, by way of Montcgo Bsy, we arrived at Hampden, another of onr 
missicm statkws. Mr. Downie is brother of one of a well-known firm of seedsmen 
and florists in Edinburgh. He received ua very kindly, showed us the church 
(vhiiih is a large, weU-fumished biUUing), and next day drove us another stage 



168 liUfllKeS At A EAILWAT STATION. ^"'^'i^im^- 

on tmr way— down to Fatmontii. I remember, in the early tnotning, when I 
looked out of my bednxnn window in Mr. Downie's hooee, which U atnated on a 
hill, 1 woB unazed bejond meaEoie to find, if I oonld believe laj eyes, that we 
hod drifted ont into the Atlantic Ocean daring the night. It seemed bo, and 
there were little green ialands dotting here and there the wide expanee of sea. It 
was not sea, however, bat migt, maUng at a high level a dear plain enrfaoe like 
calm water, and covering everything below that line. The Bun soon folded up 
tliat mist like a garment, and laid it past for the day. 

From Falmouth onr conrse to Kingaton wae the lame ae titat which I took 
coming in an opposite direction. Leaving Falmonth rather late in the day, night 
overtwk ns ; but it happened to be Stir weather and moonlight, and at length we 
reached and put np at a wretched little inn at St. Ann's Bay, where everybody 
was asleep except a litUe idiotic girl, who told ns there was no bread in the house. 

Starting early next morning, we came to Chalk Hill, which was ascended with 
difficolty, and by and by reached Annandale, whore we reated for the day. 
Another day's journey past the Monea^e, over Mount Dlabolo, and throng^ the 
Bog Walk, brings us to the railway station at Sptuiish Town late in the afternoon, 
— Oiankful that no trace or spring has broken, or screw loosed, iJl the rough way. 
By train we reach Kingston in tiie evenine, stay there (as in a fiery fnmace, tlie 
weather being intensely hot) a whole week w^ting for the steamer, and at last, 
on Saturday, find ourselves on board the Venezuelan, and the ' land of springa* 
fading from view on the horizon behind na. 

The voyage was as pleasant and disagreeable as osnal. Gitenially we had strong 
winds, heavy seas, waterspouts, and B&ipwrecka ; internally wo had good and bad 
company, seS'Sickness, and not a little home-sicknees toa We were glad to get 
landed, as all people at sea are, s^ors among tjie resL The same day, from onr 
railway carriage wmdow, we saw the English meadows in the setting sunlight, and 
the Scotch hills in the light of a moon not so bright as the West Indian, but to me 
fuier, because more homely and familiar. 

On reaching home that night, I thanked God for taking me away and bringing 
me back again, — standing, with a better heart and an e:qMuided mind, in the same 
room where before leaving I stood and took a silent /arewell of the few eartlity 
things I could call my own. I still, and ahall always, I believe, bok back on that 
journey of mine with the wonder of one who has just awaked from a very happy 
and' enchanting dream. 



MUSINGS AT A RAILWAY STATION. 

Gould travellers, meeting accidentally tion, it is a trifle hardly worth the name. 

at a railway station, throw down their He finds he will arrive later than he had 

unseen joys and sorrows as easily as they expected. His self-eateem is n^ded, as 

do their cloaks and bags on the waiting- he cannot keep some appointment ;<kend 

room table, what a mingled confused this one disooncorting circumstance 

mass shoold we seel How unlike our blinds his eyes to his otherwise haipgj 

expectations would be some of the bur- lot. That weary load of real cares, bwne 

dens I how light would some seem, that by the young indow close by, — a family 

had quite oppressed their owners 1 and dependent upon her exertions, — must 

with' what wonderful ease would we sorely reveal itself in her conntenance ; 

acknowledge others had been borne, as but, as we lookup at her cheerful, patient 

we glanced from the load laid down expression, we can see tiie bravery of 

before us, to the calm, cheerful face of her heart and the strength given her to 

the bearer I That traveller, now walk- endure. 

ing towards us, we should expect to see But without any such disdosnres, and 
depositing some very ponderous harden, well aware that ' the heart knowe^ its 
to account for his croaa-grained look, own bittemea,' while with ita joy no 
He seems sununoniug all around him stranger can intermeddle, a sympattietic 
to witness to his being a moat ill-nsed heart can enter not a little into the feel- 
member of the community, when, lo! ings of the various groups around. There 
as he lays down his case for onr inspec- is a sort of meemeriam attnobi ns, oa 



'■'i^ETliST'' MU81HG8 AT A BAILWAT STATION. 169 

tndi occasions as tluilwe ace aappoaine, stream for swne coreted flower on the 

to one or two parties of tvaTelleia. We other side, and the merriMt .in tiie 

lee, or fancy we do, the lights and joamer basoB as the joys ol the day 

■hadowB cTOBSiDK their pa^ for the were Miog recDontsd. Bat it is alt 

time, and cnu find something higher orer, aod he knows it He is not tuny- 

than mere amnsemeat in watching ueii iug those anmnd him ; he is even to 

moranenls with no unkind, prying eye. the moment entering into the welcome 

Pleasurable excitement is always the kitbd to the last arrival, boA is filming 

most easily detected. While * sorrow his conjectures as to the retstions of the 

bfsds hesTiIy upon the sands of life,' varioQB friends to each other. Has the 

the maik imprinted on the outward gradually dawning consciousness, now 

mien is longer of being recognised. We ripening into certainty, that his life's 

can more eauly trace the light foot- journey is drawing to a close, led him 

prints of joy, as it passes over some to set his heart on more permanent 

TDtuig life, brightening it for the moment, joys, — on aland where tliey nerer say, 

bat £tting rapidly away. That happy ' I am sick ' ? 

gnnip of young people, always horering As he turns his eyes wesrily away 

near one spot, tiie appointed meeting- from the merry party, he feels ss if Qod 

place for a pleasure party, tells its own Himself had sent an answer to his nn- 

ttle in the eager, bright look with which uttered prayer for strength, in the silent 

BBW - coiners are welcomed, and in sympathy of the little fair-haired child 

sniions glances for late arrirats. The standing by. She has stopped her glee- 

occa^n has been long anticipated, and ful run up and down the platform, has 

on this bright aammer day all seeniB laid her soft hand upon his knee, and is 

promising. Care about weather, in this gazing up into hia laoe as if she would 

changing clinnate of ours, has been laid fainfind out the secretwhich her childish 

aside, and confident eipectation of instinct tells her is weighing him down, 

pleasure has taken its place, — not quite Often hare the little ones been made 

in every heart, however. That young ministering angels to earth's pilgrims, 

girl, who is standing a little apart from making them forget self, leading them 

Uie rest, has founded her hopes of the to think of the home where there are so 

day's hsppineSB on the fulfilment of many children. With something like 

certain day-dreams she baa of late been reverence we torn aside from that father 

fomiing, and, from the state of matter* and son, who are evidently soon to 

at this early stage, she is not quite separate. There is the bright, eager 

certain of their combg true. She has glance of hope in the boy's face, sobered 

made the burden for nerself, and she by the last moments through which he 

mast bear it ; she is lookiug'on this day is passing, as he is about to leave home 

as a not unimportant link in along and set out on life's journey alone. The 

chain of events which she fancies are father has an anxious though resigned 

eseaitial to her life's happiness. How look, which tells that the bittemess of 

different will it all seem long years after, parting is already well-nigh past. He 

when, perhaps, in some seldom ransacked has given his last counsel, offered up the 

diairer she finds a memento of this day last family prayer in the hearing of his 

in the dried little wild-flower given her boy, and left him in charge of a love 

on the hill-side, and which she priced so greater than his own. The time seems 

moch then ! short, indeed, between his child's first 

Could she enter into the feelings of journey across the parionr floor, and 

that youth who sits at a little di^nce this the beginning of one that is to 

wiatfully eyeing the pleasare - seekers, carry bim far beyond the view of those 

she would see even now how li^t in who watohed his childish progress. Will 

comparison was her care. His sunken they meet again, and how ? 

Eand hollow cheek show too plainly Surely that young bride, in hefelegant 

advance of disease. He is remem- travelling dress, with her hnsband by 

^^^^g bright days like this, when, in her side, can hardly have a burden at 

such a party as he sees meeting near all, — her life is so sunny, so full of love I 

bim, he was forentbst in the expeditioii, Occamonally the thought of untried 

the first at the top of tiie mountain duties and new responsibilities brings s 

wMcb others were still weuily cUmbing, thoughtful look orer her brow, but the 

the most daring in leaping atsoea the ahade is like that thrown by the young 



levrefl in apiine m thej twitter in the she ctm lejwc* fsata after for having 

Bnniiglit, — the disdow seenm bnt to pw been choaen. to eodore all this Borrav 

orer her tud ia gone. Perhaps ehe ie and enjoy the mt it bringik 

vithin a few atagei of her new hcane, But conjecturee conceining the tn- 

tmd full as she is of joffol antidpatioiu, TelluB mart cnieo, ae st the eoond of 

Uiooghts of reUtdvea aa yet unseen, and Uie railwi^ b^ there in a scattering and 

regaling whom she haa Bometimee arushtothe^inHWchingtraiii. Bnrdena 

timid fean, will obtrude tliemKlTes. li^t or heavy nnut be lifted and carried. 

Her companion has no anch ai^rehen- Perhaps SMne of the most weary-looking 

sods; he seenNthorooghly satined wHh bearen woold not after all exohange 

himaelf, his fail choice, and all besides. tiieirhaaTiertoraligliterload,aethTon^ 

The safety of certun feme and other long wearing h has so adapted itadf to 

C:a, mementoes of their toor, haa them that anothw woold be lesa eaailj 
carefully proTided for, and a bome ; while others, looking ba^ io 
pleasing picture of the h<»ne he haa manenta of quiet reflection on their 
prepared is filling hia mind. He paasee Ufe's pilgrimage, ceioice with a sober 
with a kindly glance that young w^unan, joy that Qtey l^ve not b«en left withont 
who, with her mother, ia>waitinguiait a harden to bear. Their nature haa 
bom all the rest of llie traTdleis. Poor been aoftcned, their wills aabdned, and 
girl I her greateat sorrow is the thought their affeetitma diawn, or aometinKS 
tlkat soon her borden, heavy as it is, will driven, upward by that which, bat for a 
be removed. As she loo^ at that pale power beyond themselves, would have 
face, or presses the thin hand she holds soared or stupefied- 
io her own, how thankfully woold she A od what is life bat one vast waiting- 
receive the aasurance that the mother room, whence all the travelleia will be 
whom ahe ia so anzionsly tending waa sominoiied, not collectively by one 
to remain with her and be still her care, general call, but individually, as the life's 
Bat the troth has long impreaaed itaelf journey of each gradually or atmqttiy 
on her very tool, that partdng cannot be ends ? How ah^ we meet the .sum- 
far off, and she looka forward to the ntons? Shall it bo with the ahnr, 
time when all thia watching will be past dogged steps of the criminal, who knows 
and her taak at an end. They have that at the end of his journey he diall 
talked orer many a mutual sonow, and be farced along by the strong arm ot 
it has been lightened by being shared ; the law to meet his fate ? with the tardty 
but the dark cload gathering over them rdnctant face of the stranger, wlu 
now will bunt, and one will be left alone, would fain delay his anival, not certain 
On earth they will never ioiA bock of the receptum U^t awaits him qt his 
blether on the aaddeat scene^ of all. destination J of with the jovful bound 
H^ she be aUe, even through tears, of a beloved child, who, oner a long 
to give thanks- for strength as each day^'s abeence, nirings into his father's arms^ 
burden is laid before.her, and bome, till and finds himKlf for evv at home ? 



' A CO^'ENANX OF SALT. 
'Son. xriii. 19. 
' A COVSNANT of salt ' was intended to he perpetual and inviolabte ; and the term 
refers to an extremely ancient Easteni custonk, which must have been obaored 
over a very large portion of the old world. Baron da Tott, who traveled in 
Torkey in the last century, gives an accoant of a * covenant of salt,' in wfakh be 
was one of the parties. He relates, Moldovanji Pacha ' was dosirous ot an 
aoqnaintance with me, and, seeming to regret that his business would not permit 
him to stay long (when he called to see me), he departed, prmniaing in a d ~' 



'"iSffltw**^ THE QLEAMER. 171 

putting it with a mjtteiiooa air od a bit of tite broad, be ate it with a deront 
giati^, aasQTing^ me th&t I might now re^ on him.' Cnfortnaatdj the aame 
pacha Tiolated hia ' corenant of Bott,' thongb the Turks think it the bUdutt in- 
gntitnde to forget the man from irham you have receired food. 

Aitother Btorr ia toid of Jacomh Beu Luith, foonder of a dynaitj of Franan 
iicgB. He iraB of low extractitxi, and made himaelf nolorioui as the fearlew leader 
<d a large band of robbera. Among other daring ezploita, he entered tiie pnlaco 
of tlie prince, and collected a large quantity of booty ; but before ramoTing it, hia 
foot strock against some Hubatanca in hia path, which he imagined to be sojnethine 
of Tolue. The better to ascertain it« character, he put it to his monUi, and found 
to Ma chagrin that it was salt. He had tasted the prince's salt, and, howbrer 
uddentallj it might hare been done, Bupeistition tbld him that he had now 
entered into a ' covenant of salt ' with the prince. He refused to Temove tiia 
booty, though at the risk of offending iiifl comradea. Some time after he told the 
piince the whole stoir, and in consequence he was appointed to a oommand in th« 
umj, eventually making bis way even to the throne. — From BibUcal Thiagt not 



a IN EARNEST. 

It was a curioua conceit of old Selden, in his Tahlt Talk, that prayer should 
be short, without pving God Almighty reasona why He should grant this or that, 
Heing that He knows what la beat for ua. It ia stninge that the learned man did 
not see that this reason would be ei^ually good for not prying at all, since it ia 
quite certain that the Lord needs no information from us. But in truth the heart 
iust^nctiTely lebnts all such plausible but really crude sophistries. When the ship- 
mast«i telia hia pasaengera that unless the gale abatea they will all be at tw 
bottom of the sea m two hours, no man stops to consider the extent of the divine 
onmiadence, but each one cries lustily to Ood for help. They plead, they wieatle, 
tli^ present arguments, they to^verse the whole case as if it were before an 
esrthly arbiter. They believe in prayer then, if they never did before. They are 
terribly in eameat. And often their wild outcry will be heard above the din of 
&6 tempest, the rattling of ropes and sails, and the noise of the straining vemel. — 
Stkclaf. 

HOW MR. BUNNELL WAS TAUGHT A VERT NEEDFUL LESSON, 
BT DK. TODD. 

Old Hr. Bunnell was a peculiar man. When a little child, he was peculiar. He 
didn't want to rock, or creep, or walk like other children. He seemrf to prefer to 
creep ridewaya or baokward rather than forward. And when a boy, no play 
suited him, no plan was exactly right. When other boyfti wanted toakate, he 
wanted to slide. When they wanted to slide down hill, he wanted to run on the 
ice. When they learned to read in the usual way, he tamed his book bottom 
upwards, and learned to read in that way. Not that he waa cross or morose, bat 
jieouliar. He wanted everything done his own way. When he became a maa, 
and rode bare-backed when othem used the saddle, and milked hia cow on the left 
side instead of the right, and used an ox hameesed with the old hoise, why, people 
said, ' Hr. Bunnell ia a peculiar man,' and let it ail pass. 

But there were places where he found it hard -to travel with other people. 
Egped^y waa this ao on tlie Sabbath. He never could enjoy the singing in the 
choich, because the chorister always got liold of the wrong tunes ; and he could 
not aijoy the prayers, because they were too long' or too ^orb, too abstract or too 
crauncm. They, were always out of jdnt. If tiie heathen were prayed for, he 
tboQght that the heathen at home might as well be remembered. If the nati<ms 
were mentioned, he thought the Jews ought to be mentioned by name. In all 
wses, somebody waa left out or put into the prayers that ought not to ha He 
didn't ' mean to scold or find fault.' he said, but he did ' love to hare things done < 
nght,' Poor man I he never had them done right 1 

But a greater trouble waa the preaching. He professed to like his minister, and 
did iike him aa well as he could like anybody ; but there were awful mistakea m. 
Ui preaching. Sometimes a most important point, as he thought, was left oat> 



172 HOMBciRcue. ■": "■:5i^:Tfei^ 

Sometimea things were pnt in whij^ uobodj could imdentaDd. Sometimea thingg 
almoat heretical were broached. Whkt oonld he do? He gt.je hiula and pro- 
ponnded qneiks to hia miuiater, and hia minister so gealdy and kindly passed ttkem 
off that it seemed like ponriiig water <m a dock's back. 

At leaigth, when patience seemed about to give ont, and vhen he could Stand it 
oa longer, he went orer to hia oeighboar, Deacon Wright, and poured his tnniblea 
into hia ear. Now, Deacon Wright waa a qoiet man, aud but little, bnt thoiwht 
more. When he did apeak, it was always to the point. He knew all about Hr. 
Bunnell, had great patience with him, and a great r^iaid for him. He uaed to 
say, ' Mr. Bunnell lores to growl, but he never realty bitee.' 

The deacon waa jast going out to the barn to fodder bia catUe, when Mr. 
Bnnneli came ap and bid him ' Good morning—if I can call anch. a cold morning 
good.' 

' Now, deacon, I've juat one word to bst. . I can't bear our preaching I I get 
DO good Tbere'a bo modi in it that I doa't want, that I grow lean on it 1 losa 
my time and paina.* 

' Hr. Bannell, come in here. That's my cow " Thankful" — she' can teach you 
theology I ' 

' A cow teach theology ! What do you mean ? ' 

' Now see 1 1 have juat thrown her a forkful of hay. Jnat watch her. There 
now ! She faaa fonnd a stick — you know sticka will get in the hay — and see 
bow ahe toaaes it one aide and leaves it, and goea on to eat what ia good. Then 
a^aln I She hoa fonnd a burdock, and she throws it one side, and goes on eating. 
And there I She does not reiish that bunch of daisies, and she leaves them, and 
— goes on eating. Before morning ahe will clear the manger of all, save a few 
sticks and weeds, and ahe will give milk. There's milk in that hay, and she kaowa 
bow to get it out, albeit there may be now and then a stick or weed which she 
leaves. But if ahe refused to eat, ^d spent the time in scolding about the foddar, 
she too would " grow lean," and my milk would be dried up. Just ao with oni 
preaching. Let the old cow teach you. Get all the good yon can out of it, and 
leave the rest. You will find a great deal of nouriabment in it.' 

Mr. BnnneU stood silent a moment, tbea tamed away, saying, ' Neighbour, that 
old cow ia no fod, at any rate.* 



^omt €ixtU. 

UNCLE JAMES'S LETTER 



We had juat returned from the annual over tbe stones, and, aa the children were 
holiday. For one whole delightful helped out, their feet tonched the hard, 
month, each morning had broogbt a re- unaympathetic pavement instead of the 
awaking to the delightfol sounds and soft turf aver which tbey had so de- 
scents of country life. The early crow- lighted to wander. 
ing of the cock, as it seemed to announce That night our party was rather low- 
with triumph the return of day, waa fol- spirited, but by breakf sat - time next 
lowed by the soft, sleepy -like lowing of morning, with the elaatidty and impnl- 
the cows going forth to ruminate in the aiveneaa of youth, a reactjon had t^en 

tieasant fields ; the sweet emell of the place ; the paat was left behind, and all 

onejsuckle, as it floated in at the win- manner of plans were being laid out for 

dow on the balmy breath of the mom- the coming winter's work and leaacma. 

ing, — ^had all woven themselves with Muy,theeldeet,anenterprinngyonng 

wonderful power to charm into the life lady of thirteen, declared that ahe meant 

of that month. And one did not like to when she grew up to travel ev« aD 

think that the little stream, now rushing much, and so she waa determined to 

with wild ^ace over the steep rocks, and leant ' heaps ' of German and French 

now sleeping in quiet tranquillity on that winter. Jamet, who had a marked 

ibe shining pebbles, had to be enjoyed taste for working among machinery, and 

through memory and not by sight. waa constantly screwing and nnsciflwing 

But ao it was. The carnage rumbled every posaible article in the house, from 



""f^iift*^^ HOME CIBCLE. 173 

the baby'a coral imd bells up' to his to TonnslreB and olhen, and lo ccuii* 

ffttbei'H fiddls, -which had more than preneaure, that 1 moai tell jaa aome- 

ODce come to grief in his bands, Baid lie thing abont it. 

ute going to ask bis papa to let him ' Harj aajs she is going to leam a 
kara drawing. Lizsie declared for great man^ languages, but if she learns 
moeic and music alone — that iraa her my leaaon, she will be able to speak a 
paaaion and forte ; while Jenny boldly language tiiat every one will nndentand 
umonnced sfaewasgoingtoIearneTery- and be charmed with. James wiahu 
thing; and the baby, sharing in the lo leant drawing, but myleaaon would 
enthuBiasm of the moment, and animated make him understand the proportions i4 
\ij its spirit, began to i^p his hands things, and keep him from making any 
laatily, — that b^ng the accoii:^>liBhment miabiikee in petspective. lliea Lizzie, 
he understood it was hia part to acquire, who thinks she mil one day be a grand 
' While the conversation was going on, mnaician, wtfuld find that this wonder- 
sod the ezdtement was at ita height, fnl leasou woold make all her pnrauils 
Uncle Jamea had slipped quietly in, and fall into perfect harmony, and life itself 
stood Burreying the scene intently. I one sweet melody. 
BW a pensire smile glide over Ma face, * Now, what do yon think thia lesson 
but he said nothing. Next forenoon, can be? It is long unce it was given 
boirerer, I recognised his handwriting out, and many have tried carefQ% to 
on a letter which waa banded in, ad- learn it, all of vhom have been nohly 
dre«aed ' To the children at No. 5.' rewarded, while all who have neglected 
It was Sabbath, and as we were jnat it have in conaoquence anffered great 
Ktting out for church, the letter had to damage and loss. It is to be fotmd 
be laid past till the evening, when, after where so many other beantifnl leaaons 
chnrch and Sabbath aohool, we were all are written out — the Bible ; and thia. ia ' 
assembled for what the very little ones it, " Learn firat to show piety at home.'' 
always felt to be tiie nicest hour of all Now you see this is a lesson that needs 
the day. At church they tried hard to to be teamed. It would appear that we 
fall in with something they could auder- do not come into the world able and 
stand, bat for the most part all they ready to ahow piety at home, — indeed, it 
could do waa to get hold of a word here ia the very reverse, — and before we can 
and there, that they could remember do so we have to make many eameet 
and Bsk the meaning of after; then at endeavoura. You all see, when baby 
theSabbath school they had theirlessons begins to walk, how difficult it is for 
ontheirminds, andafeeliogofresponsi- him at first. Your mamma aets him 
bility connected with this. But here, at up with hia back to the wall, and 
home, in the bright little parlour, with moves back a few steps, then, holding 
their papa and mamma to talk over oat her arms, shecoazeahimtocomeon, 
everything with, and ask any amount o£ and you see what an effort he makes to 

Snealiong, and tell them pleasant Sun- reach her, — an effort he would never 

ly stories, and apeak to them of their make but for the goal before him. And 

Father in heaven, wboae love for them then, laat winter, when Johnnie began to 

was but dimly shadowed forth by that learn writing, you remember how amused 

of their earthly parents, this everang we all were at the determined way in 

hour seemed fnU of joy and sweet repole. which he grasped his .pen, and, with his 

So at thia time, Willie, who had taken tongue out, set himself to copy the 

charge of Uncle James's letter, produced letters before him. Now, to learn my 

it, and read aloud as followB : — leaaon you must be as energetic and 

'Mr DEAR Children,— When Hooked determined as baby or Johnnie. But, 

in npon you this morning, and found beddes, you must remember that there 

yon all BO bright and happy, I waa is help always near. Just look at baby 

very glad indeed. Then, as 1 neardyou when he ia at one of those walking 

arrangingyonratudiee for the winter, — leaaona. He staggers to one side and 

allthat yonare^Dg todoandleani, — tumbles. But does be lie atiil and give 

I thought all this ia very nice. Iliketo up the attempt? Perhaps he would; 

see yonng people anxious to leam every- but you see your mother is there, sod 

thing they can, but there was one thing she stoops down and picks him up, and, 

that occurred to me which' yon did not setting him on hia feet, takea hold of hia 

' menUon, and which is so important both hand and with firm grasp leada him on. 



174 HOME CIRCLE. ""Slu^l!^ 

till with retnnung ooonge he sets, out usten and coinpaDUMiB what a beuitiM 

anew. Indeed, were it not' for help thing the Christian life is. A litti^-boj 

beyond ourBehea, no one would erer was one day learning the text, "Kke 

. learn this lesaon, but then this help is up before the grey hairs." Some one 

giren to every one who asks it. explained to him that it meant, tbst if 

'Bntyoneay, "Is tlielea««warthso he were sitting in the eosy-ch^, aodaa 

mTich tronble ? What is it we are to old man were to come into the room, he 

leani? What do yon mean by showing sKonld rise up and give him his seal 

piety at home?" Well, yon now piety " Ahl" Bud me little boy, "Idoa'tlike 

means lore and duty to a father, and in that text, 1 would rather learn another." 

itshigfaeet and widest smse it means the Yousee he had not leamed^isttoshow 

lore and duty we owe to our Father in pie^ at home. So a great deal is is- 

heaven. So you see this includes every- clnoed in this leasop. 

thing of any value. For "what doth 'And is it not worUt learning? In' 

theLoidregnirepf thee, buttodo justice, some of . the dingiest Isjkb in Londtai, 

io lore mercy, and to walk humbly with there are many dark littte houses that 

thy God?" Whatsoever Ihin^ are lovely are brightened and beautified by a few 

and of good report are oompreheiid^ hnmble flowers in very commoajdace 

hwe. earthttn pots. But how infinitely more ii 

' C was latdy living in a hoose where that home beaatifled where the cliildra 

one of tiie servants was ilL She was bring forth the fmits oi the ^piriL- 

far from home, and felt Iwely and which are me^neeB, gentl^ea, ana 

strange. Well, one of tlie children in love. In such a dwelUng snrdy the 

the fiunily, a little girl, used to go away prayer is answered which I saw lately 

beaide this young woman when her fel- over (me of the dooia in a boose in 

Iow-eerv*j)t was ont and she was left all which a German family lived, " God 

akme, and sometimes she read to hei, and bless this home." 

EometJmee she chatted about anything 'But we must not forget the little 

she thought would be interesting, and word "first" in my lesson. "Why 

cheered up the hearii of the lonely should we learn it first?" Barely the 

stranger, so that some time after, when A B C is the first thing to learn, yon 

^e had got quite well again, die said to s^. No, my lesson comes long Won 

hermistress, " Yonwere.all kiudtome; that A child — ^most an infect — was 

but Miss Hary I used to think a little playing with a kitten, when soddenly, 

angel, the way she would leave her play looking up in his mother's face, he s^d, 

or whatever she was doing, and come "But, mamma, wilt kitty like this?" 

and sit beside me." You see he had be^on evrai then toleam 
this great lesson. Like so niaiiy other 

"Litae deeds of Undnesi, lUUe words of lessons, it is fu easieet when Wned 

lUtT'tbis earth an Eden, like U-Bhoayen °^- I r^nembw once trying to teach 

above." B woman advanced m life to read. Bot 
oh, the trouble it was I After die and 

'We are apt to overlook small present I both thought we had got some letters 

opprattmities. A missionaty, who had firmly fixed in her mind, by nest day 

been many years in the formgn field, even traoe of them was goike, and the 

was visiting, when honie once, at a wliole thing had to ,be began agiin, 

honse where there lived a little girl who and that, too, with a feeling of disa^ 

was much int«reeted in the wonderful pointment and hopelessnese not easUy 

st<mea he had to tell. One day she battled against ; and so it is with this 

oame, aad, standing close beside liiiii | lesson, — you can never leam it so easily 

asked if he would not take her with him as tdien you are yonng. 

when he went away again, — she wordd ' Ilieo, be^es, if yon are not kan- 

lika BO mmcb to be a missionary. He ing what is good, yon are iMTning wh*t 

had to tell ber that she was too is bad. Tiie mind does not stajido^it;- 

little to' go abroad, bnt that still she Just try a piece of gioiuid in tiiis «sy. 

might be a missimary. She looked at Sow nothi^ oa it. Do yon think 

htm in wonder. How could she be a nothing will giow? I once thou^t so, 

minicHiaTy ? He told ber she might be How foolish I In the gai^ tben vh 

ft Aome missionary. By her everyday a piece of Very bad BoiL It tox* w* 

life she might tell bet hrothetB and eoa of labour to get bnt a pow crop 



....jb left to stand empty. ___. _. , 

imniediatelr it grew weedB enoBgh to htil would stop ont of pnre aluwie. 

Ehwk tlie whole ndghboariiood. And * Bat beyond tliie, then U uiother 

n it is with onnelres. If tiiis lewon thing abont thia leMon tlut makes it 

d showing pie^ at borne is not leamod important beyond all othen, and tiiat 

fint, a great many other tUnga have to ie, that it is not odIt ezoeedinglj nsf- 

be imleHned afterwards. fal to ns in this woild, bnt it u the 

'Then what a bkasmg to othma, great acoomplishmeat or aoqiiiremcnt, 

ctiiMren who have learned this lesson or whatever yon like to oul it, that 

an I Ah ! tou do not know how much we can [carry with m to the worid 

yonr father^ and mother's hearta are beyond. 

get on yon. A gentleman was speak- ' You remember how yonr coosin Tom 

ing to mo lately of his son, and in tones took afancytoleamskatuiglaBtwinter, 

of deep disappointment mentioned that bow he had great difficulty in permad- 

lie had pud £60 for his ednoation in ing his mother to get Aatea for him, 

mmic atone, and he had narer heard bow it was found they were not to 

him play a note but <Kice. I hare read, be had in the village, and how at last 

too, of an old Soman matron called they got them after aending all the way - 

Cornelia being visited by a lady who to town for them. Well, jngt that night 

entertained her hostess with a deacrip- they were got a thaw set in, and then 

lion and sight of a great many jewels was no more weather for skating all 

die wore. At last she said, " Bat have that winter. He felt he was not r^aid 

yon no jewdj yon oonld show me?" for his trouble, tiie <^portnnitieB (or 

Thsi Cornelia, calling in her three eons, skating being so few and uncertain, 

no donbt with mnch pleasure, and per- Bnt this lesson, when learned, is nse- 

haps a little pardonabla pride, said, fnl every day we live, indeed, is neoes- 

"See, these are my jewels. What so sarv to the right living of every day, 

predons in the eyes of yonr parents as sna forms the great preparation toi 

yonnelveM, and what can Afford them eternity itself, when onr lessons will be 

snch pleasure aa seeing jou. learning learned with esse and alacrity, nnmixed 

this groat lesson, and eobeug fitted fw with patnfnl effort or baffling disap- 

becoming Jew^ in tiie <;r6wn of the ptnntment, andpractiaed only with jot 

Redeemer Himi^! and delight— TTith all good wishes, I 

h 'But to others besidee thnr parents am, yonr aSeotionate 

sndi children may be a great bleesing. ' Uncle Jahes.' 

Jnst snppoee that all the children in That night none of the children fwgot 

yonr street, or, better sMIl, all over the to pray that they mi^ht be enabled to 

town, had learned this lesson, what a ' learn first to show piety at home.' 

levolotiDn it would make I Half the I. S. 



€axvt^an)3ttict. 

THE TENDENCY OF- MODERN PHILOSOPHY. 

TO THE EDITOK OF THE UNITED PRESBTTEEIiN MAGAZINE. 

Sis, — I have read in the February and leaving behind them no perceptible 

Magaans, a] letter entitled 'An Im- effect. But this is a mistake. The 

portant CrisiB, ' under the signature of speonlations of the higher order of 

' Fertitensis.' It may be that the crios mii^ find their way, e^>eciall^ in 

of which the writer ^>eaka is deemed these days of abnndant publicauons, 

by «nie to^ be more imaginary than from month to mouth, and the theories 

real, and that what 'Perthenais' refers of our greatest thinkers are canvaased, 

to is rathw a matter <^ mere specnla- not only within academic walls, bnt in 

tion ^an of practacal utility. the*wotkBhop, and even, as I can testify. 

It is the habit of aome to look on in the stone qnarry. 
all t^oBOi^o theories as so many It is well, therefore, that attention 

▼aaitieB, mtsabetantial and evanescent, shoald be earnestly called to what is - 



176 OOEBHflPOHDBNCE. ^ Sai^SI.'*^ 

being Bftid by oar modeni a&ges, md embalmed, uid which on that very 

the tendencies of theoriea wlTajiced accoont is the nniqne woDder &nd the 

and advocated ^7 them examlDed ud reiy marrel of all literature, and 

declared. demands that it shall be interpreted 

In the present day, it is ^oerallf just like any other book, not merely in 

supposed that mere materialism pes- its words, bnt in its inmost sense; that 

seeses the field of speculation as well its histories, its prophecies, its miracles, 

as of science. But this is not so. its sacred truths, shall be sabjected to 

Materialism ia utterljr repugnant to the standard by which we try the words 

minds of an imaginatiTe as well as in- and explain the sense of HerodotOB and 

tellectual cast : it affords no play to the Plato, of Yiigil and Tacitus, of Dante 

fancy,-aDd seta forth no worthy object and Bacon. All in it that is super- 

of aamration. It is therefore in 'the natural—all that discriminateH it as a 

direction of Pantheism Uiat they work, specific reTelation — is to be adjudicated 

It has a chann for them by reason of by natural laws and reason. And the 

ite very vagueness and mystery, and philoaophioal unbelierer knows full well 

assumes shapes of dreamy grandeur that if this radical point is gained, he 

which strongly impreas them. It ia has gained his caose ; that be has 

itot Darwin that inapires the poetry resolved specific Christian truth into 

and guides the thougnt of the loftier aomethmg else — into hia own system ; 

minds of the day, but from the distant and that it is that system which is left, 

past, Spinoza. while Christianity has been sublimated 

In iUostr&tion of thia, I quote a in the process ; for no one can resolve 

passage from an admirable volume by these specific truths and facts of Chria- 

the bte Dr> W. B. Smith, entitled tianity into mere general ideas or ideal- 

Faiih and Philosophy, recently pub- izing formulas, without annullinK their 

lished in this country by the Messrs. nature and robbing them of their for- 

Glark. The passage ocouis in a mative principle, just as a plant or 

thoughtful and learned paper on 'The animal loses its specific vital force 

New Latitudinarians of England,' and when decgmposed into its inorgajiic 

is as foUowB : — elements. Especially has the whole 

' A philosophic unbeliever resolves form and pressure of modem unbelief 
revelation into intuition, miracles into run in this direction. It haa come to 
the course of nature plus myths, in- its most distinct expression in the con- 
spiration into genius, prophecy into flict between Christianity and Pui- 
sagadons historic conjectures, r^emp- theism. It has come to conscious- 
taon into the victory of mind over nesainthts contest; for to absorb the 
matter, the incarnation into an ideal concrete in the abstract, to deny reij 
anion of humanity with divinity real- being to anything individual and per- 
ized in no one person, the Trinity into sonal, to resolve specific truth into 
a world process, and immortal life into spiritaal ideas as its last expression, is 
the pe^tuit^ of spirit bereft of the whole method and art of Pan- 
peraonal subsistence. He takes the theism; and hence all thia anti- 
wondrous volume in which all these Christiati movement runs into it by a 
truths and facts are embodied and kind of logical necessity.'— I am, etc., 

Obsebvkr. 

A MINISTERIAL WANT. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE UKITED PRESBTTERIAN UAGAZIHE. 

Sir, — It is with much pleasure that I in the same quarter ! On the shelves of 

note the presentation to each of the pro- my own library stand several Tolnmes 

fessora and students of the Theological obtained in the happy Hall days in like 

Hall of a copy of the late lamented Pro- manner, through the kindness of friends 

feasor Eadie s valuable ' Commentary on of the students. But the announcement 

Thessalonians.' Mr. Bigcart of Dairy is in the newspapers of Mr. Biggart's gift 

DnlvgivingtheOburchaiiiTtherinstance has anew brought to mymindthe^ct 

of his Christian munificence in such an that there are many 'fathers and twe- 

^piopriate gift. All honour to him and thre'n ' to whom such a boon woold be 

' such aa he is, for former similar favours invsluable ; and who, fioanc^sUy, are aa 



BELiaiOUB INIBIXIQENOB. 



mnch in need of the beat theological 
books u the 'bods of the prophets.' 
Bemg a ' supplemented ' minister m^lf , 
I can Epeu of the aigh irith vhich I 
view the publication of anch large and 
costly works Sn Dr. Eadie's volomea on 
'The English Bible,' Stanlej'a 'Jewish 
Chnrch,' Spurgeon's ' Treasury of David,' 
tbe ' Congregational Lectures,' etc., re- 
membering that ' they are so near and 
jrel BO /ar.' The ret angnstx domi of 
BQpplemeuted ministera forbid indulgence 
to any great extent in anch works as I 
h»Te named ; and by reason of anch ab- 
Btention many of us, I am sure, so far as 
modem theological and biblical thought 
is concerned, can cry out ' My leanness, 
my lesncess ! ' The 'Ministers' Library' 
8dieme in our Church seems to have 
become defanct ; at least I have never 
hend of its exieteuce since I became a 
minister. If it still lives, it is ' bom to 
bloih unseen-' Such schemes aa that of 
Ur. Spurgeon in behalf of the poorer 
fiBptiat minieters, and that of the Chrit- 
lian World in periodically supplying new 
Bud important theological works at a re- 
daced rate to Congregational ministers 
'hoae stipends are small, do not seem to 
take root in the colder soil of Scotch 
Freshyteriauiam. I understand that in 
the Free Church there isaaystemwhereby 



published price. Mutual eligibility here, 
however, is not to be expected, as on our 
side we have no such advantages to offer. 
Now and then, it is but fair to say, a 
straj volume, anch as 'The Lord's Offer- 
ing,'' or Dr. Taylor's 'Ministry of theWord,' 
is dropped in our way: bat, generally, 
the books thus obtained, are anch as can 
be got without much sacrifice. Can 
nothing be done to bring within reach of 
the younger, poorer, and more remote 
ministers of the Church an occasional 
qwta of new theological literature? I 
would commend the idea to the richer lay 
members connected with the denomina- 
tion, and hope to see it put into form, 
either in a revival of the Ministeis 
Library Scheme, or the adoption of the 
Free Church eystem of reduced rates to 
ministera whose stipends are £300, or 
under. The benefit of sach a scheme 
would be incalculable, especially to thoae 
who, like myself, are at a distance from 
the libraries in Glasgow and Edinburgh, 
and whotfe acquaintance with the most 
valuable works in theological and biblical 
literature ia confined to a perusal of the 
booksellers' catalogues, or a criticism in 
the pages of the Magazine or the Daily 



Hem, 



-la 



A YOUNO Minister. 



JfttliUi0fR«.— JKnittb ||nsbyterian (Jtfeurc^. 



TBESBETEBllL 

Aberd^M, — This presbytery met on the 
I2ih Febroary, when it was reported by 
the Committee on Nelson Street Congre- 
iruioD that Mr. Brown had Intimated to 
Dr. Scott bis desire lo resign his charge 
OB condition of being admitted as an an- 
smluit on the Aged Ministers' Fund. 
Dr. Scott being present, recommended to 
llie cosgrEgBtion the propriety of making 
B money presentation Co Mr. Brown, in 
recogaiiion of his faithfulnesi as a pastor 
among them, stating that something of 
lliij kind was necesspt? to meet the le- 
qoiremensa of Ih<- Home Board. Mr. 
orown then formally laid hig resignation 
OB tbe table. The presbytery agreed to 
tnnimon the congregation Yor its interests, 
and to take np this matlor at their meeting 
IB April. A petition from Oldmeldmm 
congregation was presented requesting a 
noderatioD for a fixed pastor. Tbe peti- 
tion was granted, and the Rev. James 
KO. IV. VOL. XXII. NEW BBRIES. — i 



Ireland appointed to preside on S5th 
FebrauT, A draft connittttion from 
Woodaide congregation was presenled, 
and, with a few slight alterations, was ap- 
proved.— This presbylerj again met on 
Ibe 5th March, when Mr. Ireland reported 
his proceedings in moderating at Old- 
meldmm, which were approved of. It was 
found that the call was given nnanimouBly 
to Ur. William Lawrie, preacher. The 
presbytery sustained tbe call as a regular 
gospel call, and instr acted the clerk to 
reqacst from Mr. Lawrie an answer within 
the timespeciSed Ln the inleaof theCbttreb. 
Dr. Frew of St. Ninian's na« chosen to 
represent the presbytery on the Mission 
Board. It was agreed that next meeting 
be held on tbe 9lh April. 

AnTuindale. — This presbytery met at 
Annan on tbe IStb alt.— Kev. Archibald 
. Smith, moderator. Mr. Eonald, as con- 
vener of Committee on MiBsiong, reported 
that, according to instroctioUB, the pres- 
bjterlaL paper oa miuions bad been 



178 BBLiaiOUS DtTELLieENCE. i^^ITm^" 

printed and ctrcalBtBd; uid, on inqoiry, Dueuu Acta. Next ordiiun meetiiig 

it wu found th&t tbe urangement foi was appointed ta be held at Brechin on 

exchange of polpita had been geneiall; the 4th da; of Jnne. 
carried ooi. Mr, Wat»on reported' hii Baiiffthire. —Tbia pteibjteir met at 
farther procedora in reference to Wanj- Porlsoy on 5lh Miircii — the Ebt. Mr. 
phra; anpply, aod ww ioatracted to com- Bogeraon, moderator. Mr. Kair, member 
piste the arrangement in regard to the of preebjterj'a Misaion Committee, mb- 
appointment oF a miuionarr, Mr. Baltan- mitted a brief statement on missioD fields 
tjne to be aiaociated with him in the and thoae who cnliivate them, intended 
matter. Mr. Watson alao reported that, for drcnlBlion smong the membere of the 
in term! of appointmeDt, he hail moderated chnrchea. It. was approred, and Hr. Mnir 
in a call at Holywell, and that Mr. John was iaetracted to mbmit it to Dr. Scott 
BrowD, M.A., preacher, b»d been nnani- for aDggeitiont,aDd to report to next meet- 
monslj elected. The preabjtery having ing. A{;reed also to hold a missionaiy 
attended to the nsnal steps, nnauimoiMly conference at Grange, on Monday, 81h 
snatsioed the call; and m the event of Jaly. Mr. Alexander Donaldson, elder, 
Mr. Brown accepting it, prescribed to him was appointed member of Committee on 
subjects of thesis and examination in BilU and Overtnrcs at the coming meeting 
theology. Read correspondences from the of Synod. The presbytery agreed nnani- 
Synod's Committees on Sabbath Schools, monsly to petition Parliament for the re- 
Soperin ten dene e of Toung Persona peal of the Contagions IMieaeei Acts. 
Changing their Place of Beaidence, and It was resolved that henceforth the .stated 
Diaeatabliahment. In terma of reqnaat meetings of presbytery be held at Banff, 
by the Bdinbargh Ladies' Committee on Berwick. — This presbytery met on die 
the Contagions Diaeues Acts, the pfes- I9th of February — the Bev. A. B. BobcH- 
bytery agreed to petition Parliament, son, moderator. It was reported that the 
Next meeting of presbyiery to be held at Synod collection for Cbnrch Sxtenaion, 
Annan, of the Tuesday after tbe fourth doe on the second Sabbatb of February, 
Sabbath of March, at 11.45 i^u. had been made in the congregation* tit 
Arbroath. — -This presbytery met at Coldstream West and Homdean. Acom- 
Arbroath on the Sth day of March — (he munication from the Synod's Committee 
Rev. Alexander Campbell, moderator, on the Superintendence of Toung Per- 
Appointed the Kev. Jobn M'Nab to re- sons was read, and the whole subject was 
present the preabytery as a member of carefully considered by the presbytery, 
the Committee on Bills and Overtures at Becogniaing the great importance of this 
the enaning meeting'of Synod. Elecleil anbject, the; agreed to remit to the prea- 
Mr. Alexander Clark, elder, to eerve aa a byterial Committee on Statistics to ascer- 
member of the Misaion Board for the tain to what extent the recommendations 
next four yeara. Certain snggeationa laid of Synod are attended to by sessions, and 
on the table by the Mission Committee to take what farther steps may be neces- 
were, after discusaion, adopted to the sary to keep the subject before the minds 
e£tct :— That it is desirable that one or of eesaions. The remit of Synod anent 
more foreign missionaries, conversant with the Contagious Dieeaaes Acts was con- 
the mission field, be asked by the Cbnrch sidered, after which it was resolved to 
to visit this country from time to time petition Parliament for the total and 
to stir np the congregation a to an increase immediate repeal of these immoral Acts.' 
of prayerful sympathy with, and liberal Arraogementa wereniade foraConferenee 
snpporl of, tbe missionary anterprisea of on Missions, to be held in Springbank 
the Church. That it is important to have Church, AyCon, on Monday the 8th of 
monthly sabseriptions towards missionary April, to which a deputy is to bo invited 
objects made in all the eongregations, and from the I'oreign Mission Committee, 
to bring nnder their notice from time to BucAan. — Thispi^sbyterymet at ^art- 
time the catuo of miiaioDS by every avail- field on 13th February — Bev. John Smith, 
able means. That the circulation of the Praserbargh.moderatorjn'oi^ TheBer. 
Miaiionary Seeord and of the JteeenUe Mr. Crawford, fromtbeprosbyteryofQlas- 
Jfiaiionar^ Magacaae aboold be exten- gow, being present, was invited to act aa 
aively increased; and' in connection with a corresponding member. Beceived tho 
this, it was agfeed to aoggest that notices report of the Conference of the presbyteiy 
should be inserted in these periodicals on Miaaions at Eosehearty, and agreed 
of the progress of tbe goapel outside the to engross the same in toe pfes^'Ia7's 
sphere of our own Cbnrcb's laboois, with- record. Appointed next half-yeariy eon- 
ont cortailing any necessary information ference to be held at Peterhead, on tha 
regarding oor own missionary schemes. ISth June. Took up the following qnefl' 
It was agreed to send a petition to Farlia- tion, which had been given notice M bj 
ment far the repeal of the Contagious Messrs. WbillasandSmithUlastmeeting: 



"AiJai^iBSr^ EBI.IOIOU8 IHTELLIQBKOB. 179 

< We wi»h to call the atlenlioa of the meeting for the levird of religion la be 

presbjterf to the fact that a pampblet, by held in Cke laiue place, on the Tnmday 

a Buuiater of oht aim Choich, advene to after the second Sabbath of April, all tlia 

the C<wfeiaioa of Faith, both in its (ab- clden being invited to attend tlii< meet' 

■tance and form, haa been indnatriODilj lag, and Mr. Uorriaon to deliver the 

circnlated in. our congiegationi, and to addreu, 

Bik the advice of brethren u to nbftt h^d Datufria. — Thi* preibvlerj met on 4th 

beat be doQO to elicit, in oppoiition to inch December— Rey. D. L.Scott, moderator, 

nutnireatoet, the Chnrch'i unshaken faith The aiaal sick anppljr wu appointed for 

in tbe system of tmth taught in her lab- Daliy. A conferaace on miHioni was 

ordisate etaBdarda.' In consequence of held, in vrhich the members of preebjterj 

the imporuuice ^ this matter, and the took part; and Mr. Snasell, Danf^nnluie, 

iaahility ol the presbytery to do justice depoty fi-pm the Foreign Mission Com- 

to it on the present occasion, it ivaa miiiee, gave an excellent address on the 

nnanimODsly agreed to postpone the con- missioiis of oar Chnrch. The presbytery re- 

tideration u it ontil next ordinary meet- commended ministers and sessions to take 

isg. Received with mnch satisfaction the inggestions offered into their serioos 

notice from the congregatien of Fraser- consideration, and embrace the best o|>> 

bnrgh that tbey had increased their portanitiei for fosteringamiBsioiiaryspirit 

miniater's stipend by £10.' Agreed to amoag the people of their charge. The 

petition Farlumeat for the abolition ni report on Sabbath schools to be consi- 

the Contagions Diseases Acts. Called for dered at next meeting, to be held on the 

the edict for the ordination of Mr. Hngh first Tuesday of Febmary 1878. — This 

Qles, Mul fonnd it had been rEgnlarly presbytery again met on 5th Febmary 

served. The presbyte^ accoK^gly aa- Bev. D.L.Scott, moderator. Supply for the 

joanied to the chnrch for the paipose of palpit of Dairy was continued. The report 

ordaining Mr. Qien to the ministryand on Sabbath schools was considered, and a 

pastorate of die congregation of Stnartfield. committee appointed to consider what can 

The moderator preached on Alatl. liii. be done to enanre their efficiency. Ur. 

81, 32, and wdained ; Rev. Gieorge Blair Clark, Barrhead, depnty from the Com- 

addreaaed the minister, and Rev. T. F, mittee on the Superintendence of Toang 

WhiUas tlie congregation. Mr. Qlen's Persons Changing their Placet of Resi- 

nsue was afterwards added to the pre*- dence, was heard on the sabjecl. Ifr. Ciatk 

byteiy's tiAl. The aoBnal statement of wasthankedfothiEexcellentaddress,andit 

Wood'* Bequest wb» submitted by the was agreed to commend the schema to the 

ecmgregation of Peterhead, and the fnnds earnest attention of ministers and elders. 

fonnd to have been expended in (ermi of Next meeting will be held at Dumfries, on 

the deed. the first Tuesday of ApriL 

Cltpar. — This preabytery met in the DunfiTTiiiint.~.Tbii presbytery met on 

daai-room of Bonnygate Cbnteb on ISth the 13tb March—the liev. Mi. M'Lean, 

February 1878 — Hr, Bair, moderator, moderator. * The Rev. Br. Ritchie, being 

Agreed to petition Parliament in favour present as a deputy from the Mission 

of the immediate and total repeal of the Board, was invited to correspond. Tlie 

Contagions Biaeases Acts of lS£6-fi9. derk reported that the visitation of the 

Sever^ congregations reported that since several congregations in the presbytery 

last meeting they bad made the annual by the deputations appointed bad now 

coliectiononbehalfof Che Synod's General been completed, and that, generally epeak- 

Fnnd ; and the attention of the members iug, ha bad to report favourably. The 

was called to the other collections to be attendanae, though small in most cases, 

made during the current year. Some hod been largely representative; Che ad- 

Biotters sent down by the Synod were dresses had been listened to with marked 

considered and disposed of. Mr. Tait, attention ; the deputations bad met with 

secretary of the Scottish Council of the the ofSce-besrcrs and workers at the (dose 

Liberation Society, being present, ad- of tiie public meeting, and spoken to them 

dressed the presbytery on the objects and words of counsel and enconrSigemeDt ; and 

prospects of that association. After some there was reason to believe that much 

convursatieo, in which the members took ^"^ woatd result from the visitation. 

part, it was nnanimously agreed to thank The presbytery expressed satisfaction with 



KT-' 



_ ', Tait for his interestiog statement, to the report. Mr. Cook, student of divinity, 

-record the continued interest of the pres- was transferred to the presbyteiy of 

byteiT in the quettion of religions equality, Dundee. Mr. Brown, convener of the 

and their readiness to avail themielves Statistical Committee, gave in his annual 

of any oppwtttnity that may preaent itself report, which in almost every ,item showed 

for tninging the present agitation to a an encouraging increase. The presbytery 

snccestful itaue. Appointed the annual expressed much satisfaciioa with the re- 



BELIOIonS IKTBLLIOENOE. 



180 

tiorl, and thanked Hr. BrowD for tha 
ibonr he had butovred upon it, and the 
admirable waj in which he bad presented 
it. He was inilTDcted to get it printed 
*nd drctilated in the nsnal nay. Mr. 
Oraham in^mated that at next meeting 
be iTOuld more that the presbjlerj over- 
tnrs the Sjnod on tbe subject of Disestab- 
liahment. It wag agreed to petition Farlia- 
meoC in favour of Mr. M'Lareu's Church 
Bates Bill, and the moderator and clerk 
were appointed to prepare and transmit 
tlia petition. The hour appointed for 
beginning the conference on missions 
haring now arrived, the presbjtery pro- 
ceeded to the same. Mr. Brown opened 
tlie conference with an admirable address, 
clear and practical, and was followed by 
Dr. Bitcbie, deputy from the Missioo 
Board, who read a valuable paper on tha 
subject, full of practical suggestions, and 
breathing a devout, earnest spirit. The 
conference was then thrown open, when 
several of the brethren and of the elders 
present entered into the conversation, and 
threw OQt suggestions on the general sab- 
ject. After prolonged consideration, the 

Beshyterjuaauimously agreed to accord to 
r. Batchie a cordial vote of thanks for 
bis able and stirring address. They also 
agreed to record their deep sense of the 
importance of the subject, and to urge the 
brethren, and especially the Mission Com- 
mittee, to give all due attention to it, and, 
as far as possible, to carr; into practical 
operation the suggestioDS made. The 
clerk was instrncled to send an extract of 
the above to Dr. MacGill. Mr. Grabam 
stated that Dr. Bttchie would address 
meetings at £iocbgelly on Wednesday 
evening, at Alloa on Thursday evening, 
and in Gillespie Chnrch, Dunfermline, on 
Sabbath evening.' The next meeting to 
be held on Tuesday the 23d April. 

Edinburgh. — This presbytery met on Sth 
March — Kev. James Robertson, Bread 
Street, Edinbnrgh, moderator. It w'as 
agreed to meet ou lltfa April, to induct 
Mr. James Wardrop, of Craigend, to (be 
charge at West Calder; and on 21st March, 
to induct Mr. John Kay, of Free Church, 
Coatbridge, to the new Argyll Place con- 
gregation. Mr. Rutherford moved^' That 
the presbytery overture the Synod to con- 
sider the propriety of printing yearly in 
the Missioaary Jtfcord of the Chnroh. an 
abstract of the statistical returns from each 
of the financially unaided congregations 
tinder its care, similar to that published 
every year of the returns from each of the 
congregations receiving aid.' After some 
remarks, the motion was agreed to. Mr. 
James Robertson, Bread Street, was elected 
convener of the Disestablishment Com- 
mittee, and Mr. Croom gave notice of the 



following motion for next meeting;— 
■ That this meeting overture the Synod to 
take such action for the disendowment 
and disestablishment of the Church of 
Scotland as they may see fit.' Mr. Gem- 
mell gave notice that at nest meeting he 
would mo ve-^' Thatihepresbytery overture 
the Synod to the following effect: — That 
the threatened setting up of a Papal hiet- 
arcby in Scotland is fraught with danger 
to our civil and religious liberties, and U 
a loud call to Protestants of all denomina- 
tions to oppose, by all moral and scriptural 
means, (he errors and aggressinnB of Ro- 

Elgm and Invemeti. — This presbytery 
met at Forres on the 12tb Sebniary — Rev. 
Mr. Whyte, moderator. The presbytery 
learned with deep concern that the Bev. 
Mr. Ferrier, Tain, departed this life on 
Saturday the Sth February, and appointed 
Rev. Mr. Watson, Forres, to condnct the 
services at Tain on Sabbath first. The Bev. 
Mr. Robson, as convener of the committee 
appointed to meet with the Forres session, 
and others connected with the congrega- 
tion, with regard to the use of fermented or 
unfermented wine in the Communion, gave 
in a report to the following effect: — 'The 
deputation visited Forres on Tnesday the 
IStb December last, and held meetings 
both with the session and with the eldera 
who had resigned office, as representing 
the members desirous of observing the 
Lord's Supper in the unfermented jaice of 
the grape. As a result oF this conference, 
the depntatioa unanimoosly agreed to re- 
commend to the session that they shonld 
arrange for tha holding on each Com- 
manion Sdbbatli, and immediately npon 
the close of the forenoon service, of a 
second service, at which the lord's Snpper 
shonld ba dispensed with unfermented 
wine 10 those who express a desire on the 
ground of conscience foe this mode of ob- 
serving the ordinance. In making this 
recommendation, the members ofthedepn- 
tation are not to be held as expressing any 
opinion whatever as (o the proper element 
to be used in the observance of the Lord's 
Supper, nor as expressing any opinion 
regarding the coarse of conduct to be pur- 
sued in other cases whero similar convic- 
tions have to be dealt with. Tliey simply 
pointed out the plan which, after inquiry 
into the present state of parties in the con- 
gregation, appeared to them most likely to 
meet the requirements of the parlicnlar 
case before them, and recommended thai 
plan for adoption. At their meeting on 
the 20th of December, the session unani- 
mously and cordially acquiesced in the 
recommendation of the depntation, as a 
possible, and the only possible, melboil of 
compromise in the present state of parties 



'"iiSj^JM*"*' RELIGIOUS IKTBLLiaBHOB. 181 

in the congngBlion. On reeeiTiiig in- FalUrk. — Ttiii presbftei? met on Gib 

timation of thi* deciiion, the convener Febrnuj — the !Rev. George Wade, mo- 

enlared uito cooiDlilDication with the derator. The Bbt. J. M. Lunbis pre- 

ninoritj, when it appeon that tome mil- lented the miaale wbicb the committee ap- 

ftppreheniiona had aiiaen reapecting the pointed at Isat meeting lied prepared with 

intendon and groandi of the recommends- regard to the Rev. EaKh Baiid b reiigaa- 

tion madB bj the deputation. Then mii. tion of (he presbjterj clerkahip, ai follow* : 

Kpprebenaioaa, however, were happily ■ The prcBbjterr, in accepting the realgna* 

nmoTBd; andat a meeting of the minoritj, tion of Mr. Baird, deiire to eipreu and 

held on the 17th Jannarj 1878, the mem- to leaTe on record their aenae of the tbIbo 

hen present, although they considered the to the preibjterj of hia lone- con tinned 

propoeai eDbmitled to them in aome re- aervice — upwarda of twenty-fiVe yeart — 

Bpects QnaatisfaGtory, yet agreed lo accept ai their clerk ; their appreciation of the 

it, "aa it recognised the right of conscience, fidelity, diligence, and propriety which he 

and conaerred the principlea for which they diaplaysd in the diicbarge of hia official 

had been contending." The depntation dntiea; and the hope that, altbongh not 

(mat that the meaaore wbicb has tbna been now holding the office of clerk, they may 

adopted will hare the desired eSect of re- atill be faroured with Che benefit of hie 

eatabliabiag harmoey io the congregation, matnred eiperience and fatherly coantel 

and of miniatering to its fnlare proaperity. la the traaaaction of the baaioesa of the 

They hare only to state further, that at preabyterj.' Thia minute the preabjtery 

their first meeting with the lesiion, Mr. unanimonsly adopted. Bead minute of 

Giltan, elder, made a statement respecting neeiing of Combernanid congregation, 

hi« letter, withdrawing his appeal, which trauamitted by the aeaaion, requesting 

satisfied them that there was no intention anpply of probationers, with the dew of 

to use any improper laugaage, or impute electing a eolleBgne and anccesaor to the 

an^ improper moCires in respect of the Bev. Ungb Baird. The presbytery unani- 

ftction taken by the session.' Thepreibr- moaaly granted this request. RcsolTed to 

teiy, in reviewing the report, and tbank- petition Parliament fur the total and im- 

ing the depntation for their aervicea, did mediate repeal of the Contagiona Diaeasea 

so nnder tbs »ame reaervation jj is ex- Acta of 1866 and 1869. Bead eirentat 

pressed in the report with reference to the from the Synod's Committee on Diaestab- 

Maeral questions involved ; and in view of lishment, and the presbytery at once held 

Uie remit recorded in the report, agreed to a private conference on the anbject. At 

allow the protest and appeal by Ur. Oiltan the cloae of the conference it waa agreed 

to be withdrawn, and so terminate the to remit the matter to the presbytery's 

present case. The Bev. Mr. Bobson re- Committee on Disestabliahment. Beiolved 

pmtei that be had, accotding to appoint- alao to remit to the Committee oo Hisaioas 

meat, presided in the moderation of a and Evangelistic Work to consider the 

Gail at CampbeltovFQ (Arderaier) on the qneatioo of church estenaion within the 

29th Jannaiy, when a aDanimoua and bonnda. Appointed next meeting to be 

most cordial call was given to Mr. Alex- held on Tuesday, the 2d of April, at II 

ander A. Robertson, probationer. The a-h. 

call was imauiinoatly stutained ; and Mr. Oloigoui. — This presbytery held their 

Bobertson, being present, intimated ac- monthly meeting on Tuesday, 12th March, 

Ceptanceoflhec^!. Hr.Bobertson having nben the Bev. William Thomson oconpied 

given in trial exercises to the entire satis- tbe moderator's chair. The Bev. Dr. 

UHition of the presbytery, hia ordination Joseph Brown wished to know wbetber s 

waa appointed to take place on Wcdces- document against rafflingat bazaart,lodged 

day the 29th March— the Kev; Mr. Watt, by bis session, waa in order. The Bev. J. 

Burghead, to preach ; the Rev. Mr. Mac- Stark suggested that sa the matter con- 

donald, Lossiemonth, to ordain and addieas cemed a great many of their members, a 

the newly ordained pastor; and Rev. Mr. formal memorial, with reasons, should 

Wbyte, Moyneis, the people. Tbe Rev. be laid on tlie table. The clerk was of 

Mr. Fringle stated that a movement is at opinion that the course suggested wss the 

present on foot in Elgin for the disuse of best under the circam stances, end be te- 

mtoxioadng liquors on the occasion of commended that tbe extract from tbe 

fanerals,' »a well aa during the interval minutes sent should be retained nntil the 

between death and interment, and gave memorial wss lodged. This was agreed 

notioe that he will at next meeting nKfre to uaauimously. The Rev. J. Mitchell 

that the presbytery take steps for the like introduced the subject of tbe re-arran^- 

movement being mode in the other dia- ment of the presbytery. By a maioritr 

triets of the presbytery. The Rev. Mr. it was agreed that Ibe presbytery anonld 

Hacdonald was appointed moderator dur* highly disapprove the proposed division, 

ing the next twelve months. tiiongh Dot adverse to autiying cbarchei 



BELISIOnS IKTELUGENCB. 



beioK Attached to prMb]rt«riei more con- 
Tenientlr ntnated. 

ffamStan. — Thia presbjlerr met on the 
SRth Jannuy— Ber. Mr. Bbemrer, node- 
mtor. The preibjteij tendered their 
' cordial thaaki to Rer. Mr. PatBraon for 
bii Talnable lerricea &i their reprefenta- 
tire M the Miaiion Board for the liat four 
jaaTi. An &ppl icatioo waa made by the 
■eaiion of SaSronhall coDErention for 
power to diapente the Lord's Sapper to 
th« qualified persona worabipping in the 
Wasuin Station at Bambauk, vhich ia 
tinder their aaperiatendesoe, and the pre*- 
bjterj granted the lame. A cumber of 
docmnent* from the aeation of Motherwell 
Chnreh were laid oo the table in the 
Hotherwetl wine ease, amon^ which were 
a pr«teat and appeal to the prubyien bj 
c^tain partiu azatnit a dedaion of the 
aewion of 11th December, granting; to 
■ixty petilioncTf the use of nDfermented 
wine at the table of the I/ord, andanawers 
to the wxme bj the leaslon. The doca- 
menti were read, and Meaara. Buaael and 
Griere were heard in anpport of the pro- 
teat and appeal, and Mesera. ColTille and 
Hanhatl were heard in replj. Qnestiona 
were next pot bj aereral members of conrl, 
after which the parties were removed. 
HaTing long deliberated on the caae, the 
pretbjterj ananimonalj agreed that tbej 
■honld meet with the aeasion and congre- 
gation at Uothcrwell on the ayening of 
Tnesdaj the I2tb of Pebraarf, at half-past 
leven o'clock, with the view, if puasible, 
of restoring barmonj in regard to tbe 
commnnion wine qaegiion.— Thia preabj- 
tery met again in the church at Motherwell, 
on the evening of the I2tb February — the 
BeT. Jobn Wilson, moderator pro iem. 
Ur. Robert Cairns, elder, Cambaalang, 
was ananimoaslj nominated to serve in 
the Miaeion Board for four jtut ending 
in Maj isea. Mr. Anderson, convener 
of the Committee on the Miigion Statioos 
■t Stonefleld and Bnrnbamk, gave in a 
lengthened report regarding the faigtorv 
and past position of Aese Etations, wbicn 
the presbytery received, end thanked the 
committee for [heir diligence in this mat- 
ter. The preabjterj, ae agreed upon at 
Isjt meeting, met with the congregation 
of Motherw^I, at half-past seven o'clock, 
forfnrther conaideration of the eommonton 
wine caae. The moderator engaged in 
prayer, and^eportiOQ of (heminntea of last 
meeting 'bearing npon the ease was read. 
The preabytery having inirlted and re- 
ceived a foil eitpreasion of opinion oa the 
part of the congregation, it waa proposed 
and seconded, and agreed to, that a vote 
should be taken with a view of asoerti^niDg 
the mind of the coagregation in the mattn 
nndar cooiideration. A vote was then 



taken at between nse and wont and a de- 
pBTtnre from use and wont in die elemeot 
of wine in the observanoe of the Lord's 
Simwr, when it was fonnd that IIT wars 
in faroBT of ixe and wont, and 48 in favoat 
of a departure from nse and wo>t. It was 
afterwards agreed to ascolain how man; 
of tlie 117 monben voting iii the msjodty 
were willing to graat to the 48 members 
voting in tbe minority the change in the 
matter of commnnion wine which they 
desired. On a vote being taken, it wai 
foaud tliat ODljr two weve «o willing. Tbe 
preabyteiy Uien withdrew to die rtabrj to 
deliberate ia the case, when tbe f<dlowin> 
motion was proposed and eeconded, ana 
a|^ed to — Mr. Wilson, elder, Motherwell, 
dissenting: — 'Tbe presbytery, whils fully 
aoknowledf^g the liberty if tka aesaion 
of Motherwell congregation to provide fra 
tbe observance of the Lord's Snpper, and 
believing tbat their action in the cireiun- 
stancea nnder review was prompted by a 
de«c4 for the good of the congregation, 
eameatlr recommend them, in considera- 
tion of the prevailing convictions and peoos 
of the congregation, to abide by nse and 
wont in tbe matter of conmanion eleuMnti^ 
and to make no change withoat an be< 
pressed desire by a majority of the con- 
gregation.' Thepre»byt*ryhaTingtetamed 
to itie church, tbe above finding waa read 
to the oongiegation. Next meeting is to 
be held od the last Tuesday a( Man±. 

Eibnomodt. — Thia presfayleiy met on 
8d Janaary — Rev. John Oarriek, mode- 
rator, Remined an applioatioa from Kx. 
David Gray, probatit»er in connection 
with the Original Secession Church, to lie 
admitted to the Macns of a preacher in the 
United Presbyterian Chnreh, with relativs 
docnmeats,' to a committee to exanuM 
and report. Indncted tbe Bev. Tbomai 
Whitelaw to the pastorate of King Street 
congregation, Eitmarnoek. — Tii« Pl'Mbr- 
tery met again on lath Febmary — Eev. J. 
Vorrest, moderator. Agreed to print and 
circulate amotig the members the report 
of Committee on Uiaatona, and t«ke the 
subject into conaideration at twelve o'clock 
at next meeting. Rev. John Forrest wM 
appointed treaaorer of the presbytery, ia 
jJoce of Rev. George Copland, resigned. 
Agreed to recommend the Synod to admit 
Mr. David Oray to the status of a preacher 
Id tbe United Presbyterian Chardi. It 
was reported that elders' associations bad 
been formed in Ayr, Kilwinning, aad 
Hanchline, and that a fonrth one would 
shordy be formed in Kilmaraoek, -7%a 
COD vener of the Committee on Snperintead- 
ence of Toung Persona resorted tbaA rtsps, 
had been taken to brine the wholn subject 
before tbe four elders assoeiatioas, and 
thus before each of the sessioDi in eoffl' 



^hTmST"' RBLIGI0U3 INTBLLIGBHOE. 183 

nertioo with the presbflerf. B6-ap|H)iiit«d th« arenl of hia becoming «lifiU«. The 
and enlarged the Committae am DioeiUb- report of.the DiMfUblUhmwtCominUtea 
liihment, to contider cfai« inject in ths inn adopted, recommandiog tbat mini- 
light of the present fkrotiraUe state of the aten t&ke aa eatl; opporlnoitj of bring* 
pnhlie miad, and take adiaotage of anf ing before their people ia their reapectiTa 
ehaa^ that ma; emerge with a view to coogregadoni ihe teaching of Scripture ■■ 
practicalactioBbylhepreabjter;. Agreed reference to the independence and ipiritn* 
to petition the Hoan of CommonB for the alitj of the Church of Christ in her ad- 
repeal of the Contagiou Diseasej Acts, ministration and lupport, and that Jetni 
Initivcted the Aagmentalion Committee Christ, ai eole King and Head of Hii 
to tame a eircnlar itronglj tecommendine Church, hat enjoined Hii people to proride 
the ebumi of the AngmaaCation Fund for maintaiaiog and extending it bj free- 
upon all the congregations in the boondi, will offerings. 

raise aalMcriptions from ministen and Perth. — Tbiipreih/Ceiymetonthe 12th 
others, and append a list of subscriptions Febmsrj — Mr. Ljon, nodarator. Mr. 
to the circular. M'Neill reported, his conduct in the 

Mdroie. — This pTesbfler/ met on 4th moderation at Balbeggie on the ,28th 
December— Mr. Pollock, moderator. Mr. Janoar]', and laid on the table the call 
Steren^on reported that be had moderated addre«ed to Mr, Alexander A. Bobertson, 
in a call in the West Chnrcb, Sellcirk, probationer. Mr. U'NelU's conduct was ap- 
which iassed unanimou^lj in favour of proTed.aod tbec^lsnitained; aodiaview 
Hr. George M'Coltnm, preacher, Glasgow, of Ur, Boberlson's accepting it, subjects 
The call, which was eigocd by SIT metn- ' of trial for ordination were assigned him. 
bertandTaordinarjliearerB, wassuBtoined. The clerk reported that be had i;eceived, 
Mr. WilsoD, elder, gave notice of motion since laat meeting, a call, with relative 
for next meeting coacemiog the pajmeat docaroeuls, from the congregation of West 
of the travelling expenses of members of Calder, addressed to Mr. Wardiop, Craig- 
conrt to preibfterf and s^nod. Mr. Mair end, and that ha had tsken the necessary 
introduced the coasidoration of the Bevi- steps to prepare for said call being now 
sion of the Confession of Faith in an able disposed of. Papers baTing been read and 

Eaper, and a spirited diacuBsion followed, commissionera heard from both cougrega- 
; was generally felt, eipeclally amongthe Uons, and Mr. Wardrop baring intimated 
eldera^ that an alteration was desirable; t)iathefeltittobahisdut;toacceptthecall, 
bnt as the object aimed at was simply the it was agreed to dissolve his pastoral rela- 
ventilation of the anbject, no definite tion to Craigond, and to transfer him to 

I come to.— Met ' ' "" - ■ 

-Mr. Pollock i 
Inm accented th 
tron Selkirk West Church, and gave his to be interim moderator of the i 
trials for ordination, which was fixed to there. The convener of the presbytery's 
take place on the 26th — Mr. Fatersou Missioa Committee reported on Cbarch 
to preach, and Hr. Stevenson to ordain Extension, and other matters remitted to 
and deliver the addresses. The subject of Ms committee in conjunction with the 
the payment of members' travelliag ex- Committee on the Sute of Beligion. Tha 
ponaea was introduced by Mr. Wilson ; report was approved of generally, and the 
and, after deliberation, it was ananimoaslj clerk was inatruetsd to engross it in the 
agreed to recommend the matter to set- minsies. A Slaeatablishment Committee 
sioas and manager* for their consideration for the presbytery was appointed — -Mr. 
— the r^orts therefiom to be taken up by Inglik convener ; and a eircnlar from the 
the presbyt^y at their meeting in April. Synod's Disestablishment Committee wag 
It was resolved to arrange, at the meeting remitted to it. Read application from Hr. 
in Selkirk, for au exchange of pnlpits for Robert EotcbiaoQ, Dunning, a proba> 
tbe ndvocacy of missions. The varioos tioner of tbe Original Secession Chnrch, 
aynodieat remits were also disposed of. to be received as a licentiate into tbe fel- 

PdMej/aad Oreatoci.— This presbytery lowshipoftbe United Presbyterian Church. 
met at Greenock on the 29th January, Appointed Messrs. Stirling, Jocqne, and 
when it mi agreed to accept of tbe Dickson a committee — Mr. Stirling, con- 
resignation of the EfiT. J. K. Campbell, vener— to consider this application, and to 
St. Andrew Square, Qreeuock. At report to next meeting. Agreed to peti- 
Greenock, Slh hurch, a call from Loch- tion Parliament for the abolition of the 
winnoch to Mr. John Black was sustained. Contagioaa Diseases Acts ; aod appointed 
A oommouicotion from tbe congregation the moderator and clerk to draft and sign 
of Renfrew was received expressing their the petition, and to forward it to Mr. 
dcaire to call Ber. Wm. J. Thomson, of Farker,M.P.forPertIi,for presentationto 
the Irish Presbyterian Chntcb, Armoy, in the House of Comtnons, Agreed tA noml- 



184 



NOTICEB OF KEW PI] BLICATIOKB. 



HUB at next mMtiag a mealMr to MtTje 
on the Miiaion Board in place of Mr. 
Wardrop, wbo U no longer a member of 
tbiB prubjterf. The rescvf tbe btuioeM 
was priYste. Next meeting to he held 
on the 12lh March.— Thia preabytair met 
■gain on the ISth March — Mr. L;on, 
moderator. The clerk read letter from 
Mr. A. A. RoberttOD, probationer, stating 
that he had accepted the call addreued to 
him b; the congregation of Arderiier, and 
decUoing Ui« call addreaud to him b; the 
congregation of Balbeiigie. Tbe presbj- 
terj' let aiide the call from Balbeggie. 
As arranged at the prerioiiB meeting, at 
11.30 the presbyter; entered into a con- 
fereDce, for two honrs, on the Friaciples 
and 9c!iemeB of the Denaminatioii ; the 
Interests of Vital Religion and Oodli' 
ness ; and Miasiona to tbe Heathen. Mr. 
Thomas MiUer read a paper on the first 
■nbject; Mr. Alexander Fairbairn, elder, 
on tba second ; and Mr. Sutherland on 
the third ; and the brethren present en- 
gaged in a free and earnest coaTETBHtion 
on these snbjecti, apecial prayer being 
offered far tbe dirioe guidance and bless- 
ing. The committee on the case of Mr. 
Halehiaon, probatiooer of the Onginal 
Seceasion Chnrch, applying for admiasion 
as a licentiate into the fellowship of this 
Chnrch, reported alrongly in favonr of the 
application, and the presbytery ajtreed 
cordially to recommena it to the faroar- 
able consideration of the Synod. Mr, 
Sutherland reported on the difflcttlties and 
disconragements of the congregation of 
Craigend. After can aiders ti on, it wan 
agreed to defer till next meetiog deciding 



on Ihflconrsewhicbit may be bait foi this 
congregation to take. Mr. Satherlsnd tu 
nominated to serre on the Sfnod'e MUnon 
Board, in place of Mr. Wardrop. The 
rest of the bnsiness was prifsta. Next 
meeting appointed to be held on the 16Ui 
of April. 



CarluJee. — Rer. Andrew Alslon, Cstb- 
cart Road, Qlasgow, called a6th Stbnuj. 

Lochaimoch. — Mr. John Blsck, probi- 
lioner, Glasgow, called. 

Ilohnetll. — Mr. John Brown, prescber, 
called. 



Kirlcaldy (Bethelfield), —Rev. line 
Mnrwick, Townends, IrelaQd, indncted 
SGlh Febrnaiy. 

Mlnburgh (ArgyU Place).— ReT. Jobs 
Kay, Free Charch, Coatbridge, inincwd 
Slst March. 



The Union Unirersity, New Tork, con- 
feried the Degree of Doctor of Diiinity 
on Rev. W. M. Halley, of High Street 
Chnrch, Dumbarton, on 2Zd Jannsi;. 



Died at Bournemontfa, on the liih 
Harcb, Ber. John Biuett, Nairn, ia the 
Ihirty'fifih year of hii ministry. 



itoiicts of lleto ^uWicattUttS. 

Tbe Basis of Faith: A Critical Surrey CoogregatioDal denDmination is to lie 

of tbe Gronnds of Christian Theism, congratulated on the pogeesHion of men 

The Congregational Union Lecture tor who would adorn the classes of ont most 

1877. By EoSTACE R. Condeb, M.A. faroured uniTereitieB. The namesof lift 

.J IT Hj lo.- 1..™ nxi lateHenryRogera, of Mr. Dale, andDtfl. 

London; tlodaer 4 Stouf uton. ISJS. „ ,, ■' ,^, ,J ,,\ ... 

^ Heynoida and Mellor, are well known sa 

Lectitreshifs od various important those of men of commanding ability, 

topics are becoming gradually more Mr. Conder is not unworthy to follow in 

numeroos, and are aaamuiug a place of their footsteps. 

power. And it must be confessed in Tbe subject which he baa selected for 

connection with them, that men of con- '' - - 
spicuoua ability and learning have en- 

gaged in the discuBsion of the weightiest Christian Theism. 

snbjecfa, and given us the ripe resnlta of that the age in which we live if 

prolonged thought and careful investi- great nnrcet and turmoil as to religion 

gatiou. — the foundations are being moved, and 

Those who have had the appointment the fact of the divine existence- is tha 

of the lecturers in connection with the very centre round which the conflict if 

Congregational Union series have been waged most fiercely. Mr. Conder tben- 

ftatnnate in theii choice, and the entire fore did well, we think, to mtdie this the 



of supreme importance 
and present and pressing interest — 
"' ' ■' "" ' It is acknowledged 



'"ti-aCwST'^ M0TI0E8 OF KEW POBLIOATIONB. 185 

theme of biadiicoime. Toitsdiscnraion ^cal, grouudB^, John Stuart Mill, and 

be hai bnmght maDv excellent qualitieB. Darwin. 

Ee ii dal7 infoeeBed nith a Bense of the Two queetioiiB, however, require to 
momentoDH nattireof the eubjecl; hehae be considered in this connectjon. One 
e, mind that has endentlf been exercised is, Can we from a finite effect conclude 
much concerning such sabjects; he has to an infinite cause? and, in view of the 
made himself well acquainted with the moral disorders of the world. Can we 
Bihistion as it at present ia In these beUeve in the existence of a being at 
lands — cipreBEes himself clearly, forcibly', once all-powerful and sll-toTine? 
Bnd often eloquently ; he is eridentlf a In reference to the first of tbese, Mr. 
man of high intellectual power and no Conder thinks that it cannot be seriously 
iEconsidorable attainments. The earlier put Bat he will find it very seriously 
lectmea of the Tolume were, in the main, put by that acute critic, Leelie Stephens, 
written, heteUanSitwenty-fiveyearsago, in bis History of Engiish Thought in the 
and eecured the cordial approval of his EighieenCh Century, and will see in Per- 
thes distinguished teacher, Mr. Bogers. using. that history that it is the difficulty 

The lectures are nine in number, and which cornea up all along the line of the 

the topics treated are as follows : — ' Ke- Deistic controTersy, and was always one 

Ugion,' ' The Knowledge of Qod,' ' The of tbe weak points in the position of the 

fialote of Providence,' ' Knowledge, its inferential Tbeist. John Foster says, in 

Ksture and Validity,' 'The Architect refutation of the Atheist, that to deny 

of bke Universe,' ' Joxshitective Design,' the existence of God ia to arrogate the 

'The Voice from Heaven,' ' Jesus,' attributes of Deity, for in some part of 

'The Voice Within.' To these there is the oniverse there might be proofe of 

added an Appendix, which contains some design which would convince even the 

notes, which are, as notes often are, not stoutest doubter. But the Agnostic affirms 

the least valuable part of the volume. that as logically we cannot infer more 

Mr. Conder rightly states that the line from the effect than it warrants, and as 
of argument in support of his thesis is we have not an infinite effect before us, 
twofud — that withm and that without so we cannot conclude to an infinite 
hb. In other words, it is intuitional pnd canse. Hence such an one would not 
inferential. He allows some weight be convinced by the following statement 
to the former, but places bis reliance and argument of our author's: — 'Know- 
chiefly on the latter. In speaking of the ledge,' says Mr. Conder (page 141), 'im- 
fonner, he says there are primary or plies mind, as motion implies force and 
necewaiy beliefs, such as in the distinc- apace. Universal knowledge, therefore, 
tioD between right and wrong ; that such as comes forth from every pore of 
behd in the existence of God lies near to nature, must Lave its abode in a ifiHD 
these, hut is not one of them. Our own which comprehends the universe. And 
coEviction is, that it is one of them^-ooe if all nature is built — aa it is — on such 
of the deepest and moat potent of them knowledge, one all-comprehending mind 
all; that which gives to our belief in mnat be the author of the universe.' 
moral distinctions its cogency and sig- Now our supposed opponent, who, how- 
nificance. The belief in a power higher ever, is a very real one, would dmply 
than ourselves is as prevalent as that in say he did not allow that ' untKeraal 
right and wrong ; and anything that can knowledge came from every pore of 
be advanced against this as an argument, nature,' and therefore he denied the de- 
can nith equal force be advanced against ductlon from it. 
the immutability of moral distinctions. In discoursing on the qaestion of moral 

Mr. Conder leaving, almost without evil, Mr. Conder is led to speak of Mr. 
euterieg on, this line of thought, gives Mill's diatribe against nature ; and to- 
kis whole strength to the latter. He wards the close of the volume, in con- 
avows himself an inferential Theiat, and nection with the sufferings of multitndes, 
affirms that the proof is' cumulative, of wliich apparently they were not 
Having, aa was meet, said a word in themselves tbe cause. After pointing 
farour of Faley and his method, he out the many ameliorating circumstances 
teveb over the wide field of the external of even unhappy lives, and the great 
evidence, and wages war valiantly and amount of happiness experienced, — the 
aUy with auch wponents as Sir W. obviens tendency of all God's laws to 
Bainilton (on philoBOphic, not tbeolo- promote human welfare, and the nature 



NOTICES OF KBW PUBUOATIONS. '^ ttSiTSat^^ 

BpintioD, he expronra his bdief that 

, . . ... HiBpii»tion extflodad genenUy, bnt not 

tliis ig one oi thoae mysteriea wHcli always, to tii« words as wdl as tbe 

transcend our comprehensioa. thoaghta of. the sacred writer. In thii 

Part of the cumulatiT« evidence is the he will find himself in. harmony witb 

Bible itself and the character of Jesos. general ordiodox opinion. As to t^ 

. On these iaa<ii that is of high excellence natiire of inspiration itself, in what it 

is set forth ; and, ho far as argument goes, really consist! lies a difficulty which has 

we se^n to be walking on ff mer ground not yet beea made plain ; and all such 

when we infer the divine existence from explanations as that the Spirit's infia- 

the character of God which the Bible ence is like that which a loving motha 

rOTeals, than when inqniriog in the exerts over a loring daughter, in dis- 

regiona of physice andmetapbyaies. But posng her correcSy to convey hex 

after all, the question returns. Where lies mother's thonghta to others, ia liable to 

the great strength of tbe argument for the objection of being inadequate, and 

the edstfl&ce of God? It seems to us only a naturalistic illnstration of a 

not to lie inaignmentat all; and we fear sapematoral process. 

no amount ot eEternal evidence will be 

of much value to the man — ifsuchaman (1) Alpine Advehtdbb; or. Narrate 
there be — who can say in his heart there of Travd and Research in the Alps, 
is no God. We have beard of a rath^ By the Author of The Medilerramaa 
unlearned individu^ — being present at a lUugtraled, The Arctic World, etc 

diacoume in which the arguments from. (S) Lessons FROU Life : Storiea and 
design, etc., in support ot Theism were Tending, For the Young. By the late 
set forth — being asked, as he retired Rev. William Arnot. 

from ' the service, what he thought of London : Thonu Nslaon A SiHu ; BdiiAuigk mi 

what had been advanced, quietly re- Se»-york. iS7a. 
plying, ' I beheve in God for all that.' These hooks are specially meant for the 
Yes, that faith might perchance be ex- young, and they are admirably adapted 
Anguished by the strife of tongues and for their purpose. They are yeiy beaiU' 
the confusion of argument, if it rested on tifully got up ; the paper, printing, 
Bomething external; but as part of onr- letterpress, engravings, and external 
selves it is indestructible, and, however decorations being all in a hi^ degree 
ignorantly or inconsistently it may be excellent aud attractive. 
held, must abide for ever. (1) The first recounts stories of ad- 
We regret, therefore, that Mr, Conder venture among the Alps, describes 
has given himself aimost wholly to the Alpine scenery, aud tells of scientjfic 
line of argument which he has adopted reseatchea made by Tyndall aiui otdioH 
. as most conclusive. In thisrespect, how- into the ice foroiatjons of thoae 
ever, he hut follows in the footsteps of wondrous r^ions. It is a book which 
many able and learned apologists who an intelligent boy will read with delight, 
have gone before him ; and if Ms treatise ^i^d from which he will receive moch 
does not mark a new departure in Chris- information. It is written in a ^m|de, 
tian apoh^etics, it will at least occupy forcible, and interestjug manner. 
an honourable place amongst the prodoc- (3) Those who have read Mr. Amotfa 
tione of those who have, with earnest delightful autobiograjihy will pemH 
purpose and roarked ability, addressed this book with special pleaaare and 
themselves to the discussion of the great- intelligence. To a large extent it is 
eat of themes. autobiographic^ Hr. Amot rejno- 
duces in it the scenes of bis early dkys, 

IHSPIRATIOM OF THB BiBLE. By Hev. f^.*'^'''^^?^ "^t^"^'^-^?,''™!^ 

James GsAHAii, United Presbyterian *"?'' P^ ^'^aJ*'*'' "" 'J"^ P***^ 

ChuTcb, Brooghty Feny. " colouring and stoing moral purpoBe, 

' " ■' ■' makes it a book which is enunontlT 

Erooettjr>!rry: A]«. Bownum, ]878. flj^^ ^j ^^^ tO ddight Bad edify tt^ 

In this sennon, which bears the mark of youthful reader. 

careful preparation and earnest purpose. One lesson which the author incol- 

Mr. Graham discourses ably on the great cates with the utmost fervour, is tlie 

and dif&cultsubject of inspiration. Dis- evil results of that thonghtleaB eru^^ 

tingoiabiug between revelatioD and in- in which young peo^e ara so apt ia 



V~JJ7yt*" NOTICM OF HEW rUBLIOATIONS. 187 

mdolge. Tbe etoej of tka woimded eoBYJctdnn Heotng to ba thii, 'If yon wk 

dore Mi^mdt many heartt,beHdei that not, I bioir,' Imt 'if roa aak, I dont,* 

ct tbe perpetrator's, sod deter from The poet, howerar, it u amrerullf 

tliat amd roort whicK i* death to its allowed, i* one vho has ^ropathj abore 

inBooeiit and defencdeaa ricliBs, how- othen with 'nattute and life,' and who 

erernnich grstifioatitHi it may nnhaj^j has .tlie power of ropmsautjug theM ta 

be to U& actor. mdodions nnmbtca and attractive fom. 

Altogether these two little volumes Tho dej|ree in which this sympathy and 

bave our warmest commeDdation, and power is poaseased is very different in 

will be found worthy of all aooeptsnoe, different penona, whilst it may be Terj 

''"''■ "n Bcconnt of their external beanlf real within its owa limits. That these 



and thmr intrinsic woitlL are to be found very unmistakeaUy iu 
.. .. ..... ... ^ (j^J^ 



A 'Young Man's Safeguard in the 



lupMtending liUle Tohune 1 
ounot be donbted. Its author 

SF.G.a^ By^n-^ IndTC abo '^e ««<K*««^ 

LoAm-.BoiitiiiStoa^ibm. WB. TJii word of God as weU as the works 

Tsa is ^^e-amiBantly a book for the of Qodi and the works as {Qostrating 

times. The SQb)ed ia one ttt vast im- the word, have for h« a pacoliar ttibrta- 

nortanee, hot it la difficult of tieatmeot. lion. Slie sees Arerywhcre ' a preeent 

We fear Hr. Qneat's method may ^ate Dtiij,' and 'from nature rises np to 

OD snpet£ne esis, bat the biave and native's Ood.' Henoe her poeoia will 

boDnt word ii the otily ons wtnrth find spedal favour with those who 

speaking, and the only one that will be delight in sacred truth set forth in 

effectoaC He brings to the dtsonuion poetic form. Such will find very real 

of his aubject admiiaUe qnalities,— pleHnre, aa well sa edifioation, iu Lyriet 

thoroQ^ knowledgs, a loving heart, of Nature and Life. 

thepowerof dear, pointed, and vigorous 

The topics disooBsed are the Bblmont Street Untted Peesbttbiuah 



exrocHon. 
foUowing: — 



_ . . ^ . -< Tho Moral Dangers of the Chubch Gentekabt MofOBiAL. Part 

Age : How to eocape them ; ' ' Tbe Op- I. — Historical Sketch ot Bebnont 

portimidea of tbe Age : Howtoprqiare Street Congregation. By tha Ber. 

for them; ' ' The ScepUeal Doubts of Davis Beatt. Fart II.~— Serm(mB in 

&e Age: How to so^e them ; ' ' The connection willi the Centenary ot tbe 

GhrittiMi Tonng Man's Place in the Congrention, preached by Bev. Pro- 

A^: How to M it' It will thus be feasor Bihkie, D.D., Bev. Datid 

uen that the field traversed is wide and. Bsatt, Bev. J. Logak Aieuaji, D.D. 

varied; and it is made exeeedin^y in- Fart IlL — The Social Meeting, held 

tacttiiig tw well aa useful by apt on the Centenary Ere. Pabliidied by 

illastiatimH, drawn friMn a wide range request. 

d reaifing and obeerrsticm. Abmd« : a. Bnnrn & Cs. 1878. 

As the anther obaervea, there ia a Ween a congregatioa has attained the 



dan of yonnff men who will not read hundredth year of its eziatence, it is 
"" "^ ' They are too fargonefor tm7 natorat that it i^onld seek tc 



this book. 



„ , Aber- 

wfaa m^hap long for a bei^iing hand to doen, has be«i enabled, to do so m 

enable titeia to return. To all such we happy drcomstoncee, the present bdng 

ocnunend tbk book Tery esmeetly. an advance on the past, aa it is desirable 

it always ehonld bo, 

Lteics «ro PoMts ofKatube and Life. Tho account of the proeee^gs of ^e 

By Janet Kelso Muib. oMitenary colobrabon, now pubbsbed, 

ma^:3. 4B. IVri«M. London: Hotflrton '"U have Special interest for tbe cro- 

ksoat. it7A. gre^ation more immediately conoerned, 

It hm hem freqnentiy aAed, what ts bntithasawiderintereit, TheesTnons 

nnios, and wherein oonmsta poetry? and speechee on the oooawon_ are all 

Birt Avrase and oonflicting answers marked by ability and ^ipropriatenew. 

hare beat returned, and ^ general A short notice of the proceedings ap 



HONIHLT KBTBOBPEOT. 



ministeTB of the congieg&tion were then knd impreaalTe preacher ; * whilst of the 

omitted, TIE. UiOBe^ Rev. Mr. Temple- latter it is iaid, 'He waa a man of 

ton, ordaioed in 1801, and Rer. Hr. robust mind, and of great Tigonr aa a 

Sei^wick, ordained in 1836. In refer- preacher.' Dr. Sodgewick laboais -with 

ence to the former, it is said ' he was great acceptance in Nora Scotia. 

DISESTABLISHMENT. 
In the General Aasembly of 1870, Dr. Biseet of Bonrtje, while conscioos tbat the 
Church waa nuhing on toward the breakers, ottered the memorable prediclii»: 
' The time that will elapse between the abrogation of patronage and the diaendow- 
ment of the Ohoroh will not be a lioman loatrum.' Within two yeara from thig 
date, therefore, the disendowment of tbe Scottish Chnrch is due, if Dr. Bieset is to 
be accepted aa a true prophet. Without anticipating any such sudden coUapse of 
the Eatabliahment principle, we maj freelf say that the time has now arrived wh«n 
'something must be done.' The different parties intereated are preparing for a 
desperate struggle, and two memherB of Farliament hare given notice that they 
will call attention to the matter. Sir Alexander Gordon, member for East Alter, 
deenshire, has intimated his intention to more that 'aroyal Commission be appointed 
to inquire into the causes which have kept asunder the FreBbyterians of ScotUnd, 
with a view to the removal of any impediments which mav exiat to their reunion 
in a National Ghnrch, as establish^ at the Reformation, and ratified b; the Revolo- . 
tiou Settlement and the Act of Union.' This notice of motion most be viewed in 
relation to other incidents and utterances. On the 20th of December 1877, Dr. fiegg 
and seventeen other ministers, but no lajmen, met in secret conclave at Inverness, 
and the result of the meeting was exhibited in three resolutiona commonicated to 
the newspapers. There was, of course, a condemnation of Voluntaryiam, whitih 
was defined aa ' a denial of the duty of nations and rulers, as such, towarda trae 
religion and the Church of Christ.' There was likewise a repudiation of ' aU pio- 
poaaU to devote to secular purposes the eccleaiaaldcal revenues of the country, 
which they regard, both on the ground of reason, history, the Treaty of Union 
with England, and the Free Church Claifli of Bight, aa belonging for religiaiu 
purposes to the people of Scotland ; and they hold this view to be specially im- 
porCaot in the caae t)f the Highlands and Islands, where the great mass <^ the 
people are connected with the Free Church of Scotland, and continue strongly 
attached to the principle of national religion.' The practical part follows, and the 
phraaeology sounds very like the terms of Sir Alexander Gordon's notice of motion; 
for the eighteen miuistera resolved further, ' that, whilst approving of the abolition 
of patronage, they hold it to be the duty of the rulers of the nation to remove alt 
remaining olistacles which prevent a righteous adjustment of existing difficulties, in 
accordance with the claims and principles of the Free Church ; and they are per- 
suaded that any additional delay in ascertaining and removing these csoses of evil 
may result in very serious and irreparable consequences.' It was resolved, finally, 
' that, in accordance with the above resolutions, the attention of the Lord Advo- 
cate and the Government be seriously called to this matter, with a view to the 
adoption of such measures as are manifeetly necessary.' 

Another fact to be noticed in connection witli these movements of Dr. Begg and 
Sir Alexander Gordon, is the earnest desire of the Established Church leaidera to 
reclaim the Highlanders who have joined the Free Church. These aspirations 
were uttered by Dr, Fhin at a conversazione in 32 Queen Street on the 13tb of 
December, in language strangely similar to that of Dr. Begg and Sir Alexander 
Gordon, Ha said : ' Let every effort be put forth that could be put forth, to take 
away from their ecclesiastical conatitution anything which coidd be tlie means d 
separating from the Church those who held the great leading trutha which the 
Church waa appointed to teach, and who adhered to the principle of national 
religion,— let some scheme of that kind be devised, and be for himBelf, and he VU 



'^^a^m^^ MOSTHLt KETBOSPEOT. 189 

inire the Church, voald rejoica if anv gncb Bcheme were devised, and would do 
what thej could to m&ke it sncceiBful. Warming under the influence of a iympa- 
thetic Midience, Dr. Phin became more explicit, and aaid, ' Would to God they 
could bring within the limits of the Church their brethrea in tha Highlandi ! . . . 
There was no aacrifice abort of principla which he was not prepared to make to ■ 
obtain that great end.' It would ' make the Church of Scotland what he desired 
to Bee it, — the gloij and beautv of the whole earth ; for he believed if thej had 
the Highlandfl with them, the Church would be impregnable, and would hold a 
position to the naUon which was not BurpasBed by the position of any other 
nstional Church.' It will be observed that the great object of Dr. Phin is to make 
the Established Church 'impregnable,' and that is to be accomplished by bringing 
'within the limits of the Church their brethren in the Highlands.' There is no 
idea of justice, or fairness, or reclamation of the lapsed manes, but only to make 
the Eetablished Church 'impregnable,' and 'the glory and beanty of the whole 
earth.' Will the free Church pastors in the Highlands not resent this as a threat- 
ened spoliation of their flocks ? and should Dr. Phin not feel ashamed of having 
so plainly avowed his intention to decimate the Free Church ? 

We further wish to observe that Dr. Begg and hia friends had an interview with 
tiie Lord Advocate, the result of which did not transpire, but it seemed not alto- 
gether diapteasing to the deputies. Farther, there have been private consultationa 
in the offices of the Established Church at S3 Queen Street, one result of which has 
been some apparent reconciliation between opposing pardea in the Church, as is 
manifest from tiie fact that Principal Tolloah is to succeed Dr. Phin in the 
moderator's ciiair. Till this date there is no evidence tiiat the Government has 
been induced to take up the qnestion ; and the notice of motion by Sir Alexander 
Gcrdon is rather a proof that meanwhile the Ijord Advocate doea not see his 
way t« take any action. Still, the position of affairs is such aa to require earnest 
watching. 

The sum of the whole matter is, that a vigorous and sustained effort is in pro- 
gress to carry over the HighlandeTS to the Established Church, and so gain for 
that denomtDatJon a great numerical accession of strength at the expense of the 
Free Church. That was one object of the Established Church leaders in pasmng 
the Patronage Act ; but as that effort failed, something else must be tried. It is 
a desperate game, and the chief actors may live to regret that they permitted 
statesmen to tamper with the Church. Meanwhile the ministers and members of 
the Free Church are alive to the dangers which beset them. They are involved in 
a hand-tO'baud struggle in which almost the existence of their Church is at stake ; 
and we hope they have resolved to adopt the best policy in the circumstances, 
whicl^ is to pronounce unequivocally for Diaestablishment. But they should not 
be allowed to fight the battle alone. The avowed object of the aggreasivo party is- 
to make the Church ' impregnable ' by getting back ' their brethren iu the High- 
lands.' It would be unpardonable were other Nonconformists to stand aaide and 
witness a successful raid on the Free Church in the Highlands, even were it certain 
that the marauders would stop there. But it is certain they would not. Their 
object is to make the Church ' impregnable.' Then the Established clergy wouhl 
snap their fingers at all efforts toward Disestablishment, and the cold reign of 
Uoderatism would return. It is not a time for apathy, but for hearty and united 
action among all Nonconformists. We observe with pleasure that there is a 
mnatering of the different divisioDS of the Nonconformist army. The Liberation 
Society ia completing its organization in Scotland. The Scottish Disestabliahment 
Association has been reoi^nized, and ia now in a position to do gOod service. In 
many preabyterieB of the United Presbyterian and Free Churches the subject has 
been discussed, and iu others there have been notices of motion which will bear 
fmtt at subsequent meetings. On the 24th of this month, the Congregational 
Union of Scotland will have the subject under consideration, and we may expect 
they will utter no uncertain sound. - It ia well to discuss principles, but it is a 
tine also for practicaL measures. A general election cannot be far dtatant, and it 
should be a matter of conscience wiUi Nonoonformieta of ev^ section to use all 
legitimate and judicious means to give their distinctive principles in this connec- 
tion the proioinence they deserve. 



190 MWrrHLT EEVBOBFSOT. ^'ttRfmiT' 

CHDBOH EXTENSION. 
This mbject ia being vei^r Tigorondy diacuBRed in all our Clmidtn at piennt, and, 
in the F^ Chuieh efpoatUj, efforts on & la^e Male are being made toiwuds iti 
wortlij tealinUion. 

In apeakiDg of it lately to um wbo, onfortanatelj, ^th ample meauo, had no 
synipntlij irith auj moremoit that icqaired him to part with any fraction of than, 
he ob«erred that ' in hia opinion Church cotitnotMm vaa more neceBUT.' We 
abo have been warned against ' Chturch extinction ' in oar efforta at Ohoicli 
extenaioa. Now, in replj to those who offer objections of this kind, we hftre to 
aay that pertiapa they would not object to the pluaae ' Chnrch adaptatiwi-' 

It is evident to the most saperficial obeerrer that great changes Iutb come over 
the countTT' a« to the arrangemBnt of the populatdoa, sad oonseqaently there is 
need for the Church adapting iteelf to ehangea, and, what is more difflAolt, era 
changing circamatancea. Speaking on this snbject at the anonal meeting of the 
Gla^ow Church Planting firard, one of the Ixetbren, who has bad expeoience at 
both rural and orban life, ssts : — 

' Planting ! There is Tery httle need for tliat kind of work in some «f our 
conntty towns and Tillages. Uprooting would, in a few eases, be more appro- 
priate. It woflld, I am nue, tend greatly to the advantage of all partiea ecm- 
cemed, and tA the promotion of the canae of religion generally, if two or three 
chnrcheH struggling for existence were rolled into one. If we could only trans- 
plant some of our ministers — able and earnest men — from places where tJiey aie 
wasting their energies, to other and more needful fielda of Labour, it would he a 
UeflBJng. And the reason of this nnsatisfacfany state of things in many tUobdcts 
of the conntry, ia not the inefficiency of the ministers, but the decrease of the 
p(q)nlBtion. Where, then, are the people going to ? The question is yeiy eavly 
answered. I hare been afmost amnsed, in visiting the membeis of my congr^ia- 
taon, to find how few of them have been bom and brought np in the city, aod how 
many of them have come from the country. I have been amaied, unce I came to 
OISBgow, to see the signs of rapid extension in all directions, so different from whst 
is to be seen in our stationary country towns and cmmbling Tillages. But iriiile 
the process of immigration from the country into the town is going on, there is at 
the same time a process of emigration from the town into the country, or, at least, 
as near to it aa possible. There is a twofold tendency from the outAurts into the 
centres, as fax as the whole land is concerned, and from the oentres to the oat- 
skirts as far as the cities are concerned.' 

Now, it must at once be allowed that in certain districts the Chnrch accom- 
modation, which at one time might be entirely necessary, much exceeds the 
wants of the population, and in such iiiat«.-nnjff ' Churdt contxaetion,' sa our 
economical friend put it, is desirable. But how is tlds to be accomrdished ? As 
thinn at present are, anion between any section of the disendowed Chorchcs and 
the GstabHsbed in any locslity is not to be thonght of ; but surely where there ue 
trwo churches of the same denomination, or even one belonging to the Free 
Church and one to our own, as a Tacancy occarred a onion might be effected, 
and thus one strong or tolerably strong church might be formed instwd of two 
struggling ouea kept up to each other's hurt. 

But at the same time it is to be remembered that there are many small eoi^re- 
gations in isolated places where union with any other diDrch is impOMibl& Sodi 
churches in the past have contributed their quota to our flourishing city charges, 
and do so still, as was testified to by the spet^r referred to. The Uttle rills help 
to HweU the mighty river, and if they were cut off even its diannel would soon be 
dry. Such churches, then, deserve support even from conaidentions of self* 
interest, whilst their ministers, need generous sympathy in their efforta after 
oilarging their borders, which are froitiess only because the ground ia altogether 



THE SCOTTISH COAST MISSION. 
The kive erf the sea ia very powerful in many a youthful breast This ought not 
seem strange in the case <d those who Uve by the sea-diore, and are accustomed to 
the sight of seafaring life ; but it does seem strange that ^ten it is to be feond in 



'■"SSr.ySr'^ momthlt sbtbosfeot. 191 

eqptl force in those wko bsye Keard of the lea oidj bj report, or who h>Ta r«ad 
of it in the pages of the novelist. 

It is well known tlut whilst the aaikit hss msny good qiulitiee, he is, Msmle,. 
Bidl; wesk in many respects. The meaej he braval^ sna honesUj eanis at ses he 
too often aqnanders foolishly tuid hortfnlly on shore. It is well, tberefoce, thst 
amid the maaj societies which hap[Hly now exist for the benefit of the wesk or 
goffering, Jsck-sahore shoDldnot be neglceted. 

There lies before us the Annm.1 Beport of the Scottish Coast Migsioa, and a rerf 
interatiDg and encouragiDg one it is. ' This minion, it is said, with which the 
Union Coast Minion was happily amalgamiited two years ago, now occnpies the 
extensiTe line of coast which stretoheB bom Berwick- on- Tweed northwards, aloog 
the Bhorea of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Tay, to Arbroath and Aiich- 
mithie in Forfarshire. It has also had, fot uxCeen yesis past, an outtying station 
at Thorso and Scrabster, in CaithnesK, It has amaUy fourteen iniaBi<«iariei ' 
occQpjing this field, all of whom deTote their whole time and ene^y to tlie 
qiiritoal intiereets of the seamen and fiahermen within thmr respective qiheres of 

The mission, we perceive, has the support not only of manj in the Metr^iolis 
and alonK tiie coast, hnt sko in the more inlsnd districte. It is altogether wotQij 
of it ; aod amongst the nany cktimB now presaing, its very strong ones idioakl 

QQt be forgotten. 

LECTUKEaHIPS. 

is the dty of Bdiabuigh during the past month no fewer than three special courses 
of lectures on theological subjects have been given. The Rev. Mr. Laidlaw of 
Aberdeen, in connection with the Free Church, has delivered the Cunningham 
Lectures for the year,~acoiir8e on 'The Bible Theory of Man;' Prof essor Fluit, in 
connection with the Bsird Trust, has been giving lectures, on the Sabbath evenings, 
b St George's Char<!h, on ' Anti-TheislJc Theories ; ' and Principal Caird of Ouis- 
gow University has been lecturing in Qneen Street Hall on ' The Relation between 
Philosophy and Religion.' 

The large, intelligent, and deeply interested audiences which have regularly 
assembled to hear tlKse lecturen may in part be drawn together by the distinguishea 
reputation of the lecturers \ , but, at the same time, it shows the interest that is bring 
incresaingly taken in the discussion of theological subjects in a scientific and philo- 
sophic manner. It is indeed very gratifying to see such an immense church ai 
St. Gieoige's crowded evening after evening by audiences desiring to hear diBcosaed 
such an unportant subject. 

One of the lectures, bearing very closely on one of the strongest and most 
injurions pbUoeophies of the day, is that on Materialism. In this lecture Dr. Flint 
clearly dejines what materiaUsm is, and with that wealth of learning which he so 
eignafly poHsesses, shows that those who imagine they are ' advanced thinkers ' 
because uiey hold materialistic doctrines, are completely, though self -complacently, 
mistaken. He says the term materialism, instead of being a snre and definite term, 
is of the moat general nature, and has many and discordant applications. There is 
one nniversal characteristic it has, however r it aupposea matter to be more than 
it is known to be, and endows it with qualities which neither sense nor science 
warrant,— «uch as eternity and self- existence. The general teaching of the system 
of Dtfnocritus, and even his method of statement, ore identical witb what hod 
been given oat as the latest and most important product of modem science. 

In connection with this sobiect of Lec^iresbips, we observe an announcement of 
no little interest. It is as follows : — 

' HiBBZBT Lectueeship on the Theory, Development, and Histort of Ee- 
LiaiON,— By a deed dated 19th July 1847, the late Mr. Robert Hibbert established 
a trust fund for the promotion of comprehensive learning and thorough research 
in relation to religion, as it appears to the eye of the scholar and philosopher, and 
wholly apart from the interest of any particular church or system. It was pointed 
ont to t£e trustees that endowed lectnrsshipe, even under the restrwnts of an 
apologetic deugn, have enriched theological literature with some valoable oon- 



' 192 MOSTHLT EKTEOSPECT. ^™iSiTiB5'^ 

tiibutioaB, &nii tluit an analogonB bnt higher result might be expected if b; a 
nmilor institution scope were aJforded for lecturers exceptionallf competent freelr 
to present the results of their ipe^ studies without Etny obligation to work towsrda 
a settled concluaiou. This suggestion was embodied in a memorial, «gued amoDg 
oOiera by Mr. James Martineau, Dean Stanley, Dr. W. B. Carpenter, Mr. Mm 
Miiller, Dr. J. Muir, Principal TuUoch, Professor Campbell, Principal Oaird, elc. 
In compliiLnce with the prayer of this memorial, the Hiboert Trustees have resolved 
to institute n lectureship. The first series of seven lectures will be ddivered hj 
F, Mai Miiller, M.A., Professor of OomparatiYe Philology in the UniTereity of 
Oxford, on the " Origin and Growth of Religion, as illostrated by the Reli|^oas of 
India." The lectures will be delivered at the Chapter House, Westminster AUiey, 
during April and May next.' 

Here Max Utiller is to come before ns as a lecturer at large, fettered by no 
reatrainta, and free to roam at will orer the field of inquiry before him. In pass- 
ing, we may remark that tbia allusion, which is a frequent one in certain quarten, 
to men working onder restraint is a mistake as to matter of fact, and more m 
as a matter of charity. The men who undertake to lecture in the way alluded to, 
do so bec&uae they are convinced that it is within certain limits and towards t, 
oertain end they should travel. At the same time, such will welcome light froin 
whatever source it comes. No one of the least intelligence will be afraid of 
reverent and scholarly inquiry. Such inquiry may indeed prove that we have 
been, in important respects, iu error, but it can only in the end tend to tiie eipo- 
sition and establishment of the truth. The qualifications of Max Miiller for tbe 
task which he haa undertaken are well known, and the pnbhc will look forward 
with interest to the publication of the results of his learned laboors. 

PEACE. 
Tee tenuoQ in which the country was so long held is now relaxed, and the word 
' peace ' is pronounced with a feeling of grateful reliel 

There are many questions in connection with this subject wUch are keenly dis- 
cussed by the secular press, but which also have their religious bearings, sncb 
as — Has the object for which the war was undertaken been accomplished? Are 
the Russian terms reasonable and attainable? and, Is this peace likely to be cod- 
tinued when the approaching Congress meets, and the whole subject is again 
submitted to discussion? In reference to some of these, time only can give the 
required information. But unless things take a very different course from that in 
which they at present are, it may be safely said that Turkish power in Enrope is 
utterly broken, and that war in connection with any of the questions to be adjusted 
is an iBBue that is In a high degree improbable. 

It is with feelings of grief and indignation that one thinks on the conduct of s 
certain section of the community in tbis ceuuection. The war spirit has posseaeed 
them very thoroughly, along with a kind of blind insanity. They have wished to 
fight, apparently, merely for fighting's sake; or rather they have sought to stir op 
strife that they might gloat over it. It seemed to matter not whether it «fte 
.with Russia or Turkey, or both combined, we engaged in the deadly game, so tiiiA 
we were only engaged, — jnat as the baser spirits on a pubh'c occasion ran to s 
fray and urge it on and rejoice over it, whoever may be the actors in ifi Happily 
their counsels have been brought to nought, and so may it ever be with those vho 
come into the asBemhly of such enemies of manklDd. And may the Ciiristian not 
flee in this an, answer to the prayer which, during these recent trying months, hie 
gone up frwn so many earnest hearts, 'Scatter Thou the people that delight m 



Printed by MimBAV and Oibb, II Qae en Street, and Fobliabed by WiLLim . 
Oliprant AMD Co., 24 St. Giles Street, Edinburgh, on the 1st of Apn' 
1878. 



D.q.t,zed by Google. 



UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MAGAZINE. 



MAY 1, 1878 



(©riginal %.xiUU», 



PASTORAL WORK.' . . 

BY THE REV. ANDREW TDOMSON, D.D., EDINBrnGn. 

Ih this lecture I wish to present yon with a few snggeations on some [ni- 
portant parts of yonr ministerial work, to which I haye not as yet had an 
opportnnity of making any reference. 

I. 

Let me begin by tonching for a moment on the subject of Bible 
clmesfor aduUs. Whatever be the size of hia congregation, the minieter 
OQght, even at the expense of much inconvenience and toil, to have sneh 
classes, and, for many atrong reasons, to conduct them himself. In the SabbaUi 
school, even when the minister is a frequent visitor and takes part in its 
services, the work is necessarllj shared with many teachers. But when 
those who were Sabbath scholars have reached an age in which the Sabbath 
school mast be left and they are budding into manhood and womanhood, 
it is time that the miniater were brought into direct individual contact with 
their rapidly opening minds. By means of catechizing, or conversational 
teaching, or otherwise, he will learn what are their di£Scn!tiea or mistakes, 
and on what particular subjects more light is especially needed; and 
altogeth^, those few passing years afford an opportunity which neither 
the pastor nor his catechumens can afford to lose. 

One very useful arrangement that has already been introduced into many, 
of our eoogi'egations ivith the best effect, and which it is desirable were 
introduced into every one of them, is the Juvenile roll, which contains a list 
of all the baptized children connected with the ohnrch who are not yet com- 
mQQtcanta or full members. These namea are enrolled on occasion of the 
child's baptism, or with a reference to that date, so that the minister can 
ascertain for himself at any time, and with comparatjvely little tronble, 
who are the persons that ought to be in attendance on his adnlt class or 
classes. That is a roll which, if we are vvise, we shall frequently be found 

* This lecture ia iba closing one of an odmiralile eeries wUch Dr. ThomBon delivered (a 
Uu doss oi Pnotieal Training daring ptirt of last aesaioii of the HilL It was tltonglit to 
contain valuable anggeBtions on enbjecla of great practical importanoe, which might be nse- 
lullo othere besides those who heard it. Oo this account, Dr. Thomson was requested to 
pennit it to be pnbliabed, and to this he kindl; consented.— Ed. 

KO. T. TOI.. XXII. NEW SEIIIES. — MAT 19T8. N 



194 PASTORAL WORK. '""S^'^^il^ 

manipnlating, with the intention of having the names of allwho are qnalified 
by age for attendance on onr c!asB transferred to onr claaa list. Tk 
principle on which all this proceeds is that the haptiied children of our church 
— i» other words, the children of our members — are apart of our pastoral care ; 
that we are under obligation to ' watch for their souls,' yearning to see them con- 
verted, and folded in the bosom of the church as full church menders; and that 
if ever the link between them and tw is severed, it shall be by their htnd and 

In regard to the conrses of instruction through which it will be 
expedient and proStable to conduct onr yonng people in attendance on onr 
adnlt classes, every rninister will jndge for himself. But I would name the 
following as both important and editing, and likely to be interesting during 
those momentons years : — 

I. A course on the evidences of Christianity, — one of the best text- 
books for which is that by the late Dr. Alexander of New York, iu 
its abridged form adapted for classes. 

II. A popular course on the doctrines, duii?s, and institutions of the 
Christian religion. 

III. A brief analysis of the books of the Bible, in which, among other 
things, yon shall point out the special design and uses of the book, 
indicate the circumstances in which it w^ written, the order accord- 
ing to which it may be moat profitably read and studied, and esplaiu 
passives of special difficulty. 

IV. A course on Eastern manners and custome, iUaatrated, if possible, 
: by diagrams and pictures, has usually been foond to be very attrac- 
tive, while affording opportunities for explainbg hundreds of passages 
of the word of God. 

V. A course illvslrative of Christian experimee has ottrai proved to be 
very useful and even fascinating, especially when Bunyui's Pilgriv^f 
Progress h&s been taken as the text-book. 

VI. And, at interva1s,*a brief course of a few evenings on our denomi- 
national history and distinctive principles, would be expedient, answering 
the question, ' Why am I a tJnited Presby teriwi T ' 

I wonld only further throw out the suggeetion in connection with thi^ 
first matter, that an earnest minbter and watchfnl pastor will sometimes 
find it useful to send for the members of his class, one by one, and converse 
with them individaally and alone ou the supreme subject of their personal 
salvation. When this is well timed, and done with afiectionate wisdom, and 
with evident singleness of eye, it is often followed with the most giatifyii^ 
results. Words spoken by the minister at such a time are not likely to be 
ever afterwards forgotten. They are painted in ondyiog colours, h ofim 
tumt out thtd the youth has had serious moments, and seasons of anxious thought, 
and purposes of good, which even his nearest friends had little dreamed of, and 
the minister's study has become his ' Vallei/ of decision.' 

II. 
The second subject on which I desire to make ar few sagi^estiaos, 
is scarcely second in importance to any on which I have addresswl yon. 
I refer to the admission of persons into the fall membership of the Ckrislim 
Church; in other words, to onr deaUng with applicants for church fdlowsl^). 
In onr Presbyterian congregations, the responsibility of this momentous 
part of dntj rests, in the last instance, with the Session, or entire body of 
elders. It is they that receive or reject the applicant. But osnally the 



lyTm"^' PABTOKAL woaK. 195 

iDJtiatire liee witL the mioister. That is, be ia expected to couTerse with 
the individnal, to become i^sqaainted with the measure of his religious 
knowledge, uid with his state of mind generally, while the elder of his 
district, or one appointed for the purpose, makes inqniriee respecting his 
general character; and it is on the united report or testimony of the 
mloister and dder that the Session usually acts. We have only t« state this 
in (B^er to see what a weight of responsibility rests on the minister of the 
dinreh in respect to this class of duties ; how burdensome a conscientious 
man is likely to feel it to be ; and how necessary it is that he should hare 
before his mind definite scriptural principles and rales which shall be his 
gnidiug hghts in the discharge of a service in which to err may often be to 
inflict serions injury on interests that are of supreme moment to every faithful 
minister's heart. 

The question is therefore one of surpassing moment: Who are thejii permits 
to be reaaved into the fellowship of the Christian Charch? In other words, 
What is the materia! of which the Church of Gtod ought to be- built? The 
answer of all inspired teaching, as I read the Is'ew Testament, is, 'con- 
•if^i\xA men,' ' true believers.' The words in the Thirty-nine Articles of the 
Chorch of England are unexceptionable on thie matter : ^A church ia an 
asteably of faUhfid,' i.e. of believing men. Mark the divinely prescribed 
order. 'Kepent and be baptized.' 'Believe and be baptized.' 'Selieve 
mth the heart, and then confess with the month.' In other words, we must 
ftrst have the religion before we profess to have it. We must be a Christian 
btfore we join oorselves to the fellowship or society of Chrisiians which we 
are accustomed to call a church. The varioue desigoations that are given 
in Bcripture to the members of the early churches, confirm tbefie representa- 
lioDB. They are called ' saints,' or holy ones, i.e. persons who have separated 
tbemselves from sin to hdiness, from the service of Satan to the service of 
God; 'disciples,' 'bdievera,' 'Christians;' the 'saved ones.' AJl these ^escrip- 
tire names have folded op in them the same central thought of ' persons who 
have been renewed in the spirit of their minds.' We do not join the church 
in order to be made Christians ; but, having become Christians by the power 
of the Holy Spirit and through the belief of the truth, we join the church in 
order that, in the use of 6od's' appointed ordinances, and by means of 
Christian fellowship, onr Christian life may be snatained, incieaeed, and 
perfected, and we may .unite with those who are likeminded with ourselves 
in iabeure and ministries of Christian usefulness, and may both give bless- 
ings and reoetre them. 

Two condnsiimB follow from this representation. Fjrat, that evei? 
believer in Christ is under obligation to unite himself to the membership 
of some Christian church. 'They that believed were together.' We 
do not meet with a single instance in the history of tlie apostolic Churob 
in which a Cfarietim dieciple remauied in a state of isolation from bis 
Christian brethren. Their Christian affinitieB and instincts, as well as the 
rule of 1^ inspired founders of the Churdi, drew them as brethren into 
fellowship wUfa one another, led them to form themselves into ocguiiEed 
societice or oongfegationB. And secondly, that none but tho«e who are 
trne Christians, the sheep of Christ, have right of entrance into theiChristiaa 
fold; and pei^ons who have the charge of testii^ the character and quaUties 
of those who apply for jnembership, are bound anxiously to guard the purity 
of their commoDJon,' receiving none but those whom they oonacientiously 
believe that Chrrat Idis recced. Bunyan is trne to the inspired rule on this 
object, when he represents his pilgrim as passing through the wicket-gate 



196 PASTOKAL WOSK. ' Si iTiw^ 

and dropping his burden at the cross before he was introduced into the 
palace Beaatifnl and arrayed in his new robes. Paul, in writing to the 
Corinthians, nees very strong language when he apeaka of those who, 
through sinfnl facility of temper or ignorance of the dirine rale, bnild np 
the Church with nnregenerate men, mingling, as he expresses it, in the same 
building, ' wood, hay, and stubble, with gold, and silver, and precious 
stones.' * Every, man's work,' he declares, ' shall be made manifrat : for the 
day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire ; and the fire shall trj 
every man's work of what sort it is. If any man's work abide which be 
hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work be 
bufDed, he shall suffer loss : but he hunself shall be saved ; yet so as by fire,' 
Apart altogether from these future consequences of unfaithfulness in thie 
great duty, there is present chaatieement to the careless pastor. ' Every tree 
bears frnit after its kind ; ' and where a congregation is in any great degree 
composed of mere men of the world and who belong to the world, they will 
"be a sonrce of weakness, discouragement, and probably of present sorroff 
to a minister, A mere incrtaae of nnmbere, where it u not also an inoaau 
o/spiritval men, is not an increase of strength hut of swelliTig. They resemble 
the camp-followers in the native Indian armies, who eat up the resonrceB 
of the regular army, and are sure to be a source of confusion and disorder 
in the day of dangw and of battle. 

I can suppose some one to meet ns here with a difficnity. 'ReUgioD,' 
it maybe said, 'is in its essence an inward life; and while we admit that 
regenerated persons are the only fit material with which to build np a 
Christian church, how is it possible for a fallible man to pronounce in- 
fallibly upon the religious state of another^ " Man fooketh on the outward 
appearance, God looketh on the heart." We are not required to read the 
heart, or directly to judge it/ This is true. But there is sncb a thing as 
credibk Christian profession which we ought to require in every applicant 
for church fellowship ; by which I mean such a state of character on (he 
part of the individual as is not incoDsietent with the supposition that he is 
a true Christian disciple, — such a disposition and conduct as favour this 
supposition. And when men of Christian intelligence, experience, and con- 
scientious fidelity apply this test, I do not say that they will never err, but I 
do say that they wiU do much to keep the church pure. 

There are two extremes against which we need anxiously to gnard. One 
of these is requiring that the person shall display a maturity of knowledge 
and gracious attainment which is only, in common circumstances, to be 
looked for in older Christians. There is a possibility of unduly and un- 
kindly delaying the admission of a young applicant into the fellowship of 
the church. Sobie say in defence of this practice, ' The delay will put him 
to the test, and if he be a real Christian he will stand the test.' But what 
right has any man to create penances in the Chnrcb of Christ, and to m^e 
the door of entrance one hair's-breadth narrower than Christ and His aposUes 
made it?. 'Take heed that ye oSend not one of these little ones.' How 
different is all this from the spirit of Him of whom it was foretold that 'the 
bruised reed He would not break, and the smolring flax He would not 
quench ' ! 

But there is the far more dangerous extreme of being satisfied with 
our being able to say of an applicant that 'nothing positively bad can be 
charged against him, — ^no open vice, no Sagrant inconsistency.' SomeUiing 
greatly more than this must be sought in,a candidate, in order to our rec^ 
Hon of him into the fellowship of a Christian church, if we would guard the 



""XttKa^' PASTOHAL WOBK. 197 

choTch from a grievous wrong, and would be kept from iuflictiDg a eerioas 
injnry npon the man himself by sealing him np in self-deception. 

One 'or two simple rules Timy help to guide ut in this imporlant part of ouv 
dtth/. 1. Ignorance of Christian truth ahouid exclude a man from the com- 
mnnion of the chnrch. We cannot be Christiana without beliering the 
troth about Christ, for this ie the incormptible seed of the new Hfe, and we 
caimot be believing what we do not know. 2. If a man is living in the 
commission of any known sin, or in the neglect of any known duty, this 
should be snf&cient of itself to form a ground of exclusion. A man na; 
be ontwardly moral, and jet not be a Christian ; bnt assnredlj if he be not 
oatwardly moral, he is not a Christian. ' The tree is known hj its fruits.' 
3. Bnt suppose that we are satisfied on these two former points, we Kce 
bound, in addition, anxiously to look for the ugns of spiritnal affections and 
toetes in tlie man, snch as, if really there, afford certain evidwce of the 
itev and heavenly life. Does he delight in secret prayer? Does be own 
Ibe attraction of the Christian ordinances T Is he a companion of them 
that fear God, a lover of good men? If he be a parent, has he yearning 
desires for the spiritnal good of his children ? Does he take a deep and 
practical interest in the progress of the kingdom of God in the world} Or, 
to pnt Ihe whole in a sentence,— a compet«it knowledge at least of the 
great elementary and saving truths of the gospel, a blameless life, and, so 
far as can be judged, true spirituality in bis affections and tastes, — these 
are qualities which we should seek to find united in every one whom we 
vdcome into the flock and fold of Christ. 

Statements like these addressed to a young minister, or to one standing, 
D9 many of yoa are doing, on the verge of the Christian pastorate, would 
not be nnseaaouable in any circumstances. Bnt there are features of our 
own times that render them specially seasonable. The very system of chnrch 
statistics, although serving many important purposes and in fact having 
hecome indispensable as a part of onr chnrch organization, and even. the 
tnnltiplication of denominations, may sometimes tempt good men, nncon- 
Gdonsly to themselves, to an undne facility in the reception of members into. 
Ibe fellowship of the chnrch. We need to watch over onr hearts in this 
matter, and at the beginning of our ministry, and all through it, to be 
schooling ourselves into harmony with the divine standard. Nothing can be 
more suitable to our character as ministers than a sacred passion for the 
^>alioB of souls ; it is even legitimate in its own place and degree to wish 
to have a large membership, hut never at the expense of relaxed terms of com- 
Jwnuon. And we shoold even be willing, if the providence of God so places 
Buy of ns, to minister to a comparatively little flock, as may somelJmes be 
the experience of able and earnest pastors where the population is diminish- 
">! ud the chnrch accommodation of the district is far in excess of the 
^tnal wants of the commnmty. This has occasionally been the lot of 
niHi whose names continue to be fragrant in the Church after the lapse of 
many generations. It is recorded of Philip Henry, in his little country 
congregation at Broad Oak, that he never had more than eighty com- 
iDiniicaDts. His son Matthew, the great commentator, thongh labonring 
ind preaching with great power in the city of Chester, never reached a 
member^ip of more than 400. I believe the same might be said of the 
famous Samuel Rntherford of Anwoth, whose letters mingle in a manner 
BO wonderful, genius and sanctity. Our own John Brown of Haddington 
^ce replied to one who was fretting and complaining at the smallness of 
to flock, ' Perhaps yon may find that your congregation was large enough 



198 PA9T0BAL WORK. '"^^ifti"^ 

when yon are called to give an ncconnt of yonr Btewardship." Let ma 
only add on this momentons subject of oonrersing and deaiing with candi- 
dates for admission to yonr chnrch fellowship, ttwt yon will find it to be a 
kind of service in which yon can accomplish much good. But no mattef 
what the nnmber of anch applicants may be, let me exhort yon to take them 
singly and alone. Y^ou wiU have an opportnnity of dealing with indiTidnal 
minds at a Grisia in their lives in which they are pecnlisrly Bneceplible and 
impresfflve. Then it ia likely the yonng heart will be laid open to yon, and 
yon will have it in your power to remove difficnlties, to unravel pwplentieB, 
to correct mistakes, to deepen good impressions, and to give seasonable 
connaels to an extent that may never be afforded to yon again. It is 
seldom that a yonng person ever forgets hfe interview with his minister when 
seeking to make a pnblic profesdon of his faith. / btteech you, dojietim 
thU tide in the affairs oftotds. 

nr. 

I now wish to speak to yon, with mnch brevity, on the su^jtct of 
pastoral visitation. There are several very distinct notices in the New 
Testament Scriptures which make it evident that the first ministers of 
Christ's Chnrch practised this. Memorably, in that parage in Paul's 
address to the elders of Ephesns, in which he reminds them tint 'for the 
space of three whole years, he had not only tanght the members of the 
Chnrch of Epheena pnblicly, bnt also from house to house.' This langnaj^ 
briefly and very inteUigibly describes what is meant by pastoral Tisitation. 

I advocate this, and urge yon strongly to make it a regular part of ;otir 
ministerial work from the beginning. I am not of those who would place it 
first ia importance in yonr dnties as ministers. For many things make it 
eridHit that yonr pnlpit work ought to stand supreme above evMy other, 
and to receive your chief attention. The puipit is the pastor's throne, 
' Hoe AGB.' Do this, and do it well, whatever else you may leave undone. 
But I would give pastoral visitation the second place ; and when I make it 
second, I mean that it should stand next to the first, and is essential to yonr 
' making full proof of yonr ministry.' 

It may interest some of yon to know what a place of importance wss 
|;iven to this, and more particularly to the pastorai visitation of the sick, ^J 
the Scottish Chnrch in earlier times. The following are the words of an 
'Act of Assembly' which dates so far back as 1668, ».e. twenty yeM:8 before 
the Revolntion. Yariona other dntiea are referred to, bnt this is one of 
them. The whole sentence is worth quoting : ' It is ordained that auch 
(ministers) as Aall be found not given to Aeir book, and to the study of 
the Scriptures, nor given to sanctificatiOn and prayer; such as stndy not to 
be powerful and spiritnal ; such as are cold and wanting in apiritnal Eeal, 
negligent in visiting the sick aitd caring far the poor, be censured according to 
the degree oF their faults, and, continuing therein, he deposed.' 

The advantages which arise from the practice of pastoral visitation ' from 
house to house' are various and great. There is the immediate benrft 
which is likely to he derived from the familiar statement of divine troth in 
the little ' church in the house,' and from exhortation and prayer. It is 
indispensable to yonr becoming acquainted with your people and keeping 
np this acquaintance, to yonr knowing the salient facts in th^ funily 
history, and to their being brought to look on yon as thrir personal friend, 
adviser, and comforter ; and when this is done, you may dt^end npou it 
that a greatly inoreosed power will be given to your pulpit miniatratitHiB- 



"■"Jij'u^'"' PASTORAL ^VORK. 199 

AcqnaiotaDce with tbe individnal and family history of yonr people will also 
enable you both to adapt yoar diaconrses to their condition, and to speak 
to them with a tendenieas and a pathoa that' wonld be impoaaible to a 
stranger. 

Then is an inferioF bnt not QDimportant sense in which it should be 
possible to say of the onder-ahepherd, that 'fie, htovsetk kia oarn gheep by 

Practical wisdom, however, is needed in order to the right management 
of jonr pastoral visit ; and I know that yon will bear with me when I lay 
before yon one or two saggestions. 

I. Let it he a true pastoral visit. Don't let yonr time be frittered away 
in conveisatioD abont common matters of the world, except in so far as 
yOR oan turn these to higher nses, as we find our Lord doing when men 
sometiroea tried to draw Him into couTersation about secular affairs. Intro- 
duce the subject of religion earlyj almost at once. Sometimes it may be in 
a brief exhortation of a few miantes. And, for this end, always hare a few 
tests ready, on one or other of which yon can dilate withont effort. 
■ 2, Inquire regarding the attendance of the younger members of the famity 
m one or other of the classes of the congregation, and make it appear that yon 
regard yonr ministerial duty and responsibility as including them. 

8. Neetr leave a house in which you have been visiting pastorally, mthout 
prater. ■ 

4. Eudearour so to conduct your pastoral visit, that it shall be remem- 
Ixred by tbe family with gratitude and deepened impressioDB of what is 
good, and all shall haTO felt that their minister S'ad bronght a blessing with 
him, because he had abont him ' a sweet savour of Christ.' 

5. The aged and the incurable should receive a double measnre of your 
attention; and if they are not able to come to public ordinances, yon must 
trj to carry ordinances to them. 

The remarks which I have hitherto made refer to yonr pastoral visitation 
of tbfamilleaof your congregation in common circumstances'; but your work 
becomes all the more important when any member of a family is sick, or 
when the whole family is suffering under some heavy affliction or great 
sorrow. Then is the time for the faithful pastor to strike in with his 
sympathy and Christian. oonnsel. In such circumstances, persons are 
peculiarly susceptible to good impressions. God has ' made their hearts 
^oft;' and, moreover, they are specially alive at such seasons to kindness, 
acid E^ieciaty sensitive under neglect. A pastor has now an opportunity of 
secnring a place in the confidence and affections of that household, which 
)ie may not have to the same extent in times of prosperity and health. 
And he is a wise minister who seizes the opportunity. Your woi'k is to 
rilrect the thongbtsof the sufferer, to suggest consolatory views of his trial, 
'0 interpret it to him, and not least, especially if ' death seems in the cup,' 
'0 assore yourself, as far as you can, that he is believing in Him withont 
wbom it is not safe -to die. Here, also, let me make a suggestion or two : — 

1. If you hear of sOme sickness or heavy affliction having. come upon a 
jawber of a family, don't wait until yon are sent for and your visit invited. 
It ia euongh that you know that yonr member is in sickness or grief, to 
carry you on the vrings of sympathy to his home. We should be able to 
s»y with PanI, ' Who is weak, and I am not weak t Who is offended, and 
I bnm not I ' It may sometimes happen in a large eity, that yon have not 
"Wd of the distress ot some of your members until they have been under 
it lor many weeks. In this case, when yon do hear of it, you will do well 



200 MACBETH; OB, QKOWTU IN EVIL. '■""'^^"iiS'^ 

to indicate your disappointment and regret at not having been iaformed, and 
tenderly to call tbeir attention to the injnnction of the Apostle James, ' ir 
any of yon be sick, let hira w/irf for tiie elders of the ehorch.' 

2. In common circuvislances, a lengthened exhortation at a sick-btd mould 
not be semoiiable. Yoa must suggest trains of thonght in few words. Try 
to hold np the gospel in a sentence. The snfferer cannot bear more. A look 
^of sympathy will often do mnch. Sometimes a question or tivo itill 
acquaint yon with the state of mind of the snfferer, and then it will be your 
duty, praying inwardly for the help of the Holy Spirit, to gather up and 
endeavour to express his thoughts in prayer. 

When a bereavement has befallen the family, I would rather advise yon, in 
like manner, to avoid fen^fAmetf exhortation. True sympathy, the seasonable 
suggestions of holy and comforting thoughts, with a prayer that is breathed 
in nnlson with the sorrow, are what you should aim at in the house of 
mourning. In a word, let your people be brought to have go mnch con- 
fidence in your affection, that in all the sorrowful times in their family 
history, they will, naturally and at once, turn to you as their first earthly 
comforter. 

And now, my young brethren, in drawing to a close my work among 
you, I have to express to you the pleaanre I have had in my mtereoorte 
with yon. I have been pleased with the frequently marked attention wilii 
which yon have hstened to my instructions and advices, and with the spirit 
in which yon have uniformly received my criticisms on the exercises whicb 
you have read or delivered, and which you have prepared with so great 
willingness. Let me exhort you to make anxious use of yonr years in the 
Theological Hall. They have not only a high intrinsic value, but thi^i 
farther importance, that, if not improved, they can never be recalled, 1 
shall follow your future career with affectionate interest, delighting to see 
one after another called to scenes of pastoral nsefnlness, and all proving as 
arrows in the hands of the mighty, — polished shafts in Christ's own qniTer; 
men who love the ministry because they love the Master, and delight in tie 
message ; ' workmen that do not need to be ashamed, rightly dividing the 
word of life.' 



MACBETH; OR, GROWTH IN EVIL. 

BY REV. WILLIAM TURNER, EDINBUROH. 

{Concluded.) 
Tuis form of the issues of sin — this saying to justice, I am the man, ami 
hastening to punishment — js presented to us also in the drama before us. It 
is this which is unambiguously indicated at the close of the drama as tbe 
real explanation of the sudden decease of Lady Macbeth, — 



The poet, as we have seen, has, with great truth to natnre, represented Lady 
Macbeth as of a nature more ardent, eager, and impressible than her lord, 
more excited by the promise of greatness, more prompt and determined to 
seize the prize, more daring and seif-poasessed in the execution of the deed 
of crime. With equal trnth to nature, he represents her as less able to 
sustain the terrible reaction. Her strength proves to be only spasmodic, 
relaxing aa soon as the occasion is past, and her energy and determination, 
her lofty radowmente, mental and physical, are suddenly prostrated in a 



"""ST""'""'' WACUETU; OK, GROM'TU IN KVII.. 201 

horrible collapse. And before ber nnBtriing spirit the dreadful facts, on 
wbich in tbeir reality she had gazed nnmoTed, rise np from the chambers of 
memorj in spectral array, and torment her with visionary horrors. ' How 
does yonr patient, doctor t ' asks Macbeth, in reference to his wife,— to which 
the physician answers : 

' Not BO Bick, my lord, 
Ab she la troubled with tbick-aomlDg [uicies 
That keep her from her rest.' 

Of anch trouble Macbeth knows the secret, — 

'CnrDherof that: 
Canst thou not miniitBt to a, mind diKaseil, 
Flack [rom the memoiy a, rooted aorrow, 
Baze out the written troubles of the brain, 
And with some sweet oblivious ■.utidote 
Cleanse the stnSad boaom oF that perilous stuff 
Which weighs upon Iha heart f ' 

ThoQgh her physical prostration necesutates sleep, yet ber sleep does not rid 
her spirit of its BeU-tormeots. In a well-known scene, too familiar to qnote, 
we stand by, with the doctor and an attendant, and look on while she walks 
in her sleep, and in her anconscioas raringB divalges the dreadful secrets of 
her Bonl. We see her trying in vain to wash from her hands the spots of 
blood, ' Oat, damned spot, ont, I say.' ' What, will these hands ne'er be 
clean*' 'Here's the smell of blood still I All the perfumes of Arabia 
vill not sweeten this little hand. Oh ! oh I oh ! ' And at last she hastens 
away with the reflection of despair, ' What's done cannot be nndone.' 

It will not, I preanme, be alleg&i by any that this picture is overcharged 
with gloom. The things described are facts, paralleled in actoal hnman 
experience. We are reminded of similar representations in the writings of 
another poet, Byron, who has a pecuUar right to the title of the Poet of 
Remorse. One of these is specially powecfnl and appropriate,— 
'Though tbj slDmbor miy be deopi 

Tet th; spirit shall cot sleep. 

There are shades which will not vaelsb, 

Tbere are thoughts thou canst not bsnisli. 

ii; a power to thee unkaown, 

ThoD eSDBt never be aluue ; 

Thou art wrapt as with a shroud. 

Thou art gathered iu a clcurt ; 

ADd (or ever shall thou dwtU 

In the spirit of IhU spell. 

' By thy cold breast and aerpent smile, 

By thj nnfathomed gnlla ot gnlle, 

By that most eeemlog virtuous eye, 

By thy abut soul's hypocrisy ; 

^r the perfection of thine art, 

which paaa'd (or hnman thine own htsrt ; 

By thy aellght in other's pain, 

And bj thyTirolherhood of Cain,— 

I call upon thee, and compel 

Thyself to be thy proper Hell t ' 
'The wicked,' says Isaiah, ' are like the troubled sea when it cannot rest, 
ffbose wata^B cast up mire and dirt. There is no peace, saith my God, to 
the wicked.' By fixed law their unrighteous deeds recoil npon themselves, 
uid ' into the pit which they digged, they themselves falL' ' They eat the 
fruit of their own way, and are filled with their own devices.' We are not 
allowed, as we are in the case of Othello, to see the end of Lady Macbeth, 
and to bear from ber own lips the meaning of her suicidal act. But we can 
look at the act itself, and from it we shall have no difficolty in gathering the 



202 MACBETH ; OB, QEOWTH IN EVIL. ' Si i7m^ 

same truth as that conveyed in Othello's words. Id her remorse Lady 
Macbeth destroys herself; that is to say, by an act of her own will she 
kills her coi^ore&l life, redncing her body to nnconacionsuesB sad dissolution. 
And never snrely does the soul so assert its supremacy over the body aa 
when it slays the body, sternly casting it off Hke ' a broken fetter,' and say- 
ing to it, Be thon my orf^an no more. Is, then, the soul pnt ont of existence 
in the very act in wUch it thus rises supreme, and asserts its freedom and its 
power T Does the body, when killed by the spirit, at the same instant kill 
the spirit T ' The sun, when settiug,' said Goethe, ' is still the same bqd.' 
The sonl may set beneath our horizon, but it remaias the same sonl. Its 
self- consciousness, its thonghts, its peace, its remorse, go with it to the here- 
after. ' Son, remember,' said Abraham to the rich man in the place of the 
dead, — for memory bridges the gulf between this world and the next. And 
it it is a hell now to feel ' my sin is ever before me,' even though that sin be 
nnderstood but dimly and imperfectly, what must be the intolerable anguish 
to be compelled to gaze on the same sin when set in the clear light of the 
divine righteoDSnesB, and discerned in all its wide relations and in its full 
enormity T Shakespeare elsewhere impressively represents what the aw^raed 
conscience, when brooding upon the future, anticipates : — 

■ TUere is no sbuffling, thrre the action lies 
la hi» trne nfttnre ; and wa ourselveB oompellsa, 
Bren to the teelh and forehewi of olir itmW, 
To give in evidence.' 

Most will remember the dream of Clarence in Sickard iii, — 



There first one spirit meets bim with a salutation of horror, «aA then 

another, — 

' And ha Bhriek'd alond,— 
Clarence is come, — false, fleeting, perjur'd Clarence, — 
That Btabb'd me in the field by TewkflBbnry ;— 
Seize on him, furies, t&ke him to year torments I 
With that, metlionghl, n legion of foul fiends 
Environ'd me, andlioirled in mine ears 
Sucb hideous erf ea, that, with, the vbfj noife, 
I trembling wak'd, and, for a aeason after, 
Could'oot believe but that 1 was in hell.' 

In the case of Macbeth, the death which sin works appeai-s in another 
form, offering a certain contrast with the end of Lady Macbeth. His 
stroller nature proves elastic enough to recover in some degree from the 
self-inflicted blow, and to accommodate itself to the altered condition of 
things. Crime becomes his work, almost his pastime, and, as 1 ar as possible, 
his delight; he grows familiar with its conceptions and its deeds, while 
necessarily the nobler prmciples and more generons impulses of his sonl are 
starved and withered ; the milk of human kindness in him is changed to the 
venom of the serpent ; his nature, ' like the dyer's hand,' becomes ' subdued 
to what it works in ;' and he is changed to one of those children of the wicked 
one whose ' sins are open beforehand, going before to judgment.' The poet 
enables us to mark some of the leading stages and signs of this increadng 
subjection to evil. Macbeth is at flrst, as we saw, horroT-strickea at the 
spectacle of his own deed. As his conscience is more sensitive than that of 
Lady Macbeth, his remorse ia at first more marked and overwbelmiiig. He 



"■^T^"" MACBETH ; OB, QROWTH IN EVIL. 203 

is ftt once visited with great peitDrbatlon of soul, and his sleep is broken 
irith ' terrible dreams,' which make him enrioDs of the sweet rest of the 
murdered king. These troables, hOwoyet, iuBte&d of leading him to seek for 
mercy, drive him to other and even worse crimes, by way of couqaering for 
himself happiness and peace,— 

' Wo have Hootch'd tta snuks, not kUl'd it; 
Bhsll cloee, and be herself : whilst our poor mnlice 
BemunB in danger of het former tjxith. 
Bat let the frame of thiDgs disjoint, both the worlds auffiT, 
Ere we will eat our meal in fear, and sleep 
In the affliction of those tairibts dieams 
That Ehike us nightly : better be with the dead 
Whom we, to gain our place, have sent to peace, 
Than on the torture of the miad to He 
111 teatless eosla^. Dudcbd ia in bis grave ; 
After life's Stfal fever, he sleeps well; 
Treason hath done his worst; nor steel, nor poison, 
Ualice domestio, foreign levy, nothing, 
Cwi tonch him fnrtter.' 

For a time the fresh crimes, to which in bis det^nnination to secure his prize 
he has recoorae, come back .npon him with vengeful recoil, and his nature 
nearly gives way under the strain. At supper, in the midst of his lords, the 
ghost of the murdered Banquo riseB before hia sight, and his strange looks 
and words caase the company tiT break up in ' most admired disorder,' By 
and by, howvrer, he girds himself to his chosen task, — 

' I will to-morrow 
Betimes I will, unto tba weiril aialerB : 
More shall thsj speak ; for now I am beat to know, 
By the worst meass, the worst ; for mine own good 
All oaniMshaU give w«7; I am in blood 
Btept in so fur that, should I wada no more, 
Bstorning were as tedious ss go o'er. 
Strange things I have in head that will to hand, 
Wliioh must be-aotad ere tbej ma; be scann'd.' 

Thns he sella himself to do evil, Hia sin acquires the darkest hne of 
presumptaousneBS. With clear nnderatanding and deliberate purpose, he 
sets his ' own good ' above all other interesta, bracing himself to trample 
upon the laws of Qod and the lives of men to gain his selfish ends, and say- 
ing to evil. Be thou my gpod. Conscioualy and detCTminedly he becomes a 
rebel against the good order of the universe : — 

' Come, sealing night. 
Scarf np the tender eyo of pitiinl day ; 
And with tbj bloody and mvisible hand, 
Cancel and lear in pieces that great bond 
Which keeps me pale,' 

That is a significant prayer oifered by the psalmist, ' Keep back Thy servant 
alsofrompresomptnonaBins; let them not have dominion over me; then shaJl 
I he upright, and I shall be umocent from the great transgreaaion.' ' For if 
we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, {here 
retoaineth no more sacrifice for sina, but a certain fearfnl looking for of judg- 
ment and fiery indignation to devour the adversaries.' 

Those who set themselves to do evil have ' the stars in their courses fight- 
ing against' them. They are engaged in the devil's work, the devil's example 
inngt be their guide, aud the devil's counsel given by the witches to Macbeth 
is their suitable motto,T- 



On this counsel Macbeth acts. He resolves, by killing the Thane of Fife, to 



204 MACBETH ; OB, GK01VTH IN EVIL. ?'X''irtfeJ'^ 

'Uabe assurance double Bure, I 

And take tk boud of fate ... I 

Th&t I miy tell pale-heai-t^d Fear It lies, 1 

ADd sleep in spite of thunder.' I 

The escape of bis destined victim, urges him to increased energy and swift- 
ness in his career of blood, — 

'Time, thou antioipat'et my dreid eiploile; 
The flighty pnrpoee naTer is o'ertook. 
Unless the deed go with it ; from this moment 
1?he very ErsUings ol my hoRii ehill be 
The fintlings ol my band.' 

By this enei^; ia wickedness he gains, to a certain extent, his end. He 
secures for hia spirit a certain peace. He dreams no more aEBictire dreams, 
and be sees no more ghosts. Conscience is silenced, and its attendant fear 
is extingQJsbed. He recognises the difference, and contrasts, with a kipd of 
satisfactioD, his actual with his previons state, — 

' 1 have almcBt forgot the taste of fears. 
The lime has been my senses would have cooled 
To hear a nigbt-sbriek ; and my fell of bair 
Would at ft dismal treatise rouse and stir 
As life were in't. I have sopped full of horrors ; 
DireLeBS, familiar to my elaught'rooB thought, 
Cannot onc« start mc.^ 

We read in Scripture of those who ' are joined to their idols,' and whom 
God ' lets alone.' There is reasonable hope ffir the man who is at conflict 
with himself — in whom still the ' Spirit strives.' It is to our sense of right 
and to onr perception of danger, — to conscience and to fear, — that the 
gospel of God's grace makes its first appeals ; and woe to the man in whom 
these aentimenta are qnite obliterated by continaons and energetic sin ! 

There is yet another sign-post to be passed in this downward progress, 
Joteliect is darkened in proportion as the son! is hardened in evil. Error is 
embraced for tnith by him who wars against the trnth. Aa there is 'an 
nnction from the Holy One whereby we know all things,' so also, in Shake- 
speare's incomparable' language, — 

' Wbeo we ia our TicioaBness grow bard, 

Oh, misery on't, the wise goi£ seal our eye?, 

In uur OWD Qlth drop our clear juc^mentB, make us 

Adore our errors, langh at us, while we strut 

To our ooD fusion.' 

The queen of those ministers of darkness, by whom Macbeth had been sedaced 
into evil, prophesies in regard to him that, as the resalt of their spells, — 

' He ehall apum fata, scorn death, and bear 
Bis hopea 'bore wisdom, grace, and fear.' _ 

So in truth it proves. His practical common sense utterly forsakes him, 
He bnilds his confidence on promises transparently fallacious. He ntterlj 
forgets all that he himself knew and had himself wisely expressed abont the 
consequences of transgression, and abont the ' vaaltiog ambition which over- 
leaps itself, and falls on the other aide.' Naturally his views of hnman destiny 
also change. He speaks no more of ' the life to come.' He ie led to seek 
relief and comfort in the biank negations of a mocking materialism, — 
' All oar 

The way to 
- Life's but a 

That BtnitB _ 

And then is heard no m 

Told by an idiot, fall of sound and lui^, 

Bfgnlf^ng nothing.' , . , , 

CtOO^Ic 



■""i^w!"*- THE elder's influence. 205 

Fanl speaka of pereons ' hafing the iinderstiiiidiDg darkened, beiDg 
alienated from the life of Ood through the ignorance that is in them because 
of tlte hlindness of their hearts.' Even the heathen had the proverb, ' The 
deity dements those whom he destinea to deatruction; ' and no form of that 
intellectnal blindness resnlting from high-handed wickedness is more com- 
mon than the nnderraiuing of hnman life, the lowering oE the dignity of 
bnmaD.natnre, the embracing of the principles of materialism, and the adop- 
tion of the practical motto, ' Let na eat and driok, for to-morrow we die.' 

The leading moral of the great poem we have been considering — the lead- 
ii^ moral of Shakespeare's writings — cannot be better expressed than in the 
words of Scriptnre, ' Verily there is a God that judgeth in the earth.' And 
the government of the Most High is not marked by the embarrassments and 
the feebleness of hnman govemments. In the words of Dr. B. W. Hamilton, 
'Itseeka and needa no badge and ontward observance. It disdains ministry 
and instmmeut. Its sword is " bathed in heaven." Its balance is that in 
which the hills are weighed. It is noiseless and nnseen in its mechanism. . . . 
To canae the crime to pimish itself, — to work a retribntion ont of ourselves, to 
secnre it by fixed natnre, to inflict it by inflexible necessity, to convert the 
capadty of ain into the instmment of suffering,— is the prerogative of divine 
mle. It is in the infinite ease and repose and omnipresence of " the kingdom 
which ruleth over all," that we learn its unparalleled and inimitable excellence.' 



THE ELDER'S INFLTTENCE IN DISSEMINATING THE 
DISTINCTIVE PRINCIPLES OP OUR CHURCH. 



OuaChnrch is a Christian Church, evangelical in its doctrine, Presbyterianin 
ite government, free from the control of the civil power in apiritnal matten, 
leuiing on the support of its own members and adherents, and cherishing 
a brotherly feeling towards other Christian denominations. It is to the 
principles implied in this outline, and the elder's influence in disseminating 
them, that my finbseqnent remarks will be directed. 

I. The most aathoritative and impressive counsels ever given to Christian 
oMce-bearers were those addressed by Fanl to the elders of Epheaas, when, 
tooching at the port of Miletus, and hastening on to Jerasalem, he sent for 
the elders of the Church that he might speak to them concerning their office 
and its duties. In that address he thas exhorta them : ' Take heed, therefore, 
onto yoarselves, and to all the flock over the which the Holy Ohost hath made 
fOQ overseers, to feed the Church of God, which He hath purchased with His 
own blood.' In this is implied the deep personal piety of the men who had been 
ordained to the ofBce of the eldership, and the necessity under which they lay 
to take heed both to their own Christian character and to the work to which 
they had been act apart. The most important part of that work was to 
feed the Church of God, which He had purchased with His own blood. 
Their influence was to be exerted in instructing the members of the Church 
in those evangelical doctrines, the central point of which is the death of 
Christ and the redemption thereby effected. Doubtless this injunction, from 
ita very nature, was more particularly addressed to those elders who were 
invested with the pastoral office; but none were excepted from it in so far as 
their position and opportunities allowed. The pablic teaching of reUgion is 
properly as well as scripturally assigned to pastors, but the more private 



206 THE ELDEB'8 influence is DIsaESlINATIKO " 

sphere in wbich an elder moTes, has, even in tbis reapect, its special ii 
also. If, therefore, elders are to rise to the scriptnral idea of their office, 
they will not neglect the duties implied in the apostolic ezhoitstion. When 
jroung men begin to exercise their own powers of thonght, luid when thej 
come in contact, through hooks or companions, with specnla^ioiia of wliich 
thoy had formerly heard nothing, a well-informed elder may often be able to 
satisfy a candid and inquirini; mmd. Scottish Dissent took its rise in the 
midst of sceptical opinions which were extenaively prevailing. The ' Ifarrow 
Controversy,' which arose from an attempt to comiteraet snch sceptiocJ views, 
had a close bearmg upon the Secession which afterwards took place. And 
although all hnman espression of Opinion is necessarily {allible and imperfect, 
and liable to alteration and correction from time to time, yet onr Church has 
ever finuly held by the cardinal doctrines, that Christ is the incarnate Son of 
God ; that He ' died for onr sins according to the Scriptures ;' that we are 
justified by faith in His blood, and renewed by the grace of the Holy Spuit ; 
and that we entet npon a new life of obedience from love to a Uving Saviour. 
It cannot but be that by precept and example a faithful eldeitihip will do 
much to confirm the wavering faith of many, especially among the yanog, 
who may be troubled and pefplesed by that state of uncertainty into which 
prevailing speculations have thrown some of those doctrines which were wont 
to be 'most sorely believed among us.' Another sphere in wbich the elder 
may exert a beneficial influence in relation to Christian doctrine, is the Sabbath 
school. This institution is now so thoroughly planted in all churches, that 
it becomes of great importance that the best instruments be used in connection 
with it. The special duties of the eldership may indeed in many cases 
absorb all the time which an elder has to spare, but in many other instances 
elders could take part either in the teaching or superintending of a Sabbath 
school. Under such management, parents would feel encouraged to send 
their children to Sabbath claasee. Elders who devoted a portion of time to 
such labours, would find the results amply to reward and gratify them. A 
great want which has always been felt is how to retain a hold on senior 
scholars just before the time comes when they should be tliinking of joining 
the Church. At this sti^e the influence of a faithfnl elder may be expected 
to be very telling and powerful. There is no doubt that the weak point in 
the 8abbath school system, as conducted in the midst of ne, is the crudity 
and inexperience of many of our teachers, who are mostly young ; and this is 
just what a devoted eldership, having, like Tunothy, unfeigned faith, and 
the spirit of power, of love, and of asonnd mind, and taking a keen interest 
In the welfare of the rising generation, would be well calculated -to correct 

There is another sphere of Inflnence as regards doctrine which the elder 
possesses by virtue of his office, and that is his position in the higheriChurch 
courts. I do not say that, if unlearned in the original languages of ■Scrip- 
ture, or in the technical points of chronology and history, he coald be exp«cted 
to take part in controversies turnmg on those studies, but he can ja^ge of 
general reenlts and tendencies; he can see where divergmce takes phu» 
between opinions for which tolerance may be fairly claimed, and opinions 
essentially at variance with the faith of the Church, and with the soleras 
professions which have been previously made. A sbori) tune (^o, after a vote 
in the Free Church Presbytery of Glasgow in the case of Dr. Mareua Dods, 
the Glasgow Herald called attention somewhat scornfully to t^e fact that the 
majority of elders was on one side, and the majority of ministers on another 
—the latter being on tbis occasion on the more lenient aide. But we can all 
recollect other occasions in which journals and public writers of siipilar 



jiJuiro"" TOE D18TIN01IVB PHINCIPLBS OF OUB CUUKCH. 207 

sympatliieB have appealed from the enpposed oarrowDess of miiaaters to the 
calmer judgment of ' intelligent laymeD.' Balancing such contradictory 
testimonies agaii^ each other, there is nothing to hinder ng from believing 
that, even in the sphere of Clinrch conrts, the elder'e inflaence in doctrinal 
discnsaioDS may be most nseful. Knowing that a revelation from Ood mnst 
be tnie, and in its main features intelligible to the unlearned as well as to the 
letuned, be will sympathize with Mr. Spargeon when he thus expressed 
hutuelf i ' There mnst be something true, and Christ mnst have come into the 
world to teach ns something saving and reliable. He cannot mean that wo 
gbftll always be mshing. through bogs and into morasses after the will-o'-the- 
wbp of intellectual religion. There is aaauredly some ascertainable, infallible 
rerealed truth for common people — there must be something sure to rest 
upon. A man's mind must come to a settlement ,npon eternal trntba by the 
teaching of the Holy Ghost, or else he cannot know what peace is.' 

JI. I will now look at the fonn of government adopted by our Ohurch, 
and at the elder's influence in promoting an intelligent appreciation of, and 
acquiescence in it. 

On the queation of the best form of government for the Christian Church,' 
it may well be expected that those who are ofBce-bearers have formed some* 
what definite opinions, not periiaps on the minutiae of any system, bnt at least 
on the leadmg outlmee of it. He will not adopt any plan, the essential 
features of wluch traverse any plain maxim or principle clearly Itud down in 
Scripture. This being so, it mnst be inferred that an elder in a Presbyterian 
Church is satisfied as to the scriptural warrant for his own office, as well as 
vith the consistency of the system generally with apostolic teachings. In 
the last General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, however. Principal 
Talloch, Clerk of Assembly, and who is at this present time Moderator-designate 
of the next Glen^'al Assembly, made this remark : ' I am a Christian first, a 
Churchman second, and a Presbyterian third.' Kow, the Church of Scotland 
claims to inherit the traditions of the Church of Knox, Henderson, and 
Melville ; of the Ghorch which held her distinctive principles sacred alike in 
tha cold shade of neglect and in the hot fires of persecution. She beasts of 
her Confession being secured by incorporation in an Act of Parliament. Yet 
in her high places and by her most honoured sons, the accident of her connec- 
tiou with the State is elevated above her essential and distinctive principle 
of Presbyterian government. Dr. Tulloch's theory, if carried to an extreme, 
vonid constrain him to prefer Popery to Presbytery in France and Spain, 
Episcopacy to Presbytery in England, This latter is probably what he 
meau^ and this supposition is confirmed by a remark lately made by Dr. 
MacGregor of JBdmbnrgh, .to the effect that, if the Church of Scotland were 
disestablished, many of its ministers would become Episcopalians. From such 
indications, it would appear that if the essentia! doctrine of Presbyterian 
government is to find defenders, they are to be looked for not so much among 
the ruiks of those who are expressly appointed and maintained for that 
purpose, as among those whose minds aud consciences are satisfied with the 
scriptural aathority for the system to which they have given their assent. 
This is not a matter of trifiii^ importance, bnt affects deeply the welfare of 
the Christiaii 'Church, which, being a spiritual kingdom, should be spiritually 
administered. We are informed, in the beginning of the ' Acts of the 
Apostles,' that Jesus was taken up ' after that, through the Holy Ghost, He 
had given commandments to the apostles whom He had dtosen, being seen 
of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of 
God.' The government and laws of this kmgdom, its outward form as well 



208 THE ELDBa'S INFLUENCE IN DISSEMINATING ^" 'iS,i7i»t^ 

as its progrcEs and extension, wonld naturally form the sabject ot these 
conversations and ' commandments.' The apostles, being thns dirinelf 
instructed, are to na a perfect role of duty. Although they may not have 
given minnte regalations, yet we have in their own procedore, and in the 
epistles addressed by them to the Cbnrches, indications of the mind of Christ 
GuEGciently clear to guide us in the path of dnty. Without going minntely 
into the arguments adducible from the Xew Testament on this subject, for which 
there is not time in such a paper as this, it is enough to say, on the one 
hand, that the word ' Church ' is applied to bodies of people so large that 
they could not have been included in one congregation or synagogue ; and, 
on the other hand, that there is no proof of any official superiority of any 
one pastor over another, except indeed on the part of the inspired apostles 
themselres, who, as persons who had 'seen the Lord,' and were gifted with 
divine inspiration, have no legitimate successors. The equality of pastors, 
the virtual identity of the tenna ' bishop ' and ' elder,' and the appointment of 
* deacons' to see to the temporal affairs of the Clmrch, are points which are 
apparently incontrovertible. Presbyterian government recognises snbstan- 
" tially all these points. The Congregational form only requires "a proper 
organization of a multiplicity of congregations to come closely to the theory 
of Presbytery ; and it is not improbable that in future years the 
Congregational and Presbyterian systems will approach nearer to each 
other. As a recent writer has well said, 'The unit in the system of 
government of the Scottiah Church is simply the congregation rnliDg 
itself by its own elected members. Above this unit in the government 
of the Chnrch, the higher courts and tribunals rise in regular order, 
founded on the same representative system.' There is a mnch wider 
divergence from the Preabyterian theory in the case of Episcopal Chnrches, 
especially the EngUsh Chnrch, with which we are brought more closely into 
contact. _ This divergence does not arise solely from the fact that a diocesan 
bishop is' appointed to have authority over all the pastors in a particular 
district, but from the additional tact that the bishops claim to be successors 
of the apostles, and thns to be the only channels through which the grace 
of Christ to Hia Church can flow, — theonly medium, therefore,throngh which 
ordination to the ministry can be conferred, along with the right to administer 
the sacraments. There is thns set up a clium to ' lord it over God's herit- 
age,' — a claim to an ezclueive possession of spiritual grace, which is the 
very essence of the Papal system. As office-bearers in a pnrer, mora scrip' 
tnral communion, it ia incumbent ou us, wherever our influence extends, to 
connteract errors of so pernicioua a tendency ;" to ahow, by reference to 
Scripture, to esperience, and to the teachings of history and reason, that 
the constitution of Presbyterian Churches, in its essential features, has at once 
the highest sanction, and is most conducive to the spirituahty and to the 
liberties of the Chnrch. 

One practical point to which, in this connection, elders should call the 
attention of the people is, that they should take an increased int«rest in elec- 
tions to the eldership. The influence and usefulDesa of the office depaid 
largely on this. If a spirit of indifference pervades a congregation as to who 
shall be invited to take the oversight of them, their respect for. their office- 
bearers will be proportionately limited. In this view, the custom which, I 
believe, prevails in the Church of Scotland, ot making the session a self- 
electing body, — simply a committee with power to add to its nnmber, — 
cannot be too much deprecated. A session so constituted can neither hare 
the confidence nor the affection of the congregation. Nor, on the other 



iiir^i'^ ■■ THE DISTINCTIVE PHINOIPLES OP OUB OHUBCH. 209 

hand, shonld an esisting session altogether abstain from taking part id tbe 
nomination of additions to their nombei'. Their knowledge of the coiigrega< 
tion is likely to be more complete than that of any others of its members, 
and, while refraioing from any approach to dictation, they should at least 
make sure that the beet men whom they know are not orertooked. And 
earnest counsel shonld be given by each elder to all the members in his 
district, to take an active part in the filling np of vacancies in the seseion. 
This conid not fail to have a beneficial effect, both directly and indirectly. 
Fnrther, it would tend to strengthen the people in their attachment to our 
principles of church government, if they followed with lively interest all the 
public proceedings of their onn kirk- sessions, as well as of presbyteries, 
sjoeds, and assemblies. The sympathy and support of the entire member- 
ship is the very life of Presbyterian Cbarches. Therefore the more interest 
[he people take in the affaii-s of the representative courts of the Charch, the 
better will it be. To this end it were well that elders employed all the influ- 
ence that belongs to them ; — honestly fulfilling their ovm duties when 
appointed to sit in the higher courts, and in every way encouraging the mem- 
bers of the Church to take a lively interest in what is gomg on. The 
stability of our national constitntion would become very doubtfnl if the 
people ceased to concern themselves with the proceedings of Parliament ; and 
in like manner the attachment of our people .to theif Presbyterian principles 
most necessarily be weakened, shonld the proceedings of our ecclesiastical 
eonDcils cease to engage their attention, or come to be regarded by them as 
matters for which they have no persona! responsibility. It may be added 
that, unless a lively interest in sessional affairs is promoted in congregations, 
ve cannot expect vacancies in the eldership to be suitably filled np as they 
occnr. Therefore, without going in any Way out of their plaee, it were well 
that the elders in every congregation shonld let the [>eopie feel that they have 
their interests at heart, and are seeking to do for them thoroughly good and 
eBeient work. 

III. A third and very important group of the principles of our Church, in 
which the influence of the eldership may be very beneficial, has to do with 
our freedoni in spiritual matters from the control of the civil power, and the 
dependence of the Church upon its own members for the means of its 
support and extension. In other words, the Christian Church should be 
administered by Christians, and supported and extended by Christians. As 
regards the United Presbyterian Chnreh, these principles may be more 
einphatacally called ' distinctive' than those we have heretofore considered. 
They have not been learned in a day, but have been gradually reached after 
rjiueh experience and mnch discussion during a lengthened history. At a 
very early stage in the history of Secession in Scotland, the question of the 
power of civil rulers in religion came to be keenly debated, and within a score 
of years declarations were emitted involving ultimately what have come in 
modem times to be known as Voluntary principles. These views became 
more pronoudced by the time of the union of the Burgher and Antiburgher 
Synods in 1820. A quarter of a century later, when the Relief and 
Secession Synods became one, the testimony of the United Presbyterian 
Church was still more emphatic. Between those two suspicions events, 
this qoestion had greatly agitated the public mind. The" Voluntary Con- 
troversy had arisen, and had been vigorously sustained. Shortly aftewards, 
the ' Ten Years' Conflict ' of the Chnreh of Scotland had its origin. These 
excitii^ movements were closely connected with each other, not only in point 
o! time, but in no small degree as cause aud effect, — the culminating point 

no. T. VOL. XXII. HEW SERIES. — MAY 1878, O 



210 THE ELDEB's IMFLUBNOE. ibiCun^ 

being the DisraptioD ol 1843. That great er^t, which Scottish DiBsent^s 
looked npou as a crownii^ triumph of their principles, brought about a 
soBpemon o! the Yolantary ControTerey. For a cODBido'able time after 
this, the poettion and prc^resa of the Free Church attraet«d the varmest 
sympathy and moat absorbmg interest. QneetioDS of ChrietiaB Unioii bare 
since occnpi^ the minds of memb^^ of the Free Chnrdi and cJ oar own ; 
end while the priuciplea of Yolantaryiam have been carried out in practice do 
a scale which neyer entered into the wildest dreams of its eariieT advocatcf, 
yet the diacussioD of those priiiciples themselree has been allowed to fall too 
much into abeyance. As a kmg arose in Egypt who knew not Jos^ go 
a generation has arisen in Scotland which is not sufficiently acqaainted witb 
the root principles from which Free and Established Chnrchea respeetiTelf 
spring. And it is for tins reason that at the present time the inflneBoe of 
elders in diffusing hght on sncfa subjects as this may be spemlly ueefDl. 
There is danger lest the rising generation, just from want of thonght sod 
kuowledge, may not see what is bound up in those, principles viacii ieep 
US apart from Chorches established by law. Dr. Candlish used to say, ' I<ot 
only should a man master his principkB, bat his principles should tuster tiie 
man.' From lack of this mastery by principle, many may traosfa- that 
allegiance from Free to Established Churches from very triidal motiTBs « 
canses. That close attention is needed to this question, even by those wfac«e 
minda are made up in regard to its general beoriugs, is erident bom the &et 
tihat supporters of Establishments hare greatly shifted thdr i^onnd. Li 
some respects their argnmeots are oxactly the reverse of what th^ used to 
bfl. Those who rem^nber the a^umenta of Chalmers and Ooiiino, and the 
other great pre-Di^uption adrocatee of Establishments, will hare no difficulty 
in underBtanding this. Tien, the great principle was, that the Nation should 
establish the ' true Religion ' and provide religious ordinances for the whole 
people, regardless of what the people in separate Donupunions mi^t be 
doing for themselves. Now, the Duke of Argyll, a moat powerful champion 
of the caose, says that ' Chnrch Establishments cannot be detomined by any 
abstract principle whatever.' Tim, the great (S'y was that the creed of the 
Church, being ratihed by Act of Farliament, was secure against heretical 
changes. Now, the contoition of the Duke of Argyll and other Church 
defenders is that ' every mm is perfectly entitled to sign the ConfeisioQ with 
those reservations of opmion which ore inseparable from any ass«kt to doco* 
meuts of anch a character ' — that is, apparently, with any mental reseiTatioD 
be pleases. The old 'heroic' arguments have dis^peared. The principle 
of extending the Established Chnrch by public endowmeats is unheard of. 
It is now very much a question of majorities, a question of retaining privi- 
leges presently eqjoyed ; suggestions of difficulty as regards any new dispoaal 
of endowments, and other points of a similar character, having more the 
aspect of expediency -than principle. The parliam^itary electors of tins and 
the coming generation have need to understand these matters, for tfa^ viem 
and feelings will no doubt shB{)e the ecclesiastical future of the oonntiy. 
This, however, belongs rather to the pohtical sphere, which I re&aiu from 
further touching. It is with the religions aq>ect3 of the question that the 
elders of the Chnrch have specially to do, calhng to mind, as did the apostle 
in his memorable address, tiie ' words of th» Lord Jesus whoi He stud. It is 
more blessed to give than to receive ; ' and seeking to impress the people with 
the fact, as a fact by which to regulate alike their convictims and their 
conduct, that ' the Lord hath ordained that they which preach the gospel 
should live of the gospel.' 



lliriml THE U.TE BEV. EOBEHT rEERIEB OF XAIM. 211 

latere ie an obvious and natural conoectJOD betireen the aabject just 
adverted to, and another matter which vitally concerns the Christian Church 
in all its portions — I mean the matter of TTnion. It is not merely that 
Christian Union is a desirable thing ; it is a positive duty unless good 
cause for separation con be showD. I rather think the great, though, for 
the presfflit, abwrtive owveviait for Union with the Free Church began io a 
meeting of elders. It has always appeared to me a heavy responsibility 
whioti thoae persons took npon tbemselTes who made snch efforts to fnis- 
trate so hopefal an eadeavonr. It is snrely to the hononr of onr Church 
that she did not encourage an obstructive policy, bnt made every effort 
then, and has made sacrifices since, in the caaae of Christian Union. Is it 
not also an hononr.to oar Church, that the basis of her eonstitntion is 
sufficient, without any change, to admit ministers and members of the Free 
Chnrch, with full freedom to hold their own theoriee on the qoeatioii of the 
dvil magistrate 1 Such facta as these shonld be studied by all the office- 
bearers of our Chnrch. Let it be oura, in onr intercoarse with the people, 
to allay feelings of sectarian jealousy, and, so far aa in us lies, to promote 
lie union, the purity, and the freedom of the Church of Christ. 

The career of the Chnrch to which we belong is historically most iu- 
strnctiTe : she maintains the vital doctrines of evangelical Christianity ; her 
constitntian is comprehensive and scriptural ; itae reliance tor support and 
eztennon lies in her conviction that Christirait; is not a dmd letter, bnt a 
living spirit. This being so, and we as elders of the Chnrch bdng in a more 
special manner responsible for its welfare and interested in its prosperity, let 
DB more than ever realize onr trust, and seek to support and spreEtd, in 
evay way open to ns, those principles to which I have, in too cnrsory a 
mannn', referred. 

The obscorations which have ■ been made have been an endeavour to 
answer the qnestions-^1 .) What are the more charact^istic or distmctive 
principles of onrChnrchf (2 .) What are the [K^vailing obstacles to the 
diffusion of themt And (3.) What inflnenee can elders nse for their dis- 
semination T I have not desired to set forth these points in any exaggerated 
fono, bnt they are of much importance, and there is much in regard to them 
on which an {elder's inffuence may be beneficially exercised. The intercourse 
of elders with the pe^le is of a more free and unconstrained descriptitui 
than that of mmiatepa. They are more likely to learn how currents of 
thought and feeling are moving. Whm a Oallio-like spirit of indifference 
is seen in regard to important principtes and opinions, the elders may be able 
to mstil a higher sense of duty and higher motives of action. They may 
be able to originate or to sopport movements for the instruction of the 
people. It will probably occur to most of us, that in the pressure of other 
engagements we both stody our principles less and exert onrselvea to Efiread 
them less thMi we ought to do and might do, whether in Chnrch courts or 
more private sphere. One of the objects of this Association is. to aid 
in stimulating its members to keep np sncb studies and undertake snch 
efforts; and if snch an object shall in any degree be promoted by the 
present paper, the pleasant trouble of preparing it will receive an ample 
compensation. 

THE LATE KEY. ROBERT FERRIEE, OF TAIN. 
Hb. Ferrieb's ministiT in Tain lasted from hia ordinatioD, in July 1841, till hia 
resgnstion in September 1877. Aa he waa the first and only minister, as well as a 

niMi of decision, independent bearing, and high Christian character, hia mini- 



212 THE LATE EEV. EGBERT FERBIER OP TAIN. '""X'Tiw""* 

- Bterml course aod the histoiy of the congregation are closely identified. It is- 
readil^ admitted on all bauds, that for that little congregation, standing all bnt 
alone in the midst of the Highlands, a more suitable pastor conid not possibly 
hare been found. Striking examples of the prudence and self-denial wiljiwhidi he 
accommodated hia moTemeutB t<i the views and feelingB with which he was sur- 
rotinded, might easily be given. Not that he was the man to sacrifice one iota of 
truth or duty for the sake of bringiug favour to himself or bra denomiD&tioo. 
Indeed, the uncompromising element in his life and mimstry had as much to do 
with his moral influence as anything that could he named. It was in matters of 
secondary, or even lower than secondary, importance that he exhibited the wisdom 
and watchfulness to which we refer. It ia conceivable that a minister might have 
been got for Taia who would have done more to enlarge the ixingregation, but it 
would not have been possible to find one who wonld have done more to establish 
United Fresbyterianism in the confidence and goodwill of the surrounding popula- 
tion ; and th^ was perhaps the best service that could have been renderea to the 
Church and its Head in the circumstances. 

The points of connection between the congregation of Tain and that of Bristo 
Street, Edinburgh, may not be generally known ; and it is certain that they are 
more numerous and vital than even those who know the facts are aware of. Tain 
congregation was formed in the end of 1836 or beginning of 1837 in the following 
manner : A Secader from Forres, and two or three sympathisers, had taken up 
their residence in the town. They preferred their Own Church to the only other 
one within their reach. A member of Bristo Street Church, who was in the habit 
of visiting Boas-shiie for business ptirposes, entered into the feelings of the Taia 
Seceders, and succeeded in interesting the Edinburgh congregation in their posi- 
tion. The consequence of this was, that the Mission Committee of firieto Street 
congregation gave Uberal aid to the infant cause in the building of their church 
and the support of reli^ous ordinances. Of the £42i required for the church's 
erection, the friends in Edinburgh subscribed £317. When all this is kept in 
remembrance, it will sppear somewhat remarkable that the first minister of Tun 
should have been a Bristo Street man, aod I may add, a Bristo Street man — a 
son of this congregation— in the beet and fuUest sense. For, as appears from a 
deeply interesting auUibiographicat document, written in 1826, it was in the late 
Dr James Feddie s Bible class for young men that the subject of this sketch began 
to nondei his relation to God and the Saviour. Fart of the work of this class was 
voluntary essays on Bible topics. In this work the lad Robert Ferrier, then sii- 
t«eQ or seventeen years of age, took a share and earned commendation. The 
thought and investigation provoked by these early efforts in CJiristian literature 
were, under God, the means of bringing his earnest nature into contact with his 
more enduring interests. Between this simple beginning and the glorions end, 
however, there come in, as the document touchingly shows, a spiritual conflict — a 
conflict between the power of evil and the power of righteousness — which tor depth 
and intensity has rarely been surpassed. In this struggle, where the might of 
conaqjence was tremendous, Doddridge's Rise and Progress played 3. vigorous part. 

' Again and again the dark cloud returned after it appeared to be dispelled. The 
phyMcal frame underwent a strwn which at times threatened to be too powerful for 
it. If, however, the agony was great, the victory, as in the case of the Great 
Example, was commensurate. The triumph of truth and righteousness was com- 
plete. The wrestler came oat of the thick darkness with an unfading prize in his 
right hand. He was more than conqnerer through Him that loved us. 

We shall now look for a little at the past and iuture — the causes and conse- 
quences—of this spiritual transformation. It took place, or, to speak with more 
eiaotnesB, it took visible shape, when he was between sixteen and eighteen years of 
age, but in all hkelihood the process had been going on from childhood. A spring of 
water cannot be said to begin when it first pours its Ufe-giving element over the 
surface of the ground ; for hundreds of years before it may have been cutting fer 
itself a channel between the top of a distant mountain and the place where it first 
becomes visible to the eye of man. The formation of the bnd is not the first stage 
in the fruit -producing process. TVe assign dates to conversion, and we speak of . 
it as being in some cases gradual and in otlien sudden. Nor is there any occasion 



e 



ir.iUd_ri.ivM.it] ^.gg LATE EEV. BOBBRT FERRIES OP TAIN. 213 

to condemn thia waj of reprcseiitiiig tbe matter, if only wc are c&reful to re- 
member that it is the reaalt of the lirait&tioQB of our knowledge. Saving in- 
fluences were nt work on Robert Ferrier from iofaDcy ; the chief of these WBS the 
ballowed influence of a Chriation mother. His mother muathave been do ordiDary 
woiaan. The respect in which beheld hermemorywaa peculiarly great She was a 
conainof Mr. GladatAUe's, and with her son clojely resembled in face and feature that 
illustriooB and patriotic BtAteBman. But hereditary Btrength of character without 
the grace of Christ would have been comparatiTely worthleaa. As it was, !iow- 
eTer, the teaching, example, and prayers of this God-fearing mother followed the 
boy, and made the ways of sin anything but pleasant, and intimately impelled him 
to seek satisfaction in the favour and service of the Most High. 

Pwsing from the cauites, what is to be said regarding the consequences of Mr, 
Ferrier's spiritual transformation 1 They gave tone and direction to his whole 
future life, and invested his ministry with the moral and spiritual power which 
vras its principal distinction. The value and stability of the results were aoawer- 
able to the length and depth of the struggle bj which they were preceded. Nor 
TSs tbe nature of the conflict of less, hut rather of greater, importance than its 
inteiAity and continuance. Tbe law, holiness, Borereignt;, and mercy of Qod 
were the graud transforming E^ocies. Judgment, heart, conscience, will, partici- 
pated in the change. Conviction, impression, resolution, were all profound and 
~'^rmanent. If modern conversions were more of this description, they would not 

I to often disappointing. 

Excellent natural ability, joined to diligence and conscientiousness, was carried 
by him into all the work of his after life. He entered upon his University studies 
in 1S31. His whole course was taken at Edinburgh ; and every professor com- 
metid^ bis diligence and success, la junior and senior Latin, and in the depart- 
ni«at of Logic, he gained prizes. At the Divinity HaU, too, he was highly esteemed 
for his character and attainments. And be did not cease to study diligently after be 
became the pastor of a congregation. To the last he regularly wrote his discoursea 
from beginning to end, and committed them to memory. And his determination 
to dowhat he deemed his duty in this respect cost him many a painful effort after 
health began to fail. His voice and enunciation were remarkably good, and bis 
manner and delivery unusually spirited. By his own people, who heard him 
veekly from year to year, he was esteemed an able and earnest preacher of the gospel. 

At the close of a funeral sermon, preached by the Rev, William Watsoa of Forres, 
irom Rev. liv, 13,, the following sentences were nttcred in th^ ears of a sub- 
dued and sorrowing congregation : — . 

'Tour late friend and pastor resigned his chai^ into the hands of tbe pres- 
bytery on the 11th day of September, and departed this life on Saturday last, the 9th 
of February. The cause of bis resignation wns a gradual decay of physical strength, 
'ivbich had been going on for more than a year. But thongh there was reason to 
iiii that the enfeebling process would continue, no one expected his end to come so 
early. To friends and acqauntancea at a distance, the intimation of his removal 
wme with the effect j>f a surprise. Yet the surprise was not painful, for every one 
looked upon him as a shock of com fully ripe and ready to be gathered. His 
public work was finished ; and yet we of tbe presbytery held fast the hope that the 
little congregation of Tain might for two or three years at least enjoy the benefit 
of his symyathy and counsel. God's way in this matter, however, was not either 
joun or ours, and we must try to boiv to the sovenngn decree with the ready 
ocqutescence of tmst. 

'I come amongst you torday, as the Presbytery's representative, to assure you 
liow thoTO)ighly we are at one with you in admiration of our departed brother, and 
in the sense of loss which his removal has occasioned. Most willingly would we 
have retained a little longer his brotherly counsel and saintly influence. But with 
yon we will try to persuade ourselves that the wisdom and mercy of a covenant God 
are in the time and manner as well as in the fact of his removal. With you we 
vitl also endeavour to be thankful to the God of all grace for what he was, and 
^Iiat be was enabled to do, and that he was spared so long. And withyou wewill 
etrivetotum to the best possible account the legacy of a holy life and earnest 
ministry which he baa left behind. 



214 THE LA.XS SEV. BOBBBT FEBBIEE OF TAIN. '""j^^^Bf^ 

' A meE^re, a far too meagre aketch of Mr. Fenin's life and mimeby, is all that 1 
can offer oa Uie present occasion. The eateem and affection I bore to him causes 
UDCere regret tiiat I have not something more adequate to lay before 70a. I trust, 
howerer, that what is now to be said will be acknowledged b^ all to hare the merit 
of strict and ongamiahed truthfulness. 

' Let me say a word first on his doctrine. The preaching of yoor late minister 
was eounentlv doctrinal. Verr few miitisters of tlie word ehow eTangelical truth 
as a fifstem better than he did. His acquaintance with the theologiaus and 
preachers of the Puritan age was aingularly fuU, and hia admiratioii of theii works 
was not one whit behind his knowledge. He studied and Teconunended Pnritoo 
divinity with an ardour which is btst explained by the sappo^don that it had met 
hia own spiritual requirements, and led hiin ont of darkneaa into God's marvellous 
light. Indeed, I always felt that our late brother participated large); in the ^lit 
of the old Puritans. Like them, be held the doctrines of grace with an unfaltering 
gnsp. like them, too, he regarded with tiie stnmgest suspicion BTerj religions 
teacher with rationalistic tendencies. In the department of theology he waa less « 
seeker after truth than an uncompromising' witness for principles tiwt were to his 
mind sure and certain. At the eame time, it would be a mistake in any one to 
Euppose that he waa hyper- Calvinistic, or that he clung, to sjatematic divinity to the 
exciusiou of exegesia. His view of tlie doctrine of election was the same as we 
find the leading ministers of his own Church proclaiming at the present daj. And 
the graveat ch^ge that he had to bring against his favourite Jonn Owen waa that 
in certain of his works he applied too stem a logic to the principles of divine 
revdation. Nor was the doctrine which he proclaimed dry and medianical. His 
heart was in the truth, and he preached it with a fervqur and earnestnen that 
have seldom been surpassed. 

' The second thing to be considered ie bis rninulry. The sphere and inflaence of 
his ministry were greatly wider than one at a distance and acquainted with the 
use of hia congregation would be ready to suppose. For one thing, in the fore- 
noon, when services in Gaelic were being conducted in the Free and Eatablisbed 
Churchcfl, he had many hearera besides bis own proper congregation, while a 
considerable proportion of those who came were as regular in thdr attendance as 
if they had belonged to the United Presbyterian Church. A second thing tJut 
had to do with the extent of his usefulness was the fact that he waa always the 
miniater. He nniformly exhibited the meekneaa, gravity, and self-control that 
were suitable b> his office. He never missed an (n^rtnnitj in any company 1^ 
speaking a word for the Uaster that be served ; and it never E^peared in the least 
degree out of place for him to address the word of Christian counsel or wanung 
to those with whom he met. A third circnmitanoe that tended to widen the 
sphere of his mfluence, waa the friendly relations that naturally grew up between 
hun and all classes in the town. Aa he hioiself expressed it on a recent giati^dng 
. occasion, " During my residence in Tain, my desire has been to do service to Christ 
and souls according to my opportunity. I have had no taste for extending the 
boundaries of a sect or making op a church ont of churches." Being an intelligent 
and interesting companion, as well as a man of friendly dispositions, he came by 
and by to exert a beneflciaL ioSuence on the life and society of the entire neigh- 
bourhood. Enjoying thus the esteem of his neighbours, carrying about with mm 
continually the spirit of his sacred calling, and being ^ways ready to speak a 
word in season in the best of causes, bis life and ministry were more profitable (o, 
Tiun and its neighbourhood than a curaory observer would have been ready to 
suppose. 

' Any notice of Mr. Ferrier thst did not refer to Ms literary atlainmejtU would 
be very imperfect. He waa a great reader, and had the faculty of remembering 
what he read, and in this way attained to an extensive acquaintance with the 
literature of his native land. His reading waa far from being confined to tbeo- ' 
logical and ecclesiastical subjects. It ranged over the fields of history, poetry, 
philosophy, and criticiaoi. In the last-named department especially did ha mind 
enjoy a congenial sphere. Indeed, Mr. Ferrier's intellect was pre-eminently 
cntical. He sat in judgment on everything that came before him. Whatever 
mi(|^t be the subject of the book, he could not overlook the way in which the 



'"bJHuw^' the I^TB bet. me. BIBflET, NAIBK. 215 

autiior had done iuB work, or the school of opinion to which be belonged. In 
coimectJ(» with a diligeat and critical stady of high literuf modeb, he had 
cultivated and itaproved liia jndgmeDt and taste. One man nacbea coltore 
(hroogh &6. Btodf of art, another through the contraapUtion of nature, and t, 
tliiitl by aaBociatkn with le&tad wciety. Mr. Feirier fonnd a meana of eoltsn 
and a ^ere of ridi enjoyment in tlie higher proae and poeby of the EnglMi 
tongue. Except a nympathetic conversation on the higher themea of ^vin* 
rerelatibn, nothing aSoided him richer deUght than to Bpeud an hoar in oouTene 
with ons who, tike himself,' conld enter heartily and intelligently into tlie beantiai 
ot literature. 

'These and other proper(i«g of your late pastor' bring home to oar minda the 
thought of what we nave lost, and of how imperfectly we imj«oved the excellent 
gift while he was yet with ns ; and yet it wiU Dot do to think of him as lost He 
hu left behind a blesfled example and influence. " Being dead, be yet roeaketh ; " 
and his words are oot thoae of reproach, but of soleinu, earntst, o&ectionate 
entreaty.' 

On ute Sabbath sncceeding the funeral, Mr. Grant, tiie respected minister of 
tke la^ and influential Free Church congregation of Tain, apoke of Mr. Ferrier, 
and p^ a warm tribute to his m«nory, referring in affectionate and admiiing 
l«nm to his high dutraoter and the great tnflaence for good which he had so Icmg 
exercised in the town and neighbourhood. 

The dieaolving of the pastoral tie was to Mr. Ferrier no ordinary trial. He 
dozig to his people and hia work aa long as there remained the faint«Bt hope of 
reoiming hia pulpit miniitrationa. When all such hope was taken away, he gave 
in a ba^ and full demission, and that without any prospect of retiring allowance 
except what the denomination at large proridee. Immediately there^ter ha wai 
vsiled upon by two depntabions, and received two presentatiooB. His own people 
[resented him with a moet fraternal address and a purse of sovereigns. The 
aeeond presentation, which was of the same descriptign, was made in name of the 
Free Cburch cffiigregation, and a few other friends, by a deputation headed by the 
Kev. Thomas Gruit'aDd Provost Yaas, a leading ofice-bearer in Mr. Grant's eon- 
giegatitHt. Theie marks of respect were truly kind, and afforded lively satdsfactioD 
to the enfeebled minister to wbW they were made. 

Mr. Ferrier's attachment to the United Presbyterian Church has found expreMion 
in hk last will and testament. A snm to found a schokiahip, and snudler legadea 
lo other objecta, amounting in all to about £1500, wiU in due time find their wa; 
to the Church's treasury. A large and well'selected bbranr, too, baa been left tat 
the use of the denomination that he served so well. The career of this good 
lainister of Jceoa Chriat hath many volcee to his Hnrviving brethren, but the 
clearest and flrmest of them all is, ' Hold fast, and earnestly contend fen' tbe fai^ 
*hidi was once delivered unto the wunts.' 



THE LATE REV. MR. BISSET, NAIRN. 

A fdssbJJi sermon for Mr. Bisset was result of conanltatioB was that nothJDg 

preached on Sabbath, 24th March last, could be done for his recovery, and 

in the United Presbyterian Church, that all that conld be prescribed WM 

Xaim, by the Rev. Adam lind, Elgin, the death-like advice to have recomne 

fron fiev. zxi. 4 : ' And there shall be to the free use of sedativea to snbdue 

no more death.' At the conclusion of the violence of pain. Bravely did he 

the sermon l^e preacher made the fol- struggle for years wiih terrible aufEer- 

lotriog reference to Mr. Biaset ; — ings, animated by the ardent desire for 

Mr. Biseet died on Saturday the Ifith life in order to preach Chriat and serve 

current, at Bournemonlh, south of His Church, which had always been the 

England. In the beginning of winter very life of hia life ; but the sovereign 

be went there for the sake of Mrs. Lord had ordained differently. No 

Bisaet's health, aiud idso with the view sooner, however, did he hear the voice 

of consulting Bir Henry ThoroBon in from heaven, through events and ap- 

reterence to his own disease. The pearauces, than, with prompt and 



216 . THE LITE BET. MS. BISSET, KAIRN. ^""^^C^^' 

ttSatiag acquiescence, bis mind and will aimpleat hearer. He was b, mail of 

Fcsponaed Amen ; and though his light, and whatever be touched became 

vhole heart had been bent on resuming luminous. 

his favourite work, — indeed, he had DuriiighisBtndeiitda;e,theVoIantiiry 
composed, even in bis illness, two dU- controversy bad become a public quea- 
couraea, t<> be ready for the realisation tion, and engroBsed genera] attention, 
of that fond hope, — yet he yielded at — Churchmen and DisBentera measuring 
once, and triumphed over the supreme swords throughout the land, with both 
difficulty of life, which ia to say from sides claiming the victory. In these 
the heart, ' Thy will be done.' circumstances. Sir. Biflset's attention was 
Death, which usnally takes Horvivors naturally turned to the great qnestion, 
by surprise, did ho in his ca^e. For and, after studying it with his chaiac- 
eeveral day$ previously he Imd been teriatic acutenesa, he became convinced 
suffering less pain, and on Saturday, that the Yoluntary principle was the 
the day of his death, he said he was only scriptural foundation of tJie Church 
feeling better, and was half-dressed to Of Christ, and, in loyalty to this con- 
go into Hrs. Bisset's room, when he was viction, he left the Cnnrch of ScoUand, 
suddenly seized with spasm of tbe heart, in which he had been brought up, and 
He sent for Mrs. Bisset, and recognised joined the Secession Church with a vieir 
her, but was not able to apeak ; gently to the ministry. After finishing his 
breathed, and all was over, — so gently course of study at the Divinity Hall, be 
that one ooald scarcely believe that be was licenBed by the Presbytery of Ai- 
■was gone. Mr. Charles Corsar, his broatli on the 3d day of January 1843. 
brother-in-law, visit«d him about the In the course of a few montlu! he vsa 
end of January, and found him perfectly appointed, as a probationer, to snpi^y 
composed — readyand willitig to go home, for some Sabbaths the vacancy at 
Among other things he said, 'When Nairn, occasioned by the death of the 
my suffering is severest, my faith is Rev. James Mein, still remembered with 
strongest. I have found Jesus the same feelings of respect and affection. The 
yesterday, to-day, and for ever.' He result of Mr. Bisset's preaching in the 
.said he would not like to be left at Nairn congregation was, that, he received 
Bournemouth, and expressed a wish to a very unanimous call to . be their 
be taken to Arbroath and buried there, minister, which he accepted, and tras 
Mr, Bisset was bom in the parish of ordained to the charge by the Fresby- 
Cluny, Perthshire, of very respectable tery of EImn on the 27th of September 
.parents, whose memory be continued 1843. After having been settled for s 
to revere and love through life. He number of years at Nairn, he recdved 
etudiedatthe University of St. Andrews, a unanimous call from a congregation 
where he took a good place as a classical in the south, but resolved to remain 
scholar, but especiallv as a mathemati- with his first charge, 
eian, a study for which he retained a Mr. Bisset's ministry has been an 
life-long partiality. This mental cba- acknowledged success in the different 
racteristic showed itself in a striking respects in which the Christian mmistry 
manner in bis faculty of close thinking may be estimated. Under him the con- 
and determination to reach certainty in gregation has increased in numerical 
his conclusions. DiiBculty seemed to and material strength. They have built 
have a charm for him, and he had a a handsome church and a good manse, 
restlessenjoymentinreaohing theproper and the valuable property is tree of 
. solution, and removing the intellectual debt. But ^hat is incomparably higher 
difficulty. This quality of mind became than any degree of outwud proeperily, 
doubly valuable when consecrated ti3 the Mr. Bisset's ministry has been honoured 
study of sacred things ; hence his power as instrumental, in the hand of the Holy 
of analysis in dealing with the word of Spirit, of adding to the Church of such 
Ood, especially in his lectures, where he as shall be saved. The success of euch 
never fiuled to throw a flood of light on a ministry might have been confidently 
the passage under eiamiuation. With predicated in so tar as the efficacy of 
tare inmght he could find out tecondite mstrumentality is concerned. He had 
beauties in the wonderful Word, and a happy combination of qualitats .for 
-esbibit them to the admiration of the making a powerful impression on n 
intelligent and the edification of the populiir assembly. A commanding pre- 



HOME CIRCLE. 



217 



seace sni fine voice, which never pnlled 
00 the ear, whose lowest cadencea and 
loftiest tones were equall; audible and 
pleaaant, were his, with the aft of 
BpwJtiDg very perfect, and, above all, 
a pow^ul grasp ictellectuallf of the 
grand truths of tbe gospel, and eloquent 
appeals to the hearts and coDBdences of 
bis hesrera, unfolding to their admira- 
tioD, and preaging on their acceptance, 
Hxe nDsearchable riches of Christ Such 
a miniatry mnst needs succeed in 
ucompliafaing the highest ends of 
mtDJstjy, inasmuch aa it fnlfilled the 
cCHiditions, instmmentsJly, of success, — 
a holy, Donseeiated life, and superior 
gitW. 

Uoreover, Mr. Bisset's miiid was die— 
tiDguiehed by originality of conception 
and strength of imagination, well tem- 
pered, and wUch enabled him occa- 
eioDsUy to soar high in realization of ,the 
aublimer aspects of the truth under con- 
templation. Sometimes ho delivered 
eereraldiBCouTsee from one text, hut not 
according to the old plan of building up 
a whole body of systematic theology 
upon one text, but with strict adherence 
to the text in hand, with nothing diffuse, 
and no straining for effect, but an easy 
natoral flow of fine thought in simple 
dimee diction; and with such fulness- 
and fertility of illustratian and apt 
quotation from Scripture, that the atteo- 
tioa of the hearer never Sagged during 
tbe extended treatment of the subject. 
Although he was bj no means defective ' 
in the ^owledge of dogmatic theology, 
j^ the chief ch^cteristio of his preach- 
ing was escgeticaJ, and always with 
a feeling of profound reverence 
snd love for the truth as inspired by 
the Holy Spirit, He was mighty in 
the Scriptures. And along with these 
rare qualifications ns a pr^icher, there 
was a quiet impressive solemnity and 
ardent unction abont hid spirit which 
never failed to command the concurreot 



sympathy of tbe people, itnd leave the 
impression on their minds that they had 
been listening to a master in pulpit 
power and efllcieney. 

Besides, there was a nobleness and 
amiableneas and manly simplicity 
about Mr. Bisset's nature which en- 
deared him to others, snd imparted 
great weight to his character in th^ 
eyes ; and withal, the moral beauty of 
self -forget fulness rested upon him. He 
shone, but did not know that he was 
shining. By his brethren in tbe ministry 
he was anoDJect of admiration, affectitm, 
and confidence, and the presbytery has 
sustained no ordmory bereavement by 
his death. Next to the reputation of 
the late Mr. Stark of Forres, the name 
of Mr. Bisaet was a tower of strength in 
the presbytery and beyond it. In the 
community of Kaim, where he was 
universally esteemed and beloved, he 
was a power for good; and strangers, 
during the visiting aeasou, were drawn 
to his miniatry, some of whom expressed 
theirthankfulnesstobimforhiavaluable ■ 
services. By bis own congregation he 
WB£ regarded with unbounded admira- 
tion and affection ; by bis kiadoeas, 
humility, geuerosiCy, and genuine piety, 
he lived in their hearts, and will hve 
in their memories. They nra deeply to 
be felt for. On tbe 27tb September 
187G, the late Eev. Henry Turnbull was 
ordained as Mr. Bisset's colleague and 
Bucoessor, but, after a few months of 
earnest and devoted ministry, he was 
suddenly cut off, and the congregation 
again deprived of tbe advantages of a 
stated miniatry. It is to be hoped that 
the Bll-wisB and gracious Head of tbe 
Church, who walks in the midst of the 
golden candlesticks, and holds the stars 
in His right hand, wilt in due tune 



prepare another minister tor them, who 
shall be found worthy to occupy the 
place of one who was pre-eminently a 



pome €ixch. 

B A R U C H. 

' Seeliest tliou great things for thysolf ? seek them uot.' — Jeb. xIv. 6. 
Baroch belonged to a distinguished charged by the prophet to read what 
Jewish family, was amanuensis to the he had written to the princes and people 
prupheb Jeremisih, uid committed to of Judah ' in tbe house of tbe Lora.' 
wridng the book of his prophecy. On Having executed this < 
completing the prophetic roll, he was princes and tbe people w 



alarmed be- 



218 HOME CIBCLB. f"*X^^"*' 

cause of tbe impakding calamitMS which gmted eelimate of the groat kdA good 

the atterances (rf the prophet fore- thiage tliat IVovidenoe may tune in 

shadowed audfocetold. Haviug satisfied store tor them in the yeus to come. Th^ 

themselTes that Baruch hftd written are disposed to look at the bright side u 

merely to the dictation of Jeremiah, thlngn, and to attov their imi^inatioDi 

knowing that Jehoiakim the king woald hopefnlly torerelamongthebowenofa 

be displeased at the message ,, and fear- fancied earthly Paradise. AllthisisTer; 

ing that he might put to death the . natoral in the case of Uie young and in- 

prophet who had dictated and the scribe experienced ; and it seems to hare been 

who had written it, they tendered the bo with the yoathful Bszach. He aa- 

odvicQ tiiat Baruch and Jeremiah should ticipated and sought ' great thingt for 

meanwhUe betake themseWeB to 'some himself.' He was entranced t^ the 

place of ciwcealment The result was brightness of the morning sun, and hit 

as the iniDces had anticipated. Having heart glowed with eKpectaacy ai vinoni 

heard Jehudi read two or ttiiee pages of of earSily greatness and d earthly re- 

the roll, the king took a penknife and nown were iHcturedin strong eoiows on 

cut it, 'and cast it into the fire that his yonthful fancy. Jubilant with high 

was on the hearth, until fJl t^ roll was hopes, and glowing witii yoo^fd ei- 

eonsamed in the fire that was on the pectancy, ' he songht great things fi» 

hearth.' Thereafter the king com- himself ' in the careeroT an«arthly life, 

manded Bamch and Jeremiah to be 2. Baruch aas a young maa of tataU 

seized, but their place of coQcealment and Uarning, and eager to excel — His 

could not be discovered, ' for the Lord learning, combined with saperioT talent, 

hid them.' secured for bim the honourable and le- 

While under biding, and sou^t for sponsible poeition of smauuenais to the 

b^ the king's messengers, Baiuch was prophet Jeremiah. Naturally proud ot 

disconsolate, and said, ' Woe is me now I his learning and talents, he was eager to 

tor the Lord balb added grief to my make the most of them in the battle of 

sorrow ; I faint in my sighing, and life. He was bent on the jmrsait of the 

I find no rest.' Under Ma depression earthly distinction to which his learning 

and grief, Jeremiah was commiaaioned and talents might fairly entitle him to 

to instrnct and to comfort him, and the aspire- He perhaps expected mors than 

words, ' Seektst thou great thingi for thy- hewaawarrmited to looktor, fMSTenm 

til/T seek them not,' form part of the the matter ot learning and talent, 'the 

message addressed to him by tiie prophet race is not (always) to the swift nor the 

Baruch was ambitious. He sought battle to tlie stroog.' It was the fact, 

' great things for himself.' He is ' however, that he cherished hq;h hopes 

counselled not to do so. ' Seek them and entertained high expectalims <i 

not.' reactiing a position of eminence and 

In illostratioD of the pertiDwice and influence. He was eager to excel, to 

purport of the [Htipbets advice, the outstrip his competitors — to become 

following particnlart may be noted : — famons in the world — to secure tor him- 

1. Bai-uch was a young man inspired self a pre-eminent position among the 

by the flowing anticipations of youth. — thoosands of Judah. He 'sought great 

The sprmg-time of life, like the spring- things for himself.' 

time lU the year, has all the freshness and 3. Bamch was a good mail, but kit 

attraction i novelty. The hearts ot the goodnas vat marred by inmrdinate aorldk 

young are naturally big and buoyant ambition: — He was a faithfBl disciple ct, 

with hope and expectaucj. Viaioos of anda constautattendanton, theprophet 

greatness or of happiness in the future Jeremiah. The Lord was deeply mte- 

Sit and flicker before their eyes, and rested in his welfare, and sent a special 

dazzle and bewilder their iniaginatiou. message to him by the prophet, in 

They have glowing expectations of joys which He assured him that though his 

to come in the pilgrimage of life. Their hopes of earthly aggrandizement would 

inexperience of the ways of the world, be blasted, and that, though histrials and 

and ot the cares and anxieties and troubles would be many and multiform, 

sorrows of the flesh, makes them ovw- his life would be preserved. Evil would 

look and ignore all that is shadowy and come upon others, ' upon all flesfi,' bat 

Bombre and repulsive, and leads them to evil would not be permitted to befall 

form a bright and blooming aod exag- bim. We have no reason to doubt Ibat 



""X'S^WR^"'' UOMB OIKOOl. 219 

Bivacli Taa a msn of God — tiiat ttiare ' great things,' — he would not have been 

was ' Bome Kood 'tiling ' in hie heart to- reproved but commended for his motive, 

wud the Lord God of Israel But and £or the efforts and struggles to 

thonch a friend of God, he was not which it had given birth. It was not 

faultless. Though his personal piety so, however, with the prophet's Hervant. 

vias real, it wasnot UQBuIlied. Though He waa a good man, out his goodness 

bis character was good, it was not un- was marred bj inordinate ambition. 

blemished. He was far from b^g an This waa the sin which ' eaailj beset* 

absolutely 'perfect man." His b«et- him, and which he is exhorted to re- 

tiDg sin was ambition. He was eager nonnce and abjure, ' Seekest thou 

to be 'great' 'Great things' are not great things for thyaelf? eeektiieninot.' 

always or neoeaaarily 'good things.' They are not worthy of youi regard — not 

'Better is a little with righteousness, worthy of your ambition— not worthy 

than great revenues without right,' of your aims, aspirations, and efforts as 

The great things of earth arc not to the heir of ' a better and more enduring 

be despised or abjured, nor are they substance,' and of the higher imperiah- 

to be worshipped or idolized. A good able honours of the teavenly world, 

mania not authorised'toseek them 'for 4. Baruch waa a duijppoinUd nia«, 

biiKself ' — for his own personal gratifi- and hia ambition icas the occasion of kU 

'XiHoa OT. glorification. This is what trouble.— The bright visions and anti- 

Baruch seems to have done, and to have cipations of his earlier youth had come 

beau doing. Had he sought ' great to nought. Instead of being honoured, 

things' — not ' for himself ' — but for the he was in disgrace ; instead of joy, he 

honour and glory of God, and for the had sottow ; instead of being ap- 

lemporal and spiritual good of his fellow- plauded and idolized by his king and 

men, the object of bis ambition might by the princes and people of Judab, he 

have been commended, and would have was now a fugitive and an outcast, 

been commended by. tie God of Israel. The uesBengoT of' the king were seek^ 

Of itself, seeking after ' great things ' ing his person, and seekuig his hfe. 

is not wrong or einfol, or at variance The brightneea of youthful hope and of 

with the principles and j>recepta of glowing expectancy bad given plaoe to 

Christiauity. We can imagine a good the chill of disappointment, and to ths 

man seeking to azcel in his profession, chafings of despondency. All proq>ect 

and to obtain the honours and rewards of earthiy greatness -^ of civil or eocle- 

that arepromised to dihgeace in busi- siaatical preferment — had been 



I imagine a good man shadowed as he lay with the prophet 

seeking to become ' rich and increased Jeremiah in his hiding-place, and as hs 

with goods' — seeking to rise from a gave vent to his feelings in the words, 

lower to a higher grade in tbe social ' Woe is me now I for the Lord hath 

scale — seeking to rise to a position added grief to my sorrow : 1 faint in my 

of iuSuence and power, or even to the sighing, and I find no rest.' Such was 

pinnaole of earthly greatness— without tbe haplem condition to which Baruch 

uecessaiily exposing himself to challenge had been redoced. He mnmmred and 

or to rebuke for his ambitious views and rejoned at his lot. Bis intwdioate am- 

eiferts. The propriety or impropriety bition was the occasion and the cause 

of tbe comae he pursues depends on the of bis tronble— of the dis^ipointment 

inoti.ves by which he is actuated. If, he. had experienced— of the grief and 

like Baruch, he seeks earthly ^reat sorrow he endured. He was enduring 

tMogs ' for himself,' for the glonfioa- ' the chastening of the Lord ;' bnt the 

tion 'of himselt, or for the temporal chastening, waa accompanied by the 

. a^randizement of his family, his con- reproof aiid instruction which, in the 

duct is to be reprobated and con- circumstaaces, ho needed. 'Meekest 

demned; but if hie amlution has for thou great things for thyself ?.seekt^en) 

its nltioiati} object and urn the glor^r not.' Let your ambitious prospects 

of God and the good of man, his con- and projects be renounced and aban- 

duct is to be commended and approved, donea. Seek ' good things ' rather 

Had the latter been tbe motdve by which than 'great things;' and if you seek 

Baruch waa actuated, —hod this been ' great things,' seek them not for your- - 

the generous and beniguant object on self, bnt for the honour and glory of 

which, iiis heart was set in seeking God, and for the temporal and spiritual 



220 CORRESPONDEKXE. "° tuyi.ieh."^ 

good of your ' bretliren and ktDBmen the kingdom of Zion. Instead of ei- 

according to tiie fleah.' hauating our energies, and disturbing 

The words of Jeremiah to Baruoh, and destroying our peace, by graBping at 

■ fts susceptible of being applied and objects of mere carnal ambition, which 

as applicable to the children of God ili entail disappointment and sorrow and 

general, counsel them not to seek their grief, let us set our affection ' on 

own personal aggrandizement ;— to Beck diings above, not on thuiga on the 

' good things ' rather than ' great earth,' — on the glorious riches of that 

things ' for themselveB and for others inheritance which is ' incorruptible and 

in the pilgrimage ot life ; for the greatest undefiled, and that fadeth not away.' 

of the great thingfi of earth dwindle . „ . i ^i i k: .t 

. . . -° .J. " < J _^ii_ ' Born by a new celeBtisl birth, 

into insignificance when compared with ■,y^ ^^^^^ „g g^^Tel here on e»rtli? 

the greatness and grandeur and glory of wby grasp at transitory toys, 

the things which ' touch the King ' and So near to heaven's eternal jojel' 



Torres ponJjtnct. 

MISSION PRESBYTERIES. 

TO THE EDITOR OK THE UNITED PUESBVTEKIAN UAGAZINE, 

Sir,— It seems to me that a few thoughts America has to do is to ctauu Britain's 
on this subject would be ot use at pre- past and present as her own. America 
sent, OB foreign missions must more and muat write her own history, and gain, 
more engage the mind oF the Church, through her own peculiar difficulties, 
New features will arise as this interest- that perfection to which Britain in bet 
ing work developes itself ; and it is our own way ie strnggUng. 
duty to note them, and ts make full use Approving, as we well may, of the 
of tUl the experience of the past. So far elevation to which Christianity has er- 
as I am aware, the relation of the Church alted us as a nation, we never aiupect 
athometoher difiercntraissionChurches that by our missionaries we are intra- 
— her infant Churches in India or else- ducing, along with our Christianity, all 
where— has not received flufficient atten- the elements that ever distracted a Chorch 
tion. In the attention beatowed, the in regard to her polity. A few ot the 
(dm seems to have been to make, the eimjilest facts wiU show this. 
children assume the habits of the parent The elevating power of Cfaristiamtv 
AT ONCE ; aud the difference of age and has nused a grand distinction between a 
experience has been lost sight of. Great Christian people and the heathen world- 
care ought to be taken in the attitude The missionary breathing in this clear 
the Church assumes towards these her intellectnal and moral atmosphere, goei 
children ; for all sorts ot error in polity into a land of spiritual death. He 
may arise, should a false step be taken carries this atmosphere with him aa he 
here. The infancy of Churches is much does his Scotch name and birth, andhe 
like the infancy of individuals, in that cannot separate himself from it. He is, 
the lessons and impressions of youth are from the nature ot the case, above Ihosi' 
tho most permanent, and the results the he has to convert and elevate. ITiia ii 
most lasting. Iiis chair (calftecfro), in which he sits. 
The Church at home wishes to see her while the native si^uats on the gronnd. 
mission Churches self-supporting as soon He works in his mission field, Mid is re- 
as possible, so that they may be left for cognised as ' msster.' Through his intel- 
the 'regions beyond,' She wishes also lectthcHolySpiritconqnerstheinteliect 
to see them rise to the activity ot life of his converts. Through his heart the 
enjoyed at home. It seems easy at first Holy Spirit touches their hearts. He is 
sightjusttotransplantdirectlyourforms Christianity itself to them — -'a living 
of pohty to India or elsewhere, and look epistle.' 

for immediate reaulta. It is imposmble. Suppose he has made a few converts, 

however, to do this. We may as well He feels tliat the heathenism aronnd 

say that as the history of Britain goes cannot be overtaken withont assistance. 

with each emigrant to America, all that He knows also, that if the conntiy evet 



u^im.'"'' COBRBSPONDBNCE. 221 

be converted, it must be through tbo- could not get on. Encli miBaloa station 
rongbljr trnbed and approved native in Rajpootana is surrounded by many 
agents, who know tbedimcultieaso much villages and towne^ and, were they occu- 
betiec than a stranger, and can present pied Dy churches, they would require to 
the truihmth its Bide to those diflicalties, bo formed into separate presbyteries, 
and who sIbo know the language so well. These, asiun, must be nnitedintoa synod, 
and the entire life in the field where the so that the opinion of all mieht be had 
work is to be done. Knowing all this, onany important point. All fliis is new, 
the misnonary selects bis Bssistants from and cannot be aocomplished by the na- 
among his converts, and leads them still lives alone. The European missionair, 
further int« the Btorea of sacred know- then, from the nature of the case, is the 
ledge. The Conference in India has a bveraeer— the superintendent — the epis- 
prescribed course for the training of copopos of the district where he laboure. 
Datiie agents, involving at least four This simple relation, however, in which 
years' hari study of the Bible, of Apolo- the miseionary stands, and must stand, 
getics, and of Systematic Theology. The to the uative Church, if developed and 
mieeioiiBry has to prepare these agents, projected into the future, would become 
Ij going over again and again tul the episcopacy as we know it in England, 
gmimd. They arp then examined by the It is indeed true that the missionary 
appointed subject examiners, and passed must oversee the planting of the Chris- 
ty the Conference into the grade for tian Church until it be an established 
which they have been studying, or sent fact. When it has been gradually estab- 
hack to go over the work again. The lished in all its det^, the mother 
agents have also preached alongside the Church needs no longer send out men, 
missionaTy in the bazaar and villages, for her work is finished. The last mls- 
as^inghim, and bein^ trdned by him. sionaries, however, would commit agreat 
Ab the number of converts increases in mistake were they to say to the native 



e station, and should the agents Church, ' We are to leave you, and ii 
(Xmmend themselves as worthy, tliey are our separate stations we select from 
sent to ODl-stationB in the near villages or among yourselves favourite or trusted 
tOKng. A missionary ought to have a. men to five in our houses, and superin- 
gixid many of these out-stations. Itiner- tend the work as we did.' The mission- 
Mies are valuable in opening up the aries must all along let the native 
mantiy; but to have permanent results. Church know that the state of things 
men must be stationed in .places to give necessary in planting a Church must pass 
' line upon line.' At stated times the away when it has taken root in the soil. 
puaaionaryviBits these out-stations, spend- Tbey must treat them always with this 
ingsome time in examining the sonools, in view. When the time comes that the 
pleaching, inspecting the work, meeting missionaries must lesve, they will only 
with inquirers if any, and baptiang have to say, ' Now, mthojit lu, you are 
Item if ready. If tberebeasmallChris- to bring your own united wisdom and 
tian community, he dispenses the Loid's experience to bear on the work in hand. 
Supper. He also has to take charge of Wc have been teaching you to depend 
all pecuniary matters, and generally to on yourselves, and now yon are ready to 
wange for the carrying forward ot the meet on a common platform, aod consult 
work. for the future of the Church in your 
Of coarse this system is not complete land,' Presbytcrianism is the perfect — 
until these out-stations be constituted into the permanent state of things. It is the 
Bati?e churches, with pastors i>nd elders, fruit, while the overeeeing needfulfora 
This consideration gives more force to the time was but the blossom, without which, 
foregoing remarks ; tor the mjafdonary of course, the fruit could not have been, 
miiat take the native pastor by the hand, Other elements are introduced by the 
ud lead him stiU further into the un- missionaries from the very nature of the 
known land of forming a church and a case. They ore sent out to a special field 
stsaion. They know nothing of the rules or station by the Foreign Mission Board; 
for conducting business, nor of that and even where there is a native Church 
decency and order which are the patrj- it is not consulted, and were it consulted 
mony of the Church at home. Dimcul- its opmion would not be worth anything, 
ties must necessarily arise ; and without Were this state of thmgs continued in the 
any one to appeal to aa an authority, they Church, would we not have patronage? 



222 CORHESPONDENCE. '""XMrns"^ 

The natire Churches must be educated to for the heathen around her, her cbadren 

choose their orn paston. in tnra. 

Again, the miaaionary ia paid on the Suppose a preabytety compoged ol 
principle of* the strong supporting the European miisbnaries, with native eldera, 
weai,' by a body of men ontaide, and and of native paators and their elderg, 
independent of the church to which be There could neither be parity in JDiig- 
minJsters. Now, were tbia continued as ment, experience, or membere; for the 
the only mode of paying the miniatry, native, being the earnest got, wodd soon 
andweretbemoney respomdbilityunder- outnumber the European miaBionanes. 
taken by any or all of the native princes What would be the value of a Vote on 
in India on tneir becotnbgChriatiaua, we any question by those who stood m Uie 
would have the very duBenlties intro- relation of parent and child, or of pro- 
duced aa between Chnrch and State with feasor and student? A majority might 
which WQ onrselvee have to contend. A show the following each missionaTy bad, 
forthw fact ia this : — A great part of the or were it a majority of natives against 
land of Jeypore, and of all the native the few Europeans, it would ahow a slate 
Btatee of India, goes to endow the heathen of rebellion in the migaon field. To 
templea. Ko prince, on beooming a allow attidenta to dictate tjie number of 
Christian, would continue this endow- examinations to be held, or the numbs 
ment of days they were to attend the Divinil^r 

From these facta, it is evident that Hall, would lead, even in this conntir, 

there are certain modes of action necea- with aU our Christian progresi, to the 

sary in the first stages of mission work, utmost confusion. To what confosion ■ 

and others as necessary in a more ad-- would it not lead with natives who sK 

vonced atage. Now, the Church at just beginning to walk in tiie before im- 

bonie wishes to get these modee of action trodden paths of (^ristian nior^ly and 

appliedatttiepropertimeof constituting order? Suppose some of tlie native 

...!__. !._..__ ijjg^gj_^ggjj^ ipj^ paators were to bring up an overtore for 



we hold to be tie only solution ; but the the Home Synod or Board to doable 

question remains. What is Ikis preabyttry their salaries, or to build chuiches all 

fu 6e T Wham u it to embrace .' Is it to over Rajpootana. The Europeans aU see 

be made wide ertough to embrace both the absurdity of this; but the natives 

European and natiee alike f Or are the unit*, and carry it witi a sweeping nia- 

faetsof the case to be taken into account, iority, of aay four to one. It comes 

and the European mitnonarUs to be con- home in this form ; but would it really 

atitated into a standing commitlee of Synod, be a majority with all the Europeans 

with Jiill powers to organize a Church in against it ? Clevly the vote of auch a 

India, viith presbyteries, synod, etc. * preebyteiy would not be of any value. 

. At first Bight, the proposal first made It is also clear that it would demoralize 

may appear the more natural; but if tiiom to have' to~ consider money and 

carefully looked at, it will be found un- other matten outside themselves. There 

workable. To establish Fresbyterianiam, could not be equality of atipends, for the 

you must have the material — mentraiaed native could live on one-t«nth of what 

in similar 'circtunstances; but the Euro- ia necessary to support a foreigner. Were 

peans and natives are not so. Kecall the the salaries of the native pastors fiz«d 

position inwhicbthemisaionaryfonndthe high, the Church in India could not pay 

native, and hia relation to hirn after con- them, and money would have to be sent 

version. For a long time to come they out from this country for many a long 

must stand in the relation of parent and rear. Again, if the European element 

child ; and to destroy this would simply be tbe proper thing to incoiponte, t^ien 

spoil the child, and render the parent s the Churcii at home must contanoe to 

presence with him uselees. The parent send out men long after the Chnrch ii 

muBt oversee bis child, and lead him up eatablished. This would involve a great 

fay proper education to manhood. And and unnecessary expense, and it would 

when the child seta lip bouse for himself, hinder the production of the proper 

he ought not to be burdened by making agency — a natire pastorate. Therewould 

it laree enough both for hia parent and be, in fact, but one end to mieaion woil 

himseU, The Church in this country in any one given field, and that wotdd 

wishes to see tiie Church in India able to be the beginning. If so, vre must give 

care for hMBelt first, and then, working up several of the mission Aelda already 



"X'u^*^^ CORRllSPONDEKCE. 223 

occBpied, an the fut increasiiig coBt of of their office. They bIbo could h&ve 

one or two would require all the money matiageis elected, and trAineil to the 

tbe United PresbTterian Cborch could orerdght of all the temporal concemB of 

raiu. These one or tiro miaaonchardtw the Church; and all this with the Tiew 

vould juat be all the more feeble, ac- of placing native pastors over them as 

eonliDg to Uie amonnt of ud from the lOon as poiaible. After that, the pastors 

oalmde. In thin atrange componod we muat b« taken by the hand and led 

could point out many more iooompatible through all their new work again and 

elenKote ; but eoongh. AK*"!!, tjll it became natm'at to thetn. 

¥hat, th^ is to be done? lite The individual miedonary wo&M not 

auwer k eaey. Let the Church recog- only hare this church to look after, but 

DiBe the fact Uuit there are two disliuet also all the neighbourhood, where, as 

danents in the migEioa field, and let her ChriatiBnity Bpreads, there would re- 

gire powets to each aecordinKly- Let mure to be native pairton! settled. Thoae 

ifr cwetitute the prtgent Can/ereTux of cliiirche80oaldbeB8nctioced,Uiep»ator8 

Ordained aad Medical European MiuioH' ordained, and the supplement deter- 

arit! into a CtmaidtUe of St/nod, lehoM mined by the cojnmittee, acting accord- 

SKrk tiall be to organise a (^urct in iog to the general laws laid down for 

india. Let the Church send ont her their gnidsnce by the Board at home, 

best and most tnuted men, as OUT nation The individu^ misstonaiy would, in 

Hnds out ber re{T«wntatiTes to the hia own locality, be the guide and coun- 

connsls of nations, with full powers to eellor, not only of the pastors, bat of the 

do a Dotain work subject to the sending churches. Should any qnesdos arise 

paver, and wiieii the work is done to which he ooold not settle, the matter 

. letnra home. A t«mpcffary measure is could be brought before the committee, 

required, and this is a temporary ar- By it aU rulw affecting tiie whole field 

nngemsoL It keepe cleariy in view could be framed, and receive the aanelion 

tlie work to be done — planting a Chwch. of the home Church if need be. To the 

in India ; and it allows nothing to enter home Church, also, any member could 

into the scheme which has afterwards to faring any overture or appeal The Con- 

be wilkdrawn. It maintains the preaeDt ferenoe have come olr^dy, in an in- 

nlation between the Fcredgn Mission f^mal way, no doubt, and asted for 

Board and the mism<xiarieB.. Itjjrovidee subordinate standards for India. The 

that the missicmaries may tmng any Church at home wonld do well to give 

orerture or appeal before the Synod ; them a nmplc form like that found from 

and it removes the strange anomaly of page 9 to page 16 of our admirable ' Som- 

men ordained over ohnrcbee having no mury of rrinciplee.' This would suit at 

mice ia the Cfaorch eoorCa. The com- the ordination of eldem and ministers. 

ntittea Ume constitated would just bear But to return. 

tiie game relation to the Synod and After the separate congregations could 
I'oieign Mission Board, as a non-self- manage their own internal aSairs, much 
wpptwtfng presbytery in this oonntry would still require to be done. Each 
voold b^ to the Synod utd Home minion district is so large that it would 
tliuion Board. It is, in fact, the right require to be formed into one or two 
the Chsi^ gives to any of hw commit- presbytOTes, composed of native pastors 
tees formed for any work. They all and their ^dera. This would require 
have a vi^ce' in the Synod, and tlicir still further effort ; and the European 
Tcsk is the work of the Synod. miseicmariee could give them all the rules 
If we take into account what the and all the as^stance necessary in the 
miesioaaries alone can do for the Church entirely new work. Again, all Bajpoot- 
in India, this will more clearly appear. . ana would require to be united into one 
Besidee, being the mioBspring in the synod. Tius tiie committee of Euro- 
work of preaching, of education, of col- pans must do ; but if they find a place 
portage, and ot the orphanage, the in it for themselves, they disturb the 
European missionaries must be the tern- . expression of the opinion of the native 
porary pastors of the churches at the pastors and elders. They must form it, 
fltefions where liey live. They (iould and act as counsellora and guides till 
tuive elders elected in the proper way, precedents be established by which the 
and train them to admit converts, and Church could guide ilseU. All this 
otherwise esercise the spiritual functions would require a long time ; and the 



224 COBKESPONDEKCE. ' M.,i7iSa** 

tnomeot any imtive Cburch could maa- peans could attend to the ever-vtrjing 

age taiy part of ita own aftairs, that teaturea of the field. It could eee what 

moment itought to be truat^d to do so, new statioaa require. to be opened, and 

under tie general oversight of the mia- how manf men are required for each. 

aionaTT. It could petition the Board for tlie 

While this organizing of the Church needed men and means for the field. It 

IB going on, the training of agenta as could appoint the fit men for the new 

erangeUate and paatora mnat not be for- stations, aa the men and the require- 

gotten. I have already deEcribed the menta are both known to it It could 

present aaactioned mode of training see what men were l^uired ta^ each of 
evangelists. It works admirably; and ■ the old stations. It could determine the 

all timt is required is to make it embrace departments of work to he taken up hy 

the training of pastors also. Take some each of two colleagoes, and coold hold 

of the evangelists who have completed a them responsible only to it alone. If a 

four years' course, and ask tlietn to study colleague saw anything wrong, or what 

a litUe longer before they are ordained, he supposed to be wrong, he could appl; 

If needful, revise the present books, add for a committee of investigation. If a 

newsubjects, and re-deterpiiae the quali- case were made out, it should be.judged 

ficatioDB neoessary for eot^ring on this and settled if possible in the atmosphere 

course. Let them meanwhile be trained where it arose. If it conldnot be settled, 

in the active work of the field, where then, according to its nature, in a pre- 

they can make use of their knowledge ^red form, it could be sent to tin 

aa tliey acquire it. I.,ct their Divinity Board at borne, or brought before the 

Hail be that of the successoiH of the Synod. Each missionary would thus be 

nposttes, and that of all the first mini^ protected from personal attacks, and the 

sters of any Church. Let tbeir moral Board saved from long cases, r^arding 

worth, their conaistent life, their ac- which it cannot have ul the facta or dr- 

ceptability, their wisdom, their natural cumstances on which a decision shoiitd 

powers, and their success — the evidences depend. 

of the Spirit's call — modify if you will Alany other advantages could be 

the course of study required at first. It pointed out; but from what has been 

ought to be the aim to have the ministi7 written, it must be abundantly evident 

as highly educated as possible. This that there would be great advantage in 

only, however, means that the ministi? the Churdi at the coming Synod con- 

are to exceed the people in all know- stitnting the Conference of Eoiq>eRn 

ledge and education, especially in divine Miasibnaries into a committee to Oi^anize 

things ; and of courae it varies as the a Church in India. All that is to be 

standing of the Church. done is to give the Conference the powers 

Gradually the different departments above described. Their work would be 
of work wOl come to be managed by the the work of missionaries aa. described 
native Cliurch itself, so that the Euro- in tbe Acta of the Apostles and in the 
pean missionaries could confine them- Epistles: ' They ordained them elders ia 
selves to the training oF pastors and every church,' and ' delivered them the 
evangelists. Then probably one Divinity decrees for to keep, which were ordaiaed 
Hall could be for all. Halls, however, of the apostles and elders which were at 
are more after the genius of the Western Jerusalem.' 

mind than the Eastern. This, moreover. In the foregoing remarks, I have net 
lies so fat in the future that it needs not brought forward anytldng new ; but I 
disturb the present. The training of the have tried to look at the facts is the 
ministry must evidently be the last point mission field as they were looked at in 
left, and it cannot be given np for a New Testament times, feeling sore that 
good few generations. Still, where men the more we conform to New Testament 
are found in India fit to train the yottng precept and example, the more likely are 
ministry, their services ought to be se- we to have New Teatament success.— 
ciured. YourB, etc.. 

Still further, this columitlee of Euro- John Tiuili.- 



D.n.iized by Google 



SELIQIOnS IKIELLIOBNOE. 



HYMN BOOKS FOR MISSION STATIONS. 

TO THE EDITOR OF TH£ UNITED PRESBTTEBIAN HAOAZINE. 

SiH,— Now th&t the new Hymnal hu act m reoeiTets, and forn-ard the Hymn 

■Imost entirely displaced the lonner one, Booka to the offices of the Church, where 

tbere most be many tboaund copi«e of some one would no doubt be willing to 

tilt latter of oofurUiernBe to theowneia take charge of them, and to lecelTeap- 

of them. plioationa for grants. 

It baa occoired to me that the greater It ia hardly neceesary to point ont 

part of these might be got for the aak- what a boon theae wonld be \o miauon- 

ing, and might be held at the diapoaal ariea, providing them with a ' service of 

of our mtBsionariee at home and abroad, praise which haa for a quarter of a 

who would be entitled to a grant of the centory been a Bonrce of oleaeing and 

number of copies they required, in the delight to our own people. — I am, yours 

order of their application. respectfully, 

Hiniatera coatd, with little trouble, A Fresbttebiaii Elder. 

EDINBURGH LADIES' ASSOCIATION. 

TO THE EDITOIt OF THE UNITED PRE3BTTEBIAN UAOAZIKE. 

Deae 81S, — Will you allow me through tbem, and to help them to reach their 

jour pages to inform country miniatera destination in safety. 
BD1I other friends, of the existence of an Any one commuuicating with Mrs. 

Awodation of Ladies in Edinburgh for Dr. Thomson, 6S Northumberland Street, 

the protection of yonns womrai who or Mrs. Nairn, Hermitage, Murrayfield, 

may Dome to the oity, either in quest of vrill receive further information, 
ntuatiooe, or to enter on engagements The writer is authorized to say that 

tlmdymade? Theladieanndertake to arrangements of a similar kind are being 

wait the arrival of trains at our railway made in Qlaagow, and any one com- 

Btations for a day. or tico at the old rounicating there with the Matron, 

tnd new terma, on purpose to receive Young Women's Christian AjBOCtation, 

BtnngeiB on their amvaf, to wain them 59 Union Street, will be attended to.— 

of the temptations which may assail I am, etc., 

A Heuber of the Associatiok. 



SYNODICAL ATTENDANCE. 

TO THE EDITOR OY THE UNITED PRESBrTERIAN MAGAZINE. 

SiK,— It should be generally known, and present along with few oUiers when ,the 

Dioit be BO partially, that a great bar to Synod was cToeed at a late hour of night 

Borne of OUT Church elders attending hj Dr. Harper. I have read your Maga- 

ihe meeting of Synod is that the fiiac zine, page 1^3, on this matter of attend- 

week ot it always inclndea Widtaonday, ance. — Yours respectfully, 
15th May. It haa always prevented me r, .^ ir^r.^.,.... 

when elLted, excepting onoe, whe'n I I**™ HEPBURN. 

attended at the tecond week, and was Perth, 18(A March 1878. 



Wednesday, lat of May — Mr. Aochterlonie 

PSBSBrraaiiL proceed wo s. ^^ preaide and addrpis the mmiatBr, Dr. 

Aberdeea.^Tbit presbytery met on the Eobaon to preach, and Mr. Duncan to 

3i)i April, wben it was intimated that Mr. addresa the people. Mr. R. G. Wilson 

LtwriB hsd accepted Ihe call from the was appointed to act on the Committee of 

coDgregation of Old Meldrnm. Mr. Billi and Oveiturea. The preibytery took 

^wde, being pnsent, delivered all his up the resignation of the Bev. Thomas 

Uiili for ordination, which was fixed for Brown, of NeUon Street congregation. 

80. V. TOL. IXII. HEW 8EBIES.^1IAI 1678. P 



226 BBLI010C8 INTELLIOENCB. '"'X*?!*?*' 

Mr. Broirn adhered to hia reBignsUon of elder, v»» appointed & member of the 

the charge, and t)ie commisRionerB from Sjnod'tCommitteeoii Bills and Orertiirea, 

the congriEatioD aeanieseed, regretiine and Hr. Scatt wsi appointed moderator 

that Mr, Brown'a failing health had of presbytery for the next twalre moniln. 

neceiaiiated hii taking this step. It wit Mr. Wa(»on presented a report on the 

mored and teconded that Mr. Brown's congregational atatiaCica of the pruby- 

resignation be accepted, and he loosed tery, when, after remarlu, it was mored, 

from his charge. After prsTor, he was seconded, and aaanimoasl/ agreed, tlisi 

■attabl; addressed b; the moderator, and the thanks of the presbytery be given lo 

his name taken from the roll of presbytery. Mr. Watson for his excellent paper, and 



:■ applied for a sapply of that Che farther consideraCion of the sab- 

Ereachers. A circolar anent Tbeologieal ject, with remit of Synod on annnal risita- 
[all collection was read, and the clerk tion of eongregalions, be delayed nniil 



itrncted to communicate with tfae next ordinary meeting of tho Synod.— 

sessions in the boonds, ioqniring whether The presbytery met at Holywell on the 

the collection had been made, and report. II th April, in terms of appointment The 

According to agreement, the presbyteiy H«v. Archibald Bmith, moderator prv , 

entered on a conference anent foreign Umpore, read a letter from Mr. Lamhen, 

missions. Afler dero^onal exercises, intimating his inability to disobai^ the 

the subject was introdnced by stirring duty appointed him at last meeting (^ 

addresses from Uessrs. Young and. presbytery, in gonseqaence of ochet 

Ancbterlonie. ScTeral of the brethren engagements, and the presbyten re- 

And of the ofBce-bearers present having qaesled Mr. Walson to officiate in bii 

expressed their views, the conference was stead, with which request Mr. Watson 

closed with singing and prayer. Mr. complied, and took the chair accordingly, 

Rankina read report of statistics for year The edict prepared and aerved on the 

1S77, showing an Increase of membership, congregation ot Holywell was presented, 

of incoine for ordinary purposes, and and found to be doty attested. The edict 

specially of income for missionary pur- was again read three times, according to 

poses, over the whole presbytery. The rule, and the ordination services were 

report was considered highly satisfactory, proceeded with. Mr. Scott, after prsjer 

and an abstract was appointed to be and praise, preached a sermon from Hstt, 

printed for circulation among the con- v. S: 'Blessed are the pare in heart, for 

(iregBtions. — A public meeting in connec- they shsU see God.' The clerk narrated 

tion with (he conference on missions was the steps. Mr. Watson put the questions 

held in Belmont Street Charcb in the of the formula to Mr. Brown, condncted 

evening, presided over by Dr. Bobson, in the ordination prayer, and afterwards 

when the large audience was addressed addressed the minister and people on 

by Kev. Mr. Smith of Fraserburgh, Rev. their respective dnties. The ordinatioD 

Dr. Andrew Thomson of Edinbargh, Rev. services were closed w^th praise, prayer, 

Andrew Hopg from Jamaica, and Bailie and the benediclion. Mr. Ballaniyne wis 

Esslemont of Aberdeen. The meeting appointed to introduce Mr. Brown to the 

was felt to be so instructive and stfmu- Holywell session. The presbytery agreed 

latin^ as to suggest the desirability of tike to thank Mr. WaUon for readily agreeing 

.meetings being held in the future. to undertake the duty to which he wss 

Annandale. — This presbytery met at appointed in room of Mr, Lambert. Mr. 

Annan on the 26th March last — the Bev. Hutton was, in terms of request, appointed 

Archibald Smith, moderator. IL was re- toarrangeforthediapensationoftheLord's 

Eorted that Mr. Peter H. Laird, student, Snitper at Wamphray. Next meeting of 

ad been engaged as missionary at presbytery is to be held at Annan on the 

Wamphray for one year. Mr. John Tnesday after the fourth Sabbatb of Jnoe. 

Brown, M.A., preacher, was present, and, Berwiel:, — This presbytery net at Ayton 

having accepted the call of Holywell con- on the 8th of April, for ordinary hnsinees 

gregalion, he delivered trials for ordina- and for a conference on missions — the 

tion, including a thesis on 'Does Saving Bev. A. B. Bobertson, moderator. The 

Faith consist simply in accepting the elders of the varions confp-^^iions were 

statements of the Gospel as True ? ' and invited to the conference. A report of the 

an examination on theology, specially on distrihniion of the Surptaa Fund in the 

the atonement ; which exercises being presbytery was laid on the table, and 

nnanimoasly sustained, Mr. Brown's attention was called to a few of the items 

ordination was appointed to take place in it The aggregate membership in the 

at Eolywelt, on Thursday, 1 1th April— congregations receiving anlplus had in- 

Mr. Scott to preach, and Mr. Lambert to creased dnrine the past year. Two of 

preside in the ordination, and address the Ae congregations previously below the 

*"'""''" and people. Mr. Hamilton, minimum stipend of £300 bad risen to it 



BELIQIODS INTBLUOEKCB. 



thii jesr. A commaDieaUon wm read 
mpcctlDg ODG of the congregaiioD* nt 
pmeut receiring inpplement, but which 

the pretbj'terir thinki ought to ba lelf- 
BoiiidDiag OD icconnt or ii^ namben and 
resonrcea. It vai altimaMlj agreed to 
BDggeiC that the Home Miuion Board 
taaa ft depntalian to the congregation 
befora coming to a decision in the matter. 
Tbs Bar. A. B. Kobertton, convener, 
gave Id tha annaal report on itatiBtica, 
from wbicb it appeared that the member- 
ibip of the different congregaCiona has 
been muntaiiied, and thai the degree of 
liberaJit; in the aopport of ordinancei 
and for miiaionary and benevolent pnr- 
poKB haa been coniiderabij inareaacd 
during (he jear. The committee re- 
ceiTed the thanW of the preabjtBr]^, and 
II agreed to ' "'" ' ' 



in the second Sabbath of Jul;. The prea- 
bjtcry proceeded to bold ft conferenee oa 
miuioni, aa previouslT agreed od. Papers 
on misiiQns were read bj the Bey. Meiaia. 
Wilson and Inglis. After the reading of 
tbesa excellent and exhanatire paperi, 
rarioni Buggeationi were thrown ant in 
conference aa to the beat meana of pro- 
moving an interest in Christian miaaiona. 
Beiides the ministers and elders ot ibe 
presbjlerj, a number of elders, not mem- 
bers of coart, took part in the conference, 
which was felt to be exceedingly interest' 
ing and profitable. The Bei. James 
Han'Ower waa 'appointed moderator for 
tbe next six months, and took the chair. 
Inqnirj waa made as lo the collection for 
theTbeological Hall Fond, and tbe clerk 
wss Instracted to write to the two coa- 
gragslions from which no report hod been 
reeeiTcd. The roll waa adjusted for the 
Synod; and the Ber. R. C. Inglia was 
a|ip(Hnted a member of the SjDod's Corn- 
laittee on Bills and Overt urea. 

ftipar. — This preabf tarj met ia Bonay- 
gtta Church elasi-room on the l«th 
of April — Mr, Moriaon, moderator pro 
laa. An application was made for a 
moderation by Boston .Charch (Cnpai), 
which was giSinted, and Mr. Anderson 
WM appointed to preside in said modera- 
tion on the ii9th April. Commissionera 
from. Bonnygate Church (Cupar) ap- 
peared, and intimated that their minister, 
the Bev. Mr. Bankine, had ezpreaaed a 
desire that a eoUeagae might be appointed 
to assist him in the discharge of his minis- 
terial work, and that his congregation had 
cordially agreed to accede to his request. 
The presbytery sanctioned the orrBiige- 
meats that had been made, and graoted 
supply of sermon as requested by the com- 
niissioners. Mr, Lees ivos appointed to 



Comm: 

porta were received from congregationi 
that had made the colleclioa for the 
Theological Hall for tbe current year. 
Trial diacouises were appointed to Hr. 
Lawrence, student of the third year, and 
an exercise waa astigned to Mr. Barron, of 
the second year. Owing to an unexpected 
preisureof buaineas, it was agreed to delay 



inference oi 



e of religion ti 



linCed a meeting to \ 
bnrgh on the mominE of Wednesday, the 
ISih May, at ten o'clock, and the next 
ordinary meeting in Boston Church, on 
the Tuesday after the second Sabbath of 



, of the Commiltee on 

Babbath Schools and Children's Services, 
repotted that a conference of Sabbath 
school teachers and the snperintandents 
of childrsn'i services had been held, and 
that it was well attended. The presby- 
tery received tbe report and reappointed 
ihe committee, and, in view of the great 
importance of tbe subject, ineirnctea the 
committee to correapend with the mem- 
bers oF other evangelical denominaliona 
in Dundee, and lo confer with them on 
the whole question of the relationship of 
cbildren'a aervicea and Sabbath schools to 
each other and the Church. A letter 
was read from the Bev. Dr. M'Qavio, in- 
forming the preabjtery that he had in- 
limated to hii congregation bis wish to 
he relieved oF all official duties, and to 
retain the status and designation of their 
senior minister. A letter from Tay 
Sqnara congregation was read, stating 
that at ft meeting of the congr^ation it 
waa agreed, in terms of bis own request, 
to relieve Br. M'GavIn of all official 
4laiies in connection with the congrega- 
tion ; also that be ehonid possess the 
status and deaignation of aenior minister ; 
and further, that aa senior minister he 
ahoald receive the sum of £250 per 
annam as a retiring allowanie. On the 
motion of the Ber. Mr. Rnssell, seconded 
bj the Bev. A. .Miller, the presbytery 
acquiesced in the above arrangementa, 
expressed their deep sympftthy with Br. 
M'Oavin in his coQlinued affliction, and 
hoped be might yet be enabled to take 
hia aeat at their meetings. It was agreed 
to remit to tbe preebytery'a Committee 
on Bisestabliahment a circular from tbe 
secretary of the Scottish Council of the 
Liberation Society, requeeting Ihe presby- 



228 MJLIQIOnS INTELLIGENCE. '""i^'mS?^ 

sent fsToarable oppdrtDniEr. The Bev. Bev. Mr. Baironr, RoMheutj, tmdn 

Mr. Onham, conrener of the Augmenta- irhose niaistry Mr. RobsrUon wm tr^Dfd 

tion of Stipenda Committee, ispoTted np, wai preient, and took part in tbs aet- 

that tbe amoant eoUecied I'ut year in rices. The Ber. Mr, Wall preached from 

the praibjterj waa £3i3, beio); £S0 less Rom. xi>. 8: 'We are the Lord'a.' Tht 

than tbe snin raised in 1876. The report Her. Mr. Macdonald condncted the ordi' 

conclnded by luggeiting that an aonual natioD aerrice, and afcerwardi addreaeed 

anbicription for tbe Augmentatton Fund the newly-ordained pattor, and the Set. 

abanld be made in every congregation, Hr. Wbyte the people, on their reipeeare 

and when that waa not practicable, that dniiea. There waa a' large attendance, 

there ahonld be an annual collection. It and a 'deep intereaC waa abown in the 

waa reported that Mr. R. Smellie, Btadent, aerTicei, which were moat appropriate and 

had agreed to labonr as nuMionary at impteaaire. At the cloM of the public 

Newiyle. serrices. the preabytery met for the trans- 

MdhAurgh, — This presbytery met in action of ordinary bnaineas, when Mr. 

the Tonni; Men'a Christian Inatltntion, Bobertson's name waa added to the roll of 

It St.. Andrew Street, on Tnesday the Sd presbytery. The attention of tbe pret- 

April — BeT. Mr. Marshall, Bast Calder, bytery haTing been called to the drcnm- 

moderator. OntfaemotionofMr, Groom, it stance tbat the Rev. Mr. Bisset bad 

was agreed — That, as recommended by the departed this life at Bonmemouth on tbe 

presbytery's Disestablishment Committee, IGth March, hia name waa taken from the 

this conrt oTertnre the Synod to lake roll of the preabyterj. Messrs. Pringle 

sDch actioa for tbe diaendowment aud and Lind were appointed to prepare ■ 

diiestabliabment of the Chnrch of Scot-, minnts for inaertion in the record* ef 

land as tbe Synod may see Gt, Dr. presbytery with reference to the lamented 

Reid asked and obtained leaTe for the death of Mr. Biaaet. The.d^k stated 

Committee on the Social State of the City . that tbe Rev. Dr. Gardiner, Edinbnrgh, 

to commnnicate with the other preabj- had, in answer to a letter that he had 

terial committees on the aubjec), so that written to him aince last meeting, inti' 

they might bring np a report in n more mated hia williogneaa that the presbjteiy 

complete form. ProfeKaor Johnston was ahonld nominate bim as their represen- 

anpoinied to form tbe members of the tatire in the Misaion BDBrd.(D.T.) dnring 

church worahipping in the reoently the foor years ending in May ISBa. Next 

erected station at Portobello, into a meeting was appointed to be held at 

regular congregation j an interim session Forres, on Tneiday after the second Sab- 

alao was appointed. -.Thia presbytery bath of April (16lh April). — The presby- 

met, 9tb April, in St. Andrew's Place tery met at Forrea— Ber. William Hac- 

Chnrch, Leiih; for the purpose of ordain- donald, moderator. The Rots. Messn. 

ing Mr. David S. Henderson, preacher, Fringle and Lind having, m appointed 

who ia about to proceed to San Fernando, at last meeting, prepared a minnte for 

Trinidadj aa a miasionary of the Chnrch, insertion in the records of presbytery wiib 

The Rev. John Yonn;;, Newington, Edin- regard to the lunented death oF Hr. 

bnrgh, preached ; the Rev. Wm. Morrison, Bisaet, the presbytery nnanimoiisly agreed 

St. Ajidrew's Place Chnrch, presided at to adopt it, and record it in their minetes 

the ordination; and the Rer. George as follows; — 'The presbytery deeply feel 

Lambert, Gretna (formerly of Trinidad), the loss sustained by them in the removal 

In addreaatng the yonng miniater, kave an by death of the Eev. John Bisset, after 

intereslingacconnt ofthrsphere of Ubonr a protracted affliction, endured with nn- ■ 

upon which he ia about to enter. There murmuring patience. He was endowed 

was a large attendance of members of with rare intellectnal talents, which were 

Ereabytery, as alao of others interested in conaecrated by him to bis divine Heater. 
Ir. Henderson's career.— This presbj- His preaching was of a high order, 
tety met, nth April, at West Calder, for thoroughly evangelical, showing a large 
tbe iodaction of Rev. James Wardrop, acquaintance with Scripture truth, and 
late of Craigend. The Bev. Mr. Suther- richly endowed with nnetion and imprea- 
lacd, Dunbar, preached, and the Rev. siveness; while hia conduct was miiformly 
Andrew Duncan, Mid - Calder, presided such aa becomes a Christian and a Chris- 
and addressed the congregation and the tian minister; and hia anassuming man- 
newly inducted minister, . ners served greatly to endear him to his 
Elgin and /mjeme**.— This presbyterv brethren.' An overture to the Synod by 
met St Campbelton (Ardersier) on the Mr. J. H. Gill, Forres, transmitted by the 
29tb March; for the ordination of Mr. session of Forres, with reference to tbe 
Alexander A. Robertson, probationer, use of fermented or nnfermented wins in 
" "" "' ' ' the communion, having been read, il was 
agreed to.trauunit it to the Synod »t iu 



'^'^^KtT^ EELIGIOUS INIELLIOKSCE. - 229 

ippraacbiag neetins. Mr. Pringle haiing meeting lo bs held od "lauitj, 4lb Jnoe, 

iDoicd, agrceabtf to a noCioe girea by atll^K. 

Mai t( * foriuer meeting, that tbe prei- Oallincay. — TbiBpreibyterjrmetatB'eiT- 
b;tei7 take Btepa for a mofement similar lon-Sieirart on 9ih April— Mr. Walun, 
10 vbu bag been recently carried into modeiator pro I«m. DeTOtional exercites 
iSect in Elgin witb deiitable reiulta, in the were conducted hj Mr. Sqnair. A letter 
dihir districtB of tbe preebytery, for the from Dr. Mairanent joDngperaonichBDg' 
imie of intoxicating liqnore on occasion ing their residence was read and approred. 
of funerals, ts well m during tbe interval Tbe clerk laid upon tbe uble transferonce 
bstmten death and Inlerment, tbe motion from the PresbjterT of Glatgow to thia 
■u naaaimoasly agreed to. A com- presbytery of Mr. John M. Waliou, »u- 
mimicBtiDn having been read from the dent, who baa finisbed bis coursb at the 
Monjshire Farmers' Clob with regard to Hal!. Subjects as trials for licence were 
^ iBcnmenial fast days, a committee was assigned him. The atlentian of the pres- 
sppoiated, consisting of Bev. Messn. Lind bytery was called to the collection for tbe 
and Robson, with Messrs. Raff and Theological Hall, which ongbt to have 
Cmickshanks, elders, to consider the mat- been made in all the congregations during 
UT sod report at a future meeting. Mr. the month of March, The clerk laid apon 
Wb;i« WW appointed a member of tbe the table the eiaiieiics of tbe presbytery 
Spod't Committee on Bills and Uref for the j ear ending 31st December 1877, 
imes at llie ensuing meeting. Mr. Sobsan from which it appeared that the member- 
liimg mored that an orertars be pre- ship was I73B, being an increase on tha 
senied in ibe Synod at its approaching year of S4. The income fur ordinary pur- 
meeting in faronr of Disestablishment, the poees andrepairi, £gOS3, 19l. Sd., being an 
moiioQ vas ananimously agreed to. Next increase of £58, 19s. S^d. ; for missionarj 
mtenng wai appointed to be held at and beneToleut purposes, iGieS, 8s. G^., 
Naim, on Taeaday after the second being an increasa of £41, 5s. Gd. ; and for 
Bibbathof June. all purposes, jCSSSO, Ts. TJd., being an 
Faliiri. — This pres byt ery met on ad average per member for ordinary purpose* 
April — Uev. George Wade, moderator, of £1, 3s. Sfd.; formisslonary purposes, of 
Tbe Rev. Charles Jerdan, LL.B. (clerk), Si. IJd. ; and for all pmposes, £1, 9s. Id, 
■>■ appointed to moderate, on the ISih Besides the above, tbe sum of £MS5, IBs. 
insunt, in a call ton colleague to tbe bos been raised for the new church at 
RiT. Hugh Baird, Cumbernanld. It was Newton-Stewart. Next meeting of pres- 
Eisied tbat the Cnmbemanld congregation bytery lo be held at Newton -Stewart on. 
cSer£5D per annum as a retiring allowance Tuesday after the first Sabbath of June, 
to the senior minister, with manse and OlatgoW. — This presbytery met on 
pnlen, and propose to give £80 from Monday, 8th April— Rer. Mr. Thomson, 
iheirourn resources to the junior minister. Plantation, moderator. The Ber. Mr. 
is tbe bope that big stipend may be sup- Ferguson's case was under consideration, 
pigmented from the fun^ of the Church Mr. Ferguson having spoken at con- 
iDd otherwise to the minimum of £200 siderable length on the form and nature 
perinnnm. Tbe presbytery unanimously of the libel which had been served on 
igreed to petition Parliament in reference him, it was agreed, on the motion of 
la Sir Alexander Gordon's notion for in- Dr. Black, to adjoam farther prosecn- 
qsirj regardiug the Presbyterian Churches tion of the case tilL Monday tbe ISih. — 
ofScotlnud.to theefiect that nonewlegia- This presbyteiy met, 9th Ap.ril. It was 
UUon will be satisfactory to this Chnrcb agreed to loose Mr. Alston, Cathcan 
or to the nation which does not involve Rosd, frota- bis present charge, and 
ibe complete disestablishment and dis- translate him to tha charge at Carluke. 
endowment of the existing State Church. Calls from the congregations of Storno- 
TheBev. John L.Mnnro,B.D., submitted way and Fortreb in favour of Mr. Roberl 
ihe annual report of the Committee on M'MasCer, M.A., probationer, Edinburgh, 
Statistic*, iVom which it appeared tbat were unanimously sustained. A com- 
doring tbepaet year most or the congre- municatiou was read from the trnstecE 
ptioni in the presbytery hod made a and managers of tlie Qreyfriars Church, 
gratifying adTance in liberality. Agreed with reference to tbe occapation of that 
ID transmit a petition to the Synod from church by the presbytery for its meetings, 
(be congregation of Bo'ness, presented and calling attention to the fact that the 
bj the Rev. Samuel Sleath, praying the presbytery had on several occasions re- 
Supreme Court to revise the Buboroinata ccntly adjourned to the cburch without 
ilsQdard) of the Chnrcb. Appointed receiving their sanctiou, or without ae- 
Rev. Jame* Aitchison lo represent tbe kuowledgiug that they had done so. 
prubytery on. the Committee on Bills They proposed that- the presbytery get 
and Overtares, Appointed next ordinary . tbe use of the pretest place of meeting, 



230 ■ KELIOIOtrS INTELLIGEKCE. ' JfcjTO""^ 

with the ■mailer rooms, for £35 per Tsar, ils inipeGtioQ to diacoDtinae them, u iba 

bat that the* have no power to adjoam presbytery 'rej^arded them ai tending id 

to the chnrch. The offer wm Rccepted foster e spirit of gambling, and were in- 

io the meantime, and a committee was jnrione to the beat interests of sodeij. 

appointed to take the vhole inbject of It iraa also agreed to intimate this deeUion 

accommodation for meetings iulo con- to the rarioiu lestions in the presbjterj. 
sidaration, and to report. Dr. Brown HanuUoit. — This preabjlerj met on 

then moTed, with reference to the dis- the SGth Harcb — the Est. Mr, 8beanr, 

cnssion on the prerions daj, that a com- caoderator. There was laid on the libls 

mittee be appointed to look onl for larger reaaoni of dissent bj Mr. Andrew Wilson, 

-accommodation during tbe farther prose- representatirs elder, Motherwell, from 

cation of the Bct. Fergu* FergnMn't the finding of the presbjteij in the 

cue. He thonght it would be a pit; to Motherwell Wine Case, on the I2tK 

limit the accommodation to that ball, Febmarj last, and tbe clerk was instmcteit 

when Mr. Fergus Fergoson's congrega- to place them on the record. Read t 

tion and the whole United Pretbjterian reference from the session of Motbenrcll 

commaoity were so mocb interested Chnrch, for advice as to their hiving 

in the proceedings. Bev. Mr. Welsh agreed, bj a majoritj, to make proTision 

•econded. Dr. Logan AikEaan moved for those who had applied for nnfermented 

that the presbjtery eontinne its deHbera- wine at the aaerament, at a meeting of 

tionsintiie present ball, and Dr. Bobert leaaion on the Iftth Febrnarj, and the 

JeCTrej seconded. Several members ob- rnling of lbs moderator of leasion tliat 

jected to meeting in* larger place, on the this motion was incompetent, and cocld 

groand that their delibemtions wosld be not therefore be pnt to the meetioi;. 

intermpted bj the aedienee, and the Two of the msjoritj ■of tbe sessioD, and 

motion made by Dr. I>ogan Aikman wag atao tbe moderator, were heard on tlie 

carried bj thirty -six Io thirteen. The subject. After long deliberation, Ur. 

clerk read a letter frooi the presbytery of Morton moved, and Mr. Trench seconded, 

Orkney, calling attention to circnlara that the presbytery, witboat pronoondng 

■aid to be sent to Ike varions United any opinioa on the question raised in the 

Presbyterian congjegatioQs by the Queen's reference, now declare ite recommenda- 

Pork (Olasgow) congregation, asking them tion, at. the meeting with the congregation 

to petition the Synod for the reviaion of at Motherwellon the lath Febmary.tobe 

the atandarda. The circular referred to an iDJnnccion. It was alao moved by Hr. 

in the letter did not beartbat it waj istued Brace, and seconded by Mr. Donaldson, 

by the Qneen'i Park congregation, and that with reference to the request for in- 

tbe prAbyteiy in tbe cirenmstancea agreed formation as to the eompetency of tbe 

to ask the Qaeen's Park congregation for motion referred to, the presbytery do not 

an explanation. A memorial respecting feel called upon to give any formal de- 

rafBas or lotteries at baiaats was read liierance in the matter. The vote was 

from the Kent Road aession. Tbe taken between tbe two motions, when it 

memorial aet fordi that their attention waa found that six voted for the one, and 

having been called to the practice, which six for tbe other. Tbe moderator then 

was or questionable legality, and exercised gave hii castrng vote in favour of tbe fint 

a bad inflnence upon those taking pan in motion, which wai accordingly coiried. 

them, they memorialised the conrt to Agaioat this decision, Hr. WilMn, repre- 

istue a recommendation to the effect that aentatiie elder from Molbetwell, protested, 

when congregations feel It e^ipedient to and appealed to the Synod. The clerk 

resort to baiaars, lotteriea orraffles ahonid laid on the table protest and appeal by 

not be allowed. Dr. Bobert Jeffrey said Mr. John Colville, a member of aeaaion 

thalinl867, tbepresbytery,aitheioatance (rf Motherwell congregation, against tbe 



Society, declared that lotteries tended to vegaA to the comrnQoion wine qneation, at 
foster a spirit of gambling, were injurions a meeting on ISih February. The protest 
to the beat inlereata of aociety, and were and appeal waa read, and Mr. Colville 
opposed to the law of (be land, and re- beard in aupport of the same. After de- 
commended tbe diacontinoanee of them. liberation, the preabytery diamiaied the 



He thonght that recommendation covered proieat and apoeal, because, in acconlance 

the preaent caae, and moved accordingly, with their decision of ISCh February, the 

Dr. Logan Aikman eeconded. Dr. Tonng, moderator of Motherwell session was 

Dr. Brown, Dr.. George Jeffrey, Mr. quite eotitled to rule a motion Incom- 

Welsh, and others expressed themselves potent which wonld have raised anew 

thoroughly against the practice of haTiitg the agitation, before the session bad an 

ratBes or lotteries at bazaars, and it was expresaed wiab of a majority oT tbe cc 

■greed to recommend to the people under gregation for a change in the cc— —""' 



^""M^iim"'^ EEUQIOCB INTELLIOEKOE. 231 

elemBBts. Agiinit thU dacuioD Mr. Uiuion Boird. 2d. Tb« rBEiiUtion and 

Colnlte protettcd, and appealed to tha control of the annDal ezpenditiin, and, if 

Sjiftod, and orared eitracta, wbicb were neceiaaiy, the praeiieabilitj of limiting 

graatad. K«vs. Measn, Andenon and the number of oar miHiona. Si. The 

Morton were appointed to support the appointmeiit of periodical deputation* to 

iboTs declBioDi at the approachioK meet- iisit dtemiwioD fields. 4th. Thesmnge* 

ing of Bjnod. Tbe presbjter; thanked menta made with medical miMionariea 

the einnmittee who hare had the charge 6th. The wider eircnUtion of tha minntci 

of tha atitions at Bumbank and Btotie- of the Board. 6tb. The coDdaotina and 

field for their attention to the matters circulating of the miuionary periodicalt. 

connected with them ; and at tha. former Tbe Bar. Qeorge Morria reported od be- 

ii now under the cbarge of Baffronhall half of the Evangeliitie CommlttMu that 

leuion, and the latter under the charge ten congregations within the boanda had 

of Cimbuslang eeBsion, tbe committee taken part in special crangaliatic and 

wta ditcharged. Mr, Dnncanson, con- mission work during the pati year. Tbe 

tener of the Committee on Statistics, laid preshjterj ezpreaseo conliDued interest in 

ui tha table two abstracts of the statistics such work, and instructed their committee 

within the bounds of the pteibjteij for on thie snbject to ascertain the tbHooi 

Isiljesr, and the thankaof thepreabjterir districts within the bounds where special 

were tendered to him for hia attention to effbrta maj be adTantageousW made dnr- 

Ais matter. The preabTtery agreed to ing the summer months, and put them- 

bold their annnal missionary and prayer lelres in commnnicatian with the profes- 

■neetingon the S3d of April, and appointed sors charged with making arrangemeott 

Uetsn. Suncanson and Cowan to lead for evangelistic work by- the theological 

their derotions on that occotion. stodenis during the recess, with tbs view 

Kilmamoek.- — This presbytery met on oF employing one or more alndenta aa cir- 

Blh April^Ber. John Forrest, moderator, cumstances require. Hr, George Copland 

Gnnied a moderation in a cell to the reported that tbe Augmentation Commit- 

ungregalion of MairXirk, and appointed tee had visited several congregations, 

Mr. H'Donald to preach and preside on and held special meetinga with SEsaions 

the ereningorUonday, 6ch Hay. ARreed and managers, that meetings with oiber 

to recommend petition to tbe Home Board congregslions will yet be held, and that, 

for lupplement to tbe stipend. Receired as a resalt, a liiger contribution to the 

irsniference of Hr. Itobert Peterson, Aagmentation Fund may be expected this 

Blndeut, from the Presbytery of Edin- year. Tbe presbytery recommended mem- 

bnrgh. Agreed to recommend to tbe bers of court^to gire all facilities to the 

Sjnod the petition of Mr. David Gray, committee to advocate the claims of the 

pieecberoftbeOriginal SecessionChnrcfa, fund before the office-bearers and mem- 

10 be received to the status of a preacher hers of tha congregations in the bounds, 

of the United Presbyterian Cbnrch. Agreed to consider reaolntiona of the 

Agreed also to recommend the petition of presbytery's Committee on Diseatabtish- 

Mr. William H. Wright, stndent of the ment at tbe Jane meeting of presbytery. 

third year at tbe TheolDgical Uall, to be Read circular anent Surplus Aogmenta- 

meiTed hy tha Synod as a student pre- tion Qranl. Agreed to express satiifacti on 

pired for licence as a preacher of the with tbe results of that tchetae during the 

tJcited Presbyterian Cbnrch, with a view past year, in raising so many stipends to a 

lo ha placed on tbe list of probationers, minimum of £200, with a manse. Cor- 

Hesrd the annnal report on statistics, diillytbankUr. Morton and his commit- 

from which it appeared that whilst there tee for their personal liberality and active 

was a slight decrease of membership in efforts to promote the success of the 

the congregations within the bounds, there scheme, and recommend congregations in 

wu a decided increase in tbe attendance the district to give liberal support to the 

on ordinances, prayer meetings, Bible fond. Appointed tbe clerk and Mr. Robert 

elssKs, Sabbath schools, and in contribu- Mackie, elder, members of the Synod's 

■ions for all purposes. Took up commit- Committee on Bills and Overtures. Read 

tee's report on foreign missions. After circular from Finance Committee anent 

discuuion, the presbytery agreed, bj a collection for Theological Hall Fond, and 

majority of 36 to 3, to overture the Synod instructed congregations who had not yet 

to take into coDoideration the propriety made their annual collection for this fand 

of appointing a committee to inqnire into to do so as soon as possible. Agreed to 

the working of the foreign missions con- give cordial thanks to Thos. Bi^ari, Esq. 

nected with the Church, and that said of Dairy, for bis gift of acopy of the pub- 

comnittee should be instructed to consider lication entitled Tht Orace of Qivmg to 

■nch points as the following: — 1st. Tbe every family in the membership of ihe 

constiiution and working of the Foreign chniches of tbe presbytery. Mr. Murray 



232 EELiaions xntelliqemce. "'Xumi 

reported that a fourth elden' utodation of the Commtttee on Dijeatabliahnient, 

wiibin the boandi bed b«en formed for inhmiited a aeries of resolnLioni nconi- 

the EUmarnock district. Appointed next mended by the committee, wbicb ilie 

meeting lo be brid on the leeondTnesila; preibjterj agreed to adopt. It woa agreed 

of Jnne. to OTerliire tbe STiiod on the sabjecl, and 

Kirkeaidy, — This presbyteir met at Meaira. Uartin and Qalhrie were appoiDted 

Kirkcaldy, Bib Jan.— Rer. Bobert Dick, to rapport tbe OTertnre. Mr. Train, con- 

moderator. Mr. Thomson reported that reaeroflheCommitteeonSabbaibSchoolj, 

he had preached and moderated in a call save ia the report of the committee on ths 

in BetbelSeld Chnicb, on the eTening of Synod's remit. It was agreed to adopt 

Monday, ITth December. The call «ai tbereport, and transmit it to thecpUTener 

Bddre«sed to the BeV. Isaac E. Marwick, of the Synod's Commiicee. The deik laid 

Loaaead9,IreUind,sabBcribedby 363 mem- on the table of tbe presbytery a statement 

hers and 60 adherents. The call waa relating to the congregal ions niihia the 

sustained, and tbe clerk instructed to Tor- bounds whose mJDisten are included iu 

ward it, with the reasons for tranila- the present distribution of the Sarples 

lion, to the Fretbytery of Ireland. Mr. f ana. Tbe presbytery agreed to ezpreta 

Smith reported that he had- preached and their satiifBciion with the meaiore oF 

moderated in a call at Crail. The call success by which this important seheuiB 

was addressed to the Rct. J. C. Jackson, has beeh attended ; their gratitude lo the 

Elgin Street Church, OlMgow, snbicribed friends whose great liberality has contii-* 

by 92 members. The caU was sustained, baled to this snccess; and eepecialty to 

and the clerk inttracted 10 forward it, with record their thanks to Mr. Morten of 

reasons for translatioa, to the Preabytery Greenock, who«e eSbrte on behalf o! the 

of Glasgow. A petition, subscribed by 41 scheme have been so great and to signally 

Crsons residing in the neighbourhood of blessed, 
inghborough Boad, Kirkcaldy, for sup- Mttrote. — This presbjtery met on ih« 
ply of sermon in the new place of worship seth of February, in Selkirk, for the ordi- 
sooQ to he opened there, was preiented, nation of Mr, M'Callum to the pattont 
which the presbytery nnanimouslf agreed charge of the West Church there. Mr. 
to grant. — This presbytery met at Leren, Faterson preached the sermon, and Ur. 
5ih Febroaiy. The Rev. Isaac E. Mar- Sterenson presided and gave tbn addresses. 
wick haling aceepled of the call addressed Thereafter about a hundred gentlemen sjt 
to bim.by toe congregation of BethelBeld, dowa to dinner in the Union Hail. A 
his induction waa appointed to take place most delighifol soiree was, held in the 
on Tuesday the !6[h February. Agreed charch in tbe eTentng. A timepiece wu 
to ped^on Parliament asunat tbe Con- presented to Mr. Sterenson, who aeeu' 
tagious Diseases Aot«.~rTbia presbytery pied the chair, for bis servicee as mode- 
met, S6th Febraary. Mr. Jackson baring rator daring the Tacaiicy, and a pulpit 
accepted the call to Crail, hi* induction gown to the yoeng minister, and a sitrer 
was appointed to take place on Tuesday, tea service to Mrs. M'dallum. Messrs. 
I9Ih March, Tbe presbytery then pro- Bobson{Laader),Wilson(SiowX Cameron 
ceeded with the induction of the Rev. E. (Glasgow), Taylor (Kilwinning), Burnt 
Marwick to the pastoral charge of Bethel- (Linlithgow), LawBon (Selki^), and 
field congregation. The Rev. John Clark others were present, and took part in the 
preacbed, the Rev. B. Fisher, moderator proceedings, Tbe presbytery appointed 
•pro fern., inducted and addressed the supply to Mr. Yonng'spoliiitBt Newtown, 
minister, and the Rev. James Pittendrigh owing to his being laid aside by ill health, 
addressed the congregation.— The preshy- Mr. Orr gave notice for next meeting of 
-It Crail for the induction of the an orennre to the Synod as follows :- 



'£ 



Rer. John C. Jackson, 19th March. The 'That tbe Presbytery of Melrose humbly 

sermon was preacbed by tbe Rer. Iiaac overture tbe Synod to take into considen- 

E, Marwick, the Rer. James Pittendrigh, tion (he desirability of an alteration in the 

moderatorprotem.,indaeted and addressed law regarding libel for heresy at the in- 

Ihe minister, and the Rev. W. Guthrie stance of presbyteries, so far as that re> 

addretsed the congregation. — ^Tbis pres- qairev sospenBion from office of the 

' 'tety met again at Kirkcaldy, 9d April — scented partv before the libel hat been 

er. Daniel Douglas, moderator. Mr. drawn up and itB relevancy snstunvd, and 

Pittendrigh gave in the annual report on so far as it makes such suspension obliga- 

Btatistics, from which it appears that thcro tor; instead of diseretioDary on the part 

bad been encouraging progress in various of tbe presbytery.' — Met again on itiu Sd 

particulars during the past year. The ofApnL — Mr. Pollock, moderator. Inti- 

reportwasreceiiea, the committee thanked mation was given from Mr. Young, New- 

for their labours and re-appointed — Rev. town, of the resignation of bis cbarae on 

R. Dick, convener. Mr. Martin, convener accoont of continited inditposition. Much 

D3t.z.d^yGOOg[C 



SEUQIOUS INTELLIGEIfCE. 



fjmpatb]r wu expruted for bim in hit 
*ffliciion, and bii congreguioD, who an 
Terj griKtly AiUched to their faithful 
_,_! — Me«nliine, further mpply wa» 



SleienlOD, Finlajaon, miDiiten, 
Dann and Tniubnll, olden, to confer wiih 
Mr. YoDDg end the coDRregation ■( incli 
lime u ahall be conrenient for both. Hr. 
WiliDii, convener of Btetistics, Babmitted 
ibe report thereon for taai year, which 
give on the wbole very satiifaeloiy atate- 
mcnta on the matter condesceaded upon. 
Hiiing obtained cordial tbanki for bii 
»oik herein. Hi. Wilson resigned the 
coDienerebip, to which Ur. Patenon wm 
elected. Mr. Orr gpoke in eupport of bit 
oTennre of laat meeting, wfaicb wai 
seconded hj Mr. Finlajion. Mr. Wilaon 
DiDTedu «a omendmeiit, 'That it wa> io- 
ejipcdient at the present time to tranemit 
Inch an OTertore,' nbich was leconded bj 
Mr. Cockbnm, and which, on the vote 
being taken, waf carried over ibe motion 
by ■ majority of one, Mr. Orr declined 
10 tike himself the responsibility of lend' 
ing on tbe overture, but promised to bring 
it np at tome fntore time. 

O™^.— Tbie preabjter; met at Kirk- 
wall on the Ift April— Mr. Allardice, 
moderator. The clerk stated that be had 
receiTed a letter from Mr. Brown, declin' 
icg the call addreMcd to bim by tbe Shap- 
iusbay coojcregatioo. The call was set 
aiide accordingly. A letter was read from 
Mr. Laing, M.F., annooneing chat be bad 
received Lhe petition by the presbytery for 
the repeal of the Contagious Bisetset 
Acit, which he would hare pleasure in 
pietenting to Parliament. Mr. Reid, as 
coDTBner of the Committee on StatiBtics, 
iDbmiiied the annual ttatemenl* from 
which it appeared that on most of tbe 
ilemi there was an increase. The report 
WIS adopted, and the convener of the com- 
Bittee thanked for his trouble in preparing 
ll. Ur. Kirkwood and otber membert of 

of the Qneen'i Park congregation, Qla*- 
eow, in reference to the case of lier. 
Fergus Fei^oson and the revision of the 
■landardB, thej having sent forma of 
peiitions to the preses of the congrega- 
liins, requesting them to get these signed 
and forwarded to W, B. Crawford, Esq. 
Afur full discussion, Mr. Webster pru- 
poied tbe following motion, which was 
unBDimouely agreed to : >Tbat the atten- 
tion of tbe preebyteiy having been called 
■o-certain forms of petition aent oat by 
Qaeen's Park congregation, Glasgow, 10 
the preaes of eongregationi in this presby- 
■^i?, agree to recommend that no attention 
^ given to them, and also to call [be 



!33 

attention of tbe Glasgow Presbytery to the 
fact that tbe procednre of tbe said congre- 
gation under its jurisdiction, in respect to 
the sending forth of Ifaesa forms of peti- 
tion, is calculated to produce strife and 
dlTision in the congregations of tbe 
Church.' The presbytery then met in 
private. The next meeting to be held at 
Kirkwall on the Qrst Tuesday of July. 

Pauley and Oreenoci. — This presbytery 
met at Paisley, .16lh April. Appointed 
the ordination of Mr. James Black at 
Lncbwinnoch, 6th May. Granted modera- 
tion to St. Andrew Square, Greenock, 
on 30th April, and cordially recomtnend 
a petition . for aid in liquidating debt. 
Granted moderation! i9th April, for the 
new congretcation of Clune Park, Port- 
Glasgow. The memberahip is 50. The 
stipend offered is X400, with £20 for ex- 
penacB. Agreed to transmit a petition 
from Mr. Macrae, asking tbe Synod to ex- 
plain its decision on tbe Gourock orer- 
ture last May. Agreed to transmit an 
overtnra from Mr. Davidaon anent mar- 
riage with deceased wife's liater. Ad- 
ijiorixedtbe Clynder Committee to take 
all necessary steps for opening a preach- 
ing station there ibia summer. .Mr. Wn. 
Dickie gave all bis trials for Ucence. 

Siorru»eay.—1iir. Bobt. M 'Master, M.A., 
preacher, Edinburgh, called March S2d. 

Portree.— ^r. Robert M'Master, M.Ai 
preacher, Edinburgh, called. 

Cumbemauld. — Mr. Alexander Bor- 
land, preacher, Glasgow, called to be col- 
league 10 Bev. Hugh Baird, April IKth. 



At St. Andrew's Place Church, Leith, 
on 9lh April, Mr. David 8. Henderson, 
preacher, ordained as missionary to Sua 
Fernanda, Trinidad. 



Sreenlaw. — lier. J. Milne, April IGtb. 



D PREiBTTBBUH CHDBCB — 



Tbib church, which has been undergoing 
extensive repairs, was reopened on Sab- 
bath, lOlb March. The services were 
conducted in the morning and afternoon 
by tbe Bev. James Brown, Paisley ; and 
in the evening by the Bev. W. H. Mac- 
farlane, pastor of the congregation. Spe- 
cial collections were mode at all the diets 
of worship, which (with the gift of £100 
from the f ergoson Truateei, and the pro- 



■ £34 NOTICES or new publioatioks. '""XI"™'"" 

ceeili of 1 recent btiz:iar) enabled the &ndnieceMfaladTantageoraUtheft<:ilitlei 

baildiDg to ba entered free of debL Oa offered for stndj. The Synod and ths 

the eveuing following the reopeoiag a Chnrch wonld be glad to hear of tbii. 

reij saccesafnl aoiree waa held in the Afier offering advice ai to the manner in 

chnrch, when addresses were delivered by which the gtndentB ebonld pnrane their 

the Rev. Messrs. Brown, Paislej; Wat- work, lajiag special emphasi) on tbe 

son, Forres; Simmers, Fortsoj: Grant, necessity for their reading daily a portion 

Free Cbarch, Botripbnie ; and Smith, of the Hebrew aiid Greek Scriptnres, he 

Fraserbnrgh. The alterations, which haie exhorted them to be faithfnl to the Church 

— . »-.„ I..-. .5 ._! — fijj wjiieii their presence there dwlared 

tbeir preference. Dr. Hntebiran hiring 
mode some announcements as to scholtr- 
sbipi, the proceedings were closed by the 
Moderator prononncing Ibe benediction. 
Each ofthe scndenta attending tlie Hill 

. r -, dnring the past session received a copy of 

Bcv. Wm. France, ftisley, Moderator of the followiog works;— (1) Memorialiofa 

Synod. Princip^ Harper occupied the Mmiatrj/ on the Clyde, being Sennoni 

chair; and among the professors and mem- preached in Qoarock Free Cbarch by the 

bers of the Synod's Theological CommiUee late Bev. E. Macclear— the gift of an nn. 

S resent were Dr. Cairns, Dr. Dnff, Dr. knowafriend; (2) ^n£);pDsur«o/Pap07, 

obnstone. Dr. Young, Rev. Mr. Paterson, vMh ^eaal r^'ermee to Pertance and W( 

Dr. Andrew Gardiner, Rev. A. Brown, JIfass, by Ibe late Kei. Wm, Anderson, 

Paisley; Dr. Peddle, Dr. Hutchison, etc. LL J)., Glasgow — presented by Ur.Thomai 

The Principal, in introducing the modera- Biggart, Dairy; (Z) For the Wort o/At 

lor of Synod, urged the siudents to let Ministry, by Kev, Professor Bliikie, DJ). 

their study of divine truth be always —the gift of Mr. Patoo, Tilliconlirj ; 

viewed in connection with tbeir own per- (!) CoTnmeniary on Themdordiaa, by 

■onal improvement in holiness not Jess 'lie late Rev. Professor Eadie — from 

than in knowledge. ' Mr. France, who was Mr.- Biggart ; (5) ComtnenlarKa on St. 

received with applause, tendered to the Lute a?^ St. John, S volumes, by Fro- 

stadents hearty congratulations on the feasor Godet, D.D., Neuchatel — from in 

aaecessfal completion of the work of the anonytnons donor, per Professor Caldtr- 

aecond session under tbe new ftnange- wood; and (6) Meigiah's Kingdom, by 

uent. He had the best authority for Rev. Benjamin Martin, -M.A., Le -lie. Fib 

saying that tbe stndents had takeo fall — also given anonymonsly. 



HofiMS of Itcia ||oblicationB. 

(1) The Clouds of the Bible. 'Bj ordinarj course of his ministry. We 
Alexander Wallace, D.D. find ii^them tbe leadiag characteriBlica 

(2) Heroes of Faith, ae deliiieated in of hig preaching, — graphic descriptioD, 
Hebrews. By Jo^s Guthrie, M.A., strong emotion, and earDest appeal 
D.D. Dr. WiiUace looks out on lutiire and 

(3) Three Street Orphans. B7 the human nature with the poet's eye, and 
Author <^ ' The Clouds,' ' Hope : Ita gathers in a rich barveet of apt uA 
Lights aod Shadows,' etc. instructive iliustrations. The vaijint: 

Ql.ig<;w:JolmB.ManftSon«. 1878. Mpecta of the heavens alwTe and the 
earth beneath, and the ever-changing 

(1) Dr. Wallace has ahready intro- world of man's life, are lovingly and 

duced himself very favonrably to the glowingly depicted, and made to stand 

reading public bj previous publications, out in colonrs very real and impresnve; 

wbich have been vreU received and but at the same time he never fails to 

widely circulated. His Life of James set ' Jesus in the midst,' and all lua 

Stilling is a work of great interest, and teaching is in the highest degree evan- 

in Taiioua forma has found a place aa gelical. He reioicea to lay all the 

an ornament on the drawing-room table treasures which be gathers at the feet 

of the wealthy, and as a pnzed treasure of Jeeus, and uses them to commend 

in the cottage of the poor. Him as the world's great SaTiour and 

In the volume before us Dr. Wallace only hope- 

givee us diaoourses with which hisown (2) IntumingtoDr.Guthrie'srohimc, 

congregation were favoured duriDg the we are called oq to admire the divHsitj 



''°X'""'t-f'''' K0TI0E8 OF NEW PCBL10AT10X8. 235 

of gifts. He is not bo rich in gifts of heard of bis worth. ' Intelligent readers,' 

tha iraaginatiTe and emotional kind as he Bays, 'of theae Lecturae cannot fail 

bis friend Dr. Wallace, .but be has an to be struck with the orig^al tliinkiDg 

intellect of a high order. These dis- disoovered Ha them, the author's know- 

CDOreea on the characteis described in ledge of hnmau nature, and his aingnlar 

the lemarkable elerenth chapter of the talent for generaliziDg moral ioBtniC' 

Hebrews, called 'Heroes of Faith,' tion. Mr. Spurgeon has said of him: 

erince careful and thoughtful stmlf. "' Dr. Xawboq had a fertile mind, and a 

Not oaiy are the characters welt de- heart alire both to the human and 

jineated, but the topics introduced in dirine side of truth. He writes with 

connection with them presented in a a pleasing simplicity of styie." The 

Terr able and lucid manner. What the history of Joseph being so favourite a 

anULor says of faith is of itself sufficient subject both for lectures from the pulpit 

to show uiat he is no novice in the field and for exercises in Bible (passes, 

of abstract Bpeculation, but has the mioisters and teachers will find this 

power of dealmg in an intelligent and Volume a valuable aid in their work.' 

competent manner with the primary 

elements of thought »■ well as with the „ i,r ■ i _ 

faOtB of religion ^d hfe. HlSTOET OF THE WeSTOISSTER ASSEMBLT 

(3) The author of ' The Clouds ' has 0^ Divines. By W. M. Hethrbikg- 

pr^Yed himself capable of soaring into ' J™^' ^■^■i ^^^■' .-^'»*^o' <>*„ ^he 

Jhe higher regions of poetry, and Siorn- Ch"^'' '^Scotland,' etc. Fourth 

iug, when he choos^^the subject of f^"""- Edited by Rev.. RoBiJiT 

which he treats with the hues of a fine Williamson, Aaoog, Rothesay. 

poetic mind. In this little book he. Edtnbuigh : JamM GenmwU. wis. 

keeps tJiese gifts in restraint, and con- In connection with recent discussions, 

flues himself cbiefiy to simple narrative, this edition of Dr. Hetherington's work 

But though it is simple, it is not must be regarded aa (^portune. It 

prosaic. It is full of ibtereac ; and many oontaiiia a vast amount u information, 

will peruse with heartfelt emotion the ■ set forth with all that vigour of thought 

account which is given of the trials and style by which he was distingaiahed. 

and triumphs of toese ' Three Street The fact that a fourth edition has been 

Orphans.' called for proves that the book ia ona 

of no small interest aa well as v^ue. 

Li^CTDBES ON THE History or Joseph. Its careful periisalwill enable the reader 

By George Lawson, D.D., late Pro- to form an intelligent opmion on sub- 

feuor of Divinity to the Associate jects concerning which many speak 

SeceeeiOD Cburcb. With Prefatory according to their own notions of what 

Note by Bev. Williau Peddie, D.D., might, could, would, or shoold have 

Senior MiniBt«r of Bristo Street been, rather than any correct acquaint- 

tJnited Presbyterian Church. New ance with the facta of histotT. 

Edition. The following are some of the special 

Edinboigh : Ogle & Mnmy, imd Otiverb Baid. features of this new edition : — 

18''^' ' (1) Con^derableadditionsliavebeea 

1h a brief prefatory note, Dr. Peddie made, rendered necesaary by the new 

slates dearly and succinctly the prin- . light shed upon the subject through the 

dpal facte in Dr. lAwaons life, the pubUcation of a part ot the "Original 

featores of his character, and the es- Minutes," which Dr. Hetheriogtou, in 

eellences of his writings. The preeent common with many others, believed had 

pablicaiion has been out ot print for been irrecoverably lost, 

a time, and this new edition, we doubt *(2) Alphabetical indices to names 

not, will be warmly welcomed by many and aubjects have been prepared. A 

who have long regarded Dr. Lawson aa list of the original Scottish members, 

at once one of the saintliest and moat and the dates of their reception by the 

schohffly of men, . Assembly, have been supplied, as also 

We very cordially agree with Dr. notes relating to the committeee ap- 

Peddie in what he says of the volume pointed to draw up the flret draught 

which he so well introduces to the of the " Confefision of FMth" and 

readeiB of a generation that, knew not Catechisms. 

Dr. Lawson personally, but who 'haYe * (3) Correct fae-simile title-pages of 



n9 



MONTHLY BEIBOSPECT. 



bookB relating to the WestmioBter 
eembly, ud m>iii origiaals i 
of the editor. In SchtE'a'Book of 
Creed* tliere are fac-similes of thoee 
titles, but they are not accurate. 

' It will' be seen tliat in this edition of 
Eetheringtoo'B work there Eiie a great 
man; adcUtions and impTovements which 
t^od to euhancQ ita v^ue.' 

The Book of Esthek, illustrative of 
Charact«t and PrOTidence. B7 the 
lier. Thomas M'Ewaii, Hope Park 
Uaited Prsebfteriac Cburcb, Edin- 

Edioborgli : Andnw ElUat. ISTT. 

Ik thia volunie we harQ a comse of 
lectures on the Book of Esther, which 
the author delivered to his people iu the 
ordinary course of hie nunistratione. 
Thia rendered it unsuitable for him to 
diecuBB at length those questions which 
modem criticism has xaiaed concerning 
this book. Taking it for granted, aa he 
was entitled to do, that it forme an 
integral part of the inspired record, Mr. 
M'Ewan sets himself to learn the leeaona 
which it teaches. There is ample scope, 
in discouraing on this book, for interest- 
ing historical narratiTe and graphic 
descriptiou, aa well aa for setting forth 
spiritual teaching of the most important 
kind. Of this Mr. M'Ewan haa been 
fallf aware, and consequently haa pro- 
duced a volume which maj be read 
alike with pleasare and profit. 

The Incomparable Preacheh. A Ber- 
mon hy Rot. J. G. Scoir, Kenfield 
Street United Presbyterian Church, 

Glasgow: Frank Slmpaon. ISTS. 

A THOUGHTFUL and eloquent aermon on 
a great subject. 



A Bmef Odtlink op the Meetings os 
THE Presbttebiam ConNGiL, held in 
Edinburgh in July 1877, as tbej 
appeared to a Spectator. 



This little work fulfils ita modest title, 
and more, as it is a very intelligent and 

graceful narrative of the wonderfull)' 
intereating meetings which formed «ii 
epoch in the history of the Presbyteriizi 
Church. The BpectatOT, we nnderstuul, 
ia a lady who has studied Christianity «t, 
home and abroad ; and there ia a large- 
ness of view and sympathy in tiie sketches 
which does justice to the catholicity of 
ttie new Preenyterian organization. Tbe 
selection made from so vast a body of 
materials ia judicious \ and all who had 
the privilege of being at the Cooncd 
meetings will acknowledge that the mo«t 
striking points have been seized. This - 
work niay be very cordially recom- 
mended aa from ita cheapness fitted to 
go into regions where the large volume 
of TrajisactiDnB of the Council cannot be 
expected to penetrate. 

The Ship ' Ttrcs ' r A Phopectic 
Allegory. A Disoourse delivered 
31st March 1878, the Sabbath after 
the Foan4firing of the ' Eurydice.' 
By the Rev. Daniel M'Lean, Author 
01 ' The Gospel in the Psalms.' 

GlugoT: JuDMllKletiDsa. ISIS. 
In this discourse Mr. M'Lean 'improves' 
an event which was universally felt to 
be of a most striking and meUncholy 
kind. In doin'^, so he baa effectively, 
bat not obtrnaively, used bis stores of 
Hebraistic learning, and set forth the 
lesBons of the text at once in a pictorial 
and practical manner. 



PRESBYTERIES AND THE DISESTABLISHMENT QUESTION. 
The question of Diaestablishment bas been discussed in moat, if not in all, the 
prcBbyteries of our Church during recent mondia. Perhape the term 'diacnssed 
ought not to be used in connection with a subject concerning which there was 
almost entire unanimity. .If Voluntaryism ia not a term of coounnnion with us, it 
is evidently a principle of action. 

The subject is one which our country presbyteries may well take up as one in 
COimectiou with which they have a very real and pressing grievance. In the 
country ' the parish miniater ' is still a somebody m vfficio^ and the parish church 
a resort to those who cannot bring themaelvee to act on Christ's law iu reference 
to ' hint who ministers at tbe altar.' In tliis way our country ministen labour at a 



'^"Jirulre*'' MONTHLY KETEOflPEOT. 237 

grieronB disadTKDtage, — a disadvantage, indeed, to great, tliat did it obtain a» to 
aDf oUier thing Ihan religion, it would be htti. 
imong our nual preBbTteriea, tbat of Kirkcaldf has proved itaeU specially in 

pinint, and has drawn up a series of reeolationa which we doubt not will obtain 
general approTal. Thejr are aa foIlowB : — 
'(1) That, while it is the dutf of the Church to hold itwU aloof aa f ar aa 

pDUibls from purely political work, jet, aa the proper relation of the Church to 
the Stale ia of vital importance to its prosperit;, the Church ia not going beyond 
Itj promce when it aeeka bj political action ao to liberate the Chun^ from the 
coutiol of tiie State, that in time to come it ma; be left nadistorbed to proaecute 
iU purely spiritoftl work. 

■ (2) That the Chnrch can neven atand in its right relation to the State so long 
u its omrts are not free to regulate all their work according to their own iuler- 
preta^on of the word of God ; to amend its creed in conformity with any new 
light that may ba shed on the Scriptures ; and to conveoe and diamiaa ita Aasembliee 
KtChoat the sanction of the civil power. 

' (3) That the Church of Scotland, as neither resting, in so far as it is a State 
Clrarii, on a scriptural basis, nor possessing the confidence of a majority of the 
Cbrietian people in thia country, ou^t to be disestablished and disendowed. 

' (4) Tnat, in view of a not remote dlsaolution of Parliament, the present is a 
favoutable opportunity for preparing the minds of the people for a wise exercise 
of their inflaence in returning membera favourable to religious equality.' 

The diacnssiOQ in the Supreme Court of the Church is expected this year to have 
nniigual interest, owing to the fact tbat the subject has plainly become one of 
pnutical politics. In Farliament there has not yet been any discussion of the 
qaeation ; bnt, in addition to the notices of motion hr Mr. Holms and Sir Alexander 
Gordon, another has been placed on the books by Mr. Parker, H.P. for Perth, to 
the following effect: — 'That a select committee be appointed to inqaire into the 
present relations of the Established Church with the other Churches in Scotland, 
wd with the people at large ; and in particular to inquire how far the Church 
Fatmnage Act of 1874 has tended to remove the causes of disunion and dissatisfac- 
tios among tlie Presbyterians of Scotland, and what further legislation would most 
condnce to that end,' 
This notice of motion is in fulfilment of a pledge to the Perth electors, that he 



voaM immediately on taking his seat move for a select committ«e to inquire into 
the ecclesiaBtical condition of Scotland, but if such a committee were not granted, 
he would vote for DiseBtablishment. The great majority of the Scottish people 
see DO need for inquiry ; but if in that way &a known facta can be officially placed 
on record, eome good result may be expected. 

All other ecclesiastical events, however, have been of minor importance to the 
coQlroversy of the Free Church with the self-styled ' constitutional party ' among 
iliown members. From nearly all the presbyteries of the Church, and from some 
of the synods, overtures have been transmitted to the General Assembly, asking 
ths Supreme Court to declare that the 'conBtitutionaliBta' do not represent the 
opinions of the Church. The Synod of Glenelg is an exception, and has pro- 
QooDced almost unanimously for the ' constitutioDal ' party. 

Connected with this movement there has been discovered something like an 
intrigue with a view to carry the Highlanders in a body in favour of Sir Alexander 
Gordon's motion. 

Though the scheme has ignominiously colluMied, and ia now only a matter of 
history, it ia worthy of a passing notJce, The first intimation of the coming event 
appeared in a letter to the Daily Newt published on the last day of Febmary. 
Toe letter waa oonspicuons for bombastic and misleading statements regarding the 
Free Chnrcb ; and with regard to Sir Alexander Gordon-'s notice of motion the 
wriier vid: 'On this point, i.e. promoting Sir Alexander Gordon's excellent 
efforts, the peo[de of the Highlands are uDaDimons, and petitions will be sent lo 
St Stephen's as numerously sgned as the shdrtness of the time will permit.' It 
wss fortlier said : ' A simple declaration by the Legislature that the National 
Chnreh stands on the bases named in General Gordon's admirable motion, will 
satisfy dncere Free Churchmen, cauae them to rejoin the Church of their fathers, 



838 MONTHLT BETBOSPECT. ' Xi^i 

and make it a bulwark against tba attacks of Volontaries and LiberatioiiiBte ; and 
vhile it vill not injure any other Beet in purse ot conscience, it will muke a 
woTwiini for the wants of the pocweat c^ Her Hajeet;^ Bubjeots in Sootlaitd, which 
' VohutarTtmi sever can or will make.' 

Id the same etjle and spirit was framed an appeal ' to the poo^o ot llie Hi^- 
lands,' wbicb waa brought to light in the last week of March, in it ais alleged 
reaeoDS were given why * the people of the Highlands ' should ' sign the petition ' 
in tavoar of Sir Alexander Gordon's motion. They were encouraged to sign tie 
petition, tjecause ' the object in view is to bring the Eatablished Church into a 
scriptaral alliance with the Stat« ; ' becanse they would ' help to prevent ^e 
Volontaries and RationalistSi within and without the Free Church from cairying 
a motion tending to the disestablishment of the Church ; ' and, beudes other 
reaaoDS, because ' in agning the petition you pave the way for going forward into 
Canaan.' The ' address ' has been diBavowed by most of the ' const! tntionalista,' 
and appears to carry no weight of itself ; but the writer of it has obviously some 
fellow- woikers, and the intrigue fits in with other parte of the scheme to weaken 
the Free Church and strengthen its rival in the Highlands. The strength of the 
* constitutionalists ' seems to tie in the Synod of Glenelg, whit^ inclndea the islands 
of Skye, Hist, and Lewis, with adjacent parts of the mainland. lu that Synod, an 
overture which embodied the sentiments that ' such movement does not represent 
this Church, and that no arrangement as to the relation of Church and State in 
Scotland, made with the present Established Church, can be satisfactory to the 
Free Church,' was rejected by 18 to 3, — 2 declining to vote. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PAPAL HIERARCHY IS SCOTLAND. 
The Tablet contains the text of the Pope's ' Apostolic Letter,' in which die 
establish men t of the Scottish Hierarchy is decreed and describeid. The heading 
of the document will show how arrogant still are Papal pretensions, and how 
uoscriptural the mode of Papal progress. The Pope identifies himself with God ; 
and if he cannot wield the temporal sword to enforce his purpose, he can Uireaten 
enemies with the wrath of the Almighty. The saints, also, after a manner onknown 
to scriptural practice, and forbidden by scriptural precept, are invoked in aid of 
those who are engaged in the enterprise. We quote a sentence or two which wilt 
show what manner of spirit the Papacy is of, even three hundred years after the 
Reformation. Reference having been made to the nnfulSUed wish of Pins IZ., it is 
said : ' Wherefore, lifting up oui eyes to the Father of light, from whom comes 
every good and perfect ^ft, we have invoked the protection of divine grace, 
having at the same time implored the aid of the blessed Virgin Mary, conodved 
without NO ; of the blessea Joseph, her Spouse, and Patron of the Universal 
Chnrch ; of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, of St. Andrew, and of the other 
saints whom l^e Scots venerate as protectors, that by their prayen to God they 
may asdst ns to arrive at a happy accomplishment of this undertaking. There- 
fore, for these cocsideralions, of om* own motion (mofii propHo), with certain 
knowledge, and by tbat apostolic aathority which we exercise over the Universal 
Church, to the greater glory of God and the exaltation of the Catholic faith, we' 
n)^int and decree that the Hierarchy of ordinary bishops shall be revived in the 
Kingdom of Scotland according to the prescriptions c^f the canonical laws, and 
that they shall take their titles from the sees which we erect by this our constitn- 
tion, and constitute into an ecclesiastical province. Moreover, it is our wiU lliat 
wx. sees shall be at once established, and they are from this time established, 
namely, St Andrews, with the titular adjunct of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, 
Donkeld, 'Whithorn or Galloway, and Argyll and the Isles.' And then, after the 
old-accustomed terroristic fashion, it thus concludes : ' Let not, therefore, any man 
whatever infringe liiis record of our erection, conatitntion, reetitaiion, institutioD. 
assignation, adjection, attribution, decree, mandate, and will, or rashly dare to 
oppose it. But if any one shall attempt to do so, let him know that be will incur 
the anger of Almighty God and of His blessed Apostles Peter and PanL' 

There was a time when words like these commanded the assent c^ Eniope, and 
even made kings tremble on th^ thrones. That time has passed away, and, we 



""iLTirfm!*^ MOHTHLT KETKOSFECT. 239 

believe, never will retorn. Sat whilst we have no craren fear of Pop«^, end 
wonlil deprecate any appeal to deHar agunet its foliuiiiBtioiui, we tliink tna action 
that has been taken by it in thia matter calls for eameat effort at once in the way 
of eipodng Popish error, and imparting to the inhabitante of theae landa intdligent 
Tiews of Bcriptural tmth. 

It will be well ai»o to instruct oor youth in the hiatorj of onr own coontrr, lo 
that they may not be misled by daring miHTepresentadoDS of the facta of the case. 
One of Rome's maxims is that ' ignorance ia the mother of derotion.' It is cer- 
bun!^ the mother of credulity ; and Idle ignorance and credulity of those addremed 
in tluB TCmarkable ' Letter' must have been largely counted on when a Btatement 
fmch as this oould be Biade to them : ' The Chorch of Scotland, constitated in this 
naoner, waa in a flonriabing condition, when it was miBarabl;r i^uced to utt«r 
ruin' tyf the oatlveak of the heresy of the uzteenUi century' — in other words, of 
(he iEteformation. ' 

THE GLASGOW PRESBYTERY AND RAFFLING AT BAZAARS. 
The deliverance which the Presbytery of Glasgow gave at its recent meeting on 
thig subject ia one which will meet with general a^prova]. Something may be 
tud not only plausibly, but in a measure aatisfactonlT, in favour of bazaars as 
originally held and contemplated. They afford, it has been argned, the means of 
CDHtding persons to aseist m a good work who could not otherwise aid itL Time ' 
mi skill may be devoted where money has been denied; and if the articles 
PTfseiited for sale are really what they are given out to be, and sold in a fair and open 
ijTiEiDeag way, no wrong has been done. But with raffling it is a different thing. 
Into it neceasarily enters an element of a hurtful and illegitimate kind : it panders 
to some of the worst paasions of our nature. We believe the attention of the 
Giugow Presbytery has been strongly turned to this subject on account of the 
ptavalence of what have been called ' enterprise sales.' The demoralizing effects 
of these sales have been shown to be Tery great ; and though meanwhile there is a 
difficulty in dealing with them by statute law, yet Christians are to walk by a 
higher standard. Many things are denied to Christians by tiieir sovereign Lord 
vhich may not be condemned or pnniahed by Coesar; aud it is by the law of 
Christ, not simply by the law of the land, that the Church has to order its 
afflduct 

Tbti lottery business is plied very diligently by a Chnrch whose tactics we 
^lonld be slow to imitate — the Churiji of Rome. There lies before as a bundle of 
idverlisementa of ' Grand Drawing of Prizes ' in a lottery at Dablin in behalf of 
SL George's ' Orphanage and Poor Schools.' The tickets are dxpence each, and 
the principal prizes are a service of plate or £100, two ponies or £20, and a case 
of champagne. And tbe consctentiolis and benevolent public are told that there 
is thus preseDtcd to t^em a golden opportanity of advancing their own interesta 
wA helpmg a deserving cause. We have heard the same sort of argumenta and 
WesU in other than Roman Catholic ciidee. It ia really humiliating that such' 
tamgg should be thus defended in connection with Prc^tant Churchee in this 
year of grace 1878 1 

Surely there is a more excellent way. If all ChrialianB would jnat conscientiously 
store for Christ as the Lord prospers them, the treasury of the liord would be foU 
lo overflowing. Giving after this fashion elevates the ^ver and brings a blessing 
wth it, whereas money extorted by force or secured by appeals to the lowest kind 
of eelf-interest, degrades those from whom it is extracted, and cannot secure the 
hvon of Him who loveB * a cheerful giver.' 

THE NIGHT SIDE OF EDINBURGH. 

A GEHERATIOK has grown np since the eloquent and Isree-hearted Dr. Guthrie 
began his ' Ba^ed ^lools.' Other institntionB similar in kind and aim have also 
tieen founded, and much good among the young has confessedly been accom- 
plished ; and yet how dark the picture of certain aspects of city life ! ' The sins 
snd Borrows of the city ' seem to multiply despite of all endeavours to enppresa or 
mitigate them. 



240 MONTHLT EETEOBPECT. ^"'■'S!,'ui»&^ 

This is brooght Tividlj before m in the umuid Tepoit of the Citjr Hisnon jitgt 
pabliahed. There are seTenteeo ageote connected witb tbejnisdoD proper, wd 
ten aonnected vitb indiridual congregatione or other BodeCiw. Thie ^vee na 
twenty-seren labomen apeoially devoted to work in our closes and Una and 
hannta of rice- 

The report presents manj fentarcs of interest both of b. obeerf id and saddening 
kind, llimi it is said : — 

'la Tiow introdnoing the reports of the tniMionarieB, the directors feel cdd- 
Btruned to rerert in a sentence or two to the subject of oqt Bodal erils. Ther 
have to repeat what ther have often s^d before, that notwithstanding all the gtiod 
seed continnallj sown bj miniaters, evangelists, and mifisionaries, and notwitlj- 
atanding all the manj cases of individnal conversion and of peTmanent ameodmest, 
the rank growths of nDgodlineBS and vice stttl flonriah in the ci^ to a very 
formidable extent. Certain forms of evil are speciallj obtrosive. One, ami llie 
most conspicoooa of all, is drunkenness ; another is licentiousness ; a third ia (te 
desecration of the Sabbath, especiallj hj shopkeeping and cab'-driving ; and anotfaer 
the relaiatioD of the ftunilj bond, and the apparent lock of lererence of childicn 
towards their parents, and of authority of parents over their children.' 

In reference to ' the field,' the following qielancholf pioture of part of it is 

* One of the lands of the city ia thus described ; " On the ground floor we have 
a person who keeps a small shop, whose fatiier and mother stay with her. She 
has had three husbands ; the third baa left her, and. another man lives witli hei 
who is not her husband. Immediately above there live a couple unmarried, who 
' have two children. Next door we have a family where the fatier is notorioua for 
his drunkenness. On the opposite aide of the passage a young woman keeps 
bouse, only seventeen years of age, the mother of an infant three months old. 
To this dwelling comes every Saturday, and stays till Monday, a man above fifij 
years of age, who is known to earn good wagea, and who haa lodgings in another 

n:t of the city. Next door to thia girl live a coaple very much given to drink. 
tely the husband got thirty days for striking bis wife. Inunediately above lives 
a woman mhowasawidow with six children. Shesome time ago married a widower 
with seven children, so that there are now fifteen in all living there, in a very 
small hooBe. On the opposite side lives a widow with two sons. The hoose is in 
an excessively filthy state, and almost eveiything that will sell goes for- drink. 
Above lives a woman separated from her husband. Next door lives a man with two 
little girls, separated from his wife, who lives witb another man in uiother part of 
the ci&." ' 
Cheering instances of success, however, are also given,' e.^. :— 
' One man visited to-day is a tradesman, and was lately much given to drink. 
His wife has described him as on bia way to the devil Now he is a lounged man , 
who may be fitly described as " clothed and in his right mind, dttiog at the feet of 
Jesus.'' He is now a member of a Christian church, and regularly employed aa a 
tract distributor. Another was met, a woman, who is a^ a trophy of divine 
grace. She was fonnd some yeara ago in a wretched garret, having forsaken her 
husband, who was an inveterate £unkard. She was assisted temporally and 
Spiritually, was got into the Training Home for Nurses, and now she naa ahonse 
in the New Town, and is in regular employment aa a aick -nurse.' 

Surely there is a loud call on the Church of Christ to bestir itself I This sore 
disease of sin and crime that is so palpably at its own door, is also doing deadly 
.work within its borders. A life of self-indufgence is not one which ia permitted to 
the Chrisdan. He must follow in the footsteps of Him who ' went aboal doing 

Printed bj Musbat xsd Gibs, II Qneen Street, and Pnblighed by Wiluaji 
OuPKAHT 1.HD Co., 2i St. Giles Street, Edinhnrgh, on the lit of May 
1878. 



.:?:!.; Google 



UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MAGAZINE. 



JUNE 1. 187 8. 



Original ^.tt'ulte. 



A CHOICE or CONTRASTS. 

'Behold, I set before you this day a blMsing and > onrse; a blMaing, U ye obey Uiaconi- 
lusdmsBts ol the Lord your Qod, wbicli I comiouid yon this day : and a oniBa, if ye i^ill 
cot obey the oommandmenls of the Lord yoar Qvd, but turn aside out of the way which I 
commud jou this day, to go after other gods, which ye have not kDOWO.'— Dbct. zl 26-28. 

In connection with the religion which God Himself has rerealed, bnmsa 
reason occapira an important place. There is nothing aboat the former which 
requires that the latter shoald be either superseded or ignored. There are 
indeed many things within the circle of religions thought abont whit3h we 
iDDBt walk by faith and not by s^bt, and in dealing with which faith in a 
ler; high degree mast be exercised. E,eligion has to do with things divine, 
vitji things nuseen, with thii^s eternal. It has to do with the deep tilings 
of Qod; and as His ways and thoughts are higher than the ways and 
tbonghta of man, even as the heavens are higher than the earth, so in deal- 
ii^ properly with these things, implicit faith is indispensable. In many things 
cloadfl and darkness are round about Him. His own natore is incomprehen- 
Bible; His essential and pec'aliar attribates are unfathomable ; and many of 
His providential arrangements are involved in the deepest mystery. In 
reference to all these thmgs, however, the exercise of faith is an imperative 
duty, and the command, ' Be not faithless bnt believing,' mnst be recognised 
and obeye