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Ha fa a I »nfr JRilitftY's 3ottvnal. 

1859. PART IL 








eoDrair AND delactt, 8, batot stbeet, btbanb. 




Ik the analysis of the Keport of the Commissioners for Manning 
the Navy which we gave last month, we promised to review the 
evidence upon which that Beport was supposed to have been based; 
The " Blue Book" is now before us, and, as a critique upon the Naval 
Service, it possesses an interest seldom attaching to those expensive, 
dry, Parliamentary publications. The evidence, with the appendices, 
runs to 469 pages, printed in double columns, containing matter 
enough to fill three closely printed octavo volumes. And this mass 
must be gone through, page by page, by he who would arrive at the 
gist of the argument. This task we have performed. To us it is a 
labour of love, and it is " our vocation." 

The Commission, it should be stated, was the result of a motion 
made by Admiral 1§ir Charles Napier in the House of Commons ; 
and accordingly that officer was the first called up for examination. 
His voluminous evidence fills the first twelve pages. He was fol- 
lowed by Rear- Admiral Milne, whose examination occupied the 
Commission two entire days. Rear- Admiral Lord Clarence Paget 
was next examined at some length ; and on the succeeding meeting 
Sir James Graham. Rear-Admiral Elliot's evidence concluded the 
summer sittings, and the Commission adjourned ori the 16th July 
until November 12th. 

During the recess the Commissioners seem to have decided upon 
the line of evidence to be pursued at their future meetings, and 
accordingly, when they reassembled, with the exception of the exami- 
nation of Admiral Sir George Seymour, the inquiry was chiefly 
directed to the question of a Naval Reserve. Commodore Eden, the 
Controller- General, and seven captains of the coast gu ird ships, were 
questioned relative to the coast guard reserve. These were Captains 
Carnegie, Leopold G. Heath, W. R. Mends, J. M'Neill Boyd, George 
Randolph, E. P. Charlewood, and Commander Thomas Heard. Vice- 
Admiral Sir Richard S. Dundas was also examined relative to the 
force in commission, and Captains B. J. Sulivan, the Naval Com- 
missioner at the Board of Trade, and the Hon. Joseph Denman of 
the Queen's yacht, both of whom have given yeare of study to the 
subject, were heard in much detail. 

Greenwich Hospital was then brought on the carpet, it having 

been stated by several witnesses that that institution exercised no 

'-beneficial influence upon the sea service. The witnesses summoned 

o give evidence with respect to this time-honoured institution, were 

V. S. Mag., No. 366, Max, 1839. b 

MJJnrDTa the hayt, [Mat, 

Sir John Liddell, the Medical Director- General of the Navy, who 
was for many years connected with Greenwich as Medical Inspector, 
Mr* Joseph Allen, superintendent of the halls, who gave the result 
of twenty-eight years* experience, Mr. John \\\ Nichalla, the m 
tary, find Mr, John L, Jay, the assistant -secretary. 

The scene again changed, and the internal discipline of the Bttr 
was enquired into, the witnesses being six warrant officers, Messrs, 
T. Howels, H/Hall, J. Wen, J, Garden (of Portsmouth Dockyard), 
G. Lumb, and W. Smith, and six petty officers and seamen. The 
Commission then turned to the merchant service, examining the 
[Registrar- Gene nil of Seamen, Commander Brown, and thirteen ship- 
ping masters, as well as several collectors of customs, and < 
officials, supposed to be competent to speak to the feulingg of 
merchant seamen. The boy-question also received patient invest i. 
Ration. Lastly, the attention of the Commission was occupied jn 
hearing evidence relative to the victualling, and whether it 
desirable to increase the quantity of the seaman's rations. 

Wo should require space almost equal to the " Blue Boole** itself 

we to analyse the details of the evidence, and think, therefore, 

wo shall best consult the time and taste of our readers by taking op 

the leading points and features. He versing the order of the iE Blue 

Book 3 n we are disposed first to advert to 


Nothing tends so much to make a man contented with small po 
and hard work as good food and plenty of it. The weight of c 1 
dence, however, against the Navy diet made the Admiralty sr 
fairly kick the beam. The warrant officers anil petty ofll 
examined, all gave it as their opinion that the bread was not ' 
eient in quantity, and the beef and pork of bad quality, whir 
to its shrinking so much in the cooking as to make very * 
commons indeed,* 1 

In order to unravel the mystery, for such it would see 
when it is known that for many years, until 1S40, the or 
salt meat was one-fourth less, and yet was made suffic; 
further, that the ship's company are in tho habit of being ] 
surplus, we must look into the examination of BeoivAdinb 
lor the last ten or twelve years that inflsfhtieablc officer 
sided over the victualling department of the Navy, It ? 
in his zeal to give '* Jack" preserved fresh meat, supplier 
the celebrated " Goldner's preserves," The collection 
tion contained in the tin cans of the distinguished Gen 
tractor defied description ; and our readers will have 
rccal the " sweet smells" which greeted the nostrils a 
to examine the cases prior to condemnation. Ecpiall 
purveyance of other articles of food, the Kear-Admr 
of economy, probably, has preferred Hamburg, Ber) 
beef, and swine's flesh, to that once supplied by e 
menlimiK Hut it would be unfair to ruit the 
tractors with unmitigated censure. It is just p 
Commodities had fair play they would not be 

1859.] MAraixa ini itayy. 3 

generally found to be. The salt meat is warranted for one year, and 
if not found fault with within that period, it would be unjust to con- 
demn it afterwards. 

But what is the plan pursued by the economical Lord of the Ad? 
miralty ? In reply to question 325, Eear- Admiral Milne said, " In 
regard to salt meat it is generally somewhat over two years old 
before it is issued." 

326. " Do you mean (asked Sir James Elphinstone) before the 
meat is issued ?" i{ Yes ; we can get no salt meat abroad. "Wo 
have a return every year, in the month of October, from every 
foreign station as to what supplies can be obtained upon that station, 
for the use of her Majesty's ships, in order to save the unnecessary 
expense of sending out provisions from England to those stations ; but 
we have never been able to obtain any from abroad." 

Question 327. " Have you any brand upon your casks by which 
you may know exactly the age of the provision ?" " Yes ; the oldest 
is bound to be used first." 

328. " Do you condemn your provisions at a certain age ?" " No, 
certainly not ; the salt meat is warranted to keep one year, but no 
provisions are condemned by the Naval Department until found unfit 
for use." 

329. " Under these circumstances is there not a good deal of pro- 
visions condemned on foreign stations P" " No, very little, as the 
supply is regulated by the expenditure." 

Further light was thrown upon this by Sir George Seymour, 
Question 1045 " Is there any age at which the beef and pork are 

condemned ?" " They are warranted only for a certain time from 

the victualling office." 

1046. "At the end of that period are they condemned?" "No; 
they are then re-surveyed and repacked" 

1047. ''And they continue to bo issued after that period?" 
" Yes, if perfectly good." 

1048. " Do you approve of that practice ?" " Yes." 

1049. " Do you think that the beef and pork, after the expiration 
of the period for which they are warranted, are equally nutritious 
for the sustenanco of tho men ?" (The gallant Admiral fenced with 
this home question.) " I think," said he, " it is desirable that the 
Comptroller of Victualling should see to that, and prevent any quan- 
tity of old provisions remaining upon any station ; but that is very 
much checked by periodical returns." 

Now let us see to " the proof of the pudding." Mr. Howels, a 
gunner, declared that he had known " a four-pound piece of beef to 
weigh only eighteen ounces when boiled." Mr. llowels believed 
that it was meat cured in India which thus shrivelled up into a mass 
of red wood ; but we are more than half inclined to think it some of 
the "re-packed" meat which Sir George Sevmour appeared to think 
nutritious enough to give men to eat. A seaman rigger, named 
Donelly, who has served very recently, said : " He had seen a four- 
pound piece boil down to two pounds (no uncommon thing, by the 
way), and one pound three quarters, bone included." 

Mad the Commissioners sought for information upon this head, they 

b 2 



would have had enough to convince them that the quality of the beef 
and pork was moat faulty. And yet the inquiry was scarcely needed. 
The fact that a shrinkage of 49 per cent, is tolerated, and lb Dot pro- 
vided for by Admiralty circular, and that the shrinkage is frequently 
over 50 per cent., is enough to show that the quality must be indeed 

And who is to blame for this ? There are those who will point to 
the Lord of the Admiralty, who for the last ten or twelve years has 
occupied a seat at the board, simply for the reason that this impor- 
tant branch of the service should be well looked to. To call it mis- 
management is to use a mild term. The mischief it has occasional 
W the Royal Navy is inconceivably great. Thousands of men have 
left the service in the meanwhile, carrying with them talcs of Gold- 
ner's filth, fishy pork, and beef *\x or seven years in salt, to eat which 
they found to be impossible. 

Compare the provisions of the navy, both in quality and quantity, 
with the scales adopted on board the Peninsular and Oriental, and 
Royal West India Mail Companies, and with the ships belonging to 
Mr. Green, and you have the following results. In the Royal Navy 
the allowance is, per week ; biscuit, 7 lbs*; beef or pork, 7 lbs, ; flour, 
2 lbs,; peaa, 1-J lbs.; tea, 1 J oz.; coffee or chocolate, 7 oz.; sugar, 12 J oz.\ 
vinegar, 1 gill; raisins, 5-J n/..: iplrita, I gill per diem, or j pint wine. 
In the Peninsular and Oriental Ounpaiiy, the " sea" scale of diet is, 
per week, 7 lbs. biscuit, 6 lbs* beef, U lbs. pork, S lbs. flour, 1 pint 
peas, I <iz« tea, 12 ok. sugar, £ lb, suet; and in harbour, on the In- 
dian stations, 10 J lbs. soft bread, lbs, fresh meat, 14 lbs, vegetable- 

1 lb. Bout, 4 oz. tea, 12 ok, sugar, } lb, suet* Lime juice aecordi 7 
to Government regulations, No spirits, but 5s. per month in li 
to men who conduct them selves to the satisfaction of the eomn 
ders. In the Royal West India Mail Company the allowance is 
week T 7 lbs. bread, lb*, beef, 4£ lbs. pork, Lj pints peas, 3£ 
tea, 14 ok. sugar, 8 ok. suet, and a gill of rum per diem. \ 
pint of lime juice, sugar, and vinegar, while on salt provision? 
week. In harbour, 1$ lbs* of fresh meat per diem, with bark 
vegetables, and 1 lb. potatoes or yams* Oatmeal, 1 pint p© 
weekly, and extra to engine men when the steam is up, atwfr 

Hie firemen and trimmers are allowed half a gill of rum ad 
Mr. Green divides his men into meases of five, to whom tl 
in;: is apportioned for eight days: Bread unlimited, floi 

2 lbs. riuwin* t I lb. suet, tt2 lbs* beef, 21 lbs. pork, 4 pin 
ok. tea, 2 J lbs. sugar, 4 oz. mustard, per week, and spirit* 
by lln' lmiMiT. Vinegar 2\ pints per mess T per week 

after and during the supply of salt meat, and half 
of lime juice. 

The last mentioned scale gives very nearly two 
meat per diem to each man, and upon the presunr 
Qn not gi l ^ i the f or ci m pi w i s i o n mer cba n 

or, if he does, that the meat is not kept in A^n 
bold, for ^ tv before it is issued, we ehoi 

Mi\ Green's ration is quite worth two of that »upi 
the Soyal Navy ! The Peninsular and Oriental C 

1869.] MATTltlKG THE NAYT. 

also very liberal, and so, likewise, is that of the Eoval Mail Com- 
pany. The former, we observe, supplies the men in harbour with a 
pound and a half of soft bread. In the navy the men are nominally 
entitled to a pound and a quarter ; but we never recollect an instance 
of its being issued to them. Convicts can have soft bread, but sailors 
of the Eoyal Navy never, unless they buy it. 

Notwithstanding all these startling facts, the Eoyal Commissioners 
could see nothing very wrong in the victualling. The meat and the 
bread, in their judgment, were not sufficient in quantity — it never 
occurred to them, apparently, to [inquire into the quality — so they 
recommended an additional quarter of a pound of each of those 
articles of provisions, but coupled with a reduction in the price for 
savings, which if acceded to would be tantamount to a positive loss. 

An Englishman has the character of paying very great respect to 
his gastronomic organs ; but to what straits must he not put them 
if he goes into the navy ? Beef and pork, two, three, or four years 
old, hard as a fehot, or woolly as a sheep's back, a southerly wind in 
the bread bag, and, if in port, a pound of fresh beef, which there is 
reason to fear, in many instances, never grew on an ox, or at least 
not uDon a well-fed beast. Pork, mutton, and " soft tack" may be 
plentiful and cheap on shore, but the sailor must be content with 
boiled beef, vegetable soup, and biscuit. Is it surprising, when this 
main question is so much neglected, that the Eoyal Navy should be 
unpopular, while the shipping offices of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Company, and "West India Mail Company, and the establishments of 
Green, Wigram, Smith, and other great and liberal shipowners, are 
besieged by candidates for employment ? 

There are three things necessary to render the Eoyal Navy desi- 
rable — good feeding, good wages, and good usage, we have treated 
of the first, let us now turn to the second condition. 


In the Navy there are two rates of wages, one for continuous 
service seamen, the other for the limited or five year term. As the 
continuous service seamen labour under what they consider a dis- 
advantage, and as few merchant seamen will ever be found engaging 
for ten years' service, we shall take as a naval seaman's wages the 
short or limited scale. Under the term "Seamen" must be in- 
cluded petty officers, since petty officers in the Eoyal Navy are of 
an hour's creation, and may be of an hour's duration. Chief petty 
officers — it is not necessary to particularise the several ratings — 
receive £3 9s. 9d. per calendar month ; first class, £2 14s. 3d. ; 
second class, £2 9s. Id. Leading seaman, £2 6s. 6d. ; able seaman, 
£2 Is. 4d. ; ordinary, £1 13s. 7d. ; second class ordinary, £1 8s. 5d. 
To institute a fair comparison we must suppose a chief petty officer 
in the navy to be equal to a third mate, or boatswain, in the merchant 
service. The wages of these vary according to the different trades, 
ranging from £3 3s. to £4 8s. per month. The lower rate only ap- 
plies to small vessels engaged in the West Indian, South American, 
and African trades. In large ships the rate is from £4 to £4 8s. 
First and second class petty officers have no corresponding position 

\ji5VVBSBrffe'* iri *^ -J 




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1869.] MAtflttKG THE KAYT. 7 

In the year 1853, 5,069 men and 1,155 boys accepted the terms 
of continuous service. In 1854, 6,565 men and 4,852 boys joined; 
4,206 men and 4,012 boys took the shilling in 1855 ; 3,378 men 
and 3,377 boys in 1856, and in 1857, 1,237 men and 1,898 boys. 
Of these, however, 534 purchased tlwir discharge, and 13,827 welre 
discharged by Admiralty order in the course of the five years. The 
latter hgures include 2,994 who accepted their discharge, in conse- 
quence of Sir Charles "Wood's gracious circular of May 13, 1857. 
It was the general remark at the time that these latter were the very 
pink of the class — the bone and muscle of the continuous service 

Before adducing the objections to the system brought under the 
consideration of the commissioners by some of the most enlightened 
among our naval captains, we will hear what " Jack " had to say 
about it. As " Jack's" type, we accept John Donnelly, now a seaman 
rigger in Plymouth dockyard. Donnelly served his time in mer- 
chants' employ, and afterwards successively joined the Constance, 
Phaeton, Blenheim, and, lastly, the Urgent trooper. He was closely 
interrogated by Admiral Shepherd. 

3550. " You have stated that the men dislike continuous service 
because they may get with a set of officers who are not agreeable , 
to them, and that then they are obliged to remain with them P " 
" Yes, you are obb'ged to remain for the commission." 

3551. " Is it not the case, that whether a man be for continuous, 
or non-continuous service, he goes into his first ship for from three 
to five years, and that he is with the same officers, whether he is 
for continuous service or not ? " " He might be shipped with them 

3553. " Then where is the advantage ? For instance : There is 
a continuous service man paid off in a ship as an able seaman, and 
he states, before he is paid off, what guard ship he intends to return 
to. When he goes back to that ship he goes as an able seaman ; 
and the first draft that is required he is sent to the ship, as an 
able seaman. So that he might continue on like that for years. 

3554. " True, but both continuous and non continuous service men 
change their officers, who might be agreeable or disagreeable to them 
alike. Are you aware that a continuous service man can purchase 
his discharge?" "Yes." 

3555. " And that a non-continuous service man cannot purchase 
his discharge ? " il I believe that there is an instruction for the 
non-continuous service man, that he can obtain his discharge by 

3556. "Suppose that a continuous service man enters for ten 
years, and a non-continuous service man for five, if the continuous 
service man dislikes his ship at the end of one year, or five years, 
he can get his discharge, whereas the non-continuous service man 
must serve on his five years, if the Government choose to exact 
that service from him ? " " Yes : but that non-continuous service 
man can obtain his discharge by application, if the Captain sanc- 
tions it." 

3557. " Are you aware that at the expiration of three years, the 


service man is always at liberty to purchase his discharge, and as 
Admiral Shepherd tried to make Donelly believe, possesses an ad- 
vantage over the five years' man in that respect, why in the name 
of common sense are we expending so much money and exciting dis- 
content and disgust, in order to bolster up so rotten a system ? 

If we turn from the argwnentv/m ad hominem to the theory, we find 
Captain Denman laying it down very correctly. He says in answer 
to 2691 : " I believe one great object towards obtaining seamen is to 
make the service agreeable to their tastes and feelings, to which the 
continuous service runs counter. This is proved by the fact that a 
great increase of wages, and a pension to be obtained three years 
sooner than by men entered for shorter service, are necessary to 
induce men to accept it. I know that when the Monarch was paid 
off at Sheerness a large number of men paid the forfeit of £12 each 
to iree themselves from this obligation of continuous service, and 
such cases and desertions are of frequent occurrence. The con- 
tinuous service does not the least assist the object of attracting 
merchant seamen to the fleet in time of war, which has always been 
the great difficulty ; on the contrary, its operation is certainly not 
favourable to this important object. An A.B. entering not for con- 
tinuous service, would receive £4 lis. per annum less than a con- 
tinuous service man. Government could not promise to keep the 
50,000 or 60,000 additional seamen suddenly required by war for ten 
years. Thut, just the moment that the country imperatively re- 
quired the services of merchant seamen, and just as wages in the 
merchant service would probably increase greatly, the country would 
offer to these men not only much lower wages than in merchant 
ships, but less by nearly £5 a year than the other men in the 
navy, entered during peace, would be in the actual receipt of. 

" Two rates of wages," he adds, " are at all times dangerous, and 
the continuous service men entering in peace, receiving much higher 
wages, with a pension at thirty-eight years of age, would be regarded 
with a jealous eye by men who, in the hour of peril, whether 
voluntarily or under compulsion, came to fight the battles of their 

The honourable Captain's argument is very complete, but it failed 
to be convincing. As Hudibras says, 

The man convinced against his will, 
Holds to the same opinion still » 

The prominent naval members of the commission were the great 
progenitors of the scheme, and stuck to their bantling with paternal 
fondness. In their Keport they say : " The Bystem has been in 
practical operation between five and six years, and although it has 
not been carried out to the full extent contemplated by the com- 
mittee (of 1852), it has already been attended with very beneficial 
results, and has secured to the country a body of well trained and 
efficient seamen, whose attachment to the service is the best security 
for the faithful performance of their duties. 

Beneficial results ! Attachment to the service ! when, where, and 
how have they been manifested ? From the feivent imagination 

of the. founders these platitudes could alone him proceeded 5 r<». 
there is hardly a tittle of evidence in the Blue Book to warrant th 

"Whoa treating of the proposed reserve we may again allude 
this topic : but upon this point all must he united — that continual 
service will never be acceptable to the reserved merchant itf&men 
even if double wages and permanent service were guaranteed* 

The third essential towards rendering the naw popular is go 
usage. Under tins head discipline should be included: bu1 
much as the subject is a very broad one, and one upon which lev 
o Ulcers see, or ever will be, agreed, we shall defer that question, i 
confine ourselves to the oiler of 


The Boyal Commission have recommended as a strong induceme 
to continued good service in the Eoyal Navy, the promotion of war- 
rant officers and petty officers to commissioned rank. Nothing can 
sound more liberal than the recommendation of the Commissioners. 
Afhr quoting the circular 121, which sets forth the promise of pro- 
motion to warrant officers who distinguished themselves, together 
with a gratuity of £100, to enable them to provide a suitable outfit, 
the report goes on to say, "¥e anticipate the best results from the 
i»nal promotion of a warrant officer to the quarter deck," and 
then adds, *'and it should not be limited to the warrant officers, but 
sliiuiid be open in the case of very original and extraordinary services 
to any seaman in your majesty's navy/' 

People, however, are accustomed to look more to performance 
than promises. It is one thing to say such a man is eligible f 
promotion, and ought to be promoted; and another to give him tl 
Ear which he is eligible, and which lie ought to have, Mr. W. Hm 
a boatswain, w T aa questioned upon this point. lie had signed 
warrant officers' memorial, which complained that there wei 
rewards to his class for war service. The chairman then re 
him to the extract from the circular, authorizing promotion, 
him if he had seen it. Mr Smith replied in the affirmati 1 
said that it had never been acted upon, although warrant offi 
been recommended by their captains. He quoted one cast 
Mr* Spry. 

Mr, Green very pertinently asked would he accept it if c> 
him ? and the reply was dubious, * He," (Mr. Smith) ■ 
know." The naked truth is that the word H promotion" 
biguously employed, that no one knows how to take it. 
rank is the promotion to raise the distinguished Warrant 
seaman ? It is hardly to b*i supposed that a "Warrant 
be found competent to undertake the multifarious an 
duties of a Master, and the rank of Mate or Second J 
place him in a worse position, in a pecuniary point of 
a first or second class Warrant Officer. To make hir 
wuuld be to place him in a position on active servie 
was not qualified by previous training, and, upon t' 
promise remains in its present indefinite conditio* 
unfulfilled to the end of the century, 


HAimnro ttii watt. 


There is one class which must heritably be swept away before tlic 
road of promotion can be fairly open to the gallant young seaman — 
it is that r, That rank was formed when the Navy was in 

I infancy. When there was no education, professional or 
otherwise, required from the Captain, or any other executive offieer, 
Hot even the simplest rudiments of nautical knowledge, a Master was 
tial — nay, indispensable. The Master had to make up for the 
Bhortconiinga'of the Captain and other officers, and it was his pro- 
vince to navigate and work the ship, while others were engaged at 
the guns. Ti .-changed. The acquisitions once monopolised 

by the Master an* patent, or should be, to every passed Midshipman, 
and it is probable that if there were no Master, every Lieutenant 
would, in the course of a few years, be found as competent to pilot 
car navigate as the most skilful* Master is now. But while that bar- 
rier remains tins proficiency can hardly ever be expected. More- 
over, until the intermediate grade of Master ia swept away, the Naval 
apprentice will find his upward progress impossible* lie can never 
hope to become a Mate so long as the gTade of Second Master has any^ 
existence, and never to attain the rank of Lieutenant while that of 
Master remains on the Kavy list, Ambition must be fed with noble 
food* If we expect to draw from the humble individual bright 
sparks of heroism, and hope to stimulate him to deeds of daring, wo 
must not be content with olferinghim a rank which is no better than 
a citl do m, He must see his way, in imagination, to the Admirals 
flag, as he did during the long war. The recruiting sergeant can 
truth tell the energetic lad who ia about to take the shilling, 
i ve to be a colonel, or a general t and may quote hundreds 
of examples of young soldiers rising to high rank m the arniv* In 
that service, although of course extremely difficult of access, there ia 
a mad to the Marshal's baton, and the path to the highest Naval 
rank might also be opened If the anomalous and obsolete rank of 
I e v ' ' were swe p t aw ay . 
Wo have now touched upon the victualling, wages, and prospects 
notion of seamen, glancing at the objections to continuous 
We now come to a very important consideration which has 
at deal to do with the comforts of men engaged in fitting out 
ur in port, while their ships are under repair, we mean 


It is not necessary to do more than briefly allude to the mis< 
at the bulk system* Let our naval readers recal to mind their first 
taction to a hulk I The black dirty decks, pitched aides, foul 

ella, slovenly aspect, which presented themselves on first entering. 
_}i© neatness and regularity of a sea going ship strikes everyone with 
admiration ; while the hulk l>r i ngs to t he recollect ion e v i r y t bin g 
which is sickening and disgusting. It" this be so to the officer, 
what must it be to the man ? Bat it is not In this point of 
view that we would present the hulk system. The hulk Is the 
lodging house of officers and ship'e company, while the ship ia gel tang 
re them. The ship is probably in the fitting basin iu 


the dockyard, while the hulk lies moored at some distance in the 
harbour, a mile, more or less. In summer the men have a very 
early breakfast in order to enable them to get on shore to the 
dock yard to draw stores, fit rigging, and do the needful work. At 
t quarter to twelve Hut must knock off, and go down to the boats, 
which are to convey them to the hulk to dine. Again at three bells 
the working party is mustered to return to the dockyard. It is 
perhaps blowing, and raisings but there is something which parti- 
cularly requires them onshore, and go they must* Wet or dry, 
cold or heat 3 makes no difference. Time is necessarily lost, and so U 

The day*B work over f< Jack 5 * would like to go onshore for a run. 
He puts his name down for liberty, and a boat is provided to take 
the liberty men on shore \ but in too many instances coming off is 
another matter. For this he must pay his fare to the waterman, or 
break bifi leave* 1 le h as no m oney , and the c onsequ enc com- 

mission of an offence against discipline. Under the most favorable 
run nn stances of wind and tide, time is lost, money expended, and 
enjoyment abridged ; and all because the men are berthed on board 
a bulk, moored out in the middle of the harbour. 

We have searched the evidence in vain ibr one solid argument in 
support of the system. Three officers were especially summoned 
from IVirtsinoutli to give evidence in support ol the hulks, These 
Captain Hewlett, of the Excellent, a gunnery hulk, but with 
man-of-war arrangements. Commander Bickfrrd. ,,f the Victory, 
hulk, and Captain Precdy. The fii-st said," I am entirely in favor of 
hulks for seamen. I think they would get into long shore habits in 
barracks, and be, perhaps, less" willing to go to sea, from a barrack 
than from a hulk/' but Captain Hewlett could not deny the loss of 
time in jjoing to and iro 3 and that days sometimes elapsed withou' 
communication from the shore being possible. He thought " saikr 
in a barrack would acquire long shore habits, and that they shoi 
be habituated io wet and dry" He had better have carried 
argument a step further, and have said that men should be n 
targets of, to habituate them to stand Jtre. 

Captain Preedy T s reasons were no less illogical, He do* 
whether men on leave would return to the barrack if allowed 
for a run outside the yard, and seemed to think a hulk the or 
place for a seaman to live in. Commander I lick ford considered 
a sailor u shook down" better into bia place in a bulk than he wo- 
rn a barrack. By such fallacies, for they deserve no better 
did these three officers attempt to bolster up a most injurious r 
J low long does it take a marine or a soldier to " shake dowr 
embarked on board a man-of-war, we would ask Commander F 
What greater inducement we would ask Captain Preedy, 
man have for breaking his leave, if he knew that he b 
fort able bed ready for him in a barrack on shore, and 
minutes* walk, than a less comfortable one in a hulk, to f 
which, on a dark rainy night, would coat him sixpence > 
advantage is gaiued by subjecting a seaman to the vi 
climate and wealh?r we drrmnd of Captain Hewlett ' 




Fortunately there is a faet which cannot be gainsaid by the 
advocates for the hulk system. At Sheerness naval barracks have 
been some years in successful operation* Rear Admiral Elliot, who 
was examined before the commissioners, said — " I have had a crew 
living In a barrack, and I know the advantage of it. There is daily 
one in the service, and that is at Sheerness," The Rear Admiral 
anticipated from the establishment of barracks the greatest possible 
advantages. He thought that the discipline of the service would 
undergo a considerable improvement, if the men could he allowed 
liberty for a few hours when the work was done. And one would 
think that there could be no difference of opinion on this head. 

Generally speaking, men do not join a dup until they have spent 
all, or very nearly all their money ; yet even im empty pocket is not 
etKmgh to keep them on board. They will borrow, sell their clothes, 
or do anything to get on shore for a run ; hut it is argued that if 
these men were lodged on shore in a comfortable barrack, they would 
be content to go out for an hour or two, to smoke their pipes, and, 
havbg no waterman to pay, would return in good time to their 
il home, 1 ' satistied and pleased. To the married man the boon would 
be even yet greater. After working houra he has to repair on board 
the hulk> and then again to the shore ; and if he has leave tiH the fol- 
lowing morning, be must turn out at 3 or 4 oYloek, to go down to 
the liberty-boat, or pay a waterman. Now if he had only to go into 
the dockyard, he could riso with the workmen, and be at* his post in 
lime to commence work, and ready for his comfortable breakfast at 
the barrack. 

Sir Charles Napier, who expatiated at great length upon the 
advantages of naval barracks, went so far aa to soy that the hulks 
" ought to be burnt" — that they were an incumbrance to the har- 
bours, am! a source of mischief and misery.. In the event of a lire 
in the yani. the advantage of having a body of men immediately 
available would lie beyond calculation. It was stated by Captain 
Johnstone, the ^Superintendent of the 8ailor's Hume, at Portsmouth, 
that during the Russian war hundreds of men slept on the lloore, 
for want of other accommodation. The men had not money to pay 
ds and not being able to get off to the hulks, were obliged fco 
Bleep in boats, or wherever they OOttld find th^ least shelter. AN 
there evils would be obviated by Wracks cm aboi 

Main M Null Boyd nil, u the hulk ay stem involved load of time, 

and labour. Ther E tune in getting the working parti*. 

into ibe hoata, in reaching their destination, in leaving off work 

he lure the dockyard hoi ie it, in order that the parties ithould 

a board by the dinner hour* There m u loss of labour hi having 

t;un a cert niu number of ihip Keepers, boatfi 1 crews loan 

aia, vuw guard, &c. In barracks, with the ship in the basin (where 

if need be she might be completed with guns ami everything but 

powder on board), the officer employed in raising men eao have 

ready communication. The economy of time, and the command of 

\T power arr- obi lOUfl : I lhsenee can be granted 

nut detriment to the comfort of thuse who du m>1 unnl any, 
without the haterjfereuee of beditioua watermen * ami iu suub p 

14 UAJTimf G TB3 HiTY, [MAT, 

manner as to be acceptable to the men, and enable the office* to 
restrain the undeserving, and prevent fraud* The unnecessary 
antique forms that still obtain in the making, presenting, and hunt- 
ing about after demands for stores, are considerably divested of their 
tediousness. The dreadful exposure consequent on the passage from 
hulk and dockyard, in blowy, rainy weather, is entirely obviated ; 
and even where the men are unavoidably exposed, the barracks 
afford warmth and means of drying clothing." 

The hardships to which men are exposed in this way are, Captain 
Boyd thinks, " sufficient to drive men out of the service. The 
fatigue and exposure," says he, " in making the passage in wintry 
weather, especially where the wind and tide are adverse, are of th® 
most trying description : never encountered in the general course o£ 
service, except under most urgent and important circumstances. On 
the ultimate arrival of the working party, their dinners are frequently 
cold, or overdone, and there is no substantial evening meal to 
anticipate." The latter very important consideration gave rise to 
further question. Captain Boyd was asked why the officer in com- 
mand on board the hulk could not take care of the dinners of the 
men on shore. Captain Boyd replied that " it was a very difficult 
duty, even for an experienced and considerate commanding officer." 
He said : " It is by no means certain that in a newly-commissioned 
ship there is a professed ship's cook, indeed very frequently the post 
is filled by a volunteer. In no case can the dinner undergo division 
by the cook." In a word, if men are not off to their time, their 
chance of having a comfortable dinner is very small indeed. 

Now all theso and a score more evils might be enumerated in 
support of barracks, without any countervailing drawback worth 
noticing. .According to the estimate of Mr. Moody, the assistant 
master shipwright at Portsmouth, the cost of litting up the four 
hulks at Portsmouth harbour would amount to dC2,500. They com- 
prise three old frigates, and aline of battle ship, and therefore could 
not accommodate, with any degree of comfort, more than 1,500 men. 
But this number could not be accommodated unless the ships hap- 
pened to be of the proper size ; but as two small ships' company's 
cannot conveniently be berthed on board one hulk, it takes a frigate 
to accommodate the crew of a sloop of war, &c. But all these points 
were lost sight of, and the report recommends the adoption of the 
Bellerophon plan. 

WAnnANT-orriCEBs' widows' tensions. 

The recommendation of tho Commissioners with regard to the 
restoration of pensions to tho widows of warrant officers, suggests 
not only a just act, but one of the most politic that could have been 
offered. "We find, however, with deep regret, that the enemies by 
whom this oft- rei seated request has been resisted hitherto, have 
been the well-paid clerks at Whitehall. 

For many years the late Sir George Cockburn had to boar the 
onus of resisting this claim ; it now turns out that one of tho great 
obstacles was an Admiralty clork. Mr. Pennell, chiof clerk of the 
Admiralty, being asked to give an opinion a* to the claim for pen- 



sions for the widows of warrant-officers, objected to it on two 
grounds, first for financial reason!, and second for *' moral consider* 
fions" Being requested to explain his "moral considerations, 1 ' be 
s:mU — "The fact of a man being married, led him naturally to 
ebrink from sea service, and lie was not so ready to accept it as be- 
fore- It was ascertained, moreover, that a considerable number of 
ws were living with other men, without declaring their mar- 
riages—the result being that those who were conscientious lost j 
pensions, in consequence of re-marriage, and those who were not 
it-nl ions, lived in a state of concubinage with other BU 

11 ic same argument might apply to other widows; and wo nro 
that Mr. PennelPs statement will be received as a gross libel 
unon a body of respectable women. So this Admiralty gentleman 
with his £1200 a year, who never had hie feet wet with salt v. 
considers that a warrant officer is no longer fit for sea if he marries, 
and that if he dies, the pension which his widow will receive will 
only be an ci^ouragement to concubinage ! 

We are ashamed of such logic, and right glad to think that such 
an assertion was treated with the disdain it merited. But we hmr 
arrived at the end of our tether, and must therefore leavo the consi- 
deration of the proposed reserve for a future number. 


Consid"Eeiitg the great magnitude of the interest we have at 
etake, and how much depends upon our always being prepared with 
at h ast a good system of organization, by which the full pow> 
our enormous resources might if necessary be developed, it is re- 
markable the little attention wo pay, under ordinary circumstances, 
tu the RTiooth and eilieient working of everything connected with 
our military establishments. It may emphatically he said that we 
live from hand to mouth in these matters, that we are eontent with 
tever serves us ;tl the moment, without caring bo cr insider 
icr it will meet the exigent ie* of more critical times, When the 
political atmosphere is clear, and peaee mlikely to he dia* 

fnrbed, anything satisfies us. We may know that the organisation 
of our departments is extravagant and defective, that our navy 
cannot be manned, or our army recruited* under any pressure, hut 
we still drag oil with what* uy have in these respects, never 

looking to the future, nor adapting anything to the capability of 

neies for which an army ana navy are 

recurreno ids almost alone render 

In quiet times we are content to JO CD with our 

Clever they may be, They maj ome antiqua- 

i and obi I to their proper working of 

kind and description may have accumulated around them, but 

! t is seldom, except when actual war threatens, and when duo and 


careful deliberation are almost altogether out of the question, that 
we set about amending them. 

In the threatening appearance just now existing on the continent 
of Europe, when it is of the utmost importance for the preservation 
of peace that the power and influence of England should have its 
greatest weight, and when we might really hold the balance which 
would decide it, it is rather unfortunate that, in addition to the 
unsettled state of our domestic politics, we are in the usual condi- 
tion with regard to our military affairs, almost everything con- 
nected with them being as confused and unsatisfactory as our 
greatest enemy could wish them to be. The manning of the navy, 
the recruiting of the army, the dockyards, the militia, the wy 
weapons our soldiers and sailors are to use, are at this moment the 
subject of discussion and enquiry for the purpose, if they serve any 
purpose at all, of the most radical changes and reforms. The 
Enfield rifle has been already discredited in India, and was equally 
so in the Crimea, but no one would listen to it ; and as for the 
artillery we are to use in the next war, no one knows anything 
about it. The race just now is in preparation, and in this contest 
we are altogether behind hand ; we have only got so far as to throw 
doubt upon everything we have without much idea, as yet, of what 
we are to substitute in lieu of it. The very foundation of what is 
required has to be laid, and just as an army and navy are most 
wanted, we are awakening to the difficulty, if not impossibility, of 
recruiting the one or manning the other, and to the best weapons 
for arming both. In addition to this, we are engaged, wc are 
told, in reconstructing our fleet, and wc are certainly question- 
ing with no little dear bought experience to justify it, whether 
the changes we have so recently adopted in the creation of the 
office of a Secretary for "War, from which so much was at one 
time expected, has not placed us in a much worse position than we 
were in before. "With abundance of time to have thoroughly re- 
organized our military system during the long interval of peace, 
from 1815 until 1854, we neglected the subject then. "We delayed 
to act, as is our wont, until we were in the midst of the excitement 
and turmoil of actual war ; and, as might reasonably be expected 
under such circumstances, most of the changes then made have, in 
the opinions of most of those best competent to judge, done us 
more harm than good. There is very little doubt now but that the 
old and much decried Board of Ordnance did the public work better, 
at a less cost, and with more despatch and regularity, than anything 
we have constructed between the Horse Guards and the War Office 
to serve instead of it. 

A few judicious alterations would have done all that was wanted, 
but, iii the excitement of the moment, we perpetrated a revolution, 
and we have been reaping the consequences ever since in an extra- 
vagant outlay, and the perpetrations of incessant blunders. The 
consolidation of our departments, as it was called, though, in point 
of fact, the consolidation was altogether a myth, has ended in more 
officials having been created, and a greater difficulty in carrying on 
the service than before existed. We have created a Btate of things 




in which the highest of our military authorities are as likely as not 
to be engaged at any moment, however critical, in a struggle for 
superiority the one over the other, without any limits being laid 
down by which the powers of either can he described. We have 
created two rival powers who*- time and attention will be sore to 
be M much absorbed by their own antagonism to each other, and 
the provocation to encroachment which their relative pusi t ions aiibrd, 
as by anything connected with their public duties. There may be a 
lull in this feeling every now and then, as there is just now, but 
while the cause ox an evil exists, the evil itself may at any time be 
looked for. Lord llardiuge, as the Commander-in-Chief, was a 
cipher, and acknowledged himself to be so. The Secretory for 
Wflr,aa he described it before a Parti&tuen&ary Committee, overrode 
him in everything, Our army, and everything connected with if, 
was ruled during hia time, ana for s afterwards by Lord 

Fanmure, a civilian with the thinnest lacquer of soldiership — and 
with what results the country who paid E beet tell. \i the 

present moment we have a less arrogant and leas presumptuous head 
of the War Office, but in practical knowledge he is little, if at all, 
superior to his predecessor, ami matters are only a shade better. We 
do not do so many fooHah thiugs 7 but our wise ones are just as few 
and far between as they ever were. This must always he the case in 
the manner in which we act, for where responsibility is so undefined 
as it k, and where authority tfl dependent as much! or rather n 
upon courtesy; or the deference due to a high social position, as iu 
the case of the Commander-in- Chief, rather than to the possession 
of any real power or control on his part, the conduct of our affairs 
must needs be defective. Where we have two officials of the highest 
rank in the same department, or hi what ought to be considered 
as the Bsmti department, with their respective powers tndhTer- 
ently defined, or not laid down at all, we must espect that the 
adniini-tniljifi of the army will fail iutu unvar; or, a* \vu see is the 
ease from the committees of enquiry now going on, that it will, more 
Jikely still t he altogether neglected. The necessity to think and act 
under Ittch circumstances devolves upon no one, the consequences 
of iRi'leel cannot he made to fall anywhere. There will be no dis^ 
i approach, op consider great administrative questions, for 
* v on these questions that diiferenees of opinion 

md that the antagonism of our military chiefs, or 
v the chiefecf our military depart men ta£ would bo most liable 
d. It is to the divided nature of the administration 
my, the independence, real or usurped, of every one of our 
departments, and the jealousy of each other created and 
red by it between them, that we may trace by tar the greater 
portion, and by far the worst and moat prominent of the defects 
of which we are so continually complaining, instead of alterations 
Oj made from time bo time a* circumstances point theui out to 
(try, every del'n-i is muttered to go on and increase in inten- 
until in some moment of trial the whole thing fails us, and 
there is nothing but indignation and surprise on the part of 
the country at what it was previously quite indinerent to> and about 






which no one in authority had in the least troubled him&e**; Bat* 1 
we can bring our military departments, one and all, in the closest 
connection with each other, under one responsible head, capable of 
looking at them and treating them with the same impartial con- 
eld oration in all that concerns them, wo may depend upon it that 
mil 'tary reform and improvement will make but very halting and 
unsatisfactory progress. It is not the efficiency of the army, or the 
beet measures to maintain its efficiency as it ought to be, that occu- 
pies so much of the time of the- officials at the Horse Guards, it is 
the comparatively paltry interests of this or that individual on some 
favoured branch ot the service. The merest trifle connected with 
the G uardi, or the maintenance of purchase, the cot of a coat, or 
the shape of a spur, attracts far more attention and discuss >on in 
official quarters than the most important marten relating to the 
recruiting or organization or anything else of the army. It* we had 
men at the head of affairs capable ot taking one half the pains to 
promote any important improvement in our military legislation Unit 
jb, in many instances, frequently taken by them to obstruct and im- 
pede it, matters would never have arrived at the state in which we 
now find them, no one thing relating to our army beuog exactly as 
it should be. It is some comfort as things are that the question of 
manning the navy bas reached a more advanced stage than most of 
our other enquiries, and that, at least, in this instance, those in 
authority have been tarnished with some clear notions as to what 
ought to be done. A portion only of the suggestions made by the 
committee on the subject are, it would seem to be ? carried out 3 
but even a portion is better than nothing. 

The worst of it is, that it must be some time, do what we will, 
before what is proposed to be done can be got into proper working 
order. Knowing how miserably deficient we were in this most im- 
portant point, we have bo foolishly delayed the necessary measures with 
regard to it, that it is in vain to expect much from them for present 
purposes. It is a doubtful point on the continent whether even in 
u uavy we are as strong as some of our neighbours ; and it is impos- 
sible but that out influence must suner by even an approach to thr 
impression, especially when so many of our other departments a 
in a transition state. We have been going on year aiter year, Unr 
ing that a great deal connected with our armaments was not o§ 
should be, but it is only at the moment when the pressure comes fc 
we commence the process of making them so. When the mate T 
ihould be forged and ready almost every thing is in the furnace- 
is absurd to suppose that the condition we are in is not well kr 
,both to friends and enemies abroad ; and from the absence of 
nization — that organization which we ought to have, independ 
what may be the aspect of affairs at the moment — and the ^ 
administrative ability to give It to us, the power of England, 
it would be so desirable to have felt in its fullest force at the p 
moment, is in no slight degree lost. The dissolution of Pari) 
dependent as wo are on committees of the latter, rather t 
our paid officials, for getting us out of our difficulties, must » 
a considerable lime the changes which have been pronouno 





sary ; and the probabilities are that war will overtake us before even 
the preliminaries of getting our affairs in order to meet it are settled* 
It is a most extraordinary and unaccountable way of doing the work 
to be always calling in Parliamentary assistance, and to invoke com- 
mittees of inquiry about facts which arc well known to every one, 
Surely neither the Horse Guards nor the War Office could plead the 
slightest denial or ignorance of the perfect absurdity of everything 

ing to the militia ; of the extravagance and blundering going on 
since the abolition of the Board of Urchuiiu-e: or fl£ the fraud and 
abominations, to say nothing of the absolute failure attached to our 
recruiting system ; and yet, before we can obtain the alterations re- 
quired, or get things on a better footing, there are long and tedious 
imlfuiui.tric* to be gone through, for the purpose of supplying the 
deficiencies and neglect of those who, if they fairly earned the pay 
they receive, ought to do the work without any assistance. What 
an instance of delay, in a matter of the utmost importance, is that 
of the Committee obtained by Capt. Vivian, and which has now, 
until the assembling of the new Parliament, necessarily suspended 
its operations. T.t will be a year at least from the titoeV its being 
ordered before it will have tinauy closed its labours, and it will pro- 
bably be some time longer before its recommendations obtain any 
practical result. In the meanwhile we are to get on how we can, no 
matter what happens, with a divided and irwaponeiMi !»e, 

n the War Office and the Horse Guards, which every impart iul 
authority condemns, but which somehow or other we have no 6906 
sufficiently capable to change for us into something belter. !'• 
thing relating to the defects of the present state of things is as well 
known as it is ever likely to bo, gna it is rather inexplicable, if wo 

such able people at the head of our military affairs as we aro 
constantly bem^ told we have, why we should waste a year or per- 
haps two in a Parliamentary Committee to inquire into what almost 
one admits, with another discussion over again before the ncces* 
rms are instituted. It surely is not beyond Hie power of 
rnment on ita own responsibility to direct wfeftterer is 
ncecswin fur 1 1'* 1 improvement and greater efficiency of our mil 
departments. If our authorities cannot high and Well 

ts very difficult to understand of what 036 fljey are at 
gli It ia hardly possible that so practical a people as we are coil- 
ally taking' credit to ourselves for being, will be content to go 
on for ever, with such disastrous results every now and then ; having 
its army and navy so ruled that lliose who arc paid for administering 
who ought, in common fairness, to be held responsible for 

proper working of all the machinery connected with thru, 

Ipfess as children calling out, when they get into difficulties 

which their own neglect and incapacity have accumulated, for some 

hem out of i licm, and to enable them to take a 

fresh start. We have had experience enough, without farther in- 

w how the present organisation of our departments 

rt us during peace, and what we may reasonably esjteot from it 

f war. We know that it haa brought discredit upon us in 

ordinary times* and most people havo arrived at a logical conclusion 

o 2 




that it will do still worse when the pressure is greater ; and jet such 
i« the uae to us of those we have in office, that we are virtually told 
we must be content to go on as we are, under circuns stances so criti- 
cal as to the preservation of peace, although we have a military staff 
alone -i i tin Eoree ii wards costing upwards of £15,000 per annum, 
and a band of official* at the War Office set down in the estimates 
at double that amount, 

1 1 is rather hard upon the country, as any reasonable person will 
admit, that for all this outlay we are to have little or nothing done 

but such routine work as any commonly stupid set of persons might 
easily get through for half the money. Improvements of adminis- 
trative importance ar© almost entirely neglected; or, as is about to 

take place in the artillery, they are entered upon without consulting 
those most competent to giTG advice. There is nothing but con- 
fusion and mismanagement everywhere at the present moment, 
and swamped n« we are by committees and enquiries, by and bye we 
shall have more of them. It will be many a day before things settle 
down into anything like order, and if war is to come within the next 
vear or two then' is no period in our history when we shall have 
been lew prepared to meet it- No ono doubts for a moment the 
Strength or resources of the country ; if those resources had not been 
what they are we could never have got on at all. What we want is 
the organization to make our enormous means available. Without 
this, ami without a particle of administrative talent in the conduct of 
our affairs to give it, we must fall short of what we might and ought to 
attain. Our deficiency is not in men or material, or in the ttoodnem of 
either, bat in the want of knowledge of those who rule, m knowing 
how to get at them, or to put them into shape and order. It fa to 
the means of getting those who have this capability that all our 
attention and energies should be directed. TV e are working now 
by sheer dint of money, and a very miserable exhibition we are 
miking of it. There is nothing whatever to inspire confidence. 
Every enemy we have on the continent exults in seeing at go lower 
and lower, and the moral greatness of our position has, by our own 
folly and stupidity, been more than half lost to us. We turned out 
oue of the most pugnacious of our ministers for his subserviency to 
France, but those who have succeeded have been equally humble. 
With strong hearts and arms, and abundant means, they all know 
our real weakness, and, until we have some decided reform , wc 
may rest a^nred that the aggressive policy going on across the 
channel will never be restrained. It is not more money that m 
wanted t<» set us right; we spend enough, and more than enough 
already, but we want some well arranged system, to be maintained 
on no extravagant scale during peace, but which can be expanded to 
any extent when circumstances require it; we want this, and we 
want the neeessarv administrative ability that will make our institu- 
tions keep pace with the times, and keep up in them a sustained 
and continued efficiency. Committees of enquiry, parliamentary or 
otherwise, are only stop gaps for a time ; the shortcomings and 
defects which we are always complaining of are sure to recur otct 
and over again, so long as we depend on this mode of doing the 

1859.] AND TfiE BECtfTTITItfG OF tiie abmt. 21 

work. It would be better, instead of relying upon it, at once to 
recognize the officials we have as being only intended for mere mat- 
ters of detail, and to have a second set who will make it their 
business to analyse and study the information pouring in daily into 
our public departments, and who would, by timely legislative 
measures, prevent our getting into those difficulties which we are 
now so very frequently involved in. A sum of money set apart in the 
estimates for this purpose, even though it might be of no incon- 
siderable amount, would be well bestowed. 

How, it may be asked, are we to expect efficiency, if we continue 
to go on from year to year, however time or circumstances may alter, 
interminably working upon the same system until we can work it no 
longer, and it utterly fails us. The strongest instance, perhaps, of 
our perseverance in this respect is to be found in our rigid adherence 
to the same inducements and mode of recruiting that were instituted 
almost with the earliest establishment of our army, until at last we 
have arrived at a state of things that, out of the number of men en- 
listed, nearly, if not quite, one half of them desert, and accepting men 
of the smallest stature, and the most moderate possession of physical 
capabilities, we fail to fill our muster rolls to the extent voted by 
parliament. The desertion that has been going on for some years, 
and which is going on now under the very eyes of the authorities, 
without the slightest effort to check it, is something incredible. If 
a faithful return of it was presented to-morrow, it would show the 
utter demoralization it has caused in our population, and the period 
of its continuance would do more we believe than anything else 
that could bethought of, to exhibit the incapacity or neglect of those 
who have the control of these matters. Knowing the fraud and the 
unsatisfactory results in every way which attached to our manner 
of getting recruits, it was the joint duty of the War Office and the 
Horse G-oards to have established some other and better means of 
doing so, but up to this moment nothing of the kind has ap- 
peared, and at the eleventh hour the recruiting of the army, like 
all the other questions relating to making it what it ought to be, is 
the subject of investigation before a committee. This committee 
consists of six persons, of whom the name of one only, that of 
Colonel Tulloch, can give much of a confident hope that a sound 
practical measure will result from their labours. There seems very- 
little disposition, moreover, to proceed energetically in the matter. 
It is not one which, if taken up at all as it ought to be, is likely to 
present any unsurmountable difficulty to being properly arranged. 
It requires, however, the most careful consideration ; and as it is 
secondary only to that most important one, the manning of the navy, 
we purpose to conclude this article by a few remarks regarding it. 
We suggested last month that one of the greatest boons to the 
recruit would be to have some receiving depot, where he would be 
housed and fed until he joins his regiment, apart from the tramps 
and vagabonds with whom he is obliged to associate in billets. It 
would be a further great improvement, as we conceive, if the bounty 
was reduced simply to the recruit receiving a free kit and double 
pay, say for a fortnight or three weeks after bis enlistment, so that 



he might commoner his career with fin impression as javoumblc as it 
is now quite the contrary of the service, and to enable him properly 1 o 
meet the greater expenses he must be put to for Ins living as a recruit 
than it will coot him as a soldier in bis regular mere, as well as to 
permit his partaking more freely in such amusements as he may like to 
enjoy, or to treat in mod* ration the friends he may bo about to part 
with* Every recruit, we maintain, ought to have fourteen shillings 
a week for the first three v, muting from the day of bis en- 

listment, to he paid in daily payments ; and this sum and a free kit 
should be substituted instead ot the present bounty of three pounds, 
£2 10s, of which is given to the recruit in one payment, and v, 
answers no other purpose but to demoralize him and a good many 
of his comrades as long as it lasts. It is notorious that men are 
given leave to fur the sole purpose of getting rid of this moi 
bow and where they pass their time may be easily guessed. Not 
one man in a 1 is one whit the better of the bounty as it is 

now given ; and for one man made better ten are made a great deal 
tin wutm'. h is a m&t&ke feo suppose that this bounty is much in- 
ducement to good recruits really intending to serve* It may entice 
a few such, bub not many. The men who are tempted by it are 
who intend to receive it and desert, who hi fact make desertion 
a trade by means of the bounty. Nothing is more clear than that 
wn ought to abolish' this part of our recruil tag system ; the talked of 
rnlightenuu-iit of I lie :imv must be altogether a myth, if it can be 
thought necessary any longer to continue it. 

There is a view of another part of the subject which might, 
|h rliaps T well be considered at the present moment, and that is, 
whether it might not be better somewhat largely to increase the 
si >h] kVs pay T and to leave it to himself to lay by the means of support 
when he comes to be di ^charged , than to continue the present system 
of giving him a i tension which, acceptable as it may be, is not ftftag 
all sufficient to keep him in anything like respectability, far more 
good would accrue to the service if men were ene< mroged to save and 
given higher pay, so as to enable them, by means of the savings' bank, 
to take care of themselves. The Government is bound to Steep one 
object mainly in view, and that is how best to get recruits; and the 
point to be decided is, and we should think there would he found 
statistics which would help to a decision, whether men would he 
most induced to enlist by high pay and no pension iu case of dis- 
charge for mere length of service (of course in the case of wounds 
the matter would be altogether different), or whether thev- would bo 
more inclined to come forward for low pay while ■effing, and |i 
pension on discharge as is now given, varying as it does from eight- 
pence to a shilling a day, the latter sum being only obtainable 
under circumstances of particular good conduct. At* the present 
rate of pay few men have on an average much more than twopence a 
day to spend in indulgence and amusement, and it does seem rather 
unreasonable and absurd to expect a man to save out of this sum, 
but it would be far otherwise if the pay of the soldier was higher, 
Three fourths, and more, of the money "that is now put in the sav- 
ings* bank is deposited in the colonies, where the soldier has often 



some pecuniary advantages. Very little indeed of it is contributed 

11 at home, who have nothing bat tbe».r ordinary military pay. 

ill very well to talk of teaching a ma a thrift, bnt to carry it 

out in practice we should give bini the wherewithal to be thrifty 

with, without expecting that he ia to cot \ mipletely off 

thoae eujovments and amusements of which, in fair right and 

reason, he ought to partake, and to be wholly deprived of which :"s 

to make l*fe hardly worth having. We are inclined to thiik that 

the time rasy have arrived, when it would be desirable to consider 

whether it would not answer recruiting purposes, and the good of 

the service best to be more liberal in pay ; and, except in the case 

ni' wounds, to he less so in pensions. It would ho a great gain in 

every way if we could contrive some system by which the soldier 

would be tanght to think, and act, and he responsible for himself. 

A great dcoi of care and caution would require to be used in the 

opt to effect this object, but if only a reasonable portion of 

what is so frequently told us of the great advance in society in every 

grade is true, the risV, in judicious hands, ought not to give us 

much uneasiness, 

The working man at this moment is held up as a model of good 
sense and moderation; and, if from what is known of the habits 
of our labouring population generally , we are enabled to say that 
they have made mat progress which is asserted for them, it is surely 
reMODaWeto thmi and to argue, that a very different mode 
of legislation to what we have practised hitherto, might be initiated 
for the recruiting of the army, and the Wduccmenls held out to 
men to join it. The more instructed and educated a man is, tho 
more impatient he is to have the entire control of himself in h±3 
own hands, and he will not in th ; s state be so much attracted to the 
military profession, which denies him this sel r -responsibility, as to 
other callings in which he possesses it. We know of do drawback 
to the life of the English soldier hot the constant meddling 
with him, He is a victim to the very best intentions, Every regu- 
lation is drawn out with the evident impression, that those it is inten- 
ded for are inherently had, and it is sure to be clogged with a host 
of devices, intended 'to meet this state of things* 

Tt is not possible, with due regard to discipline, to make the 
soldier as free as the same man in civil life, but the nearer we can 
do this the more popular, we may depend upon it, will the soldier's 
calling become, We are now literally taking the very dregs and 
sweepings of the country, both morallv and physically, lor our 
soldiers. The greatest tramp and vagabond who offers 'himself is 
accepted, and while we are enormously increasing our estimates in 
improving the condition of the army, we do not seem to make the 
slightest advance in attracting to its ranks, in any hut exceptional 
cases, the classes above the lowest, which, to keep up its number?, 
wo ought to have. If there would be too much risk* which might 
be the case, in running at once from one system to another, in 
throwing off altogether what we have been accustomed to for years 
and adopting something new, might we not, in a new recruiting 
code, leave it optional to the recruit to enlist under the present 




of things — small pay ami n smaller pension on discharge after 
u-ntv-oue yew <■ — or to do bo under a new code, in wh 

,lv would be considerably increa^ d while serving but with the 
distinct understanding that bis mesne of subsistence on disci 
would depend entirely upon himself. Wp are convinced that if al' 
the rubbish, for it is tittle better, of good-conduct pay was aboli 
and If bounties and pensions were withheld, that the soldier's pay 
might nearly be doubled without any addition, after a very short 
time, to the estimate*; and we think that with ihLn increased \ 
better and more respectable class would enter the n Lei ; and that. 
hv means of the savings* hank, which is almost the only institul 

rould keep up of those now existing, verj few, if any. men would 
go back to civil life a bit worse oft' than the mass of tfee pensioners 
do at present. H 

We may think what we like, but no mere pittance of pen* 
such as we give OUT soldiers, and which we can hardly exceed to any 
amount without an enormous expenditure, cannot be an inducement 
to many men to enlist. The ignorant ilun't appreciate it, and the 
better classes would prefer high pay, ami to be left to themselves. 

With voluntary enlistment there is nothing binding on the 
Government to give pensions, except for wounds. It does all that 
is necessary in giving &ir wages during the working years of a mans 
life, and affording Sim, by the institution of a bank, the 

means of providing for the future. This course is attractive enough, 
and not proved to be, generally speaking, attended hy any bad con 
sequences in other callings, What reason, therefore, can there be 
for not thinking it would Be conducive to the public interests, and as 
beneficial for the soldier, to try it in the army ? The adoption of it 
would enable us to sweep away a mass of complex regulations which 
entail far more trouble and ^correspondence than they are worth, and 
Which are dependant in their Working an much upon chance and the 
temper of a commanding officer, as upon anything else, The good- 
Gpnniiet warranty as it is called, ia as much a boon to men who are 
conning enough not to be found out, as to tfaoae who really dv 
the provisions made by it. A hard-headrd fellow who can bear ■ 
good deal of drink, ov who becomes merely drowsy and stupid in his 

, gets a badge, while his more lively and excitable comrade is 
Lodged in tie guard-room. Many men nave at times been detected 
in the receipt of good-conduct pay who have never been legally en- 

d to it. It is bestowed upon officers 1 servants :oid others, who 
from not being regularly at their duty, have a far better chance of it 
than their comrades who arc. A man by means of it, who has been 
a scandal and a disgrace to the service for many years at the com* 
mencemenf of his service, by keeping out of trouble at the end of it, 
gets a higher pension than another who has not perhaps been guilty 

ne half so much crime. Any one who will go into the ' 
and history of men discharged, will soon he convinced what a de- 

□ it is. Many on excellent soldier never gets it, while n 
of the moat virions and dissipated, who get cunning as they get old, 
have it added on to their pent ions, 
It is difficult to understand the justice of giving different pay to 


men while performing the same duty in the same grade ; the one 
who perhaps knows his work best, and doing it best while he is at it, 
as likely as not getting the least. This is, however, what our regu- 
lations go to establish. The whole practice of our good-conduct 
warrants opens a wide door to the admission of as much misconduct 
as otherwise to its benefits. 

The large sum of money voted in the estimates for this purpose, 
and which serves no useful end whatever, might be turned to far more 
profitable and beneficial uses. Before we are justified in continuing 
the expenditures of £43,000 a-year on this item, we ought to ascer- 
tain- whether the results it yields are at all worth it— whether it 
does not give the appearance rather than the reality of making men 
better. The system we would like to see established would be that 
of good and comfortable barracks, with schools, libraries, reading- 
rooms, gymnasiums, and, in moderation, space for other amusements ; 
conveniences in connection with the canteen, which would make the 
soldier's barrack his home, and a very comfortable home too ; these, 
with as good pay as the country could afford, and a savings' bank, 
are the whole of what is necessary ; and to help towards attaining 
them we would Bweep away the somewhat sentimental theories as to 
the advantages of good conduct-pay, which are of a very costly na- 
ture. Few soldiers are much influenced by them at any time, and 
as to recruits, they are of no benefit with regard to them at all ; all 
the latter inquire about is the pay they are to get, and what imme- 
diate good they will do themselves by enlisting. The giving of boun- 
ties should also be abolished. A recruit should have a free kit, and 
nothing more, on joining his regiment ; the bounty, as now given, only 
furnishes the means of initiating him, by the aid of others, m vice and 
intemperance. There should be a higher rate of pay than the ordi- 
nary one until men get into mess ; a recruit, on a shilling a day, until 
he is subsisted with a number of others in the ordinary manner, is in 
a state of abject poverty. What man will give up ten, twelve, four- 
teen, or more shillings a week to become a soldier on seven ? He 
has no time to go into the intricacies by which it is made up to him 
in other ways. It is here the hitch exists. The code we would 
recommend should be as clear and simple as possible — immediately, 
and until arrival at his regiment, twelve or fourteen shillings a week 
to the recruit ; then a free kit, and a start clear of all debt or deduc- 
tions. He should then commence on the present rate of pay ; or, 
doing away with the good conduct warrant, a trifle higher, and the 
claim to existing pensions on discharge. On this he should continue 
for six months, at the end of which period he would have the option 
of going on in the same manner, or of claiming the higher rate of 
pay and no prospective advantages. If he selected the latter, there 
would be six months difference of pay coming to him, and this sum, 
with or without his assent, should be lodged in the savings' bank, 
partly as a security, but principally as an encouragement to him, 
having that sum lodged, to go on and add to it. By this plan there 
would always be more or less a hold on the soldier, and the disgrace- 
ful desertion which we have seen of late in the British army, both 
to the enemy and otherwise, would be effectually checked without 



to be 

to thai severity of punishment which seems likely to 
adopted, and which wflt ou'ynddtoour criminal population. Duri 

^(ho hfc war the s*reat mass of i to the Fomuuti were En 

Ibhiaeu, and here at liume we may count them not merely by thou- 
sands, but by ten* of thousands. It i* fety certain from all we 
that if the bounty now given entices recruits* the small rate of pay, 
ritfe the distant prospect of a smaller pension on discharge, fa!1a to 
Keep them, and iu some way or other we mufet depart from this «vs- 
em. There is the great comfort in npp roach mg the question that it 
utterly impossible, by any alteration, to make thiols worse than 
they ao\ Wliritevci' we do, if it has any effect at al| t must make us 

['tier oif Hitherto we have contrived mainly to recruit our a 
fron tbose men who enlist soMy out of necessity. It is surely not 
impossible to devise some plan by which we might get men who 
would enlist from cho'ce. We are inclined to think that an entirely 

I different system from tbe present mode of recruiting, in which the 
bringers 01 recruits could be made to play a more prominent part, 
and iu which a single government offic-al or two might alone be 
would be the best to establish. It is ruinous to the disci- 
pline and efficiency of soldiers, and not a little degrading to the 
in' J tary pro -'essoin, the way in which they are employed in obtaining 
recruits. The whole affair, seen under any of its aspects, in 
large to* ), has (we can use no other expression about it) a black- 
guard look. The prostitute and the public house go band ia hand 
with it. The sooner it is demofamed in its very foundation the hei> 

We hope that the committee appointed to examine in I 
matter W' 1 ! jsparc nothing, for there is nothing in it that deserves t 
i spared, or that can benefit us in the least by being retained* 

be i 






In various remarks which have been published from time to time 
on the organization of our navy, the public have been made 
Mqwated with some of the most prominent defects of the existing 
system, and whilst some writers, regarding it as a whole, have en- 
sured to prove the necessity of reducing the various discordant 
elements of which it is composed to something like harmony, others 
have contented themselves with directing their attacks against some 
individual portion of it, and by not extending their views in any 
other direction, have retarded rather than advanced the reformatory 
proem they would wish to set in motion* The writer* in each caso 
may be equally correct in what they describe, but it seems natural that 
we should be inost favorably inclined towards the opinions of those 

1859.] off* eoxb mfbkojw. 29 

who occupy the highest ground, for the same reason that we should 
set the greatest value upon the description of the physical features 
of a country given by a traveller, who, standing on a lofty mountain, 
had studied them as they lay mapped out at his feet, rather than 
upon the report of one who with even greater powers of observation, 
had, by remaining at a lower level, necessarily confined his attention 
to the narrow limits of some part : cular locality. 

We do not now intend to enter upon the much vexed question of 
naval reform, or to advocate or combat any particular opinions con- 
nected with the subject, but taking the re-organ Nation of the "per* 
soDnel" of the navy on the beat possible basis, as " unfait accompli," 
to proceed briefly to consider how — in the event of certain contingen- 
cies occurring — Great Britain would have to act, so as to boable at 
one and the same time, to defend her shores, protect her commerce, 
and preserve her colonies. 

This question is very often answered by the simple suggestion of 
an overwhelming fleet, but here we are met by a difficulty at the 
very outset, for there is, and must be, a limit beyond which it is 
impossible to pass, and this limit may be one which will not do more 
than give us a decided superiority at sea over any single maritime 
power. How then would it be possible in the event of two or more of 
these powers combiaiug against us to operate successfully by such a 
disposition of our fleets as would enable us to attack them in detail, 
(the method in which an inferior force has the best chance of com- 
batting successfully an inferior one) when the greatest portion of 
our fleet would be necessarily confined to the cbarnel for the pro- 
tection of our own shores. 

It is the release of this portion of our fleet by the adoption of 
some plan that will enable us to defend our Bhores, without inter- 
fering with the free action of or* naval forces, that we are now 
about to consider. 

Of all the difficulties connected with the sudden increase of our 
navy from a peace to a war establishment, the difficulty which would 
be found in procuring a sufficient supply of seamen is said to be the 
greatest ; if this be true, as it undoubtedly is, it becomes evident that 
the services of each individual seaman should be made the most of, 
and we should not allow him to be employed in the performance of 
duties which might be as efficiently performed by others. 

Naval operations of war may be divided into two classes : — 

1. Operations not limited to any particular scene of action, and 
which may involve d'stant voyages and long periods of service on 
foreign stations. 

2. OperatioDS confined within fixed and narrow limits, and not 
entailing any lengthened absence from a home port. 

For the first class of operations, it is desirable that we should 
have ships propelled by both sails and steam, and manned by a large 
proportion of experienced sailors. 

Eor the second class it is contended that we require ships pro- 
pelled by steam only, manned by able-bodied men, with sea-legs, well- 
trained in gunnery, and a very small number of able seamen for the 
performance of a tew special duties. 


Now let it be supposed that from some unforeseen entanglement 
Great Britain suddenly finds herself called upon to resist the united 
attack of any two first-rate maritime powers, over either of whom, 
singly, she possesses a considerable naval superiority. She has to 
provide for the safety of her shores, her colonies, her commerce, and 
the enemy must be met at sea, for the arguments used by Sir "Walter 
Raleigh in the days of Elizabeth, in opposition to those who ad- 
vocated military rather than naval preparations against the expected 
invasion of the Spaniards, apply with even greater force to the 
circumstances of the present day than they did to those of the 
period in which he lived. 

A large fleet is hurriedly equipped and assembled in the Channel; 
to some of our widely-separated foreign stations reinforcements 
have to be distributed ; whilst from others to which we are unable to 
afford sufficient support, our squadrons are withdrawn; we have 
been unable to effect aril this without drawing largely upon our re- 
serves, and our seamen have been distributed without much discrimi- 
nation (for there has been no time for it) throughout every 
description of ships, from the smallest gun vessel to the three- 

When all this has been done, the following becomes our position : — 
Our Channel Fleet, composed, let us say by way of argument, of our 
whole naval force, — minus the squadrons we are obliged to retain on 
foreign stations, — iB now only barely equal to the navy of either one of 
the attacking powers ; and though whilst their fleets remain separate 
we have no difficulty in keeping command of the Channel, yet in 
the event of their detaching a strong force to act against our 
colonies or commerce, we dare not follow it for fear of permitting 
them to become masters of the Channel, for even a few days. 

From such a position we might, perhaps, be extricated by the 
skilful combinations of our Naval Commanders, and the bull-dog 
courage of our men ; but where the odds are greatly against us 
we cannot calculate upon victory, we can only hope to obtain it. 

Now to prevent the possibility of such a state of things taking 
place, it is proposed, in accordance with the rules previously laid 
down, that w r e should base our defence of the Channel on a separate 
and distinct system, so that the fleets and ships of war comprising . 
our lioyal Navy, might be left free to undertake offensive opera- 
tions in whatever direction, or at whatever distance, might be 
deemed most advisable. 

It is proposed to effect this by means of a flotilla,composed of vessels 
of a peculiar construction, propelled by steam only, and manned by 
a force which, 'for want of a better name, might be called the 
<: Maritime Militia." 

Let us first briefly investigate the principles upon which the 
vessels comprising the steam flotilla should be constructed ; then 
haying shewn how they might be distributed so as to allow of their 
being rapidly concentrated upon any given point, we will proceed 
to inquire into the beat mode of organizing the force by which they 
are to b.* manned. 



A very valuable authority on naval matters, Captain Moorsom, 
C.B., in a small pamphlet on the construction of Ships of "War, 
observes : — " The value of a ship, as an engine of war, depends on 
two qualities : the first is the power of destroying the enemy to 
which the ships may be opposed, which may be called the * Power of 
Destruction.' The second is the power ot resisting the destructive 
effect of that enemy's armament, which may be called the * Power 
of [Resistance.' " 

Taking then, these two qualities for our guide, we must, in order to 
ensure the first, combine a very great degree of speed with the capa- 
bility of carrying a very powerful armament ; and, in order to 
ensure the second, we must, as far as possible, render our vessels 

A 8 it is intended that the flotilla should be composed of two classes 
of vessels, let us first take into consideration the construction of the 

We know that in our steam three-deckers, however unsuited they 
may be for modern warfare, we have vessels possessing immense 
power and great speed ; let us see if it be not possible to construct 
vessels which shall be superior to them in both particulars. 

It must be remembered that the description of duties which the 
vessels composing our flotilla will be called upon to perform, will 
permit of our dispensing with the aid of sails, and to our trusting 
entirely to steam for our motive power ; the advantages we gain by 
this are manifold; we get rid of a heavy weight aloft, — a vast 
amount of combustible stores below ; there is less resistance to pro- 
gress under steam, and our progress is proportionably increased, — 
there are no tell-tale masts to betray our whereabouts in action 
when our position would be otherwise concealed by smoke ; and 
there is no danger of our screw being rendered useless by entangle- 
ment in the wreck of our rigging and fallen spars. We have next 
to convert a huge top-heavy mass of combustible material carrying 
an enormous number of guns, out of which, except at short ranges, 
a very few can be worked with advantage at the same time, and 
whose wooden sides endanger rather than protect the lives of those 
on board, — into an engine of war possessing greater speed and sta- 
bility ; presenting a smaller mark for the enemy's aim ; retaining 
the same amount of momentum ; affording a reasonable degree of 
security to the persons serving on board ; and carrying an armament 
of such a nature, that the reduction in the numbeV of guns would 
be amply compensated for by their individual superiority. 

A screw three-decker cut down to the lower deck, fitted with shot 
proof iron sides, and armed with breech loading rifled cannon 
on the non-recoil principle, would fulfil all these conditions, and the 
"expense of conversion would in a short time be more than covered 
by the saving which would be effected in masts, yards, rigging, and 
sails ; and in the greatly reduced crews which would be required to 
man it. 



Tire mechanical construction of such a vessel might probably bo 
greatly improved upon, and curvilinear fetdes might be substituted 
with good ei-eefc for nit ill near ones ; but these may be considered as 
pattern of nvnor detail, rather than points affecting the general 
principles at issue. 

The two great objections which are most likely to be advanced 
■gainst this plan are these : — 

1- That we shall have a number of large vessels confined in 
application to special purposes* and unfit for general service. 

2* That being without sails, any accident happening to 
machinery would render them perfectly helpless, 

The protection of our shores is an object of such vital import- 

that it is hardly reasonable to object to any system which professes to 

have that for its end, because it can do no more ; but these: iron-Bided 

steam vessels could do much more, for when circumstances would 

admit of their being so employed, they might he advanced from their 

rope? line of defence and take their share in the offensive operations 

g&TOflft the enemy's ar^nals and fleets: can as much be said in 

vor of the land batteries, upon which such large' sums arc annually 

nt, and which can only be made useful on the occurrence of one 

ngle eventuality, — the enemy 's choosing to place himself within 

age of their guns ? 

The second objection is easily disposed of, for a vessel so eireu 
tauced would be no wane off than the old sailing ship was when 
iinasted or becalmed, or even than a masted screw-ship with a 
aged engine when in the latter predicament ; besides, these 
elsj always acting in squadrous, would never be without assis- 
ce, and there is no reason why they should not be fitted with small 
)\\ry masts capable of being raised :>r lowered at pleasure, upon which 
n extreme cases just sufficient sad might be set to give them a small 
progressive movement. 

The smaller vessels, intended to carry one gun of the largest size, 

would have to be constructed on a somewhat different plan ; their 

88 would not permit of their being rendered shot proof in the samo 

anner T bv built up iron sides protecting the who] e deck ; but having 

rovided for the salety of the hull, the gun and guns' crew might be 

rotected by a circular shot proof screen on the plan of those pro- 

osed by Captain Cowper Coles, It. N. ; a method of protecting 

rT ins which will probably ere long have a very extensive application, 

now that we have succeeded in obtaining an effective breech loading 

rilled cannon, 

Iu the construction of these smaller vessels it mnst not be forgot- 
ten that they ought to possess in a large degree both stability and 



coMPaisrsa the 

have decided 
hi ul-^ed 



Let us suppose that we 
vessels of the first* and 
class : — 

That in order to man them easily in 

on constructing twenty 
vessels of the second 

the way I shall hereafter 


1809.] OTO HOME MIE5CE8. 81 

describe; we have distributed tbem oyer a considerable line of 
coast, at twenty different stations, in sub-diyisions of one vessel of 
the first and five vessels of the second class. .And that we have 
made our arrangements so that in the event of a war suddenly 
breaking out they may be manned and sent to sea with the smallest 
possible delay. 

We might then arrange for the defence of the Channel by dividing 
our whole force into three separate divisions, one, of four firat and 
twenty second class vessels at Dover or in the Downs ; another of 
the same strength at Plymouth or Falmouth ; and the third of eight 
first and forty second class vessels in Portland Boads. A portion of 
our sea-going fleet would watch the movements of the enemy, while 
the main body would be held in readiness to follow him, in the event 
of his leaving port, in whatever direction he might sail. 

The construction or conversion of so many vessels would require 
time ; but in the first instance we might make up the number by 
dismasting our block ships, and applying them, together with as • 
many gun boats as could be spared, to this service. 


It is proposed to man the flot^la with a volunteer force bear'ng 
somewhat the same relation to our navy, as is borne by the militia 
to their brother soldiers of the line ; because, as has been already 
stated, in the event of a war, every man of the regular force, in- 
cluding the reserves (whether of seamen or mariees), would be 
required for our sea-going fleets, and we should be sadly wasting 
their services were we to apply tbem in any other way. 
T The idea of a maritime militia is not a new one, and it has within the 
last year been most ably advocated in an article which appeared in the 
pages of the Nautical Ifugazine, by Capteln Sheringham, E.N. It is 
an idea which might be elucidated by ancient practices, for if we were 
to go back to the middle ages, we should find that the duties now per- 
formed by our navy were carried on by private ships, which were either 
contributed by various sea-port towns towards carryiDg out some 
particular object, or were fitted oot for the service of the State at 
the expence of wealthy and patriotic individuals. In the natural 
course of events, permanently established navies as well as standing 
armies, began to be looked upon as part of the machinery by which 
Governments could alone preserve the existence and protect the 
interests of their respective states ; it was, however, found imprac- 
ticable to keep up these establishments in periods of peace on a 
footing that would enable them to meet the exigencies called into 
being by a state of war ; hence it became necessary at such times to 
fall back upon a widely extended system of nrolment for the tem- 
porary reinforcement of the military force of the state ; whilst, in 
order to increase the navy to the necessary limits, forced levies of 
seamen were made, who from the first moment of their service 
became, not a distinctive, but an integral part of the regular sea- 
A time came when the compulsory system of manning our fleets 

could no longer bo enforced, and a voluntary system had to be sub 
stituted tor it, yet, strange to say, no steps were taken toward:* 
rapidly increasing our naval strength in the event of war by raising 
men (or the special duty of home defence in a manner correspond ing 
to tli:it which enables us to add so considerably to our mil 
resources, by the establishment of militia regiments. Of late yi 
however, public attiiiii mil liavnig been particularly directed to tbe 
subject of OUT navy, this very prominent defect could not well re- 
main unnoticed, and we have had in consequence various projects (cat 
its rectification; of these, one of the latest put into practical 
operation has been the enrolment of a force called the Coast Volnu- 
beera, but however ingenious the theory upon which this force 
baa been constructed, it has, when brought into practice, been 
pronounced "a failure," and for this very plain and simple reu 
that these voluuteers — notwithstanding that their services can only 
be made use of within a certain distance of our shores — have 
no distinct and special organization like their military brethren, but 
arc made use of by being distributed throughout the fleet, constitu- 
ting from that moment part and parcel of a body, with a large 
majority of which they have no community of interests, and from 
whom they must naturally be separated by all those petty jealousies 
which the peculiar circumstances of their position would be sure 

To succeed in the formation of a volunteer fuivc, h must be 
based on sounder and more attractive principle* than these, — it must 
be permitted to participate in the higher as well as the lower duties 
connected with what may be termed " military service ailoat" — and 
commanded by their own officers the men must be made to fed that 
it is as necessary to maintain a good individual character, as it is to 
uphold their general reputation as a corps. 

Eleven thousand men would be more than sufficient to man a 
flotilla such as has been described, and this number would include the 
Offix crs, Permanent 8 taff T and E ng i nee rs t am o un t i u g per h a ps to a 
thousand, laaYing iu to provide for the enrolment of the remaining 
ten thousand, and these distributed over the twenty difterent stations 
into which the whole force would be sub-divided, gives us an average 
of five hundred for each district, a number that we 
might reasonably expect to obtain from the yachtsmen, boatmen, 
'shermen, and sailors employed iu the coasting trade; though thefts 
is no absolute necessity for our not, in many iuslain . ^ availing 
ourselves of the services of men not belonging to either of I 
par! 1 1 1 1 1 • i r ehe 

The Permanent Staff would be composed of officers, petty officers, 

and men of approved character, appointed at their own request from 

regular navv ftp which they would cease to belong), and Hie 

raj corps of officers would include retired and half-pay Naval 

Officers (under a certain age), and private gentlemen with nau 
tastes and habits ; it being required from each officer on appointment 

at he should go through a regular course of instruction in a 
gunnery ship. 

The whole force might be under the command of a Flag-officer, 



assisted by three Captains (one for each division), appointed for a 
term and still retaining their position in the regular service ; once a 
year, the whole force would be embodied for a month's training, 
during a certain portion of which time the different vessels of the 
flotilla would be assembled in their respective divisions for the 
purpose of manoeuvring under steam. 

The minor details of such a scheme can be easily worked out, but 
they must be considered with reference to our whole plan of action, 
and not solely on their own merits, or when brought together they 
will present us with an apparent refutation of the truth of the 
time-honored maxim, that " union is strength." 

There is one great objection to which I have not yet alluded : — 
"the expense!" — true, nothing can be done without money, and 
vast sums are yearly spent in carrying out complicated systems of 
defence, which seem tacitly to admit that the time will soon arrive 
when we shall be unable to protect our soil from the polluting foot- 
prints of an invading foe. !Let us rather trust in our wooden walls 
even if we have to face them with iron, let us build batteries on 
the sea rather than on the shore, and let it be remembered that the 
creation of a steam flotilla, manned by a Maritime Militia, would 
afford us the best means of developing those vast naval resources 
which have made England what she is, and without which it would 
be impossible for her to preserve her greatness. 


Since the discussions which took place some years ago, regard- 
ing the fortification of Paris, no question of the same character 
has excited so much attention on the Continent as that now pending, 
with reference to the fortification of Antwerp ; and although, the scale 
is smaller, the question is the same, and the additional experience 
gained during the last fifteen years renders the new controversy so 
important, that a brief account of it can hardly fail to be interesting 
to military men, and to all those who pay any attention to such 

In order to understand the real bearings of the question it is 
necessary to go back to the year 1814, when any one acquainted 
with the military history of the period will recollect a dispatch of 
the Duke of Wellington, dated 22nd September, wherein he, acting 
on the advice of Col. Chapman, Sir Chas. Pasley, and Sir F. Smith, 
recommended the re-establishment of the old barrier fortresses of the 
reign of Louis XIV. The Dutch, who were the parties who ought 
to have been the most interested in the question, seem to have treated 
it with the greatest indifference. They seem to have made up their 

* Projet d'Agrandissemeut general D'Anvers. Lettre de M. M . Keller et coinpie a 
M. le Ministre de la Guerre, 1855. Second© lettre avec atlas, 1858. Atlas 
Complementaire, 1858. 

V. S. Mag., No. 366, Mat, 1859. n 

minds that the existence of the United Kingdom of tho Netherlands 
depended wholly on the support of its allies, and consequently 
cared little in what manner their frontier was to be defended, The 
Germans, on the other hand, who really felt a deep inimst in having 
a Btrong barrier against the ambition of France on this side, protested 
loudly, and with a strong show of reason, against so antiquated ft 
system of defence. But the Duke was then supreme in the councils 
of the allied monarchy and as the English were the parties who 
bore the largest share of the expense, and were also supposed to bo 
those most interested in the question, they were allowed to have 
own way, and the work proceeded uninterniptoiUy during the 
ne\t twelve or fifteen years, and more than 8,000,1)00/, sterling were 
spent on a line of defence which, on the continent at hast, every mili- 
tary man knew to be utterly useless and untenable. Things remained 
m this state till after the revolution which separated Belgium from 
Holland, When the former became a separate and independent 
kingdom, and felt the necessity of maintaining its own posit ion , the 
authorities naturally turned their attention to their means of defence, 
and one of the first discoveries they made was, that it re to 

garrison all the strong places they possessed, the whole of their 
available forces would be absorbed in the process, and they would 
have no army to keep the field. It was also painfully evident that if 
their troops were thus shut up in the fortresses, an enemy might 
march unmolested on the capital, or any pointj and conquer the 
country without striking a blow. They consequently set to work to 
remedy this state of affairs, first by dismantling Ath, Ypres, Menin, 
FhillippevillOj and other places, and have gone on steadily razing 
fortification after fortification, till about one half of those which 
were erected at such expense have disappeared, aud the process is 
going steadily on. Even Mons, the most extensive and the meet 
expensive of all their fortified place a } is condemned, and in the ooutbd 
few years it is understood that JXamur, and liny, and the 
citadels 01 Ghent, Tournay, and Liege, will he all that will remain 
of this great line of works, and if It is expected that the Belgian 
army is also to keep the field, even these works may be considered 
as more extensive than such a country ought to possess, 

"While this work of destruction was going on on the one hand, it was 
felt on the other that without some class of fortification so small a 
state ad that of Belgium, surrounded by such powerful neighbour*, 
would be at the mercy of airy one of them. Even those who felt most 
strongly that a line of frontier fortresses, without some strong places 
in their rear, was a atrategetical absurdity, at iil indited that some- 
thing must be done to secure to the army a u point d'apnui" in the 
event of an invasion. Tho most natural and obvious m 
was to imitate what had been done in France, and fortify the 

Unfortunately, Brussels affords few facilities for such an opera 
It k equally open, and equally commanded by heights all round, and 
aline of detached forts, or of works in advance of an enceinte nt such 
a distance as to secure the town from bombardment, mudfc have been 
so extensive that it would be aa much beyond the means of the 3eU 


gian army to defend it as even the barrier fortresses themselves. The 
only other place that appeared at all suitable for the purposes of an 
entrenched camp was Antwerp, which seemed to afford all the de- 
sired advantages. In the first place it was as far in the rear as al- 
most any town in the kingdom, and an army unable to keep the field 
could retire and concentrate upon it, either along the right or left 
bank of the Scheldt, and it could be succoured and provisioned either 
from the sea or from the rear, through Holland or from Germany, 
with more facility than any other town in the kingdom. But, besides 
these strategetical advantages, its local position afforded extraordinary 
facilities for defence. On the west it was defended by the Scheldt 
with the polders of Zwyndrecht beyond, on the north and east by 
inundations, so that there only remained a front of about five or six 
miles in extent on the south side to be defended. This being so it 
was easy for the government to determine, which they did at a very 
early period, that Antwerp should be the great strategetical pivot 
for the defence of Belgium ; but the mode in which the intention 
should be carried out was by no means so clear, and the question 
has given rise to an almost endless series of polemics, of which we 
can only now indicate the results. 

After a long series of discussions among themselves the govern- 
ment determined on retaining the present fortifications of the town 
as the enciente, and to defend the southern front by seven detached 
forts, extending from the river on the right to the inundations on the 
left ; they also resolved on enlarging the town on the north, so as to in- 
clude the new docks now being constructed there, and eventually also 
to erect a fortress on that side to serve as a citadel of retreat in the 
event of the town being lost. As soon as the determination of 
the government was known, it was pointed out that the present de- 
fences of the town were totally useless, that they were so encum- 
bered by houses, both in front and rear, as to be untenable ; and be- 
sides this, that an enemy could at any time, under cover of the 
suburbs, advance to within 200 or 300 yards of these works, and 
bombard and burn the town. It was also urged that the proposed 
forts were too far advanced to receive any effectual support from the 
old enciente, and not far enough to protect the town from incen- 
diary fire. All this was only too true ; but any alternative that 
would obviate these objections seemed to involve so enormous an 
outlay, and likewise also to be productive of so long a delay, that 
the government, in the year 1852, determined to proceed at once with 
the scheme of fortification indicated above, and during the next two 
years expended £260,000 in carrying it into effect. No sooner were 
the works completed than it was seen what a mistake had been com- 
mitted, as Captain Brialmont well expresses it in his introduction 
when speaking on this subject — " There is a very great advantage in 
making the public the judge in such matters as these, for although 
they may not be able to discuss them scientifically, any man of com- 
mon sense and intelligence can understand them, and arrive at cor- 
rect conclusions if he enters into the controversy without prejudice 
or passion. No error or false system can long be hidden from the 
knowledge of the multitude, and whenever a question is badly staled 

d 2 


or ft problem wrongly solved, it is sure to bo one that has only been 
discussed in a clique of the initiated, who judge without appeal in 
conformity with traditions which, though old, are not always respect- 
able.' 1 (page v.) So it turned out here. The detached forte were 
either squares or pentagons of only 150 metres each front, and con- 
Bequently the ramparts were so twisted and broken as to afford no 
real power of defence, the masonry redoubts which closed the gorges 
were weak and insignificant, and the forts so far detached from one 
another, and from the enciente which was to support them, that they 
could all be attacked by the rear and easily taken. The consequence 
was that every one was dissatisfied. The citizens demanded that 
either the fortifications should be of such a character as to save them 
from the probability of an attack, or that they should be freed from 
the inconvenience and risk inherent on their commercial city being 
considered as a place of war. Those most capable of judging were 
loud in their condemnation of this imperfect scheme ; while, on the 
other hand, government felt them selves hound in honour to defend 
what they had done, and retorted on their assailants with a bitter- 
ness that was scarcely justified. 

Among those who took part in this controversy, none have been 
more distinguished or taken a more prominent part than Captain 
Brialmont, who is so well known in this country from his w Life of 
Wellington, 1 * which is, perhaps, the best and fairest book that has 
been produced on the subject on the continent of Europe. Me ? in 
conjunction with Messrs. Keller aud Co., one of the largest con- 
tracting firms in Antwerp, submitted to the government in 1855 a 
scheme for fortifying Antwerp on a more extensive scale than had 
hitherto been proposed. 

Their project is to surround the town with an entirely new enciente^ 
concentric, or nearly so, with the present fortifications, but at a 
distance of about 2000 metres in advance. This would enclose one, 
and in its most improved form two, of the new government forts ; 
four others would be used as bastions or horn works to the new wall, 
and one only is left: sufficiently advanced to be used as a detached work- 
After various ameliorations at particular points, this is the scheme 
that seems to be definitively agreed upon by all parties. The 
government indeed have proposed several less extensive plans ; their 
favourite one being merely to draw a straight line of bastioned wall 
from the inundations to the river at the old citadel, so as to form a 
base for the detached forts already existing, and thus to utilize 
them. To this it is very justly objected that it would leave the 
whole of the important suburb of Berehem outside the walls, and in 
the event of any one of the detached forts falling into the hands of 
the enemy, would admit of their approaching sufficiently near to 
bombard the town with facility* 

Saying thus, after ten years' disc ussion, arrived at something like 
a definite conclusion aa to the manner in which the town ought to 
be fortified, with regard to the position of the enciente, and of the 
detached forts, it is amusing to observe the changes that have taken 
place in that time with reference to the form and details of the 
works which it is proposed to erect, Aa the Belgian School of En- 

1859 j 

roimrrcATiox of a^twehp, 


r* is ail onset of that of France, the corp*, or at leant all tin- 
older members of it are, as a matter of course* partizana of tlie 
bastion system, and alt the workfl proposed by government or 
hitherto sanctioned, are carried out in conformity wlik the principles 
of that school* 

Even Biialmont's scheme, when first proposed, consisted of a 
bastioned enciente with lunettes — they can scarcely be called 
ravelins — in advance of each front, and pentagonal, basfcioned de- 
tached fronts. 

The outworks first disappeared, and gradually the bastions them- 
selves have been eliminated; and if we may take Plate VIII, of the 
"Atlas Com piemen tai re " as representing tlie present state of the 
question, it is evident that the progress that has been made towards 
anew state of aft airs is somewhat startling. In this elaborate de- 
sign the northern citadel is a large circular work of earth, "tracee 
d'apres les idees que M. Fergusson eherche a faire prevaloir en Angle- 
terre depuis plusieurs anness," with double ramparts of earth on the 
sides liable to be attacked, aud with a broad ditch in front flanked 
by caponieres* some of them with Haxo casemates. The enciente of 
the town is an extended flat-fronted earthwork, with detached semi- 
circular works beyond the ditch f covering caponieres with Haxo 
mates at distances of about 2000 yards from one another; and 
the detached forts also are semicircular earthworks, with ditches 
flanked by casemated caponieres ; the whole being designed, as its 
author himself expresses it, more according to the ideas of Mon- 
talemhert and Air* Fergusson than to the more fashionable princi- 
ples of the V m limn school* Such a form of works is simpler and 
much lees expensive than any bastioned trace could be, and much 
more capable of a protracted defence ; but whether the authorities 
are prepared to accept such radical innovations remains to be seen. 
In Germany there is little doubt but that such a system would be 
very much preferred to any of the earlier designs, but it is very 
questionable whether it will' be equally appreciated in Belgium, or in 
any country where the influence of the French school of engineering 

The point in these designs which has given rise to the greatest 
amount of controversy is the question, whether or not certain por- 
tions of the enciente ought or ought not to be reveted with masonry. 
The disciples of Vauban have contended throughout that the eleven 
front* forming t lie southern portion of the enciente, being those most 
liable to attack* ought to be so protected. They maintain that unless 
this were done* the place could not be secure against a " coup de 
main ; " that if the ditches were not dry it would be impossible to 
maintain the communications with the country during a state of 
sicsje* or to take advantage of the larger class of sorties, which are 
the true mode of defending a large sfcrategetic fortress* covering au 
army j and that is assumed to be the normal state of such a place 
as Antwerp. 

The partisans of the more advanced school contend* on the other 

hand, that it must cause an mum n<e and useless additional expense 

instruct such revetments of masonry, and entail o continual 


outlay to maintain item* that a wet ditch, 50 metres wide, an 
with two or three metres of water, is a Sufficient protection again 
a "coup da main" and that by bfi&GI either permanent or t. 

ere is no difficulty in obtaining the requisite access to th 
crantry at all times. Owing however to the rise in the level of th 
country at the centre of the Line opposite to Berchem, it is admit J' oil 
that the level of the water could only be maintained in the ditch 
by means of batardeaux, and these it is contended could be des- 
troyed, if not by direct fire, at least by mines. The question of 
direct Bra seems to be practically abandoned, and it is evident, from 
the position of the works, that tnis objection is really untenable; and 
it is contended by those who advocate wet ditches that mines could 
only be employed when the attacking party are in possession of the 
counterscarp, thatit would then be easy to breach and destroy any ma* 
sonry revetment, and that even if oneot the bartardranx were destroyed 
it would not lower the water in the upper levels to a sufficient extent 
to allow the ditch to be passed without the construction of bridges 
and other works, which would be impossible while any ftankin 
fence remained. But besides these local arguments, they appeal to 
tin' experience of almost all engineers, from Cohorn down to Tod- 
lebeo, to shew that wherever wet ditches can be obtained, and i 
sometimes, as at Sebaatopol, where no such advantage existed, that 
r> \vtments are not Indispensable, and indeed have been more preju- 
dicial to the defence than otherwise, and certainly when the para pels 
are supported by the masonry, they inevitably ensure their des- 
truction at a very early period of the siege* 

In a complicated question of this sort, it is not of course i 
expected that one party should be entirely right and the other 
entirely wrong, but on the whole the superiority of reasoning seems to 
be immensely on the tide of those who contend for simple un- 
revetted earthworks for the defence of Antwerp, as against those 
who could revete the faces of the bastions and curtains according 
to the usual form. Whether or not the flanks of the bastions 
ought not to be of masonry and casemated is another question, but 
this is prejudged in this case, if we are to accept Brialmont's last 
design; for as he entirely abandons the bastion tbrm in this plan, 
and hidea the flanks behind circular earthworks, so that this question 
does not arise at all if his proposals are adopted. 

There are other points of detail which have come up, and been 
discussed in the course of this controversy, which are of great in- 
terest to military men, but which it would be very wearisome to 
attempt to describe here, and almost impossible to render interest- 
ing without going into the whole question of attack and defence, 
-h it is of course impossible to do in the limited space at our 
command ; but they are of such importance in themselves that we 
would strongly recommend to military meu to follow the progress 
of the discussion, as it cannot fail to prove both interesting and in- 
truetive to any one who may master it in all its details. 

Of course it cannot be expected that such a controversy could be 

carried on without a great deal of angry feeling, and of exaggerated 

iiiente being introduced on one side as well as on the other. 



Throughout the discussion there were ranged in opposition to one 
another the old men of the service* full of years and honours, M lauda- 

temporifl acti/' and clinging with pertinacity to the traditions of 
the school iu which they wr. ted, and to the system through 

> they gained their rank and position : and on the other hand, 
the young men of fcl •, anxious to distinguish themselves and to 

bringthe science of war more into harmony with the progress of the age 
to which they belong, by the introduction of improvedmethods through 
which they hope to attain to the same distinction of their prede- 
cessors. Notwithstanding this, the controversy is on the whole 
most creditable to the officers of the Belgian army. They have 
shewn throughout a knowledge of the subject in all its details, which 
cannot be surpassed by any service in Europe, and a willingness to 
receive information, and a readiness in adapting their reasoning and 
methods to the circumstances of the case, which reflects the highest 
credit on all concerned. To us as Englishmen the most curious 
phase of the question is the mode in which it was discussed in the 
Belgian Chambers during eight days in August last. Not only 
military men f but burgomasters and civilians took part in t he debate, 
and reasoned on it with an intelligence and with a moderation which 
so far commanded the respect and attention of the country, that 

niment were forced to admit the mistake they had made in 

n efficient defences which had been carried out before 

the public discussion of the matter took place, and to promise that 

whatever was done in future would be more in conformity with the 

Iti rf the unofficial discussion, the principal points of which have 
been detailed above. 

any evil consequence having arisen from the extensive 
publicity which has been given to tho various questions arising out 
of tin i on of Antwerp, it is now admitted on all hands that no* 

thing hut good has resulted from the discussion. Instead of being con- 
fln*d toa few over- worked and irresponsible officials, the whole Belgian 
army, lodged the whole people, have lent their aid in perfecting the 
Ereay point of enquiry has been thoroughly ventilated, and 
turtt&d over and over, and looked at in all its bearings. Every objection 

( either b le or the other has been met and answered, 

Jy is it admitted that a far better design is now before 

nublie than that originally proposed by government, but the 
people themselves, feeling that they have now got the best scheme 
that can be obtained, are willing to submit cheerfully to the in- 
end sacrifice that must be entailed in carrying it out ; so 
that this public discussion must now be regarded as having been, in 
every respect, productive of advantage both to the government and 
to the people. 

ition, however* was adjourned sine die, because the autho- 
rities did not at the time feel justilied in incurring the expense 
involved in so extensive a system of defence as it was now apparent 
must be executed if the place were to be fortified at all ; and it m 

oato for them that this delay has taken place, for a revolution 

>een effected in the art of war since August last, which, when 
fully ed^will probably induce all parties to pause b< 

proceeding further in this matter, At that time it wag contended 


mm rnrATiov or axtwop. 

:id enciente 2000 yards in advance uf the old walla, and 
tached forts 2O0O to 3G00 yards in advance of tint, gave a practical 
cover to the town of from 5000 ro G000 yards, and this wafi 
the range of any artillery then known. Since that time, however, 
the range of artillery has been doubled at least, and long before the 
new works of Antwerp could be completed, the ordinary range of 
in eenrlmry projectiles will certainly not be le*s than from 9000 to 
1 U. UUO vaVds. 

Besides this, the invention of irou-phiied steam gun-bo«ts mo 
it very uncertain whether a flotilla of these could nol pass the I 
in the Scheldt, and burn the town and shipping in spite of any de 
ii no that could be erected, 

V nder theae novel circumstances the question arises whether any 
national government would be justified iu exposing the one 

aercial emporium of the kingdom, to tin; chance of such a 
catastrophe, and it tiny did whether their su doing would not in fact 
be the means of defeating the object they had in view. 

As the question \u>\\ stands it is simply this , — Supposing Antwerp 
to be fortified according to the" Grand projet Keller,'' or any similar 
scheme, could any commander of national forces allow the place i 
bombarded and burnt ; could he resist the influence of the wealthiest 
and most industrious of his fellow countrymen, or withstand the 
appeal to his humanity, when the lives and fortunes of 100,000 of the 
citizens were at stake, and when not only men, but women and 
children would be sacrificed if he held out. On the other hand, an 
invader knowing all this, would certainly have recourse to bombard- 
ment, instead of wasting his time and means in the slow process of 
a regular siege, and the stronger the works were made the more 
certain he would be to adopt this expedient. It is true that Sebastopol 
did resist, but it was a purely military town. So did Saragossa, but 
it was inhabited by fanatics, and it would require men of sterner stuff 
than the inhabitants of Antwerp are supposed to be, or the plan- 
would fall in four and twenty hours, and the government would tie 
have the misery of handing over to an invader a completely fortified 
town, with its stores and munitions of war, and although a patriotic 
general could not dare to expose his compatriots to the horrors of a 
bombardment, a stranger would have no such qualms, and the 
possession of such a place as Antwerp, fortified as proposed, would 
enable him to hold Belgium against all comers, and with a w^ry 
small force. This reasoning, however, applies to ex^ry important 
town as well as to Antwerp, and indeed it seems to be a fact, that 
since the introduction on the one hand of rifled cannon into all the 
services of Europe, and on the other the increase of wealth, and the 
decay of fanaticism, it is impossible to defend large and populous 
cities by any class of fortification, however strong or extensive they 
may be, To be defensive places must be erected for military purposes 
only, and Such a question as this, of how Antwerp or any 'such place 
should be fortified, must be abandoned in limine in parliamentary 
language by moving the previous question, or at all events must be 
approached in a very different spirit, and treated upon entirely 
different principles from any that have been propounded in any of 
the works that have yet appeared in the course of this controversy. 

18r>9.] 41 


[The following article is translated from the German estimate of our military 
position, and at the present moment will command interest, as showing the views 
entertained in Germany respecting the practicability of an invasion of England.] 

No. I. 

The events of former wars had produced an impression among 
nations in general, and especially among the English, that only under 
the most extraordinary circumstances could fortresses withstand 
successfully the attacks of fleets, and that, in order to be able to do 
this, they must be of the strongest possible construction. Proceed- 
ing on this idea, England fortified to the uttermost her ports in the 
Mediterranean, but considered that no marine fortification, subject 
to the other nations, could possibly hold out against the attack of 
her fleets— a one-sided and over- weening estimate of her own 
strength, which, in the Eussian war, produced for her bitter fruit, 
before Sweaborg, Cronstadt, and Sevastopol. Then another idea 
suggested itself. With large ships of heavy draught well-fortified 
harbours were not to be taken, in consequence of the difficulty of 
finding a sufficient depth of water, and the easiness with which a 
channel may be rendered impracticable. There was built, therefore, 
a whole flotilla of iron gun-Doats, which, armed with a few heavy 
guns, had only a light draught of water, and were provided with 
steam engines. From these were expected important and unprece- 
dented results; when unexpectedly, before opportunity had been 
afforded of bringing them in a body into the presence of an enemy, 
and thus of proving their practical serviceability, the peace was 
concluded. The main subject to which the English directed their 
attention was that of offensive\>perations ; tojdefensive they attended 
only so far as the isolated fortresses on the coasts of the mother 
country were concerned. For the fortifying of their own soil there 
was the least possible consideration : they confided in this respect as 
formerly they had confided in the invincibility of their floating 

The coasts of England, exposed to danger are those which lie 
nearest to the Continent, and could most easily be invaded from it ; 
consequently, those on the channel. Hitherto the prevailing winds 
and currents have been an altogether different protection from 
what they are now that they have lost so much of their importance 
through the application of steam power to ships. Both of these 
(wind and current) prevail in a direction from east and west. 
England, consequently, has been forced to place a great military port 
in the East, in order that, by availing herself of these powers of 
nature, she might remain mistress of the channel. For this pur- 
pose the estuary of the Thames appeared to be most suitable, and 
Sheerness was raised to the rank of a grand depot — a place in all 
respects favourably situated for the carrying out of the above inti 
mated object. There was only the Foreland to double, and through 

42 tttk gnoEiss or the cnAtfrrEX, 

the Straits of Calais the passage was direct info the Channel tttfe 
The central and main harbour, however, could be no other th; 
Port the sheltered position of whirh, brfund th* In!e 

Wight, withdraws it from the attack of hostile fleets, a.^ well a« from 
the force of wind and storm. This was therefore the chief depot 
\\>r the Channel aud Mediterranean fleets, and hence i h the 

squadrons which conquered formerly the Spanish krHiada, mm 
eently the Dutch, and then the united Spaniards and French. 

By means of this fortress the English were so completely mas f 
of the Channel, that the French, in the last war, scarcely ventured 
at last to quit their fortified harbours. Napoleon, in 1908, threatened 
an invasion from Boulogne* To be sure he had not under Ids com- 
mand a great fleet; nevertheless, an invasion was a constantly im- 
pending possibility, whenever wind and weather might permit the 
transport of troops in flat boats ; and once on English ground with 
an army he would have known very well how to maintain himself. 

At this juncture the English Bought to protect their DOASts with 
fortifications. Time pressed, and quickly arose that system of marine 
works which exists to this day, of the eastern wing of which Dorefj 

»lhe first of the so-called Cinque Ports, is the extreme point. 
An old Bornan castle, situated on a steep hill, was newly fortified, 
and additional closed redoubts were placed on the opposite heights, 

I the two systems being separated from each other by a road, 
through a cutting lends to the town, which lies immediately on the 
shore. Some batteries were also placed on the sea-shore itself, and 
similar works erected on the declivity of the hill, on which lies the 
Castle, with range to the east. From the open town itself, winch 
has not even a simple wall, a small winding staircase passes to the 
harbour, of which said staircase the entrance in guarded by a small 
work. This, and the fore- mentioned road, are the only communica* 
tions between the town and the fortifications. 

To give a greater extent to a not very capacious harbour, a lofty 

I breakwater has been built out on the west of the town, where the 
rocks abruptly break off in deep water. What vitiates this pes 
is that it entirely cramps the range of the strand-batteries lying to 
the east, and even the view from" them. Bloreover, the only point 
in which a battery could have been placed with advantage — : 

I small plateau that is thrown forward like a natural bastion — has been 
taken advantage of, not for any such adaptation, but appropriated as 
the site of the first hotel of the town, called "The Lord Warden/* 
In consequence of this vice of position, an attacking fleet eo; 
from the west has nothing to fear from the strand batteries, so long 
as it remains beyond the breakwater; and is, for thai time, exposed 
to the lire of only the castle and the redoubts. Considering, how- 
that this can be but a plunging fire, bae&tm the redoubts lie 
high above high- water mark, this would be to encounter no great 
danger. The road which leads to the harbour is scarcely anywhere 
commanded, and lies almost entirely against the blank angle. The 
chief communication (the railroad from London), passes from Folkes< 
often close to the shore, and in some places exposed to the fire 
$ ships. 



This extremity then, of the system is, according to what we have 

a and said, too weak to serve as a base of operations; 

wn is without walls, and might therefore be at once taken by 

pa landed in boats. These would then endeavour to gain the 

hjut by the above described road behind the redoubts, which, 

nofru ithstaadtng that they command the rear within rifle range, have 

16 net-work of the fortification*, since no idea 

d of an organised attack from the landwards. 

Coast fortifications alone f withoafc appropriate supports, are always 

■ ■live, especially on important spots, the loss ot which may entail 

serious consequences* The ground at Dover is of such a nature that 

a fortress of the first rank could easily be here made, and this its 

strategic position, in close proximity to the French coast, seema 

imperatively to demand, in order that it may serve as main point 

and advanced work of the fortification of the whole wroth of England* 

No fortress h*es between this and London, The road from this point 

is entirely open to a hostile army landed here. Dover, without a tor* 

titled camp, possesses no value ; for as matters are, it could be 

observed and kept in cheek by a few troops, directly they should 

be landed, and should have established themselves, 

From Dover begin the works erected in 1808, consisting of a 
of small easemated round towers, which are distributed' along the 
whole south-east coast. These towers lie sometimes 
on the shore, sometimes on the heights, or iivities which 

immediately skirt the shore; and in the two latter cases are 
winded by trenches with revetted escarps and counterscarps, 
over which communication is maintained by means of drawbn 
They contain at most sixty or one hundred men, and can be at 
only with few guns* In time of peace they are mostly without garri- 
son, and only tenanted by a single keeper, 

The distance at which they stand from one another varies j but 
at any rate it is too considerable to allow of their making any serious 
^ition to an invasion. They are simply forlorn hopes, and their 
garrisons would (should the enemy press forward), become at once 
prisoners of war. Works of this kind can be available for the 
<n of a country only when they lie at points where resist- 
ance may be maintained, and which cannot be turned; or when 
some central work is situated behind them, whence reinforce c 
may be able to reach them- 8uch a work, however, is entirely wanting, 
BOO they are left isolated Their value can therefore bo estimated us 
being no greater than what may attach to them as look-out stations. 

Bel ver and Ilytbe (which a a the second of the 

Ports mounts some batteries, which now are being armed with heavy 
guns), lies th .'.- of Folkestone. This is protected only by 

some of those towers, although it has Boulogne just opposite, and 
drives with that town a considerable trade, The French have a 
permanent camp in Boulogne. The English have placed a similar 
one on the lull between thifl and Dover, at Shornclille ; but since it 
is not fortified, its only value as a coast defence is that the point 
i diately threatened by the enemy might be strengthened by 
drawn from it. 


Ifilu* English think with this eanip to provide for the sa 

whirl i the French, in case of war, do provide for with their camp at 
Boulogne they ore utterly mistaken* In the first phee, France 
has not to trouble herself about an invasion of English troops, and 

•does not require largo cainps for the protection of her coasts. These 
camps have with her not a defensive but an offensive object ■ Although, 
being for strategic reasons const meted on defensive principles, th> 
have been placed in immediate proximity to fortresses Let us cod- 
aider the above mentioned small tract of country from Dunkirk to the 
embouchure of the Somme, which lies over against the Kentish coast, 

•and so on as far as the fortress of Abbeville, which lies on this river, 
We shall see that it would be out of the question for any but a very 
numerous enemy to advance on this line, even if, by good luck, he 
should have effected a landing. For he woidd by his advance be 
■ul angled ma net work of l'oilresses,whieh would hold him in check 
ong enough to allow time for the drawing of considerable reinforce- 
ments from the interior of France, which would force him to retreat. 
The extreme point of this wing of the system is the strongly fortified 
Dunkirk, with a fort i lied camp. The enemy cannot advance from 
Calais, since he is outflanked by the firsi mentioned, and then 
would have to hit upon the strong fortresses of St. Omer, Aire, 
Douai, and Arras, which again have the mighty Lille on the right, 
and Amiens on the left Hank, From all this is manifest the impractt- 
eability of a hostile invasion on this tract of coast, consequently sii> 
the troops in the camp of Boulogne are not needed for its own 
defcueej they must have an offensive object. 

Let us now consider in the same point of view the coast of t 
eoufciy of Kent, from Dover to Hythe, We shall see that the last 
place is only feebly defended by strand batteries. As for the camp 
of Shornclihv (which can have only a defensive intention) it is, as 
we have observed, altogether unfortified. In front of it, to the sea- 
ward, there are two of those above described towers, but neither to 
the rear, nor on the flanks has it any fortified work. Thus it 
assuredly possesses uo higher value than that already by us assigned 
to it. The way that leads hence to London m the shortest and most 
secure for the purpose of arriving at that city, the metropolis of the 

■ kingdom^ and acquiring possession of it, together with the Thames. 
EJq river. jh< mountain otters interruption to the operations of an 
invading army; no fortress, no fortified eamp blocks the way [ and 
the country is so rich, that an army might maintain itself by requi- 
sitions, without being obliged to depend for its existence on the fleet, 
as was the caae with the Anglo- French army in the Crimea, 

The eamp of Aldershot, which lies not far off, is not fortified, and 
can be considered only as a central cantonment, which, by reason of 
the nature of its structure, may with very great ease be set on fire, 

•so that the troops would be compelled to 'leave it. 11" now we pass 
over and along the coast, we come to the marine fortification of 
Portsmouth. The distance between Portsmouth and Dover amounts 
perhaps to 200 miles, and all this tract of country, since it is not 
protected by fortresses, lies nearly open to a hostile invasion, sup- 
posing no other measure of protective character to have been taken, 



This protection is afforded in a high degree by two fleets, of which 
one is stationed at Sheerness, the other at Portsmouth ; which fleets 
would enflank a hostile squadron, and through their concentrated 
attack, render vain every hostile attempt to land in this direction. 
Having an eye to this, the French concerted measures that they 
might contrive a marine fortification, with a harbour sufficiently 
spacious to protect a fleet, which, in point of numbers, should be 
able to contest the palm with both the above-mentioned (English) 
fleets, if not to be superior to them, and Cherbourg was chosen to 
be such a fortress. This, lying in the retreating angle of a far 
projecting promontory of Brittany, has lately assumed a significance 
that Sngland ought not to misapprehend. For although the 
question is not at present of an invasion from France, it most cer- 
tainly is of the disputing of the naval supremacy in the Channel, 
and the neighbouring seas. 

If the members of the House of Commons, who on the occasion 
of the visit of Queen Victoria were in Cherbourg, were unable to 
understand the danger which this fortress can cause to England, and 
the entire importance of the place, it is a blindness which can only 
be lamented. At a meeting, Mr. Lindsay said he had seen a con- 
siderable harbour, a large fortress, but no ships. That might be 
true; but the Emperor probably would not shew more to the 
English. He would have them see only the fortifications and a 
show ship. The fleets which really had significance were lying in 
other harbours. They might, however, when necessary, be concen- 
trated very soon, since they are not, like the British, scattered over 
every sea ; and those of the Mediterranean might, through the ap- 

Elication of steam power, seeing that they could not be hindered 
•om Gibraltar (for this is fortified only towards the harbour, and 
not towards the straits), appear in the Channel within five days. 
The memory of the battle of Trafalgar will prove no obstacle to all 
this ; and the consoling conviction that the French are not so good 
sailors as the English is calculated to do much injury. England 
has no longer the sailors who fought Nelson's battles. It is very 
difficult for her to man her fleets, since the sailors prefer the mer- 
chant service. This may be learned from the most recent parlia- 
mentary dealings with the subject ; and the events on the coasts of 
the Crimea are enough to warn a government possessed of the least 
foresight. At Serpent's Island the French were concentrated sooner 
than the English, at Eupatoria soon debarked ; and at the attack of 
Kinburn, the English ships of war, which had sailed at the same 
time with them, reached their station nearly two hours after the 
bombardment was finished. To over-estimate oneself, and to de- 
preciate one's adversary, leads always to deplorable results. 

That a somewhat different opinion has been formed of things by 
the military, is proved by the hasty arming of the above-described 
English batteries, and fortresses, with guns of the heaviest calibre, of 
which guns fresh batteries are being sent weekly from Woolwich. 
One cannot trust implicitly in the maxim, " TEmpire c'est la Paix." 
Far other means against England are available to the Emperor than 
formerly were to his uncle. The perfecting of machinery must bring 



hi 1h ar an overwhelming influence on the power of making warlike 
advances. Steam -carriages and steam -ships shorten alt distil 
the latter overmaster contrary winds and tides, and allbrd the means 
of beginning and breaking oil' engagements at sea, without any great 
dependence on the weather ; they favour a rapid confident stvle of 
manoeuvring; and a battle, such as was that when the Spanish 
A rmada was destroyed by the English, is by no means likely to take 
place again, 

No. II. 

Portsmouth akd CiTHiiBOTriin. 

A characteristic distinction between the plans of the English and 
French marine fortifications may be found in the fact, that Kn^laud 
so builds her protective works as that they may command with their 
gnus the immediate entrance into the harbours, and the harbours 
themselves on all sides, whilst the protection of the roads is mainly 
left to ships, and that the shutting up in harbour of the ships 
themselves is contemplated only as a last expedient ; whilst Fri 
endeavours by all possiLde means to protect her roads by detached 
forts, and provides for her ships timely shelter from superior fleets, 
T!m English scarcely ever place batteries at the end of their moles 
and breakwaters, while the hYeneh always do so. The English re- 
gard the fire of ships as superior to that of land- batteries ; the 
French assign this superiority to the land*batteries ; an opinion 
which t according to our latest experience, we may consider to be 
well founded. This, then, is the point of view from which we must 
QOAsfder Portsmouth and its road, & pithead, in order to detect the 
ft eristic difference between the plan of this fortification and 
that of Cherbourg. 

Portsmouth, the chief naval harbour of the English in the Channel, 
is by nature protected against the attack of a hostile fleet, yo as no 
other could easily be, and this mainly through the relative position 
of the I*le of Wight, which is thrown out before it, and covers its 
entire front, Jienry 111. gave much atteiihnn to this harbour, and 
since his time it has gradually grown to be what it now is, and wen 
quite recently much haa been dune to strengthen it, Tim entrance 
into this harbour may be effected from the east or west, and on both 
courses it is for large ships practicable only at the Hood-tide, and 
then only with the help of pilots and buoys. It is protected by lic- 
it casemated forte, which lie both on the Isle ol Wight and on 
the mainland, and command the water at point-blank. The fortifi- 
cation itself consists of three independent parts — 1-Wismuuth, IVit- 
sea, and G-ospmt, — which are so planned that they reciprocally pro- 
tect each other. The woxka to the Landward are partly surrounded 
by wet ditches, ami command with their guns the surrounding 
try. Those to the seaward consist of solid casemated batteries, 
Which so support each other, and so command the water, that an 
entrance is impossible till they shall have been demolished, — a diffi- 
cult consummation, considering that their main front is altogether 
withdrawn from the direct tire of the enemy. 

1869.] US A MILITARY BOUT* 01 VIEW. 47 

The harbour and the road of Spithead are spacious enough to 
afford room for the largest fleets ; the Arsenal so complete that ships 
may thence be provided with all requisites. The guns, however, 
with which the works are armed are somewhat too light, considering 
that during the last year all the naval powers have been taking 
measures to arm their ships as heavily as possible. Availing them* 
selves of their experience during the recent Eusso-Turkish war, the 
English have placed many detached batteries on the Isle of Wight, 
of which one of the largest lies near the Needles. Should a hostile 
fleet make its way so far as this, the difficulty of hitting the passage 
(which scarcely could be found were the buoys to be removed and no 
pilots to be forthcoming), would obstruct their progress. Nothing 
would be left to the enemy under such circumstances, except to gain 
possession of the Isle of Wight, and thence, after taking the strand 
batteries, to annoy the road and harbour. 

The only method by which Trance could paralyze this harbour 
was by fortifying at immense expense a point on its own coast in this 
vicinity. This has been done. Cherbourg, which has long been 
destined to become a French Portsmouth, has even surpassed its pat- 
tern and model. It has been constituted a harbour of the first class, 
which is calculated to bring into dispute with England the command 
of the channel. Cherbourg can be used as the rendezvous for fleets 
intended to act offensively, and may also serve as a retreat for de- 
feated fleets. Its naval arsenals also are so complete in themselves 
that they may not only make good, damages, but may build new 
ships, without needing tor this purpose in any material respect the 
help of other docks. 

Wc have said that the object of this harbour is quite as much 
offensive as defensive. Had defence only been proposed, the har- 
bour never would have been constructed at such enormous expense 
in such immediate proximity to the English coast, certainly not im- 
mediately over against the greatest naval port of England, certainly 
not on the most salient point of the coast of Brittany. Most as- 
suredly the fusion of the lines of railroad, and the facilities which 
have openly been provided, not only for concentrating troops as 
quickly as possible on this point, but also of embarking them with 
ease and convenience, bear the aspect of an offensive fortification. 
Considering the strength of the works, no such conditions were re- 
quired for their simple protection. 

The works completely enclose the town, which lies in a plain on 
the shore, and has behind it a circuit of heights. To the westward 
of the town, and having a much greater extent, lies the port, with its 
docks and arsenal ; in the centre is the road, with its protecting 
moletf^ to the eastward is a high grey rock, La Eoule, with its citadel, 
which commands the entire of the fortification, the port, and the 
road. A bastioned wall, of serai-circular form, surrounds the esta- 
blishments of the port to the landward, and rests its flank on the 
sea, having to the landward only one gate most strongly fortified. 
The large seventy-foot deep basin, which has been artificially formed 
by blowing away the rocks, has at its side seven docks. These are 
connected with it by mean^of flood-gates* and are available as well 




tor the refitting as the building of ttie ships. The mole, v. 
shuts off the inner road, is truly a gigantic work j it serves not only 
to protect from bad weather the ships of war that may be lying at 
anchor behind it, but most assuredly also to prevent the approach 
of a hostile fleet. That it may subserve this latter purpose, four 
strong forts have been placed on it, of which three are armed with 
sixty, and the fourth with thirty-five guns. 

Each of these forts has two tiers of casemates, and a third row rf 
guns range outward from the platform. We must not overlook a 
great advantage which they secure to the position. So long as they 
remain untaken by the enemy, it will be impossible for him to can- 
nonade and destroy the port itself and the marine establishments 

; Lined within it. The entrance into the port itself is proto 
by other heavily armed forts. Their guns are of enormous calibre, 
conformably to the idea of the Emperor, which he announced in his 
work on Artillery, and which he has brought into use also in the 
ease of field-guns, by means of increasing their calibre. The arma- 
ment in question consists entirely of 64 pounders and 10- inch 
mortars. Such heavy guns must of course be handled with difficulty, 
but they have a most important effect against shipping, The Ettg» 
Hah coast batteries have a much lighter armament; as a rule, only 
or sometimes even lighter ordnance, while the Englian 
ships have heavier guns. Batteries are to be found at Portsmouth, 
Dover, and Weymouth, mounted only with 18-pounders, or shorl 
24*s. The mistake of the original conception has been subsequently 
perceived, and as many 68-poimders have been already sent to them 
from Woolwich, as were in store or could be got ready. 

All the forts of Cherbourg are so arranged that they flank each 
other, and also command with arrows tire the inner aud the outer 
road, and the port ; while the citadel, La Koule, can direct the i 
of its tire on any point that may be desired. The terminus of the 
mil way with its establishment lies at the foot of this rock, altogether 
under the tire of the citadel Just as Cherbourg is thus united with 
Paris, so is Portsmouth by a similar railroad w r ith London, and can 
(especially as the line passes near Aldershot), at a mom* 
notice bring together troops for its reinforcement. Still the com- 
munication between Loudon and Portsmouth has so far less worth 
than that between Cherbourg and Paris, in that the latter l< fortified 
and constitutes a military central point ; while London, an open city, 
requires prohvt ion and help from its fortified positions, and cotfcH 
mure m> help to them, 

1!<iv we are brought back to the value of central fortifications, 
without which marine fortifications, to a great extent, lose their 
value. Mnriue fortifications, however strong they may be, are always 
exposed to the attacks of an enemy, if ne happen to be in superior 
force; and must be eventually reduced by such a one, unless duly 
supported from flic inland. The best example of this is the siege of 
Si 3>astujml ? which was taken in spite uf this kind of support which Was 
ci.utmualiy being afforded from the north-east aide. Where central 
fortifications are entirely wanting as they are in the case of England, 
the fall of a marine fortification must be attended by the most 


disastrous consequences. The country lies thenceforward open to 
the advance of the enemy, and a single pitched battle lost gives it 
up as a prize to the enemy. The beaten army can find no sheltered 
rendezvous, nor fortified depots, in order to reir.ely their losses in 
men and materiel, and under such circumstances it is only too probable 
that they may be altogether destroyed. The objection, that in 1801 
fortresses did not by any means protect Prussia, is not to the purpose; 
for they were, for the most part, altogether undefended, or very 
badly so, and only a very few afforded an honorable exception to 
this state of things. Napoleon I. was well aware of this, and it was 
on account of this that Carnot was led to write his work on the 
defence of fortification. 

The prominent tongue of land on which Cherbourg lies, forms 
the east boundary of the bay of St. Michael, in the background .of 
which lies the strongly fortified St. Malo, which is required for the 
purpose of covering the bay itself, and flanking the promontory o£ 
ferittany. Over against this bay lies the second great naval harbour, 
Plymouth. The estuary of the Plym and the Tamar forms here a 
wide bay, which has been fortified and adapted as a port. Before 
this lie the moles 5,100 feet long ; w r hich, since no forts are placed 
on them, have only the object of protecting the road from the force 
of the sea. The port, which is more than a mile broad, could hardly 
offer any material opposition to a hostile fleet, unless it were to be 
supported from the inland. It is rather a station for a fleet than a 
marine fortress ; and its arsenal is intended simply for the making 
good of damages, and not for the building of men-of-war. Beyond 
this to the west there is neither English nor French naval port on 
the Channel. 

The English assume that they could operate against Cherbourg 
from three sides, by means of fleets from Plymouth, Portsmouth, 
and Sheerness : and that consequently they would have the advantage 
of advancing in converging lines of operation. The French (they 
assume) would, in case of an attempt on their part to land in this 
quarter, have to run the- gauntlet of these fleets, and would there- 
fore be found in a very disagreeable position. The idea however rests 
on a delusion ; for the French also have two strong external points 
whence they might sail — Dunkirk and Brest — and so throw the 
English back on an inner line of operation. Hitherto the French 
marine has not, on the whole, attained to the power and magnitude 
of that of the English ; but then she is not obliged to keep ships 
of war in so many seas, and consequently so to fritter away her 
force as England is. No one can question the fact that France has 
lately made gigantic progress in naval matters. It is impossible to 
predict when she will cease the work of creating a new force : at 
present there is not the slightest appearance of such an intention. 

From the above-stated conditions it follows that the requirements 
of England are — 

1. — That her steam navy should be strengthened as much as 

2. — That her coast defences should be completed. 

3. — That inland fortifications should be constructed. 

U. S. Mao., No. 366. Mat, 1859. e 

4.— That her standing army Bhould be reorganized and strength- 

Should the English Government refuse to look into these require 
ments, there will, sooner or later, be reason to lament their care- 
lessness. It is well known that the alliance between the cabinets 
of London and Paris has not taken root in the hearts of the people j 
and that the old national antipathy is not extinguished* If* 
press be in any degree the exponent of the sentiment of nation*, 
one need only to read the newspapers of the two countries to be 
convinced of the truth of our opinion. The visit to Cherbourg 
and the speeches interchanged on the occasion are no proof to the 
contrary. In fact we might almost say that both people are in the* 
attitude of shewing their teeth, since, immediately after the return 
of the Queen, orders were given at the Woolwicn Arsenal to send 
off as quickly as possible heavy guns to the works and forts on the 
pouth coast. 

We have said, in the first place, that England must strengthen 
her steam fleet. For this statement we have the following grounds 
In order to be able to succour the coasts at the points where they 
at any time may be attacked, and to reach as quickly as possible the 
spot against which hostile operations may be directed, ships are 
wanted that shall combine great speed with the least dependanee 
on the wind; Le., steam ships. There must, moreover, be the power of 
appearing before such threatened points in overwhelming force, if the 
enemy is to be beaten, and a landing prevented. Therefore a great- 
number of these steam -ships is required. It has been proved to be un* 
advisable in most cases to alter old sailing ships into steam-ship*. 
These old vessels may with more advantage be kept together at 
Portsmouth as a reserve fleet, since from this station, pretty nearly 
in the middle of the line of Channel coast, they can take the shortest 
course to any threatened point. Steam-ships constitute the appro- 
priate manoeuvring fleet. Their light craft must be like look-out 
porta, pushed forward against the French ports. In order that they 
maybe able to give immediate notice of every movement of the fleet 
at those ports they must be attended by despatch boats. The main 
body of the steam fleet would have to advance to oppose an enemy 
immediately on his sailing out, and to drive him back, or at any rat© 
to hold him in check till, by the junction of the reserve fleet, they 
should have been so strengthened as to be able to beat the enemy in 
a general action. To this fleet the steam gun-boats would be added. 
They must be kept continually near the shore, since in a battle on 
the open sea they would be of little use ; while their efficiency for 
the protection of the coast wheresoever attacked, is a much more 
essential requisite. If the fleet be distributed in this manner, a hoe- 
tile invasion would be rendered very difficult, since in any case it 
won 1<1 have to be preceded by an engagement at sea. 

When, secondly } we say that the coast defences must be 
strengthened, it must be understood of course that our notion is not 
of a style of fortification like the great wall of China, We simply 
mean that Dover and Folkestone, which have good harbours, and 
are much exposed to a hostile lauding, should be better fortified, 


especially since London is so near, and they are threatened from 
Boulogne and Dunkirk. At Dover and Folkestone there are perma- 
nent camps, consequently there are there always troops in readiness 
fop embarkation. 

To trust entirely to the fleet for warding off an invasion we con- 
sider to be unadvisable. The dominion of the sea has often changed 
hands, and small navies have often disputed it with more numerous 
navies. A single very able admiral, favoured by good fortune, may 
of himself give a great superiority to a very weak squadron ; and why 
should not such an one appear in France as well as elsewhere ? 
Genoese, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Dutch have in their turns ruled 
the seas. Why then, in a world where everything is subject to change, 
should not this command, at some time, be lost by the English ? 
France is making every effort to improve the condition of her navy, 
while in England the actual state of things is maintained, so far as 
the main purpose is concerned, and they are making slow progress, 
with the building of steam-ships. 

Thirdly. — The weaker an army is, numerically, the more necessary 
are points of support. In a country where there are no natural walls 
and ditches, i.e., large rivers and impassable mountains, they must 
be artificially supplied. - 

To have numerous fortresses (on account of their requisite garri- 
sons) would weaken the forces operating in the field ; besides, they 
could not be kept up to the necessary strength, without too heavily 
burdening the finances of the country. Under existing circumstances 
in England, a few central fortifications, serving to protect the camps, 
would completely answer the purpose of checking an advancing 
enemy, until the army should have been reinforced. The strategic 
situations of these' fortifications are sufficiently pointed out by the re- 
quirements they would have to fulfil — i.e.the supporting of the marine 
fortifications, and the protecting of the metropolis and the country 
behind them, until the army should have been concentrated. According 
to this rule they should be placed before the line between Bristol and 
London. A glance at the map will show that in the east of the 
kingdom, Chatham might serve as such another, if the land side were 
strengthened. Another should be placed at Farnham, perhaps where 
the camp of Aldershot now is. A third should be placed on the 
Kennet and Avon Canal. If a fourth could be placed in the district 
of Taunton it would be highly advantageous. These works properly 
used, would render immensely difficult the advance of an enemy, 
even if he should have effected a landing. The condition of the 
English army urgently demands such internal works of defence, in 
case of an enemy being able to make a sudden descent ; and that 
the French would not neglect this main condition of success, is 
proved by the entire of the dispositions at Cherbourg. 

Fourthly : The numerical weakness of the English army, and their 
distribution over all parts of the world, rendered pressing, even of 
old, the necessity for the organizing of other forces, wherewith the 
protection of the mother-country might be undertaken. These forces 
eonsist of the Militia, and Yeomanry Cavalry ; which since the late 
Russo-Turkish war have been called out more frequently than 

e 2 


formerly, arid at this moment, on account of the Indian revolt, 
;irtly kept under arms. A collateral use of the Militia is to keep Up 
y volunteering the supply for the royal army, which on ae 

reraiting system of recruiting, ta often in want of men. Their 
numerical amount is very considerable, and may reach to the number 
of 200,000 — men however, who for the most part would have been 
called out for the first time, shortly before or during a war, when 
there would be no time to exercise them sufficiently, and make them 
acquainted with the specific duties of the soldier, Ihey would, what ■ 
f\rr their n umbers, be still an army of recruits, commanded by 
officers of leas than moderate pretensions. We may safely assume 
that it would be impossible in less than four weeks, so to drill 
concentrate these Militia, as bo allow of their being marched against 
the cue my. But in that a pace of time might not everything be lost ? 
The enemy would have gained a firm footing, and would have I 
reinforced j he would attack the depots and rendezvous of Militia, 
which since they are not fortified, could olier no considerable 
resistance, and would rout them all successively. 

I lence it is evident that England urgently requires in the mother- 
country, a strong body of men to be kept in readiness to take fchfl 
field, The times are passed when the invincibility of her Army and 
Xruy were a general article of faith, and it will be well for her, in 
the actual state of these forces, not to trust to that idea too absolutely. 
England does not sufficiently realize the possibility of an inYOf 
though ever and anon there has been a faint breathing of such a 

We can only wish that she may be brought to a clear understand- 
ing of hei position, before it ia too late. 


(Cuntinncd from page 530.) 

By Theseus. Late K.N. 

Sailing Corvettes. — Each of these vessels carries an armament 
of 18 32-pounders on a ilush deck. 

Calypso, 18 guns, 734 tons, 120 feet in length, 37$ feet beam, and 
IS llct depth of hold. Built at Chatham, 1845. Dan, Symonds. 
{Served 8 years in commission. Complement 185 men. Captain, 
Frederick ByngHontressor, Commissioned November, 1857. Station, 

Daphne, 18 guns, 726 tons, 120 feet in length, and 37 J feet beam, 
Built at Pembroke, 1838. Plan, Syinonda. Served 11 years in com- 
mission, W ar servi ces, Syr ia* Station, Chatham. 

Dido, 18 guna, 7-U tons, 120 feet in length, and 37£ feet beam. 
Built at Pembroke, 1836. Plan, Bymojub. Served 15 years in com* 
mission. War services, Syria and 'Borneo. Station, Chatham, 

Bemarks. —These three corvettes are all fast sailing vessels, and 
yctv comfortable shipa for officers aud men to serve in. lu ordi 

1859.] OUB SAILING WAVT. 53 

explain the great increase of expenditure of the Eoyal Navy, it is only 
necessary to point out the difference in cost between a sailing corvette 
and a screw steam corvette. 

Dido, 18 guns, 734 tons, sailing corvette. Built 1836, cost 

Pearl, 21 guns, 1461 tons, screw corvette. Built 1855, cost 
£46,000. The Pearl is expected to perform the same duties for a 
steam fleet, as the Dido was thought capable of executing for a sailing 
fleet. Thus twenty years have more than trebled the cost of 
corvettes, and this comparison will generally hold good as regards the 
other small ships belonging to the Navy. 

Another corvette of this class called the Coquette, building at 
Chatham, was taken to pieces a few years ago, before being finished, 
and her timbers used to build a screw corvette. The Dido, when 
commanded by Captain Hon. Henry Keppel, was the smartest cruiser 
on the China station, in 1843, 

Sailing Sloops, Bbigs, akd Brigawtines. — The sloops and 
many of the brigs are commanded by Commanders, and the other 
vessels by Lieutenants or Masters. 

In Com. for In Com. for In Ordinary. Total. Non-effective 
Active Ser. Harbour Ser. Service. 

Sailing Sloops... 8 ... ... 28 ... 36 ... 14 ' 

Sailing Brigs. 1 ... 4 ... 7 ... 12 ... 45 

Sailing Brigantines. * 1 1 2 3 

Total 10 4 36 SO 62 

Sailing Sloops. — These vessels may be divided into four classes. 

1st Class. — Arachne, 18 guns, 601 tons. Built at Devonport, 
1847. Plan, Symonds. Served about 3 years in commission. 
Complement 140 men. Commander John Eglington Montgomerie. 
Commissioned October 1855. Station, West Indies. 

Terpsichore, 18 guns, 600 tons, 113 feet in length, 35 J feet beam, 
and 16 feet 9 inches depth of hold: Built at Blackwall by Wigram, 
1847. Plan, Symonds. Has never been commissioned. Station, 

2nd Class. — Atalanta, 16 guns, 551 tons. Built at Pembroke, 
1847. Plan, Symonds. Served 3 years in commission. Comple- 
ment, 130 men. Commander, Thomas Malcolm Sabine Pasley. 
Commissioned May, 1856. Station, North America and "West 

Camilla, 16 guns, 549 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1847. Plan, 
Symonds. Served 3 years in commission. War services, China. 
Complement, 130 men. Commander, George Twisleton Colville. 
Commissioned July, 1856. Station, China. 

Frolic, 16 guns, 511 tons. Built at Portsmouth, 1842. Plan, 
Captain Hendry. Served 11 years in commission. Station, Chat- 

Helena, 16 guns, 549 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1843. Plan, 
Symonds. Served 7 years in commission. Station, Portsmouth. 

Jumna, 16 guns, 548 tons. Built of teak, at Bombay, 1848. 


Plan, Symonds. Was formerly called the Jamaica and the Zebra. 
Una never been commissioned. Station, Chatham. 

Musuuito, 10 guns, 5-19 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1851. Flan, 
Symonds. lias never been commissioned. Station, Devonpoit. 
' Hover, 1(5 guns, 5 11) tons. Built at Pembroke, 1853. Plan, 
Symonds. lias never been commissioned. Station, Devonport. 

Siren, 1G guns, 549 tons. Built at Woolwich, 1841. Flan, 
Symonds. Served 10 years in commission. Armament, 16 82- 

i winders of 25 cwt. Complement, 130 men. Commander, George 
Macintosh Balfour. Commissioned August, 1S55. Station, South 
East Coast of America. 

3rd Class.— Comus, 14 guns, 4G2 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1828. 
Plan, Inman. Served 20 years in commission. War Services, 
Eivcr Plate and China. Was formerly called the Comet. Station, 

Elcctra, 14 guns, 461 tons. Built at Portsmouth, 1837. Flan, 
Inman. Served 12 years in commission. Station, Chatham. 

Hazard, 14 guns, 429 tons. Built at Portsmouth, 1837. Plan, 
Eule, after Cruiser. Served 8 years in commission. War services, 
Syria and New Zealand. Station, Portsmouth. 

Hyacinth, 14 guns, 435 tons. Built at Plymouth, 1829. Flan, 
Eule, after Cruiser. Served 10 years in commission. War services^ 
China. Station, Portsmouth. 

Larue, 14 guns, 4G3 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1829. Flan, 
Inman. Served 13 years in commission. War services, China* 
Station, Sheerness. 

Eaceliorse, 14 guns, 438 tons. Built at Plymouth, 1830. Flan, 
Tucker. JServed 15 years in commission. War services, China, 
Station, Devonport. 

4th Class. — Acorn, 12 guns, 485 tons, 105 feet in length, 33 feet 
beam, and 15 feet depth of hold. Built at Devonport, 1838. Plan, 
Symonds. Served 9 years in commission. War services, China. 
Armament consists of: 12 32-pounders. Carries G months pro* 
visions. Draught of water, 14 \ feet. Complement, 125 men. 
Commander, Richard Bulkeley Pearse. Commissioned, May, 185Q. " 
Station, China. 

Albatross, 12 guns, 48 i tons. Built at Portsmouth, 1812. Flan, 
Symonds. Served 7 years in commission. Station, Chatham. 

Arab, 12 guns, 4S1 tons. Built at Chatham, 1847. Plan, Symonds. 
Served 7 years in commission. Station, Chatham. 

Childers, 12 guns, 385 tons. Built at Chatham, 1827. Plan, Bute, 
after Cruiser. Served 17 years in commission. War services, 
China. Station, Chatham. 

Contest, 12 guns, -159 tons. Built at Covres, 1845. Flan, 
White, after Daring. Served 7 years in commission. Station, Ports- 

Darin*:, 12 guns. 42G tons, 101 feet in length, and 31 J feet beam. 
Built at Portsmouth. 1S11. Plan, White. Served 7 years in com- 
mission. Draught of water, 1(U feet. Station, Chatham. 

Despatch, 12 guns. 483 tons. Built at Chatham, 1851. Plan, 
Symonds. lias never been commissioned. Station, Chatham. 




Elk, 12 gun*, 483 tons. Built at Chatham, 1847. Plan, Sjmonds. 
Served 3 years in commission. War services, China. Comple- 
ment, 125 men. Commander, Hubert Campion, Commissioned 
May, 1856. Station, Australia. 

Espeigle, 12 guns, 442 tons, 104! feet in length, and 81 J feet 
beam. Built at Chatham, 1844, Plan, Messrs, Chatfield, Bead, 
and Creufce. Served 7 years in concussion. Draught of water, lti 
feet, Station, Chatham. 

Fantome, 12 guns, 484 tons. Built at Chatham, 1&39, Plan, 
Symonds. Served 10 years in commission. Station, Chatham. 

Grecian, 12 guns, 484 tons. Built at Pemhroke, 1838. Plan, 
Symonds, Served 10 years in commission, War services. River 
Plate* Station, Devonport. 

Heron, 12 guns, 483 tons. Built at Chatham, 1847, Plan, 
Symonds. Served 2 years in commission, Complement, 125 men, 
Commander, William Henderson Trueeott. Commissioned October, 
1857. Station, West Coast of Africa* 

Kangaroo, 12 guns, 481 tons. Built at Chatham, 1818. Plan, 
Synionds. Has never been commissioned. Station, Chatham, 

Kingfisher, 12 guns, 445 tons, 103 feet iu length, and 32 feet 
beam. Draught of water, 14| feet. Built at Pembroke, 1815. 
Plan, Symonds, as Hying Fish. Served 7 years in commission. 
Station, Devonport. 

Liberty, 12 guns, 482 tons* Built at Pembroke, 1850. Plan, 
Symonds. Has never been commissioned. Station, Devonport, 

Mariner, 12 guns, 481 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1840* Plan, 
Symonds, Served 8 years in commission. Station, Chatham* 

Martin, 12 guns, 481 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1850. Plan, 
Symonds. Has never been commissioned. Station, Devonport. 

Persian, 12 guns, 484 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1S39, Plan, 
Symonds. Served 10 years in commission. Complement, 125 men* 
Commander, Edward Hardinge, Commissioned October 1857. 
Station, Cape of Good Hope. 

Pilot, 12 sons, 4*1 tons, 105 feet in length, 32$ feet beam, and 
15 feet depth of hold. Draught of water, 14 J feet. Built at Devon* 
pur I:, 1838, Plan, Symonds. Served 11 years in commission. Sta* 
fcion, Devonport, 

Squirrel, 12 guns, 481 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1853. Plan, 
Symonds. Has never been commissioned. Station, Devonport. 

Remarks.— A large proportion of sailing sloops were constructed 
on the plan of the late Sir William Symonds, and it must with jus- 
tice be allowed, that he introduced the greatest improvements in the 
building of these small vessels of war. It was in 1825 that Sir W* 
Symonds, then only a Lieutenant ur the Royal Navy, obtained per- 
minion to construct the Columbine, an Is gun sloop, which was 
launched in December, ltt2(>,at Portsmouth. Having been made a 
Commander, he commanded the Columbine in her numerous trials 
with the old fashioned sloop* and brigs. She beat her opponents on 
all points, and Commander Symondfl was made a Captain, but owing 
to the strenuous opposition of the \:n y Board, and the professional 
naval architects, the Admiralty declined for a time to allow him to 

build any more. The Duke of Portland then patronised him, and 
built the Pantaloon, an 8 gun brig, at his own expense. This email 
Teasel was found so superior to all her eom pet Iter?, that the Admi- 
ralty purchased her into the Navy, and, otter some delay, Captain 
Symonds was appointed Surveyor of the Navy, and shortly afterwards 
was knighted, 1 1 was primi pally by the exploits of these two vessels, 
and the Vernon frigate, that Sir W. JSynumds attained so much fame 
in shipbuilding. The Columbine is now a coal hulk at Sheerness, 
and t lie Pantaloon was broken up some years I 

The Serpent and the Snake, Hi gun sloops, and the Hover, 18 gim 
sloop, were next built by Sir William ttymonds, and were fount \ 
successful- The Hover after serving about 12 years in commission was 
broken up in 1845, but the Araehne and the Terpsichore have since 
been built on her bnes + About thirty-eight sailing sloops have been 
constructed by Hir W. Symoudsj but only twenty-five now remain 
upon the effective list. The Snake and Wolverene have been wrer 
whilst the Nerbuddah and Sappho have been lost at sea with all their 

In IS 14 a squadron of experimental sailing sloops, built by diflVt 
■ instructors, assembled at Spithead, under the command of the late 
Admiral A, L. Corry. This squadron included the Flying Fish, 12. 
and Pantaloon, S, built by Sir \Y\ Symonds, the Daring, 12, and 
W&ierwitch, 8, built hy Mr. White, the Espeigle, 12, built by Messrs* 
Chatfield, Read, and Creuze, the Mutine, 12, built by Mr. Fincham, 
the Osprey, 1% built by Mr. Blake, and the Cruiser, 16, built by 
Bit W. llule. After numerous trials the Daring was reported to be 
first, and the Flying Fish second, The Daring, however, drew two 
feet more water than the Flying Fifth. This latter vessel has I 

hrokcu up. The Mutine and Osprey were both wrecked. The 
Daring and the Espeigle are still among the "crack brigs' 1 on the 

It ought to be stated that the three last classes of sailing sloops 
are rigged as brigs, but as it is generally the custom to style them 
sloops, they have been classed as such here* 

It does seem a very great pity to condemn all these fine sloops to 
be* broken up, but unless they can somehow be converted into bctoh 
ships, it would he better to get rid of them at once, than allow them 
gradually to rot and become of no value. 

On careful consideration it might be found advisable to attempt 
the conversion of the first two classes, as the Terpsichore and the 
Mosquito. If these sloops were cut in half amidships and lengthened 
some thirty or forty feet, they might be found capable of receiving 
engines of "eighty or a hundred horsepower, and so become useful 
vessels, Thm might be found cheaper than to build new ships. The 
i, pie of the Cruizer, of only lixty horse power, which ship has 
lately been found so useful in Lord Elgin's exploring expedition, 
will at once point out the utility of this class of screw steam vessels. 
The third class or 14 gun sloops are now quite out of date, though 
some of them have been long employed in commission. The Coinua 
Tvas wrecked nnd sunk on the coast of Brazil, but by the great energy 
and perseverance of her Commander, E, Tennyson D'Eyncourt, she 

1859;] 0T7B SAILING KATT. &! 

was recovered, and has since served a long commission on the China 

Some of the 12-gun sloops, as the Daring, Contest, Mariner, and 
Pilot, might be usefully employed as tenders to the training ships 
about to be instituted, and it these vessels were occasionally to meet 
and try rate of sailing, it would serve as a stimulus to their crews. 
Young naval officers could also be taught more of seamanship in one 
of these sloops than in any of the screw liners forming the Channel 

Sailing Bbigs. — These vessels will be separated into two classes. 

First class. — Crane, 6 guns, 359 tons, 95i feet in length, 30 feet 
beam, and 13 feet depth of hold. Built at Woolwich, 1839. Plan, 
Symonds. Served thirteen years in commission. Station, Devon- 

Express, 8 guns, 362 tons. Built at Deptford, 1835. Plan, 
Symonds. Served 16 years in commission. Station, Chatham. 

Ferret, 8 guns, 358 tons. Built at Devonport, 1840. Plan, 
Symonds. Served 8 years in commission. Complement, 150 boys* 
lieutenant and Commander, Alfred P. H. Helby. Commissioned 
April, 1859. Station, Instruction-brig for Naval apprentices. 
Tender to the Nile, at Queenstown. 

Heroine, 8 guns, 369 tons. Built at Woolwich, 1841. Plan, 
Symonds. Served 10 years in commission. Station, Devonport. 

Hound, 8 guns, 358 tons. Built at Deptford, 1846. Plan, 
Symonds. Served 8 years in commission. Station, Devonport. 

Sealark, 8 guns, 369 tons. Built at Portsmouth, 1843. Plan, 
Symonds. Served 12 years in commission. Complement, 80 men. 
Lieutenant and Commander, Marcus Lowther. Commissioned 
January, 1859. Station, Instruction-brig for Novices. Tender to Ihe 
Britannia, at Portsmouth. 

Swift, 6 guns, 360 tons. Built at Deptford, 1835. Plan, Symonds- 
Served 17 years in commission. Station, Devonport. 

Waterwitch, 8 guns, 324 tons, 90 \ feet in length, 29£ feet beam, 
and 12£ feet depth of hold. Built at Cowes, 1832. Plan, White. 
Purchased for the Navy, 1834. Served 20 years in commission. 
Station, Sheerness. 

2nd Class. — Nautilus, 6 guns, 233 tons. Built at Woolwich, 
1830. Plan, Naval School of Architecture. Served 20 years in 
commission. Complement, 150 boys. Lieutenant and Commander, 
William B. Grant. Commissioned January, 1857. Station, In- 
struction-brig for Naval Apprentices. Tender to Impregnable, at 

Kolla, 6 guns, 231 tons. Built at Plymouth, 1829. Plan, Peake. 
Served 20 years in commission. Complement, 150 boys. Lieutenant 
and Commander, Charles Gudgeon Nelson. Commissioned January, 
lb58. Station, Instruction-brig for Naval Apprentices. Tender to 
Victory, at Portsmouth. 

Saracen, 4 guns, 228 tons. Built at Plymouth, 1831. Plan, 
Peake. Served 16 years in commission. Complement, 48 men. 
Master and Commander, William Stanton. Commissioned October, 
1858. Station, Surveying Service in the East Indies. 


Scorpion, 4 guns, 228 tons. Built at Plymouth, 1832, 
Feake. Served 15 years in OCrtllTnilHffatL Station, Chatham* 

Brigantines,— Dolphin, 3 guns, 318 tons, EH)£ feet in length, 29 
feet beam, and 14i feet depth of hold. Built at Sheerness, 1830* 
Plan, Symonds. Served 15 years in commission. Station, 
Chatham . 

►Spy, 3 guns, 310 tons. Built at Sheerness, 1841. Plan, Symonds 
Served 12 years in commission. Complement, 65 men. Lieutenant 
and Commander, Tat h well Benjamin Collinson, Commissioned 
December, lK>s. Station, south-east coast of America. 

Bemarks, — The first class of brigs were built on the improved 
lines of the Pantaloon, and are all very fine vessels of their elaae. 
The Crane, Express, and the Swift, were originally employed in the 
Packet Service, between Falmouth and Rio Janeiro. Many of these 
brigs have been lately fitted up as watch vessels for the Coast Guard 

The second class of brigs have been termed " floating coffins/* 
owing to many of them having foundered at sea, The sooner they 
are all removed from the Navy List the better for the good of the 
iee, Hie Brigan tines are very fine vessels, &**d sail very fast. 
The Bonetta and Dart are similar vessels to the Dolphin, but are 
now used as receiving hnlks. The Wizard brig, similar to the 
Saracen, was lately w recked in Bantry Bay. 

The following is stated to have been the cost of constructing the 
umlrnm'jiti.MicJ sailing sloops, brigs, &c. The Siren, 16, coat 
£ ln.900; the Comii*, 14, cost £12,960; the Grecian, 12, cost 
£10,350 j the Daring, 12, cost £9 } 321 \ the Espeigle, 12, cost 
£9,723 ; the Childers, 12, cost £9,750 j the Heroine, 8, cost £6,900; 
the Dolphin, 3, cost £6,500, 

The following sloops, brigs, &c M belong to the non -effective ser- 
vice. Eeceiving Mips, — The Seafiower, at Portsmouth, The 
Favourite, Lapwing, and Spider, at Devon port. The Modeste, at 
will]. The Bo&etta, at Deptford, The Koyalist, police vessel, 
off Somerset House. The Bittern, at Hong Kong, The Doterel, 
at Bermuda. The Bramble, at Australia- The Safety, at Tortola* 
The Wo\£ t at Dublin. 

Watch Vessels, Coast Guard Service. — The Acute, Bathurst, 

le, Britomart, Cadmus, Chanticleer, Clinker, Cygnet, Dart, 

Dwarf, Eclipse, Emulous, Flamer, Forester, Griper, Icarus, Linnet, 

Etadora, lVuguin, Peiter, Partridge, Pelican, Philomel, Haven, 

SafegUfttd, Shamrock, Snapper, and Star, 

Uooring Vessels. — The Speedy, at Sheerness. The Badger, 
Pacific, and Progresso, at the Cape of Good Hope. The Despatch, 
and Devon port, at Bermuda. The Savage, at Malta. The Carron, 
at Harwich, 

Quarrantine Service. — The Hope and Tyrian. 

Church Ship, — The Swan, oft Black wall, and the Banger at 

Owl Depots, — The Champion, Lily, Orestes, Serpent, Feterel, 
and Griffin, at Portsmouth. The Harlequin, Kimrod, and Fly, at 
Devonport. The Columbine, at Sheerness. The Enterprise, at 
Chatham. The Columbia, at Halifax, 

In Com. for In Com. for 




Active Ser. Harbour Ser. 

1 ... 8 ... 

6 ... 


1 ... 4 ... 



... 6 ... 



9 ... 8 ... 

2 ... 


1869.] m OtJB SAILING NAYY. 69 


Sailing Store Ships ... 
Sailing Hospital Ships 

Sailing Yachts 

Sailing Tenders 

Total 11 26 8 45 

Sailing Store and Depot Ships. — JEolus, 2 guns, 1077 tons. 
Built at Deptford, as a 42-gun irigate, 1825. Plan, after French 
frigate Leda. Served 3 years in commission. War services, Baltic. 
Station, Portsmouth. 

Africa. Purchased 1858. Station, Gibraltar. 

Atholl, 4 guns, 503 tons. Built of larch, at "Woolwich, as a 28- 
gun frigate, 18^0. Plan, Surveyor of the Navy. Served many 
years in commission. Complement, 35 men. Lieutenant and Com- 
mander, George S. Boys. Commissioned November, 1854. Station , 

Crocodile, 8 guns, 500 tons. Built at Chatham, as a 28-gun 
frigate, 1825, Plan, Surveyors of the Navy. Served many years 
in commission. Complement, 35 men. Commander, William 
Greet. Commissioned January, 1858. Station, off the Tower of 

Hercules, 2 guns, 1750 tons. Built at Chatham, as a 74-gun 
ship, 1815. Plan, Surveyors of the Navy. Served 18 years in 
commission. Station, Hong Kong. 

Madagascar, 4 guns, 1167 tons. Built of teak, at Bombay, as a 
44-gun Irigate. Plan, after French frigate President. Served 
many years in commission. Complement, 48 men. Commander, 
Edmund M. Leycester. Commissioned September, 1853. Station, 
Rio de Janeiro. 

Naiad, 4 guns, 1020 tons. Built in a Merchant's Yard, as a 42- 
gun frigate, 1797. Plan, Rule. Served many years in commission. 
War services, Trafalgar, &c, &c. Complement, 35 men. Master 
and Commander, William W. Dillon. Station, Callao. 

Nereus, 4 guns, 1094 tons. Built at Pembroke, as a 42-gun 
frigate, 1821. Plan, after French frigate Leda. Served many 
years in commission. Complement, 35 men. Master and Com- 
mander, J. C. Barlow. Station, Valparaiso. 

North Star, 2 guns, 501 tons. Built at Woolwich, as a 28-gun 
frigate, 1824. Plan, Surveyors of the Navy. Served 15 years in 
commission. War services, China. Station, Chatham. 

Princess Charlotte, 12 guns, 2443 tons. Built at Plymouth, as 
a 104-gun Ship, 1825. Plan, after Victory. Served 5 years in 
commission. War services, Syria s Complement, 48 men. Master 
and Commander, Henry G. Thomsett. Commissioned, June, 1857. 
Station, Hong Kong. 

Resolute, 2 guns, 430 tons. Purchased 1850. Formerly called the 
Baboo. Employed in two expeditions to the Arctic regions. Aban- 


doned by her crew, she was recovered by some Americans, and 
presented by the United States Government to Her Majesty Queen 
. Victoria in 1856. Station, Chatham. 

Talbot, 2 guns, 500 tons. Built at Pembroke as a 28-gun frigate, 
1824. Plan, Surveyors of the Navy. Served 15 years in commis- 
sion. "War services, Navarino and Syria. Station, Sheerness. 

Tortoise, 12 guns, 962 tons. Purchased 1806. Formerly called 
the Sir Edward Hughes. Served many years in Commission. Com- 
plement 65 men. Captain William Fanshawe Burnett, C. B. Com- 
missioned January, 1858. Station, Ascension. 

Tyne, 4 guns, 600 tons. Built at Woolwich as a 28-gun frigate, 
1826. Plan, Sir R. Seppings. Served L6 years in commission. 
Station, Chatham. 

Volage, 2 guns, 516 tons. Built at Portsmouth, as a 28 gun fri- 
gate, 1825. Plan, School of Naval Architecture. Served 13 years 
in commission. War services, Baltic. Station, Chatham. 

Sailing Hospital Ships. — Alligator, 2 guns, 500 tons. Pur- 
chased 1821. Served many years in commission as a 28-gun frigate. 
War services, Burmah and" China. Station, Hong Kong. 

Belleisle, 6 guns, 1709 tons. Built at Pembroke as a 74 gun ship, 
1819. Plan, Eule, after Repulse. Served many years in commis- 
sion. War services, China and Baltic. Complement 150 men* 
Commander, Henry M. Bingham, acting. Commissioned April, 
1857. Station, China. 

Inconstant, 2 guns, 1422 tons, 160 feet in length, and 44£ feet 
beam. Built at Portsmouth as a 36-gun frigate, 3 836. Plan, Cap- 
tain Hayes. Served 12 years in commission. Station, Emigration 
Hospital ship, at Cork. 

Melville, 6 guns, 1768 tons. Built of teak at Bombay, as a 74- 
gun ship, 1817. Plan, after Christian VII. Served 16 years in 
commission. War services, China. Station, Hong Kong. 

Minden, 2 guns, 1720 tons. Built at Deptford as a 74 gun ship, 
1810. Plan, after Culloden. Served many years in commission. 
War services, Capture of Java and Algiers. Station, Hong Kong. 

Remarks. — The Princess Charlotte, old three-decker, and Belle- 
isle, old two-decker, have been ordered home from China. The 
Crocodile, Alligator, North Star, Talbot, Tyne, and Volage, were 
formerly known as the "donkey frigates." The Resistance and 
Rattlesnake are still retained on the Navy List, although they have 
been broken up some time. The Belleisle is the fastest sailing ship 
of the old 74 gun Bhips, but it is reported that she is very rotten. 
The Inconstant was a fast sailing frigate, and the opponent of Sir 
W. Symond's " Pique" frigate. 

Sailing Yachts. — These yachts are for the use of the Port-Ad- 
mirnla, or Superintendents of the Dockyards, &c. 

Chatham. Built 1765. Station, tender to Wellesley, Chatham. 
Fanny, 75 tons. Station, tender to Victory, at Portsmouth. 
Plymouth. Built 1814. Station, tender to Royal Adelaide, at 

Portsmouth. Built 180G. Station, tender to Illustrious, at 

1859.] OUE SAILING IfAYT. 61 

Royal George, 330 tons. Built at Deptford, 1817. Plan, Peake. 
Station, tender to Victoria and Albert, Portsmouth. 

Sylph, 114 tons. Built 1821. Station, tender to Impregnable, 

Sailing Teitdebs. — Adelaide, schooner. Station, Sierra Leone. 

Ceres, cutter. Station, tender to Dasher, Channel Islands. 

Cerus, cutter, 60 tons. Station, Portsmouth. 

Cuba, schooner. Station, tender to Imaum, Jamaica. 

Gossamer, cutter, 70 tons. Built 1836. Station, Sheerness. 

Gipsy, cutter. Built 1836. Station, tender to Nile, at Queens- 

Gulnare, cutter. Station, Coast of Ireland. 

Hart, cutter. Station, Sheerness. 

Hope, cutter. Station, Sheerness. 

Indian, cutter. Station, Surveying Service. 

Kingston, schooner. Station, tender to Imaum, Jamaica. 

Mercury, cutter, 105 tons. Built at Chatham, 1837. Plan, Sy- 
monds. Station, tender to Dasher, Channel Islands. 

Netley, 8 guns, 122 tons. Cutter. Built at Devonport, 1823. 
Plan, Seppings. Station, tender to Indus, North America. 

Hose, Surveying vessel. 

Snipe, 2 guns, 122 tons. Built at Pembroke, 1828. Station, 

Sparrow, 2 guns, 160 tons. Ketch. Built at Pembroke, 1828. 
Plan, Seppings. Station, Surveying Service, Devonport. 

Sylvia, 6 guns, 70 tons, cutter. Built 1827. Plan, Symonds. 
Station, Devonport. 

Thames, cutter, 65 tons. Built 1805. Station, Sheerness. 

Woodlark, 2 guns, cutter, 83 tons. Built at Deptford, 1821. 
Plan, Peake. Lieutenant and Commander, T. W. L. Thomas. 
Station, Surveying Service, Orkney Islands. 

Remarks. — The sailing yachts are all very antique, and only fit 
for harbour service. 

The Cuba and Kingston schooners were formerly slave vessels, 
which have been purchased by the Admiralty from their captors. 
Small steam gun-boats, as the Jasper and Jaseur, are much more 
serviceable craft than the above small schooners. In purchasing 
the Kingston, Sir John Pakington has added another useless sailing 
vessel to the Navy. The Gipsy, Mercury, and Sylvia, are all built 
after the model of the " Nancy Dawsou," Sir W. Symonds' famous 
little yacht. 

Concluding Remarks. — All the sailing vessels of the Royal Navy 
have now been enumerated ; and as the details of the steam ships 
of war have been previously given, it only remains for us to consider 
the combined strength of the Navv. There has, however, been so 
much alteration in the condition of many ships since last October, 
when the first of these papers appeared, and so much new light has 
been thrown upon the present state of our Navy in the late debates 
in Parliament, and in the Admiralty returns, that it is thought best 
to defer the summary for the present. 

In their anxiety to clear themselves and attack each other, Sir 


Charles Wood and Sir John Pakington managed to make matters so 
confused, that even naval men have been quite unable to find out 
what were the precise opinions of each regarding our naval strength. 
As not even these two magnates can agree as to the exact number, 
of screw line of battle ships we now possess, it is not to be expected 
that a non-official can make an exactly correct statement. 

As there is some talk of a naval review at Spithead this summer, 
we shall doubtless have great curiosity excited as to the merits of 
each ship belonging to the steam fleet, and it is hoped that the 
Admiralty will boldly furnish these particulars in their next edition 
of the Navy List. 

At the present time the Navy List is perfectly unintelligible to a 
casual reader ; and it is only a naval man who has studied the subject 
for some years that can form any opinion as to the state and capabili- 
ties of each ship. 

In the remarks made upon the different classes of ships, we have 
given our own opinion as to the sea-going qualities of each vessel ; 
but our knowledge is, of course, very limited and imperfect. There 
can be no doubt, however, that foreign governments, having numerous 
agents at our seaports, are well-informed upon these matters, and 
that it is only the English public who are in fact unacquainted with 

The Admiralty would do well to remove all the Harbour and 
Depot ships from the Effective List of the Navy, give the particulars 
of the exact number of guns each vessel carries, weight of broadside, 
tonnage, length and beam of ship, horse-power, both nominal and 
indicated, average speed, complement of men and boys, whether com- 
missioned, belonging to the first or second class steam reserve, re- 
pairing, converting, building, or ordered to be built. By knowing * 
these particulars, we should always be acquainted with the exact 
strength of our Navy, and first LordB of the Admiralty would not 
need to speak mysteriously in order to hide their ignorance, or cover 
their faults. A large quantity of details belonging to our screw 
fleet have lately been published in a weekly journal, by the sanction 
of the Admiralty, but the information is so collected that the public 
can scarcely comprehend them. It would be much better for the 
Admiralty to publish in the official Navy List all important facts, bo 
that it might be easy to understand them without having to wade 
through a mass of engineering detail. 

In the report of the Committee appointed by the Treasury to 
inquire into the Navy Estimates, there is an Appendix giving a list 
of the Sailing Ships which may be considered as effective, on the 
authority of Sir 13. Walker- The effective Sailing Ships are stated 
to comprise — 13 ships-of-the-line, 13 first-class frigates, 14 second- 
class frigates, and 23 sloops and brigs. Total, 03. 


FEOM 1852 TO 1858. 

Thebe is perhaps no subject that addresses itself more earnestly 
to the attention of the English nation than the welfare of the Navy. 
Almost any details upon the commonplace questions of docks, facto- 
ries, victualling, stores, to say nothing about the more important 
matters of ship -building, gunnery, and manning the fleet, are certain 
to claim public consideration. The whole matter possesses an in- 
terest peculiarly its own, and the reason is obvious enough. It is to 
this national arm that Great Britain is chiefly indebted for the proud 
position she occupies as a powerful nation. Her fame and her re- 
nown are not like that of Continental States, confined to Europe. 
No ; England's grandeur extends over the entire earth. The main- 
tenance of her colonies and commerce is dependant upon her Navy. 
No wonder, then, that the efficiency of her maritime power is a sub- 
ject of constant solicitude to her people. 

But when to the interest which naturally belongs to this favourite 
service, is appended a searching investigation of the growth and 
threatening power of the rival Navy of France, the topic then be- 
comes one that appeals most sensitively to every man interested in 
the stability of the British Empire. Such a case is before us. We 
have it now in our power to lay before our readers the most minute 
details respecting the Naval yards, stores, and forces of the two great 
maritime nations of the earth. The whole subject is laid bare in a 
remarkable State paper, presented to Parliament by her Majesty's 
command, for reasons which we will now proceed to state. 

In introducing this document it is necessary to refer to events that 
are now become historical. Since the flash of the coup d'etat pre- 
pared Europe for the future Empire of France, the Navy of our 
" faithful ally v has more than doubled itself. So important an event 
did not fail to awaken in the minds of an insular community like 
Great Britain « serious desire to know why, at a period of profound 
peace, the docks and arsenals of Louis Napoleon should be ringing 
with Naval effort. And it must be in the recollection of the readers 
of the United Service Magazine, that public attention has been drawn 
in these pages to the ambitious and crafty policy of the present ruler 
oi France on various occasions. We are now glad to know that our 
government have, although tardily, felt the necessity of instituting 
comparisons between the force and efficiency of the two Navies, that 
must, in all human probability, be again soon striving for the sove- 
reignty of the seas. The comparison is not over flattering to the 
foresight and capacity of our " higher powers," as we propose to 
show in the following paper. 

Our shortcomings will, of course, appear more apparent when placed 
in juxtaposition with the earnest activity that, has spurred on our 
" faithful ally" to increase the prqportions of his Navy, until it has 
passed in some important particulars the bulk of our own. While 
we have been squabbling about petty details, Louis Napoleon has 
leaped at once into grand results. But, as it is not our purpose to 


burden this vexed question with many remarks of our own, we wil 
at onoe proceed to investigate the print -ipjil facts connected with the 
introduction of steam, and its affects upon the growth of the Navies 
of both England and France for the hist six years. 

It is fa nit liar knowledge to every tax-payer of this country, that a 
serious increase has taken place in our Naval Estimates lately, 
while at the same time public attention has been painfully directed 
to the fact, that our Naval force is tar inferior to what it ought to be 
This feeling remained singularly torpid, tin til it was roused into act 
by a paper that appeared in the Conversation* Lexicon ofLetpn^ t in 
which a German critic drew comparisons injurious to the efficiency of 
mil Navy as compared with that of France, "We replied to that 
article in the number of this Magazine for February last, in which 
paper it was our aim to prove that many of that writer's states 
were unfounded. Yet there was in it this important truth, that the 
Naval force of this country was then, and is now, far inferior to what 
it ought to he with reference to that of other powers, and especially 
erf F ranee. 

It would appear from the attention those papers elicited from 
all quarters, that increased efforts are needed to place the Nm 
England on a proper footing, and, with a view to this object, a com- 
mittee was appointed to inquire into the Navy Estimates from 1852 
to 1858, and also into the comparative state of the Navies of both 

The statistics which we are now about to introduce to the reader 
are dry and bald, all sentiment, and even opinions, being excluded. 
Tet hard and rigid as these facts are, they possess such a paramount 
importance at the present threatening aspect of politics, that wo 
make no apology for plunging at once into the consideration of the 
hi ire totals that are now required to maintain the Navy of Great 
Britain far hi advance of that of any other power on earth. 

The sublet naturally divides itself into three branches, viz., — the 
sums voted in the years 1S52 and-'SG as compared with the sums 
voted in the year 1858, and the causes of the increase in expi 
ture ; 2nd, the character and power of the British Navy, and its 
state of preparation at the present time as compared with 1852, in- 
volving the important questions of dockyards and stores ; and 3rd, 
the progress of the Navy of France since the year 1852 as compared 
that of England, and the present condition of the French Navy 
as regards the construction and armament of ships of war. 

In approaching this verv important subject, the commissioners 
felt that financial considerations could not be overlooked, A few 
remarks are here necessary. In instituting a comparison of suma 
I for naval purposes between one or more years, it is necessary 
to take into consideration the altered condition* of warfare since tho 
introduction of steam. Who, for instance, could have anticipated 
the wonderful progress of this motor, which basin a few years super- 
seded the use of sailing vessels in the British Navy. 

We shall see that by the introduction of screw steamers of immense 
size and power, an additional expense has been incurred, which 
bears with significant weight upon the subject. Thus the total 



amount voted for tho Navy in the financial year 1852,was £5,835,588, 
and for the financial year 1858, £8,851,371, being 'an increase in 
the estimates of 1858, as compared with 1852, of £8,015,783, or an 
increase of 51 per cent, on the votes of 1852. 

It is not desirable to go into the minute and perplexing details of 
the increase of the estimates generally, although it is obvious that 
the various items of sea wages, victuals, artificers, stores, new works, 
and naval transports, represent enormous totals. But to show what 
expenses naval powers must be prepared to bear, we will examine a 
few of the increases that show the difference of expenditure between 
sailing and steam men of war. 

As an illustration of the addition to the expense of sea wages, 
occasioned by the substitution of steam for sailing ships of war, and 
by the augmented rates of pay, we present the foUowing comparison 
between a sailing line of battle ship and frigate, and steam ships of 
the same classes. 








" Marlborough," Steam 
"Britannia," Sailing 

Increase in 1858 

" Shannon," Steam 
"Arethusa," Sailing 

Increase in 1858 





£8,555 . 



£4,756 • 

It will be observed that a considerable part of the increase in the 
complement of men, as between a steam ship and a sailing ship of 
similar armament, results from the establishment of engineers and 
stokers, which is an addition to the ordinary complement for working 
the ship and her guns. 

With respect to the financial aspect of the years of 1852-58, it is 
shown in the inquiry that the main cause of the increase in the esti- 
mates of 1858, as compared with 1852, was due to the increased price 
of provisions and the wages of seamen, which depends upon the nume- 
rical strength of the navy in men. Thus in 1852 we had 40,761 
officers, seamen, boys, and marines, and in 1858 we had 55,500 of all 
grades. The other items of expenditure are classed under the titles 
cf " Establishments at home and abroad, 19 lt Artificers at home and 
abroad" and "Naval stores" 

It is obvious that under the head Naval Stores, and the establish- 
ments and artificers in dockyards and factories at home and abroad, 
the question of the naval strength of England in ships of war is in- 
volved, as well as how far the largo expenditure in our naval yards 
has been productive of an adequate return. 

As this is one of the most important subjects connected with the 
navy estimates, it will be necessary to enter into some details expla- 
natory of the causes of increase, and having reference not merely to 
the year 1852, but to the years between 1852 and 1858. 

U. S. Mao., No. 366, May, 1859. f 









It should also be noticed that the number of men voted fop the 
navy affects materially almost every vote in the estimates. It affects 
peculiarly the votes for stores and artificers' wages, as the entire coat 
of fitting ships for sea, and of wear and tear, falls on the estimates of 
the year ; whereas the expense of building new ships, however costly, 
is spread over a number of years. The cost of a new ship of the first 
class, the Duke of Wellinoton, is stated to be 

£ s. d 

For hull, in labour and materials ... ... ... 106,291 

For masts, rigging, sails, stores ... ... ... 19,224 

For engines and gear ... ... ... ... 46,220 O 

But the maintaining rate annually is on 


Masts, riggings, sails, &c. ... 

Engines and gear 

Being more than eight per cent, on the original cost, viz. 8 per 
cent, on hull and masts, and 9 per cent, on engines. Thus every 
additional ship put into commission entails an annual charge fromS^ 
to 9 J per cent, on its original cost, which is expended in stores and 
wages of artificers. A n iucreased ratio in the cost of maintenance 
appears to apply to smaller vessels. Thus a second rate, as the 
" Agamemnon "=Sg per cent. ; a fourth rate as " Euryalus "=8fper 
cent. ; a sixth rate as " Curaeoa"=9$ per cent. ; a sloop, as " Har- 
rier "=9J per cent. 

Another item of expenditure is the duration of ships. It seems 
that at the end of every fifteen years, on an average, the hull of a 
ship requires a complete and expensive repair. That the duration of 
a ship cannot be estimated at more than thirty years. That during the 
last ton years, thirty-five ships of the line, and forty-six frigatesnave 
been removed from the effective list of the navy, and Sat on an 
average three line of battle ships ought to be produced every year, 
merely to maintain the navy on a proper footing as respects lii yp of 
battle" ships. 

"With reference to the rate at which new ships can be added to the 
navy, the Naval Surveyor states that the present force in the dock- 
yards comprises 4,000 shipwrights and apprentices, and that these 
are not more than is requisite to build three line of battle ships, 
three frigates, and six sloops per annum, besides executing all the 
necessary repairs to all the ships in the navy. 

If, therefore, the naval supremacy of Great Britain is to be main- 
tained, it is impossible to deny that a large force of artificers, stores, 
materials, &e., must be kept in our yards. This force consists of 
10,334 persons, including 1,279 convicts, employed in our arsenals. 
dockyards, and factories at home. The number of persons employed 
in the steam factories has increased from 1,010 in 1852, to 2.361 in 



Steam Engines have also wonderfully increased the annual expen- 
diture ; thus in the year 1851 the expenditure for steam engines did 
not amount to 100,000*., in 1852 it exceeded 200,000/., in the last 
six years 3,423,021/. has been expended, giving an average of 570,503/. 
a year. In the year 1852 the navy possessed horse power to the ex- 
tent of 44,482, in the last six years it has more than doubled, 
amounting now to 99,512 horse. The number of steam ships and 
vessels has increased from 177 in 1852, to 464 in 1858. The tonnage 
from 182,562 to 457,881, and the guns from 3,045 to 8,246. 

The Money Votes in the six years from 1852 to 1858 for labour, 
timber, and stores for the purposes of building and converting ships, 
and keeping the navy in repair, exclusive of the purchase of steam 
engines and coal, and building vessels by contract, amounted to 
14,105,096/. The amount provided during the Bussian war for 
building gun boats, floating batteries, and other vessels, was 
1,633,147/., but a sum exceeding 3,000,000/. was actually expended. 
The whole sum expended between 1852 and 1858, not including 
ordnance, amounts to 24,000,000/. ! 

The grand result of this enormous outlay we lay before the reader 
in the subjoined tabular statement, which exhibits at a glance the 
number of ships afloat, building, and converting for the two periods 
1852 — 58. Thus in 1852 England possessed the following steam- 
ships according to the report of the Surveyor of the Navy : — 


Hrs. Pwr 


Line of Battle first rates 





„ second rates ... 










Frigates (including seven now reduced) 





Corvettes and Sloops 





Gun Vessels 





Gun Boats 





Floating Batteries .. . 


135 | 3027 



Total 135, exclusive of 42 troop ships and other steam vessels, making 
an aggregate of 177 steam ships and vessels. 

In 1858 England possessed, according to the report of the Surveyor 
of the Navy the following steamships : — 


Hrs. Pwr 


Lino of Battle Ships completed ... 


„ receiving engines 


„ converting ... 





„ ordered to be converted. . . 


„ building 

10 j 






r Screw 25 ) 
Frigates (afloat and building) ^ p^le 9 \ 





Mortar Ships ... 





Corvettes and Sloops 





Small Vessels .., 





Gun Vessels ... 





Gun Boats 





Floating Batteries 












Exclusive of (52 troop sltipa, store ships, yachts, tenders, dispatel 
k &c. 3 making an aggregate of 464 eteani ships and vessels, 
6,2 tG guns, Horse power, 105,9112, and 457,881 tons. 

The next class of naval expenditure to which the Commissioner* 
directed their attention in comprised under the heads of Ifew JVorks t 
Jmprwemmt» % Iivpatr9 } Boek^ $e. These items are, of eoums m- 
presented by huge totals, but as they represent no features of int. 
beyond their enormous bulk, we refrain from burdening the reader 
with their recital. 

\Yv now approach that part of the labours of the Commissioners 
v In re the enquiry is directed to the state of the French navy. This, 
as the reader may well imagine, is at once the most confidential and 
difficult part of the commission. However, the communications re- 
specting the tonnage, guns, and horse power of the French navy, 
which We shall state hereafter, may be relied on for accuracy, but 
with regard to titnesa for sea, durability, and general efficiency a# 
whips of war, the information is imperfect. So is the critical kiow- 
reapeeting each ship in the French navy, which the responsible 
officers of France can alone he supposed to possess. 

In entering into the details of the respective pa were of the two 
navies, we shall begin with the outbreak of tin- French revolutionary 
war, when England possessed 145 sail of the line, and Fr 
These comparative numbers were reduced in 1850 to 86 for England, 
and 45 for France. "With a view of showing how gradually the 
French navy has been approximating to the English, we subjoin 
the following table, containing a statement of the following 
classes of sailing British and French ships at the undermentioned 
periods ; — 













Frcuc 1u 

























































































At this latter period (1850) the effective strength of the two 
sin line of battle ships exclusively, and almost exclusively in 
frigates, consisted of Hailing vessels, hut the French having subse- 
quently decided on, and nearly carried out, the conversion of all 
their sailing ships that were fit for it into steam ships, ns sailing 
skips could not he opposed to steam ship* with any chance of success, 
the latter must nnu be considered iih the only ' j really elective 
fop purposes of war, and the following is at present tin 
strength of the two navies in steam line of battle ships and frigates, 
including ships building and converting; — 




December, 1858. 

Complete Hull and Machinery 
Receiving Engines 
Converting . 
Building . 


English. French, 





Serew 17 
Paddle 9 



Screw 15 
Paddle 19 


50 40 34 46 

Iron-plated ships building 

The result of the comparison is that England and Prance nave at 
present time the same number of steam line of battle ships complete, 
that France has eight more steam frigates complete than England, that 
on the completion of the ships now in progress, England will have 
ten steam line of battle ships more than France, and France twelve 
steam frigates more than England. 

It is, however, necessary to observe with reference to the line of 
battle ships " building," that the Jive French are in a much more 
forward state, and represent more work actually executed than the 
ten English. The quantity of work executed on the five French 
ships being thirty-one eighths, whereas on the ten building in Eng- 
land it is only a fraction more than twenty-seven eighths. But this 
advantage of our neighbours is in a certain degree qualified, when it 
is stated that of the ten English ships building three are three deckers, 
of which class the French are not building any. 

France will soon have four iron-sided ships, with engines of 800 
and 900 horse -power. It is stated that two are more than half com- 
pleted, and that they will be substituted for line-of-battle ships. 
Their timbers are of the scantling of a three-decker ; their armament 
will consist of 36 heavy guns, most of them rifled 50-pounders, which 
will throw 801b. hollow percussion shot. So convinced do naval men 
seem to be in France of the irresistible qualities of these " Iron- 
sides," that they are of opinion that no more ships-of-the-line will be 
laid dozen, and that in ten years that class of vessels will be obsolete. 
In corroboration of this French statement it must be mentioned, 
that no line-of-battle ship has been laid down in France since 1855, 
and there has not been a single three-decker on the stocks in that 
country since the last named year. 

In addition to the fifty steam line-of-battle ships (English) enu- 
merated in the foregoing statement as "built," "building," and 
" converting," there are six sailing line-of-battle ships proposed to be 
converted into steam ships. These six ships woula raise the number 
of English screw ships of the line to fifty-six, and if the estimates for 
artificers and the purchase of ship-building materials, as proposed by 
the Surveyor of the Navy, be assented to, the whole could be com- 
pleted by the year 1861. This number is only conjectural, as at the 
present rate and mode of expenditure in the naval yards, it is estimated 
that forty -three only would be ready in 1861, and, according to the 
present scheme of work, the French would possess forty screw line- 
of-battle ships and four iron-sided ships. With the existing esta- 
blishment of shipwrights and scheme of work, the number of our 



screw line-of-battle ships could not be raised tu Jlfh/sLr before the 

h J it may be interred tbat in the interval between 18GJ 

and ist.>a further additions will have been made to the 1 r 

steam mtvy. 

Indeed the prop-used increase in the French is no secret, hi 
dition to the 40 steamlin c -of -battle ships and four imnsideB (French 
ft built," " building/* and converting " the " Rermfo" and " Jc 
mappes" are supposed to be in a fit state for run version, but it b 
doubtful whether they are to be converted as line- of- battle ships* or 
to be cut down and plated with iron. 

Two more iron-sides (French) are to be built, and these with the 
two line-ol-battle-sluutf, Hercute and JmnoppeS) if converted, would 
raise the French ntw$ to the number of 48 in 1861, as compared 
with the EuijlUh 50 before referred to, 

To show the Va tu J ah reader the grand proportions to which the 
French navy has expanded^ it is calculated that by the year 184JO, 
tin- Emperor (our faithful ally) will hare a Steam fleet, and trans- 
ports capable of carrying an army of 60,000 men, with all its horses, 
provisions and materials for one month , and that he may (if his am 
bitious policy requires them) have ready by 1800 — Forty steam lint 
of-hattl** ships, MS iron-plated frigates* thirty screw frigates t ni 
paddle j'riyti fax, and twenty* six &team transports of huge dimensions* 

Of course the English reader will put what conjectures he pleases 
upon the uses to which this enormous naval force may be applied. 
But considering the insignificance of French commerce, and tf 
small extent other colonial possessions, and the improbability, nay, 
the all but impossibility of invading France except by sea, by any 
naval power, except England, and that is out ot the question, he 
will have but little difficulty in concluding that the Emperor Napo- 
leon will, as soon as it suits his views, try conclusions with An 
H U ally/' 

"We now append a statement showing the comparative force of 
English and French steam line- of- battle-ships at present built, 
building and converting in respect of guns and horse power : 

Number Total i Unas 

Line of battle ships— 

Afloat #i . 

Building, &c. 
Frj prtn ■ 


Building, &c. 
Total Line of battle 
ahips and frigates 

tine of battle ships— 


Building, &c. 


lin^r, 4c. 


snips and frigate* 









1 Y G46 



i 86 



Tot ni Horse powor : 

| 4,735 | 
} 1,239 { 


J 3,636 J 
J 1,658 | 







I 29,050 

( i*,ouo 





In addition, France has four iron-sided ships building, to carry 
36 guns each with 800 or 900 horse power. 
England has nine block ships afloat, each carrying 60 
guns, with from 200 to 450 horse power. 

It is necessary to observe that nine of 'the English line-oj ^battle 
ships carrying collectively 720 guns, and engines of 3,600 horse power, 
are 80 gun converted ships, and reported to be inferior to the French 
ships of the same class. On the other hand, England has fifteen ships 
of 100 guns and upwards, carrying collectively 1,694 guns, and 
engines of 10,800 horse power, while France has only sue ships of 100 
guns and upwards, and 3,590 horse power. 

We have mentioned previously that the rapid growth of the French 
Navy dates from the period of the coup eTetat, which happened in 
1852. The respective forces of the two nations were then as fol- 
lows : — The English Navy was augmented in horse power by 44,482, 
and the French by 27,240. Since that period the dockyards of our 
" faithful ally" have been working equal tides with that of England. 
Since 1852 the increase of 55,030 horse power has been added to the 
English Navy, and 54,804 to the French, including, in both cases, 
the engines in course of construction, and which may be ready by 
the end of this year ; showing a difference of only 226 horse power 
increase within seven years in favour of England. The increase in 
horse power in the English Navy during this period of 18,700 has 
been on account of Une-ofbattle ships, while our neighbours have 
added 24,640 horse power to their steam liners, besides 3,600 horse 
power for their iron-sided frigates, equal to 28,240, or nearly 10,000. 
horse power more'thsax the increase to the English Navy as respects 
the application of this motor to ships of the fine. In frigates the 
English have added 7,793 horse power, and the French 13,100 
Total addition to the horse power of engines for line-of-battle ships 
and frigates since the flash of the coup d'etat prepared the world for 
the Empire's thunder — 

England 26,493 

France 41,340 

Difference in favour of France in the period 14,847 
It will be seen that since 1852 France has added considerably 
more than England to the horse-power of engines of her line-of-battle 
and heavy frigates. 

On the other hand England has added 15,073 in excess of France, 
to the horse power of engines for vessels below the rank of frigates. 
England (including 8,690 for gun-boats) .... 28,537 
France (including 2,240 for gun-boats) .... 13,464 

Difference in favour of England in the periods . . . 15,073 
The aggregate horse-power of the English Navy at the end of this year will 
be 99,512. Of the French, 82,044. 

We will now proceed to state the result as regards ships of all 
classes, dockyards, stores, and expenditure in the French Navy, 
comparing the state of that Navy m 1852 and 1858, and with our 
own at the same periods. In the year 1852 the comparative number 
of British and French ships of war will be seen from the subjoined 













Ships of the Line ... 
Frigates ... 
Corvette Sloops 
Gun Vessels, Brigs, &e. 





















* Royal Frederick, building as a sailing ship, not included. 











Ships of the Line ... 
Frigates ... 
Corvettes and Sloops 
Brigs and smaller vessels 

















Total 299 258 

In the year 1858 the comparative numbers and condition of Britiih 
and French ships of war will also be seen from the following Tables: 




Is : t 



t it 














Lino&f-BaUlc ships (screw) 











Frigate* (iron-plate J) 





Block ships (screw) 







Frigates, screw ... 










„ paddle... 


, t# 




Mortar ships 





r .. 

Corvettes and aloopa, screw 










,, n paddle 










Clnn, despatch, > screw... 
anil small vessels J paddle . 



















Floating batteries, screw ... 




























Gun-boati, screw 







Troop and store-ships, steam 











YaeMs, tenders, tugs*, &c<,st. 















J 19 


















Linc-of-battle ships 








Corvettes and sloops 






Brigs and despatch vessels... 




Mortar vessels ... 



Mortar floats (towed) 




Schooners, cutters, &c ... 














It is notified that of the thirty-five British sailing ships, the Sur- 
veyor of the Navy proposes to convert six of them into screw line-of- 
battle ships, and he is now considering whether others may not be 
converted into screw frigates. 

Of the ten French line-of-battle ships, it is stated that all but two 
are too old to be converted. 

To recapitulate. It will be seen that France since 1852 has in- 
creased her steam line-of-battle ships from two to forty, of which 
there are five building and four converting, and that the increase has 
been effected by the conversion of twenty-six sailing ships and the 
building of fourteen screw ships. 

England in the same time has increased her line-of-battle screw 
steamers from seventeen to fifty, of which there are ten building and 
seven converting. This has been effected by the conversion of twenty- 
seven sailing ships and the building of twenty-three screw ships. 

The addition, therefore, to the French 'Navy in steam line-of- 
battle ships complete, building, and converting, is thirty-eight, and of 
England thirty-three since 1852. But it must be remembered that 
France has at present four iron-sided ships (Fregates Blinders) in 
course of construction, as before stated. 

The steam frigates of France, screw and paddle, have been increased 
from twenty-one to forty-six ; and England has increased her steam 
frigates, screw and paddle, from twenty-two to thirty-four, and her 
blockships of 60-guns each from four to nine. 

The superiority of France in steam frigates deserves notice, as in 
the event of hostilities these vessels might occasion serious loss to 
this country, by the interruption of commerce on the high seas. 

On the other hand the French steam corvettes, which in 1852 were 
thirty-one, are now only twenty-two, while those of Great Britain, 
which in 1852 were fifty-nine, are now eighty-two. Again, our 
screw floating batteries are eight as against five French. Our screw 
gun- vessels, and other small craft, are fifty-three, whereas the French 
have ninety-three. Our screw gun-boats are a hundred and sixty- 
two, and those of France twenty-eight. And the whole Steam Navy 
of Great Britain now amounts to 464 vessels, while that of France 
numbers 264. 

As regards sailing vessels, it will be observed that England still 

Ijossesaes a great ntperiorite over France. England has thirtv-five 
me-of- battle ships, of which six are proposed to be converted into 
sUatu-ships, But of the i twenty- nine, only thirteen are 

considered as effective; and if it is deemed advisable to convert 
theni, they can only be converted into frigates. France has only ten 
Vtne-of-bahh shij<*, $f which two only fire convertible, England hoa 
a1 J frigates, of which twenty-seven are reported as effective. 
France baa thirty 4wn, of which it is supposed that nine or ten may 
be converted into steam transports, the remainder being too old for 
conversion. The total numbers in the two Sailing Navies is, Eng- 
land, 20b"; France, 144. 

It lias been remarked that when we speak of an army we allude 
to the men \ but when wo speak of a navy we mean the ships. It 
would seem that there Is soma truth in the saying — for in the fore- 
going remarks, we have chiefly attended to the material. Bu 
Balancing the resources the two nations have at their disposal for 
the formation of a navy, it is necessary to take intu consideration 
the mercantile marine of each country. For it is evident that sue 
in a lengthened struggle upon the ocean will depend upon the 
maritime population each nation has to recruit its sailors from. No 
doubt a state of preparedness for sudden war may be achieved by a 
nation not possessing a seagoing population; but it is certain that 
when the war is prolonged, the vitality and energy of a great mari- 
time power must tell in the long run. It did so in the last war 
with France, when the disparity was not so great between the 
mercial marines of the two natidns as it is at present. We now 
give a comparative statement of shipping and seamen in the mcr- 
enant services u£ England and France. 


Shipping and Seatt 
Number of V 

K v.l. AND. 

1,813 i 

Total 26,219 

Am> Feaxcb. 

ten Mercfttmi Service* 

?ssels Registered, 





Upon analysing these totals, some remarkable facts present them- 
selves, showing i he petty character of French commerce as com- 
pared with that of this country. Thus England possesses 882 ships 
of 800 tons and upwards — while France has only 30 — and it is 
only when we descend to vessels under 100 tons that the number 
of French vessels exceeds that of England, this country having 
8,641 of these small craft, and France 12,038. The superior! t 
Etajlnnd over Franca is made quite evident when we compute the 
i tonnage of the two commercial navies — England claiming 
1, ©1,877 tons, and France 1,052,585. 

We are enabled to arrive at the number of men employed in the 
fulbi wring manner;— Thus, in the 860,406 tons of shipping empL 
in the home trade (exclusive of river steamers) 43,000 men are en- 

1859.] KAVAt ftTAflBTldS O* ENGLAND A»D FBAJ9C£. 75 

gaged in England. This does not include masters, so that one man 
is required for every 19f tons, which, upon the 4,491,377 tons of 
shipping registered, gives an aggregate crew of 227,411 men engaged 
in English ships 

In the 360.664 tons of shipping employed in the French fisheries 
and in vessels trading between France and the French colonies, 
30,997 men are employed ; this gives one man to every llf tons, 
which, upon the 1,052,535 tons of shipping registered, gives aii 
aggregate crew of 90,217 men. 

The above numbers are confined exclusively to merchant seamen. 

In comparing the naval expenditure of France with our own for A 
series of years, some facts are developed that call for a few remarks ; 
thus England expended in the last seven years in victualling, pay, 
clothing, new works, repairs, and labour and materials, the enormous 
sum of £53,179,586 ; wnile France has expended in the same perio:l 
for the same purpose only £38,935,384 ; and it must be remembered 
that the huge amount expended upon our navy does not include 
about £4,000,000 for ordnance, which has of course to be added, 
making altogether £57,179,586, or £18,244,202 in excess of 

It may seem strange that our rival should have achieved such 
great results in the development of her State navy for a smaller sum 
than our own. This circumstance is, however, more apparent than 
real. The chief cause in the increase consists in fittings and repairs, 
France also, during the last seven years, has had the benefit of all 
our experiments. The outlay was ours, and she took advantage of 
it. Again, the navy of France is more compact than ours, and not 
scattered abroad, nor has she so many ships in commission, and, 
consequently, not so many ships to fit out and repair, and, of course, 
not so much wear and tear to supply. This work of fitting out, 
victualling, sea wages, Ac. Ac. is the heaviest drain upon the resources 
of a dockyard. Of course, the more ships there are in commission 
the greater the expense in time and money, and reduces the amount 
available for the building of new vessels. Now, France has been 
expending her time and money in construction, with but little fitting 
out and repairs, and, consequently, she exhibits a visible product in 
new ships. While in England our expenses have been spread over 
docks, factories, experiments, &c. Ac., leaving but a small margin to 
be applied for building or conversion. But it is calculated that in 
France only about one-fourth of the money applied for naval pur- 
poses is productive of increase of force. In England it is much less, 
and thus is the solution to the puzzle why France, with less means, 
has approached us so close in results. 

While we are upon the subject of dockyards we may as well here 
introduce the acreage that each nation possesses for fitting, dock- 
ing, construction, Ac. The importance of Cherbourg will at once 
strike the most casual observer. We subjoin a comparative state- 
ment of the dockyard area of England and France, with available 
land annexed, together with the number of building slips and 
docks:— » 









Number. Number. 







Woolwich . 









— • 

•St. Mary's Island, frc. 




— ■ 

Sheerness • 















Keyham . • , 





Pembroke . 







44 | 32 


* This land adjoins Chatham dockyard, bat is unappropriated. 































Rochefort . 


















The general result that appears to arise, after a careful 
analysis of the important returns contained in this paper, is that 
France contains many elements necessary for a great naval power* 
In some respects she can bear comparison with England. However, 
the chief duty that devolves upon us at the present moment is to 
briefly notice the rapid conversion of sailing ships in France to 
steam ships. It will not have escaped the English reader that the 
large increase in the navy of our " faithful ally, ,, since 1852, has been 
mainly effected by conversion. She has converted 26 sailing ship* 
and built 14 screw ships. The process of conversion is cheap aod • 
expeditious compared with building new ships. Thus, the number 
of men required to convert a three decker into a 90 gun steam ship 
is |ths of the number required to build a new 90 gun steam ship. 
The chief difference in the cost of conversion arising from the saving 
in materials. The cost of converting a line of battle ship of 90 
guns is estimated at £25,000, and the cost of building the same at 
£105,000, but the latter will of course be a far more efficient and 
durable vessel. 

Another important fact presents itself in the weakness of England 
in steam frigates, as the importance of this class of ships in the 
event of hostilities cannot be doubted. The neglect is very culpable 


on the part of our Admiralty, as the state of our naval store of timber 
is reported to be very favorable for their construction or conversion. 

And further, that the present is a state of transition, as regards 
naval architecture. No man seems certain whether gun boats or 
three deckers will be most efficient in a future naval war. The 
French government are evidently of this opinion, for they have 
suspended laying down ships of the line altogether. 

The present is not more a period of transition for ships than for 
artillery. The invention of Armstrong's gun it has been stated 
may supersede the use of the ordinary ship's guns, and possibly affect 
even the size and structure of ships of war. The committee, there- 
fore, suggests, with great show of reason, that the dockyard force for 
the next year be used in the conversion of ships of the line and 
frigates, as far as the available accommodation will admit, so that the 
most useful results may be attained at the least possible expense. 

And lastly we must notice the prospective outlay contemplated by 
France to complete her steam navy and her naval establishments. 
According to a report of the Minister of Marine it is intended to 
raise the French steam navy to 150 vessels of war, of all classes, built 
after the best models, with engines of full power, in addition to 
72 steam transports. And also that it is contemplated to complete the 
building in the several military ports, the dry docks and factories 
indispensable to meet the requirements of the new steam fleet. The 
sum which France intends to devote to these purposes up to 1871, 
when the fleet will have reached the limit of its proposed extension, 
will be £8,840,000. 

We now take leave of this very important subject with a farewell 
notice, that the progress which France has made in her navjr under 
Louis Napoleon has been remarkable, and her prospective increase 
cannot fail to arrest the attention of every Englishman, if for no other 
consideration than in determining the amount of our future naval 
expenditure, and promoting by every means in our power, the 
efficiency of that service upon which the safety and honour of these 
islands depend, 



By Betibed Major Marksman. 

There appear to be few matters more difficult of adjustment than 
the determination of the age at which men shall be declared incapa- 
ble of fulfilling certain active duties. Proceeding upon the principle 
in force in the French army, our authorities some time since decreed 
that officers should be shelved at various periods of life, from fifty- 
five years and upwards, forgetting, apparently, that the habits of 
men in the British service operate rather favourably than otherwise 
upon longevity. A Frenchman rapidly ages after he has passed his 



fortieth year* Bad and scanty food in early life, uncleanly habit 
a devotion to the ci^ar, and ^ 10 want of nourishing beverages, dii 
quality him IW severe physical exertion* at the very age \- 
Englishmen who have, not been worn out in the Tropics, are in tb 
very prime o£ their existence. It wad a mistake, therefore, 
limit the service of our officers to a maximum only applicable 

vigorous people, and while it has deprived the State of the 
abilities of able men, it has been prolific of great injustice to highly 
deserving persons* In the line, sixty years of a^e are sufficient to 
mark the limit of regimental efficiency, and in the medical sen 
surgeon must relinquish employment if he should have reached his 
fifty-fifth year, without attaining the grade of Deputy-Inspector* 

There may be something reasonable in the restriction of a comb 
taut officer's period of activity, because he is sometimes railed upc 
for a certain amount of physical effort of which be may no loi 
be capable; still, sixty is too young in very many cases, and m the 
Medical Department it is preposterously early in all eases. It i 
until a man has practised for a great many years in various diiuat 
that he really acquires that abundance of professional kno 
and that superior skill, which qualify him lor the higher dm 
direction, inspection, and super! utendenee. Few of the able me 
in the civil lino of the medical profession, attain that einii 
which imparts confidence to their juniors, and causes their advice 
be sought alter by the wealthy and the titled, in dangerous and des- 
perate cases, until they are far advanced in life* It is only when 
the knife has to be dexterously used that a more youthful prac- 
titioner is preferable to a venerable leech, whose nerves may have 
become so unstrung by time as to neutralize all the advantage of ev- 
perience. But even in such eases the supervising presence of oc 
deeply versed in the mysteries of human anatomy is often desin 

Entertaining this view, 1 really think, that the "War Minis 
would do no harm were he to procure a reconsideration of "Warrants 
which have been prolific of injustice to valuable servants, and. mis- 
chief to the State. By all accounts, several of the medical oil 
who have been placed on the shelf because they had exceeded the 
fancied age of ultra-efficiency, are yet in their prime, and feel most 
acutely the slur of impoteucy. involved in the operation of the last 
Warrant. As for the regimental combatant officers, they are not 
quite in so bad a predicament, for it ia left discretional with the 
Commander-in-Chief to continue a person in the performance of his 
functions if the interests of the service render it desirable. It may 
be questioned* however, if it be good policy to allow of this dis 
ti<m. Commanders-in-Chief, like other men, have their prejudices 
and partialities; political and family considerations are not without 
their weight in the determination of comparatively small questions, 
and if it should happen that one ease of favoritism is made out, every 
sexagenarian will have a good right to protest against his being re- 
moved to half-pay or non-effective service when he lias attained the 
grand climactric. 

The remedy, hi both cases, seems to me to lie in an extension of 


the period of disqualification. With such examples before us of hale 
and vigorous intellect and powerful frames, as are supplied by Sir 
Howard Douglas, Lord Seaton, Lord Gough, Lord Cathcart, Lord 
Beauchamp, Lord Downes, Sir Robert Gardiner, Sir John Burgoyne, 
Sir George Browne, Lord Clyde, and others I could name, who must 
be much above seventy years of age, and who have seen a great deal 
of active service, we need not fear that there will be many drivellers 
among those who have been unfortunate in their promotion. Once 
fixed, however, let the maximum age be adhered to, and above all 
things let it be the care of the authorities that no man is superseded 
because he only wants two or three months of the stipulated age. If 
he be merely one day short of the period, justice and the importance 
of adhering scrupulously to the Regulations, would require that he 
should have the benefit of that space. It is known that a most able 
and accomplished medical officer was deprived of the promotion to 
which his standing and peculiarly active career had entitled him, be- 
cause he was within a short period of the maximum age. 

Much has been said of late of the relative positions of the Guards 
and the Line, and the advocates of the privileges of the latter, in 
trying to prove too much, have forced impartial writers to bring 
out some tacts, which establish beyond all question the superiority of 
the advantages possessed by the Line in regard to the tendency of 
staff appointments. If it had not been shewn that of the fifty or 
sixty staff appointments held by General Officers, fifty-two of these 
are in the hands of Line Officers, and all of them exceeding in value 
those held by Guards' Officers, people would have continued to pro- 
test against the partiality shown to the latter. Nevertheless, it can- 
not be denied that certain extraordinary privileges do attach to the 
Guards which are not shared by their fellow soldiers of the Line. 
The possession of a step of army rank in advance of their regimental 
position has great influence in accelerating progress to the highest 
position and prizes. Exemption from service in the colonies and 
India is another extraordinary favour. But who will say that this 
ought not to be ? Immemorial usage has given to every Sovereign in 
every part of the world a special body of protectors, and there is no 
reason why our gracious Queen should not equally be guarded by a 
corps <F elite. That the high prerogative of defending the throne has 
certain ennobling results is proved by the conduct of the Guards, 
whenever they nave been sent abroad. Holland, Lincelles, the 
Peninsula, Waterloo, and the Crimea, severely tested the courage 
and discipline of the Household troops, and they passed the ordeal 
triumphantly. But with all this the composition of the Guards is 
wholly defective. The men are enlisted because they are tall ; the 
officers are selected because they have certain interests with the 
Colonels of the several regiments. Herein lies the grievance. The 
privileges of the Guards should he earned by the Line, . The officers 
should be those who had passed the best competitive examinations ; 
the men ought to be selected by reason of their good conduct and 
their stature. In was in this way that Napoleon I. formed his Im- 
perial Guard — the men who were prepared to die rather than sur- 


peeps rwoM the toornoLES OF RF/miUT* 


The Emperor required that every member 

1 have served* four yeans including two campaigns, in tin* li 
he men who fulfilled these conditions were, :r >rae t 

the strongest and bravest of tln-ir respective cc It is true, 

ith even these grounds of preference the Imperials did not 
lousy and the gibes of the Lhjnc\ they were called 
** immortals" because they did not run the same risks of mortality 
combat with their less fortunate brethren — and mules, because thi 
were a step above a*&?s. "What of that ? Reserved for gn 
sions they turned the scale of battle whenever fchej were called ttp 
excepting on the memorable day when Adams' flank moremen 
their several ranks and elicited the cry of k * wave qni pent !' 
tiftn, on the grounds of service, stature, nud good cond 
Dondtlfit and stature only when there has been m> scope for war 

might reasonably form the qaalih" cations of the privates of the 
tiolil troops ; and it is the more necessary because too many 
stances have been brought before the public of the disorderly hab 
of t he young men specially enlisted for the Guards. L< nid< »n, Winds. 
Win ehester, and C In chester,com prise the home garrisons of the Guai 
and no one can doubt that service, in at least the first named pi 
lias s very demoralising tendency. The abominable use mad 
belt, *& ornamental appendage of which soldiers should be pro 
proosods lVnin drink; of which the guardsman easily obtains too m 
in the great metropolis, His superior pay admits of a lit: 
indulgence, and the kindly feeling of the men and women with whom 
he forms acquaintance leads to " treats*' which tell upon the soldier's 
intellectual faculties as the night gradually folds the day in her 
sable mantle. There have been" during the past six months from 
forty to fifty recorded brawls, in each of which the waistbcll with 
heavy brass clasp has been employed as a weapon of offence, to the 
serious damage of many a poor citizen's sconce. The General < 
mantling in chief, would consult the dignity of the Queen in thin 
of these matters. Ay for the officers of the Guards, they need onl 
told that they must earn advancement by occasional scholastic compe- 
titions with others of corresponding rank in the Line, and my life on't 
ihoy will be found grinding away at the sciences and the languages 
with an earnestness worthy of collegiate graduates fighting for a 
fellowship. If we but glance at the contents of the model room of 
the United Service Institution, we shall see that the Guards 1 officers 
do not wholly commit themselves to the pastimes and dissipations 
of London life. 

The reference abOTti to the Imperial Guard reminds me of a 
charming military work called ( * La lie Militaire mux T 
translated by the late Sir Charies Napier in his A * Lights an. 
of Mtfitatf Ltfi ■■:■ ,\ few pages of the work are d I to a 

unburaiie'H lmumi> reply i< - the -amnions to swrrender was never uttered, Al 
officer whom thaw met, wasby bieeide when he answered, aud he a^uml uiu that 

from making the heroic response. Can ibronne simply uttered a 1*a>ilv French 
expression which will nut bear tnui^hitiun.— M> 




suggestion, that a special corps of marchers should be established in 
order to train the men to make long marches without a halt, Thero 
axe tales on record of marches made by the French troops during the 
campaign in Germany which are almost fabulous. Forty leagues in 
thirty-six hours, for example, would be a strain upon human 
strength, utterly beyond its endurance. That practice may do very 
much we all know, and nothing makes a good marcher more than 
habitual marching. Pedestrians who walk for wagers, train for matchea 
by prolonged perambulations ; they seldom stake their coin until long 
continued peripateticism has determined their capability, Xow, for 
the military application of this truth ; why does not the Commander 
in Chief require the "marching out" ordered two or three months 
ago, to be continued for a longer period than the three hours a day 
or so which comprise the period usually employed in that opera- 
tion ? Any one who has seen a regiment engaged in the marching 
out, will have noticed that most of the time is consumed in straggling 
and halting. To be effectual as a means of preparation for marching 
in an enemy's country, every corps should be accustomed to march in 
compact order for at least five or sis: hours , so that in the event of a 
sudden attack from an ambuscaded enemy, or one suddenly appearing in 
front, there will be no difficulty in establishing the requisite f* ur- 
inations. By the system of long marches the Lieut- Colonel would 
even get to know which of the men were incompetent to the task, from 
flat-foot, constitutional feebleness, or other muscular causes, and would 
thus be enabled to make their selections from the depot when the regi- 
ment is ordered on active service. 

I Till character of Englishmen, as drawn hy foreign artists, is not 
very flattering. The Erench call us perfidious, proud, and rich. 
Most continental people think of us as the French do. Brother 
Jonathan says, we are a fusion of distant and opposing elements, 
for ever doing and undoing, as though discontent is our normal con- 

Well, perhaps we have a talent for grumbling, and grumbling 
and discontent are separated by a very thin partition — still there is 
a partition, This eharaeterisftic of our English temperaments must 
be, however, considered in an English sense. And we don't care who 
knows it, as Meagrim said in the play, " discontent is an excellent 
quality/' Are not dissatisfied men discontented men, and have not 
aissatisfied men been our great discoverers and inventors ? "When a 
man is dissatisfied with a thing he sets about improving it. Your 
lazv contented men, on the contrary, have an easy way of M letting 
Well alone. 1 ' Discontent progresses — content is stationary — steam, 
railways, and electricity :ue the sublime efforts of dissatisfied minds 
So, perhaps, after all, we have no reason to be angry with our neigh- 
bours for calling us a grumbling r: 

tT. & Mao. No. 300, Mat, 1859. i> 


However, there is no general rule Without an eia rid i 

leetAB there is one subject upon which our national discontent 
not, appear to work out corresponding beneficial results, An d no 
wishing to shock the reader, promote rebellion, or affect the f 
we abstain irom mentioning the exact number of weeks 
national brain was in a state of torpidity respecting the ^v 
of the navy. Perhaps the public temperament had been over ev 
with Indian mutinies, the aggressive overbearing policy of OUl 
li faithful ally," and other odd notions, But, be that as it 
there were but few that bestowed any a3 arming anxiety about the 
condition of the navy. W© slumbered, as it turned out, in a fool'* 
paradise. H 

Nevertheless, to show how much wit and folly can exist in the 
national brain, a German critic took it into his head to rouse us out 
of our lethargv. He was a master, and knew how to strike us in a 
tender part* lie drew invidious comparisons between the maritime 
resource* of the two naval powers that fought for the mastery of tbe 
world in the bay of Trafalgar. In the Conversations Lexicon, of 
Leipsig, this writer told the continent of Europe, as well aa the 
British people, that the navy of Prance was in a better condition, 
both in men and material, than that of England* There was some 
sediment of truth at the bottom of his froth, and the touch 
John Bull was electric. From that hour the navy has been 
quotation. Its condition is upon every man's lips. We now I 
all about the service— Jack, neglected Jack, is fondled in the na* 
tibial arms Hke a doll. Our sensitive nostrils have taken quite a 
fancy to tar. We have been counting our ships too, our " Luiea of 
battle/' issuing commissions for manning the navy and improving 
the condition of our seamen, finding out all sorts of grievances and 
proposing remedies, and doing and undoing with untiring zeal that 
promises to leave nothing undone for the future. 

The chief drawback that now disturbs the official mind is that we 
i nun t*t agree as to the number of ships in our navy. One would 
imagine that nothing was easier than to reckon the number of lines- 
of-b attic by which a fleet had been increased in a particular 
but no such thing. However able we may be to calculate the mil- 
lions spent in constructing a certain class of ships , we cannot arrive 
at a correct estimate of their number j and, like dunces, we are now 
standing in foolscap for the edification and amusement of our iv faith- 
ful ally " on the other side of the channel. He must be diverted at 
our awkward attempts at notation. Is dot-and-go-one such a serious 
affair P One would think so, judging from what happened the other 
night between a late and the present '■ first Lord," in a house where 
the collective wisdom of the nation is supposed to be assembled. 

Not wishing to draw upon our imagination for facts, we will refer 
tu the debate, and give the words aa near aa may be, as they fell 
from official lips, on that occasion, 

u 1 understand the right honorable gentleman to say 9 " said Sir 
John Takington, 4t tbat eight line-of-battle -ships were 'launch, 

11 No/' replied Sir Charles Wood, " I said that eight line-of~battle- 
ships were added to the navy in 1858*** 



Sir John now returns to his slate and refreshes his memory. " I 
hold in my hand " (not in his teeth) " a return from which it appears 
that the number is four." 

But iSir Charles also held in his hand a return, stating " that the 
number was eight." 

" "Well," retorted Sir John, doggedly, " I hold in in my hand 

a document that certifies that only four were added." 

Now what in the name of sober reasoning is the meaning of all 
this ? Would not any sensible man at once conclude, that each of 
these astute arithmeticians had a valve in his brain which he could 
close at pleasure, to shut out conviction and truth, as an engineer 
shuts off his steam. In the other portions of the debate they 
talked logically enough, and showed the " house " the magnificent 
results of their respective " boards." But Sir John shut down his 
valve and looked grave when he approached the doings of Sir 
Charles's " board," and Sir Charles imitated Sir John's example. 

At the risk of being thought a candidate for Bedlam, we will en- 
deavour to explain the explanations of the last and present Admiralties. 
But we fear the reader will give us a certificate of qualification, 
when we admit that both Sir John and Sir Charles are right. That 
is to say, that each " First Lord" by shutting down his valve, and 
closing his eyes to certain facts, makes his own statement appear 
true, as far as it goes. Any examination of his opponent's facts or 
figures was interdicted with screams of terror. JSach held in his 
hand a return which they swore by — any reasoning was out of the 

Suiestion. No, down goes the valve, and Sir John was as deaf to the 
ogic of Sir Charles as Sir Charles was to the logic of Sir John. 

"We will now make an attempt to escape from this official bewilder- 
ment, and content ourselves with a very simple process of notation. 
But before attempting to regain the region of common sense, we will 
endeavour to define what is meant by a line of battle ship, and we 
have no doubt about our being able to arrive at the sum total of 
these costly vessels that now belong to our navy. 

We intend to proceed slowly, for the subject requires thought, as 
matters stand. A line of battle ship is not to be trifled with, par- 
ticularly as there seems to be no recognised method of reckoning 
ships of war, when they assume certain dimensions. There is no 
mistake about a frigate, a sloop, a corvette, or a gun boat. But 
during t certain processes of construction, reconstruction and con- 
version, which a ship has now-a-days to pass through, there is no 
knowing what she may turn out. Then in addition to these be- 
wildering elements, there is the doubt, whether a block ship of 60 
guns is or is not a line of battle ship. 

The Jesuits' motto is, " when in doubt abstain." Now we are 
not Jesuits, so we shall take high ground at once, and state our 
opinion boldly. We think, therefore, that a line of battle ship ought 
not to find its way into the navy list, until turned out of the ship- 
wright's hand, and fit to do duty afloat. We presume that taking a 
common sense view of things that a Bhip ought to be built and 
launched before she is included in her Majesty's navy. We ought 
not to reckon ships, as ships before they are kuncM^ *a*?j \s*sre> 


than we ought to reckon chickens, as chickens, before ^hey 
Hatched, Neither except in official minds can the present iueffic 
block ships receive Brevet rank as ships of the line without det 
ment to the navy- Nor should ships undergoing " conversion" 
44 sailing to steam" he considered as ships "constructing/* 

A little attention to these simple rules would have assisted ox 
late u First Lord," and out present u First Lord" in this control 
They would then have discovered that in the year 1S58, four 
of the line were "built," and four ** converted/' Any boil \ 
that there is a di fibre nee between adding eight ships of the largest 
dimensions to the navy T and building eight in a pnrticn Th 

ships may all be line of battle ships, but four were " conversions, 11 
four were il built. 11 The expense of the "conversions^ fell on 

ates of the navy for that year, while the expense of building 
the new ships, however costly, was spread over the estimates of a 
number of preceding years. It is just possible therefore, that ooe 
of the naval Lords wished to make out a better ease for his " Board" 
than he was entitled to, and this the other naval Lord objected 
And this we believe to be the cause of the controversy between tti 
J ate and present Admiralties, But it is 

" Strange thn* such a iliffrrcncc! jriiottld be 
Twixt tweedledum and twecdludco." 

We apologise to the reader, professional or otherwise, for intr 
dueing so rudimentary a subject to his notice. Our excuse is, tha 
if the highest officials in naval affairs cannot come to an m 
standing as to the exact number of these costly structures we hav 
in the service, some such simple initiatory statement as the ab 
necessary to assist the general public in its attempt to glean son 
knowledge of the manner the public money is expended. 




CoHTEHts.— Our Accept km— Panrigunge — State of llic Unoiv-Om-ih— Cir 
itanoBfl of the T hnw Otngea of tlic Clump — The Royals and "the I 

ch Sepoy* — Chuuh&tiuc CorreKpoadenoc, and Sudden Death— Jul iabod-*-0ii 
Soldiers — Luxuries of a Quiet Life— The Suldicr's Bane. 

" The sun rose bright and glorious," — No he didn't ! He emcr u 
lurid and fierce, as only an Indian Midsummer sun knows how to 
du; from an horizon rendered ob sen re by impalpable dust, sud 
during the hot season in the plains of Bengal renders still mat 
stifling an atmosphere already too stifling from its heat, and 
the extreme stillness that pervades it. 

In this wav, then, this luminary did actually rise on the twen; 
of Juno, in the year of grace eighteen hundred and iifty-eigh 
the gallant Onety-Oneth approached the outskirts of the well- 
known and hitherto wry favourite station, Dand gunge. 



Six long months before, W6 1 1 : t -• 1 marched from thta very station, to 

take a part in the operations then commencing against the re Wis in 
Glutei On that occasion we had rather flattered, ourselves that our 
appearance collectively, aud individually, was such that in the ele- 
gant jargon now so fashionable, M WB were not to he sneezed at,*' 
So also had evidently thought not a few of the fair sex, whose 
charms had brought under complete subjection some of the dispo- 
sable young men among both officers and soldiers. 

But six months of an Indian campaign — particularly when a great 
portion of it is included in the hot season, and when a regiment is 
engaged, even against a Sepoy enemy, on eighteen different occasions, 
as the Onety-Oneth had been, cannot pass over a body of men 
without leaving a few traces of its course behind. Not only had a 
change taken place in our evti rnals, but our very persons were not 
what they had been. The bright, well-iitting scarlet uniform, once 
the source of conscious pride to most of us, had now given phu 
loosely fitting habiliments of " calky " cloth, most unsuitetf by its 
mud-like hue to show off to advantage even the most favoured com- 
plexion, or by its make, the most elegant figure, albeit it possesses 
some other advantages, such as extreme comfort in wear, and extreme 
usefulness on service. 

Time, too, had indeed worked wonders in respect to our personal 
appearance. Who would now have recognised in the pale and 
bearded faced, emaciated, worn-like, and extremely dirty mortals we 
unquestionably were— the fine-looking, well set up, and dashing 
body of men who had left the station some months before. 

Yes !— I say it myself, although perhaps I shouldn't say it, seeing 
that I, the writer oi this account, formed one portion of the body 
corporate of the Onety-Oneth on this occasion. AVc did flatter 
ourselves that before the campaign, we were rather a fine-looking 
aet of fellows — and what is more, we were not the only people who 
did so. Self satisfaction may be all very well in its way, and no 
doubt is a mighty fine thing in that same particular way, but it 
strikes me forcibly, that for a young swell to make a favourable 
impression upon some frail fair one, who by acts, if not w T ords, pro- 
claims the fact, is quite as flattering, if not more so, to the vanity 
of that particular "swell, 11 than the mere fact of bis making an 
impression upon himself alone can possibly be ; and if there be any 
doubt upon the subject, 1 leave you, most courteous reader, to 
decide the point, You have, I presume, paid your money, and am 
therefore lawfully entitled to take your choice. 

While on field service we had not been utterly forgotten by the 
people of Dandgunge. The ehit-ehat of private letters told us 
that the departure of the regiment was regretted — our return 
anxiously looked forward to — and that some of the more enthusiastic 
among the unmarried ladies, never spoke of us except as B the dear 

Knowing these little facts as we did, a smile of pleasant an 
pation brightened up our service-worn faces, as we halted for a few 
minutes to get ourselves a little in shape before entering the sta- 
tion, where we were led to think a cordial and nattwxv% w*i%- 



tion awaited us. During our absence another regiment, — the iuvi 
cible aMgkty tnt'fhfh had arrived; and occupied a portion of 1 h 
tanmve range ci barrack^ still leaving room for us however. Tl 
aificent band came out to meet and play us in,'*— striking 
as we returned our marcli, " See the conquering hero c 
although in our numerous engagements with the rebels, the 
pidity of their retreat rendered it a matter of Borne difficulty 
fairly earn the appellation, — and t lien f as equally appropriate, c 
progress was further enlivened by the merry strains of " Auld 
syne/* although the two regiments baa never, — not :n the mi 
of the oldest inhabitant — never met. 

And now we are met by some people of both sexee— gentlemeo 
on horseback, ladle* fair, pale, and delicate, lolling hack in 
cushioned carriages,— private soldiers on foot, and half caste boys 
on wretched bazaar ponies, all intent upon one purpose — to aee the 
Onetv-Oneth march into the station, covered as they were v> 
very small quantity of glory, but by a disagreeable amount of daft 
ana perspiration. 

Hourly recognitions were exchanged by former acquaintancea— 
hearty smiles by those who were or wished to become more th 
mere acquaintances, and even the indifferent gpeetatora seemed 
express a paesive pleasure at the circumstance ot our adv* 

Thus excited by what had become a goodly cavalcade, we en" 
the large and dreary-looking barrack square of Dandgunge ; 
while the regiment is being told off in companies previous to 
more getting under a roof, let us, if you please, dear reader, take 
short survey of what are to become our hot weather quarters, 

On a slightly elevated narrow strip of land skirting the bank of 
the holy Ganges, Maud in the shape of a gigantic oblong square the 
military building that constitute the station of Dandgunge, thi§ 
gigantic square being converted into two smaller ones, by the very 
simple measure of building a range of quarters directly* across, for 
the accommodation of officers. 

iM far as the general appearance of the place was coneenn 
there was little, or indeed nothing at all in it to create in us 
favorable impression. Yet we looked forward with pleasant nntiei- 

n to being allowed for some months at least to enjoy the 
and quiet— nay, even the monotony of cantonment life, after t 
severe and arduous service we had "performed, and the exposure 
Hi mate to which we had been subjected. 

And, were enur reception indicative at ail of the treatment to 
expected from the residents, we had every reason to look form 
hopefully to the enjoyment* that awaited us during the few months 
that, under any eircum stances . we should he permitted to remain in 
quarters, for the rainy season was close upon us ; heavy clouds had 
for some days been darkening more and more the eastern sky, thus 
indicating the near approach of the rains, which we well knew 
necessarily terminate, for three months at least, all militarv 
liona upon a large scale against the mutinous Sepoys, 

It may well be san} that no body of men ever arrived at a r:m 
ment in India more ready to appreciate civility, and to return it 

10 ft 




compound interest, than we of the onety-oneth were when we 
marched into Dandgungc, 

Hard work in every shape, discomfort in every conceivable form, 
frequent attacks, and scarcely less frequent midnight alarms, had 
made up the sum of our existence during the preceding six months. 
Death T wounds, and sickness had each done their work amongst ua, 
and the u shattered remnant" of what we had once been (to quote 
an expression employed afterwards by the clergyman, in his address 
to the corps), conscious as it was of having wholly done its duty, 
not only in upholding the honour of beloved England, hut in dealing 
retribution to the murderers of the fair and the helpless, did look 
for some definite expression of welcome from people whose apparent 
enthusiasm had induced a considerable number of them to come out 
to some distance, for the mere pleasure of meeting us. 

How tar our anticipations were realized, how far disappointed, 
shall appear in the sequeL As, however, the proceedings about to bo 
related form but a mere type of every-day life at almost every mili- 
tary station in Bengal, I take leave to chronicle them with more 
minuteness than they woidd otherwise deserve, being after all little 
more than happen every day on board large passenger ships, and 
little Peildlingtons every where, where people know a vast deal too 
much of each other's business, and take a little too much interest in 
what does not in any manner of way concern them. 

It must be mentioned, as one of the peculiar customs of Indian 
! \ . that those last arriving at a station are expected to call upon 
the residents. This custom has many advantages f and is upon the 
whole, perhaps, better adapted for the particular circumstances of 
the country than would be the English custom of the residents being 
the first to call. 

With us, however, we could not be said to be about to form new 
acquaintances, Many of the people who constituted "society" 
were old friends, and a still larger number old acquaintances ; while 
some few only, who had arrived in our absence, were to be visited 
for the first time, 

During the terrible ordeal through which our fellow-countrymen 
— aye, and fellow-countrywomen — in Bengal had but recently 
passed, we need not wonder that a settled melancholy was for a time 
thrown over society* How could it have been otherwise, when 
l-< aively a family throughout the length and breadth of the land had 
not to mourn the cruel and untirnelv death — if, indeed, no worse 
fate — of several of its members ? Otner families were completely 
broken up by the sad circumstances of the times. In some in- 
stances the wife and children had, on the first outbreak of Sepoy 
fury and treachery, been hurried away to England to escape the fate 
that overtook their less fortunate brothers, sisters, and cousins at 
Bfoerut, Delhi, and C&wnpore. In others the husbands were still 
on field service, their wives clubbing together in houses or barracks, 
endeavouring by this means to mitigate as far as possible the anxiety 
and the painful uncertainty they naturally experienced on account 

iose whose fkees they were, in some cases, aks ! doomed e 
again to behold on this side the grave, 




There was thus much, very much, in the circumstances of the resi- 
dents of Dandgunge to pot entertainments, or any description of 
gaiety, far from their thoughts. So also there was during all i 
and the greater part of 1858, to break un the demon strat ions of 
society over all this side of India, But will matters in this n 
ever recover their former state before the mutinies ? I believe they 
never will. Lute events have changed, and will still more chang 
the whole face of society in India ; and this by the operation 
many causes, some of which maj be noted here — some of which lumy 
be left untold. 

The type of the " old Indian" ceased to exist from the first mo* 
ment hi a adored and much admired high- caste native soldier turne 
traitor to his Government, and in return for the devoted kinducp 
and solicitous attention of the officer who had grown grey in minis 
tering to his wants, in consulting his peculiar feelings and prejmlu 
until at last he admired, and would fain have himself adopted thflOL 
— slew that very officer's children, put to a cruel death his wife and 
daughters, and would have hacked himself to pieces had the fleetness 
of his steed not carried him beyond their reach, 

It was officers of this description — and bo it remarked that 1 am 
not applying the term *' old Indian' 'to the class as an epithet of dis- 
respect — who in India's palmy days gave society the character for 
hospitality and friendliness that contrasted so favourably with the 
stillness, the coldness, and reserve of society in England; but with 
the first terrible blast of mutiny that, sirocco-like, swept over the 
country, carrying death and destruction in its course, the old state 
of society perished in an instant; and even yet that which will in due 
time be reconstructed from its ruins has scarcely assumed a definite 

Then, with the suicide of the native army, came the painful con- 
viction to the minds of the British officers attached to it, that their 
prospects in life had sustained a heavy blow, if indeed they were not, 
as they unquestionably were, in many instances utterly annihilated. 

Accustomed, as they had hitherto been, to consider the Sepoys 
as the real guardians of the empire, they felt themselves not unna- 
turally not only astonished, but utterly overwhelmed and amassed, 
when the very men in whom they had trusted with a confidence that 
now surprises themselves, threw oft" their allegiance, burst into open 
mutiny, dealing destruction upon lives and property they had sworn 
to protect and defend* Still more overwhelming than even this cir- 
cumstance, unexpected as it was, was the influx of British troops 
that almost immediately set in, and has up to the present time con- 
tinued, like one interminable stream T to pour into the country, car- 
rying with it home feelings, sympathies, and ideas, that must, as in- 
evitably as cause is followed by etfect, swamp, drown, and utterly 
destroy the habits, the prejudices, and the faith, that have for thou* 
sands of years retarded the people of the land in the march ot 
civilization, and given to our own countrymen who have resided long 
nmong them certain characteristics that distinguish them as a body 
from the purely English, whose nationality has not been destroyed* 

The old residents iu India generally, and those in Dandgungp f 

1859.] THOif CJlUV TO QUAHTfflfl. 

particular, had scarcely begun to recover from the feelings of disap- 
pointed confidence, chagrin, and amazement, produced by the cir- 
cumstances just related, when another skeleton, more terrible to 
look upon, perhaps, than any of these, rose before their already more 
than astonished eyes. Tho Honourable East India Company — that 
mysterious power, towards which from early infancy they had been 
taught to look with reverence and respect, and In comparison to 
which the Queen's Government was weak and helpless — the East 
India Company was about to be extinguished, in as far as its poli- 
tical functions were concerned, " The Royals " were about to sweep 
over India, and like a flight of locusts eat up every green thing, 
Staff appointments, snug situations, patronage in various shapes, to 
say nothing of the old and well beloved pecuniary £t allowan 
AD, all these were about to be swept away for ever, and in their 
stead to arise a state of affairs uncertain in its hideous form, and 
most disastrous to existing interests. 

Such at least was the general view taken of the transition state 
through which India has been gradually advancing since IS* 7, The 
residents of our station were almost to a man servants of that very 
Company whose existence now hung not only upon a slender thread, 
but upon a thread one of whose strands was broken. Is it then to 
be wondered at if we soon discovered a certain amount of reserve, if 
not positively adverse feeling towards us, and indeed that we 
looked upon as being a necessary evil, rather than an acquisition ? 

But before proceeding further with my account of cantonment 
life, I must say a few words regarding the remnants of the Sepoy 
regiments that have remained at Dandgunge since the mutiny of the 
corps to which they belonged, hi July, 1857. 

It is said that these men have remained loyal, or, in the language 
of the time, "staunch." Let u£ see for a few minutes what the 
latter expression means as applied to them ; but, in order to prose- 
cute the inquiry* we must go back to a time eleveu months prior to 
that when my narrative, properly speaking, begins. 

Ajs we marched into Dandgungc, from the westward, several 
ranges of temporary barracks for European troops, built upon a 
ridge of land that separated the principal ruad from the river-bank, 
indicated what had once been the site of the native u lines " or huta 
in which the Sepoys had been allowed to live, congregate, di 
imaginary grievances, and form plana for what jbrtunately proved to 
be their own destruction. 

One of the principal civil authorities in India has placed upon 
record his opinion that the mutiny of the Sepoys at Dandgunge was 
inconceivable ; the result was, that, acting upon this conviction, he 
refused permission to the local authorities to adopt such preventive 
measures as their less clouded judgment enabled them to see were 
absolutely necessary if mutiny, and perhaps murder, were to be 
averted t 

But even the local authorities gave the Sepoys credit for possess- 
ing far higher courage than the result proved them to possess. 

On the 26th July, almost three entire black regiments or oke away. 
Artillery guns were brought up against them, but were not c^t^n^s* 




them until the fleeing masses had got well beyond range. This very 
regiment, the Oneif-Qneti had been, by order of a station official, 
drawn up behind their own barracks, where they were further 
ordered to load, as the mutinous Sepoy a, were they to see them, 
would become frightened. While the general officer, either 
seized with a terrible conviction that the brave native troops wer 
about to amhilale every w T hito man, woman, and child in the neigh- 
bourhood, or with a powerful desire to examine the mysteries of tl 
steam engine, proceeded direct on hoard a steamer, then in 
river, and It is even said picked himself up in the stoker's room* 

Meantime, while the General, accompanied by bis brilliant et 
was studying the steam engine in action, the native regiments wer 
fleeing across the half submerged rice fields that skirt the sta 
but there were a few of their numbers who, happening to have be 
upon various duties within the range of barracks at the commeiic 
ment of the outbreak, had not an opportunity to join their comrades, 
and of this remnant one small body deserves especial notice. 

A native sergeant and twelve privates formed a guard over some 
mess property belonging to one of their own regiments,, that, for 
the sake of greater security, was kept in the quarters of one oJ 
officers. This officer was a married man ; but lie happening to have 
been away in the direction of the Sepoy lines when the alarm of 
mutiny was first raised, his wife was thus left alone with men 
whom she well knew only wanted courage and opportunity to rer 
the atrocities that had been committed in other stations. 

Already had these men flown to their arms, when the lady, know- 
ing that iiesitation or indecision would inevitably be fatal to herself 
coolly walked up to them, and demanded that they should give up 
their amis. 

The request was received with loud muttering* and scowls, the 
meaning of which could not be misunderstood. ** Give up your arma 
this instant," she reiterated in a still more resolute tone, and with 
more determined manner, 

tt "What if we do not give up our arms P" 

* I will call upon the soldiers, and they will kill every one 

M And if we do 

" I will do my best to keep tbe soldiers from you." 

(t Mem a- Sahib —you are our father and our mother, and we are your 
slaves I" So saying, the whole guard gave up their arms to this one 
lady; and not only gave up their arms, but some of them insisted 
upon concealing themselves from the dreaded soldiers by taking 
refuge under her bed, and in other somewhat peculiar places. 

Small guards elsewhere throughout the station were only too glad 
to be allowed to throw down their arms to any body, and the rem- 
nants thus collected form what is now called the loyal Sepoys of the 
late native army j loyal merely because they could not help them- 

For some time after this occurrence, the habitual strut of the 
Sepoy was, to use a very vulgar but expressive phrase, completely 

give them up, will you promise to spare our 




taken out of the sorry reumant that remained j and it was shortly 
afterwards still more taken out of the in by a trilling occurrence that 
may be mentioned here. 

It was not only suspected, but absolutely demonstrated to all who 
were not wilfully blinded to the fact, that this very remnant, who 
allowed to remain in the immediate vicinity of the barrack 
square, were in the habit of harbouring emissaries from the rebel 
camp, and holding secret correspondence with their comrades who 
had mutinied. 

Spies were on more than one occwion followed into the small 
group of tents in which the Sepoys were accommodated, but, as a 
matter of course, not found; representations were made of the cir- 
cumstance to the officers of the mutinous regiments, but they, 
blinded and infatuated to the last, could not or would not believe it. 
hi last, one evening, just as darkness a waa dosing in, an uncus- 
t likeable spy w;is Jol lowed by some soldiers to the Btepqr camp, but, 
as usual, with no further suet ess. The man was lost in the crowd, 
but before the following morning several of the loyal men had died 
suddenly by bayonet wounds through the chest, and several more 
were lying in "hospital, suffering from severe attacks of the same 

lUn erf or ward the Sepoys doifed the unilbrm they had disgraced; 
they rammed their original costume as tillers of the ground; and 
instead of their hitherto overhearing manner, now walked with 
stooping gait and downcast loota. 

But towards the end of the year the Onety-Oneth, of whicn they 
evidently had stood in wholesome awe, took the field ; and now the 
staunch Sepoys, relieved of an incubus, once more appeared the full- 
blown swells they wished themselves to be considered. Uniform 
was once again resumed, albeit the wearers felt and looked more 
awkward in their regimental habiliments than they had ever done 
before. Ouce more the head was borne aloft, the chest stuck out 
until the jacket buttons snapped, or dragged their stems half of; 
and the ridiculous salute with which the Sepoy had once upon a time 
loved to greet the hated Feringhee, again took its place in his daily 

Alas ! alas ! that so much dory must, like all sublunary things, 
have an end. The writer of this paper had occasion to preeedY 
regiment into Dand^unge, where I arrived on the day before it was 
expected, and beheld the gallant remnant of the native regiments 
parading in various directions, as I have just related. Having tran- 
sacted the business that brought me there, 1 ivjuined the corps, but 
judge, most respected reader, wlu it was my surprise when, as we 
lied in, not one Sepoy in uniform was to be seen. They had 
ascertained that the to them terrible Onety-Oneth was about to enter 
the station, and the result was that from that day till this day, some 
eight months afterwards, when we again left the place 3 not one of 
the native " details/* as the remnants were called, over presumed to 
appear in uniform. 

From 8epoys let us turn for a little to our own brave soldiers — 
worn and weary as they were by arduous service during the hat 


period of an unusually hot season. u How dreadfully sickly they 
must have been, poor fellows/* is no doubt the spontaneous 
exclamation of some comfortable, although gouty *' old English gen 
Uem&n," who, seated in his easy library chair, does me the honour to 
peruse these pages. 

My very dear Sir, they were less sickly than the soldiers of the 
Aughty-Aughth, who had not been aclivly employed, and who now 
occupied some of the same range of barracks as ourselves. 

It had been the custom of the superior officers, with the force of 
which we had lately formed a part, to send to the nearest station any 
men who became severely iH ; the result was that those who remained 
with us throughout the operations in which we had been enga 
were in reality the very strongest and naturally the most healthy in 
the regiment ; yet we scarcely expected to have contrasted ao 
favourably as we did in this respect with a corps that had been com* 
fortablc in quarters throughout the previous unhealthy mouthy. 

"lint were the men not delighted 'to get back to barracks?*' 

" Yes, my good sir, very much delighted indeed, and for various 
reasons, some of which, I will, if you please, do myself the gratifica- 
tion to tell you" 

As second in the list of military virtues, obedience being the first, 
so also second among social virtues, but chief among personal ne- 
cessities In India, stands cleanliness ; we all, both officers and mm, 
had missed this extreme luxury for months, and one of tho principal 
enjoyments to which we looked forward in quarters was the luxury 
of frequent personal ablution and clean linciu But there were many- 
other luxuries to which we had looked forward in hopeful anticipation, 
and which we most thoroughly did enjoy. 

Our meals — breakfast, dinner, tea, coffee, soup — in fact every 
article or description of food, had £>r months and months be- 
copiously sprinkled with sand and dust, from having to be cooked in 
the open air, that the ordinary lite- long allowance of a peck of dust 
could scarcely, under the moat favourable circumstances while i 
paigning, have lasted the most moderate eater among us a month. 
What an extreme luxury then it was to obtain nicely cooked meals, 
containing neither santi^ nor duat, nor the debris of still more objec- 
tionable matters. 

Then we had the luxury of clean bedding — no alarms at night, 
no sudden wakening up by a dust storm, half smothering us as we 
lay in bed, and momentarily threatening to carry our flimsy tent 
away into the higher regions of the atmosphere," leaving us devoid 
of extra drapery, to do battle with the elements on mother earth, 

For some time, therefore, all went smooth and pleasant ; we en- 
joyed our change, and when by and bye the heavy rain poured down 
m tor rents j the barrack square becoming one dismal swamp, tenanted 
only by frogs, great and small, and adjutant birds standing on tam 
leg, or awkwardly stalking after some drowned reptile, %ve even b< 
to congratulate ourselves, and talk in tones of sympathy of less for- 
tunate regiments that still were in the field. Nor must I omit to 
mention one other luxury of which we partook on coming into quar- 
ters, Hitherto we had scarcely known what it was to taste fruit or 



rnou camp to quabtebs. 


vegetables, neither of which could be obtained in the part of the 
country through which our route lay. It may certainly appear 
strange at first sight that a body of men, marching as we were from 
day to day, through some of the richest and most prolific portions of 
India* wore unable to procure some of the very products for which 
the country is famous . Tet so it was \ probably much on the same 
principle that, during long voyages at sea, fresh sea fish becomes one 
of the greatest rarities at table. 

The consequence of this continued want of vegetables and fruit 
was a state of loss of health, that would unquestionably have obliged 
numbers to succumb had the deprivation continued much longer. 
As it was we were all, both soldiers and officers, seized with a craving 
absolutely painful for these productions of the garden ; and when 
first we tinu an opportunity of indulging our appetite in this respect, 
the quantity of green food that disappeared was only less marvellous 
than the fact that, instead of dying of cholera as we ought, according 
t ■■ p aU rides, to have done, not only did we all feel much better after 
the feast, but some of us who bad been Buffering from the particular 
^es in which fruits and vegetables are most rigidly prohibited 
by u the faculty," underwent so immediate and so definite an im- 
provement, that in the height of their enthusiasm they could not 
resist exclaiming mentally, it not actually, Cl Astringents to the dogs* 
and mangoes for ever!'* a sentiment in which I cordially coincide. 

But among all there causes of self-gratulation upon our return to 
quarters, there was one horrid phantom that haunted us, blasting 
by its pestiferous breath much of our sources of happiness. This 
was that terrible and irresistable desire for spirituous drinks, that 
constitutes the bane of the soldier wherever and whenever circum- 
stances permit him to indulge his vicious taste in this reap- 

Not that the men of the Onety-Oneth were a whit worse than their 
comrades in other regiments. On the contrary, they were perhaps 
better than the majority. And yet it was sad to think of the amount 
of injury, in many respects, that they brought upon themselves from 
this cause during the first few weeks they were in barracks, Loss 
of character, degradation to the ranks, wounds and bruises, disease 
in various forms* some the most hideous and revolting, were among 
the results of indulgence in this vice. And yet I do not see how 
such things can be altogether prevented under circumstances such 
as ours on the present occasion. 

There are various methods, all more or less effectual t for meeting 

this evil, but a general narrative, such as this, is not the proper place 

to enter at length into a consideration of their comparative advantages, 

I may observe, however, that one of the most certain methods 1 have 

witnessed to put an effectual stop to drunkenness in a regi 

rk " the men literally so hard that they have not tame to 
barracks in search of liquor, the crime being at the same time 
punished with the utmost rigour it is in the power of the command- 
ing officer to exert. This seems to be a cruel nroeeeding, and so it 
UI..V be to the individuals concerned, while the fact of exacting extra 
duty from the men brings immediate numahmcDt upon the good, as 
well as deserved punishment upon the irregular characters. 




This, however, must necessarily bo the case, ami wo can only 
deplore the necessity, for as in the government of all large bodies, 
bo in that of a regiment, the consideration of what ia most conducive 
to the general well being of the whole, must effectually overweigh the 
particular circumstances and convenience of individuals. 

But I find there are so many subjects to claim attention in an 
account of "Soldiering* 1 iu India at the present time that the dimen- 
sions of my paper have already almost reached the pcrmissable limits. 
The further remarks upon manner of Hie in cantonment s after f 
service must therefore be reserved till next month. 

I units, 
r field 


It was the poetic prayer of a well-known writer that some po, 
might endow us with the faculty of seeing ourselves as others see us. 
The gratification of such a wish may not always produce a very 
pleasing impression, and to say the truth, our neighbour^ whether 
we speak as individuals or as a nation , seldom leave us in doubt as 
to what they think of us. As a nation, no people are so self-fault* 
finding as the English, and, perhaps, no nation is so indifferent I 
the opinion of others. There is a strong honesty of intention in 
John Bull that makes him sell-reliant, and a stubborn pride that 
renders him defiant. Still we are not wholly regardless of opinion, 
but the value we attach to it, must be commensurate with tin- 
estimate we form of the judgment and good faith of him who assumes 
the task of pronouncing on our conduct. The flippant remarks of 
a superficial thinker we pass unheeded by, but the approval of an 
earnest man is ever a welcome tribute to our honest pride, and his 
reproof — if he reprove — is sure to bespeak our attention. 

In the latter class we must place the distinguished French writ 
efOll now lies before us. Le Commandant-Ch. Martin has 
chosen for his subject :— " The Military Power of the English in 
India, and the Insurrection of the Sepoys." 

The talented author describes the trying phase of our political 
existence in India in a spirit of the most generous admiration fat 
the valiant who fought and triumphed, and with the tenderest sym- 
pathy for the doomed who fell victims in that terrible struggle. 

To do justice to the book would require a larger space than 
can afford, bat we shall endeavour to lay before our readers in a 
brief view, the design of the author and the manner in which his 
objects are carried out. 

M. Martin's work may be divided into two parts. The first gives 
a brief account of the early history of India, beginning at a period 
anterior to the conquest of Alexander, sketching the career of the 
various Mogul sovereigns, to the time when Nadir Schah invaded 
Delhi, We have then an account of the discovery of the passage 
round the Cape by the Portuguese, of their settlements on the east 
coast of Africa, and in Asia ; and we are told how they were followed 


by other Europeans, the Dutch, the English, and the French. "We 
then learn the forty years' struggle between the two latter powers, 
and how the English remained masters of India. From this time, 
the history of India is only a record of wars between the English 
and the native princes, until by force of arms, by treaties, or by 
annexation, the company ruled over those vast tracts as they were 
before the revolt of 1857. " 

The second part of the work is devoted exclusively to an account 
of the Sepoy insurrection. The author has found materials for the 
first part in the works of writers on Indian history, but for the 
second part the sources of his information were very different 

The despatches of French generals are sufficiently minute in detail 
to gratify the curiosity of every individual in the nation, whilst the 
despatch of an English general is for the most part limited to stating 
the result of an action, rarely entering into details. English 
despatches are, as our author remarks, of " incomparable dryness." 
In this dearth of information from head quarters, we should be in 
pitiable anxiety, touching our absent soldiers, did not the daily press 
by the publication of private letters allay our inquietude and 
satisfy our longings. 

The sentiments of Le Commandant Martin are so apropos of this 
Btate of things, that we cannot forbear quoting his words : — " France 
and England do not differ alone in their mode of making war, each has 
a peculiar manner of relating its events. It would be necessary to 
study as we have done, in the English journals, this interesting 
nhase of cotemporary history, in order to have an idea of the con- 
tusion, the disconnection, the chaos that prevailed for a long time in 
all the accounts relating to Indian affairs. Official documents, 
private letters, interesting details are furnished in abundance, but 
considerable embarrassment arises from the difficulty of discrimina- 
ting and selecting from this confused heap ; and when we have 
chosen, we are often at a loss how to arrange them with a due regard 
to place and chronological order. In France, the official reports are, 
in general, full of interest, and depict in glowing language the 
military deeds recounted for the information of the home authorities. 
On the other hand, the correspondence in our journals is singularly 
barren, and as to private letters, the few that are published do not 
excite any regret for those that are suppressed. In short, in war, 
as in other matters, the French are fond of delegating to one the 
task of acting as mouthpiece for the community. ,, 

" The despatches of the English generals are, on the contrary, of 
incomparable brevity. Military literature is still a desideratum 
amongst our neighbours. Officers from the highest to the lowest 
grade generally content themselves, in their reports, with narrating 
with imperturbable coolness, the movements of the different regi- 
ments, and the result of the action. The most terrible engagements 
are talked of as calmly as if they were only reviews, and probably a 
French officer would describe a review with more eloquence and 
animation. But it is not in these despatches that the English seek 
the history of their wars. They seek and they find it in books and 
in the glowing descriptions of their journals, and ia tha q^rs^^brr^r^ 




letters which the officers, for the most part well-educated men, write 
to their families. It is from t^ese sources they learn the truth, and 
there ttwy see it depicted in the most glowing colours. Each n 
his adventures » and each comments upon them with the energy and 
humour characteristic of our neighbours. It is in the narrative of pri- 
vate individuals that the English public learn at the same time the 
events that occur and the measures that ought to be taken — these 
letters satisfy, at once, public curiosity, and tend to form public 
opinion. ,J 

Our author comes to the review of the Sepoy insurrection with 
sentiments avowedly favourable to England ♦ he will not ibr a mo- 
ment hear of any but a triumphant result lor the arms of Great 
Britain, and he founds this belief upon the experience of past events. 
The natives have never been able to stand against the Europeans, 
even with odds often to one in their favour 5 witness the battle of 
Plassy, where Clive, with 9,000 Europeans and 2,000 Sepoys, de- 
feated an Indian army 60,000 strong. The Duke of "Wellington at 
the battle of Assay, at the head of 5,000 men, of whom only 2,000 
vi ere Europeans, defeated 50,000 Mabrattas, commanded by Hoikar. 
11 Ko," exclaims our author, " notwithstanding the numerous imper- 
fections of the military system of Great Britain — imperfect 
which, as we shall see hereafter, arc amongst the main causes of the 
Indian insurrection, England will emerge victorious from thii 
struggle," She has more to dread from the climate than from the 
Sepoys , who, eveu when trained to the art of war by the English 
themselves, proved their inefficiency when brought iu contact with 
their masters. At the siege of Delhi, if indeed the presence of a 
handful of men before a vast city could be called a siege, the Sepoys 
were in an overwhelming majority, and were defeated. Our Con- 
tinental neighbours err in estimating our real strength by our nu- 
merical force. M. Martin bids them remember the small number 
of English soldiers, scattered through Bengal, that were able to make 
head against the first outbreak. 

It is not often that we hear ourselves eulogized by a stranger in 
such terms as these : '* Those who base their calculations on the 
presumed exhaustion of the military strength of England, appear to 
JWget that England is, after all, a nation of twenty-eight millions, 
and whatever might be the defects of her military organization, she 
was able to send 00,000 men to Sebastopoh And shall we not take 
into account the moral strength of a nation that has always propor- 
tioned her eilurts to the difficulties to be overcome ; a nation that 
might indeed be beaten, and that generally is beaten at the com- 
mencement of her wars, but that rarely allows her courago to sink, 
and that, <m the contrary, seems to gain strength as the conflict m 

M. Martin further assures sceptics that even were all the troops 
stationed in India, all the civil officers, all the resident European*, 
all the reinforcements, destroyed, massacred, annihilated, still Great 
Britain would not abandon India, An European war even would 
not induce her to renounce these possessions, and twenty years hence, 
she would be as ready to sacrifice, as she is at the present day, ships 


gold, and soldiers, to re-establish her sovereignty in these lands. 
" An inflexible firmness, of which we have had so many proofs, is 
one of the good qualities of those Anglo-Saxons who possess so many 
others to compensate for their pride and egotism. We may be cer- 
tain that the Sepoy revolt will be suppressed, if not in six months, 
in a year, or in two, or in twenty ; but appearances lead us to believe 
that tranquillity will be speedily restored." 

M. Martin having spoken thus confidently of the restoration of 
Anglo-Indian power, proceeds to consider the causes that led to the 
Sepoy insurrection. This revolt, he believes, to be military, not 
national, though he by no means denies that the mal-administration 
of the Company aggravated the general feeling of discontent and 
hastened the development of the outbreak. He altogether refuses 
a feeling of patriotism or a sense of national honour to the Indian 
populations, and believes their moral inferiority to be so great that 
they must always stand awed in the presence 01 Europeans ; besides, 
they could not be insensible to the advantages of British rule, 
which, with all its defects, was far more lenient than that of any 
of their former masters. Viewed in this light, the Hindoo is 
sensible of only two influences, the loss of caste, or the diminution 
of pay. Caste is with him rather a social than a religious dis- 
tinction ; it is caste that gives him the strongest hold on the 
affections of his family and his friends ; it is to caste he is indebted 
for his social rank. It was under the influence of such feelings that 
the suspicion of having been betrayed into tasting the fat of pork 
excited his utmost indignation. He believes it to be the result of a 
conspiracy on the part of the Government to deprive him of caste. 
The spirit of revolt was ripe before the greased cartridges came into 
existence ; their appearance was only the last drop that makes the 
bucket overflow. Besides, there had been defalcations on the part 
of the Government with respect to pay. On one occasion, when 
the Sepoy army was ordered to cross the Sutledge, the men refused, 
unless their pay was increased. Their demand was granted ; but 
after the annexation of Oude, when the Government found them- 
selves ^strong, this addition was withdrawn. That was another 
cause of discontent for the Sepoys. Still were there no other 
causes of dissatisfaction, or were the Sepoys the sole malcontents, 
the insurrection of 1857 might have been suppressed as easily as 
several that preceded. 

It cannot be denied that the mal-administration of the Company 
was the radical cause why the late insurrection was so widespread. 
When, either by the fortune of war or by treaty, a native prince 
was obliged to yield his throne, the Company was very glad to 
settle on him and his heirs an ample income. After the death of 
the first annuitant, it too often happened that the Company sought 
a pretext to disinherit the heirs. Sometimes they were females, and 
not cognizable by the Mahommedan law ; sometimes they were adopted 
sons, and not legal heirs, according to English law. By quibbles of 
this kind a great number of queens and princes had been deprived 
of their inheritance ; and we may suppose with what feelings tWj ^ 
regarded their English rulers. The terrible Naaa. ^k£& ^^ «^^ ^ 
those who had to complain of an estranged \sta«xto»s\fifc •, «&&■ ^^^ 

U. S. Mag., No. 366, May, 1859. ^ 


10 no doubt that the gold of these dethroned princes was one o) 
groat levers of ion, 

other cause (we are still quoting the sentiments of M* Martin) 
was tlie mistaken philanthropy of the missionaries, who, eondein 
the proceedings of the Company, became partisans of tin 
whose good qualities they extolled to the skies ; and the freedom, of 
rather, license of the press, which permitted the publi 

sentiments, tended to lower the Executive in the eyes o 
natives, and to lead them to exaggerate their own importance, 
the other hand, the conduct of those officers who endeavoured 
induce their soldiers to embrace Christianity, excited distrust upon 

ground; for 1 lie Sepoys, dreading above all things the 
of caste, wavered in their fidelity to officers, whose friendship & 
to be purrliitrii :ili! the sacrifice of their dearest prejuc 

The greased cartridges might have produced on minds in due 
by these feelings, an effect which, without a knowledge of previous 
eircum stances, might appear disproportionate io the cfl 

Considered iu this point of view, it is evident that the l&J 
notion was a military, not a national, movement. Sepoy t\ 
had uot been mifrequent during the previous half century, and il 
must he ad mil led that provocation was always given by the. gover 
menfc. Fifty years a^o, the great insurrection of VelWe, th 
fomented and encouraged by the family of Tippoo Saib, owe 
origin to some attempted alterations in the distinctive marks of the 
ftepoy caates* 

Twenty-fire years later, we find the Sepoys revolting at Ban 
pore. It happened that two regiments, the one European, the other 
native, had received orders to march to Arraeam '1 he place was 
kuown to be pestilential, and every precaution was taken to se 
the well-being of the European soldier, whilst the native reg:: 
was wholly neglected. The Sepoys, exasperated by such treat i 
refused to march, unless they, as well as the Europeans, were pro- 
vided with the means of transporting their baggage* On this a amah 
num. of money was granted by government, which the men re! 
because it was neither sufficient for the purpose required, nor could 
beasts for transport he procured at so short a notice, Tli 
obstinately refused to move, unless the government supplied all tin 
requirements tor the march, This was decisive, Th refit- 

incut was passed in review before two of Europeans, and it is ea 
masked battery of six cannon. The refusal of the tfepoya to lay 
(hum their arms, was followed by a I grape and « disci 

of musketry from the two European regiments. One hm 
Sepoys fell. A short while after, the government issued 
importing that in future native regiments should be supplied with 
beasts for the transport of their baggage. 

M. Martin finds a complete analogy between these early revolts 
and that of 1857, and maintains that had Sir John Lawrence 
present on the occasion of the disaffection about the greased car- 
tridges, lie would have acted with as much firmness as Gillespey did 
formerly at Vellore, and the insurrection might have been nippc 
the buol L'jii'ortunately ? the Generals, tfearsay and Hewitt, did nut 
seem to comprehend that their position being similar, they ought to 


have adopted the same means that had been successfully tried by 
their predecessors a quarter of a century before. 

Theoretically speaking, European officers trained to the Indian 
service, have all held the same opinion, both as to the ever-present 
peril that results from the enormous disparity between the native 
and European troops, and the means of suppressing insubordination. 
And the procedures of the English in India during the last year, jus- 
tify the theory. The circumstances of the last insurrection, even 
the mode of punishment, — the disarming of the Sepoys, the execu* 
tion of the criminals, — all correspond exactly with the events of fifty 
years before. Unfortunately, weak and nerveless imitators are not 
competent to play the part of those stout warriors, who conquered 
India for Britain. The burdens they bore cannot be supported by 
feeble successors. The same means employed too late, or inoppor- 
tunely by a Hewitt or a Lloyd, might produce results diametrically 
opposite to those contemplated. 

The disbanding of the Sepoys must be regarded as a grave error, 
because, as the great Wellington remarked on a former occasion, 
when the armies of the deposed Indian princes were broken up, by 
depriving the native soldier of his pay, you fling him upon his own 
resources, and he becomes a highway robber. The soldiers thus dis- 
missed took refuge under the standard of Nana Sahib and the leaders 
of the rebellion. 

If the conduct of the commanders at Meerut excites the ire of 
Commandant Martin, he is loud in praise of the brothers Lawrence, 
"these two worth y representatives of old England, who by their valour 
and devotedness have preserved the honour of her flag inviolate.*' 

Without doubting for a moment the final result of the struggle in 
India, M. Martin does not always approve the tactics of the British 
commanders. He thinks the campaign of March against Lucknow 
was premature ; that it would have been wiser after the deliverance 
of the Residence, to defer the reduction of Oude for some time, to 
have left full scope to the insurgents, amongst whom dissensions 
would have certainly sprung up, and to have employed all the dis- 
posable strength of the army in re-establishing order along the right 
bank of the Ganges. 

The army of Sir Colin Campbell would have amply sufficed for 
this purpose, during the cold weather, and before the warm season 
set in ; all the important frontier points might have been strength- 
ened by military posts, which would have secured the ultimate suc- 
cess of the Commander-in-Chief on the Goumty. The hot season 
might have been employed in re-establishing the civil administration 
of the country on its original basis, and in preparing quietly for the 
campaign in Oude, where the rebellion might, under such circum- 
stances, have been finally suppressed. 

It is with many apologetic expressions that M. Martin proceeds 
to criticise the general plans of the later military operations in India. 
On so gigantic a battle-field the best drawn plans on paper become 
useless, so much must be allowed for the exigencies of the moment,* 
and the unexpected turn of events. Still there oxe> ^t&ws^ ^ iSXSsS ^ a 
mental principles in war whioh belong to sXV \raas* wcA^^***^* -\ 
toeglect of whi ch will infallibly iaflLuca &&& c^B^jj^sas^^ ^ 




i at 


Judging according to these principles, it was imprudent, after the 
check given by the Gvvalior troops to General Windham in J 
ber, to leave this important contingent on the right flank, and i 
rear of the army } it was contrary to the rules of war (n march 
Lueknow before having destroyed or dispersed a focus of reaiatail 
ilic more dangerous, as it would necessarily serve as a rallying poi 
to the stragglers, who would drop oil" from the main army in its a* 
vanee on Oude. 

On the other hand, Hohilcund might be looked upon as one oi m t 
principal centres of the rebellion in the north. Its situation wi 
regard to the English possessions was such that an army occupy; 
Bohileurnl would be in a position to attack simultaneously oil t 
important posts in the neighbourhood ; Kohileund, in fact, oecupf 
on the left Hank of the main army of Lneknow a position similar 
that which Buudeleund and the south-eastern districts of Oude 
cupied on the right flank, 

It is to be lamented that the original projects of the Commander 
in-Chief, as indicated by the establishment of his head-quart* 
Futtegbur in the mouth of J an nary T were not carried into exceuti 
If, on the one side, Sir Colin Campbell had continued his movent* 
northward ; if, on the other hand, the Walpole division, which h 
been despatched towards Etawab, had marched directly south wan 

to support the operations of Roberts, of Sir Hugh Rose, 
of Whitclock, llohileund, which had offered so little resistant- m 
May, when all its forts were filled with rebels from Lueknow, could 
have p resented still less in the month of January, and the Hugh's 
army might have occupied it in sufficient strength to impede i 
trance of the rebels alter the capture of the capital of Oude, 

Supported by the troops of Walpole, Sir Hugh Hose might ha 
terminated more quickly the operations against J ban si and < 
Opposed on the west by General Roberts, on the south and easi h 
the columns of Sir Hugh Kose and Whitclock, and on the north l^ 
the division of Walpole, the rebels of Bundelcund might have 
exterminated, and Gwalior would not have fallen into their ban 
The remnants of the rebel forces, instead of taking refuge hi cent 
btdia, as they did after their march on Jouk and Hitidown — a p 
Deeding that threatens to prolong if not to eternalize the war — if, 
say, the Grwalior contingent had had no other resource than to 
the Ganges, and to throw themselves into Oude in the month 
January, the success of Sir Colin Campbell's plan would have 
more certain than ever- 

Another important consequence which would have resulted fro 
the possession ofKohilcund and Bundelcund previous to the eaptu 
of Lueknow, would be tlie impediments opposed to the circular re 
treat of the rebels, as they withdrew before the fan-like movements 
of the main army of Lueknow. This retreat, or this flight, w 
ever it might be called, undeniably lessened the hopes that migb 
have been legitimately conceived, had Lueknow been taken untie 
other ei re urn stances. Had Rohilcund and Bundelcund been firs 
reduced, the capture of Lueknow would haw been the terminate 
(h- war ; but conquering Lueknow, whilst those two dist r 
f>pea to the fugitives, was only transplanting the conflict, thro 1 


it from the centre to the circumference. As a proof of the truth of 
this assertion, and as a consequence of this kind of circular flight, 
we need only remark that the capture of Gwalior, the blockade of 
Schahdjihanpore, and the occupation of Judigspoor by the rebels, 
were contemporaneous with those movements of Sir Cohn Campbell, 
Sir Hugh Kose, and Sir Lugard, which seemed to strike the final blow 
on the rebel forces. 

The defeots of our military system are largely commented on 
by Le Commandant Martin, but no one ever bore nobler testimony 
to the bravery of our soldiers and to the inherent courage of the 
English people. The private letters of our officers, often young lads 
of only sixteen or seventeen, come in for a large share of admiration. 
These letters recount the incidents of the war with " the vivacity 
natural to the age of the writers, and with the energy inherent to 
the English character. The whole European population, scattered 
over an immense space and unexpectedly attacked, displayed on all 
occasions a heroic contempt for death, and an equally great con- 
tempt for the enemy." 

But the constitutional courage and coolness of our soldiers are 
not sufficient to remedy the defects of our military organization. 
M. Martin supports his opinion on that of a German general, who 
declares that " England must re-model her army on the continental 
type, if she do not wish to see her influence in the world decline." 

Those statesmen, who through a mistaken spirit of economy have 
urged the reduction of our military establishment, come in for a 
considerable share of censure. They say that England, strong in 
her insular position, needs not to keep up an aggressive army, " but," 
says our adviser, " it is with nations as with individuals, when two 
persons stand in a fighting attitude opposite each other, a disincli- 
nation on the part of one to strike the first blow does not afford 
sufficient protection ; even the moderation exhibited, if not sup- 
ported by a stout army, only gives an advantage to the opponent." 
In short, the pith of these counsels is contained in the generally 
received maxim, that the best way to preserve peace is to be pre- 
pared for war. 

M. Martin finds England placed at an immense disadvantage by 
the loss of Hanover, and the drain that pestilence, famine, and immi- 
gration have made on the population of Ireland. These sources for 
replenishing the army are exhausted, and how much England felt 
the loss was proved during the Crimean war. She had, at that time, 
in her pay, six foreign legions. The Turkish legion, commanded by 
General Beatson ; the Turkish foot, commanded by General Vivian ; 
the Anglo-Polish, commanded by Prince Czartoryski ; the Anglo- 
German, under Colonel Steimbach ; the Swiss legion, commanded by 
Colonel Dickson, besides which many attempts were made to enrol 
American and Scandinavian regiments. 

The Crimean war might be regarded as the result of a combination 
of circumstances such as might never occur again, whereas the danger 
of an Indian revolt is an ever-existing possibility, the means of 
meeting which should be always ready. The revolt of the native 
army in India ought to be less a matter of surprise, than t\\& ^ab- 
jection in which it was so long Jheld. " Wtea." *»»i* ^&~ "\kss?*Q«^ 


we reflect ou the very small number of English soldiers in India at 
the outbreak of the iimurrection, we must look upon it aa an actual 
miracle, that this small handful o£ Europeans should have resisted, 
as tbey did, the first shock of this terrible tempest," 

Our system of voluntary enlistment does not seem to M. Man 
sufficient for the exigencies of the tune, The problem he lays do 1 
to be solved by every country in the organisation of her military 
establishment is this j— u To organise her army bo that it should be 
always strong, well-disciplined, and well-ui&trueted 3 always fit for 
service, if war break out, but, never is time of peace, burdensome to 
the mass of the people Of to the public finam 

He remarks rather drily that the second part of this proposition 
receives much more favour in England than the first— retrench- 
ment of our peace establishment being as favourite a theory as if the* 
actual world were an Utopia* M. Martin brings the Duke of WeW 
lington to his aid as a testimony against the efficiency of our military 
system, which, iu a letter to the Marquis of WeUeeley, he declared 
to be "irremediable as long as England has had & system of enlist- 
ment that will not permit her to lose every year with impunity, in 
ease of war, half her army in the field, from the eiiects of fatigue 
and privation alone/' 

However efficient the system of conscription may he in keeping up 
the strength of the continental armies, it is repugnant to 
stitutional freedom which is an Englishman's boast. Though we 
cannot on this point agree with M. Martin, we are, perhaps, 
that very reason more touched with the generous praise he bestows 
on " the handful of men" that did such good battle in India. 

Our prescribed limits forbid us to dwell longer on a book, the 
perusal of which has afforded us great satisfaction. We have no 
-doubt that this delightful volume will become popular in England, 
for, though professing to treat the subject exclusively from a military 
point uf view, the order in the arrangement and the charm of style 
ore such as to recommend it to the general reader, who will find in 
its pages a compendium of the history of India, and a clear and in* 
itructive history of the late Sepoy Insurrection. 

It is desirable, at this juncture, when the consideration of tne 
First Lord, and the Board of Admiralty, is engaged in the revision 
of the Navy List, to shew how these matters are managed in 
America. Accordingly we have procured the present scale of pay 
of the Sea Officers and Marines in the United States' Navy, and 
converted the dollar value, four shillings, one penny, half-penny, 
and one-third of a farthing, according to the present rate of exenange, 
English sterling money, for the convenience of our readers. It 
will be seen that the disparity of pay, particularly in the junior 
ranker is very great, to the disadvantage of our officers, who meet 
American Ships of War in all parts of the world, and who are, on 
such occasions, put to the usual expenses of hospitable rites, <fec,, so 
aa to maintain a friendly feeling. 


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(Continued from page 51.) 

Prom similar status 1 have heard on other occasions, I am inclined 
to believe that the unnatural state of a number of voting women 
hutldled together ad they are in a convent, although secluded from 
the world, does not always alter their temperament ; rather it ia like 
a ship on tire, with the hatches battened down to exclude the air. 
The moment the hatches are opened the flame bursts forth with 
nncontrolable energy, spreading alike its inllmiuo and contagion. 

With one of mv Uacadorea 1 found it somewhat difficult to main- 
tain my authority. Tbc Colonel was absent, and on one occasion 
the Cagsdore was exceedingly insubordinate and insolent, and tm 1 
hud no means of pi him, 1 could not resist the temptation of 

"Hiring him, 

following rooming, meeting with an old officer of the regiment, 

lid, * ; I hear you have thraahed — ■ — . You have done wrong, lie 

is the greatest villain in the battalion, and he will try to shoot you 

irtunity." He did BO ; but in the sequel, it 

will appear, that be was t 1 ing won&dfed, and very 

rly tak- 

ome d f the fortified 

►Aja^Ktl to 

uther had 
our is. 


TtFMrsismrcES of a yetxiluj. 


sec the men merry on the line of march. tl Yea;' I replied, a anil 
like to be obeyed/' giving him, at the same time, a tap be! 
eyes, that sent him reeling to the opposite Hide of the roacL 
mend was a pet in the corps, and beiug of good family, waa 
cfeaeript between a sergeant and a caoVtte : he was also a - 

md sergeant-major, He attempted to close with me, and 1 
hurt my right hand in the first rencontre; so pretending to hit hi 

is with the same hand, he parried it, when I delivered a 
with my left on his temple, which to my horror caused him I 
ferwftfQp to all appearance dead* 

There was plenty of water on the rami, and by opening his t*hir 
Collar they soon got him round. When sufficiently recovered, 
said, " I think, sir, you might have placed me under arrest, instead 
treating me in this manner." 1 replied, he and the other aorgfl ai 
had better look after their men and regain the ground they had lost, 
or I should certainly serve him again in the same manner. 

I never saw men conduct themselves better, or behave mora 
spec t f u 1 ly d ur i u g t h e re m ai nder of th a t n i gh t *« march . It is & cm nous 
circumstance, which 1 have also heard others remark, that the For* 
tuguese soldiery always like to try their officers, to see what lengths 
tli-\ can go with them. With me, ever afterwards, 1 received the 

ready and prompt obedience, as if I was really the maj 

The next morning we were under arms, a little before day -break 
when the sergeant made his appearance, with his face much swollen 
and covered with blood. The colonel, observing il. asked hitn wha 
was the matter ; when he told him he had been thus treated by the 
new English captain. St. Clair was \ery angry at seeing his favourite 
thus disfigured ; but I told him I had been dared, and the men were 
so insolent, I had no other alternative but to be firm, and shew that 
I would be obeyed and see the orders he had given me executed. 

Our Portuguese soldiers had a great dislike to and contempt fo 
the Spanish troops, I witnessed, some time before, an extraord 
instance of this. There had been some skirmishing with the enemy, 
and our Cacadores had been halted on the spur of a mountain in tne 
Pyrenees, with a battalion of Spanish infantry halted In a similar 
manner immediately underneath. Below these again, in a vallev, 
through which a stream meandered, there was a considerable 
village on our side of the stream, in possession of some Spanish regi- 
ment of Longa's division. For the enemy to approach the vilhi- 
was necessary for them to pass the stream by a wooden briil 
admitted only one person at a time. The Spanish troops were halted 
in mi open space, forming two sides of a square, the village being 
interposed between them, and the enemy and the Spaniards app 
to have thrown out no videttes or sentries, but were reposing in 
feet security. 

A marauding party, of about forty men, Iroin the French si 
were seen to pass the brook. Both the Portuguese and Spanish bat- 
talions sprang on their feet, in breathless anxiety to see what would 
be the result ; for it was evident, that should the French be vigor- 
ously pushed, they would not be able on such a rteketty bridge to re- 
cross the stream. They were not aware of the vicinity of Long: 
division, and the Freuefunen therefore dispersed and spread through 










the village in search of plunder. Six of these marauders came sud- 
denly and unexpectedly on the Spanish troops ; but instead of retir- 
ing before so large a force, the six men drew up deliberately in line, 
and fired right into them. Such of the Spaniards as were not asleep, 
took to their heels and fled ; and the marauders lost no time in re- 

faining the bridge, while the panic they had caused prevented their 
eing pursued. The Portuguese Ca^adores now took off their caps, 
and commenced a grand chorus, singing the Spanish patriotic song, 
" Vivanlos Espanoles valerosos Companeros." The rage of the Spanish 
battalion below knew no bounds, and amounted almost to frenzy ; 
they screeched and shook their fists at our people, which produced in 
return a roar of laughter, followed by a fresh chorus of " Vivan los 
Espanoles valerosos Companeros," until we were obliged to order 
them to desist from their ironical praises, and the Spanish battalion 
moved away. 

Chaptee VII. 

Affair at the Major's house, 10th Nov. 1813 — Wounded and narrow escape of 
being taken prisoner — The Ca^adores suffer further loss — Visit from Major-General 
Sir J. Bradford — Promotion — Kindness of the inhabitants — Wreck of gun-boats — 
Pontoons -Rocket practices — Investment of Bayonne — Brunswick Oils Riflemen — 
Post of 5th Cac,adores during the siege — Removed to command the 6th Cacadores 
— Conduct of its officers — Colonel Hardinge in command of the Brigade — Quarters 
and deputy-quarter general. 

On the morning after the reconnaissance of the French camp 
before-mentioned we again fell in, very early, and I was ordered 
with three companies (half the battalion) to march beyond the 
Mayor's house, on the St. Jean de Luz and Bayonne Koad, to 
relieve a picquet of one of the infantry regiments of our brigade. 
Arriving at the ground, after a little search, I found the picquet, 
which was commanded by a son of my old Portuguese major's wife 
(of the 20th) by a former marriage. 

He told us he had received no orders during the whole time he 
had been there, had thrown out no sentries, nor had he seen any 
enemy; neither did he know anything of the ground; but he 
believed none of our troops were in his front, and, consequently^ 
that his was the advanced party. 

Leaving my men with him, I rode my mule to take a survey of 
the ground, and to select a place where I might post my picquet. 
I never met with ground more intricate ; continuity of the line of 
defence was nowhere to be found, and the position could be 
approached by an enemy unperceived at several points. I ulti- 
mately selected a coppice at some distance in front of the Mayor's 
house* connecting this post, across a sunken narrow road to the 
right (by which an enemy might advance unperceived), with an 
orchard. The trees formed but indifferent shelter for my men, yet 
the coppice I could have held against any force ; and the ground in 
its front being a meadow, lay completely exposed to the fire of my 
men from the coppice ; to the left of which ran the high road to 
Bayonne, from St. Jean de Luz. 

I could not inform the officer I had relieved where his regiment 
was ; I knew, however, that it had marched that morning ; so he 
decided upon remaining where he was until V*a wrewa^^ss^^ 


A TlTEIlAy. 


L had assigned each man his post, and explained to f h< 
#H to bo done. About half an hour after* 

■msketry to our lr. 'hi, wbrri -i liumUrr rf our tnen WOT 
in; a perfect nibble, composed of almost all tin 
division — Portuguese and English. Jt 

not the advance. One officer wn -, and 

seeing my men he ooms I " Wlvance, adva 

Port ui^.. ■<-.■. I sftsrw&rda mud 

of the Cnradore battalion, and wtabed him lit the devil* for I ha 
HO (U'Riro to mix my men up with mk -h a rabble for no * 
purpose. I tried all I could do to keep my men where they were 
they would go on; aud, Leaving their tttroug pust in the copp 
was obliged to follow, W« drove the tritliog force o 
opposnl to na bide ) but my men had straggled a 
gut to those who were moat advanced and halted them, until I 
collect my picquet again, My attention was then called by a 
the party to a held in out immediate front where the enemy 
assembling a large force and preparing for a general attack* Our 
party had not been perceived by them, and I was preparing to draw 
off my men back to their old position, when the fellow I had 
tb mahed some days before with a stick made his appearance, and 
finding the party halted, said — " What, captain, are you brought to 
a stand still? 11 I put my finger to my mouth to impose silence, and 
pointed with the other hand over the embanked hedge, to show him 
the cauae; he replied — "Oh! that's nothing;'* and scrambling up 
the bonk, he commenced shouting and vociferating so much, that a 
force was immediately sent to dislodge us. Before the enemy could 
conveniently get at us, they had to pass by our right through some 
brushwood, consequently wo could only eee them from their wi * 
Upwards, They wore grenadier cap a, and in my opinion 
grenadiers, but the men insisted that they were cavalry; and the 
Caeadores having a particular dread of this arm of the ther 

all scampered oil' together- I wanted to get myself and party back 
into the coppice, but the ditch with the bank was so slip; 
steep that it was quite impossible. 

We were now pent up in a corner of the meadow with no ou 
for escape, but through a gap bordering the high road at the conn 
of the coppice, and it was too narrow to admit the number 
persons collected. Matters were made worse by the lieutenant 
my company coming to me and Raying that lie could not 
another step, m he had been attacked with a severe tit of asthma — 
a disease to which ho was subject. 1 pushed him through the c 
to the gap into the high road, and remained myself a short time 
see if 1 could get off any more of my men, when finding thi 
part of the crowd had thrown down their arms to surrender 
prisoners of war, I made another dash for the gap and got througl 
n'JIara, with cloven more of my company, were taken prisoner* 
Similar disasters took place on our right; but the enemy app< 
to know as little of the nature of the country iis we did, and made 
as many blunders. A body of live hundred of their men advauci 
too far, and getting entangled amongst our advanced posts, w> 
made prisoners; others contrived to get into the coppice, and "" 

1859.] wamnjCEycua or 4 ywibajt. HI 

into the high road. Hey fired into the head of one of our columns 
and killed five officers— amongst the rest, the captain I had relieved 
in the morning. I was now completely cut off by this party, which 
interposed itself on the high road, between me and the column. My 
fellows were exceedingly clever in securing themselves under cover ; 
and when our men ceased to appear at the gap, every Frenchman who 
approached was sure to pay for his temerity. Here we kept them at 
bay ; but the question was, how were we eventually to escape ? 

I was senior captain, and should lose my promotion, and I did 
not like the idea of being sent a prisoner to Verdun. At length we 
observed some skirmishing below us, and I told one of the men to 
lead on and skirt the road under the brow of the hill, to try and 
rejoin our troops. The French soldiers at the gap were not long in 
following, keeping up a running fire upon us. I was nearest to them, 
from being the last of our party, and we had got some distance when 
I was struck in the thigh by what at the moment I considered to be 
a spent shot, for it gave me no pain ; however, I soon found my boot 
full of blood, and my leg getting very stiff, I was beginning to lag 
behind, when a sergeant, who was with the party, observing it said : 
"The captain's wounded; we must not let him be taken;" and, 
although there was little chance of escape, they insisted on placing 
me in a blanket, and carrying me with them. Strange to say not 
a shot touched any of us afterwards, although the same party con- 
tinued in pursuit. 

Looking up towards the road, the first regiment I saw was the 
47th, and I was just in time to see them face about and retire. My 
bearers were much fatigued, although they were in sufficient num- 
bers to relieve each other. I begged to be put down, but the 
sergeant would not permit it ; so on we went, with a line of English 
skirmishers, who were firing upon the enemy to cover the retreat of 
the column, we could not keep up with them, and it seemed folly 
to attempt to carry me any further. 

My Cacadores would listen to no remonstrance, until at length we 
came up with a subaltern's party of the 14th Light Dragoons. These 
at first put about also ; but a sergeant of the party called the officer's 
attention to the Cacadores ; when he ordered the dragoons to the front, 
and they made a most brilliant charge upon the enemy, who evidently 
were not prepared for it. The officer's name was Beckwith, of 
Bristol riot celebrity. Great numbers of the French were sabred, 
and that part of their line ceased to advance any further. I was 
now safe in the meantime, for I had got a little beyond the Mayor's 
house ; but here found another misfortune awaited me. A wounded 
officer had taken away my mule, and I was recommended to follow 
his example, by taking the first one I could meet with, which I 
did. I had scarcely gone a hundred yards, when its owner was 
brought to the rear wounded also, and he was obliged to do as I had 

I suffered a great deal of pain before I reached my quarters, 
arising, I suppose, from the wound rubbing against the saddle ; but 
nothing could exceed the kindness of the bricklayer's family, when I 
was once more amongst them. 

The action continued in differcafe igwteoS. wa >s»a fcaxs>%Hfcs> 


three following days, 1 was told that Lord Wellington directed in 
person the attack mat 1*3 the nc\t day on some works which the 
enemy had thrown up beyond the Mayor's house. That on t 
enemy's right (our left) I was told had been carried by 
portion of our Caradotvs. The lieutenant of my company 
behaved very gallantly, and whilst standing en the top of the parapei 
cheering on his men to follow him, he was killed; a French soldi' 
amongst those who had been driven from the work was Bern. 
turn round and fire at him. 

After the action was over, the body was examined, but no wound 
WW diseovered ; it was in consequence more generally believed that 
he had burst a blood vessel, or that he had dropped down dead from 
exhaustion. The sergeant who had instated on earning me off the 
Held was also killed the same day. He was a townsman of the 
lieutenant's., and his loss was much regretted in the battalion, I 
forget the amount of our loss, but without including the staff, out 
of eleven officers who had gone into the action of the Jfive, with the 
impanies of which the battalion was composed, only four catni 
• 'tit with them, the others having been all cither killed or wounded 

When the action was over, and the 5th Cacadores returned to 
their quarters, the grief of the bricklayer's family when they found 
the lieutenant did not return was excessive, Even the old ladv, 
with whom during his lifetime be had been no favourite, in co 
<iuence of making her husband tipsy so often, grieved for him 
much as the rest of the family, and the house after his death seemi 
very lonely and triste. 

Amongst my early visitors, wag Major- General Bradford, com 
manding the brigade. He told me that he had recommended me for 
promotion ; but that the Marshal (Beresford) had anticipated him, by 
promoting me to the rank of major in the General Orders of the 
army, for good conduct in the field, lie alsn asked him to appoint 
rae to the battalion, as the majority was vacant ; but lie would not 
do itj telling the Major- General he had other intentions towards me, 
so soon as I should be sufficiently recovered. Two subalterns were 
sent from one of the infantry regiments to command temporarily 
the two companies that had no officers left. The young man who 
took the command of mine, declared that he never before had to deal 
with such a set of scamps. 

The battalion was subsequently moved some miles in advance, and 
as I could not be removed, I was left behind* My wound did not 
get cm well, and as it would Dot heal over, 1 was kept on very low 
dieL 1 lived principally on roasted apples, which the daughter of 
the head man of the village used to procure for me. Indeed, nothing 
could exceed the kindness of this poor creature. She and her brother 
contrived by pacing through our line of sentries, and those of tfo 
enemy, to get into Bayonne ; ami when I hey returned she alwa; 
brought me something nice, which 1 was not, however, permitte 
to eat. 

By the lime \ flfflfl recovered and able to move I had quite a sto 
of claret and brandy, which she had brought from Hayoune. 

The people in the neighbouring houses experienced great annoy 
mc& from the number of camp followers and marauders who vu 


them, now that there were no troops stationed in the village. A 
number of families, principally females, came in consequence to 
reside at my quarters, as it was found that the presence of even a 
wounded officer was a check upon the vagabonds. Although they 
never visited the house where I was, yet I could not keep a couple 
of young pointers of a particular breed which I had from them. 
They were taken when outside the house by some English soldiers 
passing through the village, and my Portuguese servant remonstrated 
with them to no purpose when they learned that I could not stir. 

I afterwards discovered that the dogs had been seen with the 87th 
regiment, but I never had an opportunity of meeting with the corps, 

I was becoming very anxious to rejoin, and when I mentioned my 
intention the Basque girl told me I must not go until she could get 
me a horse from Bayonne, and to my surprise she made her appear- 
ance three or four days afterwards with a very creditable five-year- 
old steed. I forgot the sum she charged for it, but I certainly could 
not have purchased it myself for three times the amount. 

When I rejoined my wound was still open, but as the 5th Cagadores 
were not far off, my journey was a short one. Some days afterwards 
I witnessed a fleet of gun-boats enter the Adour. The weather was 
very boisterous, and a number of them grounded and were wrecked, 
a captain of the navy being drowned. I dragged out of the water a 
sailor boy, and we had some difficulty in restoring him from his state 
of suspended animation. He turned out to be a Portuguese lad, 
whose father was serving in the brigade. He told me the youngster 
had run away from home, and he would feel very much obliged to me 
if I would find some employment for him, candidly telling me that 
his son was a sad pickle, but that if ever he misbehaved, if I would 
send him over to him he would give him a good thrashing. I found 
him a smart, active lad, yet, like most boys I have seen as servants, 
they require a servant to look after them. 

We had afterwards to cross the Adour ourselves in what I termed 
tin-kettles. These were pontoons, without any rudder or means of 
steering them, aud we kept our feet on the framework. We were 
pulled across with oars, but were obliged to take the opportunity of 
the top of the tide, or slack water, otherwise the current would have 
taken our unmanageable craft either out to sea or up to Bayonne. 

About 500 guardsmen had crossed the preceding day, and had for- 
tunately taken over some intrenching tools, for when the tide turned 
all communication with the rest of the division was cut off. In this 
predicament a column of about 2,000 raw conscripts moved out of 
Bayonne to attack them, but whilst advancing they were dispersed 
by a rocket thrown from our side of the river. It went right through 
the column, doing great execution. 

The French having never heard of nor seen such a thing before, 
they broke and fled, nor could they be again rallied until they reached 
Bayonne. Another rocket struck a frigate anchored higher up the 
stream, mortally wounded its commander, and did considerable 
damage. Hence they termed it '* the infernal machine." Nor were 
there wanting some Frenchmen, with whom I spoke, who, sympa- 
thising with their brethren in the town, hinted at the uiy&\^&k*r> s& 
using such a diabolical invention. 

XL & Mia., No. 366, May, 1&69. 


BEMlJTXiCEireiB OF A veteran. 

A bridge having been established above the town, the left wins* i 
f was passed over and the town invested. 1 do 
that BradfOH uesc brigade had orders to take any part I 

thin last operation beyond supporting the troopsengaged in tin 
ped the 5th Curndures were originally posted IS Hrur 

wick BfBeman ; but tho major-general, it was said, wan a I 
tire-eater, and always anxious to get tin- regiments ©f hSi 1 
ftDgiged, On tins occasion he ordered me to take n 
battalion, and prolong the he Brunswick (Ed ESkirmt^I, 

prevent their left being outf tanked and in nm I by the 
wag a fine clear space to my front, and 1 had my forebodin_ 
the Brunswiekcrs would not have left their Hank *k> exposed wit 
some good reason ; hut I did as I was ordered, and soon fuun 
with the exception of the high road, tho whole country was a " 
rintli of canals and ditches, which had been mad' piiri; 

draining the marsh. My operations must then • *sui 

confined to the high road, without the power of commimicatuu! 
the troops on rn_v right. A body of about thirty or forty of 
eOeftty were drawn up across the road, as if to oppose us; bu1 
losing some men I thought it high time to make a rush at l! 
drive them back* Tn my astonishment they stood as Jinn as a 
and continued firing as if they had been on a parade. On u< 
them 1 discovered there was a broad, deep canal between us, 
I, of course, ordered my fellows to run and get out of their 
and from that of the fortresses, as quickly Rs possible. The won 
I had before received was not yet healed, and my knee began 
pain me to such a degree that I thought 1 should have taint 
The enemy now began to ply us with grapeshot. At the side of i. 
POftd between us and the Brunswick riflemen there was a br 
which appeared very deep, and I was endeavouring tde 

men to cross it and join them, but none of them would trv it; 
suppose they could not swim. At length I determined to 
mvHclf, and jumped in, when, to my great joy, I found it did w 
take me up much higher than the waist; but 1 had scarcely gaine. 
the other Bide when I observed a group of eight or ten of my 
men standing on the road, and amongst these was the quarter* 

i the battalion (who never lost an opportunity of leu 
}uh duties to join in a skirmish), the master-tailor, and some 
rslaable men. A discharge of grape swept round the party, 
killed or wounded every man of them, with the exception of the 
quartermaster, The men after that made no difficulty in following 
me, and opening out as much as possible, in order' fle the 

enemy's artillery, passing one or two smaller channels, we succeeded 
in joining the troops on our right, 

An extraordinary occurrence had taken place. Before entering 
the water I was in an agony of pain, but the moment my knee touched 
the cold water the pain ceased. 

The Germans seeing this reinforcement, continued to advance i 
little further, at leogtn they posted themselves in two house 
close to the fortifications, Here almost every man who attempt 
to pass across the road to the other building was shot* 


Having posted my men further to the rear, I went up to the Ger- 
mans to see what tney were about. The captain who commanded 
the Brunswickers had lost three officers, attempting to carry orders 
across the road ; and now that he was in this predicament, he wished 
me to take the command of the whole as senior officer. This, I told 
him, I had no authority to do ; I was merely ordered to support 
him. He then asked my advice whether he should stay, with the 
danger of having his retreat cut off, or whether it would be better 
to retire. I informed him I had some time before sent an officer to 
the rear for instructions, and I was surprised he had not returned ; 
and pointing to some high ground on his right, where the enemy 
were advancing in force, I said, " If you remain two minutes longer 
without getting your men out of the opposite building, you will not 
be able to fall back and effect your retreat ; besides, I see no ad- 
vantage in your present position, unless you have positive orders to 
hold it." They suffered very severely afterwards, the captain himself 
being wounded, and my own party did not get away without some 
trifling loss. 

I was in a great rage at the officer I had sent out, not returning. 
Col. St. Clair told me he had not sent him back, because it was clear to 
every body, that we had no business where we were, and that we 
should soon be forced to return. There is however a great difference 
between retiring at your leisure and retiring in the face of an enemy. 
That night, although I had a good quarter, and a good bed, I passed 
in great agony, the pain in my knee having returned. 

A few days after this, the Cagadore Battalion, was removed fur- 
ther in advance, and we occupied a sort of villa, about 800 yards 
from the fortress. I did not much like the way the men were put 
up ; there was only one door- way into that part of the building 
wnere the men were quartered. I told the Lieutenant-Colonel if the 
enemy attacked or made a sortie, early in the morning, he would 
not be able to get his men out, and half of them would be taken. 
It was then decided that I should rouse the men up, half an hour 
before day-break, make them fold up their blankets, and get them 

(To bo continued.) 


By Lieut.-Gekebal Macintosh. 

A description of the present state of the fortifications of Piacenza 
may at this crisis possess some interest ; and having passed through 
it last summer, the writer is enabled to give a hurried sketch of 
.The Austrians have greatly increased the capacity of t&& W«s»fe 



by fche ( rection of detached forts around the old wall 
enough to eaeb other to afford mutual Bupport. Their dist 
the centre of the city is probably three quarters of a mile j 
Tie fort Brat seen from tLe cast, which the road ' passe 

5 marked in large Soman numerals No. VII t 
road to Alessandria and Turin, passed on quitting the town ii 
direction, is marked No. XII 1, I imagine, from the i < 
t h«' .town, their total number is sixteen* Not having entered 
of iIk-m' work*, the writer can only judge uf their interior ecu 
tion from their general appearance, and from asurmi- 
the following circumstances. 

Some Team ago, when at. Venice, he id entered the who 

of the forts, upwards of twenty m number, in the Laguna, 1 
mission of Marshal Uadetsky, when he uied by 

tain of Austrian Engineers, who explained to him the must riiinu 
particular*, and showed him 1 he plans. lie has no doubt, fn 
he could see trom without, that the forts surrounding Pi. 
although not exactly of the same external form, very near J 
in their interior construction, a new fort lately erected with 
old work of S. Nieolo del Lido, which last is about half a m 
length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth, and is the chid 
which closes the Lido passage into Venice. This new fort b 
of a novel construction, which was carried out with 
ability by Colonel Henningsen, of the Austrian 1 
The outer metiiftfo eonaiita of four bastions, connected by cur 
with a broad dry ditch, strongly revetted. The peculiarity i 
work is comprised in a bomb-proof Red u it of solid m 
occupies its centre, commanding the interior of the outerworl 
capable of defence, even after the bitter might fall into an en\ 
hands. In order to prevent the enemy, in such a ease, from r 
shelter in the ditch, a vaulted passage, like a small tunnel, is pi 
through each curtain of the outer enceinte, connecting it with the 
corresponding face of the RHuit, which is square. Thes 
terminate in a bomb-proof stone vault, which crosses two-tin r 
the ditch, and is rounded off near the counterscarp revetment, but 
not sufficiently near to be accessible by mining from the 
These vaulted constructions are called Cqffret, and each is pj, 
with two embrasures for three-pounder guns pointing through theu>. 
to iweep the ditch in both directions. There is a twelve-pound 
each face of the bastions, and an eighteen* pounder en oat bet 
their salient angles ; and the stone Beduit has also small C\ 
jecting from it, to bear on the interior of the outer work, * T!> 
inclosure of Fort Lido, near the centre of which this work is 
ated, is — excepting the side towards Malamocco, which c 
two strong fronts of fortification, inclosed by :i net ditch— a mew 
parapet, faced with brick walls, en crimaiUrre. The orduar 
the forts of 1' is probably heavier than that just descrft 

the Lido, the place being surrounded by much larger open r 
The numerous forts around Venice arc extremely curious 
nearly all approached by water. Their examination, in coitsequ 
occupied the writer three days, although he engaged a small st , 


to visit the most distant, where the channels permitted it. They 
command every passage, and, by sinking vessels in the channels, 
these could be effectually closed. 

The writer having previously passed through the north of Italy in 
1848, in rear of the Sardinian army, during the campaign between 
Carlo Alberto and the Austrians, paid a visit to his Majesty's 
head-quarters, which were established at Somma Campagna before 
Veroua, then occupied by the main Austrian army under Badetsky. 
At that period, the Sardinians were also prosecuting the siege of 
Peschiera ; and the writer having on his subsequent visit stopped a 
few hours at that fortress, found that between the two periods the 
fortifications there had been very greatly extended, as he remarked 
that even the heights which the King of Sardinia and his staff* used 
to occupy during the siege, were now inclosed within formidable 
works. The writer's impression is, that not only Verona and every 
other fortified place in Lombardy, Pavia probably included, have 
been enlarged and greatly improved. The last-mentioned place is 
one of great importance, being the only spot at which the Austrian 
territory may be said to cross the Ticino, as the small island of 
Gravelone, a mere bank of gravel in the river, belongs to Austria, 
though divided from the Lombard territory by the main channel of 
the Ticino, while it is only separated from Sardinia by a very narrow 
channel, easily crossed, and it was for this reason selected by Marshal 
Radetsky as his route, before the battle of Mortara, thus causing 
the surprise of the Piedmontese, who expected him to cross by the 
bridge of Buffalora, in front of Novara. 

On the Sardinian side, Casali may be looked upon as the first 
strong place that 'presents itself ; and, as such, will very probably 
play some part if the Austrians advance. The country on the left 
bank of the Po, in its front between Mortara and the Sessia, is much 
interspersed with marshy land and rice grounds, making it almost 
impassable for troops, except on the highways. It is said that, not- 
withstanding this, it presents no positions of strength, which it is 
difficult to believe, since an advance could be much obstructed by 
merely fortifying the roads. The river Sessia, where it is crossed by 
the Mortara road, is in itself a great obstruction, its left bank pre- 
senting a scar of sand, and the right a wide extent of sand and gravel, 
through which the post-horses tug the carriage for several hundred 
yards with great difficulty, before again reaching a solid road. This 
arises from the shifting of the banks of the river during torrents, 
which are very common in this region. The Sessia is crossed when 
not flooded, by a flying bridge, resting on two large barges, the cable 
being supported on a series of small boats. Soon afterwards, the 
Po is crossed at Casali by an iron suspension bridge, covered by a 
tete de pont on the left bank, commanded by a fort on the right bank, 
which has lately been constructed, or, at least, greatly strengthened. 
It has brick walls, pierced for musketry, at the base of its earthen 
slopes ; the parapet above is mounted with guns firing over them. 
The ditches are wet. The town itself is fortified, but not very 
strongly ; and a new stone fort on the heights to the west of the 
town,which it commands, was nearly finished in 1852. 


118 (Mil, 




The War.— Probably before those pages appear, the Austria 
cannon will have iircd that first shot, which is to be to aD Europe 
the signal of brittle. We cannot concur with those who think this a 
false step on tho part of the great German power; and) as regards 
the character of the struggle about to commence, the mere fiset of 
Austria stealing a march on France, after the Emperor NapoUMV 
has been so long preparing, indicates what an advance she has mads 
in the art of war. AVe look, then, for a desperate and sanguinary 
contest. At the same time, it is not likely that the prompt aetka 
of Austria will be attended with those signal results which are 
generally apprehended. The interesting and important communica- 
tion of General Macintosh, which will be found in another portion 
of our pages, show* that it is in the power of Sardinia to oppose COS> 
Biderable obstacles to an Austrian advance on the side of Casali, SJfti 
though the approach may be more* accessible by way of Mortara* wo 
do not believe that an Austrian army could reach Turin before the 
arrival of French succours. The Emperor Napoleoit himself ii 
hurrying to the scene of action, and it is more than probable that 
the advanced columns of the French will enter tho Sardinian tent 
tory simultaneously with the passage of the Ticino by the AlS- 
trians. We may fear that France has not provoked this war, ' 
out some promise of support from Russia. 

The Thanks to the Indian Army. — Her Majesty's troope Ja 
India, native and European, have received from Parliament that 
vote of thanks which forms the national recognition of their dota- 
tion. This solemn act was not needed as a testimony to fMr 
deserts, for never had military virtue stood before the world with 
such prominence or such effect. Senatorial eloquence failed to 
magnify deeds, which earned on their face their own history, sjsd 
had already received the world's applause. Taken by surprise, in 
the midst of apparent security, when they were actually engaged in 
the public worship of God, a few scattered bands of soldiers Hero 
required to prove to India that Englishmen were still the man of 
Arcot, Plassey, and Assaye — still able to hold their own i 




oddig and retain the brood empire they l«rnl received from their 
rs. We turn from the laggard movements of Lord Clyde to 
that ■olftpn, that awful hour, when England and the civilised world 
stood breathless, as if stunned, while the words Delhi and Lucknow 
were in every mouth, and carried a panic to every heart, IV hat 
assurance was then brought to u& by the very first tidings received, 
announcing the men were there— few, indeed, in number, hut how 
strong, how indomitable in character ! and what confidence was 
awakened by the names of IIavelock, Nut, lucflOLSOH, Ouiraai, 
Ciiaxtuerlun, Yab i oim l ax o f and a dozen other*, who mii 
first shock, and broke it into fragments* These were the handful 
that saved India, England rose in tier strength ; regiment on regi- 
ment was dispatched ; and India was occupied by a mighty armyi 
but, meanwhile, the blow had been struck. The rebelbon, indeed, 
was still smouldering, as the embers of a conflagration ; but its life 
and soul had been stamped out. Delhi was captured ; Lucknow 
was relieved ; and Sir Colix Campbell had but to march on 0ude t 
and take possession, Instead of this, he resorted — and, we are now 
told, against his own better judgment— to a series of Faullk move* 
ments and combinations, which, however suited to European warfare, 
were wholly out of place in India, It ia notorious that the whole 
rebel army might have been dispersed, and Lucknow captured, when 
&ir Colin relieved the Eesidency ; but the great opportunity was 
not seize d. The retirement of such a powerful English force before 
a disorganised native army gave a new fillip to the rebellion ; it again 
assumed a formidable appearance ; and our brave troops, who might 
have decided all in a single battle, were called upon to endure un- 
heard-of fatigues! in endless pursuit of a living foe* Their valour, 
endurance, and devotion have at length triumphed over every diffi- 
culty, and they now deservedly receive the thanks of their country 
for a redeemed prestige and a recovered dominion. Let us get rid 
of the Sikh levies, and India is oneo more our own. 

The Case of Captain Cah^ote, — Captain Carkeoie, E.N. 
has retired into private life. His letter to Sir JoHtf PAKnroTOir, in 
reply to the exposition in Parliament, sets a seal on the transaction* 
Instead of refuting the statement of the First Lord, it confirms it in 
particular; and places Capt. Gae^egie's conduct even ina mom 
equivocal light than it appeared before. Everything is fair in love 
and war ; everything may be fair in party warfare, he eve of 

a general election ; but still there are manoeuvres which, though we * 
may take advantage of their of us object to bear part in 

ourselves. They invariably devolve on a particular class. Captain 
Caenegte, by his own account, has nothing to complain of. He 
was appointed to a political poet with an express understanding that, 
on the tirst opportunity, he would endeavour to enter Parliament ; 
two openings were offered to him, and, on one pretence or another, 
he shirked both. But this was not alL Aware that ho had thus 
broken a positive engagement, and consequently that lie could no 
longer retain office, he telegraphs his own version of the affair ta % 

120 editob's POBTtfoiio; ob [Mat, 

prominent member of the Opposition ; and this at a moment when, 
in the opinion of the knowing ones, the leaders of the Opposition 
were likely very soon to have it in their power to redress his 
grievances. Suppose two hostile squadrons on the point of action : 
the Commander of a ship is ordered by the Admiral to lay himself 
alongside one, of the enemy, and fight it out ; but, instead of comply- 
ing, he signals to his antagonist the order he has received, and runs 
his ship aground. Captain Cabnegie, in pursuance of the engage- 
ment he had made, was recommended to contest Devonport, but he 
declared he had no chance at Devonport : he was offered the choice 
of Dover, but Dover was also declined — for, good, scrupulous man ! 
(O, very scrupulous !) his return could only be secured " by a course 
he could not condescend to adopt." People are not generally so nice 
at elections, but we have not all the same aversion to tar on our 
fingers as Captain Cabnegie. 

The gallant Captain's letter — no doubt, unintentionally — makes 
the most of every little point that may be expected to tell, in the 
pending elections, against the Government of which he was a member, 
and the party to which he professed to belong. In this spirit, the 
Government Beform Bill is described as "a millstone round his 
neck," and the dockyard men are gently reminded that they should 
not support " a nominee sent down hy a Government that had deter- 
mined to deprive them of their franchise." There is also an extract 
from a letter, which appears to have been written by a confiding 
friend. Beyond doubt, the writer has sanctioned its publication, 
although we may doubt whether, after such a revelation, he will 
remain "high in the confidence" of Sir John Pakington, whose 
counsels it betrays. The extract, the rigmarole explanation, — which 
leaves every fact where it was before — and the little pellets for the 
electors, make up, after all, a very lame demonstration. They may 
afford ground for a little buffoonery to Mr. Osbobne, at Dover ; but 
they will catch no votes ; and we believe the good ship will weather 
the storm, in spite of the flight of — Captain Cabnegie. 

The Abmstbong Gun. — "We can state from information afforded 
by persons familiarly conversant with this gun,that no correct drawing 
or description of it has yet appeared, and that the criticisms made 
upon it have in most cases been founded upon wholly inaccurate 
a assumptions. The same observation applies to the projectiles, re- 
flecting which we can state with certainty that they consist of two 
kinds, the one adapted for field service, and the other for naval and 
siege purposes. The former admits of being used indifferently aa 
solid shot, shrapnel, percussion shell, and common case, and possesses 
extraordinary efficiency in all these capacities. The latter is a shell 
differing from the other in having none of the attributes of a shrap- 
nel, but containing a large charge of powder, by which great explosive 
effects are produced. Contrary to what has been repeatedly asserted, 
these ^last-named shells contain much larger charges than the common 
spherical shells of equal weight, and they are caused to burst either 
at the instant of penetration, or as much before or after as may be 




desired* The great range and accuracy effected by this gun, as well 
as its lightness and durability are now matters of notoriety ; but 
those who are best acquainted with its performances, declare that its 
chief excellence consists in the efficacy of its shell firing. 

The Allied Traj Commissions.— The investigation 

at Bow-street police-court has dot resulted in those exposures which 
were so confidently expected. It lias simply developed a case flf 
crooked dealing, in which the actors were only ordinary sharpers, 
and the victims extraordinary flats ; and we doubt much whether the 
transaction can be made to appear illegal, or the persons implicated 
be punished. The mythical firm of " Aumstiioxo & Co, 11 proceeded 
ill such a manner that, so far as now appears, they [sight claim to be 
aid by Mr. Bhidbgk, or anyone who employed" them, without in- 
retnent of the law, and in the face of the'world. They, in &ot, 
s no concealment, but announced their peculiar operations in 
public advertisements, offering their service* to all comers, Mr. 
Bmdsox and Sir. CutfDfuitAM feU into the trap. They believed 
that commissions in the British Army could be obtained, in these 
of Parliamentary and newspaper supervision, by some back- 
dour influence, which might be audaciously advertised in the public 
journals ; and, acting under this delusion, they paid some £100 for 
a result, which they might have achieved by the same course of pro- 
cedure, without disbursing a farthing. It is, indeed, clearly esta- 
blished that no part of the money was expended in facilitating the 
object ; for though there Is a suspicious payment of d£50 to Colonel 
BtuhbaCH, the interposition of that officer had no effect : and Mr, 
by using the good offices of Gto&firall Vivian and 
Steelk, obtained his appointment solely through hit own interest. 
The Duke of Camiuudok refused his application in the first instance, 
n.t only because he was over age, but because it rested on unsup- 
ported statements ; but when the services of his lather were attested 
1,\ two officer! of eminence, His Koaal Hioitxess, with character- 
istic kindness of heart, took a more indulgent view, and us the 
regulation respecting age had been relaxed, appointed the young 
eman to a regiment. The whole aiftiir was, as regards- the 
appointment itself, highly creditable to the admin i strati mi of the 
narda. The Duke showed a prudent shyness of Colonel 
nrach; but when he received testimonials from a reliable 
quarter, he admitted the claims of the son of a meritorious officer. 
He baa now announced, in the most public manner, that the army is 
to tin* whole country, and that every application will be fairly 
acred. An anonymous correspondent of a morning journal 
proposes that Mr. Ci'mnoham should be deprived of the commis- 
sion he has obtained, ami Mr. liinnsox be prosecuted, under the 
impression that the transaction with "Askot&oitg A I unta 

to a misdemeanour; bu1 the act of Qsobos III. evidently doe* not 
apply to a ease i»f this kind, but to transactions in which one of 
the parties implicated, either in his own rii*ht or through 
influence, actually has the disposal of a ounuussiun, which ia made 



the subject of barter. Li this instance the commission was obi 
gratuitously ; Mr, Buncos and Mr, Clni^gham retwued ' 
stimjxg & OOi" as their counsel ; and though tiny bid* 

* uuUmplated soma dexterous GOUp t ujuter the guidance 
German Colonel, nothing seems to have been done out o£ t : 
course. It would have been just as well to hare settled the 
ill the police court; for all the public wanted was invest 
and as no jury will find the prisoners guilty on the cviih 
we five not what object is to be gained by keeping the 
adunt The letters that now daily appear throw no new li 
the matter, and are mere personal tirade*, having no public in 


>cet of 

Postscript, — Tele Necessity o* Immediate Wo. — 
tounding revelation which has broken like a thunder-cloudev 
Europe, announcing the existence of two treaties of alliance, 
aire and defensive, between France and Kussia, and of a similar 
treaty between France and Denmark — thus, if we include Sardinia, 

arsh ailing four powers of Europe in one camp — must bo rega 
England as a menace to herself, and a warning to prepare 
hamrtfaJB war. This qxiadruple alliance altera entirely the aspect i 
our foreign relations, and of our own more perilous position* It 
annuls our alliance with France, and it fully justifies the Austrian* 
in taking the initiative in a war which they appear to have 
known was inevitable. Indeed, we stated last month that 
the intervention of Russia in the negotiations, just as Lord 
Cowlet was bringing them to a successful issue, was evidently 
suggested by France, for the purpose of preventing a pacific g. 
meat. The Austrians have made the first move, just as FuedehicK 
the Second, when Eussia, Austria, and France were leagued against 
him, took the initiative, to attack and capture the whole Saion army 
at Pisna, while they were temporising till the storm had fully 
gathered against Prussia* 

This alliance between France and Buesia unmasks the bad faiti 
which the Emperor of the French was covertly pursuing towar 
us, It carries us hack to the raft on the Niemen and the treaty of 
Tilsit in 1807, when those two despotic powers leagued together in 
hostility to England, and assigned to each other their several mis- 
sions — to overthrow the independence of nations and the system of 
Europe, and to ruin England, It left Napoleon L at liberty, with 
the consent and countenance of Eussia, to pursue his ambitious de- 
signs—to dethrone the Bouebos dynasty in Spain, and hand orer 


1859.] KAYAL AKD MtLTTABY BBGIStli. 1^8 

that realm to one of his own family ; and it pledged that crowned 
robber, when his Spanish project should be consummated, to assist 
Alexasdbb of Russia to drive the Turks out of Europe. 

The part for England to take at this grave crisis is plain and 
obvious. Shall we wait till the might of Austria and Prussia has 
been worsted, and then meet the combined enemy single-handed, or 
shall we at once announce to Russia, that the first battalion she 
marches over her frontier, shall bring down on her coasts, north 
and south, the blockading squadrons of England ? With this war 
in Italy we have no immediate concern, so long as it is confined to 
Sardinia, France, and Austria. The moment there is any movement 
on the part of Russia, any way to support the French aggression, 
then we become directly interested in the conflict. The united 
squadrons of France, Russia, Sardinia and Denmark, must prepare to 
meet the English fleet. The Commander in Chief has declared our 
army to be ready, and Sir Johit Pakington has provided squadrons 
for the Channel and the Mediterranean ; but neither of these high 
functionaries, in speaking of our armaments, had any suspicion of 
the potent combination — we may even say, the dark conspiracy — 
which the last few hours have revealed. We have no hesitation in 
saying that both our naval and military forces are inadequate to our 
requirements. Let us immediately arm for this awful, this inevi- 
table struggle. As regards our home defences, we may hope that the 
suggestion for volunteer rifle corps, which was made some time ago in 
our pages by a distinguished contributor, and has just been brought 
forward by a morning journal as its own idea, will now be carried 
out. Not a moment should be lost in embodying and perfecting the 
militia, and giving a war strength to the army. But above all, and 
before all, let us prepare, with the whole energy and the whole mate- 
rial power of the country, to launch such a fleet as shall, despite this 
formidable combination of the navies of Europe, preserve to England 
the absolute command and undisputed sovereignty of the seas. 
While we retain the trident, England — Europe is safe. 



A <u)od Time Coming. By the Author of " Matthew Paxton." 3 T 
The iutiu'c is not only mysterious?, hut, unless we are incorrigibly j 

it is always promising. "Whatever our lot, wc may look to time 
amelioration, and consider we may yet l>e recompensed by destiny. T< 
forward is an instinct, which more or less animates us all, and buoys 
under difficulties that would otherwise be unendurable. This is espe 
the case in the humbler walks of life, among those whose whole caret 
struggle ; and, accordingly, it is oniony such characters that the tale I 
us, which takes this sentiment for its theme, runs its course. The a 
has entered a fruitful field, but one which, dealing with but every dj 
cidents, can only be grasped by a dexterous hand. The story is laid c 
at Liverpool, and turns on the fortunes of a young artisan, who has a ] 
cousin in Cheshire ; and, of course, takes advantage of a holiday to pa 
a visit. But if the reader supposes that Oswald has any de*i<rns on b 
Kate, or that the stars have fated them for each other, he will prove 
taken; for, though not unimpressed by her l>oarding-school gracei 
Liverpool lad makes no sign. Wc soon find him plunging into the M< 
to rescue a young girl from drowning, and no w the pimple talc beg 
expand, and takes in a wider sweep of characters. Quinta, as the l 
girl is named, is the daughter of an eccentric old gentleman, fanz 
known as " old Cockoloruin," and his family circle is very happily desc 
Herein lies, indeed, the author's forte, for the story necessarily de 
much on the delineation of character, and the manner m which it is susti 
But a pervading interest is created by the manly struggles ot the hero 
his battle with fortune, which ends, at last, in deserved success. 
story is remarkable for its simplicity and truthfulness, and withonl 
straining after effect, retains its hold on the mind, and leaves beh 
pleasing impression. 

Lifk's Fobesiiadowixc.s. 3 vols. 

Is these days everything is settled by statistics, and the Rcgistrar-Ge 
announces that the most marrying classes of her Majesty's subjeet 
widowers, particularly those who have reached a resectable age. 
experience, however, goes to attest that second marriages are seldom hi 
and it is not reasonable to expect that such a connection can be formec 
late period of life without great hazard. Poets and novelists have wi 
largely on this text, and here we have a very agreeable story, foundi 
the same theme. The author aims to convey a practical moral lessoi 
dramatic form, and through the medium of a domestic history. If 
marriages call for mutual forbearance in the two principals, the marrii 
later life exacts the same demeanour, not only from the parties them* 
but from all around and near them. In the tale before us, Mr. P 
Henderson is left a widower, with a pretty daughter, who, of come 

I little spoiled, and now thinks herself her own mistress. Jay — for 80 J 

named — has a friend, Annie, as pretty as herself, and about her own 
In due course she attracts the attention of Mr. Tierce Henderson, win 
comes her accepted lover, to the great chagrin of Christie Roach, at 
.1! known rival. Annie is intercepted by the latter in a lonely spot, and 1 

:'! is a very effective scene, ending in the young girl's escape, and the eonfl 

y'[ of her assailant. She next appears as the bride of Mr. Henderson, and 

h ' finds herself entangled with her former friend Jay, who resists all over 

tol of peace, and keeps up continual strife. At last, Annie breaks down, 

when too late, Jay repents of her harsh conduct, and solicits and rec 


forgiveness. From this point, the interest of the story centres on Jay, and 
there is a spirited sketch of conventual life in France, whither she is sent by 
her father, and where she passes some time under the charge of the sis- 
terhood. The whole narrative is forcibly written, and cleverly worked out, 
giving promise that the author, by following up his success, will take a more 
than average pjace as a novelist. 


With a view of promoting the interests of the Service, this deportment of the Magazine it open 
to all authentic communications, and, therefore, the Editor cannot hold himself responsible for 
the opinions expressed. — Ed. U. S. Mag.] 

To the Editor of the United Serrice Magazine, 

Reigate, 18th April, 1859. 

Sir, — I have been reading with great interest the bulky Blue Book, lately 
published, containing the evidence taken before the Royal Manning Com- 
mission ; with many valuable suggestions and statistical tables in the 

As many persons of different degrees, who were considered worthy of a 
hearing, were examined before the Commission, and appear to have given 
their evidence without reserve, myself and others have now the opportunity 
of forming a more correct judgment of the real state of matters, and the 
means of confirming, qualifying, or abandoning the notions we have hitherto 
entertained, for every officer has formed some opinion about Manning the 

The concurrent evidence of the Shipping Masters, the Superintendents of 
Steam Companies, and others, prove that impressment can no longer be 
depended on to gather sailors, and even if gathered they would not be 
available until they had undergone a training in gunnery, for things are 
greatly changed since the introduction of steam, and the perfection to which 
naval gunnery has been brought. It is, therefore, under such circumstances, 
a happy thing that the Commissioners have pointed out and recommended a 
scheme for forming a reserve of merchant seamen, under regulations which 
will benefit all parties. The scheme appears to be not only feasible and 
admirable, but to have met the support of the Coast Guard Officers, the 
Shipping Masters, and other parties who are to carry it into effect. The 
title of these last-named officials is new to me, and 1 last week took the 
opportunity of visiting a shipping office in a principal sea port, and found 
the system established tor some years past — for engaging and paying of crews, 
remitting wages, recording character, &c. — working most admirably. If the 
cordial co-operation of these agents — and I find there is one or more in 
every port in the kingdom, and also the colonies — can be secured, anything 
can be done with our merchant seamen, for they have, evidently, great in- 
fluence over them ; and from what I have seen and heard, they arc very 
intelligent men. It cannot be expected that they will lend their aid to pro- 
curing men for the navy in ordinary times, particularly when crews are in 
demand for merchant ships, as I find is the case at present. I should as 
soon expect a naval rendezvous to enter men for the merchant service ; 
but I am assured that for selecting fit subjects for the proposed Royal Naval 
Volunteers, who are only to be called into permanent service in case of war, 
they would be invaluable agents, as in many ports, every individual seaman — 
his character and connections, is known to them; and, moreover «>\k& <*«*.- 

126 onmuL coBBiBPOirssiroi. [1 

men working out of these ports, como under thoir review at entry i 
of signing articles or paying wages. I leant that there will be no < 
in establishing an admirable reserve force of reliable men, on the coodil 
set forth in the Report of the Committee, and J am also assured that ii 
regulation tea* now in force, there would 1k» no difficulty in obtaining p 
men for the navy, formany young seamen would, when training for Volim 
Corps, enter the navy, and many would, by association with the crews ol 
('oast Guard ships, and by their insight into naval duties when on board 
come acquainted with the advantages of the naval service, which advanu 
strange to say, are at present little known to merchant seamen, the na 
of the service being falsely represented by those who have deserted, or 1 
rejected as worthless characters, with indifferent certificates. 

A Captain, BJ 

To the Editor of the United Service Magazine. 

Mb. Editor, — I hope you will excuse my troubling you on such a tri 
subject ; but at the same time I shall be much obliged to you if you 
be so kind as to place this in your widely-circulated journal. 

The subject of my letter is based on the new regulation lately issued 
the Lords of the Admiralty with respect to midshipmen. 

The old regulation was that, after entering the service, you should M 
two years as Naval Cadet, and four years ns Midshipman, after which, if s 
to pass a certain examination, you attain the rank of Mate. About a y 
or more ago, their Lordships were pleased to make a new regulation, by wh 
the examinations were made more difficult, and a Naval Cadet's time 
service was reduced to eighteen months, and a Midshipman's to three ye 
and five months, at which time the candidate, if nineteen years of age, a 
competent to pass the harder of the two examinations, is allowed to atti 
the rank of Mate. And now allow me to refer you to my own cai 
of which there are many similar ones. I entered the service in the lati 
part of 1856, and on the same day in 1858 I passed for Midshipman. 1] 
endeavour to pass by the new regulation, my time will be \v> r* -T-inuai 
1862, which is four months prior to the n«w regulation comiug ciiUasly m 
force ; but if I should wait for the six years, my time is not up till Decemh 
186*2, which is after the time of the new regulation coining into force ; ai 
so if I pass, the five or six years being up, I must in both cases paas t 
hardest of the two examinations. 

Now this, Sir, is the question which I would ask : — Arc those who enten 
in the latter part of 1856 to pass the hardest of the two examinations, hava 
served six years P I should be much obliged if vou would be so kind as to anaw 
this question in a satisfactory manner, as it is of the most vital importance 
the present midshipmen of the service, and I have the honour to be, 


1869.] 127 



u At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 12th day of April, 1859, present, 
the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

14 It is this day ordered by Her Majesty in Council that his Grace the 
Archbishop of Canterbury do prepare a form of prayer and thanksgiving to 
Almighty God for the constant and signal successes obtained by the Troops 
of Her Majesty and by the whole of the Forces serving in India, whereby tne 
late sanguinary mutiny and rebellion which had broken out in that country 
hath been effectually suppressed, and the blessings of tranquility, order, and 
peace are restored to her Majesty's subjects in the East ; and it is ordered 
that such form of prayer and thanksgiving be used in all churches and chapels 
in England and Wales, and in the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, upon Sun- 
day, the 1st day of May next. 

u And it is hereby further ordered that Her Majesty's printer do forth- 
with print a competent number of copies of the said form of prayer and 
thanksgiving, in order that the same may be forthwith sent round and read 
in the several churches and chapels in England and Wales, and in the town 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Wm. L. Bath^ubst/' 

A similar order is also made extending to Scotland, 


The following are the terms of the resolutions passed, in the House of 
Lords and in the Commons : — 

" 1. That the thanks of this House be given to the Right Hon. Charles 
John Viscount Canning, G.C.B., Her Majesty's Viceroy and Governor- 
General of India ; the Right Hon. Lord John Elphinstone, G.C.B., Governor 
of the Presidency of Bombay ; Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence, Bart., G.C.B., 
late Licut.-General of the Funjaub ; Sir Robert North Collie Hamilton, 
Bart., agent to the Governor-General in Central India; Henry Bartle Ed- 
ward Frere, Es-q., Commissioner of Scinde; Robert Montgomery, Esq., late 
Chief Commissioner in Oude — for the ability with which they have severally 
employed the resources at their disposal for the re-establishment of peace in 
Her Majesty's Indian dominions. 

" 2. That the thanks of this House be given to General the Right Hon. 
Lord Clyde, G.C.B., Commander-in-Chief in India; Lieutenant General 
Sir James Outram, Bart., G.C.B. ; Maior General Sir Hugh Henry Rose, 
G.C.B., ; Major General Henry Gee Roberts; Major General George Cor- 
nish Whitlock ; Major General Sir Archdale Wilson, Bart., K.C.B. ; Major 
General Sir James Hope Grant, K.C.B. ; Major General Sir William Rose 
Mansfield, K.C.B. ; Major General Sir Thomas Harte Franks, K.C.B. ; 
Major General Sir Edward Lugard, K.C.B. ; Major General Sir John Michel, 
K.C.B. ; Brigadier General Robert Walpole, C.B. ; Brigadier General Sir 
Robert Napier, K.C.B. — for the eminent skill, courage, and perseverance 
displayed by them during the Military operations by which the fate insurrec- 
tion in India has been effectually suppressed. 

" 3. That the thanks of this House be given to the other gallant Officers 
of Her Majesty's Army and Navy, and also of Her Majesty's Indian Forces, 
for the intrepidity, zeal, and endurance evinced by them in the arduous 
operations of the late Indian campaign. 

128 TSTAXXL JlKD military intelligence. [1 

u 4. That this House doth highly approve and acknowledge the yi 
self-devotion, and brilliant services, of tnc Xon- Commissioned Offices 
Private Soldiery both European and Native, who have taken part in the 
prossion of the recent disturbances in India ; and that the same be sigi 
to thcin by the Commanders of their several Corps, who an* desired to 1 
them for their gallant behaviour.' 1 


' War-office, April 12.— The Queen has been graciously pleased to oo 
the grant of the decoration of the Victoria Cross to the underment 
officer and prhate of her Majesty's Army, which decoration has 
provisionally conferred upon them by the Commander-in-Chief in Ind 
accordance" with the rules laid down in her Majesty's warrant instil 
the same, on account of acts of bravery performed by them during the o 
tions under his personal command, as recorded against their names, v: 

23rd Regiment — Lieut, (now Captain) Thomas Bernard Ilackctt ; d 
act of bravery, Nov. 18, 1857. — For daring gallantry at Secundra ] 
Lucknow, on the 18th Nov., 1857, in having with others rescued a Cox 
of the :23rd Regiment, who was lying wounded and exposed to a very 1 
fire ; also for conspicuous bravery, in having under a heavy 
ascended the roof, and cut down the thatch of a bungalow, to pr 
its being set on fire. This was a most important service at the time. 

23rd Regiment — Private George Monger; date of net of bn 
Kov 18, 1857. — For daring gallantry at Secundra Bagh, Lucknow, o 
19th of Nov., 1857, in having volunteered to accompany Lieut. Hai 
whom he assisted in bringing in a Corporal of the 23rd Regiment, win 
lying wounded in an exposed position. 

Her Majesty haa also been graciously pleased to signify her intentii 
confer the decoration of the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned oil 
and soldiers of her Majesty's Army and Indian Military Forces, i 
claims to the same have been submitted for her Majesty's approve 
account of acts of bravery performed by them in India, as recorded aj 
their several names, viz. : — 

79th Regiment — Colour Serjeant Stewart MThcrson ; date of a 
bravery, Sept. 2Gth, 1857. — Fur daring gallantry in the Lucknow Kcsu 
on the Utith Sept., 1857, in having rescued, at great personal risk, u won 
private of his company, who was lying in a most exposed situation, un 
very heavy fire. Colour Serjeant MThcrson was also distinguished ou i 
occasions by his coolness and gallantry in action. 

tilth Regiment— Drummer Thomas Flinn ; date of act of bravery, 
28, 1857. — For conspicuous gallantry in the charge- ou the enemy's gun 
Nov. 28, 1857, when being: himself wounded, he engaged in a haud-to- 
encounter two of the rebel Artillerymen. 

Bengal Horse Artillery — Captain George Alexander Renny ; date o 
of bravery, Sept. 1(>, 1857. — Lieutenant Colonel Farquhar, commanding 
1st Relooch Regiment, reports that he was in command of the ti 
stationed in the j)elhi magazine, after its capture on the I (3th of Sept., 1 
Early in the fui\noon of that, day, a \igorous attack was made on the 
by the enemy, and wjis kept up with great violence for some flnie, wi| 
the slightest chance of success. I'mler cn\er of a heavy cross fire fron 
high houses on the right flank of the magazine, and, from Selinghur and 
palace, the enemy advanced to the high wall <>f the magazine, and endeavo 
to set fire to a thatched roof. The roof was partially set lire to, which 
extinguished at the spot by a Sepoy of the Relooch Battalion, a soldu 
the ti 1st Regiment having in vain attempted tu do so. The roof having been i 
set on lire, Captain Kenny with great gallantry mounted to the top of the 




of the magazine, and flung several shells with limited fuzecs over into the 
midst of the enemy, which had an almost immediate effect, as the attack at 
once became feeble at that point, and soon lifter ceased there* 

Bengal Army (Unattached)— Ensign (now Lieutenant) Patrick Roddy ; 
date of net of bravery, Sept. 29, 1858. — Major General Sir James Hope 
Grant, KX\B. ( Commanding Dude Force, bears tetf inn my to the gallant eon- 
duet of Lieutenant Roddy on several occasions. One instance is particularly 
mentioned, On the return from Kuthirga of I he Kapp art bulla Contingent, 
on the 27th of September,, 1858, this officer, when engaged with the enemy, 
charged a rebel (armed with a percussion musket) whom the Cavalry were 
afraid to approach, as each time they attempted to do so the rebel knelt Rod 
covered Ins assailant ; ,this, however,, did not deter Lieutenant Roddy, who 
went boldly in, and when within six yards the rebel fired, killing Lieutenant 
Roddy's horse, and before he could get disengaged from the horse the rebel 
attempted to cut him down. Lieutenant Roddy seised the rebel until he 
eo old get at his sword, when he ran the man through the body. The rebel 
turned out to be a Subadar of the late 8th Native Infantry, a powerful man 
and a most determined character, 


War-Office, April 2. — In order to prevent as much as possible* inter- 
ference with the ordinary school duthsin Garrisons and Camps, udto secure 
uniformity of practice at home and abroad, the Secretary of State fur War 
desire* that the following rules for the management of schools for religious 
instruction ahall he observed ;— 

L Children attending the day schools of Regiments and Garrisons, as well 
as the band and Drummer boys, may attend the Chaplain for religions in- 
struction at such hours and at such places as may be appointed by the 
authorities on the spot. 

2. Religious instruction shall he communicated on two days in every week 
for one hour each day, to be taken out of the ordinary hours of school 
attendance. It will alio be given on Sunday, either before or aller the 
morning service, as shall he found most convenient. 

3. The children and others of the several persuasions shall attend their 
respective Chaplains for religious instruction. 

4. The hour from 11 to 12 is recommended as best suited to this purpose, 
and Tuesday and Thursday seem to be appropriate days, provided other 
duties are not thereby interfered with. 

5. The young persons under religious instruction by the Chaplain of the 
Church of England, and by the Presbyterian Chaplain, may assemble in the 
same room, in separate compartments. The Roman Catholics will assemble 
separately, the Commanding O nicer assigning the place for each class, as 
local convenience and their relative numbers may dictate. 

6. The children attending these classes should be in their places a minute 
or two before 1 1 o'clock each day, so as to afford time for calling the roll, 
and devoting an entire hour to the purpose? of instruction, and the classes 
should open with prayer. 


BisTRntUTioK or a Rioimbst. A Circular Memorandum directs that 
Regiment and Battalions of Infantry of the Line at home and abroad (except 
those in India, and the Gfith Regiment, which remain as at present) are to 
be divided as follows, in consequence of the lamentation of two 

Serjeants und two Corporals, to. :— 10 Service Companies — 3 Field Officer! 

U. S. Mao, No. Utiti, May, 1859. ^ 


10 Captains, 12 Lieutenants, ,s Ensigns, G Staff, 4G Serjeant* (e 
Schoolmaster), 21 Drummers, 40 Corpora]*, ami 760 Private* 
Companies — 2 6apUins,2 Lieutenants, 2 Ensigns, 10 Serjeants {k 

olmaJter), 4 Drummers, 10 Corporals, mid 140 Prival 
Regiments have a Pipe-Major and five Piper* in addition, who belong 
Service Companies. 

War-opficf, April 1 1 .—The Muiinr Act for the present year li« 

that allowance* at the following rates stall Ik? paid for billetting SmI'Ik 


1'er Day 
On a march — payable to the innkeeper when the Soldier is pro- 
vided by bun with a not meal, according to the Mutin lo*t 
He same — payable to the innkeeper for bed, fire, candles, &c. 2jd. 
In stationary quarters — the same .. ... i.* ♦♦. ... 4d. 


On nian-h and in stationary' quarters — payable to tho inhabitant 

ibr bed, use of fire, candle, &e, ... ... ... ... *.. .,, .** 4*L 

The increased allowances above specified jri a y be paid and charged 

from and after the 1st of April, 1859. 
The allowances chargeable in the public accounts for Soldiers on the marcli* 

or billetted in stationary quarters, will, therefore, be as follow* :— 

Great Britain. Irelaal 
Per d*j, IVm 

In stationary quarters — payable to the innkeepi r 

or inhabitants ... ... ... ... ... ... .,, ... 4d. 

On the march — payable to the innkeeper or in- 

bahttant, ibr a hot meal lod. .„ — 

Tin 1 suae — to the innkeeper or inhabitant for bed, tire, 

candle, Ac. * *,. » 2£d. ..* 4d. 

The same— to the Soldier bin 

Of Cavalry , Id. ... 

Of Infantry * .. ... 3d. 

OaoKRs in Cocn< n, Hm.ATivE to Second Mastejls. — The lolh 
important Order in Council, bearing date 11th January last, has jusl 
promulgated : — 

"Whereas there was this day read at the Board a Memorial frou 
Right Honourable the Lords ComuusMoners of the Admiralty, il 
November, 1858, in the words following, viz* \ — Whereas by the li 
of the Government of your Majesty's Naval Service, cap* 3, artic 
24, we are empowered, in cases of distinguished conduct, to confer tin 
of Lieutenant on Masters of your Majesty's Navy, and being of opitii* 
it would tend to the advantage of the Naval Service if the same 
to be extended in particular and deserving instance^ to the Second JH; 
of your Majesty's Fleet, we would humbly propose that in future 
empowered by your Majesty to promote a Second Master to the m 
Lieutenant, in cases in which he has performed, while in the execution of 
lus duty, such special and brilliant service as, in our opinion, may entiti 
to the boon. We would further humbly suggest that, before a S 
Master be considered eligible to bo promoted* he shall be rerjuin 
served at sea for seven years, but that there shall be no necessity < 
having been rated as Midshipman during any of that period, as required in 
ordinary eases of advancement to the rank of Lieutenant/ Her M 
having taken the said Memorial into consideration, was pleased by 


the advice of Her Privy Council, to approve of what is therein proposed ; 
and the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty are 
to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. — Signed, Wm. L. 


The Diaphbagm Shjbll. — The improved description of Shrapnel shell, 
introduced and invented by Captain Boxer, RJL, Superintendent of the 
Royal Laboratory Department at Woolwich Arsenal, and for which and 
other inventions that officer received a reward of £5,000 from the Govern- 
ment, is to be adopted in the Artillery Service, in accordance with the fol- 
lowing general Regimental Order from the Adjutant General, promulgated 
at Head-Quarters, Woolwich : — 

" On the recommendation of a Committee of Officers recently appointed to 
investigate and report upon the diaphragm Shrapnel shell, proposed by 
Captain Boxer, the Secretary of State for War has approved of the adoption 
of that shell, fitted with a gun- metal screw-plug ; and diagrams, prepared by 
Captain Boxer, for the gauges and dimensions have been signed by Secretary 
Major General Peel, and deposited with the Superintendent of the Royal 
Laboratories with instructions to adhere strictly to them. The adoption of 
Capt. Boxer's diaphragm Shrapnel shell is not to affect the order which directs 
that all natures of shells in the ammunition-boxes of field artillery carriages 
are to be carried unloaded ; but as there is no reason to doubt that the 
diaphragm Shrapnel shell may be carried loaded with safety for short periods, 
commanding officers may, at their discretion, load a small number of these 
shells before they may be required." 

Each battery of field artillery in the United Kingdom will shortly be fur- 
nished with a fresh equipment of shells, fuzes, and shell implements, in 
exchange for those in store ; andall obsolete shells, fuzes, and tubes, will be 
withdrawn from the different stations as soon as possible, and replaced by the 
latest approved description. 

Gunroom and Engineers' Messes. — An Admiralty Circular has been 
recently issued, directing that the same restrictions be placed on the use of 
wine and spirits in the Engineers's Messes as are placed on the Gunroom 
Messes of her Majesty's ships, by their Circular, No. 282 of 12th December, 
1856 ; and further that no spirits, except the ship's allowance be permitted 
to be received on board any of her Majesty's ships, for either the Gunroom 
or Engineers' Messes, unless with the written permission of the Captain. 

Thjb Rotal Abtilleby. — The Commander-in-Chief has issued instructions 
for the designations of battalions, troops, and companies to be abolished, and 
the appropriation of brigade and battery in their stead. The following is 
the detail of the various stations to which the brigades have been appointed, 
namely-— Horse Brigade, head quarters Woolwich ; 1st Brigade Siege Artil- 
lery, head quarters Woolwich ; 2nd Brigade Siege Artillery, head quarters 
Dover : 3rd Brigade Siege Artillery, head quarters Plymouth ; 4th Brigade, 
Field Artillery, head quarters Woolwich ; 5th Brigade Siege Artillery, nead 
tauarters Gibraltar ; 6th Brigade Siege Artillery, head quarters Malta ; 7th 
Brigade Siege Artillery, head quarters Quebec ; 8th Brigade, Field Artil- 
lery, head Quarters Portsmouth ; 9th Brigade Field Artillery, head quarters 
Ballincollig ; 10th Brigade Siege Artillery, head quarters Guernsey; I lth 
Brigade Field Artillery, head quarters Bengal ; 12th Brigade Siege Artil- 
lery, head quarters the Mauritius ; 13th Brigade Field Artillery, head quar- 
ters Bombay ; and 14th Brigade Field Artillery, head quarters Bengal. 
The regimental staff of the existing battalions are to form brigades bearing 
corresponding numbers, and proceed in the early part of Jnne, in the first 




instance, to the stations already named at bead quarters. The depot brigade 
at Woolwich will supersede the present Adjutant "a and Field Battery de- 





tachments at Woolwich, to which the regimental stuff of the Field Bat- 
teries will he transferred, and will recruit for foreign service brigades, 
reliefs will be carried on by entire brigades. 

GabiusoN Oruer at Din' afore.— Tho following order was issued b 
Brigadier Christie, on the departure of the 1st Battalion, 10th Regiment, 



to express his unqualified approbation of the high state of discipline which 
the regiment has always maintained since it has been under his command, 
now off and on upwards of fifteen months ; and begs to assure every indi- 
vidual composing it of the high estimation in which they are held by him. 
Brigadier Christie further desires to express to Lieutenant -Colonel Long, 
and to the officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers, his admiration of 
I III ir gallant conduct in the field, as well as the orderly and steady conduct 
of the men in quarters. It is thus they have sustained the reputation ft 
gallantry and high discipline which Brigadier Christie is happy to bellc r 
has ever distinguished the 10th Foot, whenever and wherever employed. 
is impossible not to regret the departure of such a magnificent regi 
from the IHnapore Brigade. Brigadier Christie assures both officers and 
men that he will nlwavs entertain the warmest interest in their future wel- 
fare, and they will ever benr with them his hearty good wishes. To one 
and all he wishes an affectionate farewell, and sate arrival in their native 

Woolwich Gaboon,— The official department of the Royal Engine 
hitherto situate in one of the west wings of the Royal Artillery Baron 
has been transferred to the new deportment erected near the \\ hite-gate i 
MiJlwull-Uuu». The old offices are ordered to be forthwith converted ii 
mess quarters for the use of the no n -commissioned officers bolon 
regiments in garrison, an arrangement which will confer a great boon on tli 
unmarried quartermaster NBTgBlllli, and others of that class, who have \ 
tofore been provided with no accommodation for me&s distinct from i 
private soldier and raw recruits. The method recommend ed by the KaniUirv 
Commission in their recent official inspection of Woolwich Garrison, fer 
lurnislnng a number of baths and wash-houses (or the free accommodate 
of the private soldiers is now complete. Seven of these rooms were vesterdn 
given over to the authorities for that purpose. Each room contains 
spacious fontlis, supplied with hot and entd water at discretion, and are situ 
so as to be easily accessible, being contiguous to the barrack quarters. 

This late Admiral IIattok. — The will of Vice Admiral Villiers Frame 
Hut ton, of Eaton-place, Belgrave-souare, and of Delgarry, Irelnmh 
proved in London, in the Principal Registry of the Court' of Probata, I 
Colonel the Hon, J am is Lindsay, and Lieut. Colonel VilJiers 1 
llatton, the sou, the joint executors. The personal property in England 1 
SWorn under £8,000, 

Armstrong's Guns fob the Natt. — The question of adapting Armstr, 
n tor naval service is now under the consideration of a committee, 
Pi Admiral Sir Thomai Bastings, ( bainnan ; Captain Catlin, C.Ii, Secret,.. 
£- John BttTjpyne, G.Cli,, Inspector General of Fortifications, and Gone-™ 
' ' Howard Douglaa. The committee hai l with the Ordnance s 

* mittee at Woolwich, of which Major < General Gator, C.B., Koyal 
is President, and < Lionel TuUoch^upermlendejit of the Rov. 




Department, is now engaged in directing the construction of various specimens 
of gun carriages, which will be tested, witn a view to enhance the official 
of Sir W. Armstrong 1 * invention, for the Military and Naval Services. 

Improved Gu?r Cahhi.u;j >. — AAer various experiments to test the advan- 
tage of a new description of £im carriage iuvenledby Majov Chirk, R.A,, the 
Ordnance Select ComuiitteeaiTO rci-ui amen '.led its Adoption in the lerfice ; 
ami the following general It ^im nuil Order on the subject has been notified 
at Head Q u arte ra , W« *> 1 w icli : — M Th e G ener al Commanding - in- C hief has 
concurred with the Secretary of State fur War in the desirability of substituting 
ior the present bracket trail-carriage for 1 8-pounder guns a block trail-car* 
riage, constructed on Major Clerk 1 ! principle, which has been fully subjected 
to trial, and is found to possess the great advantage of carrying 24 rounds of 
ammunition constantly with the gun, as well as being of simpler construction/ 1 
An alteration is also to he made in the construction of the wheels of siege 
carriage*, by fitting them with a double row of b'-inch tiers, and having the 
felloe parallel and rounded off in the iu>idc, aad the tennons of the spoke 
round, and of the same form as those proposed by Major Clerk* 

Tub CiiATRERHGt'sB Memoriai. to Havelocr.- — The military memorial 
proposed to be erected by Carthusians to perpetnate the memory of Sir Henry 
Ilavelock and other Carthusians, who fell in the service of their country in 
the late Indian and Hussion wars, will assume the form of a monument, and 
the foundation of a scholarship connected with the school, Amongst the 
subscribers are Lord Panmure, Sir J. D, Harding, the Queen's Advocate, 
the Bishop of St. David's, Sir E. A, II. Lechmere, Bart,, Archdeacon Hale, 
Mr, T. Collins, M.P., Mr. DuCane, M.P., Archdeacon Gierke, the Hon. W. 
Byron, Admiral O'Brien, ami other gentlemen* 

The India st Ml tiny Keuef Fund, — The general committee for the relief 
of die sufferers by the Indian revolt Lave published a report relative to the 
affairs of the fond from the date of the last report — viz., the 3rd of February, 
1S58, to the close of that year. Having laid down a plan for administering 
relief, the committee itftte that in accordance therewith relief had been 
afforded from the commencement of the fund to December 31, 18f>8, in the 
following coses, and to the amount specified ; — Donations (Military), 
27,924/, Is. 9d. ; loans (Military), 4,pj33/, Ida, lid,; donations (civil classes), 
8,G13/, as, 9d.; loani (elvi I clauses), 1,S77/. 7s. 7d.— total, 42,948i. 15s, The 
warn of 6,204/, 17s,4d. over and above expenses had been added to the avail- 
able resources fur the past year. The total amount of subscriptions T with 
interest and premium, was, on the 3 1st of December, -140,96*3/. 19s, 3d,, 
swelled afterwards by repayments ofloons to 442,476/. 10s, Id, In add] 
to the subscription* in the three kingdoms, subscriptions had been received 
from Australia, Africa, Brazil, California, China, Egypt, France, Falkland 
Island, Grenada, Greece, Holland., Ionian Islands, Java, Mexico, Malta, 
North American colonies, New Holland, New South Wales, New Granada, 
Norway, Prince Edward's Island, Portugal, Prussia, } ru, Russia, 

South America, Sardinia, Spain, St Helena, Turkey, Tunis, United States, 
and the West Indies. From the legislature of Victoria the committee had 
received a sum of 25,0004., and irom a l * Lath- in Belgravia *' 850/, The total 
expenditure up to December 3), 1*5 8, was 175,710/. 7s,, of which 127. 
10s, 7d had been scut out to India. The sum given to sufferers in Great 
Britain up" to the same time was 42,948/, 15s, — viz., to Military classes (do- 
nations), 27,924/, Js. ftd,; ditto (loan*), 4,533/. 19s, lid.; to civil ten 
(donations), 8,613/. 5s. 2d.; ditto (loans), 1,877/, 7s. 7d. 

\V k have lately seen exhibited, at the Society af Arts and at Lloyds, a very 
clever and useful invention fur the purpose of intimating disasters at sea. If. 
is called " Graham's Patent Rescue Buoy,* 1 and intended to be thrown um*x- 


board from a linking vessel, or fesseJ on fire, at the -*ad it lias 

ty for holding, liesidcs tlw record paper in whirl] the 
are to 1m written, giving :m accounl of the calamity up t 
the ship's log and other articles, such w letters, wills, or vnluahl 
extent often or twelve pound** weight, it is «>f ecnircc 
:i BptjOft nil round between the o 1 r ewe and the * 
with cork shavings prevent inking, r 

logged. In order to rr inb r il conspicuous at sea, anddistincl fnun 
floating object, it has elevated on it? surface n 
si> or eight inches diameter, which i li^lit -mid renders it 

distance. No doubt these himys -will be generally adopted, p,: 

oy passenger sliijs-: ntidwn lliink thai the patenter nWuild nri 
the notice of the Board of Admiralty. Had one or men 

J »le and thrown overboard from the unfortunate Sapph 
relatives of die officers anil crew would long since put out o 

jmiM', anil informed of the manner of her loss. 

The Indian Mi nsw — A voluminous return has been issued of the name 
or numbers of all the Regular and Irregular regiment* which have rnut 
or manifested a disposition to mutiny since the 1st of January, 1 §57. 
detailed information is also riven as to the exact time when sytnptee 
disaffection were observed, their nature, the number of officers and me? 
pent with the regiment at the time, and so forth, while remarks aire in 
ease subjoined hy the commanding officers, The Bengal establish m> 
taken tirsL The return contains no sort of summary, and the inform 
it contains is therefore in a very unmanageable form; wc find,, however, 
that in all sixty -four regiments on this establishment mutinied, or mani- 
fested a disposition to mutiny* The following are the regiments of Natii^ 
Infantry, the whale or a largo portion of wliich absolutely mutinied :« — the 
17th, 32nd, :\\t\u 7th, 8th, 17th, 37th, 40th, flth, 44th, 54th, GiHh, 23rd, 
52nd, 5th, SHth, GOth. Slst, 4-fitji, 45th, 57th, 14th, 51st, 33th, 15th, 30th. 
and 72nd, In the Peshawar district eleven regiments either mutinied or 
manifested a disposition to do so, the greater number being regiments of 
Native Infantry. Eight regiments or parts of regiments only in the Bom- 
bay army are returned in the present lists as having joined tue rebellion* 

Thk DtrricuLTjKs of Iximas T^kgeafhy. — Indian telegraph* are. it 

appears, liable to extraordinary accidents, Not only do rebels cut tiu: 
wires, but wild beasts repair to tho posts under the impression that they 
are provided with the benevolent though tfulne as which secured for the 
Duke of Argyll the blessing of his grateful countrymen ; and when 
pliant* allay cutaneous irritation by a good rubbing against a pole, it gene- 
rally comes to grief. Then, again, monkeys, under a complete misappre- 
hension of the objects of the telegraphic system, delight to u*r the wii 
athletic sports and pastimes Half a dozen great monkeys or baboons may 
souk times be seen at work on one feeble stretch of wire, posturing, grim 
and chattering away in the highest spirits — some walking topsy-turvy a Ion* 
it, others tugging it up and down with main force, considerably faicr 
by the circumstance that other monkeys were hanging on by then- tails, and 
otht ™ striving to detach tho wire from the posts, so as to give thnr friend* 
a sudden fall; white ants eat the base of the posts away ; sudden gusts of 
wind blow miles of wire and posts flat to the earth — in a word, there are 
special disturbing influences at work in India from which European tele- 
graphs are exempt ; and in addition to these physical causes of interrupt 
there are the moral impediments presented by the nature of the mat* 
which the superintendent has to work. 

Mtljtary Savtkgs Bank.— The total balance due by tho public deposi- 
tors in military and militia savings banks, on the 31st March, 16j7 i 



amounted io l€l,;153f + « and the number of account then open to 10,781. 
1 I4 t 4*2/. had been withdrawn during the past year {275,136/,— J 14,4*2/.— 
161,354/.), allowing aliquot porta of the pound sterling, 196,1 08/, is given 
as the total amount of the fund for military savings banks up to the date of 
the account (March, 1&59). 

1 > i atii or Ln:iTt;sA?rT-&K2a;iiAL S tB Joseph Thackwbll, G.C.B,, anp 
KJL— We regret to learn that Lieutenant-General Sir Joseph Thackweh\ 
G.C.B.. died suddenly at Aghada Hall, his seat in County Cork, from dis- 
ease of the heart. The gallant officer, who had greatly dktinguised hiioael^ 
was fourth son of the late John Thaekwell, Esq*, of Ryecourt, Worcester- 
shire, lie entered the army in April, 1800, and during his career of nearly 
sixty years had gained the highest distinction in the service, particularly in 
the East Indies. Sir Joseph's services iu the Peninsula are thus recorded 
by Hart; — H Served the campaign in GalKcia and Leon under Sir John 
Moore, and was engaged in several skirmishes* and present at the kittle of 
< tarttmui ; nerved the campaigns of 1 813 and 1814 in the Peninsula, includ- 
ing the battles of Vittoria, the Pyrenees, in front of Pampeluna, the *27th T 
2Sth, 251th, and 30th July; blockade of Fampelnna from the 18th to the 
3 1 st of October, when it surrendered ; battle oi Orthes, atlairs of Tarbea, and 
kittle of Toulouse, besides many affairs of advanced guard*, outpost*^ Sec. 
'uuda he boldly attacked and forced back upwards of two hundred 
French dragoons with fifty of the lath Hussars, making several prisoners, for 
which In- wus recommended for the rank of brevet-major by Lord Comber- 
iiut<\ Served also the campaign of 1815, including the action at Quatre Bras, 
the retreat on the Allowing day, and Battle of Waterloo. Commanded the 
cavalry division of the army of the Indus during the Afghanistan campaign ; 
was present at the storm and capture of Cliuznee, and commanded the 2nd 
column of the army on its march from Cabul to Bengal. 1 ' ITe commanded 
the cavalry division of the armv of Gwalior throughout the Mahratta war iu 
is 43, and commanded the cavalry divisou at the action at Haharajpore, on 
the 29th December of that year, Waa chief of the cavalry throughout the 
Sutle**e war in 1846, and was present at Sobraon, where he led the 
3rd Light Dragoons in single file into the intnmehmcuts during the heat of 
the battle. Commanded the cavalry division in the Punjaub campaign, 
during which he repulsed the Sikh army at Sadolapore with a small Bi 
detachment. Sir Joseph greatly distinguished himself in these operations 
against the Sikhs in the campaigns of 1846 and 1849, for which eminent 
services he received the thanks ot Parliament and of the East India Com- 
pany, and was rewarded in the last-mentioned year by her Majesty lunu'ma- 
fcfng him ■ Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, the gallant General having 
formerly Ibr his military services been made a Companion and Knight of 
that Order. During his honourable career in the service he had been several 
grounded. Has been engaged in the suppression of many riots. Con- 
runed on the right shoulder tit Yittoria, and twice severely wounded at 
Waterloo (left arm amputated close to the shoulder), in charging tqnm 
infantry, and also had two horses shot under Mm ; also received an a] 
fatal injury on the head at the Birmingham riots in 1816. On his return to 
England from the East Indies he was appointed Inspector-General 
in succession to his Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, En 18:14 he 
was made a Knight of the Hanoverian Order, had received the silver war 
medal and three claipi tor him the Peninsular, ■ medal for Sob 

where he commanded the cavalry; ami medal and clasps for the bit Punjaub 
campaign; also the empty honour of the Doorancc Order for service! in 
Afghanistan. In November, 1849, he was appointed Colonel of the 1 8th 
(the Queen's) Regiment of Light Dragoons (Lancers), which becomes at the 
! nt the Horse Guards by his lamented decease* He was in intimate 
friend of the late General I c, and of Lord Clyde, Sir Harry Smithy 

Lord fiough, and other noble and gallant veterans of the army* His com* 
i i bore date as follows: — Cornet, 22nd of April, lyQO; HeutetuuQi, 

1 3th of June, 1801 ; captain, 9th of April, 1807 ; major, 18th of Ju 
lieutenant-colonel, 21st of June, 1817; colonel, 10th of .Tanua! 
major-general, 9th of November, 1846 ; and lieutenant-general, 20th of 
1854, He owed everything to his own exertions, mid was correctly 
aa a soldier of fortune, lie was strongly recommended for a ban me; 
Lord llardinge, when Commander* in Chief, bat Lord l'almerston declined 
to give effect to the recommendation. 

The Naw. — The sums required to be voted on account towards defraying 
the charges of certain naval services* which will come in course of payiiit<ui 
during the year ending the Slat of March, 18U0, amount to £2,50O,u< 

TueTeieiio-Navalib. — Admiral Dupetit Thouars has sent into the French 
Academy of Sciences some extraordinary specimci is of the destructive powers 
of certain sea worms, consisting of fragments of vessels, whi*h had been 
sent to him from Toulon, lie has ateo sent, in a glass globe, a collection of 
those animalcuhe, almost invisible at their birth, which have the power of 
penetrating into the hardest timber, in which they take up their residence, 
and in the end totally destroy it These specimens are to be deposited at 
the Jardin des Plantes* TJuv are perforated with almost matheiij.i 
precision, and the question winch naturally arises is, how vessels can l*e 
defended against the incessant attacks of those almost invisible enema* 

Red Sea Soukuings. — The soundings obtained by Captain Pullen were as 
follows : — From Aden to Maculla, from 20 to 742 fathoms; from Mac ulLi to 
the Kooria Mooria, from 100 to 1,150; from Ras-el-Had, from 21 to 897 ; 
from Kas-el-H&d to Kurrachec, from 21 to 2,020 fathoms. Except between 
Hallania Ras-el-IIad, where it is rocky, the entire bottom consists of mud 
and sand. The great inequalities in the sea-bed are supposed to be van* 
tions which will not obstruct the successful submergence of the cable through- 
out the whole line. 

Indian Navy. — The Gazette thus notices an erratum in the London 
Gazette of the 26th of February, 1858 : — " In the notification of the appoint- 
ment of two officers of the Indian Navy to be Extra Members of the Mili- 
tary Division of the Third Class, or Companions of the Order of the Hath, 
for Captain John William Young, read Captain John Wellington Young,* 


The following is the distribution of the Bombay Army, corrected to 
the 1st February. 

3rd (The Prince of Wale**) 

Dragoon Guards - - - Ahmednuggnr 
Squadron Field Service- - Field Service 
Detachment - - - - - Sattara 
Detachment - - - - - Sholapore 
6th Inniskilling Dragoons - Kirkee 
8th Hussars ..... Seepree 

Left Wing Nusserabad 

14th Light Dragoons - - Gwalior 

Detachment Field Service 

Depot - - Kirkee 

17th Lancers ----- Mhow 

Royal Regiment of British Artillery. 
D Troop Horse Artillery - - Mhow 
8th Company, 1st Battalion Rajpootana 
2nd Company, 3rd Battalion Poona 
3rd Company, 4th Battalion Neemuch 
2nd Company, 11th Battalion Aden 
7th Company, 11th Battalion Mhow 
2nd Company, 13th Battalion Baroda 
6th Company, 14th Battalion Calpee 
8th Company, 14th Battalion KuUadghee and 

Royal Corps of Engineers. 

11th Company ..... Rajpootana Field 

21st Company Owalior 

Royal Regiments of British Infantry. 

4th (The King's own RegU Ahmedabad 

18th Royal Irish 1st Battalion Field Service 

28th (North Gloucestershire) 
Regiment ----- Bombay 

Detachment ..... Nasslck 

81st Huntingdonshire Regi- 
ment -----.. Poona 

33rd (The Duke of Welling- 
ton's Regiment) - . - Baroda 

46th (South Devonshire)Regi- 


51st Regiment - . - . . 
66th West Essex Regiment - 

Detachment - - - - - 

Detachment - - - - - 

Detachment - - - - - 

57th Regiment- - - - - 


Field Service Khan- 
Detachment ..... Malligaum and 

Wing- ------- Aden 

64th Regiment Foot - - - Futteghur 
Depot ------- Belgaum 

71st Highlanders «... Gwalior 
72nd Highlanders ... Field Service, Raj- 
74th Highlanders DetachmentDharwar 

78th Highlanders ... 
Depot ------ 

83rd Regiment Foot - - 


86th Regiment Foot - - 

Depot - - - 
89th Regiment- 


Gwalior, under or- 
ders to Poona 
Rajpootana Field 


92nd Highlanders- - 

Detachment ----- Indore 

95th Regiment Wing - - Seepree 

Depot ....... Deesa 

German Legion - - - - Poona 


Regiment of Artillery. 
Horse Brigade, Head quarters Poona 
1st (or Leslie's) Troop, Head 

Quarters Jhansl 

ted Troop - - - • Rajpootana 

3rd Troop - Central India 

4th Troop Boonnpor 

1st Battalion, Head-quarters Ahmednuggnr 
1st Company ----- Ahmedaoad 
2nd Company ----- Belgaum 
3rd Company ----- Hydrabad 
4th Company ----- Bombay 
2nd Battalion, Head-quarters Bombay 
1st Company ----- Rajpootana 

2nd Do. Sattara 

3rd Da Sholapore 

4th Do. Gwalior 

Reserve Artillery. 
1st Company - - - - - Shikarpoor 

2nd Do. ..... Gwalior 

Detachment ..... Jaulna 

3rd Company ----- Kolapoor 

4th Do. ----- Kurrachee 

Corps of Enquirers. 
Head Quarters - - - - Poona 

1st European Regiment (Fusi- 
liers) Head Quarters • • Mooltan 
Detachment ----- Umritscer 

Depot ------- Kurrachee 

2nd European Regiment L. I. Belgaum 
Wing ------- Kolapore 

Detachment ----- Sanglee 

3rd European Regiment - Jhansi 
Depot -...--- Ahmednuggur 
3rd Battalion, Head-quarters Ahmedabad 
1st Company ..... Ahmedabad and 

2nd Da ..... Ahmedabad 

3rd Da ..... Deesa 

Detachment . - - - - Field Service 

4th Company ..... Rajpootana Field 

5th Da ..... Ahmedabad 

6th Do. - - . - . Aden 

4th Battalion, Head Quarters Ahmednuggur 

1st Company ----- Booranpoor 

Detachment .... - Chopra 

2nd Company ----- Ahmednuggur 

4th Do. Mhow 

6th Da ----- Booranpore 

Corps of Sappers and Miners. 
Head Quarters (Bombay) - Poona 
1st Company ----- Poona 

2nd Da - - - - Aden 

Detachment - • - - - Jhansi 
3rd Company ..... Rajpootana 

4th Do. ----- Poona 

5th Do. ----- Poona 

Detachment ..... Jhansi 

Light Cavalry. 
2nd Regiment Madras Light 
Cavalry ------ Sholapore 

1st Regiment (Lancers) • Gwalior 
Wing ...---. Nusserabad 
2nd Regiment Light Cavalry Rajpootana 
Detachment ..... Deesa 

3rd Regiment Light Cavalry Jhansi 

1st Regiment N 1. (Grena- 
diers) ------- Bombay 

2nd da do - - - Ahmedabad 
3rd Regiment N. I. - - - Sholapore, under or- 
ders to Mhow 
Detachment ..... Malligaum 

4th do. da (Rifles)- Sehore 
5th do. N.LL • Ahmednuggur 
6th do. N.I. - . - Poona 
Central India 






do. - 



da - 



do. - 



do. - 



4o. - 



12fh 4». do. - - WiMsernlwil 

UUl - - ^mjpfKitiiilA 

Htll <IOh flo - - K Hi 

Detachment - - - « Ahmedi I 

15th dn. do. - - KuUfmru 

Left Wing * - - - - KttllBi 

ICh do. do. 

Detachment - - * Bw 

t:iii .in. do. - lujkoto 


Ip,. i , : in in-lit - - - North Cnnarn 

19th do. fta. ■ \i ii^ ( hivbttm 

90CB flo. On. 

Stud do. da - Slttm 

ument - hwaf 

ttcfaeh input — Fiinderpore 

98rd fa N UI- - Mhow 

ii-irlsnent N. t, - JhWLtl 

Depot - Mlm* 

V'.tti dft do, - ChPMtOf »nnk»r pr- 

:,, tfitt 

Depot * - - - • ' 

Hq do. do. - Kttttndet* 


2Wh do. do, - Aden 

30th dn. do, - I H 

Detachment - Assuergrmr 

3lnt do. 4|rK. ~ Pttftl 

1st Extra Battalion - H'arrnrhce 

2nd Extra Battalion - Elitrodl 

3rd Extra Battalion - HH.^nuii 

1st Belooch Extra Battalion Allthahftd 

Depot - II yd 
2nfl Bdooch Extra BothiBrm DecraGhaaee Khun 

Depot ♦•.•'-.- Shikarpoor 

EtatOLLrn ri'N r *iova*a. 

Put arliine nt - Tanna 

Do, . _ _ Poena 


Detachment - DooUpcc 

Do. - - 


Poena Irregiilur Horse 

Ut Regiment Sdnde Irregular 

Hone - - - .!«£«.! 

ilntl Regiment Do. 

ilrd Regiment Do. - J**-obabivt 

l-t Regiment Southern Mail- 

rntta Irregular floruit K«J] i 

Detachment - - - llcvhipore 

2nd Regiment Southern Mah- 
i Irregular Aonte 

Detainment - 

Marine Battalion - 

.merit Jacobs Rifles 

Native Veteran Battalion 

ftuzernt T rxotriLliiT Ho 
Kulcli I mi - 

Km eh [virion - 

2nd Khuiideitdi Che' I 
Oh ant l'"le ■• Corps - 

Kola pore fnuwtry Carpi - 
lierry Hanger* - 
fiuxcrnt Coolly Police Corp* 
Aden Police Troop - 

JSiud Extra Battalion 


i thttmini gmtni 


&tvunt W*rve 


*V*W Senrto 
Ku route to fie 


The following i« the Distribution List of the Madras Army, corrected tip i 

October, 1858. 

Right Hon the Governor's Body 
Guurd . . . . ...... — ... .........Madrns 

fl.M. I*t Dragoon Guards . . . . Bangalore 

fl. M. V2th Royal Lancets Dead 

quarters and fit Winn ....SecunderahAd 

Left Wlaf— Fldd Service— tieu. Wit 


lit Regt Native Light CaTulir.,Trtclunopnly 

2nd do. do* . . ♦ Sholiipore 

(under aider* tu SeLUtiderAbad. 
3rdRegt, Nntivc Light Civalrj, 

Head quarters. Left Wing Biin^dore 

Right Wing Licllary 

th RogL Kbtive Light Cavalry. Ben gul Fleid 

filh do. do. ...BeRary 

titli do. do, ...Jicngul field 

7th d u. do, . .... , , . . Kamptee 

1 squadron Seemidcrahml 


K. Troore Roy*I Horae Artl]iory..St.*nios/ Mount 
Head quarter* Madras florae 

Artillery ■ . * * Bangalore 

A Trooii, Fltild Service Gen. WMte'ockli 
Hii is! on 

B, Troop ..*.,......,..,.„ Seeunderubad 

C. Troop ......♦„ , ....Ban^utore 

I>- Troop Kumptee 

E. Troop Bengal Field 


F. Troop 

Gen. WMtelock** Dlvli 

No,, r >.Conip.l4tBat 

lery, and \. 
N0.3L'<jm;i. 8r4 BAt 

lerj't and fijo. 9 L'io 



No. 6 Corup. Utli Bat \r- 
tlllcry, it Nu. 8 Field Battery.. Field Service 
Gen. Wliltel.i 
No. G CpvVJtli Bur. RyL Artll 

Fcnsr D\TrAMOH Mmieas AmrrLLt> 
flcitd quarters ,....,*............ St.Tb.os. Mouu 

pi. id quarters <te 

A company s Wf Cim?my „.? m ang 

I DetacJmtcnt .., . . Masnli [t: i hk n 

B. Company MuuIrigLh 

C. Cn. (No, 7HurHo Batterj) Rdliiry 

D. Com. (No. 3 florae Battery)... Elan goon 

Srcomd Battaliom Map has AftTrLLeRT. 
Head quartern Kamptee 

A. Cop. (No 8 Bullock Battery) Triehlrtopoly 

B. Co, Read quarters and 4 Co.i.Tonghou 

Half Company ...Shtklyglieeii 

C. Comp. (No, & Horse Battery) Bangalore 
I>, Copy. {No. 4 Bullock Batlerj) 

Hea<l quarters and half .........Kaiuptec 

H al f Company ............ . ......... .Se^t.nMUdeo 

TniRr* Battalion Maihias AfeTiujura; 

Mead quarters Rangocw 

A Company (No. % florae BaU) Bengal Sortk 




B. Company (No. 4 Hone Bat.) Tonghoo 
C Company (No. 2 Bullock Bat) Tliayetmyo 
D. Company (No. 5 Bollock Bat) Held Service 
Gen. Whitelock's Division 
Fourth Battalioh Madras Artillrrt. 
Head quarters Secunderabad 

A. Company (Na 1 Hone Bat). ..Field Service 

Gen. Whitelock 

B. Company (No. 10 Bulk. Bat) Ditto 

C. Company (No. 3 Bulk. Bat).. .Secunderabad 
... Company Head quarters and 

two-thirds Rangoon 

One-third .Bassein 

Fifth or Golubdaczb (Native) Battalion 

Madras Abtillrbt. 
Head quarters St,Thos.' Mount 

A. Company Head quarter! and 
two-thirds Company Penang 

One-third Company Malacca 

B. Company Singapore 

C. Company (No. 1 Butt. Bat.) Bengal Service 

D. Company (No. 7 Bulk. Bat;.. .Cannanore and 


£. Company (No. 9 Bulk Bat)...Cuttack and 


F. Company Meaday 

1st Supplemental Company StThos.' Mount 

2d do. do. Viztanagram 

Details of several Companies ...Labuan 
Madras Engineers. 

Head quarters Fort St George 

Madras Sappers and Miners— Native. 
Head quarters Dowlaishweram 

A. Company Ditto 

One Section with Gen. WhlUock's Field Service 

B. Company Nerbudda 

(Bombay) Field Service 

C. Company Bengal Service 

D. Company '. Rangoon 

E. Company Dowlaishweram 

One Section with Gen. Whitelock's Division 

F. Company Secunderabad 

One Section Paumbem 

G. Company Padoungmyo 

n. Company ...Thayetmyo 

I .Company Tongho 

K. Company Dowlaishweram 

L. Company Field Division 

M, Company Dowlaishweram 


11. M. 1st Royal Regt (1st Bat),. Secunderabad 

II.M. 43rd Light Infantry Gen. Whitelock's 

Division Field Service 

II.M. 44th Regiment Fort St George 

H.M. GOth Royal Rifles (3d. Bat) Bangalore 

3 Companies Bellary 

1 do Mysore 

I do , Hurryhur 

H.M. 66th Regiment Cannanore 

1 Company Mangalore 

1 do. Sircee 

II.M. 68th Regiment J.... Rangoon 

II.M. 69th Regiment Tonghoo 

II.M. 74th Highlanders .Bellary 

1 Company Sholapore 

3 Companies Field Service 

Southern Mahratta Country 

The Madras Fusiliers Bengal on 

Field Service 
2nd European Light Infantry . Trichinopoly 
3rd Madras European Regiment Field Division 
under Gen. Whitlock 
NATfVB Infantry. 
1st Regiment N.I. (Rifle Comp.) Service Gen. 
Whitelock's Division 

2nd Regiment N. I Qullon 

3rd N. L or 1'alamcottah Light 

Infantry Cannanore 

4th N.I Mercara 

5th N. I. (Rifle Company) Head 

quarters Right Wing Berhampore 

Left Wing ...,.• Sambulpore 

6th N. I Rangoon 

7th N. I Secunderabad 

8th N. I Tonghoo 

9th N. I Secunderabad 

10th N. I Secunderabad 

11th N. L Cannanore 

12th N. L •• Rangoon 

13th N. 1 Maulmein 

14th N. L .Singapore 

16th N.I. Thayetmyo 

16th N. I. (Rifle Company) Mangalore 

17th N. I. Bengal Field 


18th N, I Bellary 

19th N. I Service Gen, 

Whitelock's Division 

20th N. I Bangalore 

21st N, I Trichinopoly 

22nd N I Penang 

23rd N. L (or Walajahbad Light 

Infantry) Rangoon 

24th N. I. (Rifle Company) Henxada 

25th N. I Madras 

26th N. 1 Kamptee 

27th N. I Bengal, on 


28th N. I Hoshingabad 

29th N. I Masulipatam 

30th N. I Bellary 

31st N. L, or Trichinopoly Light 

Infantry .Vizianagram 

32nd N. I Kamptee 

33rd N. I Kamptee 

34th or (Chicacale Lt Infantry) Trichinopoly 

35th N. I Hurryhur 

36th (Rifle Company) Kurnoul 

37th N. I., (Grenadiers; Head 

quarters Shoaygheen 

Left Wing .Tonghoo 

38th N. L (Rifle Company) Vizagapatam 

39th N. I .Thayetmyo 

40th N. I Cuttack 

41st N. I, Burmah 

42nd N. L Raichoor Field 


43rd N, I, Russelccndah 

44th N. I Thayetmyo 

45th N. L Madras 

46th N. I Vizagapatam 

47th N. L BeUary 

48th N. I Moulmeln 

49th N. I. (Rifle Company) Secunderabad 

50th N. I Service Gen. 

Whitlock's Division 

51st N. L Palamcottah 

52nd N. I Mercara 

Left Wing French Rocks 

1st Extra Regiment N. 1 Saraulcottoh 

2nd Extra N. I .Trichinopoly 

3rd Extra N. I Cuddapah 

Sappers' Militia , Madras 

Madras Rifles, temporarily formed tor Service 

in Bengal by the Rifle Companies of the 1st 

5th, 16th, 24th, 86th, 49th, Regiments N. I., 

and 2 Companies 34th N. I.— Service Bengal. 


European Veterans. 

Artillery Company Palaveram 

Infantry Company Vizagapatam 

Native Veterans 
1st or Madras Native Vet Bat .Madras 
2nd or Aran Native Vet Bat. .Arcot 


For H.M Regiments Poonamullee 

European Infantry Arcot 

Native Infantry Palavaram 

Native Infantry Recruiting Depots. 

No. 1 Recruiting Depot. Dandigul 

No. 2 do. Kx«*. ^ 

No. 3 da. .<3ri«»»S*k 

1*0, * to 


(Cerrtctol up m 26M 
[Where two place* are mentioned, the Last 
l*t Ufa Guards— nyde Park. 
Vnd da— Windsor. 
Royal Horse Guards— Be gent'a Park. 
1st Dragoon Guards— Madras : Caul entry. 
Slid do.— Bengal : Canterbury. 
3rd da— Bombay : Canterbury. 
4th da— A Muni j on. 
5th do.— Manchester* 
6th da — Bengal: Maidstone. 
7th *la— Bengal: Canterbury, 
1st Dragoon*- -Dublin. 
2od da— Dublin, 
lid il.i.— Newbridge 
4th do.— Birmingham* 
fith dm— IftnrtffMflfc 
titbda— Bombay : Maidstone 
Tth llusaare— Bengali Canterbury. 
nth da— Bombay : Canterbury. 
;»lh Lancers— Bengal s Maids touo 
10th Hussara— Aldondtotr, 
llth II uaaora— Brighton. 
] 2th Lancers— Madras : Maidstone. 
13th light Dragooua— Dublin. 
14th do.— Bombay : Maidstone* 
15th ifujuai'ij— Houmlow* 
1 GthLaneera— Edinburgh. 
17th do — Bombay i Canterbury. 
18th Dragoons— Y'orfc. 
Military Train [lit hat)— ShorncBlTa 

named ia that at whtch the DcpAt la 
_■ : 1 1 1 bat.] — Curragh. 

Do. [2nd bat. J— Shi 


2nd but)— BcttguL 

iipl bat J— Woolwich. 

4th bat ]— AJdershott V Depot at Bristol 

5th hat}— Corrmgh 

Gth bat.]— Woolwich, j 
Grenadier Guards [1st baL]— Windsor* 
Do. find bat]— Wellingto n Barracks. 
Do. [3rd bat]— Portmon-it. burrocks 
Colditraam Guards [1st bat] -Sr, Gcorgc'i bar* 
Da [2nd bet]— Wellington Barracka. 
Scota Fus. Ounrda [1st bat]— Tower., 
Da [2nd bat]— Dublin, 
lot Foot [1* t] —Madras i Colchester. 
Do, [2nd bar. ]— China : Birr, 
and do. let [bat]— C, ot G. Hope: Walmer. 
Da [2nd but}— Corfu : W nhner. 
tea 1st [bat.]— Bengal: Limerick. 
Do. da Malta: Limerick. 
4th do. [1st bat]— Bombay : Chi eh cater. 
Do. [2nd bet]- Chichester for Coi-fa 
fith do. fist bat]— Bengal : Colchester. 
Da find bat ]— Mauritius' t Pembroke. 
«tb do. [1st bat]— Bengal: Colchester. 
Do, [2nd bat]— Gibraltar: Cork. 
Tth do. [1st but] -Bengal : Chatham. 
Da [2nd bat j— Gibraltar; Walmer. 
8th do. [I st bat]— Bengal : Chatham. 
Do. [m bnt-]— Gibraltar: Templemore. 
i at bat.]— Alderabott : Limerick. 
Da [2nd hat) -Corfu : limerick 
10th do. [lit bat— Bengal : Chatham. 
Do. [2nd b*L]-CunT*glL 
llth do. [lit bat.)— Aldershoti Fertnoy. 
Do. [2nd but]— Aldershott 
12th da [1st bat]— N. & Wales: Walmer* 
Do. [2nd bat]— Glasgow. 
13th do [lit but.]— Bengal : Kerxnoy. 
Do- [and bat J— Pun smooth, fur the Capo 
14th da [1st but .]— Cejihulonia. Fermoy 
Do. [2nd bat] — Dublin 
15th da— Portsmouth * Pembroke 
Do, [and bat]— Malta. Pembroke. 
Iflth do.— Dnblim Tomplomore. 
Do, [2nd bat]— Curragh* 
I Tth do.— Canada: limerick. 

I bat]— !*|y month. 
I If fi do.— Bombay ; Uuttevaut 

Da tStod hat.J— Clonmei 

2 1 it da— MjJu: Birr. 

Do. [2nd brtt] — Newport 

22nd do.- Manchester: Perknuref, 

Do. [2nd bat.}— AMershot for Ifalt*. 

33rd do.— Bengal : Chatham 

1 bat]— Depot at Deal ; Malta. 
24th do.— Bengal: Chatham 
Da [2nd bat)-Uhefiield* 
25th da— Gibraltar : Pembroke* 
2dthda— [but,]— Bermuda: BedHwt 
27th do.— Bengal: Buttevnnt 
2ath da— Bombay : Ferraoy* 
29th do— Bengal : Chatham. 
30ih da— Dnbtln : Parkburet. 
Sl>t da— Bombay : Pembroke* 
32nd do.— Bengal; 
23rd do — Bombay: Fermoy 
34th do — Bengul : Colchester 
3Ath do— Bengal : Chatham 
3tith do— Alder Hhott ; Athlon a 
STth da— Bengal; Colchester 
38th da— Bengal : Colchester 
38th do.— Canada: Templemore 
40th da— N. S. Wales: Birr. 
4 Ut do.— Jamaica: Jersey 
42nd do.— Bengal: Sterling* 
43rd do. — Madras: Chatham 
44th do.— Madras: Colchester 
loth do,— Cape of Good Hope : Parkhurvt 

4 fith da— 1 fungal: Templemoro 
47tli do. —Alderabott: Cork. 
48th do.— Bengal s Cork* 

49th do.— Barbsdoea; Belfast. 

60th da— Ceylon i Parkburat 

fi lit do.— Bombay : Chichester. 

£2nddo. — Bengal: Chatham 

Wrd da— ditto: ditto 

filth do.— Bengal : Colcheiter 

flfith do.— Dublin: Jersey 

Adth do— Bombay: Colchester 

filth da— Bombay : Cork* 

58th da— ShomclllYe : Currngb* 

fiythda— Cape: Athlone 

60th da— [1 ot bat J—Bengal : Winch eat«r 

Da [2nd bat]— Bengal. Wlneheaier 

Do. [3rd bat]— Madras: Wlncheeter 

Da [4th bat}— Dover. 

Glitdo. — Bengal: Chatham 

69nd do.— Nova Scotia: Belmst 

63rd da— ditto: iiclfust 

C4th da— Bengal : Canterbury 

05 th da— New Zeuland : Birr* 
Cfith da— Madras: Colchester 
67th da— Bengal : Athlone 
tiath da— Madras : Fennoy 
62th da — Msdrast Fermoy 
70th da— Bengal ; Canterbury 
71st do.— Bombay ; Stirling 
73nd da— Bombay ; Aberdeen 
73rd da — Bengal : Jersey 
7 tth do. — Madras: Aberdeen 
7.*th do. — Bengal: Chatham 
7flth do. — Curragh : Belfast 
77th do.— Bengal t Jersey 
78th do.— Bengal: Aberdeen 
7Dth do.— ditto: Perth, 
SOth do— ditto; Bottevant 
fist do.— Bengal i Chatham 
R2nd il».— Bengal : Canterbury 
S3rd do.— Bombay : Chich ester* 
B4th da— Bengal ; Chaltuun 




85th da— Cape: Pembroke 
86th do.— Bombay : Buttevant 
87th da— Bengal : Buttevant 
88th da— Bengal; Colchester 
89th da— Bombay : Fermoy 
90th do.— Bengal : Canterbury 
91st da— Bombay : Pembroke 
92nd da— Bombay; Stirling 
93rd da— Bengal ; Aberdeen 
94th da— ditto : Chatham 
96th da— Bombay': Fermoy 
96th da— Plymouth : Parkhnnt 
97th da— Bengal : Colchester 
98th da— Bengal: Canterbury 
99th da— Bengal: Cork 

100th da— Aldershot for Gibraltar [Winchester 

Rifle Brigade [1st bat]— Newcastle-on-Tyne, 

Do. [2nd bat}— Bengal: Winchester 

Da [3rd bat}— Bengal : Winchester 

Do. [4th bat}— Malta, Winchester 

1st West India Regiment— Bahamas 

2nd do— Jamaica 

3rd do.— Barbadoea 

Ceylon Rifle Regiment— Ceylon 

Cape Mounted Rifles— Cape of Good Hope 

Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment— Canada 

St Helena Regiment— St Helena 

Royal Newfoundland Corps— Newfoundland 

Royal Malta Fencibles— Malta 

Gold Coast Corps— Cape Coast Castle 


Bedford — Dover 
2nd Cheshire— Tlpner 

ENGLAND (18). 

North Lincoln— Waterford 
6th Middlesex— Curragh 
Northumberland Artillery- 

Hampshire Artillery— Plymouth 
East Kent— Aldershott 
Ijancashire Artillery — Dover 
4th Lancashire— Warrington 

Nottingham— Newark 
Oxford— Aldershott 
1st Stafford— Aldershott 
2nd Stafford— Cork 

Sussex— Edinburgh 

1st Tower Hamlets— Curragh 

2nd Warwick — Plymouth 
Wilts— Portsmouth 
1st York, (W. R,)— Aldershott 
3rd York— Carlisle 

Forfar Artillery— Kinsale 

Antrim Rifles— Woolwich 
Antrim Artillery— Belfast 
North Cork— Aldershot 
Donegal — Dover 
North Down— Belfast 

2nd Lanark— Dublin 

Stirling— Aldershott 

IRELAND (12). 

Dublin (city)— Shorndiffe Louth (Rifles)— Yarmouth 
Dublin City Artillery— Dublin. 

Fermanagh— Bradford A Burnley Tlpperary ArtiL— Portsmouth 

Kerry— Chester Waterford Artillery— Gosport 

Limerick (County) Portsmouth Wexford— Waterford 




( Corrected to 27 (h April) 
With the Dates of Commission of the Officers in Vommnnn, 

Fearse, 1S50, East Cambridge. Gunnery Ship, Capt. A* W. Jfl 

Acorn. \% Com. IL B, 

AcWon, 30, Com .J. Word <b>. 1838, East 

l venture, b& tteop-*hiu, Com. E. Lie; 

East Indit* 
A)**. 60, screw. Captain J, McNeil, Boyd, IMS, 

Const (Juard. 
Alarm, 26, Capt P. Curry, 184<>. Pacific 
Alert, 17, screw, Com. W, A. It. Pearse. 185S, 

Algerlne, sc gunboat, Lieut. -Com, W, Arthur, 

: cist Indies, 
Algiers, HI, screw, Capt G. W D. O'CalJafnAn, 

1H4«, Itevonport 
Amethyst* 26, Capt S, ftrenfell, 1304, Pacific. 
Antelope, 3, il Uistfil. Lieut -Com, J. W. Pike, 

IMS, Coast of Africa. 
Arachne, 1$, Com, J. E* Hootgomerle, I8B5, 

North America and West Indies, 
Archer, 18. screw, Capt J. Sanderson, 1H;;6, 

of Africa. 
Ardent, a. steam- vessel Com, J* H, Cave, ISfio, 

Argu*, ti, *t- vessel, Com. H, F. \V ( Ingram, 

Ariel, 3, iw^ Cairn C, Bromley, 183G, Mediter- 
Arrogant, 47. screw, CipL I*. G, Heath, C.B., 

1*54, Coast I 
Assistance, screw troop-RMp, Com. W. A. J, 

lleutli, Itttft. East Indies, 
Assurance, 4, screw, Com. C. IL Aynsley, iMfi, 

Atalanta, If;, Com. T. M, a Faaley, l&oa, North 

America and West Indie*. 
A thell, 4. Lleutenant-Com. G, & Boys, IMS, 

Bamterc F, N - l ra i • 1 ■• I . . , Lieut .-Com. J* Jenkins, 

1199, East Indies, 
Basilisk, fi, st.-vesscl T OotB. ft, A. Phayre, IBM, 

Nirth America and Went 1 n - 1 i - • -, 
ticlleislo, hospital ship, Com, IL M, Bingham, 

East Indies. 
Bittcru. tender to Calcutta* East In diva. 
Black Bag)*, st.-yucht, UnsL-Cum. J, E, l'etley, 

1 844 W ool wleh. 
Blenheim* $0, screw, CapL F, Scott, C.B., 1*4*, 

< iuard, 
Boscawen, 70, Bear Admiral the II on, Sir F. 

W. Grey, K.C.B., Capt K, A. Powell, C<H. t 

Into. Cape of Good Hope. 
Brisk, 1G, sc, Master, C. Parkinson, 1866, 

Britannia, Training Ship, Capt. R. Harris, 

1B49, Port* -i 
Brune, sL-vca, Lieut- Com, E. F. Ladder, IS64, 

Coast of Africa. 
Brunswick, SO, sc , Captain E. Ommottney, 1846, 

Channel Squadron. 
BulfrH screw, Maa-Com.— particular service 
Bustard, 2, sc*gunbL,Lt-Coni. F. \V. Hallowes 

1466, East J :. 
Bniiayd, «, Bt,-veu«L Com. F. ieeL U6#, S K. 

Coe^t of Amorlea. 
Codrnu*. Ul, §c. Master E. Winv J ^5, Clialham. 
C*§ar, &0, sertiwr, Capt C. iWerick, J-i-, 

N«rth America antl W. ImlU-i. 
Calcutta* B4 T Rear-Adm. Sir M-Seymo jr, KCL., 

Capt W. IL Hall. GB_ m$ f East Indie* 
Calypsq, IS, CapL F. B, Monlresor, ISfil, 

Cambrian, 40, Captain J, J, MCloverty, CIL 

1B4S East Indies, 

ham, 18&L Devoupnrt, 
Camlilo, |«, Com, G T. ColrliJa, Iua 

Caradoc, 3, st^rea., LlcuL-Com. C, M. duello 

1H4T. MedltetTanean, 
Centurion, ad, mc, Capt. C. G. £, Pafccy, la 

CbeaapL-iUic, 01, screw, Rear-Adm. J. Ht»i-e < 

Com, \t. fiiloon. IS^n, Eoat Indie*. 
Clown, ac-gunnt, LleuL-Com, W* 1*. Lee, la 

IMS, East Indies. 
Conflict, ft. n:.. Com. R. W. Courtenn IK 

I ..ast of Africa, 
Conqueror. 101, screw, CnpL !I, H, 

C.Li, IMS, Mediterranean. 
Coqnette. 4, bc. Coin, the Hon 

1&A5, Mediterranean. 
Cordelia, II, sc^ Com, C. £. fl. Version IS 

-nrnnt. 4, ac. Com. A. WtHlvhouac 1SS4 

last Indlea ««»"«, ia« 

Comwams.uo, Captain G. •:. fMndolpIL i 
lftn4, Const liiiunl. 

Vine (acting, Ka-t 
Creasy, 80, screw, Capt. E. 1*. If&utod, 

Crocodile, B, rec-ihip, Cera \V. nreet* 

off the Tower, 
Cruioer, 17, sc*. Com. J . By thMoa^ 1 8 

Coast of America, 
Cumherlond, 70, Rear Adm, Sir . Lu 
^tain 11 I>, h 
" America, 
Curu. r, Capt i IT. M.i 

particular service, 
Cyclops, e. it..v + , CapL W + J, fl. PuJIen. | 

Lust Indict, 
JJoslicr, % St.- vessel, Coin. E, G, Hore, i 

Dec, 4 T troopship. Mast* Com. I 

1B44, particular n< . 
Devastation, «, st-veu, Cotn. «7. Wuke, i, 

North America, and West Indie* 
Diadem, 32, sc, CapL P. W. Mooraoai, C 

1H^7, North America and W. Iudiea, 
Uorii, d% scrcw t CapL E. Hcathcote, li 

Dove, screw gunbt, LltuL C. J. Bullock, l: 

Eojst Indiea 
Drake, so. gunbt., Lkut-Com, \. | 

18*6, East Indlaa. 
Eagle, .'SO, Capt. E. Tutlmm, 1854» Cotot G 
Edinburgh, SS, screw, CapL E. C T 

IS4«, Coast ' h 
EUc, lL' t Com, 11. Campion, 185a, East Indies, 
Eak, 30, se., CapL Sir. B, J. La M, IPCltire, 1 850 

East Indies, 
E ury al aa, 5 1 , sc, Capt, J. W. Tarlet on , C . B, , lSM t 

Eicelleut, is, gunnery ship, Capt, IL. S. Hewlett 

CB , I8fi0 f Portarnoutu. 
Exmouth, *Jf>, sc, CapL IL H. Rubluson, ] 

Fairy, sc. yacht, tender to Victoria and Albcr- 

yacht PortsmoutJi. 
Flrm f sc gunbL, LlcuL-Com. W, IL Boultnn, 

1So4, Kant Indlea 
Fisguord, 42, Commodore Ibc Hon. J. R t Druuv 

moud, C.B„ Woolwich 
Forester, 9, bo, gunbt, Lieut- Com. A, J. 

l&tt, East Indies, 
i' ormldable, 84, J C Fitzgerald, l&40 t 5heeniv» 






Furious, 16, st-ves., Capt. S. Osborn, C.B., 1855, 

East Indies. 
Fury, 6, st-ves., Com. J.E. CommerelL1855, E.I. 
Ganges, 84, Rear- A dm. R. L. Baynes, C.B., 

Capt J. Fulford, 1848, Pacific. 
Gannett, 11, Com. LEG. Lambert, 1854, 

Growler, 2, sc gunboat, Lieut-Coin. H. E. 

Crozier, 1854, Mediterranean. 
Hannibal, 91, sc, Capt G. T. Gordon, 1846, Ports- 
Harrier, 17, screw, Com. Sir M. McGregor, Bart, 

(1856), 1857, South America. 
Hastings, 60, screw, Captain W. R. Mends, C.B., 

1852, Coast Guard. 

Haughty, 2, sc gunboat, Lieut -Com. G. D. 

Broad, 1851, East Indies. 
Havannah, 19, Capt T. Harvey, 1848, Pacific. 
Hawke, 60, sc., Capt W. Crispin 1852, Coast 

Herald, 8, surv.-ves., Capt H. M. Denham,1846, 

South Seas. 
Hermes, 6, it -v., Com. W. E. A Gordon, 1854, 

Coast of Africa. 
Hero, 91, screw, Capt Sir G. N. Broke, Bart, 

C.B., 1845, Chatham. 
Heron, 12, Commander W. H. Truscott, 1855, 

Coast of Africa. 
Hesper, sc Bt-ship, Mast-Coin. J. Loane, 1846, 

East Indies. 
Hibernia, rec-ship, Rear-Admiral IL J. Cod- 

rington, C.B., Captain F. Warden, C.B., 

1845, Malta. 

Highflyer, 21, sc, Capt C. F. A. Shadwell, C.B., 

1853, East Indies. 

Himalaya, sc store-ship, Com. J. Seccombe, 

1865, particular sendee. 
Hogue, 60, screw, Capt J. Moore, C.B., 1848, 

Coast Guard. 
Hornet, 17, sc, Com. Viscount Gilford, 1858, 

East Indies. 
Hydra, 6, st-vessel, Com. R. V. Hamilton, 1857, 

Coast of Africa. 
Imaum, 72, Commodore H. Kellett, C.B., Com. 

H. J. Grant, 1855, rec-ship, Jamaica. 
Impregnable, 104, Vlce-Adm. Sir B. Reynolds, 

K.C.B., Capt W. H. Stewart, C.B., 1854, 

Indus, 78, Rear-Admiral Sir H. Stewart, K.C.B., 

Capt. J. (X D. Hay, 1850, North Americ, 

and West Indies. 
Industry, st-res., 2, st-shlp, Mast-Corn. G. J. 

Hodges, 1841. particular service. 
Inflexible, 6, st-vea, Com. G. A C. Brooker, 

1856, East Indies. 
Intrepid, 6, screw, Mast. J. Waye, 1855, Devon- 
Iris, 26, Capt W. Lorlng, C.B., 1848, Australia. 
James Watt, 91, screw, Capt E. Codd, 1851, 

Janus, sc gunboat Lieut-Com. H. P. Knevitt, 

1855, East Indies. 

Jaseur, sc gunboat Lieut .Com. J. B. Scott 

1846, W. Indies., 

Jasper, sc gunboat Licut-Com. W. H. Pym, 

1849, W. Indie*, 
Kestrel, sc gunboat Lieut-Com. G. D. Bevan, 

1858,East Indies. 
Lapwing, 4, screw, Com. M. F. 0. Rellly, 1836, 

Lee, sc gnnbt, Lieut-Com. W. H. Jones, 1852, 

East Indies. 
Leopard 18, st-ves., Capt J. F. B. Wainwrignt, 

1856, North America and West Indies. 
Leven, 3, sc gunboat, Lieut-Com. J. S. Hudson, 

1854, East Indies. 

Liffey, 51, screw, Capt G. W. Preedy, CB., 1855, 
Channel Squadron. 

Locust, 3, st-ves., Lieut-Com. J. B. Field, 1846, 

particular service. 
Lynx, 4, screw, Lieut-Com. H. Berkeley, 1854, 

Coast of Africa. 
Lyra, 9, sc Com. R. B. Oldfleld, 1855, Cape of 

Good Hope. 
Madagascar, receiving ship, Commander E. M. 

Leycester, 1856, Rio Janeiro. 
Magidenne, 16, st-vessel, Capt. N. Vansittart, 

C.B., 1854, E. Indies. 
Marlborough, 131, sc, Vice Adm. A. Fanshawe. 

C.B., Capt the Rt Hon. Lord F. H. Kerr, 

1852, Mediterranean. 

Medina, st-ves., 4, Capt T. A. B. Spratt, C.B., 

1855, Mediterranean 

Medusa, 4, steam-vessel, Com. W. Bowden, 1854, 

Coast of Africa 
Megsera, 6, sc, Com. G. T. M. Purvis (b), 1852, 

particular service 
Mersey, 40, screw, Capt H. Caldwell, C.B., 

1853, particular service. 

Mohawk, 4, screw. Com. P. C. C. McDougall, 

1856, East Indies. 

Monkey, steam tug, Sec Mas. G. Syndercombe, 

(acting), Woolwich. 
Naiad, 42, store-ship, Mast-Corn. W. W. Dillon, 

1843, Callao 
Nautilus, 6, Lieut-Com. W. B Grant, 1852, 

apprentice ship, Devonport 
Nereus, 42, store- depot, Mast-Corn. J. C. Bar- 
low, 1835, Valparaiso 
Niger, 14, sc, Capt P. Cracroft, 1854, 

East Indies. 
Nile, 90, sc, Rear-Adm. C. Talbot, Capt A. P 

E. Wilmot, C.B., 1854, Devonport 

Nimrod,6, sc, Com. East Indies 

Oberon, 3, st-vessel, Lieut-Com. F. G. C Paget, 

1852, South America. 
Opossum, 2, sc gunboat, Lieut-Com. C J. 

Balfour, 1850, East Indies. 
Orion, 91, screw, Capt W. Houstoun, 1847, Medi- 
Osprey, 4, screw, Com. H. J. Blomfleld, 1855, 

Pearl 20, sc, Capt. E. S. Sotheby,C.B., 1852, East 

Pelorns, 21, sc, Capt F. B. P. Seymour, 1854, 

East Indies. 
Pembroke, 60, Capt E. P. Charlewood, 1855, 

Coast Guard. 
Perseverance, 2 troop ship, Com. E. R. Power, 

1850, particular service 
Persian, 12, CoramanderE. Hardinge 165G, 

Coast of Africa- 
Plover, 2, sc gunboat, Lieut-Com. W. H. Rason, 

1855, East Indies 

Plumper, 9, screw, Capt G. H. Richards, 1854, 

Pluto, 4, st-vessel, Lieut-Com. C. II. Simpson, 

1848, Coast of Africa 
Porcupine, 3, st-ves. Capt H. a Otter, 1854, 

Princess Charlotte, 104 Mast-Corn. H. G. 

Thomsett, 1854, Hong Kong. 
Princess Royal, 91, sc, Capt T. Baillie, 1845, 

Pylades, screw, 21, Capt M. de Courcy, 1852, 

Qua'l, 2, sc gunboat, Lieut-Com. N. Osborn, 

1856, Mediterranean. 

Queen Charlotte, 104, Vice-Adm. E. Harvey, 
Capt II. Harvey, 1852, Sheernesa. 

Racer, 1 1, screw, Com. the Hon. T. A. Pakenham 
1856, North America and West Indies. 

Racoon, 21, screw, Captain J. A. Paynter, 1854 
particular service. 

Recruit, 6, st-v., Com. D. Spain, 1856, Medi- 



Kenown, 91, screw, Cnpt. A, Forbes, 1B4G, Chan- 

nel Squadron. 
Retribution, 38, *t- vessel, Commodoru It L 

KtlKcl), East India*. 
Jthadaraanthu* 4, itv^, Master-Corn^ r. It 

Sturdee, ini;^ ynrtl, uiar eervlce. 
Roebuck, fl, sc, Coin, B,Q svinoti*. acting K,I. 
Rolla, G, Lieut -torn. €. G. Nelson, 1834, Ports- 
lEoyal Albert 121,,^., P^ar-AdrnlralSiM , H 
mtutie, iLC.B„ llicc (ISM), 

Chnnxel Squadron. 
Royal Adelaide 104, Rr,»Ad. Sir T S. Pasley. 

Bt ; Capt W. J. Williams, 1841. JHToapwft 
UtiawU, (TO, sc., Capt G, WodcJionac, 1854, Coast 

Sr. ii in D'AcMj 101, iwrew. Capt 1 r.Thomfu 

»n, 1S47, Channel squadron. 
SL Vincent, Curt, T. Wilson, 1S6B, Fortainourh. 

training- ship, 
tnpwro, ff, st-v ,, CapL G. & Hand, l*j.\ S.E. 

Coast of America, 
racen, 4, ttuL-Gom. W t Stanton, 1853, East 

Satellite, at, ai, C*pt J. C Provost, 1*56, 

Saturn, 13, CapL a Ramsay, C.B., 1843, 

Scourge, (i, sc , Com, Prince of Langenberg, 

1*5 T T Med her run can. 
Seagull, fie. gunbr., Ucnt-Com, W, (Julmmo, 

I8.5i>, purtkultir sendee. 
Sharpshooter, 8, screw, Lient-Com. G Gibsons 

18*8, Coaat of Africa. 
Simoom, 8, ac_, Com. J. M. Cooke, 1 853, K. 1 wile* 
Siren, 10, Conu G- tt. Balfour, Ifl5rt, s.uili 

Skipjack, sc. ffunbt. h Lieut- Com. J. Murray, 

IMS, CI i.L.i n- I Squadron. 
Slaney, 2, sc. #unbt, Lt-Com. It J. Wvunlatt, 

But Indies, 
Spanwbawk, 4, an, Com. J, C. Byug, J8iG, 

Kan Indies. 
Spit Art?, % st-v., Lieut -Com, W. C. Chapman, 

1HH, Coast of Africa, 
Spy, 3, Lient-Com. T. B.CoUtnaon, IftjO, South 

Starlina:, sc^gunboat, Lloul.-Coin. J. A. WMt- 

ahed, 1854, East Iodic* 
SUuneb, 2, ac.-gunboat Lt-CnfU. E. J, Pullard. 

JBJHS, fca*t Indie* 
Styx, 6. at re*., ConuC, Veaoy, 18M K. America 

jujd W. Indie* 

Supply Bt -All.* 

184o t 

W. II 

, \\v, :. 
.surprise. 4, *-..* ■-. I... i It. Cecil, 18>T. LI 
Tartar, 30, at. n ir f.H. l*> 

and N. America, 
Tartama, 4 T at. Com. A. L. Mattel 1, IBM. Mt4i 

Termagant 35, aciw, Cant, R 11*11, laM. 

Terrible, VI, at -vessel. C«pt. I'. H. 11, Glaate, 

C. B., llWtt, Mediterranean, 
Terror, 16, 

mud a. 
Tortoise, 13, store-ship, ( P.nrnclV 

C.B M 1854, Ascendon. 
Trlnuno, Ho, arrow, Captain G+ T. P. BotoItt. 

1»48, East Indies. 
Trident, 6, Bt.-%. Com. K, A. Clo«e, 16S4, Coaal 

of Afrlc* 
Triton, 3, st-rea, Uent-Cotii* K. IL Bortot. 

1843, Coast of Africa 
Urgent, sc troop snip, Com. H W, Hire, 18*1 

particular ftcnrlco, 
Vali.rou*, Id, at-ve*, W. C, Aldh*m, C aV, 

l&n, pEii'doilar service. 
\'esnvlus, «, *t en m* vessel, Commo^tore C- ^Ist* 

Coast of Africa. 
Victoria and Albert, 3, steam yacht, Captain Hit 

Hon, J. Den man, l*4l t Portsmouth. 
Victor Em annul, »L sc„ Cnpt. J, Willcoi, €JL 

loVif), Modll^rranean, 
Yictorv, 101. Admlrtil W, Bowie*, OB*; C«|4 

A. Faiiiubar, 1N0, Portsmouth. 
Vigilant, 4, «., Com. W. AnuyU^e, ISA*, Moll* 

Viper, 4 T screw, Com W, H. W- Hewelt, VC 

L.H., 1H5S, Dovenport. 
Virago, u\ staves., Cum, M. E. tninn, IBM 

particular aervke. 
Vixen, 6, at*vea„ Com. L. Lamb, 

Voltano, 3 T «>-voa. Mast. -Com. J # H , Hocklv, 

lfto6 t t. Indlca 
Vulture. 6, st-v., Captain F. A. Campbell, 185«, 

Wanderer, 4, screw, Com. M. IL Pechcl], 1«£4, 

Watchful,! ac-Eunht, Eaet ladle* 
Wei leal pv, 72, Captain Superintendent G Oajfti 

smith, C.B., 1812, Chitham. 
Wescr, at v., o\. Com, A. IL J. Jobtiston 

Woodcock, 3. *c„ ffunht. t Lt-Com. G. S, Ban- 

sanqnetlChW, Eiwt Indlea. 


(Corrected to the atitb April, 185&.) 
With the dates of CvmmUrian of the Officers in command. 


Acb.n, it, rijiff-ahlp of Commodore il a Wi-|. 
, ., Com. IL A. Drought I MAI, 

Com. H. W, Ground^ 1K.W, Gunnery 

<nii'ri\ I'.'.nibay. 
Assay c, 10, padrtlCr Commander G. N. Arinma, 

1BA8, Zuxlbaff. 
Auckland, H, paddle, Com, J. Stephens, 

Asayrni, 3, paddle, Maatcr-Curn. E. Daviea, 

18A8, Indus, 
Anjcwitu, <l< y.uJit, Bombay, 

Aaatralliin, screw troop ahlp, Master^Com. E. 

Boon, Bay of Bengal 
Berenice, 2, puddle troop aulp, LienL-Cont. 

A. W. t hlttv, 1S47, Malabar ConeL 
tiieemah, 4, Mirveyinff vessel, Lieut -Com. 

A. U. Taylor, 1H47, Malabar Co*aL 
Bcea.s 3, flat, Master-Com, E, Naah, i860, 

dive, IS, Lu in. -Cum, J. tcilley, 1B47,, 

HlUp, on a CrnUc. 
Cursctjce, fiat, MRSter-Com. , Influ* 




Charlotte, 4, Lieut-Cora. T. N. Philbrick, 

1857, Andaman Islands. 

Constance, 3, Lieut-Com. C. H. Walker, 

1847, Aden. 
Comet, 5, paddle gunboat, Cora. W. B. Selby, 

1830, Mesopotamia. 
CoromandeL, screw troop ship, Lieut.-Cora. 

S. B. Hellard, 1847, Bay of BengaL 
Cbenaub, 2, paddle, Master-Coin. T. Gourley, 

1858, Itiver Indus. 

Conqueror, 2, paddle, Master-Commander T. 

K. Linton, 1849, Kiver Indus. 
Dalhousie, screw troop ship, Lieut.-Com. T. W. 

Hopkins, 1858, Bay of Bengal 
Dromedary, Flat, Master-Com. . , Itiver 

Elphinstone, 18. Lieut.-Com. II. A. Fraser, 

1859, Bombay. 

Euphrates, Flat, Master-Com. W. Walton, 

1858, River Indus. 
Ethersey, Flat, Maatsr-Com. T. 0. Jones, 1858, 

Kiver Indus. 
Emily, 2, Lieut-Com. P. W. Tendal, 1857, Per- 
sian Gulf. 
Falkland, 12, Commodore G. Jenkins, C.B., 

1855, Persian Gulf. 
Fcrooz, 10, paddle, Commander C. J. Crul- 

tenden, 1830, Bombay. 
Frecre, 2, paddle, Master-Commander J. McNeil, 

1852, River Indus. 
Goolanair, paddle yacht, Master-Commander 

J. D. Kennelly, 1850, Bombay 
Gcorgiana, 2, Lieut.-Com. W. Collin gwood, 

1857, Persian Gulf. 
Indus, 2, paddle, Master-Commander E. S. H. 

Xeale, 1856, River Indus. 
Jhellum, 2, paddle, Master-Com. R. L. Law- 
son, 1856, River Indus. 
Keddywarree, receiving ship, Master-Com. J. 

S. Amos, 1856, Kurrache. 
Lady Falkland, 2, paddle, Mast-Com. W. Barras, 

1859, Kurrache. 
Lady Canning, 4, paddle, Lieut-Com. E. Peevor, 

1846, Red Sea, 

Mahi, 3, Lieut-Com. R. W. Whisk, 1849. 

Bombay. ' 

Marie*, 3, Lieut.-Com. C. G. Constable, 1839, 

Suneying Ship, Malabar Coast. 

Mootvee, 1, perdant ves., Capt. E. W. Daniell. 

1857, Kotree. 
Napier, 2, paddle, Master-Commander J. 

Fors'er, 51, River Indus. 
Nerbudda, 2, Lieut.-Com. C Forstcr, 1856, 

Malaba* Coast. 
Nimrod, 2, patldle, Master-Commander J. B. 

Butter, 1856, River Indus. 
Nitocris, Flat, Master-Corn. A. Harrison, 1856, 

River Indus. 
Outram, 4, paddle, Mast-Cora. W. Fivey, 1858, 

River Indus, 
runjaub, 10, paddle, Commander A. Foulerton, 

1857, Calcutta 
Planet, 2, paddle, Master-Com. T. K. 

Fletcher, 1853, River Indus. 
Prince Arthur, screw troop-ship, Com. J. 

Tronson, 1858, en route Timor Islands. 
Pleiad, 2, screw, Lieut-Com. J. G. Nixon, 1847, 

Persian Gulf. 

Ravee, Flat, Master-Com. , River Indus. 

Scmiramls, 8 paddle, Com. W. Balfour, 1858, 

Sutlcdge, Flat, Master-Com., River Indus. 
Satellite, 2, paddle, Master-Com. A. Wilkin?, 

1852, River Indus. 
Snake, pac'dle, tender to Acbar, Bombay. 
Sir H. Havelock, 2, paddle, Master-Com. D. 

Morrison, 1858, River Indus. 
Sir H. Lawrence, 2, paddle, Master-Com. C. 

Tickel, 1845, River Indus. 
Sydney, screw troop ship, Master-Com. J. 

Nibblet, Bay of Bengal 
Tigris, 5, Lieut-Com. G. T. Robinson, 1847, 

Persian Gulf. 
Victoria, 4, paddle, Lieut-Com. T. S. W. 

Twynham, 1845, Bombay. 
Zenobia, 10, paddle, Com. F. E. Manners, 

1857, Murat 


1st Brigade, Bombay, 1st Company, Sural, 
Lieut.-Com. J. B. Bcwsher, 1856, com- 

2nd Brigade, Bengal, Capt C. D. Campbell, 

1st Company, Fort William, Lieut-Com. C. 
B. Templer, 1857. 

2nd Company, Guyah, Lieut.-Com. T. H. B. 
Banon, 1854. " ! 

3rd do. Dacca, Lieut-Com. IL W. Ethc- 
ridge, 1347. 

4th do. Andaman Islands, Lieut-Con 
F. Warden, 1857. 

5th Company Sasseram, Lieut.-Com. G. 0. B. 

Carew, 1855. 
6th do. Patna, Lieut-Com. D. S. Duval 

7th do. Chybassa, Lieut.-Com. T. E. 

Lewis, 1848. 
8th do. Barackpore, Lieut-Com. W. H. M 

Davis, 1849. 
9th do. Jepore, Lieut-Com. A. T. Winders* 


U. S. Ma(*., No. 366, May, 1859. 




WHITEHALL, April 20. 

Tho Queen hat been pleased to direct 
letters patent to be passed tinder the 
Great Seal of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, constituting 
and appointing the Bight Honourable 
Sir John Somerset Pakington, Baronet, 
Vice Admiral William Fanshawe Mar- 
tin, Vice Admiral the Honourable Sir 
Richard Saunders Dnndas, K.C.B., Rear 
Admiral Sir Henry John Leeke, K.C.B., 
Rear Admiral Alexander Milne, K.C.B., 
and tho Honourable Frederick, Lygon, 
to be her Majesty's Commissioners for 
executing the office of Lord High Ad- 
miral of the said United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and the 
dominions, islands, and territories there- 
unto belonging. 

(The following Commissions bear date 
April 14.) 
Corps of Royal Marines. — To be 
Captains — first Lieutenant H. Hcwett, 
First Lieutenant and Quartermaster 
Mc Arthur, First lieutenant and Quarter- 
master H. B. Roberts, First Lieutenants 
J. Shute, J. B. Seymour, A. J. Stuart, 
C. B. Parke, and First Lieutenant and 
Adjutant J. Y. Holland. 

To be First Lieutenant*. — Second 
Lieutenants G. F. Gamble, S. £. W. 
Hcmmans, E. H. White, A. Fonblanque, 
M. A. H. G. Heriot, J. R. Leeds, B. D. 
Kcnnicott, G. C. Boase, W.M. Prichctt, 
W. V. B. Hewett, G. M. Shewell, J. M. 
Hamilton, J. S. Bontein, J. W. Scott, 
H. Wolrige, S. T. Collins, G. L. Tup- 
man, G. H. Elliot, W. W. G. B. Willis, 
G. W. Oliver, J. G. Fitzgerald, W. E. 
Despard, and W. J. Barker. 

Paymasters. — Samuel G. Robison, 
confirmed in Assurance*, Silas W. Par- 
ker confirmed in Adventure. 


Captain. — Thomas Wilson, 1853, to 
St. Vincent, re-commissioncd. 

Commanders.— H. W. Hire, 1854, to 
Urgent, vice Mc'Donald; W. E. Tris- 
cott, 1846, to be Superintendent of tho 
Packet Service at Dover; Charles L. 
Waddilove, 1855, to St. Vincent. 

JJeputif Medical Jn*pectQr,*^ohti )L 
M inter, F.C.S., 1850, to I'leton* mmd 

Lieutenants* — Htnry G. Belson, 
to ftrreUatU J. P. Junes Pany, 
to Hmnswek; A- G, K. Mitrmv, 
to command Jackal ; T. F. Btti 
1855, to Excellent; R. II. Ilabingfrm, 
1854 1 toJcttiu» IVaU; 8. <.*. Price, \m, 
to Hero; Charles G, Jotlfca, lf58, to 
Mersey ; George Hulilm-Arti, 1835^ si 
Charles D. Dnvies, 185$, to JZ±wllc»ii 
Francis Oshura, 1B5G, to Arw*/ 

Masters— Jnhcz H.fl, ttowk'it, ISM, 
to Tridtntt Julm W, McL Hal. 
additional to Pi*gard ; Georgje William*, 
1851, to Lightning ; George B* F. Sink, 
1831, to Algiers ; Richard Sturgeesy 18H 
tc> Terrible ; William T. Tr*gidgo> 1649, 
tO Mtifirtrpwrtr, 

Paymaster* — Jflmcs T. Bigncll, to 
Trident \ K. T. Crispin, 1840, to IU**~ 
triutt9\ K W. M, Millmtxn, l854,aili(> to St. Vincent ; Heavy J. It, AibtU, 
1855, additional to JhmnihaL 

Surgeons — J oh a L\ tfahbca, 1851, tu 
Ilttutrhtut i William T* Wiliion, l&W, 
to Perseverance ; John Ron?, 1&5G, & 

Assistant Surgeon* (A cling)— W I llbiu 
Lockhart, to Impregnable'* John k. 
Smallliom, to Victor?/ ; W. H. Ow 4 
1853, to llhistrions \ John L. Pataut, 
1543, to Jaclal; Benjamin Crabk 
to Impregnable ; Edward P. Fowo 
185 G, to BmntaHck \ James Stevenson, 
lSSB^acimg, to Spy ; William S. Fiaiitt; 
18fi9, acting, to Jam** Watt ; Willi*!! 
Lockhart, 1859, acting, to ft, 
Francis W. Davis, 1853, to Grcc»wfdi 
Hospital j Alexander Miunoeh, aeosft 
to J ictory ; Robert Walker, to /n» 

Assistant Paymaster s. — Etlw arcl H, 
Stanton, 164G, to Exntrntth \ Fr< ■.' 
Burae, 1852, Thomas W. Harriet. 
1855, and John Brcmnor, 1859, l« 
Ganges \ Thomaa Goodman, lh 
ffatrlci W. H. Thompson, l$5i, fia 
chaise) to Jackal; William Noble, 
1855, to Hannibal; Francis Oliver I8i 
to Itliistriouu. 

Master. — Samuel Libby (b.) 1 

Mates.— Charles R. MTmWfrmJ 
to St. Jean d'Acre; and J^ V. i 
1857, to Algiers. 






Chief Engineers. — G. Glasson, 1850, to 
JExmouth, for service in St. George; R. 
Fothergill, 1848, to Edinburgh. 

Second Master. — Francis O. Simpson, 
1856, to Jackal 

Assistant Engineers. — J. W. Traill, 1st 
Class (in charge), to Jackal; J. Bell, 
2nd Class, to Edinburgh; J. Walsh, ad- 
ditional to Fisgardy for service in Bann, 
surveying vessel. 

Clerks. — Charles D. Lee to Virago; 
Henry H. Wyatt to Racoon; Charles J. 
Dawson to Mersey; H. W. P. Kooystra 
to Boscawen. 

Assistant Clerk. — Alfred Ilirtzel to 

Midshipman. — Henry Mclnroy to 

Masters' Assistants. — Christopher L. 

Pope to Crrny; Thomas Pidwell to 


Appointment.— Inspecting Comman- 
der — Commander Fitzjames S. McGregor 
to Bangor Division. 

Chief Officers— TAx. Benjamin Woolley, 
Master, to command Sutton Station. 
Lieut. Francis Osburn to command Pe- 
vensey, and Henry R. Stewart, Fair- 
light Stations. 

Removals. — Chief Officers— -Lieut. 
Charles D. Warren, from Jack's Hole to 
Oyster Haven ; Master Francis B. Hen? 
wood, from Stadland to Sidmouth ; Mr. 
Peter Loney, Master, from Babbicombe 
to Dartmouth, in exchange with Mr, 
Charles M. Hughes, Master. 


WAR-OFFICE, Mabch 22. 

The Queen has been graciously pleased 
to give orders for the appointment of 
Major General J. Michel, C. B., to be 
an Ordinary Member of the Military 
Division of the Second Class, or Knights 
Commanders, of the Most Honourable 
Order of the Bath. 

Her Majesty has also been graciously 
pleased to make and ordain a Special 
Statute of the said Most Honourable 
Order, authorising the following appoint- 
ments to the said Order : - 

To be an Extra Member of the Mili- 
tary Division of the Second Class, or 
Knights Commanders, viz. : — 

Colonel C. Shepherd Stuait, C. B., of 
the Bombay Infantry. 

To be Extra Members of the Military 
Division of the Third Class, or Com- 
panions, viz. : — 

Colonels M. W. Smith,|.3rd Dragoon 
Guards ; J. A. R. Raines, 95th Regi- 
ment ; A. I. Lockhart, 92nd Regiment. 

Lieut. Colonels E. Price, Royal Artil- 
lery ; W. Parke, 72nd Regiment ; H. 
E. Longden, 10th Regiment ; R. D. 
Campbell, 71st Regiment ; W. Hope, 
71st Regiment ; R. H. Gall, 14th Light 
Dragoons ; E. Steele, 83rd Regiment ; 
A. Scudamore, 14 th Light Dragoons. 

Major J. R. Gibbon, Royal Artillery. 

Colonels J. K. M'Causland, 66th 
Regiment of Bengal N. I. G. Le G. 
Jacob, 31st Regiment of Bombay N. I. 

J. Liddell, Bombay Infantry. T. W, 
Hicks, late of the Bombay Artillery. 

Lieut. Colonels G. Malcolm, 1st Regi- 
ment of Bombay N. I. C. J. Owen, 3rd 
Regiment of Bombay Light Cavalry. 
E. S. Blake, Bombay Artillery, G. H. 
Robertson, 25th Regiment of Bombay 
Native Light Infantry. W. A. Orr, 
Madras Artillery. 

Majors T. F. Wilson, 13th Regiment 
of Bengal N. I. J. D. Woolcombe, Bom- 
bay Artillery. H. D. Abbott, 31st 
Regiment of Madras Native Light In* 
fantry. G. Hare, 20th Regiment of 
Madras N. I. J. G. Lightfoot, Bombay 

F. S. Arnott, Esq., M. D., Surgeon 
on the Bombay establishment of her 
Majesty's Indian Military Forces. W. 
Mackenzie, Esq., M. D., Surgeon to 
the Madras Establishment of her Ma- 
jesty's Indian Military Forces. 

WAR-OFFICE, Mabch 25.] 

{The following Commissions to bear date 
March 25, 1859.) 

3rd Dragoon Guards — Lieut. C. Cos- 
tobadie, from the 1st Dragoons, to be 
Lieut., vice Park- Yates, who exchanges. 

1st Dragoons — Lieut. E. W. Park- 
Yates from the 3rd Dragoon Guards, to 
be Lieut., vice Costobadie, who ex- 

3rd Eight Dragoons— A. SfccoAift, 



Gent,, to be Derail by purchase 
Pi fiord, promoted. 

oth DiwoofW tfrwti P. M.M. Inge, 
inmi the IStt i «»ns, to be 

Lieut. . vice *hafto Grde, who exchanges, 
Jan Jn 

7th Li^lit Ijtu^ j Buiy.T. 

A, Thornhill, M.H., *2nd 

Foot, to be Awtot, Surg ,vice Lynch, 


lSlli Light Dragoons— Lieut, W* J- 
Sbafto Orde, from the 6th Dragoons, to 
be Lieut., vice Inge* who exchanges, 
Jan. i>o, 

I At till, ry — Asabt. Surg* L. 

M .1 >,,from tin.- Htaff, 


Grenadier Guard* — Captain Ct, II. 

Gj-ey, from the Hifl,' Iirigadt?, to be 

Lieut. Anil Captain, viec Coutaon, who 

4th Font — Avint. Rfogeon I 
Kearney, frum the Stall', to be Assist, 

6th— Ensign J. Giflard to be limit, 
Iry purchase, vice Bolton, promoted, 

7 th— Captain B. C, Russell, from 
Half Pay Unattached, to be Captain, 
t. Thornton, who exchange*. 

SHh — The date of Ensign Hem 
appointment is 18th March, 185tf, and 
not 18th February, 185&, u* previously 


104b— Lieut* H, Hendeiwm to he 
Captain without purcnaw, vice Cator, de- 
ceased, Feh. 34 ; Lieut, F, R Saint with 
to be Captain without purchase, vice 
Ward, deceased ; March 13 ; Kiuugn H, 
L. W, PhiUi[M* to be Lieut, without pur* 
chase, vice Henderson, Feb, 24, 

15th— Captain H. Robinson, from 
the 43rd Foot, to be Captain, vice Hud- 
son, who exchanges, Jan. 1 1 , 

18th — C. Dawson, Gent, to be Ensign 
n.hase, vice Thacker promoted. 

2Mh— Assist. Burg, St John Killery, 
from the st&JF, to he Assist, Surg,, viec 
Mackinnou, appointed to the l*tu\ loot 

42nd — Aj^ifeit. Surj^., W, A. Mockili- 
mm, from the 2yth Fout, to be Am&A 
Surg-., vice Thomhill, appointed to the 
7th Li^ht Dragoons. 

4Srd— Capt, J. Hudson, from the l.^th 
Foot, to be Captain, vice Ru button, who 
exchange*, .Inn. 11. 

5 Q th— H. T, Herchmer, Gwt, |o be 
Ensign by purchase, vice Wakefield! 
who retires. 

7«'ih— Lieut. A. BaJtrnwahe to be 
Captain by purchase vice Cumberland, 
who retire* ; Ensign A, B, Wright tu be 
Ueot, by pmehaso, vice fcultuianme. 

87th— A. H, II cut., to U 

Ensign hy purchase, vice Devereux, pco- 

I rittitti tuuno of 
Lieut, R 

I fated in ill-- <'<t:r!t> «>( March IS 

Rtfte Brigade—] ;>tai»J^ 

B, B, Coulson, from the Gr\*uadi« 

Guards, to be Captain, vice Grey, wfc* 

3rd Weft India Uegiruexit — Liriit. 
Col IL E. M 
attached, to be J 
who exchanges ; < 
ker, Bart., from t 
to be Captain, dec F, R. '1 
exchanges ; Lieut. R. Eck 

in, hy purchase, vine Sir W. Par 
ker, Bart.j who retire*. 

Gold Coast Artillery ( 4 oijn*— Emngn 
J, J. Matthew to be Lieut, without pur- 
chase, vine Laaenbyj |>roiiK$tncJ t*» an L'q 
attached Company, without purvbasc; 
4.i. Horner, Gent., to be Kiuii^n withoot 
purclmsc, vice Mat hew* 

Hom istaat 

Surgeon* — J. D. Sainter, I 
Milton, appointed to the Royal ArdlUrr 
Slarch 1 ; E, G. Lej , M. 1 ?.", \ iceBourkc, 
appointed U> tht Royal Artillery p Mftrdl 
1 j E. C* Markey, Geut, \ ioe Ho 
pointed to the ICoyal Artillery, 
1 ; H. Crump, M. D., vice- Grave*, if* 
pointed Uj the Royal Artillery, Mara 
1 ; J. Clarke, M* t>., vice Temple, a|>- 
]xiintetl to the Royal Artillery, March 1 i 
W, Millar, Cent,, vice II 
appointed to the Royal Artillery. Marc* 
1 ; H. A. Ci ' , vice BurLantl, 

appointed to the Royal ArtUlery, March 
1 : K . ,T. Parr, Gent., vi . Lewi 
pointed to the Royal Artillery, Marrii 
1 ; W. Orr, (lent,, vice Liuilaay. ap- 
poiuted tj theSiith Foot* March, 1 ; fe. 
rwsonage, M. D . t vice Urdg. appojald 
to the 23rd Foot, March 1 ; J/\F. C 
N. Murjihy, Gent,, vice Pinkerton, ap- 
pointed tu tin Ituval Artilh ry, March I; 
i 'raft r, Gent., t |^ ap- 

pointed to the 75th Foot, March l - IL 
S. E. Schroeder, ( Lyncl^ *n- 

{Kfinred to tho 12th Font. March 1. 

N<>rth Salopian Yeomanry Cavalry— 
Captain H, F, Cust (late Captairt 8^ 
1 1 ii!*sjirajtrfi he Captain, vice W , I ! 
doceased ; J. H, Nichson Wulf ur ,j 
to be Cornet, vice Atcherly, remimeii. 
IfrnA is. 
3rd Kiu^ Own btallbi d-rbire— i 


PBOfcOtloyS Alri) APfcOttfTMfcfftS. 


C. J. Webb to be Capt., vice Priaulx, 
resigned ; Ensign T. Donaldson to be 
Lieut., vice Webb, promoted, March 7. 

Oxfordshire — C. Leggc, Gent., to be 
Lieut., vice Lloyd, retired, March 16. 

Northumberland Artillery — H. St. 
George Priaulk, Gent., to be Captain, 
March 15. 

Forfar and Kincardine Artillery — 
Captain C. Campbell, to be Major, vice 
L'Amy, resigned, Jan. 25. 
[The following appointment is substituted 
for that which appeared in the Gazette of 
March 8.] 

Royal Anglesey — Ensign W. K'Kee 
to be Lieut, Oct. 21, 1858. 
[The following appointment is substituted 
for that which appeared in the Gazette of 
March 18.] 

Royal South Gloucester Light Infantry 
— J. M. Bernado, Gent., to be Ensign, 
March 12. 

~ Prince Albert's Own Leicestershire 
Volunteer Cavalry — Her Majesty has 
been pleased to accept of the resigna- 
tion by , Lieut. R. Gough, of the commis- 
sion which he holds in the above Regiment. 

Warwickshire — 2nd Regiment — R. D. 
Knight, Esq., to be Adjutant, vice Capt. 
And Adjntant Mackenzie, resigned, Dec. 

is. : 

Warwickshire — 1st Regiment— S. G. 
A. Thursby, late Captain 1st Royals, to 
be Captain, vice Wanchope, resigned ; 
March 15 ; H. S. B. Watson, Gent., to 
be Captain, vice N. Porter, resigned, 
March 19. 

2nd Regiment — Adjutant R. D. 
Knight to serve with the rank of Capt. 
Jan. 17. 

3rd West York— Ensign J. II. Palmer 
to be Lieut., vice Thunder, resigned ; T 
W. Lambert, Gent., to be Ensign, vice 
Murray, resigned March 17. Memo- 
randum — Lieut. W. Armit has been 
removed from the strength of this Regi- 

Oxfordshire — E. Ramsay, Gent., to 
be Ensign, vice Perry, promoted ; T. R. 
Brown, gent,, to be Ensign, vice Arney, 
promoted, March 18. 

Huntingdonshire — H. J. Thornhill, 
gent., to be Captain ; W. W. Goldicutt, 
gent., to be First Lieutenant, March 21. 

Hampshire Artillery — W. A. Harri- 
son, B.A., to be Assistant Surgeon, Feb. 
[This Appointment is substituted for 

that which appeared in the Gazette 

of September 7, 1858.] 

Royal Carnarvonshire — Major J. 
MacDonald, late Lieutenant Colonel of 
Her Majesty's 5th Regiment of Foot, 

to be Lieutenant Colonel Commandant 
(as of and from the 28th day of August); 
vice the Hon. E. G. D. Pennant, re- 
signed, but who retains the honorary 
rank of Colonel, Sept. 4. 

WAR OFFICE, April 1. 

(The following Commissions to bear date 

Royal Horse Guards — Lieut. W. W* 
Hartopp to be Captain by purchase, vice 
Sir B. P. Henniker, Bart., who retires; 
Cornet M. B. B. Adderley to be Lieu- 
tenant by purchase, vice Hartopp; J. 
R. H. Maxwell, gent., to be Cornet by 
purchase, vice Adderly. 

3rd Dragoon Guards — Major F. B. 
Barron to be Lieutenant Colonel by pur- 
chase, vice Brevet Colonel Dywrn, who 
retires ; Captain F. Chaplin to be Major 
by purchase, vice Barron. 

Scots Fusilier Guards— The Christian 
name of Ensign and Lieut. Ram, are 
Stephen James, and not James Stephen, 
as stated in Gazette of 18th March. 

4th— H. J. M. Williams, Gent., to 
be Ensign without purchase. 

6th — Ensign H. Mahony, from the 
Kerry Militia, to be Ensign without pur- 
chase, vice O. Robinson, superseded, be- 
ing absent without leave. 

7th— Ensign C. H. Kcmpeon to be 
Lieutenant by purchase, vice Rumbold, 
who retires. 

• 8th— T. H. Skinner, gent., to be En- 
sign by purchase, vice Wheeley, pro- 
moted ; Ensign W. J. Waison to be In- 
structor of Musketry, Feb. 17. 

10th— R. M.Dickinson, Gent., to be 
Ensign without purchase, vice Phillips, 
promoted ; S. F. Poole, gent., to be 
Ensign without purchase , vice Brouncker, 
appointed to the 24th Foot. 

11th — Brevet Lieutenant Colonel E. 
Moore to be Lieutenant Colonel without 
purchase, vice Brevet Colonel H. K. 
Bloomfield, who retires upon Half Pay ; 
Captain T. Peebles to be Major without 
purchase, vice Moore. 

15th— Lieut. W. G. Hawkins to be 
Captain without purchase, vice Fry, de- 
ceased ; Ensign D. D. Cartwright to be 
Lieutenant without purchase, vice Haw- 
kins, March 23; Serjeant Major J. 
McMurray to be Ensign without pur- 
chase, vice Cartwright. 

17th — Lieut. C Graeme Grant to be 
Captain without purchase, [vice Walton , 
deceased; Ensign Robert G. W. Wrench 
to be Lieutenant without purchase Nr«fc 
Grant, Jan. 30. 




22nd— Locus B. G. Vaughan, gent, 
to be Emign without purchase. 

28rd— Lieut. J. De vie Tupper to be 
Captain by purchase, vice Gihnore who 
retires; H. F. Hutton, gent., to be En- 
sign without purchase, vice Gerard, 

24th— H. A. Harrison, geai, to be 
Ensign without purchase, vice O'Ma- 
hony, promoted* 

38th— Captain W, D. W. R. Thack- 
well, from the 39th Foot, to be Captain, 
vice Brevet Major A. C. Snodgrass, 
who exchanges. 

39th— Brevet Major A. C. Snodgraas, 
from the 38th Foot, to be Captain, vice 
Thackwell, who exchanges. 

51st— Lieut. C J. Hughes to be Cap- 
tain by purchase, vice Mitford, who 
retires ; Ensign R. N. Cobb to be Lieut, 
by purchase, vice Hughes. 

62nd — The Christian name of Captain 
Hunter is Edward only, and not Edward 
Henry, as hitherto stated. 

69th— Ensign G. E. Brace to be In- 
structor of Musketry, vice Bulger, pro- 
moted in the 10th Foot, March 4. 

71st— Lieut. J. C. H. P. Callen to be 
Captain, by purchase, vice Denny, who 
retires ; Ensign J. II. Leslie to be lieu- 
tenant, by purchase, vice Callen. 

73rd— Ensign J. T. Turner to be In- 
structor of Musketry, Feb. 26. 

78th— Lieutenant K. C. C. Graham, 
from the 80th Foot, to be Lieut., vioe 
Ewing, who exchanges. 

80th— Lieut. A. Ewing, from the 78th 
Foot, to be Lieutenant, vice Graham, 
who exchanges. 

85th -G. K. S. Kamsbottom, gent, to 
be Ensign by purchase. 

94th— Lieutenant W. P. Gaskell to 
be Captain by purchase, vice Buchanan, 
who has retired. 

96th— Lieut. G. K. Hallett to be Cap- 
tain by purchase, vice Lowry, who re- 
tires; Ensign J. Morrison ICirkwood 
to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice 

Rifle Brigade — Serjeant Major C. 
Johnston to be Ensign without pur- 

3rd West India Regiment — Ensign J. 
Moore to be Lieut, by purchase, vice 
Landon, who has retired. 

Koyal Canadian Rifle Regiment — En- 
sign E. C. Wilford to be Instructor of 
Musketry, Feb. 23. 

Cavalry Depot — Comet E. Pul- 
ley ne, of the 8th Light Dragoons, to be 
Instructor of Musketry, Feb. 15. 

Recruiting District— Brevet Col. 

J. Frankly*, Eroo th* S4th Foot, to U 
In* luting Weld Oil Nfa*r|ijfn*n, 

prouu>L<":l to tlir rank of jffs^jot OenssL 

JJm \l Jlnnl'JTAI. 1 ! 

AflwpUtit Sm«*)P*qu io t from 

4th Li . : i I toagoafe*, to I 

and Surgeon* with ibe loofel ru 

Staff Surgeon, vioe Dr. Maeaulav, Aw 


FtrnTWKMi** Startr. — Pmm i urt 
Clerk of the First Claws, K. * 
be Purveyor tn tho Force*, 

CftAFLAlK^ Dc:l'ABTvisnvT. 
Chaplains of the Fourth CU*», th<j 
F. J. Abbot, the Be*. M, CvilfW tne Ret- 
T. Molony, the Re*. J. O'FUbcrtt, 
the Rev, J. MeBwectiRY* the Rev* * 
OT>wyer, the Re*. W. *l. Morfoy, the 
He v. It, Shepherd* ll .'.Ha- 

mil ton, the Ret, J. K ttrowtu?, 0* 
Rev, T, Coghlan, the Rev. O. Morgan. 
the Kcv, E Butler, ti- 
the Rev. J. Carey, the Ucv. R, BUkV. 

BriK\ h i-:T— Captain T. Rattray, of tie 
64th Bengal Native Infantry, 
Major in the Araiy. 

T, <* br 

it-, «o U 


&**>, to 

avaltj — 


Fiiooe Albert's Own Xjciocatcrahir* 
Yeomanry Cavalry — Cornet D, & 1\t* 
kins to bo Liuufc, vice Gondii, rosi 
R. P. Apthorp, late Captain 1 4 th Light 
Dragoons to be Cornet, vice Story, pro 
mot< J ; A. C Johnson, goot.j to I 
Cornet, vice F. H. Beaumont, promoted, 

Worcestershire— G. Garde, 
be Ensign. 

Royal Ayralilre Rifle»— 
merit.', M.D., to bo Surgeon, 

W&t Kent Yeomanry Cav 
Lieutenant Oswald Augustus bout 
be Captain, vice Serena, deceased ; 
not Charloa LawriCj to be laeut^ 
Smith, promoted ; Richard B&nyun 
ren pent. j to be Comet, vieu i 

Weat Kent Light Infanta 
A'Courfc Webb, gent,, to be J 
vice* Thompson, iiesigned ; 
Barnard, gent., to be Lieutenant* ' 
Hodges, resigned. 

3rd King's Own Staffordshire X 

Donaldeon, ^ent,, to be Ensign, 

Forfar and Kincardine Ar title. 
Second Lieut* Augustus Walter Ci 
shan L r to boFiratLicukiinit, vice < 
Clcrvaux Chaytor, ^oiuottkJ. 

City of Edinburgh ArtiUerr-i-t 
Lieut. Herbert Jones HuflbaL 1 




Captain, vice Home, struck off the 
strength of the establishment ; First 
Lieut. George Roland, junior, to be 
Captain, vice Fraser, resigned ; Second 
Lieut. Robert Nicol, to be First Lieut., 
vice Hughes, promoted ; George Finlay, 
gent., to be First Lieut., vice Roland, 
promoted; George Bowman, gent., to 
be Second Lieut., \Ice Bruce, resigned. 

WAR OFFICE, April 5. 

f 'The following Commissions bear date 
April 1, 1859.) 

Royal Artillery — Lieutenant J. L» 
Clarke to be Second Captain. 

Royal Engineers — Captain and Brevet 
Lieutenant Colonel C. D. Robertson to 
be Lieutenant Colonel, vice Brevet 
Colonel James, placed upon the Super- 
numerary List ; Captain and Brevet 
Major C. Fanshawe to be Lieutenant 
Colonel, vice Brevet Colonel Yorke, 
placed upon the Supernumerary List , 
Captain and Brevet Colonel F. E. 
Chapman, C B., to be Lieutenant Colonel, 
vice Bainbrigge, placed upon the Super- 
numerary List ; Second Captain E. Bel- 
field to be Captain, vice Robertson; 
Second Captain the Hon. G. Wrottesley 
to be Captain, vice Fanshawe ; Second 
Captain and Brevet Major E. C. A. 
Gordon, on the Seconded List, to be 
Captain ; Second Captain and Brevet 
Major W. Porter to be Captain, vice 
Chapman ; Second Captain J. J. Wilson 
to be Captain, vice Brevet Major Gibb, 
placed upon the Supernumerary List ; 
Second Captain J. H. Smith to be 
Captain, vice Binney, placed upon the 
Supernumerary List ; Second Captain 
A. R. V. Crease to be Captain, vice 
Brevet Major Cook, placed upon the 
Supernumerary List ; Second Captain 
E. M. Grain to be Captain, vice Hutch- 
inson, placed upon the Supornumerary 
List ; Second Captain A. M. Lochner 
to be Captain, vice J. G. Jervois, placed 
upon the Supernumerary List ; Second 
Captain and Brevet Major P. Ravenhill 
to be Captain, vice Chesney, placed upon 
the Supernumerary List ; Second Captain 
H. T. Siborne to be Captain, vice J. J. 
Wilson, placed u{K>n the Supernumerary 
List ; Lieutenant F. E. Pratt to be 
Second Captain, vice Belfield ; Lieut. 
A. G. Goodall to be Second Captain, 
vice Wrottesley ; Lieutenant J. M. C. 
Drake to be* Second Captain, vice Porter; 
Lieutenant E. R. James to be Second 
Captain, vice Wilson ; Lieutenant W. 
Bailey to be Second Captain, vice Smith ; 

Lieutenant F. E. B. Beaumont to be 
Second Captain, vice Crease; Lieutenant 

C. G. Gordon to be Second Captain, 
vice Grain ; Lieutenant 0. H. Stokes to 
be Second Captain, vice Lochner ; lieu- 
tenant J. B. Edwards to be Second 
Captain, vice Ravenhill ; Lieut. J. F. 

D. Donelly to be Second Captain, vice 
Siborne ; Lieutenant J. E. Comes to be 
Second Captain, vice Farrell, placed 
upon the Supernumeraiy List; Lieut. 
Alexander de Courcy Scott to be Second 
Captain, vice Phillips, placed upon thO 
Supernumerary List. 

WAR OFFICE, April 8. 

1st Life Guards—Lieut, the Hon. R* 
W. Grosvenor to be Captain by pur- 
chase, vice de Winton, who retires ; 
Cornet and Sub. Lieutenant the Hon* 
W. H. J. North to be Lieut, by pur- 
chase, vice Grosvenor, April 8. 

1st Dragoon Guards — Ridingmaster 
G. Rayment, from the 15th Light Dra- 
goons, to be Ridingmaster, vice Noake, 
who exchanges, April 8. 

7th Dragoon Guards — Lieut. J. R# 
Welstead to be Captain by purchase, 
vice Costello, who retires; Cornet R. 
S. Cleland to be Lieut, by purchase, vice 
Welstead, April 8. 

15 th Light Dragoons — Ridingmaster 
M. Noakes, from the 1st Dragoon 
Guards, to be Ridingmaster, vice Ray- 
ment, who exchanges, April 8. 

Royal Artillery — To be Second Cap- 
tains — Lieutenant H. Thornhill, Lieut. 
A. T. G. Pearse, Lieut. T. P. Carey, 
Lieut. W. F. Walker, Lieut. G. J. 
Shakerley, Lieut. H. J. Alderson, Lieut. 
A. H. Hutchinson, Lieut. F. G. Raven- 
hill, Lieut. T. H. Pitt, on the Seconded 
List ; Lieut. F. L. H. Lyon, April 1. 
Liout. A. P. Joy has been allowed to 
resign his Commission, Jan. 31. Tae 
undermentioned Gentlemen Cadets to be 
Lieuts^ viz. : — J. Sladen, S. P. Oliver, 
C. S. Harvey, R. H. Robertson, A. J. 
Cullen, J. T. M. Loughman, O. F. 
Layton, C. F. Dixon, R. B. Butt, W.' 
M. Glasgow, April 1. To be Riding* 
master — Serjeant Major W. Donald, 
April 1. 

Royal Engineers — The undermen- 
tioned Gentleman Cadets to be Lieut, 
with temporary rank, viz. : — J. C. Ar- 
dagh, J. J. J. Robertson, W. E. Peck, 
E. Stephens, C. J. Russell, J, M. Mor- 
gan, April 1. 



lfith Foot— Quartermaster J. Di 
from the. Sftfd Foot, to be Quarter - 
master, vice U'JVmiiell. who excaa] 
Jan. 2fi. 

12tli — Li :u1 Gk de I. Kn.v te ba Iti- 
structor of .\ 1 1 *rcli *28 t . \ 

Surg, J. W, 0. K. Murphy, from the 
SHftff, |q be Arnui Burg . rfarcl I 

13th— Ensign W. Moffet to be Usui. 
w ithou t purcl iaae, vice Tu i • t ■ i ] le , ■ Le l eaaed , 
Jul SO. The appomtDMOil of Come* 
J* Landrey, from half pay of the late 
Land Transport Corps, to be Quarter - 
master, as stated m the fiazith of 5 th 
Feb., 1858, has been cancelled, Lieut, 
J, Landrey, from Hall Pay Unattached, 
to be Quartermaster; Feb, 1858, 

J4th^-Tbe amwintmeut of Conmt J. 
Spry, from Half Pay of the late Land 
Transport Corps, to be Quartermaster, 
as utated in the Gazette of 81st lv.r. t 
1857* has been cancelled ; Unit. J* 
Spry, from Half Pay Unattached, to bo 
Quartermaster, Dec, 31 , 1857, 

17th— The appointment i*f Cornet J. 
Falkner, from Half Pay of the late Land 
Transport Uorpft. to be Quartermaster, 
as stated in the Gazette of 26th March, 

J&oS, has been cancelled ; Lieut. J. 
'alkner, from Half Pay Unattached, to 
be Quarte miaater, March 26, in:*?. 

ISth— Aseiat, Surg. H. A. Coghlan, 
from the BtaiY, to he AnnUl. ^urg. t 
March 1. 

20th— Assist. Surg. I L Crump, M.D., 
from the Staff, to be Asaist 
March 1. 

21 lit— AsBiht, Surg. E< G, Ley, M.D., 
from the Staft) to be Assist, Surg,, 
March 1. 

■J2nd -Captain W. T. Hiekman, from 
the 50th Foot, to ho Captain, nee Ellw, 
who exchange^ t April 8, 

ffird — Qoartcrmftttar fcL t'l Bunnell, 
from the 10th ["'out, to he Quartermaster, 
\ice Darket, who exchange*, Jan. 20. 

mh— Ciipt. 8. M. Clarke, from the 
QHrd Foot, to bo Captain, vice Lcvinge, 
who e.vchiingcs, Feb. 2, 

38th— Brevet Major B. Walton, from 
the 53rd Foot, to be Cant,, vice tioickie, 
who Withapgwii April 

B. R, Eflia, from the 
Smd Foot, to be Capt., vice Hickman, 
Who exchanges, April 8, 

S 3rd— Captain S. 0. Quick?, J Vein the 
SSth Foot, to be Captain, vice Walton, 
who exchanges, April 8. 

55th — Eiisimi and Adjutant T. Dunn 
to hare the rank of Lieut : Entign W. 
M. Frobfahcr to be Lieut, without pur- 
chase, vice Hebecdeu, deceased, March 


Q. D, Grii >»' Ensign ' 

pnrchaie, riot P 

> BeEnMgn 
without pur super- 

April Bi 


to be Maj*u- without t>urehae« 
Brevet Lieut. CoL T»mh 
Lieut. A. BalUmu 
out purchase, vice Mul- I 

nigpis A. W. Croaer, to be L 
out purchase, vice M« Belt, «l 
.ran. 12. Ensign A. B. Wright. 
Lieut, without purchajsev ^ioi 
maiaho, Feb. t) ; Euaigu B 
from the loth Foot, to be Enrign, tv* 
Cfowr, April 8. 

Ttfth— Lhmt. W. Monro, from thel«t 
West York Militia, to be Ensi^ 
o\it purchase, vice Beaehy. | 
] 3th Foot, April 

i — Lieut. C Spencer, to be Adjt, 
resigns the Adjutoncj 
only, Jan. 80. 

yoth — Paymaster T. Caasidy, I 
Depot Battalion, to be Paymat-t 
Williams, who exchanges, April 

93rd— Captain C. H. Lex'in^e, 
the j:>th Foot* to he Capt, vice " 
who exchange!, Fek 2, 

Olith— Captain N. ChieL 
Paymaster 7th Dragoon Guards, to he 
Captain, vice Johnston, oecondud, having 
lietm appointed Permanent ls»**tn 
hool of Musketry ; Lieut 
CUtrkion, to be Captain by pu 
>ice Chichester, who retires, ^Vpril 8, 

2nd West Indian Regiment- 
J. L. Byrne, to be Captain without p 
chase, vice Brevet Major Andera 
decease^l ; Ensign E, McMahon ! 
to l>e Lieut, without piu-clia^e, 
Bynie, Jan. 1 "k 

'3rd West Indian Regiment — Ai 
ant Surgertii W, D, Corbery, from 
Staff, to he Asr-Litant Surgeon^ 
Moore, appointed to tlu> Staff, April 

Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment. 
Ensign E, WTiyto, to be Lieuteimnt 
purcliase, vice Onion, who 
April !>. 

Dr,r<>T Battaui . v — I V yinaatcr 
WUliama, from the fiOth Fool 
Paymaster, vice Caseidy, wh- 
April 8. 

The anpoiutmont of Cornet 
Brooks, from Half Pay of the late I*a»d 
Transport Corps, to be t }\x .irttiimiBli 





as stated ; n the Gazette of the 30th 
July, 1858, has been cancelled. 

Lieutenant R. P. Brooks, from Half 
Pay Unattached, to be Quartermaster, 
July 30. 

Unattached.— Brevet Colonel J. K. 
Pipon, from Half Pay, as Captain, 68th 
Foot (Assistant Adjutant General at 
Head Quarters), to be Major without 
purchase, April 8. 
( Hie following Commissions bear date 

April 1,1857.; > 

To be Majors without purchase — 
Brevet Major C. R. Shervington, from 
the Military Train ; Captain P. J. Mac* 
donald, from the Military Train ; Capt. 
R. Daunt, from 9th Foot ; Capt. J. S. 
F. Dick, from the Military Train; Capt. 
H. J. Buchanan, from Adjutant of a 
Depot Battalion. 

To be Captain without purchase — 
Lieut. T. Grace, from 57th Foot. 

To be Lieutenants without purchase 
— Cornet R. Crowe, from Half Pay of 
the late Land Transport Corps ; Cornet 
B. M. Hallowes, from Half Pay' of the 
late Land Transport Corps ; Cornet J. 
Malley, from Half Pay of the late 
Land Transport Corps ; Cornet J. Spry, 
from Half Pay of the late Land Trans- 
port Corps; Cornet J. Falkner, from 
Half Pay of the late Land Transport 
Corps; Cornet J. Landrey, from Half 
Pay of the late Land Transport Corps ; 
Cornet W. Mcintosh, from Half Pay 
of the late Land Transport Corps; Cor- 
net W. Talbot, from Half Pay of the 
late Land Transport Corps ; Cornet R. 
P. Brooks, from Half Pay of the late 
Land Transport Corps ; Cornet J. H. 
Kean, from Half Pay of the late Land 
Transport Corps; Cornet H. Clarke, 
from Half Pay of the late Land Trans- 
port Corps. 

Hospital Staff. — Deputy Inspector 
General of Hospitals, T. G. Logan, 
M.D., to be Inspector General of Hospi- 
tals, April S. Assistant Surgeon, T. G, 
Fitzgerald to be Surgeon, April 8. As- 
sistant Surgeon F. W. Moore, from the 
3rd West India Regiment, to be As- 
sistant Surgeon, vice Murphy, appointed 
to the 12th Foot, April 8. 

Brevet. — Major General R. H. Wyn- 
yard to have the local rank of Lieut. - 
General at the Cape of Good Hope, 
April 8. Lieut. -Colonel T. A. Larconi, 
of the Royal Engineers, having com- 
pleted three years' service in that rank 
previous io the date of ihe Royal War- 
rant of 3rd November, 1854, February 
17, 1857. Brevet Colonel T. A. Lar- 

com, Retired Full Pay Royal En- 
gineers, to be Major General, the rank 
being honorary only. April 1, 1858. 
Captain R. B. McCrea to be Major "i 
the Army, April 8. 

The following promotions to take 
place consequent on the death of Major 
General J. Reed, on 24th March, 1859, 
and of General F. C. White, on 1st 
April, 1859 :— • 

Lieutenant General II. C. E. Vernon, 
C.B., to be General, April 2. 

Major General Sir J. R. Eustace, to 
be Lieutenant General, April 12. 

Brevet Colonel D. A. Cameron, C.B., 
Half Pay as Lieutenant Colonel 42nd 
Foot, Vice President of the Comic-'' of 
Education, to be Major General, March 

Brevet Colonel T. Mathcson, upon 
Half Pay as Lieut. Col. Unattached, to 
be Major Gen., April 2 t 

Brevet Lieut. Colonel J. Impett, 74th 
Foot, to be Colonel, March 25. 

Brevet Lieut. Colonel G. W. Mayow, 
upon Ha'f Pay as Major Unattached, 
Assistant Adjutant General in South 
Eastern Dist. of Ireland, to be Colonel, 
April 2. 

Brevet Major T. B. Mortimer, 76th 
Foot, to be Lieut. Col., March 25. 

Major R. M. Sutherland, 22nd Foot, 
to be Lieut. Col., April 2. 

Captain C. Pattison, Half Pay 56th 
Foot, Staff Officer of Pensioners, to be 
Major, March 25. 

Captain J. E. Sharp, Half Pay, 1st 
Foot, Staff Officer of Pensioners, to be 
Major, April 2. 


East Kent— R. M. Nicols, Esq., late 
Captain in the 65th Regiment of Foot, 
to be Paymaster from the 3rd February, 
1859, vice Atkinson, appointed to the 
2l8t Fusileers, March 14. 

Royal Lancashire Artillery — First 
Lieutenant J. Sothern, to be Captain, 
vice C. B. Molyneaux, resigned ; Second 
Lieutenant D. G. Atchison, to be First 
Lieutenant, vice J. Sothern, promoted ; 
T. Christie, gent., to be Second Lieu- 
tenant, vice G. J. Wilson, resigned, 
March 26. 

Royal Aberdeenshire Highlanders — 
Lieutenant R. Macfarlane, to be Cap- 
tain, vice A. Garden, removed from the 
strength of the Regiment, March 28. 

Durham Artillery — O. Pelly, gent., to 
be Captain, vice G. J. Scvrfield, re- 
signed ; F. Blacklin, gent., to be Se/xuuk 
Lieutenant, March. &\. 


(The following appointment 

tUted for that which appealed in the 
', of the 251th Maivh Usi) 
ij Ayrshire RWet— J. BfonlttO- 

,„.,-;,', a, Mar, 25 

North Hiding of Yorkshire— E, IK 
urtmi, Esq., to be Deputy Lieutenant, 

2nd Hegiment of Royal Bucks 
numry Cavalry — GuttK r Ilib- 

to be lieutenant, vice Parker, 
th Salopian Ttegiment of \ I •■- 
r Cavalry— Lieut St. John W, 0. 
rfton,to be Captain, vice Lord Fo- 
rcstgn&d \ Gbw*ei W. Curtis to 
i Lieutenant, vice Charlton, pmmii bed 
April 5. 

WAR . Q)"TI« % K,A*iULlfi. 

(Tke fvllvfcittg Gniimi&gitmi bcttr date 
I 15, J 

2nd Regiment of Dragoon Guards— 
it 1 1. T* Gough, from the 12th 
Light Dragoons, to be C.':ipt:iiri, vice 
King, who exchanges. 

\a<j -hi Dragoons — Liout. 11, J . M. 
St. Gtafge, from the 04th foot, to lie 
Lieut., ]Jaying the difference between 
Li fan try and Cavalry, vice Tec van, who 
i. changes. 

lSth light Dragoons— C.4 tain W, W, 
King, from the 2nd Dragoon Guards, 
to be Captain, Tfoe Gough, w3j- 

Military Train— Captain W, Banks, 
from Half Pay of the late Land Trans- 
ioit Chirps, to be Captain, vice 
L *njJd, promoted to an Unatt 
Majority, without purchase j Captain C. 
F. Hntton, from Half Pay o! the Into 
Land TraflBport Corps, to be Capi, vice 
Brevet Major Shervintou, promoted to 
an Unattached Majority, without pur- 
Lieut. G.Hall, from Half Tay late 
Land Transport Corps, to be Lieut, vise 
Banks, wbo reverts to the Half Pay of 
hk former rank of Captain in that Corps 
Eresn the lnt April, 1857 \ Lieut. G. 
Edwards, from llulf Pay of the late 
' >rps p to be Lieut., vice 
ilu tton, who reverts to the Half Pay of 
his former rank of Scorn,! 
that Corps from the let April, \W\ 
April 8. 

Uth Foot — Captain j, Mottoy, from 
Half Pay Unattached, to be Captain, 
repayingtliedilfcrence, vice Brevet Major 
A. 6, Hcott, seconded, having been 
appointed District Inspector of Mus- 


krtry at the Cape of Hood Hope ; lieni 
II. r. Vibart, to b 

1 lth cnkSSk 

from the IttHb Foot 

Dickinson, who exdmnges, Feb. 11. 

15th— Lieutenant W~. K. I 
Captain by purchase, nnlifs*t< 


3Mh— Lieut, A. F, Kelaey, to t» 
nt, vice C, D. James, who reaagaf 
I he Adjutancy only, 

—Ensign E. J. Armytage, frm 
the Kifle Brigade, to be Euai*: 
who exchanges* 

41st— Lieut. H. 8, Hill, U* be Cap! 
without purchase, vice oeasfd; 

Ensign ft. Sadler, to bo Lieut, withoirf 
purchase, fiee Hill, Feb, 15, 

52nd— Lieut A. Henley, [to bo Qspl 
by purchase, vice Brevet Major Bay ley, 
who retires ; Ensign R. G, Will*afon\\ 
to be Lir lit. by purchase, vice Henley. 

filth— Lieut. D. Gardiner, to lie Io- 
atruetarbf Musketry, Man I 

70th — For Lieut. A. SuHu inrolic. U» 

be Lieut., kc. t whlAi Appeared in thr 

of Stli April, 1B50, read Lkuv, 

Arthur tinltmarshc, to be C 'apt. withost 

purchase, vice Afulock, V* b, ft, 

Tirnl— Lieut. C. C, W. Vesey, to be 
Captain by purchase, vice* Bucdiaooa, 
who retires ; Ensign J , D. Stewart, Id 
be Lieut, by purchase, viee Veacy. 

74 th— Ensign W. H. Buerc, from the 
12 th Foot, to be Ensign, >ice \ ; < 

84th— The appointment of 
La Presle, from the Staff, a* i 
the Gazette of 31 at Dec. lo5S, ! 

86th— Lieut. G. A, Convan 
permitted to r» tire from the 
the sale of his commi^eion, 

94th — Lieut. G. J, Teeyan, from the 
3rd Light Dragoons to be Lion. 
St. Gci>rge p who exchange, 

&6th— Ensign C- E. Wright, to he 
Lieut, by purchase, vice LL I , 
who retires, 

90th.— Capt. W. S, Dickinson, from 
the 1 1 th Foot, to be Capt,, vice 1 1 
hill, who exchaogts, Feb, 11. 

Rifle Brigade— Ensign F. K. 
Eroro the 39th Foot, to be 3 
Armvtage, who exchanges 
J. T." l^a Freale, from the Stafl". 
Surgeon, \l wbo exchangrs, 

Jan, 11. 

Detot Battalion.— Captain W. % 




Wallace, from the 26th Foot, to be Ad- 
jutant, vice Buchanan, promoted to an 
Unattached Majority, without purchase. 

Commissariat Department. — Dep. 
Commissary General W. Bishop, to be 
Commissary General, April 1 ; Deputy 
Commissary General T. C. Weir to be 
Commissary General, April 1. 

Hospital Staff. — Surgeon H. S. 
Sanders, from the Rifle Brigade, to be 
Surgeon, vice La Presle, who exchanges, 
Jan. 14. 

Unattached. — Captain and Brevet 
LJeut Col. D. Stewart, from Half Pay 
84th Foot, Staff Officer of Pensioners, 
to l>e Major without purchase. 

Brevet. — Captain J. Molloy, of the 
9th Foot, to be Major in the Army, June 
28, 183S ; Brevet Major J. Molloy, of 
the 9th Foot, to be Lieut. Col. in the 
Army, Nov. 11, 1851. 

WAR OFFICE, April 15. 

Memorandum. — Lieut. R. H.' Cold- 
well, having obtained a First Class Cer- 
tificate at the School of Musketry at 
Hythe, has been appointed by the Gen. 
Commanding-in-Chief, with the concur- 
rence of the Secretary of State for War, 
to act as Instructor of Musketry to the 
2nd Stafford Regiment of Militia, >ice 
Captain Wilson, promoted, April 1. 


Leicestershire — C. H. Morris, Esq., 
to be Captain, vice Thomas, deceased. 

Worcestershire — Lieut. W. Taylor to 
bo Captain, vice T. W. Kinder, re- 
signed; J. Sechmere, Gent., to be 
Lieut., vice Taylor, promoted. 

Royal South Gloucestershire Light 
Tnfantry — E. D. Gibson, Gent, to be 
Ensign, vice Jackson, promoted. 

Hampshire — Captain W. H. Digweed 
to be Major, vice Robbins, resigned. 

Hampshire Artillery — C. Bayntun, 
Gent., to be Second Lieutenant. 

Northumberland Artillery — A. J. 
M'Bay, Gent., to be Lieutenant. 

Hussar Yorkshire Yeomanry Cavalry 
—Major Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, Bart, 
to be Lieutenant Colonel, vice Beckett, 
who retires; Captain the Right Hon. 
B. Richard Baron Wenlock to be Major, 
vice Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, promoted ; 
Lieat. the Hon. R. N, Lawley to be 
Captain, vice Lord Wenlock promoted ; 

Cornet R. Swann to be Lieutenant, vice 
Lawley, promoted ; H. F. C. Vyner, 
gent., to be Cornet, vice Swann, prd- 

Royal Cheshire —Captain J. H. 
Daniell, late of the 49th and 42nd 
Regiments, to be Captain, vice' S. J. 
Saunders, resigned. Memorandum.— 
Lieut. St. George Lowther, resigned. 
[The following appointment is substi- 
tuted for that which appeared in 
Gazette of the 15th inst. :— ] 
Durham Artillery — Captain O. Pelly, 
half-pay 7th Madras Light Cavalry, to 
be Captain, ^'.ce G. J. Scurfield, re- 

Memorandum. — Her Majesty has been 
graciously pleased to accept the resig- 
nation of the Commission held by the 
following gentlemen : — 

West York Rifles— Lieut. J. V. 

3rd West York Light Infantry— En- 
sign J. M. Man gin. 

Hussar Yorkshire Yeomanry Cavalry 
—Lieut Colonel W. Beckett 

King's Own Light Infantry — J. Little 
Esq., to be Paymaster. 

1st Duke of Lancaster's Own — Capt. 
B. Thornhill to be Adjutant 

Royal Glamorgan Light Infantry — 
Lieut. G. R. Gompertz to be Captain, 
vice Traherne, promoted. 

Norfolk Artillery — Second Lieut, the 
Hon. Harbord Harbord to be First 
Lieut., vice Thierens, resigned. 

Forfar and Kincardine ArtHery — 
G. D. Ormsby, Gent, to be Second 
Lieut., vice J. A. Johnson, resigned ; 
W. C. B. Constable, Gent., to be Second 
Lieut., vice J. Hay, promoted ; J. A. 
Johnson, Gent., to be Second Lieut, 
vice A. W. Cruickshank, promoted. 
[The following appointment is substi- 
tuted for that which appeared in the 
Gazette of the 12th inst. :— ] 

Worcestershire — J. Lechmere, Gent., 
to be Lieut., vice Taylor, promoted. 

Royal Sherwood Foresters — The Queen 
has been pleased to accept the resigna- 
tion of his Commission by Ensign E. R. 

WAR OFFICE, April 22. 

The following Commissions bear date 
April 22. 

2nd Dragoons — Lieut. G. Faulett, 
from the 8th Light Dragoons, to be 
Lieutenant, vict G. C. Ross, who ex- 




"#tli Ugfal Dragoons — Cornet R. 
Afather to Ue Lieut* by pnrnhrtflj vice 
Bright, who retires. 

8th Light Dragoons — Lieut. ( 
Ivottu, from the 2nd Dragoons, to bo 
Lieut* , vice If. Fnulet, lpho I'xdiauue". 

17th Light Dragoons — Lieut, SV + U. 
Nol&u to be Captain by purchase, vice 
Baring, who has retired. 

Mmtory Train— Lieut. C. T. WiWu, 
htm the ltoyal Canadian Kith- Rqgfi- 
Mtj to be Lie ut„ vice Whittinjrtou, 
who ftxobftagOB. The appointment of 
Comet H. D. J* Macleod, from lialf pay 
of the late Land Transport Corpa, to bo 
Ensign, as stated in the GawctU of 3 nth 
July. 1853, has been cancelleil. 

Gth Fool — Quartermaster P, Sneeram 
from the fMJtli Foot, to be l^uou ruiaster, 
vice, who txrhiuiges. 

7th— Captain T. 1), (I Payn, from th ti 
Ulnt Font, t" be Captaiu, vice Thurston, 
who exchanges, Feb. 1 j, 

8th— Lieut. W. F, Metge to be Capt. 
by purchase, vice J. A, Mi- J KmaU, v\ h.< 
retires ; Ensign P. H. Page to be Lieut, 
by purchase, vice Met 

tfth— Captain T. Orace, from Half Pay 
Unattached, to be Captain, vice Brullie, 
who exchanges ; Fnt%u IV. V, Layard 
to be Lieut, by purchase, vice Yiuart, 

-Captain W. J. 3al -=. torn the 
60th Foot, to be Captain, vice Med- 
. who exchanges, Feb. 1G. 

llth— Lieut. A. F. De B. Dixon to 
be Captain by purchase, vice Peebles, 
promoted ; Ensign P. W, Jordnu feo b»- 
Jieut. by pin-cliaae, vice Dixon. 

18th — Hnxign I'. \V. Lipscomb to be 
Lieut, without purchase, vice Watt, de- 
ceased, Jan. 31, 

l] i— Lieut. P. H. Eyre U he Adju- 
taut, vice Lieut. Evans, who has t 

li'Jtli — Lieut. J. DuP.. TTUmwuhamoit, 

from the Royal Wiltshire Militia, to be 

H without purchase, vie*? Hussey, 

wli" resigns. 

40th— Lieut. T> Bolton to l»e Captain 
by purchase, vice O'Hara, who retina. 

43rd— Ensign Ti M*Gonn to be Lieut, 
by purchase, vice Benclt, who retires. 

h— Captain J. W. Medhunt, bom 

tli-- loth Foot, to be Captain, vice 
, who exchane,eH, l ; eb, 16. 
Cl>t— Captain H. N. C. Thm..l.oit, 

from dm 7th Foot, to be CapUai 
T, Gk D. Payn, who exolxangee, \ 

tJ0th— Major P. Fonwick, to be Liem 

Colonel by purchase, vice Hick* 

: Captain \. B. H*nfci 
Major by pui chase, vice Keswick. 

75th— Captain <; A. Currie, from 
llalf Pay Unattached, to be Cantata* 
i e pitying the duTereiioe, vice Brevet Ma/4 
B. D, W. Ramsay, who exchange*. 
W. * '. >' ufitice, to be Captain h} 
purcluwe, vice Currie, who retire* ; R» 
sign H. B. 1 1 led h lanes, to be Li 
purchase, vice Justice, 

76th— Lieut W. F. Field, from th 1 
Royal Canadian Rifle Regimen] 
Lieut., vice Macdonald, who exclianj,^ 

-Captain A. E. Wmgrm, 
id Foot, to Iw Captain, 
Major E, T, Macspheraon, m\ 
changes, Feb. "2G, 

B2nd— Brevet Major H. T. Maq>W 
son, from the "Sth >bot, to be Captain 
vice Warren, who exchange- . 

^Quartermaster .T, .laiiiic^m, 
from the Gth Foot, to be Qnartoruiaakr 
Sheeran, wht» exehatiL 
&7th— Ensign EL B. H, 1 
Lieut, without pitrcbaae f \ 
deceaaed, Feb. 14, 

99th— Ensign A, Gray, to be 
by purchase, vice Clarkson j 

CJold Coast Artillery LV 
T, C, Dmiger, to be AdjutAi. 
'Bolton, who resigns the AUjutanc 

l:..y:il I'auadiiin Rifle R 
Lieut, il. J. (\ Whittington, fn 
Military Tiain. to Im Lieut., \ 
who exchanges ; Lieut. M.J, Mae. 
from the 7tith Foot, to b« Lien 
Field, who exchanges, 

School of Musketry — Kowign J 
from the 03rd Foot, to 1* QutLrtermaMer, 
with the nvnk of Lieutenant. 

HoKrrr.u, Staff,— Actin L 
Surgeon,!*. Hay ward has be*f 
initted to resign his appointment. 

Unattached.— Cornet A. D, J, Mae- 
leod, from Half Pay of the late Land 
Transport Corps, to be Ljeuteaunt with- 
out pur cl lose, April 1, 1857. 

BjiEVET.^Lieutenaii I 
C, ltawlinfinn, K.C1S., a M. 
Council f<«r India, nod a R* i 
in tli!- 1 ion il>ay Establbhrm hi, , 
thelocal rank of Major Gertor&l 
sia, while holding the utlice oi 




Majesty's Minister in that country. 
Captain G. A. Currie, 75th Foot, to be 
Major in the Army, June 20, 1854. 
Captain H. R. Gardiner, 2nd Bengal 
Native Infantry, to be Major in the 
Army, Dec. 26. 

The undermentioned promotions to 
take place consequent on the death of 
lieutenant General Sir J. Thackwell, 
G.C.B., Colonel of the 16th Light Dra- 
goons, on the 8th April : — 

Major General B. Druminond, Colonel 
of the 3rd Foot, to be Lieut. General, 
April 9; Brevet Colonel G. Bell, 
C.B., Inspecting Field Officer of a Re- 
cruiting District, to be Major General, 
April 9; Brevet Lieutenant Colonel J. 
F. Du Vernet, Captain Half Pay Royal 
African Corps, Staff Officer of Pension- 
ers, to be Colonel, April 9; Brevet Ma- 
jor W. H. Kenny, Captain Half Pay 61st 
Foot, Staff Officer of Pensioners, to be 
Lieutenant Colonel, April 9; Captain 
T. Teuton, 35th Foot, to be Major, 
April 9. 

The following promotions should have 
been included in the succession to the 
late General F. C. White :— Major Gen- 
eral J. H. Richardson, upon Half Pay as 
Lieutenant Colonel Unattached, to have 
the rank of Lieut General, April 2. 
. The undermentioned promotions to 
take place in the Indian Military Forces 
of Her Majesty, consequent on the 
death of General VV. C. Fraser, Madras 
Infantry, on 4th March, and of Gen- 
eral J. Maclnnes, Bengal Infantry, on 
March 12 : — 

To be Generals— Lieutenant General 
J. Carfrae, Madras Infantry, March 5 ; 
Lieutenant General G. Jackson, Madras 
Infantry, March 13. 

To be Lieutenant Generals. — Major 
General S. Shaw, Bengal Artillery, 
March 5; Major General F. L. Doveton, 
Madras Cavalry, March 13. 

To be Major Generals. — Colonel H. 
Macan, Bombay Infantry, March 5; 
Colonel W. Sage, Bengal Infantry, 
March 13. 

The undermentioned Officers of the 
Indian Military Forces of Her Majesty, 
retired upon Full Pay, to have a step 
of honorary rank, as follows: Colonel 
A. S. Hawkins, Bombay Infantry, to be 
Major General. 

To be Colonels. —Lieutenant Colonel 
F. C. Cotton, Madras Infantry, Lieut. 
Colonel T. Lavie, Madras Artillery; 
Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Auld, Bom- 
bay Infantry. 

To be Lieutenant Colonels.— Major 

W. C. Western, Madras Infantry; Major 
W. H. Larkins, Bengal Infantry. 

Suffolk Artillery.— P. Fitzpatrick' 
Gent., to be Qnartermaster from the 
8th of March, March 23. 

4th or Duke of Lancaster's Own 
(light Infantry), Royal Lancashire. — 
J. F. Stenier, Gent., to be Ensign, vice 
E. R. Lloyd, promoted, April 14. 

6th Royal Lancashire — M. Thomp- 
son, Gent., to be Ensign, April 13. T. 
H. Tracey, Gent., to be Ensign, April 

5th or Royal Elthorne Light Infantry 
Middlesex — W. G. Stack to be Lieu- 
tenant, vice Cookney, resigned, March 

East Suffolk Artillery Corps— First 
Lieutenant W. T. Harvey to be Capt., 
vice Barlow, resigned, April 14. E. G. 
Austin, Gent., late of Bengal Artillery, 
to be First Lieutenant, April 12. J. T. 
Rowley, Gent., to be First Lieutenant, 
April 13. R. W. Coates, Gent., to be 
First Lieutenant, April 14. J. B. Wil- 
kinson, Gent., to be First Lieutenant, 
April 15. G. T. W. Ferrand, Gent., to 
be Second Lieutenant, April 12. C. A. 
Cooper, Gent, to be Second Lieutenant, 
April 13. C. C. R. Brooke, Gent, to be 
Second Lieutenant, April 14. 

City of Edinburgh Artillery. — J. 
Davidson, Gent., to be Second Lieut., 
vice R. Nicol, promoted, March 1. 

Wilts— J. Du Boulay, Esq., to be 
Deputy Lieutenant. W. H. Hitchcock, 
Esq., to be Deputy Lieutenant, Apr. 9. 
Denbighshire Yeomanry Cavalry — C. 
Lord Worsley, to be Captain, vice Nau- 
ney, resigned, April 18. 

West Kent Yeomanry Cavalry — Cap. 
tain the Earl of Darnley, to be Major, 
vice Chapman, resumed, April 18. 

Queen's Own Yeomanry Cavalry — 
Cornet R. P. Featherstonhaugh, to be 
Lieutenant, vice Lieutenant the Lord 
Ashley, resigned, April 19. 

4th or Royal South Middlesex — M. 
Angelo, gent., to be Ensign, vice Jack- 
son, promoted, April 18. 

5th or Royal Elthorne — J. E. Gibson, 
Gent, to be Assistant Surgeon, vice 
Pierce, resigned, April 14. 

4th Duke of Lancaster's Own— Lieu- 
tenant G. Barlow, to be Captain, vice 
J. H. Blake, resigned Ensign H. M. 
Howard to be Lieutenant, vice G. Bar- 
low, promoted, April 18. 

Royal Ayrshire Rifles— R. S. Pat- 
rick, Gent, to be Lieutenant, April 20, 




At her residence, Woolwich, on the 
14th April, Hester, relict of Captain 
John Fullom, formerly of H.M. 43d 
Regiment and of the Royal Military 

On the 30th of March, 1859, Agnes 
Duncan, widow of the late Capt. D. An- 
derson, 1st W. I. Regiment, 71 years of 
age, daughter of the late J. Shaw, Esq., 
Mureton, North Britain, at Sandgate, 
in Kent. 

On the 29th March, accidentally 
drowned, in the 9th year of his age, 
William James, eldest son of Captain 
John Dawson, of the 43rd Bengal Light 

On the 30th March, Henry Leslie 
Grove, eldest son of Commander Dun- 
sterville, R.N., Hydrographies Office, 
Admiralty, aged 21. 

On the 11th April, at Elm Cottage, 
Hampstead, Isabella, wife of Joseph 
Glynn, Ebcl, F.R.S., and only daughter 
of the late Peter Black, Esq., R.N. 

On the 12th April, at 21, Mcrnington- 
road, Regent's-park, Stephen Groom, 
Esq., late of the War-Office. 

On the 2nd April, at Cliftonville, 
Brighton, Susanna Wson, the wife of 
Rear Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh, in 
the 73rd year of her age. 


On the 6th April, at Bigadon, & 
Devon, aged 15, Robert Thomas Ryan, 
ounger son of the late General Sir John 
~unter Littler, G.C.B. 

On the 11th April, Harriet Gordon, 
only daughter of the late T. R. Mitclri- 
son, Esq., Com. Gen., Corfu. 

On the 9th April, at No. 9, Devon- 
shire-terrace, Hyde-park, Lucy Mary 
Eleanor, the beloved wife of J. W. Safe, 
Esq., of the Admiralty, deeply lamented. 

On the 31st March, at Florence, in 
her 17th year, Erminia, daughter of the 
late Colonel Stibbert 

On the 4th April, at the Spa, Gloa" 
coster, Louisa, widow of the late Capt* 
Thomas Sykes, R.N., aged 84. 

On the 9th April, at Colchester, Eliza 1 
the daughter of Dr. Taylor, Deputy In- 
spector General, aged 3 years *"d 8 

On the 7th April, in Connaught-ter 
race, Hyde-park, Lady Teesdale, widow 
of Major General Sir George Teesdale, 

On the 6th April, at No. 4, Upper 
Fitzroy-street, and at an advanced age, 
Juliet, widow of the late Captain Thomas 
Wing, R.N. 



The lone talked of and but little needed reorganization of the 
Boyal Artillery, rumours of which had beeu keeping the corps in a 
state of anything but healthy excitement and expectation for sonio 
time previously, made its appearance in the early part of April last. 
As everything connected with this important and increasing part of 
the service is of interest at all times, and must needs be peculiarly 
BO at the present moment, it is proposed in this article to enter into 
an examination of the changes that have thus recently been made,* 
and to combine with it such other remarks with regard to the position 
and prospects of the corps generally, in continuation of similar 
former observations on the same. subject iu the pages of this Maga* 
sine, as the circumstances of the case may seem to justify or require ; 
and the consideration of which, it is hoped and believed, will do more 
to promote efficiency, as well as to prevent confusion in every way, 
than is likely to be the ease by pursuing the changes we have lately, 
and for some time been in the habit of making. 

Leaving this for the present, it will perhaps be no useless occupa- 
tion of a short time to explain, not so much for the information of 
mere professional readers as for others, and more particularly for 
members of the legislature, many of whom are beginning to feel an 
interest in these matters, what the recent new arrangements in the 
Royal Artillery consist of, mention of which has appeared in most 
of the newspapers. To do this with sufficient clearness, it is necessary 
to go back a little, and to state that, previous to these alterations the 
corps consisted of fourteen battalions, and of ten troops of horse 
artillery. It is unnecessary, for the purpose we have in view, to 
make any mention of the invalid artillery or of the riding-house es- 
tablishment Each of the fourteen battalions consisted of eight 
companies* Those of the latter which were attached to horses and 
field-guns were called field-batteries. The reliefs at home and abroad 
were carried on by companies. The time of service at each of the 
colonies was iixed, and until very lately generally adhered to* As 
rioon as the time of service abroad of a company expired, it was re- 
lieved by the longest at home. There was a regular roster in this 
respect which had existed for a considerable number of years, and 
which worked smoothly and efficiently* There might possibly 
(though we hardly think it) have been some advantage in departing, 
at least in the Urst instance, from this roster, when the army embarked 
for the East in 1854, but even then it was adhered to j several 
companies low down on the list of foreign service, and at the moment 
!ied to field batteries had to give them up, and to transfer their 
best drivers in order to complete the companies at the top of the 
roster required for embarkation. There was not a single company, 
until just on tbe eve of starting, that w r as up to a war establishment, 
or anything approaching it ; and the necessary transfers to make them 
up, caused considerable confusion at the moment and for some tiina 
after. The companies for the reliefe at homo and ^t^^^w&xs^&k^ 

U. 8, M**., No, 367, 3vm % 1*59. ^ 



without reference to the battalions they belonged to. The tot it 
home was the first to go abroad. The establishment of the officer* 
of a company was five, two captains and three subaltern a, but few d 
them were ever complete in this respect. The number of non-com* 
missioned officers and men varied every now and then. Officers imc 
men of companies embarked together, and a company of aHl 
the old system was exactly similar to a regiment of the line. 
ther as accompany on foot, or as a field battery, it proved the unity 
t-MMimanil. and moved complete in itself, or it might be broken 
trad detached in any proportion without inconvenience or d 
as circumstances required. Each battalion with its eight compmif* 
had four lieutenant-colonels, and the whole of these officers wfft 
placed on a roster for service very similar in every respect to tint 
maintained for the companies. They took their places for st 
abroad according to the date of their promotion, or of arrival 
England, if they had been serving out of it as captains pre 
The system was a perfectly fair one. Everyone understood 
those most concerned were satisfied with it. It completely sh_. 
favouritism and no one wishing simply for fair play could complain 

of it. 

It was first broken through in 185i ? on the departure of the e ■ 
dition for the East j the field officers to accompany which wer< 
by selection. Om? of these* who deservedly bore a very h 
character for zeal and professional knowledge and ability, and 
subsequently rose to the highest position in the corps in the C) 
had been taken from Gibraltar. In 1856, on the outbreak in India, 
the system of roster for the field officers was completely set asul> 
but little or no reason to justify it, and a wide door has been i 
ever since for that jobbing and favouritism which are the great b 
the service, and which, in thV Artillery particularly, is most 
act injuriously upon efficiency. An opportunity is now readily all 
alsojfor giving a slight to any officer, however actively and efticiei i 
may discharge his duty, whom the authorities have reason to dislike, 
and whose claims they may desire for their own official ease to get rid 
of. When a bad or a distant station now becomes vacant it ca i 
turn, for the name of a roster is still retained, or it can bo < 
as if it was a favour bestowed. The course pursued is to pay 
high-flown compliment to the victim selected as to his zeal and 
ability, which if true ought to make them blush for previous neglect, 
and which if false, they ought not to utter, and to offer him the 
vacancy. If he accepts and goes, he is got out of the way, which was 
just what was wanted ; if he falls into the trap, and refuses it, it is a 
ground for ignoring his claims and a continuance of neglect, la 
either case the manoeuvre is on ingenious one, and can seldom fail 
of being successful, When good stations, or those offering a pro- 
of distinction, are open ? such ns India in the late disturbances, 
these are so much patronage to be bestowed on favourites. 
There was nothing in the old state of thiugB that prevented nu 
competent officer being passed over, or one of any marked cap 
from being selected. The principle of it was good and ought 
hare been retained, 



The objection mad© to the roster of field officers and that of the 
companies, and the only one that in the least affected it, was that 
the former were frequently to he found at stations doirig duty with 
other officers and men of different battalions to those they them- 
selves belonged to. This objection, to the ears of an infantry 
officer, might sound weighty enough, but no one knowing anything 
of the corps of Artillery would deem it for a inomeut of the slightest 
importance. There was just as much consideration shown for the 
non-commissioned officers and men under this state of things, and 
the duty in every respect was quite as well performed as it is ever 
likely to bo under any other established m lieu of it. A field 
officer of artillery, under the old system, cared for the whole 
regiment alike. He took just as much interest in the battalion he 
was serving with as if it was his own. It might indeed so happen t 
and frequently did occur, that from bis previous service as a captain 
he would know the men of the former tar better than those ot the 
latter. Neither in the roster of the companies, nor in that of the 
field officers* was there the slightest inconvenience or difficult? what- 
ever. The service was well performed, and each individual could 
anticipate, except in the case of some unusual occurrence, where and 
when he might be expected to go abroad, and what arrangement* 
to make accordingly. 

It should be mentioned, for it \b in this respect that the most 
important change is made under the new arrangements, that each 
of the head-quarters of the 14 battalions was stationed at Woolwich, 
This head-quarters consisted of an Adjutant and Quarter-Master, 
with the usual staff of non-com mis si one d officers, These with the 
men were called the adjutant's detachments. The latter were made 
up principally of recruits at different stages of drill, intermingled 
with some old soldiers, cither retained at Woolwich for the comple- 
trf their service., or of others kept from their companies for 
various reasons. These detachments were more or less strong ac- 
cording to circumstances. They were the depots as well as the 
head-quarters of their respective battalions, A depfit of the line 
under the old was expensive enough, and a depdt battalion 

upon the latest and most approved plan is still somewhat costly, 
The depftt or head-quarters of a battalion of Artillery (the terms 
axe synonymous in this instance) was the cheapest affair that could 
possibly be contrived, and it did its work in every respect <prite as 
well, if not a great deal better, than the same thing wait or is now 
done in any part of the army. A single depot battalion of the 
line, with the regiments of which it is composed usually kept to- 
gether, has generally two field-officers, a? with 
an Adjutant, a Paymaster, a Quarter-Muter, and an ln*i 
Musketry. The whole of the depGts of the 14 battalion 
Artillery, numbering bet ween 20,000 and 30,000 officers and men, 
dispersed by companies all uver the world, had only tn-entv-eight 
permanent officers belonging to them , 

The system we have departed from in this respect 
as it could well be — it was efficient and it. was economical. It 
have required some management and a little intgr 




was all The foundation was excellent It would nerer hate b«a 

discrediteu if it had bees properly worked, but. it wab 
that the deficiency existed* The appointments of the 
been long made* as everything is now made in thin country a ic 
of abuse and jobbery. They were usually sought after 
foreign or other disagreeable service, and zeal or compel 
commonly tbe boat qualities thought of with regard to th 
field officers who fell into tbe command of battalions every now and 
then were hardly recognized iti their positions, and ti, 
quently took little or no interest in them. 1 lie Commandant 
wich garrison generally did nothing except appear at his ofli 
sign his name,whilc the Brigade- 3 Injur under his protection ae 
Ly took more upon himself than be had a right to asau 1 
The Adjutant- General^ office, until the last two or three v ear* At 
Woolwich, which should have stood aloof from garrison work, mi 
constantly taking a part in what was done. It frequently di> 
the authority of the Commandant and interfered and meddle ■ 
his duties. These causes, and others in connection with then 
eimiiar kind, were tbe means by which confusion and difficult v m 
the working of things at Woolwich were first created. Ther 
a y^ry lax discipline, and in fact the whole thing was conducted 
more with regard to individual interests or prejudices than with re- 
ference to military efficiency* There was always a tendency to mb* 
management, and to jobbing and favoritism, at Woolwich, from tbe 
absence of all responsibility in those who were supreme there ; and 
this tendency, under those who ruled subsequent to the death of 
Sir Alexander Dickson, was allowed to take its full swing. It is not 
too mudh to say that up to tbe very last moment of the late war 
with Eussia the mass of tbe corps seemed to be considered of 
little or no importance. It was, in fact, sacrificed, if it may not 
cannot be said to selfish or unworthy motives, at least to such as no 
one having tbe good of the service and nothing else at heart could 
readily understand. 

When Sir Alexander Dickson was at the bead of the corps, sup* 
ported in prominent positions in connection with it by such eminent 
artillery officers as Williamson, Eraser, Drninmond, May, and many 
others, the instruction of the corps, starved as the estimates "were in 
those days, and indifferent as both the Government and the country 
were to our military establishments, w F ent far beyond what it has 
ever been since, or, taken as a whole, what it is now* A regular and 
understood system prevailed in everything, and it was strictly 
adhered to. A judicious reformer, or one having a practical know- 
ledge of the real wants of the Artillery service, would have left tba 
organization of the corns and the manner of its reliefs alone, and 
would simply have devoted his attention to re- establishing/ on a 
scale commensurate with the augmented numbers of the regit . 
and the requirements of the times in that respect, such a ca 
routine of professional instruction as must be so plainly essential 
for the Artillery above any other portion of the army, and which is 
its greatest requirement at the present moment. Instead of this 
wise proceeding, mi keeping exclusively to it, tho new arrange- 




ments attempt to carry out a fanciful theory, that a battalion op 
brigade of artillery of eight batteries or companies can be treated 
like a regiment of infantry ; the ideas connected with which it will 
require a considerable time to communicate to the distant out 
stations, a still longer time to get into working order, and by which, 
even if it should ever work, which is more than doubtful, it is impos- 
sible to make out how efficiency can be promoted in any way* 
Surely if all our militia artillery regiments were to have their head 
quarters and dep6ts in one place, with an establishment like that at 
Woolwich for artillery instruction, they would be made far more 
useful than they now are ; but, virtually, we are now applying the 
bad militia system to our regular force. 

The oew arrangements meet exactly Lord John Russell's descrip* 
tion of the ministerial Befonn Bill* They alter a great deal that 
was good and useful, and which ought not to have been disturbed, 
while they leave almost everything alone that might have been con* 
sidered mischievous or defective, and which it would have been 
therefore better to change. Why or wherefore they should have 
been brought forward, especially at the present moment, when 
there is so much of a far more urgent matter to attend to in profes- 
sional instruction, as well as in other respects, it is most difficult to 
understand. The new plan abolishes the terms battalion, troop, and 
company , which were certainly rather inappropriate terms in the 
artillery, though they had the convenience of making a distinction 
desirable in some respects, and the corps is now divided into brigades 
and batteries. The former are fifteen in number with the dep6t 
brigade* One is styled the Horse Artillery Brigade, and consists as 
of old often batteries, an insufficient number now that four are in 
India. The head-quarters of this brigade, with two of the batteries 
only, is to be at Woolwich* The other eight are detached — one at 
Aliershott, one at Woolwich, two in Ireland, and four in India. 
How are the reliefs of this branch of the service to be carried on 
except on the old plan ? There being only one brigade, it cannot, 
except after the fashion of the Irishman's bird, relieve itself. This 
does not seem to have occurred to the authors of the new measures, 
at least no allusion is made as if it did* One paragraph of the 
order distinctly states, without mentioning any exception, that the 
reliefs are to be carried out by entire brigades, and that it is to be 
arranged that each brigade before proceeding on foreign service 
shall, if practicable (that is a prudent proviso and shows some mis- 
giving), be stationed at least twelvemonths. It certainly does not 
likely ever to he practicable to have a brigade, four of the 
batteries of winch are always to be in India, and other batteries of 
which are necessarily detached at certain places at home, assembled 
for twelve months at Woolwich, or for any period whatever, and 
still less so that it can ever relieve itself by an entire brigade, The 
name of a similar argument applies to all the other brigades, and it 
is plain the whole thing must break down. The reliefs of the horse 
brigade ran be carried out by batteries, and by batteries only, and 
so it will be found with regard to the rest of" the regiment* The 
fourteen battalions lose that designation under the uq^ -axrassg^ 



men ts and become four i ides instead. The change so far w 

merely nominal, and it would have been well if it had 

of these brigades are to be field artillery, and the other eight 
garrison artillery. Of the former, three brigades or tweuty4oar 
batteries, in all \4A guns, are to be at home ; and a like number rf 
brigades, but comprising twentv-tive batteries or 150 guns, or* U 
he abroad. Of the garrison artillery four brigades are to be abrod 
and four at home, so that the artillery of England is divided almost 
exactly in equal portions between home and the colon 

The brigades are of unequal strength, and this must complical 
difficulty, if not impossibility, of cam ing out the order as to reli 
out i re brigades. Some of them are, moreover, so much dispersed in dif 
ferent colonics wide apart from each other, and having sotm 
little or no communication with eaehother,t hat the slightest adhi 
to the intended principle must be utterly impracticable. Of th* 
brigades at home* one is posted to Woolwich, one to Dover, one be* 
twecn Devonport and Portsmouth, and one between the last-named 
place and the Channel Islands. Now we should like to know how ret 
of these places is to be relieved by brigades without the incoavc; 
of entirely denuding some one of the others of its garrison an 
for the purpose, "Will this be done, and if it is not done, wIk, 
cornea of the general order? Suppose, for instance, it is wished to 
bring the Channel Islands brigade to Woolwich, how is it to fc 
done without taking away an entire brigade, for a time at least, from 
one or other of these places ? Will two batteries be sent first to 
Portsmouth and two brought from Woolwich, and the same tli 
on with regard to Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney, and if so, 
ia this but something extremely like the old system back agai 

This objection may be of little importance with regard to I 
reliefs when the distances are short, and when sti -am is available ; 
but how is the ease to be when, for instance, the brigade at tie 
Mauritius has served its time abroad and requires to be br. 
home? Of this brigade one battery is to be at St* Helena, one at 
the Cape, two at the Mauritius, with its he ad* quarters, one at Ce\ ■ 
Ion, one at Sydney, and one at China, Suppose the brigade which 
tfes beeu its twelve months at Woolwich, m compliance with 
order, and which will compose the garrison artillery of 
quarter, is ordered on this duty, the place it leaves will have no garri* 
son artillery until the brigade returns home, a portiou of whv 
at riiina t and the whole of which is scattered between the latter 
place and half a dozen others extending to St. Helena. Mon 
how is this relief by an entire brigade to be conducted ? Will the 
ship which leaves England begin at St. Helena, dropping one bfil 
and taking up another ■ thence to the Cape in like manner, and so oa 
to nil the other stations, returning home at last from China or 
ncy P or will she go to the extreme of her destinations and work 
homewards — in either cue keeping a number of useful soldiers on 
board ship unnecessarily ? If the brigade goes out in different 
things are not much better ; in either case a greater number of bat- 
teries of artillery will be on the ocean at a time than is desirable; 
&nd in either case our home defences must suffer* In the moat 




speedy mode of conducting the relief, upwards of a year would 
elapse before the brigade would be assembled complete at home. 
Again, in the case of the relief of a brigade of field artillery. These 
last abroad are all in India. The one to be relieved will have to be 
collected some where on the coast for some time before^ to the great 
detriment of the stations from which the batteries composing it must 
necessarily be withdrawn, and the endangering of the portion of the 
army left for a time without artillery in case of any sudden outbreak. 
The country at home meanwhile, loses the services of a brigade* or 
48 guns> while it is on its way out to this distant quarter, and until 
the one it relieves arrives in England. Moreover one of the brigades 
of field artillery in India has nine batteries, while not a single other 
one has more than eight. How can an v of those of less strength 
relieve the one of greater ? The inequality of the strength of the 
brigades of the garrison artillery makes a like difficulty— greater 
because the inequality is greater. In this latter part of the service 
the four brigades at home have three of 8 batteries and one of 7; while 
the four abroad have two of 7, one of 8, and one of 10 batteries. It will 
require a good deal of management to contrive and relieve the latter 
by means of the former without further periodical changes- The 
wnole system is something as if the Horse Guards determined in 
relieving the whole of the regiment on particular stations at 

Most likely some wise subordinate in that quarter got into hid 
head that a company of Artillery, whether in battery or otherwise, 
was like a company of the Line, and that such companies would of 
course be no more than a regiment of infantry } and that it could 
be conveniently relieved and treated in every respect in the same 
manner. One of the field-artillery brigades muster but one short 
of 1900 non-commissioned officers and men ; it wLU have on a very 
moderate peace establishment little short of 1,000 horses, 153 
carriages, with ammunition and stores for 54 guns. It will be a 
satisfaction to have it explained how this brigade is to be relieved in 
its entirety without inconvenience, even if there was another equally 
as Btrong "to relieve it, which there is not. Can the massing of 54 
guns, which is the artillery of a tolerably strong army, in the most 
hivish proportion of guns to men, be compared to calling in the 
detachments of a paltry battalion or regiment of infantry, and con- 
centrating them for the same purpose ? This part of the scheme must 
prove a decided failure on the face of it. It is so absurdly impracti- 
cable inevery part of itjthatit is difficult to imagine how it cooldpossibly 
have been broached at all. It is evidently the idea of an infantry 
officer, and the Horse Guards have made themselves exclusively 
responsible for it, for it is signed by the Adjutant- General of the 
army, and not by the Deputy Adjutant- General of Artillery, which as 
exclusively relating to the Artillery it should have been. The 1 ) 
Guards were too proud of it to allow any one else even the appearance 
of a claim to so clever and simple a contrivance. Undaunted by iheir 
failures on so many points of military legislation, and the necessity 
for resorting to parliamentary committees in consequence, I 
determined in breaking fresh ground and astonishTngevev^^^ 

their capacity in altering the organization of the Artillery. WliAi 

the defects of the latter consisted in, or what necessity th< 
giug it, we ore entirely at a loss to discover. The 
own on this part of the subject by the General Order is the aaser- 
ion, it is nothing more, that the staff of the regiment which wu 
stationary at "Woolwich bad become unwieldy ; eo in order to roafc* 
it less so, the singular measure is resorted to of taking asv 
.stationary character and making it moveable. The 14 mJj 
tid the* 14 quarter-masters for the 14 battalions of whiej 
regimental stair was composed, and who were formerly kept a 
at Woolwich, being condemned as unwieldy, they are now at 
to as many brigades, and made to travel about with them so as to 
make them less so* What possible benefit can arise from this : 
ad yet it is solely on this account that all the change is made. The 
General Order is silent as to any other reason. The opening paragraph 
says (the exact words are quoted) — " the successive augmentation to 
the liuyal Artillery having caused an assemblage at Woolwich of an 
unwieldy regimental staff, it is decided that the head- quarters of the 
Hoyal Artillery shall remain, as heretofore, at Woolwich, but tha: 
the staff of the battalions shall bo distributed to the sew ral district! 
and garrisons at home and abroad/ 1 After this follow the differeiM 
arrangements by which a long-established system is altogether upset 

It would be idle to criticise the grammar and logic of t 
All we should like to know is, that if the regimental staff of tic 
Artillery was unwieldy, in what the unwieldmess consisted P Surelv 
a regimental staff ? always stationed at Woolwich, no matter bo* 
large, must be more compact and manageable than the same staff 
dispersed from Ballineollig to Bengal. The staff complained 
at Woolwich, for t lie purpose of keeping the records of the si 
battalions, and doing many other things essential to their proper 
maintenance and efficiency. Each staff, distinct and separate in 
itself, consisted of two officers, and but two only. How, in the 
name of everything reasonable, could the epithet unwieldy be applied 
to such a staff, or to an aggregate of fourteen such, each having distinct 
duties, and moving in different orbits ? Not one single advantage 
of any kind or description is asserted for the new scheme but that of 
dispersing the regimental staff. The claim of the Horse Guards totbif 
change is disputed in the tttval and Military Gazette by a Mr. Bright, 
who seems to fancy himself a very clear military reformer, but whose 
ideas on the subject, it is to be hoped, will receive less consideration, 
as far as the Artillery is concerned, than he asserts they have done 
in this instance. If he is the real author of the new arrangements, 
or whoever may be, let him be made a Knight of the Bath, with an 
adequate pension, and a stipulation that he shall turn his attention 
henceforth to something he understands better. It is inconceivable 
that such a step should have been taken at so inappropriate a 
moment as the present, when there is so much in the shape of 
organisation to attend to in other respects, as that of violently disturb- 
ing a system which, like that of the Artillery, had existed tor a con- 
siderable number of years, and against which nothing could be urged 
but the unwieldiness of its regimental staff \ this regimental etaff,!or 




upwards of 20,000 men, being composed of fourteen distinct parts, 
comprising only twenty-eight officers altogether. Great stress is 
laid, in making the new arrangement a, on keeping the headquarters 
at Woolwich; but, like everything else connected with the order, this is 
speedily shown to he an impossibility* The paragraph of the General 
Order already quoted says it shall he so ; but a very few lines lower 
down another can only venture to desire that it may be considered 
m that light, although the head- quarters of the majority of the 
brigades are removed from it, This majority being in the consider- 
able proportion of 12 to 3. How a place is ever to be considered 
the beaa-quarteni of a corps, of which the head- quarters of 12 out of 
the 15 brigades composing it are elsewhere cannot well be under- 

It is very desirable that the Artillery should know as speedily as 
possible what the new arrangements intend to do, and bow they are 
to be carried out ; and these remarks are principally meant to pro- 
mote discussion, in order, if possible, to make clear what seems to be 
utterly incomprehensible without some explanation. If the new 
system is really a practicable one, the sooner it in shown to be bo 
the better. Tliese are not times for crude experiment in military 
legislation. The command of each brigade of Artillery is to be held 
by a Colonel or Lieutenant-Colonel, who is to have the entire con- 
trol of it, and, such Is the highest pinnacle to which an Artillery 
officer may reach, be is to be considered as holding the same relative 
position as an officer commanding a regiment, making his own non- 
commissioned officers, and communicating direct with the Adjutant- 

As there is no Adjutant- General of Artillery, this must mean, if 
the order is to be read, as a military order ought to be, with strict 
exactness, the Adjutant- General of the Army ; so that virtually the 
corps is taken out of the hands of its own appointed officials alto- 
gether, or the latter are made mere cyphers of, which is much the 
same tiling. In all these late alterations they seem to be completely 
ignored and set aside, and it is impossible not to believe, that neither 
they nor any of the higher officers of Artillery have beenat all consulted. 
It clearly indicates whence these impracticable changes have 
emanated when such a command as that of a brigade of Artillery, 
is for a moment or in any respect spoken of as on a par with the 
command of a regiment. The two things are as diflerent as the 
command of a company and the command of a division of an army, 
Any one of the brigades of Artillery would furnish a fair average pro- 
portion of the arms in the field for an army of 20,000 men. It would 
give as many guns as were actively engaged on the part of the British 
Army at either of the battles of the Anna or Inkermannj and more 
than we bad at many of the great actions in the Peninsula. An artil- 
lery officer commanding such a force, with the great responsibility 
attached to it, ought to take his place with the General commanding 
a division. To speak of him on the same terms as an officer com- 
manding a regiment, shows either extreme ignaraneej or a desire, 
which we should hardly suppose an official of any position capable 
of exhibiting, to degrade ana lower a service which deserves better 


treatment. If the command of some half dozen 
composing a brigade of Infantry requires a hit: 
Colonel or a Lieutenant- Colonel, surely a brigade of A; 
even in peace time Is never less than forty -eight guns, an i 
in the ease of the Horse Artillery Brigade, consists of not le 
sixty, with more than 2,000 horses and an immense moss of ma 
ought to go still higher in the scale. The comparison of the \ 
maud of a brigade of Artillery with such a command as thai • 
regiment, if not merely meant to he insulting, shows the lament 
want of knowledge of the service generally which exists in 
military administration. 

There is positively no one single paragraph of the order 
to these recent changes in the Artillery that does not show the 
capacity and want of knowledge of the details of the service of t 
arm, by those who have drawn it out, It is stated as very desirnb 
that every man of the regiment should be thoroughly aeaiwnti 
with the whole of the duties of the Artillery soldier, an J that et 
manding officers will be held responsible : that the drivers are 
structed as far as possible as gunners, and the gunners when i 
cable as drivers, How can this be the ease, if certain brigades ; 
maintained exclusively as field Artillery* while others are equa 
confined to garrison duties. If every man in the regiment h 
thoroughly acquainted with all the duties of an Artillery e 
a certain rotative system, such as existed a few years agi 
be again re-established. The designation of gunner and dri 
every man in the regiment should also again be reverted to, 
the men are to learn the same duties, it is evidently a mistake to 
designate them differently from each other. So long as there ai* 1 
certain men called drivers, and others gunners, the natural teii 
will he to keep each exclusively to their own duties. It was a great 
blunder to have disturbed the old system in any way, J 
received the emphatic approval of Sir Alexander Dickson. nn«i 
it was presumption in the men.*of modern days to condemn 
he, with his great practical experience, declared to be so good, 
that was required was to work it out properly with an adequir 
tablishment of field batteries, such as we have never had until v. 
the last few years. When every; man in the regiment was a gi 
and driver, a* unity of feeling existed ; moreover, the service was re- 
lieved of much of its irksomeness, for if a man became tired erf 
caTe of a pair of horses and the duty of driving them, another was 
readily substituted anxious to take them. It was easy in this 
and by the casualties of men going into hospital, or on furlough, to 
circulate a knowledge of all the duties of an artilleryman, but the 
new system makes this far more difficult. The drivers, kept exelu 
eively as drivers, get sick of the work 3 and desert in crowds, 1 1 
the prevailing crime amongst these men. It has got to siuh a 
tent in some instances, thtyt what with fresh drivers to replu, 
absentees, and the having so many as seventy-five drivers in 
battery, very little margin is left for instructing the gunners f 
driver's duties. The gunner and driver system was both econj 
and efficient ; the separation of the two duties, which the new sye 




amounts to, gains nothing in the latter respect, if it does not lose, 
and it is costly in the extreme. It entails the necessity of a number 
of idle men as spare drivers. These surplus men at the present 
moment amount to fully as many as those for whom there is work to 
be found. There are now seventy-five drivers in the establishment 
of each battery, while the battery turning out complete only employs 
thirty-eight. It is impossible to regulate the Dumber of drivers so 
as to meet all the casualties that may arise. There is nothing but 
inconvenience and expense attached" to the receDt changes in this 
respect, We may depend upon it that the gunner and driver system 
was approved of not only by Sir Alexander Dickson, but by other 
artillery officers who had shared with him his Peninsula experience. 
The Duke of Wellington got the credit of it, but the probability is 
that he merited it just as little as the substitution of 9-pouoders for 
G-pounders at the battle of Waterloo, for which, as it now turns out, 
the country was indebted to an artillery officer, the late Sir Augustus 
Fraser, The fact has been admitted over and over again that that 
great battle, no which so much depended, and the successful result 
of which placed the British army on so high a pinnacle of glory, 
was won mainly by the substitution of guns of heavier calibre for 
the lighter ones that had been in use previously by the troops of 
horse artillery j but it was not known until lately that this substitution 
was urged by an artillery officer ; and, after being opposed for some 
thm\ reluctantly acceded to by the great General who commanded. 
Will the present Horse Guards remember this, and look more than 
they seem inclined to do to artillery officers for the management and 
interior arrangements of their own arm f Will the War Office 
bear it in mind, and look about for a director-general before they in- 
volve themselves more deeply by meddling with artillery material 
and with other matters in connection with the arm which they do 
not understand F There are as able officers of high rank in the 
Artillery as in any other part of the army : they are not a bit more 
debilitated by age than their comrades equally as advanced in life in 
the cavalry and infantry, and they are quite as fit for employment, It 
is not necessary to go down the list and to drag up any one to fill 
the places which should exist in connection with the arm, and which 
it is essential to have filled by officers of the highest rank, talent, 
and experience that can be found. There is nothing so destructive 
to the proper feeling and soldierly qualities of a military body as even 
the appearance of neglect, or a slur upon those who, having arrived 
at the higher ranks of the profession, and who having performed the 
most faithful and valuable services in their day, seem, like those of 
the Artillery, to have been advanced for the sole purpose of condemn- 
ing them to inactivity aitorwards. 

The more valuable officers of the junior ranks who reflect ou 
what they see in like existing state of things must flag in their 
exertions after professional knowledge ; and the apathy which will 
creep upon them at first will grow stronger and stronger as they 
approach more nearly to that high rank m which, if the system was 
dim-rent, the artillery officer above all others would be moat useful. 
The Colonel Commandant ship of a battalion may feitV^ w> V*3**k* 



upon as a harbour of rest. It ought to be so r fur the nn 
as much employment and encouragement to all as can 
afforded ; but besides these there are just now twenty general o 
of the artillery, nine tenths of whom are not provided for, and nmonj 
whom some half dozen or more might have been found thoroi 
competent in every respect to fill the office of Inspector General i 
Artillery, which has at last been instituted* Some exph 
ought to be called for> why some of these were not appointed, thi 
what made it necessary to have a Colonel of the regiment pn 
to the rather novel position of a temporary General for tbe purpow. 
The officer appointed may be competent enough j it would do no good 
to discuss the point in that invidious manner* The que^i 
whether one amongst the general officers of artillery did not e: 
equally as capable ? If the public service derived no benefit 
these officers being all passed over, what were the grounds u 
which a junior officer was promoted for the purpose of passing t! 
over. There is more at stake than may be imagined in these 
in this want of consideration to the claims of officers who 
served well, and who in many instances still possess all their faculties 
unimpaired* It is such treatment of them as the veriest time 
must be inclined to deprecate — nothing could be more marked. Aa 
Inspector General was to be appointed ; it was necessary he should 
have the rank of a general officer, but all those already holding ttai 
rank, strange to say, are passed over, and an officer in his sixty-eixft 
or sixty-seventh year is brought from the rank of a full Colonel \A 
fill the office, with temporary rank only, 

This country ought, nest to the Navy, to watch over its Artilleir; 
we may repair a deficiency in any other part of the service, but we 
cannot with anything like the same readiness do so in this 
portant arm. It ought to be our pride and boast, and it is one ire 
could easily accomplish, that whether in science or anything else, our 
artillery is the finest in the world. We can never realize this if w 
aro to go on as wo have been doing, holding on tenacious! v 
system which makes the artillery officer m he advances in t 
leave his profession behind him. It is something, and every artillery 
officer will be grateful for it, to see Sir Fenwick Williams appi 
to Canada. It is to be hoped that it ia an instalment of the 
coming of something more hopeful and better than we haye 
There are some places the command of which seems to be peculiar!) 
adapted to the professional acquirements of artillery officers. Thev 
arc Malta, Gibraltar, Corfu, and Bermuda abroad, and Portsn 
and Plymouth, and perhaps some others of our naval ports 
at home. Whatever may be the decision eventually arrived at, with 
reference to this part of the subject, at least let the high appoint menu 
which the efficiency of the corps requires, and which it can never g^t 
on properly without, be given to it, and let them he filled Dj 
officers of mat high rank and experience which are essential t< 
them the weight they ought to have, and without which they must be 
of little or no use. 

The necessity for adopting this course is urged solely with a view to 
the good of the service. Individual interests connected with it aro 




of little of no consideration whatever* The writer is actuated by no 
paltry motives either for or against any one ; and least of all is he 
stirred up by any bilious sensations against this or that authority. 
He has never asked a favour on his own account; and where there arc so 
many who are alwayo asking he feels no very strong sense of bitter- 
ness at having never received one* That which is argued for is a 
principle, and a principle, as he views it, on which so much depends, 
that having once been taken up it cannot be lightly abandoned. It 
is strange that any one should be annoyed or think themselves in- 
jured by its advocacy* If any one suffers, under the circumstances, 
it can only be the advocate himself for it is seldom that much 
gratitude is shown to those who endeavour to advance improve- 
ment ; and an effort after military improvement is generally the 
most thankless of all. The harm usually done falls on those who 
urge their views, no matter how sound or reasonable they may be ; 
the good, when good arises, is always reaped by others. The Artillery 
in England should not be so subservient as it is made to be, and as 
it is more and more becoming, to Cavalry and Infantry notions. It 
is a complex and peculiar arm, and reouircs those who have been 
brought up to it to have charge of its aetaUa, and the management 
of everything connected with it. Unless the Commander*in*Chief has 
that ass lata ace from those who have reached the highest rank in it, 
and who in most instances must needs combine the greatest ex- 
perience with it, which it is absolutely requisite he should have, 
there may be a fair show of men in blue uniforms, of sleek horses, 
and well-kept harness, and all the rest that pleases the eye at reviews 
and makes a show, but the organization and system which are 
essential to the development of a good Artillery will be wanting. The 
Adjutant-General of the army should have little or nothing to do 
with this branch of the service about which his knowledge must be 
very slight indeed. It should be entirely governed hy its own 
authorities, communicating directly with and receiving their orders 
solely from the Commander-in-Chief. Above all things the Artillery 
should be extricated in everything relating to it from the hands of 
the Minister- at- War, and the civilians, whether holding military 
commissions or otherwise, by whom he is generally surrounded 
and advised concerning it. The War Department would be the ruin 
of any military body, aud the sooner its influence in military matters 
is curtailed the better it will be for the armv. Instead of making 
crude alterations with regard to the Artillery in bad imitation 
of the French system^ which will never work, it would have 
been wiser to have waited the result of Captain Vivian's 
committee, and to have made a thorough reform in our imJU 
tary departments and their relation to each other. There is a 
strong anxiety to be doing something, aud a wonderful aptituile in 
mistaking what ought to be done. Ail our improvements only tend 
to multiply appointments and to do little else besides. If we generally 
arrive at the maximum of expenditure, we as commonly obtain only 
the minimum of benefit The march of intellect has not yet done 
much for military legislationjin this country. Our latest attempts 


at it will not tide us over many difficulties. It would bare beep ic 
better in many respects to have left things as thrywt-re. Hut 
always be a party in favour of our failures, fit* if they d 
else, they promote patronage. The formation of a school i 
at Shoeburyness was u wise step, but it is marred by throwi: 
whole corps into confusion at the same moment iu other respects. 


If the advance of social freedom has banishrd the pregagacg, ** 
at ill retain some of our old customs, The Middle A gem lurk 
eurls of the judge*s wig, in the Corporation mace, the Q 
sceptre, in gold stick and silver stick, pursuivants, heralds 
other paraphernalia of buried ages. Knights of the Bat \ \ 
take oath to defend injured ladies. With such examples b<?f< »r< 
why should not our sailors take their £10 down, an true knight*, lo 
defend all the ladies, aye and all the *' gentlemen <>f Hi, 
live at home at ease/' against all comers ? They ha\> 
for doing so, and precedent is everything. Indeed wo seldom find 
our l< higher powers ?l trying their hands at innovation. In cases of 
doubt and difficulty they use their memory first and their reason 

In truth there is often great difficulty in knowing what to do 
Most people are content to jog on from hand to mouth, without plm 
or forethought, Even our statesmen no w-a- days wait for an impuk 1 
from abroad, or aet in obedience to the pressure from without 
Perhaps we have no right in ordinary peaceable times to expect to 
find a man capable of seeing where all matters hinge> though e 
body admires the bold and ready actor, who takes occasion 1 
beard. But such men are as rare as mermaids, so we nn 
put our faith in our old friends, routine, order, and custom, 
they never inspire the nation with much confidence or vigour. 

It is astonishing what may be done with thoroughness. It ig an 
enthusiastic quality. We know of nothing more expressive than i 
direct appeal to the breeches pocket, particularly with En 
Their business habits teach them to have faith in a minister who 
does not treat with levity a pound sterling ; and they are 
See the magic there is in £10 down upon the nail, and no 
abatement. It has performed, or is in a fair way of performing, i 
miracle, in manning the channel fleet. The "Royal Commissi oners 
tried coaxing, extra rations of biscuit, beef, cocoa, onions, and plum- 
duff, as well as pensions seen through a hazy vista of twenty 
sea service. Their baits were useless. Jack declined them a J 
he has bitten at £10 in a lump. The Queen's bounty gpri 
straight to the heart of the man ; while the nice balancing ot 




tional pay* better rations, allotments, badge-money and pensions, 
were looked upon as so much bilge-water* 

Raising men for the navy by means of a bounty is considered by 
many to have an old-fashioned' look, but we remember an old adage 
about i{ a bird in the hand/ 1 &c* It is evident that our seamen re- 
member it too, at all events they prefer having £10 at the 
commencement of their service to 6d. a-day at the end of twenty 
years, which, heaven knows, appeals to a very distant future* They 
remember also their treatment at the end of the Bussiau war, and, 
indeed, as far as that goes, at the end of almost every war. Whether 
there is any truth in their statements or not, they always complain of 
scurvy treatment at the bands of government when their services 
are no longer required ; and perhaps this is confessing that if we 
had a sound principle working at the Admiralty the navy would 
never want good men. 

It seems to he easily explained why we cannot catch seamen* 
Like had fishermen we offer — bait tbat is out of season. If the pay 
and pensions are not sufficient to man the navy up to the war pitrli, 
we must try other means. Our tars may be stupid fellows in some 
particular cases, but they have wisdom enough to misunderstand 
our benevolence* unless it comes in the shape of money down. Throw 
more hard coin into the monthly pay— appeal to the present, and 
not to the future— and the State will then get the pick of the sea* 
men's labour market. We may talk until the end of time, about the 
best way of manning the navy, but Jack comprehends no logic so 
well as increased monthly pay or a bounty. 

That this is borne out by facts, let us note events for the last few 
weeks* A Boyal Commission sat, deliberated, and hatched a report, 
but we verily believe it did not man a sloop. Out comes the war 
in Italy and the Queen's proclamation, offering a £10 bounty, and 
the fleet is being rapidly manned ; and this brings us to the matter 
in hand, viz.. what sort of men are we getting for our money. We 
shall better understand the bargain, if we append the conditions. 
Here is the advertisement ; — 

" Wanted on board 11 «t Majesty *s Ship Britannia, 120 guns, 
Captain Kobert Harris, for the Boyal Navy, and for ten years con- 
tinuous service, men between the age of nineteen and twenty-one t 
not less than 5 feet 6 inches in height without shoes, stout, healthy, 
and intelligent. To measure 33 inches round the chest without 
clothing. All men will receive on joining £3 5s* in advance. 

"Boys are received between the age of 17 and 19; at 17 years 
they must be 5 feet 4 inches high j at 18, 5 feet 5 inches ; and at 19, 
they must be 5 feet (5 inches without shoes, 

«nder 18 must bring their baptismal register and consent 
of their parents in writing, and they all must measure 33 inches 
round the chest without clothing. Every boy must also bring a 
character; when, if accepted, he will receive £2 in advance. 

" Landsmen above 20 years of age entering on board her Majesty's 
ships before June 16th, will receive 40g, bounty, also a bed, blanket, 
and clothes, to the value of £2 12s* Gd* n 

This plain offer is bringing mea to the service iawftraa^*^ 




when the easterly wind shifts and liberates the homeward-bound 
ships from the chops of the Channel, we shall have an additional 
body of men anxious to accept the bounty. 

The principal objection to the above requisition of the State is the 
height of the men, aye, and the boys too. Five feet six inches is a 
drawback, because, as we observed" on the Common-bard at Ports- 
mouth, as well as at other naval rendezvous, there are hundreds of 
men with a forty-inch chest but whose height is under the atano 
required. Height is all very well, but we prefer men with plenty 
of beam. We believe, however, that the order is not universally 
obeyed, for good stout A. B.'s, under the required height, are not ob- 
jected to. 

We have heard a reason assigned for fixing the standard for the 
Navy at five feet six inches, which, it will be remembered, is h i ■ 
than is required for recruits for the Army. It is, that the spars of 
the huge line* of- bat tic ships are so large, tliat shorter than a fife 
foot six inch man cannot clasp them when reeling ; and that short 
men are so exposed during bad weather in leaning over the 
when reefing, and thereby exposing their backs, that thev contract 
rheumatism, and by getting into the sick list are incapacitated f 
service. Wc give this statement as we beard it, not that it is sou; 
reason to suppose that aU hands are wanted for the large spa 
Smaller men would even be more useful on the topgallant and roy 
yards. Neither are all our ships line-of-battle ships; and hundred*, 
iiay, thousands of men under fire feet six inches might be shij 
on board frigates, sloops, and gun -boats, without much detriment to 
the public service. 

The men We have seen come forward to accept the bounty froi 
the commercial marine are fair specimens of English seamen ; man 
of them appeared as though they had been upon short common 
both in dress and food. In many instances there was no occasion t< 
take off their shoes when about to be measured, that had been done 
long ago. But tt slops' 1 are forthcoming, and a few weeks of the 
improved diet of the navy will till them out* For it should be 
borne in mind, in contrasting the navy with the merchant service, 
that the food is far better, the quantity greater, better cooked, and 
eaten with greater attention to comfort, regularity, and cleanliness 
on board a man-of-war than in a merchant vessel. Of course we d< 
not include such ships as the Peninsular and Oriental Company 1 "* 
steam-packets, or Cunard's, in the abovo remark, these services beinf 
quite exceptional, and in most respects quite eqna! to the improvi 
dietary arrangements of the navy, 

A leading journal, remarkable for its boldness of assertion, staled 
the other day, when dilating upon the subject of manning the navy, 
" that, setting aside cunt ingcncieB of a sudden demand, the navy was 
very well manned." But the First Lord of the Admiralty is of a 
different opinion, so are the lloyal Commissioners, or what need was 
there for a commission; and so are most naval men, who, of all 
others, know most about the matter. Indeed, the supph i a, 

even in times of peace, has act been equal to the demand. How 
often of late years, up to the last sk months, in fact, have we heard 


THE ten H>r>-B uouarr. 


at when a ship -of- war baa been commissioned she has waited 
months at Spithead, or some other anchorage, for waDt of bands to 
complete her complement. The whole of this time the moat costly 

Krt of her crew, viz., the officers, and such of the men that had joined, 
come a serious burden upon the nation (as they are useless), to which, 
of course, must be added theexpensc of the ship she is intended to relieve. 
To enumerate a few instances from memory would he hy no means 
a difficult task ; hut we take the following from an official report 
made tn the House of Commons by a Lord of the Admiralty, who 
was endeavouring to convince the " House ** of the inadequate supply 
of men for the service even in time of peace. Thus, the Ganges, 
after being commissioned for service in the Pacific, remained in 
harbour 110 days ; the Diadem, a crack frigate with a popular cap- 
tain, 135 days; the Menmvn, a fine two-decked ship, 172 days; the 
Marlborough t three-decker, 129 days ; and the Eunjatus^ the hand- 
somest frigate in the service, and intended as- the ship to initiate the 
Royal Prince to the duties of the Navy in a yacht voyage up the 
Mediterranean, remained idle at her anchor 121 days for want of 
hands. "Where were our continuous-servicemen? Could none bo 
found to meet the exigencies of such common-place occasions as 
le? As Sir Charles Wood justly remarked, * Could the inge- 
nuity of our most inveterate foe devise anything more humiliating, 
or more calculated to impress foreign nations with the conviction of 
the decay of our naval power than the fact that our ships of wtrr re- 
main in port four, five, and sis months at a stretch, unable to oh tain, 
in times of peace, their complement of seamenr' 

We may get plenty of men of some sort or other By means of the 
£10 bounty, and we may teach them all the duties of a man-ot- 
but unless we manage to retain them by some means in the service, 
re shall not get much beyond their assistance in an emergency for 
ir pains. It is just possible that we may do too much when we 
?t as we do nonr, in a hurry — from instinct and impulse ; and by- 
id-bye, when the alarm is past, we may learn that we have ddng 
rrang. For wie have had two processes going on in this maritime 
country for Home time past, beautifully adapted to counteract one 
another. It is difficult to determine bow to §urpaas the absurdity 
of raising men. as we are at present, at a great expense, and when we 
have taught them every duly a seaman ought to know, it has been 
our practice hitherto to scatter them broadcast, to take root in any 
other service than our own. 

Let us take a familiar example, and in a plain, straightforward 
statement take the shortest route to the mind* The following para- 
graph will furnish us with an occurrence with which every one is 
familiar, and illustrates one of the processes alluded to: — 

*' The Nankin, 50 guns, Commodore the Hon. Keith Stewart, has 
arrived in the river Thames from China. Being in a perfect state of 
discipline and efficiency, she is to be dismantled and paid oft" imme- 
Admiral rlarrey, the i^mmiander-in-Chief,at Sheerneas, 
expr< approbation oi the general order of the ship, espe> 

her ] md efficiei 

[ing be had seen for irs, This admirable bod^ o£ *fl£s&^ 

Jest, 18S&. 



[JrKB T 




lerists, according to the present rules of the Navy, are to be at once 
dispersed, to take service where they may." 

Paradoxical as it may seem, this ship and her splendid crew was 
paid off, and the men sent away as though they were not wanted, 
when the whole kingdom waa agitated with pamphlets, paragraphs, 
and letters from various persons upon the best modes of manning 
the navy. One would imagine that in practical England some 
remedy for this absurd practice might be adopted, In truth there 
is something quite ludicrous in the management of our naval attains. 
What can be so injudicious when a ship like the Rankin return* 
home with her crew perfect, officers and men working well together, 
and well acquainted with the properties of the vessel, as to b 
the three years 1 continuous labour to the winds* To say notF 1 
about the loss of the men, it costs some £20 7 O0O f often more, 
nine or ten months' downright labour, to get a new and untried ci 
in* the same condition as the splendid frigate we have instanced 
broken up in a day. 

To understand how suicidal is 'such conduct in the navy, let us 
ask what would be thought of the administrative powers o 
Horse Guards if, after having trapped, bought, cajoled^ or obtained 
by any of the means known to recruiting Serjeants, a line h* 
recruits ; and after drilling them for months and teaching them tl 
mysteries of the " goose step," regimental duties, and target practi 
in all its modern destructiveness — in fact, converted them into goi 
soldiers' — what, we ask, would be thought of the capaeit 
Horse Guards, if these men, when instructed how to nght any f< 
were to be instantly disbanded, and told there waa no further u 
for them ? Surely if this is true with respect to the line regimen 
in the army, it must have equal force when applied to our line-of* 

It is not our intention to speculate upon the manner in n 
Admiralty may retain or discharge men for the future, but 
of contrasting the dismantling of the Nankin, or, indeed, an v 

ship, let us see what Her Majesty's Ship of 91 guns/may 

expected to experience before she is fit for sea, even under the 
fluence of a £10 bounty, This magnificent ship is now eommissione 
and has what ward room officers call a popular commander, and wb 
the blue jackets call a first rate sailor, so that it is very probata 
that a good round number of smart A. B,*a will find their way 
board her. And yet what are the difficulties that bee 
of this splendid ship before and after she goes to se 
tion of what has to be done by her officers and men before site ij 
to fight another ship equal in guns to her own, will ens I 
condemn what we so wantonly undo. 

Let us admit that, in fitting out this ship, the officers, marine 
and seamen-gunners are appointed* These seamen-gunners are dis- 
tributed in the proportions ne in forty or forty-five, to the 
rest of the crew, and are readily obtained ; she will have to supply 
the rest of her crew, petty officers, master-at-arms, ship's corporal 
carpenters, blacksmiths, armourers, caulkers, signalmen* and tfe 
captains of the guns, from the heterogenous mass that come 1 
bling in, minus discipline, dirty and unruly, Now, when this 




goes to sea, what follows? — drill, drill, everlasting drill; And fortunate 
she will be if she escape the notice of an enemy until six mouths 1 
* icessant labour baa put everybody in good fighting condition on board. 
While passing through this uncomfortable period, the men have 
ao peace : the mesa tab lea are constantly disarranged, no rest for 
the watch below; and, unless the officers are patterns of good tem- 
er, and zealous in the discharge of their duty, discontent becomes 
condition of the ship. In this way it has happened, before 
r, that we have sent untrained men to fight the battles of the 
aim try against the trained and skilled gunners of France and 
aeriea. We are satisfied our late " faithful ally" and probable fu- 
t ure foe has taken care that his new liners are not sent to sea in 
any such disgraceful condition. Indeed, we happen to know from 
excellent authority that he has been particular in laving a good cap- 
tain appointed to every gun in his ships afloat — men especially 
aMUed in hitting a target, and he has also been equally solicitous 
in other respects relating to the gunnery practice of nis ships of war* 
Now the £10 bounty may man the Channel fleet, but not as it 
ought to be manned, and we say this without underrating the quality 
of the men obtained. What we mean is, that mere sailors, men who 
possess sea lega and sea stomachs, are not the men required for the 
navy now-a-days. There is a wide difference between handling cot- 
ton bales and cannon balls. The plough boy may be drilled into a 
good soldier, and the merchant seaman may be drilled into a good 
gunner, but the tiling has to be done in one case as well as in the 
other, for a naval action, as now to be fought, will depend upon 
gunnery and not upon canvas. And gunnery, or rather " our armB 
of precision/ 1 require well-trained men to manage them. Future 
naval encounters will be trials? of scientific skill ; our 68-pounders 
require as delicate handling as the Enfield rifle j so that the mere 
merchantman has much to study before he is fit to take his station 
at quarters beside a well -trained man-o'-warVnmn. 

We look upon bounties, then, as exceptional means for raising 
men, — a confessing of being taken unawares. Besides, people seldom 
make good bargains when they rush into a market with a heavy de* 
mand. Fortunately, men at the present moment are rather cheap • 
and it is to be hoped that from the supply now being obtained, we 
shall, under any circumstances, war or no war, retain for the future 
a good naval reserve, from which we may man our reliefs in time of 
peace, without waiting six months for menj and also meet the sudden 
demands of war, without reporting to the expedient of a £10 bounty, 
which after all sends us men we nave to train and instruct, and not 
men who can step on board a ship one day, and fight an enemy the 

Lastly, it should also be remembered that we are now in a transi- 
tion period, which is also a very expensive period. Our ships now 
require both sails and engines ; we have to sustain the expenses of 
seamen as well as engineers, stokers, and coals : two motive powers, 
instead of one to pay and drill into efficiency ; and this is an additional 
reason to the many others that might be advanced for not wrenching 
asunder the complicated equipment necessary for our 6tew.*&e^-*&- 
war, "&.^* 




The decision of bcr Majesty's ministers relative to the enr.< 
of volunteers, is one of those incidents which prove far more < 
than could possibly be done by words, that liberal in 
based on popular principles, create in those countries where thet 
exist, a feeling of mutual confidence and goodwill between 
people and their rulers which we look for in vain where here 
right, or the choice of the people themselves, has conferred de 
power upon an individual. 

The Government has not been satisfied with a simple recosr: 
of the right possessed by the people to come forward and coi 
in armed bodies for the purpose of acting against an enemy in iht 
event of invasion ; but it has invited them to do so. That such is 
invitation will be enthusiastically responded to there can be but 
little doubt, and few will he found bold enough to deny the gre»t 
additional strength our military resources will receive by such i 
system being called into action* So much of the usefulness of our 
volunteer corps must, however, depend on their proper organisation, 
that we propose devoting a few pages to the consi deration of the 
subject, and we would preface our remarks by observing that uV 
very enthusiasm which will induce so many spirited and patriotir 
individuals to offer their services, makes the exercise of a sober 
judgment and sound discretion more than usually necessary wka 
carrying into execution the arrangements connected with it. 
We propose briefly to glance over — 

L — The composition and organization of our volunteer corps* 
2. — The manner in which they should be armed and trained. 
3. — The most suitable dress for them. 

The War Office Circular provides in some degree for the establish 
men! of volunteer corps in the different counties, by piaeii 
patronage, and to some extent the responsibility connected 
their organization, in the hands of the respective lieutenants of 
counties. The advantages of such an arrangement are eon 
open to question in a military point of view ; but be that as it 
there is one thing very certain, that all volunteer corps ought 
embodied under one set of regulations, and that their system i 
and interior economy ought to be uniform. In the same Circuit* 
there is a rule laid down which is of the very first importance aai 
from which no departure, under any pretext whatever, should be 
allowed ; it is, H That the members of the corps undertake to pro* 
vide their own amis and equipments, and to defray all expenses at 
tending the corps, except in the event of its be in bled fri 

actual service." Unless this rule be strictly adhered to, the < 
denned hues of demarcation which ought to separate the volunteers 
from the regular and militia forces would soon disappear and 
instead of gaining the co-operation of those classes vthozv 
position precludes them, except in a few solitary instances iron 




volunteering for military service, we should be simply making a 
transfer of the services of men who would he quite, if not more, 
useful, serving under existing or future arrangements in the ranks of 
our militia, It is the more necessary to lay a considerable stress 
upon this point, because already in the public prints a tendency has 
been evinced towards urging upon the authorities the great advan- 
tages that would be derived from equipping these volunteers at the 
public expense ; a step which, besides the many other mischiefs that 
it might produce, would at once destroy the very ground upon 
which their li esprit de corps " should be made to rest. 

The personal qualifications required from a member of a volunteer 
corps should be such as would be necessary to ensure a proper per- 
formance of the duties required from him in his new positron of a 
soldier. Good sight, bodily activity, and physical endurance are 
amongst those qualifications, without which no man can be tho- 
':! y efficient as a soldier in the field ; the first is indeed essential, 
and for a corp3 of sharp-shooters the two last are hardly less so. 

Although Artillery Corps and Companies are referred to in the 
Proclamation, it is very certain that the great bulk of the volunteers 
will be composed of riflemen ; we shall, therefore, more particularly 
direct our attention to the organization of the latter .having first briefly 
shewn under what special circumstances it is desirable that the 
volunteers should be trained to the service of heavy guns. 

Experience has seldom failed to prove that whatever care may 
have been taken in the first instance to proportion a sufficient number 
of artillerymen to the guns of a fortress, or to the batteries em- 
ployed against it, — that after a short tirne T the casualties caused 
from the combined effects of the enemy's fire, sickness, or fatigue, 
so greatly diminish their numbers, that the want of properly in- 
structed men to work the guns, goon becomes seriously felt ; for this 
reason, it is highly desirable, that in the immediate neighbourhood 
of our naval arsenals and fortified stations, the volunteer should 
receive the training of an artilleryman, in preference to that of a 
rifleman ; a position for which, indeed, the inhabitant of a town is, 
perhaps, from his previous u the best adapted. 

In the formation of our volunteer corps, there aTe several consi- 
derations which we must not omit to take into account ; belonging 
to a superior class to that from which the ranks of either the regular 
army or militia Is usually recruited, we must expect, that as a body, 
they will possess a higher degree of intelligence, and that a juster 
appreciation of the character of others will, as a consequence, pro- 
ceed from it ; the officers should therefore be selected with more 
than ordinary care, so that obedience to them may be rendered, not 
only as a matter of necessity, but of choice; they should be second 
to^none under their command, in either activity or intelligence, for 
confidence in a leader is often the true secret of success, and the 
want of it has often occasioned a brave man to act like a coward. 

Separate and independent companies possess many decided advan- 
tages over a regimental organisation, but, when embodied for active 
service, arrangements might be made which would permit of their 
being massed together in bodies of such a strength as mi^Ut \& 
found most convenient* 




t ikr, 


Let us bow proceed to consider what would be tbe best 
arming and inuaing those rifle companies ; for with tbe i 
there would be no difficulty, as they might be made to a&simiiat* u 
some degree to the corps with which they would hart! pent* 

In the first place, bow are our rifles, — our Kifle If ji rigors uLail \ 
call them ? it sounds better than Volunteers, — to be armed f 

There are so many kinds of rifle fire-arms in the pre 
each of which presents some novelty of construction and lai 
to aome peculiar excellence, that even if we were at liberty to do » 
it would bo rather difficult to choose between them ; but b<> 
we are to guage, to the necessities of the service which require this 
we should depend upon the military authorities for a a up ply 
munition j and to a price that will place it within tbe reach 
sons of small means, it does not appear that we can da bet? 
the time being than to adopt the regulation rifle, which ie ( when a 
good hands, a truly formidable weapon, and one well adapted 
purpose. Of course tbis is a subject upon which a diversity «f 
opinions will be entertained, and upon which much profitable discis- 
sion might arise, were it not that the object of the present 
ment is not to talk but to act, and whilst the comparative sup. 
or inferiority of this or that rifle was being eatable 
raluable time would be lost. The volunteer would, however, 
cases possess a great advantage from the rifle being his own pr^ 
for he would have the power of altering the shape and size 
stock to suit bis individual taste or the form of his shoulder. 

Having armed our volunteer with a rifle, the next thing to h 
done is to teach hirn how to use it. He has to begin by leantiaj 
two things — the first is to find out his distance from 1 he* object k 
wants to hit — the second, is to hit the object when he knows ha* 
far he is from it. To begin with tbe first : — 

If the volunteer be really in earnest he will find opportunitki 
for judging distances constantly occurring, even though 
may be so occupied that he has little leisure for a regular course rf 
application to it* In walking along a road, for instance^ he m 
object at some distance before him, ho observes its appearance nar- 
rowly s guesses the distance he may be from it, and then conn I 
number of paces which he takes before arriving at the spot where it 
stands. By doing this as often as he can, under all the varying in- 
fluences of atmosphere and local ity y he will soon find that "he very 
seldom fails to arrive at a close approximation to the truth. 

To become a good shot much practice is generally required, fch 
We often meet with exceptional eases, in which it would almost 
as if there were a constitutional tendency to be one : but i 
ease must the volunteer rest satisfied with a degree of pi 
which merely enables him to make sure of his mark under a 
fixed conditions ; he must endeavour to do so equally whel 
standing kneeling, or laying down, and he must be ablo in all ibese 
positions to take aim rapidly as well as surely, ibr the difference uf an 
instant is often to the soldier the difference between life and dv 

Though to become what is commonly called a " dead shot *' should 
be the firat object of a rifleman's ammtion, he (should not ni 

1869.} hivts ok TST5 totiiAXio* or BTTLE oob*s. Id 

those gymnastic exercises which tend to invigorate the frame and 
increase its* muscular development, nor should he at any time fail to 
remember that his individual value is very much increased by his 
being " swift of foot and strong of limb." 

Much more training he does not need. To march with a regular, 
quick step, to move from either flank in fours, to extend in 
skirmishing order, to close upon any given point, to form a rallying 
■quare, with one or two other simple manoeuvres, might comprise the 
wnole of it. 

We have now armed our rifle volunteer, we have given him some 
slight instruction, but we have as yet neglected to clothe him, a 
yery cruel piece of negligence which we will endeavour to rectify as 
quickly as possible. 

"We have arrived at the conclusion that our rifleman should be an 
activefellow,whomaybe often called upon to move rapidly from point to 
point, to jump over hedges and ditches, and to scramble through 
briars and brakes, with equal alacrity and goodwill ; his dress, then, 
■hould be one that would enable him to do all this without inconve- 
nience, and its colour should be chosen, more with reference to the 
concealment of the wearer's person than to its adornment. 

It is very probable that the uniform worn by our regular rifle regi- 
ments may suggest itself to those who are endeavouring to come to 
■ome decision on this subject ; but a very few lines will be quite 
sufficient to expose its total want of adaptation to our purpose. 
Take the shako, for instance ; no man in his sober senses ever wears 
one if he can help it, it is unpleasant to walk in, it is worse than 
unpleasant to run in, it can hardly be said to afford shelter from 
either sun or rain, it is top-heavy, and from its height often points 
out the position of the wearer when he would be otherwise concealed 
from view : the undress cap is more comfortable, which is about 
the only thing that can be said in its favour. The tunic is tight, 
scanty, and inconvenient ; its collar is made with a view to its being 
supported by the "terrible" stock, and the colour of the whole suit 
is the most conspicuous that can be found next to scarlet and white, 
if the latter may be called one. 

But why attempt to model our dress upon a soldier's uniform, and 
make ourselves uncomfortable, and to some extent ridiculous, by the 
adoption of a costume that we are not accustomed to wear ? Is it 
not better to wear a hat that our head feels at home in, than a 
shako which makes it ache ? Such a hat, for instance, as has become 
of late so extremely popular with all classes of the community — a 
popularity which can only be attributed to its intrinsic merits, for 
its warmest admirers can hardly accuse it of beauty, — a low-crowned, 
wide-brimmed, felt hat, which, neutral in colour, with a cock's feather 
or two (one of which might be white to mark the officer) for de- 
coration, would give us all we want. 

A coat, with a waistcoat which might be dispensed with in sum- 
mer, made of some strong material, in the fashion of the shooting 
jacket of the present day, would give us the free use of our limbs, 
and permit ox our haying as many pockets as we might And occa- 
sion for. 



Strong cord pantaloons, or what would be better, laotery-fitiaf 
knee breeches with leather continuation , would complete the ooetuar, 
and our whole kit might be composed of ft flannel shirt, * pair 
flannel drawers, two pair of worsted stockings, a towel, and a pair 
of boots, neatly packed in a small knapsack, to wliieh a case m#t 
be attached for the purpose of carrying a light waterproof cape* 

With regard to colour, we should do well to tako a lesson fa» 
what is so constantly to be met with in the hunting-field, where** 
may see standing out from the various back-grounds of a eh. 
landscape the scarlet coat of the well-appointed sportsman; ntf 
black or dark green of the less ambitious horseman, or the profu- 
sion al man ; and the sober -coloured grey of the horse-dealer's maa 
or the small farmer. The result is always the same ; oar attention h 
immediately attracted to the whereabouts of the huntsman by tk 
gaudy brightness of his coat, we find that his neighbour in black, 3 
not quite so conspicuous, stands out in clear and well-defined rtM 
whilst the wearer of the sober suit of russet grey is only just dis- 
cernible, and it often happens that we are able to make outtk 
colour of his horse before we can clearly distinguish the outline of 
its rider, 

Judging, then, from this and similar instances, our rifleman wcroH 
make a judicious choice in selecting for the colour of his dress soou* 
neutral, unobtrusive tint, such~as would be formed by any mixture 
between drab and grey. 

Disputing every inch of ground, lining every hedge-row, swanaiig 
through every coppice, contesting the passage of every streamlet, 
covering the advance of an army or protecting its retreat, the value 
of such a force can hardly be over-estimated ; but whilst w 
ledge this let us beware of falling into the erroneous suppositi 
by its creation we shall be able to supersede the employment of 
regular troops. History gives us, it is true, many remarkable 
instances of comparatively large and well-disciplined armies having 
been obliged to succumb to the attacks of bodies of men irregularly 
formed, who could not have contended against them for a moment in 
the open field ; but these successes will he generally found to be tf 
much attributable to the entanglement of the defeated army throi 
the ignorance or negligence of its leaders in some locality tavo 
to such attacks, as to the prowess of the victors. 

Wr have three very striking examples of this: in the ricU 
gained by Arminius over the legions ot Yams ; in the defeat of the 
royal army under General Burgoyno, at Saratoga ; and in the disas- 
trous retreat from Cabul ; but, m the first case, we find that the 
Jiuman army, encumbered with immense trains of baggage wogg' 
and a large rabble of camp followers, was, at the time of the 
which ended in its destruction, slowly winding its way thr 
country made all but impassable fur such a force by woods, m 
and ravines. The victory, too, was made the more easy by the pre- 
vious desertion of the light-armed auxiliaries. After the lap 
nearly two thousand years, we find the annihilation of a 1 
force in India, taking place under almost precisely similar circ 

neuv in 
o be si 
h rough 

of the 
mo disas- 
that the 
le attack 


stances, if we take into account the difficulties of the ground, the 
encumbrances of the army, and the inferiority of the enemy. 

Such are some of the moat prominent points which have presented 
themselves to our notice, whilst examining this subject • we do not 
pretend to have exhausted it, or to have advanced any very new or 
original ideas in connection with it, but in conclusion we would 
observe, and we particularly wish to draw attention to the fact, that 
everything in this world is comparative, and although it wiU take 
much time with great zeal and attention, in addition to the qualifi- 
cations we have enumerated, to make our rin© volunteers all that 
can be wished ; no stout-hearted man, with arms in his hand, ready 
to lay down his life in the defence of his country, can ever be re- 
garded as a despicable foe. 



Taxleyha5d is credited with the saying that " Speech was given 
to man to enable bim to conceal his thoughts/ 1 The wily diplo- 
matist must have kept very indifferent company, for his sarcasm if 
true, makea everybody either a hypocrite or something worse. 
Having a very different estimate of the value of speech, we believe 
that truth is as essential as cunning even in the ways of the world, 
for in politics, practical power rests on national sincerity. Never- 
theless we are not prone to uttering rude truths, but there are times 
when they must be spoken even in the lion's mouth. 

In saying this, we have no desire to hoist our national ensign at 
a dinner table, or at a university lecture, for that would be carrying 
the boisterous fury of a political club into a grave or convivial circle, 
and yet we cannot keep saying, " Thank heaven the Machiavelian 
alliance with Napoleon ILL - is at an end," We have played the 
hypocrite long enough, let us in all future transactions be plain 
Spoken* In these words we echo the sound of many voices. An 
alliance with forty millions of Frenchmen is another affair, but at 
nt they have no voice in the matter. 

We have an Englishman's dislike to political adventurers, and 
being tenacious in our belief, we cannot change our opinions to suit 
the hour* The value we set upon the friendship of this 4 * remarkable 
man," to use a stereotyped phrase, was the same when the aristo- 
and commons of London welcomed him to our shores, aye, even 
when we heard that lie had kissed the cbeek of our beloved Queen, 
as her guest at Windsor Castle, as it was, when he listened to the 
insolent address of hi 3 legislative assembly, and encouraged his 
vapouring colonels to threaten us with invasion. There was nothing 
hearty in our partnership with Louis Napoleon, and our connexion, 
we fear, will bear bitter fruit, 

sn in the late Russian war, in which it was supposed we should at 
least go halves in the glory, as well as in the expeaee, there was more 




joekeyehip than was necessary, even in a race for iau fcrasi 

the death struggles at the Alma and Inkcrman, in the blaze of m 
MalakoJT. The Eaglishman knows not bow to spring a trap for tk 
ndmi ration of the world, heia quietly minding his own business : tut 
French vanity is ever effervescing , our veracity and steadiness W* 
ever tells in the long run, for it unites success with honesty. 

A want of sympathy,, and no lack of expressions of dislike hsn 
prepared us for the growing coolness, that ia almost certain to euettt^ 
lollow friendships, whether between individuals or nations. 
11 drifted" into the last war with Eussia, and who can say 
it will be before we are driven into another. Indeed a war clow 
has for some time been floating over the political horixi t \<m 

ago it threatened to burst upon our shores. To demonstrate tk 
hollowness, or insincerity of our intimacy with France, it is ooalj 
necessary to say, that it was from the arsenals of our " faithful ally * 
that we were threatened with invasion. An angry dispatch, such u 
fear wrung from the explosion of Orsini's bombs, set ua about maiK 
ning the navy, The insolent vapouring of the French colonels giie 
ua a channel fleet. The sudden completion of the aggressive : 
Cherbourg, the rapid construction of forty steam line-of-battle ship* 
crack frigates, and iron plated ships of war, together with the 
treaty between our u faithful ally " and Ilussia, the late en. 
both, convinced the most incredulous* that duplicity and tre.t 
had undermined the alliance between England and Prance, so I 
is possible to overforge a thunderbolt. For the present the w 
has flown from our shores to Italy, but who knows how soon «i 
may be drawn into the conflict, and as all the world is annim 
neeessary that we should be prepared also, and believing that in Ik 
event of a misunderstanding with our neighbours, our channel 
and naval stations, would under the altered conditions of naval wbt 
fare with steam, play a most important part, we intend to say a fefl 
words upon the subject. 

The reader perhaps is aware that in the United Service 
for February, May, and December 1856, we endeavoured to 
the advantages that would accrue to this country if porta of dt 
or aggression were established at various points on our southern 
shores. We instanced Dover and Alderaey, and compared then i 
bourg. Since then the political aspect of the continent ha 
in the least diminished the importance we attached to this au< 
Our object was to draw attention to the fact, that in our naval 
with France and all other powers, we had invariably relied upoi 
fleets for the defence of our coast. But that hi future war*, 
be necessary to have good and capacious harbours of refuge, defence, 
or aggression, into which steam vessels might run in or out of at a 
moment's notice at all times of the tide, in order to annoy or elude 
an i/neuiy. 

Previous to the conclusion of the war with France in 1SK" 
three war porta of Sheerness, Portsmouth, and Plymouth, were 
sufficient to secure to England the command of the channel, 
because we believe that circumstances have altered to a ce. 
extent the condition of warfare at sea, that we think these prats do 


not possess the preponderance necessary to produce similar results 
in a future war with France. The addition of the important " Port 
of Cherbourg " to the other ports on the northern shores of our late 
ally is the main cause of this alteration, for by means of this new 
marine fortress and arsenal, our versatile neighbours hope in some 
future struggle, to be in a condition with their screw liners to dis- 
pute successfully with England the sovereignty of the seas. 

Now we are not one of those prophets that go about prophecying 
negatives, on the contrary we believe that the wisest naval authorities 
have shaken their heads at each succeeding triumph in marine archi- 
tecture whether in forts or ships. Arts, discoveries, opinion, and 
wars go onward at their own pace. Every new age has its new 
hopes and desires, and we have no wish to disturb French gossip or 
the chatter of Parisian politics, although the hum and noise is of the 
embarking of Gallic regiments at Cherbourg upon a voyage of dis- 
covery in our channel. 

Nevertheless we hold not our neighbours' threats too cheap. "We 
admit that Cherbourg is a most important thong in the national 
whip of France ; nor ought we to shut our eyes to all the advantages 
they anticipate to reap from the use of steam as applied to warfare 
upon the ocean. To give them their due, they have treated the 
subject with sincerity and reality. They have produced something. 
They promised the nation a deep-water war port of the first class. 
Ana Voila! Cherbourg. 

Now the attention of our " higher power " has been diverted 
rather than directed, to the necessity of counteracting the advantages 
that Cherbourg is to France, in a military sense, by increasing the 
harbours of defence on our shores. But we have been catching at 
clouds and vapours. Successive governments, both "Whig and Tory, 
have laboured in a certain sort of way at Dover and Alderney, to 
furnish us with these necessary naval stations, but it would be sheer 
nonsense to suppose that the millions of sovereigns we have flung 
into the sea at these places, have raised the strength of our ports of 
aggression, to the same extent, or even a tithe, of the power that 
Cherbourg has done for France. By the erection of the Digue, as 
we have shown in previous numbers of the United Service Magazine, 
but more particularly for May 1856, an open roadstead that formerly 
existed at Cherbourg, and which was all but useless, being exposed 
to northerly winds, has been converted into a secure anchorage. In 
these roads thirty sail of the line besides frigates can find ample room, 
as- well as protection not merely from the elements, but from what 
is of equal importance, a British fleet. 

It will be at once admitted, that this is a most important fact, 
particularly when we remember where Cherbourg is situated, and 
how, from its geographical position, it threatens Portsmouth and 
Plymouth at the same time. "We trust therefore that we have 
proved that this country ought to have corresponding naval stations 
on our own shores, to restore the equilibrium destroyed by the con- 
struction and building of the great war port of Cherbourg. 

But, without alluding to the altered conditions of naval war- 
fare since the introduction of steam as a motor in shiuvcstoWt^^ 



Off noticing the growing navies of Russia, Denmark, and Am«*t 

all of which may be aggressive powers ere long, the increase rf 

the French Navy, in conjunction with the facilities at 

equipment and rendezvous of a large fleet, and the e m harking d 

bodies of troops, were sufficient to authorize the peo|>: 

islands to expect that some important additions in harbours of & 

fence would have been made on our own shores. 

Now let us see what we have to show at Dover and Alderot 

hitter place T by a pleasing fiction, being * 1 as the acoum 

of Cherbourg. And first as to Dover. We fear our drowsy 
need to be roused by politics, persecution, or war, lor we art* a etot- 
moving race, and caunot read a principle or understand a difficulty, 
except by the light of a bombardment, burning towns, or the tori 
of war. Thus, when Napoleon I, threatened us with invaaio: 
the heights of Boulogne, a necessity was felt for a deep water br* 
hour at Dover, and a plan was submitted to and received the 
val of the then government of England for the construction of e®e 
But the peace of 1815 banished the project from the national and 
even from the official mind* And it was only when Louis Pi 
was expelled from the throne of France, in 1848, and all Euroi* 
was again in the full blaze of revolution, that the first stone wo 
laid, This was upwards of 10 years ago. And we have shown a 
the number of this Magazine for May 1856, that even supposii 
present works are ever completed, the harbour will be lh\ 
choke up with shingle, and be rendered useless, owing to a i 
principle of construction. 

Since then public attention has been drawn and parliamentirr 
indignation has been expressed by certain members of the House k 
Commons at the scandalous waate of the public money at Dover, Of 
this " public work," to use the language of a celebrated engines 
" the only thing that can be said with certainty is that it Is an & 
pensive experiment, and when completed, it will be useless ; and 
that to completely surround the bay of Dover with a will tff 
solid masonry may prove the soundness of the non-percussive torn? 
of waves in deep water, at an expense of from 6 to 8,000,000 
pounds sterling, furnished by the tax-payers of this country/' 

Again, when toil vexatious subject was before the " House,* tha 
other day, it was sarcastically mentioned that the original estimate 
was for £650,000, but Col. Sykes, by a brief and expeditious piece 
of arithmetic, explained, that according to the present rate of pro- 
gress, the " works " would cost nearer £6,000,000 than £600,000 
and would not be finished either during the present or next g< 
tion. But somehow facts and figures seem to have no effect upon 
the " House," for the money for the year was granted. The pi 
seems to be to get a certain sum, say £100,000, or some such trifle, 
for the current twelve months, and so keep thc # /o& on, and est;; 
a running account with the nation, until at last the eountrv 
itself in the same predicament, with this costly experimental stem* 
wall, that bankers experience with a customer who has overdrawn 
his account, and yet are afraid to refuse to lend him any more. 

Sir Charles Napier has the great merit of rousing the public mind 


the true sense of the scandalous manner in which the public 
easure has been wasted here. However, bad as it is, the misfor- 
lie does not consist merely in fli aging hundreds of thousands and, 
nrhaps, millions of sovereigns into the sea. The monstrosity of 
hit folly remains to he told* If the huge stone wall now in coarse 
f erection was of service in forming a good and efficient harbour, 
at would be something, but as it is admitted that it never can do 
;hat, what shall we say when we are informed that it destroys and 
ps the range of the guns that would be useful in driving off 
;he enemy from a certain point of the Dover coast ? For by a 
stupid oversight, the pier is so run out to sea, that the fire of the 
strand batteries, vis., Guildford Battery, and any other that it might 
be desirable to raise in front of Waterloo Crescent, or the Marine 
Parade, would be rendered useless or inoperative against ships-of*war 
lying to the eastward of the pier, Indeed, this stone bastion which we 
have built at such an enormous expense would protect the enemy's 
cruisers, if anchored in a certain spot, from our shot. The only 
battery that could act against vessels of war, in the position indi- 
cated, would be Archctiff Fort, and, perhaps, the ta Drop n redoubt, 
and the Castle ; but as the guns in these batteries are elevated very 
considerably above high-water* mark, ships judiciously handled, 
would be only subject to a plunging fire, and would run but small 
risk of damage. 

Again, as if to show our national recklessness to danger, and love 
of gain, the only spot whereon a destructive battery could have been 
raised baa been selected by the South Eastern Railway Company 
for hotel purposes — thus an excellent aggressive and defensive pem- 
tion has been ruined for want of a little forethought, A battery 
upon the ground occupied by the "Lord Warden" would command 
the bay in every direction, and shelter the town, Nothing could 
land without being destroyed by the fire of the guns of a battery 
in this position. Therefore bow long this hotel will be permitted to 
remain where it ia, in the event of a war with France, we leave for 
the consideration of our own authorities and the steam cruisers of 
Louis Napoleon to settle between themselves. 

We are merely echoing the opinions of the best practical men of our 
time, when we reiterate that the manner in which Dover harbour of 
defence is now being constructed is a pure mistake — an act of na- 
tional folly ; and that the House of Commons, by voting more 
money for the completion of this elaborate blunder, "will be simply 
throwing good money after bad, Some of the apologies offered by 
the Dover advocates of these u works" are singularly funny. 
,( Granted, 11 they say "that our lofty stone breakwater intercepts the 
line of fire from the strand batteries \ that it will take from fifty to 
eighty years to enclose the bay with massive masonry, and cost mil- 
lions of money; and granted/ 7 I inue, u that, as you say, the 

harbour may be liable to choke up with shingle, and so*be rendered 
useless, yet the public gets a certain amount of benefit, and the 
town considerable convenience and profit from the new pier, for 
cannot tourists and passengers land and embark at all hours of the 

* Tk* u top ■ redoubt k *t kft&& 2&Q or 300 feet atom tii&\*N*\ &t \k* ^ 


tide ? ? ? " It ha* beau said that a " creative coonom \ U tho fori a 

jntficenefi" — now, much as wo may admire the creative reoaum 

by which the hard-earned taxes of our Lai n gaibenJ, 

.•.mid rathtT dispense with the ma<: 
landing at Dover breakwater pier, OTtD if Wt had tube , 
few hours for the tide. 

But there h no necessity for waiting at all. Our naval and mili- 
ary authorities are not justified in oipending hundreds of tuousai* 
of pounds for the convenience of continental tourists at Do?ef, 
while the neighbouring town of Folkestone, mover) resp< 
port for embarkation to France, can find means t ^ w\ 

p out a good packet harbour for the benefit of passengers 
out extracting a shilling from the public purse. AVe mal i 
mark a in no unfriendly spirit to Dover, for no righi 
would begrudge money really expended in the defence of hi 
but we certainly do object most strenuously to a dra ilbca* 

for the purpose of constructing a huge shingle trap, or monstroui 
continental packet berth, under the pretence of forming a harbour 
of defence at Dover, The money spent in this expc i 
mthority after authority is found to condemn, would have fiirnuhe4 
lis with a fleet of screw steamships that might have been seruimk!# 
to the nation; while, as it 1 to complete the picture of was 
penditure and jobbery, we are reminded that if we have spoilt a good 
position at Dover, France has completed and armed Cherb< 
built an excellent steam navy equal to our own. 

It is a pleasure to leave the subject of Dover harbour and procefci 
to Portsmouth, although we fear that the increased cb 

I our chief naval port are not upon a Bcale to counterbalance i 
portant addition made to the channel ports of France at Cher) 
\Ve have done much, and in a right direction, at Portsmouth, but 
more remains to be done, for we are apt to rely too much upon 
ships to protect themselves. This is observable in the manner wt 
leave our roadsteads unprotected by batteries. It has been ob» 
ever, that thia ia characteristic of our spirit of maritime si 
tuity, for while the French, dreading our squadrons, always \ 
their roads and harbours with batteries, our anchorages are gener- 
ally open, and their protection is left to the ships themselves. 

Nevertheless it is admitted that since the introduction of «team, 
the security of open roadsteads and harbours is much lessened. 
Ships were not so easily run in and out of shallow waters when ex- 
clusively dependant upon the wind and tides for motion ; and the 
eel eri ty with whi eh p o werf ul ar m a m en ts can now d ash i n t o 
and anchorages renders some modification of the system of d 
necessary. This has been partially done at Portsmouth. Still the 
anchorage at Suithead is capable of being much better protect, 
fort, similar to that at Cronstadt, was erected in the sea at the Spit 
buoy. There is uo great engineering difficulty in the way, and the 
expense wouldbe a trifle compared with the wasteful prodigality thrown 
away at Dover pier, while the utility would not be doubtful. A 
battery at " Spit" would protect the wholo roadstead, and might be 
particularly efficient in preventing vessels of light draught of wat 



such as gun-boats, Ac, crossing the " swatch, 1 * as well as hoe til© 
ships rounding into the channel entrance to the harbour, Indeed, as 
steam warfare, particularly with gun boats* baa yet to be learnt, it is 
necessary to adopt every precaution to prevent surprise. 

Another important addition to the coast defence of England* 
chief naval arsenal, would he the erection of batteries along the 
entire sea front of the Esplanade connecting South Sea Castle with 
the tbrtuieations of the town, at the Governor's Green. To do this 
effectually the whole of the wooden erections, known as the Bathing 
Booms and the King's Booma, ought to be removed to a mo re salubrious 
site, and then the sea front would present an uninterrupted \v 
batteries, for a mile in length, to all vessels attempting to force the 
channel into the harbour. By the removal of the Bathing Boo ma, 
the tire from the King's Counter-guard would be rendered effectual, 
whereas at present these unsightly structures completely screen the 
channel from the fire of the musketry. To a certain but less extent 
b sheds obstruct the fire from the pivot gun at the Flag-staH 
Battery, The whole of these impedimenta ought to be removed, as 
they undoubtedly would be if they were at Cherbourg Cronstadt, 
or any continental port of a tithe of the importance that Portsmouth 
is to England* Of course the proprietor of the bathing establish- 
ment would be indemnified by the Government for any loss he 
might sustain bv his removal. 

Neither, while we are upon this subject, can we refrain from 
noticing two eifigies, for it would be a disgrace to call them etatuea, 
that disfigure the beach at Southsea — the one is intended to repre- 
sent the Duke of Wellington, and the other the immortal. Kelson. 
The art is i, who rejoices in the name of Milligan, and who has 
exhibited bis name upon the pedestals, has, we are sure, unintention- 
ally made these two heroes the laughing-stock of eyery one that 
looks upon the labours of his whimsical chisel, How the authorities 
of Portsmouth could have countenanced the erection of these 
absurd caricatures is the common remark of every one, and we hope 
that, by calling public attention to these deformities, which would 
almost disgrace the chisel of a New Zealander, we shall have the 

E seeing them, at well as the unsightly assembla- 
ge Hjdeu partitions now used as bathing and reading rooms, pulled 
down, and the beach left open to the range of the guns for the 
defence of the town* 

We have so repeatedly described the works at Cherbourg in- 
cluding the Digue, its bat terries, the land forts, *£c, in this Magazine, 
that we shall do little more in the present paper than compare 
its area and capabilities for aggressive war with that of Portsmouth. 
Placed nearly opposite to our chief naval arsenal, it challenges i 
parison for more reasons than one. It wmild be in vain, even if it 
were desirable* to disguise the fact, that France hopes to paralyse 
our efforts in the Channel hy her fleet at Cherbourg, It is no part 
of our task to attempt to lower her pretensions ; our business is to 
warn our own authorities of the power and completeness of this new 
Channel port and arsenal. To he forewarned is to be forearmed ; for 
although landing on our spellbound island uninvited is not to he 


done with impunity, yet, as Cherbourg is meant to be the stn: 
point for Frenchmen to make the experiment from, w« <*ee if 

we cannot manage to make the air of England too tenet* for them 
and we know of no way better adapted to meet the difficulty tint 
by looking it boldly in the face. 

I In area and completeness, then, Cherbourg is certainly superior to 
Portsmouth. In tact it is aa large as Portsmouth* Devonpor: 
Keyham combined. It can be used as a great naval rendezvous ft* 
fleets intended to dispute with England the command of the mn 
If harbourage, docks, Blips, &c, well protected with guns of tbf 
heaviest calibre, will give to France the dominion of the Chanii 
Cherbourg, she possesses the means desired. In Erj gland, hov. 
we look to ships and men, as the executive of our naval power, u 
most of our readers know* 

With a view of comprehending the importance of Cherbourg as id 
aggressive port, and also of judging of its capabilities as a por 
construction, we give the number of acres upon which it stands, and 
also the number of building slips it contains, as well as docks, m 
compared with Portsmouth — our naval port — and Plvmouth 
and Keyham, our second arsenals in the Channel ;— 

Dockyard Ann. Slips. Dock a. Docks Building. 

Portsmouth 115 acres 5 9 2 

Devonport 71 ,, G 5 

Keyham 73 „ ... 3 

Total 259 „ 11 17 2~ 

Cherbourg 256 acres 12 7 

It will be seen, from the above, that the extent of the French 
port in the English Channel is only three acres less than Ports- 
mouth, Devonport, and Keyham combined; that it contains 12 
building slips, oeing one more than our two chief naval arsenal*. 
On the other hand, it has only 7 docks, as compared with 17 pos- 
sessed by ourselves* 

The object of Cherbourg, therefore, is not so well adapted for il fit- 
ting and repairing " as our ports. It is, in short, an aggressive port ; 
it is more offensive than defensive ; and we will now at once allude 
to the aggressive purposes to which this vast French arsenal may 
be applied. 

It is our duty to speak out truly and pacifically, but still to speak 
out ; for, after all that can be said about Cherbourg — its immense 
dock*, any of which are as big as three of ours, its basins, forts, and 
secure anchorage — it is not a question of comparison between it and 
Portsmouth that ought to interest the naval or general reader. 
There is no doubt about our being able to build and man ships 
enough to thrash any squadrons the French can send against us if 
we are prepared for them. The question we have to answer is 
what is meant by Cherbourg, with its ramification of railways col- 
lecting it with all the military depdta of our late " faithful ally P 
^Taen we see every facility for the concentration of troops, and their 

barkation attended to in an unwonted manner, with a convenience 

wharfage for cavalry and artillery unknown in England, we a 


bound to ask ourselves the reasons for such a speciality ; particu- 
larly when no such extensive accommodation for shipping troops 
exists at any other French port, or indeed in any port in the world. 
In all comparisons, therefore, between the navies and naval ports 
of England and France, there are two important considerations that 
must not be overlooked. Thus, if we were to equip a fleet of 20 
sail of the line at Portsmouth and Spithead, nobody would imagine 
that we intended to invade France. Our army is too small ; so 
small, indeed, as to be a source of anxiety whether it is of sufficient 
strength to protect our own shores. Our gallant little army barely 
suffices us for a buckler — sword we have none. With 20 sail of 
English ships-of-the-line, then, in the Channel, France would be 
as secure from invasion from us as if our ships were lying in ordinary 
up the muddy lakes at Portchester or in the Medway. 

But to reverse the case. Suppose 20 sail-of-the-line at Cherbourg, 
manned and armed, protected by the grim forts and batteries of the 
Digue and the forts ashore, backed by an army of 500,000 men, 
whose sentiments are hostile to England. Then suppose that this 
vast host is connected by means of railways within twelve hours' 
reach of Cherbourg, and Cherbourg within six hours' steam of Ports- 
mouth, and then this new channel port becomes a " vantage ground" 
to France, wherefrom she can hurl a formidable force upon our 
shores without endangering the security of her own. Cherbourg, in 
a word, threatens us with an invasion of 100,000 men at the shortest 
possible notice, and this is the great fact we have to look to in the 
great business of our own national security. 

Again, Frenchmen cherish the idea of an invasion of England. 
There is something galling to French military pride in not having 
forced the virgin soil of Britain and polluted it with the presence of 
their arms. Imperial France, gagged as she is, mutters out the 
traditions of the Empire. The shadow of Napoleon I. is the guide 
of Napoleon III. ; and there are those yet living who remember the 
white tents upon the heights of Boulogne. Our late li faithful ally" 
knows full well that his uncle rehearsed in excavated basins, arti- 
ficially made for the occasion at Boulogne, the embarkation of troops, 
until his men were perfected at this exploit, and nothing but our 
channel fleet prevented the actual performance of his bloody drama. 
And at Cherbourg, time and circumstances permitting, who knows 
but the nephew of the man who for months gazed wistfully at Dover 
cliffs, may feel inclined to re-enact the same scene. So that it is be- 
side our purpose to institute a bare comparison of harbours, arsenals, 
and fleets, for the subject involves considerations touching our na- 
tional security and freedom, even from the threat of invasion. It 
should be borne in mind that when France is in a position to send a 
strong fleet and a great army across the Channel in a single night, 
she will find French soldiers who will exhibit an alacrity beyond 
military obedience. And it would be idle to deny that the facility 
for doing this mischief has been much increased by the port of 

In briefly noticing the Channel ports, we cannot of course forget 
Plymouth, the second naval arsenal in England, if for no otoet 

U. S. Mjl»., No. 367, Jtoe, 1869* % 


reason than to correct nn erroneous impression that prendl 
continent that this port is rather a station for a fleet than a 
fortress. In a paper translated from the German, and whicfc 
moment commands considerable interest, as showing the < 
entertained by the Germans of the practicability of an inr\ 
this country by the Trench, it is stated that Devonport is i 
only for repairing and fitting out of ships, and not for the 1 
of men-of-war. .Nothing more absurd was ever printed, 
about a week since 500 additional shipwrights were added 
dockyard. For the information of our cousins- German, wc 
few of the ships built at Devonport, viz., Conqueror, lOl gu 
Jean D'Acrc, 101 guns; Donegal, 101 guns; Algiers, 9J 
Exmouth, 01 guns ; Aboukir, 90 guns ; Nile, 90 guns ; St. I 
120 guns ; Koyal William, 120 guns ; Britannia, 120 guns; I 
cent, 102 guns ; Hibernia, 101 guns ; Hoyal Adelaide, 104 
Albion, 90 guns ; Eoudroyant, 80 guns ; Hindostan, 80 gnn 
&c, besides many of our first-class 50-gun frigates. And i 
this opportunity to mention that numerous other statemex 
tained in that paper are equally fallacious. 

If the road at Cherbourg is of the greatest importa 
Prance, that at Plymouth is probably of equal importance 1 
land ; as among other advantages it enables us to assemble 
point the ileet destined to watch the movements of our n w 
in the roads of Cherbourg and Brest, added to which the coi 
of the road at Plymouth with an extensive naval arsenal, mal 
matter of much consequence that it should be rendered p 
secure. Like Cherbourg the road is sheltered by a breakwa 
sheltered portion at Cherbourg being about 2000 acres, and '. 
Plymouth. As far as experience and analogy can guide oui 
various, tho breakwater at Cherbourg is not placed far enoi 
at sea, for at nearly the same expense a much larger extent c 
tercd harbour might have been attained ; the openings also 
wide, and admit a heavy Running son to roll in at times. 

At Plymouth the road is sheltered from east to west round 
north by the hills of Devon and Cornwall — and tho configi 
of the shore has permitted the location of the " works " far 
the entrance, and has thus procured the great advantage of 
the breakwater only exposed to the winds from S.E to S.W., 
by the south. The entrance being on the eastern 900 yards wi 
on the western 1500, a very secure and tranquil harbour is the 

The amnal of Plymouth, with Portsmouth, and Sheentei 
latter lying at the eastern extremity, and the first at the n 
extremity of the kingdom, are well placed to give this couni 
command of the Channel. A combined action from these 
would paralyse Cherbourg. This latter port, and Brest on the 
tic, are the only ports of importance possessed by our neig! 
on their northern shores ; for wo cannot shore in the opmK 
tertained by some naval strategists, that Dunkirk ought to b 
sidered as a great naval port or rendezvous. Its position cei 
outflanks (if we may use such a term in naval matters) the a 
of the Thames, and might, if it afforded a secure asylum fia 




s^e draft, offer some difficulty to channel operations. But Dun- 
kirk is a tidal harbour, and ebbs dry every six hours, so that every ship, 
great or small, must take the mud at these intervals of time, unless 
the Emperor Napoleon has construetcd basins large enough to float 
his shipa-of-war in. But even the facilities required for a fieet equal 
to what might be assembled at the Downs, which would possess the 
advantage of sailing at will, could not as far as we know be managed 
by any engineering skill at Dunkirk. 

" This last named French port is capable of being a rendezvous for 
gun-boats and privateers, and it possesses the same facilities, and 
no more, than Calais and Boulogne, for maritime operations, with 
respect to tides and depth of water. Indeed its position is not, in 
certain particulars, so well adapted as the two last-named ports for 
annoyance to onr trade in the narrow seas and the Channel, 

We have alluded to Alderney before in this Magazine on various 
occasions j but perhaps a rapid survey of the operations here is 
necessary. The necessity of strengthening the harbours of the 
Channel Islands was forced upon the attention of the government in 
the year 1842 T in consequence of the defenceless state of these im- 
portant possessions, and their want of refuge and places of shelter, 
ijike Dover, the grants of money were originally obtained for a 
harbour of refuge, and it was only after repeated remarks made in 
this Magazine upon the impossibility of the works at Alderney ever 
being of the slightest use as a refuge harbour to ships either coming 
up or going down Channel, that the then First Lord of the Admiralty 
admitted that Alderney could not strictly be considered a harbour 
of refuge, and the grants were afterwards voted for a harbour of 

There is but little doubt of the importance of the position of 
Alderney for a harbour of defence, if one can he constructed there, 
capable of resisting a sudden attack from the neighbouring port of 
Cherbourg — for it lies very near that marine fortress. In the num- 
ber of this 3Iagazme for December, 1850, we have introduced a map 
of the northern shores of France ami the southern shores of 
England, in which the extreme importance of a stronghold at Alder- 
ney is made evident. It is, as wuU be seen, the key of a position* 
The electric wire already connects Paris with Cherbourg and the 
western port of Brest, the two naval arsenals in northern France ; 
while in England, London is connected with Portsmouth, Plymouth, 
Sheerness, Portland, and the Channel Islands. The importance of 
such a united action cannot well be over-estimated, now that steam 
gives its aid to the movements of ships-of war. It will be seen, th 
tow, that Alderney, which is geographically pkoed bo as to watch 
Cherbourg, i$ well situated tor a pari tfoggmsUm, if it eau bo m 
strong enough to hold its own against attack* from Frm 

lOjda this elfeckualh , hioh i* m a bare rock, < 

best a smugglers 1 den, i ion iutu a second 

Gibraltar, With a harbour of defence attached to it at Braye Bay. 
When the works were first commenced, the harbour was too small, 
and, after expending a vast sum of .money, the vice of the system was 
discovered, and a more extensive area of deep water is now Wa^ 


inclosed. Our intent ions at Aldemey are no secret to anyone, and 
less to our neighbours on the other side of the Channel than I 
general public in England. In Cherbourg it is considered oa a good 
move, and an answer to their new war port, but tbt- people there aav 
that in the event of war it will soon change hands. V 
sure of that, although we admit that the bait is very tempi 
lies very close (only about nine miles) from the point of land 

on the French coast* 

There is every reason to believe that Aldemey will he made as 
strong as possible. Indeed the whole island 
(t had better be a bare rock without a gun than half fortified* 
once in possession of the French T it would be such a godsend that 
t he v would not know how to part with it. We lately ,1 tfa 

works at Brayo Bay ; and though we admit that the area of deep water 
is enlarged, yet people, not in the secret, wag their heads, and pre- 
dict that unless something is done more than is at present known, 
or at least admitted by the engineers, it will not prove of that advan- 
tage to the country in ease of war as to compensate for the enor- 
mous outlay expended upon it. 

We abstain from publishing the particulars of the fortiftY 
AluVmey, for reasons everyone will understand* That tbi 
formidable is all we shall say. and well manned we hope the- 
Wo can, however, remark that this island is, to a certain extent 
guarded by nature T for it has very remarkable currents of great power 
rushing round its extremities at every tide. The " Swinge M alone 
would render navigation very close to Aldemey difficult, br; 
whole sea for a considerable distance is beset with granite rock i 
stick up like so many dragon's teeth even near the harbour's mouth. 

If Aldemey harbour can be made deep enough to float hi 
and frigates, it will be a most important outpost or naval station w 
watch Cherbourg from. But it must not be a cooped-up harbour, 
but one large enough to contain a fleet capable of contr.< 
Cherbourg. This will require vast sums ; however, nobody begn 
money for our national defences, although, it has been remarked tn*t 
it is hardly worth while to put the best of them on the other s 
the Channel. To say the least it will take 5/JOO men to di 
Aldemey successfully, and this is not desirable, considering the 
weakness of our land forces; and Mr. Mouse] 1, who knows som< 
about these matters, stated in the House of Commons, that the 
might be a source of weakness to us rather than strength, so much 
does opinion vary upon the works at A Idem. 

Kow that wjii- has been provoked by a Bonaparte with An 
there is no saving when' it may not spread to, and invasion 
realms may become an impending possibility. We tn 
idea with all the respect it deserves, putting our trust however ia 
Providence and ;i Channel fleet, Common* prudence and a fetv 
heavier guns at certain points upon our shores will do a good deal 
towards keeping our lively neighbours at home- There is also much 
to bo learnt in all future wars, for we breathe in an age of Bcienl 
invention. The novelty of to-day so rapidly supersedes tha; 
yesterday, that he is a safe prophet who predicts that to morrow'! 


discovery will supersede them all. At this moment who can say 
what will be the effect of the Emperor Napoleon's rifled cannon' : 
it may settle the fate of an Empire. The same may be said of Arm- 
strong's gun. We have expenaed vast sums of money upon steam- 
harbours, and artillery, and on some occasions our time and money 
have been thrown away. Dover is an instance of reckless extrava- 
gance. Whether the same may be said of Alderney remains to be 
proved. In the meantime, we may as well profit by events that 
are about to come off in Italy — some of them may be to us a 
warning, others an instructive example. 




" And here we tell old tales, and smoke 

And langh, while we are drinking. 
Sailors, we know, will have their joke 

E'en though the ship were sinking." — Dibdin. 

With the above lines of Dibdin running in my head, and the United 
Service Magazine for March in my pocket, I availed myself during 
the Easter holidays of a short respite from business, and indulged in 
a trip to Greenwich. Not having been there for many years pre- 
viously, I scarcelv knew where I was, all my landmarks being re- 
moved.. I disembarked at Garden Stairs, but sought in vain for the 
classic regions of " Poor Jack" Eisher Lane, with its low-roofed 
houses, had departed. The " Blue Anchor" was no more ; and " the 
Ship" had shifted its moorings and dropped down nearly athwart 
hawse of the " Anti-Gallican." 

It is natural somehow for an old salt to feel thirsty on landing, and 
having lost my old seat at the bay or bow window of the " Blue 
Anchor," all places were alike to me. After gazing around me, and 
refusing sundry kind invitations to dine, I was about to pass on, 
refusing sundry kind invitations to dine, I was about to pass on, 
half forgetting my thirst, when a large flag, with an indescribably 
fierce-lookiug monster disporting thereon, nearly deprived me of my 
hat, and just at that moment, an exclamation, in which my name was, 
as I thought, taken in vain, induced me to stop. I was not mistaken, 
for on a bench by the entrance to the •' Buffalo's Head" sat an old 
pensioner, who appeared to have nothing better to do than pass 
remarks upon strangers. 

" You don't remember me, sir ?" said the white-haired veteran, 
" but I remember you very well. You forget when I was quarter- 
master of your watch on board the old ." 

'* What." said I, recognising him, " are you Ben Young ? Why 
I always thought you had married a bounty widow, and to& \rar&$A 

" I see you have a good recollection, Mr —I bejx par A ptam 

Buntline/' replied Young, " and I will tell you all About it if job 
will drop your anchor alongside me** 1 

A return of thirst coming over me at this jun< proprad 

an adjournment to the interior of the ^ Buffalo's Head," iod«v 
Boon accommodated with a comfortable arm chair by the 
for it was very cold last Easter — and my <>3d shiptnafo sealed 

likewise, we made ourselves cozy, and I began to hitch back somr 
thirty or forty years, and recall various bygone events. 

M Yes, air," sighed Benjamin, taking the" pipe from his mouth. 
quite true I dia marry a bounty winder, and look to the." 1' 
Whistle/' in ftateliif Highway, I can't say that they were m 
pieat days* My wife got very cranky, and seemed to think I 
too many ' mornings/ and too many * hot grogs / and renin 
that kind, you know, "before company, hutted my feelin 
wam't so much grieved when it pleased Providence to mvlze \u 
a fit of * appleplexy/ and I waa left a widderer, 

u Just about that time a heavy bill came in from the spirit mer- 
chant, and as I hadn't the meana of paying it, I thought it best to far 
so, and let the law take ita course." 

" You went to leeward, then ?" said I. 

lt I did, sir ; but as the landlord and creditors knowed me for an 
honeat fellow, though mayhap not the best hand at the expense 
except to isaue the stores, they told me if I would give up mj 
and all I had, they would settle the business among them. Glad 
enough was I to take them at their word, and as I had a pension of 
£21 4s. a -year, and was only just sixty, I thought of taking another 
cruise to sea before coiling up my ropes. When 1 looked aboi 
a ship, hows'ever, there waa no want of men, and having no fri 
and no relations, I was advised to hear up for Greenwich," 

" And you made your port, and let go your anchor P" said I . 

11 1 took in moorings in the tier, sir/ 1 said Ben, correct big 

" I hope you are comfortable for the rest of your days P said L 

k I hope so, too/ 1 answered Ben ; hut there waa a curtness &1 
his reply which made me think it was not all couleur de rose i 

*' Take another pull at the pewter, Ben/* but observing thai 
had already done so, I had the pot replenished, hoping to mak 
old man more cheerful. 

Ben Young was as fine a sailor, when I remembered him- 
we were three years together in the East Indies — as 1 over met 
in my life. Ho was of an even temper, quiet, nnd sober ; 
I always thought him rather proud for one in his station. He wa* 
particularly neat in his rig, and remarkable for cleanliness in person 
and clothes. A civil word was never thrown away upon him j 
he winced under rebuke like a child. No man strove harder to do 
his duty correctly ; and, unless a strange officer now and then 
him out, he had seldom anything to complain of in the way of re- 
primand or fault-finding. I met him, by accident, some years 
after hv had quitted active service, and learned from him that be 
had married a carpenter's widow before pensions were forfeited by 
marriage, and I think muit have led a rather unpleasant life, and, 


possibly, had become rathor too prone to indulge in the use of the 
liquors in which he traded. 

" And how do you like the college ?" I asked. 

" Pretty well," replied Ben, drily. 

" Only pretty well ?" I said ; " why, I thought that you had every- 
thing a man could wish for in that place !" 

A shake of the head, coupled with some muttered, indistinct 
words, were the only answer. This hesitation excited my curiosity ; 
and, as I had been so much interested in the yarn about " Green- 
wich in the Olden Time," I thought I would endeavour to find out 
what the place was like now. 

" What is there you don't like ?" I asked. 

" I am afraid I should tire you if I began to talk about the College, 
sir," said Ben. li To tell you the truth, I never care to talk about 
it. It serves my purpose ; that is, I get my meat and drink there, 
and have a decent bed to sleep upon, and good doctors and attend- 
ance if sick ; but if I had anvwhere to go I would not stop there. 
Strangers think we are all old growls, and everybody says we ought 
to be very happy, and so forth ; but we who wear the shoe know 
where it pinches ." 

" True," said I, " you must know best about it, but it always 
seems to me that the only thing you want to make you happy is 

" There's more than that wanted, sir. We don't like to be ordered 
about like a lot of boys, and called to account by a parcel of boat- 
swains and mates, as aint fit to do more than black our shoes. Then i 
if we stop out after ten o'clock, and have enough grog aboard to make 

the tongue run, there's the peelers to stop us, and but it's no use 

my talking. I don't like to speak about it. So you'll excuse me, 
Captain Buntline, I must go in to tea ; it is almost time now, so 
good bye, and thankee for me." 

" Stop," said I, " Ben, you're not going to slip your cable like thak 
Just hold on here. Never mind your tea, we will have a drop of 
warm rum-and- water instead." 

" I'd rather not, sir. I don't want to be yellowed. Once I was 
before the council, and I'll never go again while my name is Ben 

" Yellowed," said I, "what's that ?" 

" Don't you know ?" returned Ben, " why I thought every gentle* 
man who ever went into the College knew : it means yellow sleeves 
to your coat, and yellow back to your waistcoat. ' Canaries/ some 
call them ; and the men who are ordered to wear it, are made to 
sweep the thoroughfares, and clean about like convicts. I'd sooner 
go and put myself under the bows of that steamer," said Ben, empha- 
tically pointing to the one just leaving the pier, " than I would put 
on the yellow." 

" Well, but," said I, " there is no fear of your being punished in 
that way. Surely, a man of your age — you must be over three score 
and ten now— would never be punished in that way." 

" If I was four score sir," said Ben, somewhat sharply, " it would 
make no odds. There is only one law there for the waiat&t^tt&^BA 


fcRtimWIfn UOS MT A f, A3 IT T«. 

captain of the forecastle, or chief boatswain's raul matter 

whether you are forty ur eighty- Why air, I knew a ; 

more than eighty who was turned out, and sent to beg his 

native place, tor carrying a drop of £in into one of the helpless ward*." 

11 Ton iuuet surely be dreaming/* said 1 . " It is not possible this 
tmeh things would ho allowed/ 1 

" Well, well," said Urn, " if you don't bcli> I cannot 

it, but I must go M 

"If you miurt go,* 1 said I, rising from my seat. " Jut me go with 
you, and I will go up to your ward with you, and we can hare ft 
yarn there. 11 

"No, that wont do. Captain" returned Ben. "No Grangers 
allowed in the wards after sunset, and it'a nearly that now.'* 

" But surely I can go and sit by the fire in your ward, and wait far 
you. There can be no harm in that P" 

11 Not an inch of it," said Ben, firmly. " Our boatswain is a 
marine* and prides himself on being very strict, and bo he is thought 
to be, and if you was to go and sit down, he would, may be, tell you 
you must go out, as it was contrary to orders.*' 

"Well then, where can I fall in with you again ? Surely there i* 
some place in the College where I can see and talk to you.'* 

** Not now. I and my boatswain don't hit it off very well, for I 
can't see that a bit of lace can turn a bone-polisher into my su 
officer* Ourboatswaui was not so much as anon-commissioned officer 
he was shipmate with me once, and servant to the first Lieutenant of 
Marines, and I was Quarter- Master, and I can't acknowledge him 
jis my superior officer now, fur all he ia a boatswain. There is no 
place where I can see you in the College, but I will meet you again 
after tea if you please, and we can then take a walk in the park.' 1 

** This arrangement suited me very well ; but notwithstanding htf 
prohibition, I followed my old shipmate into the College, and afler 
waiting a few minutes at the door of the hall, was allowed to pass 
into the spacious crypt where the pensioners were having their tea. 
Observing only halt-iilled tables, and some tables wholly deserted, 
I ventured to ask a portly lace-bedizened individual seated at the 
upper end of the middle table if all the pensioners were assembled 
A short answer prevented my pursuing my inquiries in that direction, 
and I reserved the question for Ben. Looking round at the a 
bled crew, 1 asked myself " can these men ever have been sailors F* 
I saw dirty* scrubby-looking fellows, and I said surely these i 
were seamen, and such coats as they wore were never meant to 
adorn the person of my once trim old shipmate Ben* 

The tea was pretty good, not overloaded with milk or sugar, but 
perhaps enough for an ordinary palate ; and I observed that a square 
pat ot salt butter and a loaf of bread had been served out to each 
mess of four. But I could not understand how it was that the men 
were so few. Fifteen years ago I remember there was hardly i 
for a stranger to pass, and every table was closely packed. It had a 
melancholy look now. It reminded tne for the moroenfof losing half a 
ship's company from yellow fever. I bate to see vacant places at a 




On leaving the tea party, I Wandered about the fine large squares, 
or open spaces to the westward of the College, and then I pictured 
la myself the sit* of ''The Blue Anchor," and veritable " Ship 
Tavern," all which I found had been pulled down t and the ground 
laid open. Wishing I had had in my pocket a cheque on the Bank 
of England for a tenth part only of the cost of the improvements — 
which, I admit j are improvements, I walked down at the back of a 
most unsightly nest of buildings, among which I recognised a brew- 
house, and came to the entrance of a lot of stables, Hillo ! thought 
I, Ben never told me about the horses. I must put that down in 
my note book. 

Pursuing my course westerly, I was just on the point of going out 
of the gates, when Ben overtook me. To my surprise and Ben's 
chagrin, my old shipmate was stopped by the policeman. u What 
now F" asked L 

<( You are not in your proper unifomij" said Bobby, addressing 
my companion* 

" How so ?" demanded Ben, reddening with anger. 

11 You have not a College hat on I" returned he of the X division, 

Jl Oh, never mind his hat/* said 1 1 u he's an old shipmate of mine, 
and we are only going for a walk.' 1 

The policeman looked truncheons at me, and I saw it was useless 
interposing ; ia fact it occurred to me that my own person would 
not have been secure from incarceration had I interfered with the 
officer in the execution of his duty, and so Ben was obliged to return 
to his ward for the orthodox conglomeration of cat-skin and old 
blanket, in lieu of the more respectable tile composed of leather, with 
whirh he had, perhaps unthinkingly, crowned his flowing white 

1 waited patiently for my old friend's return. All these things 
were new to me. I recalled to mind the globe -becrowned gales 
some two or three hundred yards nearer the main building, and jolly- 
Junking "white-collar men," as they were called, with rubicund 
faces, who once kept the gate, and who were always happy to pay 
respect to an old naval officer, although he might not be fortunate 
enough to have a berth in the place. 

u Well, Ben, 11 said I, as the quondam quarter-master of the old 
again ranged up alongside, " so you have got out at last." 

* You seemed to think but now, sir," said Ben, "that I was Jiki? 
all the other college men—an old growl, without having anything 
to complain of. Do you think so now ? How should you — pardon 
my using the freedom — if you were like me, relish being ord 
about by a pollusman, and told that your coat wasn't brushed, or 
your wig — for I see you wear one (I didn't thank him, I must own, 
for this proof of his discernment) on the wrong slue, or your hat not 
of the newest fashion ?" 

1 confessed that I should feel rather indignant, and disposed to 
consign the " poliusman," in my old vernacular, to the shades below* 

" Well, sir, and don't yon think we old fellows have got a little 
independent spirit left F When you and I was shipmates, you nur 
any other officer ever found fault with my dress* M^ 3M&K& ^w 




a] ways clean ; my white frock, with the blue turn-orer, reflpoctabfe 
but "here an old sailor is rigged out like a \ with 1 

white choker, and enough cloth in the talk of bis , uakeaUf 

gallant studding-sail for a br i cf- I don't swear, sir, but like tbeW 
swain of the frigate, whose o»ptain wouldn't allow- sw< 
§ay to the lubbers on the fbreyard — ( You know v, 

We trudgod up the long street leading to the p.irk. missing u* 
nut-stalla, and other entertainments for itlle boyw which were wuot 
to be exhibited there; and as it was growing dusk, took a scat tint 
vacant bench, and Watched the gambols of the half or whole-drunk 
cocknies, and their female friends. Desirous to bring back Ben to 
the revelation of some of the secrets of his prison- ho use, I asbd 
him how it was that the tea-halla looked so empty. 

*' For a very good reason ," he replied j "we're close hand upooi 
thousand short," 

I could hardly believe him. " How, why/' I aakecl-^-** wl 

" 1*11 tell yoilf sir, how I think it comes about. Mind, 1 ni. 
and may be wrong \ but it seems to me that in the course « > 
there wont be 500 left. It's this way. A man like mo — you know Vfcu 
I was, sir — and though I says it as ought not— 1 w 
gpeeted aboard ship by officer and shipmate. "When I apji 
come in t I had just got rid of my 'public,' and bad a ver 
pounds saved out of the wreck. 1 went up to the Admiral t 
as I had a pension, and was sixty years old, no word was ^uiil 
passed in. But along with me was a dozen fellows, such aa I aw* 
saw in any ship in my life, although 1 well rem em I* 'Lai 

Mayor's men 1 we had years ago. One looked like a wanderim 
tinier, another was an Irish hodman, a third bad not a shoe 
foot, or leastwise, not a sole to his shoe. 

° We had to find our own way down to Greenwich, and ii 
poor devil who had no shoes couldn't walk down, and bad not frt 
any money, I paid his passage along with me. The Admiral t 
find thft new pensioners with an omnibus ; but when I can 
did not da that. Now, bu% would you believe it, that my fellow «* 
senger, who hadn't a shoe to his foot, was put into the same ward 
and into the same cabin with me? — that is after he had beffl 
washed and cleansed of bin lumber in the infirmary. Ho bad 
as it may be there, and I was just opposite to him here, ] 
know how I stood it for a week, but 1 spoke to the Lieutenai 

an he was coming through the ward, and asked him if he would 
mm end me for a single -bedded cabin, which he was kind enourf: 
to do, and after a time I got shifted to the B 

H You must remember/ 1 resumed B^n, u that 1 had given up • 
pension of £21 4s. to come into Greenwich, and my shock* 
Fellow-pensioner gave up nothing, lie had served as 
Duck's midshipman's steward, and for a short time acted astbt 
purser's steward's mate's depnty« I saw on his card tL 
nine years ten mouths' servitude, and I had twenty five, vet tan 
man was just as well off as myself," 

H But you surely do not mean to tell me," said I, u that there 

1869.] gbzsxwich hosfttjll as n* n. 201 

no distinction drawn between an old petty officer like yourself and 
the scrubs you speak of?" 

"There is none that I know of," replied Ben, " except that these 
* scrubs/ as you call thein, get situations as officers' servants, and 
the places of blue and white frockmen, which give them 6d. or 9d. 
a-day, which respectable old men wont take. I have been offered 
many situations, but always refused, because I did not like to clean 
knives and do dirty work such as I never did on board ship ; and so 
I do my best with my shilling a-week tobacco money." 

" A shilling a-week ! surely you get more than that," I said. 

' " Not a farthing more from the College," returned Ben, " and 
that is little enough, I can tell you, after paying the sinkman and 
the other little things. I used some years ago to earn a few shillings 
by attending some golfplayera on filackheath, but I can't do the 
walking now, and so I have only a shilling a-week to find me in 
tobacco, a pint of beer now and then, and to get my shirt washed." 

I looked at the old man incredulously. I felt convinced that he 
must be stretching, as he used to do occasionally on board the old 

; but he assured me it was all true, and that he had not 

told me a tenth part. Thinks I, if I only knew one-tenth, there 
must be something very wrong, and I began to place more reliance 
in him when I reflected upon the empty benches in the tea-hall. 

" That, then," said I aloud, " accounts for the number of vacant 
benches and tables I suppose." 

" Yes, sir," replied Ben, " when I first joined there was near hand 
000 men in the hall you went into to-night, and I should think 
there is not above 350 now. I would not have stayed so long, but 
you know I was not brought up to labouring work. I was bred on 
board a man-of-war ; and as to the matter of anything in that way, I 
consider it no disparagement, but I never was no man's servant, and 
never mean to be one. Sometimes I have had a job in rigging 
model ships, but my eyes are too dim and my fingers too stiff for 
that work now ; and so I jog on, and now and then a stray half- 
crown comes in my way from an old shipmate — (I took this 
as rather a broad hint, but said nothing) — and I know how to do 
without it if it don't." 

" But," said I, not yet opening my portemonnaie, " you told me 
you paid for washing your shirt, I thought that was done for you by 
the College." 

" So it is, after a fashion ; but I have a few of my old shirts left, 
and when I want to appear respectable, I put on one of them. It is 
growing dark for you to see the sort of thing I have got on now It 
is made of duck, as coarse though not so white as your cutter's mizen 

in the ; I remember what pride you took in your cutter, 

sir, and how I used to steal a new log line now and then, and stow 
it away in the binnacle for you." (I felt that half-a-crown wouldn't 
be enough for this old boy.) 

" Oh yea !" I answered, I recollect that well, but what has that 
to do with the shirts ? " 

" Why, just this, sir, that my college shirts are made of a sort of 
ship's duck with dead-eye buttons at the collar; we usedtotan*toogfe 


strings 5 and when the nurse gives them to us they are as rough md 
ugly us you ever saw anything in your life, nn make nnr $h\ 
them, and neither ironed nor mangle J. Why, you reniemb 
when we had been a long while out cruizing, and the young 
men bad had no opportunity of getting their clothes washed ; 
BOIDH of the marines used to make shift to wash and iron their shirk 
and as X was always fond of looking ship-shape, I have oftei 
my grog for the loan of the flat iron. But here we have not 
the sort unless we pay for it." 

It had by this time grown nearly dark, and thinking I had hmi 
growling enough for one sitting, 1 got up to wish my old lh: 
good night. 

w Good night, sir, and God blese ye," said Ben, as he clos 
digits on a large round piece of silver* ** We weathered mmjt 
breeze together, and I hope you have made a better port 
have, I know I might have done worse, and you must not 
that I undervalue the advantages I possess* Ko, no," continued tif 
old man ; " it relieves me to tell my mind to an old shipmate I 
am thankful to ray country for providing me a home in my old %* 
but I think that if the Bailor had his rights in the College, W 
should see more of them in there than we do now." 

c * I think you are more than half right. Ben— so, good'nigbi 
don't be surprised if I give you another hail shortly, as 
assured 1 have not heard half your story " 

Mounting the knife-board of a Greenwich 'bus, I returned to mj 
Baburban villa, cogitating, as I went, upon my eou\-er?*, 
my old shipmate. Being tired, I soon fell asleep, aud Mrs, Butf-- 
line informed in© on the following morning that 1 had bet a 
restless during the night, and had made mention, in my 1 
slumbers, of the names of various important personages with 
I appeared to be holding energetic dialogues. I told her that I hi 
dreamt T was threatening the first Lord of the Admiralty i 
letter to the Times, or some other desperate measure, if he d 
immediately take steps to improve the position of my old shipmate 

Turning to the paper whieh was published in the Magazine far 
March, i found that there had been apparently no ameliura 
the pensioners* condition since Captain Baillie & immolation on tfa* 
Sandwich altar. There was no complaint of " bull beef," and "souf 
small beer mixed with water," but still no solid benefit had bed 
obtained, as far as I could ascertain from old Ben*s yarn— only a part 
of which I have been able to record with exactitude— since 
There is still the same amount of tobacco money, the sj 
the same three-cornered scraper, and broad-tailed coat. 

By the way, I forgot to mention what my old shipmate eaid about 
the costume. I remarked, when we were draining the pewter at the 
i4 Buffalo's Head," that I wondered how it was the same old rig— that 
in whieh Eenbow's cowardly captains were dressed — had been kept 
up. I just remember now what Ben said. "Why sir," aaj, 
41 1 supuose the dress is the same as it was when the College ww 
founded, because we should be known as state paupers.* 1 I eiv* 
deavoured to cheek him but in vain. " Yes. sir, I meant it, we art 


only one ratline above that old man with the brown coat and white 
buttons, pointing out of the window at an old man who I presume 
belonged to the Greenwich Union. Our food is better, and our 
clothing not quite so coarse ; but the boys in the street call after 
me ' old goose,' and don't think me a bit better than the parish 
pauper. I am certain sure the founders, whose health we drink 
every 4th of November, intended that w* should be envied ; and 
that every sailor on passing the College should take off his hat, and 
say that he hoped to end his days in that comfortable asylum. But 
they don't do so, sir. Sailors never talk of Greenwich Except to 
make game of such and such a slack belayed fellow, and say he's 
only fit for a three-cornered scraper and a crutch." 
J? Making due allowances for pewter inspiration, I thought there 
was something in what he said. If, instead of being attired in a 
style more than a century old, the dress were modernised, and of a 
texture befitting a better station, great things might be done. Efforts 
are now being made to obtain seamen, and a bounty is offered, and 
all sorts of advantages brought forward by way of inducement. 
"Why, surely, if Greenwich was meant for any thing, it was designed 
for an encouragement to men to betake themselves to a sea life, and 
to attach themselves to the British flag. There must be somethinjg 
defective in the working of the establishment to occasion all this 
dissatisfaction. There must be some injurious system at work, or 
u moorings in Greenwich tier" would not be at such a miserable 
discount. I observed, some time since, that a question was asked in 
the House of Commons, and that Sir John Pakington stated his 
intention of instituting an inquiry. He is a man of his word, and 
will do so. But I hope he will not place the difficult and important 
task in the hands of those who will suffer their eyes to be blinded 
by the dust of ages, thrown by parties interested in the preservation 

• of abuses. 

Some people talk of " time-honoured institutions," and seem to 
think that what our forefathers designed and were pleased with, 
must be good still. A greater error cannot be indulged in. Every- 
thing sublunary wears out, and requires renewing. We must keep 
pace with the age. The old stage waggon has had to give place to 
the luggage-train. Scarlett's dashing four-in-hand has been put 
hors de combat by the rail. The screw is everywhere. No one can 

. stand still now-a-days. "Go a-head," is the motto; and, since 
sailors' tastes are refined, and the schoolmaster is in every ship — 
since Sailors' Homes teach seamen the value of money, and the 
pleasures of shore enjoyment — Greenwich Hospital must follftw 
suit, or her halls will soon be altogether deserted, and her ample 
revenues diverted from their intended purpose. 

[P.S. — It is possible I may pay another visit to my old shipmate 
shortly ; and if the editor of the United Service Magazine thinks the 
subject interesting to his readers, I may be tempted to return to 
it next month. — J. B.] 

By Theseus. Late E.N, 

The momentous eventa that have roused ilio warlike f 
whole of Eurenc,and the exaggerated reports that i 
the English people, render a concise ami . 
present state of the British Navy an interesting docuni 
fill analysis of all the ships belonging to the Navj 
given is the United Strvice Magazine, commencing in 1 
for October, 1858, It is purposed, on the present ih 
a summary of all the previous papers, and, at the Bitme tii 
make such alterations as the important information lately pn 
in official documents renders necessary. 

It is requisite, however, i that some of the official etii* 

menta put forth by Sir Baldwin "Walker are not e 
and have evidently been compiled in a great hurt 
the Committee appointed by the Treasury fco iuij 
Estimates refers to an Appendix (No. 8) T which pur; 
list of the sailing ships that may be considered as efli 
which is certified to by Sir B. AY altar. This list includes 
of 13 ships of the line, hut omits two, which s\\ 
as good condition as those named, and these are the Ijidu 
ship, in the West Indies, and the Superb, SO, an advanced shmtf 
Chatham, Thus there are 15 effective sailing line-of-battlo sluW 
As regards the frigates, the Arethusa, 50, has been stated tor* 
effective, when she is known to be so rotten ns not to 
repairing. The Chichester, 50, is alao employed as a hn 
four of these frigates have lately been ordered fop conv< 
screw ships, there remains only 7 first-class effective eailiu 
The Havaimah, 19, employed in the Pacific, and the Amazon, 
Devonport, have been omitted in the list of the effective necon 
frigates, which therefore nmnber 16 instead of 11. 

In addition to the 22 sloops and brigs mentioned as effective, then 
ought to be included the Acorn, 12, employed in China; the P. 
12, employed on the West Coast of Africa ; the Daphne, IS ad 
Dido, 18, at Chatham; the Contest, 12, at Portsmouth ; and tiw 
Pilot, 12, at Pevonport. Thia makes 29 effect! ™ j^^d 

of 23. 

An official report, upon which a most important State Paper ii 
iuinnled, should he accurate in all its details j aud that 
corrections are true can easily be proved ; for surely Sir 1 ;. 

not intend to say that the Hag ship in the U est I *>. 
B&ctive sailing ship, or that the llavunnah, Acorn, and Persian, 
now employed on active service abroad, are mere hulks. 

The mere fact, however, of certain sailing ships being consider*! 
effective, is of but little importance as regards our actual nav 
strength, for the Admiralty have determined that no more sailiu 
ships shall be commissioned for active service; and therefore 
present effective condition relates more to their fitness for co 

1859.] suincABY of the bbiti8h kayy. 205 

■ion into screw ships. Sir B. Walker reports that the 84-gun ships 
are not worth converting, owing to their age ; and therefore, out of 
the 15 effective sailing ships of the line, only 5 — the Collingwood, 
80, Superb, 80, Vanguard, 80, Boscawen, 70, and Cumberland, 70 — 
are likely to be converted into screw ships. Of the first-class fri- 
gates, only 4 — the Octavia, 50, Indefatigable, 50, Leander, 50, and 
1 Nankin, 50, are worth converting, in addition to those now being 
: converted. 

I There has been a great deal of discussion lately about the sud- 

! posed inferiority of the English to the French in the number of their 

I screw line-of -battle ships ; and from the different statements pub- 

l lished, there can be no doubt that, at tho time the Whig Govern- 

! ment left office, in February, 1858, France possessed as many screw 

liners as England. Sir John Pakington, however, has made most 

strenuous exertions to recover our former naval superiority ; and, if 

he remains at the Admiralty, there is every probability of England 

possessing, in another year or two, a screw fleet that would be 

capable of meeting the combined fleets of France and Eussia, 

A statement showing the increase in the number of screw liners 
since February, 1858 ; 

In Commission. In Reserve. Building. Converting. Tot&L 

Februarv, 1858 10 15 15 3 43 

May, 1859 20 19 12 5 56 

Difference 10 4 3 2 13 

It will be seen that there are now afloat 14 screw liners more than 
when Sir John Pakington became first Lord of the Admiralty. 


In Commission. In Ordinary, Building. Converting. Total. 

Three-deckers 2 4 4 — 10 

Two-deckers 18 15 8 5 46 

Block-ships 9 — — — 9 

Frigates , 11 8 9 4 32 

Corvettes 12 8 7 — 27 

Mortar-ships — 4 — — 4 

Floating Batteries 17 — — 8 

Sloops 12 7 7 — 26 

Gun-vessels 17 9 — — 26 

Gun-boats 50 110 — — 160 

Small Vessels 13 1 — 5 

Troop and Store-ships 11 5 — — 16 

Yachts 1 — — . — . i 

Total 145 180 36 9 370 

Screw Line-of-Battle Ships. — Three Deckers : — 

In Commission. — Marlborough, 131 ; Royal Albert, 121. 

In Ordinary. — First-class Steam Reserve. — Duke of "Wellington, 
131 ; and Royal George, 102. Second-class Steam Reserve. — Royal 
Sovereign, 131. 

Fitting Engines.— Windsor Castle, 105* 


Building.— Howe, 12L; Prince of Wales, 131 3 Koval Fredorict 

105 \ and Victoria, 121, 

Two- Deckel! : — ■ 

In Commission. — Conqueror, 101 ; St. Jean IV Acre, 101 ; 
mon, 91; Algiers, 01; CfiBsar, 90; Exmouth, 91 \ II. i 
Hero, 9 1 ; James Watt, 9 L ; London, 00 ; N i 1<\ ! K) ; < ) rion, 91 ; 
Princess Royal, 91 ; Renown, 91 ; Victor Emanuel, 91 ; Bruny 
Wick, 80; Centurion, SO; Creasy, 80. 

fit Ordinary, — First-class Steam Reserve.— Colossus, 80; AW 
kir, 90. 

Second-class Steam Reserve. — Donegal, 101 ; Edgar, £>1 ; Goliiti* 
SO \ Majestic, 80 ; Mars, 80 ; Meeanee, BO. 

Fitting Engines.— Neptune, 91; St. George, 91 1 Trafalgar, 91; 
Revenge, 91 ; Hood, 90 ; Queen, 86, 

Requiring Repairs , — Sans Pareil, 70. 

Building.— Duncan, 101; Gibraltar, 101; Anson, 91 ; Atlas, 91; 
Bulwark, 91 ; Defiance, 91 ; Repulse, 91 j Irresistible, SO* 

■1 j verting.— Nelson, 91; Royal William, 91; Waterloo, 91. 
Km die v, 00; Lion, 80, 

Screw Line-of-Battle Ships.— Afloat, 39 ; building, 12 
ing, 5 : total, 56. 

Screw Block Ships, — Moat, 9 

In Commission.— Ajax, 00; Blenheim, 60; CornwalUs, GO; Edin- 
burgh, 60; Hastings, 60; Hawke, 60; Hogue, 60; Pembroke, 60, 
and Russell, 60. 

Screw Frigates : — 

In Commission. — Chesapeake, 51 ; Emerald, 51 ; Euryalu<v 
Liffey, 51; Arrogant, ^7; Mersey, 40; Diadem, 32; Don 
Curaooa, 31 ; Tribune, 31; Termagant, 25. 

In Ordinary. — First-class Steam Reserve, — Imperieusr. 
Melpomene, 51 ; Topaze, 51. Second-class Steam Beserre.— 
Porte, 51 ; Orlando, 50 ; Shannon, 51 ; Amphion, 34 ; Daunt* 
less, 33. 

Building. — Aurora, 51 ; Bacchante, 51 ; Bristol, 51 ; Immortality 
51 1 Narcissus, 51; Newcastle, 51 ; Undaunted, 51 ; Ariadne %' 
Galatea, 26. 

Converting.— Ph;ct on, 50 j Phiobe,50; Severn, 5u ; Sutlej, 50. 

Screw Frigates,— Afloat, 19 ; building, 9 ; converting. 

Screw Corvettes :— 

In Commission.— Cadmus, 21 ; Esk, 21 ; Highflyer, 21 ; Pearl 21- 
IVlorus, 2L; Pylades, 2L ; Satellite, 21; Tartar, 21 ; BaoooiL 1 
\ivher, 15; Brisk, 15; Niger, 15, 

In Ordinary.— First Class Steam Reserve.- -Scout 21. 

Second Class Steam llcwervc. — Challenger 22, Clio 22, Cossu. 
Scvlla 21, Encounter 15, Malacca 17, Miranda 15. 

'Building. — Barossn 22, Chnrvbdis 21, Jas..j] lM, Orestes 
Orpheus 22, Wolverene 22, Rattlesnake 22. 

Screw Corvettes.— Afloat, 20 ; building, 7 ; total, 27. 

Screw Mortar Ships, — Afloat, 4. 

In ordinary. — Second Class Steam Reserve. — Eurotna 12 Forth 
12, Horatio 8, Seahorse 12* 


Screw Floating Batteries. — Afloat, 8. 

In Commission. — Terror 16. 

In ordinary. — Second Class Steam Eeserve. — JEtna 16, Erebus 
16, Glatton 14, Meteor 14, Thunder 14, Thunderbolt 16, Trusty, 14. 

Screw Sloops. — 

In Commission. — Alert 17, Cruiser 17, Falcon 17, Harrier 17, 
Hornet 17, Conflict 8, Cordelia 11, Gannet 11, Plumper 11, Bacer 
11, Ariel 9, Lyra 9. 

In Ordinary. — First Class Steam Eeserve. — Fawn 17, Icarus 11. 

Requiring Repairs. — Wasp 14, Desperate 8, Phoenix 8, Curlew 9, 
Swallow 9. 

Building.— Caraelion 17, Greyhound 17, Mutine 17, Pelican 17, 
Eeindeer 17, Einaldo 17, Pantaloon 10. 

Screw Sloops. — Afloat, 19 ; building, 7 ; total, 26. 

Screw Gun- Vessels. — Afloat, 26. 

In Commission. — Flying Fish 6, Intrepid 6, Pioneer 6, Nimrod 6 
Roebuck 6, Assurance 4, Coquette 4, Cormorant 4, Lapwing 4, 
Mohawk 4, Osprey 4, Sparrowhawk 4, Surprise 4, Vigilant 4, "Wan- 
derer 4, Lynx 4, Viper 4. 

In Ordinary. — First Class Steam Reserve. — Renard 4, Beagle 4, 
Snake 4. Second Class Steam Reserve.— Victor 6, Alacrity 4, Fox- 
hound 4, Ringdove 4, Arrow 4, Wrangler 4. 

Screw Gun-boats. — Afloat, 160. 

In Commission— Algerine, Badger, Banterer, Biter, Boxer, Bull- 
finch, Bustard, Clown, Dapper, Dove, Drake, Erne, Firm, Forester, 
Goshawk, Growler, Haughty, Hind, Janus, Jasper, Kestrel, Lark, 
Lee, Leven, Leveret, Lively, Louisa, Magnet, Magpie, Nettle, Onyx, 
Opossum, Plover, Quail, Redwing, Ruby, Sandfly, Seagull, Sham- 
rock, Skipjack, Slaney, Snap, Spanker, Starling, Staunch, Stork, 
Thistle, Violet, Watchful, Woodcock. 

In Ordinary. — First Class Steam Reserve.— Beaver, Bouncer, Bull- 
frog, Charon, Cheerful, Chub, Clinker, Cochin, Fancy, Forward, 
Goldfinch, Grappler, Grasshopper, Grinder, Hardy, Havock, Jack- 
daw, Julia, Mayflower, Misletoe, Pelter, Pickle, Pincher, Procris 
Sepoy, Snapper, Spey, Swinger, Traveller, Weazel. 

Second Class Steam Reserve. — Albacore, Amelia, Angler, Ant, 
Beacon, Blazer, Blossom, Brave, Brazen, Camel, Carnation, Caro- 
line, Charger, Cherokee, Cockchafer, Confounder, Cracker, Crocus, 
Daisy, Decoy, Delight, Dwarf, Earnest, Escort, Fenella, Fervent, 
Fidget, Flamer, Flirt, Fly, Foam, Gadfly, Garland, Garnet, Gleaner, 
Gnat, 'Griper, Handy, Hasty, Herring, Highlander, Hunter, 
Hyaena, Insolent (lent), Mackarel, Manly, Mastiff, Midge, Nightin- 
gale, Parthian, Partridge, Peacock, Pert, Pet, Pheasant, Porpoise, 
Primrose, Prompt, Rainbow, Rambler, Raven, Ready, Redbreast, 
Ripple, Rocket, Rose, Savage, Sheldrake, Skylark, Spider, Surly, 
Swan, Thrasher, Thrush, Tickler, Tilbury, Tiny, Wave, Whiting, 

Small Screw Vessels. — 

In Commission. — Sharpshooter 8. 

In Ordinary. — Second Class Steam Reserve. — Rifleman 8, Minx 3, 
Teazer i. 

U. S. Mack, No. 867, Jtob, 1859* * 

208 BtmHABT 0* TltK BRIT1SU KAVY. [J| 

Building. — Ranger 5. 

Small Screw Vessels— Afloat, 4 ; building, 1 ; total, 5, 
Screw Troop and Store Ships, — Afloat, Ki- 
ln Commission — Adventure 6, Assistance G, Himalaya 6, 
6, Perseverance 6, Simoom G, Urgent G, Buffalo 2 ? Hesper 2, Indastrr 

2, Supply 2. 

In Ordinary.— Second- Claw Steam Reserve. — Vulcan 6» Fox 4, 
Chasseur 1, Water-rail, Wye. 

Screw Yacht, — Afloat, 1, 

In Commission. — Fairy. 

Grand Totals of Screw Steam Ships.— Afloat, 325 j Building, 
Converting 9 ; Total 370, 


In Ordinary, 

In Cumniiuiuu. Effective. Nott-effoctivc* 

Frigates...-. 6 2 1 

Corvettes ... 4 3— ? 

Sloops — 17 13 3 33 

Gun-Vessels. .... 2 — — % 

Small Vessels. ».«„ 16 2 2 -jo 

Store Shipa*.,.. I — -=- $ 

Tenders.. 10 1 1 12 

Tug Vessels ..19 — — 19 

Yachts 6 — — 

Total . S3 21 T HI 

Paddle-wheel Steam Frigates. — Afloat, 9, 

In Commission. — Furioua 16, Leopard IS, Magicienne 16, Bete* 
bution 28, Terrible 21, Valorous 16. 

Jn Ordinary.— Second Class Steam Reserve, — Sidoa 22, Odin 16, 

Requiring Repairs. — Penelope 16. 

Paddle-wheel Steam Corvettes.— Afloat, 7. 

In Commission, — Firebrand 6, Sampson G, Vulture 6, Cyclops 6. 

In Ordinary,— First Class Steam Reserve. — Gladiator 6, Dragon & 

Requiring Repairs. — Centaur 6, 

Paddle-wheel Steam Sloops,— Afloat, 33. 

In Commission. — Argus C, Basilisk 0, Buzzard G, Devastation fy 
Fury G, Gorgon G, Inflexible 6, Scourge 6, Styx 6, Vesuvius 6, Virago 
6, Vixen G, Hermes 6, Hydra 6, Medina 4, Medusa 4, Trident 6. 

In Ordinary. — Second Class Steam Reserve. — Barraeouta 6, I> 
0, Sphinx 6, Spiteful G, Stromboli 6, Medea G, Prometheus 6. 

Being Repaired and Fitted Out. — Alecto 5, Ardent 5, Herat < 

Requiring Repairs, — Bulldog G, Geyser G, Rosamond 6, He*. 
ilerlin 4, Salamander G. 

Paddle-wheel Steam Gun Vessel*,— Afloat 2. 

In Commission. — Recruit 6, Weser 6. 

Small PaddJe-wheel Steam Vessels.— Afloat 20, 

In Commission. — Antelope 3 3 Banshee 2, Caradoe 2, Coromandfi 
4, Dasher 4, Jackall 3, Lizard 1, Locust 3, Oberon 3, Pluto 4, Per* 
cupine 4, Spitfire a, Tartarus 4, Triton 3, Batm 1, Brune 1, 

In Ordinary— Requiring Repairs,— Firefly 4,Alban 4, Bloodhound 

3, Harpy 1, 

1859.] 8U1QUBY 09 (THJI BRJTISIJ ftOT< 2Q0 

Paddle-wheel Steam Store Ships.— Afloat 3. 

In Commission.— Dee 4, Bhadamanthus 4, Volcano 8. 

Paddle-wheel Steam Tenders. — Afloat 10. 

In Commission.— Adder 1, Advice 1, Asp 1, Avon 8, Bee 1, Pove* 
1, Lightning 3, Sprightly 1, Wildfire 1, Princess Alice 1. 

In Ordinary— "Requiring repairs. — Cuckoo 3, Otter 3. 

Paddle-wheel Steam Tug-vessels. — Afloat 19. 

In Commission for Harbour Service. — African, Bustler, Comet, 
Confiance, Echo, Fearless, Hearty, Kite, Lucifer, Monkey, Myrtle, 
Pigmy, Pike, Prospero, Bedpole, Thais, Wallace, Widgeon, Zephyr. 

Paddle-wheel Steam Yachts. — Afloat 6. 

In Commission. — Victoria and Albert, Osborne, Black Eagle^ El- 
fin, Firequeen, Vivid. 


Three Deckers 

Two Deckers 


Corvettes ... 


Brigs, &c. ... 

Store and Hospital Ships 



Total 24 61 45 62 192 144 

Sailing Line-of-battle Ships. — Three-deckers.— 

In Commission. — Non-effective ships. — Britannia 46, St. Vincent 
46, Excellent 46, Hibernia 12, Impregnable 78, Victory 22, Queen 
Charlotte 22, Bpyal Adelaide 22. Hulks. — Caledonia and Camper- 

Two-deckers. — In Commission. — Effective Ships. — Asia 84, Cal» 
cutta 84, Formidable 84, Granges 84, Boscawen 70, Cumberland 70, 
Indus 78. Non-effective Ships. — Illustrious 10, Saturn 2, Wellesley 
36, Wellington 24, Cambridge 48, Imaum 10, Minotaur 2. 

In Ordinary. — Effective Ships. — Bombay 84, Clarence 84, Mon- 
arch 84, Powerful 84, Thunderer 84, Collingwood 80, Vanguard 80, 
Superb 80. Non-effective. — Albion 90, Vengeance 84, Achille 78, 
Foudroyant 78, Hindostan 78, Carnatic 72, Egmont 72, Implac- 
able 72. 

Hulks.— Prince Regent, Canopus, Armada, Agincourt, Bellona, 
Bellerophon, Benbow, Chatham, Duncan, Devonshire, Invincible, 
Malabar, Ocean, Pitt, Fortitude, Kent, Medway, Victorious, Vigo, 
Sultan, Stirling Castle. 

Sailing Frigates— 

In Commission. — Effective Ships.— Cambrian 40, Alarm 06, Ame- 
thyst 26 9 Iris 26, Havannah 19, Non-effective.— Eagle 50, Fisguard 
26, Actoon 8, Herald 8. 

In Ordinary. — Effective Shins.— Constance 50. Indefatigable 50. 
ItfUtfer 50, Satfun. 50? Oct&vfr 50, Vernon" 50,' Active J&\ Jloti 

• ■■:*«■■ - '. • ■• .. ^ v-.C". r l - * i.\.vA^A. 

In Commission In Ordinary 
Effective Non-effectire Eflfectiye Noneffective 


Hoiks Ac 




































S -r- 









— . 









40, Pique 40, Sybiilo h 2t» t Diamond i 

28, Eurydiee 25, Judo 26, Spartan !it». 
50, America 50, Vindictive 50, Wanpite 5n, Java 50, La? 
Portland ^0, President 50, Southampton 50, Win 
er 50, Africaine 44, Isia 44, Leda 41, Meai? 
iVrbcrus 42, CSrce 42, Hamadryad 42, Latona 42, Laur 
Leonidas <li\ Mercury 12, Minerva 42, Proserpine 42, Caet 
Cleopatra 2G, Teatal 2G, Brilliant 20, Daedalus 22, Amp 
Trin com alee 24. 

Hulks. — Andromeda, Argo, Akbar, Andromache, Aigla, AlfW, 
Idere, Blanche, Blonde, Bacchus, Briton, Conquestador, C 
Cornwall, Calliope, Clyde, Chichester, Carysfort, 1 
Dromedary, Dublin, Endymion, Egeria, Euryalus, Grampus, 6W 
coster. Hussar, Jupiter, Lively, Mermaid, Menelau 
Lavinia, Kcnicsis, Owen Gleudower, Nymphe, Pallas, H 
Hhin, St, Laurence, Salsette, Sapphire, Samarang, Turtar, Tew, 
Thames, Thistle, Thalia, Tenedos, Tyruinus, Uiidauuti-d, 
Weymouth, L T nicom, Hebe. 

Sailing Corvettes .—Effective Ships — 

In Commission. — Calypso 18, 

It) Ordinary. — Daphne 18, Dido 18, 

Sailing Sloops — 

In Commission, — Effeetive Ships, — Arachne 18, Atulanta 1< 
milla 16, Siren 1G, Acorn 12, Elk 12, Heron 12, Persian 13. 

In Ordinary.— Effective tfliip*. — Terp»i«-lmn* Is, Krolic 16 
quito 1G, Jumna 16, Kover 16, Albatross 12, Arab 12, Cunt. 
Daring 12, Dispatch 12, Espieglc 12, Kangaroo 12, Lib. 
Kingfisher 12, Mariner 12, Martin 12. Pilot 12, Squirrel 12 
effective. — Comus 14, Eleetra 14, Hazard 14, Hyacinth 14, 
14, llaeehorse 14, Childers 12, Fantome 12, Grecian 12, Helena M 

Hulks, — Favourite, Modcste, Nimrotl, Wolf, Pelican, Harli 
Columbine, Lily, Champion, Orestes, Serpent, Fly, Bitten* 

.Sailing Brigs, Ac. : — 

In Commission. — Effective .'Ships. — Cuba 3, Kingston :: 
i\on-L'ffcctive. — Ferret 8, Nautilus 6, Holla U, Sarncej 

In Ordinary. — Non-effective Ships,— Crane G, Express #1 H< 
8, Hound 8, Dolphin 3, "Waicrwiti h & 

Hulks, &c, — Swill, Penguin, Peterel, Star, llanger, Philomel ' 
mart, Cygnet, Linnet, Pandora, Enterprise, Columbia, Swim Jfak 

Pacific, Progreaso, Aeute, Bathnrst, Beagle, Pelter, Chant 
Clinker, Bonetta, Dart, Dwarf, Eclipse, Emulous, Flamer, 
Griper, Icarus, Partridge, Raven, Safeguard, Safety, Doto n-(. 
rock, Snapper, Speedy, Seaflower, Lapwing, Spider, Jh , 
Bramble, Despatch, Devonport, Savage, Carrou, Hope.Tvria i 

Store and Hospital Ships, — 

In Commission, — Non-effective Ships, — Princess Char], n i 
Belleiale 6, Aiholl 4, Crocodile 8, Madagascar 4, Naiad 
4, Tortoise 12, Melville 6 ? Miuden 2, Inconstant 2, AUigaj 
Africa 2, Hercules 2, 

In Ordinary, — Non-effective Ships,— .Eolus 2, North Star % 
Besolute 3, Talbot 2, Tyne 2 } Yolage 2, 


Sailing Yachts. — 

In Commission. — Non-effective Service. — Chatham, Fanny, Ply- 
mouth, Portsmouth, Royal George, Sylph. 

Sailing Tenders. — 

In Commission. — Non-effective Service. — Adelaide, Ceres, Cerus, 
Gossamer, Gipsey, Gulnare, Hart, Hope, Indian, Mercury, Netley* 
Rose, Snipe, Sparrow, Sylvia, Thames, w oodlark. 

Grand Totals of all classes of Ships in the Royal Navy; 

In Com- In Or- 

mission. dinary. Building. Converting. Hulks. TotaL 

Screw Ships ... 145 180 36 9 — 370 

Paddle-wheel Ships 83 28 — — — 111 

Sailing Ships ... 85 107 — — 144 336 

Totals 313 315 36 9 144 817 

Geneeal Remabks.— The screw line-of-hattle-ships now in commis- 
sion are all fitted for active service, and are to have their war com- 
plement of men. Those screw-liners that were employed as guard- 
ships of the steam reserves with half complements have been re- 
placed by sailing-ships, and have been commissioned for foreign ser- 
vice. "We now possess 39 screw line-of-battle-ships afloat, and if 
Sir John Pakington carries out his intention of launching four more, 
the Prince of Wales, Howe, Victoria, and Duncan, and converting 
five sailing-ships into screw-liners, the Nelson, Royal William, 
Waterloo, Rodney, and Lion, the British Navy, in January, I860, 
will contain 48 screw line-of-battle-ships afloat, in place of 25, which 
was all it possessed in February, 1858. An increase of 23 screw 
line-of-battle-ships in two years shows the extraordinary capabilities 
of our naval dockyards and artisans. 

The screw block-ships have been reported as unfit for active ser- 
vice, but they will always be found of use in the defence of our 
coasts. Although these ships were found very useful in the Baltic 
on account of their small draught of water, their place has not been 
supplied by any new ships possessing their merits without their 

The large screw-frigates are expected to be employed in the line- 
of-battle, as their heavy weight of metal, it is said, will compensate 
for the numerical superiority in guns of an enemy's line-of-battle*. 

The screw 80-gun ships have been denounced by Sir B. Walker 
as being too small ; but twenty years ago, when the Surveyor be- 
longed to the Vanguard, $0, he could hardly find glowing language 
enough in which to express his praises of that ship. They are good 
vessels however, and may still be found superior to the new frigates, 
1200 tons larger, with their 40 heavy guns. At close quarters a 
broadside of 40 32-pounders will do more damage than 20 68- 
pounders, and in boarding a superiority of 200 men makes a deal of 

In February, 1858, when Sir Charles Wood gave over the reins of 
office to Sir John Pakington, we had 15 screw-frigates afloat, we 
now possess 19 ; and as five screw-frigates are to be launched, the 
Bacchante, Immortalite, Narcissus, Ariadne, and Galatea, and our 

218 sTMM\nv or the ftl 

Bailing- frigates to be converted into screw- PImHoj 

B^Ttm, and Sullej, the Navv will coi this Jf«r 

w-tVigates, being au increase of la MUr«i 

The screw corvettes b a ve not realised the ai « 
pitted i and it would be far better to build more sere 
of adding to the abortion frigates, as the Baco 
decided failures. 

The Navy is very badly off lor screw mortar *tiip« ; and I 
French are known to possess some vessels built ■ 
service, and which are much superior to our old cony* 
the Admiralty should immediately take steps to supply this &&* 

ThS floating batteries have not yet been fairly tried ; but as tb& 
French are constructing four iron-eased ships, tl»> , | iaTP 

deemed it proper to order two to be built, each to i ► gum, 

although the coat is very great, and the result very doubtful as to 
their efficiency. 

The screw sloops are useful vessels, and as in ease of a war 
ships will be required ti> Convoy our merchant vessel*, ii 
greeftble to know that we only possess seven of these sloops i^ 
nary) in addition to the twelve now in commission; a titiml- 
too small to ]>roteet our commerce all over the world. Our njei 
dockyards should be at once called upon to build twenty nr tUirtt 
of these screw-sloops, as our naval dockyards have already • 
do in completing the larger ships. 

Of screw <;uu- vessels and guiuboats we possess suftictcnl 
their utility has been fully determined. Each of our tiritu 
ports should have one of these gun-boats attached to them 
to protect the shipping along the coast ; and they could speedily be 
manned by volunteers in case of a war. 

The number of screw troop and store ships ought to be; incTcnsed. 
to keep pace with the French* who are building nian^ 

The great utQity of screw hospital-ships has been strongly com* 
mented upon in the United Service Magazine for January ;*Vnd the 
Admiralty would do well to take every*possible precaution in order 
to improve the sanitary condition of our crews, 

The paddle-wheel steamers are being fast superseded by sl 
ships; and the only vessels of the former description that au. 
he in creased arc the dispatch vessels, such as the Banshee and 

nice, which steam from seventeen to eighteen knots an 
while our screw dispatch vessels can only travel at the rate i 
knots an boui\ Speed is of the highest importance When tmi 

important intelligence to or from our fleets; and 
once to purchase five or six fast steamers, so that each of our 
may possess two or three of these valuable auxiliaries. 

Some of the non-effective paddle-wheel steamers might 
up as floating factories, like the Volcano, in aceordaiie | be re- 

commendation of the Steam Machinery Committee, 

All sailiug vessels ought immediately to be recalled fron 
Btations, and to be replaced by efficient screw-ships ; more espc « 




the flag-ships— Ganges 84 ( Indus 7S, Boseawen 70, and Cumberland 
70, should be superseded by screw -frigates, as the Imperieuse 51, 
Porte 51, Emerald 51, Shannon 51, &c. 

As there seems every probability of a naval war in a short timgj 
we ought to make every preparation, and put ourselves in the 
best possible state of defence while we are yet at peace. It would 
be a great blow to the dignity of Old England to learn that an 81- 
gun-sbip of the line, bearing an admirals flag, had been captured by 
a French paddle-wheel steamer of 6 or 8 heavy guns j and yet our 
theoretical gunners say that such a thing might occur if a tit oppor- 
tunity offered. Let us prevent all chance of such a catastrophe, and 
give our sailors tho best chance of fighting the enemy, by providing 
them with efficient ships, 

The present Government have promised to form two powerful 
fleets, cue for the Mediterranean and the other for the Channel, in 
order to maintain the dignity of England, to defend our coasts, and 
also, at the proper time, to mediate with effect between the contend* 
ing nations. Each fleet should comprise at least twelve screw line* 
of-battle ships, six screw frigates, a few steam sloops, a steam hos- 
pital ship, a Bteam floating factory, and three steam dispatch vessels* 

A division, consisting of about twenty-four screw gun-vessels and 
gun-boats) should be attached to each fleet* In order to keep the 
fleet in a state of efficiency, it would also be necessary to attach some 
steam store ships and steam colliers to the fleet to supply the ships 
with stores and coals* The Admiralty should endeavour to make the 
fleets so complete as to be ready for immediate action; so that if un- 
happily this country becomes inveigled into the war, our admirals 
may be able at once to strike a decisive blow, and by putting a quick 
termination to the contest enhance the naval glory ot England. 

i 11APTEB L 

Strcet-figbt in Milan— Retreat of the Austrians to the Mindoi 

Ont5 of the moat interesting episodes in the military history of 
Europe, since the general peace of 1815, is presented by the cam- 
paigns of Badetzkv in Italy, in 1848-49, To the Englisu military 
student they are off peculiar interest from their resemblance to the 
campaigns of Wellington, and to those which must always be carried 
on by the Generals of that nation. Radetzky, like the great Eng- 
lish General, had no considerable reserve at his back to recruit his 
army. He was at the head of a ibree which, if destroyed, could not 
be replaced. The latter carried on the war in the Peninsula with 
an angry opposition at home, ready to pounce with avidity upon any 
misfortune, supported by a tottering ministry, and obliged to de- 
pend upon the limited resources of voluntary i 

214 CAttPAWN \S lOMHAl: 

ami upon a ncarlv <<er fur r] farmer hiii 

to sustain the Austrian cause in Jtuh when tliu whole < 

r^nv ulsed ; when his monarch was a fugitive in tli capita) 

in the hands of the imrurgentft, great part of the ; 

llu finances in the most deplorable confusion. 

no support for Long either in men or money ; on tl 

had to hold his troops ready at any moment to al 

plains, and strike a last blow for the Imperial i 

walla of Vicuna. On both, therefore, the 

was, by necessity, imposed* Both were obliged, above all 

to be aVaricioua of the blood of their soldiers, to give uij mm 

liant opportunities of success rather than run the risk of defr; 

•mpensate, by skill in strategy, for paucity of Humbert and <k 
ticiency in material resources. Campaigns of this nature hares: 
extraordinary degree of interest ; they resemble the most e 
games of chess \ and none will be foiuid to exceed those of Kadetzlrr 
His Italian ones in 1848-49 will fully stand a comparison wit 
of Napoleon in 1796 and 1814, of Wellington m the Peninsu 
of Marlborough in Bavaria and the Low Countries. 1 [ 
mendation than this cannot be given. 

By far the best account of the struggle of lSi8-49 in the hm* 
bard plains is to be found in the work of a Swiii officer, tni 
by Lord Ellesmere under the title of " Military Events in Italt 1 
In authenticity, impartiality, ami clearness, it leaves not bin 
desired, and from it all succeeding writers must borrow their f 
from a quarry. Its ouly fault is one very common iu mi! 
a too great generality of detail ■ in other vvord*, a want of breadth il 
composition, The author relates, with exactly the same mimitenc* 
the events of a skirmish between an Austrian company and ft hr^ 
of the Lombard Free -corps in the Tyrol, which exercised no ? 
influence on the campaign, as he does the movements which decijrd 
the fate of Italy on the fields of St. Lucia or Cuatostza. This, to 
popularity, is a fatal defect. No one can stand a dry mass of . 
leading to not lung; and they also take much frou/the clearness^ 
the narrative to ordinary readers ; that is, they require, to 
their thread, a greater amount of attention than can from such to* 
expected. This it is, we believe, which has led to this vt* ry vn 
work having attained so little popularity; and, in the following 
pages, we shall endeavour to place before our readers an 
these events, derived in great part from this author* in which 
Ave have endeavoured to bring out the important and di 
movements, and to avoid a too great intricacy of detail. We belief r 
few campaigns will mure reward the trouble of investi- 
To the soldier they are most interesting as a study in themsehw; 
to the statesman they are equally so from their results. Thrt 
formed the first general battle-field between the democratic and 
conservative parties in Europe after the explosion of the grral 
revolutionary volcano at Paris, on the 22nd February, 1848. Had 
lindetfcky failed in the struggle, it is probable that the A us 
empire would have perished. It was by the united efforts of 
General in I*ombardy, of Wmdisehgrak at Prague, and of Jell:. 




Croatia, that the crisis was surmounted. They were to Austria 
what Cavaignae was to France, Upon their efforts depended both 
the balance of power in Europe and all its subsequent destinies. 
Had the Bed Eepublie triumphed in Austria, Constantinople would 
i«jfw hare been a Russian city. 

In 1848 the population of the Lombardo- Venetian Kingdom, 
amounting to 5,(>00 } 000 souls, were much divided in their feelings 
towards the Imperial Government, The Noblesse, as was natural, 
regarded it with detestation* Deprived of all chance of employment 
in the higher branches of government, without any prospect of ac- 
quiring either political or social distinction, it was a necessary con- 
sequence of their situation in a subject province, that they should 
be discontented. But their influence in general was not great ; 
volous and dissipated in their habits, spending their days in the 
HMO, and their nights at the opera and the gaming table, they were 
little fitted, either by their energy to organise, or their courage to 
direct, any great popular m Residing almost entirely in 

the great towns, they had no hold on the affections, no influence 
over the actions of the country population. The days were far 
changed since the Italian nobles were the chief power in the state. 
The greater amount of intellectual activity, knowledge, and energy, 
resided in the burgher class, and they, from the number of manu- 
facturing and commercial cities, were a numerous and important 
body. They, and the whole manufacturing population, were united 
• common bond of cordial detestation of the Austrian rule. 
Their prevailing object of desire was political power, and that was a 
thing which, so long as the Austrian eagle spread its wings over the 
land, they never could obtain. In consequence, they were generally 
united in, or at least subject to, the Carbonari or secret societies 
The chief manufacture of Lombardy is that of silk, but the limn 
and woollen trade is also extensive, and In Milan the manufacture of 
iron is very great. The various trades furnished a body of arti 
desirous or political power, impatient of the restraint of a military 
government, of considerable intelligence and great profligacy, and 
who, from the absence of realised capital, were ready at any moment 
to revolt. They had everything to gain and nothing to lose by 
revolution, for they had acquired the desires of civilisation and were 
unfettered by the restraints of property. In the rural population, 
however, the feeling was very different. They were generally well 
affected to the Austrian rufe. Scattered in small villages, or de- 
t ached houses, over the country, chained down by necessity to the 
cultivation of their small plots of land, their ideas seldom extended 
narrow limits. They had no wish to acquire power 
in," all they demanded was good government from, the state 
that they had for the first time experienced beneath the Imperial 
sway, The executive was strong, consequently property was serine 
and all crimes against it severely punished ; justice was promptly ad- 
ministered and with the strictest impartiality ; taxation was light 
and equitably imposed. In a word, while totally destitute of politi- 
cal power, all their material intercuts were sedulously attended to; 
and that was exactly what they wanted* They lived beneath a strong 


and a just ejnvemment, nod they ha J no wish to change it 
rale of an Urban democracy, 

Count Joseph Radetxky was born in 176$. He wa> 
in bis 83rd year when the outbreak at Milan took plate, Hit 
is an ancient one of Bohemia, lie entered the Austrian service ill 
cuirassier regiment, in which he served for fourteen yews, and gau*! 
the rank of captain. During this period be was enraged in ill 
campion bote against the Turks and the French in the low oovfr 
trtee, In 1797 he was appointed major, and in 1799 
lieuteiiiint-rukiiitd, and subsequently colonel, on the staff, He semJ 
during the latter year both under duwarroif and Mela? m Italy. Ii 
l^n'i hi commanded, as major-general, a cavalry brigade in thi 
Gooatoyi In 1809 he was made lieutenant-general, and wito&Mti 
the terrible battles of Aspern and Wagnom. During the memonUl 
campaigns of 1813-14, and 15, he was chief of the staff to Prta* 
^rhwarsenberg. In 1829 he was appointed general of cava! 
1 BS&, commander-in-chief in Italy, which post he has held ever muet\ 
and in 1836" he received the baton of a field -marshal. It was tiui 
his fortune to acquire the art of Avar from the greatest general! d 
modern times, under Suwarroff and the Archduke Cnarlea, uk 
opposed to Napoleon, How well he profited by the lefts* t 
great masters the campaigns of 1847-48, the fatal dn utaM 

and Novarra can testify* In his 83rd year he retained all the vi«tf 
and lire <>f youth. Though hia hair was white with u 
of his mind remained un quenched* lie was frequently on hortt- 
back for eighteen hours at a time, and the youngest members of ha 
staff could hardly sustain the fatigue that their aged n immanfc 
went through. Of a powerfully knit frame, below the middle beiflbt 
a bold horseman, frank and courteous in his manners, steady in » 
acting discipline, yet considerate to all beneath his command, t* 
was "the idol of * his soldiers, who not only confided in him 10 1 
general, but looked up to hiui as a father. In reverses he was nflt 
discouraged ; by victory he was not elated. Exposing his own pewtft 
freely in "the front rank of the skirmishers, he was always the fiM 

1 join mercy to the vanquished. The victorious leader of : 
strife, he yet never stained his sword with the blood of the i» 

General Hess was his chief of the staff during both his Italiaa 
campaigns, This very able and distinguished officer enjoyed la« 
entire confidence, and was consulted by him upon all occasions. Ih 
was endowed with extraordinary powers of organization^ and a ds» 
and thorough knowledge of the principles of strategy, He held 
much the same position towards K&detaky that GucisVnau did to 
Biueher \ and it is diflicult to separate the merits of each, so con* 
pN N'ly did they always act and think in unison. No jealousy iW 
tarnish* d their friendship, no thought of rivalry disturbed their 

1 cration. R adetarit y has always m i zed ev ery opport unity of 
claiming the obligations he lay uurfer to the assistance he had re< 1 
from his able assistant and confidential adviser. Hia ap 
the command of the Grand Austrian Army, which eoov 
Principalities, and his present position as confidential militar 


cAMrATON nr lombaudt. 


to the Emperor, at once show the high estimationm which his military 
abilities are held in his Dative country, and will test their reality when 
When, on the 1ft th March, IMS, the revolutionary flag was un- 
furled in Milan, about 80,000 men were grouped round the standard 
of Austria, in her LoTtibardo-Yenetiuii provinces. This force, con- 
siderable though it was, was 70,000 less than that stated by Marshal 
E ad ctzky, as absolutely necessary to maintain these provinces against 
the double storm of an internal revolt and a foreign invasion, and 
the campaign, the leading event of which we are about to notice, has 
abundantly proved the truth of the remark. 

This force was divided into three corps, The first corpsj that of 
3aron d'Aspre, held Lombardy ; one of its brigades watched the 
"Se dm on test? frontier and the line of the Tieino * another scattered 
lidst those lovely lakes which lie where the Alps break down into 
lie Italian plains, guarded the Swiss frontier. Three brigades 
10,000 men) garrisoned Milan ; the remainder were scattered over 
towns of Brescia, Bergamo, and Cremona to the north, and uf 
in ma and Piacenza to the south of the Po. The second corps 
(tli at of Count W rati slaw) held the Tenetian provinces. Yenice> 
Mantua, Padua, and Verona were each garrisoned by a brigade j the 
remainder were divided in Single battalions through the prim i pal 
tOWllS, About. 25^000 men of the Austrian army were composed of 
Italians, This was caused by the Austrian system of recruiting, 

Kneli leaves the 3rd, or Depot Battalion of eftch regiment* iti its 
tive country nml district. The strength of these depot battalions 
tgainhadjmt been i-uned from four to sis companies, so that in* 
eluding their own recruits and those they were drilling for the service 

kittalionSj fully two-thirds of these corps consisted of lads who had 
arned enough of soldiering to be formidable in the field, but had 
not acquired those habits of discipline, ohediemc and attachment to 
their colours which in a few years lead the soldiers of every land to 
consider the duty they owe to their sovereign as superior alike to 
the claims of country and the bonds of kindred. They were in the 
most dangerous of all states when they had acquired the drill of 
soldiers, without having lost the feelings of civilians* 

Milan, when the revolutionary tempest firet broke out, contained 
146,000 inhabitants, and though then are within the ample circuit 
its boundary walls several open spaces nearly unoccupied, yet in 
its western quarter the population is eitreffitly dense, the streets 
narrow and winding, the houses tall and massive. In those parts it 
was singularly well adapted for street Rghtittg. The garrison was 
principally quartered m and around a square range of barraeks, 
situated to the westward of the town, called the Oastle, and slight 

In this city, as well as in all the great towns of Louibardy, the 
evolutionary party had for somr n in a state of violent ex- 

ind were kept down only by the threat of martial law, 
The offie&B and soldiers of the were constantly insulted 

ml ill-tmitedby the people. All thi: to that critical state 

vhen a single spark will cause the mine to explode. When the 
evolution broke out in Paris, contrary to general e^rata^ro^ to» 




movement fallowed in Milan* but an ominous silence was preserve 
resembling the lull before the bursting of the storm* At \u 
on the IHth March, the news arrived of the revolution in Vienc 
and the Emperor Ferdinand" s Laving granted a democratic const it 
tion to the state. Immediately the flame ho long smothered brok 
out, the whole population, headed by the town council, flocked 
the residence of the civil governor, Count O'Donnell, an armed party 
joining in the throng, seized the government office, and put to tire 
eword the guard \ the tricolour flag was ho is ted on the Broletto.or Town 
House, and the sullen sound of an alarm gun fired from the walls 
of the castle announced that the revolution had commenced and the 
fight begun- 

The troops issuing from the castle directed their attacks upon 
three points. One column moved upon the Imperial Pak 
Duomo- place j one upon the government buildings, in the Monfor 
street ; and one upoa the BrolettOj or Town House. The two 
columns succeeded in storming the barricades which lay in the 
way, and gaining the forts assigned them ; but the approaches to tin* 
Broletto, the head-quarters of the insurrection, were defended with 
a desperate courage. The tocsin sounded from every steeple, ba 
ricades were erected in every street, as the men advanced thruu 
the narrow winding lanes every kind of missile descended up 
their heads from the roofs and windows of the lofty houses — furo 
ture T fcitonrH, and boiling water, mingled with the more dead 
weapons of modern war,— all communication between the dill 
columns was cut, and after six hours' hard fighting, the fcicolon 
standard still waved on the Broletto, ltudcUky, however, order 
this point to be carried at any price, and the attack w T aa again 
newed. The infantry, abandoning the close column formal 
vanced in files close under the houses, directing their fire upon 
windows opposite to them. The barricades in general weir 
fended by a garrison placed upon them, than by the deadly fia 
iire which issued from the buddings on each side, and frequ 
the soldiers were allowed to march past without a shot being 
when a withering volley from behind woidd level whole se< 
After four hours of this desperate strife the heads of the column 
began to extricate themselves from the lanes and to issue forth 
the place of the Broletto, The pioneers, marching to the froct, 
forarened the open space, aud strove to hew down the great 
with their axes, but the attempt was vain, and they were tnlJm 
fast, when a field-piece was run eloee up and blew it in ; the buildiu 
was then carried with one rush, and 2;1Q prisoners made, many 
them of the best families in Milan. 

So ended the first day's strife ; the troops, though with a bear 
Iota, had gained the three points upon which they were din 
but all communication between their different attacks waa cw 
Their position thus constated of three isolated points, or heads 
columns^ tlu'own far into the centre of the insurgei 
were nutted by no einmimiucaUon between each other, and 
only enmmunicatc with their reserves in the castle by long 
uarrow streets which were at all moments open to flank attacks. 





Tbe night was one of rain and darkness ; the troops occupied the 
posts they hfid won, but not a man dared show himself out of em 
By the insurgents it was passed in ceaseless activity ; round all the 

Eointa held by the Austrians, freah barricades were thrown up, the 
ouses flanking them were loopholed, arms were collected and 
cartridges filled, and all the side streets leading down upon the lines 
of communication between the advanced posts and the castle oecu- 
ied in force. Wben morning broke tbe fight began ; everywhere 
e insurgents pressed close upon the regulars, and hemmed in their 
>aneed posts, until not a supply or ammunition or provisions 
could be conveyed, or a reinforcement marched, from one point to 
another without a light. The streets leading to the Broletto, the 
overnment buildings, and the palace, from the eastle, were the par- 
ieular objects of attack, as these occupations would isolate entirely 
tin In -ads of the Austrian column, and the advantage taken of all 
the side streets running into them, by tbe Milanese, for this purpose, 
showed at once tbe greatest skill in the conception, and daring in the 
execution of their plan. A desperate struggle took place in the 
nomo place, where the magnificent cathedral, whose gbttering mar- 
Mf pinnacles, rise clear and sharp against the blue southern sky, was 
held by the stout Tyroieae Jagers ; but their sure aim repulsed with 
great loss eaeb charge, and when the shades of evening tell over the 
srenc of blood, tbe sharp crack of their rifles still rang from every 
gallery and window. Though tbe posts were nearly all maintained, 
still the loss and exhaustion of the troops were so great, and the 
difficulty of obtaining supplies such, that Badetzky determined to 
withdraw bis men entirely from the destructive contest in the interior, 
n&f occupying all the entrances to the town, endeavoured to reduce 
t by bombardment. During the night this movement was, though 
not without great difficulty and considerable loss, e fleeted, and ere 
morning a chain of posts was established, watching all the enframes 
to fchfl town. Tt was a dark and dreary night for the troops engaged, 
who sullenly withdrew amidst torrents of pftlO, and beneath a cease- 
less tire ; i parallel to its horrors may he ioiind in the celebrated 
11 \orhr Triste" of Spanish story] when the conqueror* of Mexico were 
3men from the capital tin > had won. 

During the 20th the Austrians remained on tbe defensive, in 1 hen- 
chain of poata surrounding the insurgent city, and the principal effort 
of the Milanese wns directed to seke some of the gates, and op 
communication with the country. Against the Porta Tieiense j 
entrance from Piedmont) a prolonged and desperate attack was kept 
up ; but although the houses afforded cover close up to the wall aud 
gate, no impression could be made upon General Clam's brigade, who 
radicated their position by a withering fire. On the western side of 
the town, however, the barrack of San Francisco and the engineers 1 
<tc both stormed 
During these three days the position of tbe Austrians in the 
Milanese had become to the last degree critical, In all the town 
thrir flanks and rear the insurrection had broken out - all their 
a m$ |>" iHTininded; most of the depdfcti of the Itn 

regiments bad either joined the insurgents or could not be tcu.*^A. 




The whole communications of the array were thus interrupted ; eon* 
voys could not be brought up, and with difficulty could order* 
be circulated, The country population were generally well ail' 
to the Imperial government, but, scattered as they were, th 
was purely of a negative nature ; whilst the active hostility of 1 
townamen at once gave the revolutionary party the entire comma 
of all the central points and roada of the country* Meauwli 
ports were circulated that the Government of the Swiss cant 
the Tessino had declared far the insurgents, and it was well known 
to Badetzky that the whole army of Piedmont would shortly i 
the frontier. In these circumstances the Austrian army was 
matched, and it was now evident that a concentration of their v " 
force on the line of the Mineio — where either a strong defe 
position could be assumed, or the best possible base for a \ ~'i\ 
offensive secured — was the only sale course, with a view to til 
mate preservation of the Italian provinces. 

Influenced by these considerations, KadeUky determined to 
treat. Orders were accordingly transmitted to the 
Picdmontese frontier, aud to those winch watched the Swia. 
to abandon their positions, and march on Milan* Both bn_ 
to force their way through the midst of an insurgent country 
both suffered considerably; a battalion was surrounded at Co 
Croat company surrendered at Varese, but on the 22nd they j- 
the main army beneath the walla of Milan. The whole eU 1 
arms on the evening of that day on the parade ground uf the 
nnd forming into five massy columns, commenced their retrenl , 1 h> 
castle being on the western side of the town, and tin 
leading from its eastern gate, to gam the latter a flank march had I 
he made round its walls. This was no easy matter for enorni 
triiins of baggage, both of civilians and soldiers, numbers of civil i 
vat its, and many waggon loads of wounded, encumbered the march, 
whilst the right flank, front and rear, were exposed to attacks 
the Milanese, and the left flank from the country insurge 
column moved along the rampart, two on its right through 1 1 
which lies between the wall and the body of the city, and two alon^ 
the road outside the walls, Bwarms of skirmishers covered the en- 
trance and protected the flanks. To prevent their occupation by the 
enemy all the houses bordering the line of march were set on fire by 
the light troops, and when the shades of evening fell around the 
moving mass, it was lighted on its way by the conflagration which 

loped and secured its flank* Once onl\ 
to interrupt its progress— n free corpa threw itaetf in I 
the vanguard at the Porta ConuuMiia.aru! the slurp tla*hof mii 
for an instant enveloped the head of the column, but A 
pieces the fiery chain, it pursued, in darkness aud in 
mainder of its way. 

On the 23rd, the army continued its retreat, The village of 

T^fTv ait «ated where the Lodi road crosses the Zambro it« 

w fiT t Qnta believing, from the proclamations MLbofjie, 

il?l y^ tr ian army was flying in confusion, barricaded their 

bridge and village, aeiaed ,*onie officers sent on to order pfffi* 




sions, aud summoned the Field-Marshal to surrender* In ail instant 
Austrian artillery galloped to the front, and, under cover of 
their lire, the vanguard rushed on with the bayonet, and stormed the 
place, the whole houses of which were burned and plundered. This 
severe example opened the eyes of the people, who, henceforth, made 
no attempt at resistance. On the 24th they reached Lodi, and took 
Up a position on the banks of the Adda. 

PBadetzky had at first hoped that he might be able to maintain the 
line of this river ; but the accounts which came in from all quarters 
soon showed that this was impossible. On the day when he re- 
treated from jVliJan the King of Sardinia published a proclamation in 
favour of Italian unity, put his army on the war establishment, and 
directed its instant advance on the Ticino. Its force was about 
4G,U00 men. The Italian troops stationed in Bergamo, Cremona, 
Brescia, and Bovigo, having revolted, these towns were lost* The 
insurrection spread along the western shores of the Lake of Guarda, 
where the important castle of Koeca d'Anfu fell into the handa of 
the democrats, as well as the steamer on the lake, and disaffection 
broke out in the Italian Tyrol, so that the line of communication by 
Trent was in danger. Meantime, far in the rear, Udine, together 
with the fortresses of Osopo and Pulmanuovo, were delivered up 
by their garrisons. In the latter were 30 guns and 15,000 stand of 
arms, fint the most severe blow which befel the Austrian cause 
was the loss of Venice. This most important town* impregnable 
from its situation, the only great Italian seaport of Austria, was gar* 
risoned by three German and four Italian battalions, commanded by 
Count Zk-by. When news arrived on the 20th of the insurrec- 
tion of Milan, disturbances immediately broke out, which so 
intimidated the commandant that he consented to a conven- 
tion, and surrendered the tuwn without itrikiug a blow fur 
Nit Imperial cause. The garrison waa transported to IV u 
Meanwhile the troops in Belluno, Treviso, and Parma were 
surrounded and forced to capitulate; while Verona waa only 
held by abandoning Padua, the garrison of which was marched upon 
the former town to reinforce the garrison of the castle, who alone 
could net keep down the cUsoftecL d population; and e tua 

was required to be secured from internal tumults by a brigade uo 
tacbed from the army on the Adda. Kadetzky thus "found hituwJf, 
with the insurrection, supported by the whole Piedmouicse army, in 

Ibis front; Venice and his terra ft mat, and with it hil principal I 
of communication with Austria, in possession of the insurgmU, in his 
rear, and all the lowoi on his right flank, as well u* the Rr«rtara 
shore of the lake of Guarda, in anno against him, and thus his only 
remaining line of mm muni* -at ion by Trent threaten 
Mantua, IV ma, and Zeimago, with the lim 

Jlineio and the Adigc — the strongest military position in Italy,— 
however, still remained, and thi r her the veteran commander now I 
tooted his steps to fight the battle of lib sovereign. The small for- 
tress of Pizzigbitone was abandoned, and on the 25th the army left 
the hanks of the Adda, and, moving by Crcma, Ordnovi, nod Mou- 
lecbiaro, crossed the Jtlincio on the 31st, and halted on its left bwak* 


to On 



leaving only a strong rear-guard at Lonato, on the right bank* Head* 
quarters were established at Verona. 

A pause of about a week now ensued, for the Piedmonteae army, 
which was advancing through the Milanese in two columns, one liv 
Brescia the other by Cremona, required some timo to gather head 
on the Mineio, as from the suddenness of the declaration of war, and 
their desire to occupy at once the ground vacated by the Austrian*, 
they had pushed onma very straggling manner, with long inti 
hel ween their divisions and brigades. Besides, it was now necessary 
for Charles Albert to arrange something like a plan of opera! " 
fur the numerous and varied force under his orders, and to orgi 
the levies of the Milanese. That monarch had been urged into 
war, not less by ambition, and a desire to extend his own territo 
than by necessity, for to such a height had the revolutionary ferment 
reached in Piedmont, that it was evident he must to preserve his crown, 
either combat it by force, or put himself at its head, and turn it 
aside from domestic to foreign war* by leading in person the ardent 
democrat* of his own dominions, and of all Italy, to a crusade against 
the Austrians, the armed representatives of the monarchical principle. 
He chose the latter course. The portion of his army ready lor m 
service consisted of about 40,000, but he could not calculate upon 
bringing into line on the Mincio at the opening of the campaign above 
25,000. Large levies however were ordered' and he would before 
long be able to bring up great reinforce ments, The Pie 
troops are the best in Italy. Well office red and organised , tin 

steady under lire, and enduring on the march, The corps of 
ritiemen, called ISer^agUeri, were a magnificent and highly trained 
body of Light troops. 

Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and the Papal States have been utterly 
swept away by the revolutionary torrent, and placed their whole 
forces at his disposal. Their forces were nearly all directed to the 
line of the Po, and were intended portly to cross that river and sup- 
port the right of tho PlftdtaOttlteMP mt the Mincio, but m:iiulv <«• 
occupy the Venetian main land, and thus entirely surround fh. 
rear of the Kadct/kvV army, and oppose any attempt to send rein- 
forcements to him from the side oi Cariuthia and Caraiola* 
amounted in all to about 19,000 men. Atnongsi Onm was 4,11*1 
8 wise in the Pope's service, troops unsurpassed by any in Eui 
but the remainder being mostly ill officered, could not be deoei 
onto contend with the A untrians in the open field . The K 
Naples, too, yield in g to the democratic party, dispatched 20,000 of 
his troops towards the Po; but circumstances arose which prev< 
their taking an active part in the fight, — a matter of no importance, 
as, except the guards, ritiemen, and Swiss, the Neapolitan ti 
well dressed and capitally drilled, are wholly unable to si 
Attempts were also being made to oi egular regimenta in the 

Milanese and the Venetian territory, but, with the exception of tbe 
revolted battalions, they had Dot vVt acquired any consistency* In 
addition to the*©, the Wffular forces, there can rer lam* 

bands oi volunteers, organised in free corps, from ail part* of ItaJ/. 


To estimate their force was not easy, but in general they prove I of 
little U8Q, with the exception of a few student corps composed of 

Ioung men of good family. They generally were unruly in quarters, 
ut yet melted away the moment they were exposed to fire, and did 
more damage to their own countrymen by their depredations than 
the Austrians by their arms. 

The position held by Badetzky consisted of two lines, that of the 
Mincio and that of the Adige. The line of the Mincio, leaning its 
right flank on the lake of Guarda and its left on the Po, with the 
fort of Peschiera and the strong fortress of Mantua supporting its 
front, is one of great strength, but is liable to be turned by an 
enemy in possession of the right bank of the Po. The line of the 
Adige in its rear, however, in this respect is much stronger, flowing 
down through a deep and narrow valley, overhung by rocks and pre- 
cipices as far as Montebaldo and the plateau of Eivoli ; it enters 
the plains of Italy beneath the ramparts of Verona, and flows on in 
a deep and rapid channel parallel to the Mincio, as far as the fort of 
Zegnago, there it turns to the east, and continues its course to the 
Adriatic, parallel with, and at a short distance from, the Po. It 
thus forms an interior line of defence, supported by two fortresses, 
to the lines both of the Mincio and the Po, and is equally strong 
against an enemy coming from the west and the south. Much of its 
value, however, was lost to Eadetzky from the fall of Venice, and 
the revolt of all its continental possessions. This, at one blow, placed 
the lower lines of the Po and the Adige, and the whole towns and 
fortresses in his rear, with his main line of communication, in the 
hands of his opponents. He was thus driven to depend for his sole 
communication with Germany on the road which ascends the valley 
of the Adige from Verona by Trent through the Tyrol, consequently 
should he be driven from the line of the Mincio, it was necessary for 
him at all hazards to maintain himself at Verona, and to hold the 
valley of the Adige above that place. Once driven from that (so 
long as the territory of Venice was unsubdued), he must abandon 
for ever the Italian plains, and retire into the Tyrolese mountains. 
His line of retreat was not perpendicular to the front of his posi- 
tion, but parallel to his right flank. This was his weak point, and 
consequently his first and greatest object was to secure his commu- 
nication with the Tyrol, for on that depended entirely his being able 
to remain in his present position. 

It was, however, at present in considerable danger ; for not only 
had the insurrection spread through great part of the Italian Tyrol 
up the western side ot the lake of Guarda, and through the Guar da 
valley, but even on the eastern side of that lake disturbances had 
broken out, and his convoys were harassed by attacks from armed 
bands in the Montebaldo, whilst the town of Trent was in all but 
open insurrection. The only troops in the province, consisting of 
weak brigades, were scattered over the western and the northern 
frontier, watching the passes leading to Switzerland and Swabio. 
Few of these could be spared, but such as could were directed on 
Botzen and the Franzen's fortress, to secure those important points, 
whilst Badetzky detached Baron Zobel with a brigade from fa& wro» 
U. S, Mack, No. 867, Jvm, 1850, h 




army to get possession of the all-important town of "V 
B ccuro hi* flank. That gallant officer, pushing 01 utmcrf 

rapidity; occupied the castle without resistaao©; and though k 
eould only spare 800 men and three guns to garrison 
threatening to fire on the town at ita feet, he forced the 
submit and give up their arms. Meanwhile, the whole in 
province were called out by Imperial proclamation,- and nobly itt) 
gallantly, as in days of yore, did the mountaineers reej- 
appeal, From every cottage, down rvcry valley, they poi 
appointed places of muster. Old rifleu that had not seen eerncr 
since the da yps of Hofer were brought forth* Prin< 
with Ida red beard, now silver white, appeared at their head, TV 
Tyrolese students at Vienna left the university to join the pairix 
bauds in their native hills. Wherever the German t 
spoken, loyalty to their emperor went forth, and bo 
paniea of riflemen were organised, ready and ei 
forces of the Italians, as they had done those of thr 
democracy . 

(To bo continued.) 


Tmb following Circular, relative to the treatment of volunteers from lb 
ierchant service to the Royal Navy, has just been issued bv the 

"Sir,— Hi r Majesty having been graciously pleased to ini } 
the merchant service to join her Majesty's Navy, in order that 
and its commerce may 1>l j adequately protected under the -*tre» 

stances of a war in Europe, I am commanded by my Lords Comou 
of the Admiralty to acquaint you that the men who loyally ace. 
tation deserve a cordial reception from the profession (hat has jooq£ 
them . 

tl It must be borne hi mind that men, on first joining tlie Royal 
will have to renounce many old customs, and to adopt others, whirl 
first be irksome to them, but they will l&arn to appreciate the or I 
is indispensable for the comfort mid efficiency of larpe bodi. 
the change in their habits be effected by the officers with tempi 
ment. Jit; on the contrary, an expectation prevail that il 
able suddenly to accommodate themselves to the ne<n 
ship of war, and if a harsh attempt be made to compel tludr iiumcdi i 
Joniiity to these restraint*, they will feel they have been unfairly iujcI mwiirly 
treated. Such a feeling would be most unfortunate, 

" These considerations alone would seem Eiiflieh-ut to secure to such scjuatfD 
a proper solicitude fur their contentment ; but the impression pr, 
the merchant seamen upon the present occasion, must have u \ ei 
iniluence in times to come. If they be not now cordially received an< 
treated, the unfortunate repugnance for the Navy Ihitt'has « 
will 1 :ened and perpetuab. d, to the irreparable injury of the natioirf 

interests. J 

**Uw presence of these merchant seamen in her Majesty's 
only be a source of present utrength, hut by ^curing theij 
service, it should be the means of spreading a similar fecliog aimm 
seafaring population of our Islands. 


" Those whose duty it may be to instruct the men should be firm, but 
they should also be patient and forbearing. The men should be taught the 
necessity for their exercises, and to take an interest in them accordingly. 
Steadiness at quarters and precise firing are the first steps towards efficiency, 
and the next is a silent and seamanlike performance of other duties, without 
aiming at great rapidity. 

" The newly-raised men are to be at once properly clad, and informed of 
the regulations about clothing, and that they are responsible to the officers 
of their divisions for the condition of their kits. Each man is to be at once 
shown his mess-place and his sleeping berth, and where he is to stow his bag ; 
■And a hammock, clews, and lashing are to be given him. The usages of a 
lower deck, the customs and routine of the service, and the pay, pensions, 
and badges to which seamen are entitled, must be explained to him. He is to 
be told to whom he should apply in the event of his requiring advice or infor ) 
illation, and that if he should have a complaint to make, he must represent it 
to the officer of the watch, and if necessary, through him to the captain of 
the ship. 

" He should be shown how to sling and lash up his hammock, to wash and 
dress himself for quarters, to wash his clothes, and to scrub his hammock, so 
that they may be thoroughly cleaned ; also how to stop them on the girt 
lines so they may not be lost. 

u These things, and others of the same character, are to be taught without 
delay to men on first entry, in order that they may adapt themselves readily 
and with satisfaction to a ship of war. 

u It must be understood, however, that the foregoing instructions give no 
sanction to a relaxation of that discipline which should prevail at all times, 
and which is essential to the efficiency of the service, and the comfort and 
well being of the men. 

"Having pointed out the spirit in which men who for the first time join 
the Royal Navy are to be treated, and having called attention to some details 
in illustration of the manner in which they should be initiated, my Lords 
rely upon the officers of the fleet to turn to good account the opportunity 
that has been afforded for dispelling the aversion for the Navy which the 
merchant seamen have conceived from traditional misrepresentations of the 
Queen's service. 

" Their Lordships desire that you will direct the commanding officers of 
the ships under your orders to make known the foregoing instructions to the 
executive commissioned officers and officers in charge of decks, and the com- 
manding officers are to take care that all the warrant and subordinate officers 
conform themselves thereto. 

*'I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 



"Wab, like everything else, is entering on a new era. The 
great conflict now opening will present phases and exhibit results 
different from any recorded by history. It will be a struggle with 
rifles and artillery, and leave comparatively little to the bayonet, 
which we now learn, for the first time, is the special weapon of the 
Trench. The arms that are " only dangerous at a distance" may- 
decide a battle before attacking columns can form Con \tos> &os^. 

They will, as at Inkennann, tell with fatal efieet on advnnrii 
wheo their gleaming bayonets will b< 
to the expert sharpshooter. But, in a still gran 
tiona in the field will be influenced by artillery. wl. 
gone such changes as must revolutionise the whole art. of war. On 
every side we hear of new descriptions of cannon. En, 
great military powers of the continent boaBts a mysterious arm** 
merit which is to do wonders in the coming struggle- 1 1 ii herl 
have put their faith in great guns* Not only in war, 1 
life, these adjuncts have been always expected to carry the diy 
Like Kuhjtri Singh's Sikhs, we have worshipped 
is this traditionary faith likely to be changed in England, 
pin, whether a simple Lord or a 68-pounder, hi 
mauds respect. But a new creed has been broached on thi 
side of the channel. France has suddenly given her adhesi< 
UtffegtUL She intends to make a clean sweep of Itah 
pounder. Let us live and learn. On the other hand. A 
laughs at the weak invention of her enemy, and the rumour^ 
devices of other powers. They were all known to her, a 
tried and found wanting a quarter of a century ago. She is 
in such notions as China is id magnetism. Trifles of th 
are not for her book, but she just intimates that she has £ut i 
cannon that may be backed against all creation. In s>ln>: 
pretty well understood that the predominance which 

ued to artillery is about to be asserted in a wry signal n 
"We become, then, seriously interested to know whether we are in 
a position to take part in this great combat of guns— wheti 
armament is as good as our neighbours, and whether \ 
given our artillery that efficiency and power which it has so long 
notoriously wanted. 

The first to call attention to our wretched deficiency in gunnery 
was Sir Howard Douglas. This great artillerist bo powerful!* 
pointed out to the Government the danger we were incurring bv our 
negligence, that it was impossible to ignore his renrc sen tat ions;" and, 
at Ills suggestion, the Excellent was commissioned for gunnervprsc* 
tice, and encouragements held out for proficiency. Still further to 
advance the object, Sir Howard produced his celebrated treatise on 
Naval Grnuttrr/, giving to the service the benefit of nil hi- 
knowledge and experience ; and he is at this moment a men 
a Commission designed to introduce the utmost efficiency. A 
lie-ve it is under the consideration of the Commission whether *»* 
shall equip our ships with an entirely new arm— one that, ijm 
now familiar by name in every English household — ay, in 
comer of Europe ; and there is reason to think that Englan 
has a gun, compared with which the inventions of > 
Austria are but toys, and before which their armies must flee and be 

If we have hitherto forborne from giving more than a i\ 
hints respecting the Armstrong gun — designed only to e< 
fallacious descriptions of the Edinburgh Jit iter." the 
Magazine^ and other publications — it has not been from tiny fcnr 




that our revelations would betray the secret to a foreign power, but 
because the time had not arrived when we were at liberty to com- 
municate fuller particulars. From this restriction we arc now 
relieved. Sir William Armstrong himself has intimated that, for 
some time to come^ the foundries of the continent will be unable to 
fabricate his gun T even with all the information that drawings and 
descriptions can give* As there could assuredly be no secret in 
such amatU-L'. it in a satisfaction to know that the invention can't 
be pirated, All the workers in brass and iron that France or 
Austria possess, will here — at least, for a time be baffled. It is 
only in our own mighty foundries, and by our own Cyclops, that 
these thunderbolts of Jove can be forged- They are the inven- 
tion of a civilian, a man of peace — one, we believe, who never saw a 
field of battle. It is a strange fact that the two greatest, the two 
most destructive munitions of war should have had a similar origui- 
An English friar was the discoverer of gunpowder ; an English arti- 
ficer has given us the Armstrong gun. The alchemist at his crucible, 
and the philosophic engineer at his foundry, may have each caught 
\ be Br*t dim suggestion from accident. Archimedes solved the prob- 
lem of ILien/s Grown in a bath j Newton saw in the fall of an apple 
the secret mechanism of the universe \ the steam of a tea-kettle 
taught a wonderotis lesson to Watt ; and, in the same observant 
watchfulness of natural phenomena, Sir William Armstrong was ar- 
rested by the mountain stream that, in turning the wheel of a mill, 
unveiled to his reflecting mind the mysteries of water power, and 
led him to construct those hydraulic hoists and e rimes, which 
are now seen at every commercial entrepot* But what happy inci- 
dent led Sir William to dream of petards ? — nay, to construct them, 
and of such a kind as makes the wildest dreamer open his eyes, and 
say " can such things be ? M We know not, but here we have the 
result, a result that was reached after indomitable perseverance and 
incredible exert iims. To trace its gradual development we must 
follow a lonely man to the sea-shore, at three u 1 clock iu the morning, 
for the summer round ; we must accompany him, at midnight, to the 
steeps of a Northumbrian mountain, and watch the gradual advance- 
tpenl of hid marvellous labours. There are many weary watches 
and many sad failures to be braved, and it was not till after three 
years of aucVeiforts that this mighty gun was matured. But the end 
compensates for the toil It ranks the successful artificer with the 
great masters of science— with Stephenson, Watt, and ArehimedeB, 
and it enables htm to claim a price which none but himself can 
limit, Whatever lie had asked, the country, we are told hy the 
.Minister for War, must have paid ; and we may add that whatever 
tlu- country had paid, it would have had a bargain* But the pa- 
triotic Northumbrian asked nothing — would receive nothing, except 
his own actual outlay and daily wages j and, a with generosity that 
exalts bis genius, he has made over his invention as a free gift to the 
The material of the Armstrong gun is iron, forged in separate 
-•*, of such dimensions as render flaw impossible, and united 
together, or, to borrow Sir William's own phrase, " built up. " fcak 


this peculiar i '("instruction gives the gun tlvnt comb inn ti on of itragtb 
and Tightness which forma one of its characteristics. A large *rtrw 
in t lie breech end of the piece closes the bore, by presaiug against 
the stopper, and ttirough this screw, which is hollow, the charge il 
introduced, and the gun sponged, The atop] ag small, and 

consequently liable to be lost, is secured by a chain, and its whole 
arrangement ia very complete, In a ship or battery the gun wiU bo 
mounted on a peculiar carriage, fitted with a slide, on which it will 
be driven back by the recoil, and again carried forward by its enm 
gravity, — a contrivance that, as the charge is introduced at tb* 
breech, will have the e fleet of greatly reducing the complement of 
flten for each gun. The range of thia deadly engine is not pre 
stated, but its performances in this respect may bo conjectured 
the fact of its having .struck five times in ten a target nin 
square, and scarcely visible from the tiring point, at ad: 
3000 yards, or upwards of a mile and three-quarters ; at G 
it will drive a shot into the muzzle of an enemy's gun, T 
are of cast-iron, and receive a leaden coat, which makes them larger 
than the bore of the gun, so that the lead may be ccJmp^cBael' , 
the rifle grooves, and the projectile thus obtain the proper rot . 
This, at the same time, prevents shake and windage, giving incr 
precision to the fire. In the field the projectile has a triple capacitj, 
and may be used as a solid shot, one good charge of cast-iron, or i# 
a shell or common case. Nine feet of oak gives a clear passage to 
thia visitor directly he knocks at the door, and he glides tin 
unfractured as perfect as when he fell from the mould. This ma* 
is composed of a number of pieces firmly packed together, as if 
were one integral shot; and though it comes out entire, bnrst 
fragments when used as a shell, scattering death and destruction at 
150 different points. Sir "William Armstrong mentions an experi* 
ment in the presence of the Duke of Cambridge, when seven shells, 
fired at two targets nine-feet square, at a distance of 1500 yards, 
struck the targets with 596 fragments. The uombinatjV 
the principle of the percussion and the shrapnel shell liaii 
effected with such success that, to quote Sir William** v 
the shell "may be made to explode either as it approaches the object 
or as it strikes it. Amongst friends it is so safe that i 
thrown off the top of a house without exploding, but amongst eop- 
mies it is so sensitive and mischievous that it burst* with 
The difference lies in its being thrown with the hand, or b 
motion by casualty, and its being launched from the gun, 
passed through those fearful grooves, it goes on its message of 
with unerring precision. The percussion arrangement receives its 
full cock by the act of discharge, and, at the will of the gunner, op 
ing on a time-fuse, the shell may be made to burst at il dis 
directly it quits the gun, in either ease breaking into a shower of grape. 
These are the field projectiles ; and those used for battering n 
blowing up buildings, or breaching ti wall, are, as regards their 
tractive effects, like unto them, though somewhat different in strucl 
The most prominent characteristic of these shells are the provision 
make for a large charge of powder, being for a 32-pomid< 



double that afforded by the shell of the ordinary 3 2 -pounder, and, 
consequently, rendering the projectile so much the more effective; 
at the same time, the hole it makes in penetrating a ship is so small, 
that the explosion, which occurs at the moment of lodgement, is 
extremely confined, and hence the result more terribly destruc- 
tive. In the case of the larger guild now preparing, it may be ex- 
pected to exceed anything hitherto accomplished. 

Such are some of the attributes of the new ordnance. Is it des- 
tined to prove a scourge of the human race, or its common protector P 
— an incitement to aggression, or a pledge of peace? In whatever 
way it may be first employed, it cau only eventually operate in the 
last light ; for, hv its decisive action, it renders war too destructive to 
be pursued ; and we may recognise the providence of the Almighty 
Disposer in the bestowal of this engine on a nation which, above aft 
others, is interested in universal peace, and most desirous to main- 
tain it* 

9. W, F. 


w nearly one year has elapsed since first ft Commission, was 
appointed to inquire into the best means for reorganising the Indian 
army, and the result of their labours is before us, in a somewhat 
bulky volume, extending over five hundred pages of closely printed 
paper. The labour taken by the officers composing the committee 
*£aa certainly been great, and each fact or suggestion as brought to 
their notice by the cloud of witnesses examined, thoroughly tested 
and considered ; but the decision arrived at, if the opinion given 
can be considered in the light of a decision, is most unsatisfactory, 
and scarcely worth putting the country and individuals to §o much 
expense and delay in its attainment, Eor nearly twelve long months 
have the result oi the Commission's deliberation been looked forward 
to by every one connected with India, and by none so anxiously as 
the officers of the Honourable East India Company's service, and 
now this is all they will receive. This meagre report, with its un- 
satisfactory conclusions, to be the return for so much anxious ex- 
pectation. To the officers of the Bengal Native Army, scattered as 
they now are all over India, doing duty in one part perhaps with 
regiments not requiring their services; in another, drilling JSeikh 
recruits, or broiling under canvass in Oudh, raising police battalions 
from the same men that were not improbably under their command 
two years before, this report will be a bitter disappointment To 
such as these officers, without regiments, without homes or certain 
employ, we repeat that the report will be a bitter disappointment. 
The long delay shiee the transfer of India and its services to the 


280 BEotoaAinfcATiON 0* tite htbtak amtt. [J no, 

crown, had prepared nil connected with that land t 

final, The anxious wish of all was for some definite arranges 

he made, and thus all could know bow they stood. Had 

the case, many an officer now in India too high in rank t 

with an European corps, and not perhaps considered fit 1 

Government for command, might have thought about retiring 

of dragging on a life of useleesness to those employing bin 

satisfactory to himself, To those now in England on sick le&i 

have purchased steps, ami either thn ther inability 

eanimt return to India, further delay is a serious matter. Tbeiato* 

of their steps might be represented as nil, and the retiring pensions 

small that none would accept them unless the add; 
bonus from the regiment made it possible for an officer to e 
the flame, 

The following twelve questions appear to have been espc 
called to the notice ofthe Commission, and their opinion is g] 
some 1 ength in 1 1 1 e n s p* >rt ( Tl i e n -co m mend at ions a re n i ne in una- 
ber, and the whole report is signed by the ten gentlemen composing 
the Commission, Colonel Burlton adding a note that he only sign* 
the report as a matter of duty, but generally concurs iu it* recom- 

1. The terms on which the army of the East India Company 
be transferred to the Crown, 

2. The permanent force necessary to be maintained in the Indian 
provinces respectively, after the restoration of tranquilly 

3. The proportion which European should bear to native troop 
in infantry, cavalry, and artillery respectively. 

4. How fax the l^uropean portion ofthe army ahould be compel 
of troops of the line, taking India as part of the regular lour al 

vice, and how far troops raised for service in India only. 

5. The best means of providing for the periodical relief e 
former portion, and of securing the efficiency ofthe latter. 

ft. Whether it be possible to consolidate the European fern 
as to allow of exchange from one branch ofthe service to tin- 
am! what regulations would be necessary and practicable to 
this object with perfect justice to the claims of all officer* now in 
the service ofthe East India Company. 

7. "Whether there should be any' admixture of European and 
native forces, either regimentally or by brigade. 

8. Whether the local European force should be kept np hv drafb 
and volunteers from the line, or should be, as at present, separated 
recruited for iu Great Britain. 

9. Whether it would be possible to raise anj regiments in the 
colonics, either for temporary or permanent service in India, 

1(K W T h ether the native forces should be regular, or irrpguL 
both ; and if so, in what proportion. 

11. "Whether any native artillery corps should he sanctioned, 

12. Wliether cadets sent out for service with native troops ah 

in the first instance, be attached to European regiments to secure 
uniformity of drill and discipline. 




The observations of the Commission are far too lengthy to be 
noted in this paper, but its recommendation runs thus a — 
l That the native army should be composed of different nation- 
alities and castes, and as a general rule mixed promiscuously through 
each regimeut. 

2, That all men of the regular native army in your Majesty's 
eastern possessions should be enlisted lor general service. 

3, That a modification should be made in the uniform of the 
unlive troops, assimilating it more to the dress of the country, aud 
making it more suitable to the clim&1 

1. That Europeans should, as far as possible* be employed in the 
scientific branches of the service; but that corps of pioneers be 
formed for the purpose of relieving the European sappers from those 
duties which entail exposure to the climate. 

5. That the articles of war which govern the native army be re- 
vised, and that the power of commanding officers be increased. 

0. That the promotion of native commissioned and non-commis- 
sioned officers he regulated on the principle of efficiency, rather than 
peniority ; and that commanding officers of regiments have the same 
power to promote non-commissioned officers as is vested in officers 
commanding regiments of the line. 

7. That whereas the pay aud allowances of officers and men are 
now issued under the various heads ; the attention of her Majesty's 
government be drawn to the expediency of simplifying the pay codes, 
and of adopting, if practicable, fixed scales of allowances for the 
troops in garrison, or cantonments, and in the Held. 

8. That the commander-in-chief in Bengal be styled the a 
mander-iu- chief in India ; and that the general officers commanding 
the armies of the minor presidencies be commanders of the forces, 
with the power and advantages which they have hitherto enjoyed. 

9. Your Commissioners observe, that the efficiency of the Indian 
Barmy haa hitherto been injuriously affected by the small number of 
offieen usually doing duty with the regiments to which they belong. 

This evil lias arisen from the number withdrawn for staff ami 

i" duties, and civil employment* All the evidence before youf 

ra points out the necessity of improving the position of 

ohiccrs serving regimentally. For the attainment of this object, 

and for the remedy of the evil complained of, various schemes nave 

been suggested^ viz : — 

1. The formation of a staff eorpa, 

2. The system of seconding officers who are on detached employ, 
which exists to a certain extent in the line army* 

3. Placing the European officers of each Presidency on general 
lists for promotion. 

The Commissioners not being able to come to any conclusion on 
this point, leave its solution to the authorities in India, and con- 
clude their report with observing that details must ultimately be 
decided by these same authorities. 

Colonel Burlton. is at issue with his colleagues on two points, a* 
to the proportion which European should bear to native troops* *md 



looks with much apprehension to the number of the latter, which a 
contemplated by the terms of the fifth paragraph of the report. 

" Tour Majesty's Commissioners are of opinion that the amotffii 
of native force should not, under present circumstance*, be»i 
greater proportion to the European, in cavalry and iniantrr, thia 
two to one for Bengal, and three to one for Madras and Bomb, 

He is also of opinion that the proposed measure of requiring aS 
men of the regular Native Army, without exception, to be earn 
for " general service " (including embarkation on hoard ship), is (Of 
not only of very doubtful expediency, but, in the ease of th 
Presidency, especially calculated to produce serious detriment m 
difficulties, with comparatively email advantages to the pi 

These objections Colonel Borlton supports by observation in bif 
minute, No. 79, page 245, in the appendix. 

To attempt to analyze the evidence given by even the prir 
witnesses before the Commission would occupy more time tain 
can now be afforded, nor could we in the short space allowed *«■ 
refer to one quarter that is told. The report of the Commissions 
is before us, and it is on that which we must comment. 

The reply to the first question is satisfactory to those lively to 
suifer by an adverse derision, lor to offer them any other termB than 
those made with their former masters would be unfair. Promotki 
by seniority is rightly recommended not to be disturbed. 

The second question is not so easily answered, for, as the I 
missioncrs observe, the amount and distribution of the force Uital 
always be affected by political exigencies. 80,000 men appear tot* 
1 he number considered necessary — distributed in Bene 
Madras, 15,000 ; and Bombay, 15,000. These certainly v, 
enough to crush any attempt at rebellion, and were all" the 
disarmed would be more than sufficient ; but according to the si* 
of the native army, so must be the European, for India will r 
have more to tear from mutiny than rebellion. Let the native &nru 
be regulars or irregulars, well disciplined, or mere police, thev Till 
not for ever be contented to act as auxiliaries to the white sob! 
and when strong enough, either by numbers or discipline, would dfl 
as they have done before — mutiny and murder, 

The third question is so mixed up with its predecessor tha: 
same reply holds good, but the Commissioners rightly determine that 
the artillery should be mainlv an European force. We say entirely. 
Eai ives only being employed in it as labourers. In such places as «w 
detrimental to European constitutions, it would be better to have no 
artillery stationed, than to keep trained native artillerists for tin 

In connection with this question, the Commission recommend that 
great caution be used in not giving the military police corps, now 
raising, "a stricter military training than may be required for tb* 
maintenance of discipline," as in it are the elements of ftitttis 
danger. How is the amount of discipline to be regulated? Mw 
the police corps to be commanded by officers either from the line or 


local corps, and carelessly taught to bo left to degenerate into the 
old Burkundaz ? Are officers who have studied their profession 
and hare been selected for the staff, to unlearn the art of war ; and, 
when put in command of a police corps, to remain satisfied with 
seeing their men awkward, ignorant, and useless ? Certainly a police 

I corps, drilled Find commanded under the system recommended by 
this Commission, would be an ornament to the service and a credit 
to the officers attached. 
The fourth question is entered into at great length, and is the one 
on w T hich the Commission disagree. As far as we can discover, the 
majority are for having no local corps, but for making all European 
regiments in India become part of the line. The minority think 
juat the contrary, and have, in our opinion, the best of the argument 
and certainly, as regards support in their judgment, the names of 
Lord El leu borough, Sir Partrick Grant, Sir John Lawrence, Sir 
James Outraro , Generals Vivian, Abbott, Birch, Tucker, &c*, &e, f 
» are a host in themselves . 

The majority have their views also veil supported, as the names 
of Lord Elphinstone, Sir Edward I/ugard, &ir George Clerk, Sir 
Charles Trcvelyan, Sir Sydney Cotton, Generals Pranks and Tulloch, 
will shew ; but on carefully reading over the evidence given bv theae 
last mentioned gentlemen, comparing their knowledge of India, and 
it* acquirements, and the position they held, either in the army or 
ivil service in India, any unprejudiced person must allow that their 
pinion is not so trustworthy as that of the minority. 
As the minority observe, it will scarcely fail to bo remarked, 
that, u with two or three exceptions, they are of much more limited 
Indian experience than those who concur in the views of the minor- 
ity of the Commission, and comprise only three officers— Sir George 
Clerk, Sir A. Wilson, and Sir Charles Trevelyan, of the late East 
India Company's service. The remainder, with the single exception 
of the Governor of Bombay, being all officers of her Majesty's army 
of thelii 

The minority conclude their argument by recommending that a 
portion of the European force to be maintained in India should be 
supplied by the army of the line, to tho extent of one fourth, or 
even a third of the whole. 

The arguments used by the majority will, in some instances, 
scarcely bear close inspection. For instance, "that the resources of 

^the state, as regards Imperial purposes, would be crippled by having 
a large portion of its troops placed solely under the control of the 
government of India." Surely England, except in the very last 
gasp, would not wish to bring destruction on her Indian Empire by 
withdrawing more troops than the authorities in India could dispense 
with. Moreover, the government in India will always be subordi- 
nate to that at home. 

That local forces deteriorate we allow, when left without any 
i&ftasfon of fresh European notions or feelings; but this can hardly 
be the ensr with regiments receiving continually from England a 
fresh supply both of officers and men. The European regimei 
late East India Company may uofc have come up in point of to- 




eipline to the ideas of certain martinets, who- 

but that they wore not one wbit inferior to their brethren of III 
line on the battle field has been often proved. There is do neoewt; 
for drawing comparisons between the services,' — all did their doty, 
The bloody ileitis of Feroteshah and Subraon saw tin 1 i 
European regiment vie with her Majesty's forces in discipline id 
valour. Chillian wallah again, and latterly l>elhi — Benares, and 
Allahabad were relieved by a Company V European regiment— ti* 
Madras fusiliers, and the steady discipline and good behaviour rf 
the Bombay fusiliers at Mooltan and Lahore, need no panegyric t 
our pen 

None of these regiments have deteriorated as local corps, 
the best of our belief, has the recruiting for them been detriment*' 
to the interests of her Majesty's line. They would deteriorate foj 
enough if continued as local, and only have the complement of ma 
kept up by volunteers from her Majesty's regiments ser\ ing in India 
A twelve years 1 residence in a tropical climate is not likeh 
prove any European regiment, and the volunteers from that, on iti 
recall home, would neither possess health nor stamina to be accept- 
able soldiers. Neither would their presence infuse fresh European 
notions and feelings. If local corps are to be continued — and ma 
appeal's to be advised by many fully competent to give an opinioo— 
let them be independent of the line* and recruit as they have hkkrt. 

The majority appear almost to forget the recorded opini 
would not be advisable to disturb the system of promotion b 
ority Bfl affecting officers now in the service, or to interfere wil 
of their existing privileges, They quote the opinion of Major- G 
>Sir F. Franks (her Majesty's 10th Foot), and of fifteen years* cipfr 
rieuce iu India. In turning to that officer's evidence (page 160), wp 
discover that he not only strongly advocates the whole of the aiW 
whether European or native, lately belonging to the East 
Company, being transferred to her Majesty's line, but trv 
matter of breaking faith with the officers composing £] lat ^ 
nothing, if absolutely necessary. To interfere with the pn 
arrangements he owns would be considered an injustice; ! 
11 is strongly of opinion that the interests of the State should . 
be considered paramount to the interests of any body of 

To the question put b)r Colonel Burlton, 4293 — " Can it h 
for the State to break faith ?" he replies, " I consider that I 
already given an opinion on that subject." This opinion 
discover, except it be in his answer to question 1201, in which the 
gallant officer says—" I should be very averse to recommend aar 
thing of the kind*" 

The majority recommend that regulations should be drawn np IV>r 
retaining in India officers of the Hue army whose services nn„ 
required by the local government, and that officers of the line 
undoubtedly, qualify themselves for employment in India, ii 
employment, and all the advantages attending it, were 'open to 


The appointments of all sorts are open to the officers of her 
Majesty's line army, as a reference to the Army Lust will prove. 
Many of the new Seikh police corps are commanded by officers of 
the line, and the department of Public "Works shows them to be 
there also. In civil employ they are to be found, and in the irre- 
gular cavalry. These appointments were formerly given almost 
entirely to Company's officers, after they had passed either the in- 
terpreters or second examination in the native languages. This rule 
has been broken through with regard to the employ of the line 
officers, and few of these now holding appointments are passed. 
Their services can be retained by the government on their regiments 
being relieved, by the individual benefitting in a staff appointment, 
applying for an exchange into a regiment in India. 

It would hardly be fair that the man forced to stay at least 
. twenty years in India, expatriated, and with no prospect of getting 
on elsewhere, should have no advantage in that country. The officer 
■ in the line can, in the event of sickness, throw up his staff appoint- 
ment and go home on leave, recruit his health, and have the time 
gpent on leave count as service, or he can exchange into the colonies, 
in most of which he can live on his pay ; whereas the officer of the 
local corps is equally liable to fall sick, but has to make up in India 
every day spent on leave in England. The Governor-General's re- 
sources are not curtailed, and by the present regulations he can 
select able and useful officers from the whole army in India. If the 
army is to be local, and every advantage now possessed by local 
officers shared by those of the line, it would be but fair that these 
mutual arrangements extended elsewhere, and a few of the colonial 
and home appointments, now enjoyed exclusively by her Majesty's 
line, be shared by the officers attached to local regiments in India. 
It would give the home authorities a " much larger field for selec- 
tion" &c., &c. 

The fifth question is well answered, for most certainly regiments 
should not remain longer in India than twelve years. The recom- 
mendation of keeping at home depot battalions of one company from 
each of the local corps, would be rather an expensive arrangement, 
but would be advantageous towards efficiency, both of officers and 
meD. Officers on sick leave might do duty with these depots ; the 
command not to be given to only that portion of the local army 
called European. 

As to the establishment of a convalescent depot at the Cape of 
Good Hope, it would be of doubtful benefit. To a really sick man 
England appears to be the only country in which complete restora- 
tion to health is obtained. The distance to the Cape is great, and 
probably a long land journey, with afterwards a sea voyage, would 
entail great expense to the State. Moreover, the convalescents 
would not be within calling distance if any sudden demand for their 
services should arise. The sites for barracks in the hills of India 
have not, certainly as regards the Bengal presidency, been hitherto 
well selected; but that in those vast mountain ranges there are 
spots sufficiently elevated to give a bracing climate, and sufficiently 
level to afford space for exercising gi ^unds, no one acquainted wwy 

the mountains will deny. Let railroads, tramways, and good trunk 
roads be made to the Hvmalayah ; let the ground round 1 1 
be sufficiently level to allow of the men taking plenty < 
exercise, and convalescent depots can be 6§1 feet m 

much good in the mountaina of India as at the Cape of God 

With reference to the sixth question, the obstacles to an exchmr 
between the European forces appear to us almost insur 
Even with the junior officers, second-lieutenants, 
ensigns, it would be a difficult matter, as the cadet baa h 
sion a free rift, and iu the Hue it is to be purchased ; but, } 
this aside, the funds would be a stumbling block, As th < 
sioners observe, it could only be done by the govern mi 
upon itself the management of the funds, and guaranteeing all Chtf 
liabilities, past, present, and future. Perhaps this being 1 3 
be the saving of the Bengal fund, but it would be a werious low t* 
the government. Faith must be kept with widows and or, 
they can hardly be expected to yield up their inter eats to t 1 
posed necessities of the State. 

On the seventh question the Commission consider tho adn, 
of European and native forces regimentally as detrimental to 
and so we think also. That they should always be brigaded to 
required no great amount of acumen to discover. The exp- 
of the past two years proved the utter folly of leaving who! 
tricts without an" European force to protect it Had European! 
brigaded with the native regiments at Delhi, the Mcenit mui 
would never have entered the city, Had the worst district in 
Rohileund had two European regiments stationed in it, i I 
would have occurred rebellion and murder to such an < 
"When the Sepoy army revolted, anarchy reigned supreme* 

The eighth Question is replied to in a recommendation, that if the 
force in India is to be local, the strength is to be kept up by n 
ing in England— as is done now — and partially by volunteers fkim 
regiments of the line returning to England, The last plan is, as wp 
pointed out elsewhere, not good in theory or practice. Men ate 
twelve years service in India are not, generally speaking, improved 
either in health or ideas. The discipline of a purely local, and of a 
regiment of the line, must vary* and the soldier received from nut? 
would be unsuited to the other* llis friends and affections 
be with tho corps he had left, and regrets would eventually arise for 
tli- steps he had taken. Convalescent depots and hospitals might 
be full, but local regiments would be weak, ill-diacip lined, ami 
looked upon as a reiort for all the lazy and worthless. 

As to the ninth question the Commissioners do not consider it 
advisable to raise regiments composed of men of colour for 
temporary or permanent service. Perhaps it might be as well not 
to do go - still it would teach the natives of India that we have 
black troops than themselves, and a regiment or two of tn 
negroes would be as powerful to check insurrection a# an 
corps, and besides costing much less, would stand the climate better. 
None other than the truo African negro would instil fear, A i«gi* 



of Seikhs would despise such corps as the Ceylon rifles, and 
take a plea a ure in drubbing them. 

On the tenth point, the Commissioners consider that the native 
inlimtry should he mainly regular, and the cavalry irregular. As 
regular native infantry is still in existence in Bombay and Madras, 
•with one or two regiments in Bengal, it is f we suppose, necessary to 
Veep up the same ; out native regulars are, at the heat, only an absurd 
' nitation of their European brethren. They, perhaps, on a brigade 
ield-day manoeuvre a little better than irregulars, but are no better 
i absolute warfare. The system of having so many masters, and so 
aany European officers to receive orders from, does not make the 
ative a better soldier. It would be impossible to have a regular 
native army maintained and organised on the irregular system. In 
irregulars the commanding *:iUicer is all-powerful ; there are no 0& 
C6W rninmanding companies to require their authority upheld, and 
y r t tli e sy s t e m pursued i n i rregular regi me nt s is r eeom mend Q * I lor 
adoption. Let. the cavalry most certainly he irregular, and let the 
allowance paid to troopers be such as will enable them to keep good 
horses and arms. Do away with the Honourable East India Com- 
■jiy 1 s plaything — the regular cavalry. Let India see no more of 
I he blue uniform with silver lace, sitting uncomfortably on over-fed 
horses j and costing nearly as much as British dragoons, 

The eleventh question has been replied to in the third ; but the 

» Commissioners recommend that every consideration should be shown 
to such native artillery as have proved lo] 
In the twelfth, the Commissioners recommend that cadets sent out 
for service with native troops should be attached toEnropean regimen i , 
in the lirst instance, and thoroughly drilled and instructed in military 
duties in this country. If cadets are to be posted t>> n of 

pdar native infantry, drilled and managed on the inv^ular system, 
W« IV ar that they will find all the thorough drilling and instruct ion 
received in this country i^uito thrown away* If it ia intended to 
keep a regular native army at all, it would be well that the system 
pursued towards it was nearly similar to that practised with the 
[jean force, Let young officers first learn their drill in 
the hue or depots; but if it is intended they should hereafter join 
the regular native army do not require that all they have learnt is 
toh'-' unlearnt- It is for the good of the service that offi 
tended for native infantrv should join such regiments at an early 
period of life. By remaining for a length of time with an European 
corps they become prejudiced against native regular regiments, and 
they find a difficulty m ing themselves to the ways of the 

n black follow*." A knowledge of the peculiarities and habits of the 
natives is as necessary m the good native infantry officer as is a 
knowledge of their language, and neither of these things can be < 
taiiicd by continuing to do duty with an European r 

Let all native regiments be irregular and the command, Qt &i 
duty with them, be Mali* :ippohr<> This would be fairer to 

the local officers. If exchanges are allowed betw line and 

local Europeans, it h hard that the sume advantage should not be 
given to the officer serving in the native infantry. No t&sss *S*sx 




what has occurred, would like to find his regiment only feared to 
the government, and brigaded with Europeans as much to I 
liar as drill. No man, Having esprit de carps woul 1 like to 
veto put upon Hia making His regiment perfect for tear of J 
their knowledge against the government. Native regul. 
never can even approach to regular European infantry, and the oft 
eers attached to tin* Brat-named corps will always be suhj 
taunting remarks, unfair comparisons, and feel every ellort 
their regiments efficient and aoldierly an a not improbable source 2 
future danger to the government they serve. 

THe Commissioners having thus disposed of the question 
for their inquiry, submit the nine recommendations on 
term " important points which, in the course of examination, ktJ 
come under their notice/ 1 We, having mentioned them ' 
not reindict their perusal on our readers. 

These, with some remarks regarding improving the p. 
of officers serving regimen tally, either by forming a stall eori 
eon ding, or placing on general lists for promotion, arc the 
mendations of the Commission] Ten gentlemen of nek now 
ability have been entrusted with devising some plan 
re-organization of the Indian army, and after deliberating for nearfr 
twelve months, examining forty- seven witnesses, and askirjc St 
eight thousand questions, have only been able to recommend tfa 
adoption of the above mentioned nine points. The evident 
certainly moat conflicting, and to extract an opinion fVoi 
was doubtless a difficult matter ; still, something more uei 
the re-organization of the Indian army might have been i 
mended than we find here. Surely it hardly required 
deliberation to decide that the native army should be couux 
mixed races; that they should be enlisted for general servici 
their dress better adapted for the climate of India. Thi 
scientific branches of the service should be European. Proi 
of non-commissioned officers left to the commanding office] 
the pay code simplified. Or that the head of the army in I 
should be termed Commander-in-Chief in India, and hum 
ents not be denuded of officers. 

Even the little difficulty of improving the position of rogir 
officers cannot be settled. The Commissioners own they an 
prepared to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion on this 
that further reference be made to the authorities in %] l0 
1 1 re s id eneies i n Indi a . Hence more dc lay. 

From the constitution of the Commission, anything very del 
in the way of a recommendation was hardly to be expected. Ettci 
member appears to have a plan of his own, and at the end of 
iug all the evidence adduced, sees no reason for supposin 
particular view of the case wrong. 

It might have been as well had the evidence of a few captains and 
subalterns been asked. There are some eighteen hundred of 
attached to the Bengal array alone, and nearly as many to th< 
other presidencies. Out of this number two or three mjgal 
been found capable of throwing a little light on the inquiry. 




In carefully looking over the evidence adduced before the Com- 
mission, and again reading their remarks and recommendations, we 
nee no good that can result from a continuation of the inquiry. 
Something must be done, and done quickly, and the sooner the 
government fix on some plan for the reorganisation of their 
Indian army T the better for all concerned* 

The officers of the Bengal presidency have been so long hoping 
and expecting, that they wonld consider any change better than 
continuing as they now are. To the sick and worn out, it is cruel ; 
and to all, further delay and reference is objectionable* Let the 
government make what they can of the conflicting evidence 
given before the Commission, and act decisively* Many of the re~ 
commendations of the Commission will not bear twice looking at, 
and probably, the best reorganization of the Indian array will be 
that which is least deliberated over* 

Let the government bear in mind that so long as they preserve 
the system of caste in the army, so long will they give Jaclc Sepoy 
a peg to hang his discontent upon. With high caste men, croaatng 

kseas and certain rivers is pollution. In caste there is a freemasonry 
dangerous to the state. A priest-ridden soldier is not worth the 
price of the powder that it would take to shoot him. 

Insist on the whole of India being disarmed, and then there can 
be no danger of rebellion* The only use then, of a large European 
force would be to oppose invasion and to overawe the native army. 
irding to the size and knowledge of this latter force, must be 
the former. For, however much at peace the country may be, it 
would be dangerous at any time to reduce the European army. 
The Heikhs have learnt their power. The Kabulee remembers 1841, 
and the Oudh and liodjpoor Sepoy, 1S57. A generation passing 
away will not wipe out the remembrance of these, our disasters, and 
a large native regular army, well equipped an I drilled, wlll T at the 
Brut favourable opportunity, repeat the scenes of two years back. 

The native army proposed for tho three presidencies appears 
enori P more than there is occasion for. Indeed, from reading 

the report, one would imagine that a large native army was more a 
source of safety than danger. Reduce it one half and have it en- 
tirely irregular. Let its duties be conlined almost exclusively to 
aiding the police, escorting treasure and prisoners, and give them 
plenty of work* There would be little for a regular native army to 
perform ; the mere machine work of escort and parade, allows too 
much time for brooding over the past. Natives in the regular army, 
taught an irregular uystent, would not bo long in discovering that 
they are doubted, that the large European army is to keep them in 
check, not to repel invasion or quell rebellion in the people, and 
Deployment, would firot brood over their new poai 

Pan d p e r haps Again n y mutin y a ud m urde r . 
Before the mutinies, the' European force in India was certainly 
too small ; but India is even now, with Oudh disarmed, and the Ben- 
gal arm . iqaaibed, more firmly secured to the British crown than at 
any former period. If so, the larger force of 80,000 European* U 




uncalled for, and Its proportionate native army more than ia safe 
necessary, 190,000 soldiers, exclusive of poll ' i indee 

to use the words of Colonel Burlt on, be looked upon " with much 

With good communication, such as railroads, tramways, and liiy 
roadp, troops could be easily moved from any part of India to ill 
other; and this without much detriment to health. Let the 
made, and there will be no necessity for^ keeping up a sufficiently 
large European force to watch regular or irregular native regiment 
in the out stations, and having barracks built all over the coun 

In conclusion, we entreat there may he no further unnecea 
delay ; no longer let us hear of everjr difficult question being pa 
between England ami India for solution. The Commission appear 1 
dislike responsibility, and, therefore, trouble them uo more wit 
temptation. ICo good can arise from further prolonging the inquir; 
pf in listening to the opinion of men who appear wedded 
system pursued in the service they have been placed in. Acoordu 
as the witness comes from the presidency of Madras or Bom i 
does he recommend the plan pursued in his presidency being ad 
in Bengal, Bengal, having acquired wisdom by misfortune, advocal 
the old system modified. Officers of her Majesty's line ml- 
extension of the line and its discipline to the whole Indian army 
India is now fast settling down. The rebellion is all bu1 
and both officers and men of the late Company's army are prcpar 
to welcome any change. Let the Government cense from w 
an opinion fi who appear to be incapable of ex pre 

selves explicitly on what must have been uppermost in their 
for the past two years; act firmly, honestly, and quickly, and be 
in mind that a large native regular or irregular army requires a pr 
portionately large force of European soldiers to overawe it, and t \u 
the finances of India are not flourishing* 

The expense of living in India is nearly double what it ur 
the keep of the English soldier is certainly mure costly, at 
finances of the country are by no means elastic. Already has U 
burden of paying for a war caused by the mutiny of a ii 
fallen on the consumers of European articles, and reason anil 
forbid that our countrymen should be taxed, and p 
expatriation, simply to find the means of supporting a suit 
of fUture sorrow. 


The notion is making inquiries about the Banks, A 
rmatiou has been lately fimuabed on the subject, but! 
in blue-books, overlaid with verbiage, and smothered in 
The public have a horror of bh and for our part, we* never 

Rfeecne without reading on the cover the familiar notificatioi 
biah may be shot here. 1 ' Still, from the recent inquisitions 


military affairs, some facts respecting the Hanks have crept out, 
Are they such as inspire confidence and create satisfaction ? Do 
they indicate that our soldiers are all we could wish? Alas! we 
might use the despairing exclamation of Eli—** Nay, my, sons, 
for it is no good report I hear/ 1 When official returns announce 
that the mortality in the army may be compared with the ravages of 
a standing pestilence — that the ruling habit of our troops is 
drunkenness, and that every year, nearly 30,000 soldiers desert their 
colours — in presence of such facts, we say, every humane and 
patriotic mind must yield to a feeling of despondency, It has been 
our province to contend that the case is not bo bad as it seems. If 

i there be much to dismay, much to bewilder — and this must assu- 
redly be allowed— there is also room for the operation of good 

i influences, and a field inviting culture- The difficulty is how to 
brinr* the truth to the national cognizance, by presenting it in a light 

I that will attract, and a form that will be understood* It is not 
enough to cry— ** rear rank take open order f* when the movement 
ieen carried out, when the Ranks are open, how shall we induce 
the public to walk in and make a complete inspection p Wo 
have an answer to the question in a work now before us. What 
Royal Commissions and Parliamentary Committees have been 
unable to effect, is here most successfully accomplished, not in a 
ponderous blue, but in two light red books, bearing the title of 
•* Romance of the Ranks, or, Anecdotes, Episodes, and Social 
Incidents of Military Life,*' from the pen of Quarter master 
Connolly, of the Royal Engineers, It* will be remembered that 
Mr. Connolly *s former work, '* History of the Royal Sappers and 
Miners," obtained the unusual distinction of a leading article 
in the Times ; and Charles Dickens remarked that he was " proud 
of being the countryman of the author of that book." In his present 
publication, Mr. Connolly has entered on ground that will lay him 
more open to criticism ; for he has unveiled the inner life of the 
Ranks, presented the British soldier in his natural, and, we were 
going to soy, domestic character, as well in barrack as in action ; 
and if in all his winning, all his nobler qualities, still with all his 
imperfections on his head, In short, he has given to the English 

•nation that very portraiture of its soldiery which was so much 
desired, and which we despaired ever to see supplied. It was a task 
that could only be undertaken by one who had himself sprung from 
the Hanks, and served in their every grade— who knew them rather 
by personal experience than observation, and its execution called also 
for great literary ability, and no ordinary knowledge of human cha- 
racter. But it also demanded courage, a resolution to carry out the 
object without ftinohing, and in a manner that would -ive ft a practical 
aim- The author must prepare to tell some disagreeable things, 
which would neither be Mattering to our national vanity nor 
military amour propn\ Tn be cllcetke, moreover— to have a 

imrpose and work out a result — the subject must receive a pecu- 
iur treatment. On the one hand iust address the gi 

public; on the other it must interest the soldier himself, A 

soldier won't read homilies : 

he can only be won by eata&tbN&% 

242 aoHiircne or the luincfl. [Jrax, 

spirited, hearty, and jocular. If you wish to do him good, to point 
out his faults, to show him his capabilities, to lead him to improve- 
ment, it must be done in his own way, by sentiments that he 
appreciates and understands — by the life around him, and of which 
ho is part. Wo took up the work before us with little expectation 
that it would embrace such perceptions, but a few pages revealed 
that the gallant writer knew his ofhce. He has, indeed, caught the 
vory inspiration required. "The Romance of the Ranks" is 
written both for the English people and the English army, and will 
make a deep impression on each. Why it is called " Romance " we 
are unablo to divine; for it is all real, circumstantial, and true. 
Indoed, the author tells us in the preface that he is relating only 
facts, and, though some of the episodes have a romantic interest, 
every page bears the stamp of truthfulness. Were we disposed to 
bo captious, wo might find a few petty faults ; but if, here and 
there, a word is not so happy as it might be, we are not looking 
for leather and prunella. We take the measure of literary ability 
from tho whole work, and pronounce it unique. As a popular view of 
tho Ranks, tho book stands alone. It presents the British soldier in 
all phases, from heavy marching order to furlough ; in all 
situations, from the post of honour to the black hole. It sets forth 
his conquests in love as well as war — his personal traits, aspirations, 
and escapades. The gallant author deals tenderly, some might even 
think liglitly, with tho soldier's habit of intemperance ; but we soon 
discover that this is a device to catch the peculiar audience he is ad- 
dressing, and that almost invariably the evil consequences of drunk- 
enness are brought out in strong relief. A civilian may smile at the 
minute colouring of somo of the portraitures, as ministering to fop- 
pism and vanity, but a professional reader will recognise their value, 
as inducing a pride in personal appearance, so useful and so im- 
portant to a soldier. I*y tho character of the facts related, the 
soldier is constantly kept mindful of the advantages of his position. 
and what a loss is entaued by their forfeiture, at the same time thai 
there is no attempt to lecture, but rather an appeal from actual re- 
suits. As an example of this mode of moralizing we may instance 
a narrative entitled u The Letter D." Duncan M'Feehan has been 
discharged from his corps under circumstances of disgrace, and is 
met by Sergeant Scobell in a very forlorn condition. The Sergeant. 
— and here we have a little trait of the military character very 
effectively brought out — highly disapproves of Duncan's conduct. 
and feels shy of being seen to speak to him, yet can't resist the at- 
traction to an old comrade in distress — one who had been nobodr** 
enemy but his own. Accordingly, as they art* again thrown together 
on board a Glasgow steamer, he takes an opportunity to steal a gos- 
sip with the poor outcast, and talk over his prospects with fiim. 
Those are bad enough, and tho eanuie Serjeant predicts ther 
will be worse, but Duncan is on his mettle, and will heed neitfce- 
counsel nor warning Of course, the Sergeant's prophecies 
are i*tilt*Hl % and hunger and a scowling world soon be<nn to work oa 
|>oor Ihmeatit briiiptUK down Mh his pride and his stomach Everr 
HMWiftlttouia* Swpcw* *m» huuameaL and warms his pocket 




with a few coppers ; but. both know this can't go on fop ever, and if it 
could, such a living would hardly be life. In this dilemma, the Sergeant 
hits on a happy idea, which m nothing less than to make Duncan a 
soldier again, But the pear is not yet ripe. Duncan's stubborn 
spirit > indeed, has been almost starved out ; but at the proposal of a 
surrender, he shows all the old leaven, and bids the Sergeant defiance, 
Harder and harder grow the times, and leaner and leaner Duncan* 
No doubt independence is a fine thing ; it is an Englishman's birth- 
tight ; but when it has to be sustained on an air diet, too many of 
ns prefer a mess of pottage. Duncan began to remember bis warm 
barrack, his merry companions, his good mess, and in contrast with 
his present rags, the appearance he made in his dashing uniform. 
After all, soldiering was Dot such a bad thing. He had dis- 
covered that every condition of life has its yoke, and the restraints 
of discipline, which he once thought so odious, began to appear per- 
fectly reasonable. In short, Duncan presented himself before Ser- 
geant SSeobell, and took the shilling. But now the oracle had to be 
worked* Of course Duncan had done for himself in her Majesty's 
service, and that door to a provision was closed. But Sergeant 

ell, though not an aged man, was a very old soldier, and, besides, 
was possessed of some interest. AVe have lately heard what can he 
by interest, but it has also been shown that even interest requires 
management* So it was in the case of Sergeant S cob ell and bis friend 
Duncan. As there was no admission into the royal army, he was taken 
to the East India Company, and Scobell 1 s interest secured the good 
offices of the Company's recruiting sergeant, who, as ho surveyed 
Duncan's tine proportions, guaranteed success. But we should 
never count our chickens till they are fairly cooped. To the eonlu- 
DOB of the confederates & na his own disgust, Duncan \ eted. 

" at could he the reason? — such a fine fellow, with such thews 

sinews, and such a ijhy&ique! Alas \ the reason was too plain. 
Under Duncan's arm the inspecting doctor had found the fatal letter 
D* Here was a 1ml, Even iutcrcst — the interest of Sergeant 

•ell — might halt at such a stile. But the sergeant was a genius, 
and, moreover, determined to provide for his old comrade, and give 
him another chance in the game of life* The letter D was trans- 
formed into a ship in full sail ; poor Duncan was cicatrised with 
dolphins and initials to keep the ship in countenance \ and, not to 
dwell on details, we will add that he was brought again before the 
aame doctor, and passed in triumph. There is a high moral in this 
narrative— in its facts, stamping it indelibly on the mind of the 
soldier* It first shows the penalty to which misconduct will lend 
him— an ignominious discharge, and perhaps an infamous brand, and 
then places before him the misery that awaits him in the world, with 
the uses of which he has become unfamiliar, and which will give him 
neither work nor bread* And comparing this condition of things 
with his lot in the ranks, it indicates the absurdity of that visionary 
independence for which so many sigh, and shows how really 
enviable to a poor man is the soldier's life. There is scan 
one of the manifold episodes that bas not a similar bearing. 
Two or three, perhaps, had been better omitted, but this is a con- 



ai deration for future editions. The design of the author has clecto 
been to hold the mirror up to the Ranks, and show them their form 
and pressure. In this he has succeeded, and has produced a book 
as remarkable for its vrai&emblaiiee as for its literary : 
He possesses a fund of dry humour, great original i: wjugk 

and a concise and animated diction, Some of his similes may k 
far-fetched, hut they are worth the carriage ; and the wh 
Bition is marked by freahucss and vigour. We are glad to welcoa* 
from o military pen, a work so creditable to the araw* and wiiB 
will open to tne public and to the army itself > a store of infarmaU* 
relating to what was hitherto unknown — the habits, instincts, ana 
character s the personal life and qualities of the British eoMui 
4t ltumance of the Banks'* is an attractive title; but this work mkjK 
be more justly called " The Natural History of the Ranks/* for 
the mission it fulfils. ~Wg regret that the extraordinary demandi d 
our space prevent us from making a few extract a ; but this is 
less consequence, us the book, we feel assured, wall soon 
these pages to every part of the world. It turns a new 
military literature, which cannot be too diligently studied, and, 
happily for England, the subject is beginning to attruet 
attention. Let us try to raise the moral character of uV 
aoldier, as well as to improve his condition ; and if we would sw 
how to go to work, we are here shown the way. There is mini 
to be done, but opportunity is in our favour, and a few 
arrangements may effect wbat f it 1 delayed, may hereafter baffli 




An Unmarketable Commodity — Yis'm — What "Durwaea band" meati^-^GtD 
and Bitterness— One Exception — A Contrast— Mis. &peuce—A Paradox— 
withdraw tlumsHves — Favourable Intelligence — The XtoYCE&o— The Stc^c — Tk 
Relief — iiurbarisxn, 

i: I say, old feller, come, hang it all ; do let ub go and call on the 

Thus was I accosted by one of the marketable officere of the regi- 
ment a few days after the Onety*Oneth had marched into Dana- 
gunge — his particular reason for addressing the request to me being 
the fact that among my worldly property I owned a buggy - f the 
advantages of which means of progression during an Indian hot 
season, render themselves agreeably evident to the meanest capacity* 
as well as to the most economical disposition. 

! f had ceased to be a marketable commodity for serend 
years, and this lact, although highly satisfactory in v\Qry other 
respect, was rendered somewhat disagreeably evident in one parti- 



cular, and it was this :— Mormoniam had not yet been fully adopted 
by the English officers in India, and, however much some may have 
admired one at least of the tenets of Mahomedanism, that creed was 
not openly recognised, nor was the tone of the great majority of 
11 society *' guided according to it. 

Had matters been otherwise — haoV in fact, plurality tf wives been 
legally permissible at Daudgunge— I have little doubt that, possessing, 
as I have just said, a buggy, being the owner of what is considered in 
India the second essential wherewith to commence wedded life, to 
wit, a silver teapot ; and being, moreover, in receipt of by no means 
a despicable monthly income — I say, with all these advantages, I 
might still have been honoured by the smiles of manoeuvring 
mothers, aunts, and guardians j but, as it was, and since circuni- 
stanees over which I had evidently not the slightest control. bod 
reduced me to the sobered condition of a Benedick — of what use was 
I in society, forsooth? My wife was not with me; I couldn't 
marry anybody's daughter ; I couldn't give nice parties, at which 
other matches could be made up j or, still more objectionable, flirta- 
tions carried on; and the result was, just what might have been ex- 
| d, a distant bow, perhaps a mere nod, perhaps not even Id 
much as that, was all that I had the previous year received in return 
for what 1 had considered the politeness of making my round of 

These recollections, instead of being effaced from my memory 
during the aix months I had been away, came back more vividly 
than ever, now that I bad returned to the place again* I hud, as 
every person does, formed one or two [pa in the statin*, and 

now longed to renew them ; but my reception on a former occasion 
by the mess having been what I have mentioned, 1 had little desire 
or intention to visit any others of the residents than the very, very 
few whose society I had before found agreeable, and whose acquaint* 
ance I now wished to renew, 

I was therefore little inclined to accede to my friend's request, and 
replied abruptly, " Bother the thing, I don't want th make more than 
one or two calls, but you may have the buggy if you like to make 
the round of the station/' 

" What's the use in being grumpy P" responded the disposable 
gent., whom I shall call Captain Shorten ; " come along with me* I 
want to see the women, but don't see the fun of going alone.'* 

I still objected ; related how unsociable, stiff, nay, iU-nahirt r|, 1 
li&d already found them to be, but here was immediately siteoo&d by 
Shorten, who offered a very plausible apology for the residents. 

** That's not fair/ 1 he continued, B Of course they were all put 
ODSi last year, llow could it have been otherwise ? Consider what 
they went through ; but now, just look at the reception they 
us. Of course they mean to be civil !" 

I saw the force of the argument, '* Well, 1 * said l f u very likely s 
after all, it may have been so. At all events, 1 will do the civil, and 
then they can please themselves. 

w Very good, then, let us go to-day at noon* From that hour till 
two the ladies are * at Lome/ bo order the trap. J 


Captain Shorten had previously prepared, from various sources a 

tt of all the ladies, married and single, in the station ; 
our only difficulty was *o to arrange our manner 
that we ah oiil d not have to drive twice in the same dh 
cecding by which much time would be necessarily 1 -t « much 

unnecessary exposure to heat and dust and glare incurred. 

Beginning, therefore, at one end of the station, we gradual}' 
steadily prosecuted what could not as yet Ik* called, 
my companion, a labour of love 1 first dropping our pasteboard at 
one house, where, in reply to our inquiry whether the mem saaih 
was at home, we were informed by the sable attendant thai 
wasabund j° then passing on to another, where we were muiv fortu- 
nate, or unfortunate, as the case might have been. 

Here there were one or two spinsters, or, it may be, a married 
lady, quite disengaged, at least for the time being* The servant to 
whom we had on driving up to the door intrusted our cards, on re- 
turn ing, salaams to the ground, "With both hands joined, he indi- 
cates that we are permitted to enter. "We proceed accordingly, and, 
in the stillness of a more than half- darkened room, find ourselves in- 
tsmi incntly knocking our shins against comers of chairs, settees, and 
stools, our heads against the low-swung punkah that moves s] 
from aide to aide ; and making ineffectual endeavours all at the same 
time to bow gracefully to the masses of crinoline and muslin ! 
which we fear we are making ourselves somewhat ridiculous. 

Ere our list is half finished the dull sound of the mam guard gong 
tells us that it is two o 1 clock. Our visits cease fur this day. to to 
renewed to-morrow. We return to our tiffin, and discuss the result* 
and the impressions left upon us by our first day's duty. 

As we enjoy this mid-day and very favourite meal, vve naturally 
wonder why at some two or three places we had received the irn 
we did, namely, that "durwasa bund," or t in oilier words, the 
is shut against the present visitors I We knew from punt experience 
what meaning is usually conveyed by this expression, but in ease 
yen, mot* ijcntle reader, do not, I will tell you, 

An excellent expression is that, " durwasa bund/* and one to f 
several meanings are attached. In some instances it implies i\. 
lady of the house is lazy, and has not dressed to receive visitors ; ia 
others, that baby is ill, or perhaps otherwise occupied, and thai 
is attending on it ; on some occasions, that she is suffering iron 
or other of the numerous forma of indisposition that afflict tb 
in India. All these are valid excuses in their way ; but how d 
it that at such and such a house where we received this messai. 
caw, standing in the cow-pound, a buggy and horse extremely lib 
those of Captain Snooks, of one of the native regiments that 
four years* residence at the station mutinied and dissolved them- 
selves ? How can we reconcile this little fact with the message wr 
have just received ? The interpretation is, however, ewy* It sig- 
nifies that the hidy is more agreeably occupied than slio would 
b receiving us. And so it will ever be in India as elsewhere 
had our turn, let others have theirs, aud " Hani toi" &c, 





agreeable task, for we did not thoroughly enjoy the whole of yester- 
day's visits, we resume our labours. The same ordeals are again 
gone through ; we have most presumingly run down our list from 
head to foot, and as we mark off the last name, simultaneously ex- 
claim, u Well, I hope this is the very last time 1 shall ever have to 
do this sort of thing ! Thank goodness, that's over I 1 ' 

** Well, now," asked Captain Shorten, at the termination of our 
id day's exertions, " are you not glad that you did as I told you, 
and called upon the people." 

H I am, indeed," said I, ** and almost begin to think their stiffness 
last year must have been through some mistake/' 

14 It must , indeed, have been so," my companion continued ; *' for 
I am certain nothing could have exceeded the civility and friendliness 
of everybody to us." 

And indeed nothing could. To judge from the conversation of 
the inmates of the houses into winch we were permitted to enter, 
the only thing wanting to complete the measure of their happiness 
had been the return of the dear Onety^Oneth, and now that this 
consummation had been realised, they had scarcely another object in 
life worth protracting their existence for. The sly little creatures 
who were the principal, in fact, the only speakers in this strain, 
would have given — I don't know how many kisses, to have 
belonged to the Onety-Qneth, nor did they seem to care that we 
divined their meaning just as plainly as if they had spoken the sen- 
tence in so many plain words* 

But while^every expression that bore reference in even the most 
distant degree to our regiment was indeed composed of honeyed 
words, oh I how bitter, what gall and wormwood made up the sum 
of conversation in each succeeding house, regarding the occupants, 
and especially the lady occupants, of every other house in the sta- 
tion ; we had indeed heard enough, during these two days, to make 
us look with suspicion upon every lady in Dandgunge- 

\V:is there no exception to this sweeping condemnation ? Yes, 
then was one I So it is in all stations that I have seen in India — 
jealousies, un charitableness, back-biting and slander rule pre-eminent, 
and 1 griare to be obliged to say, that in some instoaoet, at tout 
some of the ladies who, from the peculiar position and sacred calling 
of their husbands, ought to endeavour by every possible means to 
cast oil upon the troubled waters, seem to" live for no other purpose 
than to keep the apple of discord in continual movement, and to 
heap fuel on the fire that already burns too fiercely. 

Fortunate it is that in all stations there are one or two good 
spirits — guardian angels, as it were — who not only keep aloof from 
scenes of strife and jealousy such as I have alluded to, but are ever 
ready, should opportunity offer, to palliate short comings in others, 
to restore, aa far as in them lies, the understandings that have 

L unfortunately been shaken or broken, 
Ladies of this description-— alas I that in India their numbers 
are so few [—conscious of their own integrity, arc the more inclined 
to give others credit for similar uprightness of sentiment, Viewing, 
as they do, the favourable aide of human nature, and fully urns* 






that no undue freedom can be taken by any man where dignity and 
true feminine delicacy exist, manifest little or none of fch.ii 
nesa of behaviour in public that those of an opposite description 
take so much pains to display. They are invariably agreeable in 
conversation, the more so that they are utterly free from the spleen 
and Tonom that form the staple conversation among the mass. Bui 
what, think you, is usually the consequence ? It is inconceivable ; 
et the fact is indisputable, that in nine cases out of ten such a ladr 
as no chance whatever against the mass who array themselves ii 
the opposition ranks. There, for instance , is the very lady at whose 
house we the other day saw what seemed to be Captain Snooks'* 
►uggy, when the door was closed to us, and where, ii we huve not 
leen misinformed, the same buggy might have been seen any or i 
day during the past six months — ever s indeed, since it ceas« <l 
seen in the same way at the house two cow-pounds of£ — well, there 
is the lady in question, actually having the cool impertinence to bow 
her sliifet how to really the one of her sex to whom, above all other* 
ia the station, deference and respect are dye ; while she recognise*, 
with the utmost cordiality, that other lady, who not more than i 
oath ago was tbund flirting in the shrubbery very late in the i 
with young Tomkms of the Cavalry, who had landed for a day 
i the steamer by which he was proceeding on sick leave. 
*, then, our opinion of the fair sex generally at Uandgunge was 
hat has now been recorded, there was one who was, and I hope wiU 
ever be, an exception, I have already said that the number of such 
India is small ; permit me, therefore, my dear reader, to describe 
r, so that should you ever meet her, you may not pass in the crowd 
thout recognising her sylph-like figure. But harkee — one word ■ 
ir oar— when you do meet, say that Mr. Alexander presents hit 
d regards, and wishes her health and happiness. 
Mrs. Spence was one of those ladies who, although rarely, ye 1 
metimes cross our path — whom to see is to wish to know, and 
to know is to like and esteem. Slight, delicate^ and fragile ui 
e, gentle and retiring in manners, she looks, as she really is, 
o etherial a being to be appreciated by the viper-tongued sister- 
ood of Dandgunge. Her finely-chiselled, yet somewhat decided 
atures — the light hazel eye, the expressive mouth, at once beam* 
ig with intelligence and kindness towards the person who seeks 
her conversation, whether that person be gentleman or lady— while 
the clear, but alas ! delicate complexion, brightens with an increased 
colour, that gives rise to painful apprehensions lest the rapid sue- 
n of pink and paleness do not indeed indicate too great a de- 
gree of constitutional delieaey to long withstand the terribly trying 
affects of an Indian climate* 

Pre-eminently, and above all others, she was the lady to whom most 
universal attention was paid ; and why ? For this simple reason, 
that she, more than any other among them, possessed those good 
qualities that always command admiration and respect. But could 
her own sex see this ? Ko ; blinded as they were by jealousy, they 
eouid not, no more than they could realise the fact that they them- 




delves were utterly wanting in those qualities of mind or body that 
usually constitute the great attractions of their sex. 

I have seen at other Indian stations — nay, I have met with at 
Peddlington's, in our own beloved country, a few ladies of the type 
represented here by nee j and yet, oddly enough, they were, 

to speak the word plainly, unpopular among their own sex T How 
is this ? Answer ye who can* I confess my powers of analysis 
are inadequate to the task. 

The little we had already seen of the greater number of the resi- 
dents led us to believe that the more we should know of them the less 
were we likely to enjoy their society. We already began to con- 
sider that the* apologies we had started by making for any want of 
cordiality with which we were likely to meet were altogether un- 
necessary, and far beside the mark. It was therefore with no small 
degree of gratification we contemplated the occurrence of cireum- 
stances that, for the time being, diverted our attention from the 
pettifogging doings of the station, which, after all, scarcely deserve 
the amount of notice I find I have been gradually led on to give 
them. It is therefore with considerable pleasure I turn for a little 
to general subjects, although it will be my duty again to revert, in 
this narrative, to some of the doings as well as misdoings at Band- 


Although, with a view to avoid being unnecessarily personal in 

my remarks, I have deemed it advisable to give fictitious names to 
some people as well as to places, and shall continue to do so when I 
think it necessary, the detail of the public occurrences about to be 
narrated would lose much if not the whole of its interest were not 
real names of localities to he indicated in relating them, In the 
latter respect, therefore, I shall, with one or two exceptions, men- 
tion the names of the precise places alluded to. 

For six weeks prior to marching into quarters, the Onety-Gneth 
constituted part of a force that, after much arduous service, 
succeeded in expelling from the jungles near Jugdespore a rebel 
horde that had for some time concealed themselves there. On the 
final expulsion of the rebels from the district, it was deemed only 

■ necessary that a party of Seikh troops should garrison the principal 
town, a British regiment being detained at Arrah in case of any 
emergency arising to require its services ; such a contingency, how* 
ever, being deemed highly improbable, so long as our Punjabee 
allies — whose prowess was highly vaunted — should remain in occu- 
pation of the capital town of the district. 

■ But all Asiatics are much alike, at least in one respect — their 
want of self-reliance. This is a quality which neither Seikh nor 
Sepoy ever did possess, else the British m ould act now be in posses- 
sion of India ■ and however much it may have suited the purposes of 
policy, during the late terrible crisis, to have extolled whatever military 
qualities the Seikhs did possess, and attributed to them very mauy to 
which they had, in justice, not the slightest pretension, the lact is 
unquestionable, that, except when supported by English soldiers, 
or, aa the Irish would say, "co^vanieat to them, they cease to act 
with resolution or decision; except, to be aure, in cases where the^ 

cannot help themselves ; so, in the absurds-lauded affair called the 
defence of Arrah House, where they were run to earth, and resisted 
the enemies from without much as a badger would a dog that at* 
tempted to "draw him.'* 

In the present instance, no sooner had the British portion of the 
force marched a few miles from Jugdespore, than the Seikh garrison 
lel'L there began to manifest symptoms of uneasiness. It did not 
BBeai to enter into their calculation that, even in the event— a very 
improbable one — of their being attacked by the rebel Sepoys, there 
was such a thing as heating them off, All that they considered was, 
apparently, the necessity of their own annihilation. Need 
wonder, then, that the ludicrous termination that has to be related 
crowned our operations iigainst the rebels ? 

n-cely had the rear of our force got out of sight uf the g) 
than the Seikhs evacuated it in a body, leaving the town that, after 
much trouble in capturing, we had held for a month and a half, at 
the mercy of the rebels, who quietly walked in as they marched out, 
forthwith commencing a series of atrocities and cruelties upon all 
throughout the district who were believed to have been friendly 
to ua. 

Bevenue was being collected by the rebels ; police-stations estab- 
lished along the lines of communication, by authority of Umnxur 
Singh, their ostensible leader; the property of natives who had 
assisted the English or sold supplies to them destroyed ; the people 
themselves murdered, and their families insulted in some of the 
various ways most in accordance with Grfental beastliness ; — t 
circumstances tended to give us subject for thought. It was pro- 
bable we should, notwithstanding that the rains had set iu, ha ^ 
take the field again, and we made preparations accordingly. 

Meantime the intelligence from elsewhere was generally favour- 
able. Gwalior had beeu recaptured by Hir Hugh fiose; tfie Bi 
of Jhansi, one of our most inveterate as well as able foes, killed. In 
Gude, Sir Hope Grant had surprised the rebel force at night, killing 
upwards of six hundred; the famous Moulvie, of Lucknow, be- 
headed,— his head, it was said, having been sent in and identified ; 
and even in our own neighbourhood a body of rebels, who had at- 
tacked a police force, had by them been repulsed. 

There was one circumstance, however, that although in itself 
trilling, could not be looked upon otherwise than as indicating that 
the spread of disaffection among the armed levies in the service oi 
Government, still continued. 

A small body of convicted rebels were being sent under escort of 
some " Nujeebs," or jail-guards, towards Calcutta, in view to undergo 
transportation, to which they had been sentenced, when at a place 
(;i 11 id Gyah there must have undoubtedly been a collusion between 
thrrru for the guards quietly permitted them to escape. About the 
same time other bodies of these armed native policemen showed 
themselves to be not trustworthy; and it w r as resolved by the civil 
authorities, under whose direct jurisdiction they are, that they si h 
be disarmed. 

From all these circumstances we scarcely expected that our sojourn 




at Dandgunge should be a protracted one } nor were we particularly 
sorry at the prospect, considering the impressions we had he en led 
to form of some of the people there, we bad almost already for- 
gotten the terrible heat and the discomfort with which we had had 
to bear during the preceding three months, the temperature on some 
occasions actually reaching 1 16 degrees F* Now that the rains had 
fairly set in, we were enabled to sit with comfort in rooms without 
punkahs and with open doors, the thermometer marking S6 degrees, 
which although oppressive in Engiand 3 felt agreeably cool to ua 

The continual receipt of unsatisfactory intelligence from the dis- 
tricts where bodies of the rebels were known to be, and the almost 
daily reports that reached the station of their existence in greater of 
Idas force in parts where their presence had not been anticipated, 
decided the military authorities to take steps accordingly* 

The difficulty of moving any considerable body of British troops 
along cross roads in pursuit of natives, who knew every spot of the 
country, and the serious results to the men themselves that ware 
anticipated, from exposure to continued wet at this atatiou, farmed 
obstacles of no slight magnitude against any expedition that might 
havefboen contemplated, The question, therefore, came to he whether, 
under the circumstances! it was the more advisable plan to leave the 
rebels for the time being in possession of the parts of the districts 
where they had established themselves, taking it for granted that 
with the return of dry weather they would be easily expelled, or 
that small bodies of troops should now be put in movement, with ;i 
view both to harass the rebels, and to product 1 a certain moral effect 
upon any of the people who might still be favourable to us, but 
whose allegiance could not be reckoned upon one instant longer than 
tluv saw that'we still possessed the power of resistance. The latter 
proceeding was accordingly resolved upon, and Brigadier Douglas 
of the 79th, appointed to take command of the troops that were to 
be employed in the disturbed districts. 

Although we had but so lately come into quarters from field ser- 
vice, one half the regiment was now held in readiness to proceed any 
where at a moment's notice* A fuw days afterwards intimation was 
ived that a body of rebels were besieging a civil officer and some 
Seikh allies, in a small fort at a little distance on the opposite side of 
the river. As is always the ease when members of the Bengal civil 
sen-ice find themselves hard pressed, so in the present instance the 
difficulties of the moment were described as insurmountable ; unless 
reinforcements were instantly sent, the consequences would be dss- 
Mslruus to our hold of India/ Mr. Frost and his magnificent body 
of men woidd be annihilated ; the news of the anticipated victory over 
the English would spread like wildtire far mil near; the population 
of the neighbouring provinces would rise as one man, and with the 
destruction ri of this cue rgeti c civil) an|and his hi aek garrison w ould in* 
t'ut:iH\ pound the death knell of British rule in India. 

HA would have supposed from the urgent nature of 
the i that hourly inundated Dandgunge. It was clear, 

therelbre, that if two such terrible cataaUupIu/s were to be averted 




at fill, this could only bo elicited by immediate and decisive m 
Observe, then, the result. Four companies of the Onety-Oiietb, 
fully equipped for the serious and important service on which they 
were about to be engaged, embarked on board a river stea 
thus proceeded to the relief of their besieged countrymen. 

In the hurry and anxiety of the commander of the Teasel t<» n 
his fh^tmation, and calculating on the nee that had taken pla> 
the river, he steered along a snorter course than ihe one he - 
otherwise have followed. But alas! alas! for human calculations' 
The depth of water in the channel was not so great aa he antieipati 
—a heavy dull grating feeling was experienced by the living m; 
that crowded the decks ; suddenly the whole received an impe 
forward — they jumbled against each other in the most helpless but 
unpleasant manner. Something surely was wrong, — they had stuck 
fast and firm in the mud, and there they contrived to stick for more 
than the whole day. 

But the object of the expedition had been achieved, notwithstand- 
ing this small mishap- The Sepoys love not the near proximo 
British soldiers, especially when the latter are on war intent ; and 
perhaps of all soldiers in India, those of the Gnety-Onetb were of all 
others their greatest horror. When, therefore, the news reached 
the rebel camp that half this regiment had actually started., panic 
transferred itself from besieged to besiegers, neither of whom had 
ever calculated on the chances of the whole proceedings being stuck 
on a sand bank in the river Ganges, Had they done so indeed, 
matters might still have worn a different aspect than they did ; but, 
fortune ever favours the brave* 

At last the steamer was got off — proceeded on its course, and i n 
due time reached the place appointed for the disembarkation of the 
living cargo. A note was put into the hand of the commanding 
officer, He reads ; and lo ! no sooner had the troops under him left 
their station, than the rebel hordes raised their siege. ^lr. Frost 
stOl existed, and the annihilation of British power in India wn? 
an event of the future. Here, then, was what is called " moral " efle 
with a vengeance. 

Shortly after this occurrence, the arrival of a regiment new to 
the country was an event that gave rise to some degree of m\ 
in Bondgungej albeit the interest to some of us was painful. 

^Nowhere on the face of the earth can the circumstances attending 
the arrivals of a regiment for the first time in a country be more 
disagreeable to the individuals concerned than they are in India. 
Everything strikes them with unpleasant distinctness as being so 
extremely different from what they had been accustomed to. There 
is a thoroughly un-English look and style about everything — thi 
half naked black creatures who swarm everywhere, twisting 
lithe forms into strange and inelegant attitude, grinning, chatte 
unintelligible . sounds, or sitt bg monkey-like on their haunches^ 
looking on with stoical indifference-— cannot do otherwise than s 
the new arrival with surprise and bewilderment, 

Then come the awkward means and ways of doing everything, 
even the moat simple operation. The boats, the carts, the 

l in 


1*59. i 



manner of the natives in lifting and conveying an ordinary parcel, 
are all uncouth,, if not ridiculous ; and it is impossible for a person 
who baa become accustomed to this state of things to observe, 
without being highly amused, the first conflict thai on arrival of a 
fresh regiment takes place between the customs of the two races — 
between, in bet* civilisation and barbarism* 

At tins, the very threshold of their service in India, the new 
arrivals learn, and are convinced, as they will be the longer they 
remain, that barbarism has the best of it T and the sooner they make 
up their minds to accommodate their ideas and guide their conduct 
accordingly, the better will it be for their own mental quietude — 
and the better in all likelihood for their worldly prospects; but of 
this subject more hereafter* 

After many hours of hard work in a stifling atmosphere, and under 
an intensely powerful sun, the heavy baggage of the regiment is 
landed and packed upon that most ricketty and awkward of all 
wheeled conveyance, an Indian bullock hackery, for the corps is not 
to remain here, but at once march on towards the disturbed part of 
the district. Everything is in readiness to commence their march 
on the morrow $ and we, old campaigners in India, cannot help 
mentally exclaiming * : poor fellows ! how many of you who now 
manifest such glee at getting on shore will ever leave the land that 
has formed the graves of so many of your countrymen." 

The heavy rain that some days previously had fallen had now ceased, 
the upper sky was once more blue and cloudless, although dark 
streaks or large white masses of vapour still hung about the horizon ; 
not a breath of air agitated the still damp atmosphere j the sun 
poured down liia heat and glare with an intensity that no written 
description can express, only personal experience fully realize, and 
the heavy offensive exhalations from the pestiferous earth produced 
for the time being a sensation of nausea and sickness among all who 
were exposed to them, even those who in common language were the 
most acclimatised. 

Under such circumstances, what* think vou, was the style of cos- 
tume worn by the men who were now undergoing their initiation ? 
None [other than the heavy thick woollen dress of a soldier in a 
British whiter. 

Strange, however, that the senses of the men themselves were 
apparently eo blunted, that they were seemingly unconscious of the 
torment they were thus made to undergo, or perhaps it may have 
been that as good or bad are merely known by contrast, they were 
in that happy condition of ignorance in which, not having yet learnt 
the comfort attending a lighter style of costume, they had no 
standard of comparison whereby to judge their then condition. So it 
was also with the men of the military train who, during the intensity of 
the hot dry weather, continued on Held service to wear their woollen 
dress, and so far as could be then observed, with no other immediate 
effect than in one respect at least to render themselves extremely 
offensive to each other, and most remarkably, and especially so, to 
any " outsider" who happened to approach their vicinity. 
Ho amount of experience would seem to awaken our military 


authorities to tlie necessity of issuing the moat stringent orders to 
commanding officers bringing troops to India, that under no cir- 
cumstances whatever should the men wear other than the prescribed 
dress for the particular season in which they may arrive* 

What was the result in the present instance? The regiment 
marched out of the station at four o'clock the following morning — 
their fin* camp ground was only eight miles distant, yet by the 
time they reached it, three of their numbers lay dead, and a great 
many prostrated and helpless by sunstrokes. 




The Buns were not always the smart regiment they an- now. In 
the early part of the Peninsular War, they decidedly would not have 
cut so good a figure at a review, or on a palace guard, as the seventh 
Fusiliers, or the Forty -third light Bobs, or the Fifty -second, 

Kighty-fiftb, or any other crack corps in his Majesty's service, 
In fact, not to mince the matter, their appearance was so slo 
at the period I allude to, that they were universally known in the 
British army in Portugal by the sobriquet of the dirty Buns, Perhroe 
their colonel was a descendant of Lady Mary WurtW Monta^uX 
so celebrated for her negligence in all matters connected with the 
toilette; or, perhaps he sympathized with hazy Bob Rouen* 
ours > who always coupled the words, " comfortable and dirty f* or 
what is still more probable, he might have agreed with hia illustrious 
chief himself, that provided a soldier did his duty, it very little 
mattered what his appearance was, and it must bo confessed to their 
credit, that the third Buffs were always well up to their work, and 
that better or braver soldiers never took the field, 

Now, every one who is old enough, rememembers the Convention 
of Cintra, which was signed by Sir Hugh Dalrymple, Sir Hurry 
Burrard, and, much against the grain, by Wellington himself then 
only Sir Arthur W'cllesly, and which, among other jeux ifcxprit at 
the time, called forth the following :— 

SirArtliarittnlSir Hurry, SirlTniry and Sir Hugh ; 
i\-tlocHlIe t rack-a-doodlc, cock-a-doodle doo ! 
Sir Arthur tea brave knight, but tor the other tu>», 
yiiig cock-fiHloodk, cock-a-doodlo, 0O<&fr4oodk Joo ! 

And certainly, as far as Sir Arthur was concerned, it must 
allowed that there was ample cause for crowing, seeing what a 
down, regular game cock he afterwards turned out. Well, 
after this said Convention of Cintra was signed, a detachment of 
the third Bulls was ordered to relieve the garrison of Peniche, * 
waa to be given up to us. The company selected for this duty 



1859.] PAST— PBESJSNT — FUTUBE. 255 

old C 's, notoriously the dirtiest and most slovenly in the whole 


" Well," continued P , who was a subaltern at the time in 

C 's company, and from whom I had the relation, " when we got to 

Peniche, after a previous dirty fatiguing march, we found the French- 
men all ready to set off to Lisbon, and a remarkably smart clean 
set of fellows they all were, I must say, quite in apple-pie order, 
and splendidly equipped ; forming about just as great a contrast to 
us rough and rum ones as you can possibly imagine. And didn't 
we envy 'em, lucky rogues ! going back to Lisbon, which none of us 
had ever seen ; where all the good wine and pretty girls were, that 9 8 
all — for, queer customers as we were, we had no sort of objection, I 
can tell you, to the amusements and creature comforts of the capi- 
tal. Well, old C , who had as little objection to 'em himself, as 

either of us young ones, called us both to the front, and when we 
were out of earshot of the men,—' Boys,' says he, ' how should you 
like to go to Lisbon ? ' I needn't tell you what our answer was. 
' Then we'll go, boys ! ' says he. 4 It is but misunderstanding our 
orders. As soon as ever these French fellows are off, we'll follow 
'em !' which we did, all ragged, and soiled, and footsore, as we were. 
Well, when we got to the grand parade at Lisbon, by Jove, sir ! we 
found Junot and Laborde, and that terrible tearing fellow, Loison, 
with his one arm, mounted on his white English charger, together 
with the whole staff and garrison of Lisbon, assembled all in full 
fig ; and I just leave you to imagine what sort of a figure we cut, 
tailing these splendid Frenchmen, with our one fife and drum, play- 
ing " The girl I left behind me," and fat, pudgey, smouchey old 

C marching in front, doing grand, and looking for all the world 

like some strolling actor, hired to play Bombastes Furioso, or Chro- 
nonhotonthologas in the burlesque. By Jove, sir! the whole 
parade were in a roar;. and Junot, who was himself dying with 
laughter, sent Loison to know what the deuce we wanted there. 

C pretended that it was his orders, and Loison, not knowing 

how to deal with the matter, and seeing we were but one company, 

told C that as we were there we might stay there. C— - — 

thanked him, and told Loison in return that he had seen him at 
Vimeira, mounted on the very white horse he then rode, adding 
' and when you began to retreat, my eje ! how you did go it /' 


Pbobablt before this is in the press the scourge of war will have 
devastated some of the fairest provinces in the world, and thousands 
have felt the bitterness of death. All around is the clang of arms, 
and nations preparing to meet nation. At present the cry is the 
freedom of Italy and the reduction of Austria's pride ; but how long 
will this ui'ipaying war last? How long will money-borrowing, 
much-taxed France, Crimean-crippled Russia, and indebted Sardinia, 

U. S. Mag., No. 307, June, 1851). s 



be co with defeating pov( it y-strieken AuitriaV Will Loin - 

bardy be sufficient recompense for the expense and carnage that must 
ensue? Will press- gagged, spy- rid den France, or the Autocracy of 
liussia be satisfied wfth making Italy free ? Will the power 
in i years ago crushed Italy's struggle for freedom allow it now { 
"Will the two great -us be contented with wresting a province 

from a brother despot? No — never. Kussia and France have not 
joined hands, have not entered into aji alliance offensive and defensive 
tor the mere punishment of Austria, or the giving freedom to Italy. 
They are too poor for revenge only, too cold-blooded for philan- 

The game is deep, and has been well thought over, Long before the 
insult offered to the Austrian on the 1st January, bad a campaign 
against Austria been determined upon by France^ and Sardinia 
to make the first move- How long before this was the first t 
entered into between Prance and Russia, f Mouths probably ; the 
friendship between ihese despotisms has not been of mushroom growth, 
It will not prove to hart* been cemented and resolved upon in u day, 
It will date back from the time of the patehed*up peace after tfic 
Crimea, ami it has been since then daily increasing, 

Would Prance alone have dared to treat England with contempt, 
and have run the risk of war by permitting the publication of cer- 
tain bombastic, insulting addresses from over -valiant colonels? 
Would France and Sardinia combined dare to infringe treaties and 
route hi Europe the spirit of discord, spreading misery all around, 
had they not known that the great northern power would help 1 

Was France ever willing for the affair to he amicably settled? 
Was she not encouraging Sardinia bo give offence, and thus m 
hslng our every effort at peace-making t How about Lord Cowley *i 
mission, and during hie absence) the congress proposed by ft 
How about refusing now to agree to our last arrangement, and 
as Austria has agreed to dof Does not all this prove her a 
for war, and a degree of certainty in gaming her end, which would 
not have existed had she believed that Bussia, Prussia, and England 
Wi i urse slic would eventually pursue? 

Those great arm its and navies arc collected for other purpoi 
than revenge or philanthropy. They are for plunder. The i 
of "Jly I "ncle" will be strictly followed, and the war carried into 
the enemy's country. " Feed on the enemy **' and that enemy, w beo 
Austria is crushed, and Prussia surrounded and helpless, wiD he 

Waterloo must be avenged and the Crimea wiped out, England 
was victorious at both places, and her pride must be humbled. It 
ia a stake worth playing for. To checkmate, erase from the map of 
nations — aye, ev( Jte Great Britain sue for terms — would 

amph compi My Uncle's detention and death at St. II 

orforArma, lukcrmai]. or SebaatopoL Let our navy be crippled, 
our army be occupied in defending our coasts, colonies, and forth 
Bed ports in the Mediterranean, and Russia can repay herself for 
tin* expenses of crushing Austria end freeing Italj by taki] 
of the long-cove'ed land of Turkey. The man there is still sit k. 



1859.] PAST— PBESEffT — FUTURE. 257 

a solitary power, far weaker than when assailed five years ago, and 
with Europe in a blaze, her ally, England, hard pressed, and the 
Gaul no longer a friend, she would fall an easy prey to her old 

With such views of the past, present, and future, it behoves us 
here to be prepared. The past has shown how treacherous is our ally, 
France ; the present proves the good understanding that exists be- 
tween two of the most powerful despotisms in Europe ; and the fu- 
ture looms dark and dangerous. We shall do well to be ready for 
contingencies. How can this best be done? There are no two 
ways; and so, notwithstanding the cheese-paring of Cobden, Bright, 
and Co., this country must submit to an additional taxation for 
the increase both of her naval forces and army. 

In the first, sufficient inducement must be held out to make men 
enter themselves, and our navy thus be properly manned. The same 
plan that answers in the merchant navy would surely succeed in ours ; 
and the adoption of their method might be followed with advantage. 
If it is tyranny, if it is bad pay, or whatever the cause may be that 
prevents men taking to the navy, let it be sought after and removed. 
There is no time to lose. Ships cannot now remain on an average 
four months after being commissioned, waiting for crews ; and the 
time, thank heaven, has passed, that would permit fathers and sons 
to be torn from their homes, and forced to serve on board a ship, 
leaving wives, sisters, and daughters to fall on the streets, or perish. 
Increase the marines and increase the army. 

To do this last is certainly by no means an easy task ; and it is 
with a wish to show where disciplined and good soldiers are to be 
obtained that has led to this article. 

There is no doubt but that on the mere rumour of war, volunteers 
would rush to the British standard, and within a short time a fine 
army would appear on paper ; but these are not the men to bring 
into action, or to lead against continental armies flushed with vic- 
tory. Volunteers are good in their way, but take long, very long, 
to make into soldiers. The habit of implicit obedience is hard to 
acquire by men that have long known independence. Moreover, 
volunteers diminish in number and spirit as the enthusiasm of a war 
wears olf, and those employed are apt to sigh for a restoration of the 
comforts which patriotism made them surrender. Foreign legions 
are worse than useless ; thev own no authority, owe no allegiance, 
and are at the call of the highest bidder. Commanded by officers 
foreign by birth, speaking a different language, jealous of, and disliking 
our system and perhaps ourselves ; such regiments are not likely to 
repay the country that employs them. 

.Men must be had. Soldiers such as have seen war, and have 
proved themselves trustworthy and brave. These can be found in 
Goorkhas and Seikhs ; and, however dangerous it may appear em- 
ploying such, it is to be hoped that before the idea is poon-poohed 
and treated as a dream, the plan may be well considered. Remem- 
ber the Seikh and Goorkha are no effeminate men, inhabitants of 
warm climates, and unused to war and discipline. Far from it ; 
thev are, in a manner, born to arms, and in physical strength are 

s 2 




a mateli tor us islanders. In courage they hare few equals, except- 
ing m the British soldier ; and tbmr capabilities of enduring expo- 
sure to cold is proved by old campaigns, 01* their trustworthiness 
there can be but little doubt. The men that stood our friends 
when the enemy opposed to them and us were rich enough to bribe, 
and sufficiently victorious to make any but the most sanguine almost 
despair of success, are not likely to fail now. They fought well at 
Delhi, Lucknow, Bareilly, and Oudh* They are trusted with pri- 
soners, forts, and treasure, in a country where the British power 
has once been lost, and yet are true to their salt, They are in perfect 
discipline, commanded by British officers, and use our words of 
command, and obey our regulations. They have no scruples about 
-lug seas, eating pork, or rations. (Eating beef is, however, 
forbidden.) They have no caste, and like the British soldier* 

Surely such men as these are too good to be overlooked, Whole 
regiments would volunteer for a war in Welayut, and, once away 
from Iridic, they would learn more of our power and success. That 
as a race they are restless is not to be denied, but most warlike races 
are; and if employment can he found for such so much the bolter for 
tin 1 country that is relieved of their company. To India, a few rf 
these Punjaub levies being sent to do duty in the colonies, reli< 
English regiments required for home service, would he a blessing 
financially considered ; and it would also be a good method of redu- 
cing the present too powerful and numerous native army. 

Away from their homes they could find no inducement to rebel, 
no sympathy, no reason for treachery. Tlieir wives and families in 
our hands in India would be a sufficient guarantee for their keeping 
faith. Away from their homes, away from India, they would see hu\v 
great is the power of that Queen now proclaimed Empress of India, In 
our ships and forts would they see our strength, and on their return 
be able to show to their untraveHed comrades the utter foolishness of 
rebellion. Let them, side by side, as they have fought before with 
British soldiers, engage the common enemy, and the certain victory 
will give them more wonders to relate. Let these men, that have 
stood our friends in the hour of need, not find themselves suddenly 
sent to the right-about, and told to return to the more peaceful but less 
pleasing mode of existence to be found in agriculture. Dissatisfied 
at present they are, not, neither have they yet found out that a 
large force of white soldiers must be kept in India to overawe them, 
Trust them; let them see a fellow soldier in the white man, not a 
guard; let them know that the Empress of Hindostan is Empress *»f 
other lauds, and keeps no purely local troops, and then the Seikh 
and Goorkhawill be trustworthy and valuable. 

One word in conclusion, be careful in the selection of officers 
commanding and doing duty. On their conduct, on their capabili- 
ties of command, and on their understanding those under them, 
depend the discipline and management of Asiatic irregulare. Let 
e be no favouritism shown in the selection of officers, and above 
all, let the men see that they are not feared or doubted, but impli- 
citly trusted. A>oj,o-lM>iAjf, 

r— This arrived too late for publication M mouth.] 



Lecture XXIII* 

We now approach the period from whence the history of England 
is no longer obscured by doubts, or subject to cavils and objeetiona, 
as to the relation of facta themselves, though of course in the 
report of these very facts many differences, and possibly dis- 
crepancies, will appear, arising, as I have previously mentioned, from 
the personal or party views of the writers, A soldier ought, how- 
\ to be of no party, neither "Whig, Tory, Conservative, norBadieal; 
hts path is plain — to do his duty, to the best of his ability, to hi 
sovereign, and his country, heeding not the party that may fo 
the time be the advisers of Majesty, and who, by the sanction of the 
sovereign, may hold the offices of government. Shackled, and too 
much interfered with by the administration of the day, many of our 
best commanders have unfortunately been, and many desirable 
operations have been retarded, or prevented from want of supplies, 
&c. ; the blame of which must attach to our erring legislators, to 
whose dictum a commander is forced to submit, 1 shall not enter 
into the causes that Jiave, in many instances, led to disappointment, 
confining my views of military history and military science, to the 
record of the achievements of our gallant soldiers in every country, 
every clime. Where reached not the fame of Greece ? Where was 
not, subsequently, the grandeur, the military pre-eminence of Rome, 
*' the mistress of the world ? " echoed from mouth to mouth ; and 
yet are all the boasted conquests of these ancient nations to be 
compared to the sovereign power of Great Britain ? Alexander 
sighed for new worlds to conquer* New worlds have, as it were, 
been created for Britons to possess, either by discovery, or by con- 
quest ; witness the immense extent of subjugated India, our posses- 
ions in America, the Wesi Indies, the almost a world in itself, 
Australia, &c, Ac. ; and be it remembered 1 , thai with the exception 
of some unavoidable wars in India, these, and other valuable ter- 
ritories of the British dominions, have not been obtained by the 
slaughter of the peaceably disposed inhabitants of these countries ; 
but by holding out to them the hand of brotherhood, by recipro- 
cating kindly feeling, and by developing to them the advantages to 
be derived from science, wealth, and commerce. Several centuries 
intervene between the last recorded battle of King Arthur, and the 
battle of Hastings ; but, during that period, in tne relation of the 
v sir ions engagements that took place, there is not matter of sufficient 
importance to be detailed ; and we will, therefore, at once proceed 
to the eventful battle of Sastuup, which terminated the Saxon 
monarchy, and placed the crown of Britain on the head of William 
of Normandy, ▲, d< lOGti, Harold baring refused to surrender his 
right to the soverelgntj of England, William rusolved by an appeal 
to arms to take possession of a country, all claims to which had b 
relinquished to him by his rival; and his just olai bicb had 

been admitted bj the Pope, who, moreover, presented to William a 




consecrated banner, as an evidence of his rightful pretensions, and 
as an emblematic sign of success. Prepared for the approaching 
contest, Harold appealed to the affection of his subjects for support 
and assistance, aud the appeal was not made in vain, for largp 
numbers flocked to his standard, firmly resolved to defend Harold, 
who had been proclaimed king immediately on the death of Edward 
the Confessor, William also soon found himself at the head ot a 
formidable army ; soldiers of fortune from all countries of Christen- 
dom enrolling themselves under his command, and anticipating the 
conquest of a country which to them would become the source of 
wealth and honor, A dyers* winds for some time retarded the naval 
operations of William, but at last he embarked bis forces, and landed 
without opposition on the coast of Sussex, near Pevensey castle* 
Placing himself at the head of 30,000 of the best warriors in Europe, 
consisting of archers, spearmen^ and men at arms, William marched 
rapidly to Hastings, and there pitched his camp, pending the trans- 
portation from the fleet of the stores, provisions, &c. Not long was 
ne allowed to remain inactive, for the army of his antagonist ap- 
proached ; and, learning this, the gallant William of JNTormandy 
challenged his rival to personal combat, thereby to avoid the un- 
necessary effusion of the blood of their followers. The duel was 
declined by Harold ; who, anticipating a victory over his oppon- 
manned a fleet of 700 vessels, which were ordered to cut off tin 
retreat of the invading arruy. 

Battle of Hastings.— October 13th, 1060, 

The dawn of day exhibited two gallant annies preparing for a 
conflict , on which depended the future destinies of thousands of 
British subjects. It is recorded that the Saxons, perhaps too con- 
fident in their might, had passed the previous night in carousing 
and mirth, while, on the contrary, the Nornians addressed solemn 
prayers to God, and took the rest that was necessary to prepare 
them for the arduous duties of the eventful day of battle* Short 
was the space of time before the desperate strife commenced ; on 
each side was displayed high courage, and a perfect knowledge of 
the use of the weapons employed ; and well balanced appeared the 
blood be-sta'ned scales of victory. Now, the fortune of the day was 
apparently against the Normans, who in vain at rove to resist the 
solid bodies of Saxon infantry, and wearied with their fruitless 
exertions, the disheartened soldiers were already beginning to lose 
ground. Now — were they gallantly rallied, and led to a fresh attack 
by the heroic William himself ; again, and again, did the tide of battle 
ebb and flow j but vainly did the impetuous valour of the knights, 
and the skill of the archers attempt to resist, or to put to confusion, 
the unflinching bravery of the Saxon bill-mem Science at length 
affected what courage alone could not accomplish. William selected 
1000 well-disciplined horsemen, and directed them to make a feint 
of charging the firm battalions ; but, on their near approach to them, 
by a pretended retreat, to endeavour to induce the enemy to break 
their compact formation. Completely deceived by this manceuvre, 
the Saxons toe readily gave way to their anticipations of obtaining 
a speedy victory ; and, tumultuously dispersing them selves ? burst 


from their ranks in pursuit of their flying enemies. The Norman 
men-at-arms lost no time in taking advantage of the successful 
stratagem, and a body of them dashed through and through the 
broken files, cutting them down by hundreds, and driving the 
remainder in wild confusion to the neighbouring heights. 

There did the intrepid, though sadly diminished fugitives, again 
rally in detached bodies, and gallantly did they maintain the conflict 
until the approach of night, when, learning that their king had been 
slain in the battle, and that his courageous brothers had also shared 
the same fate, the intrepid Saxons yielded to the destiny which they 
had resolutely striven to avert, and quitted the field of strife griev- 
ously dejected at the termination of their monarchy, which for more 
than six centuries had been established, and had contributed to the 
advancement of the civilization and glory of Britain. 

Discreditable to the English army as was the battle of Bannock- 
burn, I am unwilling to pass it over unnoticed, as the result of it 
fully manifested the success which is obtainable by the knowledge 
of military science. 

Battle of Bannockburn, June 23, 1314. 

We learn that Bruce, being well aware of his inferiority in nume- 
rical strength, resolved to make amends for this by turning to advan- 
tage the nature of the ground on the site where the engagement was 
about to take place, and also by strengthening the position by mili- 
tary art. Eesting the right of his army on the bed of the Bannock, 
in front of his left he caused trous-de-lovp to be dug three feet deep, 
fixing stakes in the centre, and covering them lightly with turf. His 
spearmen, selected, from the infantry, were posted in the front line, 
and Bruce himself held in reserve 400 well-disciplined cavalry. The 
archers availed themselves of the cover of the thickets, and were 
supported by billmen. Contrary to these judicious arrangements, 
the English trusted too much to the power and might of their heavy 
horse, and blindly rushed to the encounter ; spearmen and billmen 
mixed together, opposed themselves to the front of the enemy, and 
in an inextricable mass set at defiance all manoeuvres. The charge 
of the heavy cavalry terminated, as expected by Bruce, the portion 
of the discomfited horsemen who were not disabled in the trons-de- 
loup, joined the infantry, but in so irregular a manner that instead 
of affording them support, they did but add to their previous state 
of confusion. At this momentous crisis the overwhelming charge of 
the commander of the Scots, with the selected body of horsemen, 
turned the flank of the English combatants, and decided the fate of 
the battle, followed up as it was by an instantaneous order from 
Bruce for the whole line to charge, and complete the victory, — a 
victory that afforded full proof of the superiority of science in a 
commander, combined with discipline in his troops, over a deficiency 
of military attributes in a general and his followers, however nume- 
rous the latter may be. 

It is naturally far more gratifying for me to recount battles in 
which our opponents were foreign troops, than engagements with, 
as it were, almost our own flesh and blood ; and I therefore gladly 



fass from the tm satisfactory battle of Eannoi-kburn to that of 
1 ressy* You will in all probability have perused the account of this 
engagement in the works of modern historians, but I prefer the 
quaint style, and the less imaginary description of events, of the an- 
cient authors to these more erudite compositions; let aa, therefore, 
refer to " GJirtmwles of England, Scotland, and Ireland," by Raphael 
Hoi in shed, who thus terminates his preface :— " And thus I cease 
further to trouble thy patience, wishing to thee, gentle reader, so 
much profit as by reading may be had, and as great comfort as God's 
holie spirit may endue thee with." 

Battle of Qresny* 

In the u Chronicles" it is stated that, after the passage of the 
Somme, and the destruction of the town of Crotois, the king of 
England having learnt that the French monarch was approaching 
with the intention of offering battle, resolved to encounter him, and 
* commanded his marshalh to choose a plot of ground somewhat to 
his advantage, that he might there abide his adversaries/* 

On the morning of the 26th of August, 1346, Philip of France 
quitted the town of Abbeville, and, placing himself at the head of 
his forces, marched towards his enemies* ** The king of England rose 
betimes in the morning, and commanded every man lirnt. to call 
ULOn God for his aid, and then to be armed, and to draw with speed 
into the Bald, that in the place before appointed they might be set 
in order of battle. 

'* Beginning his enterprise by invocation, or calling upon God T he 
was the more fortunate in his affairs, and aped the better in the 
progress of his actions, as the issue of the war sheweth. A notable 
example to every private man to remember to call upon God when 
he purposeth anything." 

Edward then directed a park to be formed for the security of his 
carriages, baggage, &e., as well as for the whole of the horses of the 
army. The order of battle consisted of three lines, the 1st composed 
of 800 men at arms, 2000 archers, and 1000 other soldiers with the 
Welchmem These troop* wore under the command of the Prince of 
Wales, the Earli of Warwick, Oxford, and other lords and knights ; 
the second line was led by the Earls ot Northampton and Arundel, 
and other noblemen, and its numerical strength is stated to have 
been 8tK> men at arms, and 1200 archers ; the king commanded the 
third line, consisting of 700 men at arm*, and 2000 archers. 
Edward's demeanour Wore the buttle is thus described by Froissart : 
— u When every man was gotten into order of battle, the king leaped 
upon a white hobby, and rode from rank to rank to view them, the 
one marshal on his right hand and the other on bis left, desiring 
every man that day to have regard to his right and honour. He 
spake it so courteously, and with so good a countenance, that even 
they which were before discomforted took courage in hearing him 
speak such sweet and loving words amongst them. It was nine of 
the clock e'er ever he had thus visited all" his battles, and then 
he caused every man to eat and drink a little, which they did at th 
leiei Tfcp 1 ' 




The good dispositions of the English king barring been made known 
to Philip, he considered it advisable to postpone the engagement for 
that day, in order to consider and decide on the moat judicious plan 
of attack. In vain were orders given for this purpose by the French 
king and his marshals to the advanced troops, who in themselves 
were unruly, and whose numbers were momentarily increased by 
those in their rear, the roads between Abbeville and Cressy being 
thronged, and the excited soldiery drawing their swords, and exclaim- 
Down with them, let us slay them all." The English troops, 
observing the tumultuous approach of their enemies, steadily pre* 
pared for the conflict, the archers in front of the first line were 
covered by the men at arms, the second line being in readiness to 
afford support when required. Delay and confusion attended the 
assemblage of the French leaders, and when the Genoese cross- 
bowmen, consisting of 12,000 or 15,000 men, were ordered to the 
front in order to begin the battle, they declined doing so on account 
of having marched six leagues that morning, adding u We be not 
well used, in that we are commanded to fight this day, for we be not 
ill ruse to do any great feat of arms ; we have more need of rest. 1 ' 

At this time there was an eclipse, heavy rain, and terrible thunder j 
and when the storm abated the sun shone full upon the faces of the 
French r thus giving a manifest advantage to the English troops. The 
Genoese soldiers were subsequently u assembled together, and began 
to approach ; they made a great leap and cry to abash the English- 
men, but they stood still, and stirred not at all for that noise. Then 
the Genoese/ the second time, made another leap, and huge cry, and 
stepped forward a little, and the Englishmen removed not a foot. 
The- third time again the Genoese leapt and yelled, and went forth 
till they came within shot, and fiercely therewith discharged their 
-bows. Then the English archers stepped forth one pace and 
[ei fly their arrows so wholly and so thick together that it seemed to 
mi. iw. When the Genoese felt the arrows piercing their heads, arms, 
and breasts, many of them cast down their cross-bows and cut the 
Btrings, and returned discomforted, When the French king saw 
them flee away he suid, fct Slay these rascals, for they will let (hinder) 
and trouble us without reason." 

Fiercely did the men at arms assault their opponents, slay i tig 
them in great numbers, and showers of arrows were poured in 
atnung*t them, adding to their panic and discomfiture. To add to 
their destruction M footmen with great knives killed many of them 
as they lay on the ground, both earls, barons, knights, and esquires," 
The struggle for victory still continued, h and German 

soldiers nressed forward, audio desperation opened a pasage through 
the English archers, and fought hand to hand with the men at arms. 
Then did the second line of Edward's army steadily advance to the 
succour of the Prince's troops, who were so sorely pressed by their 
fierce antagonists, that the Karl of Northampton &ent to the king, 
requiring further aid for the two lines at that time Buffering severely 
from the attacks of their opponents. u The king hereupon demanded 
if his son was slain, hurt, or felled to the earth. No (said the knight 
that brought the message), but he is sore matched. Well (said the 

king) return to Mm, and them that sent you, and say to them that 
they send no more to me for any adventure that falletb, so long as 
my son is alive, for I will that this journey be his, with the houuur 

This answer having been carried to the gallant men^ who were 
resolute! j contending with their numerous assailants, every comba- 
tant was encouraged by the confidence manifested by their king, 
find nobly did they do their duty; to their country. Eventually, jut 
feet success attended the operations of the army of King Edward , 
and, towards evening, the battle was terminated by the entire route 
of the troops of Philip, who, by the advice of Lord John of Heinauit, 
when all hope of success by further resistance was lost, quitted the 
field ; with but a retinue of sixty persons for his body guard. Tbe 
slaughter of the French troops was very great, for the English r 
tained their firm array, and dealt destruction around them over 
emmies whose ranks were broken, and whose hearts began to fail 
them in finding that their opponents 1 assaults were irresistible 
battle having terminated, and the field being clear of tbe French 
troops, the King embraced the Prince, saying, " Fair son, God send 
you good perseverance in this your prosperous beginning ; you have 
nobly accouitted vourself, you are well worthy to b 
governance of a realm committed to your hands for your valianl 

It is quite evident that the success in this battle was attributed 
to the good dispositions and discipline of tbe English troops, winch 
enabled them to withstand, ana, eventually, to conquer 
who individually strove manfully for victory, but whose p< 
collectively, availed them but little, w T hen opposed to a well 
ganized army. 





(Couthmed from page 116.) 

The Colonel and myself lived in a house attached to the 
where a blacksmith's family was residing. The old man nlv 
made the servant girl get up to light me a fire t and Annette did D()t 
at all approve of the arrangement. She was as fond of her h» 
the Colonel, anil used to revenge herself on my gn*ng to break f/wt 
in the adjoin in jr home with Captain Bobbs, by strutting Into 
room wi th rn o« k jolBSmit y t ■ ■» ena u i re after my heal tlb She waa 
too much afraid of her master and mistress to play these tricks, in 
their house. 


There was another defect in our quarters. We could not stir 
across the gravel walk, without being shot at, for this evil, I soon 
fcnnd a palliative, 1 got a quantity of green boughs, and stuck 
them rather thickly across the path at which the enemy's fire was 
directed. They could not under this arrangement tell whether any 
one was passing or not, and it ceased to be worth while for them to 
tip an incessant fire. The Major General came while I was 
collecting the materials, and when he saw how well the cover an- 
il it ought to he called ** 2$e Bitnhurtan Breastwork" 
[y the enemy never attempted to destroy the house, or fir© 
If they had done so, it would have occasioned us a dial 
of misctiief 

1 was now perfectly recovered! when an order arrived for me to 
do duty, and take the command of the 6th Catjadores, in the 2nd 
Division ; go taking leave of my former comrades I proceeded on my 
journey, I had a short time before received the arrears of 
my pay aa Major of Brigade, so I had lots of money. I 
also escaped from the sortie the garrison made afterwards, 
Kid I can conceive from their proximity, that the Gagadores must 
have been rather roughly handled. Poor Dobbs, after boasting that 
he had remained uninjured, the whole of the war, received on this 
occasion a wound in the heel t which laid him up for several months. 

I joined my new appointment, I think, at Tarbes; Lieut.-Cobuiel 
Fearon, nn predecessor, had been killed at Orthea. The 6th Caea- 
dores were then commanded by the senior captain, who had two 
brothers in the battalion. I soon found that I should again have to 
undergo the ordeal of being tested, but this time it was the officers, 
not the men. 

The officers having assembled to meet me, Captain Antonio Vtfl^ 
the officer in command, handed me a letter, which he said he had re- 
ceived ibr me some days before; it waa addressed, in English, to the 
r who majr be appointed to command the 6th Cacadore*, and I 
found on opening it that it contained an order that I should not re- 
commend lor promotion four named officers, until I had personally 
IRtneieed their conduct in the field under fire. It had hitherto 
bad, and they were to redeem their credit before they were 


1 desired the four officers to remain with me, having dismissed 
I he others, and I communicated to I hem the purport of the letter, 
thinking it best to do so ; at the same time I told them that I was 
aurc the Marshal must have been either mistaken or misinformed, 
and that it would give me great pleasure to report their gallant con- 
duct on the next opportunity, being certain that they would not 
then be wanting in their duty as officers and brave men. I directed 
Adjutant to manage his roster in such a manner that non.' of 
era shoidd be on the baggage-guard when it was probable 
the battalion Would be engaged, that thereby an opprtnnity of 
wiping off the stigma might be all'orded. 

As I only held the rank of Major, and did not belong to the corps, 
did not seem at all to relish my superseding him 



in the com m and, although I tried hard to conciliate him* it was 
evident that he and his brothers were seeking to organize a party 
against me. 

I wan of course anxious to take the battalion into action as effec- 
tive as possible, for aa yet I was only a lieutenant in the British 
service, and thought the first time we were engaged I might gain my 
company* To do this it was necessary that as few men should be hi 
employ as possible. But I found the officers were all horse dealers, 
and in consequence a great number of men were exempted from 
duty, to act as bat-men in charge of their horses. 

Lord Wellington's orders were very stringent on this head. The 
captain of a company was entitled to only one bat-man T and the 
suoalterns one to each company ; and in calling the attention of 
the officers to this order, I permitted the subalterns to have 
one each for a limited period, until they could dispose of 
some of their horses; after that was effected I should expect 
the general order would be complied with. On the issue of 
my battalion order, I desired the adjutant to go to Captain Antonio 
Yas, with my compliments to request that he would not consider the 
order as applying to him* for I was aware from the position he held 
in the regiment , that he necessarily had more horses than he other- 
wise required, and was therefore left to dispose of them at his leisure » 
lie sent back word to tell me he wanted no favours, or more indul- 
gence than he was entitled to. There was no English officer except- 
ing myself with the battalion. Captains Brunton and Temple, of 
the 43rd regiment, were absent on leave. These officers were also 
captains in the British army, and consequently my seniors in that 
service, but not in the Portuguese, They neither of them rej- 
the corps. Brunton afterwards commanded a regiment of Dragoons 
in India ; I don't know what became of Temple. 

The officer in command of the Brigade was Colonel Harding 
afterwards Governor General of India, On the occasion of my issuing 
the battalion order regarding the bat-men, he sent for me/and told 
me he highly approved of the order which he had seen. The late 
Lieutenant Colonel Fearon had noticed the same evil. Had he lived 
one of the first things he intended doing was the issue of a similar 
order* Colonel Hardinge added, " Don't you think it would have 
been as well to have made an exception in favour of Captain An- 
tonio Yas, who has been in command of the battalion before you? 
You will find that you have a difficult card to play, and you will 
have to use great tact with these people." I replied, I was so fully 
aware of the justice of this, that 1 sent the adjutant to him with a 
message to the very purport he had just recommended. He added, 
" Well this is very extraordinary, and I must tell you that Vas him* 
self ia the person who put your orders into my hands, but he said 
nothing about the verbal message ; you had better, I think then, 
not let him knuw that we have had any conversation on the subject, 
and act in the matter as you think best." 

The next morning the battalion having assembled to commence 
its march, I went to the rear of the column in on fir to count the 




number of batsmen ; I found one man more than 1 had permitted 
in orders, and on enquiring whose bat man it was, Captain Vas left 
the ranks, and said lie was his, with the permission of the oiRecr 
nanding the Brigade ; I enquired why be had not communicated 
the permission he had received to me, his commanding officer ; he 
replied. It seemed difficult to tell who was the commanding officer, 
yon, or the Brigadier ! " To shew you that 1 am," I replied, *' you 
will forthwith rejoin your company, and take the man with you." 

On the other hand, whenever he complained, which was frequently > 
that the Quarter master had given him a very inferior billet, and not 
.^ponding with his position in the corps* I ordered that officer 
to give him mine, and in future to give me the second beat. This 
answered a double purpose, the Quartermaster hated the Captain 
and his brothers, and would have been too apt, in consequence, to 
make my quarrel his own ; hut now the Captain could no longer 
complain of my dealing unfairly towards him. 

The Caeadore Battalion was a great favourite w T ith Sir William 
Stewart who commanded the division. He sometimes called them 
bis Body Guard, at other times his Harriers. They were short 
muscular fellows, and made capital riflemen. From the undue par- 
tiality shewn them by Sir William, who always placed them in quar- 
ters witli his staff, whilst the other Portuguese Infantry Regiments 
rem ained in bivouac, a little , was created; 1 believe, however, 

the reason to have been that in small towns after the Division and 
Brigade staffs are accommodated, there are always a number of 
houses wherein a small battalion might be quartered, the officers 
being inadequately, but the men very comfortably provided, and the 
lore Bat i < re little more than one third of the strength 

of the Infantry Uegiments. 

On one occasion I was thus quartered after a very wet and late 
march, and was forced to bring my cattle into the dwelling 3i 
fur the night, expecting to march early the following morning. My 
quarter had been told off by the Assistant Quartermaster General 
of the division ami the door marked accordingly, but I was scarcely 
seated by the fire, when the Prorosi Marshal entered and claimeu 
the quarter for himself, 1 referred him to the mark on the door, 
but it had been rubbed out and his own substituted. As we had 
only a few hours to remain, 1 told him he might share it with me, 
but with this he was not satisfied and wanted me to leave the house 
altogether. On my declining to do so he went to report the circum- 
stance to the Assistant Quartermaster General, who sent me a verbal 
order to give it up. It was against a positive divisional order that 
any change of quarters should take place after the troops had once 
taken pos^ssion. Moreover the order adverted rather severely on 
the Quartermaster General's department for irregularity and i 
sequent complaints^ which its contravention had occasioned, I took 
my wtand and told him that 1 would not move at that late hour of 
the night without an express order from the General, desiring the 
Pros -hal to leave the house immediately ; he was obliged 

with his guard to pass the night in the open market house I was 
in a rage, for I told him that 1 would not allow a single indiv 




of the battalion to be moved any more than myself. The nest 
morning on the line of march I met the Assistant Quartermaster 
General, who was very indignant at my conduct, asking me if I was 
not aware that the staff, without reference to rank, always took the 
choice of quarters before regimental officers. 

This officer was no other than the person formerly mentioned from 
the Military College, who, as a youngster, I had assisted in torment- 
ing, and he urged old friendship and former service together as a 
further reason why I should have acted differently. 

I replied, if custom was to constitute law, I acknowledged that 
the staff always took care of themselves first, but I could see no 
other assignable reason, and that old friendship and former service 
together I did not anticipate would have permitted him to pass over 
the claims of a Field Officer in command of a corps, in favour ofonfl 
who only a few weeks before had not even His Majesty 7 * 
nion. He replied that he might probably yet have an opportunity 
of convincing me that he was right ; but we never afterward* 
in any official relation to each other, 


Buttle of Toulouse, 10th of April, 1814 — Bhul Lovers— My French Cook— 
Roguery of a Rwt.;iiiruk-ur nt Tuiiluiise — Return of the Anglo 1 '. n mum ■><■ Anivy to 
Portugal — -Amusements en route — Appointed to the 3rd Butt-Alton of Crujuclores — 
Quartered ut Villa Real, Tras dos MmiTcs — Ten Making alius Flirtatkm — Lift III 
» Nunnery— Portu^r mlm' Win* Company — Exiursiou and Amvtttta 

About an hour hefore daylight, on the morning preceding the 
buttle of Toulouse, General Stewart sent lor me, I found hini on the 
table land which overlooks Toulouse; I lie city being on the opposite 
side of the river Garonne. He said, w I suppose you have n 
the field work*, which the enemy have erected below us ? * ! I replied, 
1 had "Then, 1 wish you,*' waa his reply, " with the Caeadores to 
drive the enemy from them, so go and make your arrangement^ 
Mediately, and be ready to commence your attack when day 
breaks. My friend, the senior Lieut* (one of the four officers 
named in the letter) had contrived to be away, on the baggage guard, 
but 1 was assured by the Adjutant* that it had been quite a mistake ; 
tbly it was so. 

We did not find the job a very difficult one ; the enemy withdrew 
their men aa wa advanced, and m 1 had orders not to go beyond a 
particular point, 1 halted the party. The enemy now be^an pelting 
us with round shot, but having made the skirmishers lie down, they 
did us no injury beyond covering us with miuL When the fire 
slackened, I thought it better to advance a little further in order to 
gain possession of some houses, whence they were beginning to 
annoy us with musketry; these we easily carried, and I 
obtained better cover, In posting the men 1 took the other brother, 
the senior ensign, with me, and 1 never saw a poor devil in such a 
fright, bobbing his head every instant, when a musket ball from the 
enemy passed near him. I continued with him until lie h< 
ppmewhat cool and collected, so as to understand what I was saying 


to him. I had observed the enemy making preparations to with- 
draw a howitzer and some guns, from a battery near us. I could 
easily have prevented the removal, but it was beyond th e limit 
assigned me, so I rode back to Sir William and pointed out to him 
what the enemy were doing, and requested permission to prevent 
them ; as it could be done with great ease. He told me that he also 
had observed them, but that our attack was meant to be a mere 
demonstration, to call the enemy's attention to that point, and that 
he would feel the loss of any of his Cagadores more than he prized 
the capture of one or two guns, which in the pending operations 
might be of little value to the enemy. 

I returned to my advanced party, and here we remained until it 
was dark, in a large house which they told me had been Soult's 
quarters. We found dinner ready, but no one to put it on the table, 
the occupants had fled, but our people soon arranged the matter for 
us. The house was splendidly furnished, plenty of beautifully cut 
glass and Sevre's porcelain ; and if there had been any plate on the 
table which was laid, it must have disappeared before I entered. I 
immediately posted sentries to prevent any damage being done to 
the property, eatables excepted, which I allowed the men to take 
whenever they could find them, as they had till then been without 
their dinner. 

We had been in this chateau about two hours, enjoying ourselves, 
while the enemy every now and then fired a few shots of musketry 
from a large building on the opposite side of the river, which I took 
to be an hospital, from its having the black flag displayed from one 
of the windows. 

The enjoyment of our " otium cum dignitate " was at length dis- 
turbed by a party of riflemen joining us ; I think they belonged to 
the regiment of the Brunswick (Els They touk post in the house, 
and commenced gutting it forthwith, the officers setting the example. 
In this stage of the proceedings I thought I might as well have my 
share too, so I desired my servant to collect different articles to 
complete my canteen for six persons. I was rather late, as some of 
the most handsome things were gone ; but, besides tea-cups and 
articles of that kind, I got a set of the most beautiful dessert plates 
I ever saw, each plate being ornamented with a different landscape. 
On my march afterwards through Spain, to Portugal, they were the 
admiration of all the landladies where I was billeted : some of them 
were broken, others stolen, many were given away as presents, and 
very few of them reached Portugal. 

At night-fall we were relieved by a party from the 31st regiment. 
I remained a little behind, talking to Bolton, the adjutant of that 
corps, on the Causeway, leading from the bridge, when a round shot 
fell between us. I afterwards served in India under him, when he 
reminded me of the circumstance. Colonel Bolton was afterwards 
killed at Moodkee. Although the battle of Toulouse took place the 
following day, I was only a distant spectator. I bad taken care of 
my men while they were engaged in a feigned attack, by placing 
them, whenever it was possible, under cover. By this means none 
were either killed or wounded ; and not only John Bull himself, but 




it would aeem the higher authorities also, can never conceive that a 
military service is well executed unless accompanied by a butt 
bill, representing great loss of life and limb The brigadier was from 
this cause refused the command medal, which he might otherwise 
have received, as my battalion formed part of his brigade. 

Colonel llarl inge- wrote to me many months afterwards, forward- 
ing a copy of a Letter from the Horse Guards, He had applied to 
obtain the medal for the Battle of Toulouse, as my battalion was 
engaged ; but the application was refused, the second division having 
been reported by Lord Wellington not to have been engaged- After 
the action at Toulouse, the battalion was cantoned in a village on 
the road leading from that city to Villa Franca, where the enemy 
had established outposts. 

The entry of the allies into Paris having been made known, Colonel 
Hardin gc left the army, and was succeeded in the co aim and of the 
brigade by Colonel Pym, until the arrival of Major- General Ash* 

Sir William Stewart did not approve of the cantonment which 

had been assigned to me; he wanted ua farther in advance, and 

red me bo Follow him with the battalion. We wandered about 

the country till it was quite late in the day, the General all the time 

Mating on the advantages nud disadvantages, as military pes 
each village we reached ; at length we ventured to point out to him 
that the men were getting tired, and beginning to teel the want of 
their dinner? j and, a* a village was at hand, I begged he would let 
us remain there for the night. To this he assented, having quite 
forgotten that the men were marching at his heels, The following 
morning we received orders to march back to our former canton* 


Colonel Pym had left his quarters in the cantonments of his on q 
regiment j and, instead of taking those previously occupied by Col, 
Hardinge, he fixed his abode in the cantonments of the Cacadon 
a chateau where a very pretty French woman, who w&§ divorced 
from her husband, restded with two beautiful children. Dr. 
Clarence, the staff surgeon of the brigade, Captain Davenport of 
Pym's own regiments, and myself, were inseparables, and we voted 
Fym'a arrangements ft groat bore* 

The Doctor was half mad, th< Captain was an ainorousIrishman,with 
a good voice, could sing well* and we were determined to teaze the 
poor Colonel to the utmost. He gave us divers hints that it was 
not necessary that we should visit him bo often. We told him that 
now he was a Brigadier, politeness required it, and when this excuse 
was worn threadbare, we said we had come to see Madame, 
unlike him, was always happy to receive us. She soon perceived tlu* 
drift of our visits, and entered into the fun with all the anion 
a lively Frenchwoman, Davenport, although he could no) 
word of French, was the most noticed by the lady, as he also had 
an agreeable voice and played the guitar; Pym accordingly sent him 
for a few days to enquire about some windmills which had been 
burnt down | but in fact to get him out of the way. When he 
returned, he and the mad Doctor dined with me 3 and I r 

1859.] BBJttHIBC*NCE$ Of A VETJ5&1N. 271 

Madame Banse Eiviell to bring her guitar and como and join us. 
I had prepared her before hand, and consequently all Pym'a repre- 
sentations on the impropriety of her coming to my quarters were 
thrown away. I never laughed so much in my life, the doctor and 
the lady began a game of romps and made so much noise that mine 
host and his wife (tenants of the lady) came up to see what was 
the matter. The amorous Irishman became sentimental and jealous, 
and altogether the contrast was most ludicrous. 

Having such good materials to work upon, the Doctor and my- 
self, the following day, set about composing a mock heroic poem, in 
three cantos, describing the intrusion o: the Coionel, the banish- 
ment and sufferings of the lover, the lady's ieeiings when the doctor 
attempted to supersede him during his absence, and a lot of other 
nonsense, which this mad fellow had the impudence standing on a 
chair, to recite in Pym's presence, with an account of the presents 
the Captain had given her prior to his being sent in search of the 
windmills ! ! The old fellow could not help laughing, although wo 
sometimes, as the ditty proceeded, hit him very hard ; and 1 lost 
caste with the lady ; and from having made her figure in our dog- 
grel rhymes, she was pleased to call me a dangerous person. 

I went sometimes to Toulouse, particularly on our first arrival, 
and generally took two or three Portuguese officers with me to dine 
at the restaurant near the square, where we used to get capital 
Languedoc wine (Mousse) very cheap. On one occasion, when I 
went there with a small party as usual, I stopt to gaze at a distance 
at some showman (for anything approaching Mr. Punch had to me 
always great attractions), when I observed one of this party, a 
trumpeter, had caught my eye. Down went his instrument, and in 
a moment, over the head of the crowd, he was at my side ; it turned 
out to be my late cook, poor Auguste, whom 1 had been obliged to 
discharge for over zeal in my service, in never paying any of his 
countrymen, or charging me any tiling for my living, lie told me 
he had been to Paris, where they had given him a pension of one 
franc per diem. I said, '* "Well, Auguste, you deserved it, if it was 
only for your sen ices at the battle of CWer/Vo." ** Parbleau," he 
replied, " we were in great danger, and if you, Monsieur Mon 
Majeur," (glancing his eyes at the cuff of my jacket, where my 
present rank was visible) " would only have let me, at those 
Coquim de Juifs, the following morning, when I had obtained a good 
stick, would 1 not have made mince meat of them ? " lie wanted 
me greatly to go up to the show with him, when* I was to see all 
for nothing, and be introduced to the manager, who, he *aid, was a 
brave garcon ; but as (he crowd were collecting around us, I told-him 
1 would see him again another time. "With my party, we then went 
to the old restaurant, and 1 ordered dinner for three officers and my- 
self. I had always given the garcon a few sous, and, in consequence, 
he was very civif. I desired him to bring the same wine that wo 
had always taken. This house had now become a place of great re- 
sort, and there were a number of officers of our cavalry dining there. 
These gentlemen generally contrived to spoil the market wherever 
they went ; and they had done the same here. On calling for tfy 
U. S. Mag., No. 367, Juke, 1859. t 




paid three or four. On enquiring the reason, I was told wo had 
been drinking champagne, Sending for the master, and telling him 
that I had never before been charged more than a franc a bottle, and 
that I had not ordered champagne, he said, he hoped we would not 
oblige him to make th< pay for his mistake j which he would 

certainly do, if we disputed payment. I paid the amount, and 
ordered another bottle ; the fellow was very civil, and waited to 
draw the cork, but I told him it was not necessary. As hi 
loitered about, anxious that the cork should be drawn, I bid him le 
the bottle alone, as I intended taking it t as it was, to the prefect, 
being desirous of ascertaining whether that functionary was a hette 
judge of wine than myself. To my taste, the wine was the wise 
the country Called Blanquette (Mousse), sold at a franc a bottle 
The fellow then got much alarmed, and said that, rather than have, 
the credit of his establishment called in question, we might pa 
whatever we liked. I gave him back his bill, which he returned wit 
the proper charges only, saying, there was such a demand for thai 
wine in the house that in future he would be obliged to charge 
us two or three sous more than he hitherto had done. One of our 
party had noticed a placard in the streets, announcing that it had 
come to the prefect's knowledge that gross imposition had been 
practised on the British troops, and inviting the officers to make 
their complaints when they had any, with a view to the punishment 
of the offenders, I frequently dined at the house afterwards, and 
remarked that our cavalry officers drank the same wine, and paid for 
it at live francs a bottle, as champagne ; I never thought it worth my 
while to put them right. They, in the first instance, caused the 
price of everything to be raised, and I considered it expedient that 
they should continue to be cheated for their folly. 

The period at length arrived for breaking up the Anglo- Portuguese 
army, and the Oporto brigade, to which I belonged, marched through 
part of France, Spain, ami Portugal, to the destination assigned the 
different regiments* Some lime before we eonimrnr. d our march 
I received a letter from Messrs, Hihbert and Hume, Army Clotl 
London, begging that I would interest myself to recover the amount 
of their bill tot appointments thej had sent for the battalion, at the 
i« ijuost of the late Lieut- Col. fteaxor, and which, if nM paid by 
the corps, would obb'ge thetu to sue his aged mother for the amount, 
a fitep they would be very unwilling to take. I assembled the oifi 
cers to enquire how they proposed to liquidate the debt T which it 
was very evident they were not desirous of paying at all ; nor meg 
they anxious to receive the articles, which By this time had arrived 
at Passages. A debt contracted at the request of the officer 
my predecessor I considered just as incumbent on rne to rec 
as it the things had been ordered by myself ; I therefore told them 
that they were not assembled to give them option of taking the 
articles for which they had all signed a requisition, but to study 
their convenience in the amount of stoppages they desired to leave 
monthly ibr the informal urn and guidance of the person who had 
supplied them. Seeing that I was inflexible, I succeeded before we 




separated in obtaining from each officer a written authority for the 
Paymaster to stop a certain portion of pay monthly, and was thus 
enabled to make one remittance, and collect funds nearly sufficient 
for another, before leaving the battalion. 

Our march wan one scene of gaiety, particularly in France, for 
either the Brigade, or the Caradores, or the Major- General, con- 
jointly with myself, gave a ball at every large town we came to, and 
xpense was very trifling. I was generally sent in advance to 
make the arrangements. 

Frequently young Frenchmen have come to me in the room, and 
said, li How is it you have picked up so many pretty ^irls? Wt- are 
natives of the town, and have never met so much beauty before,*' I 
told them it was a particular Jnstinct — a tact whii-h the I . 'Iinsseurs 
had to discover a pretty i^irl wherever she was to be found ! But 
the real mode of proceeding was this, — at the Prefecture T usually 
tie names of all the respectable people of the place, with a par* 
titular request that no young ladies* names should be omitted, even 
if they bad no papa or mamma to bring them. I then enquired what 
ladies were pretty from some other person, and what ladies were 

The most respectable family was invited to give a tone to the 
party, with such tabbies only as were necessary to accompany the 
girls selected, and a sprinkling of young Frenchmen (dancers); all 
the rest were excluded. Some people were surprised at not having 
been invited ; it was deemed an oversight, and we were off the next 
day ; in fact, we were more desirous of amusing ourselves than in 
paying the great families a compliment 

Our damoiseanx and the demoiselles seemed to enjoy themselves 
most heartily. There is, I believe, contagion in such hilarity, at 
least I thought so my self, and on one occasion tell in low with the 
only daughter of mine host. She had a brother commanding a 
regiment of French Cuirassiers; they were a very old and respect- 
able family, but certainly the young lady was kept too secluded and 
Hatched, ai least she thought ho, \\n- slie lost mi time in making tne 
aware of her desire to elope from the house of her parents. 

Young and pretty as the lady was, how could I resist the tempi a- 
tion? and all the happiness she depicted as being in store for us; I 
say she depicted, tor i verily believe that 1 should never haw 
diva rued of proposing such a sapient arrangement. I was possessed 
unfortunately of a small phaeton, and without either of us reflecting 
for a moment on the consequences, our project would have been 
carried out, provided the lady could manage to escape through the 
bed-room of her parents and that of her duenna. Very few words 
had sufficed to bring about our anticipated happiness. Dancing 
with her the first quadrille, she remarked, " How much I admire your 
Chasseurs." " We want some recruits, tf was my reply; " would ma* 
'iselle like to join us P* 1 " Oh, yes T she said, ' : but you won't 
take me with yon r' * Certainly we will j but what will papa say ?" 
** Oil- ifyou will let me go with you, never mind that, he will soon 
forget it, v&ila V affair fin it J' 1 received several notes from her 
the following day, when we were halted, reminding me of myjpro* 

T 2 


mise, with her plans j ami, 1 was so infatuated that I had no1 courage 
to rL'tsi^t being thus dragged by a child into an imprudent step, by 
once undeceiving her. But fortune and my associates befriendi 
me. Captain Devenport and tlic staff-surgeon used frequently 
dine with me without any previous inti. nation, an J they would al 
si itiLctiincs brills a friend with them; and it so happened that 
day of our halt they came, accompanied by a young chaplain of 
army, whom they had met with; ho was an t ly gcmlem 

like person. After dinner the conversation turned npoe the pa 
we hud thfl previous evening, The clergy mau T after apologizjn 
the liberty he was about to take, and which he said was justi 
from ana of Ins cloth, told me he had heard of my intended project 
from my two irk nda ; and to rescue me it' possible from the disgrace 
attached to it, and to point out the evil effects it would have up 
my future prospects in juv profession, was the occasion of his pn 

[ tie trusted we should not separate without Ids obtaiiiin 
from me a promise not to proceed further in the matter. 

Th ; coming from a person I had never seen be 

i in so kind and friendly a manner, had one good effect, 
made me reflect, which I had not done before, and I at uii- 
ceived that a young giddy French wife was not calculated to add 
my happiness, while my habits, pursuits, and way of thinking sat 
tied tne thai the young lady would be much better without me as h 
liege lord and master. I had, however, no opportunity of cxplainii] 
myself, or taking Leave of the lady, and not daring to stay for tl 
appointed hour, 1 moved oft" in advance. I never heard al 
from her, but am inclined to believe &hs did not break her h> 
and if she really wished for a husband, boo might succeed perhaps 
better with the next brigade which followed us. The young cb 
man who rendered me this kind service I never met with or h . 
of afterwards, 

Ouf march continued to be a very pleasant one ; we mm. 
ourselves aally with ino laments, armed with long 

pieces of bamboo j in breaking a lance with each other one of 
party frequently got unhorsed. An unlbrtuiiate lieutenant, wfc 
pony had a the bit out of his mouth, afforded 

* amueemt il(, jit- generally stuck i the column, sur- 

rounded by Urn men; but at times w hen he was off his guard 
wpuld rii and away would go the pony tiud the officers after 

him. Ilia rider, wit In hi i ;i bridle, contrived generally to sit him well, 
but in s dreadful frighi. ilthough be sometimes got a fall, lie wan 
never hurt. Xhii was not a very military proceeding; the men, 
however, seem the fun as much as their officer*, 

We had also some In Deveuport was the moat 

silly fellow I evur met, where women were concerned* and in the 
house where he was billeted he was as jealous of Clarence and my- 
self talking to them as if thej were his undivided property. He 
could iv' of French) and we laughed and joked him 

< jii his sentimentality, in having ao soon forgotten the Lady of t" 

au. lie could ftol bear being rallied ou the subject, say 
that we engrossed the conversation of all the women ; we had 





i859.] BiirtinacnBircEi o* a. tetebait. 276 

him particularly angry, and, to pacify him, we promised not again to 
approach the ladies where he was billeted. I scarcely could persuade 
myself that he was serious in making this foolish proposition. How- 
ever. I found he was determined to abide by it ; for, a few days after- 
wards, I went out to walk and see the town where we were quartered 
with the master of the house, who took mc also to the maiHe, and 
introduced me to a family who were assembled under the shade of 
the trees. A walk was proposed by the party, and I gave my arm 
to one of the two young ladies who were there ; we were soon fol- 
lowed by Devenport, whose hostess it seems 1 was walking with, 
when he tendered his arm, which she declined, saying one was enough. 
He then oifered his arm to the other young lady, which she also de- 
clined, as she was about entering a convent to take the veil as a nun. 
He could not understand the reason of her not walking with him, 
and he became very angry, conceiving that I had so arranged it, and 
I was afraid that my fair friend would perceive what he was 
saying. He wanted me to pass her over 1o him, which I could not 
do, where I ever so much disposed ; and. as he made use of some 
expressions of which I did not exactly approve, I told him I would 
not be bullied intola compliance with his nonsense. 

He left the party and sent a friend to call me out, or to bring him 
an apology ; the latter I declined giving, as 1 conceived that I was the 
person who had most reason to feel offended. A friend was sent for 
on my account, and I told them both the story, just as it occurred, 
at which they laughed immoderately, and yet they passed nearly the 
whole night in trying to dissuade the silly fellow from shooting me. 
1 suspect that most of the duels which take place arise from causes 
even more trivial. Poor Devenport was, a year or two afterwards, 
drowned on his passage between Holyhead and Dublin. He had 
previously left the Portuguese service. 

When we were about to enter Portugal I was appointed Major 
of the 3rd battalion of the Cacadores, with orders to join that 
corps at Villa Eeale, Tras dos Montes. Before taking leave of the 
Oporto brigade, I had an opportunity of seeing my successor, 
Lieut.-Col. Peter Adamson. lie told me he had applied to have 
the command of the Cacadores battalion immediately after the 
battle of Orthes, when Lieutenant-Colonel Pearon was killed, and 
again on his seeing me attached to take the temporary command of 
it. The Marshal had, however, declined appointing him until now, 
telling him always that I had been placed there under very peculiar 
circumstances. He did not seem satisfied at my retaining the com- 
mand so long, to his prejudice, and when I introduced the officers to 
him, and handed over the command, I gave him also the papers and 
money referable to the accounts of Messrs. Hibbert and Hume, 
expressing a hope that he would see that account settled and 

Comparatively speaking, few British officers were now retained in 
the Portuguese service. Most of them rejoined their regiments ; I 
was, however, one of those authorized to remain, and all the subal- 
terns so authorized, obtained companies in the British service with- 
out purchase. Mine was dated 23rd of October, 1814. Twelve 





months afterwards we were all placed on the half pay list of the 
British army. The 3rd battalion of Cacadores, to which 1 had been 
newly appointed, had been organised and commanded in the first 
years of the Peninsular War by the late Sir George Elder. The 
officer in command when I joined, was Lieutenant-Colonel Luiz de 
Certjueira. He was n married man, bnt divorced from his wife, and 
had some property in the neighbourhood of Villa Eeale. ITe was a 
v. rv agreeable companion, hut rather too much infected with the 
Philosophy of Voltaire, liouasoau, Volncy, and other of the French 
school. He seldom remained long with the battalion, and in conse- 
quence, the command frequently devolved upon me, 

The General Officer commanding the Provence (the Conde de 
Amarante), had bis head-quarters at Villa ReaJe, and Iwas on very 
intimate terms with the principal magistrate, Maraes Sarmento 
afterwards Ambassador to our Court. We had subsequently with 
the battalion, a married officer, Captain Dobsou, a most eccentric 

The chaplain rf the army was a blustering Franciscan friar ; be 
had made himself wry useful to Sir O. Elder, who employed him to 
bully the people at the arsenal at Lisbon, by which means his corps 
was equipped and appointed sooner and better than any other. The 
Priest was a coarse sensualist; but he was, shortly after my arrival, 
aent out to Bio Janeiro, and became the tutor and spiritual adviser 
to the Prince Don Miguel 1 ! There was also a Captain of the name 
of Cassamiro, who had been a Dominican friar, but in the breaking 
out of the revolution he turned soldier and married, He could not 
have remained in the country, and less so at Villa Eeale, wher 
there was ft Dominican convent. After the war was terminated 
he was, therefore, sent t<> the Emails, where he also became military 
tutor to Don Miguel With such teachers and preceptors, we need 
not be surprised that the Prince became what be was. 

Several of the officers had small incomes, exclusive of their mili- 
tary pa\\ and some of them (as the Lieut. -Colonel and myself 
resided during the summer months in small villas outside the town. 
We formed a sort of mess, a very jolly one, but on principles drawn 
up by our Lieut.-Colonel, quite different from the mess rules in our 
ice. We dined with each other in rotation, and were at liberty 
to bring a friend if we liked. This plan bad its evils, for we beg 
to vie with each other, and the price of game and other artid 
the market rose in proportion. To cheek extravagance the Lieut *- 
Colonel proposed a bye law, that our table was not to groan with 
more than a certain number of dishes. The penalty was rather 
humorous one t the offender being punished by our dining w ith bJ4 
again the following day T and every consecutive day untd his courage 
abated to the proper level. The Lieut.-Colonel was himself the 
first to infringe his own regulation, and he was also the first to 
Buffer punishment, he then became more reasonable. If 1 rightly 
m-idlcet, ladies dined with us on one or two occasions, when the 
evening was generally spent playing volterette (a game at cards)* 
played by three perBGBBj aud tbe ladies singing, accompanied them- 
selves on the Portuguese guitar, or, as they termed it, the JSnguV 
guitar. {Tote continued.) 









>s in 





I86d.] 27* 




The Appboachixg Wab. — Although the report of a secret alliance 
between France and Russia is not confirmed, and, indeed, is even 
partially contradicted, the opinions expressed in the postcript of our 
last number on the present conflict have gained ground, and the very- 
advocates of peace are beginning to look forward to our early parti- 
cipation in the war. No reasonable mind can regard the complica- 
tions thickening around us as leading to any other result. In the 
first place it is contrary to all our traditions, inimical to our 
interests, and destructive to our prestige, to leave another power in 
command of the seas ; and that the French are not likely to recon- 
cile us to such a novelty, is, we conceive, shown by their search of 
an English mail steamer, under circumstances wholly unwarrantable. 
The Dutch flag has also been insulted, and we may soon expect to 
hear of other outrages. Secondly, it is clearly intended that 
the blockade of the Adriatic, which has already proved injurious to 
our commerce, shall be extended to Trieste, as soon as the French 
squadron is reinforced ; and we shall thus be deprived of the first 
link in our communication with India. This will also be a violation 
of the federal territory of Germany, and, by extending the quarrel 
to the German States, will draw down a federal army on the Rhine, 
leading, we cannot doubt, to immediate hostilities. Such a General 
as Pelisbleb is not likely to suffer all the laurels to be gathered in 
Italy, while he is at the head of an army in this quarter ; and we 
may believe that the infraction of the neutrality of Belgium, which is 
to call England to the field, will not be a remote event. Nor can 
Her Majesty's Government be blind to the designs of France on 
Naples and Egypt, in neither of which countries can she be 
permitted with safety to our possessions, to establish a footing. 
Whatever her engagements with France, Russia is pursuing her own 
projects of aggrandizement, in such a manner as certainly favour 
those of the French Emperor. Her agents are at work on the 
Danube, in Hungary, Greece, and Turkey. Like Kossuth and 
Louis Napoleon, she has become enamoured of nationalities, and, 




under this cry, is raising the Slave populations of Eastern Europe, 
In short, in whatever direction we look, and wherever we turn, 
troubled waters are ahead, and there is no saying at what moment 
we may not " drift* 1 into them. Let us, if possible, avert hostilities 
for three months, and we shall then enter the Hats prepared. 






Tub Admihaltt anb the Navy, — The friends of Captain f 
2TEOIE must acknowledge that his expulsion from the Admiralty ha: 
not proved a national loss* The Board at Whitehall is acting with 
a vigour unparalleled in these degenerate day a, just as if this 
martyr had never pertained to it. We can even assure his "Wbi, 
godfather, Sir Bekja-Mik II all, that, despite hia consummate 
ties, he was found to be rather a bind ranee to the public serviee th 
an aid, and it was not intended, under any eireu instances, to re 
him at the Admiralty. The gallant Captain has ollectcd a wist: ra 
treat, and, in the shades of private life, will solace himself with t' 
recognition bis services have received in " the order of the mills; 
Meanwhile, the Admiralty has been proceeding energetically 
the task intrusted to it ; and in such a spirit, and on such a scale, 
as juetities the assertion that SirJoigJf PAia^UTGN is reconstructing 
the navy. The dockyards are rife with an endless din of preparation, 
and every week either adds to the number of our skips afloat, or 
new vessels advancing towards completion. The (Queen's proclama- 
tion for the enlistment of aeameu has been attended with the best 
eifect. lumbers have eome forward at every port, in answer to the 
appeals of Captains JBnoWlff and Pi m, to avad themselves of the 
proHered terms, and there seems to be no doubt that the requiri 
implement ^jfl shortly be raised. But it bus been uumistakeah 
manifested that there is still great distaste among the maritime el; 
t« » the national service, and, at the meetings held at various pi: 
the groumta of this repuguauee were not left unstated, tfome. 
the objections were successfully combated by Captain Bbowt* in t 
"West, and by Captain Ptm in the North j and too much praise ca 
not be awarded to these officers for the zeal and ability with w hi 
they carried out their mission. Notwithstanding all that has b 
lone fur the sailor, however, it is unfortunately too true that At 
it-mains some room for complaint. The feeling everywhere evin 
tm the subject of corporal punishment points to a grievance of t 
tirst magnitude. It was argued, indeed, that the practice had very 
much abated, and was now under severe restrictions; but, in 
both respttts, thmv is still room for improvement. Corporal 
punishment gsbb hardly be altogether abolished, but the Commander 
of a vessel ought to understand that its infliction will always involve 
responsibility , and may lead to investigation. We no longer give 
</,en for being last up at quarters ; but, even inour da; 
there are ol lie-era who would not be the worse for having in tin 
eompositkm a larger share of the milk of human kindness. It is to 
nit'iL t&efc eases that the Admiralty, id b wise spirit of conciliation, 
have issued a circular on Um reception that is to be given to v 


l" \ IUUU" 



te^^9 J and the treatment they are to receive* We cannot too highly 

commend this admirable letter, which is at once an admonition to 

officer*, and a charter of rights to the seaman. It enjoins, on the 

of the officer* the exercise of a generous forbearance, a provident 

care for the present want s and future career of the sailor, and temper 

ami patience in training him to his duties. The sailor will be initiated 

in the whole' routine of discipline directly be enters the ship, but 

ance is to be made for the novelty of his situation, and neither 

little infraction of orders nor backwardness in drill is to be 

hastily noted. An injunction is laid on " the officers of the ileot to 

turn to good account the opportunity that has been ailbrdod for dis- 

l£ the aversion fur the navy which the merchant seamen have 

d from traditional misrepresentations of the Queen's service, 11 

ad, with such instructions emanating from the Admiralty, and 

Eiitted to Ihitish officers, we may believe that the difficulties in 

the way of manning the navy will soon be removed, and that the 

service will become as attractive and popular as it once was odious, . 

Tub Ope ft ati on 3 lie Italy. — If we may draw 7 any conclusions as 
to the design of Louis Napoleon, from the affairs at Moutebello 
and Vcreelli, appear;uu. b indicate that the demonstrations hitherto 
made of an intention to effect the passage of the Po by open brute force 
Opposite to Yalenzn, are a mere feint. It was not to be expected, 
il, that so diligent a student of history as the French Emperor, 
and particularly one who treads so closely^in the steps of the great 
Napoleon, would commit so fatal an error, when, mi this very 
ndj the military genius of his uncle followed a strategy exactly 
the reTeim It was at this point of Valenza that General 
Buonaparte threatened to pass the river in 1796, but, while bis 
ment gave tins impression to the Austrians, he accomplished a 
forced march to Castel San Giovanni, and, throwing forward a body 
of dragoons, seized some boats near Piacenza, where his column ar- 
rived in the morning, and encountered little opposition in the 
Ige of the river, 1 1 w as an hist r u c t ion of F ax n e jit c k t h e G r eat 
to his Generals that bo attempt should be made to force the passage 
of a river without having recourse to stratagem. In the interesting 
remarks on the seat of war in our last number, General Macin- 
tosh has pointed out the course followed in 1848 by Iladetzky, who 
w the Sardinian army into confusion, by crossing the Tieino at 
Pa via, instead of by the bridge of Bulialora, where they had prepared 
for hia ri> At the present moment, the professional student 

will do well tu turn to Sir Howaud DotJGLAB'a work on The Con- 
Hon of Military Bri<1ge$ and tin Pnasage of Rivers in Military 
'aiions, which furnishes a key to the movements of both armies, 
as they are shadowed forth by th The admirable review* 

of river opera tie us in the third edition of this work, from p- 1-17 to 
p, 103, and again from p. 186 U* p. li^- T has an application to the 
tag mniKeuvres that at once makes them comprehensible, Louib 
leon may boar y of his uncle, but he has hitbcrto 

shown no originality Tin kittle of Moutebello is, at best f 

but a feeble repeat of the lirat, and the feint at Yulenza is not 
i ve on a second performance* He seems to intend a passage of 




the Po at much the same point as BtJONXPABTE — certainly, from 
present appearances, below the confluence of the Ticino ; lor the 
French are extending in great force in that direction, At the same 
time, the affair of General Cialdini opens a double strategical 
movement, by passing the ^eeia near Yercelli, and pushing the Aus- 
triuns towards Novara. The effect of these flank movements may 
compel the Austrians to abandon the whole of the Upper Po, though 
they have now fixed their head-quarters at Garlaeco, and strength- 
ened their outposts, Meanwhile G-ahibaldi has penetrated the 
Milanese, and, according to the latest telegram, is approaching 
Como ; but he can give the Austrians no serious trouble, unless sup- 
ported by a general insurrection. A rising, indeed, is reported, hut 
at what point or to what extent we are left to conjecture. Should 
it be at Como, Gakibaldi, though without artillery, may be able to 
maintain himself, and the separate corps of Prince Napoleon will 
probably push over the Appenines, and draw off the Austrians, But 
this operation will not be unopposed, and the French columns will 
have to force their way through Modena, where the Duke is pre- 
paring fur a vigorous defence* In our next number we may have to 
show the result of these various movements. 


has lost the most popular Commandant that it lias had for many 
years. The hero of Knrs is no longer among us, and not a few will 
ttifif that genu J frankness, and considerate thought for all, which he 
never failed to exhibit. In *Sir W. Fenwicx Williams, the 
Artillery has parted with one of its best officers ; but we can hardly 
regret the .separation, since it advances bim to the important com- 
mand of North America, for which he is, on every ground, specially 
fitted Before the gallant General's departure, the Artillery enter- 
t:iiued him at a ball, at which nearly SOU persons were present, and 
Sir Fekwick may be assured he carries with him across the Atlantic 
the good wishes of the whole garrison. The gallant General has 
appointed his personal staff in a maimer very characteristic, having 
ied it of the three ufhVers standing first on the list of the Staff 
- ^e, without ever having seen them. This is a great blow to the 
system of nephew and jackass. 


Woobi^igh. By the Author of "The House of Elmore," &c. 3 vols. 

This it essentially a domestic story t written with great spirit and a high 
purpose. It is one of those books that may he ouL in the hands of tafl 
young, and read by the uM with equal fttfrratage, ivhil»- it inspires in both a 
ponding i uteres t. The narrative ia animated, without ever being 



improbable ; for the incidents are all of a kind that happen in ordinary life, and 
which any of us may experience. Hence they are not always new, and on* 
Of two have a familiar air ; but this is small ground for cavil, and when the 
plot is cleverly worked out T as it is here, we are not disposed to look for 
faults. The story is laid anion" the middle class ex, which afford such a 
variety of characters and the widest range of conditions; at one extreme 
bordering on the aristocracy, and at the other on the poor. We are first 
introduced to a widow of a certain age, who is charmingly described ; and, 
like all such widows, she soon attracts a suitor, and contracts a second 
marriage* This is not so agreeable to her son, a spirited youth, who has 
enjoyed considerable liberty under the old regime, and finds himself curbed 
by tlie new one. After some struggling, he determines to run away, and, 
accordingly, takes refuge with bis paternal uncle T who receives him kindly* 
and procures him employment- He now becomes acquainted with bis cousins, 
and the family group are severally introduced, and at once awaken interest, 
Robert is quickly fascinated by Constance ; but, on avowing his attachment, 
is mortified to find that she prefers an earlier admirer, one Heberdin; and 
hid disappointment and impetuosity lead him into a series of adventures 
which threaten to bring misery on all three. At the critical moment, Robert's 
generosity is aroused., and, by a frank explanation, he vindicates the conduct 
of Constance, and reconciles her to Heberdin. A timely discovery, which 
is very effectively brought out, secures a happy destiny to himself, and the 
story ends in a manner as satisfactory to the reader as to the parties con- 

N^wTOfr l>oi;\ -\ > k. — 5 Vols. 

Trade has it> adherents and its deserters, and while it exercises a fascina- 
tion cures Bane, egata disgust in others. We can never understand the 
fading that induces men with colossal fortunes to embark in business; but 
this w an incident of every-day occurrence. Just as frequently those who are 
born and reared at the counter, with all its traditions in their mind, leap over 
it, and aspire to higher things. The hero of the story before us is of this 
stamp ; and his career is related iu a dashing style, and with infinite humour. 
As aristocratic instincts are contagious, he easily persuades his father to 
forsake the path of commerce, and set up for a country gentleman* which 
opens to him the very sphere he desires. We have an amusing account of 
lus introduction to the ti\vt\ uml initiation to field sports, presenting him, at 
first, as a sort of Peter Simple ^ but bis natural shrewdness carries bin 
through all mistakes., and soon wins a prestige. This portion of the t* 
rotated with great vivacity. The author is a thorough sportsman, enthusias- 
tic in the mysteries of his craft, which he knows how to describe in an elec- 
tive mariner. The main interest of the narrative depends on this proficiency, 
for, although there is no lack of incident, the plot is slight. But the course 
of the story is not confined to the sporting world ; and we suspect the author 
has had experiences in another vocation, for, as the pint expands, he gives 
some good glimpses of military life. One of the characters proceeds to the 
Crimea, and takes part in the campaign, affonling an opportunity, in the 
incidents that follow, for some artbtio electa. 1 tf course there are the usual 
crosses in lo?c t but. all comes right in the end, so far as regards the favourite 
characters ; but one unlucky wight, who becomes the prey of a certain 
Madame Petrovieh, a Greek adventuress, is made to point the moral, and set 
up as a warning* As a whole, the book gives a graphic picture of life, ami 
possessing a certain amount of novelty, is likely to lie read with curiosity as 
well as interest. The sketches of sporting sharpers will attract particular 



K ateaue. By Julin Kavanagk 
'I'll m M the new volume of the scries of popular w< nnd 

Rlackett'* library, which we have before noticed in terms of 
Such a scries has long been a desideratum, parti cularly tor r 
collection?, and, judttQE from the works already published, it will 1 
requirement. y Nathalie M is a charming tale, and has achieved a reptil 
lo wide, thai any encomium upon it may now seem superfleotw. Do 
the information of those who have not read it, we may state that H h a stnry 
of French life, altogether domestic in character, and delineate! the provincial 
society of France in the most picturesque manner* The narrative i* very 

picking ; and the dialogue, by which the story is principally carried on, 
fresh and dramatic, without ever ceasing to be natural. The f. 
acknowledged to be one of the most beautiful creations of modern * 
As the work is now published at five shilling*, in a handsome volunn 
reputation it acquired on its first appearance will no doubt be ^ 

The Jews in tub East. 

The interest that attaches to u Th<> 3wm <u Urn But,* BOOM to gfO« with 
our years ; and neither the course of events, nor their own conduct, can 
change or diminish it* Oa that ground which is still 
touch our dearest sensibilities, and we are never weary of reading all thai 
travellers can tell as of their social condition. In this age of movetnesl 
strange that no one has taken advantage of this feeling i<» 9 
the Jewe. Talk of Italy and Hungary, here is a nationality 
earned away to Babylon before the fonndadoo o€ Rome. Why doej no 
pom French Quixote, swelling with benignant, aspirations, co 
tered tribes, and revive the monarchy of David ? He might summon 1 
tccrs from the four winds, and there could be no difficulty hi fit 
loans. But, perhaps, the French have di wnuhl tie diiiieult 

blind the Jews. They do not look for liberation at the hand- 
any other despot, Their present condition, as described in tbes- 
their habita, and their dispetvioD over the world, confirm, indeed, wha 
Scriptures declare, that their restoration can W aoflom] 
power, though everything Indicates that they are twined fori '4<< 
The work be tore us is from the pen of a distinguislu d member oi 
persuasion, who made a pilgrimage to the land of his fat] 
investigating their social state; and a more interesting narrative we have 
seldom read. 2\ T o one but a Jew could have giveu such particulars ; for they 
arc the result of familiar communion and a knowledge of the wholi 
economy. The author, however, is free from sectarian prejudice mymiifMl 
by kmdly sentiments to all creeds, and alive to the shortcomings oi In 
ntce. He especially Qamplains of the early marriages of the Last 
which he mentions us one cause of their enervation ; and when we ar» 
of boys of fourteen marry in 1' girls of twelve, the solution is not diihY 
belief. It would seem, indeed, that the misery of the Eastern Jews is ehlclly 
»d their own creation. Their Western brethren have given buth wcaltii and 
iuJliiL'hLV to improve their condition, but all tl lence is d< 

focal Mmiaancei ; and they find in Palestine wha* they might have learnt 
nearer home, that it is impossible to help a people who are. determined nut 
to help themselves. 

Itariurr 0/ P*r*c e AtntD -Mr. Mitchell has iust publish ed a besutf 
U\ pa^™t ui UAl.U Prince Alfred, exquisitely 1 
nfuiLhlLj. liki riess of our sailor-prince should 
with this picture. The peculiarly (rank expression ..1 the IV 
adtmrably preserved. 


a-VTla^ (ht> !h« StrTtco, thii di^ulajcnt of the *f:^ajciue is Mk . 

tnikll Authentic i-ommunk' ittoniv and, Ihsratore, ths Kdlft»r c.irniot Uold huaclj rcsiK'jj 
Uw ojiitilant eipreitied— Kd, 0. S. Mjo.J 


To M' f Editor of the Unite'l Serrice Maga&ne. 

The late order of II.R.II. the Commander-in-Chief, with respect to mess- 
men, \k\b created quite an excitement with those iiirliviilnuls« but ii< received 
ai a great boon by the various tradesmen who supply them. 

The system of messes niid messiuen has long wauled revision, and it 
required * powerful 'hand to doit* It is, we know, a difficult task, more 
I illy for those not acquainted with housekeeping, as is the case with 
the majority of our offioeffi. 

- many failures thut have latterly occurred amongst the messmen, the 
ease with which they ^et " white washed^* whether they be EngLUb, 
Belgian, or French, has thrown such a discredit on the service that no trust 
is given by a London tradesman to any but those who have been known for 
year*, thns rendering the position of a uiesiman any thing but honourable* 

The desire on the part of the mesa committees to curtail the jwlifs, 

throwing the situation open to competition, aud giving it to the lowest 

bidder, have been the cause of it Ot course somebody must sutter ♦ whore 

mammon has bad to supply spirits and cigars, be has perhaps furnished 

British at foreign price, to make up for the less on the dinner ; if that privi- 

removed, he, in order to compete with perhaps bis next neighbour in 

the camp, or barrack, and to retain Ids place, furnishes dinners by which ho 

bwea : and in the end not only the tradesman but the officer suffers. We 

can fully understand it is not tSo duty of the oOicers to look after the in- 

tmregt of the tradesman, but it is their duty to kcepup their y \e*prit dt corps /'for 

respectability and fair dealing of their servants, and not to allow the stigma 

to remain that no credit can bo given to messmeu in the camps, "By 

jinir him the) have thrown around him a cloak of respectability and 

credit ; it is on their judgment the trade.*-, , and be iuak 

further enquiries. 

It should be a subject of enquiry, what is a fair dinner at a fair price ? 
At the present moment the dinners of our infantry regiments vary froi 
to 3s, per head; similar dinners could nut be obtained at the Thatched 
Hoase, A I lOodoa Tavern, at 10s, fid* per head, aud at the clubs it 

would be nearly the ame price. As an example, the following is il 
of iiijv given April, to a regiment of foot at 2s. 3d. per 

head persona:- 2 soups, 2 fish, sauces, &&, 2 roasts, 4^ hams, 8 

entree?, and vegetables, V2 entremets ; ices and biscuits after dinner, 

mun know how to po to market better than the tavern- 
keeper ? ('[in he who otten d -peak English, or read or wi 
base provisions cheaper? It often happens that he has left a place in 
nobleman's establishment to become his own master lor the first tinm 
in his life, and at the end oi the month he finds himself possessed of more 
than bti bftl BTO before had at one time, the result of which is that 
out into r; \ va^anee at the expense ol the tradesmen, 
whom h* h ,. Inline day bo pay, but only gets mote in arrear. 

To avoid tlus a regular ?cale of bills of* fare ; that would give a reasonable 
prgiit to the lucsaman, might be adopted. The President of the Mess Com- 




nuttee to have tlie power to demand on the 7th of each month, the 
tradesmen's accounts, properly receipted, so that ho may see that they arc 
paid, and report accordingly to the megs. The tradesman would then know 
that if not paid the Mess Committee would know it, or that it is not regu- 
lar, and on tiiiu would rest the onus of the loss, if any* And if it should 
be found that any mesaman has acted unfairly, his name should be circulated 
through all the messes as unfit to hold a similar situation. By this means 
the service would be better served in every way. the messmen, as a body, 
would be more respectable, and the tradesmen better satisfied, and only too 
anxious to secure the custom of the regiment, Perhaps a register of messmen 
kept at the Horse Guards wouM be the most effectual way of preserving 
honourable men amongst them, It is only those regiments that arrive from 
the Colonies that obtain mea whose antecedents throw discredit on the body. 
And if it should be found that the profits are not sufficient for men of a 
certain position to undertake the duties, then have a contractor messman 
like the Messrs. Staples in the City, and Gunter's at the West End* who 
would undertake to furnish cooks, servants, Ac, by which plan the meases 
would be better served, greater luxuries obtained, such as early vegetables! 
fish, game, cream, ice, &c., &c. ; the contractor buying largely instead of in 
small quantities, the difference in the price would be the source of his profit, 
and any fault in cookery would be easily remedied by changing the cook, 
without the trouble of changing the messman. 

These arc some of the means by which the present bad system may be 
altered; and that it is requircd t is recognised by all Mess Committees and 

Trusting these observations will meet with your approval, I sippi myself— 

II ic £T UniQiii, 

To the Editor of the United Servtee Maga&m. 

Government House, Portsmouth, fjtli Mat, 1859 

Sro,— In the February (1859) number of the " United Service Magazine," 
(page 232) in an article describing the taking of Canton, appears as Ibllows ; — 

" The fust man on the walls was a soldier of the 5!)th Regiment* 1 

I beg to inform you that this .statement is Incorrect, I had myself the 
good fortune to be tin* fiwt man un the walls of Canton, although 1 had 
not the honour to belong to the 50th Regiment. 

I bihflll he glad if your correspondent, the author of the article in trues 
tion, will firvour rue with his name, so that I may convince him of his error. 
I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

K* G, A, Luard, Brigade Lieut.-CoL, Unattached. 





Her Majesty held an investiture of the Bath on Thursday, when Sir 
John Lawrence received the insignia of a G.C.B.; and Major General 
Franks, Colonel John Jones, Ken r Admiral Milne, Sir John Young, and 
Bear Admiral Sir T* Bastings, the insignia of K-C.B., and the following 
officers were severally in (rod need, and received from the Sovereign their 
decorations of the military division of the third class of the order, viz.:^ 
Lkyt, CoL R, IL Gall, 14th Light Dragoons 7 Lieut. CoL £. Steele, 83rd 
Foot: Major J. R. Gibbon, Royal Artillery; CoL T. W, Hicks, Bombay 
Artillery ; Lieut. CoL G, IL Robertson, 25th Regiment Dombav Native 
Light Infantry ; Major Thomas F. Wilson, 13th Bengal Native Infantry ; 
and Major M. D* Woolcombe, Bombay Artillery. 


Bir the Qceex.— A Proclamation for encouraging Seamen and Lands- 
men to enter themselves on board Her Majesty's ship* of war. 

\ h -pun a R. — Whereas it is our royal intention to give all due encourage- 
ment to all such seamen and landsmen who shall voluntarily enter themselves 
in our service: Wc have thought fit, by and with the advice of our Privy 
Council, to publish this, our Koynl Proclamation, and we do hereby promise 
and declare, that all such able seaman fit for our service, not above the age 
of forty-five, nor under the age of twenty years, who shall, on or before the 
fifteenth day or June next, voluntarily enter themselves to serve in our 
royal navy, 'either with the Captains or Lieutenant* of our ships, or officers 
employed in tenders, or at rendezvous on shore* for raising for the service of 
our navy, shall receive, as our royal bounty, the sum of ten pounds each 
man ; and all such ordinary seamen fit for our service who shall so tutor 
themselves as aforesaid, shall receive the sum of five pounds each man ; and 
all such able-bodied landsmen, not above the age of twenty-five, nor under 
tho age of twenty years, who shall so enter themselves as aforesaid, shall 
receive the anna of forty shillings each man as our royal bounty; such 
respective Minis to b« paid them by the respective paymaster* of the ships 
OS board which they may be serving immediately after the expiration of 
twentr-one day* from the date of such entry. 

And we do declare, that the qualification of the seamen and landsmen 

ntering themselves as aforesaid ©hall be certified by the Captain, 

lieutenant, or Master, and Boatswain, or other warrant officer of the ship 

or \esael where they shall enter. 

And for preventing any abases by any person* leaving the vessel* to 
which they shall belong, and entering themselves on biard any other of 
our ship* and vessel* in order to obtain the said bounty money, we do 
hereby declare and command, that such seamen and landsmen belonging to 
any of our ships or vessels as shall absent themselves from anv of the said 
ships or vessels to which they shall belong, and shall enter themselves on 
board anv other of our said ships or vessels in order to obtain the said 
bounty, shall not only lose the wage* due to them in the ships or vessels 
they shall leave, but also be severely punished according to their demerit*. 

Given at our Court at Windsor, this thirtieth day of April, in the year 
of oar Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, and iu the twenty- 
second year of our reign. 

God S&vl rui; Queek, 






We hear from Sierra Leone, west const of Africa, that the tribe of Lnosooi 
1 1 ri v i - been again encroaching on our fr ontier, and have had the temerity to 
I urn the next largest town to Sierra Leone, on the way river on which that 
colon v standi. It was absolutely necessary to check the daring of this war- 
like tribe* as property was no longer safe on the river t and mercantile confi- 
dent was slink i ti. Tl ls mild administration of British rule is imputed by 
these savages to weakness, they considering themselves safe in their muddy 
rivers, where the pestilential levers of Africa protect them more surely from 
the white man than all the guns they could bring into the field against lis. 
An expedition was fitted out at Sierra Leone to attack the Loosoo strong- 
hold up the Gr< ies river, where they arrived on the 21st of March. 
The force consisted of her Majesty's steamers Vesuvius, Trident, and Spit- 
fire, having on board his Excellency Colonel Hill, Governor" of Sierra Lomic, 
with the 1st West In&ix Regiment, end Commodore C. Wise, aide-de-camp. 
The fallowing account of the expedition is given by a correspondent :— 

44 The steamers not being able, to enter the river, the ascent was made in 
boats, as follows : — 2-i troops boats, in four divisions, under the charge of— 
first di\isions, Coramodere I Wise, with bouts of her Majesty 1 ! ship Vesu- 
vius; second, Commander F. A. Close* with boots ofhftr Majesty's shipTri- 
denl ; third, Commander Tnisrott, with boats of Heron , fourth, Lieufa 
Chapman, with boats of her Majesty's ship Spitfire* Grand total, o2 boats— 
including six boats carrying guns and seven rocket boat*. The ascent of the 
river was most difficult, and it required the energy of every naval officer to 
the troop bo*ta off the rocks and in their places. On the third day we 
found ourselves only a few miles from mtr destination — viz*, the stockades 
and mud forts of KambiaTown; but the most difficult part bad now to lie 
1. Before us lay the river, rushing through i bed of rooks the point* 
of which were so numerous and so near together that it seemed impose 

Never shall I forget the scene that then ensued as the cloud ttf boats* 
freighter! with their living cargoes, were swept into the rapid \ the noise of 
the water* nearly drowned the shout* of the officers, Pilots were useless \ 
B they could speak you were driven past, or on to the danger. It re- 
minded me very much of ■ large hunting geld charging a dangerom and 
difficult leap — some are pounded, some are stilt thing Wong taking warning 
from these in difh\idties ; sane are trying to stop, not liking the look of the 
[a*ft k How they all get through is n mystcrr, but at lust it is aocompltsadd , 
the dinger is past, the stockades are in sight, and the boats anchor to re- 
form the broken line of battle, while Commodore Wise goes ahead to recon- 
noitre the enemy. Once more the bttgta sounds the advance, In ten 
minutes we open fire t and under a storm of she}! and rockets the 1st W est 
India Regiment and Marines hind with a battery of mountain howitzers ; the 
boats now turn their tire upon the main stockade, and the troops advance; 
the second division efoonni MSB bighef up the river and pound away it ■ 
stockade on the sstftreme leii, while a storming party, under Commander 
Close, makes a rush for 'hi' %v ; 1 11 ; but she Loosoos now think they base bad 
enough, and run so fast that nothing but a rifle-ball can catch them* The 
i- nearly a bloodless one, but, like the work in India, the sim is more 
to be feared than gun-shot wounds iu latitude ft deg, north. The heal 
frightful, iiii.l after the last skirmish we had in chase of the Loosoos, I saw 
his Excellency Colonel Hill, wbi uded the troops, being brought to 

lite again by means oi bottles of wnier poured over Ins head* The attack 
had been made at the top of high tide, mid as it was impossible to perform 
the service in one tide thoroughly* the boats had o^ necessity grounded m 
the mud under a cliff on which the stoekades and mud tort were built. Our 
fleet of boats had certainly rather a help Jets appearance, but as the troops 





occupied the mud forts they were safe; nevertheless, the enemy were not 
blind to the advantage, they bad, for after dark they peppered the boats with 
musketry from the opposite bank. On the 24th the truops were re-embarked, 
and in course of time got back to the steamers. Kambia was left in the 
hands of onr neighbours mid afties, and Tiinnec^ from whom the ever- 
nppressing Looeoos had wrested the town by treachery. The expedition has 
had the happiest effect on the country,, for which government deserve I 
credit, und I am glad to say that as yet the troops have not suffered from 
fever, which might have been expected after their exposure to the sun and 
malaria In open boats. 1 ' 



As an additional inducement Jbr the best and most intelligent Petty 
Officers and Able Seamen of the Fleet to join the Gunnery Ships, and to 
qualify themselves as Seamen Gunners, we Admiralty have given directions, 
bv Circular dated the 13th tilt., that the Extra Pay of Seamen Gunners be 
increased from that date as lollows^ viz. : — Extra Pay Ut Seamen Gunners of 
tin; First Claw \n be increased from 2d* to 4d. per diem. Extra Pmy to 
Seamen Gunners of the Second Class to be increased from Id. to 2d. per 
diem. Their Lor-iiships further direct* that all men who, after the above 
date, qualify themselves for Seamen Gunners, or abroad, its Active Seamen 
Gunners, phall be allowed to reckon (from the date of such qualification, and 
whilst serving as Seamen Gunners or Acting Seamen Gunners), time in the 
proportion of six years for every five they have served towards n long service 
pension. Fractional parts to be allowed f »r broken time in the same pro- 
portion. The same advantage to be alto wed from this date to Seamen G mi- 
ners or Acting Seamen Gunners now serving ; provided in the case of 
I Acting Seamen Gunners that they are confirmed as Seamen Gunners on 
their return to England. 


The following Circular, dated the "2nd task, has been issued ; — The Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty l>cin£ desirous of increasing the numbers of 
d Masters in the Roy id Navy, the following qualifications will be 
rjuired of each candidate : — 

Six years* service at sea, three of which as Midshipman or Master's 
Assistant !n the Royal Navy. 

2. Or nix years a't sea in the merchant service ; of which one year or more 
must have been served in the capacity of Master, or two years as Chief Mate, 
or three years as Inferior Mate. 

3. Or 'six years ai sen, including combined service as follows :— Eighteen 
months as Master and Chief Mate ; or two years and a half as Master, Chiefs 
and Inferior Mate, or as Chief and Inferior Mate 

4. Each Officer to produce certificates of diligence, sobriety, und good 
conduct, and to pass such examinational the Admiralty may from time to 
time direct ; but no candidate will be examined before he shall have attained 
the age of nineteen years nor liter the age of thirty-five. 

the above qualifications cannot be dispensed with ; and all applications 
must be accompanied by certificates of service, and good conduct m one or 
more of the capacities above-mentioned, and for the period specified. 
Candidates should apply by letter to the Secretary ofthe Admiralty. 

U. a MW., No, 867, Jura, 1859. V 





Tin Ey taring had under consideration the 

under which monthly allcira&CG paid to the crews ot Hi r Mt\ 

and being desirous of giving to all men who enter Her 
*Ker opportunity of receiving ft portion of their wa 
them to provide themselves v.-ith necessaries, and tocontnbutc 
of \\wu (amities and relatives without incurring di 
direction, that henceforth every man newly entered from 
foes nut prefer to wait the paviinntof advance of wages, way 
prop ort ion of monthly allowance money "to which his rating 

ely after the expiration of the first month from the date oi 
1 of being obliged to wait six months as required by the instructions 
now in force, and that ■ similar payment, bt made to him :it the end of every 
succeeding month. In cases of men incurring henvy ciliary rtion 

raggung, the Captain of the ship may withhold the payment of this 
money until the -counts will admit of 

their receiving it, without bringing them two months' pay into del >t, A- 
the men will t Ims early he pJftCeu in possession of a portion of their w 
which will probably amount to as much or more than the sum they would he 
| 'till tied to as advance before the ship they belong to proceeds to 
Lordship* have further directed that such men at may receive m*'.« prompt 
payment of monthly allowance money -hall not he paid advance, 
elect either to fen paid the monthly allowance money, or to i : 
consideration of their being paid the usual advance he/ore ti 
lo sea* 


The subjoined important Circular, No. Soi, dated the 21st ulL, has just 
promulgated, cancelling artieta fi, p. 94, of the *' Admiralty Imtnn/tions," 
and tne Circulars 242,* 28-?, "and :*."5T t — The Lords Commissioner^ ad 
Admiralty having had under their consideration tin* several regulations 
in force respecting Offio in her Majesty's ships and vessel 

pleased to direct as follows : — 

The Commanding Officer is to take measures to prevent the offk < 
indulging in an extravagant mode of living in their messes, ns the prevalenci 
of such a practice f* lUtritncntal to the msdptine of the service, and must 
moreover t press hardly on those individuals who have little or no means be 
yond their pay, and he is T therefore, to give Buch orders m vil] eJoctuall; 
carry out the following regnlationa ; and Commanders m-Chl' 
officerSj on their ii are to make special inquiry, with a view 

ascertain whether tl. illations have been properly observed: — 

I. — tn Ward-room Messes the- ei toeed £12, and the 

monthly subscriptions, £tf for each men-' 

II. — In Gun-room Messes the entrance is not to exceed £8, and thi 
monthly subscriptions, including all extras, £1 10s. for each member* 

ILL— Messtaen are not to be allowed in her Majesty 4 ! ships, and Stewa 
and others are to be prohibited from selling provision*, wine, spirits, & 
either to messes or to individuals* 

IV. — The internal economy of b* a Caterc: 

or a Committee, as the Officers may elect ; any fa on tne part of 

mem her i 'n-elad by the ^ahw < H 

reported lo the Captain or Command ing < >flh ■» r, 

V. — Wine* spirits^ and beer are not to b on board any of h 

Majesty's ^ships without the written approval oi th In command. 


VL — At the expiration of every quarter a statement, in duplicate, is to be 
prepared by the Committee or Caterer, showing the liabilities of the mesa, 
the money in hand to meet those liabilities, the amount of entrance and 
monthly subscription required, and the sum owing by each member ; one 
copy of this statement is to be retained in the mess, for the information of 
the members, and the other is to be delivered to the Captain by the senior 
Officer. In Gun-room messes the statement referred to is to be audited by 
a Lieutenant, the Paymaster, and Naval Instructor, -under the directions of 
the Commanding Officer. Should the Commanding Officer, on receiving 
these mess statements, or at any other time, observe any irregularity or ex- 
travagance, which it may not be within his province to remedy or check, he 
is to report the same to his Commander-in-Chief, if he be serving under one, 
and if not, to the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

VII. — The Engineers' messes are to be conducted on the same principles, 
and the accounts arc to be prepared quarterly, audited, and submitted to the 
Commanding Officer, as enjoined iu tlio case of Gun-room Officers' messes ; 
hot Engineers may, with the written sanction of the Commanding Officer, be* 
allowed to take on board, as mess stock, a very moderate quantity of spirits 
for their own use, in addition to the ship's allowance : should this privilege 
be abused by any member of the mess, the Commanding Officer will prohibit 
any future supplies in addition to the ship's allowance. 

Vlll. — Officers must remember that their mess debts have, equitably, a 
prior consideration for settlement to any other debts they may have incurred ; 
such debts should, as an ordinary rule, be settled once a month, but in no 
case should they be allowed to remain unliquidated beyond the end of the 

IX. — No Officer should leave his ship in debt to the mess ; but, when he 
is obliged to do so, it is his duty' to enter into some satisfactory arrangement 
for paying what he may owe within a given time. 

X. — All Officers belonging to and doing duty in the ship, are to be re- 
quired to join the mess to which by their rank they belong. Supernumerary 
officers doing duty, taking passage, and living on board, are to join their 

§ roper mess ; and, when they do not pay a mess entrance, they may, in ad- 
ition to the subscription of the regular members, computed at a daily rate, 
be charged not more than 6d. a day in Ward room messes, and 3d. a day in 
Gun-room and Engineers' messes. 

XI. — If it be necessary to lay in a larger mess stock than usual,* meet 
the requirements of a long voyage, such stock is to be paid for by nonthly 
subscription in advance ; and officers in command, as well as o*. hers, arc to 
take care that, before the ship leaves the port, all the mess debts, for stock 
and furniture, have been duly discharged. 

By observing the foregoing rules, and carrying them out in a proper and 
becoming spirit, my Lords anticipate that the comfort of the Officers will be 
increased, wliile, at the same time, the public service will be benefitted by 
the avoidance of irregularities in mess transactions. 

By command of their Lordships, 


Improved Mode of Cooking for the Army.— A preliminary trial of 
Radley's Patent Rotary Cooking Apparatus, took place at Woolwich a few 
days smce, in presence of Captain Freeth and other officers of the garrison. 
The apparatus at Woolwich measures ten feet by throe, and will cook food 
sufficient for a thousand men, with a very moderate consumption of fuel, 
requiring only three attendants. By an ingenious contrivance, a rotary 
motion is given to the cradle used in the roauting department, and the meat 

17 2 




buio* entirely enclosed front external air, unci surrounded by heat, the waste 
is said to be twenty per cent, less than iiv fcfeo mode of cooking before an 
open lire, and is free from the unpleasant flavour imparted to baked meat. 
There are also boiling, steaming, and frying departments ; and after dinner, 
water is provided for tea and cleansing purposes, without any additiviud 
consumption of fuel The apparatus is elated to bo suitable for the army, 
either in garrison or in the field, ships of war, large merchantmen, hmpftlUft, 
or any large cistnldi^h meats where economy of space, time, and fuel T is 
importance* We are iulbrmed that a model may be seen at the Museum 
the Society of Arte. 


The London Gazette of last night announce* that the following shares „ 
prize-money will be payable at the Prize Department of the. Admiralty, on 
Mi unlay, the 2Srd iust. 

* fc Vesuvius.' 1 — Fur salvage services rendered by the Vesuvius to the 
Brothers, of "Wexford, on the 21st Sept., 1856, viz.: — 
£. s. 

Commander 24 8 

Third class *„„... 6 18 

Fourth elasa .,.„.,.«,..«.. 4 8 

Fifth class .„, 2 9 

Sixth class 2 4 

41 AwteIiOPk." — For the slave schooner, name unknown (supposed to 
the Jupiter), captured 29Ui June, 1357, by the Antelope. 

Seventh class 1 

Eighth class . 

Ninth class,,. *.*«...........• 

Tenth class ...*,*.». *..*..*., 

Flag share „ 85 5 

Lieut, Com numdi ng 138 8 

Fourth class 40 

Fifth dans „.. 22 {■ 

Sitth class., 20 

41 Alecto," — For the schooner, 
1857, by the Alecto. 

Flag share .... 4fl 9 

Commander 117 11 

Third elass 36 1 

Fourth class 23 3 

Fifth class 12 IT 

& s, 

Seventh class .„*„»••.. .♦ 13 6 
Eighth tlass, H 13 



Ninth class 
Tenth elass 




captured 15th October, 

Sixth elass 11 

Seventh etass ...,..„„„ 7 

Eighth class 3 

Ninth class. „ ,,.„. 

Tenth class...,*, .,.*„.., 


•2 11 








A General Order, dated the 12th inst, fbtca the first of August as the 
date of the examination of candidates desirou* of entering the Staff College. 
All applications trom ouVers at home are to be sent to before the 1st of 
July, The terms of the Order do not essentially differ from that published 
in June of last year, excepting that the fourth paper, on Military History, 
is dispensed with, and the first part of the voluntary portion of mathematics 
is taken on the first, instead of tin- BeOOnd slay. This arrangement allows 
of the whole of the sixth day being devoted to Fortification, and of 
seventh day of the examination to Military Drawing. 






of in 


HoB5E Giiabbs. — "The successive augmentations to the Royal Artillery 
having caused an assemblage at. Woolwich of in unwiehlv Regimental Staff, 
ber Majesty's Government, mi me recommendation of liis Royal Highness 
-neral Commanding-in-Ohief, has decided that the Stair shall be distri- 
buted to the several stations at home and abroad, but the Head Quarters will 
remain, as heretofore, at Woolwich. 

"In mating this distribution, his Hovnl Highness wishes to impress upon 
the minds of the officer*, non-commissioned officers, and men of the Royal 
Artillery, that in removing the headquarters of the majority of the brigades 
from Woolwich, he is desirous that this station, which has been during so many 
years the seat of scientific knowledge and professional instruction, shall Mill 
continue to be so considered, and that his earnest desire is to make this time- 
honoured depot of the Royal Artillery still mora efficient as the great centre 
of instruction for the whole corps of ftoynl Artillery, Although the regiment 
been formed into brigades, it must lie distinctly borne in mind that the 
eral Commanding* in* Chief will, from time to time, cause such alterations 
his Royal Highness may deem advisable — as changing the batteries or 
brigade Irom field to garrison duty, and vice versa ; and changing the head 
Quarters or stations as may be required. It being very desirable that every 
man in the regiment should be thoroughly acquainted with the whole of the 
duties of (hi- artillery soldier, commanding officers will be held responsible 
that the drivers are instructed, as far as possible, as gunners, and the gunners 
in driving drill. The reliefs will be earned on by entire brigades, and it will 
be arranged that each brigade, before proceeding on foreign service, shall, if 
practicable, lie stationed at least twelve months at Woolwich. The Depot 
Brigade at Woolwich will consist of all permanently employed non-tfouunis- 
sioned officers and men, and of recruits for brigades or Indian or colonial 
service, as well as of men returned from abroad. It will be composed of 
(ggtkl divisions of gunners or drivers, in such proportions as the commanding 
officers m&y think best. Artificers, and mtn under mstrneuon as such, for 
foreign brigades, will also belong to the depot ; but those under instruction 
at the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich will be attached to the* depM &f Howe 
Artillery, or to the field battery at Woolwich, The hospital will be on the 
name tooting as a General Hospital, each brigade having certain portions 
allotted to it, and the commanding officer will bold his own medical officers 
responsible, The principal medical officer, when requiring officers for medi- 
cal boards, &C M will apply to the commandant, who will detail them in _ 
son order for that duty. The regimental Bchools will continue as at present 
I the commandant, who will give such orders as he may think necessary 
t.i commanding orllcers of brigades. The band of the regiment will be at- 
tached to the lb pot Brigade, even* officer in ihe regiment subscribing annually 
two days 1 pay, as at present, towards its support. 11 

By command, George Wet her all, Adjutant General 


Horse Guards, April, 1859, 
11 His Royal Highness the General Commandinc-m- Chief has much pleasure 
in promulgating to the Royal Regiment of Artillery the consent of her Ma- 
jesty to the establishment of a School of Gunnery at fcboeburyness, to take 
effect from the 1st of April, 1»5£>. 

11 His Royal Highness avails himself of thtd opportunity of impressing upon 
the whole regiment of artillery a sense of the great bent-tit which cragki u, Lie 
derived by the corps from the advantages which a School of Gunnery presents 


to all who shall enjoj the facilities which such an establishment will afford lor 
individual improvement, as well as for the advancement of artillery science 
in general, 

14 As sonic little time must necessarily elapse before the details of a ftrat- 
i of artillery instruction can be arranged, Lie Royal Harness will 
on &e [lit sent occasion content himself with indicating the general priju 
which will guide those officers of the corps whom he ha? intrusted will. iln.* 
preparations of that system, and, although time and experience may eu 
improvements in the details, the broad outlbe of the system > v 'iU doubtless 
undergo little or no change. 

i artilleryman should unite, with proficiency in his uwn branch of the 
terrioe, many of the qnan^osiions of a cavalry or infantry solder, and it ii 
therefore boned that, while officers will miturally use their utmost endes 
to train efficient gunnery they will not lose sight of the great advantages to 
be derived from a thorough knowledge of the drilla a&d manoeuvres M boA 
Hervir> Ming them to conform with confidence and judgment to 

bined movements of all arms. Far the furthering of this object the directions 
contained in the recognized manuals are to be strictly adhered to, and it will 
be hereafter pointed out in a * course of instruction' what portion of the infan- 
try manoeuvres may be dispensed with by the Royal Artillery* 
infantry soldier is not considered fit for the rank as a duty man until he is 
well vetted in the proper management of his weapons, so an artilleryman is 
to be considered a recruit uotil he h properly instructed in the essential 
requisites of an artillery soldier Commanding officers of arliUVry will then*- 
fore bear in mind that gunnery ire not to be detailed by them for • duty' until 
dismissed gun drill. Thus, if ait ached to a brigade liable to coast du 
course of garrison gun drill must be completed. With a view to rendering 
this period of probation as short as possible, * system 1 is absolutely 
and this system will be the subject 01 mature consideration by the stafl of the 
School of Gunnery. 

"At all artillery stations opportunities are afforded for instmctian in those 
mechanical operations (commonly called the repository course) which fan 
such an essential portion of an artilleryman's training, and commanding 
officers must adhere strictly to the distribution of time as allotted to tbe va- 
rious departments of instruction, in order that uniformity of system may be 

"The instruction in the management of rilled ordnance will form the sub- 
ject of ajeciftl arrangements, and will, in the first instance, be carried on under 
the immediate superintendence of the staff of the School of Gunnery, and he 
gradually disseminated throughout the corps. Ii would now be premature ti 
enlarge on th is po rtion of the sonject. A V i 1 1 1 regard ho the then >rc tlesJ aattawfl 
tion of the non-commissioned officers and men ot the artillery, his Koy 
Highness would remind officers of the numerous opportunities which ofiet 
impressing upon those under their command how inseparable artillery pt 
is from the deductions of theory, and how a knowledge of ti rules 

of mechanical science will facilitate all operations, whether as regards the 
acquirement of good gunnery, or the management of heavy ordnance and 
military machines* Such opportunities should not be thrown away, and his 
Itoyal Highness trusts to t|ie officers of the corps to impart to all under their 
instruction as much as possible of that theory which Is the ground work of all 
gunnery* Difficulties will, doubtl ot themselves, but his Koyal 

Highness is convinced that a determination and cheerful co-operation on this 
part of the officers of the Koyal Artillery will tend to obviate such difficul- 
ties and that such assistance wall be afforded him his previous acquaintance 
with the artillery service leaves him no room to doubt. 

"On the formation of the Befool of Gunnery the Repository at Woolwich 
will be placed entire ly under the Commandant) with an officer of the school 






to cany on, under his orders, the gunnery instruction of the garrison ; and 
sheuM the Commandant find it necessary, he will detail subaltern officers to 
assist this officer in his duties. 

" The following is the detail of the staff of the School, viz. :— one Comman- 
dant and Superintendent, one Field Officer and Chief Instructor, three 
Instructors in Gunnery, one Brigade Major, one Adjutant and Quartermaster, 
one Captain Instructor (carbine), one Schoolmaster, one Serjeant Major, one 
Quartermaster Serjeant, six Serjeant Instructors, one Serjeant Conductor of 
Stores, two Orderly-room Clerks, and two Storemen. 

44 And his Royal Highness has appointed the following officers to the School 
of Gunnery, viz. : — 

44 Commandant and Superintendent — Colonel Mitchell. 

44 Chief Instructor— Brevet Colonel Gardner. 

44 Brigade Major— Brevet Lieut. -Colonel S. E. Gordon. 

44 Instructors in Gunnery — Major Ward (Woolwich), Captain Hay, and 
Major Taddy. 

44 Carbine Instructor— Captain T. Brown. 

44 Adjutant and Quartermaster — Captain Alderson. 

44 By command of his Royal Highness the General Commanding-in-Chief, 

44 G. A. Wetheball, Adjutant General." 


The following notice was issued from the War Office, on Thursday* 
May 12th :— 

"War Office, Pall Mall, May 12, 1859* 

44 Her Majesty's Government having .had under consideration the propriety 
of permitting the formation of Volunteer Rifle Corps, under the provisions of 
the Act of U George III., cop. 5-1, as well as of Artillery Corps and Compa- 
nies in maritime towns hi which there may be forts and batteries, I have the 
honour to inform you that I shall be prepared to receive through you, and 
consider any proposal with that object, which may emanate from the county 
under your charge. 

a The principal and most important provisions of the Act are— 

44 That the Corps be formed under Officers bearing the commission of the 
Lieutenant of the county. 

44 That its members must take the Oath of Allegiance before a Deputy 
Lieutenant or Justice of the J Van*, or a Commissioned Officer of the Corps. 

44 That it be liable to be called out in c;.sc of actual invasion, or appearance 
of an enemy in force on the coast, or in case of rebellion arising out of either 
of those emergencies. 

41 That while thus underarms its members are subject to military law, and 
entitled to be billeted, and to receive pay in like manner as the Regular 

44 That all Commissioned Officers, disabled in actual service, are entitled 
to half-pay, and Ron-Commissioned Officers and Privates to the benefit of 
Chelsea Hospital, and widows of Commissioned Officers killed in Service to 
such pensions for life as are given to widows of Officers of Her Majesty's 
Regular Forces. 

44 That members cannot quit the Corps when on actual Service, but may 
do so at any other time by giving fourteen day's notice. 

44 That members who have attended eight (lays in each four months, or a 
total of twenty-four days' drill and exercise in the year, are entitled to be 
returned as effectives. 

44 That members so returned are exempt from Militia ballot, or from being 
colled upon to serve in any other levy. 




11 That all property of the Corps is legally vested in the Commanding 
Officer, and subscriptions and fines under the rules and regulations are 
recoverable by him before :i a gj g h tw t t* 

vt The conditions on which Her ftfajeity'i Government will recommend to 
Her Majesty the ;ie<vphmce of any proposal are — 

"That the formation of the Corps be recommended by the Lord 
Lieu tenant of the county, 

'• That the Corps he robjecl to (he provisions of the act already quoted. 

'* That its members undertake to provide their own arms ami equipments, 
nnd to defray nil expenses attending the Corps, except in the event of Us 
being assembled for actual Service, 

**That the rules mid regulations wbieb may be thought necessary be 
tied to me, Jit noeordftnce with the oCth Election of the Aw. 

u The uniform and equipments of" the Corps may be settled by the 

in, subject to your approval; but the anna, though provided at the 

expense of the members, must be furnished under the impciiutendence and 

according to the regulations of this department, in order to secure a perl of 

uniformity of ^uage. 

" The establishment of Officers and N on-Commissioned Officers will be 
fixed bj mo, and recorded ia the books of this Office; and in order tbafl 1 
may be enabled to determine the proportion, you will be pleased to specify 
the precise number of Private men which you will recommend, and into how 
numy ( 'miipank's vou propose to divide them. 

11 I have only to mid that T shall look to yon, frfl Her Majesty's Lieutenant 
fof the nomination of proper persons to be appointed Officers, subject 
the Qneeti'fl approval, 

■* I have the honour to be, &c., your most obedient servant, " J. Tkk 

** Her Majesty's Lieutenant for the county of T 


The Following Qeneral Orders have recently been issued :— 

11 His Royal Hlglinen the General Cnmmandui^-ui-Chief desires that o 
niaijding Officers whose Regiments arc below their establishments, will send 
their bands and drums to one of the nearest towns on all market-days, or 
on such other occasions as may lead to a concourse of people, forthepurp 
of raising recruit*. 

u By command, 
" W. F. FOSTKK, Peputy-Adjt-Gcn. 1 

■■ I Vniunandiug Officers do not seem to be aware of the coiiRctjuei 
attending the employment of music on the recruiting service ; yet the unilbr. 
■ad repealed represeotaiioni from all quarter*, clearly establish the impo 
tmce of »t fetching a dram and fife to every recruiting party, where ~ 
an arrangement is methmbie. 

w His Royal Highness the General Commanding- in Chief now desires Unit 
you will detail one drummer and one titer to join one of your parties employed 
on the reemtfafe service, awl you will at once submit the station of the party 
you amy tefefet lor this addition, when the necessary authority will be sent 

to Vr 

u By command, 
«W, F. FOSTER, Deptity-Adjt^Gen 


Naval Prize Mokeit. — The Gazette announces that preparations are 
Wing made for the distribution of proceeds received and touija^e bounty 
iwnrdedfbr the schooner Joseph (.'. lit turd, captured on the tfrd Sepnmbcr, 
867 by the Antelope \ and for the distribution of slate and tonnage boun- 




ties awarded for two bunches with slaves, captured on October 14, 1857, by 
the Vesuvius, for the distribution of proceeds received and tonnage bounty 
awarded far the barque Clara B. Williams, captured on the 26tk October, 
1857, by theAlecto. 

IIabuouus of Rbfuges.- — The bulky blue-book, containing' the supple- 
mentary report of the Royal Commission on Harbours of Refuge, has just 
been issued, accompanied by another blue-book, almost too heavy to be 
lifted, containing the minutes of -evidence adduced before the Commission. 
Some idea may be formed of the voluminous nature of this evidence when 
we state that the alphabetical list of witnesses alone fills five Page*. 

Sub vet of the Straits of Belleisle. — Commander Orleoar, who has 
charge of the survey of the St. Lawrence, has been directed by the Admi- 
ralty to attend to the survey of the Straits of Belleisle, and as soon as (he 
season opens he will embark in a steamer hired for tlie purpose. 

The French Navy, — Admiral ITamclim Minister of Marine, has ap- 
pointed Captain Garuanlt, of the Imperial Navy, to be Chief Secretary, and 
Ms commanded that the Imperial yacht Aigle, lately built at Cherbourg, 
shall be sent to Genoa, to be placed at the service of the Emperor, instead 
of the ReiueHortense. Madame Hoche, widow of the celebrated Republican 
General, the "pacificator" of La Vendee, and who attempted a descent in 
Ban try Bav In 17&fci, died lately at Versailles, at an advanced age. 

Target txi'ERiM k nts — The experiments at Portsmouth from the screw 
gunboat Stork, tender to the gunnery ship, have resulted in the fact that the 
iron target filled with compressed cotton is next to worthless. The Uo- 
daunted, 42, sailing frigate, was moored un the Porch ester Lake, having had 
the iron target affixed amidships, below her main -deck ports, The Stork 
was placed about 4O0 varJs distant, and in the course of lialf-a-dozen rounds 
the target was rid diet! and knocked to pieces* 

Dockyards, — Nearly the whole of the extra shipwrights, smiths, joiners, 
and other mechanics and labourers ordered to be hired ut Chatham Dockyard 
have been entered, with the exception of the shipwrights, several more of 
whom are still required, It was officially announced on Wednesday, that 
30 more spinners were required to be entered, in addition to those already 
hired. Great activity prevails in ail the establishments* the workmen eon* 
mend with which arc working until a late hour in the evening at increased 

Royal Naval School. — The annual general meeting of the friends and 
supporters of this institution was recently held in the theatre of the United 
Service Institution, Whitehall-yard ; Atfmiral Bowxbs, l\lt, the president, 
took the chair* The report of the Council stated that negotiations hud been 
entered into with the Commissioners of the Patriotic Fund, which had re- 
sulted in an arrangement by which, on the payment of &,000l to the funds 
of The school, the OumiuUsiuriers should have the right of nominating in 
perpetuity seven pupils, on payment of the annual sum of 71. to the school 
by the parents or guardians of each of the pupils so nominated, who were 
to be the sons of naval or marine officers of ward-room rank. As the ar- 
rangement, however, cannot be carried out without the authority of an Act 
of Parliament, the Council, therefore, asked the authority of the meeting to 
apply for an act during the session. During the year the building nad 
undergone several improvements and alterations, including the erection of 
a gymnasium, and the construction of a swimming-bath, at a eott of 
1,172/. 4s. T not withstanding which large expenditure the general fund ha J 
only been reduced by 169^- lUs. The Council ftko stated that the Queen 
bad graciously permitted the name of His Royal Highness Prince Alfred to 
be enrolled as a patron of the school, und at the nine time presented a 
donation of SOL on behalf uf His Royal Highneu. Admiral Sir John 
(the Admiral of the Fleet) had been elected a vice-natron in the room 

fit in the 

I murine 

per year, 

I hat 


the late Admiral Sir Charles Ogle. The number of pupils at present in the 
school was stated to be 230, of whom 86 wire the MUM of civilians p; 
50/, per annum, the remainder, 174, bei&g the sons of naval and murine 
-S 61 of whom pay 30/. a-year, 74 24/. a-yeor, 23 pay lot- per year, 
and 14 were educated gratuitously. It appeared from the balance-sheet that 
fli, ordinary and extraordinary receipts during the yeftjr amounted to 
10,691/. 2i* 4 and the ordinary expenditure amounted to 8,464*. 6s. KML Toe 
balance, 1,1721, had been expended on improving flie building Kn&JW 
remainder stood as balances oa various accounts. An objection 
by Lieutenant Gardiner relative to the charge of C2I. 11a. 6d. funeral ex- 
penses incurred, as it appeared contrary to the laws of the Institution, ha 
this objection was overruled and the report was adopted. The Chairm 
then moved a resolution authorising the Council to proceed with an Act 
Parliament during the ensuing session, to enable the corporation to 
into effect the proposed arrangement with the Commissioners of the Patriot 


The following is the distribution of the Bombay Army, corrected 
the 1st February* 

majesty^ it nan; troops. 

Dnl (The I'rince of Wulea) 

Drajguon tiimrda - - Alimeilnnggur 
Squmlron Field Sim ln> - tidd Service 
iJeUcliiLiunr ■ - - - - Sftttnrn. 
IiL^juhmL'iit - - - - - SI i" 

■Hkilllug llmgooaa » Kirhtii; 
Sill ttiiMiinj » - - - - Sccpnec 
Lufl Whig - - - - * - IfaaaacaM 
Mill Light hragoona * - Gwalior 

timenf - - - - - Field Service 

Uupet liirkee 

Lancen ----- .mljuw 

ROTAf. B*QIiaMl OF BntStO AltriLLEllT, 

!>Tr - Mhow 

ion BajpOOtaiU 

'J I'll Company, 4(ii Hjitt;i)lon NecmucJi 
Sad C 

Uh Couiptui 

2nd Camptin^ 13th Battalion ttarrtdn 
•nipany, llth Battallaa Calpeu 
Hti> Company, llth Battalion Kulladgheu and 
It oval Conrs or L^civekm. 
llth Company - * - * - Hiyprjotttm Field 

Slsl Company ----- Gwnlfor 

[{otai liROiioarn oi Ititixi&u I#fasii:y 
41 h 1 j AUmedAliatl 

IHth i; liHttulion 1 U'U Setvke 

Regiment - - - - * Bombay 
Detachment - - - - - Nasalek 
Hist Huntingdonshire Reji- 

•'■----- Poona 
,.l:e 01 Welling- 
Ci 'nhnt'iitj - - - ttarada 
4Ctii (South DevoMlure)H 

Mm - - - - - . - KmTfLclice 
Slflt Regiment - - - - * ifoaltan 
S6Ui Wear bjKt Regiment - Bahznitm 
Detachment RuUaOgliLe 

[iieot - - * - - Sluilnjtore 

Detachment * - 

57th Regiment- - - - - Field Suit *•> 

Mullkautn uml 

Art en 

. har 

74th (Tlghlandci-i PetachmentDliurtfnr 

DuLudiuieiu - * - 

Wing- - - - - - 

ttltli Regiment Foqt - 
_ _ - 
Till Highlander! - - 
T2nd ttigtdaafttn 

I ; inlander* - 

sard Regiment loot - 

With Regiment Foot ■ 

I^pot - - - - 
s'Jth ftegtamt* - ■ 




Ron rw 

iighlaiuleiB- * - 

Detachment _ - - - , Indoru 

Iteglment Wtag - - Seepree 

Dajmt ..._•__ dmh 

Ueiujiiu Legion - - - - Pounu 


111 oimi vi 01 \ 
Howe Rri ^nilbjkiid ^njirten looiui 
1st (or LeftUe't) Troop, ll^a.i 

QuirtBcn - . - 

VndTroap - - * U«Jp«rt<tjQ 

Ord Tmop Cfutirti 

4th Troop - . - - - himijioijor 

\±\ Battalion, Head-quarters Aiuuedn 

IhI Coiii]mry - - - - - AtimcdabJMT 

3ntl i-uuipiuiy - - - - - li. ; 

3rd Cumyauy - - - - * liy.! 

'I Hi Cninpany - - . , _ Unnibay 

-'Oil UiirTnhon, QMd 

l*t Cuunmny - - , » . 

^nil iHt, Sattara 




Sid Da Sholapore 

4th Da Gwalior 

Reserve Artillery. 
lit Company ..... Shikarpoor 

tad Do. Uwalior 

Detachment ..... Jaulna 
Jrd Company ..... Kolapoor 
4th Da ..... Kurrachee 

Corps or Engineers. 
Head Quarters .... Poona 


1st European Regiment (Fusi- 
liers) Head Quarters - - Mooltan 
Dc tacluncu t ..... Uinritseer 

Depot ------- Kurrachee 

tad European Regiment L. L Belgaom 
Wing ------- Kolapore 

Detachment ----- Sanglee 

Jrd European Regiment - Jhansi 
Depot ....... Ahmednnggur 

trd Battalion, Head-quarters Ahmedabad 
litCompanj ..... Ahmedabad and 

tad Da ..... Ahmedabad 

trd Da Deesa 

Detachment Field Service 

4Jh Company ..... Rajpootana Field 

6th Da ..... Ahmedabad 
6th Do. ----- Aden 
4th Battalion, Head Quarters Ahmednuggur 
1st Company ----- Booranpoor 
Detachment ----- Chopra 

tad Company Ahmednuggur 

4th Da ..... Mhow 
fth Da ..... Booranpore 
Costs or Safpers and Mixer*. 
Ilead Quarters (Bombay) - Poona 
lit Company ----- Poona 
tad Da ... - Aden 
Detachment • - - - - Jhansi 

Srd Company Rajpootana 

4th Da Poona 

6th Da ..... Poona 

Detachment ..... Jhansi 

Light Cavalry. 
tad Regiment Madras Light 

Cavalry .-.--- Sholapore 
1st Roghnrnt (Lancers) - Gwalior 
Wing ------- Nnsaerabad 

tad Regiment Light Cavalry Rajpootana 
Detachment ----- Deesa 

Srd Regiment Light Cavalry Jhansi 

1st Regiment X 1. (Grena- 
diers) --..--- Bombay 
tad da do - - - Ahmedabad 
3rd Regiment N. I. - - - Sholapore, under or- 
ders to Mhow 
Detachment • - - - - Ualllgaum 

4th da da (Rifles)- Sehore 
6th da N. L. I. - Ahmednuggur 
6th do. N. L - - - Poona 
Detachment .... Jaulna 

7th do. do. - - Bombay 
8th da da - - Baroda 
9th da da - - Central India 
10th da do. - - Gwalior 
11th da do. - - Ahmedabad 
12th do. da - - Nasserabad 
18th da da - - Rajpootana 

14th da do - - Kurrachee 

Detachment . - • - Ahmedabad 

15th da do. - - Kolapore 

Left Wing ..... Kulrodghee 

16h da do. - Surat 

Detachment ... Broach 

17th da da - Rajkote 

18th do. do. - Belgaum 

Detachment - North Canara 

19th da da - Malwa Division 

20th da do. - Dharwar 

22nd do. da - Sattara 

Detachment - - - Mahableshwur 

Detachment - Punderpore 

23rd da K. L I. - Mhow 

24tb Regiment N.I. - Jhansi 

Depot ... - Mhow 

26th do. do. - Gwalior under or- 
ders to Poona 

Depot .... Poona 

26th do. da - Khundera 

28th da do. - Sholapore 

29th da da - Aden 

30th da do. - Dholia 

Detachment ... Asseerghur 

31st do. do. - Deesa 

1st Extra Battalion - Kurrachee 

2nd Extra Battalion - Baroda 

3rd Extra Battalion - Belgaum 
1st Belooch Extra Battalion Allahabad 

Depot - Hydrabad 
2nd Belooch Extra Battalion Deera Ghazee Khan 

Depot .... Shikarpoor 

Enrolled Pensioners. 
Detachment ... Tanna 
Da ... Poona 

Detachment . - - Doolapee 
Do. ... Malwan 

Do. ... Ahmednuggur 

Irregular Aim Local Corps. 
Poona Irregular Horse - Field Service 

1st Regiment Scinde Irregular 

Horse ... Jacobabad 
2nd Regiment Da - Jacobabad 
Srd Regiment Da - Jacobabad 
1st Regiment Southern Mah- 

ratta Irregular Horse Kulladghee 
Detachment . - - Beejapore 
2nd Regiment Southern Mali- 

ratta Irregular Horse Kulladghee 
Detachment ... Special Service 
Malwa Field Force 
Marine Battalion - - Bombay 
1st Regiment Jacobs Rifles Jacobabad 
2n 1 Regiment Jacobs Rifles Jacobabad 
Native Veteran Battalion Dapoolie 

Guzerat Irregular Horse - Ahmedabad 
Kutch Irregular Horse - Bhooj 
Kutch Legion - Kutch 

Guzerat Police Corps - Kaira 
1st Khandeish Bheel Corps Dhurrumgaum 
2nd Khandeish Bheel Corps Dhurrumgaum 
Ghaut Police Corps - - Tanna 
Sawant Waree Local Corps Sawunt Ware© 
Kolapore Infantry Corps - Kolai»ore 
Rutnagherry Rangers - Rutnagherry 
Guzerat Coolly Police Corps Ahmedabad 
Aden Police Troop - - Special Service 
Malwa Field Force 
Sind Extra Battalion - En route to Deesa 



The following is the Distribution List of the Madras Army, corrected up to 

October, 18S8. 

Right lion the Governor's Body 
Guard , .,♦. . ...... ..Madras 

IT. M. 1st Dragoon Guards , ...Bangalore 

II. M. 17th Royal Lancers 11*1.1 
quit iters an d U t, W I ng ....... .Secun dc rsba d 

Left Whiff— Field u k U 1 i«v— tien. IVhUlot-k** 

III Rcgt. Native Light Cavalry..Triehhropoly 

Siul do r do, >,,.,..,. . Sbohiporo 

(under orders to Sceunderabad. 

SrdRegf, Native Uffht Cavalry. 

Head quarters. Left Wing... ...Bangalore 

Right Wing .......... liellary 

lb ItegL Native Light Cavalry.. Bonsai Fkid 

;i('i da. da......,.....Rellary 

mIi da. ilo., ....Bengal Field 


7th do. do»...*„.*Kaniptee 

1 squadron Seeuuderabadl 


H Troon* Royal (torso Artillery, St/fhofc* Monti t 
Hod quarters Madras Horse 
Artillery . , . .„« . ► ...*» . .... . . Hull galore 

A. Troop, Field Service Geo, WhUs'ock'i 

■ ■inn 

Ji. Troop w.^wJha mil wtfwtf 

C, Troop »...«** ........ ......RflOgalnre 

tl. Troop ............. ...... .Kamptee 

E. Troup.... p ....... ............. ...Uengal Field 


F. Troop ...... ............. ....Field Semco 

4ii.ii. Wlilteluck's Division Comp. 1st Hot. ] loyal ArtiU 
-*lerv. und No I Held Bar[erY...SLTJlOa.' Mount 
No, a Comp. lird B»L tfoyul Art IL 

lory* and No, 9 Held luriM;, ...udl-iry 
No, o Cmnp. tith Hat. Roy*l Ar- 
tillery, ft No. B Held Battery-Field Servke 
Con. W hi Mock * Division 
No. GCpy-Otii Bat Ryl. Ai-tilWv.vv.imJi.'r-ttbaii 

Yiw-iT Ba*t alios Man r. as An rtLifcur. 

Head quarter* ..... Si, Tic- llount 

j Iliad quarters & 
A Camnmir J 2-thlr ds Co . , , S la gupore 

A Compaaj -j iIaU company w p«aiig 

1 1 »H :u'l 1 m e n t . . , . . M :is n 1 i 1 kl t .1 n 

B. Company ....... „.,,,, 31 online in 

C. 00 lNo/7 Hon*! lkittery)......BellaLy 

D. Coin, (No. 3 Horse Battery )...Rang[»on 

Siirosn Battalion Uaojia^ AimLLtnr, 
Head quarters ....... .. ...Knmpteu 

A. Cop. (No A Uuiloek Battery) Trie I duopoly 
B* Ca Head quarters and I Co.*.Tuiighoo 

Half Company ...ShaayKheen 
C. Comp, (No, ■> Hurso Buttery) Rangatofo 
1). Copy. (No. 4 bullock Battery) 
Head quarter a and half ........ .Rump tee 

Half Con ipany .. . . ... .... .. . , . ..Seetabuld pa 

Tllli[l> RaHAMOX Mamiah AurlLUillY. 

Head quarters „,. ....... ........Rangoon 

A Company (Nn. 3 Horse Pat.) R«ugul Service 

B. Company (No. 4 Horse hat.) Tongho 

U. Company (\ M , a tluUoi-k BaLJThayetnww 
U Company (No. 5 Bullock Uat) Field Sarrter 
Qo. Whitelock's Dlrlaloa 


Boad qfBortfn 9e«UQdcraba4 

%. Company (No\ I Horse But >..» Field Service 

Oen, Wtdtelocfe 
B, Company (No, 10 Bulk. Hat) Wtto 

C, Company (No, 5 Bulk. Bat.)...Secundcrabad 
•*, Cotnpatiy Head quarters and 

two-thirds „ ».hh ... . .Ban poeii 

t>ne-tlilrd .*>..,Ho«se1n 

F^iFTJi on CjouiJjfPAtUB (Native) Bati alios* 


Head quarters,. St /Tho*.' Mount 

A. Company Head qnartera and 
two-tlilrdri Gompwiy ............P^nnng 

t)ne-Nilrd Company .,,.,. ...Malarca 

It. Company ,,„„„„ . ...... Sin ^ i ■ 

C r Conpany (No. 1 Hulk, liar.) Itengnl 
IX Company (No, 7 HiiIIl hat.K.,Cu;inatiorervad 

K, Company (No, 3 Uulk But.).,.Cuttadt and 

¥• Com pany ...,....., .M evaday 

1st Supplemental Company ...... St.ThOft.' Mount 

^M do. do, ........... ViclanoKrani 

Detail* of several Companies ...Lahioui 


Head quarters .. ....Fort SL George 

3lAlinA^I SAt'l'fcKS AN1> MlSER.H— NATIVM. 

Itend quarters ..DowUlsliwcrain 

A. Company^.. l>itto 

One Section with tie 11. IVIiUI.m -k "h FtoU Servlee 

B. Company Nerbudda 

(Bombay) Field Service 

C«. Company .......Bengal Service 

l>, Company .,...,,,...... ..Ban goon 

B. Company Dowlutsb.iv Oram 

One Section with (Jen. Whrtelotk's Division 

F. Company- - Secuuderubad 

(ine Section.. Patunbum 

t;, Company ............ .... ,.„.,. Fadouiiifmyo 

H. Company ...Tliaynmrw 

1 .Company ... . Toogbn 

K. Company .......,„ ,. .l>awlal*hweram 

L. Company .•».... Field Division 


>l t Company . t . «*...,... . Dowlalshweram 



H.M, 1st Royal Begt (lat Bat.),. Sccumle rabad 
H.M. 43rd Light Infantry ......Ueu Whitejoek i 

Division Field Service 
II.M. «tli Ueghnent . ..... .. Fort St Oearge 

ELM. 60*h Royal lories (;Jd. Bat.) Bangalore 

■t c Jin p. i sik- >*.,♦. ... .Bellary 

I do. *,.WyBorc 

1 da, ............. .Hunyliur 

][,M. Sfttk Iteglment «... . .Cannanoro 

I Company .„...„„,....,.,. Mangalors 

1 do ....«,... ...... .Sfrcve 

11.31. (tyih Uejrhnent ........ .,Ban«Lon 

H >F StUi Ueiskment Tongnoo 

1LM. 74th Highlanders Uerlmmporc 

1 Company .,..*_...,.,.,.,..,. Sliolapore 

& Companies Field Serviee 

Southern Main atta Country 

The Madrai FnaUleta ..Ben en I on 

1 kid Service 
3n«" European Light Infantry . Trlehinopoly 
3rd Madras European Iteglment. field 3 m 

under fun \\ Milotfk 
Native Isr 
1st Regiment N.I. (Rifle Comp.) ServLce (Jen. 


L*nd Regiment N. L. 4|ullmi 

3rd N. I. or l'alameottah Light 

lnfantiy. ...... ....»,.. ..Cannanuro 

4th N, I. ..,..,,... Hiayi'imew 

5th N. I. (Rifle Company) food 
qmrt&re Right WBig Mangiloro 



L^n Wlntf, ♦.*.,< *«*♦.»,.*«. .....Sumbulporo^ 

*th JL L Hanpoon 

7th X. 1,*.*. >*mhhi Secun3eranad 

ftth X. J * .Tonghoo 

Kb V I. *.,,.... ,.,..,„„,.., s*ciin]erahad 

l Secunderabad 

II in N\L ......... Belliiry 

12th S. I. „.,« -***„,*, ......... .Jlangoam 

1 » . MautmeSn 

14th N. L ...... ..... ..Singapore 

15th K.I. ..,»....., ..Tkayctimw 

16th X. I. <ltlhe Company) JUtiiralnrc 

IttiiN.l ..... Bengal Field 


18th X. I ,. . ...Bollary 

19th X. I* ...,.„...♦, Service GcU, 

Whlti<i(H Aft Ph Won 

/<>iii X. I „.♦.„.♦♦....,..... Bangalore 

Jilt N, I TtichUiojioly 

Wtid N 1. ,...,'.. ..,....,,.„..„....„rcnoug 
33 rd K, 1- (or Wallah bad Light 

ry) ... . , .„ , HM . ... . .Rangoon 

Hfcfe X I (Rifle Company) ILvnzedah 

SAfTi K. L * ......... Mad ra» 

ttth X 1 «~* .....Ka™} 

|7tb K* I.« ...Bertgal* on 


28th K* 1. "»— 

»thN. I. Maaulipataoi 

^oth N\ I .. Bctiary 

31at X. L* or Trtehlnojmly LI [flit 

lnfmrrr hm,. ...Vlstanagrun 

3*nd R. L ................ ....*, Kampta? 

."Urrt ■-— ....... Ksmntee 

»4thor (Chicarale Lt. Infantry) Trichlnopoly 

! .....Hurryhii 

Mrh (Utile Company) ..... Jtnrnool 

37th ft U (IfrcnadJeraJ ITcud 

quarter* , .. .............. ..,Sbonyghecti 

Wing ................... ...Tonghoo 

r, (Bin* Oompny? viaagapatera 

Syth X. L ,...,...„. . ,,^ ...... "«»./fhayot mew 

*Hh X. L ... . ,.,Cuttwk 

41ot X. I. ..................... ....[Aurmah 

*2nd X. I ....Italchoor Fid* 

43rd N, I, .............................RaMelepridab 

44th X. I , Thayetmew 

t'th N. I . ... Madraa 

4flth X. I ..,...,.,„,*,. VI JEagrtpatatu 

47th X. I ....Reilary 

4Hth R. L ...... Moulmclti 

I'nh X. I. (Rifle .Company) .Seeuiideraftad 

50th N. L ...... ..,< . * . .Service Gtt. 

WhltUurk'* DiTiai 
Mat X. L *......... ....................rnlameottah 

.'.2nd X. 1 .- , .Heron 

Left Wing ............ ..French Roeka 

lit Exfln Regiment X. 1 ..Sumulcottah 

2nd Extra X. L Trkhluopoiy 

3 rd Extra X. I Cnddapah 

Sappers' MUltla ,.♦,,.,, .Madraa 

Maura* llUSvs, fpmjHirarily fbHMd for SeTriCO 

In Ben pal by tlic ttifle Cornpanlf-* of the 1st, 

."tth. Itit-h, Uth, 36"th. 19th, Regimen i 

and? Com]>anlci Sttti X. L Pan jug Bengal. 

VOTE RAN3' EST A 1) L I SI r I | r 

EtJuortAsr VMnut 

Artillery Company ....... .Falavervm 

In Tan try Company Vlxa^patam 

Native Vktrrah* 
1st or Mailna Xatlve Vet. Rut. .UaAnai 
2nd or A mil Native VcL Bat .A nut 


For H.M Reptmenta *..... .Foonamalke 

Earopean Infiuitry Arcot 

NiiTivc Infantry ....Palavorsm 

Native I^tASTar Ukcbuittxg Umins. 

No. 1 KtHMiihknc Pajol hindlgnl 

NaS do, A 

No. a do. ...„.»..Chie(icoLa 

Xo. 4 do .,„„.., „EUort 


(Corrected tip to 26f& 3f«y t 1859, mbhvm*) 
[Where two plaeeji are montlutied, tlie at aaaafl ii that at wliich the Depot it eUtloud.] 
N Life Gaanla^Hyde Park. 
Hid rh>— Windsor, 

Royal Horw Gnard*— Regent's ParV. 
1*tl>rapoon Onard*— Madma j Canterbury', 
1'ml t!o.— Retigal : Canterbury. 
8rd do. — Bom bay _♦ Canterbory, 
4th do.— Ahlerabott 
b\ h do.— Manchester. 
t>t h do.— Bengal : Ma idatone . 
Tth do. — Bengali Canterbury. 
lat Dngoona— Dublin, 
2nd do —Dublin , 
3rd il*v — Xewbridpe. 
irh do— Ulnninpham. 
5ih do, — Ni'wbridpe- 
Gtti do .— Ikimbay - Maidstone. 
7th Fl iiRsinui — lUmpnl: Canterbury. 
Wh do— Bumbay j Cantc-rl 
"~h Lanewa^Bengal : MaldMone. 

mi fluwM- Aldcrahott. 
i in, rr,-,- -BrtgJ 

-Madraa ; Maidstone, 
itgoona— DnhUn. 
I tth ,i,i._r'.„inbiiy :Hitldatoiie. 

irtttfa— Hqniiaajai > 

Itflli Laucerv-Edlntrorgh, 

i : i h iliv— Bombay : Canterbury. 

JIth Dra«oona-VoriL 

Mihtaiy Train £l*t l»at.)— Sbtimcllffee, 
lk>. [2nd bnt.}— RensaL \ 
I»o. [:lnl ltrtt.]-WooIwieh 

J i bat.]— Aldenhott * I>epot at Bristol 
Da [ttfc hat,]— Cur rath. 
L>o. [mh Val,] | Woolwich. 
Cireuadler Quanhi [l*t bat]— Windaor. 

■Ml bat)— Weill ngton Ban-acka. 
Po [fed bat.]— 1'ortman-at riurraekit 
CoMatream Quarda flat tiaL]— St. (reorge'a hor 
Do. [2nd batj— WeJIinfrton Uarraefca. 
S«rt* hoi Guard* [lit hat.l— Tower 
Fua, [2nd bat.] -Dublin. 
Irt Foot [lat.j -Madra*; Colchester. 
Do. pod bat ]— China ; BJ 
2nd do. Lit [i^t.J— C. aifl. Unpc: Wahner, 
Do. [ta4 tuf.J- Corfu: Wa1m«r. 
3rd lift n»at}— Renpid: Lin 
Do. do. Valla: Limerick. 
4th. do. [lBlbat]-Rombav ; Chloheatar. 
Do. [2nd bat, J- Cojfu, T 
fith do. [1st hal.]— UeiiBah Colchcater. 
Do. fund batj— MauritiLii, l p cnd<r(*tt 
fitb do. flat bat.}-Beiigali Colclieetcr. 
Do, [-/nd ba&l— Gibraltar: Cork. 
7tTi do. [1st. hAL}— Bengal : Chathani. 
Do, [2nd bat]— Oibraltor: Walmer. 
Sthdo. [lat hat.} -Bengal; Chatham. 



Do. [-2nd bat: r. mH^more. 

Wb do. [I*t bat]- Vlilfi-shiitt : tlmurkk. 

Do, [tod b*t]— Corfu: Limcrkk. 

10th do. [1>l bat — Bengal j Chatham. 

Do. [2ml bAtj-Cumign. 

Hth do. [1st bat]— Aldsrohot: Fermoy. 

Do, (tod hat]— AM. i 

13th do. [l.ft bnt.j- X. & Wale*: Walraer. 

lBth do [1st b»t]— Bengal : Ftrmoy. 
Do, [tod bit]— Parturaouth. for tins Cape 
14th do. [lit bat] -Cqilmtoniii : Formoy 
Do. [tod bat]— Dublin 
1Mb do.— Jeney : Pembroke 
Do. [2nd bat}— Malta, Pembroke* 
— Dublin: Templonore, 
Ifcx [tod bit]— Corragk 
1 7 1 1 1 do. - -Canada ; Limerick. 

■ »-l but] — I'l) i 
l*th do.— Bombay : Botte yant 
Do, [2nd bat]— Currugh. 
1'Jth do-— Bengal : Chatham, 
Da [2nd bat.]— Sharueuffe. 
JOfch do.— Bengal : C bur bum. 
Bo. [2nd bat]— Ctonnnl. 
aist do.— Malta: Hi rT. 
Da V2ud bat]— Newport. 
22nd do. — Mane n eater j Pur khttrtt 
Do. [tod Imt]— Malta. 

Do. [tod bat]~Depot .it Deal; Malta. 
|— slieffleW, 

to, ■ -Gibraltar: 1'emb 
361 h do.— [bat .] — Berm urtn ; lioli ast 
27th do* — Bengal j BattcvanL 
2fltk do.— Bombay ■ Ferraoy. 
29th da— Bengal r Chatham. 
30th do.— Dublin : Pajkhttrtt 
3 J at do —Bombay : Pembroke, 
3tod do,— Bengal 
^rd da— Bombay ; Formay, 
rUth do,— Bengal : Colchester. 
• lo.— Bengal: Chatham, 

lo.— Alderehoti ; Athlona 
87th do.— Bengal: Cokbhater. 
SBlh do.— Bengal: Colrh- 
39th do— Canada s TemplemoiO, 
40i h do.— N. & Wataa: Birr, 
41 at AfK—JnmiAvA: -Jeraoy, 
42nd do.— Brngal ; .sterling. 
43 rd do.— Madras; Chatham, 
441h da— M&drn* :l 

44th 4*, — Cape of Good Hoik: P&rkhurat 
4 Gt h do. — Ik 1 n gftl : Tei j i t>le mora 
47th do,— Alrferfihott : Cork, 
4^th do.— Bengal : Cork. 
49th do.— Borbadoes : Belfast. 
fr)th do— Ceylon : Parkharat 
o 1 it do, — Bombay : C h i c hctttr« 
Otod do,— Bengal : Chatham 
03rd do,— ditto; ditto 
04 tb do.— Bangui : Colchester 

Soto ild— Dublin: Jeney 

• —Bombay; Colcheatar 
G 7 t 1 1 • I '■ k— Bombay : C o r k_ 
38 th do. — iShoniciiffe \ Curragh. 
A!lth do, — C a pe : Ath Jon e 
ooth do.— (lift bat.]— Bengal : Winchester 
Do. [9adi bat]— Bengal Winchester 
Do. [3rd hat J — Mudrns: Wim lieatar 
Do. [ith bat.]— A Moral io t 
tiUt do.— Bengal: Chatham 
fitod do.— Soto Scotia: BeUast 
GSrd do,— ditto; Belfast 
o4tb [In.— Bengal ! Canterbury 
filth do.— New Zealand: Birr, 
®6th do.— Madras: Colchester 
67th dn.— Bengal : Athlono 
f'Xih do. — Madras; Fermoy 
<tttb da— Madras: Fcnaoy 
"ntfi dm — lien pal \ Canterbury 
71nt do,— Bombay; Stirling 
7tod do, — Bombay ; Aberdeen; 
7 3rd do.— rVntfii] : Jersey 
74th ito.— Madras : Abenlceo 
Ti'.tli do— Bengal : Cbatbam 
76th do,— {.Wash i Beliaat 
77[b do, — Bengal: Jeraey 
7«th ilo.— Bengal; Aberdeen 
7fltb da— ditto : I ertb, 
80tb do.— ditto ; Butievant 
'. ■.— Bon cid: Canterbury 
siriJ do.— Bombay : Chleli eater. 

..— On ptwvk §< home: Chatham 
#~Ah do.^^ivpe : Pembroke 
8fltb do. — Bombov ; Bnttevaat 
B7tb do.— Benptal : Butievant 
Math do.— Bengal : Colchester 
afltli do. — Bombay: Fermoy 
QOth do. — Bengal ; Canterbury 
■'UtdOv— Boratuvy ; rembroko 
Staid tta. — Bombay ; Stirling 
D3rd do.— Bengal; AberM> 
Wtb do.— dittos Chatham 
Mtb dn.— Bombay : Feral ny 
9Gtb do.— Plymouth ; Perkburat 
JITth da— Bengal : ^olcbeatai- 
S*th do.— Bengal : Canterbuiy 
9Mh do,— Bengal; Oof* 
lOfUh do — 4iibraU.ii [Wlnebesler. 
Rifle Brigade [I KtbaLl—Prirtrttnoutti 
Do. [Snd bat]— Bengal: VVLnche<*«r 
Da [3rd bat,]— Bengal i WlncheeteT 
Do, [4th hat,]— Malta, Wlnehetrer 
111 West India Keglmenb— Babamaa 
2nd do — J urn .ilea 
Ird d^,— B.vtbadoea 
Ceylon Ulfle Regiment — Ceylon 
Cape Mounted Kirk*— Cane of Good Dope 
Boyol Canadian Kifle Beglmenl— Canada 
St Helena Uegirnent— Si. Helena 
Royal Newfoundland Corps— NowfOotUBaild 
Boyal blea— Malta 

Gold Coast Corps— Capo Coaat i 

tod Cnealiiro— Tipnor 

Hami»hlre Artillery — Plvmonth 
East Kent— Aldershott 
Liineaablre Artillery— Dmrer 
4tlt Lancaslilro— Warrington 

Forfar ArtiUorj— ^heerneet 

Antrim Rifles— A Merahot 
AntrLiu AnLUcry— Kinaalo, 
North Cork— Aldcrabot 
Donegal— Dover 
NwrtH Down— Beirut 


BUtlLAHD (18). 
Norfolk Artillery — SlieoracNL 
North Uneom— Waterford 
iStli Middlesex — Cnrregli 
Kerthnml^erland ArtiUerj- — 

tTottltiCtmm Newark 
Ovfrinl— AUer-ljMtt 

ifTord— AMorahott 
2nd StalTord— Cnrragh. 

30d Lanark— Dub I in 

Dublin (elty)— ShorncBffB 
Dublin City Artillery ^Colehcater. 
Fermanagh— Bradford & Burnley 
Kerry— Cheater 
LLmortcfc tCowrty) FortsiaoaUi 


Suffolk Artillery— Portamonlh 

Snwex — Edinburgh 

1st Tower Hamleta— Cork 

2nd Warwlek— Ph-month 
\V Bta— PorEamout h 
lit York, <W. It> — Aidertliott 
3rd York— Carlisle 

Stirling— Aldorfbott 

Louth (Rifte*)— Yarmoutb 

Tipperary ArtiL^-Portimouth 
Waterford ArtlBery- " 
Wexftrd— Waterford 





( Corrected to 

With the Dates t/ Commission 

AhouUr, 30, K., C*QL C f. fctaflfrpT^ i-'l, 

Acorn, IV, Com. it. B. Fearse, 1856, East 

Actase-n, 26, Com .J. Ward (t#, 1*58, East 

re, sc troop-ship. Corn, E. Lucy, IBM; 

Eaat Indie* 

detain J. McNeil, Uof rl. 1§4G. 

ipt [X Curnr, 1840. Pacific 
u W. A. IE, Pears i 

Alan . 

17, *cl 
Algtirlne, sc gunUnat, Lieut *Com, W. 

i ast hull**. 
Aleiers, 91. eeww, Copt G. WD, CPCaUeglnm, 

1«4'1 i Murine! Squadron. 
A moth, 1*30, Pacific. 

\\\ Plko, 


i>, i -■ 

North Arocrli 

, SCflBt 

r; Mm.: 


m-vessal, Com. J. H. Cava, 1855, 
F. W. Ingram, 

ij, iU-vcm*U Com. n. 


k„ Com. C. Bromley, liS% Moditer- 


Arrogant, 47. screw, CapL L. G. Heath, CIS,, 
C<*ii Guard. 
*t mice, screw troop-so Ip, Com, W. A. J, 
Heath, 1*.*, Eatt Indies, 
iranco, 4, screw. Com, C. It Aynsloy, 185G, 

mo. T. K, Su Fuley, 1155, North 
America and West Indies. 

Wilson, ISIJi, Greenock, 
Banshee, J, st-teasel, Com, C. A* Campbell, 

1*58, Portsmouth > 
Bantorer, w-gunbt, Lleul^Com. J, Jenkins. 

Duatllsk, 6, at- v easel, Com. G. A. Fhayra, 1*54 p 

Nwlh America and Weal Indies. 
Belleisto, hospital ship, Com. It, H. IMokIiuki, 
East Indies. 

tender to Calcutta. East ladle* 
Black Eagle, st-yaebl. Mast.* Cora. J, E. Petlcy, 

1844. Woolwich. 
Dlinlielrn, 60, screw, Capt F. Scott. LJ 

Coast Onard. 
Ifuscawen, 70, Bear Admiral the Baa, sjr L 
W. Grey, K.C.B., Capt ft. A. PoWtll, 
Capa of Good Hope, 
Brisk. I-., sc ,, A. 1 I J, D' Horsey, 1857, 

Devon port 
Britannia, Training Ship, Capt fl- Harris 

Ports MMMll,. 

Bnin*. ut-rea. Lieut-Com, E. F. Ladder, 1604, 

Coo*t of Africa. 
Brunswick, 80, sc , Captain E. OmmAunoy, 1*40, 
. screw, Ma* -Com.— partluular service. 
BtattnL -', sc -gunbt,, LL-Com. F. W, Hulhmts 

iSSfi. East 1 Tulies, 
Dnataril, 6, eTt-TOMcLCoin. T. Teal, isf,.', s.E, 

t of America, 
Cadmus, VI, H fllllyar, CLE, 18H 

GNU W, »•" , r ( -,r r i,t>da7Wt, LS4S, 

noar. K-C.B, 
CapU W. K* Hoii, C.B,, IBM, Lcut Indies. 

37** Jffl^J 

q/*i?W Officers in Uomtiiana, 

CuTyiisu, VL r^iipt K + JJ. Montrcwr. 1831, PuctHc- 
Cutbriaii. 40, cVtjjiutn J. J, ii'CIevorty, C.U. 

lttts ; 


liiiin, pi.irt. 

CuraUln, i^: t Caco. A r. Coiv-BJe, t«55, East 

Carutloc, V, sL-vci.. Lteut.-Com. C M. Bucklti 

1*17, ModBorramini. 
CeatftFion. 90, aa^ Caft C. G. E, Tatcy, IHM, 

ClieKajH-.'tkc, 51, screw, Itear-Adm. J. Hope, C.B. 

Cum i m t East In die*. 

Clowm st^-ftmibE , Lteut.-Com, W. F. Lee, 1855 
\-Awt In tiles, 

. Cijwl IL W. Courtanaj t J&34 

Co« a t of Africa. 
Conquer oi, 101, screw, CapL II. B, Talverton, 
cu, 4. ■&. Com- tne itOTl, F. A. Fuloj , 

ia«, McilUerranoaiw 
Cordelia, 11. sc, Com. C. E. II. Vcmon, %M&> 

CoiTiiorant, 4, sc, Com. A. Wodulionw?, 18S(^ 

East Indies. 
Comwn.UK 60, Captuin G. G. Randolpli, C.U, ' 

1654, Coast Guard, 
Coromniidd, st^Tesael, Second Master W, n. 

Vine (acting East Indies. 
Oressy, ho, screw, CapL the Hon* C^ G. J. B, 

Elliot, C.B.. 1H41, Portamento, 
Crocodile, 8, rea-smp. Com W. Greet, 1854, 

ofT the Tower. 
Cruiser, 17. sc, Com, J. Bythese*, 1856K 

Coast of AmcTlfa, 
Cumliorland, 70, Rear Adm. Sir - Lushlop-ion 

E.C.B. Cftptain H D. Bojfers, C. B. 

1954, South America 
CoJttco*, fll, screw, Capt- X at. Mason, 16*9, 

aaxtfoalaf aatvlee, 
Cyclops, fl, st v., Capt W. J. S. Fallen, 185a, 

East Indies, 
Pastier, 'J, sl- vessel, Com. E. G. llora, IH61, 

Doe, 4, troop ship, Waat-Com, T C* I'ullen, 

1844, parrU:«lar serrice, 
J>BTastatlon, 6, sL-ves, Com. £♦ Wake, 18A5, 

Biorth America, end W\*t Indies, 
Diadem, 32, *c, Capt P. W, lloofaoffl 

1857, North America and W + Indies. 
Doris, 32, screw, Capo, K. Ileatlicote, I8?i, 


run tfunbt., Lieut C J. BftUoek, 1955, 

East Indie* 
Drake, sc guntit, Licnt-Com. A. It. Bhuie, 

18H East In, lie- 
Eairla, 50, Capt, E. Tathara, 1851, Coast Guard. 
Edinburgh, fr8, icrow, Cipt E. C. T, LVJgyu. 

court, 18411, Coast ' 
EBc, IV. Com. H- Campmn, 1855, East Indies. 
Emerald, 31, sc, Capt. A.cuinining, 1954, Sheer. 

E«k t io, sc, Capt. Sir, B. J. Le It U'Clnre, 1850, 

gait Indies 
Euryaltci., Cupt J, W. ttrl«s>0H, C.B.,ie5V, 

Excellent, 46, gnnneryshtp^ n»3wlett 

la60 t Portsmouth. 
Kxmoutli, 10, tc M Cupt. J. J, SUiplurd, 1841 

Fairy, La unil Aiber* 

yacht, Portsmouth. 
Falcon, 17. ic, Com. A. 0. Fititoy, 1857, Port*- 

KlOU? T 




ferret, 8* Com, If. E, FUhor, 1&3&, particular 

Firebrand, 6, at-vessel, Com. J. Dnym in, l«i*. 

particular service. 
Firm, ar_ gunM.* Lieut-Com. W. It IhiuUmt, 

l<4, But Indies. 
Fisgusrd* 43, Commodore the Hon. J, It. Drum- 

mond, CB*. Woolwich 
Flying Flah, fl, c, Com, C, W, Hope, 1851 , 

Forcster T '2, *c gnnbt , Lieut.- Com. A. J. Inn en, 

1853, East Indies 
rermldablc* 84* J C, Fitzgerald* 1840* Sbccr- 

Furious, 16* staves,, Capt 0, J. Jones, C.B,, 1855, 

East Indies, 
Fury, (!, st. rea.* Com. J.E. Coinmerell,1855 t EX 
Ganges, 8*. Hear-Adm. I*. I* Bayncs, C.B,, 

rjapt- J. PftJJbrd, 18*8, Pacific 
Gannett 11, Com. E. H. G. Lambert, 1154, 

Gorguu. C, at-ves. Com II. G f, rim, 1858*Tync* 
Growler, a T sc gonbont, Mens -Cum. IL & 

CTOCier, 1854, Mediterranean. 
Hannibal* 91* ac, It car- Admiral 0-, It Untidy, 

Capt. M. Connoitv, J85N, Mediterranean. 
Ran-ler* IT, screw. Com. Sir M. McGregor, Hurt., 

QW), L657. South 
Hastings, 60, screw, Captain W. It. Mends, CO., 

1RA2, Coast Guard. 
Haughty. % sc gunboat, Lieut.- Com. G. D, 

Broad, 1851, East Indies, 
Havannah* 10, Capt. T. Harvey, 1848, PncMt 
Ibrnkc, GO, ac*, Capt W. Crispin 18W, Coast 

Herald* 8, aurv.-res,, Capt II. It Dunham, 184G, 

Sou ih Sens* 
Hermes* G, st-v., Cora. W. F- A, Gordon, ISM, 

Coaat of Africa, 
Hero, 91, screw, Capt. Sir a N. Broke.. Bail, 

C.B*1845, Portland. 
Heron* l"2 % Commander W. IL Truscnlt 18. r j5, 

Coast of Africa, 
Heiper, sc st-ahip, Ma*t*Com. J- Loune, 1846, 

Last Indies, 
Hihemln* roc. -ship. Bear-Admiral If. J* Cod- 

rington, OB-, Captain F. Warden* C.B., 

1845, Malta. 
Highflyer* 21, ac>. Capt C, F. A, ShsdweB, C,B., 

1853, East Indies. 
Himalaya, sc. store-ship, Com. J* Seccombc, 

I85A, particular service 
Hogue, CO, strew* Capt J. Moore* C.B., 1848, 

Coast Guard. 
Hornet IT, ac. Com. Viscount Glifurd, 1858, 

Beet Indies, 
Hydra, G. at. -vessel, Com. II. V. Hamilton, 1857, 

Coast of Africa. 
Imaum, 12, Commodore IL Kellett, C.B.. Com. 

H. J. Grant, I85A, rec-shlp, Jamaica. 
Impregnable* 104* Vlee-Adnu Sir B, Reynolds, 

K.C.B.* Capt- W. E. Stewart, C.B.* 1851, 

Devon port 
Indus, 78* Bear-Admiral Sir It Stewart K.C.B., 

Capt J, G 1>. Hay, 1850, N«rth Am eric, 

and West Indies. 
Industry* staves.. 9* at -ship. Mast- Com. G. J. 

Hodges, 1941 particular service, 
Inflexible, G* st-ves, Com, G. A, C. Hrooker, 

l&ftn, East Indiea. 
Intrepid, 0, screw, torn. J, It Marry al, 1855 h 

Iris, *J0 4 Oi|it W Ltirini;, C.B„ in 18, Australia, 
JamcaM'Mit. 1*1, screw* Capt. K, CtMjd* l«fi, 

IVprtiand, rU| 

Jaaua, sc. gunboat* Lteut-Cotn, It P, Kno 

1855, Fast Indies, 
Jssear* sc, gnnhoat Lieut-Corn. J + B, Scslt 

I84* f W. Hidics,, 

Jasper, ac. grmboylt Lieut -Cera* W + IL Fym* 

3H>, W. Indies. 
Kestrel rc, ^tnbo^t tietit,-Com. O. D ReT-in, 

18^Kast Indies. 
Lapwing, 4, screw* Com. M, F. O, Bellly* 1856, 

I.4JC, sc gnnbt, Ll«ut + *Com. W, II, Jones, I8>?f, 

Eaa: Indies 
Leonard 18. st-vea, f Capt J. F, B, Walnwn^nr, 

■ 18A<^ North America and West Indies* 
Lcveu. 3. ac. gunboat Licut-Com, J. S. Hudson. 

1854* East Indies 
tlffey, II* screw* Cant. O. W, Freedy, CB„ 1855, 

Locust 3, st-ves, LI cut -Com. J. B. Field* 1848* 

paiticuhir service. 
London, 90, screw, Cupt. IL Chads, 1848, Devon- 

Lvnx* 4* screw, Lieut -Com, E. Berkeley, 18H 

Cuast of Africa. 
Lyra, 3, sc. Com, K,B, Oldfield, 1A5A, Cape of 

Good Hope. 
Madagascar, receiving ship, Commander H M 

Leycester, 1856, Bio Janeiro. 
MagLclenne* IG, st. -vessel, Capt K, Vansittsrt, 

CB„ liM, B. Indies, 
ftlurlhorougb, til, sc.. Vice Adm. A. Fanahswc, 

C.B., Capt the Kt Hon. Lord F. H. Kerr. 

H&2, Mediterranean. 
Medina* at-ves, I. Capt, T. A. B, Spratt, CB^ 

I8.v>, Mediterranean 
Medusa, 4, steam -vessel, Com. W. Bowden, 1851* 

Coast of Africa 
Megaru, «, se., Com, (i. T. at Purvis {b) ? 1S52, 

particular service 
Mcracy, 40. strew, Capi. H. Caldwell* CB . 

IS53, partlculur acrvlcti. 
Mohawk, 4, screw. Com. P. C C. McDougall, 

1-', Knst Indies. 
Monkey, steam tup-, Sec. Mas. G. Syndercacube* 

(acting), WooTwidL 
Xuljid, A2, store- ship. Most -Com. W. W. Dillon, 

18J :!, Callau 
Nautilus, t, Llcut.Com. VV. B Grant, 186*, 

apprentice ship, Devon port 
Kertus, 42, store -depot Mast-Corn. J, C. Bar- 
low, IS35* ValpBTBiao 
Niger, 14, sc.* Capt F. Crecto^ 1854, 

Kust Indies, 
Nile, 90* Sc, Kear-Adm. C. TaBxit* Capt A* P. 

K. Wilmut C.B-, 18A4* DtTOnport 
Nhnrotl, 6* sc, Com, East 

Oberon, 3, It-vessel, Ueut-Com, F. G. C Paget, 

1B52, South America. 
0|KissiiTn, 1 sc. guuuost, LlcHt.-Com, C, J, 

Bftlfuui. 1850. East Indies, 
Orlm, !'l, screw, Curt. W. Housteun, 1847, Medi- 
Osprev. 4, screw, Com. I!. J. Blomfleld, 1855, 

resrl 20, »c., Capt E, !?, ftetheby*C.B., 1853* Es*t 

J'clorus, ^1* sc, Capt F. B. P. Seymour, IS- 

Bftst Indies 
Pembroke, GO, Capt £. P. Chnrlewood* 1855, 

Coast Guard* 
Perse vera nee, J trnop ablp, Com. E. B, Power, 

lHfttt, pnrticulnr BeaMH 
Persian, 13, Commander K, Hanlinge 18*VG, 

Const of Africa. 
Pioneer, S, lePBW, Oml C H. May* 1854, Ports- 

Plover, j, se. gun bust, Lieut - Com. W. IL Rosen, 

Kaat Indies 
Plumper, 9, screw* Capt G, IL lacbarda, 18M, 

Paciae P 
I Into, 4, st- vessel, lleat-Cem. C. IL Simpson, 
1848, Coast of Africa 




Porc nptna, 3, st-ves. Capt H. a Otter, 1854 , 

Princess Charlotte, 104 Mast-Corn. II. G. 

Thomaett, 1854, Hong Kong. 
Princess Koyal, 91, sc, Capt T. Bailllo, 1815, 

Pyladee, screw, '21, Capt M. do Coarcy, 1832, 

rwiK ■ 

Qua'l, 2, sc gunboat, Lieut-Coin. N Osborn' 

1856, Mediterranean. 
Queen Charlotte, 104, Vicc-Adra. E. narvey, 

Cap! H. Harvey, 1852, Sheerness. 
Racer, 11, screw. Com the Hon. T. A. Pakonh un 

185*, North America and West Indies. 
Racoon, 31, screw, Captain J. A. Paynter, 1854, 

Recruit, 6, at-v., Com. D. Spain, 1856, Medl- 

Renown, 91, screw, Capt. A. Forbes, 1846 Medi 

Retribution, 28, st-vessel, Commodore II. E. 

EdgeU, East Indlas. 
Bh a d a m a n thus, 4, st res., Master-Corn. F. R 

Standee, 1843, particular service. 
Roebuck, «, sc, Com. E. C. Symons, acting, E.I 
RoBa, 6, Ueut-Com. C. G. Nelson, 1854, Ports- 
Royal Albert, 121, sc., Rear-Admiral Sir C. H. 

Freemantie. K.C.B., Capt E. B. lUce (1855), 

Channel Squadron. 
Royal Adelaide, 104, Rr.-Ad. Sir T. S. Paslcy. 

Bt; Capt W. J. Williams, 1841, Devonport 
Russell, 60, sc, Capt G. Wodehousc, 1854, Coast 

St Jean D'Acre, 101, screw, Capt T. P. Thomp- 
son, 1847, Mediterranean. 
81 Vincent, Capt. T. Wilson, 1853, Portsmouth, 

training ship. 
Sampson, 6, st-y., Capt G. S. Hand, 1852, S.E. 

Coast of America. 
Saracen, 4, Mast-Corn. W. Stanton, 1852, East 

Satellite, sc, 21, Capt. J. C. Provost, 1856, 

Saturn, 72, Capt G. Ramsay, C.B., 1813, 

Scourge, 6, sc , Com. Prince of Langenberg, 

1857, Mediterranean. 
SeagtilL sc. gunbt., Lieut-Corn. W. Chlmmo, 

1850, particular service. 
Sharpshooter, 8, screw, Ueut-Com. C. Gibbons, 

1848, Coast of Africa. 
Shamrock, sc surveying ves., Com. Edye, Coast 

of Ireland. 
Simoom, 8, sc, Com. J. M. Cooke, 1852, E. Indies. 
Siren, 16, Com. G. M. Balfour, 1856, South 

Skipjack, sc gunbt, Licut-Coro. J. Murray, 

1848, Channel Squadron. 
Oaney, 2, sc gunbt, Lt-Com. K. J. Wynnlatt, 

1850, East Indies. 
Sparrowhawk, 4, sc, Com. J. C. Byng, 1856, 

East Indies. 

Spitfire, 5, st-r., Llent-Com. W. C. Chapman, 

1848, Coast of Africa. 

Spy, 3, Ueut-Com. T. B. Colllnson, 1850, South 

Starling, sc -gunboat, Lteut-Com. J. A. Whit- 
shed, 1854, East Indies. 

Staunch, 2, sc-gnnboat, Lt-Com. E. J. Pollard, 
1855, East Indies. 

Styx, 6, st res., Com. C. Vesey, 1854 N. America 
and W. Indies. 

Supply, st-sh., Mast-Corn. W. H. Balliston, 

1845, Woolwich 

Surprise, 4, sc, Com. Lord E. H. Cecil, 1857, C. of 

Tartar, 20, sc, Capt. H. Dunlop, 1850, W. Indies 

and N. America. 
Tartarus, 4, st, Com. A. L. Mansell, 1855, Medi- . 

Termagant 25, screw, Capt R. HalL 1855, 

Terrible, 21, st-vessel, Capt. F. H. H. Glasse, 

C. B., 1846, Mediterranean. 
Terror, 16, Capt F. Hutton, 1844, Bermuda. 
Tortoise, 12, store-ship, Capt V7. F. Burnett, 

C.B., 1854, Ascension. 
Tribune, 30, screw. Captain G. T. P. Hornby, 

1846, East Indies. 

Trident 6, st-v. Com. F. A. Close, 1854, Coast 

of Africa. 
Triton, 3, st-ves. Lieut-Corn. R. II. Burton, 

1849, Coast of Africa 

Urgent sc troop ship, Com. II. W. Hire, 1854, 

particular service. 
Valorous, 1% st-ves., Capt W. C. Aldham, C.B., " 

1853, particular service 
Vesuvius, 6, steam-vessel, Commodore C Wise, 

Coast of Africa. 
Vlctoriaand Albert 2, steam yacht Captain the 

Hon. J Denman, 1841, Portsmouth. 
Victor Emanuel, 91, sc, Capt J. Willcox, C.B.. 

1850, Mediterranean. 

Victory, 101, Admiral W. Bowles, C.B.; Capt- 
A. Fatquhar, 1849, Portsmouth. 

Vigilant 4, sc, Com. W. Armytage, 1855, Medi- 

Viper, 4, screw, Com W. N. W. Hewett, V.C. 
L.H., 1858, Devonport 

Virago, 6, st-ves., Com. M. B. Dunn, 1856 
particular service 

Vixen, 6, st-ves., Com. L. Lambert, 1858. 

Vulture, 6, st-v., Captain F. A. Campbell, 1856, 

Wanderer, 4, screw, Com. M. It. Pechell, 1854, 

Watchful, 2, sc-guubt st Com. F. W. Inglcrteld, 
1857, East Indies. 

Wellesley, 72, Captain Superintendent G. Gold- 
smith, C.B., 1812, Chatham. 

Weser, st v., 6., Com. A. H. J. Johnstone, 1859, 

Woodcock, 2, sc, gunbt, Lt-Com. G. & Buu- 
sanquet, 1855, East Indies. ± 


(Corrected to the 26th April, 1859.) 
With the dates of Commission of the Officers in command 

Acbar, 22, Flag-ship of Commodore G. G. Wel- 
lesley, C.B., Com. II. A. Drought, 1851, 
Com. IL W. Grounds, 1 *">»», Gunnery 
Officer, Bombay. 

Assaye, 10, paddle, Commander G. N. Adams, 
1858, r " 

, Zanxlbar. 

TJ. S. Mao., No. 367, Juins, 1859. 

Auckland, 8, puddle, Com. J. Stephens. 

Assyria, 2. paddle, Master-Corn. E. Davies, 

18j8, Aden. 
Augusta. 6, yacht, Bombay. 



Australian* screw troop ahlp, Bfuter~com. 

Btott< Bay uf IkintfaL 
Berenice. 2. paddle troop rdiip, Lieut. -Com. 

A W. C bitty, J M7, Jdalnhar Coaat. 
Bhceinuti, 4, tnrmi&g rettd, LtauL-Com. 

A. P. Taylor, 1£47, Malabar Coast 
Brat, 2, flat. Muster-Com. E, Hflfe, 1830, 

I nduft. 
CHve, 19, Lieut, -Com. J. Sedley, 1847, school' 

sblp. nn a Cruize. 
CttrsetJee, Hat, Master-Corn, . ^- — t Tudus. 
Cbirl i\t*Coio* T* N. ck T 

Andaman Island*. 
nice, 3, Licut.-Omi. C. H. Walker, 
is 47, Adea, 

5, puddle gunboat, Com. W* B. Selby, 

ship, IJt!Ut.-Com. 
Cbcnu'i • loorley. 

Conqueror, 2, puddta. Mftftter-Crimrmmdur T„ 
K. Linton, 184*, RItw Indus. 

Dalbousie, screw Troop sblp, Limt.-Com. T. W. 
Hopkins 1858, Buy of Bengal 

Dromedary, Flnt, Master-Coni+ * , River 


ElpliiiiAtone, 18, Lieut, -Com. IT. A, Fraaer f 
B, Bom boy. 

Enphrntc*, Flat, Manter-Com, W< Walton, 
tflSB, River Indua 

EthoTsuy, Flat, Majter-ConL T, 0. Joiv 
Elver Indus. 

Emily, 2, Lieut. -Com. V. W. Tendal, MW, Per- 
sian Gulf, 

Falkland, 13, Commodore G. Jenkins, C.B., 
1865, Persian Gulf. 

Fcroo*, 10, puddle, Common flur C. J. Ci al- 
ien den, iHin, Bombay. 

Frcere, 2, paddle. Master-Commander J-JftflTen, 

Goolanair* pad tile yacht, Mfwter-Commarjdor 
J, 1>, Keriiiellv. 18*0, Bombay 

GeiirgiLii l. 2, Lleul-Com, W. Cullln&wood, 

ladui, ■ C«nrti*flder E + S. IL 

Ni?«U\ I Tndlut. 

JlKlluni, 'J, paddle, MjiMer-Com. K. L, Law- 
flon, 1963, Rivur Inrtui 

KcddywuirCC, receiving frliip. Mt.atcr-Catn« J. 

S. Amoa, 18Mj K n mid i r- 
Ladj FjiikiuM'l -. i- -..1.11*-- LVIast.-Com.W, Barraa, 

Lady Crtmihitf, i. paddle, Licut.-Coin* E, Trevor, 

1840, Red I 
atahL 3, Liaut.-Com. R W, Whisk, l&i'i, 

Marie, :i, Ueut-Com C. G, Constable, 1; 

Sun eying Ship, Malabar " 
Mootvee, l. pendant vea, t Csipt ► E* W. Dani 

1*^7, Kotree. 
Kapler,. 2, pad* - Commando? 

; , 61, River Indus. 
Jverbuddii, 2, LtauL-Com. C, Forster, 1 

Malabar Coast* 
NtmrocL % puddle, Master-Commander J< 

Butter, IBM, River Indus* 
Niteerte, Fiat, Miister-Oein. A. nerriSMi, 18*0* 

River Indus. 
Outrani, 4, paddle. Must, -Com* W* Flray, li 

Hirer In tin a, 
FunliuiK 1'), paddle, Commander A. Foulert 

r, Calcutta 
Planet, 2, padiBe, Master-Corn. T, K 

Fletclior, 1853, River Indus, 
Ftineo Artlmr, bctcw troop-atilp, Com. 

Trtmson, lao\S t en route Timor Islands 
Flelad, 2, srvew, Li cut.- Com. J. G 

Persian Uul£ 

Raveo, Flat, Master-Com. , III \ < 

J?emlraniis * paddle, Com. \\\ liaRour, 

Boui ' 
Suded(it>, I'lat, Mastor-Com., Hirer Indui 
SatcUHv, % pad«tle, Mrt*tor-Com. A. Wilkuir* 

Snuke, paddle, tender to Aebar, Bouibuy, 
Sir R. Havelock, 2 T piddle, Ma»tor-Com* 

ver Illdlli, 
Sir H. Uwrenee, 2, puddle, Mnster-Com, 

Tickel, L946, llni.-r Indua, 
Sydney, screw troop ship, Mastcr-Com. ,h 

K latitat, Hay of Bengal 
Tigris r,, Llout.-CuLii, rS. T. Robint,on, 1847, 

Persian Gulf, 
V'nioriu, 4, peddle, Lteu^-Cuio. T. 

TwynJiam T IMfi, in j in In* y. 
Zenobia, 10 + paddle, Goal, ft E, ilaitni 

1857, Hurat. 







lit Brigade rtomtioy t 1st Company, Burnt, 
UtuL-Conn J* B, Bewsher, I§fid, com- 

2ad Brigade, Bengal, C*pt C IX CnmpbeU, 

1st Comnany, Fort WUMam, Licut.-C^!ii C, 

Bv Templer t 1S67* 
2nd Company, Guy ah, Llout.-Com. T. H. B. 

Banon, 1864, 
3rd do, Uacco, LieuL-Cem. H. W, Ethe- 

4th do. Andaman I&limds, Lfcu 
,.iden t 1S57* 

dth Company Sasserftm, yout + *Com, O, 0. R 
Cfliew, MB> 

-i>», Patnrt, Lleut.-Com, D, a. 

I-.-, I. 

7th da Cbybawau UtwL-&m 1 

Lewis, 1*1*. 
Mb Aft, Barackpore, Ueut.-Cont \NV 

Pa via, 181 4 J, 
«th do. Jtrpore, Lieut-Coto. A. T. Winder 






AmimALTr t May 16, 

Vice Admiral of the White William 
James Miugaye baa been appointed to 
receive a pension of £1 50 ft year a* pro- 

by her Majesty's Order in < 
of ^'tth June, 1851, vacant bv the death 
of Vice Admiral Peter John !> 
Hid the name of Vice Admiral Mi 
lias been removed to the Reserved 
Fay List accordingly ; and, in I 
quence of this removal the foil u win:/ 
Promotion *, to date from Dee, 1®, 
have this day taken place : — 

Vice Admiral of the Blue Sir Thomas 
Herbert, K.C.B.. to be Vice Admiral of 
Abe White. Rear Admiral ol the Red 
Sir George Robert Lambert, IvC.B,, to 
be Vice Admiral of the Blue. Retired 
Rear Admiral John Gore to be Vice 
Admiral on the Retired List, Rear 
Admiral of the White Charles Ramsay 
Drink water Betlrane, C.B., U* be 
Admiral of the Red* Red Admiral of 
the Blue George Rodney Muddy to be 
Rear Admiral of the White. 

Capt. Thomas Henderson to he Rear 
Admiral of the Blue. 

The undernamed Officers Ion the Re- 
tired List have also been promoted to 
Retired Rett Admirals, on the terms 
Imposed in the Lwh!. of the 

lit September, 1846, but without in- 
crease of pay : — h Captalni v 
Shepheard and William Luckr&ft, 

AlJMlRAI»TT, May 7. 
RoTAi, Marines.— Ft rat I U H t man is 
to fie Captain*.— Archibald Ab 
Douglas, Charles Loftus Tottenham 
Usher, George Lascellea Blake, ( ) 

rick Charles Fraser, (Adjutant), 
Win. Henry Worthy Bennett, < 
Leslie, Win. Penn Burton, Ni 
Bennett Dolby, EnbuleDnyrm Tbelwa-11, 

rd Fentlaud Henry. 
fatante.—lUwy Sturt Lewis, William 
Henry Smith, John St radian, William 
Henry Poyotz, T. Ianley i J rant, Angtia- 

Ivans, R, R. ,v, Woolforde, James 
A. Godfrey , Rokeby, VV 

Armstrong, Charles William FoftfoergtU, 
Robert Jamea JPascoe, Henry Cawley 
Bowker, Hi 

Thomas Bridgford, John W m. ' 
QTGrady 9 G] <tt, Henry M 

tad Kifcv, Nil well Fit* Upton 
Enn>t Augantus Mm M » 

|endie Vivi;i rd Sorvaute, 

Edward O'Donovau Powell, Jamc* An- 
derson aiwioc, Daniel TUomaa WoriflfF, 
William Younghuabwdt 


Stttf/foti to be Deputy Inspector (knmrfof 
Iforjtittitiand Fleets. — H. McCormnek. 
Rear Admiral of tf& Bine — George 
y Mundy to be Second in Oom- 
m the Mediterranean* and to hoist 
his flag on board II. Ms nhip ff f 
^ Cmnniandem— CharJi W II May, 1654, 
to Pioneer ; Charles W. Hope, 1854, to 
ffoma Fink ; Joseph H. Marry at, 1855, 
tn Intrepid; Arthur G. Fitz-Roy, 1857, 
t^ Fafam ; Edward F. Dent, 1857, to 
Cressy; John L, Ferry, I So" , t«> 
nibali Samuel B. Dolling, 1850, to yift ; 
Colin A. Campbell, 18S8, to Btt. 
m E. Fisher, 185'i, to / 
Edmund Wilson, 1&45, to Atholl ;Thos. 
H* Lysagbt, 1S49, to Formidable ; James 
M. Bruce, 1855, I \ for special 

service ; Joseph Dayman, 1859, to Firt+ 
brand, for special service, vice I 
James M, Brace, 1855, Firebrand \ Bed- 
ford C. T. I'ij ■■-;•<■; Arthur 
Barrow, 1856, to Mxm 

—James J* Stopford, 1841, 
to Ecntwdh; Hon. C. G, J, B. I 
C.B., 1B41, 

niour, C.B-1 I H, to Hero, vice Sir 
6eofge N . I brok s, Bart.,C.B., n [K-rseded 
on account of ill -heath ; A I a thew ConoU y f 
195d t to Hanniha^ as Flag Captain to 
Admiral Mnndy, Henry S, Hillvar, 
1854, to Cadmus; Henry Cbad^ 
1848, to Lmdom , Thomas Hop^lSS^to 
Atiamemmm ; Arthur Cumming, 1854, 

; Oliver J. Jones, 1 G 
Fut'ij ' ►rn, iupersede<l at He 

owmrwjuest, A, F. R* Do Horsey, 
to BHfi. 

Arthur Wilm^hurst, 1854* to Z> 
Hugh M< I : . fco i|ffMMn 

tenants — J, G. lioblni, 1841, to 
bi ffarbotir M.i-t' e at Falmouth ; tt. 

w. s. 

De Cantzow, 1S54, to Cadmm j Ed* 
ward lft07g to A^viemnon, 

Godfiev Taylor, WW, and Thomas H. 
Greev. \^ r - T. 1\ 

Jflcksnn, 1 Phk