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REFERENCE LIDRARY 
Army Ordnance 




KlA .: 



Army Ordnance 
COLBURN'S 



UNITED SERVICE 



MAGAZINE, 



NAVAL AND MILITAEY JOURNAL. 



1863, PART 11. 



LONDON : 
HURST AND BLACKETT, T?\3^\A^^^^'^' 
SUCCESSORS TO HENUX C01A\3«S. 
13, GRBAT MARLBOROXIQH STKtt^t. 



1 I • f ■ 1 ■ 



■ I ■ 
N... • '- 



Army Ordnance 
COLBURN'S 



UNITED SERVICE 



MAGAZINE, 



NAVAL AND MILITARY JOURNAL. 



1863, PART II. 



LONDON : 

HURST AND BLACKETT, PUBLISHERS, 

SUCCESSORS TO HENRY COLBURN, 

13, GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET. 



SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



LONDON : 

Printed by A. Schulze, 13, Poland Street. 



Uffrary of Oonffreaa 
By transfer ftom 
War Department 

OCT 15 18W 



;pR20 If 
oufUCMt 

EXC» 



EXCHANGE 

UNITED STATES 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

MAY 19 '41 



INDEX 



SECOND PART FOR 18 6 3. 



Adventures and Researches among 
the Andaman Islanders, by Dr. 
Monat, noticed, 433 

America, the Civil War in, 118, 
268, 426 

A Month on the Overland Eoute, 
44 

Andaman Islanders, Adventures 
and Researches among the, no- 
ticed, 433 

Appointments and Promotions, 
131, 286, 451, 604 - r. 

Armstrong Gim, recoil of the, 
266 

Army, Stations of the British, 129, 
284, 449, 602 

Artillery, Horse and Foot, 540 

Australia, the late Exploring Ex- 
pedition in, 219 

Barry Dr. notice of, 442 

Barton, Capt. of, notice of, 443 

Bevan, Capt. C. D. notice ofi 443 

Bragge, Col. W. notice of, 125 

Brevet, 140, 153, 293, 299, 306, 465, 
460, 468, 628 

Brevet Bank, Letter on, 264 

Brighton, Volunteer Review at, 
118 

British Columbia, Trip to, 10, 189, 
376 

Soldier the, 71 

Brotherton, Mrs. Respectable 
Sinners, by, noticed, 440 

Bryans, J. W. Leaves from a 
oubaltorn's Diary, 96 

Cadet, Reminiscences of a, S70 



Calthorpe, Lieut.-Col. and the Earl 

of Cardigan, 384, 428 
Campaign, the French, in Cochin 

China, 361 
Cambridge, H.R.H. the Duke of, 

his memorandum on the case of 

Sergeant-Major Lilley, 430 
Cardigan, Lient.-Gen. the Earl of 

and Lieut.-Col. Calthorpe, 384, 

428 
Cavalry, Studies on, 408, 475 
* Cecil Beaumont, by the Hon. C. J. 

^avile, noticed, 275 
Chapliii, Colonel J. notice of, 280 
Church and Chapel, by the Author 

of " High Church" &c. noticed, 

440 
Coast Guard, Appointments, 

Promotions, Removals, 290, 

453, 606 
Cobden, Richard, King of the 
. Belgians, 168 
Cochin China, the French Cam- 

pai^ in, 361 
Colonies, their Influence on the 

Mother-Country, 178. 
Cost of Her Majesty's Ships, 491, 
Correspondence, llo, 264 
Critical Notices, 122, 266, 433, 576 
Crole, Major G. S. Death of, 

442 
Curiosities of Naval Literature, 

200 
Daniell, Capt. J. H. notice of 

280 



IV 



INDEX. 



Depot Battalions, Proposed Sub- 
stitutes for, 621 

Diplomatic Situation, the, in regard 
to Poland, 228 

Ede, Lieut. D. notice of, 444 

Editor's Portfolio, or Naval and 
Military Eegister, 112, 257, 
424, 568 

Fenwick, Lieut.-Col. P. notice of, 
125 

Fifty Years* Biographical Remin- 
iscences, by Lord W. P. Lennox, 
noticed, 440, 576 

Flamank, Lieut.-Col. notice of, 
442 

Fleming, G. Travels on Horseback 
in Mantchu Tartary, noticed, 
266 

Fortification, Remarks on, 169 

France and Mexico, 317, 426, 669 

Gibson, C. B. Life among Convicts 
by, noticed, 122 

Goldie, General Sir George L. 
notice of, 125 

Grant and Speke, Captains, dis- 
covery of the real source of the 
Nile, by. 424 

Greeks, the, in search of a King, 
269. 

Greenwich Characters, 33, 247, 
392, 629 

Hanbury, General Sir John, notice 
of, 441 

Hawksworth, the Deserted House 
of, noticed, 275. 

Hanway, Captain J. Death of, 
443 

Hart, Capt. R, notice of, 444 

Heart and Cross, by the Author 
of "Margaret ^udtland," no- 
ticed, 124 

Hemphill, Major-Gen. A. J. death 
of, 126 

Heroes, Philosophers and Courtiers 
of the Time of Louis XVI, no- 
ticed, 274. 

Hilder, Lieut, of, death of 444 

Hoghton, Commander W, death of, 
445 

Holbrook, Lieut. C. J. notice of, 
444 

Holmes's Electric Magnetic Light, 
261. 

Ionian Islands, The, 664 

Jones, Lieut. -G«n. R. notice of 
280 

Lane, Capt. J. A. death of, 444. 

Leavew from a Subaltern's Diary, 



by James W. Bryans, late Bom- 
bay Army, 96 

Lewis, Sir George Comewall, 
death of, 117 

Liddell, Capt. the Hon. H. J. death 
of, 444 

Life among Convict% noticed, 
122 

Life-boat Listitution, Annual Re- 
port, 263 

Lilley, Serjeant-Major, case of, 
430 

Lost and Saved, by the Hon. 
Mrs. Norton, noticed, 275. 

Macdonald, Lieut.-Col. J. notice 
of, 280 

Macreight, Capt. J. A. notice of, 
444 

Mantchu Tartary, Travels on 
Horseback in, noticed, 266 

Marines, Royal, Promotions, 135, 
290, 453, 463 

Man, or the Old and New Phi- 
losophy, bj' the Rev. B. W. 
Savile, noticed, 441 

Memoirs of Distinguished OflScers 
recently deceased, 277. 

Memorandum on the case of Serg.- 
Major Lilley, 430 

Mexico and Irance, 31 7 

Military Law, Remarks on, 23 

Libraries, 104 

Scandals, 427 

Studies, 51. 408, 475 

Science, 499 

Militia Gazette, 140, 144, 160, 166, 

293, 300, 311, 466, 461, 464, 

471, 629 
Mistress and Maid, by the Author 

of JohnJBCalifax, noticed, 441 
Month on the Overland Route, A, 

44 
Mouat, Dr. Adventures and Re- 
searches among the Andaman 

Islanders, by, noticed, 433 
Mundy, Col. G. V. E. notice of, 

280 
Napier, Lieut. C. J. D. notice of, 

446 
Naval Reserve, Royal, 136, 290, 

463, 606 
Naval and Military Expenditure, 

Sir Morton Peto on, 334 
Register, 112, 

267, 424, 608 
Polish Question, The, 551 
Netley, Visit of the Queen to the 

Royal Military Hospital, at, 

2.59 



INDEX. 



Nile, Discovery of the source of 

the, 424 
Niven, Dr. death of, 445 
Norton, Hon. Mrs. Lost and Saved, 

by, noticed, 275 
Obituary, 125, 279, 441, 694 
Ocean Stations, a Voyage in 1862, 

238,349 
Officers* Pensions, Suggestions 

on, 119 
Organization, on, 51 

internal, of the 

French Navy, 344 

Orpheus, H.M.S. wreck of, 113 
Overland Route, A Month on the 

44 
Palmer, Capt. A. W. death of 

444 
Parkinson, Lieut.-Col. on the 

Recoil of the Armstrong Gun, 

266 
Peto, Sir Morton, on Naval and 

Military Expenditure,- 334 
Poland, the Diplomatic Situation, 

228 
Poland, the Revolution in, 83, 

112, 257, 402, 425. 
Pollock, Mai. W. P. death of, 280 
Prenderleath, Major W. S. death 

of, 442 
Promotions and Appointments, 

131, 286, 451, 604 
Puebla, Capture of, 317, 426 
Real, the, and the Ideal, by Arthur 

Llewellyn, noticed, 441 
Remarks on Military Law, 23 
Reminiscences of a Cadet, 370 
Respectable Sinners, by Mrs. 

Brotherton, noticed, 449 
Revolution, the Polish, 83. 

- ■ with special reference 
to the Relij^ous Question, 402 

Royal Commissions and Select 

Committees, 1 
Royal Marines, Promotions, 135, 

290, 453, 463. 
Royal Naval Reserve, 135, 290, 

453, 606 
Savile, Hon. C. S. Cecil Beaumont, 

by, noticed, 275 

Rev. B. W. Man, by, no- 
ticed, 441 

Scott, Paymaster R. notice of 
445 



Seaton, J. M. Lord, memoir of, 

277 
Select Committees and Royal Com- 
missions, 1 
Senhouse, Capt. E. H. notice of, 

445 
Sentiment of War, The, 511 
Shoeburyness and its Experiments, 

547 
Snooke, Lieut. H. J. death of 

280 
Something New, or Tales for the 

Times, noticed, 124 
Speke and Grant, Captains, dis- 
covery of the real source of the 

Nile,by»^24 
Stations of the British Army, 129, 

284, 449, 602 
Royal Navy in 

Commission, 126, 281, 446, 599 
Stotherd, Capt. E. A. notice of, 

444 
Stothert, W. Esq. notice of, 444 
Suggestions on Officers' Pensions, 

Training Ships, &c., 119 
Taxation, On, 211 
Things in General, Remarks on, 

159 
Thome, Paymaster in Chief E. 

notice of, 445 
Training Ships, Suggestions on, 

119 
Travels on Horseback in Mantchu 

Tartary, noticed, 266 
Trip to Vancouver Island and 

British Columbia^ 10, 189 
Vancouver Island, a trip to, 10, 

189, 376 
Vicars, Col. R. S. death of, 125 
Victoria Cross, bestowal of the, 

154 
Volunteer Gazette, 140, 145, 150, 

156, 294, 301. 307, 312, 467, 461, 

464, 469, 471, 629 
Weaving, Lieut.-Gen. J. notice of, 

279 
Women and Ships, 200 
Wraxall, Lieut.-Col. Sir W. L. 

death of, 280 
Wright, Commander Thomas, 

Letters on the Masters in the 

Navy, 261 
Wyatt, Capt. H. B. notice ot, 

445 
Wynne, Capt. W. death of, 444 



CONTENTS 



SECOND PART FOR 1863. 



Royal Commissions and Select Committees 

A Trip to Vancouver Island and British Columbia 10, 

Remarks on Military Law 

Greenwich Characters . . . . 33, 247, 

A Month on the Overland Route . 

Military Studies ..... 51, 

The British Soldier .... 

The Revolution in Poland 

Leaves from a Subaltern's Diaiy. By James W. Bryan, late 

Bombay Army .... 

Military Libraries .... 

Remarks on Fortifications and Things in Greneral 
Richard Cobden, King of the Belgians 
Colonies, their Influence on the Mother-Country 
Curiosities of Naval Literature ; Women and Ships 
On Taxation .... 

The late Exploring Expedition in Australia 
Poland — the Diplomatic Situation 
Ocean Stations— a Voyage in 1862 
France and Mexico 
Depot Battalions 

Sir Morton Peto on Naval and Military Expenditure 
The Internal Organization of the French Navy, 
The French Campaign in Cochin China 
Reminiscences of a Cadet 
Lieut.-Gen. the Earl of Cardigan and Lieut.-Col. Calthorpe 
The Polish Revolution with Special Reference to the Religious 

Question .... 

Cost of Her Majesty's Ships 
Military Science ; Ancient and Modem 
The Sentiment of War 
Proposed Substitutes for Depot Battalions 
Artillery — Horse and Foot 
Shoeburyness and its Experiments, or Ships versus Forts, and 

vice versa . . . . 



Page 

189, 376 
23 

392, 529 
44 

408, 475 
71 
83 

96 
104 
169 
168 
178 
200 
211 
219 
228 
238,349 
317 
328 
334 
344 
361 
370 
384 

402 
491 
499 
611 
521 
540 



Vin CONTEiVTS. 

Page 

The Polish Question ...... 551 

The Ionian Islands ...... 564 

Editor's Portfolio 112, 267, 424, 668 

Correspondence ...... 119, 264 

Critical Notices ..... 122, 266, 433, 576 

Memoirs of Distinguished Oflficers recently deceased . . 277 

Obituary 125. 279, 441, 594 

Stations of the Eoyal Navy in Commission . 126, 281, 446, 599 

British Army . 129, 284, 449 602 

Promotions and Appointments .131, 286, 451, 604 



COLBURN'S 

UNITED SERVICE MAGAZINE 

AND 

NAVAL AND MILITARY JOURNAL. 



No. COCOXVL— JULY, 1868. 



CONTENTS. 

France and Mexico ....... 317 

Depot Battalions ....... 328 

SiK MoETON Pbto on Naval and Military Expenditure . 334 

The Internal Organization of the French Nayt . 344 
Ocean Stations— A Voyage in 1862 . . . .349 

The French' Campaign in Cochin China .... 361 

Beminiscences op a Cadet ...... 370 

A Trip to Yancouyer Island and British Colukbia • . 376 

Lieut.-Gen. the Earl of Cardigan and Lieut.-Col. Calthorpe. 384 

Greenwich Characters ...... 392 

The Polish Revolution with spsclu. reference to the Reli- 
gious Question ....... 402 

Military Studies. No. m. ..... 406 

Editor's Portfolio ....... 424 

Critical Notices ....... 483 

Obituary . . . . . . .441 

Stations of the Royal Navy in Commission . . 446 

Stations of the British Army ..... 449 

Promotions and Appointments ..... 451 



To Correspondents. 



We beg to thank " H. ( AthensBiim)'' for bis communicatioii. " Bteam- 
sbip Ventilator*' nnder consideration. 



LONDON: 

HURST AND BLACKETT, PUBLISHERS, 

SUCCESSORS TO HENRY COLBURN, 

13, GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET. 

SOLD ALBp BT BKLL AND BRADPUTK, BDINBUROH ; M^OLASHAN ANJP OJf Ly 
DITBtIN; AND Af.L BOOI^ajELLKRS. 



13r GHKAT MaII L1IO»O|70 W 

MESSRS. HURST AND BLACKETT'S 

NEtF PUBLICATIONS. 



i 



Travels on Horseback in Mantchn Tartary: being ft Summcr^B 

Ride beyond tke Great Wall of Chisa, Bj Gequge Flkmiko. Royal Bto. 

with iMap and 50 lUufltratioofl. Handtjomety bound 
** Mr+ F^entlrvg bui mmaf oTttie be«t qumliiiri of the (mvellcf^— good tiitrltiii taurid Benet, lb# 
Rictilt^ of abfterraHon, Olid Utenry f^TiUuTc- He has rtndfrtd at h\M drbtor tar much lin«lruciioii 
hnd mnusvmcnt. The vu\ii* ot hii Uuolc It ifreMily cnli Sliced by the ilhiiimtlaut — «■ Bmiiblc, mm 
eoptoTit^ airtil wtd exec u ted. ***^Th(e Retdei'. 

Adveatures and Beseaxclies among the Andaman Islanders. 

By Dr. Mouat, F.K,G,S 8vo. wirb Illustraiiona, IGs. 
" [>r. MoQAfa boD^p if biltt forirvtinR a mott iQiporUist m^ d valuable contribiiUun to ethnology, 
wilt bt rvuil with interr'«i by thd geTittAi r^iuler/' — Aib?iiu'ijrn, 

Kfty Years Biographical Beminiscences^ % Lord ivii-j.iam 

Pjtt Li£NNi>x. 2 voia* 8vo. 

The Wanderer in Western France. By G, T. Lowtb, Esq, 

Illustrated by the Hon, T. Eliot Yorkk, M.P* 1 voL (In Julv), 

Man; or, the Old and New Phil sophy* Being Notes atnl Facts 

for the Curioui^ i^ith especial Heferencc to rpcent Writem on tUe Subject of Ibe 
Origin of Mbji- lly tUe Rev, B. W, Savile, M,A. I vol. lOi. 64 
life among Coniricts* By the Rev* CnARLKa B, Gibsok, M.R,I.A^ 
Cbiiplajti in the Convict Service. 2 vols< 21ft. 

Seroes^ Philosophers and Conrtiars of ^e Time of Lonis XVL 
History of Ei^land, from the Accession of James I to 

THIS UiSGRAcTB OF Chief Ju^tick Ci^KE. By S. E. Gaudine^r, 2 Vfds. 

The Last Decade of a Glorious Reign* Completing "The Ilia- 

tory of Henry IV, Kin^ of France," By M, ^\", FR»tpn. 2 vols, 2U. 

Points of Contact between Science and Art* % Hia Eminbncb 

Cardinal Wt^^EWAN, 8vo* 5a, 

Memoirs of Christina, Qneen of Sweden- By Hbnet WooonftAii. 

Greece and the Greeks^ By Fbeurika BBBifEa* Tranalateil by 
Maeiv Howitt. 2 ¥oIs. 21b* 

The Life of Edward Irring, Minister of the National Scotch 

GflDRCEC, Lf>MDO«. Illustrated bv Uia Journal and C^rrksI'ondenok, Uy 
Mits. OLifif ANT, SecoNn Edjtion (Ibyised. 2 vohf Bvo, with PortrHit, 

Les Miserablas* By Victor Hugo* The Autboribed CoFYftioax 

E^iftiLtHEi Translatio?^. THmti Bi>iTiohr REVtSKtj, 3 vols , 31a. €d» 

Female Life in Prison* By A Pmaorf MAXftON* Thibd edition, 2 v. 

Mistress and Maid^ By the Author of ^* Jiihn HBlifax." Illustraied 
by MiLLAia, price 5s, bound, forming tbe New Volume of " Hurst awd BtACjErr'i 
STANDAao Lirrahy of Cheait EDirioina of PoPDi*Att Modern WoMi/' 

TBE NEf¥ AND POPULAR NOVELS, 
Lost and Saved- By the Hon* Mrs- Norton, Fourth Edition* 3 v. 

•* X^tt mtl SATed. will be read with eager Iniereti."— Time** 

'* Ln^T AVB Savkh \t n work of mch rare C]tcrUtn» that \t would create a sUr amnn^ nqv«l 
RAders, even Ifllbulaqt tlri. Norton'i iLame on the llUe PH^* ^ lurputet "^Stuart at Dua- 
Irsth* in (treiijfth, deHcuicy aiid ftnlrt "— AiheTiinitn, 

Chnrch and Chapel* By the Anthor of " High Church," " No 

Churdi,'* and •* Owen, i Waif,'* 3 vols. 
Kespectable Sinners- By Mrs. Broth erton* 3 Toli- 
Mary Lyndsay. By the Lai>t Emiuy Ponbqnby. 3 vols. (In July), 
Heart and Cross* By tht^ Author of " MAaoARBT Maitland," 
UvB it Down* By J. C. Jeaffheson. Third Edition. 3 vols* 

Vicissitades of a Gentlewoman* *^ >"o^^* 
Tlires Lives in One- 3 vols, (In July)* 



1SB3J ' 317 



FRANCE AND MEXICO. 

The curtain has fallen upon the first act of the Mexican war. 
The news of the capture of Puebla, which was even doubted by the 
Ministers of the French Emperor, has been officially confirmed. 
We have General Forey's despatches before us. The capitulation 
of General Ortega, with ] 2,000 men, after so gallant a defence, 
every inch of ground having been manfully contested, borders on 
the marvellous. The Emperor Napoleon III. breathes again more 
freely. Forey is made a Marshal of France and the political 
barometer has risen again in favour of the second Empire. The 
result of the recent elections at Paris distinctly pointed out that a 
great crisis was impending. The French nation were getting tired 
of the Mexican campaign. Thousands of Frenchmen had fallen 
victims, either to the yellow fever or the bullets of the enemy ; re- 
inforcements were sent out almost daily, yet the Mexicans held out, 
and refused to submit to the sway of a foreigner. The Mexican 
campaign has been a greater source of anxiety to Louis Napoleon 
than anything which has occurred during his successful reign. If 
a proof were needed, the delight of the Emperor, as expressed in 
his letter to General Forey, on receiving the news of the surrender 
of Puebla, would alone suffice to show that he is glad that he can 
now withdraw with some semblance of victory from a war which 
cannot lead to any substantial results. A peace, and an indemnity 
will follow. Our object in this article is to give to our readers a 
correct insight into the causes which led to the Mexican campaign, 
and to explain why England and Spain, who at first joined in the 
expedition, withdrew from it, and left France to herself. We shall 
also endeavour to give a connected narrative of the events which 
have taken place in Mexico since the first landing of the French 
tro'ops at Vera Cruz. We must go back as far as November, 1861. 
Sir Charles Wyke, our minister nt Mexico, sent in towards the end 
of that month an uliimatum for certain claims due to British 
subjects. M. de Saligny, the French minister, did the same as 
regarded French subjects, but the ultimatum, was rejected by the 
Mexican government. The Spanish government also sent in 
claims, but in consequence of the refusal of the Mexican govern- 
ment to take notice of them, the three Powers resolved to have 
recourse to arms. In December, 1861, a French squadron, under 
the orders of Admiral Jurien de la Graviere sailed for Vera Cruz. 
General Serrano, Captain-General of Cuba, was ordered by the 
Spanish government to send a squadron to Vera Cruz. Serrano, 
on the 8th December, 1861, took possession of San Juan d'Ulloa 
without firing a shot. The Mexican troops evacuated Vera Cruz, 
and fell back upon Puebla. The Spanish naval expedition appeared 
off Vera Cruz on the morning of the 8th December. It consisted 
of two frigates and nine steam transports. 0\i vVi^ xsv^wNsx'sg^^'^i^'^ 

U. S .Mag. No. 416, Julx, \%ft^. ^ 



318 



FBAT^CE AKD IIKX1CO. 



[July, 



10th, the second Snanisb divisioa composed of thirteen ships of 
war and sailing transports* came to joiu those which were lying at 
anchor at Anton Lizardo* The Spanish Admiral Kulealcaba 
demanded the surrender of San Juan d^Ultoa within twenty- four 
hours. The demand w^aa complied with. On the 17th M. de 
Saligny, the French minister at Mexico, arrived at Ycra Cruz, and 
immediately embarked on board the Foudre, We shall quickly 
pass over the arrival of an English divi^iion of marinesj the negotia- 
tions which ensued and terminated with the treaty of Soh dad^ the 
retirement of the Knglish and Spanish contingentaj and come at 
once to the narrative of the war iu which France has been engaged 
Bin|*le-handed with Mexico, 

The French army laid formal siege to Fuebla in the month of 
March last. The resistance offered by the Mexicans was quite un- 
expected. After thirteen day a siege, on the 29 th Miiich, mie of 
the exterior fortsj Fort St. Xavier was taken hy asBault. and the 
Mexicans abandoned tlic redans of the Parral or Morclos. The 
defence of Puebla waa entrusted to Genera! Ortega^ who was in 
constant communication with General Como ifort at the capital, 
Mexico, On the 29th of Aprils Geuerat Ortega thus sums up the 
state of the siege to that date : — 

" The French have made eight assaults, succeeding only in two. 
We have lost nothing, save our abandoned furts and one line of 
defences. For the last thirty one days we have not lost a foot of 
ground. The French continue to thmw their bombs into the city, 
and are cutting ditches, and covered ways for an attack on Santa 
Anita/* 

General Ortega^s despatches to General Comonfort state that on 
the night of the 24th of April the French exploded a mine on the 
block called StemSnOj occupied by Mexican troops, A number of 
the Mexicans were buried in the ruins^ but the remainder resisted 
the French all uight^ fighting desperately. On the morning of the 
25th both parties were reioforeed, and continued the fight with tlie 
greatest determination, the Mexicans at its close holding their 
original position. During the contest the French exploded another 
mine, in the Santa Jesu, and another fight ensued ht^re, lasting 
seven hours, the Mexicans remaining masters of the fieldj and cap- 
turing 130 prisjonei's from the First Regiment of French Zouaves. 
The French left 400 dead on the field. Since these fights the 
French have kept up the bombardment of the city, though less 
vigorously than before. On the 1 st of May President Juarez left 
the city of Mexico for General Conion fort's camp, near Puebla, for 
the pur pose, jjf urging immediate offensive operations against the 
French* 

As the siege advanced, the resistance became more desperate. 
Even the Emperor of the French became anxious, and found it 
necessary to make an official announcement in the '* Monitenr/' 

"^^The pm/oogstion of the military operations before Fuebla/' 




1863.] FRANCB AND MBXtCO. 319 

says the official writer^ ''and the resistance which the French 
troops encounter^ disturb the public mind. The greater the confi- 
dence in the rapid success of the expedition^ the greater was the 
impatience to see the troops triumphant over the unforeseen ob- 
stacles against which the courage of the soldiers and the skill and 
devotedness of the officers so energetically struggle. 

To those pre-occupations is naturally added the question of 
supplies^ both of food and ammunition, which have, however, never 
ceased to be amply provided. Thus, at the date of the last official 
news, 19th April, the troops before Puebla were provided with 
rations for fifty days, the renewal of which was being effected with 
facility. Tn addition, a reserve of three millions of complete 
rations, sufficient for the whole expeditionary corps for three months^ 
was concentrated at Vera Cruz. 

As to the ammunition for infantry and artillery successively 
shipped, added to what the different fractions of the expeditionary 
corps had taken with them, it consists, to mention only the prin- 
cipal articles, of 12,800,000 cartridges for infantry, being an 
average of 600 for each man : 42,34*8 cartridges for rifled cannon, 
being 675 rounds for each mountain gun; 1,120 each field-piece; 
1,021 for each gun of the reserve; and 1,000 for each siege gun. 

'^ To those stores, and the supply of cannon, powder, and ammuni- 
tion found at Vera Cruz, or supplied by the navy, will shortly be 
added a million of cartridges, 19,800 rounds for rifled cannon, 
9,000 bombs, and 55,000 kilogrammes of gunpowder, now leaving 
St. Nazaire and Toulon. 

"With a view to keep the supplies of every kind adequate to the 
consumption, the Minister of Marine, independently of the de- 
partures from St. Nazaire by the Transatlantic steamers, organised 
as early as March last, a regular line of transports sailing on the 
23rd of' every month, either from Toulon or Cherbourg, for Vera 
Cruz; which will, on their return, bring back the men whose 
wounds or impaired health render necessary their native air or the 
attentions which can only be obtained at home.'' 

The following are the clauses of the Convention of London and 
the instructions on which M. de Saligny and Vice- Admiral 
Jurien de la Graviere acted upon in renouncing negociations 
with the plenipotentiaries of President Juarez, and in ordering the 
French troops to advance on Mexico. 

The preamble of the Convention of the 31 st of October, which 
indicates the double object assigned to the common action of 
France, Great Britain, and Spain : 

" The Emperor of the French, the Queen of Spain, and the 
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, finding themselves placed, by 
the arbitrary and vexatious conduct of the authorities of the Re- 
public of Mexico, under the necessity of exacting from them a 
more effectual protection for the persons wv4yt^^^x<\K^^*^'>e«. 
subjects, as well as the exccutxcm o^ VV^ ^JcJCx^^vwns. ^'wxNx^'^i^^^^- 



320 



PRANCE AKD MFXICO. 



[JrLY, 



wards tliem by the Republic of Mexico, have eome to an under- 

Btanding to conclude a Convention for tbe object of combining their 
common action^ and for that purposjie have named as their pleiiijio- 
tentiariea, &c/' 

The first article of this Convention simply specifies a con»bined 
action on the part of the allies, The second article is mnre im- 
portant. It runs thus : 

"The high contracting powers engage not to seek for them- 
scjvesj in the employment of the coercive measvires provided for by 
tbe present Convention, any acquisition of territory, or any parti- 
cular advantage^ and not to exercise, in the internal affairs of 
Mexico, any inflnence of a nature to attack tbe right of the Mexican 
nation to freely choose and constitute the form of its Govern* 
ment." 

On the 17th of April {1862} the French commanders issued a 
proclamation to the Mexican people^ in which it is said : — " Be- 
tween your Government and oura war is now declared ; however, 
we do not confound the Mexican people with an oppressive and 
violent minority ; the Mexican people has ever been entitled to our 
warmest sympathies ; it remains that they should show themselves 
worthy of them. * * * * Let all men » so long divided by quarrels, 
at present without an object, hasten to join us ; they hold in their 
hands the destinies of Mexico ; the flng of France has been plantt^d 
in the Mexican soil — that flag will never flinch. Let all lionour- 
able men receive it jia a friendly ilug ! Ltt madmen dare to 
fight it/' 

Despite the above appeal, the Mexicans came to the resolution 
not to submit to a foreign ruler, whether Prince Napoleon or the 
Archduke Maximilian of Atiatria* The negociations which were 
opened J were broken off, England and Spain withdrew, and France 
and Mexico have fought it out between thenij with the only re- 
sult, as yet — the capture of Puebla, 

The following is a brief summary of the events which have taken 
place since April last year: 

In April last year the French Commiasioners in Mexico, 
M. Doboia de Sahgny and Admiral Junen de la Graviere, issued 
a pmclamation to the Mexicans setting forth the object and scope 
of the French intervention. On the 20th of the same month 
the expeditionary force quitted Cordova, and, after a auccegsful 
affair with Mexican cavalry, entered Orizaba, thirty- five leagues 
distant from Vera Cruz, On the 28th, General Lorence^, who 
then commanded, attacked the fortified heights of Cumbres, de- 
fended by 5 ♦000 men and 18 guns belonging to the corps of Sara- 
gossa, drove them from their position and captured two mortars 
and 20 men* On the 5th of May the French army came in sight 
of Fnebla, Whether owing Ut want of accurate information as to 
the strength of the position, or to the excessive ardour of his troops, 
H tvfiM^ hi &pitp of the most desperate t-fForts, re\Tulsed from the 



1863.] PRANCJfi AND MEXICO. 321 

heights of Guadaloupe^ and, with a loss of 177 men and ofiicers 
killed, and 305 wounded or missing, forced to retire. This 
seems to have acted upon the Mexicans as Baylen did upon 
the Spaniards in 1808. They thought themselves invincible; and 
Barriozabal, the Mexican General, announced, in a boastful order 
of the day, that ' the Eagles had come across the ocean to 
fling down before the Mexican flag the laurels they had won at 
Sebastopol, Magenta, and Solferino.' Vain-glorious as he was, 
Barriozabal was too prudent to face the French in the open field, 
or to attempt to harass their retreat. They returned unmolested 
to their encampment, where they reposed three days. On the 8th 
they fell back on Orizaba, to get up their reinforcements and se- 
cure their communications with Vera Cruz. On the march occurred 
the brilliant affair of Acalciiigo, when a battalion of the 99th Regi- 
ment greutly distinguished itself. The Mexican chief Marquez, 
who had been gained over by the French, was attacked by Sara- 
gossa. His position was most critical, when the officer who com- 
manded the battalion in question hastened to his relief with 500 
men, and completely routed the Mexicans, who left on the ground 
150 killed, a flag, and 1,200 prisoners. Once more, at Orizaba, the 
French fortified themselves, throwing up works, which made a 
coup de main impossible. But, though safe against the enemy, 
they suffered greatly from want of provisions. Supplies came up 
very slowly from Vera Cruz, and in the beginning of June a large 
convoy was attacked and captured by the Mexican guerillas. The 
rations of officers and men had to be reduced to the lowest point ; 
and, in his report of the 17th of November, the French Minister 
of War, Marshal Randon, described the sufferings and the con- 
stancy of this handful of men in what he termed their ' unprece- 
dented condition.' Mount Borrego, close to Orizaba, was essential 
to the complete security of the French position, and it was held by 
Ortega. A company of the 99th was sent to take it. After a short 
and vigorous attack it was taken, and the enemy driven from it 
with the loss of 200 killed and wounded, three mortars, and two 
flags. On the 28lh of August the first instalment of the reinforce- 
ments, sent from France under General Forey, landed at Vera 
Cruz. A few weeks later the General himself arrived, and issued 
a proclamation declaring that 'it was not against the Mexican 
people that he was making war, but against a band of unscrupulous 
men, who were not ashamed to sell to foreigners the territory of 
their country.' He also said that the nation, when liberated by 
the French, would be free to choose the Government they thought 
proper, and that the part of France would be to aid Mexico in 
forming herself into a powerful, independent, rich, and free State. 
On the 13th of November the unhealthy season passed away, 
and operations were resumed. Five companies of the 1st Regiment 
of Zouaves, and a party of the 5th Hussars attacked a.vs.4L ^^srJ«^ 
Omeaculpa; and on the 22ud «l tcgLm^wX. ^IxXxaXvcwvi^^^^'^ws^^^^ 



fHANGJfi AND MEXICQ. 



[July, 



aiad a baltery of trtilltsry occupied Tarn pi co^ whichj however, they 
soon after evacuated. Oii the 4tb of December the French drove 
the enemy from Pahna and St. AndreSj and established themselves 
on the plateau of Anahuae* From that plateau the army began to 
manaiuvre on its way to Puebla, so aa to invest the place and cut 
off the retreat of the garrison. Puebla was invested on the 18th 
of March ; the trenches were opened on the 23rd j and an entrance 
effected on the 29tbj and, after a vigorous attack, the French made 
themselves mastery of the Fort of San Xavicr, with a loss of five 
officers, including a Genera!, killed, 30 officers wounded, 56 non- 
commissioned officers and privates killed j and 443 wounded. The 
siege was continued with great energy, while the besieged made 
a desperate resistance. One block of houses after another was at« 
tacked and carried amid a storm of balls from innumerable loop- 
holesj terraces, doorsj windows^ and church-steepteB, The streets 
were covered with barricades, which the Mexicans defended inch 
by inch, while General Bazaine's corps, which had turned the place 
and intercepted the road to Mexico, watched Comonfort's army^ and 
prevented it from succouring the besieged with men or pravisiona. 
The besieged suffered the greatest privations, and a body of Indians, 
who had made a last attempt to introduce a supply of flour into 
the town, were taken by the French, On the 1st of May Juare/^ 
left Mexico for the camp of Comonfort, to persuade him to attack 
the French and relieve Ortega from his desperate position in 
Puebla. Comonfort, however, did not venture to risk an engage- 
ment, the result of which would have been the destruction 
of his own corps without saving Ortega, Being thus reduced by 
famine, the defenders had no choice hut to capitulate. The check 
at Guadaloupe has now been avenged » Conionfort's army, which 
cousi^ted of about 20,000 men, has been dispersed, and there is no 
other corps capable of opposing the French on their march to the 
capital. In his letter of the 3rd of July last year, the Emperor 
ordered General Forey to establish a Provisional Government 
m Mexico, summon an Assembly under the laws of the country, 
and try to restore order in the administration and the finances. 
The events that have taken place in Poland since then may induce 
the Emperor to modify these instructions, and recall hia troops 
before the period origin alJy intended for the occupation of 
Mexico. 

The political side of the ^^ Mexican Question " seems to have 
been now quite cast into the back-ground, France no longer pre- 
tends to force a foreign Prince upon Mexico, and, with the fall of 
Puebla, probably, the war will terminate. The following are the 
circumstances which led to the departure of the Spanish and 
English troops* 

The Commissioners of England, France and Spain had agreed to 
meet, on the 19th of April (1862), the Mexican Ministers at Ori- 
zahnj for the purpose of conductinj^ negociations thercj and bringing 



1863.J FRANCE AND liEXlOO. 323 

them to a conclusion. The forces of the Allies wei« allowed to 
advance on the understanding that if^ after the Conference of the 
19th the Gonunissioners of the three European Powers could not 
agree with the Mexican Government^ they were again to withdraw 
their troops to Vera Cruz. The French Minister did not make his 
appearance. General Prim showed great impatience, and rode to the 
French quarters to ascertain the cause of the delay. To his sur- 
prise he met the French army advancing in military array. The 
French Admiral, Renier, informed him that he had received orders 
from France which absolved him from all former treaties; more- 
over, that he was informed that there was a conspiracy on foot to 
murder the sick. General Prim rode back to Orizaba and con- 
sulted Commodore Drummond. As he could not find any corro- 
boration of the plot. General Prim waited upon the Mexican 
Minister and told him that he should urge the fulfilment of the 
stipulations. Admiral Renier declined compliance, and General 
Prim returned to Vera Cruz in disgust. On the 25th of April the 
English hauled down their fiag, and saluted the Mexican flag with 
twenty-one guns. In a few days Spaniards and English reimbarked, 
and left the shores of Mexico. 

The withdrawal of the Spaniards is thus explained by General 
Prim himself, in a letter dated Orizaba, 14th of April. — ^'In- 
flexible destiny is stronger than the will of man. Could I have 
doubted it, what has just occurred here would have convinced me. 
The triple alliance no longer exists. The soldiers of the Emperor 
remain in this country to establish a throne for the Archduke 
Maximilian — 'what madness ! — while the soldiers of England and 
Spain withdraw from the Mexican soil. ^ ^ * * The Allies came 
here bound by the Convention of London, and we could not depart 
from it without placing ourselves in the wrong. I withdraw, then, 
with my troops, and go to Uavannah to await the orders of my 
Government.'^ 

In the House of Lords, on the 19th June, Earl Russell explained 
why the English contingent had been withdrawn, which statement 
gave great satisfaction. It had never been the intention of England 
to invade Mexico. A convention had been signed between Sir 
Charles Wyke, Commodore Dunlop, and General Doblado, which 
satisfled the demands of England. 

Since then, as already stated, France has carried on the war 
single-handed, and the last event, the fall of Puebla is thus de- 
scribed by General Forey in his despatch to the French Minister of 
War:- 

'^ Puebla, May 18, 1863. 

*' M. le Mar^chal, — Puebla is in our hands ! 

" The combat of San Lorenzo having dispersed the carps dlarmie 
of Comonfort, which sought to force our line of investment and 
to throw supplies into Puebla, where the garrison was already 
suffering from hunger, although it \^^d \»JiA\\ ^^'^^i>ss^ ^\ ^h^x>\- 



FRANCE AND MliXiCO. 



thfug available; on the other hand, a trench having been opened 
before the Fort of Teotime-buacanj and our batteries of 30 guns, 
of various cajibre, having opened their fire on the 16th against 
that fort J and in two hours completely destroyed its worksj two 
vigorous attacks were made upon the place. Guneral Ortega^ at 
this junctnrf^^ made an offer of Cflpitulation. But be bad the pre- 
sumption to ask to leave with all the honours of war, with arms, 
baggage, and artillery, to withdraw to Mexico, I declined all 
these strange proposals, telling him he might leave with all the 
honours of war^ but that his army nmst march past the French 
army^ lay do^vn their arms, and remain prisoners of war, promising 
to him all those concessions which are customary among civilized 
people when a garrison has bravely performed its duty. 

" These proposals were not accepted by General Ortega, who, in 
the night between the 16th and l?tb, disbanded his army, destroyed 
the weapon Sj spiked his guns, blew up the powder magazines^ and 
sent nie an envoy to say that the garrison had completed its defence 
and surrendered at discretjon* 

'' It was searcf^ly ,day light when 12,000 men, mo&t of them 
without arms or unifomsj which they had east away in the streets^ 
surrendered as prisoners, and the officers, numbenng from 1^000 
to 1^200, of whom 26 generals and 200 superior office rSj informed 
me that they awaited my orders at the Palace of the (lovernment. 

'* All the materiel of the place is in our hands, and has not 
been ao much damaged as was supposed. 

" I hasten to forward this dispatch to your Excellency, with in* 
structions to Vera Cruz to send a fast steamer to the Ha van nab, so 
that the news should reach Europe j vift Ni'w York, before the 
English steamer which would leave Vera Cruz on the 1st of June, 
and will bring you a detailed account of our situation. 

^' The army is in high spirits, and will advan*^ in a few days on 
IMexieo. 

" I anij with respect, &c., 

" Genkeal Forey/' 

Full and impartial details of the capitulation can scarcely be 
expected before the 2nd of July. 

General Forey^s ofTieial reports, which have now arrived, give 
ample details respecting the operations of the siege of Puebla, and 
the fall of that city. They testify to the determined resistance 
shown by the Mexicans, which General Forey attributes to the fact 
that the defence was organized by European demagogues. The 
first of General Forey 's reports is anterior to the surrender, and 
bears date the 3rd May :~ 

" Monsieur Ic Marechal, — I have the honour to make Icnown to 
your Excellency the result of the operations of the siege of Puebla 
since the 19th of April, the date of my last report* 

'' On the night of the 19-20th the two islets 29 and 31, which 
nad been put in a position of defence, were brilliantly carried^ on 



I 




1863.] FKAXCE AND MEXICO. S£5 

the 19th by Colonel Mangin, of the 3rd Zouaves^ and on the 
morning of the 20th islet No. 30 was taken possession of. 

" On the 20th I wished to see our brave soldiers on the very 
theatre of their exploits during the night in the squares^ or islets 
29^ 30^ and 31^ where I immediately gave the Cross of the Legion 
of Honour to a serjeant-major of the 18th battalion of Chasseurs^ 
who was pointed out to me as having signalised himself in an 
extraordinary manner. The fact is that it would be necessary to 
see the incredible defences accumulated by the enemy in those 
squares to form an idea of, and appreciate all that has been done 
by our soldiers^ who displayed boldness^ energy, and patience in 
capturing these forts, which were much more difficult to carry than 
regular forts. I have already wiitten to your Excellency that the 
defence of Puebla, organised by European demagogues, proves that 
they are masters in the art of making barricades. No one can 
compare anything to be seen in France with the disposition of 
Puebla— a disposition similar to what is found in all the cities of 
Mexico, which have almost as many churches as houses, and where 
all the houses are placed on terraces commanding one another. In 
the square, or block of buildings. No. 29, among others, there is a 
manufactory in the court, of which the Mexicans had made a 
species of Redan, of which the two faces were supported on two 
sides of the court by crenelated houses. This Redan had in front 
an enormous ditch, from four to five yards broad, and as many 
deep. The parapet was more than four yards thick, and the in- 
terior talus was formed of enormous planks of oak. Behind this 
Redan all the buildings were crenelated, and the issues were care- 
fully protected. From one square to another the communication 
was maintained by a subterranean gallery. Our soldiers would 
never have been able to carry this work if an inhabitant had not 
indicated a passage in the stables of the manufactorv> through 
a species of vaulted cellars parallel with the great face of the 
Redan. Upon our soldiers entering these cellars, a complete rout 
of the Mexicans took place, and they, by their fi^ght through the 
subterranean gallery, showed a road to our soldiers from square 31, 
and the latter followed the Mexicans, and killed a great number, 
taking 200 prisoners. 

'^ Our losses were very small owing to the dash of our Chasseurs 
of the 18th battalion, and the Zouaves of the drd Regiment, who 
acted admirably. By a happy providence not a single officer of the 
troops was wounded. M. de Galiffet alone, of my staff, was severely 
wounded by the bursting of a bomb or hand grenade, but I am in 
hopes he will not die. 

" I visited also, in the afternoon of the 20th, the elevated bat- 
tery which the marines had constructed on the church of St. Ilde- 
fonso, and the three islets recently captured. On the same day the 
column sent to Atlisco having terminated its labours, returned to 
the camp of San Juan. 



3£6 



FKANO£ AND MIXICO. 



[ULT, 



" On the 2l9t the enemy evacuated the islets 26j 27, and 28, 
and set them an fire. This iii-e was very desCruetive, and lasted atll 
the morning.^' 

[The General then states that he vi&ited other points, and the 
art) balances of head-quarters^ and wbs satisfied with the treatment 
of the wounded soldiers J 

"On the 2lst two sorties of the enemy took plaee against our 
positions of San Franeiseo and San Balta/arj which were repulsed. 

'^ On the 22nd I went to Cholulaj where we bad established an 
hospital I wished at the same time to visit that establish men tj 
and to distribute some rewards among the Chasseurs d^Afrique of 
the squadron of Commandant de Tine, of the 3rd llegiment, who 
had distinguished himself in the brilliant affair at Atliseo on the 
14th instant* To Colonel de la Pen a I gave the Cross of the he* 
gion of Honour in the presence of the people of Cholula, who 
greatly applauded the aet. The effect of this proceeding was very 
good. On the same day preparations were carried on for the at- 
tack on Santa Inez, and the islets 26^ 27, and 28 were occupied 
and put in a defensive state, and two sorties which were made were 
repulsed, in which Captain Auditi of the 62nd was killed iu a 
charge on the enemy at the point of the bayonet/' 

[The General then details some affairs with the enemy, but they 
were of small account.]] 

" Everything bein^ ready for attacking Santa Inez during the 
25th, it was determined to carry the square or islet 52, in which 
tbe convent and the chuixh of Santa Inez are situated. The 
engineers had formed nndur the street two galleries, in which were 
placed 250 kilogrammes of powder. The artillery had brought 
into the square 30 a battery of four 12*pounders in oi'der to make 
a breach^ and batter the interior of the square and the coQveutt 
Nothing was neglected to ensure tbe success of this attack. Un- 
fortunately^ on the 24th a violent storm took place, and doods of 
water invaded tbe galleries. General Douay then ordered the 
mines to be fired, and they produced tbe expected effect. On the 
25th the battery in breach was unmasked^ fire was opened, and 
when the breach was practicable a battalion of the ist Zouavea 
charged into the square* But unforeseen obstacles presented them- 
selves — such as a fierce fire in front and rear from entrenchments 
like those we encountered in our attacks on preceding days. More 
in arrcar still there were terraces from which our soldiers were ex- 
posed to a heavy fire. Tbe head of the column bravely bore this 
terrible fusillade; they succeeded even in effecting a lodgment in a 
house in the square; but the rest of the battalion, which followed^ 
impeded by the rubbish and a converging fire from all the houses 
directed on them, was separated from the head of tbc^ column^ 
which remained alone in the middle of the entrenchments which 
they had entered. Our loss was 5 officers aud 27 soldiers killed, 
and 11 officers and 27 soldiers wounded.^^ 



1863.] FRANCK 4Nq MEXICO. 827 

Army wicuian..j 

[The General then says that the army was no way discouraged 
by this cheeky and mentions that he had received news of the de- 
parture of a large supply of artillery and munitions of war from 
Vera Cruz, for the service of the army. The General also gives 
details of proceedings up to the 28th, out nothing of importance 
occurred.] 

'^ On the 29th a redan was established in front of San Miguelite 
to disturb the fort of Santa Anita. Two batteries were constructed, 
intended to batter the terraces of the town from Belen to Santa 
Inez, and on the dOch these batteries were armed, and ambuscades 
made to approach Santa Anita. General Bazaine completed by 
degrees the closing up of the line of investment above Puebla by 
means of trenches, fortified points, and works relieved by ambus- 
cades. This line extended to Amazoc. 

'^ On the 1st of May a sortie of cavalry of the enemy took place 
in the morning, on the side of Manzanilla, but it could not force our 
lines." 

[A suspension of hostilities took place in order that the dead 
might be interred, and an exchange of prisoners effected. The 
General then continues as follows : — "] 

" The sanitary state of the expeditionary corps is very good ; the 
yellow fever has not yet appeared at Vera Cruz. All our wounded, 
whom I frequently see, go on well, and of those who have lost 
limbs two only have died up to the present time.'' 

[The General concludes his report by giving an account of the 
progress made in constructing the intended railway.] 

A despatch from the Commander of the " Darien,'' dated from 
Vera Cruz on the 22nd May, and addressed to the French Minister 
of Marine and of the Colonies, gives the following particulars of 
the surrender. 

On Saturday, 16th May, the French troops had opened a 
parallel at 180 metres from Fort T^otim^-huacan and opened a 
heavy cannonade against it with the greatest effect. On the follow- 
ing day a sufficient breach was made to attempt the assault. 
General Mendoza at this juncture proceeded to (General Forey's 
camp, offering to surrender Puebla if the Mexican troops were 
allowed to leave with their arms and a portion of their artillery. 
This General Forey formally declined to accede to. At five o'clodk 
a messenger arrived with a letter from General Gonzales Ortega 
announcing to General Forey that he was willing to surrender un- 
conditionally with the garrison. Colonel Man^que, second in com- 
mand of the staff, was sent to occnpy the city with the Ist batta- 
lions of foot Chasseurs, under the orders of Commandant du 
Courcy, and a squadron of hussars, which was quickly done. The 
French troops continued to enter on the 17th, 18th, and on the 
19th General Forey made his entrance into Puebla. A salvo of 101 
guns was immediately fired. General Ortega, 25 generals, 900 
officers, 15,000 to 17,000 men with theit «.t\sA^ ^w^iiiiKc^ ^s»^ 



un 



BEFOT BATTALIONS, 



[July 



baggage, surrendered prisoQera of wan On the 20tb General 
Baz^iiie, at the head of a division^ advanced oq the rt>ad towards 



DEPOT BATTALIONS. 

Some disnppoiiitineiit is felt th^t the D^pot Battalion 8}sifin has 
b(/eu alJowt'd to survivi^ another period of discussion on Military 
afliiirs, AhUougb we may havi3 reason ta fetl s.itisGtfd tliat uo ill* 
considered steps have been taken, for I he subject is a difficult one, it 
is certainly to be regretted tluit an opportunity has been lost of 
ur^nn^ Govern ineut to inquire into the workittg of the system, with 
the view of testing the accuracy of the utifas curable gpiiiions so 
genernlly expressed regurdiug it* 

When vre consider how closely conuected the s^^stem is with every 
part of our militarv economy, we cflimot but feel that the criticism 
it has hitlierto undergone has been founded on observation made 
from restricted points of vi«w, and that coiisideratiojjs of ^rv&i 
geiieral iraportEvnctf have yet to be studied before we can say confi* 
deiitly tbat a change is desirable, I propose (o consider the practical 
working of tlie depot battalion system in its bearing on liie several 
parts of our military otganlzttioju In treating the subject 1 mean to 
wei^h tiie merits not ojily of the existing system, but of the various 
substitutes that have been proposed in its place. I shall endeavour to 
do so with impartiality, pointing out what appears to me the pecu- 
liar recommendations whicli each plan possesses, as well as its defects. 
It will be seen that I leau to one of these substitutes as possessing, 
iu my judgment, a laiger amount of excellence than any other ; but 
my object is rather to draw attention to this important siibject, and 
to provoke discussion, than to iiLsist on the adoption of any parti- 
cular change as expedient. 

Before we proceedj it wiil be well to determine what objects arc 
or ought to be contempbted in a s} stent such as that of Depot 
Battalions, We shall probably find that these are not only impor- 
tant in themselves, but that their proper attainment is efi^ential to 
the efficiency of the service, and cannot be secured by our present 
regimental crganiEatiou without the aid ol a depot, or reserve system 
of some sort. 

The first of these objects is to provide for the thoroui^di training 
of our recruits iu estabhshmejjts at a distance from the regiments to 
which they belong, so that tlie efficiency of our forces, if called sud- 
denly into the field, may not be marred by the presence of murained 
men. These establishments require also to be so constiJuted that 
the disciplining of reinforcements nmy not he disturbed by any 
emergency of war, arising either at home or uhruad* it may be s- a id, 
perhaps, that it is needles^j to ^n'ovide for the disciplining of rein- 



1863.] DEPOT BATTALIONS. 8£9 

forcements in case of war upon our own soil, inasmuch as any such 
war would be so sudden and short as to oblige us to rely solely upon 
forces actually prepared to take the field on the instant. I cannot 
agree in this view. No such emergency can occur without some 
warning, and even a few weeks, if our training establishments are 
orsjanized upon sound principles, might be turned to useful account. 

The next object is to provide an efficient organization for purposes 
of home defence of a considerable body of men, whom it is not possi- 
ble in some cases, and not expedient in others, to employ on such 
duty with the service companies of their regiments. This body con- 
sists of trained recruits belonging to regiments abroad, who happen 
to be still in the United Kingdom, and of soldiers temporarily or 
permanently incapacitated by bodily infirmity for general service 
abroad, but whose cases (admitting of home duty) are not such as 
are held to necessitate discharge. A number of men of the latter 
class are to be found even in the regiments on the home establish- 
ment, and, as it is necessary that the service companies of these 
should be at all times prepared for immediate service, it is not expe- 
dient that such men should continue on their strength. In regi- 
ments on the foreign establishment the number is, of course, greater 
as the hardship and exposure incidental to our foreign service 
necessitate invaliding to England, in very many cases annually. 
Besides finding employment for men temporarily incapacitated tor 
such service, it is necessary to keep the door open for their return to 
duty when fit for it. 

Another object is to provide a satisfactory system of home training 
for young officers whose regiments are stationed abroad. However 
desirable it may appear, from some points of view, that all young 
officers should join their regiments direct, we find that it is quite 
indispensable that previous to joining the service companies, at all 
events if abroad, some home training should be provided. We 
cannot allow untrained officers to do duty with troops proceeding 
abroad, as our young officers must occasionally do, and we cannot 
send untrained officers to join a regiment which on their arrival may 
be employed on active service in the field. In the one case, com- 
plete inexperience migiit lead to results not only prejudicial to the 
service, but disastrous to the young men themselves; and in the 
other, the officers' services would be entirely useless to the country 
at the time, of all others, when they would be most wanted. AH 
that we can do, therefore, is to endeavour to secure that, whilst the 
young officer is undergoing the indispensable preparatory training, 
he shall be placed under the most favourable conditions possible for 
the acquirement, not merely of professional knowledge, but of habits 
of steadiness and self-control. 

The last object I need refer to is, that of arranging for the proper 
custody of regimental records and attestations. In this respect, all 
that is required is, that the documents shall not be exposed to risk 
of loss when regiments are on active aex^xcft vcv\.W^^V^» 



330 



DEPOT BATTALIOHS. 



[July, 



Sneli, I belie ve^ are tlie elite f objects w-liich the Depot Battalion 
orgatiization is intended to attain for us and it requires no nro^ii- 
meivL to prove that vcrj important public interests are involved in 
the issue* An impres^iou, however^ prevails very generally that 
these objects are attained not only imperfectly, bat in a way tliat 
operates mis^chievonsily in many important re-*'pecta. I will detail 
shortly the principal items of the charge against the Depot Battalion 
System J and I propose that we should consitler, as we j>roceedj the 
validity of the ^rontids on which they are founded. 

It is a??erted that, as a school for recruits, a Depot Battalion is 
ill -adapted for eitlier physical or moral training. Arguments of 
considerable force are adduced in support of this ns^ertion. Each 
battalion being composed generally of six depots, the progress and 
conduct of any one recruit are malters, if not of entire indifterence^ 
at least of little interes^t to five-sixths of the olTicers and non-commis- 
sioned officers of the battalion* When it is borne in mind that the 
officers and non-corn missioned officers are required to instrQct and do 
duty viith men cho?en indiscrirainately from the six deptiti?, the force 
of the objection is apparent. Let us take a case of constant occur- 
rence as an illustralion. One of the depots happens to stand weaker 
on parade than the others, but its officers and non-commissioned 
officers are all present. When the battalion is equalized for drill, the 
officers and non-commissioned officers arc necessarily sent to com- 
mand men of other depots, none of whom they know or feel an 
interest in. Hence habits of careless indifference too often take the 
place of zeah and the entire weight of instruction and supervision is 
thrown on tlie battalion staff. The men on their part feel that this 
13 the case, and, as might be expected under such conditions^ the 
objects of the instruction arc often very imperfectly attained. Now, 
if this state of things is mischievous as regards drillj what, it ia 
asked, must be its effects in more important matters — duty, dis- 
cipline, and conduct ? 

Again, it is urged that many of the officers actually doing duty 
with each depot bnttalion are, from their inexperiencej the last who 
should be selected to officer a body of recruits. It is scarcely possi- 
ble to dispute this, when we consider that the young officers of no 
less than six regiments are frequently attached to one battalion and 
rem Bin with it, sometimes for the greater part of a year, until the 
annual drafts embark, and that each after a short noviciate varying 
from two to three months, enters on his regular duties with the 
men. Much of the responsibility of the instruction and snper^riaion 
requisite t-o convert recruits into disciplined soldiers thus falls into 
the hands of lads who are necessarily without either the knowledge 
which qnalifics for instruction, or t lie tact and experience which are 
so essential in the management of men* 

It is said, further^ that recrnils on joining a dejwt battalion^ are 
not placed under favourable conditions for acquiring habits of sleadi- 
ness and giiod conduct. This a?tsertion is founded on the belief 



1863.J DEPOT BATTALIONS. 331 

that the home service men, of whom there are a large number in 
every battalion, who never leave their depots, are not good com- 
panions in general for young soldiers. The lengthened stay of these 
men at one station, and constant intercourse with raw young recruits 
who have bounties to spend, is apt to have a demoralizing effect on 
them, which of course re-acts on the young soldiers as these pass in a 
continuous stream through the battalion. They live under constant 
temptation to make the young soldier minister to their vices whilst 
his money lasts, and their numbers and long association together 
constitute them a powerful clique, against which the well-disposed 
recruit may struggle fn vain. 

So much for the depot battalion as a training school for recruits 
in time of peace; let us now see what would become of it as a 
school for reinforcements in time of war. If the war should be in 
some foreign country, the system would remain undisturbed in its 
operation, but if war threatened us on our own soil, the case, it is 
asserted, would be different. In anticipation of such an emergency, 
the twenty-three depot battalions, no inconsiderable portion, be it 
remembered, of our available forces, would be caUed into the field 
and become involved in the excitement and movement incidental to 
preparations for defence. Their functions as training schools and 
depots for arming and clothing reinforcements would necessarily 
cease at the time when, from the impetus given to recruiting, they 
would be most wanted. In short, the depot battalion system does 
not contemplate this extreme case. Yet it is one which might 
occur. 

Let us now turn to the next point— the efiBciency for purposes of 
home defence of the depot battalion, considered as an individual 
fighting corps. The assailants of the system urge that this is the 
point in which, of all others, it fails most signally. They maintain 
that all the arguments we have noticed against the composition of 
the battalions apply with ten-fold force, when we contemplate the 
possibility of their taking the field. It would certainly be extremely 
difficult to find any answer to this charge. It is scarcely possible 
to conceive that a battalion composed of individuals belonging to 
six different regiments, whose connection with it is generally tem- 
porary and often distasteful, can be relied on as an effective force. 
With the exception of its staff, we cannot expect that any of its 
officers or men should feel such attachment or real interest in its 
reputation as to ensure its efficiency. 

The next objection — and it is one on which great stress is laid — 
is, that the depot battalion is a bad school for young officers. The 
grounds on which this statement is. based are, to some extent, 
similar to those on which the depot battalion is condemned as a 
school for recruits. The young officer's general duty at that critical 
time, when his professional habits, so to speak, are being formed, is 
superintended by officers to the majority of whom it is, or least ma.v 
be, a matter of indifference how Vv^ ^iS^w^a \V. ^La-v^'^^^^^^'^^^ 



33£ 



DEPOT BATTALIONS. 



fJOLY, 



from the firs-t that his tliity is pptformed not on behalf of hh own 
rej^iraeut, but on behalf of an estabfishment in whicli his n?giraent is 
interested only to a small degret^j and with wliich his own connection 
h tempfirnry, He amy do canscienliously all that he believes is 
reqnired of him, but without elTectual supervision or esprit de corps, 
be will not do his work efficiently. The consequence, it u alleged, 
iii, that the youni^ officers do not in general take f^ufficient interest 
in their work, and in many ca^es ff^U into lax ImbiU of performing 
it when out of sight of the statf officeri", who alone interfere actively 
in matters of general battnliori duty, 1 desire to guard myself 
from being misunderstood on this poiut. It is not irU ended by 
tho^e who are ho'^tile to the e^ystem to convey the impression that 
the tluty of dejKit battalions is througliout loosely conducttd — quite 
the contrary — but it is believed that the efficiency to which these 
battalions often nttnin, notwithstanding these adverse circumstaneep, 
is due chiefly to the exertions of the battaiion staff and depot com- 
manders, and to the interest which some of the senior regimental 
officers and non-commissioned officers take in I heir own depots, 

Wluni we consider thivt the absence of effectual superintendenc 
affects not only the performance of professional duty, but far rnorej 
important matter.*, the formation of the character and habits of lift-, 
it is impossible to shut out altogetlier the uncomfortable suspicion, 
that our present arrangements in regard to young officers may result 
in much mi>chief (o tiiero and to the service generally* 

It is asserted further, thiit tlie feeling of attachment of a young 
officer towards hi^ own regiment is checked, or at least not sufficiently 
enccuraged during a sojourn at a depot battalion, and that this 
operates injuriously on the service generally. It is difficult to esti- 
mate aright the weight to which this assertion is entitled as an 
argument o gainst the system | but it is easy enough to see that a 
dejjot battahou is not a favourable place for the growth of attach- 
ment to a corps which may be raany thousaTid miles distant. The 
necessity which the very peculiar composition of a depot battalion 
imposes oti its commander and staff of trying to stifle every little 
regimental prejudice or peculiarity, in order that the individuality of 
the battalion, as a distinct corps, may be establislied, certainly con- 
stitutes an unfavourable condition for the development of regimental 
esprit de corps. But is any general or permanent injury the result ? 
I cannot think so* It appears to me that the growth of the feeling 
in que.'^tion is merely postponed until the youili joins his regiment. 
I am afniid, however, that even if this last argument is not admitted, 
enough remains to shake our faith in depot battalions as the best 
places for the training of young officers* 

Anotlier complaint against the system is, that it gives rise to 
endle.^s jealousy between commanders of battalions and commanders 
of regiments. The latter complain that their most promising men 
are intercepted at the depot for employment in various capacities, and 
that wbni they apply for particular ^soldiers, whose services are 




1863.] DEPOT BATTALIONS. 883 

wanted at the regiment, there is an adverse interest to be attended 
to, and the application is often successfully resisted. The former, 
on the other hand, complain that the interests of the depots are not 
sufficiently considered in the selection of non-commissioned officers 
for service with them, and that a man do sooner becomes usefal at 
a depot than the commander of his regiment applies for his transfer. 

All this, it appears to me, is rather the result of abuse than of any 
inherent defect in the system. If Her Majesty's regulations re- 
garding the selection of men for drafts, as well as of those for depot 
service, were more literally obeyed, these causes of quarrel would be 
removed, and it is difficult to conceive what others can arise. 

The sum of the whole case against depot battalions appears to be 
this, that they are objectionable as training establishments, and fail 
to provide a satisfactory organization for an important branch of our 
defensive forces. 

Having now considered in detail the case against depot battalions, 
and it certainly is a grave one, let us turn our attention for a little 
to the other side, and see what can be said for them. 

First : they supply a want in our military system, although in a 
way that is open to serious objections. 

Second : they give us an organization which is convenient, man- 
ageable, and easily controled ; which saves us much correspondence 
and official labour, simplifies the business of re^ments with each 
other and with departments, facilitates the operations of recruiting, 
invaliding and discharging, provides satisfactorily for the care of 
records and attestations, and to some extent ensures uniformity of 
detail throughout the service. 

Third : no good substitute for them has yet been shown to be 
practicable. 

Such, briefly stated, is the case in favour of the depot battalion 
organization. It is admitted, even by those who most strongly con- 
demn it on the grounds we have stated, that some of the objects it 
secures for us are of great practical value. Without it, or some 
other auxiliary organization fulfilling at least the same acquirements, 
our military system would be exposed to constant derangement. 
Moreover, it possesses in itself features which entitle it to at least 
partial approval. Efficient means of control, simplicity of detail, 
and uniformity of system, as far as they go, are unquestionable re- 
commendations. When we consider the number ana variety of the 
subordinate depot arrangements necessary to maintain the strength 
and efUciency of our one hundred and forty-three r^ments, we can 
understand that a system which enables twenty-three officers to be- 
come responsible to the central authority for the whole of them is 
extremely convenient. By simplifying the troublesome, but unavoid- 
able business connected with the depot service of the Army, the depot 
battalion system greatly lightens the labour of the supreme 
command. 

These considerations not only render tUe Y^^^Tk\.^'i^^^«s^'*s«.\»R.- 

U. 8. Mao. No. 416, J\3lt,1%6%. ^ 



834 



Sia MOETON PETO 



[JuLt, 



tive to tbe i?3teeativp, but to some extent recommend it to the army 
and the [mblic. Whilst we fully recognize thist, however, we do not 
lose sight of the argmuents on the other aide, which still remain un- 
answered. Ifj as 1 believe is the case, Llie arguments on both aides 
are generally admitted, it only remains for us to weigh the relative 
impor lance of the issues involved in order to arrive at a conclusion. 

On the one hand, we find that the system is convenient; on the 
other, that it weakens our means of defence, and exposes our young 
officers and recruits to a vicious system of training. Convenience is 
undoubtedly an immediate and tangible gaiuj but if it is obtained 
by means which affect our safety, and poison the source of the 
supply on which our forces depend for healthy support, it is clear 
we pay too much for it» 

1 trust that those wlio have had the patience to accompany me 
thus far will assent to the conelusion which appears to me inevit* 
able — that the defects of the depot battalion system are, or» the 
whole, such as greatly outweigh its merits ; and that, therefore, the 
only reasons which can be held suffidect to justify its conUn nance 
for a time lie in the difficulty of fijiduig a suitable subt?titute 
for it. 

This conclusion, if well founded, reduces the queif^tion within 
narrow limits. I purpose, if permitted, to discuss in another paper 
some of the substilntes that have been proposed^ 



SIE MOETON PETO ON NATAL AND MILITAEY 
EXPENDITURE, 

Tliere is a peculiar tendency in the rainds of several of the 
Members of Parliament who are elected by commercial consti- 
tuencies, and who are themselves employed in mercantile pursuits, 
to misquote official statements, and to use the valuable statistics 
which are publi?^hed at considerable expense under Government 
authority, for their own purposes rather Ihan the public benefit* 

Thus it frequently liappens that whenever the representatives of 
the commercial or maimfacturing classes attempt to grapple with 
tbe important question of national expenditure, or venture on pub-* 
lishing their ideas on matters connected with the naval or military 
professions, I iiey base their arguments on figures wliich are incorrect, 
or draw their deductions from statements which are altogether 
wrong. This arises partly from a want of knowledge of the subject, 
partly from an innate ft^eling of dislike to everything connected 
with Government, It is also caused by an absence of that discri- 
minating power which is requisite to enable men, who have not been 
trained to official pursuits, to rightly understand the various details 
of which all accounts rendered by the great departments of tlie State 
^re necessarily composed — a power which is seldom found amongst 



1863,] 



ox NATAL AND UlLtTAEY EXPENDITUBl* 



333 



persons accustomed to view all thifiga in tliftir own light, and never 
to look beyond tUeir own limited business sphere. 

Nothing 19 eas^ier than to deckim in general terms against the 
wasteful extravagance of the various public departments — nothini^ is 
more difficult than to show in what manner nny particular expense 
might be avoided, or any special vote might be reduced. Every 
one knows that of the seventy miliious spent annually for the public 
service, several thausandsj or, to speak more cxirrectly, several 
hundreds of thousands might, with prosier management, be saved ; 
but very few j>crsons are sufficiently acquainted with the mtricacies 
of the voluminous accounts in which those seventy millions are 
shown, to place their fingers on any of the figures and convince us 
that those figures might be reduced wi Lhont detriment to the service. 
There are those, however* who are bold enough to attempt this 
plan of effecting a reduction of the public expenditure* That they 
have not been snccefisful in their work must be attributed principally 
to the cao^'cs adverted to above, ratlier thiui to any want of desire on 
tlieir part t^ bring about the object they have in view* Since the 
death of Mr. Flume, the leadership of the economy and retrenchment 
party in the House of Commons has been vacant. For some years 
Mr. Williams madeapointof asking questions* raising discussions, 
and calling for " divisions " on some or other of the votes contained 
in the Army and Navy Estimates* but it was evident that he did not 
possess the knowledge or ability of the great economist whose 
mantle he wished to wear; and, after vainly strugghng against fear- 
ful oddsj he gave up the contest and retired from his self-assumed 
post, 

Mr. Bright and Mr. Cobdcn used occasionally to attempt to cut 
down the Estimates ; but they have lately adopted the extraordinary 
course of first allowing the sums to be voted, and afterwards calling 
attention to the subject by stating that the money was not needed 
for the puri>oses to which it was intended to be applied. 

The latter gentleman especially, seems to take delight in that 
course; he seldom or ever takes any part in the mild debates to 
which the discussion of the Estimates in Committee of Supply usually 
give rise, and his name is rarely found in the division lists on financial 
questions ; but he generally indulges the House during the dog-days 
with a long titalement of his views on things in general, and on the 
Navy and Army in particular, and, as a rule, lie quotes figures and 
produces statistics which* as we have constantly shown in the pages 
of the United Service Magazine* are not even approximately correct* 
It is easy enough to say that the navy ought not to cost more than 
ten millions* and that twelve instead of sixteen millions are sufiicient 
for the army i that tlie Duke of Somerset has wasted twelve millions 
in building useless ships; or that Lord Falmerston has cost the 
country upwards of a hundred millions; but it is very difficult to 
produce details showing correctly in what manner these sums are 
composed* or how these reductions might he eSftc,tft.4% ^^5*^. x£^^^ 



SIR MORTON P£TO 



I July, 



thoBe who are so fond of playing with the question show ihemselvea 
to be in earnest in the matter by descending to particulars, we mtist 
withhold our confidence in their statiaticaj and disagree from the 
conclusions they draw therefrom. 

Our views on thi^ subject have beeo greatly glrengthmed on 
examining the work on Taxation arid Expenditure which has recently 
been ptibhshed by Sir Morton Peto, the member for Finsbnry. la 
(our last Number we brought under considenition several of the 
various items of taxation to wliich he adverts ; our purpose at pre- 
sent is to call attention to bis remarks on the Army and Navy ; but^ 
before doing so, we will offer a few observations on the chapters 
which Sir Morton Peto devotes to the remaining heads of Taxation, 
Next to the duties levied by the Board of Customs, those raised 
[under the head of excise are the largest — having amounted during 
[the last financial year to upwards of seventeen millionst Modern 
"legislation has made almost as many and as important changes in 
I the number nnd description of the articles chargeable with excise 
1 6«tyj as with those liable to duty of Customs. Free trade lias 
effected as great a revolution in some of the branches of trade and 
m«nufactures placed undf-r the cognizance of the Board of Inland 
Revenue at Somerset House as in those superintended by the Com- 
missioners of Customs in Thames Street* Glass, soap, brick s, and 
paper, which were heavily tnxed when Sir Bohert Peel began his 
great commercial reforms, rather more than twenty years ago, are 
now free from duty ; and the stimulus which has consequently been 
given to the manufacture of those articles has been immense. In- 
stead of our importing large quantities of glass from Bohemia and 
other foreign count riesj we now furnish supplies (o other nations; 
and, at the great International Exhibition, the productions of iho 
English in glass slione conspicuous above those of every other country 
in the world. Had not the duty on this article been repealed it 
would not have been possible to have erected the Crystal Palace 
of 1851 in Hyde Park, or the large building which crowns the hill 
at Sydenham, 

To the repeal of the dnty on bricks may be attributed very much 
of the vast improvement which has been made in the style and ap- 
pearance of the edifices and buildings erected during the last ten 
years, and the immense increase in the numher of bouses in the 
suburbs of many of the principal towns. By discontinuing the tax 
upon soap, less difficulty was placed in the way of the humbler classes 
availing tliemselves of the facilities for cleanliness which their 
wealtiiier neighbours were desirous of affording thern ; and by re* 
moving the restrictions which were imposed upon the manufacture 
of paper, encouragement has been afforded for making vast improve- 
ments in tlie conf^truction of an article which is in such general use. 
"Whether the predictiotis of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, that 
when the duty was taken off' piiper we should have bouses and car- 
rmge^9^ sud manj other things^ built" of paper; or whether, what 



1863. J ON NAVAL AND MILITARY EXPENDITURE. 587 

Sir. M. Peto styles " the recent attempt to introduce paper collars and 
paper caffs'' will prove successful, and the movement in this direction 
will be extended to other articles of attire, we will not now stop to 
inquire ; suffice it to say that the ingenuity of those interested in 
enlarging the demand for articles made of paper will no doubt turn 
it to the best account, and that the public are sure to purchase any- 
thing in which usefulness and elegance are combined. 

Sir Morton Peto very naturally approves of the measures adopted 
with regard to abolishing the excise duly on glass, bricks, and every- 
thing else required for building purposes, and most people will agree 
with him in the remark that " fever has abated since air has been 
admitted to our dwellings by the repeal of the window tax, light by 
the repeal of the glass duty, and cleanliness by the repeal of the tax 
upon soap " — few will, however, go with him in his views on the 
existing sources of revenue from the excise. At present, the prin- 
cipal articles subject to duty are spirits, malt, licenses, railways, and 
hackney and stage carriages ; of these the amount paid into the Ex- 
chequer for spirits is larger than that received from all the other 
articles. The arguments used by the Member for Finsbury, in sup- 
port of his theory, that the consumption of spirits is not checked by 
high rates of duty, may be very good, and his deductions may be 
very correct, his figures will not, however, bear the test of close 
examination with official returns. Without wearying our readers 
with the uninteresting details, and the long statements with which 
the work before us abounds, we will merely point out a few of the 
errors into which the author has fallen. In the table by which he 
shows the periods at which the changes in the rate of duty on 
English spirits were made, he gives the year 1856 as that in which 
the rate was raised from seven shillings and tenpence to eight shil- 
lings per gallon, the number of gallons consumed as 9,348,549, and 
the amount of duty received as ^3,737,419, whereas the duty was 
really increased to eight shillings in 1865, the quantity on which 
duty was paid that year being 10,384,100 gallons, and the duty re- 
ceived amounting to .£4,090,530. Again, Sir Morton Peto shows 
that the tax was raised to ten shillings in 1861, although the official 
returns show that the advance took place in the previous year ; and 
he gives the consumption as 9,508,002 instead of 8,952,174 gal- 
lons, with the revenue as £4,469,749 in lieu of £4,476,093. 
Similar mistakes occur in his statements with regard to Scotch and 
Irish spirits. We have now before us a return furnished from the In- 
land Bevenue Office in April last, showing the number of distillers 
in England, Scotland, and Ireland on the 31st day of December in 
each year from 1822 down to 1862, the quantity of spirits entered 
for home consumption during the same period, the rate of duty 
charged thereon, and the amount of revenue derived therefrom ; and 
we are unable to find in it several of the figures produced by Sir 
M. Peto. In the following table are placed side by side the figures 
given in the worthy Baronet's book and thosft, ^a^\^a^\v'a^\\s.'*^^^'w.- 
liamentary return, — for i\\e ^eax V%ft\\ — 



5SS 



SIE MORTOK PSTO 



[JULT, 



Scotland, 
) Ireland 



No. of Gallon tt Atnonnt c»f dntr, 
'Sir M. Peto's figures • , £5,816,835 £2,750,781 
Offinal Return , • , £6,070,091 £3,035,0451 
'Sir M* Peto's figures . . £4,S22,987 £2,260,860 
Official Keturn , - . £5,0e2,8»* £2,511,4^3 
The privilege of Uiatilling spirits fur t!ie people of England ap- 
' pears to be limited to only ten firms, being exactly tlie game number 
Bs existed in 1S;12. Like the brewing trade in LondoHj the diatiU 
ling business in England is a monoijoly, and the sooner it is 
put an end to the more chnnce there will be of the consumer ob- 
taining spirits lower in price and better in quality* In Scothind the 
number of distillers is much larger, being 119 ; and even in Ireland, 
rhere the quantity made is only about one balf of what it i^ in 
iHn gland, there are twenty -seven firms engaged in this lucrative 
Vtrade, 

We will not follow Sir Morton Peto into all the difficulties which 
surround the malt dutyj nor into the question of whether there 
should or should not be a rail way-passenger tax ; neither will we 
discuss the propriety of taxing hackney -carriages, or of getting up 
an agitation for the repeal of tliat tax ; but, before proceeding to 
consider his remarks on the expenditure incurred for Naval and 
Military purposes, we nmst not omit to notice some of the inaccu- 
lacies into which he has fallen in his statements with regard to the 
cost of collecting the revenue, and which are so glaring that they 
were recently pointed out in a publication which is circulated prin- 
cipally amongst commercial men, and which generally supports 
writers of the Peto, Cobden, and Bright schooh 

Sir Morton Peto asserts that the coat of collecting the revenue 
inereases out of all proportion to the revenue itself; an examination 
of the foUowiiig figures will show how very incorrect is that state- 
ment r— 

Sir M. Peto'i Statement Of&eUi Reports 

Groa*. Charges of. Grosa, Cliarges of. 

Receip£i. CoHi^crtioii^ Receipts* Conectioti* 

1826 , £54,830,6H5 £4,030,337 £58,138,843 ^1,030,337 
1846 . je64,774,43S £7,004,438 £58,860,472 £3,877,446 
1861 . £70,671,020 £8,061,338 ^167,581,335 £5,599,633 
It also shows that Sir Morton Peto'a figures are not so reliable 
as might reasonably be expected in a work of such pretensions as 
his "Taxation, its Levy and Expenditure/* 

That the expenditure of the country has greatly incr^sed during 
the last few years is a fact so well known that it was ycurcely neces- 
fiary for any one in the position of the Right Honourable Baronet, 
the Member for Finsbury, to devote a whole chapter to this subject, 
except to raise hopes which cajinot be realised. He pretends to 
show us the manner in which the expenditure may, without disad- 
vantage, be speedily reduced. Our readers will not be surprised at 
learning that his pruning knife is to be applied principally to the 
Arm/ and Nstvy ; the Civil List, the various items of Miscellaneous 



186S.J ON NAVAL AND MILITARY EXPENDITUBB. 839 

expenses^ and many other things, are all capable of reduction, but 
great mercy is shown to them in comparison with the Military de- 
partments. Many of the arguments addaced have been so often 
repeated by others of the same school, and have been so frequently 
confuted, that we do not consider it necessary to waste the time 
either of our readers or of ourselves in showing them to be false, 
defective, and weak; we will^ therefore, content ourselves with 
merely drawing attention to some of the principal mistakes. 

As a matter of course the favourite year 1835 is taken as the 
starting point for all comparisons as regards the Army as well as 
the Navy. The military force employed at that happy period was 
under 70,000 men — why should not that number suffice at present ? 
We then spent about four millions on our Navy— why should we 
now require nearly eleven millions P In reply, we would ask, are 
the circumstances in which we are placed with reference to our 
possessions abroad, our commerce, and our relations with foreign 
countries the same as they were in 1835 ? Is there any sensible 
man, calling himself a Briton, desirous of seeing the Army in the 
same want of organization as it was at the period referred to ? or 
the Navy reduced to so low a condition that our ships were only 
partially manned, and in anything but an efficient state ? The con- 
stitution of ''the Services'' was at that time, and during several 
succeeding years, brought so low that it has been absolutely neces- 
sary to administer medicine of a most expensive and very stimu- 
lating nature ever since. 

After the experience gained during the last two years from the 
events which have occurred in America, it is hardly credible that 
any one endowed with an ordinary amount of common sense should 
attempt to show that ''in time of peace a standing army, with all its 
vast attendant charges, and its disposition for active duty, always 
must be a source of weakness " — that the " very preparations for 
war, in time of peace, excite war, either by engendering acrimonious 
feelings abroad, or exciting a thirst for martial exploits abroad,'' — 
that " all the trouble and all the cost of military preparations for 
war in time of peace will be thrown away," — and that as "the faci- 
lities for the preparations for war are far greater than they were 
some years ago, inasmuch as arms can be manufactured, and ammu- 
nition can be supplied in much less time than formerly," we can 
now do with very less number of trained men than we could for- 
merly have done. It would have been far better for the Americans 
if they had paid several millions annually for the last ten years in 
warlike preparations; they might then have prevented such sad 
destruction of life and property, and have saved themselves from 
the expenditure of hundreds of millions of money, rendered neces- 
sary since the civil war broke out, in consequence of their having to 
raise three or four large armies in the course of a few months. 

It may be' quite true that, " considering our array expenditure as 
a whole, there can be little doubt that there is am^le.\^*^>sw^'^x^'^ 



ao 



SIR ^TORTON I'ETO 



[JmsY, 



vision and r^^duction/^— sueli is tlieoise with sill large estubiishments, 
whether puhlic or private|-^-but it is aimplj absard to say that "thtj 
inibtarj estimates of this couivtry ous^Ut to be bftsi^d^ in time of 
peacei on the principle simply ot maintaining military efficiency | 
there should be no such thing as prepamtiou for wnr until the out- 
break of war is obvious and inevitable "—or that the formation of 
t!ie Cliobbam cninp "brought upon us that thirst for active military 
service wlrich led to the expedition to Varna, and then to the inva- 
sion of the Crimea and the leaguer of Sebastopol/' It is equally 
puerile to assert that "what is most to be feared from a standing armj 
is that the cost it enlaib on tlie people will lead to di^contenlSj and 
that the bayonets intended for self- defence may be employed and 
directed against the bosoms of the penple*" 

Sir Morton Peto sets out by staling that in 1790 the expenditure 
on the Army and Ordnance was only £::J,20 0^000— thnt immediately 
on the fmtbreak of war it was greatly increased— that it wasio- 
crensed still more when the war was at its height— and that it was 
considerably diminbhed iu the course of a few years after the res- 
toration of peace. He gives m^arly the same aceoant of the 
expenditure for the Navy during the same period* " Prior to the 
war of 1793/' he says, " the Navy of England cost about £i, 00 0,000 
a year* Our Navy Estimates rose in 1804 to £l:i,000,01)0, at lhe< 
conclusion of the war in 1815 they amounted to £16,000/000, but 
in 1817 they were reduced to £6,500,000/' And yet he tells us 
that a war expenditure once increased cannot be brought back to 
the scale of the original peace establishment, " If we consider the 
matter calmly we shall see/^ he writes, " that there nre several 
causes for this* When an addition is once made to an establish* 
ment, it is difficult, if not impossible, suddenly to cut it down. 
Every man clings to the post to which he has been ai)pointed, pleads 
his service^j and, instead of expecting to retire when those services 
are no longer needed, urges them as a claim for promotion and ad- 
ditional emolument* Then, as the army is officered from amongst 
those who move in the upper ranks of society, the Government are 
afraid of the unpopularity winch might result from reduction, and 
consequently do not propose it/' All this twaddle may be very 
interesiing and convincing to " my constituents whose int/erests are 
atfected by the subject" and to whom his book is dedicated, but it 
will only raise a smile with those who are conversnnt with and have 
really calmly considered the subject- 
To a certain extent, the number of men voted by Parliament 
governs every other item of expense for the army — it does notj 
iioweverj do so altogether, for the grand total of the force employed 
may be increased or diminished without altering the numbers of 
battalions, and consequently the numbers of officers; neither need 
it aifect the staff. According, however, to the author of "Taxa* 
tion/* the numbers increase iu a sort of arithmetical progression, 
" Soldiers/" ho very truly says, " must be commanded; and/' he 



1863.] ON NAVAL AND MIUTARY fiXPBNDITORE. 841 

adds^ ^' therefore^ every additional body of men entails additional 
commanding officers; additional commanding officers entail addi- 
tional staffs and additional commands; additional commands reqaire 
additions to the departments of the Secretary of State for War and 
and the General Commanding-in-Chief/' It is. a pity the climax is 
not completed by mnltiplying the Secretaries of State and the Com- 
manders-in-Chief. The extent of "the staff'' appears to be very 
objectionable in the eyes of Sir Morton Peto. According to him it 
consists of 1^854i officers ; and^ although it is popularly supposed 
only to relate to the Commander-in-Chief, or some great general of 
division, the present practice is to have "a st^ff'' everywhere. 
If, however, he will turn to page 32 of tlie valuable little work on 
''The Organization, Composition, and Strength of the Army of 
Great Britain,'' printed by order of the Secretary of State for War, 
he will find that the composition and distribution at home and 
abroad of the real "staff" are as follows, viz. : — 

At head-quarters 21 

In Great Britain 89 

In Ireland 84} 

At stations in the Mediterranean . • 80 
At other stations abroad • . . .116 

Total 290 

Having made up his mind that the military expenditure of the 
country must be considerably reduced— that it must be brought 
down &om the fifteen millions of the present year to the ten millions 
of 1858 — he proceeds to show in what manner this desirable object 
is to be effected. It should always be borne in mind that the 
Estimates are composed of an immense namber of details, which 
details make up the great total, and that, therefore, any reduction 
must be made in the several details. Sir Morton Peto, however, does 
not appear to be of this opinion, for he proposes to take the " bull 
by the horns." " There is one broad way in which reduction of 
these estimates can be enforced. It is by limiting the amount of 
money to be expended." One might as well say you should limit 
the sum to be raised by taxes, and then distribute it amongst the 
several departments entrusted with expending it. A very slight 
examination of the budget speeches of Mr. Gladstone and other 
Chancellors of the Exchequer, will soon convince even the most 
ardent advocate for retrenchment and economy that this is not a 
business-like or practical mode of proceeding. We firmly believe 
that any sensible reduction of the public expenditure can only be 
effected by every person belonging to the service, in whatever posi- 
tion he may be, doing his utmost to save every penny of the public 
money which he has the power of speuding either wholly or in part ; 
acting, in fact, in every case as though he had a personal interest in 
the matter ; but before this can be done, those who are in the service 
of Her Majesty must have the same inducement tA 4a \J<5^^Vsr^Ass^ 



342 SIR MORTOW rfiTO [Jxjw, 

the interest of the Crown and of the public that tliose have who are 
ill privjite employ, 

Haviag shown to his own satisfaction that the present " ercesaive 
eiptnrrliture'" for army purposes ought to be conmaerably reduced, Sir 
Morton Peto proceeds to deuionstmte the mariuer iti w hich his views 
may be carried out ; aud, knowing that any attenipt to bring down 
the force mniiitained at home would be sure to fail, he joins in the 
cry which has been raised again^^t tfie Colonies, adopting ciifirely 
thfe view taken by the members of tiie Commiltee on Colonial Military 
expenditurej and producing many of the statements contained in the 
Blue Book* He compares the number of troops stationed in tfie 
Mediterranean in 3 851 and 186 1, and innocently nsks in what the 
circumstances of tlie world in 1861 ditTer so entirt^iy from tho&e 
of 1851 as to have rendered it necessiiry almost to double the tixiops 
of the line in each of those fortresses ? as though he was not fully 
aware that the circumstances are entirely different. Fortifications 
be would altogether dispense with, and he would defend the colonies 
by OUT fleets, yet he strangely enough proposes to dismantle 
nearly all our ships and to sell the bulk of them out of the service. 
As with the Army, so with the Navy ; economy and retrenchment 
must be enforced, even if the best interests of the country mu?it be ! 
sacrificed. We are often surprised to find what ignorance of facts * 
is generally displayed by commercial writers in dealing with the 
great question of our Naval requirements, and liow [jerseveringly they 
insist on mis-statin j^ the cost of the fleet* They do not appear to 
comprehend the difference between the sums wanted for Military 
from those asked for Naval purposes, but because they ore voted on 
the same Estimates, they immediately set them down as expended for 
Naval service. Thus we are told, that " on the ouibreak of the 
Crimean war, the Navy estimate was immediately doubled, and in 
the very next year, 1855, it was raised to a point exceeding that of 
the year in wliich we fought the battle of Trafalgar,^' and then we 
are favored witli the annexed table, which is evidently taken (hke 
those which follow) from Mr. Cobden^s pamphlet, ''The Three 
Panics," and which is at variance with the accounts presented to 
Parliament :* — 

1854 £12,1827*59 

1855 19,014.708 

1856 16,013,91)5 

What are the facts? The iatal sums expejided under the votes 
contained in the Navy Estimates were, in — 

1853 T,197,80i 

1854 15,017,591 

1855 19,500,833 

1856 . , * . . 14,064,514 
but, as of these sums there were required for services unconnected 
wnth the Navy^ viz*, for the Army i\ud Ordnance Department (con- 
veyance of troops), for prisoners of war, and for the Post Office 
Department (Packet Service), in 



1863.] ON MAVAL AND MILITABT EXPENDITURE. 843 

1853 «1,084,051 

1854 ...... 4,291,879 

1855 7,277,789 

1856 8,758,137 

it follows that the expenditure on the Navy in those years was, in 

1853 6,168,758 

1854 10,726,212 

1855 12,318,044 

1856 ...... 10,906,877 

So that it was not nearly doubled on the commencement of hosti* 
lities with Russia in 1854; neither was it raised in 1855 to an 
amount exceeding that of the Navy Estimates for the year in 
which Trafalgar was won, which was (exclusive of the expenses for 
the transport service and the maintenance of prisoners of war), 
je 13,478,680. Very few of the figures inserted in the chapter of 
this work on Taxation devoted to the Navy are correct, and conse^ 
qaently many of the arguments drawn from the statements of which 
they are formed are valueless. *' The great outlay of the Navy,'' he 
says, '' is not on seamen. The great expenditure is upon the naval 
establishments, the wages of artificers employed in them^-dockyard 
improvements and repairs, and naval stores, &c., for the building of 
the fleet. Out of the sum expended on the Navy in 1861 the yards 
and the works carried on therein were estimated to cost almost the 
moiety" We have now before us the annual account of Naval 
receipt and expenditure for the year ended the 31st March, 1862 
(1861-62), printed by order of the House of Commons on the 18th 
February last, and we find that, of the total sum of £12,092,564 
spent for Navy services £5,485,847 was for Her Majesty's establish- 
ments at home and abroad, wages to artificers, &c., naval stores 
for the building, repair, &c., of the fleet, steam machinery, and 
ships built by contract, new works, improvements, and repairs 
in the yards, &c., while £6,606,717 (considerably more than half) 
was for wages to seamen and marines, and other purposes. 

As a matter of course, the dockyards come in for a liberal share 
of abuse, and the most is made of the opinions expressed by the 
Commissioners appointed to inquire into the management of those 
establishments. Everything that they reported in favour of con- 
tractors is placed boldly in front, while all that they said in favour 
of the Government authorities is carefully kept in the back-ground. 
The statements which are so constantly paraded before the public on 
every available opportunity, to the effect that work performed in 

Srivate yards is better and cheaper than that done in the Boyal 
faval Arsenals, are repeated over and over again. " The dockyards 
are not adapted for iron ship-building. They do not contain the neces- 
sary machinery, nor do they command the sort of labour that is 
reauired. The best and by far the cheapest mode of obtaining iron 
hulls, is to contract for their construction with builders of unques- 
tioned reputation, at fixed and certain prices." 



Since Sir Morton Peto^s work waa publishedj the statpment pre- 
pared by tlie CJontroUer of the Navy i elating to the arlvantages of 
iron and wood^ aiid the relative cost of those materials, in the con- 
struction of ships for Her Majesty's Navy^ has been laid before Par- 
liament, and it contains the best reply that couhl be given to many 
of the off-hand assertiona of the Member for Fiusbury. It also 
shows how absurd are some of tlie opinions advanced by bira with 
regard to the construction of men-of-war* If Sir Morton Peto 
were to have liis own way he would forlhvvith reduce the Navy to 
the few iron vessels which we possess ; the others would bo at once 
consigned to the auctioneer's hammer ; we should not even have any 
ijQn'plated ships, " Wooden vessels plated with iron are/' he saja^ 
" so shaken by the action of a heavy sea, and by Iheir own 
machinery, aa speedily to become unseaworthy. A wooden frame 
only, in fact, weakens an iron plate," '* I have expressed my opinion 
thai this arrangement will be found to be an error," ^'Tbat which 
it seems desirable principally to aim at, is the conj^trnction of a few 
large and powerful iron vessels, of suficient size to mount the largest 
guns in centriil batteries, and fitted to act as rams, by the aid of 
powerful machinm/- If Sir Morton Peto has since read the 
account of the attack on Charleston by the Federal iron-clads, he 
may perhaps have changed his opitiion on this subject^ and if he 
were responsible for the efficiency of the Navy, and for the money 
voted by Parliament being spent in the loannrr most advantageous 
for the interests of the Crown aud of the public, he would come, we 
have no douhtj 1o the conclusion at which Admiral Robinson arrived 
in March last — *' in every way the system of building by contract 
armour-plated iron ships would be more expensive than building 
armour-plated ships of wood in our dockyards/' 



THE INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OP THE FRENCH 

NAVY. 



The fact of France being our only great rival upon that element 
the dominion of which we almost believe to be exclusively our own 
is, apart from other causes, enough to make ns regard all that 
concerns her Navy with much interest* The manner in which of 
late years that Navy has increased in numbers and tfliciency is now 
well known in this country* so well known, indeedj that it has 
becoine almost an invariable custom to accompany demands to 
Pftrliameut for the increase of our own sea-forces by statements of 
tlie powerful condition of those of our neighbours and allies. 
Acknowledging^ therefore, as per-force we must, the almost re- 
generation (since its practical annilnlalion by our own Navy during 
the old war) of the maritime power of France, it will be interesting 
and ins tractive to inquire how it has been brought about. British 



1863.] THE FRBNCH NAVY. 845 

Naval ofRcers who have chanced to serve in the company of their 
French brethren-in-arms^ and in the presence of the ships and 
squadrons of that nation^ have often been struck by the remarkable 
regularity of the organization which seems to act as the life-blood 
of their whole service. 

It is this organization, so complete and symmetrical, which has 
raised the Naval power of the French from the depths into which 
the disasters of the Revolutionary Wars had plunged it, to that 
admirable height of efficiency at which we see it now. It may 
seem yielding over-much to mere theorizing to declare that the 
manifest superiority as seamen of the British nation over the French 
is such that the latter can scarcely hope to equal ns on our own 
element — the Sea. Still there is a great deal of truth in such an 
assertion, and the Government of France seems to have acknow- 
ledged it in the eager desire it has from time to time expressed to 
compensate by artificial means, such as improved oi^anization, for 
the lack of that natural aptitude for the sea in which they are so far 
behind ourselves. The genius of the French people too is eminently 
that which loves to regulate and symmetrize, which is abundantly 
manifest in all their institutions and undertakings from the Code 
Napoleon to the at-present proceeding reconstruction of Paris. 

With regard to their Navy, the fact may be stated to be this ; — 
With a raw material inferior to ours, they have constructed a force 
of which the discipline and organization are the admiration of all 
who impartially contemplate them. We ourselves have paid their 
efforts in this particular a silent tribute of admiration in various 
imitations of their system. 

To form some idea of the completeness of the organization of the 
French Navy, and the manner in which it pervades its every branch, 
we have only to examine two small works, which together answer to 
our own "Queen's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions," and 
which are called — " D&ret sur le service a bord des b&timents de la 
flotte,'* and " R^glement sur le service int^rieur k bord des b&ti- 
ments de la flotte.'' These two volumes are small 16mos., of 865 
and 460 pages respectively, capable of being carried separately in 
the pocket with ease, and when bound together closely resembling 
in size one of those commonly- seen volumes called a *' Church 
Service.'' The first of these books relates exclusively to the more 
general regulations of the Navy, and the particular duties of each 
separate branch and rank of officers ; the second is devoted to the 
details of the interior economy of each individual ship, and also of 
fleets and squadrons, and the special duties of the warrant and 
petty officers, and even of the private seamen particularly employed. 
Each publication is divided into titles, chapters, and articles, of 
which last the "Decret'' contains 777, and the "E^glement" 1584, 
besides forms of reports and official papers. 

To the former work is affixed a very interesting "Rapport," 
drawn up and presented to the head of the Government in 1851, by 



146 



THB 15TEE^AL QHGAXTZATIOX OF^ 



ItTLY, 



» 



r 



the thpn Mi nutter of Marine, M, De Cha?scloup-Laubat, which 
trHces (he hii^torj of the ItegulatiQiis of the French Navy from the 
reigd of Jjouia XIV, dowtiwartls, "At the commencement of the 
reign of that monarch," savs the minister in his report, '*tlie 
Navy, which had al ready considerably increased, require*! a more 
complete sjsstem of regulation," a system which he goes on to say 
was given to the service by Colbert, and his son who succeeded 
him. This was in 1689, for even at that distant period the 
orgnnization of the Frencb Navy had reached a stage of comple(e- 
Jiess, at which we at the present day cannot but feel surprised^ In 
the history of the French Navy appended to Pere Daniel's *'Hi»- 
toire de la Milice Fran^aise," various extracts from the regulations 
are given, and they show a minuteness of detail to which we can 
present no equal m our own* In fact the ordinance of 1689 has, 
the minister declares, remained the basis of all which have since 
succeeded it; and it has undergone revision, and alteration in 1765, 
1786, 1827jand at the date of the publication of the work from 
which we have just been quoting. 

The immense and numerous changes in Naval science having 
rendered this latter revise ion necessary, a commission was appointed 
to prepare it. The consiitiUion of this commission shows us the 
manner in wliich the b'rench Government applied itself to the 
attainment of perfection in the object which they had in view ; it 
consisted of a Vice-Adrairal as president; and as memberSj two 
CaptHins, three Commanders, one Engineer of Naval Constructions, 
one Compl roller of the Navy, one Medical Officer, and one Lieu- 
tenant as Secretary. All classes being thus represented in the 
preparation of a code by which all classes were to be governed, the 
result of the labours of the commission iii its accuracy and minute- 
ness does ample ja^itice to the enlightened foresight which led to its 
pecuhar constitniion, and affords a dear example of the benefits to 
be derived from entrusting a like work to a body so composed. 
Indeed, so minutely is every course of proceeding laid down, that it 
would seem as though little were left lo the individual discretion 
(thous^h it is in reality to be believed that such is not the case) 
of officers who may be placed in positions of command ; but the 
commission and ihe Government acknowledged the necessity of 
guarding against the ignorance of the many, instead of allowing for 
the possible ability of the few. 

The first "Title" of the D^cret treats of the different duties 
assigned to tlie various ranks of officers, and answers, to a greut 
extent, to the chapter of our own Regulations, entitled "^ Officers in 
General," Commencing with the flag-officers, it explains with great 
minuteness the command and functions assigned to each; for 
instance, of the Rear- Admiral we read^ — 

1st. That he can command (in-cliief) a squadron. 

^nd* He commands (in-chief) a division* 

3rd. He is employed subordinately in a fleet, squadron or division, 
neeordmg to its im/jortance. 



1868.] • THE VRENCH KAVT. S47 

Of the Captain we find that — 

1st. [Te can command (in-chief) a division. 

2nd. In this case he holds the temporary rank of Commodore. 

3rd. He can be employed (subordinately) as a Commodore in a 
krge Naval force. 

4th. He commands ships (steam or sailing) of the line-of-battle 
or frigate classes^ and sailing corvettes with a main-deck battery. 

The Commander by section 4 — 

Is declared to fulfil the duties of second-in-command on board 
every ship commanded by a Captain. 

The Lieutenant and £nsign fill the same position in all ships 
commanded by Commanders and Lieutenants respectively. 

Art. 12 states the titles borne by ofiicers in command ; the senior 
officer is called " commandani'SupSrieur" 

The Flag-officer commanding (in-chief) a fleet, division, or Naval 
station, is called " commandani-en-chef" 

The Flag-officer commanding a detached or subordinate division 
receives the title of " commandant'en-sous-ordre" 

Captains and Commanders when in command of ships are entitled 
" Commandants/' and Lieutenants commanding " Capitaines.^' 

Tiie second '' Title/' treats of flags and ensigns. 

Several Flag-officers meeting are ordered to hoist flags containing 
their numbers on the Seniority List. 

Senior-officers present, when Captains, hoist a broad pendant, and 
when Commanders a triangular flag. When of the rank of Lien- 
tenant, the senior-officer hoists a triangular flag at the Fore. When 
more officers than one entitled to fly these broad pendants are in 
company, that of the senior flies at the Main^ those of the others at 
the Fore. 

The position of the officer whom we generally designate as com- 
manding officer, that is, the First Lieutenant or Commander, under 
a Captain, is acknowledged in the French Instructions, and his 
duties are specified under the different headings of *' Fitting out,'' 
and " At Sea," with such minuteness, that his quarters in action, 
and the division of boarders which he commands, are especially 
slated. Next follow the instructions for the Officer of the Watch at 
Sea, for the same officer in harbour, and for the various subordinate 
officers who also keep watch under a superior. Nor are the duties 
of the different officers, as attached to quarters and divisions, over- 
looked, but they are laid down at considerable length in some 
fifteen Articles. 

Title XIL regulates the duties of officers of the Pavmaster's 
department [de V administration), who are, we find, divided into the 
ranks of Commissary of Fleets, Commissary of Squadrons, and Com- 
missary of Divisions, to whom their subordinates in each particular 
ship report and send in returns. 

The seventeenth and last Title treats of the salutes, honours, and 
visits of various Naval functionaries, native and forei^n^ axwi ^t^js^^ 



m$ 



THE IKTlllNAt OHOAKTZ.ATlOTr OF 



JTILY^ 



even to complimeuta paid by tossing of onr^, piping and manning 
tlie sicle^ aiid disposing Innterns at the ^ngway at night. Sentries 
are ordered to salute officers of either service* and of all nations, 
comiiig on board, or passing near in boats. When bailed at niglit, 
persons coming on board are to aiiswerj if of the rank of Flag- 
officer, " Officier genera!/' if Captains or Commanders, " Officier 
Bup^rieuT^'* if officers of any other rank, " OjUcicr" and if below 
the rank of officer, '^ AborcV* 

But if the "' Decret" is remarkable for minuteness of detail, the 
*' Eeglement," which is said in tlve report prefixed to it, to be its 
*' indispen$ihle complement/^ is still more so, arid gi?es the clearest 
possible insight into the interior economy of a French ship of wan 

The first portion of it explains the avstem of numberiog the 
members of a skip^s company, and of distributing them in what we 
may call Watch and Quarter- Bills* Properly speaking, tlierc is no 
watch- bill in the French Navy j all stations and distributions of the 
crew of a ship depend upon the quarter-bill alone, and each man^s 
number is based upon that of the guns arming a single brondside. 
These guns have, beside their number on each particular deck, one 
comprised in a general enumerntion commencing with the foremost 
gun on the lower deck, and ending with the after ^un, on the main 
deck in three-deckers, and on the quarter deck in smaller vessels. 

In this enumeration e^ch battery is presumed to be armed with 
sixteen pieces; so that the first gun of the middle deck is No, 17, 
and the first of the main deck No. 33 and the last No. 48. The 
seventeenth guns on the main and middle decks of ships of the line 
are numbered 49 and 50, The upper deck guns of three-decked 
ships are not numbered in this scheme. 

The ship's company is divided into as many fractions, called 
series, as there are guns in this enumeration. Eacii series is com- 
posed of the gun-numbers who work the gun giving a No, to the 
series, and other men employed at different stations. 

These last, who fulfil the duties of mngHzme-menj &c*, are called 
'* servants Jiciifi/^ Each captain of a gun is also *^ leadingdiand" of 
a seriesj and his No* u the same as that of the series itself. The 
men on tlie riglit of each gun have for their Nos. the No, of their 
series augmented by the No. indicating their rank in the gun^s 
crew J that is to say, the firs»t man on the right of a gun has for his 
No< ILO plus the No, of his gun or series, the second man ^OU 
plus tfie same No. Thus, 420 is the fourth man en the right of 
the twentieth gun. The men on the left have the same Nos, 
Thus, 476 is the fourth man on the left of the 
Eacfi series, and in many ca?es particular men, 
are appointed to special stations, and the system of numbering tells 
an officer at a glance where any individual is quartered, and wliat 
duties he has to perform. The odd numbers and series belong to 
the starboard watch, and the even numbered to the port watch ; and 
each watch is divided into two divisions composed of alternate 



increased by fifty, 
twenty-sixth gun. 



1868.J TBB FRENCH KAVT. 349 

series. Each series messes, sleeps, and cleans the deck at the gau 
from which its No. is derived. The duties of every individual are 
so minutely specified in this '^ Beglement/' that the particular 
objects to be cleaned by certain men, even the man-ropes which 
some have to scrub, are mentioned in its various articles. But what 
may strike an English officer as still more extraordinary, is the fact 
that the words of command of the various nautical evolutions, such 
as tacking, wearing, Adding top-gallant masts, and shifting sails and 
spars, are given at full length, and are accompanied by a detailed 
explanation, as are the words of command, in a book of gunnery or 
musket drill. Orders, we are told, are always to be given in the 
plural, and the word '' envayez r is to be used on all occasions, 
such as swaying across yards, when several different things are to 
be done together. 

But perhaps what chiefly merits our attention in these regula- 
tions, is the care that is taken that the routine shall be made 
intelligible to all who have to see it carried out. Each separate 
item is accompanied by a sort of commentary describing very closely 
what is expected to be done; and this part of the Instructions alone 
occupies more than fifty-six pages. 

Tlie duties of sentries, too, according to their different posts, are 
stated at length ; and, even in this small particular, much trouble 
must be saved the commanding officer who has to fit out a ship, 
when he finds that he has only to transfer copies of these to the 
various order-boards. 

It is not to be doubted that so penetrating a system of organiza- 
tion is repulsive to the character of British seamen in general, and 
that its adoption into our own Navy, in any but a very partial 
form, would be fraught with the greatest difficulty. Still we cannot 
but admire the cleverness with which the Government of France 
has supplemented, by an improved organization, that ability for 
maritime affairs in which the French seamen are so far behind our 
own. Discipline has almost invariably prevailed over simple valour, 
however great ; and that discipline is undoubtedly the highest which 
rests upon the most perfect system of organizing a force that can 
be devised. 



OCEAN STATIONS— A VOYAGE IN 1862. 

COASTING— SINGAPORE. 

The Cochin China coast soon loomed boldly on our starboard bow 
and the weather continued fine. Oui chart was from a survey made 
by the French in 1798, and I was assured that there was none of a 
later date. On the 8th of November we experienced some heavy 
squalls accompanied by thunder and lightning, but t^wK^'^^x^"^^^ 

U.S.MAO.No.416,J\3L^,ia6a- »-*- 



350 



QOKJ^ STATTOSTS. 



f JuLTj 



tmnsieutj and left the atmosphere cool and balmy. A few days 
mote and at sunset we were m sight of a group of no fewer than 
seventeen islands^ all more or less of considerable sixr, and generally 
lofty, bat apparently barren. Passing the light bouse on the rock a 
of Pedra Branca we &oon came in siglit of Singapore, which is about 
thirty miles off. It was a hamid, sqniUly morning. The low-lying, 
richly-wooded coast of the Malay peninsula seemed, as no doubt it 
is, a fine retreat for beasts of prey. 

This being my second visit to the grand entrepoi of Eas^tem Asia 
within a few montlis, I had little to expect in I he way of novel ly. 
There was still the pretty anchorage — -the same wooded heights 
above the town; the old story of the disparity of one hundred and 
twenty to one between the combined Chinese, Mijlays, and Madrasees, 
and the heroic band of three hundred European officials and mer- 
chants. 

Madras f^eems to have stamped its peculiarities upon this cre-atiou 
of Sir S, Baffles, not only as regards the ^tyleofthe houses and laying 
oot of the gardens, but likewise in the mode of living. A Madras 
regiment is generally in garrison, but this does not seem to allay the 
inquietude felt on account of the overwhelming Chinei^e population, 
a member of which — originally a Coolie — it has been deemed expe- 
dient to raise to the magisterial bench ; and this functionary, besides 
bearing his faculties as meekly as might be expected, has, 1 believe 
on emergencies, justified the liberality of the local government, by 
proving himself a most politic: mediator between his own countrymen 
and the former. The Chinese, when removed from the contagion of 
bad eiample, are by no means unfitted to govern in a subordinate 
capacity with integrity and ability ; and it, perhaps, only requires 
time to develope their higher qualities in a larger field. Another 
cause of apprehension, in the event of an European war, would 
certainly he the proximity of the military (for commercial it surely 
is not) station, which our Gallic allies have established at Saigon. 

The plan of the town of Singapore seems at first irregular, bat 
after a few drives in the convenient little palkee garries of the place, 
one perceives that the various races of the po|mlation keep as dis* 
tinct from each other as practicable, the Malays occupying the one 
extremity, and the Chinese the other; the intermediate space being 
appropriated by the Englisli, The landing-place is protected by a 
weak battery occupying the angle formed by a small esluary, which 
further up is spanned by light bridges connecting the villa quarter 
with the mercantile. In the former of these, and skirting the shore, 
there are several excellent hotels, a cathedral, court-house, and on 
a green eminence behind, the Qovernmeut House. 

The hotels of Singapore are commodious and inexpensive; 
the attendance excellent, as indeed it always is, where there 
are Madrasee servants ; and tlie living is of the best descrip- 
tion* The gardens which surround these agreeable places of resort 
are well kept, and contain many rare plants in addition to those 



1863.] OOBAN aiATIONS. 351 

which are common to this zone, but vegetation here seems rather to be 
characterised by the beauty of the trees, than of the flowers. The 
climate is humid, and in consequence of the soapy red clay of the 
soil, the effects of a heavy fall of rain are experienced for many days 
after. I cannot say that 1 should like to make Singapore my place 
of residence. There is an oppressive monotony in its physical 
aspect. So long as the sun is shining, one may find sources of 
amusement and interest in the natural features and productions of 
the soil, but when good things of day begin to droop and drowse, 
and the harsh croaking of the frog is only relieved by the voices of 
countless insect tribes, and no breath of air can force itself into the 
damp lanes gloomy with sombre foliage matted together, one must 
be in robust health and buoyant spirits to endure such a locality. 

The best index to the climate is the appearance of the European 
children. These poor little fleshless nutes with pale cheeks, wan 
eyes, and feeble (juerulous voices, do not seem to make the same 
impression on their parents that they do upon strangers, who are 
able to contrast their blighted infancy with the rosy cheeks of Eng- 
land. 1 should imagine the soil of Singapore to be well adapted 
for the cultivation of coffee, but 1 confess to having serious doubts 
in respect of cotton, for which, I venture to surmise, that there is a 
nearer and better field in the waste lands of our Indian possessions. 

The Malay boats are exceedingly elegant in their lines and are 
generally kept scrupulously clean — ^at least,. those that ply for pas* 
sengers. A mat shed in the centre, affords shelter from sun and 
rain ; the fiery-eyed, wiry Mala^ in his picturesque costume of bright 
colours, chiefly red, is not a little proud of his personal appear- 
ance and of the skill with which he feathers his light oar; 
these boats are, however, unfitted for rough and squallv weather. 
I have seen one of our crew obliged to swing himself backwards 
over the windward gunwale and hold on by a stay rope, to prevent 
the wind capsizing us as our snowy lateen sailed swdled before it. 
The Chinese have also their small crab-like shampans, generally 
sculled by one man, who stands up and works with two long oars 
so vigorously, that he is a serious competitor for the Malay, who, 
in consequence, has no word too bad for him ; he works harder 
and charges less than the natives, and thus prevents an extortionate 
monopoly. 

During our stay in this port> the ship was daily surrounded at 
daybreak by bumbloats filled with golden bananas, in their chandelier 
whorls, shaddocks, mangosteens, ''creepy^'- looking ramostans, and 
green oranges. I know that there is a strong prejudice against 
allowing soldiers and sailors to purchase fruit on such occasions, 
but various circumstances that have come under my notice have led 
me to believe that this, like the mania with some of excluding the 
night air, is a snare and a delusion. Judiciously eaten, a fruit diet 
is, after a voyage, often attended with the best results ; if unnecessarY 
apprehensiens CRrnot interfere with the \in^cfo ^l \it^.>»^. 



352 



0DB4H STATrOHS. 



[Jolt, 



Manias are peculiar to localih'es^ as well as to certain seasons ; and 
accordingly we, who had suffered so ternb!^ from the Chinese 
and Jnpuneee "cnrio" (t^i demies), iiow found ourselves ra|Kdlv suc- 
cumbing to the " cockiitoo" phrensy, wliich aeeried at fir^it to make 
its ravagrs amongst the sailors, each of whom boldly invested two 
or three dollars in the purchase of one of these noisy lemon-crested 
denizens of GoldenXherponesian forests, or their couains in various 
degrees — the red, the purple, and tlie green parrots* 

I observed a curious evidence of something above ordinary in- 
stinct, in a small monkey belonging to one of the sailors, Tlie 
little ainmfil was sitting pensively scratching his ear, in a way pecu- 
liar to his race, when 1 brought him a piece of bread j he nibbled 
it carelessly, and finding it not much to his likings dropped it, I 
then gave him a banana, which he seized with avidity and began to 
eat with great gusto, when I again returned witli a sprig of bread 
pills stuck on small wires, so as to represent rudely a cluster of 
berrieSp Instantly was the banana abandoned, and one by one with 
the greatest satisfaction were the fictitious berries transferred to his 
jaw pouches. Here was imagination—perhaps even a sense of the 
beautiful ! In the meantime a more practical dog quietly walked 
off with the half- eaten banana, 

Malacca canes as well as fine matting were also in demand ; but it 
was in vain that the eager Chinese offered his Japanese cabinets at 
lower prices than they fetch in Hong Kong, That passion had de- 
cayed, and the elegant trifles by which so recently it had been 
gratified J had now to be reserved for the outward bound. 

All the ordinary '^ curios" of the country which we had just left 
are to he had in this town, except ancient pictures and that match- 
less imperial porcelain only procurable in Northern China, and even 
there becoming scarce, 

A Madraseej who had attended on me at the iabie d'hote of tfie 
Esperanza Hotel, received as an acknowledgment of his attentioUj 
a "chit" or recommendation, for which he appeared Kratefuh I 
asked him if he would accompany me to England, and he seemed 
pleased at the idea; but when I added, that he mu'^t be prepared to 
start next day, he excused himself : "I cannot go. Sir/' said he, 
** so soon, because my mother slop with me; and belbre [ could go 
to England 1. must put her back to the Madras " By a strange 
coincidence I had known the relations of this man many years 
^efore, at Poonamalee. 

THE STRAITS OF RHIO, BAKCA AND STJNDA. 

Having waited until the last available moment for the outward 
English mail, we were obliged to say farewell to Singapore without 
if, and the same nigijt we entered the son! hero hemisphere. The 
weather was cool and pleasant, and our course lay through the Ithio 
Straits, so called from a small Dutch settlement of that name, which 
may be observed, and barely observed, about seven miles off, and 



1868.] OCE^LK STATIONS. 853 

seemingly perfectly oppressed by the pletliora of vegetation, from 
which its scattered houses struggle into outer h'ght. 

These straits lie between the islands of Palo Battam and Palo 
Bintang, whose shores are magnificently wooded apparently to the 
water's edge, with here and there verdant satellite islets along their 
coasts. On the latter of these islands two isolated mountains, 
densely wooded to their summits, reach the altitudes respectively of 
759 and 1,212 feet. In the absence of any evidences of human 
habitations, the scenery reminded me sometimes of the wider 
branches of the Sunderbunds, and at other times of the solitudes 
along the shores of the Gulf of Paria. The waters of this channel 
are comparatively shallow, for although between ten and twenty 
fathoms occur, our lead occasionally shewed cmly five and a half. 
There were several very elegant two-masted boats cruising about. 

We had frequent light and picturesque squalls, which broke into 
the dense green forests and opened a passage for the gleams of sun- 
shine, that often slanted forth at such moments with the most beau- 
tiful effect, and which forced from me an involuntary tribute to the 
genius of Poussin ; although, by the way, I am privately of opinion 
that he has more than one successful rival amongiDt our living artists. 

The following day we were slowly and cautiously feeling our way 
through the difiicult straits of Banca, with wooded uplands on our 
left and long sandy spits on the opposite side. It was hereabouts, 
I believe, that the Transit was lost in 18o7. Some of the detached 
mountain peaks of Pulo Banca are as high as fourteen hundred feet, 
but these interminable forests and isolated mountains soon become 
monotonous. 

We observed two English barques hugging the low coasts of 
Sumatra, but as the navigation is a matter of some nicety, all three 
came to an anchor at dusk, and waited for daylight to resume pro- 
gress. The scenery continued much the same. We were in nine 
fathoms when we observed a Dutch barque making signals of dis- 
tress. She was to appearance, judging by our charts, in about four 
fathoms. We atforded such assistance as was in our power, and left 
her. After losing sight of land for about eight hours, it again 
loomed in bold outlines on our starboard bow. 

We were now five days out from Singapore. Land was in sight 
all morning. Sunbeams were coursing over the mountain forests of 
Sumatra, while fierce squalls were ravaging the partially cultivated 
uplands of the fine Island of Java ; far in the distance faintly 
loomed through the shower-streaked space, the bold island cone of 
Krakatoa, whose apex is 2,600 feet above the sea level. Almost in 
mid-channel we passed the romantic islet called '^ the Button.'' 

The scenery of the Straits of Sunda is exceedingly bold and pic- 
turesque, and in some respects resembles that on the coast of Trini- 
dad in the West Indies. Some of the Sumatran mountains are of 
considerable height; that known as Baja Bassa attaining an &li\<.^^ 
of 4,398 feet. I have already aU\xA^4\.<i NJw^ ^vi^kX.w.^x^ ^\ >^^»». 



S54 



OCeA.H STATJOlfS, 



[Jutt, 



inountiiin& — wooded isQlntion — the single blessedness of the passive 
world ! Now occasional groves of cocoa-palms bespeak the homes 
of human bnngp, of who^e fixi faience, however, there is little else to 
remind one ; but our eyes are straining rather in the opposite direc- 
tion of Java. 

JAVA. 

Java, until lately, iras less known for real natural beauties and 

undeveloped wcHlth, than for the policy of convenience, which put 
us in temporary possession of its governinent during our Napoleonic 
wars, and its name embroidered on the standards of a few of our 
regiinents, keeps alive the memory of these events. 

AnjeFj although not the principal town of the island, is from its 
situation J perhaps, better known to se^ifaring Englishmen, than the 
capital^ bem^ on the coast, and convenient for ships passing through 
i]w Straits of Sund^i. 

In the face of one of those heavy squalls^ so frequent in these 
latitudes, we steamed into the open roadstead of Anjer, where we 
found four other vessels straining their cables in the heavy sea that 
was runnirfg^ but owing to the wildness of the day and the heavy 
surf, there were no small boats about; presenlly, however, on our 
approach J a frail canoe formed of the trunk of a tree, freighted with 
bananas and paddled by two Javanese, made its way to us, and was 
shortly followed by a larger well-managed boat, on board of which 
was the quasi agent of the Butch harbour master. The background 
of lofty hills was partially obscured by heavy clouds and driving 
?bowerf*j while the little settlement itself cowered timidly to the 
beach with its red tiled houses, small fort, and conspicuous patri- 
archal tree, from the summit of which waved the tricolour of Hol- 
land. A larjre grove of cocoa-nut palms stretches away in one 
direction I and in the other a dense forest or jungle is apparently in 
full posspssion of its allodial rights. 

As the waves were running high, and the pelting shower gave no 
signs of cessation J no one seemed disposed, even for the sake of our 
ready- written letters, to submit to such a ducking; so the task of 
posting these missives to friends, and which would be taken on by 
the next steamer to Singapore, devolved on myself. 1 had some 
difficulty in getting into the boat, however, as at one moment she 
was sunk ten or fifteen feet in a trough of the sea, and the next was 
cresting a wave that nearly reached our gangway. At last, watch- 
ing my opportunity, I caught the hand of the harbour master's 
serv^mt ami jumped on board his boat. 

This servant (or Captain, as he was called), was a slight man with 
a small moustache and blue blaek hair. An ill-rolled cheroot was 
never out of his mouth, while under his arm he carried an account 
book, and in his hand some official documents and a penciL His 
X^ostume was rich in colour although poor in materiah Indeed, it 
was only in an fcsihetic point of view that he could have been ad- 



1868.] OOKAK 8TATT0NS. 855 

mired, and then merely as an accessory, to relieve the alUpervadiog 
greens of the landscape. His costume consisted of a blue 
and white striped banyan, over wliich was a loose buff muslin 
jacket with a deep orange arabesque })attem, loose payjamas of a 
greenish colour, with alternate broad and narrow stripes of blue. 
Thrown negligently across his right shoulder and round his waist 
was a bright crimson scarf crossed with lines of yellow, and bor- 
dered with stripes of dark blue. His toiU ensemble was completed 
by a carelessly folded white muslin turban of voluminous propor- 
tions, sprigged with a brown seaweed pattern. 

As we tore through the waves, under a press of canvas, this 
fellow remained imperturbably silent; but when the boatmen took 
to their oars (which latter by the way have scarcely any fluke, and 
are little better than leaping- poles), and raised their wild song, as 
we neared the threatening surf, he discharged volley upon volley of 
the grossest abuse, strange to say, in Hindostanee, although his 
auditors were Malays. Whether or no they understood what he 
said I cannot vouch ; I trust, however, that they did not. 

It was raining heavily all the while, and as the surf was breaking 
furiously on the shore I felt serious doubts about our affecting a 
landing, but I soon observed a well-constructed breakwater on 
either side of a long and narrow sluice. At the critical moment 
our oars were suspended, a huge curling wave bowled us up the 
sluice in long undulations, and deposited us safely about two hun- 
dred yards inland, underneath the overspreading branches of the 
large tree so conspicuous from the roadstead. 

Following the official of the voluminous turban, I sprang ashore 
in front of the small custom-house, where the chief Dutch func- 
tionary was seated in the verandah, surrounded by a group of 
picturesque natives, each holding in his hand his remarkable hat, 
which I mistook for a very gaudy target. 

The hard-featured old Batavian received me courteously, and 
buttoning up his white cotton jacket authoritatively — not sus- 
piciously — ^took me under cover of his large umbrella to his own 
nouse. Here I posted my letters, for this officer performs all the 
functions of the Government and executive, and had some difficulty 
in exchanging my Mexican dollars without loss. « 

My new acquaintance spoke of a recent English traveller in Java, 
as having given his pen to one of the two parties in the island, from 
which in return he received much valuable information that other- 
wise was not within his reach. 

Presently the harbour-master, &c., rang a tiny French hand-bell, 
on which a boy brought in a veletah, on an iron rod fixed to a 
pedestal like a gaff-boom, a box of cheroots, and sundry bottles of 
Scheidam, &c. The lad was then ordered to gather me a bunch 
of the best flowers in the garden, while the lady of the house made 
her appearance, and presented me with two beautiful large lemons. 
She spoke English perfectly well, and was slv^v^V^ ^\isa\s\^^. >5sss^ 



356 



OCKAN STATiOKa. 



[JOLYj 



husband alluded to tlie affairs of Cbiniii mid noticed the joke in 
"• Punch" about the Elgin Marbles, on which the lady, to show her 
acqiiaintance with contemporaneous history, reinarked, in her sweet 
artless way, "It is very strange^ is it notj what they say, that thia 
very same Lord Elgin's father once went to China long ago to get 
marble too ?" 

I had not the heart to destroy the pleasant coincidence, perhaps 
the only (quasi) political fact, which liad ever made an icnpression 
on her tender domestic mind. 

lu this old gentleman's drawing-room, there was a very fine 
portrait painfed in oils on oak. It arrested my attention the moment 
til at 1 entered; and observijig the effect it produced, he informed 
mo that it was the likeness of one of his sttirdy ancestors, by the 
hand of no lei^s an artist than tlte great Sir Anthony himsflf, and, 
in truth, its merits justified the as^seriion. The artist hnd invested 
the lineaments of the old Batavian worthy's countenance with a 
grim vitality, and had happily individualised its every peculiarityi 
from the angulnr high forehead to the small, firm, and avaricious 
mouth J as none but a master could- This able, but somewhat 
illiberal face, uas set in a broad -plaited white cambric ruff, which 
seemed almost to betir the impress of ihe laundress's skilL Such 
was the portrait of *'RoeU'f War molts, of Groningen," and I trust 
that I may never owe such a man a farthing, much as X may 
respjct him* 

The walks in the harbour- master's garden were laid down with 
frsigments of coral instead of graveh It is a pity that the variety 
known as <hu A&trijea, and indeed the rock corals generally, have 
not been adopted by the architect in the pavements of conservatories 
and bath-rooms, where not only their beauty in transverse slabs, but 
their porous nature would make them very desirable. 

Amongst several unfamiliar plants, I noticed one which emitted 
at night, as I afterwards discovered from its leavea only, a de- 
lightful fragrance like that of common garden sage»* 

A number of natives offered me Java sparrows, and a beautiful 
variety of small blue-headed parrot, at comparatively trifling prices ; 
but then the trouble and risk of taking them a long voyage to 
England are, ttiider ordinary circumstances, sufficient to deter a 
casual visitor from trying the experiment* 

UAUEITIUS* 

Each break in a long voyage seems to renovate both the mental 
and the physical nature, not so much by any actual no^^elty — for, 
indeed, there is little new under the sun to an old voyager in the 
oiUward aspect of things — but rather by the reappearance of those 
outward objects which arc generally associated with our earliest 
recollections or impressions. After living for weeks within the 
narrow limits of shipboard, and in contemplation of the serener 

• It beara a btdking resemblance to ihe *' Bry»phjllU(u jCiJc:iiium/' 



1863.] OOEAN STATIONS. 857 

beauties of sea and sky, with their solemn associations, what a 
relief to gaze again on quiet villages nestling amongst trees, on 
verdant pastures, or on leafy uplands, mingling their green tints 
'with the neutral violets of the far distance ! It is then that the 
ruddy wanderer of the deep seems intuitively to recognise his own 
" complimentary colour/' 

Several small islands, for the most part barren, intercept the 
approach to Fort Louis, in Mauritius, and dangerous reefs are 
encountered at a league's distance from the shore. 

The former, in general conBguration, somewhat resemble those 
that lie scattered about the Straits of Sunda, but on a nearer 
approach the absence of umbrageous vegetation forms a marked 
distinction. Here a large rocky islet, hoary and streaked with 
guano, is known as " Le Colombier /' near it is a long spit of land, 
with patches of green, speckled with white houses, which terminates 
in a bold headland crowned by a light-house. Still nearer the coast 
is the '' Gunner's Quoin," which sloping from the sea at a sharp 
angle terminates suddenly in a precipice, whose perpendicular face 
of strangely and apparently closely stratified rock, rises to a height 
of (I should suppose) fully 600 feet. Sea-birds are ever soaring 
about its lofty summit, or gyrating on snowy wings about the black 
and gloomy recess that marks the entrance to a large cavern. 

The first impressions of the island of Mauritius are very pleasing. 
Highly cultivated fields in all shades of green undulate in rich crops 
from the yellow surf-beaten beach, near the scene of Virginia's 
apocryphal shipwreck, to the accumulating spurs that unite in a 
lofty range of mountains, whose grotesque peaks rise to the height 
of nearly three thousand feet, and are swept by eddying mists. The 
numerous white chimneys of sugar-boiling houses, the neat cottages 
of the peasantry, and the larger residences of the upper classes, even 
at the distaiice from which we saw them, conveyed the impression 
of a thriving colony, and a charming natural combination of the 
useful and the romantic. 

The opportune arrival of a pilot on board hastened our entry into 
the harbour of Port Louis, which is land-locked, and protected by 
two small forts, one on either side of the narrow entrance. 

The clouds that had rested in the early morning on the back- 
ground of mountains at whose base the town is situated, now cleared 
away gradually, first disclosing the peak called the Pousse, then the 
Cap of Liberty, and in a higher range, the Peter Botte, towering in 
basaltic majesty into the blue empyrean, like the spire of some won- 
derful cathedral. Yet this celebrated mountain in some respects dis- 
appointed the most of us. Its form was not exactly that of the 
Impracticable Straight- Jacket, as represented to our bovish admira- 
tion in ancient Penny Magazines, but had certainly all the fulness 
of rocky skirts more conformable to modern fashion, and the 
peculiar shape, from our first point of view of its rocky head, being 
strictly per^iendicular on one side, presents a cottp d'cnl far more 



8«8 



OCEAN STATIONS. 



[JuLTj 



like ihe flowing contours of a modem belle than that of any straight- 



Inced old Bataviaii 



lad ha 



From the afore&aid woodcut, many an urireflecting lact has grown 
old ill the faith that the wondrous ascent was made in the face of 
that fearful angle sub t^2n ding the abyss^ but alas I it is not sOj a 
bight in the rock where it is simply vertical, enabled the first, as it 
hns since enabled several other enterprisitjg visitors, to accomplish 
what would otherwise seem to be an impossibility. 

On the right of the hiirboar on entering, a long row of light and 
tall Madagascar pines* (as they are here called) and Jaw white walls, 
mark the graveyard, and place of pubhc execution ; and stretch 
away from Fort William, or as it was named formerly by the 
French^ Fort Blanc, to the town^ which latter is connected with the 
opposite fort by a narrow causeway about a mile in length* In the 
baetin thus formed the shipping is closely moored, stem and siern* 

Port Loui?, as Tnight be supposed, in its general features is a 
dose approximation to many of the towns of the West Indies, where 
the French and other European colonists s^till give a tone to the 
locality, Ti^e houses, too, are built much in the same style, with 
verandahs and jalousies, and a surrounding garden or shrubbery, 
where during our visit the superb FlamboyauLjt bciug then in bloom, 
ruled with undi^pntt^d 8way the empire of flowers, and seemed to 
absorb in his lofty crimson m agrees even the aspiring glories of the 
brilliant Poincianas* This tree is perhaps the most intensely 
flaming, as indeed its name iinporls, of any I remember having 
spcn, and, if 1 am not mistaken, might even dispute for precedence 
with the Amherstia, of recent notorietv. Popularity, even in the 
botanical world, depends at first on accident as much as on desert^ 
and many plants of the most eminent beauty are still born to blush 
nnseen, until rescued from mides*^rved obscurity by some casual 
observer who does not forget its claims because it seems to be 
common in its own locality. 

Opposite the landing-place there is a fine statue of M, de la 
Bourdon nais, who governed the island during its occupiition by the 
French from the year 1744 to 17— ^ and further on, about the 
centre of the town, there is a pretty grove of ornamental trees 
enclosing an elegant fountain, 

There is an excellent market, but provisions are on the whole 
dear, a fault traceable here, no doubt, as in some of the West 
Indian islands, to mismanagement. What fish I tasted was of an 
inferior description. I believe that many kinds are poisonous, and 
I was shown some excellent coloured drawings of a few remarkable 
varieties, and amonpt them the dull grey mud-fi.^h, a wound from 
whose sharp dorsal spines is said to be fata!, 

French bijouterie is conspicuous in the shop windows, but there 
seemed to be no indigenous arts* Seed bracelets and tortoise-sliell 
combs are made for sale, but clumsily ; and t\\t latter are far fnore 
* Casuarini^, f A ipcclcs ofAcacia* 



I 



I 



i 



186S.] pCKAN 8TATIOK8. 359 

expensive than in England. The small stained rush capsy and red 
and yellow mattings come from Madagascar. Excellent light claret 
is to be had at ten shillings a dozen^ bat fmits on the other hand 
are correspondingly dear. The mangosteen has been saccessfally 
cultivated^ and bananas, pine apples, cocoa nuts, and mangoes, are 
plentiful, and just coming into season, while we were in harbour. 
Tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, brenjals, &c., &c., are to be had in 
abundance. Animal food is remarkably expensive, and apparently 
this is the result of unavoidable causes."^ 

This colony is one of those interesting ethnological crucibles, in 
which it seems to be our especial mission to fuse and amalgamate 
the various races of mankind, and that too with no inconsiderable 
success. The population consists of English, French, Chinese, 
Indians, and Africans, and all their intermediate varieties. The 
concomitant diversity of peculiar manners, and sumptuary tastes, are 
as interesting as they are often amusing, from tne tortuous em- 
bellishment of intractable wool, to the pale brow and delicate 
features, shaded by dark flowing braids, where large-petalled flowers 
seem to sleep, of the not unworthy successors of Virginia herself, as 
they lean over a balcony, or show their frilled or lace-worked 
Bloomers at garden-gates. A proportion of Artillery, Engineers, 
and two regiments of the line, constitute the strength of the garrison, 
one of the latter being generally broken up into detachments to 
occupy various small outposts. 

Amongst the amusements of the island, I heard of fishing, as well 
as deer-stalking. Shell collecting is also carried on to a great 
extent, and there are several valuable collections in the island, which 
it is to be hoped will at some future period find their way into the 
public museums of the mother-country. It is to be regretted that 
such collections by remaining in private hands come in the (ordinary 
course of events to be broken up or lost. 

The Mission to Ma(lagascar,t which was lately sent to con- 
gratulate the new sovereign of that imperfectly known island, on 
his accession to the throne, had just returned, and was one of the 
chief topics of interest at the period of our visit. The published 
report, although rather meagre, throws out some indistinct sug* 

* No ptstange apptrently io the island. 

t " Papers relative to the Congratulation Mission of (sic) Hadama, Qneen of Mi- 
dagascar, laid before Council on the 29th NoTCmber, 1861." 

Although the Mission was avowedlf non-commercial, we showed a Tery land- 
able desire to make the royal palate acquainted with some of our moat popular 
comestibles, for in the list of presents forwarded by the GoTCmor of Mauritius, we 
find 14 cases of tongues and sausages, 20 cases of preserved European fruits, 50 
hams and 20 Cheddar cheeses, bnidea such other luiuries as a pair of gold epau- 
lettes, a thermometer, and a revolver *' complete." 

In this curious document there occurs some names which would sound almost 
familiar to the translators of Pall inscriptions, and the collectors of Bactrian coini. 
Thus " Radama" writing by his secretary " Bahaniraka," from bis capital *< An- 
tanarivo" adverts to the death of his mother '* Ranavalomanjakt." 



aeo 



UC£AX srATlONS. 



[July, 



gestions relative to the future commercial intercourse between the 
two islands. 

The object of the visit is stated to have been purely of a ftieiiflly 
nature, and entirely uncotinected with cominerce or politics, but of 
course sueh professions should be taken at what they are worths It 
was no doubt a politic step on the part of the Governor, to secoro 
the friendship of his strange neighbour — a man, be it remarked, 
who had iii early life visited Euglandj and who appears to be far in 
advance of his subjects^ 

The purely French inhabitants of Mauritius are accused by the 
English of being unsocial and exclusivCj while the mixed population 
of tlie lower orders consider them as hard ta^kmaftcts^ How far 
the latter may be true 1 cannot say ; but as regards the former it 
seems not unlikely that there may be faults on both sides, and that 
the French miglit with equal justice retort that Englii^hmen in 
receipt of large snlariea abro:u!, have an overweening desire of saving 
money to spend it on sociality at home, and that in consequence of 
the levity and indiscretion of a few of ouryoutliful spirits ihey have 
resolved on keeping Bbof. Moreover, with their morbid seuMtive- 
ness and great national pride. Frenchmen can uever be well affected 
under Englisjh rule. 

The tombs of Paul and Virginia, about six miles from Purt 
Louis, and near the Botanical Garden, arc considered amongst the 
lions of the island, and thither lock the majority of visitors to pay 
an unconscious tribute to genius; for it is a remarkable fact, that 
of all my acquaintance who performed the pilgrimage with such 
eager enthusiasm, one only had ever read the storj, or knew what 
it was about, beyond the bare names and the fact of a shipwreck — 
a tale '^ signifying nothing/* > 

These tombs were felt to be oue of the requirements of the age 
and in consequence they were erected, and no doubt are very pretty 
objects^ which, if they serve to keep alive the sentiment embodied 
in a tale of perennial freshness, will in a certain degree have done 
their duty well, but to mortuary distinction they have no claim so 
far as concerns the lovets of St* Pierre. 

It was not without a feeling of regret that we bid adieu so sooil ' 
to ancient Pt^tcr Botte and his group of grotesque offspring, that 
rear their gnome heads about the paternal knee. We had heard of 
genuine deer forests where there were bond fide trees p of pleasant 
waterfalls, and shady walks bordered by lilies, and the pink- eyed 
tropical periwinkle {vinca rosea) j and of tamarind, and other delieate 
treesj plaiting their branches overhead. Of rural retirements, where 
the juicy sugar- cane m sties in tlie sea-breeze, and the homely 
sounds of well-kept poultry -yards have a cheery music of their own. 
There was also something to be seen in the French phase of the 
colony, and perhaps even amongst a few of us a lingering ambition to 
belong to the select band of those, wlio hiid surmounted the diffi. 
culties of standing on the head of the hjcal genius, " Peter BoUc t" 




1S630 



THIS FRI^^rCH CAMPAIGN IN COCHIN CHTHA. 



Ml 



Slill as we passed ever-varying profiles of mountains, and the 

rich woodlands that skirt the western ahorePj onr glasses were* 
focusseJ to pierce those leafy covertSj or cHmb the rocks as gra- 
dually they faded into azure * * * 

Anottier daj^ and we were passing the island of Bourbon, in a 
heavy sB'dl, and under a troubled sky. 



THE lEENCH CAMPAIGN IN COCHIN CHINA. 

By the treaty negotiated between the French Bistiop of Adran 
and Djalloug, the dethroned monarch of Cochin China, in 1787, the 
latter ceded to the French the district of Tourane in return for 
military assistance which the former were to give hi on in recovering 
his tlirone. This assistance was not, however, given hiai, at least 
not directly, or to any appreciable eitent; the only services lie 
received beiug from French advent urers sent to him from tlie West 
Ijjdies* It does not appear to us at all clear that a cession of terri- 
tory made on conditions which were never fulfilled can be binding 
on the person who ceded it, or that a just claim can be based on 
such a document. Be this as it may, the ambition of France is 
gratified by the conquest of a province likely to be of more value to 
her than Algeria, and which is of great extent, comprising all 
Lower Cochin China lying between Cape St, Jacques and the river 
Saigon to the east, the river Cam bodge lo the west, and the 
province of Laos to the north. Before the termination of the war 
in China the French Government resolved that a portion of the 
forces engaged in that expedition should be sent to strike an effective 
blow in Cochin China. Vice-Ad miral Charner was the officer to 
whom the command of this expedition was entrusted. Dividing the 
naval force under his orders into two parts, he left one under the 
command of Bear -Admiral Protet to look after French interests 
in China, with injunctions to send first one ship and then another 
at short intervals to Japan^ with the view of impressing on the 
Japanese the power of France. 

The nece-ssary arrangements having been made with Baron Qros 
and General Montauban, the embarkation of the troops destined 
for Cochin China commenced. This operation was performed under 
circumstances of the greatest possible discomfort. The winter had 
set in, the thermometer marked from 10*^ to 12^ below zero, the 
rigging and every part of the vessels was covered with hoar frosty 
and the chopping sea breaking against the sides of the boats sent 
the spray flying over the men and wetted them to the skin. The 
crews of the gunboats that had been stationed for two years pre- 
viously in the high temperatureof Cochin China were great sufferers. 
These gunboats had rendered most important services during the 
Chinese campaign. Not only were they of great assistance in the 



362 



TE1& PEBNCH OAMFAtGH 



[July, 



reduction of the forts of the Peiho, but they were exceedingly 

useful in the coiiveyaiiee of troops and supplies up the river, and 
slaved the sailors an immense aoiount of labour in bringing otf the 
troops Co the ships. This duty liaviisg been satisfactorily performed, 
their guns and aDmnnriitroii were taken outj tlieir coals removed to 
their bows, their sides fresh caulked^ and they were towed bj the 
ships to Saigon, through a rough sea ta^ehe hundred leagues, witli 
the loss of only two during the voyage* 

The p:>wers conferred on Admiral Charnerj says M. Pall u writing 
in the Rttme des Dai^ Monties, were greater than any that had 
heen delegated to any officer since the first empire* Besides the 
power of appointing and promoting officers, he was vested with 
authority to muke peace or war with the Aiinamite empire. The 
total number of vessels under his orders amounted to seventy, 
fifty. six steam vessels^ and fourteen sailing vessels, with se^en 
others hired from the Peninsular and Oriental Company to serve us 
transports. The condition of a portion of the fleet, however, waa 
very bad, which is not to be wondered nt^ seeing that some of the 
vessels of which it was composed had heen cruizing in those seas 
between four and five years. The total number of men engaged 
in tiiis eicpedition was a little over 4,000^ end included chasseurs 
h pied, chasseurs dMfrique, artillery, engineers^ commissHriatj besides 
800 marines, and so perfectly organized and provided with neces- 
saries as to form a complete little army^ capable of marching through 
a hostile country without having to rely on any other resources 
than its own* Moreover, to spare the troops the necessity of 
exerting themselves, except in actual fighting, under a climate so 
hot and pestilential as that of Cochin China^ 600 coolies were taken 
from China. 

As Spain had some time before united witli France in operating 
against the Annamites, Admiral Charncr communicated ^ith the 
Spanish commander, and sent a requisition to the Governor- General 
of the PhiMppines for an addition of cavalry and infantry to the 
Spanish contingent of 230 men already established at Saigon, but 
for some reason or other, though Manilla could have easily fm- 
uished the cavalry, the reinforcement was never sent. 

The expedition reached Cochin Cliina on the 7th February, and 
ftiichored in the Donnai before Saigon. This is one of five noble 
rivers which traverse Lower Cochin China, and flows into the sea 
by one of the largest estuaries in the world* The banks of these 
rivers are low, and well covered with vegetation, among which grow 
numerous mangoes. They are connected with each other by canals^ 
some of them entirely the work of men's hands, others only partially 
so. The vegetation on lite banks of these canals is passably richj but 
has none of the magniScence of the tropics. Ail that is seen beside 
the mangoes already mentioned, are dwarf palmsi large shrubs 
bearing a white flower, and others of every tint of green, but of no 
kind of use ; at some distance from the banks, however, grow cocoa 



I 
I 

I 
I 

I 
I 



J 



1863,] 

and palm trees^ displaviiig ihmr graeeful proportions above a thick 
maas of aloes and prickly cactus^ which iiotia but a native could 
penetrate. The wboie of this part of the countTy, like all ricd 
lands, m, m fact, little better than a mud flat ; but bfj'ond this are 
forests* from which drugs are obtained which command a very high 
price in China* The staple produce of the country is riccj and 
there is no doubt that this was the principal reason of the desire of 
the French Governraent to get possession of it, inasmuch as any 
quantity of rice finds a ready market in China, and Frejich ships 
will then have a commodity which they can exchange for the silk 
and tea they are now forced to pay for in silver. There can be nw , 
question either of the seriousness of the intention of France to 
establish a permanent station there, and the Government is of 
opinion that Frenchmen may be induced to emigrate thither and 
colonize the country, and that it ofl^ers a great many advantage* 
to colonists which are wantiivg in Algeria. Possession has already 
been guaranteed iu a few instances where they have squatted on the 
ground, and allotments have been made for public buildings, for a 
station for the Messagerks Imperiales^ which is becoming a power- 
ful rival to the Peninsular and Oriental Company, and for other 
purposes. 

Saigon is a straggling kind of place ; the houses, or to speak 
more correctly the wooden huts covered in with palm leaves, are 
scattered here and there without regard to symmetry. Since the 
French have Ivad possession of itj the Corps of Engineers, with the 
assistance of a few hired labourers, have drained the land about it 
for a considerable distance, and laid out broad streets, which oTily 
lack houses to make it a handsome town. Its position made it to 
the Annamites what Portsmouth is to os, but their London was 
at Mytho ; a commercial depot difficult of access to European 
vessels, but easily approached by the fiat- bottomed boats of the 
country, and by Junks, 

Saigon was defended by a kind of citadel, built on the highest | 
ground, the principal contents of which in 1861 were two long i 
mounds of rice, still burning, though it was two years since it was 
set on fire* The fortifications, such as they were, were designed 
by Colonel Ollivier, who was one of the twenty Frenchmen taken 
there in 1791 by the Bishop of Adran, the sole relics of a fleet of 1 
twenty vessels and seven regiments detained on their way froBl 
IVance to Cochin China by the English Governor of Pondicherry. 
Forty years later the place was taken by the Cambogians, after a j 
two years siege, and rased to the ground. It was afterwards | 
rebuilt by the Aunamites, and stored with large quantities of pro* 
visions and ammunition, and was made so strong as to resist all the 
attacks of Gamboge and Siam, though it was less successful in > 
resisting the attack made on it by Admiral Genouilly in 1 B59, who 
destroyed and then abandoned it. The natives retired to an 
immense cemetery about four miles distant^ and entrenched them^ 



mi 



THB FEVHCH CAMPAlQIf 



JutT, 



selves tluTe so strongly that a Prciicli force sent agninat Uietn was 
repulsed with losSp 

At the cud of lS5f>, or beginning of 1860, Eear-Admiral Page 
reaumed possession of Saigon, laid out the defences, ordered the 
erection of a hospital, bnrrncks, and magazicies, and opened the 
port to tr;ide, with such beneficial results that within four months 
ieventy vessels and about a hundred Junks shipped from thence 
B\xij thousand tons of rice^ which was sold at Hong Xong and 
Singapore at an euormons profit. For some reason or other the 
Chinese located in the town did not approve of these proceedings 
on the part of the Frenclu Having possession of the iminense 
warehouses in wliich tiie rice was stored, they induced the Auua- 
inites to cut off the communication with tlie latter by tne^ns of a 
dijuble sap and trench* The foreif^ners, who were only a handful 
of men in comparison with the Arinamilesj instantly seized and 
began to fortify a couple of pagodas. Before they could complete 
the works, a force at le»st two tlmusaud strong attacked tliem« 
At the same time the n alive artillery poured a constant fire into 
them from their guns, without any regard to tlie fuct that tlieir own 
troops were mixed up with the French anil Spanish troops defend- 
ing them* The stru^^gle was terminated by the arrival of reinforce- 
ments to the French, when the Annaraites retired; but only to 
carry out additional entrenchments, which effectually cut off the 
foreigners from tlie roads leading to Mytho, Hue, and Cambodge, 
while it left perfectly open the access to the Chinese part of Saigon, 
The manner in which these defences were constructed proved that 
the natives are e:&ceedingly skilful in availing themselves of the 
means at their command* 

Tiie slate of affairs we have just described was that which 
existed in 1861 at the date of the arrival of the French expedition. 
Admiral Charner, in concert with the Spanish commander, and the 
principal French officers, at once proceeded to survey the position 
of the enemyj and to plan the beat method of attacking them. The 
result was a determination to make the attack aiJcording to the 
following plan. The gunboats were to ascend the Donnai, sweep- 
ing away in their course the obstructions placed there by the 
encmjj destroy the forts, and take up a position commanding the 
upper part of the river. Armed with a powerful artillery, including 
some riflijd cannon landed from the ships, the pagodas, supported 
by the men-of-war, moored in a semicircle before Saigon, were to 
keep tlie enemy in check on the front and right flank. Emerging 
from this line, and following a course beyond the reach of the 
enemy's fire, the expeditionary army was to march round the 
Annamitc camp, and attack it in the rear; thus closing it in on all 
sides, and leaving the defender's no alternative between a successful 
defence or an unconditional surrender. The preparations for carry- 
ing this plan into execution were not made in a day, and the 
greatest watchfulness had to be observed at night in order that no 



1868.] IN COCHIN CHINA. 365 

sudden onslaught might be made on the town under cover of the 
darkness bj the enemy, who were estimated to be at least thirty 
thousand strong, and agile as so many North American Indians. 
The French troops showed no unwillingness to attack, but the 
recollection of the previous attack and repulse, and the close vicinity 
of the enemy's lines, which extended a distance of nearly thirty 
miles, made them more serious than they usually are under such 
circumstances, or than they have been since in that country ; the 
defeat of the Annamites and the destruction of their camp having 
changed the feeling with which they then regarded them into con- 
tempt. The share taken by the sailors in the preliminary prepara- 
tions was an arduous one. Not only had they to bend at the oars 
from morning till night under a burning sun in landing troops, 
guns, and ammunition, but they furnished also a detachment of 
900, who were to be employed in the subsequent operations. These 
were armed with boarding cutlasses and revolvers, and were to act 
as a kind of pioneers, and a number of others were employed to 
work the guns landed from the ships. 

It was four o'clock in the morning, and still dark when the bugle 
sounded to summon the men to their standards. They had already 
drunk their coffee and their ration of brandy, and their haversacks 
had been packed the night before, each man being supplied with 
biscuits for eight days, and two rations of cooked meat. Notwith- 
standing the darkness, they had fallen into their places at five 
o'clock, and half an hour later were on the march. Escorted by a 
troop of Chasseurs d'Afrique, the Admiral led the advance. Next 
came the Spanish infantry, then two companies of riflemen, the artil- 
lery, including three rifled 4«-pounders, four rifled 12-pounders, and 
some howitzers; the sailors with their cutlasses and revolvers, who 
were to attack the fortifications ; the marines, and lastly, the military 
train and ambulance. The coolies and baggage animals followed a 
ditferent route, so as not to impede the movement of the column. 
It was now pretty nearly broad daylight, and the temperature was 
not yet so high as to make marching a difficult labour. Some of 
the forts had already opened fire on the enemy's lines, rather to 
occupy their attention than with the expectation of doing them any 
substantial injury, and the deep sonorous booming of these rifled 
30-pounders was readily distinguished from the weaker and more 
ringing sound of the small iron guns of the Annamites, who were 
now in full movement, though the air was filled with the sounds 
emitted by their gongs summoning them to their posts, which was 
only overpowered when one of the guns thundered from the fort, 
and sent a ball ploughing through the hurrying mass of soldiers. 
At the entrance to the plain in front of the enemy's line, the French 
artillery made a dash forward, unlimbered, and directly afterwards 
the clear ringing sound which issued from their batteries showed 
that they had commenced practice. This allowed the soldiers 
forming the column to take breath a little aftAxV\Nfc^ V^^^'^^^^'*^ 

U. S. Mao. No. 416, Juw, l^^ft*. ^^ 



SfC THE FRENCH CAMPAIGN [JOLT^ 

upon the plain, though tlie firing was not supposed to have much 
efft^ct bejond indticing the Annomitea to wa^te tlieir ammunition in 
fruitless replies. The distance between the opposinjr lines was now 
dimiuished by one half, the new position takeu ap by the artillery 
beiiJ^ within live hundred yards of the enemy, whose balls pourrd 
in thick and fast among the French and their Spanish allies. The 
troops were novv divided into two columns of ass^ault ; the left 
formed of sailors under the commnnd of one of their captains, and 
led by a captain of engineers ; the right composed of two companies 
of riflomeTij the corps of marines, and the Bpanisli infantry. The 
fire of the Annamites was well-sustaiupd, accurate, and directed with 
great ^kill and judgment. In a few minutes several artillerymen 
and horses were struck^ and whenever the Admiral and his slafT 
took up a stationary position, a concentrated fire was openrd upon 
it instantly. The short interval which separated the French bat- 
teries from the enemy^s camp, neutralised the superior accur^icj of 
the rifled guns ; and after the firing had continued a considerable 
time ibere was not the fainte&t sign of any relaxation in the rcpiies 
of the native cannon. The losses of the allies were groM^ing serious, 
when the Admiral, taking the direct comnriand of the troops, gave 
the signal for the assault* Under tlie protection of a smart fire of 
grape the troops advanced at a steady pace in the face of a well 
sustained fire of musketry. A cry of " Vive I'Empereur'* was henrd 
above the aonnd of the guns, and the next instant the troops were 
cutting their way through the obstacles raised by the enemy, and 
advancing cautiously among the innumerable pitfalls till they had 
crossed fhe ditch and mounted the ramparts. The Annamilf^ 
remained at their post till this moment, when firing a parting 
volley point blank at the assailants, they retreated, but in such good 
order, that to the Frenchmen who entered the works in time to see 
them, they looked like labourers who had just finished their work, 
and were going quietly home. In a few moments ihey had joined 
the main body of their troops, and the Prench were left in uthIis^ 
turbed possession of the works. Though the Aiinamitt^s stood wtdl 
to their guns, in spite of serious losses^ they did not attempt to 
sustain a hand to hand conflict. 

The fight ended, the wounded were transported to the fort, the 
troops returned for the knapsacks they had thrown off before 
making the assault, and in a short time they were in quiet occupa- 
tion of the low wooden sheds vacated by their opponents* This 
was about nine o'clock, and they had been on foot since four 
o'clock J and a few hours rest waa absolutely necessary before they 
continued their march, in consequence of the danger of fatiguing 
men under a blazing sun in the marshy districts* About three 
o'clock the same afternoon, the bugle again sounded the call. 
Leaving a company of marines and a howitzer in the fort, the troops 
were marched along a moss-covered plain towards a point which 
would cut off the enemy's retreatp It is possible the Annamites may 



J863p] ijf cooHiN CHINA, 38f 

by this time have become aware of, or at all events suspected the 
iiiteTilion of the French commauder, for suddenly a troop of ele* 
plmtits issued from their camp with colours flyingi as if it were their 
purpose to dispute the further advance of their antagonists* But 
the sort IB was speedily checked by a few discharges of grape from 
tlje French gtrnsi, most likely from the impossibility of getting 
elephants to advance against the fire of artillerTj and the natives 
re-entered their camp* After a march of two hours, the allies 
reached the point desired, which had been the site of a village* 
Admiral Chamer took up his quarters in one of the abandoned huts, 
and the men had already begun to make preparations for camping 
for the !»ight, when suddenly so hoi a fire opened upon them from 
among the shrubs and underwood which lay between them and the 
enemy's lines, one of the balls knocking the roof to pieces beneath 
which the head-quarters were pstabli^hed, that they were obliged to 
retreat till the skirmishers and artillery had driven the enemy from 
their shelter, which was not accomplished without considerable 
difficulty* At last the worn-out men were allowed to rest them* 
stiver in peace, most of them being content to make their evening 
meal of biscuit washed down with water ; after which they stretched 
themselves on the ground and slept till they had got pretty well 
into the small hoursj when they were roused by the command to 
assemble, and at five o^clock the artillerymen were again in the 
saddle* 

The army was divided into two parts of unequal strength, the 
main assault beiug devolved on the left, and the right, supported bj 
three howitzers^ being led against the camp by an enfilade move- 
ment intended to lighten the task of the column of assault ; those 
who headed the attack on the previous day now forming the reaerve. 

Amidst the obscurity which surrounded it the advancing column 
looked almost Uke a company of phantoms* The moss -covered 
ground rendered the footsteps and the rolling of the wheels of the 
artillery inaudible at the leisurely pace at which they marched. 
There was nothing of the excitement of war here except the danger- 
No music, nor lia^hins? colour^^ no idea that the eyes of the world 
were upon them ; and the only aonnd which broke the silence was 
the rush of the balls from the heavy guns of Ki-hoa which swept 
over their h^d&* 

The exterior defences of tlie ciimp were of a primitive character* 
but it is doubtful whether with the same means at their disposal any 
European troops could have constructed better. Numerous deep 
and artfully concealed pitfalls with spikes at the bottom extended 
nearly two hundred yards in advance of the earthworks^ the spaces 
between the rows being filled with pali^iades and stakes* Beyond 
these were two broad ditches^ each containing hquid mud to the 
dejJth of about three feet, the opposite sides being raided to a heig!it 
of fifteen feet, and bristling with pointed bamboo stakes, with which 
were interwoven branches of ah robs covered with fbnrp thorns, 

B B 2 



SftS 



THK PttENCH OAMFAIGN 



[TULTj 



These defences, formidable enough in themselves, were defended by 
awarms of Annnmites, who ke^it up an incessant fire of musketry 
upon their assailants, wlio were obliged to advsnce slowly in con- 
eequcmce of the pitfaUa, When these had been traversed, ihoee 
who escaped falling into thera made an impetuous attack on the 
remaining obstacles. The tight was long and obstinate ; and when 
at last tile A mi a mites retired, it was only within their forts and 
another line of earthworks. The attacking force was now in as bad, 
or worse, position than before. The guns of the forts had been laid 
with skill, so ns to cross their fire> and the whole of the open apace 
in front of tliis internal line of fortifications was capable of being 
swept by the fire of musketry. It is not improbable that if the 
Annamites had had only the outer line of works, and had coucen- 
t rated their whole exertions to its defence, the little army of French- 
men would have been so cut up that they could not have persisted 
ill their attack against such odds ; but having once penetrated this 
outer line the latter were encouraged to make a more forions attack 
on the inner lirie of defences. The fire from the forts opened 
the instant after the natives had retired within their prolectioa, 
and a perfect shower of musket balls hailed among the allied 
forces. Oflicera and men were dropping in every direction, and 
still there was no sign of any slackening in the vigour of the 
resistance offered by the besieged, The main attack was urged 
unsuccessfully for threc-qnarters of an hour under a burning sun* 
Nearly the whole staff and escort surrounding Admiral Charner 
were wounded^ the men were getting exhoustedj and no human cry 
was now heard except the occasional shriek or imprecation of a 
wounded man. Even the trumpet was silenced for a time from the 
trumpeter being stunned by a ball striking him on the forehead. 
At this juncture the reserve was ordered up, and every man that 
could be made available ; the baggage waggons and even the artil- 
lery being left almost unprotected. With a sudden access 
of energy inspired by discipline, tradition^ and the feeling that 
salvation depended on immediate auccessj a rush was made against 
the entrances to the forts and defences, which were cut down with 
axes, wielded as frequently by the officers as by their men. The 
assault was now successfuh The Europeans forced their way into 
the interior, and a scene of carnage ensued not difficult to imagine 
when it ia remembered that the allies had suffered severe loss es^, and ^ 
were so near being discomfited. The forts were at once occupied by 
the victors, and also the huts from which the enemy had been 
driven otJt. Ammunition, stores, and provisions were brought 
from the depots; and at the same time intelligence was brought of 
the complete saccess of the flotilla in its cacountera with the forts 
in forcing a passnge up the river. 

It was found when the muster roll was called over that one- thir- 
teenth of the allied army had been placed hms de combat in this 
alfair* How many the enemy lost is not known, inasmuch as they 



1S68.] IN COCHIN CHINA. 369 

had facilities for carrying off their killed and wounded as they fell to 
a distant part of the camp. When account had been taken, it was 
found that the Annamites had abandoned nearly a hundred and fifty 
pieces of ordinance of different calibres; above two thousand flint 
muskets of French manufacture, all in good condition, more than 
four thousand pounds of well made gunpowder, a considerable 
quantity of copper 'money, and numerous plans and maps. 

From tlie absence of cavalry, for the Chasseurs d^Afrique did not 
amount to a score in all, the enemy could not be pursued as they 
fled, and, therefore, their retreat was not thanged into a rout ; and 
instead of being cut up or captured, they made their escape from 
the camp by two guUeys known only to themselves, which traversed 
a district so soft and muddy and of such extent, that a large army 
might have been engulphed in it. 

The next step taken by the French commander was an advance * 
to Tongkeau, a place of some importance as being an arsenal of the 
Annamites. This was captured after a brisk cannonade with little 
loss; and the stores of guns, ammunition, and provisions which 
fell into the hands of the allies was considerable. After a shoit halt 
the advance was continued, but it would have been better to have 
encamped for the night where they were, for the sun was so power- 
ful, and the air so 611ed with heated impalpable dust that the men 
suffered greatly, some dying, and others losing their senses from the 
effect of sunstroke. The ultimate result of these continual advances 
into the interior was the dissolution of the Annamite army. Driven 
from point to point, the vassals who held their farms by a military 
tenure threw off their uniform and returned to the cultivation of 
their land, while the regular troops, or what remained of them, 
dispersed and made their escape to other districts. Twelve months 
later, peace was signed between France and the empire of Aunam, 
favourable, of course, to the former; but it is doubtful if such 
terms would have been yielded if the Emperor had not had to con- 
tend against a very serious insurrection. Subsequently, the French 
have had to enter the field again to put down a rising among the 
population in the territory ceded to them. 

With the differences of opinion which have since arisen in France 
as to whether it would not have been better to have kept the troops 
at home and saved the expenses of the expedition we have nothing 
to do; but the operations of France in such a distant part of the 
world shows that this invasion^ taken in conjunction with the 
resumption of possession of New Caledonia on the coast of Aus- 
tralia, and the expeditiod to Mexico, forms part of a vast scheme 
on the part of the Emperor Napoleon to aggrandise his empire. 
The campaign was not one of very great importance, but our sym- 
pathies with France are strong enough to cause us to regard with 
interest the struggle of so small a force of Europeans against an 
entire empire of Asiatics. 



370 



[July, 



REMINISCENCES OF A CADET, 

Temper jusiice with mercy" ought to be one of the leading 

f>rin€iplea of those who are placed in authority over youth, Dii^cip- 
ine, stern unbending discipline^ will not suffice; allorance must be 
made for the ebullitions, the follie.% and, filas ! we must add the bud- 
ding vices of the incipient — man. Admitting the truth of ^' Jui^t as 
thetwigis bent the tree*3 inclined," we mast t^till remember that in 
bending we must avoifl breaking; an experienced and patient 
gardener may succeed in judiciously training the rising plant, while 
a hasty man may too often "nip the flower in its bud/' What a 
distressing spectacle would it prove to some of the educational 
authorities could they see tlie termination of the earthly career 
of some of their erring pupils ; who, Ihough guilty of misde- 
meanourSj or perhaps youthful vices, had only just wandered 
from tlie paths of rectitude, mornlity, and religion; and by cle- 
mency^ advice, mid not over severe treatment might have been 
reclaimed from (heir approaches to crimcj and have lived to become 
ornaments to society ; whereas^ by harsh and unfeeling punishment, 
many of these headstrong, or misguided youths became callous to 
consequences, and stubbornly pursued I heir evil habits^ or, with 
even a maddened feeling of indignatioUj rushed headlong inlo a 
course of life at the mere thought of which a few months previously 
they would have shuddered. Records are kept and published of 
the career of many of our distinguished countrymen in their sclio- 
lastic and collegiate progress from boyhood to manhood ; and to 
the press too we are indebted for interesting accounts of the customs 
and regulations established at the various institutions ; but the 
black letter books have not appeared , the feelings of the outcasts 
and of their relations have been spared ; and, in some instancesj the 
absence of this vtry pubhcity has added to the b elf-satisfied feelings 
of an over*Mrict and ilUjudgingdisciplinarianj who, f-o carry out his 
own viewSj has unhesitatingly and unju^ifiably condemned a youth 
who merited not so harsh a sentence as that awarded for his erring 
conduct. 

Since the following tragic career of one of oar associates at a 
military educational es^tablishmentj many years have passed, but the 
sad tetminotion of it is still fresh in our memory^ and induces ua to 
give publicity to it, not only as a warning to youth?, but also as a 
caution to those in authority, le^it they should at any time unwisely 
and heartlessly forget "to temper justice with mercy/' At tite ter- 
mination of one of the vacations, a cadet received from his father a 
liberal supply of pocket money for his peUy expenses, and for his 

journey to -, Similarly to too many pilgrims in the course of 

life, he wandered from the straight path, and, instead of returning 
direct to his po^it, he became so fascinated with tlve allurements of 
pleasure and freedom that lie remained in the metropolis until all 



1863.] BEMINISCBNOBS OF A CADET. 371 

his fands were flittered away ; and theu^ with a heavy heart, made 
his appearance at his place of military iustruction. Anticipating 
severe notice of his absence^ most unjustifiably, and most impru- 
dently he bad prepared a false medical certificate, which he pro- 
duced to the inspector of studies on being called upon to account 
for his delayed return. The manner and tone of this officer were 
rather peculiar, and, having looked at the certificate, he said, in his 

usual drawling tone, " Why, Mr. , I really think tliis is a 

forgery.'' Uttered as it was, the appeal was irresistibly ludicrous, 
and quite disconcerted the intended steady demeanour of the ab- 
sentee, who, without a momeiit's thought, replied, " Why, of course 

it is.'' This drew forth, " Then, Mr. ^ you are placed in arrest, 

and I shall report the circumstance to the Governor. This having 
been done, the delinquent waa«sent to the black hole for some days, 
and then ordered to he degraded. To the inexperienced in these 
matters we must make known that degradation of a cadet implied 
separation from his comrades at meals, studies, and at night ; more- 
Over, when the cadets marched past at the garrison parade on Sunday 
morning, the degraded embryo soldier was dressed in his daily un- 
dress costume, and marched in the rear of the division, while the 
other cadets were attired in their full-dress suit; thus pointing out 
to all the soldiers the delinquency of the outcast. Aware of the 
intention of thus exposing him on public parade, the indignant and 
proud youth determined not to submit to so harsh an ordeal, and 
his decision was well known not only to the body of cadets, but 
also to the officers of the garrison, all of whom felt for his'^dis- 
tressing position, and in their hearts applauded him for upholding 
the rank of a cadet, which would have been indelibly disgraced by 
his appearing on parade in the conspicuous manner intended by the 
Governor. The eventful Sunday came, the parade was formed in 
front of the Cadet barracks, the body of the military students, and 

poor in the rear dressed in the costume previously described ; 

but, on the word " March " being given, one cadet obeyed not the 
order, the degraded one moved not, and, on beiuo^ desired to 
follow his late associates, he replied to the officer — "No, sir, I will 
never disgrace the cadets by appearing thus on the garrison parade, 
the punishment is degrading to the Company, the soldiers would see 
a caaet thus humiliated who before long might be an officer over them. 
I will never march to tiiat parade : I have submitted to every other 
portion of my punishment without a murmur, but I will not dis- 
grace the Company : send me again to the black hole, or do any- 
thing else you please with me^ but do not expect that you can 
induce me to attend the garrison parade to-day." All the officers 
and cadets sympathised with the determined recusant, and approved 
of his feelingg of pride and self-devotion. Not so the stern Go- 
vernor^ who (indignant that his orders had been disobeyed, and not 
duly appreciating the sensitive feelings which caused the doomed 
cadet to refuse compliance with his harsh mandate) lost no time in 



372 



KmiNISCENCES Of A CADET. 



u 



0Lr, 



reporting the case to the highest authority, and the Jireful result 

was the dismissal of poor from the Cadet Company. Alas 1 

for him ; he T^as a favourite witli his comrades, his character had not 
been tarnished until the |jerpetralion of the recorded improper con- 
da ctj and now he uas cast upon the world destitute mid penniless— 
for his refusal to obey the Governor's orders having beeu made 
kno\*n to hia father, he, too, forgot 'Ho err is homaii^ to forgive 
divine jJMie too, a father and a clergyman^ dosed the gates of 
mercy, and heartlessly pcrpetrat<3d a deed ihat Christiana well might 
blttsli at—" But if ye forgive not meu their trespassea, neither will 
your Father forgive your trespasses/^ 

All the erring ones have, we believe, quitted this world of trials 
and we may therefore terminate the recital of tlie mournful event 
without distressing their feelings. On receiving his dismissal, and 
being made cognizant of the total blight to his hopes of ever oh- 
taining a commission in the army, anotlier death-blow was in store 
for him, a letter from liis father was received conveying his most 
severe censure, banishing him from bia home, and casting him o(T 
for ever. The grieving associates of poor — — j having learnt this 
cruel treatment, collected together ail the moiiey they could for the 
unlucky cost-away, and, all shaking him by the hand, parted from 
him with regret* Months elapsed, and nothing further was beard 
of him, untih accidentally , on a Sunday afterrjoon a cadet, on leave 
of absence, was struck by the resemblance of a private iu the Guards 
to bis late associate ; and, on looking steadily at bim, the soldier 
came towards him, and said, " I see you have recognised me, and I 
had better, therefore, not attempt to conceal my present position* 
which 1 now muke kiiown^ with a request that, in mentioning it to 
the other cadets, you will beg them Tiever to notice me sliould they 
meet me in London. When I quitted you all, entirely deserted by 
iny relations, I endeavoured to obtain some employment as a clerk, 
but not succeeding in thi^^, and the subscription you kiivdiy gave me 
having been quite exhausted, to avoid starving I enlisted os a soldier, 
and thought it advisable to make my colonel aware of my former 
course of life* He was much pleased with my military drawings, 
and said he would communicate whnt I had told him to the other 
officers, and promote me to non-commissioned officer as soon as 
be could/* 

Thus terminated the history of Ihe discarded cadet's enlistment ; 
and several years elapsed without any further account of him. Ac- 
cidentally, however, wo became acquainted with an officer of the 
same name, w^bo related that, a short time after tho battle of 
Waterloo, an officer of the Guards called upon him, and stated that 
a Serjeant in his regiment was in a dying state, and that as it was 
known in I he corps that the srrjeant was by birtli a genllL^man, it 
was tlionght that perhaps the officer might be connected with him, 
and that he would therefore like to accompjiny bim to the dying 
non-commissioned officctp They proceeded without delay to the 



1^ 



1863.] BEMIMSCENCES OP A CADET. 373 

hospital^ but arrived, alas ! too late to have any conversation with 
our early associate, whose constitution gave way under the hardships 
he had endured in the campaign, and who thus unfriended, and al- 
most unknown, quitted the world, in which for several years his life 
must indeed have been a life of sorrow and disappointment; all his 
troubles and sufferings having been caused by one act of youthful 
folly and reprehensible conduct. 

In scanning the deeds of our fellow-man, let us not judge too 
harshly ; there is no doubt that severe blame, censure, and punish- 
ment ought to have awaited the erring cadet ; but let stern moralists 
take a lesson from the injury, destructive of all that life holds dear, 
inflicted on a mere youth ; let his melancholy fate prove a lesson to 
future disciplinarians, let them not imitate the unfeeling judge, let 
them *' temper justice with mercy,'' and thus prove themselves a 
blessing instead of a curse to those over whom they are placed in 
authority. 

*' The quality of mercy is not strained. 
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven 
Upon the place beneath ; it is twice bless'd. 
It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes : 
'Tis mightiest in the mightiest ; it becomes 
The throned monarch better than his crown : 
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power. 
The attribute to awe and majesty. 
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings ; 
But mercy is above his scepter'd sway. 
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings. 
It is an attribute to God himself. 
An earthly power doth then show likest God's 
When mercy seasons justice." 
In our reminiscences of the sad termination of the career of some 
of our old associates, we will now instance the life of one who as a 
youth was quiet, well-disposed, and apparently had every prospect of 
rising in his profession, and becoming a comfort and blessing to his 
parents, of whom he was the only son and heir to a landed estate. 
Though not possessing good abilities as a scholar, still he was not 
deficient in mental qualifications ; the latter portion of his life, how- 
ever, made it but too apparent that his strength of mind, and appre- 
ciation of^ right and wrong were not such as to keep him in the path 
of religion, morality, and honourable conduct. Shortly after ob- 
taining his commission, he formed an attachment to an unprincipled 
and degraded woman, who obtained so much power over him that he 
made her his wife, though for some time he did not acknowledge his 
marriage to his brother officers. This disreputable connection reached 
the ears of his father, who forthwith went to his misguided son in the 
hope to reclaim him from his abandoned course of life. After a most 
distressing interview with him and his disreputable wife, the unhappy 
parent at length succeeded in inducing them to consent to a separa- 



374 



HEMIKISCBNCIIS Of A Ci.BKT* 



JOLl 



tion from each otlier for ever; the woman Jn consequence, to receivd 
one hundred pounds a }Tar for life, and the sou^s conduct to be for4 
given, and n liberal pecuniary allowance conti fined to hiin on condn 
tion that he never again cohabited with his vicious wife* To ensure' 
breaking this abominable connection, the young officer was removed 
to another station^ and the woman went her way, separated, as it 
was cxpectedi for ever from the victim ghe had entrapped. Bad as 
mBtters had been thus far, there was ?till hope and prospect that the 
future life of the young soldier might be gentlemanly and mond, and 
make amends in some measure for bis entrance into the pMi& of 
vice and degradation ; but, alas ! the tares Imd been too firmly 
rooted to be separated from the wheat, the good seed sown was com- 
pletely choked upi the weeds of evil oblained their full growth, and 
furnis^hed baneful and destructive food, in^^tead of the wholesonte and 
nutritious nourishment that the soil by judicious culture would have 
produced. The converse ot "Drink deep, or tnste not the Pieriaii^ 
spring ^' is, in loo many cases, applicable to the pois^ooous cup 
Circe, wlio^e votaries, having once indulged in a draught of her at 
tractive, though dei?truetive bevemge, " banish reason from he 
throne," and, without a panjr or a murmur, drink deep and — perish. 
This too truly was the result in the case of the officer whose course 
of life became worse and wor$e: the promi:?es made to bis anxious 
parent were unheeded and brukeo; the woman rejoined her degraded 
husband, wdiose pecuniary allowance from his justly-irritated father 
was ill con.iequence immediately sto[)ped; the disapprobation and 
censure of brother officers were expressed ; debts increased, which 
were not paid ; and eventually the commission, that had been dis- 
graced, was resigned J and the vicious couple were thrown upon tlie 
world without friends and without any means of subsistence* After 
some time, intelligence was received that they had been fortunate 
enough to support themselves in a verj humble way by teaching 
the children of poor parents in a day-school ; but tliis pause in the 
downward career of the man {who wilfully sacrificed for a worthless 
woman all that' would have made life a bles:?ing to himself and his 
parents) was, we believe, of short duration* The descending wiieel 
of fortune, once in motion, pursued its course, and ti^e next report 
that reached us was that the miserable man had been seen ascending 
a long ladder, as a bricklayer's labourer, with a hod of mortar o!i 
bis shoulder. We heard no more of bim ; but, as he was neither 
strong in body nor of a good constitution^ his life must have been 
brief, enduring such hardships, to wliich there could be no termina- 
tian, for his broken-hearted father had disinherited him, and all 
friendship and sympathy were alienated between the outcast ami the 
companions of h^s youth, in the recital of the misfortunes that at- 
tended tbemisconduct of the first cadet, who, by less harsh trei^tment 
than he experienced, would in all probability have done credit to his 
profession, we attached blame to the too severe authorities ; but, in 
this latter remijmcence, to " temper juslice wilh mercy " Inid nut 



1868.] SEMIN18CBN0E8 07 A OADBT. 875 

been forgotten ; mercy had been fully shown, every endeavour had 
been made to reclaim the votary of vice, the prodigal son had been 
intreated to return, the fatted calf would have been killed, bright 
and happy would have been his welcome ; but he sealed his own 
doom in this world : and, degraded and discarded from the position 
he ought to have occupied in life, he terminated his days an outcast 
from enlightened and high-principled society ; furnishing another 
beacon to deter men from risking shipwreck on the rocks and quick- 
sands of self-gratification, immorality, and vice. 

" What lost a world, and made a hero fly ? 
The timid tear in Cleopatra's eye. 
Yet be the soft Triumvir's fault forgiven. 
By this— how many lose not earth but heaven; 
Consign their souls to man's eternal foe. 
And seal their own, to spare some wanton's woe 7" 
The two previous reminiscences have been of a sombre and dis- 
tressing character, but it must not be imagined that, in our thoughts 
of past times, we always look at the gloomy side of life, and re- 
member not the light scenes of pleasure ana conviviality. What, 
amusing, aye! and edifying books of anecdotes might be published 
if men, on their entrance into professional life, would but more often 
devote an idle half hour now and then to dot down tlie quaint 
sayings and humourous doings of their friends and associates. A 
few volumes of anecdotes may certainly be found in large libraries, 
but what a starvation diet may they be considered when we re- 
member the myriads of men who have, each in their day, enjoyed 
the merry joke, and been themselves often present in scenes the re- 
lation of which would be found very interesting, whether the trans- 
actions had reference to deeds of daring, escapes from danger, ebul- 
litions of wit, practical jokes, in short any acts commendable for 
their good intentions, and consequent good results, or for the effects 
they may have had in raising drooping spirits, and proving that in 
this world " all is {not) barren." 

Beturning again to oui Bemipiscences, we will give an instance 
of stretching the point of honour to its extreme bounds. Youthful 
spirit will have its fiing, and at a fair, in the vicinity of the barracks, 
a party of excited and mischievously-disposed cadets were one 
evening determined to sweep away everything that opposed them in 
their promenade between the booths. For a short time they carried 
all before them, but at length they were encountered by a body of 
civilian pleasure seekers, who were determined to hold their ground 
against the embryo soldiers. The opponents met face to face, " then 
came the tug of war;" flesh and blood would not give way, but the 
stalls of gingerbread, dolls, toys, and the usual heterogenous collec- 
tion of rubbish at these fairs were soon upset, and trampled on the 
ground amidst the scolding of women and the abuse, followed by 
the pugnacious assaults of the male possessors of the insulted pro- 
perty. Heavy and hearty fell the blows on both sides, hats were 



576 



A TEIP TO VANCOUVKR ISLAND 



£JULY, 



smashed, garments, the pride q( tailors and tlieir dandj wfjirtT^ 
were rent and destroyed; faces and ligurea were severely punislied, 
hut still the fight weiit on, each portj obsliniilel)^ diFputing every 
inch of ground. At length a strong body of congfubles inadt' their 
appearance, and endeavoured to secure some of the most active in 
the fray, but the cadet combatants closed their ranks, and thus pre- 
vented the capture of any individual. Not snch was the good for* 
tune of an inoJTcnsive cadet, who was on the outskirts of the 
skirmisth, and had not taken any share in the encounter, bat was 
mere! J a quiet spectator of the misconduct of his comrades i he, 
poor youth, was pounced upon by the police^ and of course easily 
captured, 

'* Thus when two dogs are fighting in the streets. 
With one of t bese two dogs t'other dog meets | 
With angry teeth he bites him to the bone, 
And this dog suffers for what toother dog has done/' 
Rejoiced at having secured one of the cadets, they triumphantly 
carried their victim to the cage, locked him up, and returned lo the 
fair just as the fight had terminated ^ 

As the cadets were moving homewards^ they learnt the fate of their 
umjffending asFociate^ and loBt no time in proceeding in a body to 
the cage, in which they found him incarcerated. This was unendar* 
able ; so, without a niomenl*s hesitation, they procured the means of 
bursting open the well-locked door* which soon yielded to their 
united strength^ and, having thus succeeded, they told the released 
prisoner to return with them to tiie barracks, To their great sur* 
prise and indignation he refused to do so, influenced by his own 
peculiar views and feelings of the point of honour* In vain did his 
friends endeavour to persuade him to accompany them, he would 
not quit his cell, refusing all entrexities^ saying " The same power 
that put him in should take him ont/^ With open door there he 
remained all the night; and, as a climax to his mis fortunes, he waa 
the following morning fined by the 'magistrates for being in the fray, 
had to bear his portiou of the expenses for damage to boothsj &c, } 
and, furthermore, he lost the good opinion of his youthful comrades 
by making known the names of the cadets " who had fought the 
good fight, and gained the victory;" and who^ but for his high 
fangled notions of honour, would have had their spree at the fair 
without any of the unpleasant consequences which followed their 
uproarious and mischievous conduct. 



A TRIP TO VANCOUVEH ISLAND, AND BHITISH 
COLUMBIA. 

CHAPTER IX. 
The Pi4i{ige Home* 

Who the Major is?, and what the Major does, I have not the 
slightest idea, but he will be eternally associated in my mind with 



1863.] AND BRITISH COLUUBIA. 377 

San Francisco shipping. Directly you arrive in port you see the 
Major, who is a man of immense importance, looks as if he had 
swallowed a poker, pounces upon the mail, pumps the captain with 
questions, and winds up by saying, ''Gentlemen! have you got any 
newspapers ?" Whether the Major has any connexion with the de- 
parture of steamers, and whether he was on board or not, I did not 
know. Every saloon, every cabin, every nook and corner, was a 
dense conglomeration of juvenile newsvendors, who persuaded or 
forced you to buy a paper, of nurses and babies in caps and out of 
caps, of busy porters, frantic stewards, passengers and passenger's 
baggage. A jolly Jooking gentleman in black which is very respect- 
able, and with very big collars, which added considerably to that 
respectability, and who looked like something between a bishop, a 
dean, and an archdeacon, was bowing, shaking hands, chatting and 
laughing, or rather roaring with everybody. " Celebrated preacher 
that,'' said some communicative gentleman ; " runs away from his 
parish eyery year, and is as jolly, I guess, as a sand-boy;" and then, 
as if one had any desire to controvert such a statement, added, " an 
uncommon smart preacher." And there was the girl-mother tossing 
her baby up and down to keep it quiet, and chatting about the 
general who had sent her a telegraphic dispatch, most precious of 
all military dispatcher, to the pleasant-looking Scotch stewardess, 
who, with the experience of twenty-five different passages from 
Liverpool to New York, had left the Atlantic, and was now chirping 
to the baby, just as if she hadn't to work very hard to get a living, 
understood babies, and was herself a mother. There, too, was a 
pale-faced old gentleman, who had just kissed some little lads who 
was going away and crying badly; and a peddling chemist had 
espied him, and with a preparatory cough, said : '' Wright's pills, 
Wrighfs inimitable pills. Sir!" "But are they genuine ?" asked 
the pale-faced gentleman. " To be sure. Sir, of course, good for 
everything," answered the Chemist, pocketing a dollar, " and take a 
copy of * Snoggins Illustrated Advertiser,' free gratis, to read with 
them. Won't make you bilious, and you'll find it vastly improving. 
Just examine it." Then, turning to me, the Chemist savs, " Seidlitz 
powders ! seidlitz powders, Sir I a pleasant beverage for the tropics." 
'' By your leave, madam ! Gangway ! gangway I" and there sets 
in a stream of modern Atlasses, breathless and deploringly bent 
under the weight of mail bags, sacks of all sizes, duly addressed and 
ticketed. Then your ears are stunned by a hand-bell which is car- 
ried about and rung in a desperate manner, until even a lazy gentle- 
man, who is airing his feet on the arms of a chair, and spitting at 
intervals into a wooden tray half full of saliva, becomes excited, and 
endeavours to force his way into some extraordinary place, where the 
door is locked, and there is evidently no admittance. Thus, after a 
moment's peace, the hand-bell begins again, worse than ever, the* 
passengers' friends clear away, and we begin to feel quite deserted. 
The crowd which throngs the shore waves " good-bye " to every- 



37S 



A TEIP TO VAKCOU^KR £3L4NO 



PULTj 



body, and we are off, erf eping very »Iow]j from the wharf, " When 
shall we be regularly under weigh, ea plain ?'' says the lazy gentle- 
inau* " Impo-^sible to ^ny/' answers the captain, bustling off; 
''there is half the crew on shore yet, because they've cut their 
wages."' " Smart luiin that, captain !'' ejaculates the lazy gentle- 
iran* "Tliat^s so," cfiimes in a seedy. looking indiv^idual with ii| 
long beard, "atid a good phrenologist, — knows something about it^- 
too, into the bargain*" 

There was a lady among the passe nge^rs of lofty stature, a grave, 
sflturnine expression of conntenance and a benignly pitying smile, 
who answered exactly to my conception of the Delphian Pythoness, 
Whichever way you looked you caught this lady's eye, and you were 
at once conscious that she was erideavouring to interpret your mouth, 
rend your eye^t, and make observations upon your temperament- 
Occasionally there were responses from this oracle which were suffi- 
ciently mysterious. The British aristocracy were intrinsically bad, 
nnd would terminate in some violent way during the present century ♦ 
The badness of selection in the creation of peers of the realm was 
something incredible. They didn't make George Combe a duke< 
" The Whole Duty of Man " was the most original and finest work 
in the English language* Wheu I learned that the Pythoness 
was a female M,D., a water-cure doctor, a spiritual medium, and a 
lecturer on Woman's Rights and Woman's Wrongsi, and, further, 
that she had been particularly warned by spiritual manifestations not 
to travel by the Golden Gate steamer, my curiosity was considerably 
increased. We were chatting about Spiritualism one day when an 
English gentleman asserted that it was anything but what it ought 
to be, and added, that the first question we ought to ask respecting 
it was, " of what use is it ?" '' Decidedly not," said the Pythoness ; 
"the first question which we ought to ask respecting Spiritualism 
and all other things is this : — ^Is it true?^' Although no Spiritualist, 
I thought that the lady had the best of the argument. I was ex- 
ceedingiy sorry when I was told that I had lost what the passengers 
call the first " hen''' lecture^ but I was more fortunate as regards the 
second* It was a novel sight to see ladies silting in groups^ some 
with babies in their arms, around the female lecturer, who looked 
articularly prim, and to whom a look of extra genius was afforded 
ly the addition of spectacies. The lecture was on Woman j her 
posiLion in the world, and her duties ; and I was surprised to find 
so little that anyone could quarrel with iu the doctrine propounded. 
We were told, of course^ that woman/'s reasoning wns inductive, 
man's deductive ; the one derived from natural instinct^ the other 
from facts. Woman's genius was aspiration ; it had to do with the 
unseen. Man's ambition, to rise in the outer world* Great Britain 
was instanced as an example of ambition — America of aspiration* 
The chanicter both of man and of woman was affected by great 
crises, A great crisis had stamped its character in the physiognomy 
of the American. A story was told to illustrate the necessity of 



I 



1868.] AND BRITISH COLUMBIA. 879 

intelligeDce in a mother to ensure talent in a child. In a remark- 
ably stupid family, known to the lecturer, one child was a genius, 
and she learned eventually that the mother had during pregnancy 
discovered some pretty book and taught herself to read. It was 
not woman's mission to take part in politics, and labour for hire was 
not her proper work. A masculine or strong-minded woman — a 
character cordially disliked by men — was one whose sympathies were 
deadened by study. A strong-minded was not merely an intelligent 
woman. No man objected to intelligence in woman ; he did not 
want a fool for his wife. Some wonder was expressed that Mr. 
Buckle had not referred to woman's work in the " Progress of Civi- 
lization, but the admission was amply atoned for by a lecture delivered 
by this historian at the Royal Institution. The lecturer, who spoke 
fluently for more than an hour, concluded her lecture with the 
words, *' Well, I guess Tve talked enough." 

The steamer which preceded us was the Oolden Gate which met 
with an appalling disaster. When several miles from the shore she 
took tire, and upwards of two hundred passengers, men, women, and 
children, were either burned, drowned, or torn to pieces by the 
paddle-wheels. It was a melancholy sight to see the hull of this 
pplendid steamer stranded among the heavy breakers on a shelving 
shore. We touched at Mazanilla, a deadly-lively village of thatched 
cottages, to take in cotton and to land some ninety odd tons of 
quicksilver, an article for which there is a considerable demand in 
mining countries. Here we took up two dreamy-looking passengers, 
man and wife ; the former an American, the latter English, a native 
of Yorkshire. The lady, approaching to embonpoint, wore her hair 
a la Rosa Bonheur, and was suffering from a fortnight at Maximilian, 
a wretched fiery place, all dust, sandflies, and mosquitoes. Anima- 
tion had to be restored with copious draughts of champagne. It 
was not long before I discovered that those singular passengers 
were spiritual mediums. A friend of their's, who although not an 
orthodox spiritualist himself, was a waverer, and who bad been par- 
ticularly warned, it seems, not to travel by the Golden Gate, but 
laughed at the warning, was among the missing passengers. The 
extraordinary couple held a communication with the spirit of the 
missing gentleman, but the spirit was obstinate and would not re- 
spond, and they accordingly concluded that the missing gentleman 
was alive. I need hardly say that the industrious search after the 
missing passenger, which must have been made at a considerable 
expense, proved of no avail. 

On Saturday, August 80th, we reached Acapulco, where we tar- 
ried a few hours to take in coal. A French frigate had arrived on 
or about the 24th ult., and had scared nearly every one away. The 
United States sloop, Lancaster (Commodore Hufl5> ^^^ taken up a 
position between the French frigate and the shore, and when the 
frigate moved she changed her position also. The French frigate 
was not allowed to land a boat. An old fort had been abandoned 



880 



A TETP TO YAKCOUYIR ISLAND 



JULY, 



and served as an hospital, while two new forts out of gun range from 
the harbour, had been constructed on the heights. They could be 
readily taken in rear by moutitain howitzers. Acapulco is a decayed 
Mexican town. Very lean pigs with very h)ug snouts, wander de- 
jectedly about the streets in search of stray cabbage sin Iks. Lazarus 
covered with sores, lay looking up reproachfuliy at tfie " botica 
legal/' well stored with drugs* Here and there were dark Spanish 
beauties, dreas^ed in white, long black hair hanging naturally down 
their neck. The bed-rooms looked clean, white and chalky, and 
some of the bedsteads were of brnss, nearly as big as the great bed 
of Ware, covered with very neat Damask counterpanes. HammockSj 
generally well filled, were suspended in tvcry verandah. An Ameri- 
can hotel is a poor place^ but my companion, an Italian priest, con- 
jured me to turn in and take breakfast. Girls entered at the open, 
doors with ^hell flowers and necklaces, one of wbich the priest pur- 
chased for a rosary ; without vjrere fruit stalls, and there girls sat 
working, chatting or smoking, not paper cigarettes, but good honest 
cigars. The brigadier seemed rather more mercantile than military. 
Sailor-lookijjg soldiers in white trousers fastened by a biack silk 
belt, and straw hats, w*ere pacing up and down, before his 
office. We found the climate intensely hot and moist, I sug- 
gested to an American naval officer that it was a dull, dis- 
agreeable station j but he replied in the negative, " We don't 
dishke it much, for we can buy plenty of capital fowls here/' 
I was glad to discover for the first time in my life that there 
lived a man in the world so easily satisfied* A gun warned us to 
betake ourselves to the steamer, and none probably regretted our 
departure more than a shoal of juvenile, swarthy divers^ whose 
months were all well filled with silver* Here we lost sight of the 
pair of spiritual mediums, who awaited the mail steamer returning 
to Siin Francisco, 

I was fated throughout my journey to become acquainted with 
men whose business had been, or was, connected with investments. 
Some had merry faces, but money was expressed in most, and stern- 
ness, anxiety, and rapacity, bad taken away all that was high and 
noble, and left all that was odious and contemptible. With all 
these gentlemen money was the theme of conversation ; and they 
had a happy idea that money was the great reformer, the end of 
life, the outward and visible sign of respectability, the foundation of 
religion. It was sad t,o see the men with one foot in the grave so 
convinced that trade and all its littlenesses was the sole business of 
man's existence, to observe the energy with which he reiterated, 
striking his clenched fist at intervals upon his chair : " What gives 
you clothes, what gives you friends, what makes yon independent, 
what enables you to travel? — Money /^ To one of these gentleraen 
I had lent Mn Trollope's "North America," and the first question 
be asked upon returning it was, '* Will that book sell in England ?" 
He entered at length into the way in which books and newspapers 



1868.] AND BRITISH COLUMBIA. 381 

are got up in Great Britain ; and I believe that he was perfectly 
right in asserting, that if less attention waa paid to outward show 
and to the material of which our paper is comoosed, the cost of pro^ 
ductiou would be considerably lessened, and the circulation and 
profits of the undertaking materially increased. He then assured 
me that an International Copyright Act was in course of passing 
at Washington, when he stopped it. It was simply envy that 
prompted the desire on the part of English authors, but did they 
never consider that if there was such an Act it would enhance the 
price of their books, they would not have half the readers which 
they have at the present moment in the United States, and their 
gains would be inconsiderable? It is impossible to convince an 
American, who sees nothing objectionable in smartness, that there is 
anything unjust in the matter. I asked one young capitalist who 
was going to college, and who told me that he had been in the 
money-lending line of business, if he had ever lost money. He 
replied, " A man who lends money must lose occasionally, however 
sharp he is,*' and he mentioned the name of a well-known capitalist 
in San Francisco, who advanced a large sum on hams in bond with- 
out securing himself by inspecting them, and who found to his cost 
that not one ham was worth a single cent. " I will give you an 
instance,'* he said, " of Western smartness. I went one day with a 
friend to a town where we had both got town lots. I was in the 
hotel when the landlord, who was game to trade about anything and 
everything, said, ' That's a nice gold watch of your's : let's trade ! 
How many land lots will you take for it?' 'I did not want to lose 
my watch,' said the speaker, and I left the hotel and went to a 
neighbouring shop. Presently my friend came in, and said, * I have 
struck a bargain. Change watches, old fellow, — mine is much the 
best, and he will never discover it.' My friend in his desire to 
deceive the landlord of the hotel forgot that he was selling himself, 
considerably to my advantage. He found it out, and came to me in 
a few days, when I gave him some small gold key to split the dif- 
ference." A French capitalist who has risen to wealth in San Fran- 
cisco was pointed out to me. The secret of his success is, that he 
has the facility of borrowing money in France at four, and can lend 
it in California at thirty-six per cent, per annum. I could name an 
English military officer, who went to San Francisco with some three 
thousand pounds sterling, and who was simply a victim in the hands 
of those whom he accommodated. Only a Scotchman can hope to 
cope successfully with a Yankee money-lender. 

It was dusk when we arrived at Panama, and rode out of the 
boat upon the backs of the Spanish boatmen. Being accompanied 
by an English merchant from Valparaiso or its neighbourhood, who 
did the talking, I got my baggage transported to the Aspinwall 
Hotel on far more favourable terms than many of the other pas- 
sengers. There most be something German about my face, for a 
German who spoke English perfectly, addressed me on entering the 

U. S. Mag. No. 416, July, 1863. cc 



382 A TEIF TO VAUOOUVJSft ISLAKD PULY^ 

hotel in German, and on one occasion I was similarly intarrogated 

in Sardinia, I chatted frequently with I his gentleman afterward:?, 
and he told me that Panama was the most ''awfully miserable place" 
he was ever in. It vvas the rainy season^ and Panama was ceriaiidy 
hot and muggy* I thought that the streets might have bt^en clearier, 
for they were the common sewer in which every species of tiltli 
breathed forth pestiferous vapours. Tlie high and crazy houses in 
the neigh bourliood of the hotel were chiefly low beershops and 
brothels. Every house has its green parrot^ which betrays I he 
character of the neighbourhood — shrieking^ curbing, swearing, and 
indulging in obscene language from morning to night. There is 
next to no trade, and activity lies dead. The lower classes fall aslt-ep 
over their cigars. The private soldiers are very dirty and billeted 
about everywhere; the officers are ratlier pictures^que. An American 
omnibus rattles perpetually about the town in a promiscuous miinner, 
not starting from anywhere exactly nor arriving at any pLjce in psir- 
ticular, and driving into desperation nervous passengers for Soutli- 
ampton, who purpose to travel by a train which is itself highly 
irregular, and starts when the passengers grow irritable, or 1 he British 
Consul imagines that it would be advisable to accommodate a Naval 
Agent, Panama fever is a disorder of a malignant type. You run 
a chance of catching it upon making the shortest stay ; and if it 
does not carry you off it hangs about you for the natural term of 
your existence, I fortified myself daily with doses of sulphate of 
quinine, an invaluable roedicine, which restores confidence in tiie 
most gloomy regions* I must confess that I did not thank my 
neighbour for telling me a sad story about a gentleman with twa 
little children, who was merely passing through stnne weeks pre- 
viously, and who lost both liis children in two days. There is a 
wretched newspaper here with a small circulation, edited by two 
Irish gentlemen, whose taste in regarrl to climate I coni^ider exceed- 
ingly depraved. The paper is bad, the ink is bad, and the journal 
itself seems very much at the mercy of the Spanish printers^ devils, 
who make havoc of Anglo- Saxon, At night you ore frequently 
treated to serenades, the vocalists singing in parts. 

The charge made at the Aspinwall Hotel for board and lodging 
is three dollars a-day* Here you can get rain-water baths alive with 
interesting natural species. As the fowls were so forgetful of their duty 
as not to lay eggs, I had not an opportunity of testing the powers 
of the cook in respect to omelette or pudding. The claret is 6s., 
and is procured, I fancy, from some crazy den round the corner, 
where it is sold at eighteen pence a bottle* There is nothing good 
about the hotel but beefsteaks, not the legitimate tough English 
ateak with the due proportion of bone and gristle, but a viand 
manufactured from the choicest cut. Some Spanish nobleman 
attached to the hotel, interests himself about your luggage, forwards 
it to the station, and charges you handsomely for the privilege. The 
Aspinwall Hotel is tiie exchange where the foreign merchants or 



1863. 1 AND Bam&H Columbia. 883 

traders — chiefly American, Grerman^ and French — most do congre- 
gate, discuss politics, and imbibe " long*' and " short" drinks. In 
this delightfnl locality we saw the sunny face of Mrs. Seacole, of 
Crimean renown, gadding about with naval oflScers, on leave from 
the frigate Orlando. The railway company is generous, putting 
naval officers on the free-list. 

There is a railway from Panama to Aspinwall, which is composed 
of violent curves running throagh pestiferous marsh and tangled 
forest. Every iron sleeper is said to have cost the life of an Irish 
navvy. There is only one class of cars here as throughout America, 
with seats placed crosswise, invented previous to the introduction of 
crinoline. The locomotive engine is not covered up like ours but is 
very naked, is fed with wood, and is accompanied by an agonized 
shriek and a hollow consumptive cough. The ragged-looking guard, 
who wears no uniform of any kind, peeps first into one carriage and 
then into another, and smokes industriously. They are not regard- 
less of weight on this line, charging you five cents, for every lb. 
over fifty. It came on to rain when we were jolting along upon 
this railway so that we had to close the wooden shutters, which left 
us in darkness, and still the water spirted in, wliich was not plea- 
sant. Nobody got out at the stations and nobody got in, and 
nobody did anything but some dusky natives, who exchanged the 
fruit of the country for small coin. The check system by which the 
safety of your luggage is secured is good, and worthy of adoption 
on our English railways ; boxes and portmanteaus, with a family 
likeness, being apt to go astray, especially when the address is 
illegible. 

I regretted not saying good bye to several passengers bound to 
New York. It is a mistake to suppose that you cannot enjoy your- 
self—better often to my mind — upon an American than upon an 
English steamer. American women are pretty — ^but they are more 
than this, for they are intelligent and winning in their manners. 
Their forwardness and pertness is combined with such artless coquet- 
tishness, that it becomes rather a virtue than a vice. The men are 
straightforward and honest, and there is nothing of the Dundreary 
school about them. Probably if the men did not '^ liquor up'' so 
much before breakfast, and the women did not put their knives into 
their mouths so often, I should like them better ; but then we must 
make allowance for a people who so closely resemble ourselves in 
conquering everything but prejudice. That new ways are often 
improvements is obvious to every one but the English mechanic. 
The helmsman who is placed at a wheel-house forward, where there 
are no passengers to intercept his view, and he can catch the lowest 
words from the captain in the most windy weather, is certainly in 
the proper position. Then the arrangements at the table are excel- 
lent. No Government people give themselves high and mighty airs, 
and protest that the best places must be reserved for them at the 
captain's table. The day after you go on board you are summoned 

cc2 



3S1 



LrEtJT.*QEHi TUB BAIL OF CAUDIOAN 



[JtrtT, 



to the parser's office, and receive a ticket bearing a similar number, 
and a similar number appears in your plate until yon have learned 
your place, and there you sit at all your meals froiB the beginning 
to the end of the voyage. 

Unless the weather is very good or highly unsatis factory i and the 
passengers are very pleasant or extremely disagreeable, there ia very 
little to record resj>eciing the West India Mail Line. On some of 
these steamers the Jamaica " nigger^' is musical, and the notes of a 
vioiin facilitate the weighing of a anchor* I am under the impres- 
sion that even the sails are set to jigs and arc taken in to 
dirges. 



LIEUT^-GENERAL THE EARL OF CARDIGAN AND 
LIEUT,-COLONEL CALTHORPE. 



Some of the commanding-officers of oar Cavalry regiments have 
been of late creating an unenviable notoriety for themselves, and 
doing their bf st to bring into disrepute that noble branch of their 
profession* Not mariy months sinc^ there was the case of Colonel 
Bentinck^ of the 4th Dragoon Guards ; now we have Colonel Craw- 
ley, of the Enniskillen Dragoons, who is to be brought to a court- 
martial, and at the same time Colonel Calthorpe, who at present 
commands the 5th Dragoon Guards, appears before the public* 

It is true there is no complaint against the latter officer with 
r^pect to the mismanagement of the regiment under his command^ 
but, in common with the other officers, lie has been guilty of an 
act cnlcu luted to undermine the discipline of the army, and destroy 
the good and honourable feeling that ought to exist between all 
ranks in the service* In the case of the first officer mentioned, he 
applied tlie screw so sharply with the view of compelling a captain 
in his regiment to leave it, that a court-martial was the result, which 
ended in the discomiitnre of the Colonel. In the next, the Lieut.- 
Colonel, it is stated, required his Paymaster to sign a false return, 
and on his refusal used the provocative power to such an extent that 
caused the Paymaster to write a letter addressed to him, his com- 
manding-officer, couched in insubordinate language, for which he 
was brought to a court-martial, and sentenced to be cashiered* 
Opinions differ materially as to the terms made use of in this letter, 
but it forms no part of the present subject further than to shew the 
strange anomaly between the cases of the Paymaster of the Ennis- 
killen Dragoons, and Lieut*-Colonel Calthorpe, commanding the 
5th Dragoon Guards. The first addresses a letter to his superior 
officer, for which he is tried by a court-martial and cashiered j the 
second writes a series of letters to his friends in England while he 




1S6S.J A\D LIEUT.-COL. CALTHORPB. 385 

is on foreign service^ foully calumniating a general-officer, which 
letters he afterwards publishes — consequently addresses to the whole 
world. This is said not to be a military offence, while the writing 
a single letter to a single individual is so construed. The Earl of 
Cardigan, who ought to be as good a judge as any man in the 
Service of what constitutes a military offence, evidently considered 
that Colonel Calthorpe had committed a very grave one, or he never 
would have applied for a court-martial to be held upon that officer* 
His Lordship was informed that his remedy was to bring 
an action for the publication of a libel — a remedy that is not, 
and never has been, consonant with the feelings of an officer 
and a gentleman. Had Lord Cardigan applied for a court- 
martial, and preferred charges against Colonel Calthorpe for 
unofficer-like and ungenileman-like conduct, that application could 
not have been refused without setting at naught the Articles of 
War. This refusal to some extent marred Lord Cardigan's cause 
by shutting the doors of the Court of Queen's Bench upon him in 
the steps he ultimately adopted. 

Now this rule of the Court, as explained by the Lord-Chief- Jus- 
tice, was perfectly well known to Colonel Calthorpe's legal adviters, 
therefore Mr. Serjeant Shee could very well afford to make a fine 
splash about his client's (the Coloners) disdain to mouYit a horse of 
the breed of ''The Statute of Limitations;" he knew the Colonel 
would be carried quite safely by a different charger ; in short, that 
the rule for a criminal information neither would nor could be made 
absolute. There was no other necessity for a long set speech from 
the learned Serjeant, than that leading counsel are always expected 
to make lon^ speeches. 

The relative rank and position of the Earl of Cardigan and 
Colonel Calthorpe at the time these letters were written should be 
well considered by all who desire to arrive at just conclusions. His 
Lordship had served for thirty years in the Cavalry, and had just 
attained his rank as a general ; Colonel Calthorpe was a Lieutetnant 
in the 8th Hussars of some four years standing, one of the regi- 
ments forming a part of Lord Cardigan's brigade, but \iith which 
Lieutenant-Calthorpe was not present in the charge he takes upon 
himself to describe, although he was a looker-on. He had the good 
fortune to be on Lord Baglan's staff. 

Had Lieutenant Calthorpe followed the noble example of the late 
Duke of Richmond, then Earl of March, who previous to the battle 
of Waterloo, quitted the staff of the Duke of Wellington to join in 
the battle with his own glorious regiment, the 52nd, the public 
would have been more disposed to place reliance upon his state- 
ments. At all events he could have said that he described scenes 
in which he had taken part. But this does not seem to have 
struck him ; he takes his stand upon the reports of officers who 
probably never saw Lord Cardigan during the whole affair after he 
placed himself at the head of his troops until it was all over. 



386 



LIEUT,-QKlf. TBE EAEL OF OAEDtQAN 



[July, 



Colonel Calthorpe cannot produce a single witness from the 13th 
or 17tli, whose four weak squadrons formed the first line, to con- 
firm his statements respecting the conduct of the General 
he had the opportnnitj of followiugj if he had thought fit so to 
do. The tables may be fairlj turned upon him, and the question 
asked — "why were you not with your regimei)t so that you might 
say, you yourself saw what you have written?" It is not intended 
to impute want of personal courage to Colonel Calthorpe^ but other 
staff officers have been, and were, on that day, too eager to remain 
inactive. The bearer of the order to Lord Lucan, the late Captain 
Nolan, might, if he had so chosen, liave returned instanlly to his 
General who dispatched him, without a question being asked as to 
his courage, but he preferred to see the order executed, and share 
the danger, and he was the Srst of the memorable six huudred who 
was killed. 

One of Colonel CaUhoTpe^s principal witnesses of what took 

?lace, a Lieutenant Clutterbuck of his own regiment, says that 
jord Cardigan never was in the engagement at alL That the 
Lieutenant who was probably in a cavalry charge for the first time in 
his' life on that day, should have los^t his head, and not have 
known what occurred, is not wonderful j but that Lieutenant 
Cjilthorpe who did not join in the charge should have lost his, 
which he must have done when he produced his brother subaltern's 
statement, is surprising, for it could have no other effect than that of 
holding np his friend to ridicule. However, when men are bent upon 
viiuperation, they seldom know wlien and where to stop, and no de- 
pen dance can be placed upon them when they have been ccmpelled to 
confess they have made statements for truth, which are at variance 
with facts* Such is the position in which Colonel Calthorpe has placed 
himself. He first asserted that Lord Cardigan without entering 
the battery, turned, a«d galloped to the rear past the squadrons of 
the 4th Light Dragoons and the 8th Hussars, before those squadrons 
got up to the Kus^ian guns, and when this was proved to be false, 
excused himself by saying that, he relied upon information supplied 
to him by officers actually engaged in the charge. He odmiLted 
that he could speak to nothing of his own knowledge, for he was 
too distant from the scene of carnage, and that the advanciiig 
squadrons were hidden by the smoke fram the Russian batteries. 
So upon hearsay evidence he gives publicity to a notorious fjilse- 
liood, which he partly acknowledges, by stating that he heard Lord 
Cardigan tell Lord Kagian that on coming up to the battery, a gun 
Mas fired close to him which caused his horse to swerve. There 
is some d inference between a horse swerving, and turning short 
round, and had the latter been the case, the chances are that Lord 
Cardigan would have been ridden over by his immediate followers, 
at all events it could not have passed unnoticed. But what does 
his aide*de-camp. Lieutenant (wow Lieutenant-Colonel) Maxse say? 
* ord Cardigan was under the impression that he was wounded 



1863.] AND LIEUT.-COL. CALTHOEPB. 387 

before they fell upon the Bussian battery, but it was not until after 
they had passed through the guns that he was hit, and as it is not 
customary for an aide-de-camp to ride in front of his General, that 
fact alone would render conclusive the question of Lord Cardigan's 
presence at the moment when Colonel Calthorpe's informants pre- 
tend he was absent. . 

The different commentators on Lord Cardigan's conductj espe- 
cially Colonel Calthorpe as a cavalry officer, ought to know that 
the officer who leads a charge cannot by possibility direct the 
operation of the reserves, or supporting bodies of troops ; that duty 
is always assigned to another, and on that day it was undertaken 
by Lord Cardigan's chief, the Earl of Lucan. How it was per- 
formed has been placed upon record by the late Lord Eaglan. When 
Lord Cardigan received the order to charge, his brigade was mr- 
shalled by Lord Lucan, and Lord Cardigan had no choice but to obey 
and lead it into action. The second and third lines were not, as some 
writers seemed to have imagined, formed, or ordered to act as 
reserves, nor were they in any way independent or separately com- 
manded, they foUowea the first line at the same pace ; in short the 
charge may be said to have been made in double open columnj 
and the rear of the column would naturally be closing up when the 
speed of the head would be checked by coming in contact with the 
enemy. Hence if Lord Cardigan had turned to go to the rear on 
reaching the guns, he would have had to have forced his way through 
six ranks of cavalry, which is scarcely consistent with the story of 
his being seen galloping to the rear on one of the flanks. 

The remarks said to have been made by the Bussian General 
Liprandi, are most probably the invention of some fertile brain ; a 
Bussian General would have had something else to do than watch 
an officer belonging to his enemy riding to the rear at that con- 
juncture, besides it is well known that the Bussian Artillery was 
playing upon friend and foe alike, and Colonel Calthorpe informs 
us what is the effect of the smoke from the fire of artillery on the 
field of battle. If, however, the story is true, it goes to confirm 
the fact of Lord Cardigan having advanced to some distance beyond 
the guns, else he could not have been nearly made prisoner, and 
that at all events he could not have been among the first to get 
out of the mess. 

The affidavit of Lord Lucan is said to be the one which tells 
most against Lord Cardigan. With all due deference to those 
who hold that opinion it ought not to carry any weight whatever. 
It is in direct contradiction to his official report ; either that docu- 
ment, therefore, or the affidavit his lordship has sworn must be 
incorrect. 

Supposing that Lord Cardigan had been the first to get out of 
the fray, and gallop to the rear, he must have been seen by those 
men who had their horses killed, and were themselves uninjured, 
and by wounded men also who were struggling to the rear ; he 




38H ^LiluS-Swf^HB BARL 01 oXSKf^^ [July, 



would likewisej as a natuid consequence, have gone straight to 
Lord Lucan, who was with Sir J. Scarlett*^ brigade^ to report the 
disaster ; but no witnesjies such as might be found amongst thoae 
officers or men have been forthcoming, and yet ihey were the only 
ones who could tell positively what was passing in the rear* The 
witnesses who arc called, are men whose sole attention at that 
moment must have been directed to their fronts No doubt the 
officers and men who have given their testimon}' in favonr of Colonel 
Calthorpe's statements fancied they saw Lord Cardigan going to the 
rear because he was not seen by them in their front, than which 
nothing can be more easily accounted for. Li such a me/ee, and 
amidst the din^ the clash of arms, the slionts, the roaring of cannon, 
the crack of ritlest, and the smoke^ it is not wonderful the leader 
should be invisible — in this instance particularly so — for he was 
far in front, isolated from his men^ bej^et by Cossacks ; and but for 
the timely aid of a man of the 13th Dragoons wonld possibly have 
been overpowered. Besides this — and the author speaks advisedly, 
for he has taken part in more than one cavalry charge — on most 
occasions when the charging squadrons come in contact with their 
enemy, not only the leader himself, but the commanders of regi- 
ments and squadrons are constantly lost sight of by their men ; it 
is the natural resalt of the disorder and confasion which always 
foHow upon the coming to blows ; each man must then look to 
himself, and if he gets no orders, must jadge from the action of 
others near him whether orders bavc been issued somewhere or 
other to retreat^ and re-form on the reserves, or to continue fighting, 
The charge of Lord Cardigan's brigade at Balaklava was precisely 
one of those cases ; the first and second lines lost fully half their 
numbers, and were scattered and confused. The third line coming 
close upon their heels, it appears, separated, one regiment inclining 
to the right the other to i\ie left, which fact at once destroys the 
notion of any further command having been held by Lord George 
Paget beyond that of his own regimen t. These two corps were 
speedily hemmed in by the Russian cavalry, and in common with the 
other three which had preceded them by about a minute, or at most 
two, were overwhelmed by superior numbers in front, flanks, and 
rear. Under such circumstances, how could Lord Cardigan have 
been seen by those men riding to the reitr? It is most probable 
that no order whatever was given to retreat, for it is clear that. Lord 
Cardigan was in front and separated from his men, and he had 
Btaff officer with him to convey an order. More likely one 
and all being convinced of the inutility of contending against such 
masses, and wilh other artillery, (for there was plenty more in ad* 
dition to the captured battery playing upon them, besides hordes of 
riflemen firing upon them regardless of their own men) came to the 
conclusion simnltaneously that they must cot their way out as best 
they could. The story of the 4th Light Dragoons n^ tiring in good 
ordiT, and finding Lord Cardigan in the rrar ready to leceive them. 



1863.J AND LIRUT.-OOL. CALTHORPB. 389 

is simply the reverse of fact ; for it happened to be what was left of 
that very regiment was the first remnant of his brigade that Lord 
Cardigan fonnd re-formed when he got to the rear, and he was re- 
ceived by the men with cheers. 

The sneering remark upon " the excellence of his Lordship's 
horsemanship *' is a puerile attempt at wit^ and intended in a very 
nasty manner to offer a graver insult^ as much as to say, if his horse 
had not run away with him he must have run away himself. One 
of our contemporaries has truly observed that strange language is 
used now-a-days; and this was certainly an insult that neither 
Colonel Calthorpe nor any man breathing would have dared to make 
to such a man as Lord Cardigan a few years back, when he would 
have been called before a different tribunal. The idea of accusing 
Lord Cardigan of cowardice is supremely ridiculous, and might be 
treated with silent contempt, but for its being published in a book 
which may be read by many of the present day who, residing at a 
distance, are ignorant of Lord Cardigan's well-known qualities, and 
by posterity, who may take for granted what is written without 
taking the trouble to inquire. To those who know him personally^ 
by reputation^ or by sight, it would seem much the same.thing as 
making the same accusation against our own lion-hearted Richard. 
One has only to look at the man to see the personification of 
courage. 

A very plain question may be asked. Is it possible that a man 
with a single grain of cowardice in his composition could have led 
his squadrons as straight and true as ever he did at a review, for a 
mile and a quarter through a murderous fire, his men and horses 
dropping every instant^ up to the muzzles of the enemy's guns^ 
capturing them, and cutting down the gunners who continued to 
serve them to the last moment? The attacking Artillery with 
Cavalry is the same to them as is the forlorn hope to Infantry, and 
is seldom ordered except in extreme cases. Our allies the French 
have laid it down as a rule that to attack a battery with Cavalry it 
should be done by a few, and in loose order, which is no doubt the 
true principle* They have had great experience, and probably the 
heavy losses sustained by some of their columns on such occasions 
in the wars of the first Empire, gave rise to the ordinance as laid 
down in their last regulations for Cavalry movements. 

Such a mode of attack does not seem to have been contemplated 
by Lord Lucan ; possibly he might have been unacqnaintea with 
the French Book of Instructions, or did not approve them ; but 
Lord Cardigan^ whatever the formation, had a right to look to his 
chief for support, for he himself has informed us that he had 
repeatedly told Lord Cardigan he might rely upon him for support 
whenever he was engaged with the enemy in front. On this 
occasion. Lord Lucan appears to have forgotten his assurances. It 
has been said that Lord Cardigan, when his first line was nearly 
demolished^ should have gone to the second and third lines and 



I 



LIEUT,- GEN. THE EARL OF CAEDlQAlf [JULT^ 

directed their movements, m he would, as a nmtter of course had 
those two lines been warned to act as supports, but he knew t!iis 
was not the case ; and even if he could have got hack iustautly to 
give any orders, he would have found all his re^sfiments engnged in 
a hand to hand fight, and in such disorder that it would have been 
impossible to make anj regular movement. 

He is a bold man who can venture to say who was first out of 
such a crash; who was first in most could see, and it was never 
disputed until Colonel Caltborpe, in the first edition of his book, 
said Loid Carditfan never passed the battery at all; he did not go 
q^uite so far as his friend Lieutenant Clutterbnck in his hallucina- 
tions, but he published what was liotoriouslj incorrect, and was sub- 
sequently compelled to acknowledge it^ — a very undignified position 
for an officer and gentleman to be placed in. 

The slur cast upon Lord Cardigan about living on board his 
yacht is most unworthy of the authors. His health had broken 
down, and it was said he was afflicted with a painful disorder 
besidesj added to this he was then approacliing his f^ixtieth year, and 
at that time of life few men preserve a robust constitution. They 
may have all the spirit and energy of earlier days, but it is out of 
the nature of things that they can endure the same amount of 
fatigue and exposure which they could fonnerly do with impunity. 
The only wonder is that he lasted so long; for many, younger 
in years and of high rank, had been compelled to ^ve in 
before him. He may be haughty in his manjier, but not to 
those who really know him. He has always entertained a 
sense of duty in his military capacity, although it may be ad- 
mitted he has occasion ally allowed that feeling to overrule 
his sober judgment. He is not a Liberal in politics^ but, never- 
theless, a more JiberaUminded man does not exist, Tiie great 
error he fell into after his return was that of saying too much in his 
after dinner speeches; his representations in some trivial points 
varied, and as a marked man, of course, they were taken advan- 
tage of, and made more of than they really deserved ; but he was 
elated with his success, and the reception he met with was enough 
to turn any man'a head, whose conduct hitherto had been the 
reverse of popular, but to accuse bim of cowardice is preposterous, 

No two men told precisely tlie same tale m to what did happen, 
but it does not follow that all were misrepresentations ; it was not 
possible for any one to say to a certainty what was passing excepting 
close to him* It is not surprising, therefore, that there should be 
some ap]}arent discrepancies in Lord Cardigan's explanations, for 
he could see no better than any other, and of necessity must 
have depended upon the reports made to hira. Thus what 
would apply to one regiment might not to another, and what 
was intended possibly to describe the action of one part of his 
brigade was wholly inapplicable to another, but being taken all 
together was assumed to be contradictory. He was not singular. 




1868.J AND LIBUT.-COL. CALTHOEPR. 891 

for many others fell into the same error, and by mixing up what 
they saw with what they heard from others caused their accounts 
to vary each time of telling, without the most distant intention of 
misleading or misrepresenting, but rather to be more explanatory. 

Had Colonel Calthorpe confined himself to giving as accurate an 
account as he could of the war, without taking upon himself to 
condemn the conduct of a general-ofTicer in the army who had never 
been found fault with by his chief (Lord Raglan), his book would 
have had value, as it is natural to suppose that in his position as 
aide-de-camp to the Commander-in-Chief, he would have been ac- 
quainted with many circumstances not generally known, particularly 
as to motives for different orders and movements. The fact, how- 
ever, of his having been forced to withdraw some of his statements 
naturally throws a doubt on his representations in general, and 
makes it questionable whether he derived any information from 
the highest authority. None of the evidence produced by Colonel Cal- 
thorpe can weigh in the scale against that brought forward by Lord 
Cardigan, for at the time they fancied they saw Lord Cardigan 
going to the rear, it was incontrovertibly proved by competent 
witnesses that his Lordship was personally engaged in defending 
himself from the attacks of the Cossacks. 

Colonel Calthorpe would seem to have written his book more 
with a view to disparage his superior officer, than to give such an 
account of events as might have been expected from an officer in 
his position. The publication is an unfortunate event for himself, 
and the animadversions upon, and misrepresentations of the conduct 
of a general-officer under whose immediate command he would 
have been but for his relationship to Lord Baglan, is setting a 
very bad example to the officers under his own command, and to 
young officers in general. 

Although the rule for a criminal information was discharged. 
Lord Cardigan may rest satisfied that his reputation has not suf- 
fered. The public Press is almost universally in his favour. 
Amongst professional men Colonel Calthorpe is generally con- 
demned, and his Lordship's shortcomings as a general, on which 
the Lord-Chief-Justice dwelt, he liad no opportunity of showing, 
having no discretionary power left to him. Even supposing 
he had not been cut off from his men by being so far in front 
himself, the confusion and disorder were so great, that one 
order only could have been given with any chance of being 
obeyed, which was to retire as quickly as possible, and that, officers 
and men alike seem to have acted upon of their own accord. The 
8th Hussars claim to have retired in good order ; they may have 
done so, but certainly not until after they had got out of the 
rock. 

There could be no question about generalship in the part al- 
lotted to Lord Cardigan, he had only to carry out his instructions^ 
and that he did to the admiration of all who saw him lead fearlessly 



into the jaws of deaths but not without reraonstrance^ and pointing 
out the iro possibility of doing any good* The generalship rested with 
the officer who held the chief command of the CaTalrj, Lord Cardignn 
received the order to charge, but no supports, or reserve*, or artillery, 
were placed at his disposition* Lord Lucan had the handling of them* 
and whatever generalship was displayed, must be placed to his 
Lordship^s credit. 



GEEENWICH CHARACTRKS. 

'^ You will find mine a very tedious story, I fear, if I go on at 
this rate, detailing every little incident/' 

"Not in the least, Morgan," said I, ^^you will be tired first/' 

"Well, to say the trnth, I am very nearly tired already^ and yet 
it is a pleasure to me to live over again some of the bright scenes of 
my existence. Bright they were just at this time, but the^ were 
soon overclouded again. I was serving in one of the fastest 
schooners in the West Indies, and with one of the smartest com^ 
manders that ever trod a deck. The fine schooner which I men- 
tioned the other day was pnrchasecl in part with the Commander^s 
money, and manned witli fifty as fine seamen as any man would 
wish to look upon i but unlnckily, in one sense^ we were no longer a 
tender. The ¥nx had been commissioned by Lieutenant F — , although 
only temporarily, and she was too fiue a vessel for an officer of no 
interest to be allowed to retain. In a short time we made many 
captures, and destroyed one of the largest privateers on the station^ 
and oar Commander's reward was — what do you think p" 

" Promotion of course/* 

" Not a bit of it. We arrived at Port Eojal after a successful 
cruize, and our Commander returned onboard, after having reported 
himself to the Admiral, mad as any Bedlamite. 

" Had be not been habitually sober, even to water drinking, I 
shonld have thought he had been drinking to excess* Mr. Cheese* 
man, the Master's mate, liad gone on shore to the Dockyard, and 
left me in charge of the schooner ; the Doctor also was on shore. 

"The Commander looked at me, as I thought, angrily— then 
burst out laughing — and was literally beside himself* * Mr, Jones/ 
said he, when more composed ' yoa have behaved well since you 
have been under my comuiani 

" He was sitting at his desk, and the cabin was strewed with 
papers, 

'''Yes,' he continued, 'you have done your duty, and here is 
your certificate/ It was a bill of exchange for I forget how many 
dollars. 

" ' What is this for. Sir ?' I askedj looking at the slip of paper, 

' 'That is your certificate, as I am going home.' 



I 

I 
I 

I 



1868.] QBBBNWICH CHARACTERS. 893 

''' Certificate — going home/ said I, bewildered. 

" ' Yes, Sir ; don't you believe me ? ' 

" 'Tes ; no. Sir. 1 hope not/ I stammered out ; 'but I will, if 
you will allow me, go with you to the end of the world and share 
your fortunes.' 

'' ' Nonsense boy,' he replied, bitterly; 'go with a ruined man ! I 
am superseded/ 

"'What's that. Sir?' 

€€ € Yf hy, what a blockhead you must be — superseded means, in 
my case, robhed, deprived of my ship ; but I will — ' 

•' ' Sir/ said T, 'you are distressed. Tou have been very good to 
me, and have taught me my duty. I want no better certificate than 
your good opinion — not a dollar of your's will I touch. I can, I have 
worked for my bread, and will do so again, without being indebted 
to any one.' 

"Alas! it was too true. A young Lieutenant had been ap- 
pointed from England to take command of the Fox, and all our 
gallant Commander's labour and expense had been thrown away — 
he had been deprived of his fine command ! Never shall I forget 
the effect of the news upon all hands. The attempt, however, to 
make the fortune of the new Commander was most unfortunate. 
The goose that laid the golden eggs had been killed. Mr. Cheese- 
man left her, and I never heard what became of hiip> and half the 
crew deserted in the course of a few days. I applied to be dis- 
charged, but the Commander would scarcely listen to me, so I ran 
with the crew of the Captain's gig. In the dead of the night we 
reached a hovel well known to run-away sailors, from whence we 
were conveyed across the country to Kingston, and shipped on board 
the Janet Brown, West-Indiaman, bound to Bristol, laden with 
sugar and rum, for which run the rascally crimp received fifty dollars 
upon each of us, handing us over about ten." 

"I suppose," said I, interrupting my old friend, "you are now 
telling me what happened to you without knowing many of the 
detaik." 

"Exactly. All I remember distinctly is reaching the Crimp's 
house, and being plied with rum, to the use of which I was unac-« 
customed, and my finding myself, with two of my shipmates, in the 
fore part of an old lumbering vessel deeply laden. Whether I was 
sent m a sugar hogshead or not, I cannot tell ; but there I was, 
and stowed away until the convoy sailed. 

" Oh ! the misery of that voyage. Work, work, kicks and cufis, 
pumping and reefing topsails, and short-handed in the bargain, only 
eight men besides myself to do everything in a five-hundred-ton 
ship. It was enough to break down the proudest and strongest 
spirit, and I fell sick — so sick that there seemed no life in me. The 
master was half his time drunk and quarrelsome, and the mate very 
little better ; but they were both, on the whole, tolerably civil to 
me, and sent me food from the cabin. As to navigation, we were 



OHEl^WICH ClTiEACTEttS. 



I JULT, 



guided by the convoy^ at least I never remember aeeing any one 

taki3 an observation, 

" On nearing the Channel a tremendons gale from the eastward 
dUpersed the convoy, and feft us, no one knew where. I was still 
very weak, but the love of dear life prompted me to make some 
exertion. Finding the Master tolerably sober — for hia helpless con- 
diiion had sobered him — I volunteered to ascertain the position of 
the ship if he would lend me hia quadrant and books, a proposition 
to which he at once assented. The dead-reckoning had been very 
badly keptj and my only chance was to get the latitude by obser- 
vation, Avniling myself of a break in the heavy clouds, I got a me- 
ridian altitude, and found we were then in the latitude of Scilly. We 
got soanding:4j but as tliey did not correspond with those at the en^ 
trance of the British Channel , I concluded we were to westward of 
the Land's End^ and in St, George's Channel* Under this impression 
I advised the Master to make s^aii on the starboard -tack, close hauled. 
For a week previously we had been Ijing-to under close-reefed main- 
topsail and storm-staysails, drifting bodily to leeward- The wind 
rising, had got more round to the southward and we laid up north- 
east, and I hoped we should soon get sight of Lnndy island* The old 
brute was rolling like a porpoise. All night it blew strong, and, ere 
the morning dawned — ^it was in the month of March— it was blow- 
ing a gale from the westward. We still kept her north-east, as 1 did 
not wish to be caught on a lee-shore in a deep-laden West-Indiaman, 
By the dead reckoning, I found we were in the latitude of Lundy^ 
and, that being the case, the Master and Mate relieved of any further 
responsibility, satisfied in their own knowledge, and kept ber away 
eastj considering, I imagine, that they were actually in the Bristol 
Channeh 

'^ At noon next day I again managed to get a glimpse of the sun, 
and, to my dismay, found we were in 52 deg, £0 min. north. It was 
then blowing a heavy gale^ and we were staggering and rolling with 
four hands at the wheel, but not making more than five or six knots. 
When I told the Master that we were already to the northward of St. 
David's Head, he would not believe me. He thought the quadrant 
must be incorTcct, or that I had not had a good sight, and continued 
to stand on« 

" Niglit was closing in when a man on the forecastle shouted out 
breakers a-liead* The helm was put hard a-starboard, in the hope 
of wearing ; but, before the old brute would pay any attention to it, 
she was in the midst of the roaring waves, and tearing herself to 
pieces on the oyster rocks off Aberystwith* Of all the sensations in 
the world there is notliing which equals that of a ship striking* 
Well might Falconer say of such a moment : 

'Then shrieked the timid and stood still the brave/ 

We had no women on board to shriek, but man looked upon his 

fellow-man as if to say—' It is all up with us/ We could discern 

tthe outline of high land^ but it appeared very distant^ and the haze 



I 



1863. J GSBBNWiCH OHARAOTBBS. 395 

and rapidly -increasing darkness prevented oar getting a sight of 
anything likely to be within reach. 

The long-boat was lumbered with hawsers and rubbish. We set 
to work to clear it; but, before we could accomplish that, and get 
the tackles hooked on to hoist her out, the ship gave a tremendous 
lift^ broke in two amidships, and saved us the trouble of hoisting the 
boat out. I had just time to catch hold of her as she floated on the 
top of an enormous wave, clear of the wreck. There were five or six 
of us, but we had gained little by being in the boat, for the plug was 
out, and she leaked at every seam, and before we could do 
anything to remedy the defects another monster sea struck her, 
and she turned bottom upwards. I had a narrow escape of 
being extinguished under her, as some of my shipmates were, and 
clung to her still as my ark of refuge. Who can describe the 
struggle for life under such circumstances ? 

" All that long night I held on like grim death to the boat, now 
clinging to the keel, then washed off and with difficulty regaining 
my position. At length she struck against the point of a rock, or 
piece of floating wreck, and again turned over. I succeeded in 
getting hold of the gunwale, and, after a time, got inside. Although 
full of water, the boat was some protection against the force of the 
sea. I was alone. The lifeless bodies of my shipmates had been 
washed out, and I was left to fight the battle by myself. 

" It seemed to me the sun was never going to rise again, it was 
80 very long ; but, when nearly exhausted, a grey streak appeared 
on the horizon, and hope, which had been almost dead, revived. 
By slow degrees the light increased, and at length I could discern 
to leeward a line of coast, along which I was slowly drifting with 
the tide ; but the bright line of foam convinced me that it would be 
impossible to effect a landing there in a water-logged boat. It 
would have been folly to have attempted to clear the boat of 
water, so I was content to sit with my head just above water, not 
always that, and bide my time. The distance was too great to war- 
rant any attempt at swimming, in fact I was too much exhausted to 
make the slightest exertion ; and what with weakness^ hunger, and 
the helplessness of reaching the shore, my condition was most de- 
plorable. The rising sun somewhat reassured me. The waves 
seemed to beat with less violence on my water-logged boat, and, no- 
ticing a broken plank floating near me, I managed to haul it into 
the boat, and placing it on the gunwales, made a seat of it which 
left only my legs in the water. I had, however, great difficulty in 
retaining my seat, as my weight seemed to immerse the boat more 
deeply, and at one time my frail support was nearly swept from 
under me. 

'^ How long I floated in this precarious way without seeing any 
one I can hardly tell, but I think it must have been noon when I 
noticed a sail, that of a fishing-boat, standing out from under the 
land. This gave me hope of rescue, but the hope sank again as I 



GREENWICH CHABAC3TE11S* 



[July, 



observed that, after apparently catching hold of something, slie stood 
in for the sliore with it in tow. It was a cfiak of rum, probably, which 
had flouted out of the brokeji-up West Indiaman* Verj soon, however, 
as the weather moderated, I observed a small fleet of boats comiag 
out, tempted no doubt by tlie hope of picking op wreck* Weak as 
I was, I succeeded, after many futile attempts, in stauding upon my 
plank, and having taken off my jacket, held it out as a signal. But 
it seetned that no one cared to search for the living, and, had my 
boat drifted far from the wieck and casks which had floated up, my 
prospects would liavc been bad indeed* But the search for wrecked 
property induced one boat to approach within a short distance of 
myself, and I was seen, I do not think I could have held out 
another half hour, for when the fishermen came alongside they were 
obliged to haul me on board, and all sense deserted me. 

" When I regained consciousness I found myself in a fisherman's 
hut, lying upon a decent bed, and attended by a bux:om dame* Slie 
J ipoke in Welch to those about her, and ber words were those of pity 
and kindness. She appeared to think my life not worth much, and 
I was 30 low that I found it difficult to murmur my thanks, which, 
however, I did after a time in my mother tongue. The efi'ect 
was good. I was a countryman — a Briton. After partaking of 
tome warm buttermilk I went off to sleep again, and did not awake 
until the following morningi The kindness and hospitality of the 
poor tishermao^s wife and her neighbonrs restored me to life and 
partial strength ; so much so that I expressed a wish to set out for 
my home at the other extremity of the bay, I had only thanks to 
offer in return for the services reudered me, but they were received 
as sufficient, I succeeded in getting a cast across the bay, and I 
was supplied moreover with shoes and a decent suit of clothes, 
which had been washed ashore iu a seaman's chest, and one fine 
morning in April I latided at Faint Linney, and started off for my 
^'father's house, from which I had been absent upwards of four 
years, 

"The country over which I passed was interspersed with small 
farms, and I found at each a welcome and refresliment. My jiiurney 
had already occupied three days, and on the fourth l drew near t-o 
my father's house. The site of the old moss- covered walls brought 
to my mind the scenes of my boyhood, which, alas ! were not over 
blissful, and I was doubtful as to what sort of a reception I should 
meet with, now that I had returned, 

" There was a small cottage not far from the Fron, as it was 
called, in which a farm labourer had lived when I was at home^ and 
of whom and his wife I was very fond. Evan Evans was a hard- 
working, sober man, and his wife who at one time lived as servant in 
otir house, was very partial to me* I presented myself at the door, 
and craved a drink of water. Poor Annie brought me some butter- 
milk. Thanking her^ I looked hard at ber, and asked her if she 
remembered me, 



1863. 1 aRBBNWlCH OHASACTRRS. 397 

" The poor woman screamed, ' Yes, yes, you are Morgan Jonea-— 
my poor lad ; here come in and rest yourself— her is not dead.' 
' Here, Evan,' she called out, ' here's Morgan, the Squire's son, come 
back alive !' 

" Evan, who had been chopping wood, came forward and greeted 
me cordially. Their honest welcome was warm, and it cheered my 
sad heart, and I remained an hour talking to them, and inquiring 
after my old friends and playmates. The accounts I received of my 
home were the reverse of pleasing or satisfactory. My father had 
not acquired popularity, my eldest brother was much disliked, and 
only my sister Lucy was spoken of kindly. 

" It was believed that I was dead. Mason, my schoolfellow and 
companion, had written to his friends to say that he left me dying 
from the wounds I had received in the privateer, and no one but 
Lucy expres:!ied any concern. 

'' After washing my face, and refreshing myself, I marched boldly 
np to the house. The door was opened by a stranger, and as my 
attire seemed to mark me as a beggar, none of ^'hom were ever 
relieved at the Pron, it was as hastily slammed in my face before I 
had time to speak. I repeated the summons, however, and the door 
was re-opened — this time by an old servant, the butler, armed with 
a stick to drive me away. After taking a brief survey of me, how- 
ever, the man uttered my name, and, leaving the door open, ran with 
all speed to inform his mistress. 

" Without waiting to be invited, I walked into my father's house, 
and into a well-known room. Lucy was there, and immediately 
recognised me, and in an instant her arms were round my neck— the 
only joy, alas, of that day. Mrs. Jones, now a stately dowager, 
strutted in and opened fire upon me. She was surprised, so she 
said, at my daring to show my face again at the Fron, that my 
father would have me put in prison as soon as he returned ; but 
Lucy sat by mv side, and did all that a girl of sixteen could do to 
show me that by one at least I was beloved. The sulTerings and 
fatigue I had undergone had broken my spirit. I heard all that the 
unfeeling woman had to say with unconcern, and for a time without 
reply. At length, when she ceased, I said * I want nothing of you 
but house-room and food for a few weeks, to enable me to regain 
my strength, and then I will be off and you shall see me no more.' 

'' My father now came in, and at first evinced some show of sym- 
pathy, but it was soon dissipated. He was completely in the hands 
of his wife, and when he found how unwelcome I was to her, his 
coldness returned ; but finding me poor, half naked, almost shoeless 
and weakened from sickness and suffering he consented to my re- 
maining a short time under his roof. A room was provided for me, 
very slenderly furnished, and upon the plea that my clothes were, 
not fit to appear in, I was not allowed to take my meals at his table. 
What a position was mine. £ wished that the waves had been less 

U. S. Mag. No. 416, July, 1863. d d 



39H 



OBl&£NW10H CUABACTEE3* 



[Jolt, 



merciful to me j and but for dear Lucy I should have left the house 
the night I entered it. 

" Lucy was a privileged per&an* Being the only daughter, she 
had ficquired a sort of independence and power over her parents, and 
she insisted upon taking her meals uitii me in my rooin^ as I was 
forbiddeu lo nppear at the family table. Only one brother, the 
youngestj remained at home; the eldest, William, was at college, 
and tite pecoiid at school. The one at home was very sickly, and liad 
no recollection of me* He was a cold^ unloveable boy, and 1 took 
no trouble to make him frientlly. 

'^ After llie lupse of a wet*k, 1 had recovered my strength, a good 
dewl, and having been supplied with a suit of clothes^ 1 was enabled 
to go out for a ramble in the country with my sister. But this plea- 
sure was of very short duration. Lucy was the idol of her home, 
but devotedly attached to mCj and the latter fact was enough to 
place her in the black books of iier mother, who forbade her accom- 
panying me in my rambles. 

" Wandering about by myself was slow work j and my only place 
to hear what was going on in the world was the little cottage of 
Evau Evans, and not much, generally speaking, could I learn there. 
I was^ however,, interested in anything which related to my old 
acquaintances* 

** A few days after Lucy had been forbidden to go out with me, I 
strolled over to Evan's. He hiid just relumed from the town, and 
to my surprise had a budpt-t of news for me. 

'' * Master John, what do you tliink I heard to-day 7 Why^ I was^ 
told that a constable was coming over to Ike Itou to take you away^ 
to prison/ 

" ' Prison !' said I, in astonishment, ' what for?* 

'* ' Why, that old hag Peggy^ thaL was at Oweu Hall when it was; 
burnt, has been up before the Justice to say that she wants yoa'J 
taken up to be trred for burning dowu the masler*s house, and shff-^ 
claims the reward. The old wretch swore that you and your school- 
fellow, that run away with you, set fire to the liouse. She said so< 
a long while ago, and a reward of £50 was oflfered to any one that^ 
would take you.' 

'** And how did you hear that P 

" ' Why, I was fitting smoking my pipe at the Horns, when the* 
constable came in and told me about it, knowing that I lived on your I 
father's )>roperty ; and he said that the Justice had told him that heij 
was to have a warrant, and that he should be over here as to- 
morrow.'" 

'^'Tlien,' said I, Uhey may take me, but I know no more about' 
it than you do/ Still I did not understand anything about tlie law, ' 
and felt rather uneany. Just as I left the cottage, I met my father^ 
on horseback going towards home. 

I want you, young man,' for that was hia usual affectionate 
mode of addressing me. 




1863.] omSENWICH CHABACTBES. 390 

" ' Very well/ I replied, curtly. 

" ' Do you know/ said he, 'that you are very likely to be hung/ 

" ' It would not grieve you much if I was/ I answered grumpily, 
but he did not, or seemed not to hear me. 

'' ' Yes ; to be hung at the gallows : very fine prospect for the 
family of Morgan Jones/ 

'"What for PI asked. 

" ' Only on a charge of arson — ^burning a house down — a hanging 
matter.' 

" ' But I did not do it/ I replied doggedly. 

" ' Oh, there are witnesses to swear you did.' 

" ' And you believe them V 

" 'Of course. They have. made affidavits to that effect, and to- 
morrow there will be a warrant over here for your apprehension.' 

" ' But, Sir/ I repeated, 'I am not guilty; I was nearly burnt 
to death with Slingsby Mason, and had we not been able to get out 
of the window we should have been burnt as sure as fate.' 

" ' Serve you right, too, for your rebellious condoct to the 
master.' 

" ' Thank you/ said 1, ' for your fatherly feeling.' 

"'Don't be insolent,' he said, raising his whip, 'or I'll chastise 
you.' 

" ' You had better not try it/ said I ; for my Welch blood was 
rising, and I dare say I looked defiance. 

'" You are a disgrace to my name and family/ and the old man 
made a cut at me with his whip. I caught hold of the whip, tore 
it from his hand, and threw it over the wall of a garden. 

" I know not to what further extremities we might have pro- 
ceeded, had not Lucy, like an angel of light, interposed. She saw 
that we were angry, and knew what a passionate man our father was* 
A short truce was mutually agreed to ; but, before opening the gatej 
liis enmity returned, and my father forbade me again entering hit 
house. Had he invited me, however, to go in, it would have been 
the same thing; for, after such expressions of feeling, I never could 
again have lived under the same roof with him. 

" I sat down on a bank. I could not shed a tear. My heart 
seemed breaking. I fell into a kind of stupor, from which I was 
aroused by hacv. She had stolen from the house in search of 
me. She wished me to return with her, and said she would make 
my peace with father, but I felt that to be impossible. The scene I 
shall never forget, but I cannot describe it. 

" I got up and returned to the cottage of poor Evan, determined 
to rest there that night, and leave early next morning for Liverpool, of 
which port I had heard much. The distance I knew to be great, but 
I could take my time about it, and beg my wav. Before I was up, 
however, Lucy was by the side of my straw bed. 

"'Jack/ said she, 'if you will go, ^ou must not go without 
> money. Here/ she said, ' is my purse, it contains my quarter's dU 

D d2 



GRE8KWICH CHAEACTEHS. 



^ 



lowance for clothea, but I can do without anything new for the next 
three months, I wept like a child. Her tenderness wb^ too much 
tor my |>rou(l heart to ^iths^tand. No amount of severftjr roaU 
have overcome me, but her love subdued me entirely, I refuAed 
the monejj but she told me that my taking il was the onlf comfort 
she could enjoy in my absence. The purse conlained five gammf, 
and, an I knew that she would not be allowed to want for anything, 
I consented to accept it, determining to repay it with interest when 
in a position to do so. Alasl I never saw her more. She was loo 
good for this world/' 

Poor Morgan yfm so overcome with the recital of this scene that 
it was a long lime before he could resume his story, 

" After that partings 1 took leave Qf Evan Rvans and hia wife, 
neither of whom would accept anything in return for their hospi- 
tality; and, in light marching orde^ but with a heavy heart, 1 
walked a distance of four miles to a cross road^ where I expected to 
meet the stage coach for Llangollen, 

'* It would have taken me a long time to have walked the di*. 
tance, for my journey by stage occu|>ied two days and niiebta, and 
when 1 had reached Liverpool I had expended more than half my 
money in coacli hire^ 

'* 1 thought at one time of surrendering to take my trial. It 
seemed cowardly to run away j but I acted wisely, for had I waited 
to be apprehended, tlie probability is I should have been condemned 
and executed, as arson was a capital offence, and I have no doubt 
that my father, instigated by my step* mot her, had suborned Uiewit* 
nesses. It seems an awful liiought but subsequent events coTmiioed 
me that it iva^ so. Had I been taken, and thrown into prison^ I 
should have been entirely at the raercy of my persectitors, as I could 
not have retained any one to plead for me ; but this was never no 
plain to me until I heard the death-bed confession of Peggy. Theu 
the truth flashed across my mind, and I saw lliat I was provideti* 
tially directed in getting away as I did, 

"I made my way to Liverpool, as 1 told you, and found myself 
in that great town with two guineas and a few shillings in my pockel. 
I made my way to the docks^ and walked on board ttie first ship that 
seemed ready for sea. Her name was the lbis» a fine ship of about 
seven hundred tons. Tiie first mate, a smart young man, was Qit 
board, and in reply to my question^ if he wanted any hands^ he an- 
swered in the affirmative, 

"'We want,' said he, ' a second mate; but you look young. 
Where have you served ?' The question was a difficult one to 
answer. 

" ' I have been five years at sea chiefly as an oflicer;' 

"*l see/ said he, 'you are a roving blade— a privateers man, I 
can tell that by the cut of you/ 

^'^I have been a privateersmani a merchant -seaman, and t tnan- 
of *war uflScer/ 



1 863. J GRBBNWICH OUABAOT£RS. ^Ol 

" ' The CaptaiQ will be liere presently, and, if be tbinks you fit, 
we can ship you at once, as we are off to-morrow for Bengal ; and 
shall run the passage as soon as we get clear of the Channel/ 

" The Captain at once closed with the chief-mate's suggestion, 
and I was duly ensconced in my new position with five pounds a 
month and everything found at the cuddy table. 

" During the voyage out and home nothing very remarkable oc- 
curred, and we made quick passages both ways ; but, on nearing 
Scilly, a man-of-war hove in sight — a small frigate outward-bound. 
She chased and brought us to, and a young Lieutenant, Mr. Wil- 
liams, whom you may remember, boarded us to muster our crew and 
press all they could find worth taking. The curses of the crew 
were heaped bountifully upon the head of the British officer, who, 
however, was only doing his duty. The practice was most inhuman, 
but in the then state of the country it was necessary. 

'* * And what may you be. Sir?* asked the Lieutenant addressing 
myself. 

"'Second Mate.' 

" ' Then I shall press you, unless you will save me the unpleasant 
duty and volunteer.' 

*' ' I will volunteer,' said I, ' upon one condition, namely, that 
you will not trouble these other poor fellows. I don't think you 
could take them legally, as we have only our smallest established 
number of men on board, and the poor fellows are looking forward 
to seeing their friends.' 

'' ' My orders were to muster, and not to press unless there was a 
surplus number of men.' 

" * We lost three on the passage home, and are short-handed al« 
ready. There is only one above the number that you must leave to 
navigate the ship, and I will volunteer to be tliat one.' 

'' My shipmates heard what I said, and, I believe, would rather 
have drawn lots than that I should leave them ; but I was perfectly 
careless what became of me. The Captain and chief-mate hoped I 
would not leave them ; but I had said it ; and I had my traps put 
in tlie boat, and received payment of the wages due to me ; then 
bidding adieu to my shipmates in the Ibis, receiving a lusty parting 
cheer, we pulled away for the H ." 

*' And became my shipmate." 

" Tes, your shipmate ; but you do not, perhaps, remember what 
happened on my joining. Captain S — was on deck, and seeing a 
smart young fellow, well dressed, come up the side, he seemed 
pleased. The Lieutenant reported me as a volunteer. 

" ' Worth three pressed men,' said the Captain, who happened to 
be in a good humour. 

'* I bowed to the compliment. 

" ' Where have you served ?' 

'' ' I have just been a voyage to Bengal as second mate of that 
ship the Ibis, and here is my certificate,' which was an unusually 
good one. 



*02 XHS POUBH UYOLUTIOir. [JoiT, 

'' ' Would you like a rating as Mastet^a Mate r 

" I replied, I should be muob obliged ; but I could do mj dofy 
in anypart of the ship. 

'"We shall see that/ said the Captain, turning on bis hfcL 
' Heie, Mr. Simpson/ calling the mate of tbe watch, ' go down 
into my clerk's office with Mr. what's your name P ' 

"'John Morgan/ I replied, for I dropped the Jones. 

" ' And tell him to rate Mr. Morgan, master's mate/ '' 



THE POLISH KEVOLUTION WITH SPECIAL BEPE- 
HENCE TO THE EELIGIOUS QUESTION. 

There is no doubt that religious interests play a great part iD the 
complications of the Polish question, and that the Jrolet na^e taken 
up arms not only for the independence of their country, bat also 
with the view of liberating their altars from the intolerable yoke of 
the Orthodox Greek Church. The ill-treatment of the Soman 
Catholics in Poland is a standing grievance with the Chareh of 
Home; and as far back as the 22nd July, 1H40, Pope Gregory XVI. 
addressed a very explicit allocution to the Sacred College in the 
Secret Consistory on the odious persecution then suffered by the 
Boman Catholic Church in Poland. 

The suppression of convents, the forced conversions, and tbe 
flogging of nuns, were then fresh in the memory of every one ; and 
when the Emperor Nicholas visited Rome in the year 1845, his 
reception by the Holy ]!^ather at the Vatican was such as to cause 
the Autocrat of all the Bussias and Chief of the Greek Church to 
hasten his departure from the dominions of the Spiritual Chief of 
the Boman CHtholic world. 

The following extracts from the most important treaties between 
Poland and Bussia may serve to throw some light upon the religious 
element of the Polish question, and the facts which we record will ex- 
pose the enormous persecutions to which the Boman Catholic popula- 
tions of Poland have been subjected for very nearly a century. 

It is to he remembered that the first pretext fixed upon by Bussia 
and Prussia for interfering in the affairs of Poland, was for the pro- 
tection of the dissenters. Poland at that time had eighteen millions 
of inhabitants, of whom twelve millions were Boman Catholics, four 
million dissenters (i.e., Protestants)), and the remaining two mil- 
lions Jews and Mussulmans. The Boman Catholic religion was the 
religion of the State, the Dissenters having the free exercise of their 
creed, being, however, excluded from civil and political rights. 

In order to appreciate the hollowness of this pretext for inter- 
ference, it is necessary to bear in mind the different laws regarding 
Dissenters in use at that period throughout £uro|)e ; the Empress 
Catherine, however, got her pretentions supported by an alliance 



1863] TUB POLISH REVOLUTION. 403 

with the Northern Power?, Great Britaioi Prassia, Denmark, and 
Sweden ; and it is worthy of especial notice that in none of those 
countries the Boman Catholics enjoyed privileges similar to those 
enjoyed by the Protestants in Poland. Treaties were quoted by 
Ru.<sia in support of this plea for intervention in the internal affairs 
of Poland. That of Moscow between Russia and Poland in 1686, 
that of Velan between Prussia and Poland, 1657, and finally that 
between Sweden and Poland, 1660. 

Now all these treaties stipulated for the free exercise of tiie dis« 
spnting faith, which "was de facto granted ; but none of them guaran- 
teed an eaoality of civil and political rights to the Protestants, as 
was now demanded. 

As it is not our purpose to trace the course of Russian intrigues 
in Poland prior to its partition, nor to doubt the right Poland bad 
to continue united, we simply allude to these circumstances with the 
view of exposing the shallow ground upon which Russia based her 
complaints respecting the persecution of her co-religionists in Poland 
in the time of the Republic, and founded the plea for intervention 
in the internal affairs of that country. The treaties of the partition 
of Poland are in themselves a sufficient ground to condemn the 
conduct of the Russian Czar's towards the Roman Catholics of 
Poland, and they cannot surely be renounced by those who framed 
them. 

The fifth article of the first treaty of partition between Poland 
and Russia, dated 18th September, 1778, is conceived as follows : 

The Roman Catholics utriusque riius will enjoy, in the provinces 
ceded by the present treaty, all their properties and possessions ; and 
as regards religion, the staiu quo will be observed, that is to say : 
they will continue to enjoy the free exercise and discipline of their 
creed, together with the possession of all and every church, and all 
ecclesiastical properties which they held at the time they passed 
under the domination of her Imperial Majesty in the month of 
September, 1772; and her Imperial Majesty and her successors will 
never avail themselves of their sovereign riglits to the prejudice of the 
staiu quo of the Roman Catholic religion in the abovenamed coun- 
tries. The 8th Article of -the first partition between Prussia 
and Poland, bearing the same date, is conceived in preci:«ely the 
same terms. The 5th Article of the treaty with Austria is also 
identical, save that Austria being herself a Roman Catholic State, 
the stipulations are made on behalf of the Protestants and non- 
united Greeks. 

As soon as the partition was effected, immense properties passed 
from the hands of the United Ruthenians to those of the Greco- 
Russians, by whom they were ceded to the Crown. The Bishop of 
Posen on the 21st of February, 1774, endeavoured to interfere, and 
remitted a Note to Count Stackelberg, the Russian Minister in 
Poland, and renewed his complaints on the 8th of March ; and in 
1775 a separate agreement was entered into between Russia and 



404 THB POLISH BVVOLXmOK. [JULT, 

Poland, with the view of remedying the evils complained of; bat, 
as has been the case with all these stipulations, we find the Bassians 
ever ready to promise everything and assume every engagement, and 
violating both the one and the other. The prote:»ts of the Polish 
Church continued and were supported by the Papal Nancio, but in 
vain. 

At the second partition of Poland the 8th Article of the 
Russian treaty of the Srd of August, 1793, and the 5th Article of 
tlie Russian treaty of the 25th of September, are as explicit about 
the rights conceded to the Roman Catholics who passed away from 
under the Polish dominion. One of the moat flagrant violations of 
the promised statu quo was, the obligation imposed upon the 
Ruthenians of choosing between the Latin Church and the Schism, 
which resulted in the suppression of the whole united Rutheuian 
Church. 

In 1779, a ukase was published, establishing that on the death of 
a priest in a commune or parish of the United Church, the com- 
mune would have to name as successor anv priest whom they chose 
to select, of whatever creed he might be; but the true electors were 
schismatic magistrates named by Russia. This ukase was clearly 
framed with the view of deceiving Catholic Europe and the Court 
of Rome. 

The see of Polock having been vacant four years, that diocese 
lost eight parishes with 100,000 members of the church, who were 
all forced to embrace the schism. All this time Catherine II. was 
making the most fulsome protestations to the Pope regarding her 
Catholic subjects ; an extract from one of her despatches to Count 
Stackelberg has, however, the following passage : '* The Pope cannot 
ignore that the greater part of my subjects professing the Catholic 
faith belonged formally to oui orthodox religion, and that they onlv 
await the opportunity to return to the bosom of the church whieli 
they had only left with regret and to escape from persecution/' 

Whenever Russia is accused of persecuting the Roman Cathob'cs, 
this passa<;e is quoted in extenuation. At a council held at Peters- 
burg to devise the best means of recalling the members of the 
united to the orthodox church, Catherine resolved to establish a 
seminary of Schismatic Missionaries. After the publication of a 
sanguinary manifesto against the Catholics, priests were sent escorted 
by soldiers to make conversions, and they resorted to the most 
violent measures for this purpose. The governors of the provinces 
were ordered to adopt any means they liked to force the Ruthenians 
to embrace the orthodox faith ; and the knout, floggings, confisca- 
tions, and the most horrible mutilations were resorted to for this 
purpose. 

In a Circular dated May 25th, 1795, the schismatic Archbishop 

of Mohilew boasted of having made a million of conversions in one 

^ear j and the Bishop of Leopol, in Podolia, having endeavoured 

Ifo encourage his clergy in their faith, was otdeted lo dw^V. ^wim 



1863. J THB POLISH RBVOLUTIOX. 460 

opposing the intentions of the Empress. The Poi)e and the Emperor 
Leopold II. in vain interposed. 

A few dajrs after the final partition of Poland, Catherine II. sap- 
pressed all the dioceses of the Buthenian United Church with the 
exception of Polok (those of Leopol and Przemyst having passed 
under the Austrian dominion), confiscating a part of their property 
and distributing the rest among her followers. The fiasilian monas- 
teries were nearly all destroyed, their churches given over to schis- 
matic priests, and the priests who would not change their faith 
either reduced to penury or exiled. A great number fled to Gal- 
licia. Barely two out of five thousand parishes of the four dioceses, 
Kiew, Wladimir, Luck, and Kamience, remained Catholic. 

The nine dioceses of Poland contained in 1771 twelve millions 
of Catholics; and there were thirteen thousand large and seven 
thousand small parishes, and about two hundred and fifty-one Basi- 
lian monasteries and convents. In 1814 there only remained in 
Russia one million three hundred and ninety thousand members of 
the united church, ninety-one convents, and one thousand three 
hundred and eighty-eight parishes, adding for GalUcia (census of 
1826) two thousand two hundred and ninety-six parishes, 2,136,666 
followers, and fourteen Basilian convents, giving a total of 8,534>,14i4 
Catiiolics, 3,6S4 parishes, and 115 Basilian convents. Thus, in 
eight years the United Church had lost eight millions followers, 
9,316 parishes, and 145 convents. The constitutional charter of 
the kingdom of Poland, granted at Warsaw on the 15th and 27lh 
of November, 1815, says : *' § II. Art. II. The Roman Catholic 
religion, which is professed by the majority of the inhabitants of 
Poland, will be the object of especial care to the Government.*' 

Art. Xlll. The funds actually possessed by the Roman Catholic 
clergy and the clergy of the united Greek Church, and that which 
we may accord to them by a special decree, are declared inalienable 
and common to the general ecclesiastical hierarchy, as soon as the 
government shall have distributed to the said clergy the national 
domains which form their dowry. This was but putting into exe- 
cution the engagements entered into at the Congress of Vienna, and 
the obligation imposed on the three Powers who were parties to the 
partition, of conserving the Polish nationality; and, what is 
more, of protecting the national church. 

To pass to more recent times, in 1832, the Emperor Nicholas 
published several ukases of the most sweeping character. The 
Catholic churches were turned into Greek Cathedrals, the Catholic 
prayer-books in the churches replaced by those of the Greek 
Church ; and Greek bishoprics were established wherever Roman 
Catholic ones had existed, and it was sufficient ground for such a 
step, to receive the simple information that such and such a curacy 
had in former times belonged to the dominant religion. In the 
diocese of Karnienice, there remained not a single Roman Catholic 
church, and in some of the towns the priests were obliged to pre- 




^»J 



THB F0U9H A170LUTI0K. [Jult 

serve the holy sacrament bidden at their hornet* In ISS8, a terri- 
ble ukase of tlie Empress Catherine's* was revived i to punbfi as a 
rebel every Catliolie, whether priest or layman, of whatever degree, 
whensoever, by either word or deed, he should be found op|}osing 
the dominant religion. In virtue of this Jaw, every person refusing 
to embrace tlie schism could be imprisoned* Nevertheless^ some 
villages had for two years to be occupied by Russian troops before 
they could be made to embrace the schism* 

The government replied in the fame words as the Empress Cathe- 
rine to thoae who complained, that in declaring individuals and 
families orthodox, their conscieEces were not violated, as it was 
simply bringing them back to the faith of their fathers, whose 
religion they had left through ignorance. In 1834, a hiw was 
established in the kingdom of Poland, obliging the priests to bless 
miied marriages, and establishing the right of women, whose hus- 
bands were exiled in Siberia, to re-marry. By m\ ukase, published 
in 1839, it was made known that every Catholic condemned to the 
knout, the mines, tlje galleys, or to prison, for murder, robbery, or 
any other crime, would receive a free pardon on embracing the 
schismaiic faith. The direction of all the educational establish- 
ments in the kingdom of Poland was confided to Greco-Rus^^ians by 
the Emperor Nicholas. The Catholics had to demand the permis- 
j^ion of the government for the establishment of private institu- 
tions* The catechisms were modified by official agents* The 
priests were furnished with ready made sermons, and the subjects 
on which the two churches differed interdicted. The Pope endea- 
voured to interest all the Eoman CathoHc powers in favour of 
Poland, and in consequence of steps taken by Gregory XYI, a 
Concordat was signed at Eome on the Srd of August, 1847, pre- 
cisely at the same tinne at which the Emperor Nicholas published 
the criminal code of Poland, and according to which the slightt-st 
offence against the Russian form of worship entailed Siberia or the 
knouts The Concordat was never observed. 

On the present Emperor ascending the throne, great hopes were 
entertained that the persecution of the Roman Catholics would 
cease, and one of his first acts having been to publish the Con- 
cordat of 1847, which had remained secret, the Roman Cathulica 
of Poland were elated. The Concordat ivos, however, no more 
attended to than in the days of the late Emperor Nicliolas, and 
under the rule of his son, Alexander II, the most odious persecu- 
tions have been continued, and wijole populations forcid to 
renounce their religion, and embrace that of their usurpers. 

Prom the above observations, and from the fiicts quoted, it will 
be seen that the religious side of the Polish question forms a not 
inconsiderable element in the grievances of that unfortunate coun^ 
try. If we are ri*^htly informed, his Holiness Pius IX has ad- 
dressed a letter to the Emperor of Russia on this subject, which 
Ms presented to Prince Gor]|£(j])gyi|^^£^ay3 after the N| 



ISOS*! TUB POLISH BKVOLUTIOK. 407 

the three Powers^ through the iDtermediam of the Austrian charg^- 
d'affaires ; the Holy Father^ as it is known^ not having an o£Bcial 
representative at the Court of Bussia. In this letter, the Pope 
sajs that considering the terrible spectacle now offered by Poland^ 
he should be wanting in his most sacred duties if, as father of the 
Oreat Christian Community, he did not raise his voice in favour of 
his children, plunged into the deepest misery, and a prey to all the 
evils consequent upon war. That the duty to do so was the more 
binding upon him, as the evils which have now befallen that unfor- 
tunate people, are to be attributed solely to the Bussian Govern- 
ment itself, which has never kept the promises contracted by 
treaties, therefore he follows the example of his venerable prede- 
cessor, Gregory XVI, who, in the secret consistory of the 22nd 
July, 1840, addressed to the Sacred College, a very explicit allocu- 
tion on the odious persecution then suffered by the church in 
Poland, and he now reminds the Czar of the Concordat of 184i7, 
the prescriptions of which have never been fulfilled. His Holiness 
concludes by appealing to the sentiments of humanity, of justice, 
and of clemency of the Emperor Alexander, and urges him to 
restore at length to the Catholics of Poland, freedom of religion, 
and of their faith, as the only means likely to put a term to actual 
troubles, to stop the effusion of blood, and to effect the reconcilia- 
tion between the Poles and the Bussian Government. 

In former numbers of this Magazine, we have sketched the pro- 
gress of the Polish Bevolution, the course of the n^ociations 
entered into by the three Great Powers, and the expression of 
public opinion in all countries in favour of the unfortunate people 
who are struggling for everv right which man holds dean To this 
is now added the powerful sympathy of the Boman Church and 
Catholics throughout the world, and the Bussian Government must 
indeed be stubborn, if it lends an unwilling ear to the last appeal of 
the Great Powers, in the face of this all-powerful expression of both 
the civilised sense of Europe, and strong religious feeling. The 
Bussian reply to the first three Notes on the affairs of Poland was, 
as is now generally known, most unsatisfactory, and now three 
Notes have been despatched to St. Petersburg, identical in sub- 
stance. These Notes are framed on the grounds of European peace 
and humanity. Prance, which was the first to take the initiative in 
the diplomatic action in favour .of the Polish cause, now speaks 
out more plainly. The armies of the French Emperor have been 
victorious in distant Mexico. Puebla, the principal stronghold, 
has fallen ; and this circumstance is most opportune to strengthen 
the representations of the French Emperor. The semi-official 
press of the French Empire now denounces the Bussian Government 
in Poland in no measured terms, charging it with the extermination 
of those whom it can never conciliate ; and hinting in plain terms, 
that if diplomacy is powerless it has behind it the argument of 
bayonets. 



I 



I 



Iq the meaiiwbile the rerolutioii in Palandj although it cannat 
he $aid to be viclariouSj gains daily in extension, asaucning a c[ia- 
ract^r which renders the action of the Russian troops more difficult 
than ever, as the whole of the country which before the year 177ii 
was an independent Power is now in a slate of insurrection j spread- 
ing even to parts which are, strictly speaking, Rut^sian* It would 
not be unreasonable to suppose that such a state of things would 
intlueuce the Russian Government to give way and accord coiiccs- 
nioiis; the very extent of the disaffection and tlie revived national 
spirit, however, oppose obstacles to concessioiL In the lace of this 
state of thing?^, and cou&idering the attitude assumed by the great 
Powers, and France in particular, the Poli^ih question bids fair to 
lead to a general European war, in which the Emperor of the French 
may find the opportunity of carrying out the enterprise of restonng 
independence to Poland,' as he has already done with regard to Italy • 
Of the popularity of such an enterprise after the general expression 
of the public opinion of Europe, and the religions interest which ia 
K interwoven with iij it would be needless further to dilate. 

f tt is 



MILITARY STUDIES.— No. III. 



CAVALEY. 



I 



It is amusing enough that at the termination of every campaign 
a great controversy is seen to arise on the subject of the Cavalry, 
This arm has certainly for a long period not had the good fortune 
to decide, single-handed, any action of consequence, as it used to 
do in the olden time ; and it is, therefore, at once taken for granted 
that it has become wholly superfluous, if not an impediment or an 
eipensive nuisance that should be forthwith abolished. 

But it appears wholly illogical and inconsistent to put forward, 
as t lie oponents of Cavalry do, the otherwise incontestable doctrinej 
that the Infantry is the main stay of all modern armies, and in the 
same breath fall foul of the Cavalry for not deciding every baltle 
that is fought. Let us look for instance to the campaign of 1859 
in Italy, and the relative strength of the two arms. Jn the French 
army the Cavalry amnunted, at the begin jjing of tiie campaign, to 
about one-twelfth of the Infantry, in the Sardinian to less than 
one-tenth, and in the Austrian to little more than one-thirtieth, in 
the end, perliaps, to one-twenty- fifth. We ask, is it reasonable to 
expect that such snndl fractions of the total strength of the respec- 
tive armies, acting in a rountry so little suited to the movements of 
Cavalry as to the plains of Lomeiliua and Lombardy undoubtedly 
ate, should do more than act a subordinate part? 

But in truth the Cavalry uer formed in lti59 services of very 
great importance, and, particularly as regards the French, such as 



i 



1868.] mrjTABT studies. 4»09 

were wholly incdmmersQrate with its nnmerical strength as shall 
presently be shown. That it might have done more^ in despite of 
Mini^ carbines and rifled gnns, it is impossible to deny ; nay^ the 
events of the campaign have proved, beyond a doubt, that the real 
practical value of 9M the modern improvements in fire-arms is by no 
means so wonderful as the ^'ignobile vulgus^' supposes, and 
certainly insufficient to diminish sensibly that of the bayonet and 
sabre. 

If the French generals know how to make the best use of their 
Cavalry, such as it is, it is equally certain that the Austrians have 
a better material, which tliey do not well know how to use, and 
this old maxim has been fully justified by the events of 1859. 
There is an anecdote of Napoleon I exclaiming, at a review of 
Austrian Cavalry at Schonbrunn in 1809, '^ Le fran9ais n'est pas 
homme k chevsd/' and adding, that if he had always had such 
troops as those before him at his disposal, he could have conquered 
the whole world. Under these circumstances, then, it is strange 
that the anti-Cavalry movement should have originated in France, 
whilst in Austria that arm, although somewhat reduced from 
purely financial motives, seems to have lost nothing of its credit. 

The proximate cause of the outcry against the Cavalry in the 
former country, was simply the fact that the documents laid before 
the Cavalry Committee in 1860 proved beyond a doubt that the 
10,600 sabres with which the French Cavalry entered the field, 
had dwindled down to 8,000 on the 24th June ; that is to say, in 
the short period of some ten weeks, almost exclusively in conse- 
quence of sore backs and other similar injuries inflicted on the 
horses by their own riders; for at Magenta, only one Cavalry brigade 
belonging to the 2nd Corps d'Armie, and two or three squadrons 
of the Light Cavalry of the Guard came into action. This is 
certainly a fearful tale to tell ; but it proves in reality nothing 
against the Cavalry as an arm, and simply that the above mentioned 
dictum of Napoleon I still holds good. 

It is evident that a variety of questions are opened by this exposi, 
and we shall endeavour to examine them, and, if possible, answer 
each in its turn ; but first of all let us take a rapid glance at the 
services performed by the Cavalry on both sides during the several 
actions of this short campaign. 

To begin with Montebello, 20th May, we find the Sardinian 
Cavalry brigade De Sonnaz, although taken by surprise, struggling 
successfully to retard the advance of the Austrian Infantry brigade 
Schafgolsche at the farm Genestrello, and thereby affording General 
Forey time to bring up his troops from Voghena. De Sonnaz 
Cavalry no doubt suffered very heavy losses in repeatedly attacking 
the Austrian Infantry, and one or two battalions of the regiment 
Archduke Charles successfnlly imitated the exploit of our Infantry 
at Maida, and charged the Cavalry in line with the bayonet. But 
De Sonnaz gained his point in a great degree, and his repeated 



410 MIUTARY STUDIES, [JuLY, 

charges prove that the fire of Miiiie rifles is wholly incapable of 
Itnnihilating Cavalry as certaiu people pretend. 

At Magenta, on the 4tli of June, the Cavalrj brigade Gauclin, 

lj(eight squadrons of Chasseurs a cheval,) supported it would seem 

% one or two Italian squad rons, mainly prevonted au Infantry 

brigade of Clam's Corps d'Armee from penetrating into the interval 

between tlie French divisioifcs Dl* Lamotterouge, which had advanced 

[by Cuggioni and Casatej and De Ffispinasse, which marched direct 

[ou Magenta by Buscate and Meseco, The j auction of these two 

{divisions enabled McMahou to decide the fate of the battle by 

j flanking the whole of the Austrian poj^ition. 

I Again^ when the Infanlry brigade Gablentz, of the Austrian 7tli 
|Corp!i», had driven back a column of I ho Grenadiers and Zouaves of 
the Guard on Ponte Nuovo di Magenta^ taken a gun, suceeeding in 
re-occupying tiie biiildimgs on the left bank of the csnal^ and was 
about to storm those on the right binik sstill occupied by the Ereneh, 
its further progn^ss was arretted for n motnent by General Cas- 

tsaigiiulle^ charging aL the head of a squadron of Chasseurs h cheval of 
the Guard ; but this moment was sufficient to enable the Grena- 
diers and Zouaves, that had been driven across the bridge iu double 
quick; to rally and take a position that kept Gablentz at bay until 

kpart of Viuoy's division coming up just in the nick of time 
enabled the French to resume the offensivej and secure the passage 
of the ea]]ah 

The remainder of the French Cavalry remained on the right bank 
of tlie Tessiu during the action^ the roads being so thronged witli 
infantry coluuiiiSj artillery and baggage^ that it was inapossible to 
bring it forward. Part of tlie Sardinian Cavalry crossed the river 
Mi Turbigo, and was employed in recoimoitering to the north-west, 
where Urban^s dtvij^ion showed itself- 

The Austrian 3 had a considerable Cavalry force, 36 to SHsqoad- 
fons in the immediate viciiiity of the field of battle. The 1st 
Corps, Ciam-Gallaisj had two squadrons of the 12th regiment of 
HussarSj which were scattered in all directions in small parlies | 
the 2nd Corps^ Prince Edward Liechtenstein, had four ditto of the 
12th regiment of Hulans, which were attached by squadrons to the 
four brigades of the corpsj and, of course, could do nothing beyond 
ineffectual skirmishing with McMahon's Cavalry brigade. The 
Cavalry division of Count Mensdorff, or rather that part of it that 
was on the groundi was posted early in tlie morning on the high 
road to the east of Magenta, near Corbetta, with instructions to 
cover the road to Milan ; it was ne^er brought into action nor was 
its commnndant iu a position to undertake anything on his own 
responsibility. Towards the end of the battle, it covered the retreat 
of the beaten troops of Clam's corps, all that remained for it to do. 
To account for the reasons why this division was not employed to 
support the movement^ attempted for a moment by Clam, for the 
purpose of isolating the two divisions De Lamotterouge and De 



I 




1863.] IflLITABY STUDIES. 411 

TEspinasse of MoMahon's corps^ would be to give a general history 
of the battle^ for which this is not the place. 

What became of the four sqaadrons of the Ist regiment of Hus- 
sars attached to the 7th Austrian Corps is hard to say ; they were 
detached by squadrons to the Infantry brigades^ and as a matter of 
consequence, could do but little. 

The only portion of the Austrian Cavalry that did anything 
worth speaking of^ or indeed capable of being ascertained, was the 
10th regiment of Hussars attached to the Srd Corps, Prince Ed- 
mund Schwarzenberg, which arrived on the field at about five 
o'clock in the evening. The entire regiment, then eight squadrons 
strong, with some 11 to 1200 horses, was attached to this corps, 
then consisting of four Infantry brigades; the other Corps d'Arm^e, 
some of which had five brigades, had only one-half or one-quarter 
the number of squadrons. This was all the result of circumstances 
bearing so directly on certain questions concerning the Cavalry, that 
it is necessary to detail them at some length. 

Colonel fiaron Edelsheim, then commandant of the 10th Hussars^ 
is a man of undoubted abiUty and knowledge of the details of 
Cavalry service; we suspect, however, nothing worse than this. He 
had been pushed on with great rapidity in consequence of his ser- 
vices, ability and connexions, and obtained his rank and the com- 
mand of a regiment, after an unusually short period of service. 
At the great Cavalry manoeuvres at Parnsdorf, in 1857, Colonel 
Edelsheim first brought forward his new system of moving Cavalry ; 
we know no better term to employ, for it was not a new system of 
tactics ; its chief features being, to make bold riders, instead of 
school riders, to emancipate the Cavalry from the monotony of 
eternally filing past at a short canter, the favourite criterion applied 
in Austria, to prove that this arm can be moved across the most 
di£Bcult country, when occasion requires, and to show further that 
the best way of preventing sore backs, &c., on the march, is by 
substituting an alternation of trot and walk for the old established 
respectable snail's pace. 

The reader will perceive that these are very important results. 
If the number of sore backs can be reduced to a minimum, the 
efficiency of a given body of Cavalrv will be nearly doubled, and 
such catastrophies as happened to the French regiments in 1859 
avoided, and if further, the very means employed to attain this end, 
brings this arm more rapidly to the scene of action, and moreover, 
the difficulties of the ground cease to form an impediment to its 
movements, then its value may be supposed to be quadrupled in 
comparison with what it had hitherto been. 

But the being able to bring cavalry intact and with greater 
rapidity than hitherto to the scene of combat, however important 
and valuable in itself, is unfortunately insufficient to restore to that 
arm the preponderance it once possessed, because the defensive 
power of the Infantry is tripled or quadrupled by those very diffl- 



MTLJTAltT STUDIES, 



[JutY, 



Iculties of the grotind that EcteUli elm's system tenches ns lo sor- 
Ittiount, in other words being able to cross a difficult country in 
tolerably ^ood arder, does rtut mean being able to encounter 
Iherein with advantage an enemy, whose means of defence are 
ba ipso rnis^ed to a higher power* This fact seema not lo have been 
dnly recognifseJ before the campaign, ond even now fta importance 
is underrated, although Edelsheitn himself Um furnished us with the 

•ttiost positive proofs of its accuracy. 
This officer was sent to Italy with his regiment some months 
before hostilities commenced, and put it regularly in troining so as 
, to be tible to surmount even the difficoUies of the Italian country. 
"Vlieij the Auslrians took the field, the 1 0th Hussars was attached 

Prince Schwarzeii berg's Corps d^Armee, and Edelsheim had in- 

herefit enough at head*quarters to manage to have the whole regiment 

left together, so that even where three or four squadrons were at- 

ched to the infantry brigades he always had fiv-e or four at his 

iwn disposal j and Schwarzenberg, himself a cavalry officer, gave 

lliim carte blanche. 

It was half-pa?t five o'clock on the evening of the 4?th of June, 
8*^fl, when Niel came up with a portion of his corps (o the aid of 
Canrobert, who had been struggling to gain ground on the plnteau 
"" et^een the Naviglio Grande and the Tes^in, The brigade Hartung 
pt the Austrian 3rd Corps d* Arm^e had repeatedly, six to seven 
times, stormed and carried the western lialf cf the small village of 
Pontevecchio di Ma^^enta on this canal, and been as repeatedly 
driven out of it by reinforcements of frrsh troops that contitiually 
arrived* Another brigade, Durfeld, had long and gallantly struggled 
to turn the French right towards the river, and been repulsed in 
the same manner, Kiel's arrival with part of Yinoy's division, 
two battalions of the 85 1 h and one of the 73rd at length enabled 
the brigade Pi card of Canrobert's *^*5^P^ to hold its ground firmly 
in I his part of the village; and when the brigade Jannin of the 
latter corps came up at six o'clock^ the Prench felt themselves strong 
enough to assume the offensive and attempted to debouch from the 
irillage, while Hart nog and Diirfeld were compelled lo retreat- 

At this moment Edelsheim arrived on the immediate scene of 
[action with five squadrons that had hhherto been held in reserve at 
Carpenzago* His line of advance wms parallel with tlie road lead- 
ing from this village to PoTitevecchio, arid formed, consequently, a 
yery acute angle with the front of Hartung's brigade. Kdelsheim 
could not, however, advance on the road itself, which is very narrow 
^d was moreover crowded with obstacles i he, therefore, formed his 
force into two columns on the fields to the right and left, and indi- 
cating generally the direction in which the charge was to he made, 
for the rows of trees and festoons of vines rendered it quite impoa- 
sible to see a hundred yards in advance, put both columtii into a 
canter- Never^ perhaps, did Cavalry attempt such a task as this, 
the ground being not only intersected with festoons of vjTies, sus* 



» 



1868.J MILITARY STUDIES. 41^ 

pended five to six feet above the surface^ which the men at the head 
of the column had to cut through with their sabres^ but also with 
deep ditches used for the purpose of irrigation and drainage. 
Away, however^ went the two columns over hedge and ditch in true 
steeple chase stjle^ a glorious sight to see ; one of them deviated 
too much to the left and missed the village^ the other encountered 
the French Infantry just in the act of debouching from Ponte- 
vecchio in the direction of Carpenzago^ drove \tpSle mile before it^ 
and never stopped till it reached the canal bridge. This had been 
broken down by the Austrians some time previously^ and these gal- 
lant Hussars were^ therefore^ compelled to turn their horses' heads 
and ride back through the streets^ from every house of which^ now 
lined with Infantry, a deadly volley was poured into the retreating 
column. The loss was, of course, enormous. One major, three to 
four captains, several subalterns, and a great number of rank and 
file were left dead or wounded in the streets of this fatal village ; 
but the attack meditated by the French was paralysed, and they did 
not venture to renew it, whilst on the other hand, Hartung's and 
Diirfeld's brigades gained time to rally and take up a new position, 
which they held till the close of the action. As may be supposed, 
from the difficult nature of the ground and the pace that was ridden, 
many parties straggled off to the right and left of both columns, 
and one of these fell in with Canrobert and his Staff as the Marshal 
was giving directions to the fresh troops just arrived. Canrobert 
had a narrow escape of being taken prisoner ; the officers of his 
staff, several of whom were wounded and others fairly rode down, 
amongst these Colonel Bellecourt, were obliged to draw their sabres 
and defend themselves ; but General fienaudt, who saw the melie 
from the other side of the canal lined its bank with Infantry, whose 
fire compelled the Hussars to retreat 

At Melegnano, the next action in this campaign, the Cavalry on 
both sides had but little to do. A French squadron imitated £del- 
sheim's example in so far, that it attempted to force the entrance 
of the town from the high road, but getting into a heavy cross fire 
of the Austrian Infantry posted in the houses and gardens on the 
right and left, combined with that of a battery in the front, it was 
glad to withdraw after a few minutes. 

In order to understand perfectly the part played by the Cavalry 
at Solferino, it is necessary to present the reader with a general view 
of, at least, that part of the action that was fought on the plain, 
wliich we do the more readily, because it affords the opportunity of 
stripping off some of that load of meretricious ornament with 
which the true facts of the case have been hitherto disguised. 

There can be no objection to the French, who fought most gal^ 
lanily and achieved a most decisive and brilliant victory, making as 
mtich political and military capital as possible out of it; this is 
human nature, and every one does the same, more ot less. But it 
19 scarcely polite or even politic to do it in a way that implies that 

U. S. Maq. No. 416, July, 1863. it^ 



MIUTARY STUDIES. 



[July, 



11 the rmt of the world are born at^sei? or sleeping babes. For in- 
tnncPj to lepreseiit the viclory of Ma|retita to bp the result of 
iblime strategical combinnlioti^i and extul llmt of Solferjiio a^ an 
ristaivce of tKe Emperor's proticieiicy in Mie haute taclique, is a very 
Urong in^iiJUatioiL With tlie fortner baltle and tlie movements 
ihat preceded it we have for the moment nothing to do, but it mus^t 
■c evident (o even the most moderately competent judge of such 
aattera, that the victory of RolferiTTO is mainly to be atiributed to 
ihe ckver and well judged strategical disposition for the movements 
of the French army issued on the 2 '3rd of Juiie^— timt is, tlie day 
"Vfore the battle, having been 90 judiciously and energetically ear* 
led out by the French generals. 

There was scarcely an occasion or even an opportunity for changing 
Ihe direction of the march of one single battalion ; what remained 
for Napoleon to do he did promptly and cleverly ; and this was to 
bring up his reservei the Infaiitry of the Guard, to the decisive 
pointj and prevent the Corps d^Armee of his right wing (4th and 
lird) from being separated duiing their cuncentric march from the 
Snd or central one, on which the whole army pivoted up to two 
o'clock, p.m, ; and this he elfected by throwing the wliole of his re- 
serve Cavalry, combined uith Artillfiry* into the gap, which brings 
us precisely to our point. 

McMahon, whose corps had bivouacked at Castighone, marched 
rom tiience at three o*clock, a,m.j the whole corps in one column on 
*he high road leading to Guidizzolo, He liad orders to turn olT to 
llie left towards Cavriano before reaching the former town, but he 
halted the head of his column soon alter five o^clock, a.m , near the 
lon*e Medolano, a small eminence on the right of the road lialf- 
ray between Castiglione and Guidixzolo. Nearly two English milei 
^o his ric^bt Niel, who had orders to march on Guidizzolo, was eri« 
gaged at Medule with the Austriati Dth Corps, and about a mile 
pnd a half mile to his left, between La Grole and Solferino, Bara- 
|uay d'Hiliiers with the 5th Corps; he stood, tli ere fore, nevrly in 
|he centre of a three-and-a-half nule wide gap in the French line of 
battle. The key of the Austrian position was on the heights of 
Solferino, and this could only be carried by his co-operatiaii. But 
if he moved his corps to tlie left towards SanCassiano for that pur- 
pose, the two mde gap between him and Niel would have been 
widened to a three or four mile one j and towards that already 
existing the AustTians soon after ten o^ clock directed their 3rd 
Corps, sn PI sorted by Mensdorff'a Cavalry on its right wiug, ft 
WBSj therefore, the first consideration to stop up this hole, which 
was done at first by NiePs throwing into it the two Cavalry reserve 
divisions* Devaux and Partonneaux, with their batteries, and then 
flanking the front of these with the thirty guns of his Artillery 
reserve* General Auger, on the other hnnd, fortned the twenty- 
four guns of tiie Artillery reserve of Mc^Mahon's corps into one 
'^ fttter}' in front of the latter, and to the left of the two Cavalry 



1863.] MILITAKT aruDiBS* *15 

divisions ; and finally Napoleon ordered up the Cavaliy of tbe 
Guard, which was hastening up from Castenedolo, to prolong the 
line formed by Devaux and Partonneauz towards the right of 
McMahon's corps, which was thus at length enabled to assume the 
offensive after having been compelled to remain perfectly inactive 
for several boors. 

But long before McMahon was thus enabled to co-operate with 
Baraguay d'Hilliers and the Infantry of the Guard in their attack 
on Solferino and Caosiana, the Austrians had made repeated at* 
tempts to penetrate into the interval occupied by the two Cavalry 
divisions, and thus separate the right wing of the rrench army from 
its centre and left ; and it was here and for this purpose that Mens* 
dorff's Cavalry was employed. Thus it came to pass that, contrary 
to all tactical rules, the reserve Cavalry of both armies^ came to be 
employed nearly in the centre without having a line of Infantry in 
front or rear.f On the part of the French, however, the de6ciency 
was supplied by the judicious employment of the fire of about 
eighty guns concentrated nearly on one point, to which the Austrians, 
who had a much more numerous artillery, opposed nothing, but the 
fire of a few isolated batteries, chiefly light G-pounders. 

It is necessary to remark here that toe disposition for the march 
of the Austrian army issued on the 22nd and renewed on the 23rd 
of June, threw the three Corps d'Arm& of their left wing, 3rd, 9th, 
11th, into an eccentric direction as regarded the ground on which 
the battle was actually fought, that is to say, towards Medole. 
Unfortunately, too, for the Austrians, Niel's attack on the last- 
named village, early in the morning, naturally drew them off in the 
same false direction, and rendered it impossible to remedy the error 
by throwing these three corps into iAne space between the hilly 
country, and the high road from Castiglione to Goito, the only 
means of bringing the attack on Solferino to a stand still % More- 
over, McMahon, with the most consummate judgment, nbstained 
for several hours from making any movement that might have 
tended to draw the attention of the Austrian leaders to this vulner- 
able and important point of the allied line of battle. 

And thus it came to pass, that the Srd Corps d'Arm^, Prince 
Schwarzenberg, flanked on the right by Mensdorfl's Cavalry, at- 
tempted soon after 10 o'clock a.m., to penetrate into the opening 
between Niel and McMahon, on the right of tbe latter. There 

* The services of the reserve Cavalry division Zedwits were lott in consequence 
of Major-Oeneral Baron Laningen having withdrawn his hrigade at the oommenee- 
ment of the action in the most unaccountable manner. 

t This was partly a consequence of the peculiarities of the ground, the heath of 
Medole lying in this direction, partly of the battle of Solferino having been alto- 
gether improvised on both sides. 

t If the rencontre of the two armies had not taken place, or if the Austrians had 
commenced their movement at the same moment as the French, that is at three 
o'dbck, a.m., this eccentricity in the march direction of these three corps wo«U 
have ceased to exist. 

se2 



416 



UILITAUY STUDTI9* 



[July, 



I 



were no troops available to throw into the equally fatal hiatus on 
McMahon^s left, between bim and the Ist Corps, with the exception 
of Colon el Edelsheimj with his four squadrons of Ua^sars. 

Having now placet) before the reader a general view of the situa- 
tion, and of the circumstances under which ti\e Cavalrj on both 
Fides were employed on this memorable day, we proceed to the 
details, and commence with Edebheim, whose artion has become 
the object of much discussion, excited a very pecuHar interest, and 
let us add, been very much overrated in a tactical point of view. 

Like all apostles of new system?, Edelsheim thought only of his 
own hobby, charging across the most ditflcult pitce of country he 
could nick outj perhaps, too, the prospect of goining the much- 
coveted Order of Maria Theresa may have occnrTed to him, but 
we are inclined t^ doubt that he had any very clear idea of the 
general tactical situation. Every one, too, seems to have bean 
doing, at the moment, what best pleased himself, for the Emperor 
Erancis Joseph was still at Yalleggin, or just about to leave it, in 
piTfect ignorance of a!l th^t had happened up to the moment. 

However this mny be, away went Edehheim across country, his 
four squadrons in line, with a wide interval between each pair.* 
His starting point was Val di Termini, half-way house between 
Quidizzoio and Caosiana, from whence he moved nearly in a 
straight line towards Castiglione. At first, he fell in only with 
small detachments of the 7tli re^ment of Chasseurs i\ chevalj 
placed here in observation by McMahon, and these were soon com- 
pelled to fall back on their supports* 

We must here remark^ that McMahon iti his report, deceived no 
doubt by the great difference in the strength of the French and 
Austrian squadrons, and seeing two lines of considerable length, 
with a large interval between them, represents this charge or series 
of charges to have been made by two regiments; and this has given 
rise to the very eironeous idea, that it was Mensdorfl'^s Cavalry 
that acted here, whereas this general never came into contact wilh 
McMahon^s left wing having liad to do, as we shall presently see, 
with Devaux and Partonneaux, wlio were on the riglit of the French 
2nd Corps d*Arm^e, It is also necessary to observe that blame has 
been attached to Mensdortf for not having followed Edelsheim, w^ho 
cursorily informed him of what he was about to undertake, at a 
moment I hat the two columns came nearly in conlact during their 
first advance, but this is perfectly absurd, as we shall presently 
prove to the reader's satisfaction, 

Edelsheim progressed steadily in his onward course, and was met 
with equal gallantry by the French chasseurs, then ensued a series 
of charges and counterchorges, in which the latter had decidedly 
the worst of itj and lost a great number of men and many horses. 

* Two squadrons form in the Austrian cavalry a division without mtervali, under 
the command of tt Held-oRicer, just ii trith utp two troopi a iqnadrDn uorler tlie 
comtnant) of a captain. 



1863.] MILITARY STUDIES. 417 

McMahon had, meanwhile, deployed his Corps across the road, 
front towards Guidizzolo, one brigade of the Ist division to the 
right, the whole of the 2nd division to the left, and the 2nd bri- 
gade of the 1st division being placed in reserve at Barcaccio ; he 
had also withdrawn two squadrons of the 4th Chasseurs a cheval 
from his right wing, on finding that the presence of the two 
Cavalry divisions enabled him to do so witii safety. When Edels- 
heim arrived at Barcaccio the reserve Infantry brigade posted there 
endeavoured to bar his passage by throwing out a swarm of tirail- 
leurs, but these were speedily driven in on their respective batta- 
lions, by a successful charge of his left squadron, whilst the other 
three kept on straight ahead, and encountered the above-mentioned 
two squadrons of the 4th Chasseurs, which had just arrived, and 
effected their junction with those of the 7th regiment. These six 
squadrons united, charged Edelsheim's three, but were in their turn 
broken, not, however, before they had made one or two determined 
countercharges, during which, part of the Hussars were driven in 
under the fire of squares formed by the 11th battalion of Chasseurs, 
and the 72nd of the Line, and suffered severely. According to 
McMahon's report, several prisoners, including an officer, and some 
80 horses were captured. By this time, it was nearly 12 o'clock, 
and Edelsheim had reached Le Grole, a village taken by Forey's 
troops two hours previously. It is stated tliat be now sent patrols 
to tne rear to look for Mensdorff's division, which he seems to have 
fancied should have followed him, but in truth he must have begun 
to see that his expedition was a tactical " nonsense,'' for the heights 
on his right were already occupied by Baraguay d'Hilliers' corps; 
and his patrols, who, of course, saw nothing of Mensdorff, brought 
him the news that McMahon was closing up his line of retreat with 
squares of Infantry, the prelude to his movement on San Cassiano. 
Nothing daunted by this, Edelsheim rallied his squadrons, and sent 
one under Captain Baron Lederer ahead as avant-garde, and fol- 
lowed with the remaining three in line, with double or treble inter- 
vals. Lederer soon after encountered the head of the column of 
the Cavalry of the Guard, which was advancing on the high road 
from CastigUone towards McMahon's right wing, and, although 
himself menaced in the flank and rear by a squadron of Chasseurs, 
he did not hesitate a moment in charging the avant-garde, which 
he drove back on the head of the column; the Chasseurs in his rear 
were, meanwhile, driven off by one of the squadrons that followed 
in his wake. 

In consequence, the progress of the Cavalry of the Guard was 
retarded for some time, but General Morris ordered it to deploy, 
and Edelsheim, seeing that he had no chance of resisting so large 
a body, was compelled to think of retreating, the more so because 
a French battalion posted behind some stone walls at the point of 
intersection of the cross road, leading from Le Grole to Carpenedolo, 
with the main road on which McMahon had advanced, galled KvsBk' 



418 iriUTABT STUDIES- U^^^^ 

vith its fire, although his brave Hussora jumped the wdU and 
dashed into the midst of the infantry* But his horaes ariri meti 
were, by this time, quite done up, and he retreated by Ca&a Morino, 
in the rear of McMiihc)n''s corps, whem he n^ain encoiirUered 
French Infantry, but finally matle hh way unmolested to the bri- 
gade of General Eoagen which formed tlie right wing of Scliwarzen- 
berg's corps, and was posted at the cross-road leading from Medole 
to San Cassia no. 

Thus ended Edelsheim's exploit, i^liich proved beyoTid a doubt 
that Cavalry may be moved, in small bodies at lea^t, over the most 
difficult eountry, and perform the moat valuable services despite of 
riSed guns, both big and small, indeed from the former it has 
nothing to fear at close quarters* But really important results can 
be attained, ouly when this arm is used at the proper moment, and 
in the right direction, neither of which was here the case ; however 
we must not anticipate, and can only repeat what was aptly siud of 
our own Balaclava charge, *'c^est maguifique, mais ce n'est pas 
la guerre/' The only other parallel that occurs to us, is Colonel 
Baron Meiendorff*s charge at the battle of Grochow, on the 25th 
I'ebruary, 1831, with four squadrons of tiie Russian cuirassier regi- 
ment, Prince Aibert* 

Edelsheim's squadron lost in this afl'air 8 officers, 125 rank and 
file and 126 horses, or as nearly as possible one-fourth of their 
actual strength at the time. It is by no means true, as has been 
asserted, that all the?e were killed and wounded in the mel^e, and 
only one man by a shell ; for the French made sevend prisoners and 
captured only thirty horses. A great number of the men and 
three-fourths of the horses were killed or wounded by the fire of 
the infantry and artillery, although perliaps the majority of the 
rank and file may have been sabred. The only real result of the 
affair was, that a second practical proof was attbrded of the possi- 
bility of carrying out Edebheim's system of moving cavalry, and 
that he himself gained the Order he coveted— tactical results it had 
none, nor could it under the circumstances have had, even if Mens- 
dorfi^'s division had followed, indeed these gallant troops, so reck- 
lessly sacrificed, could have been much better employed at a later 
period of the battle and in a different direction, as shall be pre- 
sently shown. 

Mensdorff had left his bivouac at Tezze nearly an English mile 
and a half to the rear of Yaldi Tennini, from whence Edelsheim 
had started, between sist and seven o'clock a*m*, and the direction 
of his march brought the two columns into contact soon after eight 
o'clock, when the casual communication alluded to, took place. A 
certain degree of blame has been thrown on McJisdorfi* for not 
folio wini? Edelsheim with his diviiiion (3 regiments, ^0 squadrons, 
about 2U0O sabres.) It is therefore but fair to enquire into th© 
circumstances of the case which were as follows. 
, Mensdorff'a division formed the Cavalry reserve of the right wing 




186S.] ■ MIUTAEY BTUBIES. 419 

of the Austrian army under Schlick. The disposition for the march 

Ereviouslj issued instructed this general officer, to cover the ground 
etween Camarino, on the high road, and Caosiana, on the edge 
of the hilly country, during the advance of the army, and to cover 
Schlick's left and secure his communications with Wimptfen. 
Zedivilz who was attached to the wing commanded by WimpfFen 
had received precisely similar orders for his division in the open 
country near Medole, of course mutatis mutandis, and this 
would naturally have brought the two divisions into contact in the 
open country, that lay between the two wings of tlie Austrian 
force, but they were perefectly independent of each other. Mens- 
dorflp had therefore a perfectly well defined and specific task to 

Eerform, and at the time when £delsheim communicated with him, 
is instructions had not been altered nor indeed was it then possible 
to say whether the combats going on at the moment at Medole 
and Le Grole were mere avant-garde affairs, or the prelude to a 
general action. 

Under these circumstances it would have been perfectly un- 
justifiable and wholly contrary to the spirit and letter of his instruc- 
tions, and indeed to common sense, to engage the whole of the 
reserve cavalry in an expedition, whose consequences it was wholly 
impossible to foresee in the silightest degree, and this too, at the 
very commencement of an affair, the nature of which was not yet 
clearly defined, and moreover leave a space of two or three 
English miles in the centre of the Austrian army wholly uncovered. 
We, of course, do not mean to say that the reserve Cavalry of an 
army should never be engaged at the commencement of an action, 
although it is in most instances better to avoid doing so, not that 
the commandant should hold himself so bound by instructions as 
never to deviate from them or follow his own inspiration ; on the 
contrary, we consider his doing so occasionally to be the real test 
of fitness for the command of Cavalry, but he must then be quite 
sure that he knows what he is doing, and not ride tilts at wind- 
mills. 

Edelsheim was in a very different position, but he was attached 
to an Infantry Corps d'Armfo belonging to the left wing of the 
army, Wimpffen's, and had received the permission of his imme- 
diate chief. Prince Schwarzenberg, to try a coup wherever he saw a 
chance of success, and it seems to us not a little strange to censure 
a general officer commanding a division for not following the lead 
of a Colonel commanding four squadrons in every wild-goose chase 
it might please the latter to undertake, whether this harmonised 
with his instructions or was perfectly opposed to them. 

It is, however, a very different question to ask, whether as things 
turned out il would have been better if Mensdorff had directed his 
movements against the interval between McMahon and Baragnay 
d'Hilliers, or, as he actually did, against that between the former 
and Niel. Now we have already shown that McMahon was com- 



4£0 



MlLITAllY STODIBS, 



[Jin-T, 



* 



k 



pelted to inaction, aud could not mo?e to support Bafmgtujr 
d'Hiiliers' attack on the heights of Solferino until Niel's corps had 
formed a junction with his; there was therefore nothing for llii 
Austrian cavalry to prevent in this direciion, and farthur timt Nicl 
had thrown the two cavalry divii^ions Devaux and Partoiinaux with 
their batteries in addition to the whole of his own reserve artille^ 
into this interval, for the purpose of securing the junction of the 
4.th and 2nd Corps d'Armee m soon as Canrobert's arrival with the 
3rd should have enabled him to incline to his left, and finally, (hat 
the Emperor Napoleon had moved the Cavalry of the Guard on the 
same point for ihe same purpose. 

Ib it neeei'sarj to draw the deductionj that the longer tlun June 
tion could be deferred, so much the longer would McMaljon's actioti 
remain paralysed and so much the later would he be enabled to 
co-operate with Baraguay d'Hilliers and the Infantry of the Guard 
at the decisive points San Cas^^iano and Solferino ; this was precifeiy 
what occurred J for McMahon could not commence his movement 
for many hours. There wasj tlierefore, something for the Austrian 
Cavalr}' to prevent in this direction. 

Mensdtirff arrived on the ground about nine o'clock or a little lat«»r, 
he placed the two Drngoon regiments (twelve squadrons) of the 
brigade Prince William of Holstein in the first line and the regi- 
ment of UulanSj Count Civillart (eight squadrons) of the brigade 
Zichy in rear of his right en echelon, the second regiment of ihe 
latter brigade had not hs jet joined the army ; \m artiller_y conBisted 
of one light sis-poundcr battery of the absurd construction that 
the Austnans arc pleased to call "cavalry batteries," Directly 
opposed to him were the two Cavalry divisions DevnuK and 
Partoiineaux* with tlieir guns in front, flanked on their right by 
the cross fire of the Ii6 guns of Kiel's reserve artillery, whiki 
2\- guns of McMahon's reserve, under General Auger, were opposed 
to bis right ; that is to say between 70 and SO guns in all. 

It would, however, be a gross misrepresentation to pretend that 
NieVs junction with McMahon was delayed for so manj hours 
solely by the action of Mensdorff^s Cavalry. Canrobert arrived laff, 
and wilb only a portion of his corps, to NiePs assistance, and 
the lallet could not in any case have continued his movement of 
conveyance towards McMahon till the former joined him. Again 
the Austrian 9th corps supported by porliuns of the Uth, offered 
a direct and very obstinate resistance to his progress, and finally 
the 3rd corps under Schwarzenberg endeavoured to turn the left 
wing of his Infantr}^ and cut off his communicaUon with McMahon, 
whilst MensdorfT's Cavalry endeavoured to bring Devaux and 
Partonneaux to action with the same intention and also cover the 
right wing of Schwarzenberg^s corps, and keep open iU5ommuni<m- 
tion with Scb lick's force. 



I 



' dt 16 iqtiidrDtiii* co>ia«quentlj $t in i)l» but 



1863.] MIUTABY STUDIIfiS. 421 

Bat Schwarzenberg and Mensdorff's efforts to penetrate into the 
interval between Niel and McMahon were frustrated bj the French 
artillery posted here» although the greater part of the 1 1th corps 
(3 brigades) was by degrees employed to support the former. 
Mensdorff^ who had meanwhile received orders from the Emperor 
Francis Joseph to support Wimpffen's wing of the army in its 
advance^ drew off his squadrons when the fire of the French guns 
compelled him to do so, advanced again in line of columns of divi- 
sions at intervals, or in &:helons from his right wing, and endea- 
voured unceasingly to entice the French Cavalry out of its favour- 
able position on the edge of the heath of Medole, where it was 
impregnable under the protection of its artillery, but in vain ; 
neither of the French generals ventured once during the whole 
action to encounter Mensdorff, and in so doing, they acted with 

Eerrect judgment ; for a successful charge on their part would have 
een comparatively useless to the French, whereas if beaten and 
driven off the groond, the artillery must have also been withdrawn 
or sacrificed, and thus the way opened to Schwarzenberg to break 
through the French centre and separate the right wing from the 
left. At a later period, however, they renounced their inactivity 
and charged repeatedly with great bravery and considerable effect 
the Infantry brigades of the Austrian Srd and 9th corps at Canuova 
and Boite, as we shall presently see. 

Mensdorff's battery had soon five of its eight guns dismounted, 
and was compelled to retreat; another badly horsed reserve 
battery was brought forward, and had three of its guns dismounted 
in a few minutes. Its commandant wished to push on with the 
renstining five to c&se-shot range of the French guns, his only 
chance, but Mensdorff would not permit this. Five or six batteries 
of genuine horse artillery might have been able to do the trick 
even with the old fashioned smooth-bored guns, but with one 
maimed battery it would have been absurd. 

While Mensdorff was thus fruitlessly endeavouring to bring the 
French reserve Cavalry to action, McMahon threw forward some 
Infantry from his right wing, covered by two squadrons of the 4th 
Chasseurs, to turn the right wing of the Austrian Cavalry. Mens- 
dorff immediately detached four squadrons of Hulans to oppose this 
force; notwithstanding the hedgerows, ditches, and walls, with 
which the country is intersected, the Hulans charged successfully, 
and drove the French back in this direction; but pursuing too 
hotly, they got under the fire of the squares of the first brigade of 
Delamott^uge's division, and lost a number of men and horses. 
Subsequently, between twelve and one o'clock, the head of a 
Cavalry column appeared on Mensdorff's right, it was the first 
&helon of the Cavalry of the Guard that had just arrived, and been 
ordered by McMahon to deploy between his right and the left of 
Devaax and Partonueaux, so soon as he should have commenced his 
movements on San Cassiano, which happened soon after. . Mens- 



ut 



MILITARY STUDIES, 



[July, 



Idofff sent two sit|uac!ron3 of Ihe oth Dragoons to oppose iliis 
^ktoti, but no clutrge ensued, for the French Cavalry wns with* 
[drawn ; but tfie Dragoons got under the fire of the Infmitry of the 
; 2iid Corp^, find were compelled to retreat. 

The French jtccounts of the action of tiieir Cavalrj agiimst Mens- 
I dorir are altogether incorreet; we clo not mean to say thnt ttiere is 
I intt'ntiorml misreprejientation, for it is quite evident that ibej con- 
founded Edebheinj with Meiisdorff throughout. Thus the cliari^e 
I of the six squadrons of Chassenri was made against Edelsheim's 
1 four squadrons funned in two dividons, and not oi^ainst two 
[re^ments of MensdortT^ the atlaque en mitraille of the brig^'jde 
f Cas^aignoUes, Cfiaitsears and Guide.* de la Garde, was directed not 
against a brigade of Meuf^dorff, but against one or two squadrons of 
I the lOtii Hussars attached to Infantry brigades of the 3rd Austrian 
[Corps, The partial charges of the Auslrian rrgimcnts which the 
( TrenctL authors mention as having been directed against the right 
ring of McMahon's Corps towards the end of the actioDj and 
I chiefly repulsed by echelons of the Cavalry of the Guard, were, in 
rfact, isolated chnrget of the "^evy same single squadrons attnclted to 
the Infantry brigades during the \\\%i gallant effort made to retake 
Caimova ; in fnct, Mensdortt\ Cavalry never once came in contact 
Lwith anything but skirmiahersj or isolated atiagues en fburrageurs, 
which were repulsed with considerable loss to the French of killed, 
i wounded, and prisoners. 

Our object being, not to give an account of the battle, but 

merely to point out certain details connected with the action of the 

I Cavalry J we must here leave Mensdorff, with the remark, that he 

^loftt about 500 horses, or one-fourtli of his total strength, and Ihis 

wholly by the fire of the French Artillery and Infantry, 

Although the French reserve Cavalry certairdy never came into 
serious contact with the Austrian, and even seems to have avoided 
doing so, for the reasons already stated \ it nevertheless played a 
most active and sueoessfol part in the operations of the right wing 
of the French nrmy^ and mainly contributed by its distinguished 
gallantry, as Niel expres:?ly declares in his report, to the defeat of 
the Austrian Corps d'Arm^e under WimptTen in their attempts to 
retake Canuova and Boite, so much so indeed that it seems per- 
lectly incomprehen?iible how, in the face of sncti facts, an outcry 
lagniust the Cavalry shoidd have arisen in France; liad it taken 
'place in Austria it would have been more intelligible. 

An aniicle in the Seventh Number of (he Austrian " Militairische 

Zoitschrift" for 1S60, giving jin account of the two attacks on 

iCanuovn led by Prince Charles VVindischgriitz, and in the last of 

^wldch that gallant officer was killed, furnishes a striking proof of 

this assertion. 

The half brigade led by Windischgrii^z consisted of the 1st Field 
and the Grenadier battalions of the regiavent Khevenhu.ler, the 
fofiner with six, the latter with four companies; it advanced on the 



1863.] MILITARY 8TUOIX8. 423 

left of the road leading to Canuova from Guidiszolo, the remainder 
of the brigade under General Oreschke advancing on the right. 
The 1st battalion was formed in three partial columns of divisions 
(two companies each) at distance, the Grenadier battalions follow- 
ing in reserve, a swarm of skirmishers in the front and on the 
flanks. 

Daring the advance, a heavy fire was opened on this column by 
the French Infantry posted in Canuova, which made it wave for 
a moment, but the officers seconded the example given by their 
colonel so gallantly that the onward movement was resumed after a 
few minutes. The major commanding the 1st battalion lined the 
ditches and hedgerows with skirmishers, and was aboat leading his 
three divisional columns against the front and flanks of the building, 
when all of a sudden a squadron of French Hussars made a veliement 
charge on his left flank, threw the whole battalion into disorder, and 
compelled Windischgratz to withdraw his troops, the French pur- 
suing them with skirmishers rendered it impossible to re-form the 
columns, which were driven back to the stone bridge at Guidizzolo, 
behind which they were at length rallied. 

The second attack was attempted at half past three o'clock, p.m., 
the same two battalions advancing this time in column of battalions 
at quarter distance, supported on the right by the brigade Balliu of 
the 8rd Corps, the brigade Wetzlan following in reserve. Every- 
tliing went on prosperously till Windischgr&tz came within eighty 
yards ofthe farm-house, when his men again hesitated for a moment, 
but went ahead again and reached the hedgerows surrounding the 
main building, where they were again brought to a stand still by a 
charge of French Lancers on their left flank, but the battalions 
formed squares and the skirmishers clumps, and beat off the Cavalry, 
which had charged without sufficient energy. But this had given 
the French Infantry time to prepare a counter attack ; and just as 
Windischgratz's two columns reached the. farm-building, and some 
few men had even penetrated into the court -yard, they were taken on 
both flanks with the bayonet, Windischgratz killed, and away went 
the whole back to Guidizzolo hotly pursued by swarms of Cavalry, 
that rendered all attempts at rallying perfectly vain. 

The Austrian accounts of the affair say that the brigade Ballin 
offered no support to this attack, which was undertaken without the 
aid of Artillery, and not flanked by Cavalry as it should have been. 
The loss of the two battalions was 19 officers, including the colonel, 
and 6*26 rank and file, killed and wounded, and the colours of one 
battalion, consequently, as nearly as possible, one-eighth of the 
total strength. 

We could cite a number of similar instances in which the French 
Cavalry charged the Austrian Infantry both in squares and when 
advancing in columns of attack, at Boite and Rebecco, and the Aus- 
trian Cavalry made also repeated charges in the same manner. In 
many instances, single French Cavalry officers even penetrated into 



414 



iditoh's POETFOLIO* OB, 



[JULT^ 



le Ausitrifln squares, but were all either killed or taken prisoners; 
le squares, howevefj were never broken as far as we can a seer- 

The consideration of what ra ay be fairly deduced from the above 
heiSf we must refer to a future article, but every iinpartial reader 
will have already arrived at the conclusion that the services of the 
Cavalry were by no means so nnimportant or insignificant, during 
the war of 1 859 in Italvj as has been represented by its eijemies, 
and that not only what is technically termed divisiooal Cavalry, but 
also tlie Cavalry reserves Imve still, each of them, its own sphere of 
actiou. 



EDITOR'S POETFOLIOi 



NAVAL AND MILITARY EEQISTEE. 



It is surely a fit subject for congratulation in a professional Jour- 
nal to be able to record that the great geographical problem of 
ages basj at length, been solved by tbe patient eadurance and 
hardihood of British ofl^cerar Of course, we allude to the discO' 
very of tbe real source of the Nile, hy Captains Speke and Grant, 
who have recently returned to England, and who were most justly 
honoured with an ovation by the Royal Geographical Society on 
the 22Qd of last month. 

After some very complimentary remarks from the Chairman, 
Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, Captain Speke gave, by request, 
an outline of the labours of himself and his gallant associate, which 
will no doubt be printed in a more convenient form than tbe news- 
paper report. As to the great discovery made, it is now established 
by the indisputable means of actual inspection and astronomical 
observation, that the Victoria Nyanza (Nyanza means, indifferently, 
lake, pond, and river) is the great reservoir of tbe Nile. The river 
issues from the lake, flowing over rocks of igneous character, to 
which Captain Speke has given the name of the Ripon Falls, in 
honour of the noble lord who was the President of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society when this successful expedition was set on foot- 

The Chairman of the meeting presented to Captain Speke a 
gold medal sent by the King of Italy, and intimated that a similar 
one was on its way for Captain Grant. Ha also stated that Her 
Majesty had expressed ber lively interest in the result of the ex- 



1863.} NAVAL AHO MILITART SKOISTEB. 425 

peditioD^ and be believed that she also woald sbow her satisfac- 
tion in the like substantial form. This announcement gave great 
satisfaction to the crowded meetings and we trust that we shall 
very soon have the pleasure of recording that it has been carried 
into effect. 

Of the personal adventures of the explorers^ and the hardships 
that they experienced. Captain Speke said nothing in his most 
interesting address, but we may form some idea of what they must 
have been, when we find him stating that of 185 natives, whom 
he engaged at Zanzibar to accompany him, only 18 adhered to 
him throughout the journey. He accounts for this mistrust by 
saying that the Arabs, whom alone they have hitherto seen, have 
BO cheated them, that they have now no confidence in anybody. 
To remedy this, he proposes that some of them should be brought 
to Europe and educated, and then being sent back as Consuls on 
the coast, they would gradually lay the foundation of that belief 
in the good intentions of the white man towards them, without 
which they can never be brought into profitable connexion with 
Europe. This seems a practical suggestion, and well deserves 
serious consideration. 



The principal events in connection with the Polish Revolution 
during the last few weeks, have been the continued expression of 
public opinion, not so much in favour of the Polish cause as 
against the action of the Russian Government. The religious ele- 
ment, which forms an important egredient in the just complaints 
of the Polish people, has been most significantly brought before 
the world by the letter addressed by the Pope to Alexander II. 
The three Great Powers, England, France and Austria, have 
addressed fresh and identical notes to the Russian Cabinet, and 
the attitude of France since the late victories in Mexico^ has 
become more menacing. Thus we see the Polish Question raised 
to the most prominent position, and threatening to involve the 
Powers of Europe in a general war, unless the Russian Grovem- 
ment, giving ear to the general expression of public opinion and 
the combined action of the Great Powers, should consent to carry 
out the provisions of the treaties which were passed for the 
safeguard of the national rights of Poland, and for the preserva- 
tioni of the peace of Europe. 



4U 



KPTTOUS POBT POLIO; OK, 



[Jlly, 



Puebia has rallen, and a heavy load of anxiety has thereby 
been taken off the miud of the Emperor of the French, The war 
was not popular. The unexpected, determined defence, made by 
the Mexicans, and the ravages committed by sickriess, were 
becoming serious sources of concern, not only to the French 
Gov eminent J but to France generaliy, Moi^over, it was a heavy 
dj*ain upon the French finances. With the fall of Puebla, the war 
will probably terminate. AVhether Mexico will surrender is doubt- 
ful. The French army can now return with honour and victory, 
and the in d*;fati gable mind of Napoleon III can turn to the 
consideration of other questions — for instance, Poland, or media- 
tion in America. In another portion of the Magazine, we publish 
a narrative of the Mexican question, and the last olTicial details 
respecting the Capture of Puebla. 



The latest news from America contains one satisfactory item, 
and that is, the removal of the renowned Wilkes from the com- 
mand of the " flying squadron/^ which has not captured the Ala- 
bama or any other of the *' EngHsb pirates/' Whether his 
I euccessor will have better luck, or more enterprise, remains to be 
seen, but it is pretty certain, that he cannot do more to bring 
another war on the hands of the Federals than the great Antarctic 
discoverer has already done; and as to finishing the present pretty 
little quarrel, he cannot well do less. 

The rest of the news, though it cornea exclusively through the 
Federals, is entirely of a negative character. Vicksburg, which was 
going to *^ fall iu a few hours " some two months ago, is probably 
not taken yet, for the last '^rumour from Murfreesborough " to 
the eSect that it had fallen, is most likely only a delicate way of 
breaking the news that the siege has been raised. At least, such 
is a fair conclusiou from the scores of " great Union victories " 
that have turned out to be defeats. Further south, the Federals 
have succeeded no better; an attack by Banks on Port Hudson 
having confessedly failed, but there they had the consolation of 
knowing that one of their negro regiments was nearly annihilated^ 
a matter that would reconcile most Yankees to the defeat. Misled 
by a rnther improbable tale that General Lee had taken himself 
off, the " injudicious " Hooker ventured to pass some of his 
troops over the Rappahannock, where they soon discovered their 
mislake; and though, of course, they performed "prodigies Of 



1863."1 NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 427 

valour/' they returned much faster than they came. Meanwhile, 
a strong peace party is springing up in the North, and if the talk 
at public meetings in New York is worth anything, State rights 
are to be the ground of a pretty general disclaimer of the authority 
of the Government at Washington. If this is not ''the 
beginning of the end/' perhaps the appearance of M'Clellan, 
before whom several regiments, returning heart-sick from the war, 
lately '' passed in review/' may be. But we shall see what we 
shall see, for the Yankees are not to be judged by ordinary rules. 

Although there is no actual war on the continent, except in 
Poland, to which we have elsewhere alluded, still ''fears of 
change" apparently perplex more monarchs than one. It remains 
to be seen how the Emperor Napoleon will treat his " Opposition /' 
but we know that the King of Prussia has taken steps with his 
Parliament, which, according to our English ideas, must have 
very serious consequences. The Emperor of Austria is playing at 
Constitutional Government, and so is Victor Emmanuel, but it 
does not appear that either of these royal performers gives much 
satisfaction to his audience. Greece, at last, has got a King, and 
the Greeks in London have indulged in a Te Deum on the occa- 
sion, everything being couleur de rose with them just at present. 
We can only, like the good Vicar of Wakefield, hope " they may 
be all the better for it this day six months." 

One of the three great military scandals by which the nation 
has recently been disturbed, has just been cleared up, and an 
opinion authoritatively pronounced thereon, that we are sure will 
commend itself to the right feeling alike of the profession of arms 
and the public. Of course, we allude to the Calthorpe and 
Cardigan controversy, upon which some remarks will be found in 
another page, as well as a summary of the legal judgment. The 
case of Colonel Dickson against the Earls of Combermere and 
Wilton and General Peel, and the Mhow court-martial and 
its mdancholy results, being still subjudice, we do not at present 
touch upon them, though we put on record in our pages the 
memorandum of H.R.H. the Commander-in-Chief on the latter 
subject ; but when the time comes that the legal proceedings are 
closed, we shall state our views with the same fairness and deci- 
sion as we have done in regard to the brilliant though ill-advised 
Balaclava charge. 



I 



Any of our London readers who have a half hour to spare^ may 
turn it to account by looking in at the Gallery of Illustration^ 14, 
Efigent Street, where Mr* Annytage'a fine picture of "The Yiaion 
of St. John'^ is to be seen. It is an illustration of the 4th^ 5th, 
6tti and 8th chapters of the Book of Revelations, and treate its 
sublime theme in a truly noble maimer. 



I 



In the Court of Queen's Bench, on Wednesdayj the 10th of 
June, tlie Court gave judgment in the case of the Earl of Cardigan 
versus Lieutenant-Colonel Hon. Somerset Calthorpe, which amse 
out of imputations east upon the Earl in a work written several 
yeara ago by Colonel Calthoi pe, entitled " Letters from a Staff 
Officer in the Crimea" The noble Earl had obtained a rule 
calling upon the writer to show cause why a criminal informatioii 
should not issue against him for libeU Mr. Sergeant SbeCi on 
hehalf of Colonel CBlthorpe, urged as reason for discharging the 
rule, firsts that the statements iu the ^' Letters from Head 
Quarters" were based upon information obtained at the time; 
secondly^ that since the publieatian of the book Lord Cardigan 
had done all he could against Colonel Calthorpe^ and was therefoi-e 
disentitled to the special interference for which he asked ; and 
thirdly, that Colonel Calthorpe had a right to express his views in 
reference to the war in the Crimea and the conduct of officers 
there, which were now matters of history » Several affidavits were 
read to the effect that the Earl was not in the battery which was 
charged at Balaklava at the time when he was wanted* It was 
further stated that Colonel Calthorpe destroyed the unbound copies 
of one edition of bis book, and that he had done hia best to make 
peace with Lord Cardigan. On the other side, Mr. Garth said— 
that this was a slander by an officer of comparatively low rank, 
and but of few years^ atandingj against a general officer of thirty 
or forty years' service; and its retractation,- if it could be called 
such^ was made in the most unhandsome, the most un can did, the 
most unbecotning, and the most ungenerous style, for its effect 
was only to change the charge which he had been brought be- 
fore the court to answer. His Lordship justly felt indignant at 
the libel, and it was not to he surprised that he appUed at first to 
the Horse Guards for a court-martial, believing that to be the 
proper tribunal to afford him that redress which was denied him 
by Lieutenant- Colonel Calthorpe. Attempts were then made by 
mutual friends, which only led to further provocations. The ad- 
mission that had now been made might have been done in a more 
generous spirit. The Lord Chief Justice said — I can entertain 
no doubt that the passage in the work upon which this application 
has been made for a criminal information contains a most serious 
libel on the Earl of Cardigan, I think it is impossible to read the 



I 



*1868.] NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTBE. 41^9 

passage without coming to the conclusion that that which it is 
intended to convey is an imputation on the Earl of Cardigan of 
his having been wanting in his duty at a time when he was in 
command of the detachment of cavalry ordered to take the Russian 
battery, and of having been wanting in his duty throughout of 
personal courage. It is true that in the first edition of the work 
the absence of Earl Cardigan (whose presence as a general officer 
was necessary) was ascribed to an accident. It was said that his 
horse, alarmed by the discharge of a gun close to his head, swerved, 
and carried him in spite of himself off the field ; which was clearly 
intended to convey that the Earl of Cardigan never reached the 
battery with the detachment under his command, owing to an 
accident. The Earl of Cardigan, feeling that he had reason to 
complain of this statement, as well as others contained in the work, 
made it the subject of complaint and remonstrance, and in the 
second edition a notice was prefixed to the work, which in the 
third edition was incorporated in the shape of a note into the body 
of the work. The failure of Lord Cardigan's reaching the battery 
with his men was withdrawn, and in the shape of a compliment, 
ostensibly on the face of it, but which in my judgment, conveys 
the bitterest sarcasm disguised under a compliment. The impu- 
tation was that it was not owing to the fault of his horse, but to 
his own fault, that he did not reach the scene of danger and con- 
flict into which the others entered and passed. That conveys, and 
was intended to convey, an imputation that the Earl of Cardigan 
w^s wanting in personal courage in the discharge of his military 
duty. To say that a soldier ordered to attack an enemy — much 
more a general officer, whose duty it was to lead others into action 
—stopped short midway in the path that led to danger and perhaps 
death, whilst others went on, without any obstacle to prevent his 
accompanying them — must convey to the minds of all, whether mili- 
tary men or civilians, imputations of personal cowardice, disgrace, 
and dishonour. It is therefore impossible not to feel that this is 
a matter of the most libellous character. Heaven forbid that the 
time should ever come when the honour, courage, and reputation 
of our soldiers and sailors engaged in the service of our country 
should be deemed to be that which the law will not protect when 
unjustly and unjustifiably assailed. Looking to the position of 
the parties and also its importance to the services to which the 
objectionable passages refer, it is a matter to be properly made 
the subject of a criminal information unless some special cause be 
shown to the contrary. His Lordship then, at considerable length, 
entered into the details of the circumstances of the case,* and ob- 
served that the Court did not regret the time the case had con- 
sumed, as it had given Lord Cardigan an opportunity of justifying 
bis conduct, and he regretted that Lieutenant-Colonel Calthorpe 
had not made a more gracious retractation. The fact disclosed by 
the defendant in his affidavit and also Mr. Murra}\ that the un- 
U. S. Mao. No. 416, July, 1863. f ^ 



430 



EDITOR a FOETFOLia | OR, 



[JtJLT,* 



publiBhed copies of tlic last edition on wliich alone a rule could 
have been granted were destroyed, entirely cut away the ground 
for tbia rule, and had that circumstance been known when the 
rule was moved for^ it would not have been granted. It bad, 
however J been clearly shown tbat that fact was unknown at the 
time to Earl Cardigan or hia solicitor* Under that ci ream stance 
the rule must be discharged^ but without costs.'' The rule was 
discharged accorditigly. 



bis 



The Case qf Serjeant-Major Lilley 

The following is an authentic copy of the Memorandum of 
Royal Highness the Commander-in-chief on this case : — 

"Horse Guards, S.W., Dec. 18, 18S^, 
'* Memorandum, 

'* His Royal Highuess the Field- Marshal Commanding-in-chief 
having perused the proceedings of the general court-martial on 
Paymaster Smales, of the 6lh Inn isk ill jug Dragoons, and having 
had under his consideration not only these proceedings, but also 
many facts hearing on them, has seldom found bimself in a more 
painful positiouj or one in which it appears more difficult to deal 
out even-banded justice to all parties who have become mked up 
with these unfortunate events, and at the same time to do justice 
to the service* 

" Not only is the reputation of one of the moat highly distin- 
guished regiments in Her Majesty ^s cavalry service implicated by 
them, bat they have taken such a course that hia Royal Highness 
is most unwillingly forced intu the position of differing to a great 
degree from the views which appear to be taken by ofTicers of 
high rankj great reputation, and usually of excellent judgment, 
to differ with whom be feels it to be not only painful to himself, 
but in some degree embarrassing to the service* 

" Ilis Royal Uigbuess has, however, but one course to pursue, 
and that is, after mature consideration, and a patient hearing of 
the opinions of those w^bo, from their rank and position, are most 
likely to give unbiased advice, to act upon his own sense of justice 
to all parties, and with due regard to the mte rests of the service 
over which he is called to preside, 

"In the mind of his Royal Highness there can he no doubt 
that the Court have come to a proper verdict as regards the in- 
subordinate tone of the letter written by Paymaster Smales to his 
commanding officer; and it would have been quite sufficient for 
the purposes of discipline^ and have saved a great mass of evidence 
and extraneous matter, had the charges been directed solely 
against the tone and spirit of that letter, and the letter itself been 
laid before the Court as the only evidence required; in which 
opinion his Royal Highness finds himself fortified by tbat of 
the Judge Advocate-General of Her Majesty's Forces herewith 
annexed. 

" With regard^ therefore, to Paymaster Smales — ^without enter- 



1863J 



XAVAL AMO irrttTAlT RBJ^ISTSS, 



431 



iDg into the minute poitits which the proaecntor h&a brought evi- 
dence, with more or leas success, to re hutj ^ there can be no doubt, 
upon the broad principles of diseipline^ that that officer was guilty 
of most insubordinate conduct in writing such lettefj and his 
removal from the army is an act of justice to the serviee. 

" Unfortunately, however, in bringing down on his own head 

a just retribution for his contumacy in writing an insubordinate 

j.letter, this trial of Paymaster Smalea has exposed a state of things 

[in the Inniskilling Dragoons which his Royal Highness will en- 

Ideavour to take an impartial view of, 

"There is no doubt that the Inniskilling Dragoons under 
Colonel White and hia successor. Colonel Shute — two distinguished 
officers^ in whom his Royal Highness has great con fidencej— before 
their embarcation for India, were all that could be desired as to 
efiprii de corps^ unanimity^ and good feeling among the office; 
and as to drill and discipline among the men. 

"On their embarcation for India some changes took place among 
* the officers, and the regiment had not been long in India when 
some unfavourable reports of the behaviour of one or two indi- 
viduals when off duty, or at the mess^ called down his Royal 
Highness'a severe displeasure, the more so that it formed so 
strong a contrast to the , previously acquired reputation of the 
corps* 

"Still, with such exception, the regiment remained in thd 
highest state of disci plinCj as elicited from all the confidenti 
reports that have reached his Royal Highness from the Commander^ 
in-chief and inspecting general officers in Bombay^ till Colonel 
Shute was succeeded by Lieu ten ant- Co Ion el Crawley from another 
corps. ! 

"In permitting Lieutenant-Colonel Crawley to succeed Colonel 
Shute, his Royal Highness believed he placed — and he did, in 
fact, place—at the head of the Inniskillings an officer of expe- 
rience in the lower ranks of the service, of considerable talent, 
knowledge, and zeal ; but, unfortunately, as has been proved, am 
officer not gifted with the special talent which unites with tho^ 
firmness of command the tact which inspires confidence and creates 
goodwill. * 

*'From the first Lieu ten ant -Colon el Crawley appears to ha' 
taken an unfavourable view of some points in the regiment, an 
to have expressed himself in no measured terms as to the changes 
he contemplated, which His Royal Highness cannot but think 
was uncalled for and unnecessary^ and which was sure to create 
an unfavourable feeling on the part of the regiment. 

*^Tbe conduct of Lieutenant-Colonel Crawley aubficquent to 
the court*mnrtial, if the address he made to bis regiment, both 
officers and men, be correctly reported, was, to say the least of it, 
exceedingly reprehensible and injudicious^ 

"There are other points in Lieutenant-Colonel Crawle^'%" 

V V 'I 



i 



conduct of which his Royal Ilighneas cannot speak in too strong 
tertnn. 

*' His Royal Highness alludea to the confinement^ under arrest, 
of certain non-comniisaioned officers during the trialj under a 
charge of conspiracy, which was never attempted to be proved 
against them, and for which there seems not to have been a 
shadow of foundation. 

"His Royal Highness has also reason to believe that had the 
Commander-in-chief in India been better acquainted with some 
of the facts of Sergeant- Major Lil ley's case he would have taken 
a different view of it from that which his remarks prove him to 
have done, and would not have attributed the death of that un- 
fortunate non-commissioned officer to excess. 

'* Under these circumstances nothing but the high opinion ex- 
pressed of Lieutenant- Colon uL Crawley by the general officers in 
immediate command has induced hia Royal Highness to continue 
him at the head of the regiment, and he does so only upon trial, 
and under the hope that for the future be will be able to carry on 
discipline without outraging the feelings of the gentlemen under 
his command* 

" With reference to Major Swindley, his Royal Highness con- 
siders his conduct to have been most reprehensible, and he finds 
it difficult to make any excuse for it* 

"The tone and manner in which his evidence was given were 
highly unbecoming^, and if his Royal Highness had not been 
obliged to make the remarks he has done on Lieutenant-Colonel 
Crawley he would at once remove Major Swindley from the Regi- 
ment ; but, as he has given Lieutenant-Colonel Crawley the 
benefit of the character he has received from the general officers 
under whom he is serving, his Royal Highness will also give 
Major Swindley the advantage of the reports he has previously 
heard in his favour, 

" His Royal , Highness now warns both Lieutenant-Colonel 
Crawley and Major Swindley that unless they hereafter conduct 
themselves in their relative positions in a manner to set an example 
of discipline to the regiment generally he will feel it his duty to 
remove one or both of them from the important stations they 
occupy • 

" H is Royal Highness feels it to be his duty also not to pass 
unnoticed the conduct of Captain Weir and Surgeon Turn bull. 

" Nothing can exeu&e a subordinate officer for showing, by 
Tnanner or act, disapprobation of his commanding officer before 
the yoanger members of a corps, who should look up to the 
captains and officers of station and experience as examples of 
discipline and obedience. 

"In conclusion, his Royal Highness trusts that the future con- 
duct of the officers of the In nis killings will be such as to eradicate 
the evil spirit which momentarily appears to have crept into the 



1868.] CRITICAL NOTICES. 488 

corps^ and to have tarnished a reputation which was second to none 
in the cavalry for all that constitutes a well ordered and most 
eflScient regiment. 

"J. YoBKB Scarlett, a.q.'' 



CRITICAL NOTICES. 

Adventures and Besearches among the Andaman Islanders. By 

Frederic J. Mouat, M.D., F.B.O.S., Surgeon-Major Her Majesty'is 

Indian Army, &c. 

The Andaman archipelago, in the Bay of Bengal, lies in the track of 
commerce, but being surrounded by coral reefs and inhabited by a race 
of apparently untameablo savages, called Mincopies, who have the 
character of being cannibals, it is only of late years that it has been 
voluntarily visited. The first expedition of the kind that we know of, 
was that under Captain Blair and Colonel Colebrooke, who in the year 
1789 surveyed the Andamans by direction of the East India Company, 
and t he last, in the year 1857-8, is the subject of the present volume. 
The objects of both expeditions were much the same, namely, to find 
suitable sites for harbours of refuge and a penal settlement. These 
were found, and a settlement established, under Captain Blair, in the 
year 1789 ; but after struggling with many difficulties, it was abandoned 
m 1796, in consequence of the extreme unhealthiness of the position. 
The project was revived in 1865 ; but before proceeding further, it 
will be well to quote from Dr. Mouat some account of the scene of his 
labours. 

" The Andaman Archipelago, is situated in the Bay of Bengal, near 
the meridian of 93 des, E., and between the 10th and 15th parallels of 
North latitude. The uirgest and most important of the islaiids is that 
termed the Great Andaman, the configun^tion of which is remarkable 
in one respect, namely that, consisting of three great tracts of land, 
divided from each other by narrow passages, it forms apparently one 
island. About twenty miles to the southward is situated a second 
island, which, being considerably smaller than the other, is termed 
the Little Andaman. The surrounding waters are studded in many 
directions with numerous small islets, many of them exceedingly pretty 
and picturesque in appearance, rising as they do like beautiful oases in 
the wild waste of ocean that lashes their rocl^ shores. All of them are 
clothed with the richest tropical vegetation, which, from the level of 
the lowest swamp to the summit of the highest hill, grows in that un- 
restrained profusion in which Nature indul^s in such climates. The 
entire group is surrounded in every direction by a natural fortress of 
coral reefs, which, extending for many miles, guards the approach to 
the islands, and in stormy weather, or in dark nights, renders it a 
matter of no little difficulty, and attended with considerable danger, 
to attempt to land upon them. 

" Of tne Great Andaman it mav be observed that its western section 
is about forty-four miles in length, while its breadth may be computed 
at about an average of fourteen miles. In this part of the island is the 
magnificent harbour called Port Comwallis, which, beine locked in by 
land, affords a secure refuge for ships. The surface of this OT)aciou8 
natural harbour is diversified by several small islands, in one of which, 
in the year 1791, a place of refuge for such mariners as had the mis- 
fortune to be shipwrecked on that dreaded coast, and a burial settle- 
ment for those "vnio sank under their hardship, were foimded. They 
were discovered, however, to be in several respects unsnited for the 



484 



tiUITIOAL TTOnCEf. 



Jrer, 



purpose mfcanded, and in tlie course of a tbw yearB were nlttmately 
abandoued. Th& priiiciiial reaaonsj for taking- such a step* after b. good 
deal of trouble and expense^ were the eactreme unheal thioess of the lo- 
cality that had been selected, and the great additional expenditure that 
was rcqnisite in order to supply those temporarily settled there with 
the VHriona neeesf^arica of life. 

** The Saddle Mountain is situated to the south of Fort Comwatlis, 
at the distance of a few miles. It rises to a considerable height, an d 
forms the highest poiat to be seen in the whole .j^ronp, it« elevation 
being about 2^400 feet. On a favouitiblo thiv, when the atnioi^phere is 
clKir and cloudless, it is visible to the practised eye of the mariner at a 
distance of twenty leagues ft*om the land. 

** The middle division, known as the Middle Andaman, is sejMitufced 
from the northern portion of the island by a narrow strait. It in some- 
what larger than the latter^ extending in length to fifty miles, and 
being fifteen miles in width. The narrow stmit is quite innavigable, 
and on examining it we found that, at a distance of six miles from Hh 
eastern outlet, it became a mere naud marsh at low water. At its 
Dorth -western extremity, on the other hand, it was ascertained that it 
opened into a fine broad expanse, forming an excellent and capacious 
harboiLr, with secure anchorage for shi]>9, at the estrcmety of which ii 
Interview Island, one of the largest detachetl islets of the whole group* 
The South Ajidaman is forty-tnree miles m IcngUri, and its average 
breadth about the same ae tnat of the Middle division. On its eastern 
side there are two commodious hurlxiura, to which the names of Port 
Meadows and Port Blair have been given. There are also two har- 
bours on its western coast, distingnished as Fort Mouat and Port 
Campbell The strait hv which the Sou them Andaman is separated 
from the Middle is navigable throughout its whole e3£tent ; and near 
ita western extremity is an extrem^ fine harbour, which has only 
recently been discovered by Major Haughton, the second superintend 
dent of Port Blair. On the sontbem side of the South Andaman, from 
which it is separated by Macpherson*8 Straits, another fimfill ii*land is 
situated. It is known by the name of Rutland Island, and it is nearly 
ten miles long, by four broad. The northern extremity of this island 
rises to a considerable height,'' 

Tho author of the work before urn was, in 1857, Inspector- General of 
Risons in Bengal, and this is the account that he gives of the origin of 
his mission. 

" The continually recurring otttrages committed by the natives of the 
Andaman Islands on such shipwrecked mariners as bad lieen thrown 
by the tempests on their inhospitable shores, were at length carried 
to such a formidable extent that the Government of India was impera- 
tively called on to interfere. In the year 1855, thei^fore, when this 
matter became bo urgent that it could no longer be neglected, the 
meagnre proposed as a remedy for the evil were taken into considera- 
tion without any further delay* The object in view was not only to 
malcc the islands safe asylums for those who had the misfortune to be 
wrecked on their coasts, but also to ultilize thorn in such a way a^ 
would prove nltimately beneficial to the inhahi taints themselves, sup- 
posing their suspicious fears overcome, and their confidence giiined. 
Two plans were aocordingly proposed* One was the formation of a 
harbour of refuge on a suitable part of the coast, the expediency of 
which was generally admitted. The second was the establishment of a 
penal settlement on the principal island, in the most advantageous 
locahfcy that could be selected* The advisability of airrying this pro- 
jKJsal into effect was tin dor discussion in the Indian Council at the 
time when the late dreadful mutiny broke out in 1857* Startling the 
world by its suddsn, savage, and tin provoked ' nature, its immediate 



1868.] 



OBinOAL NOTICES. 485 



effect was to lay all such useM measures and plans in abeyance for the 
time ; and it was not until the neck of this treacherous rebellion was 
completely broken that the subject was again submitted to the Councils 
of uovemment, in circumstances that rendered a speedy decision 
necessary. A settlement was now required to which those misguided 
agents of the late mutiny, whose crime, however great, was not at- 
tended with circumstances of such unpardonable atrocity as rendered 
imperative the forfeiture of their lives, might be transported. There 
were many whose hands had not been actually imbued in blood, yet 
who, ft*om the share they had openly taken in the revolt, could not 
with safety be included m any measure of amnesty, however compre- 
hensive, until either the last traces of disaffection had entirelv disap- 
peared, or the natives of India were thoroughly convinced tnat any 
further attempt at rebellion a^inst the authority of England must in- 
fallibly be put down. It was believed that the transportation of these 
mutineers to the Andaman Islands would be an adequate punishment 
for the crime of which they had been guilty. There was something 
poetical in the retributive justice that thus rendered the crimes of an 
ancient race the means of reclaiming a fair and fertile tract of land from 
the neglect, the barbarity, and the atrocities of a more primitive, but 
scarcely less cruel and vindictive race, whose origin is yet involved in 
such a dark cloud of mystery. To the combination of these causes 
is due the visit which I paid to the Andaman Islands in 1857. 

** The object of the expedition which I was called upon thus sudden- 
ly to join was to explore, the coasts of these islands of the Indian sea^ 
to examine how far they were adapted for the establishment of a con- 
vict station, and to select a suitable site for such a settlement. It was 
my good fortune, in this enterprise, to be associated with able, intelli- 
gent, and agreeable associates, and I could therefore undertake it with 
uie confident hope of bringing it to a successftil issue. My colleagues 
were Dr. George Playfair, of the Royal Army, and Lieutenant J. A. 
Heathcote, of the Indian Navy; and I am sure I can be guilty of no in- 
discretion in affirming that no army or navy in the world could have 
produced men better fitted by their talents for the tasks especially as- 
signed to them. Their scientific ability was undoubted, and their 
practical skill had been more than once put to the test, and with the 
most successful resulte. Nor was their personal character less worthy 
of all the approbation that can be bestowed upon it. I have never met 
with men more noble-hearted, more self-sacrificing, or of more kindly 
disposition ; and I need hardly say that my satisfaction in being asso- 
ciated with two such officers was almost — ^I should rather say entirely 
— unalloyed. I knew that no enterprise was too arduous for them, and 
that the prospect, of danger would rather increase than impair their 
energy and devotion. 

" My last evening in Calcutta was spent in the society of the Grovemor- 
General and his kmd-hearted and accomplished lady. Alas I it is only 
a few years since, and they are now both no more! To my certain 
knowledge they are both mourned throughout our Eastern empire with 
a depth and intensitv of sorrow, with feelings of such deep personal 
regret as are seldom &lt for those who have occupied a station so exalted, 
their authoriW, although only derived and representative, exceeding 
that of many European kings and rulers " 

The commissioners embarked in the Semiramis for Moulmein, and 
after a short stay at that port were transferred to the war-steamer Pluto, 
a vessel of liffht draught, and so better suited for experimental navigation 
among conu reefs and shallows. They were accompanied by a French 
photographer, a body of Burmese convicts to act as pioneers, a party of 
Europeans to serve as an armed guard, and a native crew of so hete- 
rogeneous a character, that the description is worth quoting. 



OSmC^L T^OTTCZS. 



[July, 



"The ship*s company had, by some good furtune, a fair proportion 
of musical liinatoure, and from thmo woa formtfd a band of sei-cnaderSr 
whosG strains at occasional intervals relieved the tedium of the slowly* 
I>a,saing hours. The muBioiauB were all natives of Goa, a peculiar com- 
posite race, who supply India with the more humble profesaors of the 
^rts of cookery and muaic. Ethnological inquirers b^ve l>een baffled 
m their attempts to defcerraitic, with anything like certainty, the orlj^u 
ot this very remarkable class of fiddlers and cooks; but judging by the 
result of previous investigations, the problem is apparently one thai, 
would btiftle the ingenuity and learning of a Darwin. They ai-e genuma.j 
hybrids of the true sable hue, looking as if tbey had been covered 
with a coat of tar waah. In many cases, the dark lustre of their skins 
oould be appropriately compared only to the polished blackness of a 
bfe- guardsman's boot. 

*' This model orew likewise boasted the possession of a superior piper, 
whose renown was in all their months* Yery probably, in other cir- 
cu instances, we might have been dJsfKJsed to (Siepense with the strains 
with which, with a liberality we were scarcely sufficiently ^tefd for, 
he was at all seasons i-eady to entertain ub. Wo thought it right to 
encourage his musiaU abihtiea, particularly for one reason. The Andiar 
luanese would no doubt be able to appreciate the melody he produced 
irom hiw favourite inetmmentj aTid we anticipated woiiders from the 
war-dance with which we intended to gratify the natives on the cele- 
bration of our fft^ of fratemissation with that intci-csting race of canni- 
bals. But poor Sandy, like so many of bj» countrymen, even in these 
days of rampant t««?totalisTu, was a' thirsty eoul. He dearly loved a 
drop of something strooger than cither water or tea, and unfortunately 
he was inclined to he unreasonable in the frequency with which he repciitcd 
the doses that he considered tiecesaary for hie ctuiatitution— absolutely 
Becesaary in so trying a olimate, and especially when engaged in au 
exiiedition in which mII might find it reciuisite to be able to sL^rew their 
coumgo up to the sticking point. We were not sorry that ere lon^ we 
were deprived of the ear-piercing strains of our enthusiastic pJ^p^r, 
al though we regretted the cause that condemned him to silence. It 
was found necessary, aftier repeated warnings had been of no avail in 
restraining him in the gratification of his favourite appetite, to deprive 
him of hia liberty, with the hope that the stocks would have soma 
moral influence upon a character which was thrice armed at all points , 
against every description of rational argument — at leasts on this parti- 
Cfular question. His vagaries became so extravagant, and his conduct 
BO obstrejjerous, that we were compelled to resign ouraelves to the 
loss of his aasistanoe in the exercise of that civilizing and softenings 
influence in which music has always been represented as playing no 
inconsiderable part. It was destined that the rude manners were not 
to be softened, nor the savage soul soothed to rest, by any strains that 
the bagjjipe could produce. 

''Our crew consisted of a strangely mingled collection of human 
beings. Anyone deyoted to the study of ethnology would have had^ 
ample means for adding to his store of knowledge in that science, by< 
observing the pec\diarities of the various nationalities of whom there 
wei*e spc^cimens on the doch of tho Pluio. Limited as wtw the number 
of our Eufopean crew, among them might be found the self-dependent 
Anglo -Saxo us, tictive and fiery Celts, fair Norsemen, stout Fiudlandera, 
swarthy Italians, and Maltese distinguished by their bronzed faces and 
their guttunil speech. In addition to these, we conld boa^t of onaaj 
Frenchman and a Ham burgher, with a Portxiguese or two as swarthy., 
and as gnttunU in speech a« the Maltese. These constitntcd the Euro- 
pean complement, forming, it must be allowed, with two natives of j 
Korth and South America, a pretty varied representation of the white. 



1863.] 



CRITICAL NOTICES, 487 



branch of the Arian &mily of the haman race. As regarded the dark, 
or rather the black portion of our crew, Africa supplied us with stokers 
and pokers, well seasoned for their hot and laborious occupation by 
the burning sun of their iiative plains and deserts. China was laid 
under contribution to supply us with carpenters. We had sailors of 
various castes from, the Malayan peninsula, the ports of Hindostan, and 
the Malabar coast. Our cooks nailed from Burmah, from which we 
had also a party of convicts, to whom were to be assigned some of the 
laborious tasks that we might find necessary on reaching our destina- 
tion. Last of all, Bengal supplied us with our personal attendants. 
There was considerable truth in a remark by one of my companions, 
that if the earth were overwhelmed by a deluge during our absence, 
or if the whole race of mankind were swallowed up by any earthquake 
— we alone being left to show that such a creature as man had once 
trod the surface of the globe — an ethnological inquirer, endowed with 
the skill and knowledge of a Cuvier or an Owen, would not find it 
difficult, with this comprehensive representation of the original stock, 
to form a pretty accurate conception or the principal tribes, nations, and 
tongues existing npon the face of the earth at the period of this sup- 
posed calamity. 

On the 11th December, 1857, in the evening, Chatham Island, in 
Port Comwallis, was reached, and on the following day a landing was 
made in the vicinity of the spot where the old settlement had been 
established. 

" Here we discovered some of the first native huts that had yet come 
under our observation ; and miserable apologies for human dwellings 
they were, being merely small open sheds, the roofs of which were 
formed of dried leaves of the wild palm, supported on four small central 
posts. The earthem floor was covered nearly a foot deep with the 
shells of oysters, muscles, and other moUuscas, which were also scat- 
tered about in profusion on the open space by which these primitive 
habitations were surrounded. 

" Our course led us along the sandy beach. It was pleasant to remain 
within the influence of the inspiring sea-breeze, which, in comparison 
with the sultry atmosphere of the valleys of the interior, or the me- 
phitic exhalations from the deadly marsh already described, seemed to 
DO laden with the very essence of health and strength. The sparkling 
silvery sea-sand, which had rarely been trod by any civilised race of 
men, was crisp and firm beneath our feet. As we wended our way 
along, enjoying our work in a way that made it seem like play, our 
attention was attracted by a small group of cocoa-nut palm trees, evi- 
dently planted by the old settlers, for none were found elsewhere in the 
vicinity of this great harbour. 

" The hill, on the summit of which was built the settlement that owed 
its foundation to the enterprising and interpid Blair, was now before 
us. We were anxious to ascend to the slope on which we mi^ht still 
find its remains, but the eminence was so thickly covered with the 
luxuriant vegetation of the island, that the task appeared to be one at- 
tended with no inconsiderable difficulty. Our Burmese convicts, how- 
ever — a patient, quiet, uncomplaining lot, to whom all the more la- 
borious tasks were assigned — were sat to work ; and though it was not 
executed without considerable difficulty, we had the pleasure of seeing 
a path cut out by which we could easily ascend As we made our way 
up the hill, we soon came u|>on the vestiges of which we were in search, 
even the most familiar objects of which excited our lively interest, as 
testifying to the former presence of those who were once engaged on a 
mission of the same nature as that which had brought us to this solitary 
island. Broken bricks, tiles, and stone that had b«en used in building, 
were lying about in every direction, all so thickly covered with the 



4^8 



OEITrCAL NOTICM* 



[July, 



"TOgatation that had g^rown during the intervening' years, that they ap- 
peared imbedded in the soil, and it was not until we had stumbled over 
them in our onward progress, aa we firequentty did, that in some eases 
we became aware of their preaence» wcs wero able to ascertain what 
they were. Altliongh the elevation was by no means considerable, 
not more, I l:ielieve, than one hundred and fifly feet, jet from the 
numet'oiHH trifling difficulties that constantly impeded us in onr ascent, 
and from the noccssity under which we were of clearing onr way before 
u^f the d«y whb Jar advanced be tore we had completed our upward pro- 
gress, and when wo at length etood upon the summit of ihe kUl 
the Sim was fast declining below the hem on. 

*^The scene upon which we looked from the ai^mrait was one well cal- 
culated to fix tha gaze of all who delight in new varieties of natural 
ecencry. All around the hill, as far as the eye could see, ojctended 
what literally appeared to be an ocean of vegetfttion, gently swaying 
and undulatmg before the light breeze of the evening. The rich crim- 
son of the tropical sunset contrasted with the endless shades of silvan 
green that distinguished the spontaneous vegetable growth of succesaiye 
years- The remarkable profusion of ti'ees and plants, the closeness 
with wbieh the various parasit'es w*ere laced and interlaced togetheri 
may be gathered from the feet that not only oar light Burmese followers, 
biit also sevei-al of our more robust English, or, at any rate, European 
nautical companions, walked, without the assist^anee of tbeir hiiuds, as 
in climbingt almost to the top of several of the I oiliest trees, the path 
that they took being over the twining trunks of the d'eepers, unex- 
ampled for their prodigious size. To the very verge of the horizon 
this astonishing exuberance of vegetation extended. AH that we heard 
WBM the gentle rustling of innumerable leaves, sUghtly moved by the 
gentle breeze of evening; all that wo saw was this ocean of gi'cen, in 
which not even an opening the size of a man's hand could be discovered 
after the longest, closest, and most searching observation," 

A brief investigation showed that the un healthiness of the old settle- 
ment had arisen from the vicinity of a salt marsh, whit-h might easily 
be drained, ai:id when that was done it was considered that the oHginal 
sit© was the most eligible that could be found for the I'eqnired purpo&ses. 
The whole archipelago, however, was visitetl, but no place was dis- 
covered that could be fairly put in competition with it. The purpose of 
the expedition being thus answered, Dr. Monat returned to Calcutta 
without delay and made his reportj which was favourably received and 
acted on ; the Mi:tiny having juat then furnished on abundant supply of 
very proper candidates for the new penal settlement* Whilst in the 
An dam ana, Dr. Mouat and his party tried most pei^everingly to con- 
ciliate the natives, but without success, I^othing conld induce them to 
hold any communicatton with their visitors \ and at last things came to 
the usual result — two or three skirmishes, in which the little people 
showed desperate bravery, and inflicted some Yery severe wounds, 
ttough their arms were nothing better than spears and arrows tipped 
with ileh bones or crooked nails ; Init of course they had the worst or it, 
and their dead bodies enabled the Doctor and bis scientific confederates 
to make more minute Investigations as to their osteology and dental 
characters than would otherwise have been possible. In one of the 
skirmishes a young native was made prisoner, and being carried to 
Calcutto becfimc the lion of the day. The sailors on board, who had 
named him Jack, took a great liking to him ; and Dr. Monat, from close 
observation of his demeanour, is inclined to give his countrymen credit 
for more intelligence and good feeling than is usually ascribed to them. 

** On learning that we had brought back a living repi^esentative of life 
in tbe Andumans, in the ]X'rsou of our friend Jack, Lord and Lady 
Canning at once expressed their anxious desire to see him. He vvas 



I863J CRITICAL NOTICES. 439 

accordingly invested widi a beooming suit of dotbes, and taken to 
Government Honse, where he was treiSed with the utmost kindness by 
their Excellencies, which perhaps induced him, on a subsequent occa- 
sion, to attempt to salute her ladyship in the native manner, namelv, 
by blowing in the hand with a cooing murmur ; but, however kindly 
disDosed, her ladyship preferred to reject tha oflTered civiUty. Most 
of tne time Jack spent in their presence he was greatly absorbed in self- 
admiration. Observing his figure at full length in the large pier-glasses 
with which the apartment was adorned, he stationed himself before one, 
and, regarding his own image with undisguised satisfaction, he con- 
tinued grinning at himself with a leer expressive of the utmX>8t self-ad- 
miration, constantly repeating, with a strange chuckle, as if speaking 
to himself in the glass — " Jack ! Jack I* and then bursting out, in vio- 
lation of all ffood manners, into an irrepressible fit of laughter, in which 
we found it diflBcult to prevent ourself joining. After he had sufficiently 
admired himself, and Lord and Lady Canning had repeated to me the 
gratification which they felt at having had an op|>ortunity of seeing 
poor Jack, they expressed their determination not to forget him, but, 
if he should remain in Calcutta, to keep a watchful eye on him during 
his future career. The interview was then considered at an end ; and 
having been removed from their presence, he was taken back to my 
house, where quarters had been provided for him." 

Civilized life, however, did not do for poor Jack ; he fell ill, and at 
last he was sent back to the Andamans, loaaed with presents of all kinds 
by Lord Canning, in the hope that, if restored to nealth, he might be 
able to teach his countrymen, for he was naturally quick in his percep- 
tions, and had become very observant during the latter portion of his 
sojourn in Calcutta. The parting of this new Omai ana his civilized 
friends was painful to both. 

" As he had been captured at South Beef Island, we had made ar- 
rangements for putting him ashore there, as the place where he would 
stand the best chance of being immediately reco^ized by former friends 
and relatives. He was at first conveyed ashore m the clothes he usually 
wore at Calcutta^ but the reflection immediately occurred to those in 
whose charge he was, that in that condition it might not be possible for 
any of the natives to recognize him. He was therefore stripped, with 
his own consent, and left naked on the shore, a condition to which he 
had been accustomed all his life, except during the short period of his 
sojourn at Calcutta^ and from which, therefore, it was probable he 
would suffer no injury. None of his fellow-countrymen appeared to 
claim him while any of the men belonging to the Pluto, by which he 
had been carried back, remained with him on the island. It was there- 
fore resolved to bid him farewell, leaving his clothes by his side, and 
with the hope that when they had left, he would be claimed by his 
kindred, or that he himself would be able to find them out. He took 
an affectionate leave of all who had accompanied him, appearing very 
dejected and low. The crew of the boat were very unwilling to leave 
him behind, and were it not that they believed it was for the oenefit of 
his health, they would not have done it, so lonely and sad did the poor 
fellow appear. After taking a last farewell, thej^ rowed out to the ship, 
gradually losing sight of him, still standing silent and melancholy in 
Uie same place; and, as soon as they had got on board, they stemmed 
away from the Beef Island on theiii return to Calcutta^ After this sad 
parting nothing was ever seen or heard of our captive again. Alas, 
poor «^k I" 

The latter part of Dr. Mouat's book is devoted to as minute an account 
of the Minoopies, their manners and customs, as his materials and 
observations have enabled him to compile. As we have said, he regards 
them as not quite so black as they have been painted. 



4^0 



OEniCAt NOTICES- 



[Jotr, 



Those who wish to pursue this eubject fiirthor can consult Proffesaor 
Owan^e j*einarkH on the Mincopies, founded on a skeleton sent to him 
by the author, and printed in his book, as is also an Appendix on the 
Zoology of the An damans bjr Mr. Blyth, the Curator of the Calcutta 
Muaeum, In parfcinf;^ with Dr. Mo Hat we must not omit to montion 
that his book ib furnish od with a coloured chart> of the Andaman archi- 
pelago, and several spirited engravings, of whieh^ whilst some n^hibit 
the Mmeopics in all their unmitigated uglincas, others display their 
canoes, weapons, and implements, and these, Btrange to saj* are 
marked by an amount of skilful and even elegant finish that would not 
be expected. Taken al together, the book is an extremely interesting one, 
and such as could only be produced by & wise and benevolent man* 

Fifty Years BioGRxtPHiCAt REMiifisciiKCES, Bit Lord William Pitt 

Lennox. 2 vols. 

We have received this work at too late a period of the month to allow 
of our doing more than bestowing a mere glance at it- That glance, 
however, has shown ui that it is fiiU of life and interest, and aboimds 
in amusing anecdote. We shall endeavour to do justice to it next 
month, but in the meantime, if our readers take our advice, they will 
pass many a pleasant honr over its diversiiied p^ges* 

Eespectable Sennerb, By Mrs. Brotherton, Author of "Arthni' 

Brandon/* 8 vole. 

** Marry in haste, and repent at leisure,^* might be the motto of this 
olever no%*el. Pretty Uttle Louisa Danhaye otfends her fatherj the 
Colonel, by a runaway matc)i with Captain Ashton, and in a short time 
i& Wft a widow, with an infant daughter. After a while she contracts a 
second marriage with Mr. Grin 8 ton Hartley, a " respectable sinner'* of 
the first order, who haa broken the heart of his first wife, but finds 
his second qtiite able to hold her own apainst him* In eouri^e of time 
Ms only son falls in love with Helen Ashton, and another runaway 
match is the consequence. The young man is a weak, dissipated fellow* 
and makes his wife rorj wretc-hed ; but hi the end he succeeds to the 
estates of which his father had tried to deprive him, and, &n luckily, his 
morals improve with his circumstances, Helen is rendered happy at 
last* Beside the mother and daughter, who are the joint heroines of the 
Bt^3Py, and very channing ones too^ we have a complete portrait gallery, 
evidently from lii'e, of the claws that gives name to the book. Among 
these ** respectahle sinners" appear tbo vindictive old Colonel Danhaye, 
and his still more detet^table sister, Mrs. Kettlefold, who is a very 
pattern of pharisaic malignity, and devotes herself to the amiable tiisk 
of preventing her brother ever being reconcOed to h\B daughter. On 
the other side are some true-hearted |ieoplc% as Moi\tacu Ashton, who 
is a real friend to his widowed sister-io-law ; Robert Hartley, the ill- 
msed young brother of the magnate of Hartley Hall ; and, though last 
not loast, Tatt, the devoted narse and humble friend of Mrs. Ashton in 
all ber troubles. These and a few other cbnracters are skill ully played 
off against one another, and the result is as agreeable a book as we have 
lor a loog time met with. 

CilTTRCH AND Chafel. By the Author of " High Church,** &c. 3 vols* 
There is not so much controversy in this book as might be exi>ected 
from its title, although the author el aims the right, and excreises it too, 
of bringing in refleetiouij, in whicti all may not concur, on various 
occasions. The story is of the wooing and winning of Amy Saville, a 
young lady who exhibits a rather niidne amount of J'eminine fickleness, 
and so forms a good contrast to the two puritan ical " strong-minded 
women," Susan Bayford and Dorcas Glade. Among the men, ** Church" 



1863. J CRITICAL NOTICES. 441 

has for its representatiye a Puseyite rector, the Rev. Frederic Alland, 
and "Chapel" is equally well supported by the humble but stout- 
hearted minister of Vale Street Chapel, James Bayford ; whilst meek 
Mr. Chark, an Evangelical vicar and Amy's guardian, labours hard to 
bring them to an agreement. But unluckily, Robert Bayford, who has 
returned from India a millionaire, and Mr. Alland, both have an affec- 
tion for Amy, and worse still, she is by no means insensible to the 
merits of either; how the matter will end is cleverly kept in sus- 
pense until the very last, and we will not, by an imprudent revelation, 
deprive the reader of the pleasure of learning for himself how it is 
settled. Amy of course is " married and settled in life," but what name 
she thereby takes in lieu of Saville it is not our business to tell. 

Man ; OR, The Old and New Philosophy : BeiM Notes and Facts for 
the Curious, with Especial Reference to Recent Writers on the subject 
of the Origin of Man. By the Rev. B. W. Savile, M.A., Author of 
" Revelation and Science." 

This is a very amusing exrtose of the outrageous nonsense whicli is 
now attempted to be palmea on the world under the names of " ad- 
vanced thought," " free handling," " enlightened Biblical criticism," 
&c. Professor Huxley, and Bisnop Colenso, and the whole tribe of 
"Essayists and Reviewers," are "tossed and gored," as sturdy old 
Samuel Johnson used to say, and Man is traced from his origin to his 
end, in a way that will find more readers than a serious refutation of 
the absurdities of the new school would command. Not the least amusing 
part of the work is the last chapter, which gathers together a choice 
collection of epitaphs, of which take this specimen, " on a gallant 
soldier, who lies buried at Bristol." 

" I went and listed in the Tenth Hussars, 
And gallop'd with them to the bloodv wars ; 
* Die for your Sovereign — for your Country die !' 
To earn such glory, feeling rather shy. 
Snug I slipped home. But Death soon sent me off. 
After a struggle with the whooping cough." 

Mistress and Maid. By the Author of " John Halifax, Gentleman," &c. 
Having recently noticed this work, on its first appearance, we have 
now only to express our gratification at seeing it added to Messrs. Hurst 
and Blackett*s cheap and excellent Standard Library. 

The Real and the Ideal. Poems by Arthur Llewellyn. 

We have here a number of poems of fair promise, and hopS some day 
again to meet the author when he has attained a more thorough mastery 
Sr the lyre. Probably we ought to say of the harp, as Wales, her 
mountains, and streams, her castles, her warriors, and her bards, are 
.the frequent subject of his theme, and excite in him a glowing enthu- 
siasm worthy of the native of such a land of glorious scenery and proud 
historic memories. One poem especially, entitled " Cambria," is well 
deserving of a permanent place in our literature. 



MILITARY OBITUARY. 

Qeneral Sir John Hanbury, KC.B., K.C.H.. colonel of the 99th Regi- 
ment of Foot, expired on June 7th, at his house in Charles Street, 
Berkeley Square, after a protracted illness, in the 81st year of his age. 
This venerable officer entered the army in 1799, and had in his early 
career seen much active service. The late general served in the Egyp- 




tian canipaigfi of 1801, as Heuten&nt in the f>8th, inctu ding the actioni! 

i^f the 8tiit X3th» and Slafc of March, and hna received the gold mediil 

■*^m the Grand Seignoir. He was th^ aidc-de*cn-mp to Major- General 

Tarde va the campaign of l808-9i and was present at Sir John Moore's 

etr^at* and at tho Battk of Corunna. He served with tbe 1st Guards 

ftt Walcheren, in 1809, and Buhseqnently in the Peninsular campaign, 

acluding the retreat from Burgos, passage of the Bidassoa, and Adour, 

ftttles of Nivelle and Nive, investment of Bayonne, and repulse of tho 

tie. Sir John received the war medal with four clasps for Egypt, 

Doranna^ Mvelle and Nive, Shortly after the late King Williain the 

T'ourth^e accesaion to the throne^ he wa^, in consideration of hit?; military 

services^ made a Knight Commander of the Hanoverian Order of tho 

IGnelphs, He was appointed Colonel of the 99th Regiment, Oct. 6, 
1851, ffie commiftaions bore date as follow :^Ensign, July 20, 179^ ; 
Iiieut, Sept. 26, 1799i Capt,, June 3, 180-2 1 Lieut-Ool, Deo. 20,1812; 
Ool., July 25, 1821; Major-Gen., July 22. 1830 j Lieiit>G<m„ Nov. 23, 
1841 1 and Gen., June 20, 185k 



Bi 



LientGnant-Oolonel Flamank, formerly of the 51 st Light Infantry, 
led on the 29th May, at Newbridge, hill, near Bath, aged 75- He 
served in the FeninBula with the 51 st, from Jan., 1811, jio the end of 
that war in 1814, including' the battle of Fuentci d'Ouor, secoad etiega 
of Badajoz, covering the siegei!i of Ciudad Bodrigo and third siege of 
Badajozj aflPair in front of Moresco, battle of Salinanca, retreat from 
Burgos, battles of Vittoria and the Pyrenees (30th and 31 st July), pftfi- 
a,gG of the Bidasaoa^ hattloe of Ne\4lle and St. P^, and battle of Ortnes. 
erved also the campaign of 1815^ including the battle of Waterloo and 
^capture of Cambray. 



Major George Seymotir Crole, late of tho 23th Foot, died on the 
13th June at Chatham, aged 63. * 



Bsn 



Major W. S. Prenderleath, late of the Slst Regiment, died suddenly 
on the 6th June, at Ramsgate, aged 88. 



Deputy-Inspector- General William Barry, M.D., on half-pay^ died, 
Snd June, at Bath, aged 80. He entered the service April, 1808, he- 
me Deputy-Iniipector* General Nov. 1825, and was placed on half- pa ji 
June^ 1828. He served in the Peninsula from AugUi^tj 1811, and again 
from August, 1813, to the end of that war in 1814, and has the war 
medal wit^ four claaps for Busaco, Nivelle, Orthee, and Toulouse • 
Also the campaign of 181 5^ including the battle of Waterloo (medal)* 

Captain W, S. Moorsom, formerly of the 5^nd Foot^ died 3rd Jnne, 
at Great George Street, Westminster. 

The deceafled, who waa in his 58th year, was the youngest son of the 
lat-e Admiral Sir Robert Mooraom. He entered the Royal Military 
College at Sandhurst in 1819, and quickly rose to tho first position 
among the cadets of that establiRbment. He joined the 79th Regiment 
in Ireland in 1823; and while following the ordinary duties of the gar- 
rison ill Dublin, found time to make a trigonometrical snrvey oftho 
whole of that city and suirouuding district, extending over an area of 
about 150 square miles. This survey was the one used in the Quarter* 
master- GeneraUs Office at the Horse (xuards, until the Ordnance survey 
of Ireland superceded it. This work brought Mr, Moorsom under 
the notice of the Adjutant- General, Sii* H. Torrens, who offered him n 
lieutenancy by purchase in the 7th Fuailiera. In this distinguished 
regiment Lieutenant Moorsom served as adjutant onder the command 



i: 



1863.J OBITUAEY. 443 

of Lord Frederick Fitzclarenoo, until his promotion to an unattached 
company. Shortly afterwards Captain Moorsom was brought on full 
pay in the 62nd Light Infantry, when stationed in Nova Scotia. In 
1828 Captainpfoorsom became known to the public by his work, * Letters 
from Nova Scotia/ At the same time his industry in exploring the 
province, and particularljr his survey of the harbour and environs of 
Halifax, which still remains as the best plan for reference in the Quar- 
termaster-Greneral's office at the Horse Guards, led to his being ap« 
pointed by Major- General Sir P. Maitland to be Acting Quartermaster- 
Greneral of the division upon the retirement of Lieutenant-Colonel Beres- 
ford. His industry a^in showed itself by the office being soon supplied 
with routes and copious notes of capabifity of supply and maintenance 
of troops over every part of the provinces of Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick. Domestic circumstances now led to Captain Moorsom's 
return to England, and finding that promotion to an unattached ma- 

i'ority by purchase was denied him, notwithstanding he had been se- 
ected to fill a post involving the duties of a lieutenant-colonel, he quit- 
ted the Army, and soon afterwards, under the advice and with the 
assistance of the late Mr. Robert Stephenson, entered upon the pro- 
fession of a civil engineer. Li this profession Captain Moorsom is 
known by many important public works, which it would be out of place 
to refer to here. We may just allude, however, to his first great work, 
the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, because in this undertaking 
he first achieved the previously unattempted task of carrying a train up 
a steep incline of no less than 1 in 37. The work was not considerea 
practicable by. Brunei, Locke, and the other engineers of the time. 
Captain Moorsom accomplished it by taking the railwayover the Lickey, 
though he had to get his engines made in America, the English engine- 
makers at that time refusing to make such engines as were required for 
the purpose. His last ^reat engineering work was his survey, made for 
the Government, of a line of railway oetween Colombo and Candy, in 
Ceylon, particularly referred to in the " Transactions of the Eoyal ifingi- 
neers" of 1869. li 1860 Captain Moorsom, though sufiering from Al- 
ness, edited, by the desire of the officers of his late regiment, the 
"Historical Record of the 62nd Light Infantry" — a record which, in 
numerous reviews, has been held to be a perfect example of what such 
a work ought to be. The death in action, at Lucknow, in 1868, of his 
eldest son, William Bobert, Quartermaster- General on the Staff of Sir 
H. Havelock, and subsequently of Sir James Outram, and other domes- 
tic afflictions, had produced a marked effect on Captain Moorsom's 
general health, and seemed to lay the seeds of a disease which eventually 
proved fatal on the 3rd inst. Captain Moorsom leaves three sons in 
the Army, one of whom, Captain C. Moorsom, 30th Regiment, was 
severely wounded at the final assault of Sebastopol. 

Captain James Barton, of the 66th Regiment, died on the 12th of 
Feb., on board the Ida Zeigler on his passage from New Zealand. He 
entered the service in June, 1846, ana served at Taranaki during the 
Maori war of 1860-61. 



Captain Charles D. Bevan, Royal Artillery, died on the 8th June, 
at Twickenham, aged 27. He entered the service in February 1866 ; 
was promoted to 2ud Lieut., Dec., 1864, and to his. late rank of 2nd 
Capt. in March, 1862. He served at the siege and fall of Sebastopol in 
1866 (medal and clasp, and Turkish medal). 

Captain James Hannay, late of the 8th Foot; died on the 4th June, 
suddenly, at Ballylough, county Antrim. 



uv 



OBITITATIY. 



[JcrtT, 



CsLptain J, A. Lane, of the 50th Be^raent, died on the 5tli May, at 
Colombo. He eDtered the service in February, 1849, 

Cuptniii the Hon. H. J. Liddell, formerly of the 15th Begiment, died 
on the *kh June, at Rayensworth Castl©j aged 38, 

Captain T. A. Ma^reighfc, of the 1 7th Regiment^ died on the 14th of 
Mayt after a few dnys* illness, at Quebec, Canada, aged 28, He entered 
the service in Aprili 185*1, and served at the siege of Sebastopol from 
JuiiGp 1855, and at the assault on the Redan on Ibo 8tb Sept ; also at 
the bombardment and surrender of Kinburn (medal and clasp) and 
Turkish medal)* 



Captain Arthnr Watson Palmer, late of the 5th Foot, died on the 
^th June, at Carlton Park, Northamptonshire, aged 37. 

Captain E. A. Stotherd, of the 60tb Rifles was drowned on the 27th 
of April, from the wreck of the Anglo-Saxon near the Cape Race, New- 
foundland, aged 30. He entered the Benrice in Feb. 1851. Ho served 
with 93rd Highlanders the Eastern carai>aign of 1854 and to the 14th 
July, 1855, including the battles of Alma and Balakavai siege of Sebas- 
topol, and expedition to Kertch (modal with three clasps, and Turkish 
medal). 



William Stothert, Esq,, formerly Captain in the Coldstrearas died at 
Edinburgh on April 23. The deceased officer served during the Penin- 
sular war, and was wounded and taken prisoner at Ftientes d'Onoro. 
In a recent controversy between a Fi^ncli author and General Napier, 
as to the truth of a relation with reference to the above battle. Captain 
Stothert was able entirely to corroborate the Grenerars history, having 
been a subaltem engaged on the spot, and in the operation in queation. 
The present Empress of the French is a blood relation of the family ; 
her Majesty* s brother bearing the names of Robert Stothert Kirkpatrick. 

Captain W. WynnCj of the Coldstream Guards, died on the 22nd May 
in London, aged 32. He entered the ser\'ice in Feb, 1836, 

Lieutenant Denzil Ede, on half-pay. Royal Marines, and a instice of 
tbe peace for the county of Esse3t, died at Billericay on the 17th June, 
aged 83, He entered the service Jniiej 1 798 \ became Lieutenant, Au- 
gust, 1804^ and was placed on half -pay, Januaij, 1816. 

Lieutenant Jesse Hilder, late 15th Regiment, died at Milton-next- 
Gravesend, on the 11th June, aged 81. 

Lieutenant Charles James Holbrook, 95 th Regiment, died on the 13th 
Aprils from a fall from his Viorse. He entered the service May, 1855 ; 
and became Lieut,, Nov., 1857* He served in 1858 at the siege and 
capture of Awah and Kotah, Imttle of Kota ka Serai, general action re- 
flulting in the capture of Gwalior, eiege and capture of Pouree (medal 
and clasp)p 

Captain Eichai'd Hart, on half-pay of the 6tb Pout, died latterly, at 
Hjthe, Kent, a^d 8L He entered the ser vices March 27, 1805, became 
Lient. April 18(i5, Capt, March, 1825, and retired on half-pay in May, 
1825. He served with the 78th at the capture of Java, m 1811. for 
which he received the war medal with one clasp* 



•1868."! obituaey. 445 

Lieutenant Charles James Dundas Napier, Eojal Marine Light Li- 
fantry, died at Bridgerd, Glamorgan, on the 8th June, aged 30. He en- 
tered the service as 2nd Lieut, in June, 1853, was promoted to his late 
rank of 1st Lieut, in July, 1854. He served in the Eastern campaign 
of 1854, with the R.M. Brigade, including the battle of Balaklava ; at- 
tached to the Light Division in the trenches, and at the battle of Inker- 
man, with the combined forces before Sebastopol during the siege in 
1855, and with the expedition to Kertch, and occupation of Yenikale 
(medal and three clasps, Sardinian medal, 5th class of Mediidie and 
Turkish medal). Served on the China expedition of 1857-59, mcluding 
blockade of the Canton river, the lauding before and capture of the city. 
Also campaign of 1860, as aide-de-camp to Sir Robert Napier, including 
the action of Sinho, the taking of Tonghoo, storm and capture of the 
North Taku Forts, and subsequent operation (medal and three clasps). 



NAVAL OBITUARY. 

Captain Henry Bernamin Wyatt, 1855, on the Retired HI K. List 
died at Ryde, Isle of Wight, on the 11th of June, aeed 11, He entered 
the Navy, 1803, as Midshipman of the Unicom, and served in her boats 
at the capture of the French privateer Tape-a-Bord, in 1805. Served 
on shore with the Army at the storming of Monte Video, and assault 
upon Buenos Ayres, 1807 ; and took an active part at the attack on the 
French fleet in Aix Roads, 1809. He was made a Lieutenant on the 
3rd July, 1809 ; and served in Walcheren expedition as Lieutenant of 
the Magnet. He afterwards joined the Ruby, and saw much service 
against the Danish gunboats in the Baltic and Belts ; and was made 
Commander, 18th Sept., 1815, and had not been employed subsequently. 

Captain Edward Hooper Senhouse, 1860, on the Retired H.I.K. List 
died at Worthing, Barbadoes, on the 22nd May from^ paralysis aged 76. 
He entered the Navy, in 1800, and, after serving m the West Indies, 
was made a Lieutenant, May 23, 1807. He commanded a gunboat at 
the siege of Flushing, and was actively .employed till the close of the 
war. He was made a Commander in 1843; and in 1860 was retired with 
the rank of Captain. 

Commander William Hoghton, on the P Retired List died at North- 
cote, near Melbourne, on the 27th March, aged 73. 

Paymaster-in-Chief Edward Thome, 1862, died at Southsea on the 
6th inst. This officer served as Clerk of the Eclair, and was severely 
wounded in the boats at an attack upon a French convoy protected by 
two gunboats at Languilla in 1812 ; and again served as a volunteer at 
the same place and at Fort d*Auzo in 1813. He was not made a Purser, 
however, until 17th of Aug., 1829; and was retired as Paymaster-in- 
Chief in Jan., 1862. 

Surgeon James Niven, M.D., serving on board the Pembroke, at 
Harwich, died on the 10th June, after a short illness, aged 43. 

Paymaster Robert Scott, 1806, on the Retired List, died at Devon- 
port on the 5th June, aged 80. This officer served as Midshipman of 
the Audacious in the action off Algesiras, in 1808 ; and was Purser of 
the Comwallis, and his services were officially mentioned at the cap- 
ture of Amboyna. He served in the same ship at the reduction of the 
islands of France and Java in 1810. 

U. S. Mag. No. 416, July, 1863. o g 



446 



JtTLr, 



STATIONS OP TlIK ROYAL NAVY IN COMMISSION. 

Wiik ike Datt* 0/ Commmiim a/rke o^cerj in Vommmmd. 



Aboukir, Sit. »c, CoiJHOodore P- Crarmll^ C,B., 

Actmi. Hoap. Shin, Miui.'Cuiii, II. llutcbingfl^ 

Amifn, so, Tnuiiiiis Ship, for Nairal Eei«TT«^ 

Adder, it. vet., S^erand Master W, BluJc^y {«;» 

tiiiK) CliAtbimi 
Advebturc, 3, sc. tiHK>|) uliip, Com. T. B- TjCtli- 

bridge, 1037, piirticalar lervii^ 
Ajia, 00, Bc, Cap. M. de Courcy, ISfli, Coait Gliiini 

Klnntowa. 
Akmty, 4, fc. Com. J. K. E. Baiid, 1&B7, 

M{iditcrmiiei&ii {ordered luanic) 
Ak*to, fit. ¥«*., 5. Com. W. 11. Blukc, IB(W>, 

Sh£. CvAst of Aiiicriro. 
Alciri, 17, K , Com. H. li^ebdifi, ie^4,C1iJiQtiel 

Squiiidrqn 
Algedne, l^ic, gU]ib^t,lieut.-C«iu. A. E, Bknc, 

ISM, CMni^ 
AjLtebpe, a, it ved., Li«ut.-Com. C. 0< D. Ailing^ 

bum, lftS6, Const i>f Africa 
Arcbef, 13, ic. Cii}>t. J, Bvibetw. V.C. (IMl] 

CoDAt of Africa 
Ardent. 3, Btevo veueU Cnpt. J. E. I'jirijh. IBS?, 

8JE> Coast of America^ (Ordertd liotne.) 
Axgiu. A, ttetun rva. Com. L. <l. Mwre, ]S00, 

Cliinh 
Ariadne, ^. ic. Capt. E. W. Ynnuttait, 18H 

Kmrtb Aiiierict* nimj Weft Ijidii'^B 
Ariel, 9, Bt. Com. W. C. CliAptiibt), IB^, Cnpe of 

Good llopr 
Alia, H4, Bcnr Admiral Georgia LUml, Capt. II, 

Broqdbead, 18!jSh Ptiftiiinouth 
Baecbajitr, SI, 6C. CnjJt. 1>. McL. MArkenfk, 
18B0, F<w.irtc 
BarTHCTMit4i, 6, at. ve« C^A G.J MnLcotm, I MO, 

Ntirth Airtcriciv uiid West IniUe« 
Bnfro*a, Si, *c , CHpl«in W, \L I>o»«H. lB5fl, 

fLait Indiea und Chilu 
Beiglc, +, (If, Com E- Hii). IS*5^, E«t Indica, M- 

dtsred Imaie. 
BlsitJt Priacc. 40, sr, Capt, J. F. B. Wainwright, 

L'lSiWl} Cbnnne] Squmlmn 
Blenheim, 60. M^. Capt Lord F H. Kerr, IS&2, 

C'oaat Guard, MilroitL 
fiLoutUuHUul, R. it. TCM. LieuL-ConL. J. E, 

Stokes, ldA8. CtHiit of AJ^ra 
Bbst^WrCii, BO, C1U11. H. C-QDipiun, }B^, South. 
am[ttoii TrBlQing Sliip 

Bounf^er, 2, sf. imnhont, »■ CHiiiia 

BrilliKit, Jfl, Cam. Grey Ski|>witli, l&^S, Ii'aval 

lUmntt Drill Ship, Ihrndee 
Britk, Id. tc. Capt 3. 1\ L«<^, LB^, Wwt 

C^iast of AMc^i 
BntiiRniit, 0, Cmiei TmiiiinE 9h\p, Cantnui 

B. A. Foiretl, CB., |Hg5, Portlntid 
BuK£iiriX. at res,. 6, Cum. T. H. H- MnrtJu, 

td&9, Nortb America nitd Wmt Indict 
dunbri^Ki;. ^nnifr>^ $liip, Ca|jt, C. 3. P. Ewart, 

QB , iBad, lieYfiiiiKirt. 
CiBielei:]!), 17, «c, Goni.E. lUrdmge, )^&A. Fndl^c 
Ciitoirui, Naval Bsurafk^ Capt. C. H, ^Iq)', 

(Igfip) Devomjoil 
CEinidfle^ ir,» 2, Lkut.-ConL E. H WilkinBoii, 

lifi0, Medittimjiein 
Ciictor, 3ii, Com. J. FoliiiDr, l@$l, >ava] Eeterv^ 

Prill SJiip. Sbieldt 
C«Dt«ur, A ttetuit vea. Cotu. J« Z Cnaj (bet- 
ing) ISnS. Cliiti^t ord erred homn 
CtilUenfer. 2S, bc, J. J. Kcanfdy, C.B., I8a0, 

North Auicrtrs and W. 1ndi» 
CbK^ititlecr, 17. ie CAm, C J^Lirlinf. l&Bfl, 
Mfditenrune^ii 



Ch&rybdii, 9J, Ac, Capt. £. W. Tttipour, ISG?. 

Pacific 
CUii«11S,Hr. Captain T. MiUtr, I8d&, Padao. 

(Qnlered Hr}in«0 
Coekfttriir«, 0. bc. Lieut. C«iu. It. M, GiBbiiii 

(ISSS). Meditermceaii 
CokMtut, SO, ic. Captain E. S. Sotheljy, C.B , 

1B63^ Coast Guard, Portland Booda 
Colnmtiine, 4. ac, C-om. T. Le 11. Wan], ISOI 

Cbanuel S^^omUon 
Coquette, 4, ic., CosDUUiider J. 11. 1. AleundcTj 

1800, Eaat Ijidjea and CUina 
Comiorant 4, nc. Cam. C. M. Buckk (IBOO) 

Ejiat todiea and China 
CoTn\raili9. 60, ic. Capt J. N. Strange, ISM, 

C^aat Guard. Hull 
C<»fl»ack, 20, Bc., Capt. W. B. B^ilknd* IB&7, 

MeditenrBnean 
Cdiaberl&nd, ^^, Copt. W. K. llftll, C.B., 18^, 

Shaemfst 
Ciu%ccHi, 23, Coiiitiiodori! Sir W- Wbeinan, 

Bart., Amtrulia 
Cuiicv. !», Bc, Com. J. S. Hudaon, im\t 9, E. 

Const of AnicriCH 
Cygnet, n^ »{;. Com. K. P. I>e XaaUow (1803) 

North Amcricu and Weal Indijet 
DBdHliitf, 16, CoTu, W. H. Fenwirk, IMf, Njival 

BeBcrve Drill ihip, BriBtul 
Dwrt, 5. BC Ccti. F. W. BicJiarda, (ItieO) C-oaat 

of Africa 
Dnalinr, 3, at. ve».. Com. P. Jh Saiiamareit, 18S4 

ChAntiel Iilan^i 
UuiuiUfiaB, 31, ac. CadL J, B. DJckwrn, 1864| 

Coait Otiard, ScutButipton 
De«, S, It. Slore Slup, Um.^Com. G. Bavraond. 

1868, Woolwich 
l>efence, 18, ac. Capt. A. Pbillininn, l&£6, Gum- 

nd Sqiiadroa 
BHpi!init«. 7, ar Cam. A. T. Tlirupp. 18&B. N«rth 

America mid Woiit Indiea 
Dtvutation, fi, icrew^ t4jui J. W, I'ikf. I860, 

Pacilic 
Dutercl, 3, ac. nmlwat^ LicuL ConL W. F^JoUu-' 

flon, I853i, Saaih Ameriea 
Pfoiurdarr, a& itoR-abi{t. lilitat.-C^itn. A. Brcrwji, 

fl8G4), partitmlaf aervice 
Buke of WclbngioDi, IlEI. Dipt, J, S«ccom1i«, 

t8lt, Poriamoqth 
Eagle, SO, Coiumamlcr J- W, Wli>if, ISfiB, 

Naval Bcierve Drill ^liip, Lui erpoiil 
Erlipae, 4, ic, Com, B. C, IMuyne, L861, 

Auatralia 
EdgMr,7Lfic Rr. AdmL &. C. Dntrcft, CB .Capt 

G. T, P. Horliv, teS3, CliaDaei ^oaditia 
Edinburgh, fiO, ac, tjftptdji C F. ^hombeig, ISSl 

CoaatGniird, Queeu'a Ferrv, N.B. 
Hgmont, reefivinjE ahjp, Capt F\ A. B, Cmufunl, 

18»0. Bio de^liatieiro 
Euienld, ^, al^ CaptAiJi A. Ctiuimlng, 1854, 

Chnnurl ^qiuidrcm 
£iichautres4, 1* it, Admindty Yacht* Miu.- 

Ctmi. J. E. Pelkv, lUi, Portemottth 
Encounter. 14, acr. Crtptivin B, Deiir, CB., 1S58, 

EmeI Indiea 11 nd Cniru, [ordered bnnie) 
Elk, tih Cnpl. J, F. C, Hivniilton. IH^, Am- 

tralia 
Eipair. &, ac. Com- S, BouelaB. ll&aBt C. of Africa 
ETu-¥alu», 3S. PC. Vice Adtnl A. L. Knper, C3^» 

Captain J.J, &, Joaliog, IBfil, Cbina 
ExcellirDt, gunrtrrv abip, Cftpt, A, C. Kev, 

C.fl,l&£0, POTtanioitib 
FHJrv, ic, vftcht, wnder to Victoria Jtnil .Mbcrt 
Fort an math , M hb I . - Cftni 11. N . W tkh, 18 



1863.] 



ROYAL NAVY IN COMMISSIOy. 



447 



Firefly, 6, st. rei. Com. A L. MuueU» 1855, Medi- 

ternmean 
FitgarcU 42, Commodore Sir. F. W. E. Nicolflon, 

Bart C.B Woolwich 
FUuner, sc.jnmboat, lieat. Com. G. S. Bosan- 

qaet, 1865, China 
Formidable, 26, Vice-Adml. Sir 0. R. Lambert, 

K (' B . Capt. J. Fulford, Sheemess 
Forte, 89. to. Bear Admiral B. L. Warren, Capt. 

A Mellersh, 1856, S.E. Coast of America 
Forward, 2. »c Lieut Com. the Hon. H. D. Las- 

celles, 1855, Pacific 
Fox, 80. ttore-ship, Mast-Com. J. C. Pullen, 

(1844) particular service 
Foxhound. 4. sc. Com. W. H. 'Anderson, 1859, 

Mediterranean 
Galatea. 26, sc. Cap. B. Mafuire. 1855. North 

America, and West Indies 
Geyser, 6. st. ves. Com. M. R. Pechell, (1B66), 

Channel Squadron 
Gorgon. 6, st. ves. Com. J. C Wilson, 1861, Cape 

of Good Hope, ordered home 
Grappler. 2, sc. lieut Com. E. H. Yemey. 

1858, Pacific 
Grasshopper, sc sunboat, Lt. Com. F. W. Ben- 
nett, 1854, East Indies and China 
Greyhound, 17. sc Com. H. D. Hickley, 1868, 

North America and West Indies 
Griffon, 6, sc. Com. J. L. Perry, 1858, Coast of 

Africa 
Hardy, 2. sc. gnnbt. Lieut. Com. A G. Bjgle, 

1855. East Indies and China 
Harrier, 17. sc. Com. F. W. Sullivan, 1869, 

Australia 
Hastings, 60, sc. Rear- Admiral Sir L. T. Jones, 

K.C.B., Capt. C. F. A. ShadweU. C.B.. 1853. 

Queenstown 
Havock, 2. sc. gnnbt, Lieut Com. G. Poute, 1858 

East Indies and China 
Hawke, 60. sc. Capt'E. Codd, 1851, Coast Guard 

Queenstown 
Hecate, 6, st. vessel, Capt G. H. Richards, 1854, 

passage home. 
Hesper, 4, sc. store ship, Mttt. Com. A. F. 

Boxer, 1854. East Indies and China 
Hibemia,rec ship. Rear Adm. H. J. Austin, 

C.B., Com. R. B. Harvey, 1859, Malta 
Himalaya, 6, sc. troop ship. Captain £. Lacy, 

(1862).Devonport 
Hogue, 60, sc. Captain A. Farqnhar.'jjl840, 

Coast Guard. Greenock 
Hornet, 17, sc. Com. J. Dayman, 1858, East 

Indies 
Icuus, U. sc. Com. N Salmon, Y.C. 1868, 

Mediterranean 
Hydra, 6, st. ves., lAeut. G. R WUkinson, 1864, 

Woolwich 
Immortality. 51, sc. Capt G. Hancock, 1855, 

North America and West Indies 
Impkicable. 24. Com. S. B. Dolling, 1856, Train- 
ing Ship, Devonport 
Impremble. 78, Capt F. 8. Tremlett 0863) 

Training Ship. Devonport 
Indus, Rear Admiral T M. C. Symonds. C.B.. 

Capt W. Edmonstone, C.B., 1853. Devonport 
IndnstiT, 2. sc. store ship, Mast. Com. £. 

C. T. Yond. 1860, partientur service 
Insolent 2. sc. gunbt. Lieut. Com. 6. Parsons, 

1864, East Indies and China 
Invettintor.2.8t. ves. lieut Com. P. R.Sharpe, 

li»4. Coast of Africa 
Jadctl, 4, St. vessel, Lieut. Com. E. F. Lodder 

1864, Coast of Scotland 
Jaseur, 6, sc Com. W. J. U. Grubbe (1861) 

Coast of Africa 
Jason, 21, sc. Capt. E. P. B. Von Donop, 1855, 

North America, W. Indies 
Landrail, f, sc. Com. W. Arthur. 1861, N. 

America and West Indies , ^ .^ 

Leander. 89, sc Commodore T- Haney, Pacific 
Lixard, 8, st ves. licnt-Cora. U. J. Cballis, 

1864, Sheemess 



Lee, 6, sc. Ck>m. C. £. Foot (act.) I860, Coast 

of Africa 
Leopard. 18, st. vessel, Capt. C. T. Leckic, 1868, 

East Indies and China 
Leven, 1, screw gun vessel, Lt. Com. H. P. 

Kiieritt (1856) East Indies and China 
Liffev, 39, sc Captain G. Parker, 1864» 

Mediterranean 
LUy. 4, sc.. Com. H. Harvey, 1857, North 

America and West Indies 
Liverpool, 85, sc, Opt. R. Lambert, 1865, 

(;hannel Squadron. 
Maeander, 10, Cap. F. L Barnard, 1865, Ascension 
Msgicienne. 16. st. ves. Capt. W. Armytage, 

i860, Mediterranean 
Migestic, 80, sc. Capt. E. A Inglefteld, 1858, 

Coast gimxd. Rock Ferry, Liverpool 
Mahcca, 17, st. ves. Cap. 6. J. Napier, (1866), 

Mediterranean ^ 

ManUia, sc. Mast Com. H. W. Burnett 1856. 

East Indies and China 
Marlborough, 121, sc Vice Adml. R. Smart, 

K H.. Captain C. Fellowes, 1868, Mediter- 
ranean 
Medea, 6, st ves. Com. D'Arcy S. Preston, (1860) 

North America and West Indies 
Medina. 4, st. ves. Capt. T. A B. Spratt, C.B. 

1855, Mediterranean 
Medusa, 2, st. ves.. Mas.-Com. J. Loane, 1846, 

particular service 
Meeanee. 60, Captain G. Wodehouse, 1864. 

Mediterranean. 
Megmra, 6, sc. Com. E. Madden, (1868) 
Miranda, 15, sc Capt. R. Jenkins. 1857. Australia 
Mullet 6, sc. Com. C.U. aimpson 1860, Coast of 

Africa 
Mutine. 17, sc. Com. W. Graliam, 18.^8, Paafic. 
Naiad, 6. store ship, Mas. Com. G. Reid, 1860, 

Callao 
Narcis8us,'"89 sc. Rear Adm. Sir B. W. Walker, 

Bart., K.C.B., Capt. J. G. Bickford, (1860) 

Cape of Good Hope 
Nereus, 6, store depot. Mast Com. C. R. P. 

Forbes, 1848, Valparaiso 
NUe. 78, sc. Vice-Adnd. Sir A. Mibie. K.C.B.. 

Capt. E. K. Barnard, 1869, Noith America 

and West Indies 
Nimble, 6. sc. Com. J. D'Arcy, 1864, North 

America and West Indies 
Odin, 16, steam vessel. Commodore Lord J. Hay, 

C.B. 1854. East Indies, ordered home 
Orestes. 21. sc Capt. A. H. Gardner, 1866, 

Cape of Good Hope _ ,,. 

Oiontes. 8, sc, troop ship, Capt H. W. Hire, 

1863. PorUmoutb 
Orlando. 46, sc. Capt G. G. Randolph, ,1854 

Mediterranean 
Osborne, st vessel, Mas. Com. G. H. K. Bower, 

l»t2, PorUmouth 
Osprey, sc, 4. Com. A. J. Innes 1861, East In- 
dies and China 
Pandora, 5, sc Com. W. F. Ruxton, 1861, 

Coast of Africa 
Pantaloon. 11, sc Com. F. PnrvU, (I860), East 



Peart 21, sc Cant. J. Borlase. C.B 1866, East 

Indies and China 
Pelican, 17. sc Com. P. Brock, 1859, Mediter- 
ranean. 
Pembroke, 60, Commodore A. P. Pyder, 1843. 

G.B., Capt. J. O. Johnson. 1856, Coast 

Guard Harwich 
Perseus, 17. w. Com. A. J. Kingston, 1860, 

China 
Pctercl, 11. sc. Com. G. W. Watson, 1858. Noith 

America and West Indies 
Phaeton, .')9, sc. Capt E. Tathani, 1864, North 

America and West Indict 
PhUomel, 6, sc. Com. L. Wildman, (1868) Coast 

of Africa 
Phwbe, 86, sc, Captain T. D. A. Fortescue, 

1857, Mediterranean. 

QOf, 



448 



fiOYAX* KAVT IN COMUISSIU:?. 



[JCLY, 



r 



Pj«ny, ». iL T. Master Ciom. W. W. Tine, 1&«1 

FnrUiuotttli. 
riobrcT, <(» K. Com, f*. C^ B. RhIjiiucbi {actiu^)* 

AnstrnliL, onlisred bone 
florcr, &, K. Com. tJi* Hon A. L. Corry, ISfiPi 

Fft»ident» aff. Com W. Moubl, l&^fl, Ntival Kc- 

ifTV'r Drill Slajt^ Xjondon. 
Fjineets Chnrlotto, 13. Cjiptam M, 3. HoUotb, 

Ii5i1« IIquk Kdd([ 
P^writ, »» CKjk, K, OittWftniifv, J&Wl, Lic*l. 

Com. blon. J, B. Vivijm. iBa*, Gibrnttftr, 
Fi^dw, 2, It Te«ffll, Liinit^-Cqaii- R. Sterne 

1854^ M«ditflr»mlieAn 
fj'iBilet. 21» B*i, (Siht A. W. A» Hood, Kortb 

Ameiicii and Wcii Inclii4''ii • 

Qaeen, 7-*, bc. CaptKkzi!) C. F. Uinjir, lSb2t Medi- 

Bueliane, 4. ac. Cooi. C. H. F- Bciier, 1600, 



pw^inuiir 



B<wr. *# CwiL H* a, WrataUw, liSS^ Wat 

vout of A&ica 
Bapid- 11, *e. Com, C. T. Jneo [ I ftfiOj C. of AfrMa 

Indiea and CULnA 
EAtt]e»iMk«.S], K, Coimnodare A. P* E Wilmo^ 

C.H. Qnut of Alrica 
EeBord, 4, tc. Com. C* J, Buvley, ISQI, SLmt- 

nrwi 
RexittJUiefl. J 8. w. Cwpt. W- C* Gbiuiib«tlni»i, 

i^G, CUumel Sf^uodrob, 
Rtrenp^, 73, *c. Rr -Ad. H. B. Yidvcrtcm, C.B., 

Cupt. Hon. F. A. Fole^y, I8(W)» Meiiitcrrnmifio 
BifieiiiJiDt §, itir.'Veft. Uiut. CoiEiiiuiidef J, W. 

««4, ]B&7, Ckuim Sf^Hi 
Biaddo, 17. ic C^tca. J. A K. Pninlop, 1360, 

|HW» Ntirth AmeKtn aod Wctt Iniliea 
]lidg;dcive, 4, ic. Com^ HI. A, O. BrowUp 1^7« 

EjMtt lodifs nnd Clima 
EfM^riOp II, IC. Com. U. D. Gmut, IB&fl^ 

North Amerioi aad Wirt In()k-i 
BovkJ Adelaidfe, Sfl, Tn^Adnd. Sir U. Stavmri, 

■ VJC fi, Ctot. C> Ve«y, 1^60, Drvoaport 
BojaJ OiilCp a4 »c. Cipt F. A. Cumpliai, liS^ 

Cbuinel Squadron 
BaueU. 00, k. Cupt. S. Grctifdl, (1850) Cbut 

Qqard F«linf3llUl 
SatelUt«» 31, IC. Cipi. £^. 9. L. Cl«a«, tBSS, 

Sw E OMiflt of Aioeriea 
f^tqrn^C^ptBJD W. Loringt C.B., 1848, Fombrolic 
Sfuut, 21, ic. CapL J. C<irbftU, L§£7» £oiL Iiidi«a 

and CkJnn, wdered Lome 
Sejiit^apBtBm, Rc«etvinp S)up» Cnpt, J, H, C«t- 

bum, letSO, Cjipe oTGood Mope 
Serem. 3&. e«, Cottunodorc Fp B, Montr^tA', 

Kftirt ladle* 
Shidinfiu, as, IC. Capt. 0, J, Jii6e», (18*fi) N. 

AnierifA &ad Wett Indies 
Blieldi^ep 2. «. ruuboat. Iiinit.'Com* John 

Kgte» IgM, B. E. C^fut of Amerinn 
Bbtannitar, 11, ie. Cam. R. G. BoueJafg iSfiO, 

FiiciJiq. 
Stijiey, 1, *c. gunlMKit, Lieut. -Coin. "W, F, I>e, 

IMftA, Emtlndiet uid Chitin 

ow^ &K ic. Coin. Hon. E. G. L. CpcliTBn'F, 
C. orAfiica. 

ti%, A, wt. vn C^m. T. U. 3mt», 1850^ Euit 

In Jia end ChiJib. pbkhrc home 
Spider, 3, IC' fimbaDt, Lifut. Com- E, A. T' 

Siahbi^ Mm, South Ani^ricR 
St GeiUX«» Bit *c- Ckjrt, the H^m. F. Egertoiip 



ISSCMfldil 



ChiuA 
St. YincinW aUt Com. M. I^wther, IB&U, Foi1«* 

Jnuvth 
3tcad;, A, «e, Qmi. FVed [{«rrejr, ISeU Hwtb 

Aii>piica prnd West Indies 
StromhnU, C, >e. Com. A. R. Uimij^ ld&7, S,fi 

CuMist or Amcriett 
Stjx, 6, M. Cilia, the Uon. W. J. WkiJ» 185% 

North Americd imd West Indies 
Supply, if 4c. ilore 4hip. Must. Coin. C Bawdca, 

lUJVj pajriieulfu scrrice 
Surpriie, 4, se. Cooi.W.U. Wlijte, IS&g, Modi- 

tftrmieiui 
SvtluJ, 3«, so., It«itr-Adml. J. mugtmar^ C«p. 

tnin M. CcmnnllT, isns, Facilic 
^vaUow. «, snr. vei. Mast. Ctfm. £. Wildi^ IB^, 

Emt Indies 
Tartnr, 2t), ac. Capt, J. M. Hayes, IH^A, Pfc- 

dfic 
Tenor, 16, Capt. F. H. IL GU^«. C B. ia44, 

BeniLoda 
Topruc, :^9, le. Commodare the Eos. J, W. B. 

gpEiirei, aaSM PiciAc 
Toreh, 6, ic. Com, F. H. Smith, IftSS, Comit uf 

Alri^u 
TmfuW, 70, se. Cjapt, T. U. Mason, 1W9, 

lifcd-ileiraneui. 
Trih^iUf!, 33, ec, Cdpi, Viscoimt Gilford, tB59 

Pacific 
Trident, ^, ui. Coiu. C. J. Bulfoor, liSB, Gih- 

raltjir 
Triticomfllee^ Ifi, Com. £. Field, (18*9) Wnfal 

iUiivrvii drill Sliii^ llortlepool 
Tiilon^ u., S, LjeuL.CaDk £. k'. Kerb?, 18M« 

S.Ei CoBBt of Ameiica 
ValoroBi, ifi, St. vci.. Cnpt. C, C, Forsyth. lfio7. 

Cine dI Good Hope 
TauTiiJip 6. IC, C^pt. R. Y. itamilton. 186^, 

North Atnerics mid West Indies 
VietOTQi ajid AJhert, Btesni vnrtit, C^pt. H.S,1I. 

Prinee teiningeii, {lJ*6(U Fwtiinoiitb 
Ytctorj, 13, Vice Aitm]. Sif Mk^haei ScjtnoiB-, 

O C H. CfliJtain Fraiacii Scott, aR, mm 

Portiinoutb 
Yigilniit, 4. ic, Coiu. W. K. Uobion, 1859^ 

Esjt ludits «nd Ctiinn 
VindicliTe, itare sbip, M&a».Com. W. F. LeiR 

1^7. Fernanda Fo 
YlAi^, e. It yei. Com^ W. G. it JobciikiOke. ISA 

pqiticulm- lerrjee 
Tm£ 2, at. t. Mast Conk H. W. Allen, la-tjl, 

purtieolar senice. 
TvleaD, e. sc. troop ship. Capt A. C^ Strode. litiS 

EaiI Indies and cEiino, ordered home 
^'^deecr, 4, s«. Com, M. C. SeyntuaT, W&9 

Meditt^rronean 
Warrior, -JO. ic. Capt. the lion. A. A. CcicJirane, 

CR. IS&4, Qhimnel SqiLudron ForttniCdth 
Weaieli 3, se, jtttBljflfi,t. Licnt. C^wu- H. G. 

Hale, IB&^, Eait indki and China 
WaUrtleT, 72, Captain SupcTintendent £. G.Fau- 

ihawft, \S4b, Ciiarhiun 
WeacT, A, It. V. dm. A. II. J« Johiutont, tSA9, 

MtidiMnrtmeftn 
^inehest^T, 13, DriE Ship for Naval l^tetre. 

Com. C^ i. Balfour. 1816, A,b4-rdeen 
^'ruie^lcr, 4, ic. Com. H. lU Beamish, liSt^, Coail 

or AfricA 
Vrjt, 2. ac. ■tflre-ship. MaaU Com. Y. G. Boberta^ 

1844, Sheomeis 
2ehni, 17, ac, Com. A» H. Uoiki^, iBfia, Coasl 

of Africa 



18«3.J 



449 



STATIONS OF THE BRITISH AfiMT. 

{Corrected up to 26M June, 1863, inclusive,) 
[Where two places are mentioned, the Inst-named is that at which the Depot is stataoned.) 



1st Life Guards— Regent's Park 

2nd «lo.— Hyde Park 

Koyal Horse Guards— Aldershot 

1st Dragooo Ouards--lfadras, Canterbury 

2ad do.~Bengal, C«aterbnry 

:h>d do.— Bombay, Canterbanr 

4th do.— Curragh 

JIth do. — Curragh 

«th do.— Aldersho* 

7th do.— Bengal, Canterbury 

1st Dragoons— Bivningbaai 

2nd do. — Blnningham 

Srd Hussars— PiersblU 

4th do.— Newbridge 

6th Lancers — Ald<rshot 

Cth Dragoons»-Bonibay, Middstooe 

7th Hnssars— Bengal, Maidstone 

8th do.— Bengal, Canterbury 

yth Lancers— Brighton 

10th Hussars— Newbridge 

llth Hussars— Dublin 

13th Lancers— Aldershot 

ISth Hussars— Aldershot 

14th do.— Manchester 

lAth Hussars— Dublin 

ICth Lancers — York 

17th do.— Madras. Maidstone 

18th Hussars— Alderafaot 

19th do.— Bengal, Maldstmie 

S9th do. — Bengal, Canterbury 

Slst do.— Bengal, Canterbury 

MiliUry Train (1st bat.>— Woolwich 

Do (2nd bat.)— Aldershot 

Do. (8rd bat.}— Canada 

Do. (4th bat.)— Woolwich 

Do. («th bat.}-Akiershot 

Do. («th bat )— Curragh 

Grenadier Guards (1st bat.)— Canada 

Do (2nd bat.)— Wellington Barracks 

Do. (Jhrd bat.)— St. Oeovec^s Barracks 

Coldstream Guards (1st bat.)— PortmaaStivet 

Do. (2nd bat.)— Windsor 

8ct>to Fns. Guards (1st bat)— Aldershot 

Fus. (2nd bat.)— Canada 

1st Foot (1st.)— Madraa, Colchester 

Do. (2nd bat }— Aldershot. Colchester 

3nd do. (1st bat.)— Plymonth, Walnier 

Do. (2nd bat )— Corfn, Wairoer 

3rd do. (1st bat.)— Aldershot, Limerick 

Do. (2nd bat.)— GibralUr, Limerick 

4th do. (1st bat.)— Bmabay, Chatham 

Do. (2nd bat.)— (Jort^ Clmtham 

tth do. (1st bat)— ShonicHCil, Colcheater 

Do. (2nd bat.)— Cape of Od. Hope, 0>lcbeeter 

<th do. (1st bat.)— Aldershot, Colchester 

Do. (2nd bat.)— Corfu. Colcbceter 

7ih do. (ist bat.)— Bengal, Waimer 

Do. (2ttd bat.)— Gibraltar. Waimer 

8th do. (1st bat.)— Sheffleld. Templemoee 

Do. (2nd bat.)— Gibraltar, Templrmore 

9ih do. (1st bat.)— Cephaloula. Limerick 

Do. (2nd bat.)— Corfu, Limerick 

lOth do. (1st bat,)— Dublin, Preston 

l>o. (2nd bat)— Cape of Gd. Hope, Prceton 

llth do (1st bat)— Curragh, Fermoy 

Do. (2nd bat.) C. of Good Hope, Fermoy 

12th do. (Ist bat)— N. 8. Wales, Chatham 

Do. (2nd bat.)— Cnrragb, Chatham 

Uth do. (1st bat.)— Bengal, Fermoy 

llo. (2nd bat.)— Mauritius, Fermoy 

14th do. (1st bat)— Jamaica, Fermoy. 

Do. (2nd bat)— New SBealand, Fermoy 

Uth do. (1st bat.)— N. Brunswick, Pembroke 

16th do. (2nd bat.)— Malta, Pembroke 



16th do. (Ist bat.)— Canada, Templemore 
Do. (2ud bat)— Nora Scotia, Templemore 
17th do. (1st bat.)— Canada, Limerick 
Do. (2nd bat) Nora ScoUa, Limerick 
18th do. ast bat)— Madras, Buttevant. 
Do. (2nd bat.)— New Zealand, Buttevant 
19th do. (1st bat.)— Bengal, Chatham 
Do. (2nd bat.)— Dnblin, Chatham 
20th do. (1st bat )— Bengal, Chatham 
Do. (2nd bat.)— Portsmouth, Chatham 
Slst do. (1st l>at)— Barbadoee, Birr 
Do. (2nd bat)— Curragh, Birr 
22nd do. (1st bst.)— Malta, PnrfcharM 
Do. (2nd bat)— Malta. Parkburst 
23rd do. (1st bat.)— Bengal, Waimer 
Do. (2nd bat.)— Malta, Waimer 
24th do. (1st bat.)— Alderahot, Cork 
Do. (2nd bat.)— Manritina, Cork 
a»th do. (1st bat)— Malta, Athlone 
Do. (2nd bat.)— Bdinborgh, Athlone 
28th do.— Gosport, Belfhst 
27th do.— Bengal, Cork 
28th do.— Bombay, Fermoy 
29th do.— Curragh. Preston 

30th do.— Canada, Pnrichnrst 

31st do.— China, Chatham 

32nd do.— Cnrragb, Preston 

3lrd da— Bombay, Fermoy 

34tb do.— Bengal, Colcheeter 

33th do.— Bengal, Chstham 

33th do.— Dnblki. Athieoe 

37th do.-^ldershot, Pccnbrok 

38th do.— Bengal, Colchester 

39th do.— Bermuda, Templemeve 

40th do.— New Zealand, Birr 

41st do.— Glasgow, Preston 

42nd do.— Bengal, SterUng 

43rd do.— Bengal, Chatham. 

44tfa do.— Bombay, Colcheeter 

41th da— Cnrragb, Parkhnret 

46th do.— Bengal, Buttevant 

47tb do.— Canada, Athlone 

48th do.— Bengal, Cork 

4»th do.— Manchester, Belfhet 

30th do.— Ceylon, Parkhnret 

31st do. — Bengal, Chatham 

32nd do.— Bengal, Chatham 

33rddo.— Portamouth, Birr 

64th do.— Bengal, Colcheeter 

66th do.— Portsmouth, Preston 

66th do.— Bombay, Colchester 

67th do.— New Zealand, Cork 

68th do— DnbUn, Birr 

69tb do.— Aklershot. Prestoi 

60th do. (Ist bat,)— Tower, Winchester 

Do. (2nd bat)— Aldershot, WIncheeter 

Do. (Srd bat.)— Madras, WIncheeter 

Do. (4th bat)— Canada, WIncheeter 

6 Ist do.— Jersey, Pembroke 

62nd do.— Canada, Belfast 

68rd do.— Canada. Belfast 

64tb do.— Aldershot, Colcheeter 

66th do.— New Zealand, Birr 

6«tb do.— Madraa, Colcheeter 

67th do.— China, Athlone 

68th do.— Madras, Fermoy 

69th do.— Madras, Fermoy 

70th do.— New Zealand, Cokh 

7 1st do.— Bengal, Stlriing 

72nd do.— Bombay, Aberdeen 

73rd do.— Alderahot, ColcbesCcr 

74th do.— Madras, Perth 

76th da— Plymouth, Cbathai* 

76th Foot— Alderahot, Bclflaat 

77th Foot— Bengal, Chatham 



450 



STATIONS OF THR BRITISH ARMT. 



[Jolt, 



78th do.— Dover, Aberdeen 
79th do— Bengal, SUrllng 
80th do.— ditto, Butterant 
8Ut do.— Bengal, Chatham 
82nd do.— Bengal, Colchester 
83rd do.— Shomcllff, Chatham 
84th do.— Shorncliflr, Pembroke 
85 ih do.— Dorer, Pembroke 
86th do.— Curragh, Templemore 
87th do — Aldershot, Butterant 
88th do.— Bengal, Colchester 
89th do —Bengal, Fermoy 
99th do.— Bengal. Culchetter 
91 Bt do.— Uadraa. Chatham 
92nd do.— Oosport, Stirling 
93rd do.— Bengal, Aberdeen 
94th do.— ditto, Chatham 
95th do.— Bombay, Fermoy 
96th do.— Cape, Belfast 
97th do.— Bengal, Colchester 
96th do —Bengal, Colchester 
99th do.-China. Cork 
100th Foot— UlbralUri Parkbnrst 
lOlst do.— Bengal, Chatham 



102nd do.— Madras, Chatham 

lOSrd do.— Bombay, Colchester 

104th do.— BenKal, Parkhurst 

1051 h do. — Madras, Pembroke 

106th do.— Bombay, Birr 

107th do.— Bengal, Fermoy 

108th do.— Madras, Fermoy 

109th do.— Bombay. Cork 

Rifle Brigade (1st bat.)— Canada, Wincbeater. 

Do. (2ud bat.)— Bengal, Winchester 

Do. (3rd bat.)— Bengal, Winchester 

Do. (4th bat.)— Malta Winchester 

1st West India Uegiment— Nassau 

2nd do. — Bahamas 

8rd do.— West Coast of Africa 

4th do— Jamaica, for Africa 

5th do — Jamaica * 

Ceylon Rifle Regiment- Ceylon 

Cape Blounted Rifles— Cap« of Good Rope 

Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment— Canada 

St. Helena Regiment— ^'t. Helena 

Royal Newfonndland Com ps.— Newfoundland 

Gold Coast Artillery Corps— Cane Coast Castle 

Royal MalU Fencible ArtlUer^MalU 



DEPOT BA'ITALIONS. 



1st Depot Battalion— Chatham 
2nd do.— Chatham 
8rd do.— Chatham 
4th do.— Colchester 
5th do.— Parkhurst 
6th do.— Walmer 
7th do.— Winchester 
8th do.— Pembroke 
9th do.— Colchester 
lOih do.— Colchester 
1 Ithdo.— Preston 
12th do.«'Athlone 
lath do— Birr 



i4th Depot Battalion— Belfsst 
15th do.— Butterant 
16th do.— Templemore 
17th do.— Limerick 
18th do.— Fermoy 
19th do.— Fermoy 
20th do.— Cork 
22nd do.— Stirling 
:iSrd do.— Aberdeen 
Cavalrv Depot— Maidstone 
do.— Canterbury 



ARTILLERY AND ENGINEERS. 



lit Hrs. Brig.— Woolirlch 
2nd Hrs. Brig.— Meerut 
Mrd Hrs. Brig.— Bangalore 
4ih Hrs. Brig.— Kirkee 
5lh Hrs. BHg,— Umballah 
Ut Brig.— GibralUr 
2nrl Brig.— Dover 
3rd Brig.— MalU and CorfU 
4th Brig.— Aldersbott 
5th Brig.— Plymouth 
6ih Brig.— Portomouth 
7th Brig.— Blontreal 
8th Brig.— Dublin 
dthBrig->,Shomcliflre 
lUth Brig.— Canada 
llth Brig.— Bengal 
12th Brig.-Mauritius 
l.'ith Brig —Woolwich 
14th Brig— Bengal 
15th Brig.— Halifax. N.8. 
16th Brig.— Delhi 
I7th Brig.— Madras 
18th Brig.- Kirkee 
19th Brig.— Peshawur 
20th Brig.— KampUe 
21st Brig.— Mhow 
22iid Brig-Jullundur 
2ard Brig.— Secunderabad 
24th Brig— Mean Meer 
25th Brig.— Agra 

Royal Kngineen. 
A Troop Royal Engineer Train, Aldershott 
1st Compy.—Devonport 
2nd Compy.— Kensington 
art] Compy.— Gibraltar 
41 h Cftmpy.— Halifax. N.«. 



5th Compy.— Bermuda 

6th Compy.— New Zealand 

7th Compy.— Chatham 

8th Compy.— China. 

9th Compy.— Woolwich 
10th Compy.— Aldershott 
llth Compy. — Mauritius 
12th Compy.— Cape 
18th Compy. — Dublin (snnrey) 
14th Compy.— Dublin (surrey) 
16th Compy. — Canada 
16th Compy.— Sonthton (snnrey) 
1 7th Compy.— Curragh 
18th Compy.— Canada 
l»th Compy.— Glasgow (surrey) 
20th Compy —Chatham. 
21at Compy —Mauritius. 
22nd Compy.— Chatham 
28rd Compy.— Shomcllffe 
24lh Compy. — Aldershott 
25th Compy.— Cape 
26th Compy.— Chatham 
27th Compy.— OtbralUr 
28th Compy.— MalU 
29th Compy. — Corfti 
dOth Compy.— Corfo 
aist Compy.— MalU 
32nd Compy.— St Helena 
83rd Compy.— Gibraltar 
84th Compy.— Bermuda 
35th Compy.— Chatham 
S6th Compy.— Chatham 
^7ih Compy.— Chatham 
38th Compy,— Chatham 
atith Compy.— Chatham 

40th Compy.— Chatham 



1863.] 



451 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



NAVY. 



PROMOTIOKS. 

War Office, June 16. 

The Queen has been graciously 
pleased to give orders for the ap- 
pointment of Rear-Adm. the Hon. 
Edward Alfred John Harris, Her 
Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary 
to the Swiss Confederation, and 
Horatio Nelson Lay, Esq., em- 
ployed with the special mission of 
the Earl of Elgin to China, in the 
years 1857 and 1858, to be Ordi- 
nary Members of the Civil Division 
of the Third Class, or Companions 
of the Most Hon. Order of the 
Bath. 

To be Captain — Com. David 
Miller. 

To be Betired Master, with rank 
of Captain— John E. Ellis. 

Engineer — James Orchard of the 
Tyrian. 

First-Class Assistant-Engineers 
—Evan L. Williams, Peter Eck- 
ford, and Peter Murray, of the 
Asia; James Wilson, of the Echo; 
Joseph Wyllie, of the Valorous; 
William Frazer, of the Indus; 
William Pearson, of the Emerald ; 
Thomas Scott (b), of the Cumber- 
Lmd ; Joseph T. Itobinson, of the 
Scout; James M'Gough, of the 
Surprise; Frederick Pointon, of 
the Orestes : James Crawford, of 
the Mutine; Bichard Wyllie, of 
the Bustard ; Angus Leitcb, of the 
Kestrel; William Barclay, of the 
Medea. 



APPOINTMEHTS. 

Captains— W. J. S. PuUen to 
the Terror, additional, for survey- 
ing service ; Hon. G. D. Keane to 
the Cumberland, for service at the 
Naval Barracks at Sheerness; E. 
W. Tumour to the Charybdis, vice 
Keane. 

Commanders — John A. Shears 
to the Aboukir; Henry L. Cox, 
J<An Henderson, and Frederick 
W. Sidney to the Miranda, lor 



surveying duties ; Arthur W. Gil- 
lett to the Marlborough. 

Lieutenants— G. G. Duff and W. 
E. MitcheU to the Esk; W. D. D. 
Selby to the Cumberland; W. J. 
Botelor to the Orlando; H. F. 
Cleveland to the Besistance ; Strat- 
ford Tuke and John A. F. Luttrell 
to the Excellent. 

Masters — Daniel M*D. Jago to 
the Saturn; John Molloy to the 
President ; Haben B. Hunt to the 
Phaeton; John Palmer to the 
Barossa; Percy Y. James to the 
Battler ; John A. Collinson to the 
Jackal; J. P. C. Clements to the 
Prince Consort ; John T. H. Norria 
to the ^iwke; Greorffe Baymond 
to the Dee ; Henry § Ley to the 
Sans Pareil. 

Chaplains and Naval Instructors 
— Bev. Thomas E. G. Bunbuiy to 
the Esk; Bev. E. B. Colby, M.A., 
to the Cossack. 

Surgeons — John Caldwell to the 
Osprey; Thomas J. Breen and 
Geoi^ Moore, M.D., additional, to 
the President, for the Naval Be- , 
serve; John Ward to the Trin- 
comalee; Greorge F. M'Donouffh, 
M.D., to the Active; G. P. Cooke 
to the Dee. 

Paymasters — Edward Jas. Ben- 
nett to the Trincomalee; B. F. E. 
Morison to the Active; Edmund 
A. Bowe, additional, to the Presi- 
dent; William B. Hutchinson to 
the Eclipse; Frederick T. Bobins 
to the Esk. 

Sub-Lieutenants — Huro Lewis 
Pearson, Henry James Fairlie, and 
Hon. Edward Stanley Dawson, to 
the Victoria and Albert; G. W. 
Osmond and Pearson G. Johnstone 
to the Edgar. 

Assistant-Surgeons — Did. Mac- 
Iver, M.D., Josh Whitaker, M.D., 
and John Eraser, additional (act- 
ing), to the Boyal Adelaide ; Alfred 
William Whitley and William D. . 
Woodswortli, additional (^irfosNS^ 



^ 



^ 



to tba Victory; W, D. Loagfietd 
to tbe Styx; Francis H Moore to 
tbe Victory for the &0Y&I Marines ; 
Mattbew Coates to Haslar Hoe* 
pital ; John Barnett (acting) to the 
Vivid 

Second Masters — James G. Lid* 
dall, Silas H, Liddell, George 
Whites Selwyn S. Sugden, Clement 
Hcrtssell, Cburlea S C. Watkins» 
and James C, Tbonms to the 
Eawftlus^ as siaperuumerariee; E. 
H, C. Smith, HeTl>erfc IX Walker, 
John F, BarnB; and William C. 
Spain to the Victory, as super- 
numeraries ; E. B. D'Arey and H. 
J, E. J. Pearch ti> the Dee. 

Maater*3 Aat^li^tants— W. H. 
Brickdale to the Cossack ; Theo- 
dore G. Fenn, Richard B. B. Hop- 
ley, and Edmn H. B.ichards to the 
Eask; Richard S. Stewart and 
Thomas H. James to the Cossack; 
Robert T. Hodges to the Lizard; 
James S. Barrett to tho Narcissus, 
as supernumerary; G. K. Moore 
and Richard Godden to the Bee. 

A s sis tan t-Pay mas tera — W. H . 
Has well {in charge) to the Dee; 
Edward M* Roe (in char^) to the 
Firefly; Joseph G. W. Hoare to 
the Victoria and Albert; Robert 
F. Wt Soady to the Magicienne ; 

F. W. S. Ponaonby to the Aboukir. 
Midahipmen^Lord W. de la P. 

Beresford to the Defence; C. E. 
Bell, C. E Wood, G- S, Parker, E. 
H. Oldham, and J. H. T. Ghowne 
to the Esk ; Arthur C* B. Bromley, 
Alexander De C, Crawford, John 
H. Bainbridge, Edward B. Boyle, 
Yesey Knox^ and Bemal W. Field- 
ing to the Cossack; E, M. S. 
Claremont to the Revenge ; Chas. 
Lindsay to the Esk. 

Naval adeta ( nomin ated>^C h as . 
R. Arhuthnott, Henry Vashon 
Buicer, Frank J, Grnsse, Frederick 

G. Ree, Charles C. Stuart, James 
C R. Scott, George Huntingford, 
Robert H. Hut^^hiuge, Charles G, 
W* Aylen, Henry C. A. Morshead, 
Nugent R. M. de Geytt, Ferdinand 
Beauclerk, William Harvey, Chas. 
W* Hicks J Arthur Henry Stone 
and Henry W. Savill ; Maurice 8* 
R, Bayley, Frederick Brind, Hon. 
Robert Walter Craven, William C. 
H. Gil], Walter H, B. Graham, 



Richard F. Grealey, Arthur F. T. 
James, Henry D. Mackenzie, Ar- 
thur W. E. Prothero. Thomas B. 
J. Ross, Edward Walker, Dixon H, 
B. Mackenzie, Harry H* Glay brook, 
Charl§s H. Cochran, Andrew W, 
Bogers, C, E. Grissell to the Esk, 
J. G. M. Field, and E. H. Gamble. 

Clerks— Alfred G. Roberts to the 
Virginia ; Ednuind H. Key to the 
Racoon; E* E. Richmond to the 
Fiegard, as eu wrnumerary ; Amn- 
del Smith to the Royal Adelaide. 

Aasistant*Clerks— Charles F. W* 
Edivards to the Edgar ; H. S. Dob- 
son to the Royal Adelaide, as 
sttpernumei^ary ; George H. Brad- 
ley (additional) to the Curapoa; 
W, L. Fenof>ck t^> the Warrior; H, 
W, Paul (additional) to the Indus; 
A, G. Hill and W, F. Banbujr (ad- 
ditioiml) to the Edgar; W. H. Fox 
(additional) to the Majestic ; R< 
Osborn and C K. O'Mahoney (ad- 
ditional) to the Pisgard; C Beid 
and E* G. Whitmore to the Boyal 
Adelaide, as super nnmeraries ; 
Charles Walker to the Black 
Prince* 

Chief Engineers — R. Sampson 
to the Prince Consort; Benjamin 
Bflj-her to the Salamander ; William 
Pitt to the tSans Pareil 

Engmeers-- William Hardie to 
the Asia, as supernumerary; F. 
W, Sutton (b) to the Indus, as 
supernumerary ; Edward Fowell 
(actine) to the Orlando; Edwin 
Daniels to the Salamis, 

First- Class AsBistant'Engineers 
^Edward Judge to the Cockatrice ; 
Richard W, Tnibshaw (acting) to 
the Louisa, 

Assistant - Engineers — William 
Beid to the Dasher; James Croll 
to the Racoon; H. J. Hes to the 
Cumberland, as supernumerary ; 
F. C. Ford to the Indus for hos- 
pit-al treatment; J, Gray to the 
Fisgard, as supernumerary; John 
Weet to the Columbine; T. R. 
Butters to the Sprightly; H. D* 
Garwood and Frederick Moore to 
the Enchantress; H. G. Hall to 
the Prince Consort ; Thomas Cafcoh- 
pole to the Charger ; Thomas Scott 
(b) to the Cumberland, as super- 
numerary; James Legate to the 
Tender : Peter Ramson to the Sans 



I 



1868.J 



PROXOnONS AND APPOINTMBNTS. 



453 



Pareil; C. F. H. Burt and James 
Parry to the Indus, as supernume- 
raries. 

Second-Class Assistant-Eng;!- 
neers — David B. Keiller to the 
Cura9oa ; Bobert Sutherland to the 
Miranda; Frederick Smiley to the 
Cockatrice. 



BOYAL MABINES. 

Admibaltt, Junb 1. 

Maj.-G^n. Fortescue Graham, 
C.B., to be col. of the Plymouth 
Division, under Order in Council 
of the 20th March, vice Wearing, 
deceased. 

Boyal Marine Light Infantry — 
First Lieut. Wingrove Laughame 
Tinmouth to be capt., vice Gritton, 



retired on fall-pay; Sec. Lieut. 
William Henry Wells to be first 
lieut, vice Tinmouth. 



COAST-GUABD. 

Inspecting-Commanders — S. P. 
Brett to Penzance, vice C. J. 
Austen, superseded at his own 
request; Thomas H. B. Fellowes 
to Penzance, vice Austen, resigned. 

Chief Officer (Second Class)— 
William PoUard to Tarbert. 



BOYAL NAVAL BESEBVE. 

To be Lieutenants — John Trel- 
fall Bra^ and Bichard Gully. 

To be Sub-Lieutenants — Michael 
Sydney and Alexander Oughton. 



454 



PROMOTIO ,S AND APPOISTMKNTSp 



fJuLY, 



ARMY. 



War Ofricit, Pall Mall, May 22, 

1st Hegt. of Dmgoon Guards — 
Lieut. John Biiehaii Hepbur n» from 
tbe 5 til DriigCH>n Gruards, to be 
Iteut*, vice Quid, who exchanges. 

4th Dmgoon Gimrda— Lieut. 
Angus tuB Gladwyn Churchill 
Inge, to be capt,, hy purcliaae, vice 
TLomaa Clarke Gillespie, who re- 
tires; Comet George Hall Ring* 
rose, to ho lieut., hj purchase, vice 
Inge ; Philip Edwara Poppe, gent-, 
t'Q bo cor., by puruhaaep vice Wm, 
John Brooke, proiiio£ed. 

5tb Dragoon Guards — Lieut» 
Thomas Albert Quirt, from, the Isfc 
Dragoon Guards, to he heut., yioe 
Hepburn, who exchangoa. 

7th Dragon Guards — ^Ens. G«o. 
Totnkyns Morris, from the 38th 
Foot, to be cor., vice Joseph Thos. 
Cammellen, promoted. 

5th Lancers^Assist.-Snrg. Bo^ 
bert Sutherland from the 24th 
Foot, to he aasiatrBurg. 

12 th Lancers — The HerviceH of 
Paymaster Bandal H. Roberts have 
been dispeosed with* 

^h Begt. of Foot— Lieut. John 
Haycrofl Bolton to be capt*, by 
purt'hsise, vice William Augustus 
Elmhirsfe, who retires, Ens. Wm. 
Hawkins Hatbwiiv to b© lieuL, by 
purchase, vice Bolton; Thomas 
John BuchanatL, gent., to l^e ens,, 
by puirhase, vice Hath way. 

loth Foot— Ens. George Wm. 
Carter to be lieut.» without pur- 
chflse» vice Hargood Thomas 
Snooke, deceased; Ens. ChrUto- 
pher Campbell Oldfield to be lieut., 
by purfhasc, vice George William 
Carter, whose promotioot ^J Pur- 
chase, on the JJl March, i8<j,% has 
been cancelled i George Daniel 
HaU Brookes, gent., to be ens., 
without purchase, v^o© Oldfield; 
StafFAsajst.-Surg. Baynes Be^ to 
be assist.'surg., vice John Clarke, 
M.D,. promoted on the Staff. 

18th Foot^Maj. James Harwood 

Rocke, Itoiu a Depot BattaUon, to 

be nmj., vice Swinburne, who ex* 

changes. 

22lHt Foot— CecO Buwes Robin- 



son, gent., to be ens., by purobi 
vic^ Forbes George Vernon, whoa 
appointment has been cancelled, 

22nd Foot— Uhas. Leslie Sykes, 
gent,, to be ens., by purchase, vice 
Joseph King Barnes, who retires, 

24th Footr— Staff Assist. -S org, j 
CampbeD Miilis Douglas, M.D.,1 
to be assist^-surg., vice Robert 
ButherlaJid, appointed to the 5ih 
Lancers, 

31st Foot— Staff'Surg, Duncan 
Boberfcsou Bennie to be eurg , vice 
Da\^d Field Bennie, M,D.» ap* 
pointed to the Staff. 

38tb Foot— James Alexander, 
gent., to be ens., by purchase^ vice 
George Tomkyns Morris, trans- 
ferred to the 7th Dragoon Guards. 

39th Foot— H. French Coitou, 

fent , to bo en a. by purchase, vice 
rancis Shortt Arnoitj who re* 
tires. 

41 St Foot — Ens. Henry Webb 
Byngtobe lieu t,, by purchase, vice 
EdgarYounghusband, who retires; 
Edward Eden Hughes, gent., to be 
ena,. by purchase, vice Byng. 

43rd Foot— Ena, Wm. M':^^eUel 
Cairns, from the 96th Foot^ to be 
ens,, vice Wellington James Den- 
ton, who retires ; John Binglej 
Garland, gent., to be ens., by pur- 
chase, vice Charles Yates Peyton, 
who retires. 

44th Foot— Lieat, George Evatt 
Acklom to be capt , without pur- 
chase, V ice Arthur do Montmoreney 
Fleming, deceasiJd — Ist April; 
Ens, William John Edward Gra- 
ham Sutherland to be lieut., with- 
out purchase, vice Acklom — let 
April ; Ens, Lloyd Fenton, from 
the 15tb Foot* to be ens., vice 
Sutherland, 

57th Foot- Lieut.Edward Gould 
Hasted to be capt,, by purchase^ 
vice Edward Gorton, who retires ; 
Ens, Arthur Cecil Manners to be 
lieut,, by purchase, vice Hast^ed; 
Jamas Bicuard Knox Tredeimiclci 
gent,, to be ens.j bj purchase, vice 
Manners. 

61st Foot^ — Ens, Francis John 
Wakeman Pigott Lon^ to be lieut.. 



186d,] 



PROMOTIONS AUB AFFOlKTBiSIiTS. 



455 



^ piircbase, vice Charles Jobn 
Grim t ha, who retires ; James Thoa* 
GiUbylo, gent., to be ene., by pur- 
nha^e, vice Long, 

73rd Foot — Ens. James Fergus- 
son to be lieut., by purchaste, vice 
Jamos Fraser, wno rGtims; Geo. 
Edward Earle, gent.* to be enB.,bj 
purehJise, vice Fergii^sou, 

77 th Foot— Lieut . T hos . Howard 
M'Dourh!! Murniy. from the Gold 
Coast Artillery Corps, to be lieut , 
vice William Miniir'ttT, pixjmot^^d 
to an nnattGu:ibad Company, with- 
out purchase . 

83rd Foot — Euh. Charles Lucius 
Smith to be lie at*, by purchase, 
vice Edwyn Tbora&s* who retires; 
Sir Keith George Juckaon, bart., 
to be ens-j by purchase, vice 
Smith. 

f>4th Foot — Lieut. Sydenham 
Malthus to be capt , without pur- 
bbaeevTiee Francis Hamiltoii Elliofci 
deceased ^30th March. 

96th Foot— Frederick William 
Lambert Cassidj> gent., to be ens*, 
by purchaBe^ vice Cairns, trans- 
ferred to the 43rd Foot. 

2nd West India Eegt. — Ensign 
Edmund Ashton Eo^s to be lieut., 
without purchase, vice Andrew 
Truelove Edge, deceased^ — 3rd 
May; EuB. Archibald Hamilton 
Dnthie to be lieut . by purchase, 
Tice Thomas Peach, who retires; 
John Barclay JackBou, gent^ to 
be ens., without purchase, vica 
Ross; Beaufort Heniy Vidal, 
gent., to be ens., by purchase, vice 
Buthie. 

DEPOT BATTAtlO^. 

Haj. the Hon. William Leopold 
Talbot, from half -pay, unattacned, 
to be maj., vice Dawson Cornelius 
Greene, who retires upon tem- 
porary half- pay ; Maj. John Swin- 
burne, from 18th Foot, to be m^j., 
vice Bocke, who exchanges. 

QOHMISSARIAI D£PARTM£N1'. 

Deputy Assi&t.-Com.-Gen, Jo- 
seph Marsh to be assist-com.- 
gen., vice Hector John Macau lay, 
placed upon retired jmy — 1st May ; 
Deputy Assist.- Com* -Gen. Geo* 
Home Telfer, from half- pay, to be 
deputy asBiBt.-com.-geis* vice 
Marsb— lat May* 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Surg. David Field Eennie, M.D., 
from 31 fit Foot* to be staflf sure'. ; 
Assiet-Surg* John Clark, M.lJ.» 
from 10th Foot, to Ije staff eurg » 
vice Duncan Eobert^on Rennic*, ap- 
pointed to the 31 st Foot. 

CHAPLAT?i'j* pEPAttTMENT, 

The Eev. William Anderson ^ 
Chaplain of the Fourth Class, haM 
been permitted to rtssign hh Com- 
mission? the Rev. Matthew B. 
Scott. M.A., Chap] am of the second 
class, to Iw chap, of the first class 
— 10th April ; the Eov. J* Browne 
Wilson to be clmp. of the fourth 
clasis, vice the Rev, William An- 
derson, resigried ^- 18th Sept, 

wm. 

DN ATTACHED. 

Capt. and Brev.-Col. Thomas E. 
Lacy, half*[jay unattached, Maj, 
and Superintendent of Studies, 
Royal Military College^ Sandhurst, 
to be maj., without purchase ; 
Ens. Peter Gill, on the Unattached 
Indian Establishment, to have the 
rank of Lieut, on the Lidian Es- 
tabhshmeni. 

BREVET* 

The Commieaion as BreTet-Mnj. 
of See. Capt* John Bonham, Royal 
(late Bengal) Artillery to be ante- 
dated to 2nd Oct., 18fiL 

Capt* Da^id Mac Farlan, Royal 
(lafce Bengal) Artillery, to be maj. 
in the Army— 9th Feb. 

Capt. Astell Tbomaa Welsh, 8th 
Foot, to be maj. in the Army. 

Paymaster William Dowler, 98th 
Foot, to have the hon. rank of 
Cajpt*— 26th March— 

Paymaster George Montgomerie 
Davidson, 22nd Foot> to bave the 
hon, rank of Capt, ^ let April* 

The undermentioned officers 
having completed five years' 
Qualiiying Service in the rank of 
Lieut.-CoL, under the provisions 
of the Royal Warrant of 14-th Oct., 
1858, to 'be ook.— Lieut. -Col. H, 
Meade Hamilton, 12th Foot— 12th 
April J Lieut. 'Col. the Hon, Frede- 
rick AuEustUB Thesiger 95th Foot 
<^3<)tb April. 

The following promotions to 
take place in Her Majesty's Indian 
Military Forces, conj^qnett on the 
deaths of Lieut*- Gen. James Perr^ 



456 



PROMOTIONS AHD APP0IKTME1TT9, 



[JUTTi 



Madnia Iiifantrji on the 17th 
March; Mftj.-Geti. David Forbes* 
fiombaj lufantry* oil the 2nd 
April; Lieat.-(xen. Duncan Oor* 
don Scotti Bengal Infantiyi on the 
5fch of April i Lieut. -Gen. Thomas 
Fiddes, Bengal lafantryj on the 
13th April ; and Lieut.-Gen. Wm. 
Henry Hewitt^ Bengal Infantry, 
on the 16th April. 

To be Lien tenant- Generals. 

Maj,-Gen* James Parson s^ CB., 
Bengal Infantry— 18th March ; 
Maj.-Cren. Gi^orge Warren, Bengal 
Inmn try — 6th A pril ; Ma j . - G en. 
Henry Fiaher Salter, C.B., Bengal 
Caralry — 14th April ; Ma j.- Gen. 
Thomai Mattbew Taylor, Bengal 
Cavalry — 17th April. 

To he Major- General a. 

Col. Sir Chai*. Shepi>erd Stuartp 
KC.B., Bombay Infantry— 18th 
March; CoL Thoa. Henry Shuld- 
ham, Bengal Infantry — 3rd April ; 
Col. John Butler, Bengal Infantry 
■ — 6th April ; Col, WiUmTD Barclay 
Goodfellow, Bombay EngiiiRera — 
14 April; Col. William Marcus 
Coghlan, Bombay Artillery^l7th 
AnriL 

The undermentioned Otficera of 
Her MaiegU's Indian Military 
Forces, wno have reth'ed upon full- 
pay to have a &tep of bon* rank aa 
follows :■ — Lieut. -Col. Grant Allan, 
Madiua Infantry, to be col ; Maj. 
Henry William Rawlins, Madras 
St^ Corns, to be lieut.-coL ; Maj. 
Bobert Cowpar, Bombay Staff 
Corps, to be lie ut, -col ; Captain 
Blacketfc Bevell, Madras Infantry, 
to he maj,; Capt. Henry Miehell, 
Bengal In fan try, to be Major; 
Deputy In a pee tor- Genera! of Hos- 
pitals Henry Gibbon Graham^ to 
nave the hon. rauk of Inajx^^tor* 
G^u. of Hospitals; Surg.-Muj. 
Henry Goodall, to have the hon. 
raiik of Deputy Inspector- Gen. of 
Hospitals. 

THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 
War Office, Pall Mall, May 19* . 

Artillery Begt. of Boyal Lanca- 
shire Militia — J. Clifton Brown, 
Major in the lat Hegt. of Lanca- 
shire Artillery Volunteers, to be 
firfitliout,, vice George Wood^ re- 



let Bcgt. of the Duke of Lancas' fl 
ter*s Own Militia— Her Mnjesty^ 
has l>een graciously pleased to 
accept the resignfttion of the Com- 
migsious held by Lieuts. John 
Wood Younghusband and Francia 
John Short J8. 

6th Regt. of Royal Lammabire 
Militia — Her Majesty has been 
graciously pleased to accept the 
resigaation of the Commission held 
by Assiat*-Surg. Frederick Foalkes. 

Hemoroudum — The Queen haa 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of Commission held 
by the lollowiug Officers :— fl 

4th or Royal South Mlddleaex ^ 
Regt. of Militia-^Lieut. Chae, Bod- 
ney Huxley. 

Memorandum — The Queen has 
been graciously pleased to a<x;ept 
the resignation of the Commiissions 
held by the following Officers : — 

5th or Royal El thorn e Ligbt 
Infantry Reet. of Middlesex Mi- 
litia — Capt» Wm. Thoa, Llewellyu 
Lloyd i Lieut. Charles Rundall. 

1st Devon Yeomanry Cavalry— ^ 
Lieut. William Basnes to be capt., fl 
vice Walcot, resigned. S 

Shropshire Begt, of Militia — 
Capt. bir George Samuel Brooko 
Pechelli Bart., to be sec. maj. 

Lcicefltershire Regt. of Militia — 
William Beauelerk Powell, geut.t fl 
to be lieuL ^ 

2nd Regt. of Surrey Militia^ 
William Richard Barnes, Esq., late 
Kaj. Turkish Contingent, to be 
lieut., vice Molineux, promoted j 
Frederick Pontifex, Eaq , to be ^ 
lieut., vice Elyard, promoted. ■ 

King*s Own Light Infantry ™ 
Regt. of Militia— William Hall 
Graham, gent, to be lieut, vitre 
Robertson, resigned. H 

Queen's Own Licht Infantry fl 
Begt. of Tower Hamftita Militia — 
Sir James Lawrence, Cotter, Bart * 
to be capt. ^| 

Wak Ofi'ice, Pall Mall, May 2^. 
Boyal Eaat Kent Regiment of 
Mounted Rifles Yeomanry Cavalry 
— The Right Hon, Kackville 
George, Baron Conyers (late Royal 
Horse Guards Blue), to be lieut.^ 
vice Lofturf Pern her ton, pro* 
moted. 



186.1.] 



P&OMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



467 



Memoranda — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commissions 
held by the following officers : — 

2nd West York Militiar—Lieut.- 
Col. Joshua Samuel Crompton, 
with leaye to retain his rank and 
wear the uniform of the corps in 
consideration of his long service. 

6th West York Militia—Oapt. 
William Alcock; Lieut. William 
Deans West. 

[The following appointment is 
substituted in the (tazette of the 
15th inst.] 

Ist or Western Begt. of Norfolk 
Militia — Lieut. George Longueville 
Bedingfeld to be capt., vice Stir- 
ling, deceased. 

5th Begt. of Boyal Lancashire 
Militia — Her Majesty has been 
graciously pleased to accept the 
resignation of the Commission held 
by Capt. Edward Petre. 

Memoranda — Boyal London 
Militia — Her Majesty's Commis- 
sioners of Lieutenancy have been 
pleased to accept the resignation 
of the Commmission held by Capt. 
Augustus Henry Garland in the 
above Begt. 

THE VOLUNTEEB GAZETTE. 
Wae Office, Pall Mall, May 19. 

The Hon. Artillery Company of 
London — Lieut. George Bitherdon 
to be capt.; Serg. John Hornby 
to be ens. ; Serg. Charles Edward 
Webb to be ens. 

1st Lancaster Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Thomas Taylor, gent., to 
be ens. 

2nd Manchester or 28th Lanca- 
shire Bifle Volunteer Corps — 
Francis Beaufort Wyndham Quin, 
gent., to be lieut. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty's 
acceptance of the resignation of 
the Commissions held by Sec. 
Lieut. Thomas Dawson, m the 
21st Lancashire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps (inserted in the Oaaette 
of 8th of May inst.), has been can- 
celled. 

26th Middlesex Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Ens. John Leggat Irish 
to be lieut., vice Jones, promoted. 

48th Middlesex Bifle Volunteer 



Corps — Daniel Henry Ashford to 
be heut. 

26th Cheshire Bifle Volunteers 
— Francis Hampson, gent., to be 
super.-lieut. 

Prince Albert's Own Leicester- 
shire Begt. of Volunteer Cavalry— 
Charles Thomas Freer, Esq., to be 
maj., vice Haynes, resigned ; Geo. 
Henry Nevill, Esq., to be capt., 
vice Freer, promoted; Edward 
William Craddock Middleton, 
gent^ to be cor., vice Douglass, 
promoted. 

Memorandum — Prince Albert's 
Own Leicestershire Begt. of Vo- 
lunteer Cavalry— The Queen has 
been pleased to accept of the re- 
signation of the Commission held 
by Major Haymes in the above 
-Regt, 

Memorandum — 6th Company of 
Leicestershire Bifle Volunteers — 
The Queen has been pleased to 
accept of the resignation of the 
Commission held by Lieutenant 
Eddowes in the above Corps. 

12th Gloucestershire Bifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps — John Irving, gent., 
to be lieut., vice Onslow, pro- 
moted. 

1st Lanarkshire Artillery Vo- 
lunteer Corps — ^Thomas Bowan, 
gent., to be first lieut., vice David 
Storer, resigned ; John Matheson, 
gent., to be sec. lieut., vice Thomas 
Tavlor Hay, resigned. 

2nd Lanarkshire Engineer Vo- 
lunteer Corps — James Morris 
Gale, gent., to be first lieut., vice 
Thomas Currie Gregory, resigned. 

1st Lanarkshire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Ens. John Harvey to bo 
lieut., vice Bobert Beadman, re- 
signed ; Henry Stewart, gent., to 
be ens., vice John Harvey, pro- 
moted. 

3rd Lanarkshire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — James Struthers, gent., to 
be lieut., vice John Granger, re- 
signed; Ens. Daniel Fleming to 
be lieut., vice Henry Herbert Carr, 
resigned; Geoi^ Lindsay, gent.« 
to be lieut., vice James Landels 
Selkurk, resigned; Alexander 
Easton, gent., to be ens., vice 
Ernest Clausen, resigned; James 
Sloane McCanl, ^nt., to be ens., 
vice Daniel Fleming, promot^<^. 



45S 




%OS^ AND IPPOINTMESTS. 



tJu!.Y, 



4th Liitiarkflbire Eifle YoUintoer 
CorpB — John Ten ii ant. Esq,, to be 
han,-c<>l, ? Lieat. Willium Simpson 
to be capt., vice George Anderson, 
promotxHl* Ens. Jtirtuys DalgiGl 
John»t'<>ii to be bent., vice WiUiain 
Simpson J promoted, 

2&tb Lanarkshire Rifle YoluBteer 
Corps -^ Ens, SamBon George 
Goodall Cope stake to be Heut*, vice 
Thomae Burclay, promoted; troo, 
Mcintosh Neilson» gt*nt,, to be ena, 
viee Wilbam McWhirter WilBon, 
resigned. 

Memorandum — Her Mtyestj has 
been graciously pleaaed to Eiecept 
the resignation oj the following 
gentlemen of their Commissions : 

lit Lanark all ire Artillery Vo- 
liinteer Corps — Sec. LieuL Thos* 
Osborne. 

25th Lanarkshire RiSe Volnn* 
teer Corps — Capt. J* Mclntyre j 
Ens, Jamofi Clark Butitc^n, 

1st Here fordi^h ire Ritie Volun- 
teer Corps — James Thomas Owen 
Fowler to be super. -licut», on con- 
dition of his a<;ting as Quarter- 
master, to the lat Aflratnistrati^e 
Battalion of Herefordshire Bifle 
Volunteers. 

2nd Tower Haialeta Rifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps— Charles Morris, 
gent-i to be ens. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleaaed to accept 
the resignation of the Commiaaion 
held by Ens. J, Simpson. 

Memorandum— l&t Administra- 
tive Battalion of Aberdeen shir© 
Rifle Volunteers — ^Adjt* Charles 
Gilbome to aerve with the rank of 
eapti from the 7th of Jan., 1863, 

Memorandum — lat Lincolnshire 
Rifle Volunteers — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignatioii of the oommiseion 
held by Hon. Aaaiat-Stirg. Wm. 
Pauli, 

Memorandum^Snd Ponibroko- 
ahire Rifle Volunteer Corps— Her 
MajesN^ has been graciously 
pleased to accept the resignations 
of the ComMigaiona held by Lieut. 
Allen Long and Ens. Jamea 
McLean. 

Memorandum — 3rd Porfarshir© 
Artillery Volunteer Corpa— Her 
Majesty hm been graciously 



plefiaed to acoef^t the resiguatioti 
of the Commission held bv Sec, 
Lieut. John Charles BeU m the 
above Corps, 

Mennirandum^llth ForfarBhire 
Rifle Vol uu teer Corps — Her Ma- 
jeaty has been graciously ple*ised 
to accept the resignati<jti of the 
Commissi an held by Lieut. David 
Oaruegie in the above Corpa* 

Wah Office, Pall Mall, May 22. 

1st Administrafcive Battalion of 
Fife Rifle Volunteers — Lieufc.-Col. 
Robert Anstrutber to be maj, 

8th Fife Artillery Volunteer 
Corps — Sec, Lieut* Andrew Wilkie 
to be flrst heuL ; James Anderson, 
jun., gent., to be sec* lieut* 

11th Fife Artiller^^ Volunteer 
Corps — John Benjamin Lord^ 
gent., to be C3ipt. ; James Hepburn^ 
gent-t to be first Jieitt. : Alexander 
Darney, gent, to be sec. lient. ; 
The Rev. Matthew Bowie to be 
hon -chap. ; John Stoddart> M.D,, 
to be hon. atfsist^-surg. 

Memorandum — Hor Majesty has 
been gracioutsly plejised to accept 
tbe resignation of the Commission 
held hy Capt, Itobert Dalgleisb 
Pryde in the 1st Ftfeshire Artillery 
Volunteer Corps 

Ist Administrative Battalion of 
the Isle of Wight Rifle Volunteers 
— John Farmery Ollard, Esq^ 
M.R.C-S., to be assist, -surg, 

2nd Hampshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Ens. Henry Abraham to 
be bent., vice Coles, promoted 

5th Hampshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — 'The Rev, John George 
Francis Knapp to be bon, chap.i 
vice McGhie, reaig'ued. 

Ist Warwicksbiro Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Thomas Middlemore, 
gent., to be ens., vice Sargant^ re- 
signed; John Charles Edward 
Sfcroudr gent,, to be ens,, vice Led- 
sam, resigned ; Asaiat.-Surg, Geo, 
Yates to be surg,, vice Hill, re- 
isigned, 

Oxford University Rifle Volna- 
teer Corps — Horatio Charles 
Maurice, esq,, to be ens.^ vice 
Wickman, pix)motod. 

1st Administrative Brigatle of 
SuBse^jt Artillery Volmiteera^ 



1»6S.] 



PBOMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



4&9 



Thomas Hayter Johnston to be 
maj. 

Ist West Riding of Yorkshire 
ArtilleryVolunteer Corps— First 
Lieut. Walter Holdfortti to be 
capt. ; First Lieut. Frederick 
Horatio Barr to be capt.; Sec. 
Lieut. William Thomas Jackson to 
be first lieut. 

37th West Biding of Yorkshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Herbert 
Hodgetts Taylor, gent., to be ens., 
vice Potter, promoted. 

Memoranoa — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation or the Commissions 
held by the following Officers: — 

Ist West Biding of Yorkshire 
Artillery Volunteer Corps — Capt. 
Richard Dyneley Dyneley. 

2nd West Riding of Yorkshire 
Artillery Volunteer Corps — Capt. 
Charles Smythe Johnson. 

26th West Riding of Yorkshire 
Rifle Volunteer Uorps — Lieut. 
Henry Granyille Baker. 

26th West Riding of Yorkshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Capt. J. 
Thomas Coates. 

Memoranda —4th London Rifle 
Volunteer Corps — Her Majesty has 
been pleased to accept the resigna- 
tion of the Commission held by 
the following officers : — Lieut. 
John Brockhouse in the above 
Corps. 

East York Artillery Volunteers 
—4th Corps (Hull)— Capt. G^r^ 
Christopher Roberts and Captam 
Herbert Archibald Gibson Mends. 

East York Rifle Volunteers— 
1st Administrative Battalion — 6th 
Company (Beverley) — Ci^tain 
Harold fiarkworth. 

1st Corps (Hull) — Hon. Assist.- 
Surg. Thomas Stephenson Usher. 

Ist Forfiurshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Capt. John Jack, jun. 

1st Cambridgeshire Rifle Vo- 
limteer Corps — Capt. William 
Prest. 

8rd Cambridgeshire Rifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps — Surg. Henry 
James Haviland. 



THE ARMY GAZETTE. 
%* Where not otherwise specified,, 
the following Commissions bear 
the current date. 

U. S. Mag. No. 416, July, 186a 



Wa& Office, Pall Mall, May 29* 

2nd Regiment of Life Guards — 
Lieut, and Capt. Robert Thomas 
Lowndes Norton, from the Grena- 
dier Guards, to be capt., paying 
the difierence, vice Ed. Stratton 
Fitzhardinge Berkeley, who retires. 

6th Dragoons — H. Allen Gosset, 
late Lieutenant 22nd Foot, to be 
paymaster, vice Thomas Smales, 
cashiered by sentence of a General 
Court-Martial. 

9th Lancers — Cor. William H. 
Lawrence to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice John Qeo. Buchan Hepburn, 
who retii*es. 

Royal Artillery — Lieut. -Colonel 
Bladen West Black to be col., vice 
Charles John Cooke, retired upon 
full-pay, 6th Jan. ; Capt. Charles 
Alexander Purvis, to be lieut.-col., 
vice Black, 6th Jan. ; Second Capt. 
Henry William Lumsden to oe 
capt., vice Purvis, 6th Jan. ; Lieut. 
Benjamin Lumsden Gordon to be 
second capt., vice Lumsden, 6th 
Jan.; Lieut. Joseph George Mar- 
shall to be second capt., vice Brev.- 
Maj. Lancelot Francis C Thomas, 
removed to the Supernumerary 
List, 3rd March; Second Capt. 
Benjamin Lumsden Gordon to oe 
adyt., vice Lumsden, promoted, 6th 
Jan.; G^nt.-Cadet Francis Blake 
Knox to be lieut., vice Grordon, 
promoted, 1st April; Gent.-Cadet 
George Black to be lieut., vice 
Marshall, promoted, Ist April; 
Acting Vet.-Surg. Daniel Maclean 
to be vet.-surg., vice John Surtees 
Stockley, placed on half-pay, 8th 
Aug., 1862 

(^nadier Guards — Ensign and 
Lieut. Robert Charles de Grey 
Vyner to be lieut. and capt., by 
purchase, vice Norton, transferred 
to the 2nd Life Guards ; John Ar- 
thur Thomas Grarratt, gent., to be 
ens. and lieut.. by purchase, vice 
Vvner; Lieut, and Capt. AlfML 
Walter Thynne to be a^jt., vice 
Earle, promoted. 

6th Keffiment of Foot — Lieut. 
Dawson Kelly Evans to be capt; 
by purchase, vice Easton John 
dox, who retires ; Ens. Alfred Tee- 
van to be lieut., by purchase, vice 
Evans. 

7th Foot— Maj. Thomas Tryon 



460 



PHOMOTJONS Ai?0 APP01!«TMI 



[Jolt, 



to be lieut.-eol,^ by ptircbiiSQ, vice 
Brev.^Col. Eichard William Aid- 
worth, who retires ; Capt. Lord 
Eicliai"d Howe Brow tie t-o be maj», 
by purchaaer vice Tryon ; Lieut. 
]^ranci6 Burton Cole to bo Dupt,, 
by purchaeei vice Lord Ricbard 
Howe Browne; Liout. Conieliiia 
George O'Brien to be capt., by 
purcbase, vice Jaraea Kennedy 
McAdam, who retires ; Ens, Bd. 
Spencer Hall to be lient., by pur* 
chaso, vice Cole ; Ens. Henry Fer- 
dinand Oakes to be liont., vice 
O'Brien ; Pierce Crosbie, gent., to 
be ens., by purchatte, vice Oakee, 

8tb Foot— Cai>t. Fmser Newall, 
from the ICK^th Foot^ to be capt*, 
vice Brev.-Maj. Welsh, wbo ex- 
changes; Francja Moore, genL, to 
bo en 8*, by purchnt^ej ^Hce Charlea 
Tbomaa Fretknck Blair, who 
retires. 

loth Foot— Ens. Leonard Ball 
Anderson Poynter to be lieot*, by 
purchasei vice CharleH PreHely 
Pender, who retbree upon tempo- 
rary haif-pay ; Jaa. Bamsay Akers, 
feut., to be eua. by purcUase, vice 
'oynter, 

17th Foot— En^, Arthur Yeaey 
Hugeiit to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice Fmncis Wood* "who retires; 
Herbert Charles Marry at, gent., to 
be ens., by purchase, vire Nugent. 

24th Etot— Lieut. Charles Jae* 
Brombead to be adjt., %'ioe Lieut. 
John Cusack} promoted to an tm- 
attached oompiiny without pur- 
chase. 

36th Foot— Lieut- Charles Der© 
James to bo cupt., vice Joseph 
Osnnind Walter Scott j who retires ; 
Ens, Edward Staples Bond to be 
lieut., by purchase, vice James; 
Arthur Montagu Keave, gent., to 
be en&, by purchase, vice Bond. 

43r^l Foot— Capt. Heury Alex. 
Atchison, from half-pay unatbiched, 
to be capt., repaying the dirterenco, 
vice Oapt. and Brev,-Maj* Thomas 
Hugh Uockbnrn, promoted to an 
unattached majority, without pur- 
chase; Lieut. Arthur B. Close to 
be capt.t by purchase, vice Ate hi* 
son, who retires j Eus. St. Vincent 
Alexander Hammick to bo Ueut*, 
by pnK'huse, vice Closte; Roljert 



Barclay AUardico, gent., to be ens*, 
by purchaae, vioe'Hammick. 

48th Foot— Ens. Walter Benson 
Hattyn to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice George Nugent R. Goddard, 
wbo retires; Alexander William 
Fair, gent., to be ens., by purchase, 
vice Hat ton. 

60th Foot— Ens. Edward Bigby 
0*Rorke to Ije lieut., by purchase, 
vice Rifhard Albert MaBsey, who 
retires ; Gerald Henry Talbot, 
gent., to be entj., by purchase, vice 
O'Rorke. 

93rd Foot— Quartermaster Jolm 
Joiner to be Paymaster, vice Blake, 
transferred to the 4th Hnsafti^a, 

96tb Foot— Albert John Molyn- 
eux Treeby, geiit., to be en 2^., by 
purchase, vice Edward Shilson, 
who retires. 

109th Foot— Capt. and Brev.- 
Maj. AfcitcU Tliomas Welsh, fram 
the 8th Foot, to be capt*, vice 
Newall, who exchanges. 

OEPOT BATTALION. 

Capt. George Robert Stewart 
Black, 60th Foot, to be instructor 
of miJsketry, vice Capt. Thomas 
Biggs, 60th Foot, wbo has com- 
pleted the regular period of ser^nce 
m that appointment^^th May. 

UNATTACHED. 

Capt. and Brev.-Maj. Thomas 
Hugh Cockburn, from the 43rd 
Foot, to be Maj., without purchase, 

Lieut, Richard Bunn, from tbo 
37th Foot, to be c^pt,, without 
purcbaBe, 

MEDICAL OEPAIlTirENT. 

The second Christian name of 
Staff- Assist.- Snrg. Curtis is Llnd- 
&eyj and not Linaesep, aa stated in 
the Gttzem of the 7th April. 

BREVET. 

Cob Charles John Cooke, on the 
retired fuU-piy list of the Royal 
Artillery, to be nuu.-gen., the rank 
being hotiorary only— Gth Jan. 

Capt. Henry Alexander Atchi* 
son, 43rJ Foot, to be Maj.— 9th 

Nov., ime, 

Capt- and Brev.-Maj. Heury 

Alexander Atchiaon, 43rd Foot, to 
be Lieut^^CoU— 2{Hih June, 1854. 

Capt- John William Henry Cba- 
fyn Grove Morris, Royal liarine 
Artillery, to be maj* 

Paymaster Henry Barrett Erom- 



1H68.J 



PROMOTIONS AND APPJINTMENTS. 



461 



lej, 10th Foot, to have the honorary 
rank of capt — 22nd Feb. 

THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 
Wab Oppicb, Pall Mall, May 26. 

Broyal Bucks (King's Own) Regi- 
ment of Militia — ^Alfred de Roths- 
child, gent., to be lieut., vice Crewe, 
resigned. 

Leicestershire Regiment of Mili- 
tia — Jas. Palliser Gostobadie, Esq., 
late Capt. 70th Foot, to be capt., 
vice E. A. Paget, resigned. 

2nd Regiment (Light Infantry) 
of Weik xork Militia— Maj. Henry 
Van Straubenzee to be lieat.-col., 
vice Crompton, resigned. 

2nd or Edmonton Royal Rifle 
Regiment of Middlesex Militia — 
Herbert Ashton Blount to be lieut., 
vice Bridger, promoted. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held bvXiieut. James Scott Ogle in 
the West Kent Regiment of Yeo- 
manry Cavalry. 

West Kent Regiment of Yeo- 
manry Cavalry — Comet James 
Frederick Edmeades to be lieut., 
vice Ogle, resigned; Nevile Lub- 
bock, gent., to be cor., vice Ed- 
meades, promoted; Adam Rae 
Martin, gent., to be surg., vice 
Smith, resigned. 

Wab Oppicb, Pall Mall, May 29. 

Hertfordshire Militia — Capt. H. 
Grimston Hale to be ac^t., from 
the 21st Feb., 1863. 

Dorset Regiment of Militia — 
Arthur B. Leach, Esq., to be lieut., 
vice Bower, promoted. 

"West Essex Yeomanrv Cavalry 
—Lieut Thomas Duff CJater to be 
capt.; Cor. George Edward Prit- 
chett to be lieut., vice Cater, pro- 
moted; Joseph Frederick Jessopp, 
gent., to be cor., vice Pritchett, 
promoted. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been pleased to accept the resigna- 
tion of the commissions held by 
Capt. Robert Swann and Lieuts. 
William Gordon and Bertram 
Aynsley James Mitford in the 
Essex Rifles Regiment of Militia. 

2nd Regiment of Royal Surrey 



Militia — ^Thomas Beckworth, gent., 
to be lieut. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Capt. Nicholas Kendall in 
the Cornwall Rangers Militia. 

Cornwall Rangers Militia — Capt. 
James Rennell Itodd to be maj., 
vice Johns, resigned. 

[The following appointment is 
substituted for that which appeared 
in the Gazette of the 26th instant.] 

2nd or Edmonton Royal Rifle 
Regiment of Middlesex Militia — 
Herbert Aston Blount to be lieut., 
vice Bridger, promoted. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Capt. G. H. Rose Briscoe 
in the Royal Denbigh Militia; and 
Lieut. James Dunlop in the Edin- 
burgh County Militia. 

THE VOLUNTEER GAZETTE. 
War Oppice, Pall Mall, May 26. 

2nd Administrative Battalion of 
Northumberland Rifle Volunteers 
—Frederick Fox, late Lieut. 20th 
Foot, to be a<y . 

4th West Riding of Yorkshire 
Artillery Volunteer Corps — George 
Ferriers,gent.,tobe adj. from 11th 
March, 1863. 

6th Company of Leicestershire 
Rifle Volunteers — Isaac Blount 
Dobell, gent., to be lieut vice Ed- 
dowes, resigned. 

5th Administrative Battalion of 
West Riding of Yorkshire Rifle 
Volunteers — Thomas Pearson 
Crosland, Esq., to be maj. 

1st West Riding of Yorkshire 
Rifle Volunteers — Super. Lieut. 
John Forth Munby to be lieut. 

2nd Administrative Battalion of 
Aberdeenshire Rifle Volunteers — 
Sir William Coote Seton, Bart, to 
be lient.-coL 

5th Aberdeenshire Artillery Vo- 
lunteer Corps — Sea Lieut. John 
Mollis to be first lieut. vice Wallis, 
resifl;ned. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignations of the Commis- 
sions held by Capt. Sir William 
Coote Seton, Bart, in the 2nd 
H H 2 



462 



PROMOTIONS AKU APPOlNTimffS, 



[Jolt, 



Aberdeenshire Rifle Yolaiiieer 
Corps, and by Firi^t Lieut. Geoi^ge 
Wallace in the 5th Aerdeenahire 
ArtUlevy Volunteer Corps. 

Isfc Administrative BattiiUon of 
Hertfordshire Bifle Yo Inn beers — 
The Hon. Hugh Henry Hare to be 
capt 

3rd London Rifle Volunteer 
Corpa^Williftm Webb Venn the 
younger to be ens, 

4th London Rifle Volonteer 
Corps — G-eorge Packer tn be ens. 

West Middlesex Eifle Volunteer 
CorpB — Ens. Cymae Daniell to be 
lient. vice Price, removed. 

Loudon Iriah Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Lieut. Jamaa William 
Dusack to be capt, 

Memorojidum — The Queen has 
been graciously pleaded to accept 
the reeignation of the Commission 
held by Agsist.-Snrg. William Bid- 
dell Brunton in the 1 at Surrey (or 
South London) Rifle Volunteer 
Battalion. 

2nd Surrey Artillery Volunteer 
Corps — William North Bees, gent* 
to be sec. lieut. ; John Veaiiey 
Franklin, gent, to be Be<'. lient. 

Ist Surrey {or South London) 
Eifle Volunteer Battalion — C harks 
Browne, gent, to be asBiBt.-sTirg* 
vice Brunton, resigned. 

1st Company of Ayrshire Artil- 
lery Volunteers — John Smart 
Crawford to be super. -lieut This 
api>ointment is sanctioned on con* 
ditioii Mr. Crawford acting as 
qnartermaster to the 1st Adminis- 
trative Brigade of Ayrshire Artil- 
lery VoUmteerB. 

Memonmdnm — Her Majesty 
has been graciously pieased to 
accept the resignation of the Com- 
mission held by Capt. Tyndal 
Bright in the 1st Lancashire Rifle 
Volunteer Coipe. 



Wae Ofpiob, Pall Majx, May 29. 

1st Flintshire En mneer Volun- 
teer Corps — Thomas Leacrolt Cot- 
tingham, gent, to be Heut, ■ Dash- 
wood Parry, gent, to be sec. lieut* 

4th Cinque Ports Artillei-y Vo- 
lunteer Conia — The Eev. Barring* 
ton Staflbrd Wright, M,A. to be 
hon. chap. 

12th Cheshire Bifle Vohmteer 



Corps — George Oswald Lnckuian, 
gent, to be ens. vice Griflin, re- 
signed. 

25th Cheshire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — William Arthur HRrrison, 
gent, to be ens. vice Led ward, pro- 
moted. 

26th Cheshire Eifle Volunteer 
Corps — Gteorge William Mould, 
gent, to be hon. assist.-snrg. 

ist Lancashire Artillery Volon- 
teer Corps— Henry Hulme gent, 
to be hon, aamst.-surg. 

4th Lancashire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps^Pirst Lieut^- Jamea 
Poole to be capt. » Walter Dnck- 
worth, gent, to be sec. lieut. 

19th Lancashire Artillery Vo- 
luDteer Corps — Maj. John Isaae 
Mawson to be lieut.'Col. ; Henry 
Hotilds worth Grierson, Esq. to be 
capt. 1 Sec. Lieut. James Mawson 
to be first lieut. ; ThomaB Brown, 
gent, to he sec. lieut. 

67th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Lieut. John N'ightingale 
Key Grover to be capt,; Ens. 
Peter Easbotham the younger to 
be lieut. ; William Lines Beech ley 
gent, to be ens. 

14th Kent Artillery Volunteer 
Corps — Hon. Assist,- Surg. Harry 
Browne to be surg, vice Hardin g> 
deceased ; George Daniel Hard- 
ing, gent, to be bon. assist. -surg. 
vice Browne, promoted. 

12th Kent Eifle Volunteers- 
William Craycnjft Fooks, Esq. to 
be capt. vice Fleet, resigned. 

Memorandum^ Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleaded to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by Lieut. Charles Edward 
Rashleigh in the 12th Kent Bifle 
Volunteer Corps. 

East York Artillery Volunteers 
4th Cor pa (Hull J— First Lieut. 
Charles James Todd to be capt \ 
First Lieut. Charles Heaven to be 
capt" ; First Lieut. Richard George 
Smith to he capt.; See, Lieut. 
Thomas Richardson Humphrey to 
be first lieut. 

Memorandum— Her Majesty has 
been gracioufi] j pleased to acoept 
the resignation of the Oommission 
held by Oor. Francis Dav in the 
1 Ht Huntingdonshire Light Horse 
Volunteer Corps. 



1883.1 



PROMOTIONS AND APP0INT1IIBNT8. 



463 



Ist Huntingdonshire Light 
Horse Volunteer Corps — Charles 
Isham Strong to be cor. 

Victoria Bifle Volunteer Corps 
—The Rev. William Bentinck 
Hawkins to be hon. chap, vice 
Bolton, deceased. 

d6th Middlesex Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — ^Alfred Constantino Cross 
to DC ens.; Frederic Waterloo 
Jennings to be ens. 

Memoranda — The Queen has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by the following officers, 
viz. : — 

St. George's Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — ^Honorary Chap, the Bev. 
William Bentinck Hawkins. 

14th Middlesex Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Lieut. Benjamin Greene- 
Lake. 

London Irish Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Ens. Maurice Cavanagh. 

39th Middlesex Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Lieut. James Frederick 
Coroen. 

42nd Middlesex Bifle Volunteer 
Corps— Ens. Bupert Flindt. 

7th Administrative Battalion of 
Middlesex Bifle Volunteers — Capt. 
and Adj. Charles Foveaux Kirby. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by Capt. Penry Lloyd in the 
1st Brecknockshire Bifle Volun- 
teer Corps. 

THE ABMY GAZETTE. 
Wa& Office, Pall Mall» June 2. 
%♦ Where not otherwise specified, 

the following Comwissions bear 

the current date. 

6ABSIS0N. 

The Bev. Joseph Yates Dod, 
MJL, to be chap, to the Tower of 
London, vice the Bev. Henry 
Melvill, who resigns — Ist April. 

COmOSSABIAT DEPABTHENT. 

As6i8t.-Com.-G^n. Alfred Sal- 
wey to be dep.-com.-gen. vice Ed- 
WMxls, placed upon Betired Pay — 
let June. 

As6i8t.-Com.-G^n. Thomas For- 
fsyih. Moore, from half-pay, to be 
a0si8t.-Com.-G€ai. vice Salwey, 1st 
June. 

Act Dept. - Assist. - Com.-Gen. 



John Igglesden Troupe, from Ens. 
5th Foot, to be dept.-assist.-com.- 
gen. 1st April. 

chaplain's DEPABTIIBNT. 

The Bev. T. H. Cole, M.A. to be 
chap, to the Fourth Class, 8th 
November, 1862. 



ADMIKALTY, Maj 28. 

Corps of Boyal Marines — Lieut.- 
Col. George firydges Bodney to 
be assist.-acy.-gon. of the Corps, 
vice Col. Travers, resigned. 

May^-- 

Corps of Boyal Marines — 1 
Gren. John Alexander Philips to I 
lieut.-gen. vice Wearing, deceased ; 
CoL-Com. Thomas Houoway, C.B. 
to be mi^.-gen. vice Philips ; Col. 
and Sec. Com. John Hawkins Gbis- 
coiene, C.B. to be col.-com. vice 
HoUoway; Lieut. -Col. Joseph 
Oates Travers, C.B. to be col. and 
sec. com. vice Gkisooigne; Capt. 
Charles William Adair to be lieut.- 
col. vice Travers; First Lieut. 
Fitzmaurice Creighton to be capt. 
vice Adair; Sec. Lieut. Nassau 
William Lrwin Hampden Stephens 
to be first lieut. vice Creighton. 

India Office, June 5. 
Her Majesty has been pleased 
to approve of the undermentioned 
promotions and alterations of rank 
amongst the Officers of Her Ma- 
jesty's Indian Military Forces. 

BENGAL ABMY. 
Medical Officers — Assist.- Surg. 
Frederick ireeman Allen to be 
surg. vice Crozier, deceased. 

MADBAS ABMY. 

Chneral List of Ga/oalry Officers — 
Cor. Thomas Deane to be lieut.— 
4th March. 

Anrnf Bcmk — The undermen- 
tioned officers having completed 
fifteen years' service, to be capt. 
by brevet: — Lieut. William Mel- 
lish Parratt--26th February. 

MecUcal Officers — Assist.- Surg. 
William Judson Von Someren to 
be surg. vice Linton, retired, Ist 
March. 

Alterations ofBanh—'&xiTg, Wil- 
liam Aitken to take rank from 25th 
February, vice Pattison, deceased. 



FROMOTIOIfa AKD APPOTHTMlKTSi 



[Jt'LY, 



BOMBAY ARMY, 

Gmieral List of InfuHlrij OffUet^ 
' — Ens, Edward Robert Heay to be 
lieiH. vice Pttcke, 30th Ktttivo In- 
fontrTt removed from the Army — - 
13th FebrnaTj. 

Medical Officers — Snrg. William 
Thorn to be ei!rg.*mttj* oth April. 

THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 
War Office, Pall Mai^l, June 2. 

King's Own Light Iiifimtry Bo- 
giment of Militia— Hen ly Turner, 
gent, to be lieut. vice Wilkinson, 
promoted. 

Boyal North Glonoestershire 
Begimenb of Militia — Gerald 
Henry Baird Young, gent, to be 
lieut. (super.) 

Memorandum — Forfar and Kin- 
cardine Militift — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by Capt. Alexander Moncrieff 
in the eibove Regiment. 

Wab Office, Pall Mall, June B. 

West Essex YeomantT^ Cavalry 
^ — Cor. Frederick Edenborough to 
l>e lieut. i Sir Charles Henry Les- 
lie, Bart* to be cor* vice Eden- 
borough, promoted. 

Argyll and Bute Artillery Mili- 
tia — John Pirie, M.D. to be 6urg. 
vice Campbell, deceased. 

Ist (Rifle) Regiment of West 
York Militia — Lieut. Henry Cox 
Wilkin to be capt. vice Hercy, re- 
signed. 

2nd Regiment (Liffht Infti-utry) 
of West York Mihtia— Richard 
Sterne Carroll, Esq. to be maj. vice 
Btranbenzee, promot-ed. 

[The following Appointment is 
substituted for that which ap- 
peared in the Gazette of the 1st 
nltimoj 

Ist West Rejgiment of Yorkshire 
Teomanry Cavalry — Lawrence 
Kieman, gent, to be asBist^-Burg. 
vice Cooke, rcsignerl. 

[The following Appointment is 
substituted for that which ap- 
peared in the GtisetU of the 29th 
nltimo]. 

Dorset Regiment of Militia — 
Arthur B. Leech* Esq. to be lient. 
vice Bower, promoted. 



THE VOLUNTEER GAZETTE. 
Wab OvfiCMi Pall Mall, June 2. 

2ud London Riilo Volunteer 
Gorps^Lieut. Frederick Wilham 
Jones, of Her Majesty*© Indian 
Army, to be adj. from the 24th 
March, 1863. 

Memoi^ndum— 6th Tower Ham- 
lets Rifle Volunteer Corps— Her 
Majesty has been graciously pleased 
to accept the resignation of the 
CommisBion held by Capt, Valem- 
tine Hicks Labrow. 

2nd London Rifle Volunteer 
Brigade— Cholmeley Anstin Leigb^ 
llsq. to be capt. 

East York Rifle Volunteers — 
l«t Corps (Hall)— Henry Gibson, 
Esq. to be snrg. 

1st Korfolk Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Nathaniel Henry Caley to 
be ena. 

19th Lancashire Artillery Vo- 
lunteer Corps — ^Charles Sacie, Esq. 
to be capt. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleiiscd to accept 
the resignation of the Commis- 
Bions held by the following Offi- 
cers? Tiz. : Capt* Joseph Corbett 
Lowe and First Lieut. Hugh Mey- 
ler Bright in the 4th Lancashire 
Artillery Volunteer Corpti; and 
Lieut. Richard Long Cooke, in tbo 
let Manchester or 6th Lancashire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps. 

3rd Renfrewshire Rifle Volun' 
fcecr Corps — Ens, Robert Graham 
to be lietit. vice Mackcan, re- 
signed ; John FuUerton to be eni, 
Tice Graham, promoted. 

4tb Durham Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Lieut. William Galley 
Stobart to be capt. j Eni, James 
Thompson to be lieut. j Henry 
Forster to be ens. 

4th Derbyshire Bifle Volunt-eer 
Corps^ — Francis Nicholas Smith, 
Esq. to be capt., vice Curzon, re* 
signed ; Ens. JameH Shewin 
C&rke to l>e lieut. vice Boden, re- 
signed ; Robert Harvey, gent* to 
be ens. vice Clarke^romoted. 

Memorandnm — Her M*\jcsty bos 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignations of Captain Na- 
thaniel Charles Curzon and Lieut. 
Walter Boden in the 4th Derby- 
shire Rifle Volunteer Corp«f* 



1863.] 



PROMOTIONS AKD APPOINTMENTS. 



465 



Ist Sussex Artillery Volunteer 
Corps— First Lieut. Samuel Han- 
nington to be capt. ; Sec. Lieut. 
Phuip Hannington to be first 
lieut. ; Sec. Lieut. Edward Martin 
to be first lieut.; Sec. Lieut. 
George Grantham to be first lieut. ; 
Thomas Dunnill to be first lieut.; 
Henry Catt to be super, first 
lieut.; Jack Thomas Whalford to 
be sea lieut. 

Memorandum — The Queen has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by Ens. John Green in the 
Ist Surrey or (South London) 
Brifle Volunteer Battalion. 

Memorandum — The Queen has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by Lieut. Robert Payne in the 
4th Surrey Bifle Volunteer Corps. 

4th Surrey Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — ^WilliMU Cuthbert Quilter, 
gent, to be ens. 

2nd Surrey Artillery Volunteer 
Corps — Edwin Payne, &;ent. to be 
surg. ; William Pon^y Johns 
Llewellyn, gent, to be hon. assist.- 
surg. 

Memorandum — 6th Ar^llshire 
Bifle Volunteers— Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by Capt. Bichard Boper 
Kelly in this Corps. 

Wak QpriCB, Pall Mall, June 5. 

2nd Durham Artillery Volunteer 
Corps — James Crawford, gent., to 
be adit., from the 18th March. 

13tn Worcestershire Bifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Ens. Henry Stafford 
Gustard to be lieut. 

1st Warwickshire Bifle Volun- 
teer Corps — John St. Swithun 
Wilders, gent, to be assist.-surg., 
vice Yates, promoted. 

6th Berwickshire Bifle Volun- 
teer Corps — ^Alexander Mitchell to 
be capt. ; James Small to be lieut. ; 
and Charles Wilson, junr., to be 
Ens. 

6th Durham Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — The Bev. Thomas Henry 
Chester to be hon. chap. 

1st Cambridgeshire Rifle Volun- 
teers — Lieut, ^bert Decimus Clay- 
don to be capt., vice Prest, re- 



signed; Ens. John Fuller to be 
lieut, vice Claydon, promoted; 
Joseph Grarratt to be Ens., vice 
Beales, resigned; Edward Harry 
Adcock to be ens, vice Fuller, 
promoted. 

Memorandum — Her Mijesty has 
been pleased to aooept the resigna- 
tion of the commission held by 
Lieut. William Henry Haslehurst 
in the 2nd Essex Bifle Volunteer 
Corps, also of the commission held 
by Surg. Philip Humbly Banks in 
the 5th Essex Bifle Volunteer 
Corps. 

4ui Lancashire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps — First Lieut. Henry 
Duckworth to be capt. ; James G. 
Bobinson, gent., to be first lieut. 

Memorandum — Her Mt^esty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation oi the commissions 
held by the following officers, viz : 

Capt. Charles Birley and Hon. 
Chap, the Bev. William Law Hus- 
sey, in the 10th Lancashire Artil- 
lery Volunteer Corps. 

Ens. Percy Wollaston, in the 
42nd Lancashire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps; and, 

Capt. Peter Hopwood Moore, in 
the 48th Lancashire Bifle Volun- 
teer Corps. 

23rd Norfolk Bifle Volunteer 
Corps— Lieut. Thomas Lancelot 
Beed to be capt; Ens. William 
Thorpe Brackenbury to be lieut. ; 
the Bev. Edward Charles King to 
be hon. chap. 

4th West Biding of Yorkshire 
Artillery Volunteer Corps — Henry 
Bomhead, Esq., to be capt ; Fredk. 
Chalmer, gent., to be sec. lieut. 

Memorandum — 13th Somerset- 
shire Bifle Volunteer Corps — The 
Lord Lieutenant has, with the ap- 
proval of the Queen, appointed 
that Capt. James Whalley Dawe 
Thomas Wickham shall bear the 
designation of capt.-commandt. in 
this corps from the 1st of June. 

Memorandum — 26th Somerset- 
shire Bifle Volunteer Corps — ^The 
Lord Lieutenant has, with the 
approval of the Queen, appointed 
that Capt. Henr^ Bridges shall 
bear the desifpiation of capt-com- 
mandt. in this coi*ps from the 2nd 
June. 



MS 



PROMOTIONS AND APFOLNTIISNTS. 



[JULT, 



Memorandu m-— 17 th Aberdeen* 
eKirc Rifle Yoluuteor Corps — Her 
M^esty haa been graciouely plea< 
eed to accept tbe reHignaUon of the 
commission held bj Ens. Jamos 
Milne in the abuv*e corps. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been gracionelj pleased to accept 
the ref^iguaticm of the commisfiion 
held by Ens. Wentworth Clay in 
the 11th Herefordshire Rifle Volun- 
teer!. 



THE ARMY GAZETTE. 
*4* Where not otb«rwiae specified, 

the following commi^Bions bear 

the current dtue. 
Wah OrFif e, Fai.l Maja Jin»fE 12. 

Boynl Hegiment of Artillery^ 
itieut.-Gen. Alexunder MaclBchlan 
to he col. -com man dt., vice Lieut.- 
Gen. Eichttrd Jones, deceased—* 
19tb May, 

2nd Regiment of Life Gimrde — 
Lieut» George Augustas Ouncon to 
be capt., by purchtvse, vice Hatoil- 
ton Sandford Pakenham, who 
retires; Llent. Augustus Fredk. 
Arthur Lord Sandys, from ^6th 
Foot, to be licnt., paying the 
difference, viceCurzon; Cecil AUti. 
Hughee, gent., to be tor. and sub- 
lie nt., by purchaHC^ vice Frederick 
French Townshcnd, promoted ; 
Alexander Cockbum, gent., to be 
cor. and lieut., by purchase^ vice 
Sir Samuel Herculci? Hayes, Bart., 
promoted ; Clare nct^ Peter Tre- 
velyan Kendall, geyt., to be cor. 
and sub-lieutj by purchase, vice 
KasBau Clark, promoted. 

Royal Horse Guards— George 
Charles, Marquis of Blandfordj to 
be cor., by purchase, vice Arthur 
Hamilton "Scrope, who has retired, 
1 at D ragoon Guard e — Capt^ti n 
Henry Alexander to be maj , by 
purebaae, vice Thomas ^isljet, who 
retires; Lieut. Leonard Wilson 
Atkinson, to be capt.» by purchase, 
Alexander; Comet Edward 
Hoare Beeves to be lieut , by pur- 
chase, vice Atkinfion. 

10th Hussars— Cornet Combrc 
Bmbimon Ponpotiby to be lient,, 
by purchase, vice William Morgan 
Maunder, wlio retires , Cor* John 
Charles i^^lephen Fremantle t^ be 
iieuu by pnrchase, ticc Wilfred 



Brougham, who retires; Edward 
Spencer Wat bod, gent., to be eor.^ 
vice Pan son by; the Hon. Henry 
George Louis Crichton to be cor., 
by purchase, vice Frcmantle. 

Royal Regiment of Artillery^ — 
Capt. Andrew Aytoun to be lieut- 
col., vice Henry Lee Gibbard, de- 
ceased — 18th May ; Sec. Capt. and 
Brev. Maj. WiUiMn Howley Good- 
enough to be capt , viee Richard 
Paget Campbell Jones, cashiered 
by sen ten DC of a General Court 
Martial— 22nd Feb.; Sec. Capt. 
luid Brev, Maj. Richard Pitt man 
to be capt., vice Aytoun^ 18th 
May J Lieut, John Robert Dyoe to 
be sec. capt., vrc«) Bi*ev. Maj. Good* 
enongh^ — lt«t April; Lieut. James 
Cecil Grove Pnoe to be sec. capt,, 
vice Frederick Ely Smalfiagc, de- 
ceased — 3rd April; Lieut. Arthiir 
Carey to be sec capt,, vice Brey, 
M^. Pittman— 18th May. 

The promotions of the under- 
mentioned oiicerii to be antedated 
as follows : — Captain Herbert Mark 
Garrett Purvis to P2th Feb.; See- 
Cap t. Turner Van Straubenzee to 
12th Feb.; Sec. Capt. Henry Web- 
ster Shakerley to 22nd Feh. 

Military Train— Lieut, Edmund 
Weston, from half- pay, late Os- 
manli Horse Art lU cry, to he lieut.» 
vic!0 Tsmic Cummin, who retires 
upon temporary half- pay ; Ens. 
Tlionva^ Gcnud Lockyer to bo 
lieut, by pun,; base, vice Weston, 
who retires; Fninklin Ludovic 
Berth on, gent., to be ens., by pur- 
clmse* vice Lockyor; Lieut, James 
Milne to be adjt., vice Lieut, Cimi- 
min. 

Coldstream Guards^Ens. and 
Lieut. Henry Rivbert Brand to be 
lieut. aud capt^, without purchase^ 
vice William Wynne, deceased — 
23rd May ; the Hon. John Robert 
William Vescy, to be ens. and 
lieut., by purchase, vice Brand^ 
12th June. 

Scots Fusilier Guards — Emtign 
and Lieut, the Hon, Henry Thomas 
Fraser to be lieut. and capt., by 
purciiase, vice Bicbard Augustus 
Cooper, who retires ; Lord Chaj^les 
John Innes-Kcr to be ens, and 
Jicut., by purchaBt*. vice the Hon* 
Henr3T Thomas Fraser. 



1888.] 



PROMOnOKS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



487 



let Begixnent of FocHr— The pro- 
.motion of Gapi. Jolin James Hey- 
wood to be antedated to the 29th 
July, 1862, such antedate not to 
carry back pay. 

2nd Foot — ^Lient. Heber Reeve 
Tucker to be capt., by purchase, 
vice William Charles Coghlan, who 
retires; Ens. Reginald Thoresby 
Gwyn to be lieut-, by purchase, 
vice Tucker ; John CampTOll, gent., 
to be ensn vice Gwyn ; ]N eill Roger, 
gent, to be ens., by purchase, in 
succession to Lieut. A. Baird, ap- 
pointed pay master; Ens. George 
Herbert Woodard to be adjt., vice 
Lieut, and Ai^t. Alexander Baird, 
appointed paymaster. 

20th Foot— Lieut.-Col. Henry 
Ralph Browne, from half-pay, late 
particular service, to be bent.-col., 
vice Lieut.-Col. and Brev.-Col. W. 
PoUexfen Radcliffe, who retires 
upon temporary half-pay. 

21st Foot— Maj. Frederick Coc- 
kayne Elton, from a depot bat- 
talion, to be mi^., vice Ma^. and 
Brev.-Lieut-Ool. George Neeld 
Boldero, who exchanges. 

23rd Foot— Ens. Gfeo^ Pepper 
Lowry, from ihe 100th Foot, to be 
ens., vice WiUiam Phineas Bury, 
who retires. 

24th Foot— Lieut. Charles Fredk. 
Llo}rd to be capt., by purchase, vice 
David Gibson, who retires; Ens. 
Albert Frank Adams to be lieut^ 
by purchase, vice Lloyd. 

27th Foot— Lieut. Wm. Stuck- 
house Church Pinwill to be capt., 
by purchase, vice Henry Mitford, 
who retires; Ens. Rol>ert Bruce 
Robertson Glasgow to be lieut., by 
purchase, vice Pinwill; Henry 
Burch Pye Phillips, gent., to bie 
ens., by purchase, vice Glasgow; 
Lieut. Robert Bruce Robertson 
Glasgow to be adjt., vice Lieut. 
Walter H. Twemlow, promoted. 

45th Foot— Lieut. Adam Perry 
to be capt , by purchase, vice Ar- 
thur William AJiox Gore, who 
retire^; Ens. Augustine Hugh 
LefroT to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice Perry ; Nevill H|Beeve, gent^ 
to be ens., by purchase, vice Lefroy. 

49th Foot— Ens. Philip Julius 
Honeywood A. Bame to he lieut., 
by purchase, vice Ernest Christian 



Wilford, seconded on appointment 
as lieut. intructor of musketry on 
the establishment of the schools of 
musketry. 

52nd Foot — Henry Coker Adams, 
gciit., to be ens., by purchase, vice 
Edward Stewart Ker, who retires. 

56th Foot — The promotion of 
Serjt.-Maj. Joseph Whittaker to 
be quartermaster, to bear date the 
30th Jan, 1863, and not 10th Oct., 
1862, as previously stated. 

58th Foot— Capt. Henry Carver 
Treacher, from the 90th Foot, to 
be capt., vice Perryn, who ex- 
changes; Lieut. Henry John W^- 
yard to be capt., by purchase, vice 
Capt. and Brev.-Maj. Wm. Temple 
Parratt, who retires ; Ens. Joseph 
Barrington Deacon to be lieut., oy 
purchase, vice Wynyard; Oliver 
Beauchamp St. Jonn, gent., to be 
ens., by purchase, vice Deacon. 

60th Foot— Lieut. James Arthur 
Morrah to be capt., without pur- 
chase, vice Ed. Augustus Stotherd, 
deceased, 28th April; Ens. John 
Miller to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice John East Hunter Peyton, 
who retires ; Ens. Courtenay For- 
bes Terry to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice James Kiero Watson, seconded 
on appointment as lieut. instructor 
of musketry, on the establishment 
of the schools of musketry ; Fredk. 
Chas. Blenkinsopp Coulson, gent., 
to be ens., by purcnase, vice duller ; 
Henry Donald Browne, gent., to 
be ens., by purchase, vice Terry. 

67th Foot— Lieut. Robert Ed. 
Colbome Jarvis, from the 87th 
Foot, to be lieut., vice Stevenson, 
who exchanges. 

74th Foot— Ens. John Francis 
Darvall to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice John Thomas Evans, who 
retires; Evelyn John Hamilton, 
gent., to be ens., by purchase, vice 
Darvall. 

79th Foot— Lieut. Arthur Wal- 
ker, to be seconded on appointment 
as lieut. instructor of musketry on 
the establishment of the schools of 
musketry. 

83rd Foot— Quartermaster Thos. 
Copeland, from half-pay late Land 
Transport Corps, to be quarter- 
master, vice Patrick Hayes, who 
retires upon half-pay. 



468 



PROMOTIONS AHU APPOlIiTMEWTS* 



[July, 



: 



86th Faot — liocl Hovendeii 
Bryan Vardon, Eaq.i la to capt, 
13lb Foot, to ho pamiastert vice 
pftjTD aster, with the houoriiry rauk 
of maj., Charles FudeHeallj, trans- 
ferred to the 18th Foot, 

87tli Foofc^Liout. Thos, Bennie 
Stevenson, fh>m the 67th Foot* to 
bo lt©at., vice Jarvie, who ex- 
cha.iigGs. 

f>Otti Foot— Capfe. George Ed. 
Perrjiij froia the 58th Foot, to 
be eaj>t., vice Treacheri who ex- 
ehaiigei. 

Olird Foot— CoL-Serj. Harry 
MoLeod to be quartermaster, vice 
Joioer, appoiiitfHl paymaster. 

^<5th Foot— Ens. Henry Kim- 
berly Gould to be lieut., by pur* 
chaae, vice Lord Sandys, trans- 
I'un'ed to the 2nd Life Guards; 
fiobert William Blackwood, gent., 
to he ens,, by purchase, vice Henry 
Kimberly Gould. 

99th Foot — Ens. George Ivau 
Thompson to be lieut,, by purchase, 
vice (Jharlog Coates, promoted; 
Sobert Patch, g^nt., to he ens,, by 
purchase, vice Thompson. 

lOOth Foot^Augufltus William 
Whitworth, gent., to be ens., by 
purchELse, vice Lowry, traneferred 
to the 23rd Foot. 

108tb Foot^Capt. Arthur James 
Shiildhaui to be maj*, vice Oonolly 
Dyaart, who retires; Lieut- Leslie 
Creery to be eapt., vice Sbuldham ; 
Ens, Charles James Dyke to be 
lieut., vice Creery. 

Eitle Bri gade —Ens. Walter Cara* 
doc Bmith to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice William Steward Travers, who 
retires ; Ens, the Hon, Tljomas 
Charlea Scott to be lieut., by pur- 
chase, Vice John Francis Mair 
Wiuter&cale, who retires; Robert 
Bund as, gent., to be ens,, by pur- 
chase, vice Smith; Lionel Bichard 
Stopford, gent,, to be ens,, by 
purchase, vice the Hon, Thomas 
Charles Bcott; the Hon. Jeffery 
Charles Amherst to be ens., by 
purchase, vice the Hon, Thomas 
John Wynn, who retires. 

DEPOT BATTALIONS. 

Mai. and Brev.-Lient,*OoI Geo. 
Keeld Boldero, from the 21s^tFoot, 
to be maj,, vice Elton, who ex- 




changes; Capt* Francis George 
King, of the 21st Foot, to be* 
instructor of mu^iketry, vioe Oapt. 
Frederick Stansfield Herries, of 
the 65th Foot, who has filled the 
appointment the n^gulated period 
— 1st June. 

MEDICAID DJiPARTMBNT. 

Staff- Surg. Miy. James Stewart, 
who retires upon half-ptij, to have 
the honorary rank of deputy in- 
spector-gene ml of hospitals i Staff 
Assist. -Surg, John Coote Ovens to 
be staff- snrg., vice Staff- Surg, Maj, 
James Stewart, who retires upon 
half-pay; the promotion of Siu-g.- 
Jlaj. James Gordon Inglie, M.D., 
C,B., to the rank of deputy m- 
spector-general of hospitals, to 
bear date Ist May, and not 5th 
May, as stated in the Gazette of the 
latter date. 

3SBVET. 

Lieut .-Col. and B rev.- Col, George 
Maxwell, retired full-pay 66 th Foot, 
to have the honorary n^tik of maj.- 
gen. ; Lieut. -Col. Jas, Peter Eol>ert- 
Bon, C.B,, of the MiUtary Tmin, 
having completed five years* quali- 
fying sorvif^e in the rank of hcut.- 
ooL, under the provisions of the 
Royal Warranty of 14th Oct., 1858^ 
to De col. — IBth May; Paymaster 
Robert Savery Rouse, 3rd Hussars, 
to have the honomry rank of capt, 
— *16th April ; Quartermaster Pat- 
rick Hayes, half-pay late B3rd Foot, 
to have the honorary rank of capt* 

The following promotion to talce 

EUiyce consequent on the death of 
ieut.-Gen, Eiehard Jones, Boyal 
Artillery : — Mai. -Gen, Henry Wm. 
Gordon, Royal ArtilJery, to bo 
liout,*gon., l^th Maj; Maj,-Gen, 
Sir William Fenwiok Williams, 
Bart , K.C.B,, from Supernumerary 
List^ to be maj. -gen., vice Gordon, 
19th May, 

THE MILnTA GAZETTE, 
Wab OfpicEj Pai-Jj Mall, June 9, 

j!^orfolk Artillery Regiment of 
Militia— First Lieut, Ed Henry 
Gervase Stracey to be capt., vice 
Harbord, removed, 

Northumberland Regiment of 
Militia Light Infantry — Licnt. W. 
Pears to Ije ratpt., vice Potts, pro- 
moted; Lieut. George Pringle 



1863. J 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOIKTHENTS. 



469 



Hughes to be capt., vice John 
Adamson, resigned 

Isle of Wight Artillery Militia — 
John Young, gent., to be first 
lieut., vice Brigstocke, resigned. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation by Assist.-Surg. 
John Holt of his commission in 
the 1st Boyal Lanarkshire Militia. 

76th, Highland Light Infantry 
or Inverness, Banff, Elgin, and 
Nairnshire Begiment of Militia — 
John F. Baillie to be capt., vice 
Cameron, resigned. 

Queen's Own Light Infantry 
Begiraent of Tower Hamlets Militia 
— Lieut. Bobert Kirkwood to be 
capt., vice Lawrence, resigned. 

Memorandum — Cornwall Ban- 
gers Militia — Her Majesty has 
signified her pleasure that Lieut. 
Joseph Lyle be removed from the 
strength of the regiment. 

Wak Opficb, Pall Mall, Juitb 12. 

Bedfordshire Begiment of Militia 
— Lieut. Alfred Herbert Lucas to 
be capt., vice Morhan, resigned. 

Queen's Own Begiment of Ox- 
fordshire Yeomanry Cavalry — Cor. 
Holford Cotton Bisley to be lieut., 
vice Elwes, deceased; the Hon. 
Gerald Normanby Dillon to be 
cor., vice Bisley, promoted. 

Memorandum — 90th or Stirling- 
shire, &c., Begiment of N.B. Militia 
(Highland Borderers) — Her Ma- 
jesty has been graciously pleased 
to accept the resignation of the 
commission held by Lieut. George 
Scott. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by First Lieut. Thomas Mac- 
kinlay, in the Fife Artillery Militia. 

THE VOLUNTEEB GAZETTE. 
Wab Office, Pall Mall, June 9. 

2nd Essex Bifle Volunteers — 
Ens. Webster Glynes to be lieut. ; 
John Henry Mitchell to be ens. 

6th Essex Bifle Volunteers — 
Assist.-Surg. Chas. Gibson Taylor 
to be surg. 

Dumbartonshire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps, 9th Company — Andrew 



ent., to be lieut., vice 
James "Wyllie, resigned. 

20th North Biding of Yorkshire 
Bifle Volunteer Corps — The Bev. 
Francis Henry Morgan to be hon. 
chap. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation or the commissions 
held by Lieut. Henry Gardener 
Patrick in the 6th Company, and 
Lieut. John Graham in the 10th 
Company of Ayrshire Bifle Volun- 
teers. 

6th Company Ayrshire Bifle 
Volunteers — Ens. James Anderson 
Faulds to be lieut , vice Patrick, 
resigned. 

10th Company Ayrshire Bifle 
Volunteers — *Ens. John Grant Gor- 
don to be lieut., vice Graham, 
resided. 

4tn Lancashire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps — Sec. Lieut. Danson 
Cunningham to be first lieut. 

1st Lanarkshire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps — John Kidston, gent., 
to be sec. lieut., vice Osborne, 
resigned. 

1st Lanarkshire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Ens. David Mitchell to be 
lieut., vice Alexander Brown, re- 
signed. 

4th Lanarkshire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Hugh Bae, gent., to be 
ens., vice McGregor, resigned. 

6th Lanarkshire Bifle V olunteer 
Corps — William Stirling, Esq., to 
be hon. col. 

25th Lanarkshire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Jas. Cumming Swan, gent., 
to be ens., vice Bunten, resigned. 

56th Lanarkshire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Edward Gilroy, Esq., to be 
capt., vice Bertram, resigned. 

1st Lanarkshire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps— First Lieut. John Wil- 
son Bobinson to be capt, vice 
Arehibald Campbell Holms, re- 
signed; Archibald Gray, gent., to 
be first lieut., vice Bobinson, pro- 
moted. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the following 
gentlemen of their commissions, 
viz.: — 

Ist Lanarkshire Artilllery Vo- 



470 



PflOlfOTIOIfS AKO APPOIimfHNTB, 



[Jin.T, 



luntecsr Cor ps— Asiist.-Siirg* Bruce 
Barclay, 

lat LanarkshiFG Bifle Volimteer 
Corps — Lieut. David Aniott Beid. 

5th Lanarkflhipe Riflo Vohiiiteer 
Oorps^Surg. Jataes Brummond, 

96th Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps^EuB. Johu Bowman Gra* 
ham, 

I>7th Lanarkshire Rifle Tolunteer 
Corps — Surg. Hugh Bae 

5th Company of Banffshire Ar* 
tiJlery Volunteers at Cul leu— John 
Peterkin to bo sea lieut,, rwG Sim, 
resigned, 

9m Tower Hamlets Rifle Tolun- 
teer Corps — Char]t*a Downca Man- 
nin|^, Esq.f to be capfc.-commandt. ; 
Lieut. John Back Fisher to be 
capt. ; EuB. Samuel Joseph Ball to 
be liout.; Edmn Hooke, g^ut., to 
be lieut \ Samuel Henrj Crtjxton, 
gent., to be ©ns 

Memorandum— Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commisaion 
held by Capt. Thomas Chandler. 

Me m oran duni ^ 1 st Admini stra- 
tive Battalion of Hertfordshire Rifle 
Volunteers — Adjt the Hon, Hue^h 
Henry Hare to aerve with tne 
rank of capt., from the 21 st May, 
1863. 

Memorandum — Prince Albert's 
Own Leicester shire Regiment of 
Volanteer Cavalry ^Her Majesty 
has bec^n pleased to permit Maj. 
Arthur Haymes, late of the above 
RegtmoTit, to retain his rank and 
wear his uniform. 

Memorandum ^Her Majeity ha.8 
beeu gracioudy pleased to aceept 
the resiguation of the commissions 
held by Lieut. Jas. Douglas Clep- 
bane Wiekham in the Ox:ford Uni- 
veraitj Rifle Volunteer Corps. 

Memoriiiulum— Her Majesty has 
been graciouily pleased to accept 
the reaignatioii of the commissions 
held by Lieut. George Alexander 
Augustng Coates in the 2ud Mon- 
mouthBhire Rifle Volunteer Corps. 

Wah OfFiCEt Pall Mall, Jiine 12. 

1st Flintshire Rifle Volunteer 
Oorps^Lieut. Chas. Butler C lough 
to be euperanmerary lieut,; Eua, 
William Fitss Ev Jones to be lieut, 

4th Flintshire Rifle Volunteer 



Corps — John Hancock Woliten* 
holme, gent., to be supernumerary 
lieut. 

Memorandum^Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Capt, Henry Talbot Moore 
in the I'tth Kent Rifle Volunteer 
Corps. 

14tb Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps 
— Lieut. Wiiliam Bart ram to be 
^pt,, vice Moore, resigned; Ens, 
mlliam Oarr to be lieut., vice 
Bartram, promoted; William Ira- 
land Blackburn Maze, gent,, to be 
ens., vice Carr^ promoted. 

1st Warwickshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — K«s. Falkland Samuel 
Thornton to be lieut., vice Turner, 
resigned* 

19th Lancashire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps — H on * Assist , - Surg. 
Jonathan Wili^on to be assist, - 
aurg. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commissions 
held by the following officers, viz ■ 
Capt. David Fernie in the 12th 
Lancashire Artillery Volunteer 
Corps; and Lieut. Robert Hall in 
the 10th Lancashire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps, 

11th Gloueesterahire Rifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps ^Ens. Wm. Oomoek 
to be lieut., vice Bloxsome, re- 
signed. 

lit Sun*ey Light Horse Volun- 
teer Corps — Cor, Henry Walker 
to be lie tit. ; Joseph Daw, gent., to 
be cor, 

19th Surrey (or Lambeth) Rifle 
Volunteer Battalion — Valentine 
Hicks Labrow, Esq.^ to be m^. 

Memorandum— The Queen haa 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commissions 
held by Lieut. Robert Barclay and 
Eufl. Charles Arthur Barclay in 
the 14th Company of Surrey Rifle 
Volunteers. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Ens. Alexander Brebner 
in the 2nd Abenleenshire Rifle 
Volunteer Corps* 



1883.J 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTXKirrS. 



471 



THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 
Wab Office, Pall Mall, June 16. 

1st or Boyal East Middlesex 
Begiraent of Militiar-Gk>dson Grod- 
son to be lieut. (super.) 

Memoranda — The Queen has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commis- 
sions held by the following Offi- 
cers, viz : — 

2nd or Edmonton Boyal Biflo 
Begiment of Middlesex Militia — 
Surff. Nicholas McCann. 

5th or Boyal Elthome Liffht In- 
fantry Begiment of Middlesex 
Militia — Capt. Dean John Hoare. 

Worcestershire Begiment of 
Militia— Wilmer Mackett Willet, 
ffent. to be lieut. vice Lieut. Bain- 
forth, appointed to the 24th Begi- 
ment. 

Edinbui^ County Militia- 
Benjamin Wilson, gent, to be Ueut. 
vice Dunlop, resigned. 

Cornwall Bangers Militia — 
Lieut. Owen Henry Morshead to 
be capt. vice the Earl of Mount 
Edgcumbe, resigned. 

Artillery Battalion of the Boval 
Sussex Militia — William Jonn 
Tonge, gent, to be first lieut. vice 
Eraser, resiened. 

Norfolk Artillery Begiment of 
Militia — ^First Lieut. Jolm Stanley 
Mott to be capt. vice Brereton, re- 
sinied. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by Capt. Bobert Alured 
Denne in the Kent Artillery Begi- 
ment of Militia. 

Kent Artillery Begiment of 
Militia — ^Wilfred Simpson, sent, to 
be super, first lieut. vice Bailey, 
promoted. 

Wab Office, Pall Mall, June 19. 

2nd or Edmonton Bo;^l Begi« 
ment of Middlesex Militia — Chas. 
Thomas Carter to be surg. vice 
McOann, resigned. 

Bojyal Sherwood Forester's or 
Nottmghamshire Benment of 
Militia — Ernest Bottler Lloyd, 
gent, to be lieut. 

North Durham Begiment of 
MiHtii^— Perdval Forster, gent, to 
be lieut. vice Eames^ promoted. 



Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commis- 
sions held by Maj. Alexander Cock- 
bum and Capt. Thomas William 
Usherwood Bobinson in this regi- 
ment. 

Durham Artillery Beeiment of 
Militia — Her Me^esty has been 
graciously pleasea to accept the 
resignation of the Commission held 
by Capt. Charles*. Spencer Malley 
in this Begiment. 

5th Begmient of Boyal Lanca- 
shire Militia — Lieut. Jonn Witham 
Sutcliffe Witham to be capt. vice 
John Joseph Middleton, pro- 
moted ; Lieut. Harry Creeke to be 
capt. vice Edward Petre, resigned ; 
Lieut. John Grimshaw to be capt. 
vice Daniel Brereton, resigned. 

6th Begpaent of Boyal Lanca- 
shire Militia — Lieut. John Clarke 
Swanton to' be capt. vice Moore, 
resided. 

5ui Be^ment of Bo3ral Lanca- 
shire Militia— Lieut. IVancis Ed- 
ward Hassard to be removed from 
the stren^h of the Begiment. 

[The following Appointments 
are substituted for those which 
appeared in the Oaaette of the 15th 
ultimo]. 

Sherwood Bangers Yeomanry 
Cavalry — Cor. Charles Tjrlden 
Wright to be lieut. vice the Earl of 
Lincoln, resigned; Francis Fol- 
jambe Anderson, Esa. to be cor. 
vice Wright, promotea. 

THE VOLUNTEEB GAZETTE. 
Wab Office, Pall Mall, June 16. 

St. GJeorge's Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — ^The Kev. Henrv Howarth, 
B.D. to be hon. chap, vice Haw- 
kins, resided. 

26th Middlesex Bifle Volunteer 
Corps— John Owens, jun. to be 
lieut. 

London Irish Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Assist.-Surg. Beginald 
West, M.D. to be surg. vice Dun- 
can, resigned. 

87th Middlesex Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Lieut. Joseph Day to be 
capt. vice Ware, resigned. 

46th Middlesex Bme Volunteer 
Corps — ^Henry William Bagster to 
be ens. 



47? 



PEOliOTlO>S AND APPOINTMEKT** 



[JrLY, 



Memoranda — The Queen has 
beau gmcioualy plcnaed to accjsjit 
the resiR'nation of the Cotmnissions 
held hy the foUomiiff ofReergj, \na : 

Tie tori ft Rifles Vmuntcer Corps 
— Ens* John Pamell. 

8t. George's Bifle Yohmtcer 
Corps — Capt. Gampbell Munro, 

Qiieeu*s (Westmmster) Rifle Vo* 
Itinteer Corpa — Lie^it. WUliam 
Roe* 

3ath Middlesex Eifle Volunteer 
Corps-^Liemt Octaviua Adolphus 
Field ; Lieut. Robert John Child. 

37th Middlesex Riflo Volunteer 
Corps — Capt. Charles Tajler 
Ware. 

44lh Middlesex Rifle Tolunteer 
Corps — ^Capt. Jam OS Paine. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty h&a 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by Capt. George Wane hope 
in the 1st MidJothinn Coast Artd- 
lery Volunteer Corps, 

Memorandum — Her*Majeaty has 
been graciouslj pleased to accept 
the retii^ation of the Commission 
held by ilns John Milne in the Isfc 
Midlothian Rifle Volunteer Corps. 

lat Midlothiftn Coast Artillery 
Volunteer Corps — See. Lieut. John 
Beid to 1>0 capt. ; Matthew Mont- 
gOTOcrie Bell to be sec. lieut. ; 
David Younger to lie see. heut, 

1st Midlotnian Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — William James Brodie to 
he Heut. i James Henry Bennett to 
be lieut. ; Thomaa Cameron to be 
ens. ; Pet^J^ Bell to be ens. 

4th Lancashire Eifie Volunteer 
Cor|)i — William Murray, gent, to 
be ens* 

46th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps ^Lieut Jonathan Wadding- 
ton to be capt. 

Memorandum— 2nd North Bid- 
ing of Yorkshire Artillery VoUtn- 
teer Corps — Her Miposty has been 
graciously pleased to aecept the 
resignatian of the Commission held 
by Sec. Lieut. Thomaa Stephenson 
in the above Corps. 

Memofandum— Ifit North Eid* 
ing of Yorkshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Her Majc.'ity has been gra* 
cionsljr pleased to accept the re- 
aignation of the Commission held 



liy Ens, Thomas Robinson Etty in 
the above Corps, 

Memorandum — 19th North Bid^ 
ing of York*ihire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — ^Her MHJeety has been gra- 
Gicmsly pleaijed to accept the resig- 
nation of the Commission held by 
Lieut. Henry But son in the abovo 
Corps. 

^rtl North Riding of Yorkahirfi 
Artillery Volunteer Corps — See, 
Lieut, William Barry to be first 
licnt. ; George Taylor, gent., to be 
see. lieut. 

2nd Korth Riding of Yorkshire 
Artilleiy Vohinteer Corps — Thos, 
Bagnallli gent., to be sec. lieut. 

1st Derby shire Rifle Voliintc*er 
Corps— Lieut. William Turpie to 
be capfc.i vice Hewton, resigned; 
Robert Turner* gent., to be lieu t., 
vice Turpie, promoted. 

15th Derbyshire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps— Lieut. Thomas Bateman to 
be eapt., vice W^ilmoti resigned ; 
Ens. William Thomas Edward Cox 
to be lieut , vice Bateman^ pro- 
moted; Thomas Carilich, gent., to 
be ens., vice Cox, promoted. 

Memorandum — Her Majestj has 
been gracioixaly pleased to accept 
the resignations of Capt. Henry , 
Wilmot in the 15tb Derbyshimi 
Bifle Volunteer Corps, and Ktii.^ 
Robert Turner in the 6th Derby- 
shire Bifle Volunteer Corps. 

7tli Isle of Wight BLfle Volun- 
te€!rB — Lieut, John Randall Maim 
to be capt., vtce Graham, resigned* 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of Capt. W^illiAm 
Stewart Gmham in the above 
eorps. 

Memorandum ^Ist Administnw 
tive Battalion of Lincolnshire Rifle 
Vohinteers — Her Majesty has Wen 
graciously pleased to accept thd | 
resignation of the commission held • 
by Lieut.-CoI the Earl of Yar- 
borough. 

Memorandum— 3rd Lincolnshire 
Bifle Volunteers — Her Majesty ht\& 
been gra ionslj pleased to accept 
the resignfttion fjf the commission 
held by Capt. Parker. 

Memoran dum — 1 3th Li n col n- 
shirc Rifle VoUmtecrs — Her Ma- 
jesty has been gracioiisly plea^c^ 



1868J 



PBOKOTIONS AND APPOINTUENTS. 



47i 



to accept the resignation of the 
commission held by Capt. Hilliam. 

13th Lincolnshire Rifle Volun- 
teers — Lieut. Francis Thos. Selby 
to be capt., vice Hilliam, resigned ; 
Ens. Ashley Maples to be Tieut., 
vice Selby, promoted; Joseph 
Henry Bagg, gent., to be ens., vice 
Maples, promoted. 

2nd Monmouthshire Rifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps — Lieut. Edwin Rich- 
ards to be capt. ; Ens. Tudor Lam- 
prey Skinner to be lieut. 

1st Hampshire Engineer Volun- 
teer Corps — First Lieut. Henry 
Philip Buchan to be capt. 

Memorandum — 12th Hampshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Her Ma- 
jesty has been graciously pleased 
to accept the resignation of the 
commission held by Capt. Sir Wm. 
WellesW Knighton. 

1st Sincaraineshire Artillery 
Volunteer Corps — Hercules Scott 
to be capt.; Sec. Lieut. James 
Crockatt to be first lieut. ; James 
Taylor Thorn, M.D., to be hon. 
assist.-surg. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Capt. Alfred Farrell in the 
3rd iSncardineshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps. 

Memorandum — 1st Administra- 
tive Brigade of Argyllshire Artil- 
lery Volunteers — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Adjt. Greorge Hewson in 
the above brigade. 

Wab Office, Pall Mall, June 19. 

1st Middlesex Engineer Volun- 
teer Corps — Roger Pocklington to 
be sec. lieut., vice Simkins, re- 
signed. . 

4th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Benjamin Alfred Corben 
to he lieut. 

St. George's Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Lieut. Henry Browne to 
be capt., vice Munroe, resided; 
Ens. Francis Otter Hodgkmson 
to be lieut., vice Browne, promoted. 

46th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — John Grenville Syms to be 
ens, 

5th Cumberland Rifle Volunteers 



— Michael Rimington to be ens.^ 
vice Amison, promoted. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Lieut. Henry Hodgetts 
and Ens. John Towerson in the 
9th Cumberland Rifle Volunteer 
Corps. 

East York Rifle Volunteers, 1st 
Corps (Hull) — Edward Stokes 
Roberts, Esq., M.R.C.S., L.S.A. 
England, to be assist.-surg., vice 
W«3ton, resigned. 

6th Corps (Beverley) — Lieut. 
Richard Hodgson to be capt., vice 
Barkworth, resigned ; Ens. Henry 
William Bainton to be lieut., vice 
Hodgson, promoted; Thos. Fredk. 
Champney, Esq., to be ens., vice 
Bainton, promoted. 

Robin Hood Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— The Most Noble William 
Amclius Aubrey de Vere, Duke of 
St. Albans, to be hon. col. 

Newark or 3rd Nottinghamshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps— Ens. Wm. 
Edward Tallents to be lieut., vice 
Betts, deceased; Joseph Gilstrap 
Branston, gent., to be ens., vice 
Tallents, promoted ; the Rev. John 
Garrett Bussell, M.A., to be Hon. 
Chaplain, vice Ellison, resigned. 

4tn Forfarshire Artillery volun- 
teer Corps — First Lieut. Alexander 
Rae to be capt., vice Shaw, re- 
signed. 

11th Forfarshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Ens. William Davidson to 
be ueut., vice Carnegie, resigned; 
David Carnegie, gent., to be ens., 
vice Davidson, promoted. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation oi the commission 
held by Hon. Assist.-Surg. Robert 
Chc^les McWatt in the 1st Ber- 
wickshire Rifle Volunteer Corps. 

1st Administrative Battalion of 
Berwickshire Rifle Volunteers — 
Robert Charles McWatt to be 
surg. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commissions 
held by Sec. Lieut. George Thomas 
Jolley in the 10th Kent Artillery 
Volunteer Corps; Sec. Lieut. H. 
Morgan in the 13th Kent Artillery 



474 



P&OlCOnONS AND APPOINTliBim. 



[JULT, 



Volunteer Corps; Oapt. John 
Bobin SEarris in the ISth Kent 
Rifle Volunteer Corps ; Capt. Wm. 
Chas. Butter and Ens. Peter Brown 
in the 26th Kent Rifle Volunteer 
Corps. 

13th Kent Artillery Volunteer 
Corps— John Francis Lacy, gent, 
to be first lieut., vice Pennell, pro- 
moted. 

13th Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps 
•^Lieut. William BristOw to fee 
capt., vice SEarris, resigned; Ens. 



Thomas William Marchant to be 
lieut., vice Bristow^romoted. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Hon. Chap, the Rev. Ed- 
ward Pigot in the 1st Westmor- 
land Rifle Volunteer Corps, and of 
the commission held by Ens. Frank 
Maude Taylor Jones in the 5th 
Westmorlaiid Rifle Volunteer 
Corps. 



COLBURN'S 

UNITED SERVICE MAGAZINE 

AND 

NAVAL AND MILITARY JOURNAL. 



No. CCCCXVIL— AUGUST, 1863. 



CONTENTS. 

MiLiTABY Studies. No. IV. ..... 475 

Cost op Hee Majesty's Ships ..... 491 

' Military Science; Ancient and Modern . . . 499 

The Sentiment op War ...... 611 

Proposed Substitutes por Depot Battalions. . . . 621 

Greenwich CnARACTEBa ..... 629 

Artillery — Horse and Foot ..... 540 

Shoeburyness and its Experiments, or Ships versiis Forts, cmd 

vice versa . . . . . . . 547 

The Polish Question ...... 561 

The Ionian Islands ...... 564 

Editor's Portfolio ....... 568 

Critical Notices . . . . . . . 576 

Obituary ........ 594 

Stations op the Koyal Navy in Commission . . . 599 

Stations op the British Army ..... 602 

Promotions and Appointments ..... 604 



To Correspondents. 

The letter of '* Manchester" has been forwarded to the writer of the 
Papers to which he refers, and we hope to be able to reply to our corres- 
pondent in our next. Lines on the Battle of Inkermann are declined 
with thanks. Captain Acklom's " Steam-ship Ventilator" in our next. 
The article entitled " The Broad Arrow" is under consideration. 



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1863.J 475 

MILITARY STUDIES,— No. IV. 

CAVALRY. 

The preceding portion of this Paper contains facts which seem to 
justify the conclusion that there is^ to say the leasts still room for 
the employment both of divisional cavalry and cavalry reserves. 
Two questions present themselves here in the first instance ; what 
is the proper kind of cavalry — flight, heavy or intermediate to be 
employed for each, and how should they be organised ? With the 
former we have for the moment nothing to do and apply ourselves 
therefore to the examination of the latter. 

This involves, however, the consideration of a principle that is 
put forward in almost every tactical work, and has become a sort 
of shibboleth amongst military men, although its precise value and 
real meaning seem not to be very generally understood ; we mean 
the doctrine of the combined action of the three arms. 

Few general principles will admit of being pushed to their utmost 
limits or even taken literally, in rS milUari, and this is precisely 
what has been done in the most absurd manner with regard to 
this theory, for the result of its application has too frequently been 
to mix up cavalry, artillery and infantry in the general organization, 
without paying the slightest regard to their several peculiarities. 
Now a combined organization of the three arms far from promoting 
the combination of this action is a serious impediment to it, because 
the latter, in consequence of the very great difference in the nature 
of infantry, cavalry and artillery and their modes of combat can 
rarely be simultaneous ; moreover, the necessity and opportunity for 
this combination of action never present themselves at all points 
indiscriminately with the same intensity, whilst the mixed organiza- 
tion, if pushed beyond certain limits, seriously impedes the em- 
ployment of both cavalry and artillery in the way most fitted to 
enable them to produce decisive results, that is to say, united in 
comparatively large bodies. The uniform combination of the three 
arms in the organization of an army presupposes what never takes place 
in fact, namely a perfect uniformity in the character of the ground 
on which the troops are to be employed, and is moreover wholly 
at variance with strategical and tactical science which teach us, that 
there are certain decisive points in every line of battle. 

What are the limits beyond which, for purely tactical reasons, 
the mixed organization should not be pushed P the sketch we have 
given of the action of the Cavalry in the campaign of 1859 in 
Italy, affords the best answer we can give to this question. The 
French did not parcel out their batteries and attach them singly 
to their infantry brigades, the two batteries belonging to each 
division were kept together in the hands of the general oflScers 
commanding these bodies, the reserve artillery of each Corps 
d'Arm^e was moreover, as has been shown, in the hands of a 

U. S. Mag. No. 417, Aug. 1863. v^ 



General bebnghig to tltat ariij ; with fewer gun», of a better des- 
cription it is true, then the Austrian, they performed the most im- 
portant eervicesit becaos^e they were kept together and used en 
ma^se. The French Cavalry was kept in hand on precisely similar 
principles ; the whole of that arm was under the immediate superin- 
lendence and command of Cavalry generals on the field of batltej 
subject only to the control of the commandant of the Corps 
d*Armee, it was of inferior quality as is proved by the fact of its 
having dwindled almost to nothing before it really came into action, 
but its heitig kept togctlier, far from preventing the combiniition of 
itii action with that of the other two arms, favoured this in an ei.' 
traordinary degree, because it could be and was directed at the 
proper moment, to the proper point. 

Ihe great masa of the Austrian Cavalry was, on the contrary, 
parcelled out into single squadrons attached to the infantry 
iyrigadea, it must have suffered severely from the enemies fire, and 
etill we find no trace of its having rendered any service of impor- 
tance, Edelshciro alone, who hod at Magenta five, and at Sjlfe- 
rino four squadrons at his disposed, was enabled to do anything 
worth talking oL In the first named biittle he was employed at 
the right moment and in the right place, in the last named he waa 
permitted to sacrifice his men at the most inopportune moment and 
in a perfectly false direction. 

It is perfectly clear from all this, that the French understand 
the combined action of the three arms in a very different way from 
what the Austrians and Germans in general, including the Prussians, 
do, and, we need scarcely add, in a much more rational manneri. 
Although their Generals deserve this title, to *Ait an officer capable 
of undertaking the general command of all arms ; in a higiier 
degree than those of most European armies, we still find them era- 
ploying a greater number of specijil Cavalry and Artillery Generals 
than any other nation and this with the best success* 

It is a commonly received opinion that the great majority of 
Cavalry and Artillery Generals have but little acquaintance with 
general tactics — whether this be founded in fact or not, we cannot 
prt^teud to decidcp but it might be very fairly retorted that the 
great majority of Infantry Generals know nothing whatever of 
Cavalry and Artillery^ and usually employ both in the most absurd 
manner possible. But even suppoMng this to be an extreme view 
of the matter on both sides, which it probably is, the general 
officer commanding a brigade of several battalions has his hands so 
full of other and more important work, that it is quite impossible 
for him to devote his attention to tlie small body of Cavalry usually 
attached to an Infantry brigade withont at the same time neglecting 
his proper business, and in armies on a large scale, that is such as 
are organized into Corps d^Armee, the same holds good of the 
General commanding a division. 



I 



I 



I 



Jmg 



system 



ceepmg 



their Cavalry and Artillery united in larger bodies and employing 



1868.] MILITARY STUDIES. 4?77 

general officers belonging to these arms to command them, is 
founded on the principle of the division of labour and a just appre- 
ciation of the advantages arising from the employment of special- 
lities ; and to this much of the success of the French arms in the 
field may be fairly attributed. 

There are, however, other reasons for avoiding as much as possi- 
ble, the dismemberment of Cavalry regiments. Detached squadrons 
are deprived for the time being of all the resources and benefits of 
regimental organization, and when permanently detached they must, 
and experience proves they do, melt away with rapidity. It may 
be objected that the French Cavalry although kept united in regi- 
ments, brigades and divisions during the campaign of 1859 melted 
away with much greater rapidity than the Austrians which was 
chiefly parcelled out by single squadrons, but it is very clear that 
this is to be fairly attributed to other causes ; and we have no doubt 
that if the Austrian system had been adopted in the French army, 
the latter would have arrived on the battle field of Solferino without 
a single squadron fit for duty, moreover we donH know what the 
Austrians really lost in this way. So much for the question of 
mixed organization, and having disposed of it we proceed to con- 
sider another portion of our subject. 

Nothing can, in our apprehension, be more ill-judged or useless 
than to appeal to the feats of the Cavalry in the Seven Years' War, 
or at any other distant period of military history, for the purpose 
of proving that this arm is still capable of doing great things — we 
hold this style of argument to be a great and positive injury to this 
arm. All the circumstance of the past and present differ so mate- 
rially, that is quite absurd to assert that what has been, must 
always be possible. The question we really have to solve is : 
what are the mutual relations of the three arms now, and what 
can be done by one or the other under the present circumstances ? 

Looking back to former periods of military history we find, to 
begin with, the proportion of Cavalry to Infantry not only to be 
absolutely greater in the times to which reference is usually made 
than at present, in Frederick's army it was about one- fifth, but its 
relative strength to have been increased by its being kept together 
and employed more judiciously. No wonder then that the Cavalry 
played a different and much more important part then than now, 
and without underrating the influence exercised by the subsequent 
improvements of fire-arms of all descriptions, and the obstacles 
presented to the movement of troops by the extension of cultivation, 
both of which by the way are enormously exaggerated, we may 
safely conclude that the Cavalry has lost much of its importance both 
from being absolutely and relatively less numerous, and injudiciously 
organized and mixed up with other troops. 

There are certain hot-headed partisans of our arm^ who afi^ect 
to believe that the old pre-eminence of the Cavalry might be once 

* The writer of this article it a cavalry officer of nearly thirty years standing. 

IlS 



47S 



MTtlTAmY STDDTES. 



fAuo. 



k 



more attained by a numerical increase of it; and thus far we agree 
wit 1 1 them, that an army of genuine Cavalry combined witb a 
certDin quautity of really efficient horse artillery would in the end 
carry all before it* But they lose sight of the fact, that the old 
armies, into which the Cavalry entered in so large a proi>ortioti, 
were in themselves ntimericoUy infinitely inferior to the overgrown 
hosts of modern tiuiea^ and seldom exceeded tlie strength of a 
Corps d^Arm^e of the present day, Tliere i^ no civilized conotry 
in the world possessing riders, horses and money sufficient to realize 
the idea of such an army of Cavalry, the Infantry is much cheaper 
and more easily organized and kept^ and will therefore always form 
the great buSk of our forces, consequently the Cavalry must be 
conteut to remain what it has now become — an auxiliary* But the 
time is coming, there are already symptoms of its approach in 
vj^rious quarters^ when old Europe will be reduced to huge armies of 
Infantry Militia, unsupported by a Cavalry deserving the nnme, 
and then the mounted nations will again ride forth from the north 
and east, and new Attilas arise, — the old game will be played 
over again and the Cavalry remain for a lime in the ascendant ; for 
it can always throw the Infantry on the defensive, and in this lies 
its real force if we were only wise enough to see and acknowledge 
it. 

What has been related of the deeds of the Cavalry on the plains 
of Lombardy during the summer of 1859 in the first portion of 
this Paper should suffice to open our eyes on this subject. Nu- 
merous instances occurred in which small bodies of Cavalry, launched 
at the proper moment and in the proper direction^ not only brought 
strong Infantry columns to a standyiil!, but wholly defeated their 
enterprijses. Nor is there anything wonderful in this, Tlie main 
tactical ditferencc between Cavalry and Infatitry is, that the former 
possesses no power of defence and still less offence when stationary, 
but when put into motion its ofl'ensive power is very great and may, 
in this condition, be applied to defensive purposes ; whereas, the 
defensive power of Infantry is at its maximum, and, as regards 
Cavalry^ nearly insuperable so long as it remains statiouMryi its 
offensive power is also increased by its being put in motiofj, but it 
loses in this state all its defensive pre-eminence, and regains this to 
its full extent only on resuming its stationary condition which is in 
most ciises equivalent to an interraption of its offensive movement, 
even suppjising the line or column not to have been wholly broken 
and routed, a chance that always lies on the c:irds, 

Tlie common sense dtducliou to be drawn from this is ; that the 
Cavidry, having but slijt^ht chances of success against Infantry 
when stationary, the defensive power of the latter being then at a 
mnximum, should as a general rule direct its efforia against that 
arm when in motion, that is to say when this same defensive power 
is at a mininjum ; and notwithstanding this, all the eoutroversies on 
the Cavalry question that have taken place for the last forty or fifty 



1863.] HIUTART STUDIES. 479 

years show plainly that CSavalry ofBcers always dream about taking 
the bull by the horns, and that those of the Infantry but too easily 
demonstrate that this can rarely succeed. The proper aim to 
employ against Infantry in position, and supposing the moment for 
using the bayonet not yet to have arrived^ is very evidently masses 
of artillery, and this latter arm can also continue its efforts against 
the former when this has been put in motion. But when the 
Infantry columns or lines approach within a certain distance, the 
artillery must either limber up and retreat, or lose its guns, and 
this is the moment for the action of the divisional Cavalry, which 
should then be directed against the flanks of the Infantry as was so 
clearly done by the French during the defence of the farm-house 
Casa Nuova against Windishgratz. 

From charges of Cavalry conducted with energy on this principle 
the following results and advantages may be fairly expected. If 
the surprise be complete, which will depend on the ground, and the 
enemies Infantry be not of the highest order, its total rout will 
probably follow, our own Infantry will be saved a murderous con- 
flict with the bayonet, and the projected attack will be defeated. 
In the less favourable case, and supposing the enemy to have time 
and steadiness enough to form squares, he is nevertheless brought 
to a standstill, and time is gained for our Infantry to organize a 
counter-attack, the only safe system of defence, for artillery to 
reopen its fire, having shifted its position if advisable and what is 
equally valuable, for fresh troops to arrive. 

We must, however, view the que2>tion from both sides ; and what 
first presents itself, is the probability that the attacking column of 
Infantry will be covered on the wings with Cavalry, for the very 
purpose of protecting it from such interruptions of its progress, or 
total defeat, as above alluded to. Granted, and we have a negative 
confirmation in the Austiian account of the failure of Windishgratz's 
last attack on Casa Nuova, where it was said that this was mainly at- 
tributable to the want of Cavalry on the wings. What follows ? 
simply, that one portion of the divisional Cavalry, on the side of 
the defence, must be opposed to the enemy's covering Cavalry, and 
the other to his Infantry column, during its advance. The final 
result is : first then, here we have the combined action about which 
so much fuss is made ; secondly, it is clear that this work cannot 
be done by single squadrons attached to Infantry brigades ; finally 
the proof is afforded that the Infantry is by no means so indepen- 
dent of the Cavalry, and the latter far from being so useless as some 
people would have us believe. 

It would be easy to cite from history facts, some few positive, by 
far the greater number negative, in support of the above views, but 
the limits of this article piohibit our doing more than refer the 
reader to Siborne's History of the Waterloo campaign; a work from 
which those who are desirous of studying tactical questions of this 
nature^ will learn infinitely more than through the distorted medium 



480 



MTL1TAHY STUDTlS* 



[Aug* 



of tlicoretical trratiscs; there one fiiidf^ iu the flescnptions of the 
battles of Quatre-Bras, Ligny and Waterloo, but especially in tlie 
account of the affair of Gemanpes, mo^t instructive instances of the 
good and bad employment of Cavalry, tlie latter being, to say tlie 
truth, predominant. 

In the course of this article, we have more than once expressed 
oar opinion, that Edelsheim's feat at Solferino, however brilliant 
and gallant, and even valuable, as a proof of what may be done 
with Cavalry, was still merely a tactical nansenSj and that his 
Hussars might have performed really important services at a later 
period of the day. McMahon covered his movement on San 
Cassiano and Caoseana^ which contributed so essentially to the 
victory achieved by the French, ou the one flank by the Cavalry of the 
Guard, on the other by the few .squadrons of Chasseurs at hia 
disposal. It was while this movenient was being effected, and not 
before it had commenced that the Austrian Cavalry ahouM have 
been employed to prevent it. Edelsheim drove the Chasseurs off 
the field, but his efforts against the stationary French Infantry were 
unavailing, its defensive power being in that condition at a maximum, 
and the same would have been the case, even if Mensdorff had 
followed him* But when the ijnd Corps had commenced its move- 
ment and thereby lost half its defensive power, there was no longer 
any Austrian Cavalry at band capable of attempting to arrest its 
progress* Edelsheim's squadrons were done up, Mensdorff en.' 
gaged in another din-clion, and the remainder of the arm s cat I ere d 
about by single squadrons over the field. 

It is not so totally useless as many persons suppose to fight lost 
battles over again ou paper, and endeavotir to ascertain what might 
have been the consequence if matters had been managed differently ; 
because few things are more instructive than a clear insight into 
the faults or omissions committed on both sides- Tiiis may serve 
as our excuse for calling the reader^s attention for a motneut to 
what happened al Medole, in consequence of General Lanitigen 
having withdrawji his Cavalry brigade at the very commencement 
of the action, and General Vopaterny, who commanded the other 
brigade of Zedwitz division, having followed too strictly the Utter 
of his instructions, to cover the extreme left of the Austrian 
Army* 

If the Austrian 9th Corps d'Armee, Scbaffgolsche, could have 
maintained its ground against Niel and those portions of Can- 
Tobert's corps that came to his assistance, not only would the former 
have been prevented from forming his junction with McMahon, 
but the Austrian iJrd and Ittli Corps,, Schwarzenberg and Veigl, 
been enabled to convert I be eccentric movement in which they were 
tin fortunately invoSved into a concentric one that would probably 
have changed the whole face of affairs. But Schaffgolsohe*s 
Infantry was completely decimated and worn out by the never 
ci'asiug bayonet charges of Nicl's troops^ and gradually lost ground 



1863.] MILTTART STUDIES. 481 

before them. If Zedwitz's Cavalry had been present and employed 
in the way indicated above, the Austrian Infantry would have been 
spared many of these murderous conflicts, and time gained to bring 
the reserve Artillery into action, for Niel's Cavalry and reserve 
Artillery were all employed on his left wing and could scarcely have 
been withdrawn from thence. 

The mode of employing Cavalry against Infantry, here recom- 
mended, is, although of late seldom employed, because generally 
neglected in favour of the very questionable system of launching 
this arm against squares of Infantry, in truth nothing new. It 
was that adopted during the most brilliant period in the history of 
the Cavalry of the Seven Years' War, for instance at Hohenfriedberg, 
Freiberg, Zorndorf, &c. Frederick the Great says, the true moment 
for the Cavalry to attack the Infantry is, when the latter has begun 
to whirl round its colours, in consequence of the fire of the Artillery. 
Now if we consider that the tactics and arms of \he Infantry at 
that period were very different from what they now are, and more- 
over that the great improvements effected in the Artillery render it 
wholly impossible for the Cavalry to post itself cooly in front of 
the enemy's Infantry and wait for the propitious moment, it is 
evident that the altered circumstances demand a modification of 
the original principle, of not attacking unbroken Infantry, which 
can be best attained in the way we advocate. For Infantry columns 
in motion, if unexpectedly attacked, are, next to those that have 
been shattered by Artillery, in the most vulnerable condition we 
can expect to find them; a combination of botli circumstances 
would of course form the climax. 

We shall now endeavour to lay before the reader the link that 
connects the action of the reserve with that of the divisional 
Cavalry, to which latter we have hitherto chiefly devoted our 
attention. We have supposed a column of Infantry to be engaged 
in an important offensive movement ; the enemy launches a portion 
of his divisional Cavalry against it to arrest its progress, but its 
wings being covered by Cavalry to protect it against attacks of this 
nature, the remainder of the divisional squadrons must be employed 
to meet this. Then results a combination of combats of Cavalry 
against Infantry, and Cavalry against Cavalry, in which the reserve 
Cavalry is finally involved. Leaving out of the question, for the 
moment, the part the Artillery may be called upon to play in actions 
of this nature, it is evident that the advantage is likely to remain 
with the party possessing the best or most numerous Cavalry, and 
knowing how. to employ it in the most efficient manner. 

There is another point to be taken into consideration. We have 
shown how McMahon secured the junction of the two divisions of 
his Corps at Magenta by throwing all his Cavalry into the interval; 
and hbw NieFs junction with McMahon and the combined action of 
the three French Corps d'Armfie against the key of the Austrian 
position at Solferino was secured by Niel and Napoleon throwing 



the whole of the reserve Cavalry of the Frencli army, covered by 
roiisses of Artillery^ into the interval between the '1th and ^rid 
Corps.* 

Fiiiallj the reserve Cavalry rany be employed for the purpose of 
covering the wing of an army in position, or wheti advancing to 
attack one. 

The spliere of action and the importance of the reserve Cavalry 
result very clearly from the above. In olden times, both before 
and since the invention of Artillery and portable fire*armSj the fate 
of a battle was frequently decided immediately and directly by the 
Cavalry of one army driving that of the other off the field at the 
very commencement of the action i this happened more than once 
in the Seven Years* War. Leaving the most ample margin for the 
effect of the improvements of fire ariiiSj big and little^ the mutual 
dependence of the three arms on each other is stiU sufficiently great 
to enable the Cavalry eveu now to bring about similar results im- 
mediately and indirectly ; the pursuit of the beaten enemy or the 
task of covering the retreat, to which many would confine the spliere 
of its action^ remain, therefore, as they have always done, subor- 
dinate and secondary to the primary object of gaining the battle. 

Enough fias been said here to show, that the command of the 
Cavalry of an army is one of the difficult and important duties that 
can be confided to a general officer; the opportunities for employing 
this arm successfully occur uneKpeotedly and suddenly, and are 
equally evanescent, they may present themselves at the very com- 
mencement of a battle, in the midst of it, at its termination, or 
not at all ; it requires the greatest judgment, intelligence, and 
steadiness, and military knowledge of the highest order, to enable 
the commandant of the Cavalry to determine the proper moment 
for daring the utmost, and the greatest fortitude and self-denial to 
enable him to vvilhstand the frequently occurring temptations to 
commit acts of foolish gallajitry^ or Don Quixotism, It is im- 
possible to lay down one simple positive rule for any part of the 
conduct of the chief of the Cavalry of a large army, and this is one 
of the reasons why this arm performs so little in proportion to its 
cost* The hour and the place present themselves frequently, but 
the man is seldom to be found. 

VYhilst candour, however, compels ua to acknowledge that it is 
impossible to lay down positive rales on this subject, it is easy 
enough, and may, perhaps, be useful, to point out faults and mis- 
conceptions that have been committed and entertained at various 
periods up to the present day. Amongst the former, the most 
prominent and injurious to ilm arm is, perhaps, the mania for or- 
ganizing monster Cavalry Corps d^Aroaee to be worked in one mass 

* In the number of the * Spectateur Mititaire' for October, 18&2, there it in 
artide entitled, " Ix Camp de ChstoQa ct la Cfl^alerie," giviag an acoount of ma- 
nneuvre* of this nutuTC* which show that the French have turued their attention to 
ihh poiat, and are fully alive to Iti great importiiJicc. 



1863.J MILITARY STUDIES. 483 

by the agency of a system of tactics much more fitted to the Infantry 
than the Cavalry, that has raged at intervals since the peace of 1815, 
and came to a climax under the Emperors Nicholas of Bussia and 
Francis Joseph of Austria. Some peculiarity in the personal 
character of these two sovereigns was, more probably, than any 
just appreciation of the tactical questions, the inciting motive. 

This mania seems to have arisen in the first instance in a spirit 
of purely servile imitation of Napoleon I, without taking the 
trouble to inquire to what extent such bodies had answered the 
purpose for which they were intended, or carefully weighing the 
positive and well known evils inherent to them against their pre- 
sumed advantages, or even taking into serious account the detail of 
their organization. 

The latter point is of such importance that it seems desirable to 
follow it through the several stages of its developement. 

In 1805 there is no trace to be found of the application of the 
principles of the corps organization to the Cavalry in the French 
army. We find simply a Cavalry reserve under Murat's command^ 
consisting of two divisions of Cuirassiers, four divisions of mounted 
Dragoons, varying in strength from 2,200 to 8,200 sabres and one 
division of dismounted Dragoons, 5,800 men,^ altogether 112 
squadrons and 2,200 men ; and in the course of this campaign^ 
this Cavalry was employed by divisions, and no attempt made 
to unite permanently the action of larger bodies. 

In 1807, we find a Cavalry reserve again under Murat's command 
consisting of three Cuirassiers and five Dragoon divisions altogether 
14,990 men 13,269 horses. The divisions varied in strength from 
1500 to 2,200 horses, the principle of employing the Cavalry by 
divisions is still adhered to, and these latter bodies are weaker than 
• before. 

In 1809, after Eckmiihl and Batisbonne, the reserve Cavalry 
under Bessieres consisted of one division, twenty-four squadrons, 
Carabiniers and Cuirassiers, 3,500 horses ; two ditto Cuirassiers, six- 
teen squadrons each, 1800 and 1500 horses; one ditto Chasseurs 
and Hussars, ten squadrons, 1550 horses; one ditto ditto, fourteen 
squadrons, 1430 horses, and two light brigades, altogether 97 
squadrons, with about 12,000 sabres — the same principles as above 
being still adhered to. 

1812 shows, for the first time, the reserve Cavalry organized into 
Corps d'Arm6e much more as a consequence of the gigantic pro- 
portions of the Army destined for the invasion of Bussia than for 
tactical reasons. The first and second Cavalry Corps consisted 
each of one light and two Cuirassier divisions with 12,000 horses; 
the third had one light, one Cuirassier, and one dragoon division, 
10,000 horses; the fourth, one light and one dragoon division,. 
8,000 horses; the whole under the conmiand of Murat. The divi- 

* These were subsequently mounted on horses procured by requisition in Ger- 
many, or taken from the Austrians. 



4M 



MTLITAUY STUDTEgi 



rAcn. 



visional system, as it th^n existed anrl still continues to exist in the 
Freiicb Army, remained liovrever apjJicable to these Corps d'Arm^e, 
no attempt being mode to handle tliem en bloc, 

Iti 1813, we find tlie first Cavalry corps with two light and two 
heavy divisions:, 78 squadrousj 16,0U0 horses; the second, third and 
filth dittoj with one light and two heavy divisions eadi, 52, 27 
and 46 squadrons rejipectivelv, and au jwcrage of 10,000 horses 
encit. The number of fiquadrons raised in the division from six to 
twenty-two in consequence of the great variety of regimental 
urganizatioD9 and the number of allied troops acting with the 
French* 

18H shows merely the dibris thai had been saved from the 
Campaign of the preceding year. 

In 1H15 the Cavalry corps were composed as foDows ; l&t. two light 
divis;ionsj eighteen squadrons, £,500 sabres j 2nd. two Dragoon 
divisions, twenty -four squadrons, 2,500 eabres, one division 
Cuirassiers and Dragoons another; Cuirassiers and Carabiniers, 
twenty-four squadrons, 8,300 sabr^; 4th, two divisions Cuirassiers, 
twenty-one squadrons, 3,300 sabr<^3. Looking at the above dates, 
one sees that the successfnl campaigns and those during which 
Napoleon's Chivalry |>erformed important services, were by no 
means coincident witli the massive organization of that arm, but let 
us turn our attention for a moment to the imitators of Napoleon's 
Cavalry Corps d'Arrnee. 

It would be incorrect to include amongst these the Prussian?, 
and much nearer the truth to represent the former as having been 
invented for tfie purpose of copying Frederick's mode of employing 
bis Cavalry during the Seven Years^ War, The modern Prussian 
Cavalry Generals fancy, no doubt, that this system is a continuation 
of that adopted by Seydlitz, Ziethen Belling, &c., but on looking 
into it more closely, one discovers so many traces of the Infantry 
tactics of the nineteenth century, especially of the theory of the 
combined action of the tbree arms, that this may be fairly 
doubted* 

According to the Fruesian organiEation as determined by the 
regulations of 1823, a Cavalry Corps d'Armee should conmt of 
four regiments of Cuirassiers, four ditto Hulans, the latter being in 
Prussia heavy cavalry, two ditto Dragoons, light, and two ditto 
Hustara, altogether twelve regiments, forty-eight squadrons, on the 
war footing, upwarda of 8,000 sabres, or for each of the three divi- 
sions about 2,700. The normal formation places the Cuirassier 
divi:*ion in the first, the flulan ditto in the second line, and a light 
brigade, Dragoons or Hussars, on each wing somewhat rear of the 
lalter— one of these light brigades being eventually employed as 
avant garde, the other for the purpose of acting on the enemy's 
flank as occasion might require. It seems, however, to be the 
opinion of the beat Prussian Cavalry officers, that eight regiments 
or thirty-tw*o squadrons is the maximum that should be employed 



1863.J MIUTABY STUDIES. 485 

as one body^ and we find on looking to the manoenvres of 1843 that 
the corps employed on that occasion consisted of ten regiments and 
forty squadrons, there having been only two instead of four regi- 
ments of Hulans,* 

The dimensions and internal organization of such a corps as this 
are very reasonable, and ^ould permit of the Cavalry being handled 
in an efficient manner ; perhaps the greatest objection to be made 
IS to the large number of guns, five batteries attached, although 
the Austrian critic of the manoeuvres of 1843, supposed to be the 
present Field-marshal Hess, was of opinion that the combination of 
action of the Artillery was too little dwelt on. 

The Emperor Nicholas' three corps of reserve Cavalry consisted : 
the first and second each of one division of Cuirassiers, twenty-four 
squadrons, 4,368 sabres and one ditto Uulans of the same strength, 
consequently for each corps fifty-eight squadrons with 8,736 sabres ; 
the third or Dragoon corps consisted of eight regiments, eighty 
squadrons of heavy Dragoons in two divisions of the enormous 
strength of 7^160 sabres each, or 14,320 for the whole corps. 
Two batteries, sixteen guns^ were attached to each of these enormous 
Cuirassier divisions, and three ditto (twenty-four guns) to each of 
the Hulan or Dragoon ditto. 

A number of normal formations were devised for these divisions, 
the chief characteristic being, either multiplication of lines of 
double squadrons (regimental divisions) deployed, or in lines of 
columns at deployment distance, sometimes supported by a brigade 
mass, close column at quarter distance, or one whole division in 
the first named formation, the other in the reserve ditto, mass or 
column at quarter distance. The Artillery is almost always dis- 
posed in single batteries on the wings of the first line, but is some- 
times united into one large battery before its centre. 

It is evident on looking at these formations with their multiplied 
supports and covering detachments, all at stated intervals and 
distances, and especially at the disposition of the Artillery, that the 
author had constaiitly in view the stiff precision of parade 
manoeuvres ; that if any thought of actual combat crossed his vision^ 
it was that of a cannonade covered by masses of Cuirassiers and 
Hulans, and that there is not a vestige of real Cavalry tactics in 
the whole affair, indeed the Dragoon corps was nothing but mounted 
Infantry and treated altogether as such. 

We have shown in a former Paper how defective the organization 
of the Austrian Infantry brigades was up to 1860, that of the 
Cavalry brigades and Corps d'Armee was perhaps still worse. A 
corps consisted of two divisions, four brigades, and each of the 
latter of two h/eavy regiments, Curassiers or Diagoons, with a light 
regiment attached, as also a battery of eight guns. The strength 
of a heavy regiment was at the time six squadrons of 162 sabres 

* A detailed account of these very interesting manoeuvres is to be found in the 
first volume of the " Aust. MiUt. Zeitschrift for 1844, Old Series." 



BTTJBIIS, 



(mounted) consequently in all 97 S ditto; that of a light regtmentj 
eight squadrons with 1D2 ^abrea {montiled) or 1,5-36 dittOj and the 
brigarle Imd therefore twenty squadrons with 3,580 sabres, a division 
forty ditto with 7,160 ditto, and the whole Ctirps d'Armee eighty 
ditto with 14,320 ditto. 

Some of Napoleoii^s Corps d'Armee were no doubt even atronger 
than thisj for instance in 181-3^ the Srst corps with seventy-eight 
pquadrons and 16,000 hordes, but this waa organised ditlerenllyj 
and had font divbiona with au average strengtli of 4,000 horsesj 
consequently little more than an Austrian brigade. The staffs of 
tlie Austrian Cavalry Corps, divisions and brigades were moreover 
organized in prceiseiy the same defective manner as those of the 
Infantry^ and to crown all, the Cavalry regulationa were assimilated 
as much as possible to those of tbe latter arm. 

On comparing these Austrian formations^ with the Prussian and 
French, we find the same names applied to bodies of double the 
eifective strengtii conducted by statl's containing less than one half 
the corresponding number of officers, and, as a general consequencej 
a system of tactics wliolly unsuited to the Cavalry. 

So called great mantBuvres were perpetrated in 1851, 52, 53 and 
57, the attempt being made at first to work a whole corps en 
masMj tlien a division, and finally a brigade] each get of manoeuvres 
proving the inefficiency of the system adopted and engendering 
new Cavalry regulations, four of whicli appeared in the space of 
five years- 

The enormous suras these great Cavalry mana^uvres roust have 
cost, although onerous enough in the then st^tc of the Austrian 
finances, was not the worst part of the evil, the attempt to move 
such unwieldly bodies symmetrically and in unison, naturally led 
to the substitution of formal drill and parade for genuine manoeu- 
vering, and encumbered the regylatiou with complicated difficult 
and wholly usieless formations and movements. 

But to those who take an interest in Cavalry tactics, the plans 
of these Austrian manoeuvres which have been published at Vienna 
from time to time afi'ord valuable instruction f they prove in the 
most convincing manner that the attempt to unite very large bodies 
of Cavalry in permanent organizations and apply to tijese the rules 
of formal tactics, leads directly to results, wholly at variance with 
the principles on which the efficiency of the aim really depend. 
We fiiid^ for instance, one single charge to be the usual result of 
manoeuvres that lasted four or five hours, or even longer* Now it 
is universally admitted both by the opponents and admirers of tho 
Cavalry, that its best, if not only, chance of success mainly depends 
on surprise, and consequently on rapidity of evolution, and this 
can never be attained by such un wieldly formations as the Austrian 
Cavalry corps we have here described. 

* It la nght to tnetition that there w&re abo cavalry brigades^ cansistingof 3 Ught 
reginient3r 16 squadrona, 3072 Aabresi but these weredes^tiued to act independatiU^V} 
tUe regular iiirmaimn of the brigade* c»f the reserve eavalry wai a detached force^ 



I 

I 

I 
I 

I 

I 

I 



1863.] • MILITARY STUDIES. 4S7 

It would seetiij however, tliat these matioeuvrea have not heen 
alto^etiier tlevoiJ of positive and valuable practical resultsj for 
aiihoogli the object pro posed has certainly not been attained^ the 
efforts made in its pursuit have not only had (he effect of gradually 
eHininating from the Austrian Cavalry regulations a va?t number 
of antiquated and useless form a Lions and movements^ but what ia 
still more important, they have engendered new principles of 
formal tactics, whose value will be easily appreciated by Cavalry 
officers. The most striking of these is, that all forinatious and 
the traiisitions from one to the otiier, can be effected without 
halting, a vast progress as compared with what has hitherto ob- 
tained and still exists in the regulations of other armies. It results 
from this, that all formations may be effected towards the front, 
more properly speaking in the direction of ibe march, whether in 
advance or retreat, and it is no longer necessary to lead troops or 
squadrons to the rear for the purpose of enabling them subsequently 
to move to the front. This facility and rapidity of evolution has 
been attained by adopting the principle of invasion as a general 
mlej the tactical unity at the head of a column or on the right of 
a line being always No, 1 for tactical purposes, although of course 
it retains its proper number for those that are administrative, &c« 
The temporary number applied to the other unities depends on 
their place for the moment, and varies in almost every forma- 
tion. 

The organizalionj too, of the Austrian Cavalry has been changed, 
and as appears to us in the right direction ; the heavy cavalry legi- 
ments have been reduced to four, the light ones to six squadrons 
each, and the number of horses equalized throughout, namely 1S6 
for each squadron, exclusive of officers^ chargers, A heavy regiment 
will therefore bring into the field about 540 sabres, and a brigade 
consist ii!g of two, 1,0H0 ditto; a light regiment about 800 sabres, 
or a brigade of two, 1600 ditto. We cannot, however, state exactly 
what the new brigade organizalion is to be, and whether, as in the 
Infant ry^ the division has been abandoned or not, the Corps 
d'Arm^c seem to have been altogether abolished. The permanent 
organ izn I ion of overgrown Corps d'Armle is very evidently equally 
ill-adapted to secure a rapidly combined action of large masses of 
Cavalry on the field of battle as the system of attaching single 
squadrons to infantry brigades, the combined action of the three 
arms. It is probable that one and the same system of organization, 
namely in divisions of sixteen to twenty-four squadrons, or E,400 to 
3,600 horses, would answer the purposes of the divisional and 
reserve Cavalry equally well, nnd thefefore being generally applic- 
able, render all higher combinations unnecessary. The or^anissatiou 
in separate divisions cannot be an obstacle to the concentration of 
masses of Cavalry on the field of battle, Frederick the Great never 
concentrated his squadrons till the moment they were wanted; the 
divisional organization, however, presupposes good Cavalry generals 



488 HILITART STUDIES. [.Vr^ 

and a good staff, and when these are wanting the organizsliua-j 
Corps d'Armfe will scarcelj remedy the defect. 

We do not mean to say that such formations as the Prasrj: 
Cavalry corps might not be saccossfuUjr handled by clever generiL' 
aided by efficient staffs, but there are other than merely tacii& 
considerations that render it expedient to avoid the permanent cc> 
centration of a great number of squadrons. The columns of marci 
of such bodies are monstrous nuisances and impediments to th; 
whole army, and to the Cavabry itself, their length, the heat, iL^ 
clouds of dust, the obstruction of main roads nre bad enough ; ire 
worst is, that here the sore backs and other injuries that rtnder 
horses unserviceable, are produced with the greatest rapiditjr ifri 
certainty. 

It will be found that the proportion of sore backs almost i: 
zero in the case of single orderlies, increases rapidly as we a«cni 
the scale of patrol squadrons, regiments, brigades, &g., and tHe 
reason is obvious. The individual management of each rid^ 
decreases in proportion as the number of riders increases. In ilic 
case of large columns the heat and dust fatigue the rider, and i 
regular and steady pace is rendered impossible by the vain attempt! 
made to keep distance; moreover, the control of the squadron 
officers and the possibility of preventing mischief by re-saddling, 
when necessary, are reduced to a minimum. The injuries to the 
horse's backs occur almost always during the latter third of the 
day's march, when the rider is tired and has grown stiff, and this \* 
the reason why the plan of trotting down the etapes is found usefoi, 
but this is only then practicable when the Cavalry marches in a 
great number of small columns. 

It is also sometimes a matter of great difficulty to find bivouaci 
suited to large bodies of Cavalry, and the difficulties of foraging are 
increased tenfold thereby. 

On the 27th of August, 1805, Napoleon I. gave orders for the 
troops at Boulogne to disembark and march on the Rhine. The 
Cavalry division of the 2nd Corps d'Armee (infantry) was concen- 
trated at Mayence on the 25lh September, that of the third ditto 
at Speyer on the 28th, of the 4th ditto at Pirmasens on the 25th, 
of the 5th ditto at Waesth on the 26th, and the divisions of llie 
reserve Cavalry reached Permasens, Schlcttsladt, Molslieim and 
Oberstein between the 16th and 20th of September. All tlic#e 
troops marched through France in small bodies, sometimes by 
separate squadrons, and reached the Rhine in the best possible 
condition. 

In 1812, after the corps organizsil ion had been introduced, ihe 
French Cavalry marched by divisions from the moment it crossi'd 
the Rliine, although the whole country between that river and the 
Niemen was cither under French authority or in close alliance 
with France. Thus two heavy Cavalry divisions of the 2nd 
Cavalry corps marched united from Cologne and Bonn to Weimar, 



1863.] MILITARY STUDIES. 489 

and thence with the remainder of the corps and its Artillery en 
masse to the Niemen. The 1st Cavalry corps was concentrated on 
the Elbe and pursued its march in one column to the Bussian 
frontier. The losses sustained in consequence, and before a shot 
was fired, were enormous. 

A question that has been much agitated is, whether Artillery 
should, under all circumstances, or only occasionally, be combined 
with Cavalry ? The advocates of the great Cavalry corps, a certain 
number of Artillery officers, amongst others Monhaupt, and, it 
would also seem the majority of the Austrian authorities, Badetzky, 
Hess &c., not only insist on the necessity of combining the two 
arms, under all circumstances, but go the length of laying it down 
as a rule; "that the action of the Cavalry can only succeed when 
it has been prepared beforehand by Artillery .'' It has always been 
a matter of astonishment to us to find these same persons putting 
forward, in the same breath, the other doctrine, *' that the success of 
the Cavalry mainly depends on the enemy being taken by surprise." 
these two dogmata cannot be made to harmonize with each other, 
it is evidently because one or the other is false, and if we attempt 
to combine them, the monstrous absurdity is engendered, ''that the 
successful action of the Cavalry depends on the enemy being pre- 
pared to be surprised.'' 

But a careful and impartial examination of all the normal forma- 
tions of the Cavalry Corps d'Armee, and of the plans so called great 
Cavalry manceuvres, prove that these people had always in view 
combats of great masses of Artillery covered by Cavalry which latter 
was intended to go in and finish at the end of the cannonade, much 
in the way in which the Cavalry divisions Devaux and Partonneaux 
and the Cavalry of the Guard were employed at Solferino. But 
such an employment of the Cavalry can only be exceptional, espe- 
cially since the introduction of rifled artillery, and can never be 
put forward as a general rule. 

If we analyze this question, we find it to consist of a number of 
separate elenaents that admit of multiplied combinations, and there- 
fore exclude the idea of any one general solution. Taking the 
divisional Cavalry, in the first instance, we may conclude that it is 
absurd to attach guns to it permanently ; because the Artillery of 
a Corps d'Arm^e is best employed en masse, as we have already 
shown, to combine these two arms is to weaken one without 
strengthening the other other. 

Let us next take the case of Cavalry acting against Infantry, and 
we find, that the latter arm having always Artillery attached, the 
small number of guns usually attached to the divisional cavalry 
will be in the most favourable case, perhaps equal, more usually 
much inferior in number, and therefore in all cases too weak to do 
anything more than enter into a combat with the enemy's artillery, 
the Cavalry can gain nothing by this but the loss of xjwk^ ^jkn^ 
horses. But someone will say, inctesNSfc \3cv^ y^q^^^ji^^v^^ ^ ^^^js^s* 



490 



MlUTAnY STDDIES. 



[Aug. 



attached to the Cavalry — this would be to convert the latter into 
an escort or covering party for the former ; a strange proposition in 
the mouth of those who assert, that rifled guns ean destroy Cavalry 
at the distance of an English mile or further. 

We now come to Cavalry against Cavalry, that is to say to the 
work of the reserves. There are two cnses possiblt*^ first that both 
parties are nearly equal in strength, or secondly, that they are 
unequal. If my enemy be about equal in number, or if some- 
what superior, my Cavalry better than his, I shall pitch 
into him at once without waiting till he is prepared to be sur- 
prised. This is wliat the thorougli-bred Cavalry General will say, 
and we hold that he ia right* If, however, the superiority of 
number or quatily be very great on the one side, then the weaker 
party may certainly advantageously eombiue Artillery with his 
aquadronsj or with a portion of them^ thus keeping the remainder 
available for a favourable opporttiiiity j and if he he Bheltered by 
a great number of gnn$, then one can hardly get at him other wis6 
than by bringing up guns enough to silence his. We have already 
shown that Menidorfl could do nothing at Solferino against the 
French Cavalry because he had no guns to bring up* 

But this very instance proves beyond a doubt that the question 
at isme is, how is the Artillery best employed — en masses or scat- 
tered by single batteries over the whole line of battle f there can 
be no doubt as to the answer, and, therefore, astlie Artillery always 
loses by being scattered about piecemeal by single batteries, and a 
combination of Artillery with Cavalry is indispensable to the latter, 
only in the one shigle case when it is too weak to stand on its own 
legs, it follows that the combination of the two arms should only 
be temporary and exceptional, and not permanent and regular* 

The doctrines of the united action of the three arms must there* 
fore be underslood only in tlie sense of their being employed har- 
moniously, each at the proper moment, and in the right direction, 
to the furtherance of the general design or plan of the Commander- 
in-Chief, and as this can never be the same in any two actions, and 
is impossible to foresee or determine, except in the most general 
manner; the attempt to secure this combined action by a combin- 
ation of organization, to tiie eiEtent to which it is pushed by the 
German school, can only defeat its own object, for each arm loses 
thereby more or less of it^ own independence, and const qiiently 
moral strength, and none more certainly than the Cavalry. 

"What is called the decline of this arm is therefore the necessary 
consequence of a variety of circumstances, many of which are per- 
feet I y fortuitous^ although others have no doubt a real and deeply 
founded existence* The armies of the ]>resent day are so numerous 
that they must consist almost exclusively of Infantry, and this alone 
condemns the Cavalry to a secondary TiUe^ Fire-arms in general, 
and Artillery in especial, have made enormous progress within a 
few years, this too is unfavourable to the Cavalry* But in the same 



186^.] 



HILrr^ET SiUDtE^. 



491 



pruportion bs out armies have grown nyrnerically strongeri they 
have become iti maoj respecU Jtitrinsically inferior to ft- hat they 
were. Tlie enormoua drain on human capital on the one hand, and 
the proi^ress of civilization on the other, have exercised an unfavour- 
able influence on ihe physical qualities of the soldier* Whatever 
raay be said to the contrary, it is certain that the three arms have 
lost mnch of their former self-dependence, the basis of their 
strength. The Infantry considers itself sacritited unless supported 
by Artiilerjf and covered by Cavalry, and the latter is readily 
sacrificed to t lie more numerous, and if the reader will, more im- 
portant arm. The field artillery conjmenced its career as a secondary 
and merely auxiliary arm, it has worked itself np to the rank of a 
principl one, and would now, like the Infantry, convert the 
Cavalry into its handmaid. This is not as it should be, let each 
ttand on its own legs, and all three will fare the better. 

But there are other reasons for the decline uf the Cavalry, in- 
herent in its own nature, any man with straight litnbs^ a sound 
chest and good feet can be made into a good Artillerist or Infantry 
soldier, genuine good Cavalry can only be made out of meji that 
are accustomed to horses from their childhood, in one shape or the 
other, and really love these animals j otherwise we have more sore 
backs than sound ones in a ^hort lime. But this subject shall form 
the conclusion of our paper in a future numbeft 



h 



COST OF HER MAJESTY^S SHIPS. 



It will be remembered how mtich stress was laid by the Commis- 
sioners entrusted with the inquiry into the control and manage- 
ment of Her Majesty^a Naval Yards, on the importance and 
necessity of having accurate and detailed accounts of the ei:pendi- 
ture incurred iu those establishments^ and how warmly the subject 
was at the time taken up by Parliaments The Report made by Sir 
Henry Willoughby and his brother commissioners dwelt, in fact, 
much more on the system adopted in keeping aecoants, than on 
that which prevailed in managing the officers and men employed 
in the yards ; and as there was no real fault to be found with the 
mode in which that part uf the business of the Navy was conducted, 
the Commissioners were obliged to assume that there must be 
wmiething wrong, and that this something was connected with the 
statements of the receipt and expenditure of the stores. 

*'The system of accounts is elaborate and niLnutCj^' they stated, 
'* but as far as we can judge, its results are not to be relied upon 
for any particular purpose ;" and after e^cplaining at great length 
the mode in which the accounts were made out, and bringing 
prominently under notice the plan adopted in ascertaining the value 
of the articles supplied for various purposes, they wound up with the 

U.S.Maq/No. 417, Aug. 1863, ^ kk" 




49£ 



COST 01^ HER M4J 



[AlTOi 



follow iiig fiuggcstions. Firat^ that the Accoun taut-General should 

fratne a aew system of accounts on the principle of double entry; 
2nd, That the accounts should be made up in the dock-yards each 
month ; 3rd. That an annual account should be laid before Parlia- 
ment, giving a detailed statement showing bow the money voted 
for the dock-yards has been expended on ships and servieesi 
4th. That the forms of accounts should be carefully revised |^ 
5th. That the Accountant-General should consult with the cilicera 
and decide upon an uniform system of classification of heads of 
aervicea at the different yards; Cth* That the storekeepers should 
be cashier^j and should pay the wages at the yards ; and 7th. That 
the practice of issuing stores without vouchers should be checked 
by the Superintendents of the dock-yards. 

When this Report was priutedj it was at once pronounced to be 
an able, but not an impartially prepared docuuieut^ and althougb 
the larger number of persons were rather inclined to take the same 
view of dock^yard affairs as the Royal Commissioners, and to con- 
clude that there was some radical defect in the plan on which these 
establishments wxre conducted, those who were practically ac* 
quainted with the real merits of the ease were not surprised to 
find that the Accountant-General of the Navy, who was described 
by the Commissioners as "an officer well fitted by his great 
expierence and acknowledged ability to remodel the department,'' 
shortly afterwards reported thatj although the returns were not so 
satisfactory in their results as might be desired, they w^re sound 
on the whole, as a basis for a great account to show the expense 
of each establishment, and that the public need be under no fear 
that one shilling of the publie money is applied to any other pur- 
. pose than that for whieb it is voted by Parliament. But unfortu- 
I nately the great mass of readers are too ready to receive injplicitly 
l^uy statement which tends to throw discredit ou the Government 
departments, or anything which seems to confirm their pre-eon- 
ceived notions as to the superiority of private over public establish- 
ments ; so much so, that they frequently quote as true, and repeat 
SB correct, assertions w^hich have been shown to be fake and 
' unfounded. This was the case with the author of the panvphlet 
^ entitled '' Tlie Three Panics," which appeared about tw^elve months 
after Sir Henry Willoughby presented his 11 l^ port ou the Dock- 
Yarda, as w^ell as with the author of the work on "Taxation, its 
Levy and Expenditure/' published last winter. They both allude 
to the incorrectness of the dock^yard accounts, and the statements 
relating to the cost of Her Majesty^s ships piX'pared therefrom ; 
but they make no allusion whatever to the speeches of responsible 
ministers, or to the oificial reports presented to Parliament correct- 
ing the mistakes to which we have adverted. 

It should always be borne in mind when considering the ques- 
tion of accounts of such magnitude as those kept at the various 
naval yards necessarily are, that improvements can only be effected 



1883.] COST OP HER majesty's ships. 498 

by degrees, or as may from time to time be foand to be reqaisite. 
Up to 1880, for one hundred years, there had been little change 
in the manner of keeping the public accounts ; but from that time 
they began to improve, and they have gone on improving ever 
since ; so that any impartial person who looks into them now, and 
who looked into them in former days, will say that, with all their 
imperfections, they are much better than they have been before. 
The attention of Sir James Graham was given to this subject when 
he was at the Admiralty in 1852, and arrangements were made by 
his successor, Sir Charles Wood, for ensuring much greater cor- 
rectness in the accounts, as well as for establishing a proper check 
on the expenditure. These measures have been followed up by 
the numerous "First Lords" who have since presided at the 
Whitehall Board ; and the public are now furnished every year, 
soon after Parliament meets, with detailed accounts of the receipt 
and expenditure of all monies voted for Naval Services, and of the 
expenses incurred on Her Majesty's ships building, converting, 
repairing, and fitting. 

When the Duke of Somerset was under examination before the 
Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Board of 
Admiralty, he stated that if it were known exactly what informa- 
tion respecting the cost of building, converting, or repairing ships 
were wanted, it could easily be given ; and that as it was a great 
undertaking to alter the accounts in all the dock-yards, it was very 
desirable before they were established on any system, to see that 
that system will be such as will give Parliament the information it 
wishes to have. Also, that when they are so established, there 
would be no difficulty in keeping them according to the system. 
And when his Grace was asked whether he was of opinion that 
under the existing system of Admiralty management, it would be 
easy to adopt such checks and revisions as would obviate all risk 
of inaccuracy for the future, he replied, " That can be done ; but 
I don't think it very easy. I think that establishing a system of 
double entry in the dock-yards for all the various accounts that 
have to be brought together is not a very easy matter. I think 
that when you go into the value not only of the stores brought in, 
but of stores manufactured in the yards, of stores returned from 
ships, and also from the variety of articles and of value of the 
different stores, that there is considerable difficulty in having a 
very accurate account.'^ 

The old saying, that " where there is a will there is a way,'' has 
proved true with regard to these dock-yard returns. Directly the 
members of the Board were convincea that an alteration in the 
plans of keeping them was necessary, and that they required to 
be put on an improved footing, they called upon the Accountant- 
General to prepare a system of books by double entry for the 
dock-yards. This plan, after being duly considered by the other 
principal officers at Somerset House, whose duties were very much 

kk2 



491 



COST OP HlTtt majesty's SHIFS. 



[Aug* 



involved in the question, was tben adopted^ and from the returns 
which have been recently laid on the table of the House of Com- 
mons, we arc enabled to form a correct opinion as to whether the 
Admiralty have carried out the vievra expressed in both Houaes of 
Parliament on the subject 

Tlie report made by Sir Richard Bromley shortly before he left 
the Admiralty to become a Commissioner of Greenwich Hospital, 
shows that in leaving this matter to be dealt with by the Duke of 
Somerset aud his colleagues^ the counti^ acted most wisely, and 
that the executives had the power as well as the will to place this 
much vexed question of the cost of constructing men-of-war on a 
satisfactory footing. Every item contained in the Return is based 
upon orders for materials drawn from store, and for labour appliedj 
signed for by the respective shipwright and factory officers in charge 
of each particular work j the whole has been checked and audited, 
and may therefore be relied upon. It is however susceptible of 
great improvement, and we have no doubt thatj under the super- 
intendence of Mr. Stansfeld, who is well versed in mercantile 
business, we shall see it approach year by year much nearer per- 
fection than it is at present. 

Until March, 1860, there was no means of ascertaining cor- 
rectly the cost of any particular ship, except from the Doomsday 
Boole which was kept m the office of the Controller of the Navy^ 
and which was not of course open to public inspection* At that 
date, the first of the Returns showing the expenses incurred on 
Her Majesty's ships, prepared at the instance of Lord Clarence 
Pagetj was presented to Parliament by her Majesty's command, 
Tt was an abstract account, accompanied by detailed statements, 
showing the expenses incurred under the heads of, 1. Ships and 
vessels buildings 2, Ships conimeneed as sailing vessels, and 
converted to screws^ 3, Ships launched as sailing ships^ and sub- 
sequently converted ; 4. Fitting and maintaining steam ships in 
commission and in ordinary ; 5. Repairing and maintaining sailing 
ships in commission and in ordinary; 6, Fitting and maintaining 
hulks, yard craft, boats, &c. ; and was signed by the Controller 
of the Navy. The Return which was printed in February, 186 Ij 
was made up on very nearly the same plan j as also was the one 
presented in the year following } except that ships built in the 
dock-yards were distinguished from those built by contract and 
purchased. To each of these papers a memorandum was appended, 
to the effect that the aggregate expenses iocurred under the various 
heads may in any one year greatly exceed or fall short of the 
aggregate amount of money voted ; in other words, that those 
sums ought not to balance unless the value of materials in store 
at the commencement and at the end of the year happened to be 
tbe same ; and this can never be ascertained without the laborious 
and costlv process of taking and valuing stock, 

Since the Accountant General has had charge of these returns. 



1863.] COST OF HBR HAJESTT's SHIPS. 495 

the diflScalty allocied to by the GoDtroUer of the Navy appears to 
have been overcome ; and we have now the advantage of seeing 
the two sides of the accoant placed in juxta- position. On one 
hand there is given a statement of the charges incurred under the 
various heads^ and on the other a list of the sums expended at the 
dock-yards and at the Admiralty. To enable a correct idea to be 
formed of the business-like manner in which this account is now 
rendered^ and of the vast sums which are included therein^ it may 
be well to give an abridged abstract of it^ as follows : 

Charges incurred for 
Ships building in Her Majesty's dock -yards . £613,829 

Ships built by contract, or purchased . . 932,323 

Ships commenced as wooden vessels converted 

into iron-cased ships 868,292 

Ships launched or commenced as sailing ships 

converted into screws 118,530 

Steam ships fitting out, refitting, repairs, &c., in 

commission and in reserve .... 1,186,442 
Sailing ships, fitting out, refitting, repairs, &c., 

in commission and in reserve • • • 71,538 

Fitting and maintaining hulks, breaking up old 
ships, building and repairing yard craft, coal 

depots, &c 82,759 

Stores supplied, &c., for other Government depart- 
ments, private individuals, and foreign Gk)vern- 
ments, and for making machinery for permanent 
yard plant 102,466 

£8,476,179 
Deducted for stores, &c., returned from sailing 

ships, and for breaking up of old vessels 41,318 



£3,434,861 



Expenditure at Her Majesty's dock-yards . . ^1,894,540 
Payments for machinery made by contractors . 727,794 
Payments for vessels purchased or built, and re- 
paired at private yards ..... 770,706 
Payment for stores purchased by captains, consuls, 

&c 11,687 

Expenditure for wages of Metropolitan police, &c. 30,184 



£3,434,861 
From this statement it will be seen that the sum paid to the 
contractors and others for the purchase of vessels and machinery, 
is nearly equal to that expended at the dock-yards, a proportion 
with which even the Gobdens, and Brights, and Lindsays, and all 
the other members who are constantly advocating the employment 



496 



COST OF HER 1IAJE3TY S 3EIIF3« 



[Aug* 



* 

* 



F 



of private establtshmenta, may be satisfied, but one wbich we hope 
may not be maintained in fature years. The theory that greater 
reliance ^bould be placed od the yards belonging to private firm a 
for building the sliips of the lioyal Navy, and that the dock-yards 
should be used principally for repairing and refitting those vessels^ 
may be very good in the iight of those who are iiitereated in this 
diversion of the money voted by Parliament from its legitimate 
channel, but in practice it will be found that in time of peace it 
\a more expensivej and during the pressure of war it will fail us 
altogether* Even if it could be shown that in an economical point 
of view it would be better for the Crown to employ private indi- 
viduals in preference to its ow^n officers and servants in con struct tag 
the fleet, the mere pecuniary advantage would be greatly oat- 
balanced by the risk which must in that case be incurred of the 
country being placed at the mercy of those whom it could not 
controL The voluntary system may be a very good one, but in 
our opinion the establishment system is a much better one. 

This question has, however, received a practical answer within the 
last twelvemonths. When it was determined that the example of 
the Emperor of the French should be followed, and that some of 
the most powerful ships of the Navy should be built of iron, the 
Admiralty entrusted the construction of those ships to private 
firms and public companies^ and the result has been that '^ in no 
one instance have the contractors kept to their agreements, either 
as to time or cost," not only, '^has one contractor, or one iron 
ship builder, failed in his agreement, but all have done so/* When 
to these facts are added the difficulties whichj necessarily surround 
the question, such as, '* the general slovenliness of the work per- 
formed, rendering the presence of an inspector necessary on the 
premises of the contractor, the great temptations that beset 
contractors to use inferior and cheaper materials, the probability of 
strikes of workmen, strikes of colliers, disputci in trades," we 
think it must be admitted that, however desirous the government 
may be to allow the country to benefit by the advantages which 
may possibly be derived from occasionally employing private 
firms, it would be most impolitic for them to reduce the power 
which it now possesaes of building, repairing, and re-titting ships 
of all classes, ^Moreover, it appears that, of the vessels built by con- 
tract and launched in 1861^ two were returned to the contractors 
" not being fit for the service." 

The sums expended on this part of the Navy are no doubt 
largCj they may indeed be termed enormous j the results should be 
enormous also. Let us see the a what return the country has 
received for the three and a half millions expended during the 
financial year ended on the 31st of March, 1863, The foHowing 
ahipa are stated to have been lannched from II er Majesty^s Dock* 
yards, and by contractors, viz, :— 



1863."| COST OP H1BB majesty's ships. 497 

Prom Her Majesty's Dock-yards. 

Name Number of G ant Tonnage Hone Power Total earn expended 

Africa 4 669 150 £22,185 

Aurora 51 2,558 400 90,775 

Defiance 89 3,475 800 140,036 

Glasgow 51 3,037 600 105,654 

Investigator 2 149 34 6,023 

Perseus 17 955 200 83,265 

Rattler 17 952 200 84,756 

Rattlesnake 21 1,705 400 64,552 

Royalist 11 669 156 25,846 

Shearwater 4 669 150 21,475 

From Private Yards. 

Defence 16 3,720 600 209,075 

Dromedary 2 654 100 11,562 

Resistance 16 3,710 600 213,047 

The wooden ships Caledonia, Ocean, Prince Consort, and Royal 
Oak, were each advanced considerably towards conversion into 
iron-cased vessels, and the following ships launched as sailing ships 
were converted into screw steam vessels, viz. : — 
Name Number of Guna Tonnage Horse Power Total mm expended 

3,141 

8,117 

2,782 

2,611 

3,161 

2,762 

While the ships thus enumerated have been added to the Fleet, 
431 steam ships and vessels have been fitted out, refitted, re- 
paired, and maintained in commission and reserve, 64 steam vessels 
permanently employed as troop, store, and surveying vessels, tenders, 

Jachts &c., have also been fitted out, repaired, and refitted, as also 
ave 200 sailing ships, — and 76 hulks have been fitted and main- 
tained. 

For the first time an attempt has been made to institute a com- 
parison of the rate per ton for ships built of wood in Her Ma- 
jesty^s dock-yards, and by contract, from which it appears that the 
charge on the former varies from <£22 19s 3d to £27 18s 2d per 
ton, and on the latter from £21 19s to £23 158 per ton ; but this 
statement must not be taken as a fair test of the relative cost of 
the vessels launched from the public and private establishments ; 
by a note appended to the return it appears that ''owing to 
the difierent state of advancement of ships at the period of launch- 
ing, it is liable to lead to erroneous opinions being formed as to the 
ultimate cost of the ships, some of them having considerable sums 



ArethoBS 


51 


Albion 


86 


Bombay 


81 


Collingwood 


80 


Octavia 


51 


Prince Begent 


86 



500 


£85,966 


400 


57,460 


400 


74,556 


400 


52,369 


500 


68,687 


500 


66,816 



COST 0¥ HER MAJBSTt's 9HXF3- 



IVG* 



expended upoo lb em for fittings while on the stocks, while on 
others they are comparatively triflings the value also of the timber 
tnateriala increases in proportion to the increase in scantling', 
which materially affects the rate per ton for large ships " The 
latter remark is most important in this case, as none of the 
vessels built in private yards (of wood) exceed SOO tons, while 
those coDstructed in the naval yards range from 149 to 2^558 
tons, in fact one only of the latter is even approximately of so 
small a tonnage as the former* In order to institute an exact 
comparison of the cost of ships built in different places^ the 
capital account of the cost of a ship should not be closed until she 
is fitted for sea and has left the port in commis^ioni for the money 
expended for fitting and preparing for the reserve and commission 
iSj in many cases^ very large, as will be seen by the following 
table— 
Sbip Deeeriplion of chtrge Chuge during the jear 1361^2, 



Albion, fitting, repairing &c. in reserve 


£9,566 


Arethusa 


j> 


fi 


10,860 


Barrosa 


n 


jj 


13,086 


Bombay 


M 


ff 


15.204 


Chanticleef 


ft 


" 


14,245 


Defence 


tf 


in reserve and in commission 


28,495 


Devastation 


ff 


M 


15,966 


Duncan 


9i 


in reserve 


16,175 


Euryalus, fittings 


repairing, &c,j in reserve and in 




commission 


L 


jj 


£21,617 


Galatea 


$9 


in reserve 


21,453 


Glasgow 


ff 


*i 


10,158 


Marlborough 


» 


in commission 


30,939 


Orestes 


tf 


in reserve and in commission 


12,457 


Orpheus 


S3 


ft 


15,958 


PhoBbe 


Jf 


jt 


21,347 


Eesistance 


$> 


in reserve 


10,690 


Sutlej 


n 


" 


12,031 


Tribune 


» 


in reserve and in commission 


40,148 


Warrior 


ij 


*i 


67,855 



Amongst the various items of expenditure of which the Parlia- 
mentary return under consideration is composed, there are none 
which we notice with so much pleasure as those for training ships 
by boys, and drill ships for the Royal Naval Reserve, By the use 
of the training ships we feel confident that hundreds of thousands 
of pounds will ultimately be saved to the country* They are the 
nurseries from which the supply of trained seamen will be obtained 
for the fleet ; and the education given to the boys, as well as the 
good habits formed by them while on board those ships, will be 
the means of improving the Bervice in a manner which can now 
hardly be estimated. The advantages of having a Reserve of some 
of the finest seamen in the world, ready to man a fleet of line of 



i 



1863.] COST OP HER majesty's ships. 499 

battle ships immediately their services are required, have been so 
fully discussed during the last few years, and are now so generally 
admitted and appreciated, that we need not enlarge on that 
gratifying subject. We cannot, however, allow the subject to pass 
without expressing a hope that this magnificent force may be 
speedily raised to the number authorized by Parliament, and that 
some more of the sailing ships remaining in reserve may be appro- 
priated for this purpose ; unless it should be found that they are 
better suited for being placed in commission as troop ships, a 
purpose for which it would be far preferable to use them, rather 
than to hire merchant vessels at a much heavier cost to the 
country. 

We cannot conclude our remarks on this subject of Dock- Yard 
Expenditure, and the cost of Her Majesty's Ships, without noticing 
the elaborate Eetum last week laid by Mr. Stansfeld on the table 
of the House of Commons, containing a copy of the balance sheets 
showing the cost of manufacturing articles in the workshops of the 
several dock-vards and steam factories for the year 1861-62 ; a 
well prepared Blue-book which we confidently commend to the 
attention of Sir Hugh Willoughby, Mr. Dalglish, and others, who 
have hitherto been under the impression that the value of the 
numerous articles manufactured in the Government establishments 
has not been correctly ascertained. An examination of this Blue- 
book will perhaps induce them to change their opinion on this 
subject. 



MILITARY SCIENCE; ANCIENT, AND MODERN. 

In our notice of '* Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal 
Engineers,*' February, 1868, we expressed our intention of extend- 
ing our observations on some portions of the subjects to similar 
transactions of other nations ; and we now therefore purpose enter- 
ing into a comparative survey of the ancient and modern engines of 
war, and their relative powers for offence, and defence ; this practical 
branch of military science being well worthy attention, and pro- 
bably such as will be considered interesting not only to those officers 
who study the theory of their profession, but also to our general 
readers, many of whom are perhaps unwilling to devote much time 
to the acquirement of any knowledge excepting that which is prac- 
tical, and bearing immediately, as it were, on events the results of 
which may be of vital importance to themselves when engaged in 
military operations in the face of an enemy. A zealous and good 
soldier will admit the correctness of the following judicious opinion 
of the Chevalier Folard, ''La gaerre est un metier pour les ignor- 
ans, et une science pour les habiles gens." 

The ancient engines of war, or artillery, ma^ b«. 4\s\&s^\s4^'^«sw^ 



I 

IN 



classes; 1st, tbose used for projectiles j 2ndj those for approach 
and demolition of walls, &c* ; Srd, a miacellaneous class, applicable 
to various ofiVnsive operations* 

First Class. The BalHsta hurled stones of enormous weight and 
size. Athenffius relates that a hallista threw a stone of three 
talents weight, about 330 lbs. Stones weighing 1 cwt. were pro- 
jected bj the Bom an s at tlie si ego of Jerusalem ; and bodies of 
1200 lbs. were thrown against the Roman fleet at Syracuse, 

The Catapulta thtew either stones or darts. Monttliucon had a 
catapnlta, only five inches in lengthy which projected its dart 400 
feet, and Fokrd possessed a model, only a foot in eath dimension, 
which threw a dart with such force as to cause it to penetrate, and 
remain in freestone at the distance of 1,300 feet* At the siege of 
Marseilles, beams of wood twelve feet long, and pointed with iron, 
were propelled from the top of the walls* The invention of the 
cataptilta caused as great a sensation in ancient times, and led to 
similiar e:xertion8 to overcome its destructive effects, as in the pre- 
sent days are exemplified in the manufacture of gigantic ordnance, 
aiitl corresponding iron plates to resist the ponderous projectiles of 
the guns of Armstrong, Whit worth, Blakeley, and others. When 
the catapulta was first introduced intoSicilv, Archimedes exclaimed » 
" By the gods, the valour of man is now useless ;" and good grounds 
had he for thus expressing his astonishment at witnessing the efi'ect 
produced by this destrnctive engine, which hurled stones of such 
immense weight and bulk, that the angles of square towers were 
demolished, merlons knocked to pieces, and the most powerful 
defences of masonry were destroyed and levelled with the ground. 

The Scorpion and the Arcobalii^ta were smaller engines, for dis- 
charging arrows and darts. 

Second Class. There were two descriptions of Battering Bams ; 
the one suspended, which vibrated similarly to a pendulum ; the 
other moveable on rollers. 

These were denominated (lie Swinging and Eolling Rams, and when 
either of these were worked under a cover or shed, they were 
denominated Tortoise rams* The swinging ram resembled in form 
and magnitude the mast of a ship, and it was suspended horizontally 
at its centre of gravity by chains or cords from a wooden frame. 
The rolling ram was, in its general construction, similar to ibe 
foregoing, except that instead of receiving a pendulous motion, it 
was a motion of simple altemafion or impulsion, produced by the 
strength of men applied to cords passing over pulleys. Appian 
declares that at the siege of Carthago he saw two rams so colossal, 
that one hundred men were employed in working each ; and Vitru- 
vius affirms that the beam was often from one liundred io one 
h u n d red an d t we ji ty feet in le n gth ; and Justus Li psiu s d e scr i b ea 
some as one hundred and ei^'bty feet long, and two feet four inches 
in diameter, with an iron head weighing at least a ton and a half. 
Such a ram as that described by Lipsius would weigh more than 



1863.] MIMTAEY SCIENCS. 501 

45^000 lbs. ; and the momentam of this^ supposing its velocity to 
be about two yards per secondi would be nearly quadruple the 
momentum of a 40 lb. ball, moving with a velocity of 1,600 feet 
per second. 

The moveable towers employed by the ancients in their sieges, 
were often of astonishing magnitude. Their height was sometimes 
forty or fifty feet, to bases of thirtv feet square, to be above the 
walls and stone towers of a besieged city, vitruvius states that the 
weight of one of the (helepoles) towers brought against Rhodes was 
260,0001b., and that to man and work it 84,000 soldiers were 
required. 

Crows, and Cranes. These were defensive machines ased in 
sieges and engagements at sea. It has been stated that when 
Marcellus had advanced his galleys close under the walls of 
Syracuse, Archimedes directed against them enormous machines, 
which being projected forward, there were let down from them 
large beams, from which were suspended long ropes, terminating 
with grappling hooks, which laying hold of the vessels, and rapidly 
elevating them by the employment of counter weights, upset and 
sank them to the bottom of the sea ; or after raising them by their 
prows, and setting them as it were on their sterns, plunged them 
into the water. Other vessels were swung round towards the shore 
by the application of cranes, and after being whirled through the 
air were dashed to pieces on the rocks beneath. 

The Telleno was a machine for raising a few soldiers higher than 
the top of the enemy's walls, to discern the movements within, and 
for aiding the escalading parties. 

Having completed the foregoing brief description of ancient 
artillery, we will give a few more instances of their employment at 
sieges, and the means taken to avert the destructive effects that 
would otherwise have resulted from the use of them in the attack 
of a place. 

' At the siege of Yotapata, Vespasian placed around the city one 
hundred and sixty engines for throwing darts and stones; some 
threw lances, and stones of the weight of 1 131b. lOoz. (a talent) 
together with fire, and a vast number of arrows. At the siege of 
Jerusalem, Titus employed three hundred catapultae of diverse 
magnitudes, and forty ballistse. 

When the Consul Censorinus marched against Carthage, and 
obliged the inhabitants to give up their arms, they surrendered to 
him two thousand machines constructed for throwing darts and 
stones; and afterwards when Scipio made himself roaster of the 
same city, there were no less than one hundred and twenty-one 
catapultse of the large size, two hundred and eighty-one of the 
smaller, twenty-three of the large ballistse, fifty-two of the smaller 
kind, and innumerable scorpions, arms, missiles, and weapons. 
When Marcellus laid siege to Syracuse, Archimedes exerted the 
powers of his mind in the invention of warlike machines. Marcellus 



50i 



UILITAEY SCIEKCtS. 



fAiro. 



liad brought with hira a stupendous engine, mounted on eight 
galle^'S^ which Archimedes destroyed bj discharging at it single 
stones of enoraious weight while it was at a considerahle distance 
from the walls. AtheiitEUs^ speaking of Kitjf^ Micro's ship, which 
was built after a moJel contrived bj Arcliimedcs, relate:?, 

"That in this *=hi]i tliej erected a platform^ from whence with 
their ejigines they threw stones of three talents weight, and at the 
same time a spear or javelin of twelve cubits in leugth, (twenty- 
one four^ftflha feet) to the distance of a furlong/^ Eiieus Scipio 
in a sea fight, found out a w^ay of throwing vessels full of pitch 
and piue wood at the enemy's fleet, which were as dangerous in 
their fall because of their weight, as they were hurtful ou the 
score of the burning matter they contained, 

lied-hot balls. It was the custom of the ancients to defend 
themselves with red-bot irun, as is testified by Diodorus Siculus, 
who saith that " The Tyrians threw great bodies of red -hot iron 
from ballistse to barn the besiegers* works/' 

Aneieat Sieges. When the Ancients besieged a place of strength, 
. they surrounded and attacked it on all quarters at once ; this the 
Komans fermed corona cingere. The corona was single, double, 
or triple; if three-fold, as was generally the case, tlie first, or 
innermost circle was composed of tlie heavy armed foot, who always 
began the assault; the middle circle consisted of the vdiies^ or 
light-armed, who with tbeir slings, darts, and arrows, drove the 
defenders from their parapets, that the heavy -armed might urge the 
assault with less opposition ; the third and outmost body was com- 
posed of the cavalry. The army, thus prepared, commenced the 
attack, the advance carrying scaling ladders, and hurdles to ^11 up 
the ditch» This etTected, the heavy -armed men formed themselves 
into the tesiudo, or military shell, by means of their bucklers, 
forming a slope, from which tlie stones or darts thrown by the 
defenders slid off without efTecting any injury to the assailants. 
Sometimes also in storming, a kind of crarje was employed termed a 
tolieno ; which was conslructed by fixing a mast upright in the 
ground ; across this was placed a beam tiiaL moved on an axis; and 
to one end of the beam a basket was attached, in which sohiiers 
were hoisted up to tlie top of the walls, to force tlie defenders from 
their works, and to facilitate the attack of the troops beloWi The 
lines of circumvallatioji, and countervallatien geuerally consisted of 
a double ditch and rampart, fortified with towers, or redoubts, 
breastworks, aud palisades. 

The Testudo, the Musculus, the Vinea, aud the Pluteus were 
covered macluues made of strong planks, under which the pioneers 
advanced securely to the walls and undermined them, &c* The 
pluteus moved ou wheeU, the rest were usually laid on rollers, and 
were moved forward with levers. The Aggeres were mounds of 
earth, stone, timber, &c., upon which were placed the battering 
engines and ambulatory towers. Some of these mounds were 



1863.] MIUTAEY 8CIENCB. 503 

raised to a great height; that erected by the Romans against 
Massada, in Jadea, was three hundred feet high, upon which was 
laid a stone platform to support a wooden tower forty feet high, all 
coated over with iron. The mound constructed by Caesar at 
Avaricum was three hundred and thirty feet broad, and eighty feet 
high. 

Further to corroborate the mechanical knowledge, the military 
science, and the undaunted perseverance exemplified by the Ancients 
in besieging a place, we will briefly describe the siege of Tyre, a 
city strongly fortified both by nature and art ; but the capture of 
which was effected by Alexander at the expiration of seven months, 
after desperate struggles on both sides ; for we learn that, in this 
obstinately contested siege, no less than eight thousand Tyrians 
were slain. In order that the battering engines might be able to 
produce the desired effect against the walls of Tyre, a mole was first 
formed from the continent to the city ; the depth of the sea being 
tliree fathoms, and the workmen being galled from the walls by the 
missiles of the besieged, as well as attacked with vigour by well 
manned galleys. To oppose tliese assaults two wooden towers were 
erected at the extremity of the mole, on which were placed the 
engines, covered with raw hides and leather, to resist the ignited 
darts and fireships of the enemy. To frustrate and defeat these 
scientific operations, the Tyrians prepared a large hulk, filling it 
with pitch, sulphur, branches of trees, and other combustibles; 
slinging also to the yards of the two masts cauldrons containing 
ingredients to add to tlie conflagration. A favourable wind contri- 
buted to the success of the fire-hulk, which was towed to the mole 
by two galleys; and the combustibles having been thoroughly 
ignited, the skillful and persevering labours of the Macedonians 
were set at nought by the conflagation of the towers, &c. Alexan- 
der lost no time in constructing another mole, on which were 
erected the formidable battering engines; and reinforcements 
arrived to revive the courage of his troops, raising the strength of 
the naval armament to two hundred vessels. Thus outnumbered, 
but still undaunted, the bold Tyrians retired to their posts, assailing 
the hulks and galleys of their enemy with fiery darts, immense 
stones, and other missiles ; and covered vessels were also employed 
in carrying men to cut the cables of the besiegers' hulks. A 
squadron was then ordered to drive back the Tyrian vessels, but . 
this availed not, for expert divers plunged into the sea, and cut the 
cables of the Macedonian vessels. Chains having been substituted 
for ropes, and the ponderous stones removed, the dreaded battering 
engines were brought up to the walls of the doomed city. During 
two days did the resolute and valiant besieged oppose the desperate 
assaults of the besiegers. Hand to hand, from towers equal in 
height to the walls, did the equally gallant foemen struggle des- 
perately for the mastery. The bravest of the assailants at some 
parts reached the battlements by means of s|joat<iWfi. "^^ ^ws^sssss^ 



:o4 



MIUT.11LY &CIBKCE. 



[Aug. 



ladders; at otiier parts grappling iroriSj hooks, burning sand, &o.j 
were successfully employed by the Tyriaiia in the repulse and des- 
truction of the besiegers. In the attack and defence, courage, 
fenseverance, and military science were equally congpieuous* 
ngenious coulrivances and methods of assault were met by equally 
subtle and adroit modes of resistance. The shock of the battering 
engines was deadened by raw hides and bags of wool ; and breaches 
when effected^ were resolutely defended. The vigour of the ejiemy 
at length gave way to the indomitable perseverance of Alexander* 
On the third day^ simultaneously, did this whole of the engines des- 
perately assail the walls^, while the fleet attacked the harbours, A 
wide breach having been made, the hulks witli the engines retired, 
and others with scaling ladders and troops advanced to the assaults 
Desperate was the struggle, but at last the diij^comfitcd Tyrians were 
forced to yield to the irresistible prowess of the victors, and to 
submit to the capture of the city* In this obstinately contested 
siege, which lasted seven months, eight thousand Tyrians were slain, 
and thirty thousand reduced to servitude. 

In our retrospect of ancient warfare, and the modus operandi, 
we will now ref«r to the pictorial and interesting workj entitled 
'' Veieres de re miliiari scrip! or eSy^ (cicdclxx) by Vegetius, and 
other Eonian wrtttT^. The old saying of "there's nothing new 
under the sun*' appears to be veriiied, with reference to the aeieuce 
of war J for we find in this old publication an invaloable record of 
military operations, and also a minute deecriptinn of the various 
engines used in the altack and defence of cities, the construction of 
bridges^, mode of encamping, and eveu the employment of paddle 
wheels for pro]jelling vessels. From the peru^^al of this publication, 
it appears quite evident that the boasted military science of the 
present day amounts to but little; fofj in the power of destruction, 
iu the ingenuity, and in the high mathematical knowledge mani- 
fested in the construction of some of the engines, proudly may the 
Ancients contrast their evidences of mental ability even with the 
gigantic and scientiQc ordnance, and implements of warfare of the 
present times. 

Confining our attention, chiefly to the military machinery, and 
projectiles of the Ancients, we wilt now pass in review the detailed 
accouuta of their construction, and application to the purposes in- 
tended * noticing, however, matter having reference to field oper- 
ations. 

Encamping ; By Poly bins the best mode of forming a camp is 
laid down, the fosim et valli are described, PediteSj EquUes, 
Forum, Frosioriumf &c., have each their places assigned to them, 
all confusion thereby avoided, and the health and comfort of every 
soldier attended to. 

Contrast this with some of the modern operations in the field, 
look at the Peninsular War, Crimean Campaign, w^arfare in India, 
Cliinaj G^pe of Good Hope, and New Zealand ; after aU our ex- 



1868. J MILITARY 8CIKNCE. 505 

perience, may we not hang our heads, and blush for shame when we 
reflect how many thousands of our countrymen have perished for 
want of wholesome food, the absence of proper attention to their 
bodily comforts and health ; the blind, or wilful ignorance of those 
who sent armies into the field without any regard to their organiza- 
tion, and to the provision of clothing, and food for their sustenance. 

Commencing with the Tyrones (recruits) the instruction in the 
mode of using their various arms is clearly described, the progres- 
sive steps iu the completion of a perfect Roman soldier is minutely 
detailed, and, reading these, we are not surprised at the result — a 
result which entitled Home, justly, to style herself " the mistress of 
the world/' Compare our dry and uninteresting " regulations and 
orders for the army,'' *' field exercise, and evolutions of infantry" 
with these instructions, and we shall understand why the monotony, 
the machine like-life of a private soldier in the British Army is 
distasteful, and wearisome to all but an automaton. A profitable 
lesson might indeed be learnt, if the writers, or compilers of our 
military publications would study Yegetius, and the other Boman 
authors in the work under notice, and, we will prompt a step in the 
right direction, by advising that at the examination of Candidates 
for commissions in the Army, passages from Yegetius should be 
taken instead of selections from the obsolete and uninstructive 
classical authors Ovid and Horace, manv portions of which exemplify 
the depravity of the human heart, and by raising the evil passions 
of youth induce them to enter into vice and profligacy at a more 
early age than they otherwise probably would do, if they were 
not led astray b^ the exciteable descriptions of feelings and 
actions not only immoral, but some of them having reference to 
vices that ought not to have been brought before the youthful 
mind; 

*' Nil dictu foedum visuque, hsec limina tangat. 
Intra quse puer est," being totally unheeded ; 
for contamination, to a certain extent, must be the consequence ; 
and when a previously artless, innocent boy evinces precocious and 
immoral feelings, possibly he is dismissed from the school by the 
very man who ought himself to be held responsible for all the evil 
that has followed his own want of j'udgment, and just appreciation 
of right and wrong. 

Ketuming to Yegetius' lucid exposition of the art of war, we 
would fain extract largely from " Regul» bellorum generales,'' but 
our limits forbid this, and we therefore only introduce a few of the 
rules, as specimens of the style of writing, and of the profitable 
instruction to be derived from Chapter xxvi. 

Occasio in bello amplius solet juvare, qukm virtus. 

Amplius juvat virtus, qukm multitudo. 

Amplius prodest locus sospe qu&m virtus. 

Qui frumentum, necessariumque commeatum non proeparat, 
vincitur sine ferro. 



566 



MitrrAEy sciknce. 



kt^o. 



Magna dis posit io est, host em fame magis ui^uere, qaam ferro. 
Passing over directions relative to the attack and defence o£ 
cities, the constructioa of tlje works^ and the eraplojruent of the 
various enghies of war, we nejtt come to the fourth book of Sex t us 
JuHua Frontinos, which, though replete with ino5t interesting di- 
rections and anecdotes (rohitive to operatiuiia in the field) is not 
eligible for our present article, which would be extended to loo great 
a length were we to introduce extract? from Froutitms' work. Far 
preferable would it be for classical students, who are preparing for 
commisstous in the army, to acquire the knowledge of the Latin 
lauguuge by perusing tltese anecdotes instead of being crammed 
from the publications of authors, whose fetdifigs, and descriptions of 
life are now obsolete^ and in many respects repugnant to good taste 
and virtuous principles. In the coiniuUtion of the valuable works 
of Vegetius, and the other ancient writers, all subjects of warfare 
are well entered into, and their principles explained, commencing 
with the use of weapons and engines, the formation and movement 
of troops, sieges, construction of bridges, castramctatiDn, &c- ; in 
short, every branch of the science of war in the olden times is well 
explained, and we can only regret that " Veterts de re militari 
scriplores,'^ has never been translated iiito English, for the benefit 
of those who are unwilling, or uuable to search for knowledge at 
the fountain head, in the language of ancient civilization. 

Additional value wi!l be given to the Latin publication, when we 
mention that well executed woodcuts illustrate the description of 
the application of the weapons, engines, &c*, from which much 
benefit will be derived in considering the results to be expected 
from the employment of tbem, Coyinieucing with Fuuditor (the 
Slinger) a fine old Roman soldier is depicted, with one stone poised 
in his sling, and another to succeed it in his left hand* Slingers 
were pnictised in throwing stones at marks distant six hundrt^d 
feet, which were scarcely ever misled. We must not pass over 
unnoticed tlie war chariots of the Eomans, which are represented 
drawn by four, or two liorses abreast, they being defended with 
armour, and having across their backs a slight wooden frame, in 
each of the ends of which three sharp pointed spearheads were 
fixed. To the wheels of the chariot, scythe blades were attached, 
and the vehicle, thus armed, and filled with bowmen and spearmen 
was driven furiously into the ranks of the enemy* The services of 
the ponderous and sagacious elephant were also made available fur 
battle by the Romans, who erected towers on their backs, and very 
interesting is the representation of the elephant of Witr with an 
armed guide on his neck, and on his back a tower containing eight 
combatants with their javelins and shields. The inventiotL of 
gunpowder, and its application to successively improved fire-arms, and 
guns, soon teruiinakd the employment of war chariots and ele- 
pliants ; and we therefore need not enter further into tlie Mouvan 
mode oif breaking through the enemy^s line of battle* 



1868.] MILITARY SCIENCE. 507 

Variartan scalarum figurm represent several very ingenious 
scaling ladders, from which, even in oar more enlightened days of 
military science, our engineers might advantageously copy. One 
of these ladders appears to have been constructed on the same 
principle as those at present in our service, consisting of por- 
tions which were raised above each other and fastened together. 
Inter alias, light ladders were formed from single poles, on which 
small blocks of wood were nailed to form steps. The rope ladders 
were also cleverly made, and, being aware of the difficulty often ex- 
perienced in campaigns of procuring ladders for storming a fortress, 
we clearly perceive that the Moderns in this instance have retro- 
graded, instead of evincing any superiority over the Romans. 
Daring the Peninsular War, the Duke of WeUington used to 
ascertain if there were any long ladders in the churches of the cities 
en route, or in those captured, and, whether from friend or foe, 
similar was the fate of the long ladders, which, on the army quitting 
the towns, were no longer to be found in the churches, but in the 
British siege trains. On one occasion when ladders were wanted for 
an immediate storm, and the Engineer officer in command stated 
the impossibility of making them in time, the Duke exclaimed, 
" have you no baggage waggons, take their sides (which were framed 
like ladders) and alter them for the purpose.^' The direction was 
attended to, and good ladders thus extemporised. The Testudo, and 
the Masculus were also proofs of the inventive genius of the Ancients; 
who, by means of these machines, were enabled to approach in 
safety the walls of an enemy's city, and, by employing a powerful 
screw or an oscillating ram within the machine, the wails were de- 
molished. 

Aries, the ram, of which there were several kinds, which though 
simple in their form were tremendously powerful in the efiFects they 
produced on masonry, supposed previously to be impenetrable to 
the blows of any engine that could be invented. Having pre- 
viously described the two classes of the ram, which were in general 
use, and most destructive in the attack of enclosed cities, we need 
not allude further to the pictorial, and detailed accounts of what 
may be termed the heavy ordnance of the Romans. Boast as we 
may of our knowledge of the science of projectiles, and plume our- 
selves, as we do, more and more from day to day on the successive 
improvements in the construction of gigantic ordnance, and in the 
formation of iron plates to resist the penetration of projectiles of 
enormous weight and extraordinary velocity, still we must admire 
the mechanical skill, and the strong evidence of practical mathe- 
matics exhibited by the military engineers of the Ancients. Let 
any zealous and thoughtful soldier cast his eyes on the 
representation of the Roman implements and machines of war ; let 
him observe the towers armed with men on the roofs, containing 
also in the lower story the insidious and destructive ram; these 
towers, in some instances, being made high enough to overtop the 

U. S. Mao. No. 417, Aug. 1863. l l 



808 



MILITAllY SCllfNOB. 



[Aug. 



walls of Hie besieged city^ and provitled with a bridge to lower from 
a window, smaller towers being constructed in a framework tliat 
by means of a powerful screw they csonld be raised to a limited 
height ; all Turrca ambulatoricE beiivg on whedsj and mo?ed by 
men to their destined place of assault. Let the military student 
Gonmder the sagacity and mechanical skill displayed in taking ad- 
vantage of the power of the lever, by raeaiis of which cases contain- 
ing about eight men, fully armed, were raised ;ibove the walls and 
lowered on the defenders of the beleaguered city, at the same time 
that the battering ram was doing its work, and, by repeated bluws^ 
effecting a breach in the masonry surrounding the city. From 
the foregoing exempliGcations, let each unprejudiced soldier admit 
that more itiTcntive genius was manifested by the Ancients than is 
geuerally imagined j making it clear that though the Moderns may bo 
termed apt scholars, still the Eomans well deserved to be called our 
masters in the art of war. 

In the construction of military bridges, a few hints may be pro- 
fitably taken from Vegetius^ work, in which are representations of 
every species of extemporaneous bridge, formed from itiflated skins 
of animals, air-tight boxesj and cylinders, as well as various boats, 
&c* } one of the bridges being constructed by laying down planks 
on air tight compartments, Ihe^e cases being most ingeniously 
fastened together, and formiug a well-shaped boat. Moreover, to 
elucidate the method of exhausting the air in the several compart- 
ments, there are drawings of the description of bellows employed 
for the purpose* Let not tlje inventors of the pontoonsj at jireseut 
in the service (as well as of tho^e which have been tested and dis- 
carded) plume themselves on the inventive genius they imagine 
they have displayed ; in the indiau rubber coats in compartments 
which we remember seeiug tried many years ago, in the various 
descriptions of pontoons, we do net perceive any march of intellect 
to boast of, indeed we may almost venture to add our doubts, 
whether^ liot withstanding the experience in late vi ar^^, and the costly 
and cumbersome appendage of the present pontoon train, a British 
army would as readily effect the paassage of rivers as the Ancients 
did by using such materials as could be procured on the spot, and 
by turning them to profit by mechanical and scientific ingenuity. 
How often is a military operation thwarted for want of a little 
common sense in subordinates ; if the usual means for etTecting what 
is desired are not at hand, the work is stopped; but, if an officer ia 
" worth his salt," he should not allow any impediment to frustrate 
the execution of the duly imposed upon him. 

During the Peninsular war, a tleld battery of Artillery was con- 
stantly in the rear of the division, the com mantling officer stating 
that, in consequence of the bnd roads, the horses were unable to 
keep pace with the troops. Contrariwise to this, another officer'a 
guns were always ready for their work, simply, because he had the 
good sense to call in the aid of bullocks from the commissariat 



1863.] UILITARY SCIENCB. 509 

department when the roads were very heavy. Again^ the same 
officer, wlien in Canada, was asked for his' advice and co-operation 
in rapidly constructing a temporary magazine for gunpowder, there 
not being sufficient time for the engineer department to erect 
one of a permanent nature that might be considered proof against 
fire and the weather. The true soldier of the Peninsular campaign 
shrunk not from the arduous undertaking, and merely asked for 
an order for timber, and for hides of bullocks. His requisitions 
were complied with, the bullocks slaughtered, carpenters were set 
to work, the magazine, erected and well covered with layers of skins 
within the stipulated time, was reported proof and serviceable by 
the commanding officers of engineers and artillery ; the large supply 
of powder for the war in America was removed from the vessel, 
in which it had been brought from England, and the ship quitted 
Quebec before the ice formed in the St. Lawrence, (thus saving a 
heavy charge for demurrage) this being a second instance of the 
application of rapid thought, and the employment of appliances at 
hand for effecting the purpose required, by a sensible and ready- 
minded soldier. 

Reverting to the invaluable writings of the old Romans, un- 
willingly do we quit the descriptions of the ingenious modes of 
constructing bridges for the transport of an army across rivers, for 
modern soldiers might, indeed, derive much profit by copying their 
predecessors in the game of war ; but, as our notice of the works of 
Vegetius and other Roman authors has already been rather exten- 
sive, we must bring the interesting subject to a conclusion by 
making known the scarcely credible fact that even the application 
of paddle wheels was in existence in the time of the Romans. 
Witness '* Liburnce rotatcB figura,'' in which is depicted a Roman 
galley with the metal beak of a bird to act as a ram, and also 
mirabUe dictu, three p'tir of paddle wheels, each pair being turned 
by two oxen, harnessed to bars affixed to three short masts on the 
upper deck of the vessel of war. The prow of another galley, 
" Prora rostrata^' appears doubly armed for impulsive strokes, for, 
below a metal boar's head, three sword blades are firmly affixed, 
" et non raro perforata navigia mergebantur.^' 

Surprising as was the representation of the well armed galley, 
the drawing of " Novate propugnacuLum cum iurri" out-herods 
Herod, for this large galley was armed at the prow with a projecting 
metal head of a boar, with three sharp-pointed metal blades below 
it, and was rowed by twenty-four men, over whom a platform was 
strongly supported ; and, on this flooring, two towers were erected 
with twelve men on their tops, armed with javelins, bows and 
arrows, and large stones, the space between the towers being occu- 
pied by about sixteen men, armed for hand to hand combats. 
Verily the old Romans were right good soldiers, and it is not sur- 
prising that with their knowledge of the details of military science, 
their fortitude, their discipline, and their indomitable courage, they 

ll2 



MILITANT SOIEKCB, 



[Aug- 



acquired for their natioiij the rightful appellation of " the mistress 
of the world*" Having reached this proud pinnacle, their destiny 
was folBlled, and the fall of the Eotnan empire was ^udIi that we 
can hardly credifc that euoh warriors ever existed on the classic 
ground now trod by tlic degenerate Italian race, 

"^ Oh, E.omej whose steps of power were necks of kings! 

Europe — the earth — beneath her eagle's wings — 

How like a thing divine she rnled tiie world ! 

Her fii^ger Hfted, thrones to dust were burFd; 

High o^er her site the goddess Victory flew. 

Mars waved hia sword, and Fame her trumpet blew. 

Wlmt is she now p A widow witK bow'd lieadj 

Her empire vanished, and her iicroes dead ; 

Weeping she sits, a mute and dying tiling, 

Beneath the yew, and years no solace bring. 

What is she now ? A dream of wonder pastj 

A tomblcss skeleton, dark, lone, and vast, 

Whose heart of fire hath long, long ceased to burn, 

Whose ribs of marble e*eu to dust return. 

Her shade alone, the ghost of ancient power, 

Wanders in gloom o'er shrine and crumbling tower, 

Points with its shadowy hand to Cmsar^s hall. 

Sighs beneath arches tottering to their fall. 

And glides down stately Tiber's rushing wavesj 

That seem to wail through all their hoiiry ca^es,*' 

We cannot close our survey of " Ve teres de re mUitari script ores/' 
without introducing one more instance of the Ancients having 
clearly proved that in the art of war the Jloderns will have con- 
siderable difficulty in surpassing them ; often, perhaps, profitting 
by their science and experience, without having the generosity to 
■acknowledge from whence they derived tlie information thej palmed 
upon the world as their own. Tn "Figura Tcstudinis" we have 
depicted a large iron shield composed of rectangular bucklers, 
closely held together in the form of a slopinj^ ruof by Jloman 
soldiers, who thus covered from the impetus of large stones, &c,, 
burled upon them, were able to approach close to the walls of a 
besieged city. Thus did the Ancients, and we Moderns do but 
imitate them, having recourse to iron plates to resist the shock of 
the projectiles of the present ordnance, instead of the ponderous 
stones and darts showered from the bulwarks of ancient cities. 
Interesting and instructive as it may be to trace the progress of 
military science from age to age, we are unwilling to ri?k being 
considered prolix in our expositions and comparisons* Having 
opened the subject to zeatous and meditative soldiers, we leave 
them to follow in our wake; and (beneficially for themselves and 
country) may they avail themselves of the knowledge exhibited by 
the long inviocible Romans in the art of war* 



1863.] 'the sentiment of wae. 61^ 

'' My task is done — my song hath ceased— my theme 
Has died into an echo ; it is fit 
The spell should break of this protracted dream. 
The torch shall be extinguished which hath lit 
My midnight lamp — and what is writ, is writ. 
Would it were worthier. But I am not now 
That which I have been — and my visions flit 
Less palpably before me — and the glow 
Which in my spirit dwelt is fluttering, faint, and low/' 



THE SENTIMENT OF WAR. 

Bt.W. W. Knollys. 

The feeling which leads soldiers to hazard their lives in the most 
dangerous enterprises, for the sake of apparently intangible results, 
may be termed the sentiment of war. Philosophers and civilians 
may be puzzled to account for it, nevertheless it affords one of the 
most powerful levers by which a general can move his troops. 
Napoleon placed the moral far above the physical in war, and the 
history of his campaigns proved most conclusively how correct was 
his opinion. Abstractedly, the "gros bataillons," if composed of 
men possessing natural courage, strength, and skill in arms, to an 
equal degree with their opponents, being also as well handled, and 
occupying as good a position, cannot fail to be victorious. Practi- 
cally, wc know that many other considerations are involved. The 
consciousness of a good cause, pride of race or birth, the memory of 

{)ast achievements, a feeling of hatred or revenge, with last, not 
east, a feeling of emulation or enterprise, each of these may over- 
throw every arithmetical calculation, every prognostic of the tacti^ 
tian. There are many instances of the truth of*this remark. Leo- 
nidas and his three hundred Spartans at Thermopylae. The resistless 
onset of Rupert's cavaliers during the civil war, when proud of 
ancient lineage, and confident in the holiness of their cause, they 
struck their way through a mass of tapsters and clowns, superior in 
numbers, and each of them probably their superiors in physical 
strength. The subsequent success of CromweU's Ironsides against 
these very same Royalists, whose chivalry was, by the sagacious 
general, skillfully met by fanaticism. The triumph of the 42nd 
Highlanders at Alexandria, when animated by the soul-stirring 
words of Sir Ralph Abercrombie, "Highlanders, remember your 
fathers,'' they overcame, in a series of single combats, the impetuous 
onset of the French cavalry, who had broken their ranks. The 
above may be cited as amongst the most striking examples of what 
we have asserted. 

More powerful perhaps than any other motive, is however the 



clmrG of personal distinction, tbe fear of personal disgrace. This 
feeling not only produces individual acts of courage, in tberaselves 
tending largely to succcbs, but »1so causes a spirit of emulation in 
tlie doer's comrades, whicli brings about esprit-de-coqia. What 
ODe man has done^ bis companions feel it disgraceful not at least to 
attempt* A regiment also appropriates to itself what one of their 
body has effected ; and if it can number among its annals many 
glorious achievements, tlie conduct of that regiment in action no ay 
ever be depended on with certainty. The necessity is felt of sustain- 
ing the existing reputation^ and knowing that much is expected, it is 
eager to prevent public disappointment. This wholesome feeling 
extends beyond the ranks of the corps themselves^ and other regi- 
ments become airxious to acquire an equal success* " Highlanders, 
remember Egypt/' from the lips of Sir John Moore^ wlio had 
commanded tliem in the glorious campaign in that country, animated 
the 42nd at Corunna with a conroge which nothing coukl resist; 
while it may be easily credited that the couaciousness that tbey had 
still a name to moke, was not w^ithont its iniiuence on the 951 h at 
Alma. In the history of Napoleoii^a wars, there is one instance, if 
not raore^ of a regiment wiping out past disgrace by the most 
devoted courage, and eagerly seeking to retrieve the right to carry 
the CBglc of which it had been deprived* A bit of silk of the 
intrinsic value say, ten pounds, a silver coin worth a few shilling!?, a 
cross made of gtm metal, or a simple ketlledruiu^ at once becomes 
the dearest object of a soldier's devotion or desire, when recognised 
as a symbol of honour, or vijonr, and the standard, tlie medal^ tlie 
drum, and the Victoria Cross are defended and won at the expense 
of torrents of blood. These are not in themselves sufficient to 
induce men to risk life, wounds, and caplivity, were they not 
regarded m permanent substantial proofs of courage and victory, 
III all ages, and most countries, has this been acknowledged, tliongh 
the philosophy of tbe thing has been probably comprehended by 
but few* We Qni that among the ancient Greeks the loss of a 
shield was the greatest disgrace that a w^arrior conld suffer* This 
impression proceeded from the idea that to retire from a battle with- 
out a shield, was a tacit acknowledgraent of want of prowess or 
resolution. The Romans considered the death of the enemy^? 
leader as a signal triumph, and awarded the title of " spolia opina'' 
to the trophies torn from his corpse. With them also, the first over 
the battlements of an as.*aulted town received, as the proud token 
of his valour, the mural crown, a wreath which presented in 
any other way, would have been regarded but as a bundle of wortU- 
less tmgs* 

Among the nations of tbe East, the loss of their leader in battle is 
the greatest disgrace that can happen. There is pafpable reason in 
this feeling, which is founded on something more than mere senti- 
ment; for deprived of their officers, the best troops soon become 

rabble. Among these races, the loss of a kettle-drum is also 



1863.] THE SENTIMENT OF WAR. 513 

viewed as discreditable^ and every effort is made to capture and 
defend it. A chivalrous feeling, however, protects the kettle- 
drummer, who is rarely molested himself. Again, on examination, 
we find a basis for this motive. The music of the kettle-drum 
speaks of unbroken ranks ; as long as its sound strikes the ear, the 
troops know that they are not yet defeated ; while its music exercises 
that animating influence on the hearers which noise has always pro- 
duced on men engaged in strife. The Highland bagpipe is no less 
stimulating to the Gael ; and here in addition to the influences above 
mentioned, its spirit stirring tones bring back to the kilted warriors 
the thoughts of home, of their heather crowned braes, and the grey- 
haired sires in Scotland, eager to hear of their sons' glorious deeds 
of arms, and whom the tidings of disgrace would bow to the earth 
with sliame. Oh, there is something which quickens the blood, and 
expels fear as by a charm, in the shrill notes of the great war pipe, 
with all its memories of former victories. At Lucknow, the gallant 
Pipe Major, McKay, of the Sutherland Highlanders, who pushed up 
the breech by his comrades, amidst a storm of whistling bullets, 
bursting shells, and rushing round shot, never ceased to animate the 
stormers with their national war music, had no small share in the 
success, and may claim no slight portion of the glory of that glori- 
ous day. In the account of the Thirty Years' War, we read of the 
disgrace sufi*ered by a cavalry regiment which had lost its kettle- 
drum ; while our own military history presents numerous instances 
of desperate devotion exhibited in defence of that square piece of 
silk, which when placed at the end of a pole, blessed by a clergyman, 
and presented by a lady, becomes at once the embodiment of the 
regimental honour, and the record on which is inscribed the names 
of the various victories in which the corps has borne a part. In 
the mercer's shop it was but a simple piece of silk, liable to be 
bought for a few shillings by any passer by, and made into a lady's 
dress. As a standard it immediately assumes a sacred character, 
and the true soldier would die sooner than see the revered emblem 
in the hands of a foe. Guarded like an idol, with obeisance ren- 
dered to it, resembling that paid to the Host, there is something 
almost fanatical in the soldier's love for the rag which serves as his 
rallying point in battle. The diS'erent sorts of standards on record 
are various, and in some cases most whimsical. The Janissaries at 
the commencement of a mutiny, always, as the first step, elevated 
their cooking kettles on long poles, and employed them as their 
military ensigns. The standards of the Turks were horse tails, 
either one, two, or three, according to the rank of the Pacha who 
commanded. The Dutch insurgents in 1490, painted the likeness 
of a loaf and a cheese on their oanners. Many other instances of 
whimsical fancy might be related if the reader cared to know 
them. 

The French, from the time of the sacred Oriflamme downwards, 
have ever regarded the colours with the utmost reverence. In the 



• 



diaastrons retreat from Moscow, wL en every influence wbicli restrains 
man, every tie which binds biin to bis fellow, every thought save 
tbat of self-preservation, was ottcrlj swept away in the general 
demorahzation — ^evi^n tben, when tlie actual present was every- 
thing, and the future untliought of, the strongest element in a 
soldier's faith did not altogether disappear. The Srd corps— 
Marshal Ney'n — wliich at tlie begitming of the campaign had num- 
bertid 40,400 mcn^ and bad since received numerous reioforcernents, 
was reduced after the passage of the BereMnn, to about one hundred 
men able to bear arms* Tlicu, and not till then, was the order 
given lo abandon the eagles. They were to be broken up and 
buried* The Colonel of the 4th Eegimeut, though it seemed doubt- 
ful whether he and the few exhausted skek^tons he commanded, 
would ever reach France alive, could not make up his mind to a 
ftacrificej the severity of which none but a military man can appre* 
eiate. He ordered the stafT to be bunitj ajul the eagle to be carried 
in the knapsack of one of the eaglc-bearers, by whose side he himself 
constantly marched. The writer of ibis article has seen a snuff-box 
made out of a preserved fragment of the staff in question* The 
general commanding the Westphalian regiments exhibited a similar 
jealousy of the military honour of his men. He caused the silk 
of the colours to be torn off and distributed among the field -officers, 
and the staves to be burut. Just previous to the occurrence of these 
episodes, the Srd corps, then scarcely existing but in name, bulted 
to take a few moments repose at the close of three days and two 
nights almost iuce^sint marching* They could scarcely have been 
blamed if^ at such a moment, tiiey had thought only of their indi- 
vidual comfort. Not «o, faithful to tht^ir well-earned glory, these 
military bigots siill cherished the emblems of tlreir former fauiCj 
and while some of the exhausted, starving, frozen soldiers snatched 
a hasty slumber, the others mounted guard over Ihe eagles. 

The inhabitants of the British Islands have ever exhibited the 
most dogged courage in the defence of the colours* We read of 
the 12th liegiment, that when in the war of succession, they were, 
with the rest of the garrison of Barcelona, compelled to surrender to 
the forces of Phihp V^ they destroyed their culoura sooner than 
permit thetn to become the trophies of the enemy- At the battle of 
Dettingen, a lierce cavalry combat took place, in which Cornet 
Richardson, carrying the standiird of the 7th Dragoon Guards, was 
surrounded by the enemy^a maiUclad gens-d'armes. Alone in the 
midst of a surging sea of thre^iteuing horsemen, bent brows. Hashing 
BUrordsj and imprecations met him on every side; still he remained 
undaunted. "Give np the stjindard,'^ sternly and confidently 
sliouted the nearest Frenchmen* What could the young cornet 
do? one hand holding the bridle, and the other the colours, he was 
perfectly helpless. To give up his charge was a thing not to be 
thought of, but yet how defend it? His resolution was indeed 
severely tested. Blows were showered on hitn in such numbers. 



1863.J THE SENTIMENT OP WAE. 51 5 

that his escape from being instantly slain can only be attributed to 
the fact that the strikers, in their eagerness, got in each others way. 
The standard pole was hacked in pieces, the cornet received thirty 
wounds, yet was the standard still held with ball-dog tenacity. At 
length, reinforcements coming up, the brave cornet covered with 
blood and glory, succeeded in carrying the colours into his own 
ranks. It is satisfactory to learn that his numerous wounds did 
not after all prove fatal. 

The case of Captain Souter exhibits another signal instance of 
devotion. During the dreadful retreat from Gabul in 1889, the 
44th Regiment, to which that officer belonged, was, as is well 
known, almost literally annihilated. Among the few survivors was 
Captain Souter. When the last remnant of the ill-fated force 
melted away before the combined power of intense cold, and the 
murderous onslaught of the Affghans, he tore the silk from the 
regimental colour, and wrapped it round his waist. He was soon 
after taken prisoner, and lived to recount at the termination of 
hostilities, how, even when instant death was staring him in the 
face, he had still been mindful of the honour of his corps. The 
history of the battle of Waterloo displayed two brilliant examples 
of the strength of that feeling which we have designated as the 
sentiment of war. Some of the Polish Lancers succeeded in reach- 
ing the 79th Highlanders, at that time drawn up in line, and one 
of them made a dash at the colours. He inflicted a painful wound 
in the eye on one of the young ensigns who bore them, and suc- 
ceeded in seizing the flag. The gallant boy, though suffering the 
most dreadful agony, had resolution enough, even while in the act 
of falling, to retain his grasp of the precious charge. Ere another 
instant had passed, the adventurous horseman was killed, and the 
wished for prize remained in the hands of him who had shown him- 
self so well fitted to be its guardian. 

In another regiment, we cannot remember which, the ensign, a 
mere boy, who bore one of the colours was shot. The enemy were 
advancing in overwhelming force, the regiment was being gradually 
pushed back, and the colour that had waved above their heads in 
many a dearly bought victory, seemed destined to become the 
prize of the foe, in whose discomfited faces it had so often proudly 
flaunted. At this instant a gallant serjeant rushed to the front, 
determined to avert the threatened calamity. The attempt appeared 
certain death, but he had only one thought, the honour of his 
regiment. Beaching the spot where the colour lay dabbled in mud 
and the blood of its bearer, he seized it with a nervous grasp, and 
strove to tear it from the dead man's hands. He found it impossi- 
ble to do so. In the moment of death, the ensign's fingers had 
tightened round it like a vice. The flag could not be moved. 
His own comrades were retiring, the French advancing, nay were 
almost upon him. Without a moment's hesitation, the serjeant, 
by a vigorous effort, cast the corpse and the standard together, 



I 



* 



Tfljs BHKTnrBiiT OP wsrt. [Aub, 

across Ills shoulders, and thus nobJj freightedj rejojued hia own 
ranks, frrentls uiicl foes both ynitmg to greet the osploit witli hearty 
clmen^. \Yhen the Scots Fusileer Guiinls at Alms, staggered by a 
storm of shot, llirowu into confusion bj the retreat of the rerunants 
'of tbe Light Division through tiieir rauk^, and misled by an order 
not intended for them^ retired for a phort distance^ the colours were 
fur a few mi notes in great dnn^er, Lieutenanta Liud^ny and 
Thistlethwavie who bore tliem, undismayed by the havoc around, 
and comiirri lending no cojnmaiid save that to advance^ stood finn, 
though only supported by the foor sergeants who formed their 
escort. Tliu Bussians, encouraged by the temporary withdrawal of 
the regiment^ came pouring out of the battery, and a crowd of them 
attaeJced I lie colours, Lindsay and Thistletbwayte bravely resisted 
with their revolversj and were well seconded by t lie centre serjeants* 
A fierce though brief combat ensued* Several of the small party 
had fallen » and the colours seemed lost, when Captain and Adjutant 
Drummond, whose horse liad been killed under him, hurried up to 
the rescue. Using his revolver with deadly effect, he somewhat 
cheeked the liussian onset. The regiment now charged up the 
hill, the Russians fled, and the colours were saved. In this buttle 
the Queen -s colour was struck by twenty- three shots. The present 
war in America shows how deeper ntely men will ri?k certain death 
for the sake of that object of adoriitioHj which the imaf^nntion 
alone has rendered sacrefL At Alexandria a Secession banner had 
been erected by one Jackson the landlord of an hotel, on the roof 
of his house, in full view of the indignant inhabitants of Washing- 
ton. Ordera were repeatedly sent to bid Jackson take down the 
obnoxious emblem. He haughtily refused to strike the flag, swear- 
ing to defend it witli his heart*s blood. Colonel Els worth, a youn«;f 
officer of the Federal Army, burned to avenge this insult, and 
swore to the President tliat he would bring the trophy and lay it 
at his feet, Early one morning tlie lederal troops attacked Alexan- 
driaj and Colonel Els worth, accompanied by a few of his men 
entered the hotel, and hastily mounting the stairs seized the 
etandard. Jackson vtas in bed at the time, but hearing w4iat had 
occurred, quickly dressing himself, hurried \ip-stairs. On the 
kndiifcg-place he met Colonel Elsworlh attended by his men, and 
carrying with him in triumph the captured flag. That officer did 
not long enjoy his triumph, Jackson true to the oath he had 
taken, and reckless of consequences, at once shot him through 
the iie^rt, Neither had Jackson much time allowed him for 
exultation* The soldiers infuriated at the death of their commander, 
and heedless of \ he presence of his slayer's wife and children, pierced 
the luckless man with a score of bayonet wounds. Here was a 
genuine instance of the power of mere sentiment, two lives staked 
and lost for the sake of what had neither intrinfeic value, nor 
exercised iufluetice over armed men, nor any large mass of people, 
was a mere manifestation of individual opinion. Sometime 



1863.] THR SENTIMENT OF WAR. 617 

the force of custom causes the preservation of the symbol after 
a separation has taken place between it and the sentiment it typi- 
fied. During the Indian mutiny, when military honour had been 
cast on one side, and loyalty become a stigma, tlie Sepojs with 
superstitious reverence still retained the colours which their English 
rulers had entrusted to them. In the same manner, these same 
mutineers used to make their bands play " Gtod save the Queen,'* 
at the very period when they were striving their utmost to destroy 
the Queen's rule. The numerous acts of gallantry recognized by 
the grant of that little simple bronze cross, which is the proudest 
reward of British valour, afford many interesting themes for the pen 
of a military historian. The hearts of his readers will swell with 
pride when they learn — how Probyn at the head of his wild 
horsemen rivalled the chivalry of the ancient crusaders; how 
Butler swam the Goomteo at Lucknow, in spite of the shot of the 
enemy, and fierce alligators, to communicate with Ontram ; how 
Home and Salkeld advanced to almost certain death in order to 
blow in the Kashmirgate ; and how the civilian Mangles, though 
wounded himself, yet carried for miles a soldier who had been shot 
in the leg. 

^Yhat influence the thought of the Victoria Cross had in 
causing these brave deeds to be performed, can only be known to 
the individuals themselves; but a consideration oi attendant cir- 
cumstances induces us to think that in many cases, the idea of 
reward did not present itself till after it had been earned. With 
Englishmen the sense of duty is so powerful, that often the most 
lieroic deeds are performed with a tqtal unconsciousness that any 
particular merit attaches to them. This national characteristic re- 
ceived an impulse and development from the Duke of Wellington, 
likely to endure for ages. An example of the feeling is, that it is 
one of the traditions of Her Majesty's Brigade of Guards that no 
oflBcer is allowed to volunteer for a storming party, but the first on 
the roster is taken for that, as for any other duty. Among all 
nations, the hot-brained, and the impetuous are to be found, there- 
fore in the English Army and Navy, are many who eagerly tlirust 
themselves into any service of danger. As a rule, however, we 
English, particularly the natives of England proper, are not much 
addicted to volunteering. What is required to be done, whether 
the service be dangerous, desperate, or safe, is done, and that is 
enough. It is either in somebody's province, or else the person 
nearest performs it, and there is an end of the matter. Notwith- 
standing, when volunteers are called for by the general in command, 
there is never any lack of men. On the contrary, the difficulty 
generally lies in selection, for whole bodies often step forward as 
one man, ready to cut each other's throats for the sake of incurring 
ten chances of death, to one of life. With such soldiers and sailors, 
no artificial incitements in the shape of prizes are required^ axssL 
the history of the Peninsular War preseuU %& tdsck^ \s^«i2sssj?^ ^ 



518 



THE SBNTTHK^T OF WAR, 



daring courage, as does tlmt of tlie campaigns whicli liave taken 
place since the institution of "an order of valour* Because, how- 
ever, BnliFh soldiers do not need the stimulus of reward to urge 
them on to heroism, tbere is no reason why such heroism should 
not be rewarded. 

To witiihold the meed of valour, because that valour has not 
directly sprung from the hope of obtaining it, would be base indeed - 
Moreover, tfie Victoria Cross is one of those of tilings which tends 
to make the service popular with men before entering the army, 
however little the same individuals may be influenced by the hope 
of obtaining il after they have become soldiers. It is a reward, 
and a recognition, not a bribe, and is a means of rescuing from 
oblivion, deeds u^hich act as useful examples to after ages, and are 
amongst the precious oniaments of the military history of the 
country. With regard to decorations, our neiglibours arc different 
from ourselves* The immerous political convulsions they have 
undergone, the constant change of rulers and forms of Government, 
have done much to destroy that feeling of patriotism, that sense of 
duty, that looking to public approval, and to the pride of the home 
circle, which with ua km effected so much, When the public con- 
science becomes seared, the obligations due to the country are for- 
gotten, and might takes the phce of right. The soldier so often 
employed against the liberties of his fellow- country men, feeis that 
he is no longer one of tlicm, that he is a being apart, th»t he is a 
soldier, not a citizen. The service becomes his home, the applause 
of his native place sinks into insignificance when compared with 
the approval of his comrades and his general, and ceasing to be a 
Frenchman, he merges into that nation within a nation, the French 
Army, Such bcit^g the case, nothing save promotion, glory, and 
the expression of it, in the shape of crosses and medals, possesses 
any influence over him. This insatiable thirst must perforce be fed 
by him who wields that dangerous weapon, a body of unprincipled 
armed men. To retain his authority, he is compelled to supply 
the deficiency of the sense of duty, by personal attach meiit to him- 
self. He must shew that he is the best purveyor to their desires. 
Now promotion alone does not suffice. AH cannot be promoted, 
and the soreness of those passed over must be soothed by other 
means. Vanity is the balm employed, and the history of the wars 
of France, from the time of the first revolution, shows how success- 
ful has been the prescription. Unfortunately, peculiar e^inditions 
are required, even the self-conceit of a Frenchman would despise 
the reward which had no pretext to be considered as earned. We 
have known one exception : seeing a French oflieet at Varna who 
wore the Cro?^s of the Legion of Honour, the writer said with refer- 
ence to it '^ Monsieur has doubtless served in Algeria," " No Mon- 
sieur," he replied, *' I gained it par andenneie de service** This is, 
however, but an isolated instance, and does not affect the truth of 
our assertion« A continual state of war is necessary for the proper 



1868.J THB SBNTIMENT OF WAR. 519 

management of the French army^ and that^ to do them justice, the 
rulers of France during the last three quarters of a century have 
ever been careful to procure. 

Another cause of the greater value and importance of conven- 
tional modes of reward in the armies of France^ than in those of 
England, may be found in the national characteristics. Essentially 
vain and frivolous, a Frenchman is devoted to personal adornment, 
and often regards the Cross of the Legion of Honour as being de- 
sirable as a mere ornament, without reference to what it typifies. 
The French soldier also fights better as one of a mass than as an 
individual. He is doubtless most gallant, but is subject more than 
any one else to the contagion alike of panic and enthusiasm. Conse- 
quently, individual acts of heroism under depressing or discouraging 
circumstances require to be elicited by the stimulus of immediate 
reward. The distinction between an English and a French soldier, 
may be summed up as follows : the one fights from a sense of duty, 
the other from a love of glory. Under the influence of the latter, 
the French army has displayed numberless instances of brilliant 
courage. Among the most striking of these may be mentioned the 
following anecdote extracted from Napier's Peninsular War. " The 
bridge of Tordesillas over the Duero had been destroyed by the 
English, and the regiment of Brunswicks Oels sent to prevent its 
being repaired by the enemy, or a passage effected. A tower be- 
hind the ruins was occupied bj a detachment, while the remainder 
of the Brunswickers took post in a pine wood at some distance. 
The French arrived and seemed for sometime at a loss, but very 
soon sixty French officers and non-commissioned officers, headed by 
Captain Guingret, a daring man, formed asmall raft to hold their arms 
and clothes, and then plunged into the water, holding their swords 
with their teeth, and swimming and pushing their raft before them. 
Under protection of a cannonade, they thus crossed this great river, 
though it was in full and strong water and the weather very cold, 
and having reached the other side, naked as they were, stormed the 
tower. The Brunswick regiment then abandoned its position, and 
these gallant soldiers remained masters of the bridge. In conclu- 
sion, we will remark that however inadequately the utilitarian may 
consider the gift of a metal cross, or silver medal compensates for 
extraordinary risks of death and mutilation, however childish the 
" sentiment of war*' may appear to the philosopher, yet there is no 
doubt that, under great trials, the soldier has need of every adven- 
titious incentive which can be afforded by an excited mind to a 
trembling body. To ignore this fact, is to be ignorant of human 
nature, to neglect the teachings of history, and to treat men as 
mere machines. 

The " vanity of war" is also very useful, scarcely less so in truth 
than the '^ sentiment of war,^^ and indeed the two are often scarcely 
to be distinguished from each other. It is astonishing what th& 
trifles are, by which the pride of a regiment is c^^»^.^^> ^>k^ ^^x?^. 



520 



TBB SENTIMENT OF WAU, 



[Auo. 



de corps maintomed. Green or blue patches of cloth on the cuffs 
or collars, or as they are called facings, the distinctive mark a of a 
light com pan J man, the piece of black ribbon represeBtiiig the 
disus^ed pigtail hanging down the hack of the coat of the officers of 
tlie Welsh Fusiliers, all possess infiuences of no slight extent. We 
know one recent instance^ when on the order being given Lo break 
up the light company of a di<tingui?licd Highland regimetit, those 
of the men who composed it^ and were entitled to their discharge, 
Bume in crowds and desired their names to b<^ put down for per- 
mission to quit the service. Be it temembcred tliese were tlie very 
dlite of the corps, and had served with it through several campaigns. 
They liked their professionj but their vaniiy had been hurt. In 
the same way, tlie pride of the Rifle Brigade ia so great that the 
most offensive expression that can be made of to an awkward 
rifleman is to call him " a red soldier/' The privileges of the 
Guards, one of these, so the story goe^, was supposed some years 
ago, lo cousiat in stepping off with the right instead of the left 
foot, increase the martial bearing and feeling of this gaUant corps 
to an extent which is palpably apparent. In other corps, even 
nicknames are treasured up with the warmest afTt^ction. The " die- 
hards" the "dirly half hundred'* and ^'the lambs," for the informa- 
tion of civilians the 07lh, the 50th, and the %nd llegiments^ are as 
proud of these terms as if they were titles of honour given by the 
Sovereign. There is scarcely an old regiment in the service, which 
lias not got some tradition, some memory attached to it. These 
are sometimes ludicrous. In reference lo the great antiquity of 
the 1st Hoyal Regiment of Foot, or, as they proudly term them* 
selves, the Royal Regiment, it has been jokingly asserted that they 
took tlieir origin from the Roman soldiers forming the garrison of 
Jerusalem at the time of our Saviour's cruciflxioiip They have in 
consequence been nicknamed Pontius Pilate's Guards, In connec- 
tion with this subject an amusing fttovy is told of the late Duke of 
Kent. His Royal Highness was Colonel of the Regiment, and 
exceedingly proud of its fame and reputation. General — aware of 
this feeling on the part of his Royal friendj determined to ''take a 
rise out of him." " Your Royal Highness' Regiment,'^ said the 
General, "never misconducted itself but upon one occasion." 
"When was that? when was that?" said the Duke very grufflVj 
and with considerable irritation. " When they went to sleep on 
guard at the Sepulchre," replied the bantering Geuerah With 
reference to the titles of regiments, an anecdote is related wliicb it 
ttiay not be out of place to insert here, as it shows what sensitive- 
ness and consequently Qjivy is sometimes ft It on this subject. 
Several regiments were on one occasion being drilled together in 
brigade. AH the corps present with the exce|>tion of one had some 
distinctive title in addilion to their numencal and county designa- 
tion, such we will say as "Royal Welsh Fusiliers," "The Prince 
of Wales' Light Infantry, &c. The Colonels proud of the uatnes of 



1863. 1 THE SENTIMENT OP WAR. 621 

their r^ments invariably prefaced the word of commaDd with the 
titles belonging to them. For example, "The Royal Welsh 
Fusiliers, shoulder arms,'' "the Prince of Wales' Light Infantry, 
" 6x bayonets," and so on. The commanding officer of the one 
regiment which possessed no distinction became irritated at this, 
as he considered it, perpetual swagger, and determined to administer 
a cutting rebuke. His corps was a Nottinghamshire Regiment, 
so the next time he had to give a word of command, he shouted out 
at the top of his voice, " Stocking weavers, shoulder arms." The 
amusement of his listeners may be imagined. 

It has been justly remarked that life is made up of trifles, this is 
particularly the case with the soldier. Whoever neglects to base 
his conduct on this principle, wilfully divests himself of much 
power, and in the day of trial finds too late that the study of human 
nature is to a general but little inferior in utility, to a knowledge of 
his profession. 



PROPOSED SUBSTITUTES FOR DEPOT BATTALIONS. 

As stated in the last number of the " United Service Magazine/' 
I propose in this Paper to sketch and consider shortly some of the 
plans which have been suggested as Substitutes for the Depot Bat- 
talion System, with a view to ascertain whether they ofi*er any 
means of escape from the sacrifices which the continuance of that 
system entails on us. 

I have already noticed the most important of the objects which 
the depot or reserve organization of the army is intended to secure. 
Let us not forget these as we proceed, for they afford the surest 
test by which the eligibility of all schemes that may be proposed for 
adoption can be tried. 

I need scarcely do more than allude to the four company depot 
organization which we abandoned some years ago, as a possible 
substitute for the present system. Although not altogether without 
advantages, it is liable to such objections as render a return to it 
inexpedient. It is not necessary to mention more than one of these 
objections. The four company organization entails a minute 
division of our depot forces in battalions of too low a numerical 
strength to be convenient in peace, or serviceable in war. It 
encumbers us with a number of establishments under separate 
responsibilities, which is out of all proportion to the aggregate 
strength of the men employed. Such an arrangement besides 
adding greatly to the labour of departments, and enhancing the 
difficulty of supervision, complicates the details of the depot service, 
and impares the efficiency for any service of a large and impor- 
tant branch of our army. The depot service of the army instead 
of being conducted as at present by twenty, t^xt^^ Qj^sixawsi^T^ 



b%Z 



PIEOPOSED srBSTITUTE9 



rAtro. 



of Battalions, would, if the system were fully carried out, pass into 
the haufJs ol' about one hundred and forty comtnandiug officers^ each 
of wliose relations with the departmentSj the military divisions, and 
the central authority, would be nearly as troublesome as those of a 
baltalimi under the present more compact orf^anizatiou. A little 
consideration will show this objection to be so fatalj that I need not 
dwell on it, or contemplate furtlier tlic poisibility of this organization 
being seriously proposed for re-adoption, 

A project has lately been promulgated which attracts a good deal 
of attention, and deserves careful couM deration. It advocates doing 
away with depots, and forming each regiment into three battalions, 
of which two, taking it in turuj should be always abroad ; the third 
acting as a reserve at home. This general outline of a scheme 
appears to promise the solution of at least some of our difficulties. 
Let us fill in some of the details^ and put them to the teat we have 
already proposed. 

The training of recruits, the command of home service men, the 
instruction of young officers, and the custody of attestutiona and 
records for the entire regiment, would devolve upon the commander 
of the home or reserve battalion. The battalions abroad would 
thus be composed entirely of trained soldiers fit for any description 
of service. The Ee^erve Battahon would not, however, like the 
Depot Battalion, consist exclusively, or even principally, of recruits 
and men unfit for the fatigues of general service, but would contain 
only such a proportion of these men as the casualties of the two 
battalions abroad might render necessary. In other respects its 
composition would he that of an ordinary regiment on home service- 
The system of discipline and instruction would be an essentially 
regimental one, and therefore free from many of the objections 
urged against Depot Battalions, 

The recruit^s training would be conducted by instructors of his 
own regimentj and his duties when dismissed from drill would be 
performed with officers who might be expected to feel an interest in 
hia proficiency, and of whom the majority w^ould be men of some 
experience. The young officers and recruits being tljose vt three 
battalions only instead of six as at present, the objection to tlieir 
being employed on duty together would to that extent be diminished. 
The recruits would moreover be exposed to less risk from intercourse 
with home service men, as the latter, being drawn from three bat- 
talions only, would be half as tmmerous as at present, and as the 
disadvantages of such intercourse would be corrected by a greater 
leavening of general service men, and by the frequent changes of 
station which the necessity of taking pait in garrison and camp duty 
would entail on the battalion. 

In case of actual or threatened war, however, on oar own soil, the 
Reserve Battalionj like the Depot Battalion, would necessarily cease 
to act as a training school. On being called into the field it w^ould 
either be hampered with a number of untrained men in its tankS| or 



1863.] FOR DEPOT BATTALIONS. 623 

it would have to be relieved of it« training staff, young officers and 
recruits altogether. In either case we should find ourselves without 
our accustomed means of disciplining, arming, and clothing rein- 
forcements, except at some hastily formed depot. The formation of 
such depots during the excitement and general disturbance which 
would be the consequence of threatened invasion, would be attended 
with great difficulty, and it is to be feared could not be accomplished 
in time to be of much use during the emergency. 

As a corps for actual employment in defensive operations in the 
field, the Beserve Battalion is not open to the same objections as 
those justly urged in that respect against Depot Battalions. It 
would simply form a battalion of one of our existing regiments, with 
an old name and high reputation to sustain, and would be composed 
of officers and men who have devoted the best part of their lives to 
service in its ranks. 

As a school for young officers, the reserve battalion when not 
employed in the field, would have much to recommend it. The 
young officer on joining, would^find himself amongst the officers of 
his own regiment, who are known to be the safest companions he 
can have under such circumstances. His instruction and duty 
would be superintended by those who are most likely to feel real 
interest in his progress. 

As far then as our test goes, the proposed organization appears 
to be one that would suit us under ordinary circumstances; but 
which, if war threatened us on our own soil, would cease to provide 
for the training of recruits and young officers, and for the care of 
attestations and records. There are, however, other points con- 
nected with the proposed scheme which although not touched by 
the test we have oeen applying, must be studied. 

It is a prominent feature of the scheme that it would substitute 
a regimental for the present general system of foreign relief, and 
that it would fix absolutely the relative numbers of battalions to be 
employed at all times on home and foreign duty. During peace this 
would perhaps present no difficulties, except such as might be met 
by regulating the strength of battalions according to the wants of 
particular localities, but during foreign war it might be otherwise. 
We cannot count upon being always able during foreign war to 
retain so large a force as one third of our battalions on home 
service. That some such proportion ought to be always available 
for home defence may be granted, but practically we know that when 
the emergency abroad arises, we shall probably give way to it as we 
have so often done before, and lean for the time on our naval, our 
militia, and our volunteer forces. The possibility that some tempo- 
rary modification of the plan might become necessary during 
emergencies abroad, must therefore be contemplated. That this 
modification would probably consist in establishing depots of some 
kind or other to fulfil for a time the functions of the reserve bat- 
talions temporarily employed abroad, is, I thinks e^ddfc^* ^^^^^ ^^^ 

U. S. Mag. No. 417, Aug. 186^. ^^ 



nu 



PROPOSED STJBSTITUT19 



[AtT0, 



practical alternative would be to add fourth battalions (o the regi- 
ments engaged, and this we know ia a measure we should avoid as 
long as possible. The temporary estabb'shment of a certnin number 
tif depots to take the places of Eeserve Bnttalions sent abroad daring 
ftnergencies snch as we have alluded to, would not, however, affect 
the general eharacter of the plan. Such a necessity would be only 
one of the many inconveniences consequent on a state of foreign 
war, which p like any other augmentation, we should get rid of on 
the restoration of peace. It would not, like the hasty formation of 
dej>ot* during threatened invasion, interrupt the working of any 
part of our syBteui, or be productive of more than temporary 
mconventencet 

Next, we ind that under existing circumstances it would be im- 
practicable to apply the proposed scheme to the whole of our army* 
To a partial extent we might carry it ont by converting the four 
depot companies of each of our twenty-five dooble battalion regi- 
ments into third or reserve battalions of sis or eight companies* 
The total increase of strength consequent on this conversion would 
be in the former case tifty, in the latter, one hundred companies. 
Or we might convert the two battalions of our first twenty- five 
regiments^ consisting at present of twelve companies each, (including 
depots) J into three battalions of eight, nine, or ten companies each, 
The first number would entail no increase of total strength, simply 
a re-distribntion of companies ; the second an increase of seventy- 
five^ the third an increase of one hundred anil fifty companies. To 
meet any increase, a corresponding reduction would of course have 
to be made elsewhere. The proposed scheme might Hkewise be 
extended to the 60th Ritles, and the Rifle Brigade, each of which 
consist at present of four battalions of twe!\^e corapaniea. The 
reduction of each to three battalions of twelve companies, would 
give na a total reduction of thirty-six companies towards 
balancing any increase of strength caused by the conversion of the 
first twenty-ilve reginflents. As all our regiments are now composed 
of riflemen, and as many of them actually occupy higher phices in 
tlie musketry classification return than the 60th and Rifle Brigade^ 
this measure would not in any way operate injuriously on the 
service. 

Any more general extension of the proposed scheme could only 
take jilace simultaneously with a considerable increase of strength, 
or by the conversion of a number of existing regiments into second 
and third battaliona* 1 need not say that these conditions are out 
of our reach, Even if all the arguments in favour of the scheme 
then were to be granted, it would still remain a question for grave 
consideration whether it would be expedient to introduce a change 
which cannot at present be more than partially carried out. 

On tlie whole^ however, it appears to me that while we cannot ex- 
press unqualified approbation of the projiosed scheme, it offers many 
advantages, and even its partial adoption would free us from much 



1868.] JPOa DBPOT BATTALIONS. 525 

of what we complain of at present. Moreover, the system is one 
which may be very gradually introduced, and its operation tested by 
experiment before we commit ourselves to its general adoption. 

Another plan which has long been a subject of discussion amongst 
military men, has never, as far as I know, been advanced in public. 
It proposes to abolish regimental depots altogether ; to drill and 
discipline recruits and young officers in special training establish* 
ments; to embody soldiers unfit for any but home duty in garrison 
battalions ; to send invalids to an invalid depot ; to establish a 
central depot for soldiers belonging to regiments abroad, who 
although neither recruits, home service men, nor invalids, happen 
to be temporarily within the United Kingdom ; and to keep the 
records and attestations of the entire army in a central office. Let 
us consider the details of this proposal. 

Recruits after attestation would be sent to large establishments 
especially and exclusively devoted to purposes of instruction, where 
they would be clothed and thoroughly disciplined before being 
passed on to their regiments. Each training establishment might 
have a staff of officers and non-commissioned officers specially 
selected from the whole army as being the men best fitted for the 
distinct and peculiar duties of instruction. In order to facilitate by 
means of example the acquirement by recruits of habits of discipline 
and a knowledge of military duty, as well as to assist in the training 
of young officers, a certain numoer of old soldiers might when no 
emergency required their presence with their regiments, be attached 
to each training establishment. By making this temporary duty 
the reward of good conduct and high soldierly qualities, and 
attaching to it a small rate of extra pay, a benefit might be conferred 
on deserving men, and safe guides would be provided for the 
recruits. The exact proportion of old soldiers required to leaven a 
mass of recruits, is a matter of detail upon which we need not now 
enter. Such establishments, besides affording the best possible 
training for recruits, would enable regiments to take the field un- 
encumbered by untrained men ; whilst under almost any emergency 
of war that could arise, they would themselves remain undisturbed 
and free to proceed with the clothing, arming, and disciplining of 
new levies. 

It is next proposed that the power should be vested in Her 
Majesty, to be used only in cases of great emergency at home, of 
causing recruits of Begiments abroad who happen to be at the 
training establishments to be drafted when fit for the ranks to 
regiments on home service ; their restoration to the regiments they 
enlisted for when the emergency shall have ceased being provided 
for. One is here tempted to consider whether enlistment for 
general service would not constitute an improvement on our present 
system ; but as it is not an essential element of the scheme under 
consideration, we may defer doing so to some other opportunity* 

The next part of tne scheme to be considered S& *ck^ nJ^^^^^^ 



526 



PEOPOSEB aifBSnTtJTE3 



[Aug* 



with the difficult question regarding the instruction of officers, 
Not onl_y is the Decesstty of home training for the young officers of 
regiments on foreign service recognized in this scheme, but it forms 
a part of it that a system of preparatory training should be getje- 
rally adopted throughout the army. While suggesting the means 
of securing this object, an effort is made to show that the evils com- 
plained of in depot battalions may at the same time be avoided* 
In order to explain this part of the plan fully, I roust beg the 
indulgence of my readers whilst I venture to go a little more into 
detail than has hitherto been necessary. 

It is suggested that certain of the proposed training establish- 
ments for recruits should have attached to tliem schools for the 
professional training of officers. This professional training, it is 
suggested, might be given immediately before appointment to com- 
mission s^ or immediately after, the details of the scheme being equally 
applicable to either course* The system of discipline to be pur- 
sued would, however, necessarily differ in the two cases. In the 
former some such system as is now in force at the Koyal Military 
Colleges might be adopted, in the latter such close supervision and 
control would neither be practtaible nor expedient. When it is re- 
naembered that the staff officers of the training establishments would 
be men specially selected for their posts, and their saccess in the 
performance of their duties judged of by results, either of these 
courses might, it is urged, be accepted as offering satisfactory means 
of supervision, and aa much freedom from the risk of bad example 
as it is ]}oi:sible to secure. 

It is furl her suggested that the young officer^s course at the train- 
ing school should be one of instruction exclusively, and that when 
considered qualified to perform duty on his own responsibihty, he 
should be at once sent to his regiment. On an average, three or 
four months' instruction would be found sofiicicnt to qualify for the 
performance of duty* The object contemplated in thus restricting 
the course is to guard against the possibility of any part of the 
actual duly of the recruit establishment being entrusted to theyountj 
officers ; it being an essential condition of this scheme timt such 
duty should be performed by the selected staff* officers, and by them 
only* The young officer would go through the whole of the 
recruit course of instruction in drill and musketry with the recruits, 
armed and dressed as a private. He would then be dismissed from 
recruit drill, and his connection with the recruit branch of the 
establishment would finally terminate* He would next ent-cr on a 
second course of instruction, in which be would be attached exclu- 
sively to the old soldiers serving with the estabiishment. In this 
he would practice the duties of non-commissioned officer, and officer 
in company and battalion driUj after which his course of drill would 
come to an end, 

Simnltai^eously with the instruction in drill and mu&ketry, daily 
lectures and examinations in such professional subjects as arc re- 



1863.] FOE DEPOl' BATTALTONS. 8^7 

quired to qualify for the proper discharge of regimental duty, might 
take place under competent instructors. Every court-martial held 
in the establishment might be attended by the young officers for 
instruction, minutes of the proceedings being made out by each for 
the inspection of the officer-instructor afterwards. The young 
officers might likewise in turn accompany the stafif orderly officers 
during their daily duty to receive practical instruction on every 
point connected therewith, but without authority or responsibility 
regarding the duty on their own part. 

The young officer would thus, it is believed, be more thoroughly 
grounded in the details of his work than he is or can be at present. 
He would in a great measure be safe from the risks he must run 
amongst chance companions and without proper supervision at a 
Depot Battalion, whilst the recruit training would not suffer in any 
way from his mexperience. 

To provide for the useful employment of men temporarily or per- 
manently incapacitated for foreign service, whether belonging to 
regiments at home or regiments abroad, it is proposed that garrison 
battalions should be organized, to be officered in the usual manner 
and employed on home service exclusively. By requiring that 
every man proposed for transfer to a garrison battalion should first 
na'ss through the invalid or central depot, from which he might 
be forwarded as intended, or be returned to his regiment, or 
discharged as the case might require, and by periodical medical 
examinations of battalions, in order that men considered fit for 
service with their regiments might be restored thereto, all risk of 
abuse would be obviated. It is believed that this organization 
would render the services of the large class of man it deals with 
more useful for purposes of home defence than any other that can be 
devised. The whole of the officers and a large majority of the men 
would have a permanent interest in the reputation of their battalions, 
whilst the men temporarily attached for the recovery of health would 
be placed under conditions of discipline identical with those existing 
in their own regiments. The demoralizing influences of constant 
intercourse with recruits and of stationary quarters which operate 
so injuriously under the present system would be altogether 
avoided. 

For the disposal of soldiers who have become confirmed invalids 
and are unfit even for home service, it is suggested that no better 
plan can be devised than that which we pursue at present of sending 
them to an invalid depot as a preparatory step to their final 
discharge. 

The next suggestion is, that one central depot for the army 
abroad should be established at home for the purpose of fulfilling 
certain requirements of our foreign service. Such an establishment 
would be charged with the discipline of soldiers belonging to 
regiments abroad, who although neither recruits, home-service men^ 
nor invalids, happen to be temporarily withiu U\e. XSvvXr-^^^^^^^^''^^'^* 



us 



PEOPOSEt) SUBSTITUTED J^OE DBPCTT BATTAMOKS, 



[Au0. 



■ 



This ckss includes soldii^rs awaiting diacbarge; soldiera ra-enlisted, 

transferred, returning from furlougli, proceed iiig on or retiirniug 
from recruiting service^ apprehended de.^erLerSj and otliers arriving 
from or proceedirjg to their regiments abroad. Another important 
function of the central depot would be that of carrying into etfect 
the (inai discharge of soldiers, other than invaUda, sent from abroad 
for tliat purpose* 

The last part of the plan I need allude to is that which prorides 
for the care of the attestations and records of regiments. It is pro- 
posed that a ceutral ofGce m London or elsewhere should be established 
for the custody of these documents, the information necessary for 
filling up the entries in them being transmitted, as at present, 
periodically from the various regiments. Tlie office, it is suggested, 
might be divided into two departments, one for the attestations, the 
other for the records. The roll books of regiments would then 
contain as at present a duplicate of each soldier^s record which 
would accompany him throughout his aervice. 

Let us recapitulate the advantages which this scheme offers. A 
perfect system of training recruits either in peace or war, the means 
during emergencies of employing all recruits fit for the ranks with 
leginaents on the home estabhshment, a satisfactory system of 
training young oflicors^ an efficient organization for horoe defence 
of home- service men, and provision for the due care of attestations 
and records* Further, it has been sliowu that these advantages 
may be obtained witliout impairing the constant efficiency of 
regiments for immediate service, end without interrupting any of 
the details connected with our home and foreign service. 

Here then u a substitute for Depot Battalions which appears 
likely to altBin all the ends contem plated in such institutions with*- 
out one of the drawbacks to which they are liable, and to which it 
]s difficult to Und any objection stronger than that it contains novel 
proposals wliich require time for digestion. 

We have now at some length studied two of the plans which 
have been proposed* The discussion, I hope, has been sufficient to 
shew that no unsurmouutable difficulty lies in the way of tiuding a 
aatisfactory substitute for the Depot Battalion system, and that it; 
rests with the Government to cause such investigation to be made 
by means of a military coraraission or, otherwise, as shall satisfy the 
country that in their liands the important pubtic interest involved 
has not been neglected* B« 




1868.J 529 



GEEENWICH CHARACTERS. 
XII. 

JOHN IRELAND. 

Dropping one morning into the office of my friend — as I was 
proud to call him — the Adjutant, my business being a gossip, I 
found him engaged in settling a dispute between a pensioner and 
a shopkeeper who claimed a small debt. I took a seat near the 
window, for I was much more interested with the examination 
of the newly admitted men^ who had attended at the office to be 
registered, than with the roundabout story about a pound of candles. 
The study of physiogiiomy had always had charms for me, and here 
I had ample opportunities for its exercise. Tbere was the marine, 
with head erect, and features carved out of wood, marked with the 
sort of determined unflinching spirit which had probably led him tu 
be a target for an enemy, or to be the recipient of three dozen at 
the gangway with as much apparent unconcern as if all the time 
standing sentry at the cabin door. The monosyllabic reply, 'Brown, 
John/ — ^ Sixty-nine.' — ' Troubridge.' — • Marine.' — ' Widower.' — 
&c., &c. Not a word nor a sentence needlessly spoken. Then came 
a cautious Scot, a ship-carpenter, with stooping gait, red nose, hand 
in pocket — Archibald Maclachlan, of Dundee. In reply to the 
question, ' Were you ever wounded in the service ?' the hand was 
witiidrawn from the pocket to demonstrate the fact that he had 
lost two fingers. These and others passed in review before me; 
and, although amused, I thought how difficult it would be to 
extract from such materials two interesting facts. 

But who have we next P A short, broad-shouldered^ round-faced 
and full-chested veteran, limping along aided by a short walking- 
stick. My friend the Adjutant, having adjusted the dispute between 
the pensioner and the chandler, now joined me. The new comer 
had a remarkable expression of countenance. He had a rounds 
healthy-looking face, and having been just shaved, his massive 
chin was of a fine dark blue. Uis eyes were of the same colour ; 
bnt it took time to determine that fact, as they were deeply sunken, 
and siiaded by large black projecting eye-brows. . 

" What is your name ?" asked the clerk. 

" John Ireland." 

" How old are you ?" 

''Eighty-one." 

" Bet you that's a purser's name," said my friend, in an under 
tone. '' I'll find that out when he has answered all the questions.'* 

So, just as the old man was going away, my friend called him 
back. 

" How many other names have you had besides the present one P" 

The old man scratched his head, and with a knowing toro^^^^^^ 



580 



anC^ENWICE GBAEACTE13* 



[Aug* 



quid — for his distorted cheek showed that he relished the delicious 
moisture of the Virginian weed — said, "Can't remember exactly. 
More nor one/* he added after a time* 

" I said ^o" to me soUo ^Qce. " Now how long have you been 
John Ireland ?" 

'^Wliy— let*3 see* Evei since I tinned^ that is— left the oultk 
Eggymemnonj in 1806/' 

'^Now then we shall have it," said my friend^ writing down, 
"and who commanded the Eggyraeranon?'^ 

*' Sir E, Berryj to be sure he did, and didn't I sarve with hitn at 
Trafalgar and off Saint Domingy ?" 

"Wellj but what made you 'rin' after serving with such a 
gallant officer as some thought him ?^* 

*' A good many reasons for why? I had an old *oman at home 
as I hadn't set eyes on for seven jear^ and h^re was the ship 
ordered out to South Ameriker with anotlier Captain ; and was 
it likely I was going to be bandied off again like that ? No* So 
I ink French leave; and from John England I got to be John 
Ireland in my ncit ship*" 

**But England is not your name neitherj*' said my catechising 
friend, 

'*Well no, not exact ly. England was my mother's maiden 
naraBi" 

" And you ^ riuned' before you took up that ?'* 

" Wellj what if I did?-' replied the old mnn, testily. 

'*0h, nothing at all/' said my ffood^iumoured friend, laughing, 
"only it strikes me as if you had been a good many years in the 
service, or at sea, that is, before you joined the ' Eggyinernuon/" 

"Perhaps I had; but the Admiralty would not take away the 
^B' if I asked for it, although there^s a main lot of prize-money 
ahind that ^ R/ I can tell you ; and it's no manner of use my 
asking it, or saying any word about it.'* 

" I only asked out of curiosity* How much good servitude have 
you got?'* 

"Only about ten years and six raonthsj out of thirty-five. If 
I could have got all my lime and pension, I would have stayed 
down at Whitehaven and ended ray days there ; but when I maJe 
application for a pension, I was told I might come into the House." 

The 'nest man' was now called in, and John Ireland alias 
England, alias Simpson, as I afterwards found out, hobbled out, 
for he was rather lame. 

" What ward are you in ?" asked the Lieutenant, as the old man 
moved away. 

*' Clarence," Did I not note down that fact ? 

Quite promiscuously, as a man would say, I toiled up the difty 
stone staircase — dirty from the constant traffic of some five hundred 
men up and down at least tliree or four time^ a day — and on 
reaching the Clarence inquired of the boatswain if the new man, 
naming Irtland, was in. 



1863. J GBEENWICH CHARACTEB8. 531 

"Tuk him over to the 'ferinary day before yesterday. He 
had a fall and hurted his le^ ; and I made 'en go to the Doctor 
whether he would or no ; and the Doctor swore at 'en in a good- 
natured way, and said as how the man was too old to go up four 
pair of stairs.'* 

"And so he is in the Infirmary?'' 

'* Yes, he's in the surgery side. Old Dicky's got him, and he 
won't let him go till he is all right." 

" Is the poor man much hurt ?" 

" Only sprained his ankle, I think." 

Further inquiries satisfied me that the old man was tolerably 
steady in his habits, and that the accident he had met with was not 
occasioned by imbibing too much. The following day I asked at 
the Infirmanr for John Ireland. 

''Kitty, show this gentleman up to No. 10, second floor, said the 
boatswain of the Infirmary. 

A lively character was Kitty White; a little woman, whose 
accent soon satisfied me that she was from the Emerald Isle. 

'' Ah ! what, you here, Mr. ■ P" said a well-known voice, 
seconded by a thump on the floor, which made me aware that my 
friend the Adjutant was by. "What are you about with Kitty? 
She is an old friend of mine." 

"Now, Mr. E /* said the nurse, "sure and it's kind of you 

to call the likes of me frind." 

"None of your blarney, Kitty; have you got another watch to 
sell?" 

*' Watch is it now, your honour, you're always up to your jokes ; 
what about watches P" 

" Why, the one you sold to Johnny Q P" 

"Ah now, Mr. E , and you're hard upon Kitty. Well," 

said she, laughing, " if he did buy it and found it daer at the price 
it was his bad luck sure. 

" 'Do you want a watch, Mr. Q P' says I. 

"'What for?' ses he. 

" ' Cause I'll sell you one chape,' ses I. 

" ' How much ?' ses he. 

" ' Quartern o' whuskey,' ses I. 

" ' But I must see it first,' ses he. 

" ' No, no, Mr. Q , you must take it upon my recommenda- 
tion, and jou, gentlemen,' says I to the young doctors standing 
round, 'will say that's fair, considering the lowness of the price.' 

" ' Buy it, Johnny,' says one, ' I know,' he whispered, ' it's a 
bargain ; only Kitty got it by the sly from one- of the men that 
died suddenly.' 

" ' How much will you take ?' ses he. 

" ' Well, a quartern of whuskey, that's the best, and costs nine- 
pence.' 

" ' Well,' ses he, ' then you shall have \t» wAVwJ^^^^ass^^^' 
and now let's see the watch.* 



53^ GREENWICH CUAttACTEHS. [AdG, 

" - Oh, thank your lioiiour/ sajs I, afler I had got the money, 
and made a low curtshey, 'if jou^ll louk iu about twelve oMock 
to-Dtght you shall have it, for il?s the middh watch/ 

" Lor, you never heard sacli a aoreech as the young doctors give, 
they lauj^hed ready to gpliti and all but Johnjiy laughed, and he 
turned blue " 

" So you want to see old John Ireland* I want to see him too ; 
for the Doctor says he is too old to be warded at the top of the 
building, and I want to ask him where he would like to go when he 
comes out. Here comes the Doctor going his rounds, I will mtro 
duce you to him, A friend of raine^ Doctor/^ 

'^Mu&t be a good fellow to be a friend of yours; let me shake 
your hand. Sir/' 

A fine specimen of the rough old school oC medicine was Dr. 

D , A spacious open countenancej strong features, and full of 

life, always happy to oblige, and ready at any moment to amputate 
a limb, or send his probe deeply into a wound. Liked much, but 
feared more. He was kind to the sick^ but a mortal foe to a 
skulker ; and havin^j bad much to do with men of the latter class 
during his service afloat, he was naturally suspicious still. 

Dr. D— was of tall stature when he stood erect ; but at the 

present time he was suffering from weakness in the loins, occasioned 
by a fit of the gout, and walked with his body mueh bent. He, 
however, threw himself back on i?peaking to me, and with one hand 
on the small of his back under his coat tails, and the other holding 
a small stick, he a^ked me if I needed any of that, pointing to a 
large tin tray, I thanked him most cordially, wliile a cold shiver 
ran over me as I glanced at the array of knives and other surgical 
uistruments which an attendant was carrying in the rear- Two 
other medical officers were in attendance, going the rounds. 

We entered one of the cabins, a cube of about eighteen feet, 
lighted by one window, and at each corner was a bed, containing a 
patient, covered with a borse rug* At the bed*s head was a dingy 
striped linen curtain; and there vras notlung prepossessing in the 
general appearance of the room, nothing cheerful — all was gloom; 
the walls were painted of a dull drab, the floor, tolerably well 
scrubbed, was destitute of carpet, hand -stools without backs there 
were to sit upon, but everything was very gloomy and dispiriting ; 
and many of the old men preferred death outside rather than enter 
the Infirraury to be cured. The prejudice against the Hospital was 
so strong, that my friend the Adjutant, in order to remove it as fur 
as he could by example, being ill, entered the Infirmary as a patient 
himself, and remained a considerable time under surgical treatment. 
The nurses were womeja, neither young nor particular, and the 
surgeons of the old school were not famed for the mildness of their 

treatment. Dr. D was most skili'ul and ready with the knife, 

and he expected his patients to submit without wincing to operations 
which are now seldom performed without chloroform. 



1863.] GREKNWICH CHABAOTBRS. 583 

''This is No 10/' said Kitty White; but on entering we found 
that No. 3 patient was out on the leads. The place indicated by 
' the leads' was the passage leading from one side of the quadrangle 
to the other ; but as it served as a cover to the passage beneath it 
was leaded. 

The old man whom we were in search of, was fouud seated on a 
stool with a pair of crutches beside him. The injury to his ankle 
was not very serious, and there was no doubt entertaioed of his 
speedy recovery, his habit of body being evidently good. 

" Now do not try to get up, my old friend,'' said my companion 
to the old man, who was endeavouring to rise from his seat. ''You 
must not try the Clarence again, I will put you in a ground-floor 
ward when you come out ; but you must not be in a hurry." 

" But I am in a hurry," said the old man, pettishly, " I don't 
want to stop in here." 

"Why what's wrong?" 

" Why everything's wrong. I can't get out, nor get a drop of 
grog, and there's no one to buy me pig-tail, and precious little 
money to buy it." 

" Have patience, my old man." 

"And for the matter of the pig-tail," said I, chiming in, "here's 
a fathom or so to go on with." 

The old fellow's eyes glistened, and almost before thanking me 
for the unexpected treat, he had notched off with his knife about 
fourteen inches of it. After discharging his old quid, he rolled the 
new length of weed op in a ball, and placing it in his cheek looked 
perfectly at his ease. " Ah, ha 1" said I, inwardly, " I have got 
the length of your foot, pig-tail will do it I see." 

Watching my opportunity, I caught my old hero a few days 
afterwards, seated on a bench by the side of the new helpless ; and 
quite by accident, of course, I had a length of pig-tail in my 
pocket. 

"Talking of pig-tail," said I, "when did you dock off your 
tail?" 

" About 1800, I was sick of the ' tie for tie.' Tlie tail was more 
trouble than enough. I had plenty to do without sarving a mess- 
mate's tail, and if you wouldn't do that for your messmate he 
wouldn't do it for you." 

" Tie for tie and no favours," said I. 

" Yes, that was it, so I took it into my head to cut mine off one 
day, and I stowed it away in my bag intending to sell it." 

"Sell it, who would buy itP^ 

" The barbers to be sure. Why, my tail was as thick as your 
wrist at the upper end, and a yard in length, and all long black 
hair ^ but when I took it to sell, I had kept it too long, and it was 
quite rotten and good for nothing." 

"What did you say your name was before you changed it to 
England?" 



534 



OBBESNWICU CHAEAGTEBB* 



[Aug- 



The old feOow eyed mc with a knowing leer, aa much as to say 
'* what business is that of yoora;" but just then 1 felt in my pocket 
for the pig-tail. He smelt it, 

"What was that you axed^ Sir?" 

**0h^ nothing, only to know your name before jott changed it 
to England." 

"To Ireland you mean/' said he, "my name is Ireland now, 
and it was England," 

" YeSj I know ; but what was it before that ?" 

"Now I see your drifts you want to get your chain pumps to 
work upon me ; but I don't mind you. I wasnH going to tell the 
Leflenant; though, for the matter of that, he*s as good a man as 
ever stepped on one or two legs, and never harmed nobody in his 
life, so they tells me here ; and I believes them, for he's got the 
true cut of a eaitor; but then you see he's an officer here, and 
rnaybe he wonldnH like to hear what I have got to say/' 

" You might trust him as well as you could me/* said I. 

"Why, you see/' said the old man, in a cautious whisper, "I 
was near hand being hung as a delegate, and jjerhaps I should have 
been sarved right if I had; and afore that I was one of a boat's 
crew that runaway from a ship in a sinking state " 

" Not much harm in that/' said L 

" I donH know that ; I thinks, and always did, that we acted 
like cowards; and mayhap if we hadn^t rinned away the ship would 
have been kept all oat till such titties as a friendly sail hove in 
sight," 

" I have read something about that,** I ansrt^ered, "hut the ship 
was sinking, and the captain could not do any good by stopping to 
go down in her; and the boat had not got a sail or compass." 

"Tfiat'a all a pack of lies; I have had that yarn read over to me, 
and what I sajc*, I means, it's all a pack of lies; and if so be as I 
liad been axed to speak out at the Court-Marlial I could have told 
them better." 

" And have been hung for your trouble/' 

"Yes, very like. Hanging was no hard matter then; and the 
man who wanted to keep clear of the yard- arm or the gangway was 
alwdys forced to clap a stopper on his jaw " 

" But tell me what you recollect of that affair/' 

"You see, after the battle with Count de Grasse, there was nine 
sail-of-the-line that had been in the action and had been knocked 
about a good bit, that sailed from Bluefields in July, I think, for 
England^ and a large convoy. The Admiral's flag was then iu the 
Ea mil lies" 

" Oh, the fatal Uamillies, as the song says." 

" YeSj fatal enough ; but not so bad as some other ships, and 
the Admiral bad shifted his flag to the Yille de Paris before that. 
Part of the convov was for New York, and the rest for England. 
When off the hanKS of Newfoundland, a gale came on, and threw 



I 



I 



I 



1863. J GRBSNWIOH OHA&AOTEBS. 535 

US on our beam-ends. We cut away the mizen and mainmasts, 
and the foremast and bowsprit went of their own will. The rudder 
was also washed away. It was a mercy we did not founder there 
and then ; but she righted, and we got nearly all the guns over- 
board. The ship rolled and laboured as you may suppose; but 
instead of trying to get np jury-masts to steady her, we tried a 
sea anchor.'^ 

"What's that?" 

"Til tell you. We slung the stream anchor to a boom and 
some gun-carriages, and got it over the bows, with a large hawser 
bent on to it, hoping that it would bring the ship head to wind, 
but it had no effect; whereas, if so be we had got up our spare 
spars, and set anything upon the ship to steady her, she would 
have been more under command, and not have strained as she did. 
Owing to the heavy working of the ship, and the water shipped as she 
rolled her lower deck ports under, we soon had seven or eight feet 
of water in the hold, and our pumps got choked with coal-dust that 
washed out of the after-hold into the pump-well. There we laid 
rolling about like a porpoise for five blessed days and nights, some- 
times blowing hard, and at other times scarcely a breeze ; but no 
jury-masts, although we did begin to think about it, and got up 
sheers forward to raise a foremast by. We got a fothered sail under 
the bottom, but that had no effect; and as the pumps were choked 
and the leathers worn out, we turned to and bailed, and at one time 
got her nearly free of water ; but it came on to blow again, and 
having no sail of any sort to steady her, the ship rolled about 
frightfully, and the leaks increased and gained upon us. We could 
get very little water to drink, however, but plenty of rum, and that 
did more mischief than enougli. 

" As there seemed no chance of saving the ship, the large boats 
were got over the side and provisions put in them. The Captain 
first had his eye on the yawl, a fine roomy boat, but she got stove 
alongside, and then the pinnace took his fancy. I belonged to that 
boat, and was in her alongside to keep the crew from jumping in. 
So we got the boat all ready for a start, and then the Captain he 
persuades tlie oflScers that he could mayhap find out the leak by going 
round the ship outside. The ship was in a fair way of foundering as 
we all knew, but while there's life there's hope you know ; and so 
long as a ship floats, there is no telling what may turn up to save 
the lives of the crew, and. Sir, ifs my opinion, though I am only a 
poor man, that the Captain ought always to be the last man to leave 
a sinking ship." 

"No doubt you are right," said I, "and many captains before 
and since that event have stood at their post, and have calmly met 
their death rather than attempt to save themselves while those 
under their command were in peril ; but it seems, from what I have 
read, that the ship was actually sinking, and that the Captain 
caught at the boat as a drowning man would catch at a ^V&s^i' 



536 



GBEENWlCe CHAEACTITRB. 



[Aug* 



' TKal/s nil gooJ what yon sajj but the ship was in sight hours 



after we had stole 



from her- We i 






we liaa stoJe awaj trom hen we ran away from the sliip like 
a thief in the night, and bitter was the cursing and swearing at us 
as we made sail upon the boat*" 

" Made s^nl, avast there ! what's that you say ? why, you had no 
sail on board, only an old blanket/' 

"That is all gammon/* rejoined the old man, "we had a sail 
and a mast too, and a eompass to steer by, and as much gnib as 
the boat would carry, all put in by the Captain's orders. I re- 
member well the carpenter of the ship looking over the side and 
threatening us that if ever the ship got into port what he would do 
to ns» What happened to the poor fellows after we left them no 
one can tell ; but I expect they got at the rum again, and^ — but 
it's no use talking* I know this, that if I'd been captain, and had 
had a hundred lives, I would have given them all up before I 
would have left my ship as our captain did. 

*' We calculated that we had about from two hundred and fifty 
to tliree hundred leagues to run before we got to the Western 
Islands, and we had the Master in the boat to navigflte us* Wimt 
wc should have done without hiji*, I don't know ; but we kept the 
boat's head the right way, and made Fayal in thirteen daja,'^ 

" Not bad sailing uiider a blanket," said L 

"Blanket ! why, it was a hig saih or how should we have made 
sixty miles a day^ taking one day witli another, and sometimes with 
a foul wind ?" 

" I am only speaking by the book, you know ; and the book says 
you had no compass or quadrant." 

'^ How should we have made that passage without a compa'^s? 
Tou are a fine sailor to think sucli things. We had contrary winds, 
and yet we made the island of Fayal as straight as a line; but wc 
were almost famished with hunger and thirst, and oar limbs were 
cramped with the wet and want of exercise. My tongue was as hard 
as a board* Old Thomp'^on, the quartermaster, died of drinking salt 
water, and another day would have kilted one or two more of us. 
I was the man that first saw the land* It was thick weatlipr, but I 
got a sight of the high land above the fog; and when I reported it 
I thought the crew would have gone mad. They jumped, and 
screeched as loud as they coutd; and the Master, when he had 
saliFfied himself tfiat it was all right as I said, altered the course 
for it, and soon all hands could see it as well as myself, though I 
daresay it was forty miles off. 

" We fell in with a 6f*bing-boat, and they piloted us into the 
harbour at midnight, and thankful we all felt, leastways, I know I 
did; but I was so weak 1 coulJ not walk, and had to be carried up 
the town to the British Consults house. The officers were better 
off. The good people only gave me a tea -spoonful of soup at a 
time, and I could hardly swallow that; and it took a week before I 
could eat any meat, my gums w^ere so sore, and teeth so loose. 
fyjointB are stiff now at times." 



1868. 1 aBBBirwioH chabactbrs. 537 

''The narrative made oat that you had no compass^ yet the 
writer of it states that a reckoning was kept. I never could under- 
stand how a reckoning could be kept while the boat was steering 
without a compass^ and with only an old blanket for a sail." 

" Don't you oelieve it. You understand if the Captain had not 
made np a fine yarn, he must have been turned out of the Service, 
and there was no ode to contradict his yarn. In course he wasn't 
tried by cooks. 

''I suppose not" said I, ''for at the court-martial he was called 
' a cool and resolute officer/ and the court told him that his conduct 
' reflected the highest credit on him/ and so forth." 

"I know all that ; I was at the court-martial, in course, as one 
of the prisoners, and saw the sword given back to the Captain, and 
heard all that was said to him ; and then I went on the lower 
deck of the flag-ship, and heard what some others had to say ; but 
as I was asked no questions at the court, why I could not say any- 
thing. But never mind, I'm a CoUegeman, and the Captain died a 
great man ; but 1 hope that when my time comes I may be able to 
say that I never turned my back on messmate or shipmate in time 
of trouble." A plentiful discharge of tobacco juice accompanied 
this outpouring of pent-up feeling. 

" We was called cowards," he continued, " and hooted by the poor 
fellows we left behind, and I felt half inclined to jump overboard 
and go back to the ship and sliare their lot sooner than rin away 
from them, but I was under command and it was my duty to obey 
orders. One young midshipman jumped overboard after us and 
was taken in, and in all we had four oflicers, one of them a 
surgeon's mate, and only lost one out of the twelve. 

" Ah," added the old man with a sort of sigh, " I've seen many 
more troubles besides that, and plenty of them ; but I did not like 
being called a coward, and I knowed it was true. I was nearly 
burnt to death after that." 

" Aye, aye how was that ?" 

" Oh, that was in the Hindostan store ship. I jounded her at 
the short peace. Mr. Weir, a master, had command of her then, 
but when we took fire we had a master and commander; he 
was a Guernsey man named Captain Le Gros/' 

" And when did that happen ?" 

" We were bound out to Malta with stores and provisions for 
the fleet, and in storing the hold, the dock-yard people put in 
paint, and turpentine, and rope, and all sorts of stores all mixed np 
together. The Hindostan had been an East Indiaman, teak built, 
and very strong. If she bad not been I should not have been 
here now to tell you the story. Besides stores we had a great 
many passengers, women and children besides, shipwrights going 
to Malta to serve in a dock-yard there. I think I was in the luck 
of it, just before I jounded the Hindostan I had been cast away iiSL 
the Pallas frigate, and that was the third timet V«!i\R««^^«\^^fcs^\ 
but now again I was near upou beii^^ to%*a\ft^ li^^r 



538 



QEKKKWICU CHARACTKUSt 



fAUG* 



" We encomitcred some hea?y weather before we got to Gibral- 
tar; and ju5t us we had [la^sed through the Straits we got a 
fresh gale after usj and the old ship rolled like a water-butt. No 
doubt the stores got adrift with the roJling, and some of the tur- 
pentine jars broke, and what do jou call it ?^^ 

"Spontaneous corabustion, I suppose," 

"Yea, something of that sort took place, and the smoke began to 
come out of the hold through the hatches, enough to choke old 
Nick himself, I was hoatswafn^a mate at the time, and was sent 
down with tlie mai?ter and a party of hands to put the fire out* 
The master was for unshipping the hatches, and pouring water into 
the hold; but, says I, Sir, if }ou do that we'll all be burnt up, 
as sure as deatlL Keep the hatches down, and cover them up with 
wet swabs and blankets and hammocks. The lower deck ports 
had all been well closed iu before to keep out the sea. 

" ' Tou are right, my man/ said tlie captain, who had come 
down to see what we were doing ; ' keep all fast aod cover the 
hatches as England recommends/ 

" By this time the lower deck was a mass of thick smoke^ and all 
hands were on the main and upper decks, for she was a fifty gun two 
decked ship you must know^ the poor women and children were 
crying and expecting every minute to see the Hamea burst up the 
hatchways, or that the fire would reach the magazine, and blow us 
sky-high. Meantime the Captain had put the ship right before the 
wind, running in for the Spanish coast, with studding-sails set on 
both sides, 

'* When nearly every soal had been driven off the lower deck by 
the smoke, I volunteered to go down in search of the purser's 
steward, who had been left below, I had a rope fastened to me, 
and I got down on the deck, and crept along ou all-fours, as the 
smoke was not so thick there. I came across the steward lying on 
the deck senseless. He had a bag of money in his hand. I bent 
a hauling line on to his leg, and they pulled him up the hatchway, 
but too late to save his hfe, I tiien worked my way to the masler^s 
cabin, and brought up a black canvas bag. After me no one 
ventured below. We kept pumping water down, and flooded the 
lower deck which helped to keep the fire from breaking through, 

'* Everything was done as regular as poi^sible, just as if nothing 
whatever was the malter. We hoisted out all the boats, and 
towed them astern with a boat keeper in each; and every man had 
orders not to allow anyone to get into the boats on any account, 

''The fire was discovered at daybreak in the morning, and it was 
noon before we got sight of the land. The wind seemed lighter 
than it was, but the ship was going six knots ; although such was 
the anxiety to get ashore, that she seemed hardly to move. The 
smoke got thicker every minute, and poured up in such volumes as 
to deaden the force of the wind. 

The boats would not have held one half of the ship's company 



1863.] GREENWICH CHARACTERS. 589 

and passengers^ so we all knew that if the flames burst ont^ the cliief 
part of us would perish. Every turn of the half-hour glass we 
thought would be the last for us ; but notwithstanding that, all 
hands were quiet and obedient. The Captain and officers walked 
the deck quite composed, and the poor women and children had 
been all assembled aft on the quarter-deck and poop. The land 
appeared to run away from us, and the breeze gradually dropped, 
until we could not have been going more than three or four knots. 
As we got closer in, we saw some Spanish launches ; but they all 
gave us a wide berth, as it seemed to them the ship was in 
flames. 

" It was near sunset before we touched the ground. We were 
in the Bay of Roses and it was a bay of roses to us. As we 
grounded gently forward, the motion seemed to give the fire more 
power, for a thick cloud of smoke burst up which seemed to say 
our destruction was at hand. Some of the blue jackets I am sorry 
to say made a rush off to get at the boats, and one man jumped 
overboard from the poop, and caught hold of the gunwale of the 
pinnace. Bob Collinson, coxswain of the boat, up stretcher and 
hit the man over the knuckles until he let go and fell astern, and 
was drowned.*' 

" Sharp practice,'' I remarked. 

" Yes, but not a bit too sharp, for if Bob- hadn't done that, a 
hundred fellows would soon have followed, and the boats would 
have been swamped in qnart'Cr less no time, but seeing how the 
coxswain served the first who tried it, the rest kept quiet, and so we 
lost one man instead of a hundred." 

"As soon as the ship was hard and fast aground, the boats were 
ordered up alongside one by one, and the women and children 
handed down into them. The Spanish launches took the passengers 
from our boats, and landed them, and after the passengers the 
ship's company went, and aft^r them, the officers, and last of alt 
the captain. In consequence of the good order, every one was 
saved but the purser's steward who went down after the money, and 
the man who jumped off the poop." 

" I stuck by the Captain, and was in the last boat that left the 
ship, and I don't think we had shoved off more than five minutes 
when the flames burst out of the lower deck ports and in five 
minutes more the ship was one bright flame. The magazine was 
reached soon afterwards, and up went the old Hindostan sky high, 
sending fiery splinters right and left. We all reached the shore 
that night, thanking Providence for our miraculous deliverance, 
we were famishing with hunger and thirst, for few of us had tasted 
food the whole of that day. The water in the scuttle butt was ex- 
hausted, and we could not get a drop from below. Our Captain 
deserved the thanks of all bands, for nothing but his coolness kept 
the people quiet." 

" You deserved thanks, too/' said I. 

U. S. Mag. No. 417, Aug. 1868. ^^ 



5i0 



AEinXERY— UDR^E AKD FOOT. 



[Aro. 




" PerhapB I did, I have altt^njs hud the luck of it. If tliej had 
lifted one of the hatches^ the ship would soon have been on fire fore 
and aft and the loss of life would ha?e been terrible, and had I not 
been of the partj the hatches would have been takeu oC^ 

" I auppose/ said I^ "the Ca]>tBin got posted " 

*'Not a bit of it. I don^t ihink he was ever employed after- 
wards, and he was never rewarded for his noble behaviour," 

"What a contrast, how very curious," I said to myself, after 
wishing good bye to old IrelancL One Captain deserts his ship 
and crew, and is rewarded by another ship, and afterwards by one 
of the most desirable positions an officer of his rnnk could 
have enjoyed, while another by his cool determination saved 
hundreds of lives^ was never afterwards employed and died a Com- 
tnander! for I found upon searching that Captain Le Gros died 
about six years afterwards in the rank which he held when he lost 
the Hindostant 



ARTILLERY—HORSE AND FOOT. 



Two articles which have recently appeared on the subject of Ar- 
tillery» do the writers infinite credit. Yet it is hoped that a few 
remarks from an old officer may not be taken so as to give 
offence, or be unacceptable in general* 

The first article treats of Morse Artillery and Cavalry as to com- 
bined movements and generul effect if acting together, which of 
course they ought to do^ yet occasions may occur when tliey may 
be separated and act independeuLly of each olher. Another thing 
to be considered is, the increased range of Artillery, which may be 
brought to bear upon a body of Cavalry at a much greater distance 
than formerly ; this shews how much more necessary it is for Cavalry 
to have Artillery attached to them» which is able to keep pace with 
their movemei^ts, and always be at hand to cover their advance, 
to repel the attack of the enemy should they make one, or if their 
own Cavalry should be obliged to retire, and so adapt their move- 
ments as to be of mutual advantage to each other. 

If Cavalry are opposed to Cavalry alone, one side or ot lier most 
advance to meet its enemy, and countries where Cavalry are most 
useful and likely to come into contact, are mostly lc%^ei or tolerably 
open, there must have been a bad look-out kept, if the Artillery 
did not get due notice of their proceedings, and as they can reach 
them now from so much f^reater distance than they could formerly, 
tho attacking party could be seen and fired at so much further, 
that they might be greatly injured before they would come to actual 
blows with their own branch of the servicCp That in fact, if Cavalry 
is well supported by Artillery, we may look upon the days of Cavalry 
fighting solely with Cavalry, as among things tliat have been* 



1868 .J ARTILLEEY— HOESB AND FOOT* 541 

We quite agree in the opinion that the Horse Artillery and 
Cavalry must know how they can best support and protect each 
other ; and that this point is not sufl&ciently taken into consider- 
ation by either party, and that the commanding oflBcers do not suffi- 
ciently understand or appreciate the benefits that may arise by duly 
consulting each other. An officer commanding a Brigade of Cavalry 
does not always know, how, where and when, the Artillery may be 
best employed, as he may not have sufficient knowledge of that 
branch of the service, and he may not like always to take the 
opinion of a junior, but gives an order to the Artillery officer to 
act at once, without duly considering, how it is to be carried into 
effect, and when the latter comes to act upon it, he may find diffi- 
culty or impossibility to carry out what may be required. 

As regards what is said of escort duties of Cavalry to Artillery, 
it is certainly right that Artillery, when in action, especially when it 
may be at some little distance from the main body, should be 
properly supported, as all Artillerymen must know the old maxim, that 
the last discharges when the enemy are nearest the muzzles of the 
guns are the most effective and cover him with glory ; but if the 
Artillery find or know that they aie not properly supported, they 
might be apt to " limber up" when they ought to give the last dis- 
charge, under the conviction that their guns would be taken and 
perhaps turned upon their own side, and that it would be better 
to carry them away than allow of such a contingency, whereas if 
they knew that they had a squadron or two to support them, they 
would fight to the last. 

This was exemplified at Talavera, by Captain Cleeves of the 
German Legion Artillery, he saw the celebrated Polish Lancers 
about to charge his guns, he had just time to load with grape and 
canister in addition to the round shot already in. He gave the 
word to fire when the Lancers were about 50 yards off. Of 
course he emptied many saddles, but did not prevent the charge, as 
those who remained, from the impetus with which they were 
moving, charged through his guns and got back again, spearing 
everything they could reach, right or left. After they retired, 
Cleeves could only man two guns, to give them a shot, and had 
only horses, left unhurt, sufficient for two guns and one ammunition 
waggon, however the Polish Lancers never appeared before the 
British Army, before or since, this was their only action in the 
Peninsula.* 

Had Cleeves' brigade been supported by a squadron of Cavalry, 
his loss would not have been so severe, as the Lancers might have 
been met upon the last discharge of the guns and would not have 
succeeded in passing through as they did. The battery was a 
brigade of foot Artillery and was attached to Infantry only. 

This is a case in point of having all Artillery properly supported 
in the field, whether horse or foot. But it is to be feared that the 
* Tbe writer bad this account from Captain Cleevea liimM&l. 



643 



ARTTLLBET — HOUSE AND FOOT. 



LAua. 



plan suggested in the able article alluded tOj would meet with some 
objections before it could be carried out, uothiug Ci*n be better 
tlmri iho suggestion itself, nevertheless it is to be fetircd that if 
any pfirticulur corps of Cavalry was to be pickt'd out, and tha 
Colonel toid that hia regiment was to be particularly attached by 
troops or squadrons to serve as escort to the Artillery, that he would 
grumble not a little* He would consider it derogatory to Cavalry to 
do sOj that from the regiment being detached it would lose its high 
state of discipliuPj for which he could not be responsiblej anti many 
other c^iust'S wouhl be as**igned why hia curp$ should not be told 
off for such a duty ; never thinking at the same time, that he might 
have many opportunities on the Special E:?cort duty of earning 
distinct ioti which might not happen in the regular way. 

Another objection might occur which would be un pheasant unless 
especially attended to in the commencement, that is that the rank 
of the officers might clash; for it would often liappen that the 
Cavalry officer would be senior to the Artillery one, and would con- 
sider all the movements of the battery to be under his control, and 
give orders accordingly, whereas the reverse ought to be the ease, 
and it would generally speaking be a very difficult matter to find a 
Colonel of Cavalry willing to give up tin a prerogative. Certainly 
tliis Special Escort duty should not be given to any particulfir 
regiment for any length of time, and all the corps in each brigade 
should take it in turn* If only one battery is attached to a corps 
of Cavalry, a squadron of any regiment might perform the escort 
duty for a certnin period, then be relieved at the end of a month or 
week by another, and so on till the whole regiment had gone 
through the duty, after which another would take it up in turn. 
This would be of the greatest benefit as it would give so roueb 
instruction to the service, and give the officers and men of the 
Cavalry some idea of the Artillery service, of which at present very 
iew have any knowledge, as the safety of the Artillery is a matter of 
the greatest consequence to an army» 

The \triter of this is old enough to remember the first formation 
of the Field Artillery, tim Car Bngade as it was then called, under 
the direction of Brigade*Major Spearman, before he (the writer) 
was a cadet. There were six guns (six-pounders) and six cars, the 
gunners were mounted, three upon the gun limber, and dx back to 
back npoTi the car, which had otdy two wlieelsj and a most delight- 
ful tendency to upset if taken out of the barrack-field to the common, 
which in those days bad not been levelled; as it wqs considered 
this tendency would imt be found advantageous on service, the car 
W'as condemned, though we did see some of them in Canada in 
1814, nnd tlie present ammunition waggon was brought into use 
just before the commencement of the Peninsula War, or rather, 
they were taken from the model of those used there by the Borse 
Artillery ^hich has not been materially altered since. The Foot 
Brigades, as batteries were called in those days, were in a very bud 



1863.J ARTILLBKY— HORSE AND FOOT. 548 

state. The drivers were a corps by themselves and had the sole 
management of the horses ; for officers were not regularly, even at 
Woolwich, told off to field guns. About twice a week a brigade 
was ordered out for exercise, and officers appointed from the regular 
roster for the day. Each officer sent his saddle and bridle to the 
stable, and a horse was prepared for him which was not accus- 
tomed to be ridden, and there often used to be serious conflicts 
before the horse and his rider could come to a mutual understand- 
ing, so as to be able to go through the drill. It would sometimes 
happen that a Captain was appointed to command a brigade, who 
had been for years in the West Indies, or some other foreign station 
where field-guns were unknown ; of course as he had never seen a 
brigade he could not command one, so lie generally appointed one 
of the subalterns as his adjutant, who used to prompt him in the 
words of command. This was pretty much the state previous to 
the Peninsular War, at its commencement the horses were still under 
the Driver-officers and those of the regiment did not trouble them- 
selves much about them, and as there was only one Driver-officer to 
do everything, looking after his men, horses and harness gave him 
so much to do, that often lie did nothing. Such a state of affairs 
could not last, as everything went to the bad and nobody responsi- 
ble. However, in a Httle time subalterns of the company attached, 
were told off to divisions and made responsible for everything be- 
longing to it, in a short time a spirit of emulation sprung up among 
them as to who would turn his division* out in the best manner, 
and from this was formed the field-battery of the present day. 

The writer of the pleasant sketch of " Some of the Artilleries of 
Europe,*' gives many interesting observations upon the different 
systems in several countries, but though there may be some faults in 
our own, there are no Foreign Artillery taking them in general 
that surpass ours. At the great review at Paris after the Battle of 
Waterloo, the British Artillery had the credit of being the most 
efficient and serviceable corps on the ground. 

Certain it is that no country comes up to ours in horse appoint- 
ments, or the knowledge of harness, ana how a horse can be put to 
work to the greatest advantage ; look at the manner in which they 
are attached to gentlemen's carriages, there is not an inch of leather 
to spare, or one wanted, the horses are close up to their work, that 
one ignorant of the business would imagine that if the horse moved 
he must be caught by some part or other of the carriage when it is 
put into motion, yet it is found he is not, but steps off with the 
greatest freedom. There is nothing astoliishes a foreigner more 
than our English carriages, carts and horses of every description. 
The gun carriages are on the same principle, not an inch of draught 
is wasted. The French have copied our field artillery in many 
respects. They used to drive with single poles between the wheel 
horses and long traces — now they are better. A few years ago in 
* A division consisted of two gans and their tmiiiM.'m&&»a ^^ww^ss^^o^ 



544 



AETrLLEIlY— HOESB AND FOOT, 



[Aoa, 



Spain I saw a battery of Spanisli Horse Artillery, which waa thought 
by them to be^ a ne plus ultra. The fore wheels were lower thaa 
the hind ones, they had not afiy limber boxe^^ and a pole from the 
front axle passed between the two horsca and was attached to a 
bar which passed froui the pad of the off-horse^ to the front of the 
saddle of the driverj like the bars of the curriclesj which were so 
much in vogue some forty years ago for gentlemen^a open carriagfes. 
On full dress occasions the horses^ draught as well as riding, nad 
shabraqties banging down over the saddles nearly to the ground. 
They moved very well on smooth gromidj but the horses were too 
light and vicious and would jib if they found any stiff pulling. 
The Americana used sometimes to drive '^ four-in-hand," the 
driver seated on the limber boxes. 

As the last writer alluded to, speaks a good deal of the movements 
and equipment of Artillery^ we have been induced to make some 
remarks and feel happy in bearing testimony to the justice of 
his. 

The power of moving Artillery so as to be able to get it into 
certain positions at certain times is of the greatest consequence, for 
sometimes i\\^ fate of a battle or campaign may depend upon it. 

In the Foot Artillery on the ordinary line of inarch, the gunners 
should always march by the side of their respective guns or car- 
riages, and on no occasion be permitted to ride^ the horses have 
enough to do to get the guns along with their proper load without 
carrying either the men or their knapsacks, yet a small part of the 
kitt might be placed upon the carriages and a light one be carried 
by the men, containing only a change of linen, a pair of trousers 
and a pair socks and shoes; this is quite enouf^h for the gunner 
to carry, as it often happens on service that lie may be required to 
repair a piece of road, pull down a bank or wall, or take an occa- 
sional pull at a drag rope, so that he should not be overloaded, for 
he is not only liable to have some heavy work to do on the march, 
but is sure of something when it ia over j greasing wheels, cleaning 
thingp, looking over everything that may have occurred on the 
march, so as to have all in order for next day* He should not be 
encumbered with the care of a carbine, it is only in his way when, 
employed in his own legitimate duty of working the guns in action, 
and 13 likely to became broken or lost, all his arms ought to be a 
short double-edged sword about twenty inches long, with a solid 
handle, rather broader towards the point, or shaped hkc the old 
Homan sword— this will enable him to cut down brushwood, or a 
hedge, so as to allow the gun to get through, it would answer all 
the purpose of a bill -hook, and be a formidable weapon at the same 
time. There were no carbines or fire-arrns used by the Artillery 
during the Peninsula War, vet still a few would do no harm, each 
mounted man might carry a revolver and they could be given over 
to the Sergeant of the Guard, who would be responsible when Lliey 
were returned to the men who had carried ihem. Certainly the 



186S.J ABTILLBXT— HOBSB AND FOOT. 545 

present uondescript weapon in shape of a crooked sword^ carried by 
both gunners and drivers^ is the most absurd thing ever put into a 
soldier's hand. 

As to Artillenr, when wanted to move to the front quickly, some 
means ought to be adopted for carrying the men, as it is not always 
convenient or proper to bring the ammunition waggon into action, 
the men who are thus carried for show at Woolwich, would not be 
up with the guns, or if they did run for a short distance they would 
be blown when they arrived, as a man cannot run very far when 
encumbered even with a very light kitt. 

Let us suppose the guns were required to advance at a trot for 
about a mile, what would be the best way of conveying the men f 
We should think that if the gun was divested of all extra weight of 
such things as are often carried extra, that three men might ride on 
the limber; seats with springs might be made for two more on the 
axle-tree on each side of the gun, and by having a pad upon the 
centre off horses, if there were six to the gun, one man migiit ride 
on that, and he and the centre driver on the near horse might dis- 
mount to work the gun, thus giving seven men. Numbers two and 
three from the axles, would be ready for the sponge and loading, one, 
four and five, would unlimber, while six and seven would be ready to 
bring up ammunition — thus the gun would be speedily brought into 
action. 

As so many changes have taken place since the old Board of 
Ordnance wa^ done away with ; whether for better or worse, re- 
mains to be seen, some more may still be made. We have often 
thought that the corps should be divided into three distinct parts. 
1st. The Horse Artillery ; 2nd. Field Artillery ; 3rd. Garrison and 
Sieje Artillery. The first to remain as they are, the second would 
be nearly on the same establishment as the first, but attached to 
Infantry, as the other to Cavalry. The third to be posted in garri- 
sons and only to take field as a siege force to work the heavy guns 
for that purpose, or guns of position. When men have served a 
certain number of years in the Horse or Field-artillery, they should 
be drafted into the garrison corps from which they would not be 
so likely to be moved ; and though they might not be so active as 
they were, they would do very well for garrison work, and the old 
soldier would be able to end his days or the full period of his 
service in an easy and comfortable way. 

The promotion of the corps might go in the usual manner and 
exchanges be effected from one department to another as here- 
tofore. 

The instruction of the men would be more simple, for in the 
first instance they would have only one species of ordnance to 
become acquainted with, namely, the light guns, or field-work, and 
the other duties might easily be acquired when quartered in 
garrison. 

The concentration of a force of Artillery is of the greatest <iftKv- 



ARTILLERY— HOKSK AlTD FOOT- 



iV0. 



sequence at the present day, and the necessity of keeping guns hi 
the most complete state, so that they can be moved in the shortest 
time is very essential ; and if due care ia not taken of the condition 
of the horses aa well as keeping everything connected with field 
guns in tlie most perfect and complete order, the General ill 
command of an army may find himself grievously disappointed in 
the time of need, So that in order to prevent this, no pairis ought 
to be spared lo render everything eflfective j the great changes that 
have taken place recently have cau^^ed an almost complete revision of 
this braiich of tfie service necessary^ especially in the field, for though 
the Artillery have the advantage of a longer range than formerly, 
at the same time the Infantry have a simihir one, for their range is 
also much greater, and the effect of their tire more certain ; for they 
can pick ot the Artillerymen froin a distance where they may have 
taken £?helter, and a few men well posted will have more effect upon 
the Artillery, than a large body bad formerly. This shews the neces- 
sity of having them properly protected under every circumstance 
whether by Cavalry, or Infantry, or both ; lor if a large body of 
Artillery should be brought together in one place, then the sharp* 
shooters of the enemy would be attracted, and in order to keep 
them in check it would be necessary to push otir own light troops 
at least 1 ,000 yards in front, so as to keep the enemy at a proper 
distance to allow guns to be worked to enable them to fire with 
cfTeet upon some point, probnbly, between tv^^o or tfiree miles off, 
a thiuiif tlaat a few years ago would have been deemed impossible. This 
is quite a new phase in warhke movements and one that ought to 
be particularly considered, for in that distance though a body of 
men, an encampment, or a fortress may be perceived, there is no 
kntjwing wlmt vfillies and undulating country may intervene, or 
what nuukber of troops may be moving or concealed in the inter* 
mediate space, or what movements may be making to the right or 
left, and the first intelfigence a General may have is, that a fire 
from Artillery is opened upon his flank from a battery two or three 
miles off. This we may say is a uew epoch in strategy, and our 
Generals should consider iu time of [H3ace and at their leisure, 
II hat steps they would take, if tliey were sent upon active service, 
for it will not do to wait till such an event occurs^ — they must be 
prepared to meet things at once* 

The time is uow approtiching for field days and reviews at I he 
dilferent camps of instruction, and things must be managed on the 
extensive scale ; the enemy must be supposed to be in position three 
mile^ o*r, and an attack made by I he Arlilh*ry. In order therefore 
to have sham (igUls at that distance, it will not do supptjse tiiat 
there is an enemy , when there are no troops to represent one, hut 
one half of the troops, say at Aldershotj should be sent to thai 
die^tance, no pljui previons^ly made out by eilher party, the distant 
one should try to get honm in spite of tlie opposiiion he might 
mwt with, and by taking some circuitous route circumvent the 



1863.] ' 8H0«BUETKKS8 AND ITS EXPBSIMENTS. 547 

plans of the other party, and take up another position so that "the 

Iiarty who were left within the camp might find him where they 
east expected ; some such work as this would give our Generals 
something to think of, instead of acting upon plans concocted 
beforehand in London. 

As each General would have to act for himself and upon his 
own judgment, it would give the staff something to do to get in- 
formation for their respective generals as to the moves of the 
opposing parties. These long distances would give opportunity 
for sending scouting parties out to gain information, and would 
lead to many skirmishes and give opportunities of practising '* La 
petite guerre/* as it would cause captains and young officers to be 
constantly on the alert to prevent surprise and capture, and give 
Cavalry officers instruction in one of the most important parts of 
their duty, that of patrolling in front of the enemy. 

In the course of these movements experiments may be tried of 
the best way of moving or carrying the gunners of the field -batteries 
so as to cause the least fatigue to the men or horses, that both may 
be effective when the gun is brought into action. 

The movements of Artillery on service are generally along the 
roads and they seldom have to cross country for any distance, or 
with great speed, a good opportunity will offer at the field-days and 
reviews for trying experiments upon this and many other points to 
which allusion has been made in this article, and hope that what 
has been suggested may lead to something, which if not quite the 
thing, may be the means of producing something useful, by setting 
others to think on the subject. G. S. 



SHOEBURYNESS AND ITS EXPERIMENTS, OR SHIPS 
versus FORTS, and vice versa. 

The House of Commons having long since voted a round sum of 
money for the purpose of putting Portsmouth and the anchorage at 
Spithead in a state to be defend^ by a comparatively small force of 
volunteers or Militia, against the attack of an invading enemy, in 
case of such a contingency at any future time occurring, one would 
have supposed that the principle being once admitted by a majority 
of the representatives of the people, the minority would have 
desisted from further factious opposition, and have allowed the 
annual instalments to be voted stib siltntio, as the necessity for their 
application recurred periodically. Such a reasonable course of pro- 
ceeding, however, would be at variance with the tactics of partv, 
(that curse of representative government), and we have consequently 
seen that although many of the laud defences of Portsmouth have 
been entirely finished, and the remainder are in an advanced stage 
towards completion. Sir Morton Peto, Sir Frederic Smithy ax^$i \&:t.. 



snoEBtJEnriiss and tts kxpeuiments. 



iUd. 



EHglitj the tria Juncta in uno of tlie miuoritjfj wiLh thetr supporters, 
have left no stone untuTiied^ and no art untried to stop the good 
work tn its progress, and leave the farts unfinished^ &s a memorial 
to future generutions of tlie changeable nature of the popular 
chamelion called a Ilonf^e of Commons. Foitmiatelj, however, 
their absurd and miserably factious attempts have failed for the 
moment ; to be again revived, no doubtj next session, or at every 
recurring vote for the annual instalment; ar.d we shall probably 
have the pain of witnessing the periodical party fight as we have 
done this year and last. 

On the recent occasion, it was more particularly tlie forts on the 
Horse Sand, No Man's Land^ and Stourbridge at S pithead, tiiat 
wTre cliosen as the " cheval de bataille/' and certainly if we must 
have had a Jonas to throw overboard as a sacrifice to the infernal 
gods, in order to save the ship from the fnry of the elements, we 
sliould have preferred to leave those three isolated aea-baUeries in 
abeyance until all the rest were completed. But by so doing the 
unity of the whole scheme would be impaired ; and it would have 
been necessary to have iloating batteries in the very pkce of these 
fixed one^j and that being the caiie, we do not see what would have 
been gained by the sacrifice. The forts at Cronstadt were quite 
effective in keeping our wooden walls and steamers at a distance 
from St* Pet^rsburgh, and our ships could not lie against the stone 
forts at Sebastopol ; and as it has been now satisfactorily demon« 
strated bj all the costly experiments at Shoeburyuea?, that guns can 
at any time bo produced to throw shot and shell that will penetrate 
any armour that any ship can carry and fioat, we consider that the 
question is left precisely wheie it was before the invention of 
armour-plated ships, and rifled cauuon, and that the relative 
strength of ships and forts is in no way changed with respect to 
each other* On the contrarvj it must be now rather admitted by 
every nuprejudiceJ person who is capable of appreciating the subject, 
that iion-plated forts with rided cannon, shooting with increased 
facility and accuracy to a longer range than formerly, will be much 
more furmidable, even to the armour- plated ships that can crosa 
the ocean, or the channel in anything but a dead calm, than the old 
stone casemaled batteries used to be witli respect to ordinary men- 
of-war. At Cojienhagen in IbOi and 1807, and at Algiers in 
1816, as well as on some other occasions, w^e did certainly see fleets 
able to sdence, for a time, the fire of land batteries; but then there 
were circumsliinces of a peculiar kind in favour of the ships, which 
miglit not again occur, and even those particular cases were 
purely accidental. If the Copenhagen batteries liad been better 
distribtited, for instance, and had fired red hot shot and shells, and 
if there had been a few heavier guns well placed at distant intervab, 
so as to enfilade the line of attack from [joints where the ships could 
not bring a concentrated fire to bear upon them, it is probable the 
English fleet might liave had the worst of the encounter, and the 



1863.] 8HOSBUBTNSBS AND ITS EXPEUIMENTS. 549 

bombardment of the town of Copenhagen^ with the previous loss of 
the Danish fleet itself, had great influence in causing the surrender 
of that place. At Algiers in 1816, the £Dglish fleet might not have 
been so successful as it was, if the defenders had not allowed the 
ships to anchor quickly before they fired a shot, and as it was, 
many of the ships were very badly handled, and with a more resolute 
defence, and under other circumstances, the place might have held 
out. 

The question is not whether forts can take the place of ships, but 
whether ships can be used instead of forts for the protection of a 

{articular roadstead, and we consider that the answer is self-evident, 
n the first place, floating-batteriei) to be effectual, must be at least 
as costly as fixed ones, and they cannot be so durable. In the 
second place, they cannot be so steady, except in a dead calm, 
and in proportion to the number of guns, an iron-plated ship or 
" floating battery" will be even more costly than a fixed iron fort 
on a sandbank. In the third place, a fixed fort can be mounted 
with artillery of such weight and power, worked by machinery, as 
no ship or floating battery could bear, and a few such guns will be 
more effective for sinking an enemy's ship than a whole broadside 
of even eight or ten inch guns such as can be used on board ship. 
Then again, the fixed batteries can be entirely open at the back, so 
that the smoke may escape at once, and the guns on the upper 
platform can be so placed that though they can see the enemy, the 
latter will hardly be able to perceive the gun by which he is hit, 
except by the momentary flash and puff of smoke from which the 
shot issues. One effective shot from such a battery may smash in 
the side of a ship and sink her ; but a great many broadsides from 
a ship will nqt sensibly damage a well constructed sea-battery. 
The cost of the three forts in question at Spithead, though con- 
siderable, is nothing in comparison to three times as many iron- 
plated ships that would have to be anchored in their place, and 
ironnkted ships are better kept disposable for attack, than if made 
to d^uty as mere citadels or hulks. 

As for ships versus ships, they will be just where they were. 
Two powerful fleets meeting at sea may be imagined as equally 
matched as regards the number of vessels, their size, and the weight 
of metal they carry respectively, and whether both sides are coated 
with impenetrable armour or not, the equality remains the same, as 
far as their intrinsic worth is in question. It is just the old story 
over again : the richest nation or the longest purse will in the end 
prevail, provided always that the ships are equally well handled, and 
therein lies the rub. The more ships a nation sends to sea, the 
more will become a prey to the waves or tlie enemy, if they are not 
well manned and commanded; and in a naval war that nation will 
prevail in the end, which is able to man efficiently the greatest 
number of ships.* This being the case, we are of opinion that 
* At the close of the year 1862, there belonged to the \jott& tsl >&ifcXi\i*«^ 



550 



fiUOKBURTKlSB 



[Aug; 



England can main tun her superiority at sea, if she wills to do io. 
Let other nations baild fleets, and use them as long as they remam 
at peace with England* If thej treat us unjustly, or attempt to 
bally U9, as the Northern States of America are now tryiiig to do, 
it may become a question whether war is not preferable to pretended 
peace* John Bull is long suffering, and it takes a good deal to 
"ryle'* him, but if his back is ojice up> he may become an udy 
customer ; and we fancy somehow that in case of need we ctmld turn 
out a good number of fast iron-clads that would match tlmse of any 
other nation, Yankee or not 

As for contirincd esperimenta of improved guns again?t iron 
targets at Shoeburyness, it seems a useless waste of money to carry 
tliem any ftirther. If a manufacturer imagines he lias attained to 
such perfection that he can construct a shij/s side that is impervious 
to the heoviej^t shot, while at the same lime it shall be Itghler than 
the hitherto accepted model, there can be no harm in alluwiiig arid 
giving him every facility of testing his invention, on the condition 
that he puts it in place at his own expense- Tiie Guvermnent will 
always be able to keep a piece of artillery or two of ihe first magiii* 
tude for practice or for ex|)erimenting on samples of such plates as 
they may wish to prove before adopting them ; but it is surely un- 
necessary to go on manufacturing ' Warrior targets' at a vast outlay, 
merely for the sake of demolishing them at the Br^fc encounter. 
By all means let Mr, VVln'tworlh, or anybody else, oiler the newest 
improvement in artillery for adoption, and let Hie Government 
adopt the very brst model for each class of ship, and for sea b;dtenes 
that they can procure, but having once got a good gun that viiUj 
pierce through any armour that a ship can carry and float, we do/ 
not consider it advisable to be always changing yid altering the 
pattern for tlie sake of some fancied improvement which may after 
all be ojily an alteration, for ship i^uns, there is clearly a limit 
fixed to their weight, by the class of vessels for which they are 
intende^i, and the rolling and pitching in a gale of wind, t^^hich 
even the largest ships are exposed as well as the smallest^PEven 
the Great Ea.4ern in a gale of wind, is no more than a slmmeci'ck 
in tlie liand of the mighty ocean, and if the largest ship has ona 
very powerful piece of artillery fixed in midships for particular 
occasions, it is probably as much as she c^m bear, in addition to her 
broadside of eight or ten inch guns, of which there must be few 
compared with tlie former armament of our three-deckers, ' What 
we gain in size aiid weight of metal, we necessarily lose in the 
number of guns with which a ship can be armed. But there is no 
reason why a sea battery on shore should not have as many guns of 
the very largest calibre that can be managed by machinery, as tha 

KidgfJom 28.440 vessels, of 4,934,400 toru« usuilly ^avigiteft bv 228,159 men ftad 
bays-- an increase of 402 vessels^ 127^574 tons, am J 3,316 men Vnd hoys over the 
former year. TUe vesieli b«lo»ginf to the Biitisb ijUulaiiyng were 10^967^ of 
lfl07fG9G iotiS; maunetl by 75»934 pcr»ous. 



186S.] 8H0EBUSTNESS AKD ITS EXPERIMENTS. 551 

extent of the front will admit * Within certain limits, necessarily 
fixed by circumstances of situation, the more the guns are distri- 
buted the better. Two heavy guns which can concentrate their 
fire on a ship will be much more effective if they are far apart from 
each other than in juxta-position. The ship will be hit by both of 
them, and cannot so well reply to both at once; and the same 
argument holds good for two separate batteries of two, three, or 
more guns each. Two earthen batteries bearing on a channel by 
which ships must pass, will be much more effective than one in 
which all the guns of the two were crowded together. It must, 
however, always be borne in mind that the batteries in question 
must be secure from a coup-de-main or surprise, and each fort or 
battery must have an efficient and properly instructed oBBcer to 
command them. The efficiency of a battery against ships will 
depend on the accuracy multiplied by the rapidity of its fire ; quick 
firing without hitting the mark is worse than none, but at the same 
time it is not necessary to be slow and dilatory to ensure accuracy. 
Both at once are indispensable ; and to attain either, practice under 
good instruction is indispensable. 

We consider it superfluous to insist further on this matter, and 
refer the reader to our June No., (pp. 159 to 168), for the 
substratum on which the present remarks are based, as well as to 
former ones, (see Jan., Feb., and March last). We are glad to 
observe that our Volunteer Artillery Corps are wide awake to this 
important subject, and the Government now allow ammunition and 
projectiles very liberally both to the Militia and Volunteer Artillery 
for gunnery practice with shot and shells. In case of necessity, 
there is no doubt that all our coast batteries can be efficiently 
manned and commanded by the Militia and Volunteers, leaving the 
regular troops disposable for active operations in the field. Of the 
importance of intrenched camps such as Portsmouth affords, it is 
impossible to speak too highly ; and when our dockyards and 
arseiUift are^afe from insult, there is little fear but that we shall be 
able l^ive a good account of any possible invader before he got to 
London. H. 



THE POLISH QUESTION. 

The Polish question has arrived at a culminating point. 
We are now in possession of the identical notes of England, France, 
and Austria to the Government of the Emperor of Russia, — ^if not 
identical in words, at all events in substance, — and the reply of 
Prince Gortschakoff to the same. The object of these notes of the 

* It is lelf-CTident tbat bJlferiM ve more adTantageous when in only one, or 
at the utmost two tiers of gnns. It is only when buUt in the sea, as those at Spit- 
head mast be, that they should be made in three or four tiers, to save the enor- 
mous outlay of more extended foundations under water. 



TOE FOtlSH QUESTION?, 




* 



Western Powers was to induce the Czar by omicable advice (o 
adopt such conciliatory Eneasures towarda Poland as would lead to a 
suspension of hostilities^ put an end to the inhuman slaughter whick 
is carried on in that unfortunate country, and, pending an armistice, 
to initiate di|domatic negotiationg with a view to effect a solution 
of a question which threatens to disturb the general peace ^of 
Europe, and to give to Poland such constitutional rights as would 
satisfy the Poles without infringing too mnch upon the prerogatives 
and dignity of the Czar. To any careful observer of the political 
events of the day, the diJficuUy of the task taken upon themselves 
by the Great Powers^ under the plea of "humanity/' is at once 
patent. Any concessions of Alexander II would naturally be 
regarded by the revolted Poles as a triumph, unless such concessions 
were on so magnanimous a scale that the Powers who are now 
exerting their '' good offices" with the Russian Government, should 
insist upon their being adopted under the alternative to the Poles 
of abandoning them to their fate if not accepted by them. 

Prince GortschakofT's tardy reply is not satisfactory, atid it now 
remains to be sedn whether the " minimum" contained in the 
identical notes will not be made an " ultimatum/^ backed with the 
bayonets of Prance; or whether the Poles will be once again 
abandoned to tlie ruthless sway of the Itussian Commanders, dis- 
couraged and dislieartened by hopes engendered by false promises. 
That the revolution, unaided, must necessarily succumb before th© 
overwhelming strength of the Russian armies, no reasonable man 
can doubt, It would be premature to conjecture how the Emperor 
of the French will act. The popular feeliug in Paris runs high in 
favour of an armed intervention, bnt England, as well as Austria, 
are averse to hostihties. Great questions are often decided by cir- 
cumstances not in the control of the rulers of nations, and, to say 
the least, the political fioriaion at the present moment is pregnant 
with storm. 

Before we enter into a narrative of the events which ha^taken 
place on the actual acene of warfare during the last monthj|let us 
carefully examine the diplomatic side of the question. Europe has 
on more than one occasion been indebted to the eiforts of diplomacy for 
the preservation of peace, and the pen has often achieved greater 
victories than the sword. The Governments of England, Prance, 
and Austria, whilst making the solution of the Polish difficulty the 
common object of their united efforts, seem resolved uot to deviate 
from the path of moderation and conciliation until every diplomatic 
argument shall have been exhausted to induce Russia to give ear to 
tlie legitimate wishes of Poland, This delicacy in not « ishiug to 
ruffle the susceptibilities of the Czar, by only asking from him what 
is just, equitable, and possible, would seemingly imply a more 
energetic line of action should the Emperor Alexander II refuse to 
listen to the friendly remonstrances made in the name of the general 
interests of Europe, A conference has been proposed to meet at 



1863.] THE POLISH QUB8TI0N. 553 

Brussels^ but Prince GortscbakoFs reply is of a nature to leave the 
whole question in abeyance. The Court of St. Petersburg accepts 
in principle the programme laid down by the three Cabinets of 
Paris, London, and Vienna as the point of departure for ulterior 
negotiations tending to restore to Poland the conditions of a solid 
and durable peace — that is to say, Bussia reserves to herself the 
right of pointing out the changes which, vrithout altering the pre- 
liminary oases, should be made in the common programme, in a 
spirit of conciliation calculated to favour the work of pacification. 
The Russian Note, however, endeavours to insinuate that the 
development of the programme might be obtained in the ordinary 
diplomatic way, keeping in view the previous understanding which 
might appear to be established upon one part or the other. Bussia 
does not, therefore, precisely decline the conference, to which she 
had previously already assented ; she merely represents it as super- 
fluous. While sincerely coinciding in the desire of the three 
Courts for the speedy cessation of bloodshed in Poland, the 
Emperor Alexander, says Prince Gortschakoff, would be unable to 
enter upon the initiative course suggested by the Western Powers 
without compromising the dignity of his Crown. Nevertheless, 
disposed to give ear solely to the voice of clemency and of magnani- 
mity with respect to his erring subjects, the Czar promises, con- 
formably with the first stipulation of the preliminary bases, to 
promulgate immediately a full and complete amnesty in favour of 
the Poles. Prince Gortschakoff thinks that the Poles would find so 
extensive an act of clemency a sufficient pledge for laying down 
their arms and producing the immediate suppression of all hostility. 
Written, as ever, with rare skill, the reply of fiussia is couched in 
the most courteous and friendly terms. To judge of the real im- 
pression, however, the reply will have produced U))on the three 
Courts, it will be requisite to wait until they have had time to 
exchange their reciprocal estimates. 

Earl fiussell in his despatch of the 17th June, to Lord Napier, 
the British Ambassador at St. Petersburg, thus states the views of 
the English Government : 

"Foreign-Office, June 17, 1863. 

" My Lord, — Her Majesty's Government have considered with 
the deepest attention the despatch of Prince Gortzchakoff of the 
26th of April, which was placed in my hands by Baron Brunnow on 
the 2nd of May. Her Majesty's Government are not desirous, any 
more than Prince Gortschakoff, of continuing a barren discussion. 
1 will therefore pass over all the controversy regarding my previous 
despatch. I will not endeavour in the present communication to 
fix the precise meaning of the article regarding Poland in the Treaty 
of Vienna, nor will I argue, as Prince Gortschakoff seems to expect 
I should do, that there is only one form under which good govern- 
ment can be established. Still less will I call in question the 
benevolent intentions of the enlightened Emperor who ba& ^x^^\^ 



554 



THE POLISH QUESTIOK, 



[Atjg, 



in a sliort time effected such marrellons changes in the legal condi- 
tion of \m Riisisian subjects. Her Majest/s Govern m cut are 
willing ^ith tlio Emperor of Russia to serk a practical solution of a 
difiicult and most important problem. Baron Branriow, in present- 
ing to luc Prince GortBcliakofT'iii dci* patch, said, 'The Imperial 
Cabinet is ready to enter upon nu cxchani^eof ideas upon the ground 
and within the limits of the Treaties of 18] 6.' Her Majtstj'a 
GoTcrnment are thus invited by the Government of Russia to an 
exchnnge of ideas upon the basis of the Treaty of 1815, w^ith a view 
to the pacification ajid permanent tranquillity of Poland, Before 
making any detimte proposals, it is es^serttial to point out that there 
aro two leading principle? upon whichj as it appears to Her Majesty's 
Government, any future Government of Poland ouf^lit to rest* The 
first of these is the establi?hracnt of conddence in the Govemment 
on the part of the governed. The original views of the Emperor 
Alexander L are stated by Lord Castlereagh^ who had heard fratn 
the Emperor's own lips, m a long conversation, the plan he con- 
templated. The plan of the Emperor is thus described by Lord 
Castlereagh : — ^'To retain the whole of the Duchy of Warsaw, with 
the exception of the saiall portion to the westward of Kali«ch, whicii 
he meant to assign to Prussia^ erecting the remainder, together w^itb 
the Polish provinces formerly dismembered, into a kingdom under 
the domain of Russia, with a national Administration congenial to 
the sentiments of the people/ The whole force of this plan consists 
in the latter words, Wiiether power is retained in the hands of 
one, as in the old monarchy of France, or divided among a select body 
of the aristocracy, as in the Republic of Venice, or distributed 
among a Sovereign, a House of Peers, and a Representative As- 
sembly, as in England' — its virtue and strength must consist in its 
being a ' national Administration congenial to the sentiments of the 
people,' The Emperor Alexander 11, speaking of the institutions 
he has given, says, ' As to the future^ it necessarily depends on the 
confidence with which these institutions will be received on tlie part 
of the kingdom/ Such an Administration as Alexander L intended, 
such confidence as Alexander II looked for, unhappily do not exist 
in Poland* The next principle of order and stability must be found 
in the supremacy of law over arbitrary will. Where such supre- 
macy exists, the subject or citizen may enjoy his property or exercise 
his industry in peace, and the security he feels as an individual will 
be felt in its turn by the Gov€rnment under which he lives. 
Partial tumults, secret conspiracies, and the interference of cos mop o* 
lite strangers, will nut shake the firm edilice of such a GovcrnmenL 
This element of stability is likewise wanting in Poland, The 
religious liberty guaranteed by the solemn declarations of the 
Empress Catherine, the political freedom granted by the deliberate 
Charter of the Emperor Alexander L, have dike been abrogated by 
succeeding Governments, and have been only partially revived by 
the present Emperor, It is no easy task to restore the confidence 



1868.] THR POLISH QUESTION. 555 

which has been lost, and to regain the peace which is now every- 
where broken. Her Majesty's Qovemment would deem themselves 
guilty of great presumption if they were to express an assurance 
that yague declarations of good intentions, or even the enactment 
of some wise laws, would make such an impression on the minds of 
the Polish people as to obtain peace and restore obedience. In 
present circumstances it appears to Her Majest/s Government that 
nothing less than the following outline of measures should be 
adopted as the bases of pacification : — 

" 1. Complete and general amnesty. 

''2. National representation, with powers similar to those which 
are fixed by the charter of the 18.27th November, 1815. 

''Poles to be named to public offices in such a manner as to form 
a distinct national Administration, having the confidence of tie 
country. 

" 4. Full and entire liberty of conscience ; repeal of the restric- 
tions imposed on Catholic worship. 

*'5. The Polish language recognized in the kingdom as the 
official language, and used as such in the administration of the law 
and in education. 

'' 6 The establishment of a regular and legal system of recruit- 
ing. 

''These six points might serve as the indications of measures to 
be adopted, after calm and full deliberation. But it is difficult, 
nay, almost impossible, to create the requisite confidence and calm 
while the passions of men are becoming daily more excited, their 
hatreds more deadly, their determination to succeed or perish more 
fixed and immovable. Your lordship has sent me an extract from 
the St. Petersburg Gazette of the 7th (19th) of May. I could 
send your lordship, in return, extracts from London newspapers, 
giving accounts of atrocities equally horrible, committed by men 
acting on behalf of Eussian authority. It is not for Her Majesty's 
Government to discriminate between the real facts and the exagger- 
ations of hostile parties. Many of the allegations of each are pro* 
bably unfounded, but some must in all probability be true. How, 
then, are we to hope to conduct to any good end a negotiation 
carried on between parties thus exasperated ? In an ordinary war, 
the successes of fleets and armies, who fight with courage, but with- 
out hatred, may be balanced in a negotiation carried on in the midst 
of hostilities. An island more or less to be transferred, a boundary 
more or less to be extended, might express the value of the last 
victory or conquest. But where the object is to attain civil peace, 
and to induce men to live under those against whom they have 
fought with rancour and desperation, the case is difl^erent. The 
first thing to be done, therefore, in the opinion of Her Majesty's 
Cbvemment, is to establish a suspension of hostilities. This might 
be done in the name of humanity by a proclamation of the £mperor 
of Russia, without any derogation of his digoit^* Tv\^^^<^> ^ 

U. S. Mag. No. 417, Aug. \ 86a, ^ ^ 



556 



THE POLISH QUESTION* 



[Aug. 



course, would not be eiUitled to the benefit of such an act, tinless 
they tliein»elve& refrained from hostilities of every kind during the 
su?pprision. Tranquillity thus for the moment restored, the next 
tliiuEf is to consult the Powf^rs who signed the Treaty of Vienna* 
Prussia, Spain, Sweden, and Portugal must be asked to give their 
opinion as to the best mode of giving effect to a treaty to which they 
were contracting partif^s. What Her Majesty's Government pro- 
pose, tlierpff}re, coriMi^ts in these three propositions: — 

"1st. Tlie adoption of the six points enumerated as bases of 
n ego tint ion, 

'* 2nd, A provisional suspenjiion of arms, to bfe proclaimed by 
the Emperor of Rusna. 

''3rd. A conference of the eigbt Powers who signed the Treaty 
of Vienna. 

'* Your Excellency will read and give a copy of this despatch to 
Prince G o rts cha k o ff ♦ 

" I am, &c., 

" RuasBLL." 

The despatch of Mp Drouyn de yiluys, the French Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, dated 17th June, is identical iJi tenor with that of 
Lord linsselU h\ conclusion, the French Minister makes the 
following observations : 

" Poland presents at this moment a mt-lancholy spectacle. As 
the struggle is prolonged, mutual aninmsity and resentment render 
it more and more sanguinary. It is assuredly the wish of the Court 
of Russia to see those hostilities terminated, which carry desolation 
and nionrntn;? into the ancient provinces as well as into the kingdom 
of P(^l;mfK The continuation of these calamities during tlie nego* 
tiationi? cannot bat irritate a discussion which, to be useful, should 
be calm. Tiiere is, then, room to anticipate a provisional pacifica* 
tion founded upon the maintenance of the mUitaTj status quo, which 
it would be the duty of the Etnperor of Russia to proclaim, and 
which the Poles should, on their side, observe on their own 
responsibility. As to the form whicij the negotiations ought to 
assume^ the Russian Govenunent has itself foreshadowed its views in 
its communications to the three Cabinets. It has fully recognised 
in its despatch to Baron Bud berg the right of the Powers formerly 
called to regulate the political system of Europe to occupy them- 
selves with the complications which may disturb it. It has been 
more explicit still in addressing Baron Brunnow. * His Majesty,' 
saiil Prince Gortschakoff to the Am-bassador of Kuseiia at Loudonj 
' admits that the particular position of the kingdom, and tlie troubles 
which agitate it, may affect the tranquillity of the neighbouring 
Stntes, between which were cojjcluded, on the 3rd May, 1815, 
separate ireatit^s intended to regulate the fate of the duchy of 
Warsaw, and which interest the Powers who signed the general 
coai promise of the 9th of June, in which were inserted the principal 
stipulations of these separata treaties. Thus the Cabinet of St, 



1863J 



THE fOLTSH QUKSTIOlf. 



8»T 



Petersburg has beforehandj and spontHijeously, given us to tiEder- 
stind that it will accept the assistance of the eight Powers who 
participated in the general act of the Congress of Vienna, Wishing 
to replj to terms the conciliatorj elmracter of wliich it appreciates, 
the GoTemment of His Majesty is ready, so fur as it is concerned, 
to take part in these deliberations, and to be represented in the 
conference which it will be convenient to assemble; and if, as we 
bope, Bussia adheres to the basis proposed for htT acceptance by 
the three Cabinets, we shall be fmppy should the resolution to which 
the Emperor Alexander shall arrive be in harmony with the great 
interests which considerations at once fegitimatc and powerful have 
induced us to recommend to his enlightened solicitude; for this 
question, withdrawn from the decision of force, which might cut it 
once more without solving it, would henceforth enter on the path of 
friendly discussion — the only way to prepare a solution vainly sought 
up to the present day, and which would be worthy alike of the 
enlightenment of the epoch and of the generous sentiments by which 
aU the Cabinets are animated/^ 

The despatch of Count Eechberg, the Austtiao Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, to Count Thun, the Austrian Charge d' Affaires at St» 
Fetersburg, is dated the 18th of June, After repeating the sii. 
points as given above in Lord KusselFs despatch, the Austrian 
Minister concludes as follows : 

'' To judge from a passage of Prince Gortschakoff's despatch to 
Baron Brunnow, the Cabinet of St* Petersburg seems to admit the 
interest which all the Powers who signed the General Act of the 
Congress of Vienna have in participating in deliberations concerning 
the country designated in that Act as the Duchy of Warsaw. 

" We ahould have no objection, for our part, to such a form of 
negotiations, and we should be ready to accept preliminary iiegotia- 
tions or Conferences between the Eight Powers signing the General 
Act of the Congress of Vienna if Russia recognized the expediency 
of such Conferences, in order to discuss the development and appli- 
cation of the program me which we have drawn up above. 

" Wlien we addressed to you^ M, le Comte, our despatch of the 
11th of April we were distref«aed at the eifect of a sanguinary con- 
flict, the consequence of which w^as felt on Austrian territory, and 
which thus became a source of calamity to the subjects of the 
Emperor, our august master. 

" We feel great sorrow at the prolongation of such conflicta* 
Guided no less by considerations of humanity, than by the special.. 
interests of Anstna, we sincerely trust that the wisdom of thel 
Russian Government and the conciliatory efforts of the Powers who 
offer their concurrence will succeed in arresting a deplorable effusion 
of blood. We have pleasure in believing that the generous senti- 
ments of the Kmperor Alexander will powerfully aid in the attain- 
ment of this result, which, if it could be obtained, would greatly 
facilitate the task of the Cabineta at the Confereujcfta, 



THE rOLISE QUESTION, 



[Alio. 



'* We ihalt be happy if the resolutioa which the Court of Kussiii 
will take, be in harmoiijr with the great itjterests which powerfoi 
motives have induced ns to recomTaeud to its eulightened solicitude, 

" In bringing such an intricate question ag that which now 
occupies U9 into friendly discusgionj a solution will be prepared 
which will be pacific, and at tbe same time one worthy of the senti- 
ments which injipire the Cabinets," 

So stands the diplomatic point of the question. 

We must now turn to the popular feeling to the vo3^ populi fH>s 
Dei of Europe, Let us begin with England, which is by no meoiDS » 
desirous of war, but where generous sentiments and the love of 
liberty pervade the masses, where tyranny is detested^ but where 
prudence sl^nda wisely at the helm. In the House of Commons^ 
on the 21st July, Mr. Horsman moved the following resolution: 

*' That the arrangements made with regard to Poland by the 
Treaty of Vienna have failed to secure tTie good government of 
Poland or the peace of Europe, and any further attempt to replace 
Poland under the conditions of that treaty must cause calamitiei 
to Poland, and embarrassment and danger to Europe,^^ 

In a very able speech Mr, Horsman reviewed the whole Polish 
qnestion. Poland had been "diplomatized to death/* What was 
it proposed to do now ? Nothing more than to settle the Polish 
difficulty by '^reviving the exploded hypocrisy of 1815," Asa 
practical settlement of the question the six points would be laughed 
at by the Emperor of the t'rench. But England made two additions 
—an armistice and a conference of the Powers, To everything pro- 
posed by England, Russia had given an unqualified rejectionp Tiris 
reduced the question to the narrowest compass. The Poles were 
fighting for independence ; the Cabinet were the instigators and 
advisers of the Poles; did they mean to give them their nationality? 
Did they mean lo apply to the Poles the principles they had applied 
to Italy ? How could we, without violating the lawa of justice and 
morality^ without committing a fresh crime, deliver up tlie Poles 
once more into the hands of their oppressor? Poland for the Poles. 
Let us repair the wrongs of Poland by welcoming her into the 
brotherhood of nations. Then^ could the restoration of Poland be 
accomplished without recourse to war ? It depended upon whether 
Austria would give up Galicia, We had, however, raised the flame, 
and must meet the exigency wisely. The Polish question was the 
special property of Lord Palmerston, It was to him he looked to 
correct the feeble ntterancea and to repudiate the ignoble sentimeuta 
of others in high places. 

The re[dy of the Ministers indicates that the Government has no 
intention of going to war to help the Poles, Mr, Gladstone denied 
that the Poles had been encouraged by hopes of aid from without, and 
tfi© present wus not the moment when a developement of the future 
policy of England would be expedient, Mr. Henne^sy on the other 
ham! main lained that BuBsia bad forfeited^ bj her gross and bar ba- 




1863.] THE POLISH quEsnoN. 559 

rous outrages upon the people of Poland, all right to the kingdom. 
The House was justified in asking what were the intentions of the 
Government. Lord Palmerston said it appeared to him thai the speech 
of Mr. Horsmau was not consistent with itself or with his motion. 
He had told the House that there was no alternative between our 
remaining passive or insisting upon the establishment of Poland in 
its ancient state. If all the Powers of Europe were prepared to go to 
war to force Russia to relinquish her possession, this might be done ; 
but it was clear that it could not be accomplished by persuasion. The 
only ground that could justify our remonstrance with Rujjsia was the 
Treaty of Vienna; if that was abandoned, we should deliver the 
Poles, bound hand and foot, to Russia. He hoped, therefore, the 
House would not agree to the motion, or would press the Govern- 
ment to declare the course they should pursue. It would be their 
duty to communicate with the Governments of Austria and France. 

The debate, which was, in many respects an important one, as 
testifying the strong feeling in favour of Poland which pervades the 
great community of England, terminated by Mr. Horsman with- 
drawing his resolution ; and every sensible Pole must now see that 
they must not expect any material aid from the English Govern- 
ment. 

The effect of this debate upon Austria and France has still to be 
seen. Popular feeling, as we have already stated, runs high in 
France in favour of armed intervention. The following may serve 
as a specimen. It is a petition got up in the Paris workshops to 
the Emperor. 

*'Sire, — ^With the crimes committed against humanity there are 
no longer political parties in France ; there is but one nation, ever 
ready to strengthen the community of interests among peoples. 
Russia murders Poland. She murders the citizens whom our 
fathers baptized as their brothers in arms, and who showed them- 
selves deserving of that glorious title in our reverses as in our 
triumphs. Russia murders old men and children. She murders 
mothers, wives, and young virgins. All at the hour of death think 
of their country, and torn their suppliant eyes towards France. And 
these orgies of blood Mouravietf seasons with barbarous atrocities 
which make our civilization shudder with horror. At the story of 
such deeds our mothers weep, our wives weep, our sisters and our 
children weep. For our own part, we feel our French blood boil in 
our veins. Sire, you hold in your hands the sword of France; 
employ that sword in cutting what diplomacy is powerless to resolve. 
Sire, unfurl the national flag, and proclaim at once to the world 
that a holy cause precedes it, and that a great people follow it. 
Sire, save, let us save Poland I And in this hope we are. Sire, &c. 

In the cafes at Paris a proximate war with Russia is the common 
topic of conversation, and the termination of the Meiic^^ ^^^ss.- 



560 



TEB FOUSH Q0ESTIOW. 



[Aug. 



paigii strengthens the popular opinion that sooner or later France 
will throw her sword into the balance as she did in Italy. Russia 
entertains I he same idea^ and is making every possible preparation 
both by land and by sea to be prepared for such an eventuality. 

To turn to the actnal events of the war during the last month, 
we find that the Poles, thon^^h nolidng daunted, have had the 
worst of it. Glifzanski and Il^irodinski have fallen at Radziwilow j 
and the expedition into Volhynia has proved a failure* The folio w- 
iug aecouftt of tlus disastrous affair i» taken from a correspondent. 
" Gahcian-Volhynian Frontier, July B. 

" The combined eicpedilion from Galicia to Volhynia^ after being 
organized, disorganized, and re-organized on various plans, waa 
declared rejidy for the frontier last week, and on Sunday the points 
of reiidezvuus were made known^ and orders issued to assemble 
the same evening. Three thousand names had been inscribed, and 
arms for tliat number of men concealed in the wood near the bor- 
der, but so many seizures were made by the Austrian soldiers and 
police thatj at the Inst moment, it was found impossible to arm 
more than 2,000. Then cajne the news that Minniewski, who was 
to command the left wing, and who had had more than the usual 
diflGcutties to contend with in getting his force together, would not 
be ready to cross with ttie main body ; and, ultimately, when the 
centre, under General Wysocki, and the right wing, under Colonel 
Horodinski, had succeeded in reaching the forests wljich extend 
from Galicia far awnv into Volhynia, it appeared that between them 
tliey could oidy mufrtcr from 1,100 to 1,200 men. With this very 
small army, ii* two divis^ions, it v\as resolved to attack Ttadziwilow, 
the nearest Russian town to the Austrian frontier town of Brody ; 
and it was hoped that if it were taken Miniiiewski would be able 
to enter tlie place next day with 500 new troop«» To wait for 
Minniewski was impossiblej as there was reaf^an to believe that the 
Au«tnuns were already on the track of Wysocki and Ilorodinski; 
indeed, the rear-guard of the latter hnd scarcely crossed when tho 
approHch of Austrian troops was announced, and some of the Po- 
lish gentlemen of the neighbourhood who had undertaken to see 
the detachment to the frontier would, hut for tlie darkness and 
slormtness of the night, in ali probability have been made pri* 
8onera« 

" The jdan agreed upon was that Wysocki and Horodinski 
should both make for Badziwilow — -the former from the immediate 
neigtihourhood, the latter from a point about six Knglish miles to 
the south. If Horodinski waa attacked first Wyaocki was to march 
to hi^ assi^itaiice Otherwise it wa^i the intention of Wysocki to 
remain on the defensive in the woods before Radziwilow uolil Ho- 
rodinski announced his approach, 

*^ This plan for various reasons could not he cnrried out. Wy- 
fiocki, pursued by the Austrians^ iiad to tnke a difRcult and cir* 
euitous roud to ttte border, or he would have been stopped before 



1863.] THB POLISH QUESTION. 561 

he had fairly started^ and when he had at last got over, his men 
had marched nearly 80 miles and had eaten nothing for 24 hours. 
Worse than that, it was 7 in the morning, and there were no signs 
of Hoiodinski, who had promised to advance towards Badziwilow 
at daybreak, and expected either to arrive at 8 o'clock, or, in the 
event of being attacked by superior forces, to receive aid from 
Wysocki within an hour, at the utmost, from the commencement of 
the battle. 

" However, at about 8 o'clock some bOO Russians had collected 
outside Kadziwilow, and were gradually improving their position, 
when Wysocki, though still ignorant as to the position of Horo- 
dinski, found it necessary to attack them. The opposing forces 
were nearly equal, but the Russians, it is to be presumed, had had 
a few hours' sleep, and something to eat the day before, and had 
not worn themselves out by a march of ;30 miles. There was 
plenty of cover on both sides, the Poles firing for the most part 
from a forest, while the Russians aimed coolly and quietly enough 
from a field of rich, ripe. corn, which if it could not protect at 
least sufficed to conceal them. Between the wood and the wiieat 
there were a few houses and huts, chiefly inhabited by Jews. Here 
a number of Russian sharpshooters established themselves, and for 
some time kept up a murderous fire, from which the Poles could 
only save themselves by burning tlie miniature village. When 
the Russians came out they were charged and driven into the corn 
by a company of sythemen. This was the only instance of anything 
like hand-to-hand fighting throughout the battle. No cavalry were 
engaged, there were no bayonet chaises, nor was a single volley 
fired. The Russians, like the Poles, fought in open order from 
beginning to end, and did not once give them the opportunity 
which they have so often profited by in other engagements of firing 
upon dense masses. The Polish infantry were too enfeebled by 
hunger and fatigue to be allowed to charge, though several com«* 
panics were very anxious to be led forward ; as for the cavalry, the 
horses were so tired that many of them could scarcely move. On 
the other hand, the Russians, when the Polish General called back 
the foremost lines of the skirmishers into the forest, showed no 
disposition to follow them, and the battle ended as it began— with 
the Poles half-covered in the wood, and the Russians entirely con- 
cealed in the corn-fields. The only persons who found themselves 
in a totally new position were the unhappy Jews and other neutral 
inhabitants of the little village so unioriunately situated between 
the two bodies of combatants. 

" While Wysocki was wondering where Horodinski could be, 
and why he did not come to his assistance, that gallant officer had 
actually entered Radziwilow at 1 o'clock, and his detachment (con- 
sisting of from 400 to 500 men) was not beaten back until 5, when 
all that was left of it retired to the frontier and entered Galicia 
without being pursued. If Wysocki had been abU <^ W^>^ N^ 



THB POLISH QUESTION, 



[AtJO, 



appointment, Radziwilo^ might nnd doubllesa would hare fallen 
into the hands of the Poles* As it was, HorodinskFs corps was so 
fearfollj cut up and so completely beaten, that Wyaocki, when 
he came up at seven, could see no sigria of Iua having heen any- 
where near the appointed place of meetingi He did not even 
know that the right wing had passed the frontier, until the news 
wafi given him by an English gentleman who liad gone as an ama- 
teur to visit RadKiwilow under the impression that it was already 
in the hands of Wysocki, and who, finding that a battle was going 
on, and perceiving that 'some one had blundered/ went into the 
thick of the fire and told the General that he tiad seen Horodinski 
cross over into Volhynia the night before, 

" Wysocki thought that if he went on figliting Horodin^ki must 
.*oon be near enough to hear the firing j but Htirodin^ki was dead. 
lie had fallen in a desperate hand io-hatid struggle in the middle 
of the market-place at Rndziwilow at the head of his troops, urging 
and calling them on to the very last. It is feared that Major Syn- 
kievvicZj who commanded the infantry, shared his fate. My infor- 
mant saw him fall from ins horse just ns the Russians were pres- 
sing around him^ and if, as is said, all tlie best and most daring 
of tlie officers were killed, Synkiewic^ is certainlj not among the 
living* But it must be hoped that there has been some exaggera- 
tion on this head, for no detachment with so many excellent 
officers as that of Ilorodinski possessed had appeared in Poland 
since the beginning of the insurrection. 

"Uitimately Wysocki, after holding a council of war, decided on 
Wednesday evening to repass the frontier, and he is now, with by 
far the greater part of his men, in Galicia. I do not think the 
entire number of killed and wounded in Wysocki's corps can have 
amounted to anything like a hundred, and verj few indeed fell into 
tlte hands of the Austrian?. The arms they left in a place of 
safety- 

'' Wysocki having been too late for Horodinski, and not having 
waited long enough for Minniewski, it is thought, nevertheless, that 
Minniewski will enter Volhynia to-day, and try for the third time 
whether a few companies of Poles can drive the Russians out of 
Kati^siwilow, The three detachments together, attacking the town 
in three diiTerpiit places, could doubtless have taken it yesterday 
morning; but now that the Russians are prepared, t see no reason 
for supposing that Minniew?ki will succeed where Horodinski 
ffviledj and VVysocki was scnrcplj able to make a serious attempt* 

" Wysocki*3 loss in officers was very great, and of the aides*de- 
cnm\if who were much ex nosed, scarcely one escaped being hiti 
Garczin^ki and Domogiilski, the chiefs of this service, were 
wounded, the former mortally, the latter very aerioualy, and in 
tliree places. Another staff officer, Captain Gliszainskij after being 
actively employed ihroughout the day in placing and keeping the 
tirailleurs in position, and in tilling up the gaps along what appeared 




1863.] 



Ttns POUSH QUBaXION, 



to b^ a very long line, considering the small niimbeT of men 
eugaged, fell just at the end of llie action^ which lasted from 8 
untU 12, and again from about a quarter-past 12 until E. 

" In spite of the report spread a few dajs ^o that Colonel Jordan 
had been killed while leading the centre of the last detachment 
which left Western Galicia for the Kingdom of Poluud {1,100 
strongj in three separate bodies), it appears now, to the great joy 
of his numerous friends, that he is aiivej and not very seriously 
wounded. About 200 of the entire force are said to have pene- 
trated into the kingdom. The rest were either killed, wounded, 
and made prisoners, or driven back into Galicia* Among the dead 
are several young men belouging to the principal families in 
Poland*" 

Our space will not admit ys to give a detailed account of the 
varioQS engagements which have taken place in many points. In 
every engagement the same heroic and determined courage is 
displayed by the patriots, who have, however, general Ij? been com- 
pelled to retire before superior numbers^ General Mouravieff has 
esfitablished martial law in the governments of Wilna, Kowno, 
Gardno, Mink, Witepsk and Mohiiew* From Cracow, under date 
of the 2 7 th June, we learn that the Bussians have fallen back upon 
Buwalki, that the insurrection in Fodlachia contiDues undiminished, 
tliat the insurgents have occupied three places in the government of 
Augustowa, that the Polish leader Andmszkiewicz has occupied 
Lomza, Sty can, and Grajewo, in the government of Augustowa, 
We also learn that a sanguinary engagement occurred at Serolk on 
the 22nd June. 

Executions continue to take place by order of the Russian Govern- 
ment. Macewicz, Ancypa, and Korsak were shot at Mobile w upon 
the 18th, and Zielinski was executed at Kiew, Czarnecki, Mice- 
wic^, and Bokiewic^ have been hung at Siedlce and Piolrkow. Two 
sanguinary conflicts have occurred at Krolowj most and Lueluiki, in 
Lithuania^ 

The Czas says ; "The denial given by the Eusaian Government 
to the statement that General MouravieU" had issued an order of 
great severity against women rearing muuruing is false. The fact 
is that General Mouravieff has condemned women who wear mourn- 
ing to a fine of £5 to 100 roubles; but if tliey cannot pay they are 
flogged wiih rods. This order has provoked disturbance among the 

pulation of Wihia, in the suppression of which the troops have 
illed forty persons." 

A murderous encounter occurred in Podolia on the 23rd June^ 
and on the same day an engagement took place at Orany, in Li- 
thuania, terminating in favour of the BiL^^sians. 

Arehbiflhop Felinski has been bauisjhcd to Jaroslaw. 



I 
I 




[Aug. 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS, 



TJie winter of 1S62-1863 being most probably Ihejasl hi which 

Uie British Plug will have flown in the loimn Islands, it rajiy also 
be teruied the last season of Corfu. But few Englij^li, wlitithcr 
naval, militaryj or civitian resident^^jj or of that happier community 
who pay il fljiiig visit Sj free to leave wlnui they like, will feel other- 
wise than sorry at parting with the Ionian Inlands. To the eolJier 
they have ever been and are tlie pleaaante^t of foreign stations; their 
short distance from England — one can get to Corfu from LLijiflon in 
five days and a half, without great exertion, and for less than £20 — 
the excellent sport to be had on the opposite co.ists of Albania and 
the Morciij tfie numerous places of iiiterest within easy reach lo be 
visited J very pleasant society, all com bine to make Corfu a specially 
favourite quartfr- Few would, however, choose Corfu as it now is 
for a home- The English are in anything but a comfortable or 
proper possition under the present form of government. To the 
man, sensible of the dignity attached to the word EngLshman, con- 
stant vexations and annoyance arise. As pri>tecturs we are snubbed, 
restricted, and imposed upon in many ways. The passport srstem 
iu Austria is mild comp:jrrd to that in force in tlie Ionian IsLind^. 
The sporting but needy sub, who unable to bear thy expense of u 
yacht, liires a ditch boat to cross to Albania for a day with the 
woodcock, has in addition to the hire of the boat, a series of Dogana, 
Sanita, nud Polizia fees ; yet he gous and returns from t!mt rugged 
hit of "contumacious" Turkey without having seen a sou I, save a 
hilUshepherd or two. Not even ciin one take a boat to sail or pull 
down the Benizza, a village on the isla^id, some six usiies oil", and in 
full view of the citudel, without the said customs, he^ilth office and 
police s^tamps on hi^ permit. But perhaps one of the n^oat glaring 
impositions on the Protectorate, is the compelling: it to p^iy an 
import duly upon the supplies sent by the British Government for 
the use of the protecting troops. Further, the very oil purchased 
by the Eoyal Navy for consumption on the ships in port, has an 
export duty charged ujion it. In round numbers, some j6^00,000 
are spent annually by the English in the islands, and in that sum is 
included an average for the private expenditure of officers and 
temporary winter residents. Yet we are constantly having it cast 
in our teeth that the Islands contribute towards the maintenance of 
the Protectorate* It is true that after much haggiing, the annual 
sum of £-^5,000 was determined on as a fixed contribution, but so 
irregular has its payment been, that at the present momeut, (to say 
nothing of occasional tips of £10,000 from the British Government) 
the Islands are some £HO,000 in our debt 

Can anyone imagine the change in alTairs when tluse Idauds 
become an integral part of Greece? Will she, already eighr mil- 
lions if] debt, and raising fresh loau^j spend anything on the Is- 



1888,] 



TOE IONIAN ISLAXD3, 



565 



lands? So far from it, the Unionists will see it just the other waj. 
Hungry Atbeiiians will fill their public offices^ grinding taxea will 
be their share in the AdministratioT). But they wish to be aunexedj 
and so— the J must pay for it. Within three years, if the Greeks 
hold tlie Islands so long, they will be the resort of the pirate and 
the fillibustei, and Corfu — spite of its ignorant, dbhonest munici- 
piility — charming CoTfu, will have sunk to the level of a Levantine 
towiL From ita positiuii it might be made as healthy as any itj the 
worldj now it is a sink of filth and wretchedness; the commonest 
sanitary rules disrei^arded, and the word decency not understood in 
it. One scarcely knows which to resent mostj the dishonesty of 
the municipalityj the lethargy of the Government, or the supersti- 
tion of both* ILefuse and garbage crowd the streets and choke the 
drains ; pestilential sin ells, and consequent fevers are rife, during 
the past spring scarlatina has decimated the children^ and instead of 
clearing and ventdating, flushing sewers^ &c*, the clmrch is appealed 
toj and out comas St. Spiro, and parades through the town with an 
escort a mile long of plumed and helmeted oiusiciaos, g^^i^try carrying 
banners^ and the oi poUoi bearing candles, our Protestant Royal 
Artillery firing salutes, and our Lord High Comraissiouer with his 
slafi*, all uncovered, doing reverence to the wretched mummery. 
The lonians and English do not get on together* There are but 
few of the former in society^ and yet they are well educiited^ hrgh 
bred people, mostly spraking Engliahj French, and Italian^ and of 
course Greek, though the two last tongues arc a villainous patois as 
spoken by them. The reason of this want of entente cordiaie is 
difficult to make out. The Ionian nobility^ — and Counts are in pro- 
fusion- — is a very proud one, and it does not like the too readily 
expressed, " What can you expect from a Greek?" or, " He is only 
a ditty Greek " 

The society is chieBy military, and very agreeable. As there is 
but little intercourse between the garrison and the natives, so also 
IS there but little between the British civilians and the military, 
There appears to be an assumption of status amongst tlie former, 
they are all Knights, K^CpM.G*, and Kniglits* wives think much of 
themselves^ and this will not go down ^ith even a junior ensign if 
of any breeding. Let a big-wig arrive in Corfu^ and never mind 
his or her antecedents, quickly shoots my lady's pasteboard on the 
new comer, shortly to be followed by a request for the honour of 

the Duchess of ^s, or Lord 's company. It is ]deasant 

enough for the stranger, for where ladies compete to have their card 
baskets well filled with names of notabilities, the latter are not 
likely to sutfer for want of attention* Unhappily, Corfu has no 
lady at the head of its domestic or fashionnble world* Whilst the 
late and sincerely regretted Sir John Inglis commanded, his wife, 
the very personification of the well-bred, courteous, kind-hearted 
Englishwoman, kept people together, and prevented the miserable 
airs and jealousies of parvenuLs, It must be owned Ocv^¥i^^\^^<a»^'^ 



566 



THK lOKIAN ISLANDS. 



[Atm, 



Corfu do not tend lo raise the British character in the eyea of those 
Ihej dwell amongst. The palace scandal, the ill-nature amongst 
married women, the effront^ manner in which certain young ladies 
throw themselves into the arms of the gallant red coats^ give to the 
Touians an unfavourable opinion of our state of society* Again, it 
is a lamen table thing to watch " young Corfu /' as represented by 
the unemployed cadets of the old families there, politics a Voutrmwe 
with cigarettes and cups of coffee ad libitum, constitute the eatis- 
tence of " Young Corfu /^ Gambling, too, is carried on to a fearful 
eitent, but though forbidden by the laWs, its existence is officially 
Ignored, for it would be awkward to make a swoop at a hell, and 
find nine-fenths of the gamblers were amongst the highest em- 
ployes under Government, Not long since a young mart robbed 
the Monte di Fieta, in which he held an appointment, to meet 
some gambling debts; ill-luck ?tuck to liim, and he could not 
replace the loan* It wa? discovered, but he contrived to escape 
arrest ; why ? he was the nepliew of a senator, and his arrest would 
have caused difficulties. 

Corfu bondts an opera-house, and each winter a troupe goes 
from Italy to occupy it* But few people piitronixe it, the stench 
in and about the house render it unbearable. The singing and 
acting, moreover, are only tenth*rate. The loniana chiefly keep 
it up* The English liave no club in Corfu, an unusual thing in 
a garrison town abroad, and it is a want very much felt; but 
there ia a very excellent garnson library and reading-room in & 
wing of the Palace, to which strangers are admitted for a time 
as honorary members, and afterwards on payment of a tritiing 
subj&criplion, and in this institution it must be mentioned that 
strangers meet with very great courtesy* If, however, there be no 
regular club, Corfu has its rendezvous, Taylors' shop, and the 
One-Gun Battery, the latter so called, lums a n^n lucetido^ for 
neither gun nor battery is or ever was there. It is a high bluff, 
about three miles from the citadel, at the entrance to Lake 
Calichiopulo,^ on the road to w^hich the heau monde rides, drives, 
walks, and meets its friends. Seated on the low wall around, 
on the road to the " One- Gun," are to be seen on fine afternoons, 
smoking subs, and the demi-monde of Corfu, and right well got up 
too is that demi-tnonde, vicing with tlie professional Phrynes in 
the sailoi'a straw hat and brass be-buttoned paletot. The lornans 
are said to study the FoUct very carefully, the Kngli^h on the 
contrary affect — and certain young ladies very successfully — the 
pretty horsebreaker line. 

The past shooting season was a very poor one, indeed, the sport 
has year by year been going off, and no wonder ; not a day passes 
from October to March, but that parties cross over to Albania, 
and between the officers of the garrison and the navy^ and the 
" travelling gents," wild boar, deer, jackals^ &Cp, have a hot time of 



1863.] THE lOlOAD ISLANDS. 567 

it| whilst the small covers are so incessantly worked that cock 
will not lie in them. 

1^ * There were no less than twenty-seven Englbh yachts in and 
about the Ionian Islands last winter, and the officers at Corfa 
complain, with some reason, of the strangers, or "T. G's,'' as 
they are called in the Ionian Islands — '* Travelling Gents*' — whose 
time is their own, and who have the means of locomotion, hanging 
about Corfu and harrying those near places, which the former, with 
their short forty-eight hours' leave, can only reach. 

The lonians have an idea that when the English, with the money 
spending garrison, have left the islands, the price of everything 
will be so much reduced, that numbers of English families will 
come and reside there for economy's sake, as well as on account 
of the climate and other inducements. But that is not probable, 
for Corfu then, will not have the attractions it has now. The 
English hotel and shopkeepers talk of seeking a new field — the 
Protectorate gone, they ¥rill find no customers. It is with infinite 
regret the garrison looks back on the last winter as being possibly 
the last that it ¥rill be seen with under British colours. There are 
those who, being compelled to reside there, do not consider it 
the paradise the migratory folks do. The heat in summer is 
insupportable, from May to October there is an utter stagnation 
of life; young children suffer sadly, and happy are those who 
can leave Corfu and travel northwards. Laybach is a favourite 
resort for fitmilies. The natives, however, deUght in the heat; 
but during the cold season there is hardly a day that one cares 
to wear gloves, or aught but a light coat. Yet throughout the 
winter months, the Ionian will be seen shuffling along in cloak 
or capote, and comforter well wrapped round his face. 

The Esplanade affords a curious scene by night in summer 
time, it is turned into one huge bed ; the poorer classes give up 
their lodgings, stow all their goods into one room, and live al 
fresco. 

The Lord High Commissioner gives dances during the winter. 
The Palace rooms are very fine, good floors, tolerable music, but 
the suppers — well, in charity one can only say they must be 
intended for the low salaried Grovemment employ^, who thus 
get a heavy meal out of their chief. Still it seems that something 
more recherchi than bad Marsala and Corfu beer might be afforded 
by our representative. A more affable, courteous person than Sir 
Henry Storks does not exist, yet he has failed to please every one^ 
civil and military. 



56B 
EDITOE'S PORTFOLIO; 



I Ado, 



OE, 



NATAL AND MILITAET EEGISTEK 



Tbe capture of Puebla has been followed by the snr render of the 
Mexican capital. The news wag thus briefly telegraphed by M. De 
MontholoDi the French Coiisul-General at New York to his govern- 
ment, 

''New York, 1st Jdy, 

"A telegram from San Francisco announces the sarrender of 

Mexico. 

" Montholon/* 

The French campaign in Mexico may therefore b^ said to be 
drawing to a close, or better to express it^ the military pha$is is past, 
and the diplomatic phasis is on the eve of commenciug. The city 
of Mexico does not imply the surrender of the country. From the 
details which have as yet been received^ and which are up to the 
6th June, we learn that it was only after lengthy discussion that 
Jnares and his Cabinet decided to evacuate the city of Mexico^ be- 
lieving that tbe most effectual reai stance to tlie French could be 
made out£»ide the walls. On the Slst of May, the Government 
moved to Sao Louis de Potosi taking all the moveable fire-arma 
and ammunition with them. They also took 2,000,000 dollara from 
the Treasury, The Mexican troops estimated at 20,000 men, withdrew 
to Caeraevoca Plaza and to iotermediate points round the city for the 
purpose of carrying on guerilla warfare. On the 1st of June a 
meeting was held in the city of Mexico by the principal leaders of 
the so-called Church party^ and a Commission was sent to Qeneral 
Porey to offer their allegiance to the Emperor Napoleon, On June 
Bth, General Bazaine, who it will be remembered had advanced on 
Mexico immediately after tbe capture of Puebla, entered Mexico 
and offered protection to the Church party against the excited 
population y the whole French army was expected to occupy the 
capital on the 8th of June, The official reports of the losses 
sustdned by the French since the commencement of the campaign, 
and tbe sums of money spent in this war have not been publi^^hed. 
They will form a curious volume, nor have we received any fuller 
details of what has occurred aince General Porey took possession of 
Pueblai 



ISflS.] editor's poetfolio. 569 

Acccordiiig to a correspondence in the Panama Starj General 
Comoiifort was held responsible for the defeat of the Meiiean troops 
at Cerro de San LoreiizOi ten dajs before the capture of Puebla* 
This defeat was considered to have decided the fall of Paebla, and 

^ General Comonfort is held responsible for it bj having disobeyed 

' the orders of the President in sending the convoy of provisions and 
arms destined for tbe garrison of Puebk by a different route to 

^that indicated to him. For this reason General Comonfort was 

^ replaced by General Juan de la Garza. The Panatna Star aleo 
quotes a private letter from Acapalco, dated the 30th of May, 

, If hich states Ibat the Menicans lost in the battle at Cerro de San 
Lorenzo above 1,000 men, killedj wounded and missing, and 800 
prisoners^ besides 200 waggon-loada of provisions and munitions of 
war desttined for the garrison, eighty pieces of artillery, and the 
medical ambulance^ The Meiicans fought with the greatest ob- 
aiinacyj but were compelled to give way before the numerical supe- 
riority of the French. 

The question which naturally rises, is: " What does France in- 
tend to do now that she is in possession of the capital and that 
the campaign may be said to be terminated ?" we have various 
daia to go upon. The second article of the Convention of the 
Slst October last between Prance, Great Britain^ and Spain pro- 
hibits '* any acquisition of territory, or any particular advantage or 
interference in the internal affairs of Mexico, or the exercise of any 

influence of a nature to attack the right of the Mexicau nation to 
freely choose and constitute the foTtn of its government*^' The 
right of conquest may, however, materially alter the views of the 
French Government in this matter. If we refer to the views ex- 
pressed by the French Minister of Foreign Affairs in his ExpuMi 

, ife la iituation de f Empire, at the coratnencement of the year, we 
find M* Droojn de PHuys thus expressing himself: ''the Mexican 
question has entered into a military phasis, the solution of which 
mt muat wait for. The governraent, therefore, must confine itself 

' to express its conddence that the expedition will soon terminate 
gloriously for our flag} and that the moment is not far distant when 
the success of our arms will assure to the interests which led us to 
Mexico those durable guarantees of which they have so long stood 
in need," 

The above words were penned before the capture of Puebla and 
evacuation of Mexico. Let it hii hoped that the brilliant success 



EUntJR's POBfTPOLIOj OS, 

which has crowned the French expedition will shortly lead to the 
establishment in Mexico of a regular and firm government nn* 
swayed by foreign influence, and under which all legitimate interests 
wilt find sure guarantees for their protection* 

The tone of the French press, including the Government organs, 
is decidedly in favour of immediate negotiations to put an end lo 
a distant war ; the Fa^s^ liowever, announces that M, Hubert 
Delia le proceeds to Meitico charged with the administrative organic 
satiou of that country. What this means it is impossible to say. 
Meanwhile the French fimperor, with thai tact which endears bim 
to the army^ has instituted an order of Meiico, and honours and 
rewards will be at once showered upon the officers and men who 
have taken part in the caiupaign. General (now Marshal) Forey 
willj it is said, return to France^ and the chief command of the 
Fiench troops in Me^co will be entrusted to Qenend Ba^aine, 



Most men, whether they have ventured their lives in " the 
iranunent deadly breach" or not, will allow that ten years appears 
a long time for questions of Prize of War to hang over, yet from 
the speech of Colonel North in the House of Commons on the 
1 4th of last month, that would appear to he about the avermge. 
The gallant Colonel spoke but too truly of "the universal dissatis- 
faction at present pervading the Army, both officers and men, who 
had taken part in those glorious campaigns, which resulted, owing 
to the gracious consideration of the Sovereign, in their right to 
receive prize money. What they complained of was, not only the 
small amount received, but the immense length of time which 
elapsed between the time of the capture and the period when the 
money was distributed to the captors. He had endeavoured to 
make himself master of the details, but considerable mystery 
appeared to exist on the subject. He naturally applied in the 
first instance to Chelsea Hospital for information, but the answer 
he received was, that that establishment was only the depository of 
unclaimed or forfeited shares after distribution was made. With- 
out wearying the House by a reference to very distant campaigns^ 
and conEning himself only to campaigns with which they were all 
conversant, and almost all of which had occurred in India, he 
would be able to show that most unreasonable delays had occurred 
in the distribution of Prize Money. He had moved for a return of 
Army Prize Money granted, stating the name and date of capture, 
and the date when the distribution in India was authorized in 



1863.J KAVAL AND MILITARY BEeiSrSB. 571 

general orders. The first on the list was the Isle of France, and 
the date of the capture was 1810, while the (irst award for prize 
money took place on the 2nd of February, 1819. But, not to go 
so far back, he would refer to the Burmese war in the years 1824, 
1825, and 1826; and he found that the order for the first pay- 
ment of prize money was dated December 19, 1886, or ten years 
after the war was closed. In July, 1889, the capture of Ghuznee 
took place, but no prize money was distributed until March 17, 
1848, or nine years after the event. Then came the case of 
Khelat, in November, 1839, and six years elapsed before the prize 
money was paid. With regard to Pegu, the contest terminated 
in 1853, but the prize money was not paid until March, 1868| 
after a delay of ten years, and he understood that the prize money 
to each private soldier only amounted to about a couple of rupees. 
No one, then, could be surprised that the soldiers were disgusted 
at the treatment they experienced in this matter/' 

The Colonel's motion was for " An address to the Crown for 
the issue of a Royal Commission to inquire into the realization of 
Army Prize property, and its mode of distribution, and into the 
cause of the extraordinary delays which had, in most cases, occurred 
in its distribution to the captors, with a view to a remedy for the 
same.'* 

Lord Palmerston readily agreed to the grant of the Commission, 
but he took exception to the term '^ extraordinary delays,^' main- 
taining that they were in reality " ordinary'' ones, though he hoped 
they would be so no longer. He trusted that the proposed in- 
vestigation would tend to a great abridgment of the delays which 
now take place, and he promised that in the composition of the 
Commission the Government would take care that it shall contain 
within itself those elements of information and authority which 
will render its recommendations satisfactory to the Army and 
Navy, as well as to the country. 

We heartily hope that it may be so, and that the booty of any 
future war may come promptly into the hands that have won it, 
and not be bought up for a mere song by greedy speculators, as is 
too often the case at the present day. We are not forgetful of the 
real difficulties connected with the subject of prize distribution, 
but we do think ten years rather too long a time to wait for their 
solution, and we are glad to find Lord Palmerston admits that this 
is his opinion also. — — ^— 

U. 8. Mag. No. 417, Aug, 1863. ^^ 



&n 



IfilHTOE's POB.'RPOLTO; OB, 



rAtm; 



Though the news cornea from Federal sources^ and no doubt ia 
made the very most of, it appears certain that Dame Fortune haa 
for tlie nonce changed sides, and allowed the Confederates to sufTer 
severely, A really desperate battle of three day a' duration, scetna 
to have been Utile to the advantage of either party ; but Meade, 
the newest Federal General, is a pupil of West Poiot, and if 
he could not absolutely defeat Lee, has so held him in check, that 
the C-onfederates have retired into Virginia, and Washingtonj like 
Richmond, hna not as yet changed masters. On the Mifisissippi 
the fortune of war has been decidedly against the Confederates, 
Ticksburg seems to have surrendered from exhaustion of supplies; 
our latest arrivals tell the same tale of Fort Hudson, and the 
Federal partisans in this country exult over these matters as 
a certain proof of the utter exhaustion of the South, It may be 
BO, though we hope not, as already on the strength of these successes 
we have the foul mouthed New York papers blustering about 
calling England and France to account for various high crimes 
and nnisdc mean ours against the Union. They seem rather too 
hasty in this, as the long expected enforcement of the conscription 
has given New York into the powder of the mob for a couple 
of days, and there are unmistakeable symptoms that something of 
the kind impends in other places- A Government thus threatened 
with at least as great a failure of its *' food for powder" as ita 
adversaries, can hardly be very formidable to the nations of 
Europe, and we are not much disturbed at the idea of the 
vengeance to he dealt out to us when the " Union is restored " 

The case of the outrage on the officers of the ' Forte* at Rio de 

Janeiro has at length been decided on hy the King of the Belgians, 
and the conclusion at which His Majesty has arrived is, that no 
insult to the British Kavy as such was perpetrated, though the 
individuals in question were badly used. To endeavour to prevent 
the recurrence of such scenesj the Admiralty have issued directions 
which only require to be carried out judiciouUy to have a good 
effect* My Lords order the Naval uniform to be worn on all 
occasions of otTicers going on shore; hut of course they must have 
left a large discretion to the Commander-in-chief on each station. 
No one can believe that it is desired to make uniform imperative 
in such places as Malta or Corfu, though we think that officers for 
their own sake should wear it more frequently than they now do ; 



1863.1 KAYAL AKD MILITAET REGISTER. 673 

but it 18 the dictate of the most ordiDary pradeoce not to give the 
ignorant ofiBcials of a half savage population the excuse which plain 
clothing affords them. These people generally have a wholesome 
awe of the British uniform^ and happy are they when any incautious 
wight who is entitled to wear it affords them the opportunity of 
paying off old scores by appearing among them without it. A 
quarrel is pretty sure to be picked with him, and whatever injury 
he suffers, his chances of redress are very slight indeed. Naval 
officers should consider this, and not play into unfriendly hands by 
violating a regulation which has their honour and safety primarily 
in view, although, like every thing else, it is capable of being 
made a ''grievance'' if not regarded in its proper light. 



The Polish question has reached a culminating point. We 
publish in another portion of the Magazine a careful analysis of 
the diplomatic correspondence which has passed between the 
Governments of England, France, Austria and Russia, with » 
view to put an end to the horrible and sanguinary deeds which are 
being daily perpetrated in Poland. The Russian reply to the 
identical notes of the three Powers can scarcely be looked upon as 
satisfactory. It leaves the whole question in staiu quo. The 
Emperor Alexander declines the armistice proposed by Lord 
Russell, but notifies his willingness to grant an amnesty if the 
Poles will lay down their arms. It is not likely they will do this 
without concessions and guarantees. The expedition into Yolhynia 
has proved disastrous to the National cause, and the recent debates 
in the House of Commons show that there is no intention on the 
part of the English Government to go to war for the liberation of 
Poland. The Poles now look beseechingly towards France as their 
last resource, and once again the fate of Europe may be said to 
depend upon the will of the mysterious ruler who sits on the throne 
of France. 



By general consent the Guards' Ball to the Prince and Princess 
of Wales has been pronounced the most satisfactory of all the en- 
tertainmente offered to their Royal Highnesses. The Picture gal- 
leries of the Exhibition Building were almost magically transformed 
into ball and supper rooms, &c., in which some 2000 of the Slite 
o\' society assembled, and the entertainment in all its features was 
worthy alike of the givers and receivers. To add to the splendour 



BDITOE's portfolio I OE, 



[Auo. 



of the scene many of the nobility lent services of plate, and, most 
remarkable of allj the fatnoug Waterloo fihield, the triumph of 
Flaxman's art, left Apsley Houae for the first tiute, being sent by 
the Duke of Wellington* Military trophies^ flags, figures in ar* 
mourj appeared on every Bide, but after all, none could be so 
satisfactory to the Guards as the noble Shield on whicb the gloriea 
of the Great War are depicted, and accordingly it occupied the 
place of honour, and attracted raore attention than perhaps any- 
thing else. 



Like the Brighton Eaiter Monday Review, the Wimbledon 
Meeting seems firmly established as a national institution. The 
one that has just closed was a decided improvement on that of la:^t 
year, and the scores made by the various competitors were really 
astonishing, so as to prove to demonstration that our Volunteers 
can hold their own against all comers. We used in former years 
to be told that the Swiaa, the Tyrol ese, and the Hack woodsmen 
bad a mastery of the riHe that was altogether unapproachable by 
ourselves ; this is now shown to be a mere popular delusion ; 
but it would be a more serious error than this, if we were to believe 
that the production of a good number of first-rate marksmen is 
the moat important result of these meetings. To fire between two 
boards at a target ])laced at a known distance, and with danger to 
nobody except the unlucky markers to disturb the nerves, bears 
not the most distant resemblance to the incidents of the field of 
battle^ and it by no means follow^s that the crack shot may prove 
a steady soldier ; it is drill, and that well kept up, which alone 
can make the Volunteers a force to be depended on as an auxiliary 
to the Army. This well attended to, and ihe interior economy of 
each corps assimilated as far as possible to that of the regular 
troops, the Volunteer movement will prosper as well as its 
warmest friends can wish, but not without. 



Ill addition to the flatteiing tesliinouiab already presented to 
Captain Brown, the kte Beg iitrar- General of Seamen, by the Royal 
Naval Reserve of Sunderland, Sealiam, and Hartlepool — a hand- 
some Service of Silver Phtij has jiist been forwarded io titat gallartt 
officer, purchased by the Shilling ConUibulioris of the Force be- 
longing to the other ports of the United Kingdom ; every one, who 
had the opporl unity, being desirous of adding his mite, as a token 



1863.] NAVAL AND MIUTABT BEGISTEE. 575 

of respect to this popular and meritorions officer, who appears by 
his strenuous and unceasing efforts to benefit this class, to have 
won the affections of the Merchant Seamen of the United Kingdonii 
and to have contributed in no small degree to establish that feeling, 
which now so happily prevails amongst them. 

The testimonial was accompanied by the following flattering ad- 
dress, handsomely embossed on vellum, to which Captain Brown 
returned a suitable reply, requesting the Committee to make it 
known to the Volunteers of the Naval Keserve, who have contri- 
buted to the testimonial. 

TO CAPTAIN BROWN, B.N., aB. 

Sir. — We, the Seamen of the Royal Naval Reserve, hearing that 
you had recently retired from the cares of office, after long and 
arduous service, desire to express to you' our warm gratitude for 
the great benefits, which we, in common with our brethren 
throughout the United Kingdom, owe to your friendship, and un- 
wearied exertions in our behalf. 

It is because we deeply feel this, that we now intrude for a 
brief space on your retirement, to ask you to carry with you this 
our warm acknowledgments of your services in our cause^ and, 
more especially of that crowning service, which has linked us, the 
Seamen of the Merchant Marine, with our brethren of the Roya^ 
Navy, in the common defence of our Queen and country. In ob- 
taining for us this privilege, you have gratified our national patrio- 
tic pride, by raising for the protection of our beloved Queen and 
country, a body of men, who, in time of need, will be found, 
" Ready, aye Ready.'' 

Along with this sincere expression of our feelings, we beg yoa 
to accept the accompanying Testimonial, which may serve to per- 
petuate in your family, more effectually than mere words, the sen- 
timents of gratitude, of those British Merchant Seamen, who owe 
to you, amongst other benefits, that of being members of the Royal 
Naval Reserve. That you may long enjoy, in honoured retirement, 
the fruits of a public career, began at Trafalgar, and worthily closed 
in organizing a new National Bulwark, is our earnest prayer. 

Presented on behalf of the Royal Naval Reserve by the Com- 
mittee. 



[Auo. 



CRITICAL NOTICES. 

PiTTT TI5AES' BioQUApmcAX Eemikisoeuces. By Lord WiBiam Pitt 

Lennox. 2 vols. 

Lord William Lennos is the son of the fourth Duke of Biobmond* 
Vho^ whilst plain Colonel Lennosj fought a duel with the Duke of 
Tork; he is the godson of William Pitt, the cotiein of Charles James 
Toi, and the nephew of the Ducht^ns of Devonshire and the four other 
lovely daughters of " the beautiful Duchess of Gordon.*' Thus by birth 
eonneeted with the very elUe of society, he has been iu Bucces^iion 
a Weatmiuster boy, an officer of the Blues, an aide-de-camp to Wel- 
lington, and an M*P» in both the un reformed and the rtj formed Houeies* 
In a less public capacity, he hae been an amateur actor from childhood, 
and waa a frequenter of the Green -Room in thu days of Kean ; he baa 
lived the life of a man about town^ and has tried every kind of excite* 
ment, fVom driving a Btage-coEw:h to yachting, pngiliam, and a footrac© 
at midnight in Hill Street, Berkeley Square, where he won the bet# bat 
loat hi a shoes j and he has made war on the/tf(je nahtnt in both Europe 
and America, killing bis grtiUBc and hi a foxes in company with royalty, 
and his elk under ftie en peri n ten den oe of a chief of the Red Lidiatis 
in the Hudson's Bay country. Such varied extierieucoa, beside those 
gained ae a " friend * in several duels, recorded by a man who has been 
me editor of the " Sporting Review" and a sncceasfnl novel writer^ 
make a book which no one who has begun is likely to leave half read^ 
but which is atill of so discursive a character that, oj>en it where we 
may, we are sure of meeting something that wiU interest and amuse 
independently of all the rest. 

Lord William is far from professing to give anything like a complete 
outline of the history of the first half of the present century, but tber^ 
are few of its celebrities who do not figure in hi.s pages » The Dako of 
Wellington and Dr* Caiy, the master of Westminster School, Lady 
Blcsaington and Lady Slorgan, Count d'Orsay and Borneo Coatea, 
Colonel Berkeley, Pea-Green Hayne, the '* Golden Ball,*' Malihran, tho 
Duchess of St. Albans, the Bourbons, William IV,, the Barrymores, 
piigiliets, yachting men, sportsmen of every grade, many of tho 
dramatic stars, Stephenson the banker, &c.s &e,, are to be met with 
wherever we open the book^ and having said this we have but to 
give a few specimens of the way in which m^en and things are depicted 
by its author. 

Let us ^I'st take a picture which Old Westminsters will agree is tnie 
to the letter; 

** The life of a Westminster boy, by the way. ia not all cmtJ-cur de ron&; 
indeed, while he remains a fag, it preaenta a totally different complexion 
— at least it did in my time. The young gentleman was then obliged 
to rise at six in summer, and seven in winter. He eommeneed the 
labonrs of the day by fetching water from the pump in Dean's Yard, 
and then applied himself to Tight his master's fire — usually with an 
insuflficient idlowance of wood. Ho next boiled hit^ water, and prepared 
his breakfast. Later in the day he had to fag for him at cricket or 
fives, or rnn messages, and do liis bttl© marketings for sausages, rolls, 
miilHnii, tarts, and fruits, with the risk, if caught out of bomids, of 
having a flogging, to encourage the others, as a Prenchnian said of 
the execution of Admind Byug. He had also to prepare tea and supper, 
to brush boots and clothes, and clean cord breeches, and top-boots, 
gridiron^ frying -pan, and all other cooking utensib, the property of his 
inaster. As a recompense for these multifarjona duties the fag some- 
times obtained ten shdlings or a guinea at Christmas— more frequently 



1B6S.] 



CBITICAL KOTICES. 



i77 



the reversion of an old tea*pot. Such suit and service Iperformed for 
the Honourable Mr, ErskinCi afterwards Earl of Har. The nature and 
extent of my reversionary interests I cannot remember, but I doubt 
"wbethf^r they were more mnnlficenfc ttiaa those which fell to the other 
juveuile victiras of the system^ — ^a &jtiteni, however, wUich was carried 
out in my time far more harshly than I believe it is now. 

•*Oiia day when I was to fight a boy 'after four,' Erskine sent 
for me» 

" • Kyoa don't lick him,' said he, * I'll lick you V 
"I fought till I was bliaid, and was vanfiuished. When on the 
ftick-list in the housekeeper's room^ Erskine came in. 

" * You fought well/ gaid he, * I shan't fag yoa for a week ; here'i 
lmlf*a-|B^iinea lor you.^ 

** Tyrant as I had considered him, and not without caufie» hie kindness 
won me, and I slaved on for him as long as I remained in. the lower 
echoolt without a murmur/* 

The Wcatminster lad passed his ChristmaH holidays in Irelwid, where 

his father was then Lord Lieuteimnt (he died Governor-General of 

Canada), and there attracted the notice of the Irish Secretary whose 

aide'dt?*camp he aflerwards became. At the age of fourteen he waa 

gazetted to the Blues, waa, probably in consequence, **not so steady as 

He had been/' and received a nijtt from good Dr* Cary that he hnd better 

finish hiH education elue where ; therefore he was removed to the care of 

a reverend gentleman in Berkshire, who was bringing forward some 

youths foT the profession of arms, and here he was able to exercise his 

talents for theatricals, field sports, driving, Ac*, to hi.n heart's content. 

At length ho received a summons to wait on the Duke of Wellington, 

passed muster along with the present Lord Downes, and in an hour 

or two was on his way to the Continent, the trio travelling in the same 

carriage. Ho afterwards accompanied the Duke to Fans, and next 

to Vienna* but an accident prevented his sharing in the battle of 

Waterloo^ though he witnessed a part of it as a non-combatant. After 

a while he returned to England, varied the routine of duty in the Biues 

by appearing as a page at the coronation of George IV., took decidedly 

to thea trial] s, which offended the Iron Duke, went bo Canada with his 

feiher, the Dnke of Eichmond, and at length sold out of the At'my, a 

peculiar custom in the Blues of not allowing exchanges, seeming to 

leave him no hope of advancement. He of course now mixed even more 

freely than before with every grade of society, and bis active mind found 

erapfoyment for a while in Parliament; but it is more as the shrewd yet 

kindly aketcher of the remarkable men and women of the first tjuarter 

[ of tlua century that he claims attention. We will, with his assistance^ 

I glance at one phase of fashionable socjiety aboout the year 1806 ; 

\ ''Among the clubs the most fashionable went by the name of the 

f*Ptc-mf5s/ They assembled for a supper, to which all were forced to 

I contribute by lot. A bag containing tickets inscribed with the names 

I of certain edibles and dAukabloa, waa pasi^ed roundj and eaeh took a 

I chance in this strange lottery, Intlividuals of both sexes belonged to 

it, and had to forward within a given time whatever they had drawn^ 

& haunch of venison or a Welsh-rabbit, ortolans or oysters, pigeon-pie 

or lobster- salad-^ in ehort, anything the maiire fThotel chose to put down 

[in the proper bill of fare for the occasion, A good deal of amusement 

[ waa occasioned by the difficulty of procuring, or of sending the re<juired 

[comestible — but wherfjver the supper was to come off, there the delicacy 

must appear. The young ladies however youthful, and the elderly 

gentleftien however aged, frequently had to use extraordinary esertione 

to fulfil their obligations. 

" The id^ ia ^d to have origiiLated with the Lady Albina Bncking- 
hamghire — a hdU eiiprit of that day; but it had long be«e.t^ ^ Hs^&ecK^^sAex: 



I 
I 



I 



usage in good Bociefcy in France^ CcjIuiioI Greville, well-known in the 
fashionable ciixjles^ aasi&ted Imr lad j ship in uiitnralizing it m thia 
liountry ; and the fir&t meetings of the club were held at Lcs Texier's 
pub tic rooms in Leicester Square. They were also given at the Pan- 
theon in Oxford Street, 

"Such penniona were not solely devoted t^ the material pleasnres 
of eating and drinking — aniateur concerts and ainateur plays wero 
occasionally got np by the members ; but the club did not prosper. It 
elicited lampoons innum^erable, and the squibe of the wits, or wo\ild-l>e- 
wita, were shortly accompanied by ludicrous attacks from the carica- 
tnxiets. l^e honorary secretary » Colonel Greville, became embarraased 
in his pecuniary circumstances* His handsome person was withdrawn 
to a distant part of the ^lube, where he had obtained an appoiutment^ 
and the ladies, whom his wijining mai inters had drawn togetheTi 
abandoned the Pic-nica ; shortly afterwards the club was dissolved*** 

"Concerts and operas increased in fashion, and the aspirants for ton 
wer® not always eatisfied with patronizing the artist — some of them 
sought proficiency in the art. The Royttl Family were conspicuous for 
this amateurs hip. The Duke of Cumljcrland gave hi a leisure to the 
violin ; whilst the Prince of Wales, and the Duke of Gloucester practised 
quite as zealously on the vielon cello. The Prince, too, posBeseed an. 
excellent voice, which bad been cultivated hy Latoun the Coart music- 
master, and his Rojal Highness organized a private orcheatra in Carlton 
House, to which he lent his asf'iatauce. The Duke of Queensberry, the 
Marquift of Buckingham, Lord Boyle, Lord Hampden, and many other 
leading personages in society, were in the habit of entertaining their 
oompany with concerts, for which the greatest attraction in the mnaical 
world, vocal and inatrumental, was sure to be engaged. The com- 
position H moat in favour were those of Handel and Mozart, Cimarosa 
and Gliick, Paesiello, Baochini, Sarti* Winter, and Haydn* 

" Several ladies of rank Bot only played well on the pianoforte, aji 
improTemcnt on the harpsichord, out wroto many plea&ing melodies — 
the beautiful Georgina, Duehe&s of Devonshire, for instance, set to 
music Sheridau's melaucholy lyric, * I have a sUcnt sorrow here/ A 
sentimental effusion equally in favour with the fair of May Fair was, 
'The Banks of AUaa Water,' written by Monk Lewis. The Prince of 
Wales obtained the reputation of having been the author of * The Lasa 
of Bichmond Hill/ which was said to have been inspired by Mrs. FitE- 
herbert, then a resident in that picturesque neighbourhood ^ hut, inde- 
pendently of the a'baurdity of calling a woman of thirty a hLsa, must be 
added this singular combination of negatives- The scene of the ballad 
was not Richmond Hill, Surrey, but Bichmond Hill, Yorkshire. The 
heroine of the baUad was not a fashionable widow, hut a damsel in her 
teene — a Miii@ I' Anson ; and the author was not an heir-apparent who 
had crowns to resign, but a briefless Irish hamster, whose half-crowns 
orly» and those perhaps not without some reluctance, could bavo been 
parted with to gain the desired ohject. He was Bernard McNally, 
known in Ireland as the advocate of the Irish rebels— known hi England 
ae the author of the libretto of a comic opera called * Biobin Hood, and 
of various fugitive pieces of poetry." 

Among the celebrities whom Lord William met with was Sydney 
Owenson, whose acquaintance he made long before she attained the 
" full-blown dignity" of Lady Morgan. If the old dame were ahve now, 
we fancy she won la be *' excoetliugly indignant indeed,*' even more than 
she was when Colbunx advertised her works at half-price, at the picture 
givtiTi, part of which reads thus : 

** While my family were stationed at Dublin, its members became 
more or Isbb a^uainted with all tha noble and uitellectuiel> gentle and 



CRITICAL irOTlCES* 



iimple of tlie IrLsti metrgpolifi and neighbourhcjod, wbo desired to be 
preaentad to the Viceroy. AmoDg these wera hmlj Muira, Catherine 
CoyntesB of Charleville, with the Marqais and MarcmoTieaa of Abercom 
—the former a, superlatively fine gontleman of tb© olden time, who, in 
hia exceedingly studied g^^t np, looked so superior an article of hn- 
manit^, aa waa only fit to be seen under a glass shade. His lady was 
quite ae elegant and refined in her costume — indeed, aspired to set the 
fasbion at the Irish Court in manners as well as dress, 

"In tbeir suite tbey had secured a yoong woman who had obtained 
no anmll degree of celebrity as a writer of SeUou. She was one of the 
two daughters of a person named Owensont wbo had been a farmer, a 
wine nierebant, and an actor— but was mtich more widely known on the 
hoards of one of the Dublin theatres, ttwin as a trader or agricultnriet. 
Like scores of aimdar adventurers of the same class atid country, he had 
always been better Be<iuainted with Port.une*a eldest daughter than 
herseli'— nevertheless, being an ivmueing follow, he waa frequently found 
in good society. Tbough be could not afibrd to give his chudpen ft 
regular education, they contrived to acquiro as much of it as fitted them 
to play a respectablo part on the gr^t stage of life- Indeed^ one got on 
BO far in reading and writing, that when she ought to have been at 
school, she took a sitnatiou as governess; and when she should have 
been quaUfying for so onerous a post, she was writing a novel 

*' Imaginative Uterature was at a very low ebb in the sister island— 
' The Sorrows of Werter," and the ' Poems of Ossian," were the chief 
sources of sentiment and taste; and Sydney Owenaon, having falleu in 
love with a clerk, wrote the result of her eacperienee and her reading, in 
a tale called ' St. Clair, or First LoTe,' which was published in Dublin 
in I8f>2. The moderate sncceas which attended this production em- 
boldened her to try another ventnre, and she produced ' The Novica of 
St. Dominio,' which had the distinction of being brought out by ft 
London publisher. Sir Richard Pbillip*8, to whom it was taken by the 
authoress in person, in 1805. This had a much more extended sueeess. 
It has been affirmed that Mr. Pitt was delighted with it, and re- perused 
its pages when suffering from the illness that praved fat>al. Dr. Johnson, 
we Iluow, was equally enraptured with Miss Bumey^s early attempt at 
fiction. The hterary merit of both works, notwithfl tan ding, baa long 
ceased to be appreciated. 

"It was Miss Owcnson's third venture, * The Wild Irish Girl/ that 
established bcr fame as an Irish novelist. The extent of her imaginative 
power may be understood fi:*om the fact, that in the story she represents 
the rolHcking Dublin actor and bankrupt tradesman, her father, as the 
'Prince of Innismore,* herself as Glor\^a the Princess; a man of the 
name of Everard, and bis scape grace son, with whom she bad been 
^Trying on an amorona correspandencei ae tax English nobleman, Lord 
M., and his heLr. 

"Never before or, since had snch homely materiala been so trans- 
formed. They took the shape of a melo-dramatic romance, written 
in a series of letters— a favourite m^ide of romance writing in the last 
century, the best example of which exists in Smollett's * Humphrey 
Clinker.' The work had a success equal to the best of Maturiu^a equally 
flighty productionB, and the reputation it brought, gave Miss Owenson 
easy access to the best Irish society. Ladies of rank were glad to 
patronijse the popular anthoress — as she bsicame a Ivytins in their circW, 
and was so completely identified with her own heroine, that everyone 
called ber Glorvina. Whether her father was similarly elevated, is not 
affirmed. 

** Lord and Lady Abercom took Hiss Owenson into their establish^ 
ment 'to amuse them ;* and it is but juatice to say, tbat i^be entertaii^^sd. 
them and their friends amazingly. She was ^l^'api*^ t^s*^ "vs* ^t«a^fcSfc 



1 



580 



CETTrCAL NOTJCES, 



[Atro. 



herself ^nerally eiitort'aimng, if not gencmllj useful, to the throngB of 
^y Iriuhmcu and Irishwomeu who filJed the iiisbioujible dmwiug-rooms 
oi' her ]iatronB. She played tunea on the harp, sang Irish songs, and 
d&noed Irish jigs, with equal vivacity. Her sniaU fi^re, dark com- 
plexion, rouna Lead of curlj Lair^ and laughing eyea» being displayed 
to the best advantage, but with a theatrical manner that could oulj 
ha?& been toleraled in * A Wild Iriah Girl ' and a * genius/ 

"The ladioa wcrta naore amused than edified hy her e:£hibitious — in 
truth, Bomo of them thought her a quiz, and ridiculed her displays. 
The gentlemen professed umnense admiratioiit particularly those with 
whom she Hirted, which was said to include everyone who required, or 
was thought to require, a wife. It ho happened that the more desirable 
of her numerous admirers looked at the euticing bait, but did not aeem 
to care to be hooked* Stories were in circulation respecting a poor 
eubaltem who had drowned himselff and a small poet who bad piiiDd 
awaty for the peerlofi:* Glorvina, which may poHsibly accsount for the 
reticence of her fashionable adorers. 

** I remember well the fun my brothers and I found as ipectators of 
the young lady's performances. To us achoolboTS tbev aflbrded a rich 
treat. Notbiug' we had seen of Irish life we found half so amusing, 

** Lady Abercorii at last became afraid that her lovely frofJfjie might 
get herself into a scrape, if she did not make some effort to have her 
respectably off her hands^ So* after long consul tationa with her 
huaband, and eubBequent conferences with my father, it waa determined 
to marry her to Lord Abercorn's family doctor, who» forming a part of 
his lordship's eatablishnientt was at band for the much -desired purpose. 

'^The young lady's friends, however, were ivoU aware that ehe waa 
ambitious — tliat in her heart she had cultivated the hof^e of retilizine 
the aristocratic pretensions of her * Wild Irish Girl.' The Mar<juis and 
Harchionesa therefore made earnest suit to the Lord Lieutenant, that 
he would assist them to elevate the amusing Glorvino. This petition be 
could not very well deoy, as he just before, in hijj Vice-regal capacity, 
bad done the same ser%'ioe for her sister ^ by knighting a certain Dr* 
Clarke, whom that young ladv had married. It was therefore resolved 
that Dr. Morgan should straightway be made Sir Charles^ and that he 
fthould bo the husband of Sydney Owenson, This programme wae 
fulfilled, and in the month of January, of the year 1812, she becamo 
Lady Morgan ; after having been seriously abjured by her considerate 
friends to give up flirting, and mind her pa and qs — for her reluctance 
to abandon lier ambitious aspirations was evident to them alL" 

The following picture of the Barry mores is one that we trust cannot 
be paralleled at the present day: 

*■* A great patron of the turf was Lord Barrymore, about one of the 
wildest spirits then to be met with among the most reckless of the 
TOtaries of pleasure found in the metropoUs, or anywhere else, Ireland 
contributed a large per centa-ge of the sowers of wild oats, who made 
Xiondon tbeir field of operations* His lordship, moreover, belonged to a 
^unily possessed of a c-elebrity for stich eultivatioii — indeedr in the loat 
generntion, thus employing Ivoth seiea, 

" By the death of the sixth Earl, his progeny were consigned to a long 
and not ondiatingnisbed minority, the ki?t years of which were spent 
in Loudon society, where oacb succeeded in establishing for hiraj or 
herself, a * lot^l habitation and a name f but ibr particular reasons it 
was connected with distinct ilxstrictB within the liberties of the city. 
One of this hopeful lot had been incarcerated, probably among the 
debtors — and was, in con sequence, known as * Newgate ; the next was 
lame to some extent, and was christened ' Cripplegate/ their sister, 
who was notorious ibr a too free use of the vulgar tqiigue, was ungal- 
lantly caiUed ' Billingsgate^' There w&s itnother brother, said to have 



0ftr^OAL NOnOBS. 



been edtioited for the Cbutcb, wliose dm-onrse 00 abounded in reference 
to ft place not to be mentioned to ears polite, tiiat he received tke 
aqtiaUy ckaracteristic appeiktioB of * Hellgate/ 

** Tbo elder, Richard, sQuooeded to the enrldom^ and by the time ho 
had arriTed at years of discretion, bad become a most indiscreet 
member gf the Peerage. It is impossible to do justice to his ex- 
trav}i^j.noO| bis breaks, and bis follies. Bich as modem i^ociety may be 
tb on gilt to bo in the follies of fashion, tbev would shrink into common' 
pbice vagaries compared with the exeesses of bis career. He be^an 
early— when a bf>j at Eton he is said to have gone to the Spring 
Meeting at Newmarket, where he betted a ibouaand on RtxrkingliMm. 
The horse won. He received hi© wager in pounds, when be dc^mauded 
guineas — ^bis lordship being already too knowing to be done out of fifty 
pouuda» 

** Ho subsequently made a bet with the Buke of Bedford for £5,000, 
on the result of an election^ — wbicb be also won* and doubtless took 
equal core of the odd gbiOings. His apeculations in this way were^ 
however, far too numerous for me to chronicle, 

**His lordship was so great & patron of the PriKe*Iling, that he 
O0C»sionally got up fights near a little country bouse of bis at Wargrave, 
near Reafiing* He &equently entertained pugilista at bis table, and 
betted largely on tbem- One Tom Cooper he took into bis service. 
This man not only wore his livery and waited on his guests at table, 
but attended bis master in his most hazardous escapades, for tha 
purpose of interposing in bis behalf should Lord Banymore get 
Imnself into a scrape. On one occasion, when a frolic waa designed 
to oome o^ at Yauxball, Cooper was sent disguised aa a clergyman. 
Hia vnlgar cockney tongue betrayed bim — he was identiiied, and the 
temporary repreientative of the Ghnrcli militant was violently expelled 
the G^ardens, 

*'Lord Barrymore'a end wa® sudden and unexpected. Aa a captain 
in a militia regiment} his lordship was marching with his companj, 
guarding some French pKsonera on the road between Folkestone and 
Dover, when a muaket, in the hand^ of one of his men, acGidentallj 
went off, killing the commander. 

** His younger brother* Heni^ (* Cripplegate')» succeeded to the title — 
Augustaa ('Hellgate') having previously * shuffled oft* this mortal coil ;* 
and it is only justice to say, that the eighth earl was acknowledged to 
he a fit successor to the seventh. Fortunately he proved the last of 
snoh Mohicans; but his career esctended to the year 1824, The name of 
Barry more continued to appear in tbe pu)>hc papers for some timo 
aflerwardst though tbe earldom was ertinet-'a female eonstontly coming 
before the magistrates to answ&r for most unladylike misdemeanors, 
who took tbe tiUe of Lady Barrymore — -one of a very Lirgo number of 
the sex who bad quite as good a claim to it. She was a ' Billingsgate,' 
indeed, but not tho original one, wbo^ hai^g married a French 
nohleman^ had become Countess Melfort/' 

One of Lord William^^s aoquaintances was Ball Hughes (tbe ** Golden 
Ball'' of some forty years ago), who died at Paris very recently* 
Hughes' impulsive nature more than once brought himself and hia 
Mend into odd scrapes, one of which may interest the good people of 
Croydon even at the present day. 

''Ball Hnglie3, sll>eit tbe kindest^hearted creature that ever lived, 
was a spoiled child of fortune ; for ^ving become hi^ own niasler at an 
early period of life, he ever acted on the inclination of the moment. I 
remember dining with him upon a sultry summer a evening. The day 
had been intensely hot, and my companion began to sigh for country 
otr i it was about eight o'clock. 



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CUmCAL NOTICES. 



[Aug. 



"'Slmllwe/ he asked, *raii down to Brighton to-night P — I fancy a 
dip in the sea, and we can return in timo for dinner to*nioiTow/ 

*' I conaented. His travelling ebariot and four was ordei-ed round, 
and, having directed his postilion a to call at my lodgings for my e<t^ de 
mdt, we proceeded on our journey. 

" Scarcely had we paased the suburban villas dotted about in the 
neighbourhood of Brixton, than Ball Hughes exclftimed, 

"'IfB awfully hot I— what fiay you to putting the postilions inside, 
and our taking their pkcesf Fll get ou otic of the leaders, and you 
shall ride a wheeler; anythtnyr is better than this stewy cajfriage/ 

"My companion hailed the postilions; the trusty valet descended 
from the rumble behind, we were soon on onr saddles, the * boys' got 
ineide^ and away we started. 

" The fash ion able eoatume of the day was tight leather pantaloons 
and hessian boots, and in this dress my companion happened to be, 
while I was equipped in a loose pair of nankeen trousers, silk stockings, 
and shoe a ► Of course my trousers would not keep in their place, and 
I eoon began to eiperience the discomfort of my post ; my knees were 
chafed, and every now and then I rao the risk of naving my le^ broken 
b^ the sudden jerking of the pole; then the leaders would not keep a 
du'ect course^ — oocamonally they bolted to the left., then to the right* 
then their traces bec^one loosened, and thcti the pole be^n to stir tbem 
up, after the fashion of the man who used to look aitier the lions at 
lixeter ^Change. 

"At kngtb we came in sight of Croydon, and, everting our best 
endeavours, brought the carriage well up to the door of the inn, 
" * First and second turn out, cried the ostler. 

" * Here she is/ exclaimed a voice in the crowd. The bells VBug — 
the landlordj landlady, waiter, barmaid, hoots, rushed out— -the idlers 
in the street and in the yard came forward* 

*' ' Hurrah i hurrah 1* shouted the aasem^bled crowd. 
" In the meantime ^urioas people were peeping into the carriage, the 
blinds of which had been pulled down by its temperary occujiants. 

*** That's she, and there's her chamberlain, Brayvo, Wood! Don't 
you see bis gold-laced cap f* 

** While this was going on, no one seemed to pay much attention to 
the riders of the horses, and as we were rather ashamed of our posts, 
we quietly dismounted, leaving the ostler to stand by the leaders' 
heads. 

^* ' WUl J our majesty please to alight^' said the landlord, as he opened 
the carriage door, 

"What tbe answer was we know not^ but to the great enrprise of 
Boniface, the two postilions, who, from their gold-laced caps and jackets, 
had been taken for royalty, jumped out, and nearly knocked over the 
hindlord and his waiters. 

" * Why, wbttt*a up ?* asked a fellow in the crowd. 
** Ball Htighes and myself, walking unnoticed through the crowd, 
gained the bar, where we explained the cause of our appearing in the 
characters we did, and were then informed that a rumour had got 
abroad that Queen Caroline was expected on her way t^ Brighton, 
to take possession of the Pavilion^ and that, seeing a well-appointed 
carriage and four drive up, with blinds down, and a glimpse of gold laee 
inside, had strengthened the report ; and many of tbe loyal Inhabitants 
of Croydon had turned out to get a glimpse of one whom, if thej could 
not respect, they could, at least, sympathise with, on account of the 
ill-usage she had received. 

•* Fresh horses were soon produced, and» after a journey^ during which 
no other event occurred, we reached the York Hotel, at Brighton, about 
half-past three o'clock in the morning. Aftjer a few hours in bed^ a dtp 



1883.] 



CETTICAL HOTTCES. 



583 



in the sea, a prawn breakfast, a stroll on tbe Stein e, we started back for 
London, and reajclied Brook Street in time for dinner and tVie pla;^ ." 

Want of Bpace precludes our giving an idea of the wit, if not wisilom, 
of the Rev, Mr. Cannon (Hook*fl ** Dean of PatGham^^)^ the jokes of Hook 
himself, tbe fimcies of Edmund Kean, or the Tagnrios of others not so well 
known to fame, ^yith which the book literallj overflows ; hut we cannot 
resist the temptation to quote, as a wind up, the account of a practical 
joke with which the * country quarfcera* of Flanders in 1816, were enlivened* 
We must premise that amateur thea^tricala had been got up by our 
author and others, and some professionals occasionally came over from 
from Eoglattd to assist ; one of thesej Joe Kelly, whose Binging made 
h-jm a great favourite, was tbe victim. 

** A practical joke was played one nipht upon poor Joe Kelly* which 
caused a great laugh at his expense. He had been dining with some 
convivial friends in the guard-room, and, to the surpriac or all, showed 
the greatest anxiety to get away at ten oVlock, pleading an engagement 
to escort some ladies to a suburban masquerade* The rest of the par^, 
who had antlcii>ated a musical treat, among them myself, wore loiid in 
our wai lings j but Kelly was inflexible* The ladies, dressed en c^intnTTte, 
lijid. called for him, and bad sent in a pilgrim's garb, in which their 
chaperon was to disguise himself — not the only diiauise, for the wnne 
L;id passed freely, and all were more or less under toe influence of the 
jolly ^od. 

"Kelly was now called upon to sing the 'Irish Dragoon,* hut he 
reaolutely refused, and rose to attend his fair friends, who were impatient 
to get to the masquerade. 

** The officer of the guard ordered the sergeant to allow tte carriage 
to pass inside the gates, and the pilgrim got in. 

" * Driv« to the Temph de Fl&re,' shouted Kelly. * Fauhr/urg 8L Lonis.* 

'*Th0 coachman drove on, aod, airiTing at the outer gate of the 
fortress, found it locked. 

" I must here explain that the guard-room, which had been the scene 
of festivity, was the inner gate near the t<jwn* 

" * What's to be done ?' exclaimed the disappointed masqneradere. 
Kelly alighted; spoke to the sergeant, found the keys had been sent to 
the commandant^ s office, and, greatly crest-fallen, ordered the coachman 
to return. They h»<l not got many yards, during which the ladies were 
loud in their lamentations, when they came to a sudden stop — ^the 
drawbridge was np, and there was no possibility of proceeding farther, 
A sentry was on the opposite side, and the guard-room where the poor 
Yietini of the hoax had dined, was within hail. In vain did Kelly call 
for the officer on duty— a deaf ear was turned to his entreaties. 

" Nothing then was to be done but to bivouac for the night in the 
glass-coiich ; and upon the gates lieing opened in tbe momingj a few of 
mj boon companions of the preceding evening and myself amused 
ourselves by strolling within the fortScationB to see the coach pass, 
which it shortly did, containing our hero, dressed in a coarse camlet 
cloak, ornamented with scallop shells, two ladies iti the costume of 
Swiss peasantSt Mid one in the Bober garb of a nun of St* 01ave*s, all 
looking jadedj and thoronghly ashamed of their day-light appearance 

" Kelly vowed vengeance apainst the perpetrator of Uiis practical joke, 
who, fortunately, was never discovered. 

Wab PicTTiaES FROif THK SouTH, by B. Estv&n, Colonel of Cavalry in 

the nonfederate Army. 

A series of graphic descriptions of the Imttles which occurred in the 
Civil War in America, with Sketches of the leading Generals, and vir 
nous other matters of historical and political interest cannot fail to haif% 
considerable attraction for the great reading publifi*Ai^T&K!ria»»&ii"^ 



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curncAL KOTrC¥:R, 



[Aro. 



tbo hfttl.le-gK)TiTid still i-enaaine the aame; esiKscially when the nocoant 
comufl fvoin an ejo-witncaa of evcnta. The Narrative, undei* the hetid- 
ing^ of * Wfl,r Pictures/ commences with the fieeee^iou of South Carol ina, 
and fcerminatea with tbe celebrated soven days battle before Richmond 
which ended in the defeat of McClellfLn, The fact of Coloiiel Estv^n 
having served with the Confederate army might lead astray to the be- 
lief that a partial account in favouring the Confederatea would be the 
result. Par from it. Colonel EBtvan'a sympathies are more North 
than South* This be distmctly atatee, not only in tbe Preface, but in 
varioua other portions of the book, though at the same time he pretenda 
to^ve due justice to both parties. 

The fight at BuU-Run, the battle of Manassas, where the lamented 
Jacksou earned the immortal cognomen of * Stone wair aro given in 
great detail The death of ZoUitofer, of General Sydney Johnston* 
the capture of Port Donaelaon, the adventures of the Guerilla cbieftata 
Morgan, are truly ' War Pictures* and fully justify the title. The Con* 
federates, however, will scarcely he pleased with some chapters in the 
book. 

The work which consists of two baDdsome Tolumes is enriched hy 
portraits of President Davis, Stonewall Jackson, McClelland and other 
Generals both Federals and Confederates, and with Maps of the Battle 
of Manass&si, and the Seven Days tight 

We make a few extracts. Tbe Secession of the Southern States t 

** I hnd only l>eon a few day^ ia the cjiinp when the news arrived that 
the Convention at Monfegomeiy had elected Jefferson Davis as Presi- 
dent, and Alexander H. Stephens as Vice-Preaidentof the Confedera<^* 
I took a hasty Dire well of Grcneral Bragg and of the chief of the stair; 
ordered Sam to pack up my things, and on that same evening started 
on my way back to Montgomery. 

" Id a very short time the circumatanoea of the South had undergone 
a great change. After the secession, of South Carolina, that of other 
Sontheini States soon followed. Early in January, ISIG, Mississippi, 
AUbamfW and Florida seceded from the Union, and at the end of the 
Bdme iKLOnth Georgia and Louisiaim did the same. Teciaa seceded in 
Pehrnary, So tbat iu less than £hree months after the election of Pre- 
sident Lincoln all the cotton States had separated &om the Union, 
taking, moreover, at the same time, the precawtion to seize all Stato 
property, with the exception of the forte in Charleston Bay and For^ 
Pickens in Florida, wbicn were held by the troops of the United States, 
who did not show the least inclination to give them up at the first 
bidtling, 

" At the end of January the Legislature of the State of Yirginia p>ro- 
posed a Peace-Congress, to avert, if possible, the calamity of a civil 
war. This Congress actually met on the 9th of February at Washing- 
ton, for the purjxise of taking counsel to devise iViendly and conciliatory 
measures calculated to quench the smouldering sparks of revolution, 
and Mr. Tyler» a former President of the United States, was elected 
to preside j hut after a few days* sitting the Congress broke up, as it 
was found impracticable to com.e to any understanding. The seoeding 
States tbereupon organized a j^vemment of their own, and thus 
laid the foundation of the future Confederacy. 

"The dclegHtes of the six seceding States met at Montgomery, and 
there, on 8th of February, a constitution for the Confederate States was 
framed and adopted* The Congress then proceeded to the election of a 
President, and Yice^President, and after some discus&ion, Jofferaon 
Davis was, as already stated, elected President, and Alexander H. 
Stephens, of Georgia* Vice-Pi'e^aident of the Confederacy." 

The ceremony of tbe installation of Abraham Lbicoln as President of 
the United States is thus deacril>ed : 



OHlTfCAti KOnC'B'*. 



585 



'* The hour for his installation at lait struckt and General Scott* com- 
mander-in-chief of the Unit4?(l Btatea army* receiTed instructions to 

[ take all possible precautions to pul down any attempt at an outbr<?ak, 
9 it was currently reported that a demonatration uad been resolved 

[ ux»oii by the many thousand Southerners who had assembled on the oc- 
caaion. The old General displayed the gT^eatest activity on this ocscaaion. 

i He occupied the Capitol with rt^g^vilar troops ; he ordered the bye'roatis 
Fhich lead into Pennsylraniii- Street, the main avenue leading from the 

I Preaideiit*9 house to the Capitol, to he closed ; white the flat roofa of 

i the hou&es were occupied by rifle men, and large bodies of infantry and 

I cavalry were stationed at various points, ready at a given signal to act 
in concert, Cavalir was ordered to form the advanceil and rear-giiards 

I of the Presidential prooeasion, and to serve also as au escort. The 
marine brigade in the port was likewise ordered to be ready in case of 
any emergency, 

** A porteatona cloud thus hung over the Capifeol of the Union, Had 
a single unlucky shot been fired, the city of Washington was doomed; 
for General Scott was not the man to shrink at trifles, and would cer- 
tainly have cleared the streets with grape had anv mad attempt been 
made to oppoae the inst-allation of the President. When favourable re^ 
ports from different quarters came in on all sides^ the old Grenendp ad- 
dressing his otficera, said : ' Thank Heaven that I was not compelled 
to have recourse to force, for in tbat case it would have been a Tery sad 
business/ 

'* Merry peals of bells and the roar of cannon announced the ceremony 
of the installation. Thousands of p*eople had arrived from all parts to 
■ee the old rail- splitter of Kentucky installed in one of the highest of 
oavtbly dignities, and I too formed one of the curious spectators. The 
procession which left the White House was Tieaded by a number of 
volunteerai detachments of military, and variooB deputations; then 
came a plain carriage, wherein sat the ex- President Buchanan, and, on 
his right, his suooesBor, Abraham Lincoln. The President elect ap- 
peared pale and care-worn from the fatigue and excitement he had un- 
oergone, and he east a weary and c-old glance at the moring mass of 
human beings at each side of the procession. Was he end^ivoiiring to 
discover hta iBrutua amon^f them P 

" Buchanan sat at hin ^ide with a tx^ming face; it was quite clear be 
waa delighted at being relieved from the duties of his responsible po- 
sition. The representatives of foreign States followed the simple car- 
riage of the President in magnificent equipages, attended by the whole 
p&r$onnel of their respective embassies and consulates in their official 
costumes. 

" President Lincoln made bis inaugnral speech — a serious and digni- 
fied oration — from the east portico of the Capitol. He swore solemnly 
with upraised hand that he would observe and defend the rights and 
laws of the United States, and that he would govern in such wise that 
he should be able one day to render a good account of his acts before 
his Supreme Judge. He declared that there was no necessity for the 
shedding of blood, or to have recourse to force, at least not unless — and 
he placed great emphasis upon that word — -the insurgent people should 
drive the Crovemment to it. He further declared that ho should make 
use of the power entrusted to him by the majority of the people to 
maintain with a firm hand, under all cironmstances, every town and 
citadel which belonged to the Gavemment.*' 

The account of the battle of Manassas is too long for an eectract, but 
ths following passage will be read with great interest: 

'* Johnston was now in a fttfit* of despair ; all seemed to be lost, and 
the exertions of the whole day fruitlesB, Like a wounded boe.^^ V^^ri. 
rushed iibont endeavouring to collect the last -tetn^K^^jii c!^\KVi ^ks^R»^»s^ 



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[Aug. 



corps ; and the tide of fortune was fast BettiTig^in again at tlae caiise of 
the ConfodeiTK^y, whi^nj na an expiring eHbrb, Hampfcon^s legion was 
now brought up to support Jackson. * You cover the retreat,* ahout-ed 
Jackson : * we are beaten, and must fall back. Then/ added he reso- 
lutely» * I will again show the enemy our hayoneti.* In a very abort 
time ho ha/d f^irmed bis troops into order j and General Bee exultingly 
exclaimed : * Here stands Jaclcaon like a ' ^t'One-wal],* and here let iia 
conmier or die V 

** The esclamation was received with enthiiBiasm along the whole line, 
* Stone-wall I stone-wall I' shouted the moa ; and their courage was 
renewed as if by miigie. Here it was that Jackson earned the imperish- 
able term of StonewaU &s a prefix to his name/' 

According to Colonel Estviln* it was the timely arrival of Kirby 
Smith which alone ^aved the Confederates from a defeat at Manassas. 
The battle was nearly lost ; 

" Johnston and Jackson rode like madmen through the ranks of the 
disheartened soldiers, hut their zeal was of no avail. The confusion 
increased^ and masses of Beauregard's routed division came hurrying 
back* adding to the general bewilderment. All discipline was at an 
end i the enemy's bullets already began to shower in upon us^ and the 
shout of * Bun r was raised. And now at thin moment appeared in 
sight, at no great dic^tance too, advancing columns of the an^rioasly-ex^ 
pected corps of Kirby Smith. 

** Like an electric shock* the words ran from mouth to month thro ugh 
the ranks, * Kirby is coming !' and a thousand voices thundered forth, 
'Kirby is advancing with 30,000 menT Each eye now Hashed with 
enthusiaatn, and each breast heaved with renewed courage. 

*' It was now an easy task for the officers to restore order amongst 
their men. The new comers are greeted with shouts of ' Welcorae V 
The help that was needed to envo the army had come at last, Kirby 
Smith advajiced at once to attack, and every one felt that Ms opportune 
arrival had operated a miraculous change in the state of aflfaars. The 
loud cheer that rang along our bi^ken lines now startled the plated 
advancing enemy, 

" Like a tUunderholt* Kirby Smith fell upon the foe ; our men fought 
desperately ; and in a moment the Federal troops, who had felt certain 
of victory, were everywhere driven back. Scarcely bad they com^menced 
retiring, when it became impossible to restrain our troops, A giant 
Texan, throwing away his iTue, took out his Bowie knife* With ono 
blow ho split the skull of a wounded man who bad fallen to the ground ; 
and this became the signal for a general butchery. Like wiloT boasts, 
the incensed soldiery fell upon their victims^ hewing, stabbing, and 
slashing like madmen.*' 

The report that Kirby Smith had fallen (p. 167) was false, that brave 
officer is still doing good service for the Confederate cause. A ' War 
Picture* after the battle i 

" The picture of human misery di splayed in these ill -provided asylums 
was a heartrending one. A young Federal officer especially engrossed 
my sympathy. Pafe as deaUi, he lay with eyes shut and closed lips, 
whilst tears rolled down his cheeks, 'Courage, comrade,* I aaidC 
cheeringly ; "* the day will come when you will ca,lmly remember this 
battle as one of the things of the past/ Gradually ojieniu^ his eyes, 
and holding out bis band, he pressed mine, and exclaimed, m a trem- 
bling voice, * Do not give m^e false hopes, sir : it is all up with me/ 
In vain did I endeavour to cheer bis flagging spirit. * I do not grieve 
that I shall die,' he quietly observed \ * for with these stumps' (and 
he lifted the coverlit, to show me that both his feet had been smashed 
by a round shot,) * I cannot live long j but I weep for ray poor dis* 
traeted country. But had I a second life at my command^ I would 



186?}.] CRITICAL MOTIOES. 587 

willingly sacrifice it for the cans6 of the Uiii<m.' Deeply moved, I 
stood by the couch of this gallant youth, who with his dying breath 
still spoke in the same patriotic strain. His eyes had again closed; 
a faint smile passed over his face, like the young dawn of another world. 
Suddenly he rose nervously in the bed, while his whole frame quivered; 
and, after exclaiming in distinct tones ' Mother !— fether Y he fell back 
His features became rigid — his spirit had fled. 

" Here, amongst enemies, he oreathed out his voung life, fiur away 
from his beloved relations, and none of them will probably ever learn 
where and how he died. There was nothing to give us any clue to his 
identity, with the exception of a small locket with the portrait of a fidr 
young girl, which he wore round his neck. I put it upon the dead 
man's breast, and took care to have it buried with him in the smskll 
grave that had been dug to receive his body, under the shade of a 
large cherry-tree. How many must have died in a similar manner, &ar 
from their friends, without one word of consolation, without one 
friendly look to cheer their last moments !" 

The Battle in Tennessee, in which General ZoUikofer was killed, is 
a graphic picture. The Confederates, under Crittenden and ZoDikofer, 
commenced a march at midnight to take the Federals by surprise : 

" Zollikofer's Brigade being the first ready to start, commenced its 
midnight march ; the other troops followed in silence ; and the cavahy 
formed the van and rear-guards. The march was a most fatiguing one ; 
the ground being so saturated by snow and rain that it was difficult to 
get along, especially as we had to carry our arms and provisions with 
us. Added to this, the night was so oark that we could scarcely see 
a hand's length before us ; and the men were therefore obliged to keep 
together in the closest order. Morning was beginning to dawn, the 
ram still continued to fiill in torrents, and yet it seemed as if our weary 
march would never come to an end. 

" Suddenly the solemn sound of bells was faintly audible in the dis- 
tance ; some church or chapel was evidently not hr off, and its bells 
were inviting the pious to prayer : it was Sunday morning. The effect 
this produced upon our men was peculiar and striking. In the distance, 
peacefril chimes betokened piety and brotherly love, while on the spot 
we occupied hostile columns were advancing in the dark, bent upon 
destruction; proceeding, not to pray, like g^>d Christians, but to slay 
and maim their fellow-men. 

** Suddenly a shot was fired — then a second. A general halt was now 
made, and orderlies galoped about like gaunt shadows in the mist. In 
a few minutes a heavy roll of musketry followed. Like wildfire the 
news spread that the enemy had discovered the approach of our ad- 
vanced guard, and had fired upon them. The heavy sound of cannon 
soon added its deep base to the musketry. ' Chapman's battery, for- 
ward !' shouted the commanding officer, and our men pressed up close 
to the roadside to allow the battery and ammunition cars to pass : the 
lighted matches of the gunners looking like so many fire-flies in the 
misty gloom that surrounded us. 

" As soon as the battery had passed, the spirits of our men revived. 
Orders were issued with decision, and were promptly obeyed. General 
ZoUikofer alone seemed not to share in the ^neral confidence displayed 
by the troops. Silent and sad he sat on his horse at the mouth of the 
pass, casting an anxious look on the animated troops as they marched 
forward, ^thing seemed capable of rousing him. Like a statue he 
remained on one spot : indeed, had it not been that his black charger 
sent forth incessant volumes of steaming breath from his nostrils, both 
the rider and his steed might have been supposed to be cast in is<3PcL. 
Usually so cheerful, why was the brave general no^ ^q xoL^flscL^a.^ ^^. 
sad — ^was Ids mind depressed by 005 Ta<wccTv^«\ Y^^^«^>:sssssi>^rt ^"^ - 

U. S. Mao. No. 417, Auo. ia64, ^^ 



588 



OEITiOAL K0TIQB3. 



[Aug. 



deiUy he put spurs to Hs bors% »nd in a few minates both were oat of 
sight. 

*' In a very short time the Confederate troops were hotly engaged. 
The intention of their leaders had been^ as we have seen^ to make an 
unexpected attack upon the enemy, and the very reverBe had happened ; 
they nad been anticipated. The whole air now resounded with the roar 
of cannon, the roll of musketry^ and the oheera of the contending 
combatants. Zollikofer, as was always Lia custom^ headed the first at- 
tacking colnmna in person. Despite the saow^ the rain, and the fog, 
which spread like a pall over the surronnding counfcrj, the spirits of 
our men were excellent. The different columns advanced cheerily to 
the respective positioHS allotted to them. As soon as it was sufficiently 
light to aUow friend and foe to be dietingniahable, General Zollikofer, 
placing himself at the head of the 15th and 17th Hjssissippi re^ments, 
addressed them in a few appropriate words and led them against the 
enemy. The first man to fall was the standard-bearer, who, grasping 
his liag, sunk mortally wounded. This somewhat disconcerted our 
advancmg columns, when two or throe men rushed forward to seize the 
flag, which was again raised on high. Our ti-oops now boldly advanced 
against the enemy's well protected position, and were received by a 
murderous fire, which spread death and devastation in their ranks. 
The officers showed the most determined bravery^ leading on their men 
sword in hand. General Zollikofer was aware that he must persevere 
in this attack without flinching, so as to allow the other troops sufficient 
time to take up their positions. The two Mississippi regiments fought 
with courage which excited universal admiration, although their loss 
was most severe i more than half their number fell dead or wounded 
on the ground^ and it was impossible to remove the latter in the heat 
of the fight. The enemy were well aware that, if once driven out of 
their strong position, there was but little hope left for them, as owing 
to the state of the ground it would have been impossible for them to 
mano^avre with any chance of euccess, 

'* Crittenden having ordered up Carroirs brigade to support Zolliko- 
fer, these aun-bumts song of tn© West msbed furiously upoti the 
enemy, Zollikofer in person leading them on. His black charger was 
now seen suddenly to leap a bamer, and at the same moment the 
general fell backwards, horse and man rolling over together, both of 
Siem struck dead. 

** A cry of imgiiiBh and revenge ran along the ranks. * Zollikofer is 
shot I Zollikofer is killed V Then using the butt- ends of their muskets, 
which were of little use as fire-arms, owing to the wet, the infuriated 
soldiery rushed upon the foe felling them, to the ground right and lefL 
The battle now became a regular miUe : the Federals, overcome by the 
furious onslaught of the Confoderat.es, gave way : their batteries were 
lefl unprotected, and as the artillerymen did not flinch, they were 
bayoneted at their guns. Both attack and defence were most obstinate 
and the fierceness of the struggle showed that kindred blood ran in 
the veins of the contending foes. 

'*The oflicer in command of the Federal batteries was cut down in 
front of one of his own guns, and a regular maasacre ensued, which 
was only put a stop to by the arrival of the Confederate Colonel Mor- 

A night sortie from Fort Don nelson, and the suoeessful fiight of the 
Eit-Federai Minister of War is another graphic 'War Picture,* Th© 
sketch of John Morgan, the guerilla chieftain is a picture in itself i 

"Of vulgar eitnLction ana of no education, but gifted with extra- 
ordinary courage and self-possession, John Morgan had formed a body 
of men of his own stamp, who preferred fightmg, and the hardships 
of a roving life, to any peaceable occupation* His band roamed about 



1863] 



CB1TICA.L NOTICES, 



BM 



the coiaiitry with finch audacity as to becomo a perfect dread to th^i 
enemy. Scarcely a daj^ passed without some djirijig act beiiiff recorded 
of John Morgan and his liorsemen. Although he and his band belouged 
properly spoaking, to General Hardee's division, and his duty wm to 
watch the enemy a movements, he much preferred doing a little biiei- 
ness on his own account, 

"One day he proposed to hiB men to make a raid "upon the little 
town of Gahatin, twentjr miles north of Nashville, then occupied by 
tbe enemy. The very ideii of euch an expedition created a joyful ex- 
citement amongst his despcratfl followers, and like ligbtniug tht^y fell 
upon the town and took poeaeesion of it. Whilst his men were robbing 
and plundering to their hearts' content, Captain Morgan prooeeded tQ 
tiie office of the telegraph, in the expectation of finding important dea- 
patches there. The omcial oti duty had not the slightest idea of what J 
was going on in the town, and when Captain Morgan asked him witk j 
great politeness what news he had received, the agent taMng him fo?'] 
an ofiScer of the United States army, replied, * Nothing particulars i 
but inquiries are being made contianally respecting that rebel bandit^ 
Morgan. But if he should ever come across my path I have pills enough. 4 
t^ satisfy him V pulhng out his revolver as he said this and fioiinshiiia 
it in the air before he tnrust it back into bis belt. As soon as be had 
finished, the strange officer thundered forth, ' You are speaking to-1 
Captain Morgau-, I am Morgan, you miseriible wretch/ The poor^ 
o^ial sa&k on his knees, ana witn the fear of death full upon him. 
sued for mercy, 'I will not hurt you,* retorted Morgan, 'but send 
off this despatch at once to Prentiss.* 

" ' Mr. Prentiss, — A.^ I learn at this telegraph office that you intend 
to proceed to Kashville, perhaps you will allow me to escort you there 
at the head of my band. 

*' * JOHK MoBCAN/ 

**It is easy to conceive what a fright Mr- Prentiss must have been in> 
when the authenticity of this despatch was proved a few days after- 
wards, 

"After sending off this friendly invitation, Morgan hastened to the 
railway station to see the train come in, tu a few minutes it came up, 
upon which Captain Morgan ordered one of his men, with pistol m 
hand, bo take charge of the engine driver, wbilKt ho eaeamined the car- 
riageSj and proceeded to take five officers prisoners, He then had all 
the ferriages set fire to, and other infiammable matter, stopped up the 
ventSj and aent it back on fire in full speed, towards Nashville, The 1 
engine, however, exploded aiter going a few hundred yards. After thia 
exploit Morgan and his men, witb their prisoners, remounted their 
horses and gained the camp in safety, where they were enthusiastically 
welcomed by their comrades, 

"On another occjision he aurpriaed a picket of six Federal soldiers, 
and made tbem. prisoners. He was quite alone. On coming acrosr 
them he went straight up to the eoryioral in command, and, passini 
himself off as a Federal officer^ expressed his indignation at their slo 
venly appearance, and ordered them to lay down their muskets, and' 
regard themselves as under arrest. The order was obeyed ; but when 
the men saw that he was taking them in a contrair direction, they ob- 
served that they were going the wrong road, 'Not so/ he rot-orted;* 
*I am Captain Morgan, and know best what road you have to takeAl 
These little adventures, amonest many of a sinular nature, made his ' 
name well known, and acquired for him a wide-spread popularity/* 

The battle of 8hiloh, in which Sidney Jobnsion fell^ is described in 
great deta-il. Our space will not aflmit us to give any further extract*^ 



CRlTlCAt K0TICE3. 



[Aug. 



It was atr th(^ Ba-ttle of Seven Pinea that Joe Johuson was so severely 
wounded as to be rompelled for & time to seek rest. We behold liim 
tiffin now witL tke gallant Lee among the moit active officers in the 
Coiifeilemte army* 

The investment of Klchmond by McOlellan, and the Seven days battle 
fonn a distinct chapt<?r in iha work. 

The Gonoluding observations of Colonel E^tvan, though many mayi 
diSbr from them, are well desGrving attention^ they are us follows : 

" If the qiiestion be raised, how it has happtnvod that tho succeao 
which the Federal Goveruraent reasonably look forward to obtain, in 
the struggle for fche maintenance of the Uiiion, turned chieSj in favour 
of the 8outh; tbe only safe conelusion we c^n come to is, that it must 
be ascriljed to a want of unity anioiigt^t the Federal generals. 

" If that Government had only poisessed a few such men as Sterling 
PricG of Missouri, the Leonidae of the Confederate army ; if the leading 
mentbers of that Governmenl could have been content to sacrihce their 
own ambit ton and vanity to a patriotic regard for tho real interests of 
their canse^ affairs might have taken a very diffei-ent turn. The hon» I 
our awarded by the nation to its sons is not based on the rank or titlea 
they may hold* hut is a conaeqnence of the acts which they perform. 
All the disiinction which mere vanity strives to obtain are utterly 
barren ; it is only the memory of disinterested, undaunted mtrioLs that 
endures in tho hearts of their countrymen. Wliat the Washington Cto- 
veri^ment had to contend again f^t, was both a want of uidty a£ul m 
general craving for personal notoiiety. 

"Such was the nature of the cancer that ought to have been cut 
out before it was so deeply rooted as to become incuraljle. Why 
did Fortune, it may be asked, smile so ofton upon the arms of the 
Confederates P Because, wo reply, with few exceptions, their gene- 
rals acted harmoniously together, and were well supported bv their 
Oovemment and pi^aft ; whilst the Federal Government, on the con- 
traiT', had to contend with three distinct political parties, each of which 
endeavoured to impede the action of the other, and this practical sourt^e 
of disunion caused the troopSj as well as tbe people, occasionally to 
lose confidence in their leadersj political and military, and necessarily 
rendered the task of the latter much more difficult than it would other^ 
wise have been. In i^ict, it is beyond question that the Federal Goveru- 
ment, with its inDxliaustible resources, witb its poweriul fleet and army, 
naight long since have annihilated tbe Seceding party in tbe Southern 
Statci, whom, tbey regarded in the light of i-ebels, if its generals bad 
but energetically concept mted their operations. 

" The TJnited States Government should only have had two points in 
view in dii'eetiog their offensive operations : the first and cardinal point 
being Richmond, which ought to have been taken at any cost, for if 
once in their power, the death-blow to the Confederacy would have 
been given. Whatever people may &ay about moving the Beat of Govcrn- 
ment further south, it inatt;ers noti with the faflf of Richmond, th© 
Confederacy would have succumbed likewise, for Richmond was not 
only the abiding-place of the most rabid Southern fire-^ters, but of 
the thousand overa^vcd partisans of the Union, who would have plucked 
up coumge to judge and act for themselves, had the pressure upon 
them been removed. Tbe Confederate Government— which it must ba 
remembered » had not been really aoknowledgcd» for President Davis 
was elected merely by a smaU body of partisans^ — would then have 
fallen to the ground! 

" The Confederate Government is perfectly well aware of this, and this 
is why they ejEcrt B\ery nerve to make a stand at Richmond. All the 
resources indispensable to earry oa the war are concentrated in and 
around that city. Yirginia id a rich and productive State, quite capable 



1863."] CRITICAL KOTICES. 591 

of providing for the wants of a large army : iron and coal-mines, rich 
pastnrcs, corn-land, and all kinds of cattle, are to be found plentifully 
within it. Richmond, besides being the seat of the Confederate Govern- 
ment, is rich in arsenals, arm-founderies, manufactories of different 
kinds, and ereat baking establishments for the army. If driven from 
Richmond, the Confederate Government might possibly make a stand 
for a fortnight in North Carolina, but would then be compelled to de- 
camp hastily to the other side of the Mississippi. 

" When General M*Clellan took post before Richmond, he was per- 
fectly well aware of the momentous task he had before him. Knowing 
the enemy's strength, he never treated them with contempt ; but he 
well knew the vast importance of unity and self-confidence. It was 
not his fault that he was beaten before Richmond ; his failure must be 
attributed to the blindness of his Government, who looked upon the 
foe as one easily to be vanquished. When M'Clellan had placed round 
the throat of that foe an iron collar, which he intended to draw tighter, 
and had obtained a footing so close to Richmond that he could send 
his cannon-balls into the very centre of the city, the Government at 
Washington ought to have concentrated all its thoughts and energies 
to the one great object, of sending M'Clellan as many troops as would 
enable him to assume and maintain the offensive. 

" The second point which the Union Government should have kept in 
view is the command of the Mississippi. The Federal Government 
ought, at any price, to have taken possession of that great road of 
communication, no matter what amount of troops it would have been 
necessary to employ for that purpose. If it could have obtained the 
possession of this great watercourse, it would at once have cut off a 
portion of the Confederate States from all communication with those 
places on which they depended for supplies, and compelled them, 
through iaheer necessity, to return to the Union. With various sta- 
tions for her ships on the Mississippi, and an army of 200,000 men in 
the field, the United States could hold its own against all comers. The 
Government at Washington should not have attached so much impor- 
tance to its flanks ; for on the one side they were protected by their 
powerful fleet, on the other by a brave and numerous people ready to 
step forward in the defence of their Government as soon as they were 
satisfied that the latter was in earnest. If it had collected together all 
the troops scattered over the different parts of its vast territories ; if it 
had put at their head a leader provided with the means of con- 
ducting the large army we have designated — a leader who had gained 
the love of his soldiers — there can be no question that he could have 
achieved the greatest results. One decisive blow — one great victory — 
would have sufiiced to induce the soldiers to follow him willingly unto 
death wherever he chose to lead them ; and that, too, without the al- 
lurement of bounty, or of any promised reward, but fiimply for the 
honour of fighting for the national cause. 

" The various acts of cruelty that have been occasionally perpetrated 
during this war may be accounted for by the fact of the armies being 
composed of heterogeneous elements. There was no true soldier-like 
spirit, no clear conception of the laws of military honour amongst these 
great masses, such as are to be met with in the armies of more civilized 
nations. The troops comprised a singular mixture of semi- savages, 
civilized men, patriots, and hot-headed partisans, with some few chi- 
valrous adventurers. 

" This lamentable war would long since have terminated if the Union 
Government had actively and resolutely bestowed at the commencement 
of the contest serious attention on its more important issues, and have 
then readily made those sacrifices which it is now dacvN^xx *^-^^. 
whole affidr was treated with too nwwk \«vv^% ViAs«^ >^ «:sr3«*«^ 



CBITIOAL KOTIClda. 



[Aufi 



almogt as If a wi&h prevailod amongst nianj to provokts the war. Over* 
confidence in tbeir resources^ national vaiiitr, party spirit and private 
interests, all sened to kindle the epork which has grown np into ft 
nijgbtf contiagration, that has let loose the hell-hoiiiidfi of war to ravage 
thii unfoiiimate land. When will a controlling hand be stretched forth 
to r©«tore peace between the fratricidal opponents P when will the mild 
aneal of peaoe daBcend with the olive-branch to restore traoauillitj and 
order in the dwellings of man, and to Lmplaat lovo within hearts that 
are now tilled with deadly batred »nd revenge P 

** Who c^u tell P 

"Em long, let us hope and pray, for who does not sincerelj deaire 
ifi P But it needs the combined efforts of strong will» powerful intellect^ 
and untiring energy, as well as of undaunted eon r^ge, to recover and 
reudito tbe loosened eltsiuontB of former contentj prosperity, and 
liberty. Anticipat'mg, as I fervently do, so desirable a consumraatioti, 
I trust that thousands will join mo in heartily wishing that the American 
Bepublic, once tbe pride of tbe world, msi^y ariao strong and povrerful 
from this disastrous struggle; that the blood which has been shed in 
torrents during this war may serve to fertilize the soil of liberty, and 
that ft new Union may arise, greater, stronger, and more free than its 
predecesaor/' 

A MtLlTiET THW OF BBCEt^T OiLMPilGWS IN YlBGINlA AKD MiLftTliAirD. 

By Captain C. 0. Cheenev, B.K., Professor of Military History, 
Sandhurst College, With Maps, 

Our professional readers will do wall to make themselves masters of 
thia pocket volume, for the preparation of which Cmitain Ch ^t^nej has 
consulted tbe very nuraoroua jjeriodicals of France, KngLand, Germany, 
and America, where tbe narratives of eye-witnesses of the contests of 
the Civil War have appeared. The Gaptaip has toned down the " ex- 
tra vttgnnce of writing'* by which so many of the published accounts are 
disfigured, and he has been enabled to correct their errors, and supply 
their deficiencies, by means of private communication i that he has 
reooived from numerous other partieSp who have either tbemselyes been 
Bpectators of portions of the war, or have had relatives actively engaged 
in it. By careful eoinparisou of the conflicting accounts, he is enabled 
to lay before tbe reader a record of the Virginia and Maryland cam- 
paigns, which is a marvel of cleartiesa and completeness when its 
ftourcea are conardered. The work, in what we may term its finished state, 
lenly extends to the ym%r 1862; but there is a postscript on Chancellora- 
Icrille, which Captain Chesney has not had time to work out as thoroughly 
I as be could wiish^ and in which he fears that ii;ome minor iRaeeuraciea 
ay be found, for which he bespeaks consideration. We cjinnot belioYe 
J^at there will be much to alter, but evon if there should be, the second 
edition, wMch^ this most useful work will assuredly shortly reach, will 
no doubt see everything rectified ; and we hope that we may have at a 
future day the advantage of so able a ^ide in tracing the course of t!ie 
Dntest to what we conceive its inevitable conclusion, the iudependeuoe 
f the South. 

We should mention that Captaiu Chesnoy has supplied some sniall 
fc^ketcb maps, which will enable any one to follow the loading operations 
by step. In them, all features of the country not actually needful 
I been omitted, and the result of a few minutes* study of thi'm 
much clearer idea of the scene of operations than can be readily 
attained by any other means. 



By Edward A, Pollard, 



The FiJisT Teae of the War lm Ameejca. 
Editor of the " Eichmond Examiiier." 
W© own to no further acquamtance with the ** Richmond Examiner*' 



1863.] CEITICAL NOTICES. biS 

than the extracts which appear in our English newspapers give us, but 
in this book wo have its editor coming forward in his own name, 
and showing that his print must be a formidable rival to the notorious 
"New York Herald." Of course, he professes himself an ardent cham- 
pion of the South; but he is at least as ardent abater of Mr. Jeff. Davis, 
who is fiercely denounced as an " autocrat," " tyrant," &c., Ac. ; and the 
Southern Grovemment, which people in Europe generally think highly of, 
it seems, is far inferior to the Cabinet of "Washington. " Drunken patriots, 
cowards in epaulettes, crippled toadies, and men living on the charity of 
Jefferson Davis" have ventured to question some of Mr. Pollard's 
statements, and very reasonably we think, but still his coarse publica- 
tion has reached a second edition, which brings down the narrative 
to September, 1862. To attempt to analyze the book would be useless. 
Mr. Jefferson Davis is the author s pet aversion, but scarcely any one else 
is mentioned in much better terms ; indeed, so indiscriminate a reviler 
we hardly ever met with ; and though perhaps there may be some facts 
not known to the English reader that would be discovered on a very 
attentive perusal, still they are so hidden under the mask of the very 
worst style of American newspaper writing, that we cannot recommend 
any one to look for them. 

Becollections and Anecdotes : Being a Second Series of Eeminiscences 

of the Camp, the Court, and the Clubs. Bv Captain B. EL Gronow, 

formerly of the Grenadier Gruards, and M.P. for Stafford. 

We spoke &vourably some little time ago of the first series of the 

gallant Captain's EecoUections, and are glad to have another instalment 

of his Beminiscences, which are quite as agreeable as ever. The second 

series is more confined to members of the fashionable, literary, or 

artistic world that the former was; but there are some anecdotes 

about "Waterloo, and "Wellington, and the Allies in France, which 

are worth preservation. Towards the end. Captain Gronow appears 

in a new character, and sives us some remmiscences of his own 

parliamentary career, in which Lord Althorpe, Daniel O'Connell, and 

other celebrities of S^. Stephen's are introduced. 

Ten Years ot thb Schleswio-Holstein Question. An Abstract and 

Commentary by Otto Wenkstem. 

Mr. Wenkstem is a practised writer, and puts a very plausible 
appearance on the question of Grermany against Denmark. His case 
is, that though Denmark is weaker than Gtermany, she is stronger 
than the Duchies, and that Germany is therefore bound to protect 
the latter. It is not, be says, Germany that wishes to overawe 
Denmark, but Denmark that not only wishes, but actually does oppress 
Schleswig and Holstein. This has all along been the statement of 
the German party, and a careful selection is made by Mr. Wenkstem 
firom the interminable state papers that have passed on the subject. 
Still, they are " selected" papers, and no doubt the Danes could produce 
plenty that would tell a different tale; but they do not use the press so 
mely as their German rivals. Instead, they stand calmly on what they 
have ever maintained as tJieir "right^'* and seem hardly likely to be 
driven firom it by either the long-winded dispatches or the slow action of 
the German Oomederacy. 



5di 



fAUG. 



MILITARY OBITUARY, 

General Sir James L. CaldweU, G.C.B., Eojal (Madras) Engineei^. 
This garllant and difltiijg^ai«h^d officer diotl at an advanced age at hn 
residence, Beochlanda, Kyde, Isle of Wight, on the 28th of June. Hs 
entered the service of the late Hon, East India Company in tho year 
1788, and was empjloyed at the attack and capture of the minor HiU 
Forts of Wooliiulroog, Ootradroog, Bliynumghur, Ramjnrry, and others. 
At the attack of Tippoo SabiFs camp at Bangalore, under the Gommand 
of General Ployd. In 1792, at the assault of the Pettah or Lower Fort 
of Bangalore, under Lord Comwallia, where the Colonel Morehouse, 
the Commandant of ArtilleTy, and many officers and men were killed. 
At the siege of Bangalore, where he was wounded In the trenches. At 
the assault of the breach of Bangalore under General Mejidows j entered 
the breach with stonning party, and was near the Killydar ^the Com- 
mander of the Fortress) when he was killed defending the top of the 
breach ; many thausandi of the enemy fell at this assaiSt* At the siege 
and eaptnre of the strong hill fortress of Savendjoog, tinder the com- 
mand of Lord Cornwall r 8 ; mounted breach wifch itornung party directed 
bv General Meadow. At the surpriae and capture of the Pettah of 
Nundedroog. At the siege and capture of fche fortress of Wuudedroog; 
mounted breach with storming party. At the battle of Caragaut with 
Tippoo Sultaun'a army under Lord 'Comwallis, In 1799 at the first 
siege of Seringapatam nndar Lord Corn wall is ; slightly wounded in the 
trenches. At the atti^ek of TipjMJo's camp and hue of redoubts under 
Lord Comwallis previous to the aiego. At the battle of Malwelly under 
General Harris. At the second siege and capture of Seringapatam, 
1799 J commanded the brtgode of Engineers accompanying the storming 
party ; bad charge of the Bcaling ladders *, twice wounded during siege ; 
shot at the top of breach in rear of forlorn hope, and rolled mto the 
ditch shortly before the Siiltann Tippoo Sahib was killed; received 
pension for" wound, and medal; the only officer of Engineers wounded 
auring the siege. Appoiute<l in 1810 senior Engineer and Surveyor on 
the expedition against the Isle of France, under the command of 
General Abercrombie ; thanked in the public despatch, and favourably 
mentioned in Genend Orders; Genend Abercrombie observes, "To 
Major Caldwell, of the Madras EngincerSt and who accompanied me 
fixim India, I am indebted for the most able and assiduous exertions. 
Since his arrival in these islandsj he was indefatigable in procuring the 
necessary informotion in respect to the defence of this colony, and 
through his measures, I was put in possession of an accurate plan of 
the town some time previous to the disembarkation of the army ; and I 
trust your Lordship will permit me to recommend to your Lordship'a 
protection this valuable and experienced officer." Was on board Her 
Majesty's frigate Ceylon, when attiicked oW, and in sight of, St. Denis, 
Isle of Bourbon, by the French frigate Tenus, of veir superior force ; 
both YesselH dismasted, and afWr a night's hard fighting struck to the 
Victor, a third ship ; recaptured next morning by Commodore Rowley, 
Apijointed to the charge of the Engineer's DcfKirtment in Centre 
Division of the Madras Armv in March 1811. Appointed to superintend 
the repair of the forti-ess of Seringapatam in 1812, and as Special Sur- 
veyor of Fortresses in 1813. Appointed a Commissioner in 1816 for the 
restoration of the French Settlements on the coats of Coromandel arid 
Malabar. Appointed to act as Chief Engineer of the Madras Army in 
the same year. In 1815 he was nominated a Companion of the Order 
of the Bath; in 1837 was made a Knight Commander, and in 1 SI'S a 
Grand Cross of the Order, His commissions bore date aa follows — 



1863.1 OBITUAB.Y. 695 

Ed sign, 27th Jnly, 1789; Lieutenant, 2nd December, 1792; Gaptain* 
12th August, 1802; Major, Ist January, 1806; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
26th September, 1819; Colonel, 27th May, 1825; Major- General, 10th 
January, 1837; Lieutenant- General, 9th of November, 1846; and Gene- 
ral, 20th June, 1854 

General Sir Thomas Erskine Napier, K.C.B., Colonel of the 71st 
Foot, died 5th July, at Polton House, Lasswade. He was the younger 
brother of the late Admiral Sir Charles Napier, was born in 1790, en- 
tered the service July, 1805 ; became Lieutenant., May, 1806 ; Captain, 
October, 1808; Major, December, 1813; Lieutenant- Colonel, June, 
1817; Colonel, January, 1837; Major- General, November, 1846; Lieu- 
tenant-General, June, 1854; and General, September, 1861. He served 
with the 62nd Begiment at the siege of Copenhagen and battle of Kioge 
in 1807. Aide-de-camp to Sir John Hope on the expedition to Sweden 
in 1808 ; and subsequently to Sir John Moore's campaign in Spain, in- 
cluding the retreat to and battle of Corunna. In Sicily with the regi- 
ment until the autumn of 1810. Served aflerwards in the Peninsula on 
the staff, including the defence of Cadiz, oattle of the Fuentes d'Onor, 
second sie^ of Badajoz, battles of Salamanca, Yittoria, Nivelle, and 
the Nive — mcluding the various engagements near the Mayor's house, 
slightly wounded on the 10th December, and severely on the 11th — lost 
left arm. He received the war medal with seven clasps. 

Major-General Thomas Kelly, K.C., died on the 27th of June, at 
Lansdowne Square, Bosherville, at the age of 87. He entered the army 
nearly 70 years ago, and was early engaged with his regiment, the 
26th Light Dragoons, in the operations carried on towards the close 
of the last century in the "West India Islands, and was actively em- 
ployed against the Caribs and the French till he was ordered to Portu- 
gal. On the voyage the transport was attacked by a Spanish gunboat, 
which was beaten off, and in the conflict he much distinguished him- 
self. He proceeded to Egypt with the force under Sir R, Abercrombie, 
and participated in the engagements which crowned the expedition with 
success ; and ho was present at the siege of Aboukir, and in the op- 
erations under Sir Eyre Coote, near Alexandria. He was also engaged 
in the action of the 21st of March, and was wounded in a night attack 
on the 25th of Au^st, when he captured the whole of the enemy's 
pickets with a far mferior force. For these services he received the 
gold medal from the Grand Seignor, and he also had the silver wa^ 
medal with one clasp. But he was one of those who suffered from the 
great disadvantage of being sent away to the West Indies on foreign 
service on the outbreak of tne great European war— the Peninsula and 
Waterloo — so that he had no opportunity of sharing in the glories and 
in the promotions which fell to the lot of his more fortunate comiudes^ 
and his career from 1810, when he became a captain, was so slow that 
it was 20 years before he attained the rank of major. He was appointed 
Commandant of Tilbury Fort, where he discharged the duties, which 
were more onerous than might be supposed, with zeal and ability for 
46 years, and only retired in consequence of age and infirmity a short 
time ago, with the rank of major-general. 

Colonel E. W. Crofton, Royal Artillery, died at Malta on the 26th 
June. He entered the Service in 1831. He served in Spain during the 
Christino and Carlist war in 1837 and 1838, and was taken prisoner by 
the Carlists. He had received the order of St. Fernando, 1st class. H!e 
was nominated to the 3rd class of the Medjidie for services as a Brigadier- 
General with the Osmanli Cavalry. As Brigadier-General he ck»&.« 
manded the EoyaJ Artillery throughout the cami3oi^a.^l'SaR^>ai.^2wss»n 



596 



OBlTtJARY, 



[Ara. 



and wfta pn^sent at the action of Simbo, takiug- of TfiTigktit captttpe of tli® 
Tftkn Forts, at^tion of Taugehow on the 18th and 2i«t of September, and 
surrender of Fekin. He was twi(^ mentioned in despatches, was made 
n Companion of the Bath, and received the medal and two clasps. He 
was in command of the Bojal Artillery at Malta at the time of his 
death. 



Lieutenant-Colonel James M'G rigor was drowned at Aden on the 28th 
of June. This officer belonged to the Bombay Native Infantry, and 
gerved in one of ita regiraenta throughout the aim|iaigii of Seinde, nnder 
Sir Charles Napier, on which oocaeion he was favonrahly noticed hy hin 
great commander. His other services were al^^o meritorioue. During 
the Itidian Mutiny his conduct; waa such that the 8ecretary of State for 
War attributed the anppression of an ontbrenk in the Bomlmy Fresi* 
dency to the prompt and vigorous measures of Major M'G rigor. A plot 
had been formed by the men of one of the regiments at Bombay to 
muptier the officers, and, in concert with other Bepoys^ to pillage and 
mn^isacre all the GhriBtian Residenta in Bombay. Major jrG rigor, 
however, possessed the confidence of the aoldiers, one of whom divulgeti 
the pailiculars of the plot, and named the hour, vi^., midnight, w*hiuli 
was fixed for its execution- Accordingly he galloped off for reinforce- 
ments, summoned the regiment for parade a quarter of an hour before 
midnight;, and obliged the intended mutineers to lay down their arms. 
The late Colonel M*Grigor was not more remarkublc for courage and 
presence of mind than for genei^sity and kindness of Ijcart* Hta life 
waa uoaelfiwh and Ins deatli premature* He was son of the lat-e Colonel 
M*G rigor, who commanded Her Maiesty's 70th Begiment, and nephew 
of the late Sir James M^Grigor, who was for thirty -eight years Director- 
fleneral of the Army Medical Department. 

Lieutenant- Colonel John Ouchterlony, of the Eoyal Ktigineers, died 
29th April, at Ootacamund, India, aged fifty. He entered the eerricej 
Jtnie, 1832 ; became Lieutenant, March, 18-^2 ; Captain, June, 1847 ; 
Major, October, 1860; and Lieutenant -Colonel, Februarj, 18 6 L 



Lieutenant-Colonel Bichai^d Palmer Sharp, latrO of the 72iid Foot, died 
near Dublin on July 4. He f?erved with the 26th Kogiment in the first 
China expedition (medal)* Commanded the 72nd in the Crimea from 
the arrival of the regpment on the 13th of June to the 31st July, 1855, 
including the expedition to Kertch, and siege of Sebastopol (medal and 
clasp, and Turkish medal). 

Major the Honounible Henry Littleton Powys-Keck, formerly of the 
6<}th Foot, died the 10th of July at Stoughton'^ Grange, near Leicester, 
a^ed 51. 



Doctor T. C. Gaulter, Surgeon- J^ or, late Surgeon at the Royal 
Hospital at Chelsea, died, Jane 25. He entered the Service in March, 
18127, and served in India, Capo of Good Hope, A-c* He waa one of the 
most intelligent, benevolent, and kind medical officers that the Army 
ever had on its stafi*, and ia a great loss to the service. 

Captain John Gassidy, formerly of the 68 th Foot, died on June 30, at 
Upper Norwood, aged thirty- si3c. He served the Eastern campaign of 
1854-55, including the battles of Alma and Inkerman, siege and fall of 
Sebafltopol, (medal and throe dasps, and Turkish medal). 

Captain A. S. Craig, late 3rd West India Eegimenti died at Jamaica 
mi the 1 1th of May, aged thirty-nine* He served as Lieutenant in the 



1863.J OBITUARY. 697 

62nd Eegiment in the Sutler campaiffn in 1845, and was present at the 
battle of Ferozeshah (medal), where he was severely wounded by a can- 
non ball, causing amputation of the right arm. 

Captain Herbert H. Moseley, 42nd Boyal Highlanders, died on the 
19th of May, at Calcutta, aged twenty-seven. He entered the service in 
June, 1853. He served the campaign of 1867-58 against the mutineers 
in India, inchiding the actions at Kudygunge and Shumsabad, siege and 
fall of Lucknow, and assault of the i£urtini^re and Bank's Bungalow 
(medal and clasp). 

Lieutenant Frederick William Ramsbottom, of the Rifle Brigade, died 
on June 25, at Winchester. He entered the service in July, 1855, and 
became Lieutenant, May, 1858. He served with the 2nd Battalion 
during the Indian Mutiny, including the actions at Cawnpore, and relief 
of Lucknow ; subsequently with Boss's camel corps from November, 
1858 (medal and clasp). 



NAVAL OBITUAEY. 

Admiral the Hon. Sir G^eorge Elliot, K.C.B., on the Reserved Pen- 
sion list, died on June 24, after a somewhat lengthened illness, at 
his town residence, aged 79. The gallant deceased entered the Navy 
on the 4th June, 1794, as a volunteer on board the St. George, after- 
wards serving in different ships until 1800, when he obtained his Lieu- 
tenant's commission. In the St. Qeorge he witnessed, while at a dis- 
tance, the action off Copenhagen. Attaining the rank of Commander 
in 1802, he was appointed to the Termagant. In 1808, while in 
command of the Moaeste, he captured a French corvette of 18 gone 
aft»r a running action of one hour, and in the summer of 1805 com- 
manded the Aurora, in the action of three hours duration with some 
Spanish gunboats, near Tarifa, three of which he captured. At the reduc- 
tion of Java, in 1811, he superintended the landing of the troops ; and 
in June, 1813, joined in an attack on the pirates of Sambas, in Borneo. 
He was next appointed to the Victory, in 1827, guardslrip in Ports- 
mouth harbour, the command of which he retained for three years ; 
and in January, 1837, was nominated Commwider-in-Chief at the Cape 
of Good Hope. Being transferred in 1840 to the chief command in the 
East Indies, he sailed for China^ where, in the capaci^ of joint pleni- 
potentiary, he superintended the earlier operations of the war from 
July to November of the same year. He was then invalided home. 
From December, 1834* to April, 1835, he filled the oflSce of Secretary 
to the Admiralty, and from the latter date, until his appointment to 
the chief command at the Cape, that of a lord of the same Board. Sir 
George married in 1810, and has had issue five daughters and five sons, 
one of whom, the eldest, George, is now serving as Rear- Admiral 
Superintendant of Portsmouth Dockyard, and the second, Gilbert 
George, in the Anny. 

Admiral William Wolrige, 1862, on the Retired C list, died at Nutwell, 
Devon, on the 19ih Jane, aged 77. Ihis officer entered the Navy in Febru- 
ary, 179'^ in the Jason, and was present, in company with the Mars, at the 
capture of the French 74 gunship Hercale, 17U8, aud after assisting at the 
capture of the French fri^te Seme in the same year, was wrecked off Brest, 
and made prisoner. Havmg been exchanged, he joined the Revolutionnaire 
in 1799. In April, 1803, he joined the viper as Sub-Lieutenant; and waa 
promoted, to the rank of Lieutenant, March 23, 1807^ ^vA ^y^>s^r.^ \a -^^ 



598 



OBITt/AHir. 



[Aug. 



Vobgf, Tm ihti laller ship bo assisted at the CEptute of the Freach 16 gun 
bi'ig Uei|niiit ca-<jpuriited hL the dereoce of Sicily, and diiLinguiiabed liimaelf ns 
ilvA Ln:uttHmui In Ihc acHui off Liissii, ISH ; lor Jiis semcea on wbicli occa- 
stou w*a3 KjEide Cum iti antler. After a^^rviojif for a lime in the Slag as acting 
Captttm, and succcsssivelj in conimand of fue Bermuda, Albaeore, and Wasp, 
he obtained fioat rank, bis coin mission bearing date December 7, 1S18. Neter 
having b^sen ertipbytjd subsequently, lie accepted tbe reliremeut In 1846. 

Captain Qporge PlL-rce, 185S. Qf^ the Resenred F,G, list, died at HoUoway 
ou Ihe i4th of June, aged 71. This oflScer joined the Navy in 1SU3, and 
^rved Goutiauousjy in the Biiltic, Korth Sea^ and West. Indies, in the fia,^ 
ship* of Lord Gsirdner, Admirals Sir K Tiior» bo rough, Sir James Sanmarei, 
Lord Gumbiert Sir A. Cochrane, aud Sir F. Laforev, until made a Lieutenant, 
B Ut Alaich, 1812, He was present in the Walcheren expedition, where he 
conrmauded a guuboat. As a Lieuteuaut he served in the Mol^rave, iu the 
MediterniDcan, and saw much boat service * aud afterwartis in the Cumus on 
the cou&t of Africa, wberc he was eiiiraf^ed in the suppieasiou of tbe slave 
trade. In 181 G be joined the Bed^ebub, was jjresent at the bombiirdmeiit of 
Algiers, and was for a lon|^ time afterwards cm plo^ved iji dag ships iu tbe 
Med way, and after being made a Commander, 5 th Scpteuiber, 18^3, became 
nn Inspeciing-Conimniider of Coaijlguard. For many yearu Captain Pierce 
waij weli known and esteemed aa the Secretary of the Sailcrfi* Home, Well 
Strectj and as principal shipping ma&tcr of the Purl of London. 

Commandet^ John Bingham^ 13S3, ou the Retired list, died at Exeter on 
the ^5th June, agud 7^^ He entered ihe Navy, 179S, »a Volunteer of the 1st 
class of tbe Minerva^ from which he moved io"^ the Minotaur, and was present 
at tke siege of Genoa, and eipeditiou to Egypt, 18UX. He served successivdy 
and without iiaermi&sioii iu the Amphion, Victory* and Agincourt as Midshiii- 
man« and, having been made a Lieutenant in iSUfl, and appointed to tbe 
Etidyroion, wits present at tlie pannage of tbe Dardanelles. Be was captured 
iu September^ 1807, while reeonuoUriug off Ccplialouia, and remained a 
pmouer at Verdun till the peace in 1815. 

Commander Thomas H. Dowuea (1856), on the H«aerved M N List, died 
on tbe S^nd of July at Goiiport. 

Commander Henry Bich, 1859, on tbe O Retii-ed List, died in Dowa 
Street, Piccadilly, on the gOth of June, aged 7*. He entered tbe Mavy, 180 1» 
and served as Midshipman of the Diligence m Lord Nelson's attack on the 
Boulogne flotilbi. He joined the HeUtiuce in 1804, and took part m that 
ship iu Calder's action, and at Trafalgar, 180&. He coutitiued serving till ihe 
peace in l^la, aud was actively ecnpluyed iu tbe meanwliile at the defence of 
Cadi£ and Tarifa, 



Lieutenant Samuel Spsrshott Shore, 1842, on tbe Heaerred Liat, died on 
the 1 Ltb of July, at Soutbgate, aged 18. 

Surgeon John Clark, 1808, retired ou a commuted allowance, died at 
Weloon, ^o^thampton3llife, on the Ist of July» in bis 7Stb year. He bad 
been np wards of forty-eight years surgeon at the abovu place, and one of the 
few survivors of the battle of Trafalgar, at which he was present as Assistant- 
burgeon. 




599 



STATIONS OP THE EOYAL NAVY IN COMMISSION. 

{CttfTfcttti i& 27 tk. July} 
Wiik ike Dni€t 0/ CommiiM^n o/ike oJ^ver» in Vmnmund, 



Aconw Ho«p. SliiDv lfa«t.-Cojii* H. Evtebinaii, 

ActJTe, 20, Tmnijijf Ship, for Nof*l Keurre^ 
Cbiv.JL Fitid, l^bO, Similcrtiind 
, Adrlrr. tt. via.. Bccowl Uutcr W. Bbkej Ceu:- 
tmg) CKtilbuii 

AdvaihtTo, %. «. troop (bip, Cfim, T, B, Lcth- 
bridgc 13^7. tuuticiiLu- «eiTi(?f 

A>MK*,«c Cup. M. dR Courcy, iBJ^t, Coiit Goard 

Atocrity, 4, ic. Com, J. IL E. Btir^. lSfi7, 

A]«eUi^ &. it. TM , Coin. W. H. BJako* 1860, 

SJE). Coott or AmeiicB. 
Alert. 17p frr, Com. H. C. Majeiidu^ \«k^ CbimiicL 

Alfehn^ L •<* ctmboAC, limt^-Com, A. IL BIuic. 

Astdope^ S, iL vm., lit'ul.-Coni, C« O. I>. AUinf' 

Iw, ISfiS. Dwil of Afrirw 
AndiBr, IS, it tapt. J. Byrbwca, V.C. (1861) 

Cowtof AMcft 
Ardent, 3» ttpum veiid^ Copt. J. £, ftorisb, I86S, 

Woolwkl) 
Atfm, 6, itnm va. C^in. U j; Mocxre, 1800^ 

China 
Ariadne, ifl, «0. Ckpt. 1^, W. YnnBUtart, ISJH^ 

Nartb Amenra uid Wt^t [ndits 
AiieU 9, «r. Cunt. W. C^ QtapmuL. JSSAv Cape of 

Good Ifflpe 
Ask, %^ Re&r Admiral Gesr^ Elliot, Curt. H. 

BroKlbeikd. \^i&&, PortsmoaUi 
Bflccluiite, SI, »r Capt. D. UcL. Bl«tkm£ie, 
iSSt, Fkdite 
BarmamK ^i tt. v» Com G. J MiUeiiku, lasOi 

Kortli AmeTica and W^st Indka 
Bamwi. f^i, tc, CapUin W, M. DoweU, 1SSd> 

East Ijadjea and China 
Black FriDce, 40, ■€, DipL J. F. B, Wkiiiimght, 

(iei6S} QiMimel Squudron 
Bleiihtidi. fiO. tc, Capt Lard F- H. Ki?TT, l*s52, 

C«ait Guatd. MiUWd 
Bluodhugad, 3, %K rei^ Uatt,-Cam. J* £. 

Bt<tkfs, tB5d, C«st of Afria {pfluag« 

home) 
Doflcaiivii. ^ Cota, H. Campion, IS&fr, Soutlu 

ampttjn Tnininjr ^bLp 
BnlliAut, 16, Djqi. Gret Skipwith, 184£, Naval 

Re«n'e DriU Ship, thindee 
Briak, lA, ic. Capl J. R La(%, i»^ WesI 

Coast of Africa 
Britanuia, %, Cadvt Tmitujie Sbip, Captaiji 

tt. A. Ptjwell, C B., Iftfifi, Portland 
Biutnfd. it. ¥«*.♦ fl, Com. T. II. M. Martia, 

ISfiS, Nortli Americii and Wnt ladici 
dmbTiitte, eunner? Ship, Capt. C J^ F, Ewart, 

Cll, IdU, Devonport. 
Ckm^eimi 17, wc. Com. £. Hai^inpc, 18a4S, Fadfle 
Canopua, Ifitval Barrack, Capt* C* H. M«j# 

Caradnc, ic, S, LieuL-Com. £. H W{lkin«m, 

1AKC>^ M^iterraiLfaii 
Caitur, 39. C<im. i. Falrocr, ISSfi, Naval Eeuffe 

DriU Blup, ShieLdi 
Centaur, ft. iteam ^ea, Cora. J. Z, Creaif {act* 

ing) 19Q3, Chitin^ ordered lumift 
Challciigrr, S3, to, J- J. Kennedy. C>B^ lBfi«, 

Nonli Anictii:^ and W. Indus 
dunticleer, 17, ii;. C«ni. C, Stirlise, 1^0, 

MedJterniEtean 
CboPTbdia. tU K. Capt, %. W, TBinfflw, \Wl, 



C(ic,S3.ftc. CaptaiD T, MiJJtr, 1SB6, PacMc, 

(FaBanire home,) 
Cockatjriee, ^ *c, Liimt. Com. IL M, GUlaoii 

(J8fio), Meditcrrtineui 
Colouac, SO, Bc. Captatn E. S. Sr»th«by, C.B. 

IS&3, OiMt Guard, Fortldtid Boads 
Colomljine, ^, ac , Com. T, Le H, Wurd» IBBl, 

particular tertif e I 

Coqnttle, 4, mc„ Ccminaiidftr J. fl. L Alexander, " 

l§rj. East IntUca and Clana 
ConDCinint 4, pit, Cohj. C. M, BnekJe (1880) 

Ejiat [jidiea and Chiun 
Camw^llia, 60, ic, CbuL J. N, Straugt 1851 

Cpu«t fiujird, RoU 
Coeiaek, ^, ac, Capt. W. IL Holland, IBSTt 

Mc4LiteiTJ'anean 
CmnlicrlaDd, 24. Copt W. K. llaJL C.B., iSfiS, 

icceiv^nj^ ship, ^Ftd-Dc« 
Cnraeoa, 2£, ConuuodQnf Sir W, WiiemaiL, 

Kort.j, AiiitialiM 
Corltfw, fl, te. Cftot, J, S. Eudaou^ lifll, S. E. 

Coeat of Amcriea 
Cyinet* fit ae. Com. 11. P. De Kautxuw (IBfiS) 

North Aioerica And W^t Indict 
Diedalui, 1«, Com. W. H> Fen wick, 18&6, If aval 

Boerve ?>riil aliin, Bristol 
Dart, &. ac. Com. F.^'. Mcliardi, (IgfiO) C<»ft 

of AJrif^i 
Saaher, % at. yh., Cocn. F. Pc SauAnaivc, 18&4 

ChaifPcl Iitenda 
Datmtleta, 31, ic. Cant J, B. Dicksoo, 16&4, 

Coast Qnard, S^utliamptmi 
Dae, S, »t. i^ture Hhip, Maa.-Com. G. RnVinoudt 

Ift&S, Wool^-ich 
BEfcoce, 16, ic Cnpt, A. FhOIiroore, 1§56, CJian- 

nd t?<)uudnm 
Betperate. 7* au. Com. A, T. Tlimpp, l&fiS, Jfqrtk 

Ameriea and Wcit Indies 
Bemta^w, ^ »wjw. Com J. W, PUce. 1805^ < 

Pafiiftc 
Dotcj^l, % m. ipibaat, lieatCom. W. F« Jolm« 

son, 18&&, louth Ara^riea 
l^roDiediiLr^r, ar, •icir&«Uip, MaBt.4!«itn. A, BrtnirQ, 

(1&&4). purticiaiar senice 
Dnke of mUinKton. lU, Capt. J. S«4;mmb«, 

ISSt, PortmiDvtb 
£agk> £0, Ciiiinuitrvacr J. W, W^ivte, IgSi, i 

Naval B4!aerv« Drill Ship, Liverpool 
Edipee, 4, bc.. Com. R C, Mnyue, IMl, 

Anitfalia 
Edgar, 71, ac. R*-. Ajdnal. S, C. Bncrta,C.B.,Capt, 
G. T. P llorahv, ISS3, Cha»nfl St^uadrtai 
Edinbiiruh.ftO, tt. (Captain C F. Schomh^j^, 1841 

Cciiiat Goard, Queen'* Ferrv, N.B. 
Egmont, re^[:eivin!; thin, Capt. Ir^ A. B. Cranfurdj 

1§5<J, Rio dt' JjimrirtJ 
Emerald, 3&, ic. Captniu A^ Conuning^ 1IIS4 

Channel SoDiuktin 
£ndiaut3-cia, 1, sl;^ Admiialt}? TJicht, Stjifl- 

Com. i. £, Petlajr IBAS, Fortamouth 
Encounter, 14, ic. Captam K. Dew CB., 1&68» 

Enst Indi« and CWa, (ardered booui') 
Eik, 2U Capt. f. F. C, Hnniilton, ISiS, Aob- 

tralia 
EapaiT, a, ae Com. S. Doofka, IS^S, C of Afrim 
Eurraixu, 35, sc, Vico A^ul A. "L, Kup^r, C.B,, 

Captain J. J. 3. JoaUng, 1B61, Chbn 
EiCfMcnt^ (mAnery ihlp. Capt. A. C, Kej, 

C.B,, 1^511 Fortamouth 
Fairr, ic. ?Acht, timder to Yictoria and Alhert 
Port(mouth. Mait.-CoBi. I> N. Wi^Idi, 1&44 
Fired V, I, it. vei Cbm, A. I«. Mabidl, liofi, Mrdi^ 
lerraQfain 



EOYAL KAVY Hf COMMISSIO?f, 



[AUG* 



Fisgura, 42. CQinmodore Sir, F* W, B» Nicolson, 

Uflrt. CM. Woolwirh 
JTunier, ac. puilmHt, liffut. Com* 6^ S, Bomh- 

quct, It^a. China 
Furmidttble, 2C, Vite-AdtiiJ. Sir <1. ^- LaaabcTt, 

KCR,. CaitL J. Fulfcird^ Shtcmei* 
Fcrlc, 3D, »f. Itoir Adnsirti] R. L. W4rr«n, Cnpe* 

A. Melterah, l§Si5, SE, Cuflsl of Ajiierieu 
fiSTWhM, 2, »f Lieut Cjjin, tlie Hqiu H. D. Ltu- 

ctUcs, ISSfi, PaciHc 
FoMi Br. sUfl-<* iluB. S)toff-Com. J. 0. PuUbm, 

Fti.YhDftRi, Is. icChoi, W. H. AnilcriOTi, 1^9, 

McditemuuNm 
G«kL««, 31l« 9& Cap, TL. Maeaitti, 1855, >fDH1i 
Ainedra, nnd W»t Inmca 

pELTticcilnr lervke 
0PiV^^i '^i >t^ ^^- t^>H, I. C Wibdn, 16dl,€i&pe 

of Guod Hope, flrtlenid boidfi 
Gi^plrr, 3, sf. littrt. Cflut. E. H- Torocy, 

l^Oei, Piicitic 
Qritpalioppf?-. l(^ rniiTxKit, Lt* Cflm^ F. W. Be** 

tu-tt, IBSi, £u^. IndJed iiciil CIlLbB 

North Aititi/ii^ and Wi^t IndicB 
^iiffuKp ^, Bc. Oom. /. L Ferry, id&ii, Cuut Af 

Africi 
Eoady, I, st, re*., Lieut. Cflm, W, P M. Itol- 

Wn. 1859. Conat of Africa 
Biinl:r, 3^ ir. gunht, Lktit, Cm«. It. J ?♦ Conip* 

hcU. E8&1V, £pnit Indite nnd Chiiiji 
Ifanier, J 7, PC. Com, F, W< SuUivui, tSS^^ 

Ea*tins9, J^O^ k. RrAr-AdiniralSir L. 'f. Johet, 
K.C.B., Capt. C. F. A, ShadwreU, C,JJ.» 1^43* 

EmA. Indies Riid China 
BJiwlie, 60, K. Ccipt. E. Codd, 18$ l, Cotiet Gufurd 

llefute^ 6, At. veuEri, Capt. O. H. Ricbufdfl, IS£^ 

pueiif^e lumK, 
Itt^pcf, 4, se. «t€rc fillips Most. Cotn. A. F, 

BfH^'Pr, |8fri. Eaat lndiea Rnd ChiDn 
Bili^nnn, fcCr flhip, Rejir Adjii. 1). T. AtistLo. 

C.Bti Com. R. B, Flni^ey, L^9, Maltq 
H^minJava. Q, ec. triMp thipi Ciiptikiu £. Lacj, 

U^^>, F^MtiRtontk 
n«3$^e, 60, M. CHptnin A. F^dliar, 1B40, 

Icnnu, tl, sc. Ckiin. If, Sainton, V.C. IB&S, 

VMydm, 1, m. va^ Lieut. 6, E. Wilklnjon, ISH^ 

Woolwich 
TjmuorljilK^, Si, ^e. Ciipt, G lUticopk, l8&Sj 

North Amcrira And West Endiii!^ 
ImplAmbJ^^, H Cotu. £^. B. DoEiagt iSM, Trnia^ 

iii^ Shipp Dornnport 
Xnipri'jjRtihle, 78^ Cupt. F. S, Trtmlett (l«fi3> 

Tmiaiiig Ship. I>cvunpeirt 
£fliliij, IU;u- AUiiiirfil T. M. C, RTinondft. C.B., 

Cjipft. W, Fd moi»lim«. C*B.. l8ft3, l>t!voitj>cirt 
ijsdufttrv, 3f flc. nteire sliip, Mfljt. Ccnn. 1]^ 

C^ T. Youel, 1§A^, wirticular Benrice 
dlcnt, 2^ »r. ptubt^ iJipnt. Conir fi. Fartaja^^ 

td&4i Eaff! IndLCi itnd Chiitfe 
Iiivcattgator,3, at. irca, lirat, Ctrai, — — -~ 

Const of Afrin 
Jackal, 4, «t. TCMflt lieat. Com, IE. BicI>V€T 

1855^ C^ist erf SeoClsmd 
Jascur, 5. ae Com. W. /. 11. Gnibbfl fi8«l) 

CouHt of AfirlciL 
Juniiif 21, tc. Ciipt. E, P. B, Von Donop, 18H, 

North America* W. ladieR 
L«railr.iii, fi, ac. Cflin, W. Arthur* IfflJl, N. 

ABBriea And West Indicv 
LiHUid«, 3t, pe« €onimodtsT« T. Horv^, Poriftc 
IMtaii, 3. Bt. T». Licnt-Com, H. /. CllEklUt. 

lS54vCa&itQfSG0tkD(t 



Lue, br ic Limt, Com. P. B, Sbnipc, 1854, Coast 

of Africai 
Leopaixl, IS, it. ttsB^, Capt, C. T. Lcckie, 185S, 

hoMi Indies and China 
I'fvea. t, Bcn.»w ffun vcbsiI, Lt. C<im, TI, P, 

KnevitL ^il^j Knit ladies and Cliina 
Lifffv, «S0, K Cafptftin 6* Fnrker, I8fi4, 

VfcidJtx^muieiiD 
liJy. 4» sc, Com, H, Htirvcy, 1857, Nortb 

Ami:ricu and West Indies 
IiT«riiwjl, nb. me,, Capt. E, Lambert, IKS, 

Chjuincl iN^tuidron. 
IIiwukI^'i', 10, Cap, F. h BamawU 1S5»,AiieBMiOfi 
Magidrnne, l«, tt v<fi. Capt, W, Amytiige, 

]J!JdO. [Vfeditei^ancan 
Mttji-sTir, 80, sc, Capt. E. A. Inglefield, 1833, ' 

CoJist jnfiirdH tUjck Fcrrv, Livcrpt«Jl 
MalflccA, I7i St. TM- Cap, 0, J. Napier, (ISM), 

fcledilurrniie-^iit 
MuniUn, ft[^ Mast. Cotn. II. Vt\ Bnmelt, 185G, 

East Indies and Ciiijin 
Harlhoroagh, 121, tc. Vitse AdaiL IL Smirt, 

K U„ Captain C. Fdkva, I«ft@, Medite^ 

Medea, <t, li ¥ei, Cora. P'Ajry S, Fr«ton, (ISSO) 

Jiorth Aaiehcn atid West Indiet 
M«li|ig, i, »t. ves, Capt. T. A B. Sprntt, C.B, 

1B&3, ilcdiC^rTAatJin 
Mednu, Z at. irrti. Ma^.-Com. J. H. ilkfd, 1^51^ 

pattidulnr serriee 
Meeanee^ (H), CapiAin Q, WodebQDB$j, li^ii^, 

Mi'<]itiTmncan. 
Mi!|nera, fl^ Rc. Cam^ E. Maddeti, ClSSft) par- 

tjriikr i^rvice 
Miminda, li, if. Cant, K. Jenkini., lH>li7T Aostrnliq 
HnJLet,&,sc.Com.C,IL airiipsf>n lSfflJ,C«i4t of 

Aihca 
Mtitine, 17, se. Coin, W, Qmh.ini, lafiB, Fadf^r. 
Kaiadn $« itore ship, MaSs Com. G. Eiiid, 18&0, 

Calko 
Niu-cissns, 39 bc. Rear Adm. Sir B. W. WjdkeT. 

Bart., K C,B^, Capt. J. G. Biekford, (ISOOj 

Cape uf ODod Hop* 
Nerens, % atwce depot. Stuff Com. C. E, P, 

Forl^tA, IdSS^ VslparBisa 
Nil*, 78. *c. ViM-AdmL Sir A. Milne, ILC,B„ 

Capt. E. K, Barnard p lfifi#, Noith Aaiefica 

and Wi.ft Indif^a 
Jfiwble, fl, sc. Com, J, D'AJcy, tSK North 

Aaierirm uni West Id diet 
CMlin, Wi ttemt TesHl^ Commodare lAid t, 'BLnj, 

C.B. t6M| Eiist Ladiai, ^naagti home 
Orates, 71, so, C^pt, A. U. Gazdiier, liM, 

Cape of 6a)d Hope 
Orontcs, a, sc,, troop eliip, Capt. U^ W, Hire, 

1662, Fortimonth 
Orkudo, i&, sc. Capt G^ G, Eoodolph, ,l8fl-| 

McditfmineaB 
Osbortie, st.ics«eLr StltfCkiBi,^, 11. K. Bowpr, 

186S, Ftwtimontli 
Osprev, Be., 4, Conu A. J. !&&». 1^1, East la- 
dies and Chtm 
Pandora, fi, sc. Com, W. P, Buitoo, 1861, 

CoMt of .\fncft 
Pantaloon, 11, s<LCa{xi.F. Fiunrii, ft 800) j East 

Indies, 
Pearl, 21, ac, Ciipt. J* BofViiM, C.B, 1855, East 

Indies and China 
Pelican, 17, AC. Com. F. Brock, I6fi«, Mediter^ 

rnnean* 
Perahroke, 60, CommodaTe A. P. Bydtt, 18lff, 

C.B., Capt. J, O. Jobnsofl, t8»0, CoMt 

Gunrd Hiinrif:h 
FetseuB, 1 7, 4c , C-om. A, J. Klnestfll, ISflO, China 
Fetend, 1 L, sc. Corn. H W. W^jilson, ^8581, Noit^ 

AmehcKSiiid West Indies 
Fbaetoo, m, sc. Cnpt. £. Tuiham, 1814, North 

Amerira and Wtel Indies 
Fbiloin^l, hf ic. C<jm. L. Wiidatnn, (1868) Coitsi 

of Afri<2a 
Fbcphe, 8E. sc.. Captain T. B. A. FortESCUC^ 

16&7i Meditemaefln. 



1863.J 



SOTAL NAVY IN COMMISSION. 



601 



Pigmy, S, ft. T. MafCcr Com. W. W. Vine, 1861 
PorUmoath. 

Pioneer, 6, sc. Com. F. C. B. Bobiiuon (acting), 
Australia, passage home 

Plover, 6, sc. Com. the Hon. A. L. Corry, 1869, 
North America and West Indies 

President, 50, Cora. W. Mould, 1855, Naval Re- 
serve Drill Ship, London. 

Princess Charbtte. 13, Captain M. S. Nolloth, 
I85A, Hong Kong 

Procris, 2, Capt. E. Ommann^, 1846, Lieut. 
Com. Hon. J. B. Vivian, 1856, Gibraltar. 

Psyche, 2, st vessel, Lieut.-Com. R. Sterne 

1854, Mediterranean 

Pyhkdes, 21, sc. Capt. A. W. A. Hood, North 

America and Wesi Indies 
Queen, 74, sc. Captain C. F. HiUyar, 1852, Medi- 
terranean 
Racehorse, 4, sc. Com. C. B. F. Boxer, 1860, 

China 
Racoon. 22, sc. Capt. Count Glcichen, (1859), 

particular service 
Ranger, 5, Com. II. R. Wratiskw, 1858, West 

Coast of Africa 
Rapid, 11, sc. Com. C. T. Jago (1860) C. of Africa 
Rattler. 17, sc. Com. E. H. Howard, 1857, East 

Indies and China 
Rattlesnake. 21, sc. Commodore A. P. £ WOmot, 

C.B. Coast of Africa 
Resistance, 16, sc. Capt. W. C. Chamberlain, 

1856, Channel Squadron, 
Revenge. 7S, sc. Rr.-Ad. H. R. Yelverton, C.B., 

Capt. Hon. F. A. Foley, 1860, Mediterranean 
Rifleman, 8, sur.-ves. Mast. Commander J. W. 

Reed, 1857, China Seas 
Rinaldo, 17, sc Com. J. A R. Dunlop, 1860, 

1858, North America and West Indies 
Ringdove, 4, sc. Com. R. A. O. Brown, 1857, 

East Inrlies and China 
Rosario, 11, sc. Com. H. 1). Grant, 1859, 

North America and West Indies 
Royal Adelaide, 26. Vice-Adml. Sir H. Stewart, 

K.C B. Capt. C. Vesey, 1860, Devonport 
Royal Oak, 84, sc. Capt F. A. Campbell, 1854, 

Channel Squadron 
Russell, 60, sc Capt. S. Grenfell, (1850) Coast 

Guard Falmouth 
SatelUte, 21, sc. Capt. S. S. L. Crofton, 1856, 

S. E Coast of America 
Saturn, Captain W. Loring, C.B., 1848, Pembroke 
Scout, 21, sc. Capt. J. Corbett, 1857, East Indies 

and China, ordered home 
Scringapatam, Receiving Ship, Capt. J. H. Cock- 
bum, 1850, Cape ofGooa Hope 
Severn, 35, sc. Commodore F. B. Montr^sor, 

East Indies 
Shannon, 35, sc. Capt. O. J. Jones, (1855) N. 

America and West Indies 
Sheldrake, 2, sc. gunboat, Lieut.-Com. John 

Nott, 1854, S. £. Coast of America 
Shearwater, 11, sc. Com. R. G. Douglas, 1860, 

Pacific. 
Slaney, 2, sc. gpmboat, lieut-Com. W. F. Lee, 

1855, East Indies and China 

Sparrow, 6, sc. Com. Hon. £. 6. L. Cochrane, 

1860, C. of Afiica. 
Spider, 2, sc. gunboat, Lieut. Com. E. A. T* 

Stubbs, 1854, South America 
St. George, 8*. sc. Capt. the Hon. F. Egerton, 

18M, Mediterranean 
Staunch, 1, sc, Iient.-Com. J. 8. Keato 1850, 

China 



St, Vincent, 26, Com. M. Lowther, 1859, Porte- 
mouth 
Steady, 5, sc. Com. Fred Harvey, 1861, North 

America and West Indies 
StromboU, 6, sc Com. A. R. Henry, 1867, S.E 

Coast of America 
Styx, 6, sc Com. the Hon. W. J. Ward, 1858, 

North America and W^est Indies 
Supply, 2 sc store ship. Mast. Com. C. Bawden, 

1849, particular service 
Surprise, 4, sc. Com. W. H. Whytc, 1868, Medi- 
terranean 
Sutlej, 35, sc, Rear-AdmL J. Kingcorae, Cap- 
tain M. Connolly. 1868, Pacitlc 
Swallow, 9, sur. ves. Mast. Com. E. Wilds, 1855, 

East Indies 
Tartar, 20, sc. Capt. J. M. Hayes, 1855, Pa- 
cific 
Terror, 16, Capt. F. H. H. Glasse, C.B. 1844, 

Bermuda 
Topaze, 39, sc. Commodore the Hon. J. W. S. 

Spencer, (1854) Pacific 
Torch, 6, sc. Com. F. H. Smith, 1858, Coast of 

Africa 
Trafalgar, 70, sc. Capt. T. H. Mason, 1849, 

Mediterranean. 
Tribune, 23, sc. Capt. Viscount Gilford, 1859 

Pacific 
Trident, 6, st Com. C. J. Balfour, 1859, Gib- 
raltar 
Trincomalee. 16, Com. T. Heard, (1850) Naval 

Reserve drill Ship, Hartlepool 
Triton, sc, 3, Lieut-Com. E. F. Kerby, 1854, 

S.E. Coast of America 
Valorous, 16, st. ves., Capt. C. C. Forsyth, 1857, 

Cape of Good Hope 
Vesuvius, 6, sc. Capt R. V. Hamilton, 1863, 

North America and West Indira 
Victoria and Albert, steam yacbt, Capt. H.S.H. 

Prince Leiningen, (I860,) Portsmouth 
Victory, 12, Vice Adml. Sir Michael Seymour, 

G.C.B. Captain l^ancis Scott C.B., (1*18) 

Portsmouth 
Vigiknt, 4, sc, Com. W. R. Hobson, 185?, 

East Indies and China 
Vindictive, store ship, Mas.-Com. W. F. Lew, 

1857, Fernando Po 
Virago, 6, st. ves. Com. W.G. H. Johnstone, 185 

particular service 
Vivid, 2, st V. Staff Com. H. W. Allen, 1863, 

particular service. 
Vulcan, 6. sc. troop ship, Capt. A. C. Strode. 1868 

East Indies and Cliina, ordered home 
Wanderer, 4, sc. Com. M. C. Seymour, 1859 

Mediterranean 
Warrior, 40, sc. Capt. the Hon. A. A. Cochrane, 

C.B. 1854, Channel Squadron 
Weazel, 2, sc. gunboat, Lieut Com. H. G. 

Hale, 1855, East Indies and China 
Wellesley, 72, Captain E. G. Fanshawe, 1845. 

Chatham 
Weser, 6, st. v. Com. A. H. J. Johnstone, 1859, 

Mediterranean 
Winchester, 12, Drill Ship for Naval Reserve, 

Com. C. J. Balfour. 1846, Aberdeen 
Wraneler, 4, sc. Com. H. H. Beamish, 1858, Coait 

of Africa 
Wye, 2, sc. store-ship. Staflf Com. V. G. Roberts, 

1863. Sheemess ' 
Zebra, 17, sc. Com. A. H. Hoskins, 1858, Coast 

of Africa 



U. S. Mag. No. 417, Aug. 1865. 



■"i.^ 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^oo^^^^^^^^^^L^^^^^B 


^^^^^r STATIONS OF TUE BRITISH ARMY. ^fl 


^ (Ciirreeted ttp io Z7lA Jiiiy^ 1863, invtusht,) ^^H 


^^ fffltero two pluces are TuenUoned* the If at-aarti tJ is that «t wMdi ihc l>e [jot ia it^UiJicd.} ^^^H 


lat Lire Oua7dB--R«gcDt'i Park 


lOtb do, { lit bat.)— Canada, Templemore ^^^H 


in*% do,-^Hyde Park 


Do. C/nd batj — No\'a ilcotia, Templemore ^^^^B 


Rnyal Hane Ouarria— AUkrthot 


1 7tli do . ( ] fl t b tit .) — L an ad [3, ] .i m e rl r k ^H 


Ul iJmtttuJti GgtinK-AUilriit, CMltrbury 


Do. {2nd bat ) No t?a S coll a, Lliurrlc-k ^H 


2 art du.-'Ben»l, CBntt^rUury 


Itlth do. (Ut but.)- Klmdraa, BuEL<Tiii]C. ^^^H 


Do, r^nd bDt.)"Nevi- ZvulMod, Butit-Ynfit ^^^H 
l&th do. (Ut W,)— nengaij Chnthaoi ^^^H 


4tb do.— Cmrai^h 


hvh «1Q. "Ciirrftgh 


Do{2Miibat)^]lubJ1n.Cbaihm[ii ^^^H 
20tb do, (Ut bat )— Btngal, Chalhsm ^^^H 


flthtlo.— Ahlerihtjt 


7ih do.— He D (Till p Cantfi-buTf 


Do (2nd but . \— rorta m :» l ' b . Ch n th a at ^^^H 


lit l>r»gi>i3 n i— B S «u 1 n^tj s m 


2Itt do, {Ifit but,)— Barbdc^oeif Birr ^^^^1 


Jliirl do — BirminKluira. 


D a. (2nd Eia t , ) — M ad rQ4, il i tt ^^^^1 


JSrd HuaBara— Pi^riblU 


22ud do . U tt bat .) — M a 1 to. Park h urti ^^^H 


4ib do.— NeivUrktljre 


D u. (2nd bat. )—M «! ta. Fh rk h u ni ^^^H 


hX\x Lar^tera—Chkh titer, Caiiterhuti 


ItAnl do, ilat batO-B#ngaU Walmer ^^^| 


Sih DruBOttni— Bmiflbay» felaldatoue 


Do, (2iid b at.) - %l altii. Wal tner ^^^H 
24lb do. riit bQl )— Aidenhot, Cork ^^^H 


7th Kiiiwan— l^engaL MAmHone 


StSj do.— K(?iigftl, Cas iter bury 


l[iii. (2nd bat.)— J^lAurltlui, Cork ^^^H 


JHh Lancen— Br^irhtoi] 


2&tlt do. {Ut bat.)— 5Jalt«, Ath;oii«^ ^^^H 


imh Huii*r*-Nen bridge 


De. (2nd bat.)— Kdlnbargb, Athloue ^^^H 


nth Hutiars- Dublin 


2Gth do.— Gosport, Bi-ifuat ^^^^1 


13lb LBDtera— Aldurahot 


^th do.- Ben ^al , Cork ^^^1 


I3th Hutiara— Aidenbat 


28tb do.— Bombay, Fermoy ^^^M 


l4Ch dQ.—Haiicli eater 


l^ih da.— Currugh, Prestan ^H 


titU Huiwra-UgbUo 


SOib do.— Canada, t^arkhurat ^H 


IBtb Lanceri— Tork 


Unt do.— Cbliia, Chatham ^1 


\nw do.— Mndraa. A[al(1stoae 


S^ad elo.— Curraffb, Preilon ^H 


iStU Ky««ara— Aldenbot 


IL^rd do.— Boniba>\ Fentiuy ^H 


l&tli rto — BengaJ. ithorntUffe 


34tb do.— BeiigaU Cotibeiter ^^^^H 


mielido.— HengaU Cunterbury 


.l^'^tb do.— BeiigffU Chutbaut ^^^^1 


2Ut dtt.— Bengal, Canterbury 


;iflthdo.— Dublin, Athl4/nF ^^^H 


Military Train (lit biitO— VVoBlwlch 


i37tb dii.— Alilersbot, Fffinbrok ^^^H 


t»o (and b(lt.}-Aldi?nibot 


^Ib do.— Beni^al, Cokbealer ^^^H 


Da. [apd bat.KCaqadfl 


31)1 h do.— Bermudi, Temple mo re ^^^H 


Uo. [41 b but. — Woolwlcb 


40t h ao,-^ New Efrji] a od . B\ rr ^^M 


Pf*. £5tb bat. -Atder^bot 


41«t do.— GlHRftow, Prestiin ^^| 


1><I (ttth bat 1— CurrtiKb 


43 nd do .— llvu ^^l, ^ t<^ rl 1 ng ^M 


Gmiaill^r Ouarfli [U^ bat.)'CAnidR 


4Ard do —Bengal, Chittbnm, _^^^^H 


Do. <2Tid bfit.)"WelH0Ktau Barratka 


44lti d».--Bombay, Cctk beater ^^^H 


Do. (ard baU)— St. George '■ Bsrricki 


45th do.— Curra^h, Park bu rat ^^^H 


ColdHrtftRi Ouardfl [lit bat.)— PortmanatTtet 


46ih do.— B*tt|ffl^, Buuevaot ^^^B 


Do. (3iJtl bat,)— Winder 


47th do.— Cunailn„ Athkue ^^H 


Bi:ot,5 Fu». Qtiarda (Nt bat.)— AldertlioC 


48 til du.— BenituU Cork ^H 


Pui. fL>ud bat,)— CnuBda 


4ltth do,— Mancbeater» Belfast ^^^H 


lit Foot tUt 1-Marirai. Colcbealtr 


50tb d^.^-Ceyl^rVt Porkhtirtt ^^^^1 


Uu. (2im1 bat.)— Aldenbol^ Colcbeater 


fi I It do.- B eti ^a 1 , Chathnni ^^^^H 


2ud do. [Utb*t)- fly mouth, Walter 


&2dd do.— B. ugnl, CbatbAui ^^^^1 


Do. c2nd bat)— Corfu. Walmer 


^*|rd do.- Porttmi^uth, Utrr ^^^^H 


3rd do, a at bat,)— Aid era hot, Litnt^flck 


£4lb dci.— Bctii^aU Cokbett^r ^^^^1 


l>o. {and bat )-Gltiraltar, Limerick 


AfiLh do.— Port^montb, Freftoo ^^^^H 


4th do. {H\ bsit.}— Uoiiibaf. Cbiitliam 


^th do.— Bombay, Ccdcheiter ^^^^1 


Do, (3iid bat )— Corfu, rhntliam 


hlth do— New %v^\%Ui\y Cork ^^^^H 


fltb do. {lat bJtt,)— Shyrndifre, Cokheale^r 


08th do-Dublin, Birr ^^^H 


Do. f2fi*I bftt.)— t^latal, Colchcatpr 


a^th do,— Alder*bot» PrefltQn ^^^^1 


ffth do. flat bat.)— Aldpnbot* Cuktitfattr 


flOtn do . { 1 at bat ,)— To we r. Wl nr hea l4^r ^^^H 


Do, (Znd baL)— Corfu, C43kb«it*r 


Do. (2ud bat.)-Aliier»bcit. M incheiter ^^^H 


7th do, U»t but )— BentMl, Walmei' 


Do, (3rd bo t, }— Madras » \Vlu«1ie>ter ^^^H 


Do ppd bat}— Glbniltar, Walmer 


Do. {4th bat.)— Cauadn, Winchester ^^^^H 


Btb do. (lit b*t )— Shf^ffidd, T«mpl#mor# 


tf l«t ilo.— J ene y, Vam bru ke ^^^^1 


l>n, f2nd bat,)— Gibraiiar, Ttrm|ili-iiiore 


62nd da.— Canada. Beirut ^^^H 


yih do. (Ill but.)— Cepbaloula, Llnnjrkk 


53 rd do.— Canada, Bc-lfaat ^^^^H 


l>o. (2Dd hat.)— Corfu, Ltmerkk 


ft4tta do.- Alder 1 ho I, Cokbe«ter ^^^H 


Iftth do, (lit bat.)— Dublin, Pr^ilou 


€Jltb do, - Nf^iv ^eal a nd , Bl rr ^^^1 


Do (2nd bat)— Cajse of Gd. ^tip*, P«itwa 


6(i t b d D.^ A 1 nd r Afl , L'ok bei ter ^^^^H 


llph do. (lit bat.)— l>ublUi, Fermoy 


67 lb da,— CMi^a« Atbtone ^^^H 


Do, {2tid bat.) a of Good Hopt, Fermoy 
I2tb do, (lit bat^-N. S. VVatep. Cbatbatn 


flAlb do.— Mad mi, Fermoy ^^^H 


6!}i b da — af ad run . Perm uy ^^^^1 


Do. Vl^A bfct.)— Curraghp CbatliAfli 


7f)th dN.— New 2«-aiaMd, Cokheiter ^^^^1 


i;ith do. a at bat.)— Bengal, Kt^rmoy 


7lftt do.— Benpal, StlrEInt!^ ^^^H 


Do, t^iul but )— Matinllus* Fermoy 


72od do,— Horn buy t Aberdeen ^^^^H 


I4lb do. (ht bal.j— Jiimflii^ii, F(?nnoy. 


7^n\ do.— Abler^lKiti Colthetter ^^^^1 


Do. {'2nA baL.)— Wew Sejilnod, Fermoy 


74ib do.— Madraa, I'ertb ^^^^H 


|5th do {1st bat.)— N. Hmni^vkk, Pembroke 


/."iih du — Pl^ moutb, ChMbam ^^^^1 


lath do- (2od bat.;— MaJHi, Pembroke 


;ath Fo^t— Aldenbot, BeifRjl ^^^H 


^H_ ^ 


77th root— BengaJ, 1 ttatbicio ^^^H 



18«3.J 



STATIONS OF THR BRITISH ABHT. 



608 



7dch do. — Dover, Aberdeen 
79th do.— Bengal, Stirling 
80th do.— ditto, Bu Iterant 
81st do.— Bengal, Chatham 
82nd do.— Bengal, Colchester 
83rd do.— Sborucllff, Chatham 
84th do.— Dublin, Pembrolce 
85th do. — Dover, Pembroke 
86th do. — Curragh, Templemore 
87lh do— Aldershot, Buttevant 
88th do.— Bengal, Colchester 
89th do.— Bengal, Fermoy 
90ih do.— Bengal. Colchester 
91st do.— Madras. Chatham 
92nd do.— Edinburgh, Stirling 
93rd do. — Bengal, Aberdeen 
94th do.— ditto, Chatham 
95th do.— Bombay. Fermoy 
96th do.— Cape, Belfast 
97th do.— Bengal, Colchester 
d8th do.— Bengal, Colchester 
99th do.— China, Cork 
lOOth Foot— Gibraltar! Parkhnrst 



lOlst do.— Bengal, Chatham 

102nd do.— Madras, Chatham 

103rd do.— Bombay, Colchester 

104th do.— Bengal, Parkhnrst 

105th do. — Madras, Pembroke 

ie6th do.— Bombay, Birr 

107th do.— Bengal, Fermoy 

108lh do.— Madras, Fermoy 

109th do.— Bombay, Cork 

Rifle Brigade (1st bat.)— Canada, Winchester. 

Do. (2nd bat.)— Bengah, Winchester 

Do. (3rd bat.)— Bengal, Winchester 

Do. (4th bat.)— MalU. Winchester 

1st West India Regiment— Nassau 

2nd do.— Bahamas 

8rd do.— West Coast of Africa 

4th do— Jamaica, for Africa 

5th do — Jamaica 

C«ylon Rifte Regiment— Ceylon 

Cape Mounted Rifles— Cape of Good Hope 

Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment— Canada 

Royal Malta Fencible ArtlUery— MalU 



DEPOT BATTALIONS. 



1st Depot Battalion— Chatham 

2iid do.— Chatham 

3rd do.— Chatham 

4th do.— Colchester 

6lh do.— Parkhnrst 

fith do.— Walmer 

7th do.— Winchester 

8th do.— Pembroke 

9th do.— Colchester 
10th do.— Colchester 
llthdo.— Preston 
12th do.»Athlone 
13th df.— Birr 



1 4th Depot BatUlioo— Belfast 
15th do.— Buttevant 
16th do.— Templemore 
17th do.— Limerick 
18th do.— Fermoy 
19th do.— Fermoy 
20th do.— Cork 
22nd do.— Stirling 
SSrd do. — Aberdeen 
Caralry Depot— Maidstone 
do.— Canterbury 



AETILLERY AND ENGINEERS. 



1st Hrs. Brig.— Woolwich 

2nd Hrs. Brig.— Meemt 

Srd Hrs. Brig.— Bangalore 

4th Hrs. Brig.— Kirkee 

5th Hrs. Brig,— Umballah 

1st Brig.— Gibraltar 

2nd Brig.— Dover 

Srd Brig.— MalU and Corfti 

4th Brig.— Aldershott 

5th Brig.— Plymouth 

6th Brig.— Portomonth 

7th Brig.— Montreal 

8th Brig.— Dublin 

9th Brig -^ShomcUffe 
10th Brig.— Canada 
11th Brig.— Bengal 
12th Brig.— Manritins 
13th Brig.— Woolwich 
14th Brig.— Bengal 
15th Brig.— Halifax. N.8. 
16th Brig.— Delhi 
17th Brig.— Madras 
18th Brig.- Kirkee 
19th Brig.— Peshawur 
20th Brig.— Kamptee 
21st Brig.— Mhow 
22nd Brig- Jnllnndnr 
23rd Brig.— Secnnderabad 
24th Brig.— Mean Meer 
25th Brig.— Agra 

Rojfal Bngineen. 
A Troop Royal Engineer Train, Aldershott 

1st Compy.— Devonport 

2nd Compy. — Kensington 

Srd Compy.— Gibraltar 

4th Compy.— Halifax, N.8. 



5th Compy.— Bermuda 

6th Compy. — New Zealand 

7th Compy.— Chatham 

8th Compy.— China. 

9th Compy.— Woolwich 
10th Compy. — Aldershott 
1 1th Com py. — Mauri tins 
12th Compy .—Cape 
ISth Compy.— Dublin (surrey) 
14th Compy.— Dublin (survey) 
15th Compy. — Canada 
16th Compy. — South ton (survey) 
I7th Compy.— Curragh 
18th Compy. — Canada 
19th Compy. — Glasgow (survey) 
20th Compy —Chatham. 
21st Compy. — Mauritius. 
22nd Compy.— Chatham 
23rd Compy.— ShomcUffe 
24th Compy.— Aldershott 
25th Compy.— Cape 
26th Compy.— Chatham 
27th Compy. — GlbralUr 
28th Compy.— MalU 
29th Compy.— Corfu 
80th Compy.— Corfu 
81st Compy.— MalU 
S2nd Compy. — St. Helena 
88rd Compy.— Gibraltar 
S4th Compy.^Bermnda 
85th Compy.— Chatham 
S6th Compy.— Chatham 
S7th Compy.— Chatham 
88th Compy,— Chatham 
S9th Compy.— Chatham 

40th Com^i*— C\aX\w&. 



[Alq. 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



NAVY. 



k 



ABMiEA^i^TYi June 2i. 

Royal Marine Light Infant ry — 
Tlje follow ingoing QcDtlemcn-Cftdets 
to be scc.-lieuts. : — Auj^tistua Bury 
Liardet^ Philip Sidney, Henry Arm- 
strong Peako, George Edw, Coatea 
Weitbrook, Robert Evans Mont- 
gomery, George Sanderson Walker, 
Sydney Tyera. Henry Vere Barclay, 
Herbert St, George ScUomberg, 
Augustus Frederick Blytb, Herbert 
Bradley, William Tankerville Allen, 
William Percy Winkwortb* 

July 3,— Royal Marine Liplit In- 
fantry— Firat Lieut, Cbarles Bulkeley 
Nurae to be eapt,, Tjce Lloyd, placed 
on balf-naj list j Sec, Lieut, Wil- 
braham Es-ora Evelyn Morlcy to be 
first lieut.^ vice Nnrae ; First Lient* 
M el V tile Sutler to be qnarter- 
maater. 



ADMiBAtTT, July 3. 

Admiral of tbe Bine Francis Eis- 
kine LoeK has been appointed to 
receive a pension ot £160 a-ycar, as 
prorided by Eer Majesty's Order in 
Council of' 25th June, ISSl^ y a cant 
by tlie deatb of Admiral the Hon. 
Sir George Elliot, K,C,B, ; and thts 
name of Admiral Looiv lias been 
remoyed to the Reserved Half-pay 
List nccordingly, and in consequence 
of tilts removal, the following pro* 
mot ions, to date tlie i5th ultimo, 
bave this day taken pi ace :— 

ViccAdmiral of the Red the Hon. 
Henry John Rous to le ^m* of the 
Blue. 

Viee-Admiral of the White Sir 
Micbael Seymour, G,C.B,, lo be vice- 
adm. of the Red. 

Vicc-Adniirai of the Blue Frede- 
rick Thorn [la Miehell, CB^i to be vice* 
adm. of liie Wljite. 

Henr-Admiral of the Red tbe Hon. 
George Grey to be yice-adm. of the 
Bke. 

Eear-Admiral of the White Sir 
Aleiander Milne, K^C.B,, to be rear- 
ftdm^ of the Red. 



Rear*AdmiraJ of the Blue tbe Hon ■ 
Joseph Denman to be rear-ad m^ of 
the White. 

CapL Henry Lyater to be rear- 
ad m, of the Blue. 

Retired Vice-Adms. Henry Tbeo- 
doaina Browne Collier, Henry Stan* 
hope, and John Townsend Coffin, to 
be retired adrns*, but without increase 
of pay. 

PROMOTIONS, 

CaptaiDa— John K Mills (1829), 
who was Master Attendant of Devon- 
port Dockyard from Feb., 1851 ^ until 
June, 1858, to the rauk of Retired 
Captain, under Order in Conncil, 
FeL, Sa, 1855. 

Paymasters — Julmn A. Messnm, 
John G, Whiffio, and James M. Low- 
CAy to the second class; William E, 
L, Vcale, Jolin Fresh field, and Henry 
W. Al ridge to third claaa ; William 
Evana, of the We lies ley. 

To be Chiet^ Etrgmeei* — Thonias 
Lnmley. 

To be Engineers — P. Hutchinson 
of tbe Himniaja; W. H, Bambury 
of the Dart ; John Rice of the Asia, 
supernunierary ; H. Benbow of the 
Comwallis; William log! is (a) of 
tbe Osprey; J. Jessop of the Black 
Prince; William Hoss (acting) of 
Foxhound; John West, of the 
Colnmbine* Mathew Barker^ snpcr* 
Dumerary in the Indus. 

To he Fifst'Claaa Asaistant'Engi- 
neers — P, Bland and Alexander Keid 
of the Cumberhmd ; J Forrest (a) of 
tbe Edinburgh, J, K. Keay of t,hc 
Himalaya; W* B* Trcnwitb of the 
Mega^ra ; E. RamsEiy of tiie Sphinx j 
and A. Shanks of the Asia, J. M'Graw 
(acting) of the Centaur: A. M*Intyre 
(acting) of the Rambler ; T, Ritchie 
(acting) of the Arasdne ; J. Finlay 
(aoting) of the Nimble, andT. M' Far- 
lane (acting) of the Scout. 

APPOIKTIIEITTS. 

Commaiiders — R. 0* Leach to the 
Tjivcrpoolj G. F, Cottam to the 
Recruit, commissioned. 



m 



1868.] 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



605 



Secretary— George P. Martin to be 
Secretary to Sir G. Lambert. 

Lieutenants— J. 0. H. Tracy to 
the Russell ; R. B. Cay to the Ma- 
jestic; G. D. Morant to the For- 
midable ; A. H. G. Richardson to the 
Edgar; Lord Arthur P. Clinton to 
the Revenge ; A. A. 8. Watts to the 
Liverpool ; Thomas V. Williams and 
C. S. P. Woodruffe to the Excellent ; 
J. P. Barnett to the Majestic ; John 
Liglis to the Excellent; Richard 
Sheepshanks to the Stork; Edward 
Poulden to the Excellent; Robert S. 
Chisholme to the Asia; James M. 
Morris to the Recruit. 

Masters — ^Thomas Dobbin to the 
Racehorse ; R. M. Curry to the Re- 
cruit; Christopher Albert to the 
Pelorus. 

Surgeons — James C. Walsh to the 
Pembroke; James Davidson, M.D., 
to the Revenge ; W. Ross, M.D., to 
the Meeanee; Cecil Crunden to the 
Leander. 

Paymasters — Richard Mundy (ad- 
ditiou:il) to the Britannia; Joseph 
Singleton to the Saturn; Frederick 
Lima to the Hornet; Willianp H. 
Richards to the Eagle ; John Fresh- 
field to the Daedalus. 

Assistant-Surgeons — R. Atkinson 
to the Haulbowfine Hospital; W. G. 
Ridings to the Formidable, for the 
Marines at Deal; Samuel Grose to 
the Dauntless ; John A. Yule to the 
Cumberland; Thomas Cann to the 
Recruit ; Alfred W. Whilley (acting) 
to the Geyser; Robert Humphreys 
to the Maeander ; T. L. Bickford to 
the Fisgard ; C. W. J. Sutherland to 
the Rifleman; James Hutchinson 
(acting) to the Euryalus ; Richard F. 
Bridgford to the Cambridge ; Charles 
L. Conningham to the Wye. 

Second Masters — Samuel M. Spry 
to tne Dasher ; H. D. Shortt to the 
Wye ; A. H. Otter to the Resistance ; 
W. Horn to the Medusa. 

Sub-Lieutenants — John Hayes to 
the Resistauce; John Anderson to 
the Liverpool ; Hugh S. Baillie to the 
Racoon. 

Midshipmen— F. H. 8. O'Brien to 
the Liverpool ; (George T. Temple to 
the Defence ; Francis E. Haigh to the 
Liverpool; Julian A. Baker to the 
Royal Oak; William I^. Madan to 



the Edgar ; John Giles and Henry B. 

B. Beresford to the Resistance; R. 

F. Hoskyn to the Emerald; Pierre 

G. Evans to the Black Prince; W. 
Hailstone and Charles E. W. Hutton 
to the Warrior. 

Naval Cadets — Reginald O'B. 
Carey and Robert D. Bruce to the 
Emerald ; Edward Goldney, Archi- 
bald K. Harence, and J. D. Deane to 
the Black Prince ; Charles W. Dick- 
inson and Francis S. Knowles to the 
Warrior ; Lord Lewis Gordon and H. 
J. Knight to the Resistance ; Thomas 

C. Heathcote, Clement Royds, and 
William A. B. Beccles, to the Liver- 
pool; Alexander W. Ogilvy, James 
L. Hammet, and Horace H. Barnard 
to the Defence: Frederic S. Pelly, 
Edward J. Bawtree^ and Frederic 
Maitland to the Royal Oak ; Robert 
H. Davies, Ford E. W. Lambart, 
John Phelips, Henry B. C. Wvnyard, 
and Charles J. Barlow to the Edgar. 

Kaval Cadets (nominated)— L. W. 
Matthews, Arthur N. Havne, W. H. 
Somerset, R. Findlay, W^. S. Tatlor, 
Charles P. Streeten, and E. A. Rich- 
mond, James Erskine Russell, E. B. 
Tinling, Robert H. Stewart, Henry 

D. Barry and Frank Wyley. 
Master's Assistants— F. H. White- 
lock to the Orlando ; W. E. Filmer 
to the Victory, as supernumerarv ; L. 
G. Stovin to the Edgar; Frederick 

E. Thomson to the Recruit ; Harry J. 
Miller to the Dasher : W. Stainer to 
the Himalaya. 

Assistant-Paymasters — T. Elliott 
(in charge) to the Wye ; W. F. Ni- 
cholson to the Duke of Wellington ; 
Herbert F. Roe ^ditional) to the 
Edgar; Edward S. M. Power fin 
charge) to the Recruit ; Thomas H. 
Bowlii^ to the Edsar. 

Clerks— C. L. W. La Grange to 
the Victory ; George Deveson to the 
Cumberland ; Henry G. Barlow, John 
H. Cleverton, and Arthur Hodson, 
to be Secretary's clerks in the For- 
midable. 

Assistant-Clerk — Charles J. Bolt to 
the Recruit. 

Chief Enjgineers — J. J. Greathead 
to the Mars ; Thomas Duncanson to 
the Conqueror; Richard Sleemaa to 
the Sphinx. 

Engineers — J. F. CbannoiL i.<^ ^2assk 



606 



PROMOTIONS AND -APPOINTMENTS. 



[ArG. 



Fisgard, as supernumerarv ; W. R. 
Leeson (acting) to the tndns ; W. 
Wjad to the Cumberland; William 
Robinson to the Wye ; W. J. Warren 
to the Fisgard, as supernumerary; 
William Maxwell to the Asia, as 
supernumerary; J. P. Lloyd to the 
Indus, for the Ripple ; Edward Tay- 
lor to the Indus, as supernumerary ; 
Richard Biddle to the Himalaya ; W. 
R. Leeson (acting) to the Fisgard, as 
supernumerary. 

Assistant-Engineers — Valentine C. 
Friend to the Indus, for hospital 
treatment; Thomas Yickery to the 
Resistance ; James D. Chater to the 
Cumberland, as supernumerary; W. 
N. Sennett to the Indus, as super- 
numerary; Thomas Young to the 
Industry; Robert Spiers to the 
Fisgard, as supernumerary; C- E. 
Elfindell to the Fisgard, as super- 
numerary; M. J. Shannon to the 
Asia, tor hospital treatment ; T 



Stead to the Asia, as supernumerary ; 
J. M. Brankston to the Osprey ; H. 
F. Strugnell to the Asia, super- 
numerary; S. T. Wallis, (for hos- 
pital treatment) and J. W. E. Baron 
(as supernumerary) to the Asia ; W. 
H. Sedgwick to the Himalaya ; Ri- 
chard Steyens to the Ajax; E. E. 
Williams to the Dee ; A. H. Symes 
to the Fisgard (as supernumerary) ; 
W. B. Chewley to the Stork; T. 
Cross to the Defence. 



COASTGUARD. 
Chief Officers— Charles J. Didham 
to Kingston; F. T. Hamilton to 
Dunbar ; Henry B. Davis to Worth- 
ing; John A. Wfdlinger to Black- 
rock. 



ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE. 
To be Honorary Lieutenant — H. 
Morris. 



1863.] 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



607 



ARMY. 



THE ARMY GAZETTE. 
*#* Where not otherwise specified, 
the following Commissions bear 
the current date. 
Wab OrpicE, Pall Mall, June 23. 

1st Regt. of Dragoon Guards — 
Ens. Reginald Chalmer, fi*om the 
19th Foot, to be cor., vice Edward 
Hoare Reeves, promoted. 

2nd Dragoon Guards— Comet 
Arthur Brett to be Instructor of 
Musketry, vice Comet John Tay- 
lor Marshall, who has rejoined his 
troop — 20th April. 

3ni Dragoon Guards — Lieut. 
Arthur Charles Van Cortlandt to 
be capt., by purchase, vice A run- 
dell Neave, who retires; Comet 
Winship Percival Roche to be 
lieut., by purchase, vice Van Cort- 
landt; George Robert Hodgson, 
gent., to be cor., without purchase, 
vice Roche. 

4th Dragoon Guards — John 
Fisken Halket, gent, to be cor., 
by purchase, vice Ringrose, pro- 
moted. 

6th Dragoon Guards — James 
Dunlop, gent., to be cor., by pur- 
chase, vice Owen Phibbs, pro- 
moted. 

Ist Dragoons — The Hon. Cosby 
Godolphin Trench to be cor., by 
purchase, vice the Hon. Montague 
Henry Mostyn, promoted. 

4th Hussars — John Lambert 
Swale, gent., to be cor., by pur- 
chase, vice Harry Youl, pro- 
moted. 

8th Hussars — Lieut. Richard 
William Palliser to l>e capt., bv 
purchase, vice Esdaill Lovell 
Lovell, who retires ; Cor. Frederick 
Helyar to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice Palliser. 

12th Lancers — William Henrv 
Buttanshaw, gent., late Lieut. 5tQ 
Bengal European Regiment to be 
paymaster, vice Roberts, whose 
services have been dispensed with. 

13th Hussars — Joseph Mills 

f^nt., to be cor , by purchase, vice 
dward Charles Starkoy, pro- 
moted. 



14th Hussars — James Cnim, 

fent., to be cor., by purchase, vice 
ames Colc]uhoun Revell Roade, 
who has retu-ed. 

15th Hussars — Lieut. David 
Ricardo to be capt., by purchase, 
vice Phineas Bury, who retires; 
Cor. David Maxwell to be lieut. 
by purchase, vice Ricardo; Ro- 
bert Belford Wallis Wilson, gent., 
to be cor., by purchase, vice Max- 
well. 

18th Hussars — Lieut. Townley 
Patten Hume Macartney Filgate 
to be capt., by purchase, vice 
James Clarke Hicks, who retires ; 
Cor. Charles John Fletcher to be 
lieut., by purchase, vice Filgate ; 
William M^ieicalpine Leny, gent., to 
be cor., by purchase, vice Fletcher. 

Royal Regiment of Artillery — 
Lieut. George Agnew Goldingham 
to be sec. -capt., vice Henry Leen- 
win Dempster, who retires upon 
half- pay — 21st May. 

Royal Engineers — Lieut.-Col. 
Richard Strachey to be col., vice 
Stephen Pott, who retires — 3l8t 
Dec, 1862; Lieut.-Col. Samuel 
Edgar Owen Ludlow to be col., 
vice Charles Edward Faber who 
retires — 7th April ; Capt. David 
George Robinson to be lieut.-col., 
vice Strachey— 31st Dec, 1862; 
Capt. and Brevet-Major John 
Gumming Anderson to be lieut.- 
col., vice Ludlow — 7th April ; Sec. 
Capt. Frederick Sherwood Taylor 
to be capt., vice Robinson — Slst 
Dec, 1862; Sec. Capt. John 
MuUins to be capt., vice Brevet- 
Major Anderson — 7th April; 
Lieut. George Newmarch to be 
sec capt., vice Taylor — 31st Dec, 
1862. 

Military Train — Ens. Fergus 
McKenzie to be lieut., without 
purchase, vice Henry Clarke, de- 
ceased — 28th April. 

Grenadier Guards — Lieut, and 
Capt. Francis Wheler, Viscount 
Hood, to be capt. and lieut.-col. by 
purchase, vice Edward Henry 
Cooper, who retvc^'«^\ "^sc^^- "«d^ 



?EOM(yriOS9 AHD AFP0r!?TMIINT9» 



fAuo. 



re 



Lieiat, tba Hon. William Sliolto 
BoEglfts Home to be lieut* and 
CApt.t by purchase, vice Viscount 
Hood; Ens, and Lieut. Charles 
^James Herbert to be Ueut, and 
apt*, by jiurchaae* ym?<j Sudelej 
^Charlei Cfcorge, Lord Sudeky, 
who retires j Geo, Ernest Shelley, 
gent,, to be ens* und lieut., by 
purchase, vice the Hon. W, S. D. 
Home J tlio Hon. Eichard Mait- 
land Westenra Dawson to be ens* 
and lieut., by purchase, vice Her- 
bert— 24th June* 

let Begiment of Foot— Capt' 
John Jlinnio Mackenzie, from tbe 
I li>th Foot, to be capfc., vice Ouslow, 
^Kwho exch^ngt^s. 
^B 2ud Foot— Henry Barter, gent., 
^^m he ens*| by purchase, vice Bo- 
^^pMi Carr Ounscombe^ who re* 

5th Foot — Gapt, and Brev.-Maj. 
Arthur Scott to be maj,, by pur- 
chase, Yice John SwaiJie Hogge^ 
I who retires; Lieut, John Eioe 
INewbolt to be capt,, by pnrehftsej 
Vice Brev.'Maj. Scott; Ens* Thos. 
Tarleton to be lieut., by purchase, 
Tice Newbolt; Edward Hurms' 
worth Ruddach, gent*, to be ens*, 
by purctmse, vice Tarleton; Wm, 
flenry Mi^jori gent., to be ens,, by 
purchase, vice John Igglesdeu 
Troup, who retires — 24th June* 

17th Foot^Lieut* Samuel Brad- 
banie to be capt., without pur- 
vice Frederick Archibald 
ajcreicght, deceased — 15th May ; 
Ens* wiOiixm Frederick Woods to 
he Heut*, without purchase, vice 
Bradbnrne — 15th Mfty; James 
Hark Brooke, gent*, to be ens., by 
purchase, vit^ Woods* 

19th Foot— Cap t. Goo. OumIow, 
ffoin the 1st Foot, to be capt., vice 
Mackenzie, who exchanges; Wal- 
ter St. James Youngs gent.j to be 
ens*, by purchase, vice Eoginald 
Oh£blmer» transferred to the l&t 
Dragoon Guards. 

22nd Foot^-Lieufc. Wilhara Bus- 
feild to bo capt., by purchase, vice 
Eobert Conway Dobbs Ellis, who 
retiiies; Entj. Edward Stiaton to 
be lieut.i by purchase, vice Bna* 
feild ; Eichard Charles Hare, gent., 
to be ens*, by purchase, vice 
'Straton. 




28th B'oot — Capt, Frederick 
Edward MedhurKt, from half-pay, 
lute 4Srd Foot, to ho capt*, vice 
John William Preston, sw^owded 
on being appointed District In. 
epector of Musketry, 

Mth Foot — Ens. Henry E* 
Sharpe to he lieut., without por- 
chase, vice John Francis Wyse, 
promoted— 3rd March ; £nB. John 
Christopher Cowslad©, from 80rd 
Foot, to he ens*, vice Sharpe; 
Lieut* Georgo Malcolm to be adjt*, 
vice Lieut* John Francis Wyse, 
promoted, 

37th Foot— Ens. John Everard 
Wliitting to be lieut., without 
purchase, vice Biehard Bunn, xirO' 
moted to an Unattached Company, 
without purchase; "Paymftater, 
with the hon. rank of capt., Thos. 
Smith, from 25th Foot, to be pay- 
master, vice |jaymaster, with tne 
hou* rank of Capt,, Eaynsford 
Taylor, who resigns. 

49th Foot— Henry Board Wil- 
liams, gent., to be ens,, by pnr^ 
chase^ vice Bame, promoted, 

63rd Foot— Capt. Eobert St, 
John, from the 7*jnd Foot, to be 
capt., vice Thomas Chas* Ffrench, 
who exchanges. 

60th Foot — Ens. the Hon. 
Walter Court en ay Pepys to bo 
lieut*, by purchase, vice James 
Forboft, who retires; Edmund 
Lomax Eraser, gent., to be ens., 
by purchase, vice the Hon. W^alter 
Oourteiiay Pepys; Henry Eichard 
Ponsonby Lindesay, gent,, to be 
ens., by pnrcha^, vice Edward 
Burr, who retires — '24th June. 

72nd Foot— Oagt* Thos, Chaa. 
Ffrench, from the t(3rd Foot, to be 
capt., vice SL John, who ex- 
changes* 

7f5th Foot — Capt and Brevet- 
Lieut. -Col. Wilham Knox Orme, 
from half' pay, late 10th Foot, to 
be capt*, vice Capt* and Brevet- 
Li cut.- Col W^illiam Brookes, who 
retires upon half- pay. 

82nd Foot— Ens. Chas. Neville 
to be lieut*, without purchase^ vice 
Henry Abigail BUiSj deceased — 
27th May. 

83rd Foot— Lieut, William H. 
Ivimy to be capt., by pnrchasej 
\deo Willmm Minhoar, who retires. 



1863.] 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



609 



Ens. Charles Hay Tollemache to 
be lieut., by ptirchase, vice Ivimy ; 
John Christopher Cowslade, gent., 
to bo ens , by purchase, vice Tolle- 
mache. 

90th Foot— Lieut. Randall Iron- 
side Ward to be Instructor of 
Musketry, vice Lieut. Charles 
Dawson Barwell, promoted — 4?th 
March. 

95th Foot— Ens. H. Aldridge, 
from the S^th Foot, to be ens., in 
succession to Lieut. Charles James 
Holbrook, deceased. 

The restoration to full-pay of 
Capt. Frederick Edward Medhurst, 
from half-pay, late 43rd Foot, vice 
Crealock, seconded, on appoint- 
ment as District Inspector of Mus- 
ketry, as stated in the Gazette of 
the 20th Feb., last, has been can- 
celled, the latter officer having 
resigned the District Inspector- 
ship. 

102nd Foot— Ens. John Hamp- 
den Waller to be lieut., vice Cle- 
ment Headington Dale, who re- 
signs. 

2nd West India Regiment— 
Charies Siegfried Tobias-Temau, 
gent., late Lieut, and Adit , 1st 
Light Infantry, British German 
Legion, to be paymaster, vice John 
Craven Mansergh, appointed to 
the Royal Artillery. 

5th West India Regt.— Lieut.- 
Col. William Forbes Macbean, 
from St. Helena Regiment, to be 
lieut.-col. ; Maj. and Brev.-Col. 
Henry Gahan, from St. Helena 
Regt., to be lieut.-col., without 
purchase; Maj. Thos. Cochrane, 
from Gold Coast Artillery Corps, 
to be maj. ; Capt. Robert Alexander 
Loudon, from St. Helena Regt., to 
be maj., without purchase. 
To be Captains — 

Caps. Joseph Brownell, from 
Grold Coast Artillery Corps ; John 
Henry Prenderville, from St. 
Helena Regt. ; Henry Tayler, from 
St. Helena Regt. ; John Baldwin 
Hainault Rainier, from St. Helena 
Regt.; Thomas G. Danger, from 
Grold Coast Artillery Corps ; Edwin 
Hewett, from Gold Coast Artillery 
Corps; Henry John Fane, from 
St. Helena Regt.; John James 
Mathew, from Gold Coast Artillery 



Corps; Gisbome Homer, from 
Gold Coast Artillery Corps. 
To be Lieutenants — 

Lieut, and Adjt. John McNamee, 
from St. Helena Regt. ; Lieuts. 
Adolphus William Campbell, from 
St. Helena Regt.; John Lysaght 
Hewson, from St. Helena Regt. ; 
William RusseU Nash, from St. 
Helena Regt.; James Thomson, 
from Gold Coast Artillery Corps ; 
Anthony Edmond Donelan, from 
St. Helena Regt. ; Robert John 
Stewart, from Gold Coast Artillery 
Corps; Albert Sharp, from Gold 
Coast Artillery Corps ; Lieut, and 
Adjt. Thomas Davies, from Gold 
Coast Artillery Corps ; Lieuts. 
Francis Charles Gavegan, from 
Gt)ld Coast Artillery Corps ; Greo. 
Vauiier Lambe, from St. Helena 
Regiment; John Dudley Edward 
Crosse, from Gold Coast Artillery 
Corps. 

To be Ensigns — 

Ens. Thomas England, from St. 
Helena Regt. ; Thomas Storrar 
Smith, from St. Helena Regt.; 
George Henry Evans, from St. 
Helena Regt. ; Robertson Gilchrist 
Marshall, from Gold Coast Artil- 
lery Corps; Thos. Haffield Brien, 
from Gold Coast Corps; David 
Dempster Chadwick, from St. 
Helena Regt.; Robert Ejiapp 
Barrow, from Gold Coast Artillery 
Corps ; Quartermaster John Hob- 
son Wright, from the St. Helena 
Regt., to be quartermaster. 

Royal Canadian Rifle Regt. — 
Major Kenneth Mackenzie Moflatt 
to be lieut.-col. by purchase, vice 
Brevet-Col Williain Henry Brad- 
ford, who retires upon half-pay — 
12th May; Capt. Francis Gordon 
Hibbert to be maj., by purchase, 
vice Mofiat — 12th May; Lieut. 
Edward Whyte to be capt., by 
purchase, vice Hibbert — 12th 
May; Ens. Thos. Henry Selwyn 
Donovan to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice Whyte— 12th May. 

1££DICAL DEPAKTMBNT. 

Assist.- Surg. John Wood, from 
the Royal Artillery, to be staff 
assist.-surg., vice William James 
Mullan, placed upon half-pay. 

UNATTACHED. 

Lieut. GeoT^ Qc&«tfs^^ K-wsmL "^^ 



1863.J 



PHOMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



611 



BENGAL STAFF CORPS. 

ADMISSION. 

To be Major — 
Capt. (Brevet- Lieut.-Col.) Craw- 
ford Trotter Chamberlain, of the 
late 28th nat. in. — 18th Feb., 
1863. 

To be Captain — 
Capt Alexander Faterson, of the 
late 2nd European Infantry — 1st 
May, 1858. 

PROMOTIONS. 

To be Lieutenant-Colonel — 
Maj. (Brevet-Col.) William Edw. 
Mulcaster— 4th April. 

To be Major — 
Capt. Henry Boileau Adolphus 
Poulton— 7th April. 

To be Captain — 
Lieut. Henry Chad Cattley — 
20th March. 

ALTERATIONS OP RANK. 

The undermentioned officers will 
take rank from the dates specified : 
— Lieut.-Col. William Eichardson, 
from 25th March, 1861 ; Maj. Wm. 
Domett Morgan, from 25th Feb., 
1861 ; Maj. Henir Mills, from 19th 
Oct., 1861 ; Maj. Beujamin Parrott, 
from 27th July, 1861; Capt. John 
Crawford Millar, from 9th May, 
1861; Capt. Toovey Archibald 
Corbett, from 16th Jan., 1862; 
Capt. Chas. Allan McDougall, 
from the 2nd Feb., 1862. 

The promotion of Capt. John 
Smith to the rank of Major as an- 
nounced in the Gazette of 2nd 
Dec, 1862, has been cancelled. 

The promotion of Lieut. John 
Arthur Henry Moore to the rank 
of Capt., from 18th Feb., 1861, as 
announced in the Gazette of 2nd 
Dec., 1862, has been cancelled. 



rank from the dates specified:— 
Lieuts. Claude Stewart Morrison, 
from the 15th Dec, 1862 ; Frede- 
rick William Glasfurd, from the 
18th Dec, 1862 ; Percy Wyndham 
Smith, from the 23rd Dec, 1862. 

MADRAS STAFF CORPS. 

The admission of the undermen- 
tioned Officers to the Madras Staff 
Corps, as announced in the Lmv 
don GazeUe of 24th Feb, 1863, has 
been cancelled : — Lieuts. Frede- 
rick Gadsden, 5th nat. in. ; Wheat- 
ley Robertson, 5th nat. in. ; Geo. 
Tyndall, 1st nat. in.; H. Glover 
Puckle, 8th nat. in. ; Duncan 
McNeill, 26th nat. in. ; Alexander 
Cook, 32nd nat. in. 



BENGAL ARMY. 

Late 72nd nat. in. — Lieut. Harry 
Hammond Lyster, V.C, to be capt., 
in succession to Ford, retired — 
23rd Dec, 1862. 

General List of Infantry officers 
— Ens. Robert Chamley Squire 
Charles Tytler to be lieut, in 
succession to Corfield, late 9th 
n at. in., deceased — 25th Jan. ; 
James Cook to be lieut., vice 
Angus, resigned — 28th Jan. 

ALTERATIONS OP RANK. 

The undermentioned officers to 



MADRAS ARMY. 

3rd Regt. nat. in. — Capt. (Brev.- 
Maj.) Robert Jones to be maj., and 
Lieut. (Brev.-Capt.) Samuel Craw- 
ford Montgomerie to be capt., in 
succession to Keating, deceased — 
23rd March. 

50th Regt. nat. in. — Lieut. John 
Duval to be capt., vice Keating, 
retired— 1st Oct., 1861. 

General List of Infantry officers 
— Ens. Robert Hunter to be lieut., 
in succession to Keating, 3rd nat. 
in., deceased — 23rd March. 



BOMBAY ARMY. 

ALTERATIONS OF RANK. 

General List of Infantry Officers 
Lieuts. Evhna Gawler Sturt to 
take rank irom 24th Jan.; Edw. 
Robert Reay to take rank from 
31st Jan. 

MEDICAL OFFICERS. 

Assist.- Surg. John Henry Wil- 
mot, M.D., AS., to be aurg., vice 
Grierson, deceased — 7th Jan. 

ALTERATIONS OF BANK. 

Surgs. John Grant Nicolson, 
M.D., to take rank from 18th Dec, 
1862 ; Robert Millar, M.D., to take 
rank from 1st Jan. 

Downing Street, June 26. 

The Queen has beenpleased to 
appoint Sir Charles Henry Dar- 
liiig, K.C.B., (now Capt.-Gen. and 
Govemor-in-Chief in and over the 
Island of Jamaica and the Terri- 
tories depending there^wA N^ N'*^ 




612 







^^"7 ^vXJfc«' of Militia^ 



^ *o accept 






1863.] 



PBOMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



613 



the resignation of the commissions 
held by the following gentlemen : 

3rd West Eiding of Yorkshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Ens. Wm. 
Henrjf Bamsden ; Surg. John Little 
McMichan. 

39th West Riding of Yorkshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Ens. Geo. 
Henry Townend. 

Memorandum — 3rd London Rifle 
Volunteer Corps — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resi^oation of the commissions 
held by Ens. Arthur Richards and 
Assist.- Surg. Joseph Reid in the 
above corps. 

Memorandum— 4th London Rifle 
Volunteer Corps — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Adjt. Charles John Hamp- 
ton in the above corps. 

London Rifle Volunteer Brigade 
—Mr. Sidney Chater, M.R.C.8., to 
be assist.-surg. 

19th Somersetshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Ens. Thomas Walter 
Swayne to be capt., vice Hood, 
resigned. 

2nd Lancashire Light Horse 
Volunteer Corps — Frederick An- 
nesley Bretherton, gent., to be 
lieut. 

Ist Manchester or 6th Lanca- 
shire Rifle Volunteer Corps — Ens. 
Alfred King Pearce to be lieut. 

24;th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — William Moseley Mellor, 
Esq., to be capt. 

33rd Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Francis Marris Jackson, 
gent., to be lieut. 

3rd Manchester or 4?0th Lanca- 
shire Rifle Volunteer Corps — Geo. 
Whitehead, gent., to be ens. 

46th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Ens. Henry Payne to be 
lieut. 

2nd Orkney ArtiUeiy Volunteer 
Corps — James Cathie Scarth, Esq., 
to be capt. ; Mr. John Paul to be 
first lieut. ; Mr. William Harvey to 
be sec. lieut. 

4th Orkney Artillery Volunteer 
Corps — John Stanger, Esq., to be 
capt.; Mr. Alexander Rooertson 
to be first lieut. ; Mr. John D. Tur- 
ner to be sec. lieut. 

Memoranda — Her Majesty has 



been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commissions 
held by the following officers, 
viz: — 

1st Inverness-shire Artillery Vo- 
lunteer Corps — First Lieut. Kobt. 
Carruthers. 

3rd Inverness-shire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Capt. George Grant 
Mackay. 

3rd Inverness-shire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Robert Carruthers to 
be capt., vice Mackay, resigned. 

8th Company of Herefordshire 
Rifle Volunteers — Richard James 
Hereford, Esq., late capt. 73rd 
Regiment, to be lieut., vice Fredk. 
Bodenham, Esq., resigned ; Fredk. 
Bodenham, Esq., to oe ens., vice 
James Phillips, Esq,, resigned. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Capt. Frederic Morris in 
the 7th Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps. 
Also, the commission held by Lieut. 
John William Finch in the 42nd 
Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps. 

42nd Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps 
— Ens. Philip Simpson to be lieut., 
vice Finch, resigned ; Alfd. Monck- 
ton, gent., to be ens., vice Simpson, 
promoted. 

2nd Company of Wigtounshire 
Rifle Volunteers — Samuel Taylor, 
gent., to be ens., vice David Shaw, 
resigned. 

Inns of Court Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Springall Thompson to be 
ens., vice Murray, resigned. 

Memoranda — The Queen has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commissions 
held by the following officers, 
viz.: — 

St. George's Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Captain John Chichester 
Knox. 

Inns of Court Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Ens. William Powell Mur- 
ray. 

29th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Capt. William Henry Ab- 
solon. 

40th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Capt. Edward Letchworth. 

Ist or Exeter and South Devon 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — W^^Rst 
Charles Edwwcd ^\^^^ \»\s^ «s<^.n 



614 



PROMOTIONS AND APP01NTHKNT3. 



Ens. HeiiT7 Walrend to be capt. : 
Ens. (Jeorge Frederick Truscott to 
be licut. ; Ens. Charles Allin Bod- 
way to be lieut. 

Ist City of Edinburgh Artillery 
Volunteer Corps — First Lieut. 
John Silence to bo capt., vice Bal- 
lantyne, resigned ; William F. Val- 
lance to be sec. lieut. 

1st City of Edinburgh Rifle 
Volunteer* Corps — George Thomas 
Kinnear to l>e lieut., vice Black, 
resigned; George Fowler to be 
ens , vice Millons, resigned ; Archi- 
bald McKinlay to be ens., vico 
Lamb, resigned ; Alexander Orrock 
to be ens., vico Hill, resigned. 

2nd Derbyshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — George John Warren, Lord 
Vernon, to be capt.-commandt., 
vice Vernon, resigned ; Lieut. Chas. 
Edward Boothby to be capt., vice 
Coke, resigned; "^Ens. "William Cox 
to be Ueut., vice Broadburst, re- 
signed. 

Memorandum — Henrv Bour- 
chier Osborne Savile, Maj.-Com- 
maudt. of the 1st Gloucestershire 
Artillery Volunteer Corps, is en- 
titled to rank in the General Service 
from the l:3th of Sept., 1859, the 
date of the commission he held in 
the City of Bristol Rilie Volunteer 
Corps. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously i)leased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Hon. Assist.-Surg. Wm. 
Maodonald, M.D., in the 2iid Com- 
pany of the Dambartonsliirc Ritle 
Volunteer Corps. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resiguiition of the commission 
held by Lieut. Robert Kennedy in 
the 4th Coni])any of Dnmfi'iosshire 
Rifle Vt>IuTiteer Corps. 

Menioranduin — Tlci- Maje.^^ty has 
been gi'arioii.-^ly ])]oased to acci'pr 
the resignation of tho roniniission 
held by First Lieut. Kdmniul Ilan- 
nary Watts in the iWd Ni)rihiim- 
bcriand Volunteer Corps. 

Memorandum — Her Msijcsty has 
been gniciously pleased to acoept 
the resignation of the commissions 
held by Surtr. Gcortre Ciirr in tho 
1st Aberdeenshire Rijlo Volunteer 
Corps; Lieut. Charles Mackie nnd 



Sns. David Counoii h *L 
Aberdeenshire Rifle \. 
Corps. 

Memorandum — YIkt Y.- ■: 
been graciously ph-.i-rii • 
the resignation of ihr " .:.■ 
held by Lieut. Pairi-^^ 
Morrison in the 1st ?*•..:': 
Riiio Voliinteer Coq»-. 

Wah Office, Pat.l Mall ,*3j| 

14th Somerset .-"hirt' R;>"; 
teer Corps — Duncan W.liiiE lJ 
Skrine, gent., to Ik? ••ii'-, 
M. Skrine, promoti*«l. 

St. Georges Kill.' V „ 
Corps — Lieut. William H ur. 
to bo oipt., \-ice Kiiox. p.r'j? | 
Ensign Keginuld Thi-tl.:L' 
Coc-ks to ho licut., vice II .nr." 

20th Middlesex llie.o V .1 
Corps — Ens. John Fmn'^.s ': 
wick to l>e lieut.. vii-** iVot 
resigned. 

Memorandnm — Her M;ij-7 j^j 
been graciously ] »1 eased to »- 
the resignation of the comiL!- 
held by Lieut. John Wanl »i:-:- 
stone in the 1st (*heshire .\r.■> 
Voluntee^ Corps. 

Memorandum — Her MajerTi* 
been graciously pleased to i^ 
the resignation of the ronirr.;- 
held by First Lieut. Janii- A- 
burner in the 1 st Cheshire En --Jr 
Volunteer Corj)s. 

Memornndnm — Her M.-ijo-iv: 
been graciou.sly pleased to ai-^ 
the resignation of tlir com.:!:" 
held by Ens. Joliii Downing K;i: 
in the 0th Cheshiro Kith- V.,iu-.' 
Corps. 

r>th Cheshire Rifle Vol-in 
Corps — Henry Wai.-on .h- 
gent., to be en.^s . rice F.ii 
resijrned. 

1st. Brecknocksliiri" lliih- Vnl 
t('«TCorps— William Khy- l^^v^ 
Powi'l. Ksq., to be e;ij>f.-oiiriiin;4 

Isi Ifaiiipshin.' Eii^»'iin..t..r W.l 
tens— S(.'(r. Lieut. FrocLrick lU 
lv(;»cl ;S;nvver to be first liiiii . 
lJufh;m. i>"nnni.)ted; William «.'! 
Fit'h to 1m* si'c. licut.. vi('<» S;jw 
proinoU'd. 

1st Uiii.i|>^hiri' l^ifh." \'.W«in!. 
— Licui. Thninas iJiinnrc \Vu 
ham to In: e;ipr., \ it-c Faui; 
resi^^nod; Ens. Henrv .Sand 



1863.] 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOlNTMEN'l^. 



615 



Simonds to bo lieat., vice Wood- 
ham, promoted; Frederick Isaac 
Warner to be ens., vice Simonds, 
promoted. 

16th Hampshire Rifle Volunteers 
— WilUam Benson to be ens., vice 
Blackmore, promoted. 

Memorandum — 1st Hampshire 
Rifle Volunteers — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to approve 
of Gapt. Wilham Barrow Simonds 
bearing the designation of capt.- 
commandt. 

5th Company of the Stirlingshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Kobert 
Service, gent., to be ens, vice 
Fisher, resigned. 

lat Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps 
— William Haynes, the younger, 
gent., to be ens., vice Brennan, 
resigned. 

Memorandum — 2ndLincoln8hire 
Artillery Volunteer Corps—Her 
Majesty has been gnvciously 
pleased to accept the resignation 
of the commission held by Capt. 
Frank Long. 

Memorandum — 3rd Lincolnshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Her Ma- 
jesty has been graciously pleased 
to accept the resignation of the 
commission held by Lieut. James 
William Jeans. 

1st Administrative Battalion of 
Lincolnshire Rifle Volunteers — 
Maj. Weston Cracroft Amcotts to 
be lieut.-col., vice the Earl of Yar- 
borough, resigned. 

11th Lincolnshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — The Reverend George 
Urquhart to be hon. chap., vice the 
Rev. George Jeans, deceased. 

2nd Company of Banffshire Rifle 
Volunteers ( Aberlour) — George 
Riddoch to be heut., ^nce Hurry, 
resigned; John McKerron to be 
ens., vice Riddoch, promoted. 

3rd Company of banflsliire Rifle 
Volunteers (Keith) — Malcolm 
Stewart to be capt., vice Gordon, 
resigned. 

7tn Lancashire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps — John McGramn, gent., 
to be sec. lieut. 

Memorandum — The 71st Lanca- 
shire Rifle Volunteer Corps having 
been struck out of the records of 
the War Office, will henceforth 
cease to hold any number or desig- 



nation in the Volunteer Force, and 
Her Majesty has been graciously 
pleased to approve of the services 
of Lieutenants Innes Macpherson 
and William James Audsley and 
Ens. John Milligan in that Corps, 
being dispensed with. 

Her Majesty has been graciously 
pleased to accept the resignation 
of the commissions held by the 
following oflScers, via. : 

Maj. John Hornby in the 2nd 
Lancashire Rifle Volunteer Corps. 

Capt. William George Ainslie in 
the 37th A Lancashire Rifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps, and 

Lieut. Myles Kennedy in the 
52nd Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps. 

7th Northamptonshire Rifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps — Lieut. George Hod- 
son Burnham to be capt., vice 
Henry Minshull Stockdale, re- 
signed. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Capt. Alexander Bell in 
the 1st Forfarshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Ens. John Joseph Walmes- 
ley in the 2nd Cinque Ports Rifle 
Volunteer Corps. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Capt. Henry Williams 
Pemberton in the 2nd Cambridge- 
shire Mounted Rifle Volunteer 

Corps. 

THE ARMY GAZETTE. 
%* Where not otherwise specified, 

the following comimiBsions bear 

the current date. 
War Officb, Pall Mall, June 30. 

99th Regiment of Foot — Maj.- 
Gen. John Napper Jackson, from 
the 3rd West India Reginaent, to 
be coL, vice Gen. Sir John Hanbury, 
K.C.B., deceased — 8th June. 

3rd West India Regiment — Maj.- 
Gen. Maurice Barlow to be col., 
vice Maj.-Gen. John Napper Jack- 
son, transferred to the colonelcy of 
the 99th Regiment — 8th Junft. 



616 



PKOMOTIONS AND APPOlNTMRKTS, 



j^Auo, 



* 



* 



2nd Ecgiment of Life Ouarda — 
Tet. Surg. Thorntou Hart, from 
the 2iid Drngoonsi to be vet. eurg., 
vic^ John Legrew, who retires upon 
luUi-pav- 

2 nd Dragoons — ^Act. Yet, Surg. 
Andrew G. Roas to be vet. aurg*, 
vice Thonjfcon Htirt^ transferred ki 
the 2nd Life Gnards— 16th May, 

3rd Hiussflrs — Albert Praed Hali- 
f^» gent*, to bo cor., by pnrcbase, 
vice Dodgaon Hamilton ThompaoD, 
transfeirol to the 13th Foot* 

5th Lancers'-Act. Yet. Surg, 
Edward Stanley to be vet. surg., 
vice William C. Lord, tmnsferred 
to the Cavalry Depotj Canterbury 
—24th June, 1862. 

7th Hiieears^Cor. Hcniy Au- 
gustus Bushman to he lieut., by 
purchase, vico Charles H. Baillie, 
who retires ; William Steuart Lil- 
lingstoBi gent., to be cor,j by pur- 
chase, vieo Buf^bman. 

9th Lancers ^Francis Henry, 

fcnt,> to be cor., by purchase, ^nce 
hos* Alhin fiauniera, promoted; 
the Hon* Oliver George Powlett 
Montagu to he cor*, by purchase, 
vice William Hein-y Lawrence, 
promoted — 1st JuIt« 

13th Hussars—- Thomas Edward 
Stopford Hickmati, gent., to be 
cor., by purchase, yico Higford 
Hi g Ford, who retires. 

ItHb Hussars — Enmgti Joseph 
Schuyler Albert Bruffj Irom Mad* 
ras General List, to be cor.— 20th 
Becemher, 1860. 

20th Hussars — Ens. Dax id Car- 
ruthers Bttdd, from Hiwiras General 
List, to be cor- — '8th June, 1860; 
Ens. Henry Jopp Beattie, ^m 
Madras General List, to be cor,— 
llHh Decemljer, 1860^ Cor. Charles 
Bailey, from Bengal General List^ 
to be cor- — 16th Kovember, 1861. 

21 at Hussars— Ens. Eobert Carr 
Andrew, from Madras Gt?neral 
Lbt, to be cor. — 12th July, 1860; 
Ens. Joseph Williaui Mi n chin Cot- 
ton, from Madras General List., to 
be cor.— 20th December, 1860 ; Cor. 
Thomas Deane, from Madras GeTie* 
nd List, to he cor. — 4tli March, 
1802. 

Royal ArtiOery — Lieut.-CoL and 
Brev-Col Frank Turner^ C.B., on 



the Super. List, to be col. — ^lOth 
March; Lieut.-CoL Henry Alex- 
Carle ton, C.B., to be coL, viee 
Francis Claude Burnett, rehired 
upon iiill-pay — 10th March ; Cant. 
Wilham Baiubrigge Marshall to he 
lieut.-coL, vice Cnrleton^ — 10th 
March; Ser. Capt. William Alex. 
Boss to be capt., vice Maraliall — - 
10th March; Sec. Capt. Thomas 
Carlisle Crowe to be capt., vice 
Charles Clarke, removed to the 
Super. List^ — 10th March ; Lieut. 
Horace Seymour Kerr Pechell to 
be sec. capt., vice Crowe — ^lOtb 
March ; Lient. James Sconce to be 
sec. capt., vice Boss-^rd April; 
Lieut. Edmund Btayeley t-o ho sec* 
capt., vice Charles Donnethome 
Bevan, deceased — V>th June: the 
promotion of Sec. Capt. James 
Cecil Grove Price has been an to- 
dated to the 10th ^laroh. 

Boyal Etigineers — Sec. Capt. 
Lionel Charles Barber, from half- 

Say, to be see, capt., vice Brev.- 
taj. Charles George Gordon, placed 
on the Secern ded List — lt>th May; 
Lieut. Lewis Gower Stewart baa 
been permitted to resign his com.- 
miaaion; the services of Lieut, 
William Gustavus Temple Stace 
have been dispensed with. 

6th Foot— Ens. Axigustus Wm. 
Whitworth, from the lOOth Foot, 
to be ens., vice Alfred Tee van, 
promoted. 

7th Foot — Valentine John Au- 
gustus Browne, geiit.^ to be ens., 
by purchase, vice Moore, ti-ansfor- 
red to the 20 th Foot ; the exchange 
between Lieut. Yin cent Upton 
Langworthy, of the 7th Foot, and 
Lieut. Joseph Booley, of the lOOth 
Foot, which appeared in the Goizetts 
of the 20th February, has been 
canceUed. 

8th Foot — Lieut. Jamea S eager 
Whecley to he capt., by purchaae, 
vic*G Alfred Bownie Cora old, who 
retires; Ens, William Wiiloughhy 
Egerton to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice Whecley ; Berkeley Augustus 
Fonblanque, gent., to be ens., 
without purchase, vice Egerton. 

11th Foot —Ham p den Den i ly, 
gent., to bo ens., by mirehaee, % ice 
George William Westropfi, who 
rot i reft. 



I 



isesj 



PROKOTtONS Aim APP0rNTMEHT3. 



12th Foot—Lieut. Heniy J. Jfac- 
Bonnell to b© adjt., vice George 
Gibs on t promoted to an Unattached 
Com pan T, without purchase. 

14th i'oofc— CapL Robert Wm. 
Jenkins, from half- pa y» late 8th 
Husaars, to be capt., vice William 
John Coen, who reverte to lialf- 

16th Foot — Ciipt and Brev.-Maj, 
Charles Armstrong to be maj.^ 
without purchase, rice Maj. and 
Brer.-Lieut,-Gol. John Willefc 
Payne Auclain^ who retires upon 
fitll-pay; Lieut. Charles Wynn 
Isdell to be cnpt, without purchase, 
vioe BreT,-Mtij, Ann strong; Ens. 
Hichard Wood Robinson to be 
lieut., without purchase, vice Isdell j 
Ens, Robert Rainier McQueen, 
from tho 44th Foot, to be ana., 
vice Robinson, 

19 th Foot — Maj. Henry de Benzy 
Pigott, from the 83rd Foot, to l>e 
mnj.i rice Bates, who exchanges, 

20th Foot — Lieut. Samuel John- 
Btone to be oipt., by^purchaee, vice 
Charles Frederick Houghton, who 
retires ; Ens, Frederick Wat kins 
Barlow to be hout,, by purchase^ 
vice Johnstone; Ensign Stewart 
Abercrombie Wrou^hton to bo 
lieut*, by purchase, vioe Charles A- 
Yomon, who retires i Ens. Thomas 
Ottiwell Moore, from the 7th Foot, 
to bo ens., vice Wrougbfcon; John 
Hugh Ford, ^nt., to be ens^ by 
purchase, rice Barlow. 

21 at Foot— Lie a t» P^rancis Wm, 
Kamilton to bo capt.^ by purchase^ 
vice Robert Beat tie Henderson, 
who retires — let July; Lieut. Jas, 
Houry Patrick soo to he t^pt., by 
purchase, rice Auenatus Breodon, 
who retires — 1st Jnly^ Ena. and 
Adjt. James Ferguson to be lieut., 
by purchase, rice Edward Thomas 
Bainbridge, promoted; Ens, Fredk. 
Packtnan to be lieut,, without pnr- 
chaae— 1st July; Ens. Henry Beres- 
ford Nangle to be lieut., liy pur- 
chase, rice Hamilton— 1 at July; 
Ens, James A\Tiitton to be lieut., 
by purchase, rice PatrickBOn- — 1st 
July ; SaroDcl Francis Ward* gent., 
to be en;*., by purchase, 'rice Fer- 
guson; Thomas Capel Eoae, gent., 
to be ens,, by purchase, rice Nangle 
— Isfc July; Lieut. Frederick Geo. 

U, 8, Mao, No< 417, Ai30,\^^^. 



Jackson to bo adjt., vice Lieut- 
Robert Cook, pix^moted* 

23rd Foot— Gent,*Cadet Fredk. 
Stringer, from the Boyal Military 
College, to bo ens*, without pur- 
chase, rice George Pepper Lowry, 
whoae transfer from the 100th Foot, 
which appeared in the Gasiiitte of 
12th instantr haa been cancelled. 

24th Foot— Gent.-Cadet Edward'i 
Hotiry Bandolph, from the Royal 
Military College, to be eni., without 
purchase, yice George James Gor- 
don, prom^oted. 

Slat Foot — Ma], and Brer,- 
Lieut.-CoL Robert John Eagar to 
be lieut.-col., without purchase, vice 
Brer,* Col, Frederick Spence, C.B., 
who retires upon full -pay; Capt. 
and Brev,-Maj. Greorce Walter 
Baldwin to be maj., without pur- 
chase^ rice Brer.'Lieut.-CoL Eagar; 
Lientw Thomas Christian By croft 
to be cant*, without purchase, rice 
Brev,-Mui. Baldwin ; Ens, Francis 
William Henry Da vies Butler to 
be lieut,, without porchasei, vice 
Rycroft. 

36th Foot^Ens. Thomas En- 
raght Percy Ti^rwhitt to be lieut,, 
by purchase, rice George Cotton ^ 
Dumergue, who retires; William 
Hamilton Marriott, gent., to ba 
ens., by purchase, vice Tyrwhitt. 

39 th Eoot^Goorge Oharles Daw- 
son Bampfield, gent., to be ena., 
without purchase, rice Henry 
French Cotton* transferred to the 
92nd Foot, 

41 fit Foot — Sydney Hooper, 

f&nt., to be ens*, by purchase, vice 
homas Horner Pearson, trans* 
ferrcd to the 43rd Foot. 

42nd Foot — Lieut. Edward Or- 
lando Tan Haldane, from half-pay, 
14th Hussars^ to be lieut., ricei 
William Wood, promoted to an 
Unattached Company, without pur- 
chase; Lieut. James Edmund 
Christie to be ac^t., vice Lieut. 
William Wood, promoted to au 
tFnattached Company, without pur- 
chase — 4th ilay* i 

43rd Foot— Ens. Coll McLeod to ' 
be lieut , hj purchase, vice Evelyn 
Arthur Rich, who retires; Ena. 
Thomas Homer Pearson, from the 
41 at Foot, to he ens., rice McLeod, 

47th Foot— Lifi^sit, "^'^vamj^ K/sst- 



mm 



1618 



PRQMOnONS AIfI> APFOIfflTMENTS, 



|tiogy d© Bttlmhard to bo iiistf «ctor 

muafcctrj, vipcs Licut^ Emept 

Peake Newman, promoted — 1st 

ryOth Foot— Lieut Chiirlos An- 
fiiatufl Fitzgomld Creji^h to be 
hpt., 'without purchase, vice Alfred 
John LanOj deecaacMJ — ^6th May; 
"is. Eichard Oliffe Eicliiaorul to 
licut., "irithout purchase*, vice 
>PBgh — 6th Mav, 

5fii"d Foot— Lieut. Robert Holt 
Truell to \w capt., by purchase, 
^co William Henry Oampion, who 
"rea ; Ens* HeniT' Douglna Eooke 
be lieut-s by pn re base, vice 
iicll; Jtihn Gmllum Scott, gent^ 
>be ens., by piircbase, vice Rooke. 
60tli Foot-* Lieut. Ken nett Gregg 
lenderfion to be capt., by purchase, 
ieo WiUiam Bpicer Cookworthy, 
Ij retire b ; Ens. Pranci s Wil 1 iam 
ohins to bo lioiit.j by purchase, 
4ce Henderson; John Bartlett 
itradling, gent,, to bo ens,, by 
%rchaBO, vice Robins. 
^67th Foot—Capt. Charles B. 
aowles, from half-pay, late 7?th 
Foot, to be captp^ vHce 13rev*-Maj» 
Teury Crofton, who retires upon 
kniJorary hfllf-pay. 
^Wh Foot— Oapt. William Wood, 
]_ half- pay, late 4*2 iid Foot, to 
eapt,, TToe the Hon. John Bap- 
fiste Joseph Dormer* seconded on 
Hnjg appointed District InBpector 
? MnsketTy. 
[• 75th Foot— Lieut, Frederick 
Cornwall to be capt., by purchase, 
_Jce Bn}v,*Lieiit.-Col. William 
Itnox Orme, who retires ; Ens. 
Boberfc John Fitzgerald Day to ho 
lieut,, liy purchase, vice Corn wall ; 
Joseph Napoleon Fitz-Mathew, 
gerit., to be ens,, by purchase, vice 
Oscai" Vem^de, who retires ; Bay- 
mo nd WiUiam Parr, gent,, to be 
mm., by purchase, \ace Day — Isfc 
Jnly, 

83rd Foot — Maj. Robert Baieg, 
from the 19th Foot, to be maj., vice 
Pigott, who exchanges. 

84th Foot— Gent.-Ofldet Regi- 
nald Williaiti Pockitt, from tne 
Royal Military Collepje, to bo ens , 
without purchase, vice Henry A Id- 
rid m;, transferred to the 0-^th Foot. 
8.^th Foot— Lieut. Finch Whit© 
to be instructor of musketry, vice 



[Aro. 



Lient, George Henry Staee, who 
i^aigns the Rppomtmant — 1 8th 
June. 

88tb Foot^-Capt, John Edwin 
Bjcksoii Hill to revert to half-|>ay, 
Capt and Brev**Maj, Joshua Grant 
Crosse, who was seconded on 20th 
Pebruarj, 1863, on appointment us 
district inspector of musketry, re- 
suming his former position as 
regimental capt. 

t>2nd Foot— Ens, Henry French 
Cotton, from the 39th Foot, to be 
ens., vice Walter Sherwill Stan- 
hope Tronp, who retire 8, 

9^.th Fixit— Lieut, Charles Butler 
to be capt., by purchase, vice Oi- 
mond de Lancey Prianls, who 
retires; Ens. Percival Richard a to 
be lieut*, by purchase, vice Butler; 
Gent. -Cadet George Eobinson, 
from the Royal Military College, 
to be euB., by purchase, vice 
Bichards 

95th Foot — Ens. John French 
Jordan to he lient., by purchase, 
vice Albert Jones, who retires ; 



I Jon 



ens , by purchase, vice Jordan, 

97th Foot— Ens. Madoc Davies 
to be heut., by purchase, vice Robt. 
Gray, who retires; Joseph Henry 
Jameson, gent., to be ens,, by pur- 
chase, vice Davies. 

IMth Foot^-The exchange be- 
tween Lieut. Joseph Dooley, of the 
100th Foot, and Lieut. Vincent 
Upton Langworthy, of the 7th 
Foot, which appeared in the GaxeUe 
of the aOth Feb,, 1863, haa been 
coJicelled, 

101st Foot— To bo En?igns— 
Eweigns Albert Lloyd, from Madras 
Genei*al List — 7th June, 1861 ; 
Algernon Robert Sanderson from 
Madras Genersd List — 8th June, 
1861; George Seguudo Sew ell, 
from Bengal General Lisfc^lltb 
July, 1861 ; Willian Henry Browne 
from Bengal General 'Liit — 20 
Dctoher, 1861. 

103rd Foot— To bo En signs- 
En eisms John Gal way, from Bom- 
bay General Liat>— 27th Sept,, I860; 
Tbomas Price, from Madras Gene- 
ral List — 7th June, 1861 ; Edmond 
George Po^vys Wood, from Madras 
General List— 8th June, 1861; 
Andrew Hariy Spencer Neill, from 



1868.J 



.PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



610 



Madras General List— 20th Aug., 
1861; Edmund Leopold Clarke, 
from Bengal General List— 2nd 
Jan., 1862. 

104th Foot— Lieut. Sir Atwell 
King Lake, Bart., to be capt., vice 
Francis Ingram Conway-Gordon, 
who retires ; Ens. Robert Campbell 
Richardson to be lieut., vice Sir 
Atwell King Lake. To be Ensigns 
— Ensigns Lestock Walters Iredell, 
from Madras General List — ^th 
Oct., 1860; WUliam Henry Curtis 
Smith, from Madras General List 
—19th Dec., 1860; Vincent Chas. 
Edward Parker, from Bengal Gene- 
ral List— 8th June, 1861 ; Theodore 
Augustus Tharp, from Madras 
General List — 8th June, 1861; 
Arthur Leycester Wynter, from 
Madras General List— 20th Aug., 
1861; Brodrick Hudleston, from 
Bengal Groneral List— 4th Dec, 
1861. 

106th Foot— To be Ensigns- 
Ensigns James Winslow, from 
Madras General List — 20th Nov., 
1860 ; Edmund Rogers Coker, from 
Madras Greneral List — 8th June, 
1861 ; Henry Bailey, from Bengal 
General List— 2nd Oct., 1861 ; Guy 
Golding Bird, from Madras Greneral 
List-^th Jan., 1862. 

107th Foot— To be Ensigns- 
Ensigns Edward Thorpe Rogers, 
from Madras General List — 12th 
Juno, 1860; William Morgan Play- 
fair, from Madras General List — 
19th December, 1860; John Geo. 
Montague De Lair Bean, from 
Madras General List — 19th Dec, 
1860; Frederick William Nicolay, 
from Madras General List — 8th 
June, 1861; Walter Cave, from 
Bombay Greneral List — 8th June, 
1861; George William Beresford, 
from Bengal Greneral List — 26th 
Oct., 1861 ; Alexander lunes Shep- 
herd, from Bengal General List — 
20th December, 1861. 

109th Foot— To be Ensigns- 
Ensigns Alexander Hayes, from 
Madras General List — 7th June, 
1861; Alfred Hercules iMayhew, 
from Madras General List— 8th 
June, 1861 ; William Holden Webb, 
from Bombay General List — 8th 
June, 1861; Richard Tabuteau 
Mayne, from Bengal General List 



—2nd Jan., 1862; Arnold Dash- 
wood Strettell, from Bengal Gene- 
ral List— 4th March, 1862. 

. STAPP. 

Lieut.-Col. and Brev.-Col. John 
Miller Adye, C.B., Royal Artillery, 
to be deputy-adjt. general to the 
Royal Artillery serving in the 
East Indies, vice Lieut.- Col. G. 
Moir, C.B., who resigns the ap- 
pointment — 23rd June. 

Lieut.-Col. Henry Lynedoch G^- 
diner. Royal Artillery, now serving 
as assist. -adjt.-gen. to the Roysd 
Artillery at Head-Quarters, in the 
room of Brev.-Col. Edwin Wode- 
house, C.B., whose period of service 
has expired — 1st July. 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Staff Surg. Luke BaiTon, M.D., 
having completed 20 years' full 
pay service, to be staff surg.-maj., 
under the provisions of the Royal 
Warrant of 1st October, 1858— 7th 
May. 

Staff Assist.- Surg. Greo. Calvert 
to be staff surg., vice Curtiss 
Martin, appointed to the 2nd West 
India Regiment — 18th June, 1862. 

VETEKINAKY DEPARTMENT. 

Michael Francis Healy, gent., to 
be act. vet.-surg , vice Daniel Mac- 
lean, promoted. 

Charles Percivall, cent., to be 
act. vet.-surg., vice Andrew Gal- 
braith Ross, promoted. 

BREVET. 

The undermentioned oflScers 
having completed the qualifying 
period of service in the rank of 
lieut.-col., under the provisions of 
the Royal Warrant of 14th Oct^ 
1858, to be Colonels: — 

Maj. and Brev.-Lieut.-Col. Colin 
Frederick Campbell, 46th Foot— 
24th Jan. 

Lieut.-Col. Henry Aim^ Ouvry, 
C.B., half-pay, 9th lancers, Assist.- 
Quartermaster-Gren. at Ceylon — 
26th March. 

Lieut.-Col. William Payn, C.B., 
72nd Foot— 22nd April 

Lieut.-CoL the Hon. Augustus 
Greorge Charles Chichester, 77th 
Foot— 16th June. 

Col. Francis Claude Burnett, on 
the Retired Full-pay List, Royal 
Artillery, to be mai.-gen., the raiik 
being honorary oxij— "\5^K5Gr^^3S3c^«^* 



630 



PttOMOTIOSS AlfD APPOIHTMBNT8. 



[Aoo. 






Lietit.-Col and Brev^-Col. Predk, 

|Spenc<% C.B., rctirod fiillpny, 31st 

oot, to haye the honorary rank of 

Maj. and Brov,-Lieut,-CoL John 
Willett Pajiio Audain, retired fall* 
paj, l^ith Foot, to have the hon. 
Tank of coL 

Maj. Pelix AngnatuB Victor 
itirburn, retired full-pay, Bengal 
~5taf!' Corps, to have the non^ rank 
of liDiit.-coL 

Deputy rnspector-Gen. of Hos- 
pital a Lornelius Clarke Lin I on, 
retired on fall-pav from Her Ma* 
jo&ty*a Indian Military Forces, to 
havG the hon, rank of inspector- 
gen, of hospitals* 

Deputy Inspector- Gen. John 
PoTl>e3, retired on full -pay from 
Her Majesty's Indian Military 
Forces, to have the hon. rank of 
innpcctor-gen. of hospitals. 

Hurg.-Maj. Charles Morch(?ftd, 
T^tired on full -my from Her Ma- 
jesty's Indian Military Forces, to 
nave the hon. i-ank of deputy 
iuBpector-gen. of hospitals. 

PaTmaster, with the hon. rank 
of Maj,, Charles Scarlin I^aylor, 
upon lialf-paj» late of the Invalid 
Der>ot| Yarmouth, to hare the hon. 
rank of lieut.-coL — 1st Jutie. 

Paymaster Norbome Gilpin 
Smith t 17th Foot, to haye the hon* 
rank of capt. — 14th May. 

Payro faster Au^atu^ Bolle de 
Lasailo. 20th Foot, to have the hon, 
nink of cQpt,^18th May. 

Paymaster James GeorgGt 92nd 
Foot,' to have the hon. rank of 
capt — 21st May, 

The undermentioned promotions 
to take place m her Majesty's 
Indian Military Forces, conseriuent 
on the death of Lien t.- Gen. Bohcrt 
Blaekn-U. Bengal Infantry, on the 
2(*th April ■— 

Maj*- Gen* Howard Dowker, 
Infantry, to be lient.-gen. 
-21it April 

Col. George Bumey, Bengal 
Inlantry, lo bo maj .-gen, — 2 1st 
April, 

The nndermentioned officer e to 
tiave the local rank of lieut.-col, t — 

CapL Lewrie Pol by, of the Bom- 
1bay Stair, whilst filling the appoint- 



ment of res i dent in the Persian 
Gulf. 

Capt, Herl>ert Frederick Die- 
browe, of the Bombaj St^fl' Corps* 
whilfit acting as British agent at 
Muscat. 

Capt. Robert Lyon Playfair, of 
the Madras Artillery, wbilEst acting 
as British agent at Zanzibar, 

THE VOLUNTEER GAZETTE, 
War Oi'FiCE, Pall Mall, June 30. 
lut Shropshire Artillery Yolnn- 
teer Corps— Edward Burd, M.B., 
to be ftssist.-surg. j Joseph Bay ley 
to l>e hon.-ftsaist.-surg. 

lltth Renfrewshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — James Wilson, gent, 
to be ons.^ vice Irvine, resig^ned. 

Queen's (Westminster) Ride Vo- 
lunteer Corps— -Capt. Joseph Wm. 
Bushby to be maj*, vwe Loch, re- 
signed; Lieut. James Sherwood 
wostraacott to be capt, rice 
Bushby, promoted. 

Memoranda m — Queen 'a ( West- 
mi nafcer) Rifle Volunteer Corps— 
The Queen has been graciously 
pleased to accept the resignation 
of the Commissions held by the 
following Officers ; viz. i Jlajor 
Henry Brougham Loch, C.B, ; 
Capt. Herbert Henry WalfortL 

Memorandum — 37th Middlesex 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — The Queen 
has been graciously pleased to 
accept the resignation of the Com- 
mission held by the following 
officer; vk,: Capt, Edward 
Sayer. 

7th West Riding of Yorkshire 
Rifle Yolnntcors — Robert Gtinter, 
Esq., late Capt. 4th Dragoon 
Guards^ to be maf, 

25th West Riding of Yorkshire 
Ril^e Volunteers *-* Ens. Jasper 
Leavens White to be bent., vice 
Baker, resigned; Arthiir Robson 
White^ gent,, to be ens.j yice J. L, 
White, promoted. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Capt. H. Jeflreys Fam^r 
in the 37th Kent Rifle Volunteer 
Corps, 

12th Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps 
— ^Edward Stainton Hall, geiit , to 
l>e lieut , vice Rafihleigh, ret^ignetl; 



1863.] 



PBOMOIiONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



621 



William Shadbolt, ^nt., to be- 
ens., vice Butler, resigned; Max- 
man Spurrell, Esq., M.D., to be 
hon.-assist.-sm'g., vice Tippetts, 
resigned. 

37th Kent Eifle Volunteer Corps 
— The Hon. Willi£«n Archer Am- 
herst (conunonly called Lord Vis- 
count Holmesdale) to be capt., vice 
Farrar, resigned; Henry Jeffreys 
Farrar, gent., to be lieut., vice 
Whitford, deceased. 

[The following Appointment 
is substituted for that which 
appeared in the Gazette of the 6th 
inst. :] 

23rd Norfolk Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — The Rev. Edward Charles 
King Bearcroft to be honorary 
chaplain. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commis- 
sion held by First Lieut. William 
Hichens in the 11th Cornwall Ar- 
tillery Volunteer Corps. 

11th. Cornwall Artulery Volun- 
teer Corps — Sec. Lieut. William 
Cade to be first lieut.; Robert 
Snaith Hichens to be sec-lieut. 

Memorandum — ^Ist Berwick-on- 
Tweed Artillerv Volunteer Corps 
— Her Majesty nas been graciously 
pleased to approve of Capt. Thos. 
Allan bearing the designation of 
Capt.-com. 

Memorandum — 3rd Argyllshire 
Rifle Volunteers — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commission 
held by Assi8t.-Surg. John Pirie 
in the above corps. 

Wab Office, Pall Mall, July 3. 

7th Lancashire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps — First Lieut. George 
Sinclair Kobertson to be capt. 

12th Lancashire Artillery Vo- 
lunteer Corps — First Lieut. Ro- 
bert Anderson, to be capt. Sec. 
Lieut. Robertson Femie to be first 
lieut. ; Sec. Lieut. Thomas Barnes 
Clarke to be first lieut; Sec. 
Lieut. Thomas Couldrey to be first 
lieut. 

2nd Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Capt. Thomas Lund to be 
mw. 

37th A. Lancashire Rifle Volun- 



teer Corps — ^Myles Kennedy, Esq.» 
to be capt 

52nd Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — John Henry Augustus 
Schneider, gent., to be lieut. 

64th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Capt. Peter Sylvester Bid- 
will to be maj.; Lieut. Thomas 
Feild to be capt. ; Edmond Joseph 
Hore, Esq., to be capt; Ens. 
John Frederick O'Donnell to be 
lieut. ; Assist.-Surg. Daniel Walter 
Parsons to be surg. 

80th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — ^Henry John Simpson, 
gent., to be lieut 

Memorandum — ^The Queen has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commis- 
sions held by the following Offi- 
cers, viz.: Lieut. Roland Davies 
in the 1st Manchester or 6th 
Lancashire Rifle Volunteer Corps ; 
and Capt. William Thomas Black- 
lock, in the 80th Lancashire Rifle 
Volunteer Corps. 

26th Somersetshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Washington Lafistyette 
Winterbotham, gent., M.B., to be 
assist. -surg. 

34th Cheshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Fitzrov Somerset Coch- 
rane, gent , to be ens., vice Hewitt^ 
resigned. 

South Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Hon. Assist-Surg. Wm. 
Burke Ryan, M.D., to be assist.- 
surg. 

48th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — James Henry Worthy to 
be ens. 

Memorandum — 29th Middlesex 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Her Ma- 
jesty has been pleased to signify 
her pleasure that Lieut. Greorge 
Forbes Upward be removed from 
the Commission which he holds in 
this corps. 

1st Newcastle-upon-Tyne Artil- 
lery Volunteers — Major Henry 
Christian Allhusen to be lieut- 
coL; First Lieut Hugh Clayton 
Armstrong to be capt; First 
Lieut. Hugh Clayton Armstrong 
to be capt; First Lieut. Willian^ 
George Woods to be capt; See. 
Lieut. Ralph Hume Tweddell to 
be first Ueut; Sec. Lieut Wm« 
Charles Ponsford Uj \;^^s:^X5«sQas*.x 



eu 



PKOMOTIOKS AKO AFPOTKTMKHTS. 



[Aro.! 



Super*-Lient. Eicbard WhitG to 
be first--lieut. ; Cbarles Albert 
Schlettinger, gent » to bo first 
lietifc. ; MatfcUewr Whefttley Andor 
son* gent,, to t>e soc'lieut* 

8ih Northumberland Bifle To' 
Itinteer Coq>s— Lieut. R. L. Lati- 
mer to lie cBpt. 

Hemorftndum— The Quoeti has 
been gracionslj pleased to accept 
the resignation of the comraiBsion 
held by Capt. Henry Walker Ker- 
rich in the 14th Company of 
Surrey Rifle Tolunteers, 

lith ComfMiny of Surrey Bifid 
Yoluntccra — G<30. Heniy Oazalet, 
Esq., late Capt. 3ani Foot, to be 
cafit., vice Kerrich, resigned* 

Wiltabire Eifle V^jlunteera — let 
CoTOijany— Wm. Pnickney, Esq., 
to lie captain. 

fith Company — "William Anstie, 
gent., to l>e ens, 

6th Oomiiany— The Kev* Ri* 
chard Rowley to be honorary 
chapliiin. 

MemomTiduni— Her Majesty has 
been grQciou.*^ly pleiised to accept 
the resi^atien or the commi«eioim 
held by Capt. Ambrose Denig 
Hussey, Lieut. Edw. Dean Fisher, 
and En a. Charles Brown in the Ist 
Wiltshire Ride Volunteer Corps ; 
and Capt. Charles Heniy Sains- 
bnry Ptekwiek in the Pth Wiltshire 
Ride Volunteer Corps. 

Me monm dn m — Her Mai es ty ' a 
acceptance of the resi^iation of 
the Commission held by Hon. 
Aeaist.-Surg. Oliver Galley Mau- 
rice in the 17tb Wilts Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps has been cancelled, 

1st Ecnfrowflhire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — James Bruce Miliar, 
gent., to be ens,, %nce Black, re- 
signed. 

9th Berby shire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Edward Ward Fox, Esq., 
to be liont., Tice Thorn hiU, re- 
Bigned. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciouasly pleased to accept 
the resignation of Lieut, William 
Pole Thomhill in the 9th Derby- 
shire Rifle Volunteers. 

[The following Appointment is 
substituted for that which ap* 
peared in the Gai^tk of the 23rd 
ttlt.] 



2nd Derbyshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Get>. Jobn Wan*cTi, Lord 
Vernon, to bo capt., vice VemoUr 
resigned- 

Memorandum^ — Her Majeety has 
been graciously jileased to approve 
of Captain Lord Vernon hearing 
the title of Capt.- Com t, of this 
Corps. 

3rd Admini^tmtive Battalion of 
Durham Rifle Vol unteers^ Jamea 
Guorgo Erhaltu, Esq., late Capt. 
55th Foot, to be a^jt., irom tne 
lat of April. 

Memorandum — Adjt* James 
Geor^ Echalaz, of the Ui'd Admin* 
i strati ve Battalion of Durham Riiie 
Volunteers, to serve with the rank 
of Capt. 

1st Lancashire Engineer VoUm- 
te^er Corps — Richard D*Oyley 
Fleteber, Esq.* to be adjt., from the 
lith of April. 

THE ARMY GAZETTE. 
Wae Office. Pall Malu July 10, 
*«* Where not otherwis^espocifled, 

the following Coramiatiiona beai' 

the current date. 

Ist Re^ment of Dragoons — 
Lieut. Juhus Tottenham, mno the 
60th Foot, to be lieut. vice Orott, 
who eseh,^nges. 

9th Lrtnwrs — Lient. William 
Macnaghton Erskine to be capt. by 
piiivhase, vice Samuel Ash ton 
Fretor, who re tiro ft; Cor. Perceval 
Clark to be lieut. by purchase, vice 
Erakine. 

15th Hussars — Cor- William 
Mactdpxne Leny, from the 18lh 
Hussars, to be cor. vice Martin 
FaiTingtorii deceased. 

16th Lancers — Lieut. Richard 
Fielding MoiTison to be capt. by 
purchase, rice David Barclay, who 
retires; Cor. Hans Sloane- Stanley 
to be lieut. by purchase, vice 
Morrison ; A u guatus C rti h Dobree, 

fent. to be cor. by purchase, vice 
loane- Stanley ; Jemmett Charles 
Duke, gent, to be cor. by purt^baee, 
vice Henry Mitchell Jones, trans- 
ferred to the 1st Dragoon Guards. 
Royal Artillery — ^Lient.-Col. and 
Brev.-Col. Thomas Beckett Field- 
ing Marriott to be <:'ol, vice Edwnnl 
Walter Crofton, C.B. deceased--^ 
27th June; Capt. and Brev--Miy 



1868.] 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



623 



John Lindredge Eleee to be lieut.- 
coL vice Brev.-Col. Marriott — 27th 
June; Sec. Capt. Albert Henry 
Wilmot Williams to be capt. vice 
Brev.-Lieut.-Col. John Davenport 
Shakespear, placed upon half-pay 
— 19th June; Sec. Capt. William 
Smjrth Majmard Wolfe to be capt. 
vice Brev.-Maj. Elgee— 27th June ; 
Lieut. Wallace Gilmour to be sec. 
capt. vice Williams — 19th June; 
Lieut. Robert Preston Lewi3 Welch 
to be sec. capt. vice Wolfe — 27th 
June. 

Royal Engineers — Capt. Charles 
Edward Dawson Hill to be Heut.- 
col . vice Ouchteriony, deceased — 
30th April; Sec. Capt. Joseph 
Gore Rjrves to be capt. vice Hill — 
30th April : Lieut. John Ord Hal- 
sted to be sec. capt. vice Balgrave, 
deceased — 22nd March ; Lieut. 
Harry North Dalrymple Prender- 
gast to be sec. capt. vice Mullens, 
promoted — 7th April ; Lieut. Fre- 
derick Augustus Howes to be sec. 
capt. vice Ryyes— 30th April. 

Scots Fusilier Guards— Maj. and 
Brev.-CoL John Hamilton Elphin- 
stone Dalrymple to be lieut.-col. 
without purchase, vice Brev.-Col. 
Francis Seymour, C.B. who retires 
upon half-pay; Capt. and Lieut.- 
CoL and Brev. - Col. Frederick 
Charles Arthur Stephenson, C.B. 
to be maj. without purchase, vice 
Brev.-Col. Dalrymple; Lieut, and 
Capt. David Hunter Blair to be 
capt. and lieut.-col. by purchase, 
vice Brev.-CoL Stephenson; Ens. 
and Lieut. Henry Farquharson to 
be lieut. and capt. by purchase, 
vice Blair ; Ens. George Gosling, 
from the 26th Foot, to be ens. and 
lieut. by purchase, vice Farquhar- 
son. 

15th Regiment of Foot — ^Lieut. 
Robert Coupe to be capt. without 
purchase, vice Walter Groodwin 
Hrwkins, deceased — 29th May ; 
Ens. Francis Walker Cary to be 
lieut. without purchase, vice Coupe 
—29th May. 

19th Foot — Lieut. Charles James 
Forbes Smith has been permitted 
to take and use the surname of 
Forbes in addition to and after that 
of Smith. 
25th Foot— Robert Stein For- 



long, Esq. late Capt. 2nd Dragoons, 
to be paymaster, vice Thomas 
Smith, appointed to the 37th 
Foot. 

27th Foot— Maj. Barclay Thomas 
to be lieut. col. by purchase, vice 
Herman Stapylton, who retires; 
Capt. James Henry Creagh to be 
maj. by purchase, vice Thomas; 
Lieut. George Stewart White to 
be capt. by purchase, vice Creagh; 
Ens. Cecil John Foot to be lieut. 
by purchase, vice White; James 
Walton Powell Buxton, gent, to be 
ens. by purchase, vice Foot. 

35th Foot — Lieut. Mars Mourier 
Pohle to be capt. by purchase, vice 
M. Villiers Sankey Morton, who 
retires; Ens. James Johnston 
Twining to be lieut. by purchase, 
vice Pohle; Thomas Astley Ma- 
berly, gent, to be ens. by purchase, 
vice Twining. 

36th Foot— Sur. Arthur Bell, 
from the 76th Foot, to be sui^. 
vice Surg. -Maj. James Jopp, M.D. 
who exchanges. 

. 37th Foot— Richard John Fre^ 
derick Edgcumbe, gent, to be ens. 
by purchase, vice Johu Everard 
Whitting, promoted. 

43rd Foot — James Thomas 
O'Brien, gent, to be ens. by pur- 
chase, vice Robert Barclay Allar- 
dice, transferred to the 93rd Foot. 

46th Foot— Lieut. Peter Shuttle- 
worth, from the 69th Foot, to be 
lieut. vice Kentish, who exchanges. 

60th Foot — Lieut. James Henry 
Herbert Croft, from the 1st Dra^ 
goons, to be lieut. vice Tottenham, 
who exchanges. 

69th Foot — Capt. and Brev.- 
Maj. George Richard Browne, from 
the 88th Foot, to be capt. vice 
Cahill, who exchanges; Lieut. 
Allan Joshua Kentish, from the 
46th Foot, to be lieut. vice Shuttle- 
worth, who exchanges. 

70th Foot— Surg. Qeorge Cun- 
ningham Meikleham, M.D. having 
completed twenty years' full-pay 
service, to be surg.-maj. under the 
provisions of the Royal Warrant of 
the Ist October, 1858— 16th June. 

76th Foot — Surg.-Maj. James 
Jopp, M.D. from the 36th Foot, to 
be surg. vice Arthur Bell, who 
exchanges. .j: 



tu 



PEOMOTIOKS AND APP01N™EKT3, 



I^Auo* 



81 at Foot— Rolj«rfc Chaa. l^icbo- 
lettB, gtnit. to bo etia» by parchaRe^ 
TiDC* Thomas Rogers, appointed 
quarter master, 

88tli Foot— Capt. Patrick Cahil], 
from the 59tk Foot, to be capt.vice 
Brev*-Maj. Browixe, who exchanges^ 

93rd Foot— EuH, Edward Boftse 
to be lieut. by purchase, Ttce 
B, K. A. Dick Cunyngham, who 
retires; Kns. Eobert Barclay Al- 
lardiee, from the i;3rd Foot, to be 
ens« vice Boage. 

Bifle Brigade — Ene. Charles 
Fairfield to be Heut, without pur- 
ebase, vice I\ William BamBbot- 
tomt doceasad, 27tb June. 

5tb West India Begimont^The 
date of Capt. Prendeville's transfer 
from St. Helena Eegimeiit is 
1863, not 1860, as stated in GtmU4 
of 33rd ultimo. 

JLEBICAL DEPAETMEKT. 

Staff*Assistant- Surgeon Henry 
Sacheveral Edward Scbroeder, 
M,D, to be staiF-fjurg. vice Augus- 
tus Morphew, appointed to the 1st 
West ludia Regiment — *2nd De- 
eember, 1862, 

BEEVET. 

Capt. Augustus Hotham, balf- 
pay luiattacbed, to be maj.^23rd 
Kovember, 1841. 

Capfc. and BreY.*Maj. Augustus 
Hotbam, half-pay unattaehed, to be 
lieut, -col. — 11th November, 1851, 

Paymaster Mark Te vers bam, 
16th Foot, to bavo the bonoitwry 
rank of capt.— 10th April, 

The undermentioned officers, 

whose retirement on full-pay ap- 

\ peared in the Gazdfi' of the ^3rd 

June, to have the hanorary rank 

of tuaj.-gen : — 

CoL Stepbon Pott. Eoyal En- 
gineers— 31st Decern bor, 1862. 

CoL Charles Edward Faber, 
Boyat Engineers — 7th April, 

The undermentioned First Class 
. Bcboolmasterg, to bo tjuporint end- 
ing schoolmasters with tne relative 
\ Tank of Ens, under the provisions 
» of the Boyal Warnmt of 10th 
May : — Joseph Barne«T Jobu K'ow- 
Som, Johti Little* John Grant- 
Mcmorandum^Captmn Angus- 
^ tus Hotbam. half- pay unattacbed, 
has been permitted to retire from 
the Service by the sale of his Ogm^ 



rai58ton, under tbe conditions o 
the Horse Ouards* Circular Me- 
noorandum of the 15th Februaiy, 
186L 



THE MILITIA GAZEITE, 
War Office, Pall Mjlll, July 3. 

7 th He^iment of Lancai^hit^ 
Militia — Lieut, John George 
Cooke to be cmL 

^Oth, or Stirlingshire, &c,, High- 
land Borderers Light Infantry 
Begiment of Militia — Lieut. Ed^- 
worth Horrocks to be capt. vice 
Calleti, resigned. 

Royal Glamorgan Light Infaiitry 
Militia ^ — Yaugban Haiiniiig Lee, 
Esq. to be capt* 

War Ofpice, Paix Mill, July 7. 
Essex Rifles Militia— Lieut. Wil- 
liam Boberts Knobel to be capt, 
vi<."e Swann, resigned; James 
Henry Morrcll to be capt. vice 
Davie s, resigned. 



Waii OFPtCE, Pall Mall, July 10, 

3rd or Boyal Westminster Light 
Infantry Regiment of Middlesex 
Militia — William HewgUl Kitchen 
to be bent, vice Cba-pmaa, pro- 
moted j Edmund Waller to bo 
iieut. vic€ McEwen resigned. 

Royal Glamorgan Artillery 
Militia — John Hey worth, gent, to 
be lient. 

East and North York Artillery 
MUitia — ^George Sutton, Eaq, to be 
capt. vice Grim & ton, promoted, 

lit Boyal Lanarkshire Militia- 
John Somraerville Marshall, gent, 
to be assist. -Burg. %aco Holt, re- 
Bigned, 

2nd Royal Lanarkshire Militia^ 
Lieut. William Lefroy to be capt- 
vice Alston, promoted. 

Queen's Own Royal Regiment 
of Glasgow and Lower Ward of 
Laiiarkehire Yeomanry Gavali'y^ 
James Stirling Stirbng Stuart, 
Esq. to be capt. vice James Merryj 
resigned. 

King's Own Light Infantry 
Regiment of Militm — - Edward 
Francis Hart, gent, to be lieut, 

THE YOLUNTEER GAZETTE. 

War Office, Pall Mall, JuW 7* 

6th Company Shropshire Bifie 



1868.J 



PROMOTIONS AND APFOINTMEirrS. 



625 



Volunteera— Bobert H. Anstice, 
Esq., to be lieut. 

3rd Dorsetshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— John Francis Hodges, jun., 
gent., to be ens., vice Devenish, 
resigned. 

3rd Berwickshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps— Ens. James Martin to 
be lieut. ; Hilton Middleton to be 
ens. 

7th Berwickshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Robert Nicholson 
Slight to be lieut.; James Taylor 
Marshall to be ens. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Lieut. David H. Somer- 
ville in the 3rd Berwickshire Rifle 
Volunteer Corps. 

Memorandum — The 7th Ber- 
wickshire Rifle Volunteer Corps 
has been united to the 1st Admin- 
istrative Battahon of Berwickshire 
Rifle Volunteers. 

1st Gloucestershire Artillery 
Volunteer Corps— John Strachey 
Hare, gent., to be sec lieut., vice 
Daubney, resigned. 

16th Gloucestershire Rifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps — Francis Robert 
Jarrat, gent., to be ens., vice Baker, 
promoted. 

Memorandum — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commissions 
held by Lieut. Charles Sandeman 
and Ens. William Morphew in the 
8th Kent Rifle Volunteers. 

7th Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps 
— ^William Frederick Portlock 
Dadson, late Capt. Royal Marines, 
to be capt., vice Moms, resigned. 

8th Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps 
—Ens. George William Paine to 
be lieut., vice Drake, resigned; 
Henry James Brown, gent., to be 
ens. vice Morphew, resigned. 

37th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Lieut. Richard Butt to be 
capt , vice Sayer, resigned. 

oth Sussex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Lieut. William Austen 
Fearless to be capt., vice Wells, 
resigned; Ens. John Cuthbert 
Stennin^ to be lieut., vice Fearless, 
promoted; William Rudge to be 
ens., vice Stenning, promoted. 

1st Manchester or 6th Lanca- 



shire Rifle Volunteer Corps — 
Thomas Tebbutt Crompton, gent.» 
to be lieut. 

8th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— :Ens. John Richard Hutch- 
inson to be lieut. ; Samuel Walker, 
gent. ; to be ens. ; Edward Scott, 

f3nt., to be ens. ; Thomas Bridge 
ott, Esq., M.D., to be surg. 

Memoranda — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the Commissions 
held by the following OflBcers: 
viz. : Capt. Samuel Sandbach 
Farker in the Liverpool Rifle Vo- 
lunteer Brigade or 5th Lancashire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps ; and Majs. 
Frank Ashton and Edw. Stanley 
Hey wood in the 1st Manchester or 
6th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps. 

3rd North Riding of Yorkshire 
ArtiUeiT Volunteer Corps — The 
•Rev. William Keys to be hon, 
chap. 

Memorandum — ^The 11th Ren- 
firewshire Rifle Volunteer Corps 
has been incorporated in the 10th 
Renfrewshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps. 

10th Renfrewshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Lieut. Thomas Bal- 
lantyne to be capt., vice Grieve, 
resigned; Ens. Jolm Erskine to 
be lieut., vice Ballantyne, pro- 
moted; Ens. John Kincaid to be 
lieut., vice Rennie, resigned ; Chas. 
McDonald, gent., to be ens., vice 
Erskine, promoted; Jdtm Mailer, 
gent., to be ens., vice Kincaid, pro- 
moted. 

2nd Essex Artillery Volunteers 
—The Rev. William Henry Ri- 
chards to be hon. chap. 

[The following Appointment is 
substituted for that which ap- 
peared in the Oazette of the 26th 
ult.:] 

1st Brecknockshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — ^Wm. Rhys Brychan 
Fowel, Esq., to be capt. 

Memorandum— Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to approve 
of Capt Wiluam Rhys Brychan 
Fowel bearing the designation of 
Capt.-Com. of the Ist Brecknock- 
shire Rifle Volunteer Corps. 

Memorandum — Her Mi^esty has 
been graciously pleacA^ ^ -w^s^ 



me 



PB0MOTro!ra AlfD APP01NTilBNT3* 



l^AtJG* 



the resignation of the commisBiong 
held by Capt. Thomas Calthorpe 
Webater and Cajit. Wynne Albert 
BankoH in the 3rd Oambridgt'sbiro 
Bifl© Voluataer Corpp; and al&o 
of the OommisiiioTi hehi by Adit, 
CharleB Stanhope Smeh in the 
1st Adininistrative Battalion of 
Cambridgeshire Rifle Volunteers, 

War OfnrKj Fall Mall, July 10. 

f+th Tower Hamleta Eifle Voliui^ 
t-eer Corps— John Frederick Shiiw, 
gotJt», to tje ens. 

Meroorandum — The 12th Tower 
Hamlets Biflc Yuhinteer Corps 
has been tiuited to the lat Admin- 
istrative Battalion of Tower Ham* 
let a Bide Yolunteere. 

let Sns&sex Artillery Volunteer 
Corps — Dr. Samuel Barker to 1>© 
sec. aaiiatn-Burg* 

12th or Oarron Company of tbo 
StirfingshireBitie Yoluat^iiir Corps * 
— James Eaaou, gent., to he ena. 

l6t Flirjt.Hhiro Eifle Volunteer 
Corps — Humphrey Edward Owen, 
gent.^ to be ens, 

Memorandum^Srd Perthshire 
Rifle Tolimteer Corpa — Her Ma- 
jesty has been graciously pleased 
to accept the resig-uation of the 
commission held by Oapt Charles 
Cholmolcy Halo, 

Srd PeVth shire Eifle Volunteer 
Corps — Lieut. Charles McDiarmid 
to l>e eapt, i Ens, Chaa, St-ewart to 
be lieut, 

Momorandum — 8th Isle of 
Wight Eifle Volunteers — The 
Queen hiis been graciously plca&ed 
to accept the rt^signation of the 
Commie don held hy Lieut, Buuja- 
miii Temple Cotton in the above 
corps, 

8th Isle of Wight Rifle Volun- 
toera — William Charles Plmnley 
to Ijc lieut^, vice Cotton, resigned. 

Memorandum — 2nd Cornwall 
Rifle Volunteer Corpa ^Her Ma* 
jesty has been graciously pleased 
to accept the resignation of tho 
Commif^sion held in this corf>s by 
Hon. Assist--Surg. Philip Viiieent. 

1st Admiuifttrative BattaUon of 
Cornwall Rifle Yolunteers^Pliihp 
Vincent to be aurg. 

1st Forfarshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— ^Lieut, Willisim Kerr to be 



capt,, vice Bell, resigned; Ens. 
Robert Overesd Parker to b© 
lieat.« vice Kerr, promoted; James 
Rankin, g^^nt , to be en&,j vice 
Chalmers J resigned. 

2ud Berwickshire Artillery Vo- 
luDteer Corps^Androw Oliver to 
be sec. lieut, 

Dumfries -shire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps, 4th Company — George Dal- 
/iel, promoted, Ath Company—* 
Bev. James Monilaws to be hon, 
chap. 

Memoranda — ^Ist Admin i strati tb 
Battalion of InTerness- shire Rifle 
Yolunteera — Adjt, Charles R, 
Fraser to serve with the rank of 
Capt., from the SiSrd July, 1860, 

Ist Adiuinistrati^^e Battalion of 
East York Eifle Volunteers— 10th 
Corps (Hedon) — Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept 
the resignation of the commission 
held by Lieut. Arthur Iveson and 
Ens. Bobert. Charles Metcalfe. 

Memorandum — Her Majef^ty has 
beien griiciously pleased to accept 
fcho re;eignatioii of the commissiona 
held by the following ofilcers, vis! ; 
— Sec, Lieut. Edward Dreoasi in 
tJie 11th Lancashbe Artillery Vo- 
lunteer Corps, and Ciipt. Edward 
Lees, Lieut. John Kershaw, and 
Lieut, John Howard in the 2Brd 
LaiM^shire Rifle Volunteer Corps, 



THE AEMY GAZETTE. 
*^* Where not other wise specified, 

the following commissions bear 

the current date. 

Ikdia Office, July l^. 

Her Majesty has been gi'aciously 
pleased to appoint Lieut. -Col. R, 
Lyon Playfair, of the Boyal Madras 
Artillery, to be Her Majesty '& 
Consul at Zanzibar; and Lieut. 
Col, Herbert Frederick Disbrowe, 
of the Bombay Staflf Corpi, to be 
Hor Majesty *s Consul at Muscat. 

Sf . Jambs*s FxLkCE, June 23. 

The Queen has Ijeen pleased to 
appoint Lieut,- Col. Wm, McCalJ, 
Loattachcd, to be Clerk of the 
Cheque of Her Majesty's Honble, 
Corps of Gentlemen -at- Ami 8, vice 
Cargill, retired. This appoint- 
ment to date from lltb June, 



1S6S.J 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMBNTS, 



627 



Wak Oppicb, Pall Mall, July 17. 

GthBeffimeiit of Dragoon Guards 
—Lieut. William Wallace Graham 
to be adit., vice Lieut. Grair, who 
resigns the appointment. 

14th Hussars — Capt. F. Pember- 
ton Campbell, from 83rd Foot, to 
be Capt., vice Mackenzie, who ex- 
changes. 

Boyal Artillery —The undermen- 
tioned Gentlemen Cadets to be 
lieuts. : — Sisson Cooper Pratt, vice 
Price, promoted — 24th June; W. 
Henry Frederick Sorell, vice Carey, 
promoted — 24th June ; F. Brinkley 
vice Goldingham, promoted — 24th 
June; Alexander Walter Ferrier, 
vice Dyce, promoted — 24th June ; 
Samuel Stephen Bomford, vice 
Sconce, promoted — 24th June ; F. 
Lowry Graves, vice liayton, de- 
ceased — 24th June ; Gilbert Sidney 
Parry, vice Staveley, promoted — 
25th June ; Francis William James 
Barker, vice Pechell, promoted — 
24th June; Henry John BawIc, 
vice Gilmour, promoted — 24th 
June; Charles Anglesea Empson, 
vice Welsh, promoted — 27th Jime ; 
Serjeant-Major Eueben Butler to 
be riding master, vice J. Everett, 
appointed Adjt. of the Depot, Boyal 
Horse Artillery — 1st July. 

Boyal Engmeers — The under- 
menti