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Full text of "United States census of agriculture: 1954"

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' V 



V 

DEPOSITORY 



Vol. Ill- pt. 12 



METHODS and 
PROCEDURES 



SPECIAL REPORTS 





1954 

Census 
Agriculture 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE • BUREAU OF THE CENSUS • WASHINGTON • 7956 






U. S. Department of Commerce 

Sinclair Weeks, Secretary 

Bureau of the Census 

Robert W. Burgess, Director 



United States 

c 



ensus 



Agriculture 

1954 



Volume 

SPECIAL REPORTS 

Part 12 

Methods and Procedures 



Soston Public Library Q *?// J //#. J/ 

rinrpnHpnt of Documents ' 

ffSV 



Boston 

Supe 



NOV 5 - 1957 



/•-? 

&■/£- 



Prepared under the supervision of 

RAY HURLEY 

Chief, Agriculture Division 



HOW THE CENSUS WAS TAKEN • DESCRIPTION OF 
METHODS AND PROCEDURES • 




* tew, y\jj 

IS 3 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

pr?X 



ROBERT W. BURGESS, Director 

A. Ross Eckler, Deputy Director 
Howard C. Grieves, Assistant Director 

Robert Y. Phillips, Special Assistant 
Conrad Taeuber, Assistant Director 

Jack B. Robertson, Special Assistant 
Morris H. Hansen, Assistant Director for Statistical Standards 
Walter L. Kehres, Assistant Director for Administration 
Calvert L. Dedrick, Coordinator, International Statistics 
A. W. von Struve, Acting Public Information Officer 

Agriculture Division — 

Ray Hurley, Chief 

Warder B. Jenkins, Assistant Chief 
Administrative Service Division — Everett H. Burke, Chief 
Budget and Management Division — Charles H. Alexander, Chief 
Business Division — Harvey Kailin, Chief 
Census Operations Division— Marion D. Bingham, Chief 
Field Division — Robert B. Voight, Chief 
Foreign Trade Division— J. Edward Ely, Chief 
Geography Division — Clarence E. Batschelet, Chief 
Governments Division — Allen D. Manvel, Chief 
Industry Division — Maxwell R. Conklin, Chief 
Machine Tabulation Division — C. F. Van Aken, Chief 
Personnel Division — Helen D. Almon, Chief 

Population and Housing Division — Howard G. Brunsman, Chief 
Statistical Reports Division— Edwin D. Goldfield, Chief 
Statistical Research Division — William N. Hurwitz, Chief 
Transportation Division— Donald E. Church, Chief 









SUGGESTED IDENTIFICATION 








u. 


s. 


Bureau of the C 


ensus. U. S. Census of Agriculture: 1954. 
Part 12, Methods and Procedures 


Vol 


III, 


Special Reports, 






u. s. 


Government Printing Office, Washington, D. 


c, 


1956. 





For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 
25, D. C, or any of the Field Offices of the Department of Commerce, Price 60 cents (paper~cover) 
II 



PREFACE 



Volume III, Special Reports, comprises one of the volumes presenting final summaries 
and results for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. The purpose of Part 12 is to outline the 
methods and procedures used in taking and compiling the results of the 1954 Census of 
Agriculture. 

Since 1920, the Bureau of the Census has taken once each 5 years a Census of the Nation's 
farms and agricultural production. The increasing complexity of agriculture, and the 
accelerated rate of agricultural changes, resulting from increased technological developments 
and mechanization, have made the taking of a Nationwide Census of Agriculture a complex 
and difficult task. This report describes briefly the methods and procedures devised and 
used for meeting the many problems involved in the 1954 Census of Agriculture of the 
United States. 

This report was prepared under the supervision of Ray Hurley, Chief, Agriculture 
Division, and with the assistance of Orvin Wilhite, J. Thomas Breen, and Henry A. Tucker. 

December 1956 

III 



UNITED STATES CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE: 1954 

REPORTS 

Volume I. — Counties and State Economic Areas. Statistics for counties include number of farms, acreage, value, and farm operators; 
farms by color and tenure of operator; facilities and equipment; use of commercial fertilizer; farm labor; farm expenditures; livestock and 
livestock products; specified crops harvested; farms classified by type of farm and by economic class; and value of products sold by source. 

Data for State economic areas include farms and farm characteristics by tenure of operator, by type of farm, and by economic class. 

Volume I is published in 33 parts. 

Volume II. — General Report. Statistics by Subjects, United States Census of Agriculture, 1954. Summary data and analyses of 
the data for States, for Geographic Divisions, and for the United States by subjects. 



Volume III. — Special Reports 

Part 1. — Multiple-Unit Operations. This report will be similar to 
Part 2 of Volume V of the reports for the 1950 Census of Agri- 
culture. It will present statistics for approximately 900 
counties and State economic areas in 12 Southern States and 
Missouri for the number and characteristics of multiple-unit 
operations and farms in multiple units. 

Part 2. — Ranking Agricultural Counties. This special report will 
present statistics for selected items of inventory and agricul- 
tural production for the leading counties in the United States. 

Part 3. — Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, District of Columbia, and 
U. S. Possessions. These areas were not included in the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. The available current data from vari- 
ous Government sources will be compiled and published in 
this report. 

Part 4. — Agriculture, 1954, a Graphic Summary. This report will 
present graphically some of the significant facts regarding 
agriculture and agricultural production as revealed by the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. 

Part 5. — Farm-Mortgage Debt. This will be a cooperative study 
by the Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census. It will present, 
by States, data based on the 1954 Census of Agriculture and a 
. special mail survey conducted in January 1956, on the num- 
ber of mortgaged farms, the amount, of mortgage debt, and the 
amount of debt held by principal lending agencies. 

Part 6. — Irrigation in Humid Areas. This cooperative report by 
the Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census will present data ob- 
tained by a mail survey of operators of irrigated farms in 28 
States on the source of water, method of applying water, num- 
ber of pumps used, acres of crops irrigated in 1954 and 1955, 
the number of times each crop was irrigated, and the cost of 
irrigation equipment and the irrigation system. 

Part 7. — Popular Report — The American Farmer in 1954. This 
report is planned to be a general, easy-to-read publication for 
the general public on the status and broad characteristics of 
United States agriculture. It will seek to delineate such as- 
pects of agriculture as the geographic distribution and dif- 
ferences by size of farm for such items as farm acreage, princi- 
pal crops, and important kinds of livestock, farm facilities, 
farm equipment, use of fertilizer, soil conservation practices, 
farm tenure, and farm income. 

Part 8. — Size of Operation by Type of Farm. This will be a coop- 
erative special report to be prepared in cooperation with the 
Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. This report will contain data for 119 economic sub- 



regions (essentially general type-of-farming areas) showing the 
general characteristics for each type of farm by economic class. 
It will provide data for a current analysis of the differences 
that exist among groups of farms of the same type. It will 
furnish statistical basis for a realistic examination of produc- 
tion of such commodities as wheat, cotton, and dairy products 
in connection with actual or proposed governmental policies 
and programs. 

Part 9. — Farmers and Farm Production in the United States. 
The purpose of this report is to present an analysis of the 
characteristics of farmers and farm production for the most 
important types of farms as shown by data for the 1954 Census 
of Agriculture. The analysis deals with the relative importance, 
pattern of resource use, some measures of efficiency, and prob- 
lems of adjustment and change for the principal types of farms. 
The report was prepared in cooperation with the Agricultural 
Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The list of chapters (published separately only) and titles 
for each chapter are as follows: 

Chapter I — Wheat Producers and Wheat Production 
II — Cotton Producers and Cotton Production 
III — Tobacco and Peanut Producers and Production 
IV — Poultry Producers and Poidlry Production 

V — Dairy Producers and Dairy Production 
VI — Western Stock Ranches and Livestock Farms 
VII — Cash-Grain and Livestock Producers in the Corn 
Belt 
VIII — Part-Time Farming 
IX — Agricidlural Producers and Production in the 

/United Slates — A General View 
Part 10. — Use of Fertilizer and Lime. The purpose of this report 
is to present in one publication most of the detailed data com- 
piled for the 1954 Census of Agriculture regarding the use of 
fertilizer and lime. The report presents data for counties, 
State economic areas, and generalized type-of-farming areas 
regarding the quantity used, acreage on which used, and 
expenditures for fertilizer and lime. The Agricultural Research 
Service cooperated with the Bureau of the Census in the prep- 
aration of this report. 

V Part 11. — Farmers' Expenditures. This report presents detailed 
data on expenditures for a large number of items used for farm 
production in 1955, and on the living expenditures of farm 
operators' families. The data were collected and compiled 
cooperatively by the Agricultural Marketing Service of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census. 

V Part 12. — Methods and Procedures. This report contains an 
outline and a description of the methods and procedures used 
in taking and compiling the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 



CONTENTS 



Page 
Chapter I — Planning and Preparing for the Census 7 

Chapter II — The Enumeration 19 

Chapter III — Central Office Processing and Publication 51 



1 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Planning the Agriculture Questionnaire 7 

Selecting the questions 7 

Establishing enumeration districts 7 

Funds for the Census 12 

The time schedule 12 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The Agriculture Questionnaire (Form Al) 8 

Enumeration starting dates, by areas : 1954 Census of Agriculture 14 



Chapter I— PLANNING AND PREPARING FOR THE CENSUS 



The planning for the 1954 Census of Agriculture was performed 
largely by staff members with experience in connection with one or 
more prior Censuses of agriculture or other Censuses. The 
results of the prior Censuses were available to this staff in the form 
of published reports, staff appraisals, records of work performed, 
and copies of detailed procedures, and these were used as a basis 
for planning. 

Planning the Agriculture Questionnaire. — Planning for the 
questionnaire content began in connection with the sample 
Census of Agriculture taken in 1953 in the States of Virginia and 
Utah. The questions proposed for the 1954 Census were pre- 
tested in this sample Census taken in October-November 1953. 
This pretest involved the use of about 130 enumerators and the 
enumeration of approximately 7,600 farms scattered throughout 
the two States. The work of the enumerators during this pretest 
was observed by technical staff members, the questionnaires were 
edited and coded, tabulations were made, and reports presenting 
data from this pretest were published in March, 1954. 

Selecting the questions. — The questions included in the 1954 
Census of Agriculture were selected from requests and suggestions 
received from many sources, such as the United States Department 
of Agriculture, State Agricultural Colleges, farm publications, 
farm organizations, individuals, etc. The first list of questions 
deemed by the technical staff of enough importance to be consider- 
ed for inclusion in a Nationwide Census of Agriculture was prepared 
in April 1953. 

The selection of questions to be included in the Census was made 
on the basis of the advice and recommendations of a special advi- 
sory committee appointed by the Director of the Bureau of the 
Census. This special advisory committee included persons recom- 
mended by, and representatives of the following organizations: 
Associations of Land Grant Colleges and Universities 
National Association of Commissioners, Secretaries, and 

Directors of Agriculture 
American Farm Bureau Federation 
Agricultural Publishers Association 

Farmers Educational and Cooperative Union of America 
Farm Equipment Institute 
National Grange 

The American Farm Economics Association 
Census Advisory Committee, American Statistical Association 
United States Department of Agriculture 
National Council of Farmer Cooperatives 
In selecting questions to be included in the Census, the special 
advisory committee and the technical staff gave consideration to 
the possibility of obtaining satisfactory information more effi- 
ciently in some other way than through the Census of Agriculture, 
to the adequacy of the information that might be obtained through 
the Census, to the availability of data from other sources, to the 
usefulness of the data, and to the cost of securing and compiling 
the information. A reduced facsimile of an Agriculture Question- 
naire (Al) appears on pages 8 to 11. 

The special advisory committee also made recommendations 
regarding the publication of data for the Census, and the making of 
special surveys and reports in connection with the Census. 



Establishing enumeration districts. — In order to secure the 
complete coverage of all areas, and to make assignments of work 
to individual enumerators, it was necessary to divide the area of 
the United States into small areas, called enumeration districts. 
The size of these small areas was determined by the amount of 
work each enumerator was expected to perform and by boundaries 
of existing local minor civil divisions, such as townships, districts, 
etc. Generally, it was planned to establish enumeration districts 
that would provide 150 to 160 hours of work for each enumerator. 
Usually, enumeration districts contained all of one or more minor 
civil divisions. Records of the work time, number of farms, and 
number of dwellings as shown by the 1950 Censuses of Agriculture, 
Population and Housing were used as a basis for estimating the 
workload for proposed enumeration districts. Enumeration 
districts were established so that all parts were contiguous and so 
that natural barriers would not impede travel. Generally, in- 
corporated places, unincorporated places, and urbanized areas 
having a population of 1,000 or more in 1950 were made separate 
enumeration districts. Likewise, incorporated and unincorporated 
places of less than 1,000 population were made separate enumera- 
tion districts if they had relatively few farms and more than 150 
dwelling units in 1950. 

In 37 out of the 48 States, enumeration district boundaries were 
established to conform to existing boundaries of townships or 
similar minor civil divisions. In 5 States, enumeration district 
boundaries conformed only in part to boundaries of minor civil 
divisions as the enumeration district boundaries were drawn along 
township or section lines, roads, or streams. In 5 States, perma- 
nent statistical areas had been established using natural features 
as boundaries and these areas or combinations thereof were used 
as enumeration districts. 

The total number of enumeration districts established was 
41,221 of which 11,127 were for incorporated or similar urban 
places. The 30,094 enumeration districts outside of urban areas 
contained an average 153 farms each. The 11,127 enumeration 
districts for urban areas contained approximately 170,000 farms 
or an average of 15 farms each. 

Base maps for use in indicating enumerators' districts were 
obtained generally from State Highway Departments. For 
areas with a high concentration of farms, the enumerators' maps 
were on a scale of approximately 2 inches per mile. For sparsely 
settled areas, the enumerators' maps were on a scale of one-fourth 
inch per mile. Blue line prints were made of these base maps for 
use in outlining enumeration districts. The boundaries of the 
enumeration districts were indicated with a colored pencil on the 
enumerators' maps. These maps usually covered areas somewhat 
larger than the enumeration district so as to facilitate their use 
by enumerators in determining location of the enumeration dis- 
trict boundaries. In order to maintain records and controls 
for enumeration districts, each enumeration district was assigned 
an identification number. This identification number contained 
two parts — one part identified the county and the other part 
identified the enumeration district within the county. Each 
enumeration district also contained a label, that identified the 
name, if any, of the area comprising the enumeration district. 

7 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



Tin. inquiry U Mtbofiud uy Art ..I Lonareaa 1 16 Sltt II; 13 ISC 201-21B I whirh requir 



j tili- a report Yoi 



rtorded ronfidenlnl treatment. iul>j*rl to ihr pro 1 



ii. .lit ot law, )'. 



FORM Al 



CENSUS QF AGRICULTURE | OCA 

QUESTIONNAIRE: lV*r* 



Section I. —PERSON NOW IN CHARGE 



(If a inemlier of Ihr? family or anyone elite I 
in charge, please be sure thai all the inforrua 
CHARGE.) 



■ this questionnaire for the peraofl 
in in Riven FOR the PERSON IN 



(Post ORIer) (Suu) 



[ (a) D White 

3- H-'Aal it uour raeet J (ft) rj Negro 



If) D Other. What race* 



Section II.— OWNERSHIP. RENTAL AGREEMENT, AND LOCATION OP LAND 
OWNED LAND: 

4. How manv acres of land do vou OWN?" Q Nt 

(If you own more than one tract of land, INCLUDE 
ALL LAND OWNED Include not only cropland but 
also pastureland, woodland, wasteland, etc.) 

// no land . owned, check the square for 



LAND RENTED FROM OTHERS: 

5. Do you have a graiing permit* (From the U. 8. 
Forest Service, Grazing Service, etc. Graiing lands used 
under Government Permit are not to be included as land 

ited, but livestock on these permit lands should be|Q No 

Idy« 

6. How many acres of land do voaRENT FROM others, 
including any worked on shareaf L I None 

(Include any separate fields, meadows, paatureland, 
woodland, wasteland, etc. Include Federal, State, 
school, railroad, and other land leased and land used by 
you rent free ) 

// "Sone," cheek and skip to qutition [SJ. 

(a) Give the following information (or each landlord: 



ncluded in this report I 



iWixo. 

(List additional i 



How many 
acres are 

rented 
from each 
landlord? 



(Port OOeO ~iBul«> 

inder REMARKS Total acres for all landlords must 
equal total for question 6.) 



7. Does the landlord furnish ALL the work animals < 
(as a part of his share in the operation of this place) ' 



(o) Do you pay to your landlord any cash as r 



. . . IDl 
ID ' 

(6) Do you pav to vour landlord anv share of the crops? . . . /Q ' 

(Such as i; i. i ) in 



ihare of the livestock ( 



IB! 



(r) Do you pay to your landlord ■ 
livestock product*? ..... 
(Such Ml.*.*) 

. ■'(■ Do you have this land under any other arrangement? . . . /D j 
(Such as a fixed quantity of any product, upkeep of land arid ' l J 
buildings, payment of taxes, keep of landlord, rent free, etc.) 



LAND MANAGED FOR OTHERS-: 

[91 How manv acres do you operate for others as a 

HIRED MANAGER' | 

(Enter the name and address of the employer under 



LAND RENTED TO OTHERS: 

10. How many acres are RENTED TO others, includ- 
ing land worked on shares by croppers or tenants? L.I None 
(Include any separate fields rented to others. Land 
worked by members of your household with your equip- 
ment should not be considered as rented to others.) 



If -No 



' check and skip to question [11] 



Acrei in Thia Place: 



£11] Adding arret owned and 
htn subtracting acres rented to othei 
(Question i + quettton t-quest 
if managed question 9 — quettn 



i rented from others, 



in .r. Ihc land for » 
to be harvested this 



Th 



hich 



e want a report of the crops harvested 



LOCATION OF LAND: 

12. Is anv of this land located|D No. // "No," cheek and ikip 

outside of this county? .... to question [13]. 

ID Yes 

(a) How many acres are in this county? 

(6) Give names of other counties and acres located in each: 



1U i 



,-•;., 



RESIDENCE AND AGE OF PERSON IN CHARGE. 
[13] Do you live on this place? 

14. How old were you on vour last birthday* 

15. ft'bBtl did vou begin ' . operate this place* 



ia No 

ID Ye, 



Section III.— CROPS HARVESTED THIS YEAR. 19'.* 

Report all crops oar*eiled. or to be harvested, this year from these (read anawei 
lor question II) acres. II yon rent land from others on sharea Intrude landlord*! 



CORN AND SORGHUMS 



CORN: 

16. CORN for ALL 
PURPOSES this year? 

(lie not Include «*e*i com, po 



(o) CORN for GRAIN? . . . . 
(70 lb. ear corn or 66 lb 
shelled cornel bu. Report 
corn hogged off in question 
(c), not here ) 

(6) CORN for SILAGE* 

(e) CORN hogged or graied. or 
cut for green or dry fodder 
(ears not husked or 
snapped)? . 

(Tha total ol the acre* (or qualloru 



r*^w much was 
or will be 
harvested* 



SORGHUMS: (Kafir, m.lo. hegari 
amber, orange, atlas, "redtop,' 
etc.) 



R POSES except 
sirup this year? . . Q None 

(Report md uribum lor Mrup In 



(b) SORGHUM for SILAGE? 

(c) 80RGHUM hogged or 
graxed, or cut for dry forage 
or hay ? . 

1*1. .■■■'..:■! U 



it equal the acrei 



XXX 



Tons 
Tons 



(3) 
How much of 

crop was or 
will be sold? 

Imiirl- land 
lord iihmu 



SMALL GRAINS 



[18] GRAINS grown 
together and threshed as a 
MIXTURE? . . . Q None 

t Wheal aDd oat*, wheal and barley ■haal and 
rjt. oali and barley I 

It. WHEAT? . . . D None 

20. OATS? D None 

21. BARLEY? . . O None 

22. OTHER GRAIN 
threshed? Emmer, 

flaxseed, rye spelt .. D None 



acres were 
harvested* 



11. y 



(3) 

v much of 
this year's crop 
was or will be 

■old? 
i Include landlord! 
•hare ai told ei 
«pl that uwd 



23. SOYBEANS for ALL PURPOSES 

this year? Q None 

// "None," cheek and skip to 
question [24]. 
(o) SOYBEANS for BEANS? 



(6) SOYBEANS for HAY? 

(e) SOYBEANS hc*jjjedorgrawd,or cut ior silage' 



not graied or otherv 

l The total "I I he acrea tar quallonj 
muil aqua) the acres lor question XI I 



C24] DRY FIELD and SEED BEANS 
other than soybeans and mung beans for 
BEANS this year? . ........ Q None 



25. COWPEAS for ALL PURPOSES 
(except for fresh market, or for canning, 
f reeling, or other processing) this vear* . Q ' 

(Include black:res. noidm. whlppoor«illv purple hull! 
Report thoee wld lor frur. mart el. or to cannni. Ireeim. or 



// "None," check ond tkip I 
queitwn [26]. 
(o) COWPEAS for DRY PEAS? . . . 
(6) COWPEAS for HAY? 

(c) COWPEAS hogged or graxed, or cut for 

(d) COWPEAS plowed under for green in 
graied or otherwise harvested' . . 



[2«J PEANUTS for ALL PURPOSES 
this year* Q Noi 



(a) PEANUTS for picking or threshing? 

Mil be saved for 



<b) Vines or tops which v 
HAY or FORAGE' 



acres were 



Tons 

XXX 



Tons 

XXX 



FOR OFFICE 
USE ONLY 


C-l 


No. 




Color 


_ 


1 




2 


... 


3 

Tenure 




1 


-- 


2 




3 


C-! 


4 

5 




6 


- 


7 
8 




9 


" 


O 

Irrigation 


•" 


1 



2 

3 

JC 

Cl«u 

1 
2 
3 

4 

S 
6 
7 
8 
9 



Type 

1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
O 
X 
V 



REGION 

17 

N. Mel. 

OkU. 

Wot To 



Figure 1. — The Agriculture Questionnaire (Form Al). 



PLANNING AND PREPARING FOR THE CENSUS 



report uitt be uird for 



HAY CROPS: If [-0 or more cuttings 
count the acres onl. once bui jive 
tola! production of ill cuttings. 

Were Ant of the Following Hat 
Chops Clt This Yea«— 



From how How 

many acres i many 
For each kind of hay cut, oniiMr I »■». h » v eu , 1 I toM »«" 
thttt quettiom — "" 



28. CLOVER, TIMOTHY, 
and mixtures of clover and 
grasses FOR HAY* . . . . Q None 

(Report ••widoiTdii (or bar in quriUon III 



11 «h»n npror rn-irly riptfo* frr-llrn ' 



(3) 
' How much ni 
1 this year's 
crop was or 

wilt be sold? 

iRrporl landlord i 



FOR HAY? 
32. Ai>: 

iJohnson 



Tons _ 




ALFALFA SKF.D. CLOVER. GRASS, AND OTHER FIELD SEED CROPS: 

S3. YYerafiny dfalfaseed, cloverseed. grass jQ No. // "A'o," eheck and tlnp to 
seed, and>olrnr field seed crops harvested this tjvtition [38). 

year? ID Ye* 



Bluestem, jnmi grass, millet, lespedesa, red clover, Sudan grass, winter peas. 



COTTON. POTATOES, AND OTHER CROPS 



(38) Cotton? □ None 



39. Broom corn? 



. . . . Q None 

40. Sugarcane or Sorghum 

for SlrupT □ None 

41. Irish potatoes for home use 

or for sale T . . □ None 

(If less thai 20 bushels were harvested, do not 

42. Sweelpotatoea for home use or 

for sale' O None 

(If less than 20 hushels were harvested, do not 
report acre* ) 



How many acres 

harvested T 
(Report tenths 









;» 








ID 


* 





How much 
»as or will be 
harvested 



VEGETABLES FOR HOME USE AND FOR SALE 

43. Were eny vegetables, sweet corn, or melon* harvested this year — 

[D No 

ii For home use? 

ID Yea 

(6) For sale for fresh market or to ID No. // ".Vo." caret and iktp to 

canners. freciers, or other processors'. atittUen [491. 

ID Yes 



t Acre* Were o 



I Haivcstbo This Year For Sale— 



(Report tenths of an acre, such as tV. iV tV I A- etc. If two or more plantings 
of the -aiur crop were made, either on the same land or on different land, report 
the total harvested acres of the several plantings. Include acres of vegetables 
harvested from land from which other crops were also harvested.) 



45. Dry onions? 



46. Watermelons? 



T BUfl'inin.!.ilto Spinach 

l (mi, cowpcas ffcjijMb 

t tod plc»le> Hoi prpprn lentil Tomaltm 

i.l remain* prppmi Turnips 



48. What trai (he rofur of alt otatlablf SOLD or TO 
BE SOLD thi* year' . . • » / 00 

llnflui). It-irtl—.l t \lxmir- I ■•? no I mftu.lf in> value ol Irish [■jUl.n an.l i.wlpoUlait IcW I 



HERRIES AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS 

[49J IVcWaUiJ Initio or otlirr small |Q No I f \o." rkrfk and tkip to 
fruit* Karvr-K-d this vear tor sale* ... v •""on [»]• 

ID Vt» 

Give I lie name of each km! the acres and quantity harie*tcd in the spaces 
provided bdow 

{Report tenth- of an acre, -urh a- A. rV ' it. etc Do not include nonhealing 
area ) 

Acre* it . _ Quarts 



TREE FRCITS, NUTS, AND GRAPES: 

[50] Are any (ruil or nut trees or 
grapevines on this place? 



ID No // ",Ve," check and itip to 
. . question [621. 

Id y« 

hi, Are there as many as 20 fruit and |D No // "A'o," chtck and ikip to 
nut trees and grapevines of all kinds 7. . oucition [621. 

ID Yes 
SI. How much land is In bearing and nonbearing fruit 

orchards, groves, vineyards, and planted nut trees? .... Acres * 

(Report tenths of an acre, such as iV I A. etc, Do not ;io 
include berry acreage or nurseries.) — j 



52. APPLES? 

53. PEACHES? ..... 

54. PEARS? 

55. CHERRIES? 

56. PLUMS and PRUNES' 

57. APRICOTS? 

58. CRAPES? 



59. IMPROVED PECANS? 

(Budded. (nTted. or Up-*/«ktd.) 

60. WILD or SEEDLING PECANS? 



NOT of 



much was 

harvested 

this 

year? 



Figs, i 



rines, Japanese persim 



. planted walnuts. 



[62] Are there any other crops (not mentioned before) that were [Q No 
or will be harvested this year on this place? Castor beans, dry field [ 
and seed peas, melons for feed, mung beans, popcorn, root and grain t 
crops hogged or graied (other than corn, sorghums, and ann 

legumes), sugar-beet seed, sunflower seed ID Yes 

If "Yet." give the name of the crop, acres and quantity harvested, and value of 
sales. 

Value ol this 
year's crop 
Acres sold or to 
harvested * __ be sold 4>8 '00 



Section IV.— LAND USE THIS YEAR. 1954 

83. (Copy acres from question 111 » Ac 

Now we want to distribute the ACRES IN THIS PLACE 
according to how they were used this year After you have 
accounted for a field or plot do not count this land again 
Be sure to account for all the land. Give only whole acres. 

CROPLAND: 

84a. From how manv acres of land were CROPS 
HARVESTED (including hay cut) this year* Q Son 

(This area may be obtained' by adding the acres in the 
fields from which one or more crops were harvested or 
hay was cut this year; acres in nonbearing and bearing 
planted tree fruits, nuts, and grapes, and acres in nursery 
and greenhouse products.) 



To Be Filled by Ceni 



■ Enu 



(1) Add acre of ail cropi iwith # in Srrtio 
HI and Vt) and enter total here . .... 

(2) From how- many acres of land were ti 
crops harvested this 

(3) Subtract the a 
enter difference here 

(This entry should be 
the acres shown for ques 



W ' 



,n >■ ( 



- of cropland were in cultivated 
■ acres of cropland have not been 



64/ How m 
accounted for? 

(Include idle land, land in soil-improvement crops 
only, and land on which all crops failed ) 
WOODLAND: 

(Include as woodland all wood lots and timber tracts 
and cu lover land with young trees which have or will 
have value as mood or timber.) 



I None 
I None 
I None 



65a How manv acres or woodlsnd were pastured (or 

grazed) this year* D None 

85b How manv acre* of woodland were not pastured 
(or gruedl this year* D None 

OTHER LAND: 

86. How many acres were in other pasture (not 
cropland pasture and not woodland pasture) * . D None 

If "\otie," cheek and iktp to queition [67J. 
(a) Of this other pasture, how many acreffv 

do vou consider lo be Improved pasture? XD None 

(tmproved by liming, fertilizing, seeding to tAwwi 
.■■I-- or legumes, irrigating, draining, or by 
controlling weeds and brush.) 
[67] How many acre* were in house lots, barn lots, 
lanes, road*, ditches, and wasteland? . , D None 

Add thne atru lourilions 64a, 64b, 64. 64./. 65a. 
65b. 66, and 67) and enter the total here p. J 



68. Of ihe land from which crop* were harvested (reported 






i 64ol. how many acre* i 



DibE 



// "r/our," rhrrk and itip to our Mi on [69]. 

| O No If "Xo," ri 
(a) Are-there any crop- thai wre not I ouralion [ 

irrigated* t 

llu,.-.!„i«ini, i^^.-Jium-' QVh IfYei/a 

{ of lAH ou, 



[69] i>f i hi* land u.-i-d unli f.,r pasture or grating itvirortrd 

csiiaiM 64'., 65i ami 66). how man* aerr* „, r . 

irrigated Ihb war' D Noi 

70. How mam arm of HOW CHOI'S or ( I.OSh -NKKDKI) 

( Hiirs».r,xn.»i, ..,.tr.,.-il,.- ywlw I , r.,.„.,. , ml! D N'" 

71. Hoa main tern ■■< rruiiUmI iisn) f«n < : It \l\ ..r HOW 

L». CHOI'S .1 ar ».n far I Iir ■-. r • D N»t 



Figure 1. — The Agriculture Questionnaire (Form Al) — Continued. 



10 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



Section VI.— FOREST PRODUCTS AND NURSERY AND GREENHOUSE 
PRODUCTS THIS YEAR, ISM 

FOREST PRODUCTS: 
72. Was imr firewood, fuelwood, fence poala. jn No. // "No,' check and 

iimhpi fir (,r h»f ti\r*nt nr.^rlurt*. put Ihin vpir fnr u ' , ' . . 



Yes 

Q None 

(b) How many FENCE POSTS were or will be cut 

thin year on thin place' D None 

73. How much waa or will be received this year 
from the aale of firewood, fence ports, logs, lumber, 
pulpwood, piling and poles, bark, bolts, Christmas 
trees, hewn ties, mine timber, and other miscellaneous None 

forest product* " D aold 



NURSERY AND GREENHOUSE PRODUCTS, FLOWER AND VEGETABLE 
SEEDS AND PLANTS. AND BULBS: 



[74] Were any nursery or greenhouse jQ No. 
products, flower or vegetable seeds or 
plants, flowers, or bulbs grown for sale (Q Yes 



// "Wo/' cA«* and tktp U> 
qvetiion [78] 



75 How many acres of NURSERY 
PRODUCTS {trees. shrubs, vines, 
ornamentals, etc ) did you have this year? . 

7«. How manv CUT FLOWERS. 
POTTED PLANTS, FLORIST 
GREENS, and BEDDING PLANTS 
were grown this year for sale — 

(«) Under glass T 

(6) In open? 

77. How many of the following were 
produced this year for saleT Vegetables 
grown under glass, flower seeds, vegetable 
seeds, vegetable plants, bulbs, and 
mush room ■ — 

(a) Under glass or in house T 

(b) In openT 



Area 

{Report tenths of an 
acre, audi as iV 
A. I iV etc.) 



Square feet . 
Acres * 



Square feet . 
Acres it 



How much was 
or wiU be the 
value of tales T 



Section VII.— LIVESTOCK NOW ON THIS PLACE AND LIVESTOCK 
PRODUCTION THIS YEAR, 1954 

Inclnde all animals on this place owned by yon and by others. Alao, IncJnde 
any animals belonging to this place but grazing on national (wests, graiiag 
dUlrlcla, or on open range. 



CATTLE AND CALVES 

[78] How many CATTLE and CALVES of all ages are 

on this place? D None 

(Include all cows and all other cattle and calves, both dairy 
and beef, on this place) 

// "Nam," chick and tkip to qtitttion [S3]. 

OF THIS TOTAL— 

(a) How many are COWS* Include heifers, that have calved . . 

(b) How many are heifers and heifer calves? 

(Do not include any heifers that have calved.) 

(r) How manv are b-illa, bull calves steers, and steer calves? . 
(The total for questions (a), (6), and (e) must equal the 
number for question 78.) 



COWS MILKED YESTERDAY: 



80. How many MILK COWS were 

on this place yesterday T Include dry milk cows and 

milk heifers that have calved D None 

81. How many GALLONS of MILK were 

produced yesterday T 



DAIRY PRODUCTS SOLD AND TO BE SOLD THIS YEAR, ISM: 



1954) T 

(Report all sales from this place whether 
made by you or by others. Report as sold 
dairy products turned over to or sold for 
your landlord. Be sure to include dairy 
products which you will sell before 
January I, 1955 ) 



(a) How much WHOLE MILK 
was or will be sold 
this year* ....... Q Noi 



(b) How much CREAM was or 

will be sold this year* . Q None 

(If cream sold by gallon, multiply the 
number of gallons by 2' ; to get pounds of 
butterfat ) 



[D No. // "No," check and tktp to 

ovation [84]. 
ID Yea 



(I) 
Quantity 



How much was 
or will be the 
value of tales 7 



SHEEP AND LAMBS: 

[Ml How manv EWES, RAMS, WETHERS, and 
LAMBS of all agea are on this place? □ N< 

// "None." check and tkip to quettton [85], 

OF THIS TOTAL— 

(a) How many are LAMBS under 1 year old? , 

(6) How many are EWES I year old and over? 

(r) How manv are RAMS and WETHERS 1 year old and over 
(The total for questions (a), (6). and (r) must equal 
number for question 84.) 



GOATS AND KIDS, AND MOHAIR CLIPPED: 



If ' 'None ." check and tktp to auettion [84]. 
OF THIS TOTAL— 

(a) How many arc ANGORA GOATS and KIDBT 

,6. How many are OTHER GOATS and KID8T . . . . . 

(The total for questions (a) and <b) must equal the number 
for question 85.) 



[88] How many goats and kids were CLIPPED 
this year? O None 

7/ "Nom," check and tktp to fuetiion [87]. 

(a) How many POUNDS of MOHAIR and KID HAIR were 
CLIPPED this year (1954) including both spring and fall 
shearings ? , 



MULES AND HORSES: 

[871 How many MULES, HORSES, COLTS, and 
PONIES are on this place! 

// "None." check and tkip to auettion [88]. 

OF THIS TOTAL— 

(a) How many are MULES and MULE COLTST . . 

(b) 



How many are HORSES and COLTS, including ponies? . 

(The total for questions (a) and (5) must equal the number 
for queation 87.) 



HOGS AND PIGS: 

[88] How many HOGS and PIGS of all ages, including 
sows and boars, are on this place? Q Noi 

// "None," cheek and tktp to quetlion [89a]. 

OP THIS TOTAL— 

(a) How many were born since June 1, this year? 



(b) How many were born before June 1, this year? 

(The total for questions (a) and (b) must equal the number 
for question 88.) 



SOWS AND GILTS FARROWING: 

[89a] How many sows and gilts farrowed between 
ber 1, las 

Ho* 
this year, o 



No. 



ANIMALS SOLD AND TO BE SOLD ALIVE THIS YEAR, 1954: 

(Report all sales (run 
as sola animals turned o 
which you will sell before January 1, 1955.) 



Mb CALVES sold 



O None 
r to be sold? . Q None 



How many 

were or will 

be sold this 

year? 



How much wsa 
or will be the 
value of aales? 



WOOL SHORN THIS YEAR, 1954: 

91. How many sheep and lambs were shorn 
this year (1954)? Q Noi 

// "None," check and tktp to quetlton [92]. 
(a) How many pounds of wool were shorn this year (1954)? 



POULTRY: 

(Report all sales from this place whether made by you or by othere. Report aa 
sold ull poultry and poultry products turned over to or sold for your landlord. Be 
sure to include aa aold any chickena, broilers, eggs, turkeys, etc., which you will 
sell before January I, 1955 ) 

[92] Are there now any chickena, |Q No. 

turkeys, or other poultry on this place I 

or were there any on thia place thia ) 

year? ID Yes 



93. How many CHICKENS, 4 montha old 

and over, are on thia place? Q None 

(Hens, pullets, roosters, etc ) 

94. How many CHICKENS were or will be 
SOLD thia year- 
fa) Broilers? Q None 

(Report all broilers solfl from this place 
including those raised Tor others under 
contract.) 



9Co. How manv TURKEYS and 
TURKEY FRYSRS were raised thia 
year? 

(Include those raised from poults 

bought, poults hatched on this place, or 

raised for othere under contract, whether 

now on hand ) 



■rM i 



H< 



w many TURKEY HENS 
>w, are you keeping for 
i 1955? 



DNone 
Light breeds 
Heavy breeds 

D None 
Light breeds 
Heavy breeds 



97. How many DUCKS, 
GEESE, and other poultry (not 
counting chickens and lurkevs) were 
RAISED this year» □ None 



(Naaasklnaj 



98. How much wan or will be received thia 
year from the sale of TURKEYS, DUCKS, 
GEESE, and miscellaneous poultry, snd THEIR None 

EGGS? O sold 

{Do not include chickens and chicken egg") 



Color 
1 

2 
3 

Tenure 

1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
O 

Irrigation 

1 
2 
3 
X 

Out 
1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
O 
X 
V 

REGION 

17 

N. Hex. 
Wol T«i. 



Figure 1. — The Agriculture Questionnaire (Form Al) — Continued. 



PLANNING AND PREPARING FOR THE CENSUS 



11 




Section VIII.— FERTILIZER AND LIME 



FERTILIZER and FERTILIZING 
MATERIALwaapurchasedlhisyear? . | ] Noi 

(Do nol Include barnyard manure, itnv, refust 
nu t*i lib or rypnun ) 



dollars "nlji on - 



Ij " Viinf ." check and ikip to qutition [101]. 



. On which crops wu FERTILIZER USED 



mi Hay and cropland pasture? . . . . D None 

(b) Other pasture (nol cropland)? . . . D None 

(c) Com? Q None 

(rf) Colton? D None 

(t) Fruits, vegetables, and potatoes? . Q None 

(J) Other crop*? Q None 

(Olra nam*) 



(1) 

acres was 
fertiliser 
used? 



How many 
tons were 



[101] HowmuchLIMEor LIMING 
MATERIAL was purchased this year? D None _ 
(Include ground limestone, 
hydrated and burnt lime, marl, 
oyster shells, etc. Omit lime 
used lor sprays or sanitation). 



» _ / Ofl 

i.Tr)l*T<™"l. 

dollanoolr . 



Section a.— SELECTED FARM EXPENDITURES. THIS YEAB. IffM 

Include all eipenses paid, or to be paid before January 1. IVS5. by rou and by jour 
landlord for lain place. 



102. How much was or will be SPENT this year for 

(o) MACHINE HIRE? D 

(Include custom work, such as tractor hire, 
threshing, combining, silo (ilium, baling, 
ginning, plowing, and spraying.) 

(b) HIRED LABOR? □ 

(Do not include housework, custom work, 
or contract construction work Include cash 
payments only.) 

(e) FEED for livestock and poultry? , . . . . Q 
(Include coat of grain, hay. mill feeds, 
concentrates, and roughages, also, amounts 
paid for grinding and miiing feed ) 

(d) GASOLINE and other petroleum FUEL 
and OIL for the farm business* Q 



Section X.— FARM LABOR 



103. About how many hours the week of 
Sept. C6-Oct. 2 did you (the person in charge of 
this place) do farm work or chores on this place? 
(Caret one) 



1. □ None 

2. O 1 to 11 hours 

3. D IS hours or mo 



(a) How many OTHER MEMBERS OF YOUR 
FAMILY did 15 hours or more of farm work or chore* 
on this plaw the week of Sept 26-Oct. 2 WITHOUT 

RECEIVING CASH WAGES'' 

(Do not include housework.) 

(6) How many HIRED PERSONS did any farm work or 
chores on this place the week of Sept 26-Oct. 2T. 



Q None 



(Include members or your family receiving cash wages ) 

// "Son*," cluck and tkip to quetUon [104]. 

IOW MANJ' OF THESE HIRED PERSONS WORKINC THE 
WEEK OrSEPT 26-OCT 2 WERE EMPLOYED FOR— 

(e) 150 days or more during this year? Q None 



Q None 
nber 



e of pay and hours of work of these hired 
103(b))* (Enter information below.) 



(d) Less than 150 days during this year? 

(The total for questions (r) and (<f) must equal the n 
for question 103(b).) 

(t) Whkt were the 
persons (questic 



How nianv of these hired 
person- were paid on a— 



Weekly 



Daily 
basis? 

Hourly 



What was the agreed cash 

rata of pay ? (If more 

than one person, give 

average) 



I Palters only) 



» J 0« 



How many hours per 

person were these 

workers expected to work 

to earn this pay* 



hours 
_per month 



Section XL— OFF-FARM WORK AND OTHER INCOME 

[104] How many days this year did you work off your l\ D None 

farm? Include work at a nonfarm job, business, 2, Q 1 to 49 days 

profession, or on someone else's farm {Check one) . (3. Q 50 to 99 days 

(Do not include eichange work Include days you 4 Q 100 to 199 days 

expect to work off your farm before Jan. 1, 1955.) Is. Q 200 days or more 



(o) Did any other member of your family living with you have a non- 
farm job, business, profession, or work on someone else's farm this year? , 

(b) Have you anyincome this year from any of the following sources— 
sale of products from land rented out, cash rent, boarders, old-age assist- 
ance, pensions, veterans' allowances, unemployment compensation, 
interest, dividends, profits from nonfarm business, and help from members 
of your family? 

// "None" for question 104 and "No" for both questions 
(a) and (b), ikip to question [106]. 

105. Will the income which you and your family receive from work off 
the farm and from other sources (listed in questions 104, (a), and (b)) be 
greater than the total value of all agricultural products sold or to be sold I Q No 

from your place this year? ; 

ID Yes 



p No 
ID Yes 



D No 
D Yes 



Section XII.— FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT NOW ON THIS PLACE 
Include equipment and facilities tbat are temporarily oat of order. 



1106] Do you hai 
(a) Telephone? . . 



(b) Piped mooing water? 

(t) Electricity? 

(d) TelerialoD aetT . . . 



ID Yes 
ID No 
ID Yes 
ID No 
ID Yea 
fO No 
ID Yes 



(e) Home freer, er (for quick [D No 

freezing and storing foods. I 

Do not include refrigerator) ? lO Yes 



(J) Electric Hi brooder? 
(p) Milking machine? 



ID No 
ID Yes 

ID No 
In Yea 

[D No 



(A) Power feed grinder 

(suitable for grinding and 

crushing grain)? ID Yes 



107. HOW MANY OF THE FOLLOWING ARE ON THIS PLACE— 
Include equipment, whether owned by roo or by others, hept on thii place. 



(a) Grain combines (for 
harvesting and threshing 
grains or seeds in one 
operation)? 

(t>) Cora picker*? 

(c) Pick-up balers? . . . . 

(d) Field forage harvesters 
(for held chopping of silage 
and forage crops) r 

(f) Motortrucks (include 



ban garden? 

(o) Garden tractors? 

(ft) (rswiw traciara(track- 
laying, caterpillar)? . , . 

(■) Ailomobile* (belonging 
to you, to hired workers, or to 

other* living on this place)? 

(j) Artificial ponds. 
reservoirs, and earth 
Unka? 



Section Xm.— MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 

FARM VALUE. MORTOACE DEBT, AND CASH RENT: 

106. About how much would the land and the buildings on it sell for? 






(o) LAND OWNED BY YOU? D None 
(from question 4) 

(6) LAND RENTED FROM 

OTHERS? D None 

(from question f ) 

(c) LAND MANAGED FOR 

OTHERS? D None 

(from question t) 

(rf> LAND RENTED TO 

OTHERS? (from question 10) D None 



Acres 



1M. Is there any MORTGAGE DEBT on land and 
buildings owned by you? 



No land owned 



'iTUknarJ/l 
|D No land rented 
I for cash. 



111. On that dole va* tin ourtfionnairc f&ltdt 

112. Who furnished Ike information given in thu 
D Operator 

O Wife or other member of operator's famili 
□ Landlord 



(Gin month «nd <Ur! 

tportt [Check wWA) 
D Hired laborer 
D Neighbor 
D Other 
Name 



ENUMERATOR'S RECORD— To be filled by Census Enumerator: 

STATF, COUNTY K, D No. 

TOWNSHIP OR PRECINCT 



Have you reviewed each seel ion of this questionnaire* 

Certified by Dale _ 

Checked by Date . 



ON. 
ID Yes 

_. I9M 
_, 1954 






Figure 1. — The Agriculture Questionnaire (Form Al) — Continued. 



12 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



For example, if the enumeration district comprised an entire 
township, the enumeration district description consisted of the 
name of the township. The boundaries of enumeration districts 
were indicated on a copy of a county map retained for office use. 
A negative photoprint copy was made of these county maps for 
use by Crew Leaders. The preparation of enumerator maps was 
started in the latter part of May and completed in early September 
1954. A reduced facsimile of a typical map furnished an enu- 
merator is shown in figure 11. 

Funds for the Census. — General specifications and costs for 
the various phases of the 1954 Census of Agriculture were pre- 
pared in 1953. However, in 1953 a decision was made that the 
1954 Census of Agriculture would be taken for only a sample of 
the farms, and the budget request submitted to Congress in 
January 1954 provided for the appropriation of $2,400,000 for the 
fiscal year beginning July 1, 1954 for the taking of this sample 
Census. However, the Congress decided that a complete Census 
of Agriculture should be taken in 1954 and an appropriation of 
$16,000,000 was made by Congress on July 2, 1954. During the 
last week of May 1954, it appeared likely that Congress would 
approve the taking of a complete Census rather than a sample 
Census of Agriculture, and the plans that had been developed for 
a sample Census were modified and work on preparing for a 
complete Census was started during the last week of May 1954. 
However, lack of funds limited preparatory work during June 
1954 to the starting of the preparation of enumerators' maps, 
revising plans, and getting proof copies of questionnaires and some 
instructional materials. 

The plans for a complete Census of Agriculture prepared in 1953 
called for an expenditure of approximately $18,000,000 for the 
fiscal year beginning July 1, 1954, and for the expenditure of an 
additional $6,000,000 to complete work on the Census. The 
appropriation of $16,000,000 for the fiscal year beginning July 
1954 required a revision of the plans and specifications of the 
Census. The necessary changes in plans because of the reduction 
in appropriation were made during July and August 1954. A 
total of $6,000,000 was requested to complete work on the Census 
during the period July 1955 to December 31, 1956. Congress 
appropriated $5,500,000 of this amount. However, because of 
economy in Census operations and reduced costs, $1,000,000 of 
the $21,500,000 funds appropriated were not expended for the 
Census of Agriculture and the increased cost, of $400,000 to 
$500,000, arising from the pay raise of approximately 7 percent 
approved by Congress effective March 1955, was absorbed. 

The time schedule. — The satisfactory and efficient performance 
of a large number of different jobs required in connection with a 
Nationwide Census, many performed at different locations, re- 
quired the establishment of a detailed time schedule so that each 
job was scheduled, and so that personnel, machines, instructions, 
and materials were available when required. A detailed time 
schedule for most operations connected with the Census was 
prepared in 1953 and was revised May 20, 1954, when it appeared 
that funds would likely be appropriated for the Census. The 
following outline shows the time schedule for many of the major 
parts of the job: 

I. General: 

1. Questionnaire content determined — May 20, 1954 

2. Preparation of enumerator maps — May 20 to October 2, 

1954 

3. Shipment of materials for enumeration to field offices — 

August to October 2, 1954 

4. Recruitment of field personnel — August 9 to October 27, 

1954 

5. Enumeration — October 2 to December 15, 1954 



I. General — Continued 

6. Editing and coding of questionnaires — December 1954 to 

August 1955 

7. Punching of tabulating cards — December 1954 to Septem- 

ber 1955 

8. Tabulation of data for counties and States — March to 

October 1955 

9. Issuance of preliminary county and State data — March 

1955 to January 1956 

10. Issuance of final reports containing State and county 

data — October 1955 to September 1956 

11. Issuance of subject report presenting State and United 

States data — December 1956 

12. Completion of special tabulations — November 1956 

13. Completion of special reports — December 31, 1956 

14. End of Census work — December 31, 1956 
II. Planning and policy : 

Revised plans and detailed specifications for the Census — 

June to September 1954 
Qualification of field personnel established — June 4, 1954 
Location for office processing determined — July 1954 
Personnel policy regarding employment, promotions, etc., 

of temporary office personnel established — June 30, 1954 
Preparation of budget for completing work during period 
July 1, 1955 to December 31, 1956— August 1954 
III. Operations related to the enumeration: 

Enumerator maps prepared — May 20 to October 2, 1954 
Forms and instructions for use in the enumeration sent for 
printing: 

Agriculture Questionnaires for enumerators' use — 

Approved for printing, July 29 to August 16, 1954 
Agriculture Questionnaires for mail distribution — 

August 6 to August 16, 1954 
Enumerators' record book — July 20, 1954 
Employee appointment forms — June 1954 
Portfolio for use by enumerators — June 1954 
Enumerators' Instruction Book — June 21, 1954 
Crew Leaders' Instruction Book — August 5, 1954 
Instructions for supervisors of Agriculture Field Offices — 

July 24, 1954 
Training materials for enumerators — July 5 to 25, 1954 
Shipment of materials to field offices: 

Office forms and supplies — August 28, 1954 
Enumerators' portfolios and training materials — August 

28 to October 2, 1954 
Materials for publicity regarding Census — September 1, 
1954 
Appointment of Agriculture field supervisors — August 9, 1954 

to September 13, 1954 
Training of technical instructors — August 23 to 28, 1954 
Training of Agriculture field supervisors — August 10 to 

September 13, 1954 
Appointment of crew leaders — August 23 to October 11, 1954 
Crew leader training — September 23 to October 11, 1954 
Enumerators appointed — September 27 to November 1, 1954 
Enumerator training — September 27 to November 8, 1954 
Packaging of Agriculture Questionnaires for mail distribu- 
tion — September 7 to October 28, 1954 
Distribution of Agriculture Questionnaires by mail — Septem- 
ber 21 to October 30, 1955 
Training of enumerators of quality check for Census — Janu- 
ary 2 to 10, 1955 
Enumeration for quality check for Census — January to June 
1955 



PLANNING AND PREPARING FOR THE CENSUS 



13 



IV. Operations related to editing, coding, tabulating, and publi- 
cation of data: 
Receipt, editing, and coding of questionnaires: 

Recruitment of office personnel — October 1954 to March 

1955 
Training of supervisors — October to December 10, 1954 
Instructions printed — November 1954 
Training materials prepared — November 1954 
Editing and coding starts — November 24, 1954 
Editing and coding completed — July to August 1955 
Punching of tabulating cards: 

Card forms outlined — May 27, 1954 

Card forms designed and ordered — July 14, 1954 

Machine requirements determined and machines rented — 

September 29, 1954 
Instructions for punching prepared — November 1954 
Training materials prepared — November to December 

1954 
Training of supervisors — November 1954 
Punching begins — December 9, 1954 
Punching completed — August 25, 1955 
Correction of punch cards: 

Specifications for selection of cards with possible errors 

completed — August 15, 1954 
Selection of cards — February 5 to September 24, 1955 
Correction of cards — March 5 to October 22, 1955 
Making of tabulations: 

Outline of tabulation plans completed — June 29 to July 

13, 1954 
Tabulation forms designed and ordered — October 1954 

to February 1955 
Machine requirements determined and machines or- 
dered—July 1954 
Tabulation of county data — March 19 to October 14, 

1955 
Tabulation of State economic area data — June 1955 to 

April 1956 
Tabulation of subregion data — May 1956 to December 
1956 
Checking and review of tabulations: 

Instructions completed — March 16, 1955 

County tabulations — April 16 to November 19, 1955 

State economic area tabulations — July 1955 to March 

1956 
Economic subregion tabulations — May 1956 to October 
1956 
Preparing statistical tables for typing: 
Table forms sent for printing: 

Preliminary reports — January 27, 1955 to April 5, 

1955 
Final reports— March 20, 1955 to July 29, 1955 
Preparation of county tables: 

Preliminary reports — April to December 1955 
Final reports — June 1955 to April 1956 
Preparation of State economic area tables — August 1955 

to April 1956 
Preparation of subregion tables — May 1956 to October 
1956 



IV. Operations related to editing, coding, tabulating, and publi- 
cation of data-Continued 
Typing of statistical tables: 

Preliminary reports — May to December 1955 

County, State economic area, and State — August 9, 

1955 to May 26, 1956 
Subregions — August 1956 to November 1956 

Printing of reports: 

Preliminary — April 30 to December 24, 1955 
Final — County, State economic area, and State — De- 
cember 1956 
Subregion — March 1957 
Final — State and United States Summary — December 

1956 
Special reports — August 1956 to June 1957 

Very detailed time and progress schedules were established for 

each operation. For example, the time schedule established for 

the issuance of preliminary reports for States and counties was as 

follows: 

Number of 
preliminary 

1955 week ending- &'<? 

May 14 20 

May 21 30 

May 28 40 

June 4 1 60 

June 11 80 

June 18 100 

June 25 100 

July 2 100 

July 9 100 

July 16 100 

July 23 100 

July 30 100 

Aug. 6 100 

Aug. 13 100 

Aug. 20 100 

Aug. 27 100 

Sept. 3 100 

Sept. 10 100 

Sept. 17 100 

Sept. 24 100 

Oct. 1 100 

Oct. 8 100 

Oct. 15 100 

Oct. 22 100 

Oct. 29 100 

Nov. 5 100 

Nov. 12 100 

Nov. 19 100 

Nov. 26 130 

Dec. 3 140 

Dec. 10 150 

Dec. 17 150 



412357 O — 57- 



14 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



The time schedule for operations related to the enumeration 
was varied according to areas of the country as the date for the 
start of the enumeration varied. The Act of Congress setting 
the date for the enumeration for the 1954 Census of Agriculture 
permitted some variations in the date for starting of the enumera- 
tion. In areas where the harvesting of crops was completed 
early and where weather and road conditions made travel in 



early winter difficult, the enumeration was started in October. 
The dates for the beginning of the enumeration for various parts 
of the country are shown in figure 2. 

Adherence to the time schedule was checked periodically and 
administrative action was taken to correct situations that were 
delaying the work. The established time schedule was adhered 
to in almost every case. 



^-^ENUMERATION STARTING DATES, BY AREAS: 1954 CENSUS 

OF AGRICULTURE 



v- 



JP 



' T> 



/Q //8 <U~ 



<s> 



I0/ B5 



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00 



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10/11 



10/25 



10/25 



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lO/li 



11/3 



1/8 



11/3 



CM 



CO 



■ 10/18 



\o/£ 5 p? 



U/8 



\ 



c? 



10/25 



10/4 



'0/// 



'i'£l 



s 



11/8 



,0/ '8 fioT? 



10/4 { 



11/3 



& 



11/3 



11/8 



"/3 



11/3 



11/3 



t\/8 



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1/3 



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to 



10/18 



10/25? = 



11/3 



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oo 



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MAS 



JO/25, 



Figure 2. — Enumeration starting dates, by areas: 1954 Census of Agriculture. 



CHAPTER II— THE ENUMERATION 



15 



CONTENTS 



Page 

The enumeration 19 

The job 19 

Organization of field staff 19 

The Regional Offices 19 

Field Processing Offices 19 

Agriculture Field Offices 20 

Selection of personnel 22 

Training personnel 22 

A. Outline of training of Agriculture field supervisors and assistants 22 

B. Training of crew leaders 22 

C. Training of enumerators 25 

Office space, supplies, and equipment 25 

Packaging and distributing enumerator's supplies 25 

Distribution of Agriculture Questionnaires by mail 27 

Enumeration procedures 27 

Record of work and travel 34 

Enumerator's daily report 34 

Record of telephone and other costs 34 

Record of A2 listings requiring crew leader action 34 

Enumerator's callback record 34 

Supervision of the enumerator and checking of his work 34 

Control over time schedule and cost of the enumeration 43 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Field organization chart 18 

Flow chart of reporting system for enumeration work 21 

Selection aid for enumerators (Pers. 165 Form B) 23 

The portfolio 26 

Letter accompanying self-mailer, Al, Agriculture Questionnaire 28 

Address label, self-mailer A 1 Agriculture Questionnaire 28 

A 2 listing form 29. 

A3 Landlord- Tenant Questionnaire 30 

A2 listing form (illustrative example) 31 

Reduced facsimile of enumerator's map 32 

Map for checking enumeration of farms in specified township and range survey areas (Form FA-100) 33 

Record of production and travel (Form FA-3) 35 

Enumerator's daily report (Form FA-7) 35 

Record of telephone calls and road, bridge, and ferry tolls (Form FA-4) 37 

Enumerator's record A2 listings requiring crew leader action (Form FA-5) 39 

Enumerator's callback record (Form FA-6) 40 

Crew leader's daily activity report (Form FA-18) 41 

Record of enumerator (Form FA-1 7) 42 

Record of portfolio review (Form FA-91) 44 

Coverage evaluation by ED's (Form FA-88) 45 

Crew leader authorization for enumerator recruitment and record of piece rates and mileage allowances, 1954 Agriculture Census (Form 

FA-32) _ 46 

17 



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O 

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Region V 

Los Angeles, California 








14 Agriculture Field Offices 

14 Supervisors 
14 Assistant Supervisors 
27 Clerks 
228 Crew Leaders 
2, 754 Enumerators 














4 Processing Offices 

4 Supervisors 
51 Clerks 




























Region IV 
Dallas, Texas 




23 Agriculture Field Offices 

23 Supervisors 
21 Assistant Supervisors 
45 Clerks 
451 Crew Leaders 
6, 076 Enumerators 














4 Processing Offices 

4 Supervisors 
119 Clerks 












o 

Q 

a" 

o 

Ml 

a 

s 

03 

03 

a 

o 

*03 
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5 

2 
















Region III 
Atlanta, Georgia 




28 Agriculture Field Offices 

28 Supervisors 
28 Assistant Supervisors 
56 Clerks 
516 Crew Leaders 
7, 725 Enumerators 










6 Processing Offices 

6 Supervisors 
163 Clerks 






















Region II 
Chicago, Illinois 




40 Agriculture Field Offices 

40 Supervisors 
39 Assistant Supervisors 
80 Clerks 
719 Crew Leaders 
9,998 Enumerators 


















8 Processing Offices 

8 Supervisors 
201 Clerks 




























Region I 
New York City 




14 Agriculture Field Offices 

14 Supervisors 
16 Assistant Supervisors 
28 Clerks 
245 Crew Leaders 
3, 586 Enumerators 














4 Processing Offices 

4 Supervisors 
65 Clerks 



















.a 
O 

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o 



a 

03 
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18 



CHAPTER II— THE ENUMERATION 



The job. — The enumeration required the organization of a 
field staff for the purpose of visiting all areas in the United States 
and obtaining the required information regarding each place 
and farm, the setting up of temporary offices, the selection and 
training of personnel, the supervision and control over personnel 
and operations, the actual enumeration, the checking of the 
enumeration, and the paying of personnel. 

Organization of field staff. — The field staff was organized by 
function and by area. The outline on page 18 shows the organiza- 
tion and size of the field staff used for the 1954 Census of Agri- 
culture. 

The 5 Regional Offices and a considerable part of their personnel 
existed before work on the Census of Agriculture was undertaken 
and formed a part of the permanent staff of the Bureau of the 
Census. The entire organization below the level of Regional 
Offices was established temporarily for the 1954 Census of Agri- 
culture. The 26 processing offices were supervised largely by 
permanent field personnel, who were reassigned temporarily from 
the permanent jobs of supervising current field activities of the 
Bureau of the Census. Except for the personnel of the Regional 
Offices and the supervisors of the 26 processing offices, a tempo- 
rary field staff was recruited and employed for a limited period 
for work on the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

The Regional Offices. — The Regional Offices exercised general 
control over all field work. They assisted particularly in obtaining 
office space, selection of supervisors and other personnel for proces- 
sing offices and Agriculture Field Offices, and for the handling of 
unforeseen problems. The personnel for each regional office, the 
average days of employment, and their average salary per 40-hour 
week were as follows: 



Kind of personnel 



Supervisors... 

Assistant Supervisors 
Clerks. 



Number 
employed 



Average 
days of 
employ- 
ment 



85 
100 
100 



Average 

salary per 

week 



$170 
105 
61 



Field Processing Offices. — Processing offices were established 
to provide trained supervisory personnel for the purpose of select- 
ing, appointing, controlling, paying, and checking the work of the 
large number of temporary employees, most of whom did not have 
any prior experience in Government work and procedures. 

The supervisors of processing offices were appointed during the 
period July to September 1954 and were employed on an average of 
20 weeks. A brief outline of the work the supervisor performed 
during these 20 weeks follows: 

First week: 

Obtain space, supplies and equipment for processing 

office 
Recruit administrative clerk 

Second, third, and fourth week: 

Organize office and train administrative clerk 

Recruit and train clerk-typist and payroll clerk 

Assist supervisors of Agriculture Field Offices in recruiting 

crew leaders 
Supervise the processing of crew leader appointments 



Second, third, and fourth week — Continued 

Supervise preparation of payroll work sheets for per- 
sonnel in processing office and in Agriculture Field 
Offices 
Fifth through eighth week: 

Submit progress reports as required 

Assist supervisors of Agriculture Field Office to recruit 
enumerators 

Process enumerator appointments 

Recruit and train shipping clerk for processing office 

Supervise the preparation of payroll work sheets for 
personnel in processing office and Agriculture Field 
Offices 
Ninth and tenth week: 

Recruit and train editing and tabulating clerks 

Supervise the preparation of payroll work sheets for pay- 
ing enumerators for training and for enumerators 
employed by the hour 

Supervise the preparation of payroll work sheets for 
personnel in processing office and in Agriculture Field 
Offices 
Eleventh through sixteenth week: 

Supervise the editing and tabulation of data for com- 
pleted enumeration districts 

Return incomplete and not acceptable work of enumer- 
ators for completion and/or correction 

Inform supervisors of Agriculture Field Offices of unsatis- 
factory work and advise crew leaders on how to handle 
unsatisfactory work of enumerators 

Supervise the preparation and approval of payrolls for 
work completed by enumerators 

Supervise the preparation of payroll work sheets for 
personnel in processing office and in Agriculture Field 
Offices 

Prepare summary of completed enumeration districts by 
county and submit summary to Washington for 
approval 

Ship materials for counties completed to central proces- 
sing offices 

Seventeenth through twenty-fifth week: 

Supervise the editing and tabulation of data for completed 

enumeration districts 
Return incomplete and not acceptable work of enumer- 
ators to crew leader for completion and/or correction 
Inform crew leaders of unsatisfactory work performed by 

enumerators and how to handle this unsatisfactory 

work 
Supervise the preparation and approval of payroll for 

work completed by the enumerators 
Prepare summary of completed enumeration districts by 

counties and submit the summary to Washington for 

approval 
Prepare a final report on all work completed 
Terminate all employees and close office 

The administrative clerk supervised the clerical operations in 
the processing office particularly during the frequent periods when 
the supervisor was away checking on field operations and progress. 
All payrolls for enumerators, crew leaders, personnel in Agriculture 

19 



20 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



Field Offices, etc., were checked and in most cases prepared in the 
office of the Field Processing Office supervisor by the payroll 
clerk. Payrolls of employees employed by the month and day 
were prepared once every two weeks, separate payrolls were 
prepared for each enumerator for his training and for each enumer- 
ation district he completed. Payrolls were sent to the Washington 
office for final audit and for the issuance of checks. 

The appointments of all field personnel were prepared in the 
processing office. This work was performed by the appointment 
clerk. A description of the work of the tabulating clerks is given 
on page 69. 

The personnel used in each processing office, the average length 
of employment, and average salary were as follows: 



Kind of personnel 



Supervisors and assistant 

Administrative clerk 

Payroll clerk 

Receiving and shipping clerk. 

Tabulating clerks... 

Typist 



Number 
employed 
per office 



1-2 

1 

1 

1 

= 15 

94 



Average days 
of employ- 
ment (in- 
cluding 
overtime) 



161 
95 3 4 
74Ji 
34 3 i 
24K 
23 



Average 

salary per 

40-hour 

week 



$117 
66 
61 

57 
57 
57 



' Total days for all 26 offices were 6,778. 

' Number per office varied from approximately 10 to 50. 

3 The number varied by office. The total number for the 26 offices was 114. 

Agriculture Field Offices. — Agriculture Field Offices were 
established for the purpose of supervising and controlling the 
enumeration in a specific geographic area. In some cases, this 
area included as much as a State and in other cases only a few 
counties. In determining areas for which agriculture field offices 
would be established, the workload both in terms of the number 
of farms to be enumerated as well as the total land area to be 
covered were considered. The average number of farms per 
agriculture field office was approximately 40,000 

The number of personnel for each Agriculture Field Office, the 
average days of employment, and the average salary per 40-hour 
week were as follows: 



Kind of personnel 



Supervisor.. 

Assistant supervisor. 
Administrative clerk 

Clerk 

Crew leaders 

Enumerators 



Number 
employed 
per office 



1 
1 
1 
1 
'18 
l 253 



Average 

days of 

employment 

(including 

overtime) 



884 

84 

87J4 

59H 

52 

17H 



Average 

salary 

per 40-hour 

week 



$97 
82 
67 
57 
66 
46 



' The number varied by office. 

The work performed by the supervisor and assistant supervisor 
of the Agriculture Field Offices varied by weeks as follows: 

First week: 

Arranged for office space and equipment 
Recruited administrative clerk 
Arranged for appointment of assistant supervisor 
Issued press releases and provided newspapers etc., with 
information about Census 

Second week: 

Attended training classes 

Third, fourth, and fifth weeks: 

Organized office and trained administrative clerk 
Contacted persons for obtaining lists of enumerators in 

each county 
Recruited crew leaders 
Arranged for crew leader training 
Issued press releases and provided newspapers etc., with 

information about Census 



Sixth week: 

Supervised crew leader training classes 
Issued press releases and provided newspapers etc., with 
information about Census 

Seventh, eighth, and ninth week: 

Supervised crew leaders in selection of the enumerators 
Issued press releases and provided newspapers etc., with 
information about Census 

Tenth week: 

Supervised enumerator training 

Issued press releases and provided newspapers etc., with 
information about Census 

Eleventh to the fourteenth week: 
Supervised the enumeration 
Prepared and submitted progress reports 
Visited crew leaders and enumerators 

Fifteenth and sixteenth week: 

Terminated appointments of enumerators 
Supervised crew leaders in checking work of enumerators 
for completeness and coverage 

Seventeenth and eighteenth week: 

Supervised the completion of work in enumeration dis- 
tricts where work was not fully satisfactory 
Terminated appointments of crew leaders 
Closed office as instructed 
Terminated all employees 

The administrative clerk usually served as a secretary for the 
Agriculture Field Office and assisted the office clerk in preparing 
the various required reports. These reports, to whom submitted, 
and their frequency are shown in figure 4. 

The work of the supervisor and assistant supervisor required 
considerable travel. During the period of their employment the 
supervisors or assistant supervisors were away from their head- 
quarters on the average for 19 days and traveled an average of 
5,013 miles. 

The job of the crew leader was concerned largely with the selec- 
tion, training, and supervision of enumerators. One crew leader 
was appointed for each 10 to 18 enumerators. The area assigned 
each crew leader usually consisted of a county or combination of 
one county and a part of another county. 

Crew leaders were appointed 5 weeks before the actual start of 
the enumeration. The distribution of the crew leaders' 52 days' 
work was as follows: 

Attending training class 5 days 

Recruiting enumerators, obtaining enumerator train- 
ing space and materials, and making a list of 15 

places in each enumeration district 16 days 

Training enumerators 4 days 

Recruiting and training enumerators for replace- 
ment, etc 3 days 

Supervising enumerators during enumeration 19 days 

Checking enumerators' work and shipping ma- 
terials 5 days 

Crew leaders were required to visit enumerators at least twice and 
to check their work on the job. The miles traveled by crew 
leaders during their employment averaged 927. 

The duties of enumerators are described under "The Enumera- 
tion." Enumerators were paid $14 for completing the training 
and either $1.25 per hour worked plus $0.07 for each mile of travel 
by personally owned automobile or $0.07 for each line filled 
on Form A2, $0.40 to $1.00 per Agriculture Questionnaire filled 
plus $0.07 per mile for use of their personally owned automobile 
plus $0.04 per mile traveled in personally owned automobile for 
the time spent in traveling. Enumerators worked on an average 
of 17.25 days each. 



THE ENUMERATION 



21 









lit! 



ESfSS 



■s J t » ssH? 

i.-.-Is »■ ?;i"t 



', - Zi £ 2 "' 



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61 



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a 



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fiJisJlllM 



22 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



Selection of personnel. — Except for supervisors and personnel 
of Regional Offices and supervisors of processing offices, all field 
jobs for the 1954 Census of Agriculture were temporary and were 
not under the civil-service system. Personnel for these jobs 
were usually selected from lists of candidates recommended by 
Senators, Congressmen, or by State and local political organiza- 
tions. Qualifications were established for supervisors and assist- 
ant supervisors of Agriculture Field Offices. These qualifications 
were evaluated during and after a personal interview. Further 
evaluation was made of these personnel during the training classes 
prior to their beginning the performance of their jobs. Crew 
leaders, clerks, and enumerators were required to take tests. The 
tests given clerks were similar to those given to civil-service 
applicants. An example of the test given crew leaders and enumer- 
ators is shown in figure 5. Minimum grades were established for 
crew leaders and enumerators and persons whose grades were less 
than these minima were not considered for appointment, unless 
no other qualified person could be recruited. 

Both crew leaders and enumerators were required to be citizens 
of the United States, to have at least a high school education or 
its equivalent, to be physically able to discharge the duties in- 
volved, to be able to write neatly and legibly, to be able to do 
simple arithmetic quickly and accurately, to be able to talk 
easily with people and gain their cooperation, to have some 
knowledge of farming and farm operations, and to have the use of 
an automobile. Preference was given to qualified veterans. 

Most of the crew leaders and enumerators had no previous 
experience in collecting data. Farmers and farmers' wives made 
up the largest group. Persons previously associated with law 
enforcement or tax assessment or collection were not employed 
because respondents might associate them with their previous 
jobs and hesitate to give required Census information. 

Training of personnel. — Nearly all the personnel used for the 
1954 Census of Agriculture did not have prior experience in con- 
nection with a Census and many did not have any prior experience 
working at a government job. Therefore, all personnel were re- 
quired to attend and satisfactorily complete a training course. 
The training of supervisors, assistant supervisors, crew leaders, 
administrative clerks, payroll clerks, and tabulating clerks was 
performed largely by personnel from the Washington Office of the 
Bureau of the Census or other cooperating government agencies. 
The training of enumerators was given by crew leaders. 

The training classes usually were limited to less than 20 persons 
and in the case of enumerators to less than 10 persons. Training 
guides and training aids were provided for training at all levels. 
In order to insure uniform training for all personnel and to appor- 
tion training in accordance with the various parts of the job, the 
persons who performed the training were required to use training 
guides. These training guides provided detailed time schedules 
for the training, an outline and in some cases the actual statement 
of the material to be presented to the trainees. In order to insure 
uniformity of training and to facilitate the adherence to time 
schedules, a considerable part of the crew leader and enumerator 
training was given by the use of recordings and film strips. The 
training program also included the use of exercises, practice work, 
and trainee participation in training class exercises. The training 
program for crew leaders and enumerators required not only the 
filling out of a training questionnaire but also some actual enumera- 
tion. In the case of the enumerators, the training periods were 
limited to 4 hours each day in order to facilitate learning and 
the retention of the learning. 



A. Outline of Training of Agriculture Field Supervisors 
and Assistants 

Duration of training: 

Four days — 9 a. m. to 4 p. m. with 1 hour for lunch and two 
15 minute rest periods 

First day: 

1. Description of his job (1 hour) 

2. Technical training (4% hours). (This consisted largely 

of a description of the job to be done, a description 
of the forms and questionnaires to be used by enumera- 
tors, an outline of the crew leader and enumerator train- 
ing programs, methods used for determining how much 
enumerators were to be paid, etc.) 
Second day: 

1. Description of training program for subordinates (}i hour) 

2. Description of crew leader responsibility Qi hour) 

3. How to select and recruit personnel (4'/2 hours) 
Third day: 

1. Obtaining space, equipment, supplies and services (1 hour) 

2. Preparing payrolls, etc. (% hour) 

3. Conducting publicity in connection with the Census 

(H hour) 

4. Preparing of correspondence, etc. (% hour) 

5. Confidential nature of Census data (% hour) 

6. Supervisor's responsibilities for managing personnel (% 

hour) 

7. Questions (1J4 hours) 
Fourth day: 

1 . Preparation of reports and use of controls (4>4 hours) 

2. Questions regarding work; other duties (1J4 hours) 

B. Training of Crew Leaders 

Duration of training: 
Five days 

First day: 

1. Description of his job (V/i hours) 

2. Participation in a training program that comprised the 

same training programs given enumerator 
(a) How to use maps (J4 hour) 

(6) Discussion of Agriculture Questionnaire Al and 
form A2 {V/t hours) 

(c) Discussion of home training Agriculture Question- 

naire ( l /i hour) 

(d) How to enumerate (1 hour) 

(e) Practice in enumeration in class room (2)4 hours) 
(/) Assignment of enumeration district for enumera- 
tor and for practice training (}£ hour) 

Second day: 

1 . Eight hours of actual enumeration in an area nearby to train- 
ing location, under the field supervision of instructor 

Third day: 

1. Discussion of problems encountered during actual enumer- 

ation (1J4 hours) 

2. How to review each enumerator's work {l\{ hours) 
Fourth day : 

1. Practice presentation as an instructor using materials to 

be used in training enumerators (3 hours) 

2. Hours of work, pay rates and inquiries relating thereto 

(Yi hour) 

3. Locating training space {)i hour) 

4. Selecting enumerators (1 hour) 



THE ENUMERATION 



23 



■AP lElDINg (All questions or. this p „ „,„ .„ „ 

F»«e reier to mqj on p. 3. ) 

1. Pl.c an •)(■ beside the *.//,„,, „„„., .1. 

<&» 1.^ for U,. ^W i'.^",?," 1 °»»" '«■ 
line m. tk. i . a * e,lm 8- Locate east count- 

o ti,r.^, *■ ^ c "r "" d -"'"« "»>»' *« ■» ». 

to the east county line.) 
2. Place „ -X- be.id. *. .<*„, „.„,„ . Mtldw| „,,,_ 

'• ^"^"r"*™ ■**!■ on ' ,u miu ° f *■ -* «-«» ~ 

otner , rtTeh, 7 "' ° nly -"»' ""» ■■=•!« -d . pencil or 
°t»« "ra,„ht edge to measure the distance.! H *„„ 

4. Ho. „» y daellings m lo „ t .d ; A . 

north of the railroad' -"tofth. ,„„ „ 

S ' *£."*'*' '"*"*<■>"' d ""»« (- th, nearest afcej. -U , 
■Ml. -d p=,„l ., other straight edp , to «.„« „,„„„" 

(Ais. to nearest whole mile) 

(Ms. to nearest -hole raile)_ 



Indict, th. fo ,Wn» changes on th. „ by dr .„„g ,„ ^ ^^ ^ 
?..«.i™. „«, fra , d«ll, ng-1- to d-,Hi„. -2.. (S.. ,„_ d 
or th. s,»u»l hr „ . B ,t„ 1 „o ( „ „«,. . r^. that sy^, *"„ 
the location specified. ) ^^ 



10. i '"*«ri.J h„i, rf/ „, ,•„,„ , cn>33 the ^ 

-th of the c_.rc.al «„ .h.ch 13 „„ d .,.. "«" ^ „ 




Figure 5. — Selection Aid for Enumerators (Pers. 165 Form B). 



24 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



TEST J 



FOlLOIINe I«STBJCtI0H8 



r* *. b-i..f*. -<=n-t.oo fcnOri-d. *~ ™ u, «**!«. *. .«"•" ■=■»" 

for below. 



For **aa«?le-Given U« following infor-ation- 



Cowplete trie following entries: 

HKHIUKNCK AND MIK Or I'KIISON IN MIAIU11 

l>o yiw live 01. Hi- |h»v«? . . . 



1I» 



V .L l„ 



When dill yirtl '"'ill" 1o»|«t.iI.' Hii- [•'■J*' • -, M AT. ,., 

•YES- .. d«ck.<l .L.c. the .nfon-tior. uuUc.t.. th.t Mr. Jon.. .. th. 
,h.r« T.0 th.t h« 1».» on the f.r. ■- V-t.on. Hi. .«. 

for the P«t 4 years which -an. th.t he begin to operate tHe «■ 
r^. ^e Jth i. no>.hoan since the -£"»-£»- %£ 
not neces.ary if the person begnn to operate the fan. prior to 1952. 

Complete the following entries in • aiaulax -ay. 

Mr. Jones has 3 horses. 2 colts, and 2 ^les. One of his sons has . pony I 
«„d in nddition he boards 2 horses for friends. 

Fill in the following. 

Include .11 -i-U on this place owned by you and by others. 

Ml I.I > 

I' 
[HIS IKS 



I. 



v MUI.KS. IIORKKH 



TEST 3— roatlaaed 

Mr. Jones indicates th.t be owns 1 tr»ct of 12 were, of cropland and 1 tract 
conaiating of B acre* of cropland, 2 acres of woodland and 2 acres of wasteland. 
He has also been using rent-free 6 acres of pasturelsnd belonging to Mr. Smith. 

Fill in the following: 

OWNED UND »»wwa»wi 

*• Ho» mam acre- of land do rou OWN? - None ' 

ilf you o»n more than oi.e irarr ..( land, INCU [U 
ALL LAND 0« NED Inrlude ... t oi I. froi.Ui.d hill 

■ ■•" ['«.- 1 j"-i«' .I ».-»li»?.ii *a--ielai>d rlr 



LAND RENTED FROM OTHER? 

Howm.nv acres of land do »r,u RENT FROM othem 

including any morked on »ha.rr- . 
ilnrlude an> 'i'«r»if r.fM 

■ il»-. I wasteland, etc .At. 

tun reni free ) 



During Boat of the week of Oct. 24-30 Mr. Jones w ill. H* worked about 3 
hours a day on Monday and Tuesday and an additional 4 houra over the week-end. 
One son worked full time and another son worked4hours a day for 4 dava. Neither 
of theo received any pay. Hia third son worked about 10 houra during the week 
for which he was paid 112.00. 



- _ I to I* . ..' 



, Will \ <1ul I 



i-Tllt .It Ml Mill US OF \Ol R 

>ir> or more ,-f farm « ..rh or , horr. 

»rvk of iVr 24-30 » ITIliM T 
RECEIVING Ci?H WAl'.ES? - \ 01 

Do not include h.m-e-.Tk ' 

,(. How mam HIRED PERSON* .li.laio ranti«orkor 

rhom .'ii this pin* ih* «c?ek ..f On 24-30? — \..„ 



oh TIMS TllTM.- 
2. in) ||u« IUWI> ar.- Ml I.I > 

3_ iM 11,111 HtHii «■■ IIUKSI 



Fill m the following" 



|n,kP.IHMll' 

iruin 20 bushel* arel 




S-relawiataea for home .«* or ^ ^^ | # 
"lltaw ihil. » l>**h*\> were harried, do no, 
i acre* 



h.„ -a 115 for fillip . -ta. H. J2 VbI-M th. ,.« for -H. oo th. 

lor. th. o>a of th. v..r. 



Ho. n,«h «- o. •■" he SPENT ,h,. ,«. IT- 

••' N J*!' 1 5 ,x ,L.om R 5iri. .if* - "*"» !;'"•■ 

Si'"™ 1 ''™'"' 1 ' * lu ""' b *'" ,, ' 



TEST 3 — Coatlaaed 

1 ton on 7 acres of corn 

2 tons on n acres of potatoes 
1/2 ton on 3 acres of oats 
1/2 ton on 4 acres of hay 

Fertiliser was not used on any other crops or acreage. 

NOTF. Convert all fr.ct.ons of tons to tenths. ,..., 1/10, 2/10, 3/10. etc. 



I - »a- H IITII IZI It | sl.D 




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tail 


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uw many 








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in 



Figure 5. — Selection Aid for Enumerators (Pers. 165 Form B) — Continued. 



THE ENUMERATION 



25 



Fourth day — Continued 

5. Preparing for the checking of coverage (% hour) 

6. Preparing for making assignments of enumerators to 

enumeration districts {% hour) 

7. Training enumerators ('/i hour) 

8. Questions (}{ hour) 

Fifth day: 

1. How to review enumerator's work (2 hours) 

2. How to replace enumerators and make reassignments 

(Yt hour) 

3. Completing the job (% hour) 

4. Issuing materials and supplies to the crew leader for 

his area (1% hours) 

C. Training of Enumerators 

Duration of training: 

A total of 12 hours on 4 different days 

First day : 

1. Description of his job (V/i hours) 

2. How to use enumerator's map (Training given by presenting 

film strip and recording "Your Map is Your Guide") 
(% hour) 

3. Explanation of Agriculture Questionnaire (Al) (V/i hours) 

4. Review Agriculture Questionnaire filled out at home by 

each enumerator Qyi hour) 

5. Explanation of how to fill questionnaires (Instruction given 

by film strip and recording) (1 hour) 

Second day: 

1. Instructions on how to fill questionnaires, continued 

(Instructions given by film strip and recording) {% hour) 

2. Practice enumeration in class room. The enumerators 

acted as the enumerator and the crew leader as the 
respondent (3 hours). 

3. Assignments of enumeration districts and distribution of 

supplies for enumeration on third day ( l /i hour) 

Third day: 

1. Actual enumeration in an assigned area 

Fourth day: 

1. Discussion of problems encountered during enumeration 

on third day (1% hours) 

2. Individual review of each enumerator's work (IJ2 hours) 

3. Assignment of enumeration districts and delivery of work 

materials (1% hours) 

Office space, supplies, and equipment. — It was necessary not 
only to obtain office space, but also equipment and supplies for 
the use of the large number of temporary personnel required for 
taking the Census. Office space was secured only for Field 
Processing Offices and Agriculture Field Offices. It was necessary 
for crew leaders and enumerators to use their own homes as their 
headquarters and offices. 

In obtaining office space for Field Processing Offices and 
Agriculture Field Offices every effort was made to obtain free 
space. The first source explored was space in Federally owned or 
controlled buildings, such as Post Office buildings. Local govern- 
ments and civic organizations were asked for free space in such 
public buildings as court houses, city halls, and schools. Free 
space was obtained for 82 of the 145 Field Processing and Agricul- 
ture Field Offices. The space used by Field Processing Offices 
averaged about 2, 100 square feet per office. For the Agriculture 
Field Offices, about 975 square feet were used per office. 

Several methods were used to obtain furniture, equipment, and 
supplies for the Field Processing and Agriculture Field Offices. 
Furniture was borrowed from Post Offices, other Government 
agencies, and local organizations. Much Government-owned 
used furniture was obtained free by transfer from regional gov- 
ernmental warehouses. When free furniture was not obtainable, 



items of reconditioned furniture were procured from regional 
supply centers of Federal Supply Service. 

Reconditioned adding machines and typewriters also were 
purchased from Federal Supply Service regional supply centers. 
Some reconditioned office machines from the Department of 
Commerce stock were shipped to field offices, and, upon comple- 
tion of the enumeration, returned to Washington for use during 
the central processing operations. In other cases, adding ma- 
chines and typewriters were rented locally by the Field Processing 
and Agriculture Field Office Supervisors. 

Record players and film projectors were required for training 
crew leaders and enumerators. This equipment was supplied 
from stocks returned from the 1950 Census and was shipped to 
the Agriculture Field Offices for distribution to the crew leaders. 
Two training records and film, strips were prepared for training 
crew leaders and enumerators. One, "Your Map is Your Guide", 
with a running time of 12 minutes, explained and illustrated how 
to use the maps provided for each enumeration district. The 
other, "Enumeration Instructions," with a running time of 
54 minutes, was shown to the enumerators in two separate sessions; 
Part 1, in the last period of the first day's training session; and 
Parts 2, 3, and 4 at the beginning of the second day's training 
session. This film strip explained and illustrated the use of the 
various enumeration forms and how to conduct an interview by 
the device of having the training class accompany an enumerator 
from his breakfast table at home until the end of his first interview. 
Paper, pencils, paper clips, and other standard office supplies 
were purchased from Federal Supply Service. These supplies were 
purchased and distributed by two different methods. Under the 
first method, the anticipated needs of each field office, conserva- 
tively estimated, were reported to regional supply centers of the 
Federal Supply Service, where packages containing the requested 
supplies were prepared for each field office to open in their regions. 
When the field office was ready to open, the supply centers shipped 
the supplies and usually, these supplies arrived the day the field 
office opened. Under the second method, the supplies were 
purchased in bulk for delivery in Washington. These bulk supplies 
supplemented the "packaged" supplies delivered direct, and were 
shipped to field offices as required. 

Most of the supplies used by the enumerator, including the 
questionnaires, were assembled in Washington and placed in 
each enumeration district portfolio. A reserve supply of enumera- 
tion forms was sent to each Agriculture Field Office and to each 
crew leader. 

Packaging and distributing enumerator's supplies. — Most of 
the supplies used by the enumerators, including the questionnaires, 
were assembled in Washington and placed in the enumerator's 
portfolio. 

A separate portfolio (see fig. 6) was prepared for each enumera- 
tion district. The portfolio was made of two pieces of heavy card- 
board, 13 inches wide and 20 inches long, attached together by a 
canvas hinge to form a folder. An open-topped, accordian-pleated 
heavy paper envelope was fastened inside the cardboard folder, 
with the opening in the envelope next to the canvas hinge. Thus 
the top piece of cardboard, when folded over, formed a full-length 
flap to help hold the contents securely. An elastic cord, attached 
to the back piece of cardboard, could be stretched around the 
portfolio to hold it closed. 

The exact contents of the portfolio varied according to the 
location and expected number of farms in the enumeration district. 
In general, supplies of the following items were included: 

Enumeration district map 

Enumerator's Record Book 

Agriculture Questionnaires 

Enumerator's Daily Report (preaddressed post card form) 

Specified Farm Coverage Cards (if required) 

Writing board and clip 

Blank envelopes 



26 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



UNITED STATES 
CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE 
1954 



R1U lI.M'ER 




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Figure 6. — The portfolio. 



THE ENUMERATION 



27 



Forty-two thousand enumerator's portfolios required for the 
Census were assembled and packaged in Washington. The forms 
and supplies were inserted in the portfolios at successive stations 
along a waist-high rack composed largely of roller wheels. Bulk 
supplies of a given kind were brought to each station on "skids" 
by hydraulic-lift trucks. As the portfolios moved from one end 
of the rack to the other, the required number of each type of sup- 
ply was inserted. Forms required in small numbers were counted. 
The number of forms, such as the Agriculture Questionnaire, 
required in large numbers for each enumeration district, was 
determined by use of a measuring "spoon". 

The filled portfolios were labeled for specific enumeration dis- 
tricts, packed by crew leader districts into wooden or cardboard 
boxes, and shipped to the Agriculture Field Offices. The port- 
folios for enumeration districts in each area were given to the 
respective crew leader on the last day of his training. He took 
these in his automobile and distributed them to enumerators on 
the last day of enumerator training. The wooden boxes were 
stacked and used as shelves in the Agriculture Field Offices. 
After enumeration had been completed, the portfolios were packed 
in the same wooden boxes for shipment to the Central Operation 
Offices. 

Distribution of Agriculture Questionnaires by mail. — Approxi- 
mately 7,900,000 copies of the Agriculture Questionnaire were 
distributed by mail to boxholders on the rural routes in all States 
except Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, and 53 of 75 counties in Arkansas. These ques- 



tionnaires, mailed about 2 weeks before the enumeration began, 
were accompanied by a letter asking the farm operator to examine 
the questionnaire and to answer the questions prior to the visit 
of the enumerator. (See fig. 7 for copy of letter.) When the 
enumerator made his visit he was instructed to ask for the ques- 
tionnaire, check it, and obtain whatever information was needed 
to complete it. This procedure enabled the farmer to know in 
advance what information was required and provided some leeway 
of time within which he could supply the answers at his own 
convenience. This procedure was of particular importance to 
those farmers who preferred to supply the information on the basis 
of their records. Expected results were that the quality of the 
information would be improved and the work of the enumerator 
expedited. Records show that in the area in which the Agriculture 
Questionnaire was distributed by mail, the enumerator obtained 
and used the mailed questionnaire in 43 percent of the cases and 
that the questionnaire had been filled out completely by 23 percent 
of the farm operators in the area. 

The questionnaires for distribution by mail were printed in 
Chicago, 111. Consequently, arrangements were made for dis- 
tribution from Chicago to the local post offices in all parts of the 
country. A crew of about 25 temporary employees was recruited 
to pack the questionnaires into bundles of 50, and to tie, label, 
and sack them for delivery to approximately 34,000 post offices. 
This operation was performed from September 2 to November 
2, 1954 and required 3,851 hours of work by clerical and super- 
visory personnel. 



ENUMERATION PROCEDURES 



The enumerator was assigned a specified area or an enumeration 
district for which he was to perform the enumeration. For this 
area he was furnished a map. 

Enumerator maps were used to insure the completeness of the 
work of the enumerator. Thus, enumerators were usually required 
to visit and to make a record of all dwellings indicated on the map. 
However, in order to keep the cost of the Census within reasonable 
limits and to make the enumerator's job appear reasonable to him, 
exceptions were made to this requirement. In the 11,127 enumer- 
ation districts comprising incorporated places and urban areas, 
the enumerator was provided with a list of the names, addresses, 
and description in terms of acreage and kind of farm for all farms 
included in the 1950 Census of Agriculture. For these enumera- 
tion districts the enumerator was required to visit and locate only 
the farms listed for the 1950 Census and any other places which, 
on the basis of information he obtained, were likely to be engaged 
in farm production. Also in 14,798 enumeration districts in rural 
areas, the enumerator was permitted, with the approval of his 
crew leader to omit the listing and mapping of dwellings in built-up 
areas containing 50 or more dwellings. The crew leader was to 
indicate on the enumerator's map the part of the enumeration 
district in which the enumerator was to begin his work. The 
instructions to the enumerator outlined a systematic method for 
the enumerator to follow in making his visits in order to insure 



the complete coverage of all parts of the enumeration district. 
The enumerator was required to list each dwelling and place in 
his enumeration district on Form A2 (see fig. 9) and to enter 
answers, as required, for columns 1 to 16. The answers to the 
questions in columns 3 to 13 of Form A2 provided the basis for the 
enumerator to determine when he was to fill an Agriculture 
Questionnaire (Form Al), and a Landlord-Tenant Questionnaire 
(Form A3). (See fig. 10. This questionnaire was used in 
approximately 900 counties in the southern part of the United 
States where a considerable proportion of the farms were operated 
by croppers and share-tenants.) Form A2 was also used to 
designate a sample of places for which additional information was 
to be obtained and to record notes about places to which another 
visit would be required. Form A2 was used to designate a sample 
of places through the use of shaded squares that appeared on every 
fifth line. Enumerators were required to indicate by means of 
placing an "X" in a square, the size group in terms of acreage of 
the place for which the Agriculture Questionnaire was filled. If 
the size group was indicated in a shaded square, then the enumer- 
ator was required to obtain additional information on the Agricul- 
ture Questionnaire for the place listed on that line. Columns 16 
and 17 of the Form A2 were used as a record to indicate when the 
enumeration for the line had been completed as well as when 
another visit would be needed to complete the enumeration. 



28 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 










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THE ENUMERATION 



29 



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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

HUIXLU OF THE CENSUS 
WASHINGTON 

LANDLORD-TENANT QUESTIONNAIRE 

On-toa of 1QC4 


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I 



THE ENUMERATION 



31 



Generally, the enumerator was required to list on Form A2 all 
dwellings and places in his enumeration district. The line num- 
ber on Form A2 on which each dwelling or place was listed, was 
to be entered on the enumerator map, near to the location of the 
dwelling or place on the map. An illustration of the listing of 
places on Form A2 is given in figure 11 and an illustration of the 
enumerator's map showing the line numbers corresponding to 
dwellings and places is given in figure 12. This method used for 
indicating places enumerated on the enumerator's map aided in 
insuring that the enumerator had visited all places in the enumera- 
tion district and that the coverage of all parts of the enumeration 
district was complete. 

In approximately 225 counties where there were a consider- 
able number of farm operators who did not reside on their farms 
and where the farms were relatively large, enumerators were re- 
quired to indicate on Form FA-100 (see fig. 13) the line number 
on Form A2 on which the operator of each 40 acres comprising 
the farm was located. 

When an Agriculture Questionnaire or a Landlord-Tenant 
Questionnaire was required, the enumerator obtained, when avail- 



able, the copy of the Agriculture Questionnaire the operator had 
received by mail, or took a questionnaire from his portfolio and 
asked whatever questions were required for completing and check- 
ing the filling of the questionnaire. The enumerator was instructed 
to make his entries on the questionnaires and other records legible 
and make entries only when necessary or required by the question- 
naire. (For example, if the answer to a question was "0", the 
enumerator was instructed to make no entry.) 

Sections VIII through XII of the Agriculture Questionnaire 
were to be filled only for a sample of farms. This sample consisted 
of places listed on the Form A2 with the size of the place indicated 
in a shaded square and in addition, in selected States, places 
having an exceptionally large entry for a specified item. The 
specifications determining the additional places that formed a 
part of the sample when the entry for a specified item was excep- 
tionally large, were given at the beginning of Section VIII of the 
Agriculture Questionnaire. 

Enumerators in the selected counties in which the Landlord- 
Tenant Questionnaire was used, were provided with special instruc- 
tions for filling this questionnaire. 



Form 


ii 






















































1 

E 


I 

1 

0) 


Far each place wiih anr land located In the ED— 

A. WHEN SOMr.n\F LIVT-S ON THE 
LAND IN THIS ED 

Enter name of Itead of household. 

a WHEN NO ONE LIVES ON THE LAND 
IN THIS ED 

(a) Enter name of person who rent* land, 
groan erapa on shares, or uec* land 

<6) If no one rents the lai.d or use* the 
land for livestock, enter the name 
of the owner of the land 

in 


Part I — AGRICL'LTIRAL OPERATION fi 
(11 " Ytt" rot ang column* 1 to 8. .tip fo cot. ff. 
/' "Afa" tot all column* J fo 8. Ml It and a ) 


■frir ul i ura] 
operations 

lire.* 
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to 8 litdt- 
calcs agri- 
cultural 
operation*) 


Does 
tail 

lire In 

EDT 

(10) 


Part 1! - SOLRCE (J 

Peraon from whom infor- 
mation *aa obtained 

(ID 


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N. ETC.— C..I..H. .,-,[ 

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lo be filled? 

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Sod VII on the Alj 


Dale com 
pleted 

date onlv 
after vou 
have 

have c.ni- 

Al if 
required l 


Callback Information and 


| 




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Figure 11. — A2 Listing form (illustrative example). 



32 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




& 



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3 



THE ENUMERATION 



33 









Fori 

(7-1 


FA -100 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
54) BUREAU OP THE CENSUS 

1954 CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE 


State 

K^^/5^5 




County 


E.D. No. 


Sheet 2. of -3 Sheets 


HAP FOR CHECKING ENUMERATION OF FARMS IN SPECIFIED 
TOWNSHIP AND RANOE SURVEY AREAS. 


Enumerator ,-,«-. . « 1 

^LFRE.-D L. PrXTTOM 




TOWNRHTP <^ IV RANOR 


3 VJ 














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Com -DC 27517 





Figube 13. — Map for checking enumeration of farms in specified township and range survey areas (Form FA-100). 



34 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



In order to facilitate his work or provide records needed for 
control and payment for work, the enumerator was required to 
keep five other records. All except one of these were bound 
together with Form A2, to form a single booklet, called the 
Enumerator's Record Book. The records and the purpose of 
each were as follows: 

Record of Work and Travel (Form FA-3). — This record provides 
a detailed record of the enumerator's travel, hours of work, and 
amount of work accomplished each day. The summary in part 
B of this record, was used for the calculation of the payment due 
the enumerator for his work in a completed enumeration district. 
(An illustrative copy of Form FA-3 appears in fig. 14.) This 
record also provided the information the enumerator needed for 
filling out his daily report of work. (See Form FA-7 in fig. 15.) 

Enumerator's Daily Report (Form FA-7. See fig. 15). — This 
form was a preaddressed post card to the Agriculture Field 
Supervisor. The information needed for filling out this report 
was obtained from the Record of Work and Travel (Form FA-3). 
The enumerator was instructed to mail this report each day. 
This report served as a basis for indicating the amount of work 
performed each day and for measuring the progress of the enumera- 
tion. 

Record of Telephone and Other Costs (Form FA-4. See fig. 
16). — This record was maintained by the enumerator for the pur- 
pose of providing a basis for the payment of charges paid for 
telephone calls, etc. 

Record of A2 Listings Requiring Crew leader Action (Form 
FA-5. See fig. 17). — This form was used to list the names and 
addresses for operators living more than 15 miles outside the 
enumeration district, operators who refused to give the necessary 
information, and operators of places for which the enumerator 
was unable to obtain the required information. The purpose of 
this form was to secure a record for the crew leader of cases 
where the crew leader was required to take additional action in 
order to complete the enumeration. 

Enumerator's Callback Record (Form FA-6. See fig. 18). — 
This record provided a summary, at a convenient place, of the 
places for which the enumerator was required to make other visits 
in order to complete his work. 

Supervision of the enumerator and checking of his work. — The 
actual supervision of the enumerator by the crew leader began 
during the training period. The enumeration work performed by 
the enumerator during the training period was reviewed during 
the last day of the enumerator's training. After the completion 
of the training, crew leaders were required to devote full time 
during the enumeration period to visiting the enumerator while he 
was working in his enumeration district. The first of these visits 
was to be made, if possible, during the first few days of his work. 
The least capable enumerators were to be visited first. The 
duration of the crew leader's first visit was to be at least 3 hours 
and that of subsequent visits 1 to 2 hours. On the last visit the 
crew leader checked the work for the enumeration district com- 
pleted by the enumerator and if the work was acceptable, took 
the materials for the completed enumeration district with him. 
Records indicate that the average number of visits by crew 
leaders to enumerators was 4.1. The kind and amount of review 
of the enumerator's work at each visit of the crew leader were 
outlined by the crew leader's instructions. At the first visit, the 
crew leader was instructed to observe at least one interview by 
the enumerator when he was filling out an Agriculture Question- 
naire, and to help and to suggest improvements in interviewing. 
The crew leader was also required to review all the questionnaires 
and forms filled by the enumerator during his first day's work and 



to check the enumerator's map to see that it was being used 
properly. 

The review of questionnaires and forms involved the checking 
of Form A2 to see that entries were being made properly ; that the 
indication of lines comprising the sample was being accurately 
made; the checking of Agriculture Questionnaires to determine 
that all entries were legible, that all required questions had been 
answered, and that Sections VIII through XII had been filled 
where required; and the comparison of entries for items that could 
be checked with the entries for other items on the questionnaire. 
The crew leader made a record of his checking on Form FA-18 
(see fig. 19) and indicated on Form FA-17 (see fig. 20) the items 
which he thought would need checking on his subsequent visits. 
If the crew leader found the enumerator's work satisfactory, he 
was instructed to review every tenth Agriculture Questionnaire 
filled after his first visit. The crew leader was required to sign 
each Agriculture Questionnaire that he checked. In his review of 
materials for completed enumeration districts, the crew leader 
was instructed to make a complete review of the Enumerator's 
maps to see that the entire enumeration district had been covered, 
the Form FA-2 and the Agriculture Questionnaire had been com- 
pleted satisfactorily, all specified farms had been accounted for, 
all callbacks had been made, and that the Forms FA-3 and 4 had 
been filled out accurately. The crew leader checked and com- 
pleted the filling of part B of Form FA-3, so that the information 
in this part could be used as a basis for paying the enumerator for 
his work. 

A review and summary of each enumerator's work was made in 
the Field Processing Office before the payment to the enumerator 
for his work was approved. This review and summary was made 
primarily by tabulating clerks. When work for an enumeration 
district was completed and approved by the crew leader, the 
completed work was mailed by the crew leader to the Field 
Processing Office. The crew leader was provided with cardboard 
boxes for mailing each enumerator's portfolio. 

The first checking of the enumerator's work in the Field Proc- 
essing Office consisted of the verification of the amount of work 
completed, miles traveled, hours worked, etc., in order to provide 
data for preparing the enumerator's payroll. 

The work submitted for the first 3 enumeration districts by 
the crew leader was given a detailed intensive review in order to 
insure that the crew leader was making an adequate review of 
each enumerator's completed work. This review consisted of the 
checking to see that (1) each farm listed on the list of specified 
farms had been enumerated or satisfactorily accounted for, 
(S) an Agriculture Questionnaire had been obtained for each place 
for which the entries on Form A2 indicated that an Agriculture 
Questionnaire was required, (3) the designation of places in the 
sample had been performed accurately, (4) Section VIII-XII of 
the Agriculture Questionnaire had been filled completely, (S) the 
A2 line number had been entered for each place on the enumerator's 
map, and that all callbacks listed in Form FA-6 had been com- 
pleted or a satisfactory explanation given. The results of this 
intensive review were recorded in Section II of Form FA-91 (see 
fig. 21). 

For all enumeration districts except the first 3 received from 
the crew leaders, a review was made to determine (I) how many 
Agriculture Questionnaires were missing, (2) that the enumerator's 
section below Section VIII of the Agriculture Questionnaire had 
been properly filled, and (3) that the enumerator's map and other 
forms were present. If Agriculture Questionnaires were missing, 
form letters were mailed to the farm operators requesting that a 
report be submitted. A summary of the results of this review 
was recorded in Sections 3 and 4 of Form FA-91. 



THE ENUMERATION 



35 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE 



DATE 

II -11-5* 



CREW LEADER'S NAME 






zi-\ 



' Qdmthj 



JtnAiMiAJ 



Instructions: Complete and mail to your Field Office at close of each workday. 



A 



Transfer these 
entries from 
FA-3. 



OPERATIONS 



TOTAL INCLUD- \ 
ING TODAY 







ki> 



Is This E. D. Now Complete? 
L3 No 

J Except for Callbacks 
D Yea 



/^njnrlj Ql G&uJuorU 



(EDumerator's Signature) 



Form FA-7 Enumerator's Dally Report 



\ 



Figure 15. — Enumerator's daily report (Form FA-7). 



36 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




1. Agriculture quest. (Al) — Total 

2. Al. — Sample not required 

3. Al. — Sample required and completed T\* 

4. Landlord-tenant quest. (A3) 

5. Listings completed (A2) 

6. Transit time (miles driven) 

7. Hours worked at hourly rate 

8. Total— Lines 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6-1-7 

9. Total miles driven 

10. Total telephone charges 

11. Road, bridge, and ferry tolls 



12. Total— Lines 9+10+11.. 



Must equal the 
number of the last 
line filled minus 
any lines crossed 
out. 



l - 



CERTIFICATION OF COMPLETION 

This is to certify that I have, on this date, completed the enumeration of the district indicated above and the returns, in the quantities shown, 
have been duly and truthfully made in accordance with law and my oath of office. I further certify that miles shown and telephone calls and 
other toll costs on which reimbursement is claimed, were authorized and were completed for purposes of official census business, and that hours 
reported were worked on the days specified. 



.^cu^d/.CU t .<jlkuJjbkU... 



I !- imiiK. I .ii. ii '■■. signature; 



^lajMnAaJso 



1954 



I certify that I have received the completed portfolio with all the documents accounted for; that I have reviewed the material submitted and 
find the enumeration has been completed satisfactorily for this enumeration district. I further certify that the amount shown for number of 
questionnaires, hours worked, miles driven, and other charges should be paid. 



V (Crei 



{Crew4,eader's Signature) 



lalure) ' ^- 



Figure 14. — Record of production and travel (Form FA-3) — Continued. 



THE ENUMERATION 



37 



Form FA-4 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Bureau of the Censub 

RECORD OF TELEPHONE CALLS AND ROAD. 
BRIDGE. AND FERRY TOLLS 



state l-jgynMiAJ 



County 



CbdjoacJki 



ED Number 2./ 7 



INSTRUCTIONS 
Part A: Use a separate line for each paid toll call, completing columns 1 through 6. Enter local calls made on any one day on a separate line, 
completing column 1 and columns 7 through 9. Attach receipts for all toll calls in excess of $1.00. Enter total of all telephone cost in column 
10 when ED is completed. 
Part B: Enter road, bridge, and ferry tolls in part B, and attach all receipts. 



Part A.— TOLL AND LOCAL TELEPHONE CALLS. (Receipt must be attached for each toll call of more than $1.00)i 




Figure 16. — Record of telephone calls and road, bridge, and ferry tolls (Form FA-4). 



38 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




I hereby rerlifv lhal telephone posts nml rua<!, bridge, ami firry tolls claimed heroin wore pair! by ino and .vcnkiueiirrcd in the conduct of official 
husinnHS for tlic liureau of the Census. —^ , i ^~. ^_ _, 

TLcwMdheAJ 30 , /fs^_ AJaMa^.UJ:.s^QaikmJ 

,!)„;,.; (Slsnalorr of Knumoratirl 



Figure 16. — Record of telephone calls and road, bridge, and ferry tolls (Form FA-4) — Continued. 



THE ENUMERATION 



39 



Form FA-S 



U. S. 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Bureau of the Census 



ENUMERATOR'S RECORD OF A2 LISTINGS REQUIRING 
CREW LEADER ACTION 



state j-CasnMLAJ 



County 



CLduciochj 



ED Number 2,/ 7 



List at the end of each day any A2 Listings with "No" in Column 3 and "No" or "Don't know" in Column 10 or where the person lives more than 15 
miles outside your ED. (Where the person lives less than 15 miles outside your ED, you will visit the person to obtain the necessary infor- 
mation and to complete the AI if an Al is required. Also list any incomplete callbacks within your ED for which you have made repeated calls 
(personal or telephone) but have failed to locate a responsible person who could give sufficient information to complete the AI questionnaire. 
Also list any refusals. Discuss this listing with your Crew Leader each time he visits you. 



Date 

(1) 



II -1 



A2 line 
No. 

(2) 



3 



Name and mailing address 
of operator or owner 

(3) 



tftcuujiynj^. William** 



Reason not completed 
(4) 



aln±lJ2S/rmluJ 
cuJAUzLu/rrLL/ 



E.D. 



Crew Leader's action 
and date 



(5) 



/ I -io 



JmjjMJEDzi-f. 



1-12, 



35 






Jtnr 




11-13 



zZJTTj 



11-13 



^ 



\tOMAJ2WCllUJ/Jr!auMAJ 



£T.X). 



11-18* 



/nm 



n-n 



ii 



l) Ir' /T\ . , k ,n a / * 



AniA i 



l&l*UiMJ 



f^adJU/niMkjJiiyimli' 
MjcexMu-MU 

JlOJUtynl^ 'JLstlMJ 

oMuJjyJjtwiU 



/DjLttutt'. 

WIUJCjCmMlLU 



F.rV Z\ 



I i-zo 



^awtJu^i 



u^m^ntati^MJ- 






J 



V 



Enumerator fills columns 
(1), (2), (3) and U). 



X 



Crew Leader enters action 
he is going to take and 
date of his discussion. 



Figure 17. — Enumerator's record A2 listings requiring crew leader action (Form FA-5). 



40 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



Form FA-6 



ENUMERATOR'S CALLBACK RECORD 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of The Census 



INSTRUCTIONS 

Use this Form FA-6 as a check list of ALL callbacks which you have indicated in Column 15 or 16 of the Listing Form A2. 

AT END OF EACH DAY, enter in Column 2 the A2 line number for each place on which you will be required to make another call to obtain 
information to complete the listing and/or Agriculture Questionnaire. 

DURING EACH DAY that you make an attempt to interview persons on your callback list, enter the date in Columns 3 through 9. 
Identify telephone callback by the letter "T" preceding the date entry. 

NOTE: If you have referred a callback to your Crew Leader on Form FA-5, use Column 10 to record the date such referral was made. 



Date 
(1) 



A2 
line 
No. 

(2) 



Date of personal visit or telephone call 



First 
callback 

(3) 



Second 
callback 

w 



Third 
callback 

(6) 



Fourth 
callback 

(«) 



Fifth 
callback 

(7) 



Sixth 
callback 

(«) 



Date 

callback 

completed 

(») 



Remarks 
(10) 



T 11-13 



11-15 



T 1 1 'lb 



//-/? 



.U-.^....JL.. 

CcdbaJJMJ 6>:QO 




Identify telephone calls by 
placing the letter T before 
the date entry. 



Use Remarks Column to record 
useful information. 



Additional remarks or footnotes 



Figure 18. — Enumerator's callback record (Form FA-6). 



THE ENUMERATION 



41 




3 



«* 3 «3 -3 a . . 

Sh 3 O O D I 

a a U a) .« -3 «* 





I 



o 
Pn 



o 






=3 

■a 



•a 

33 



42 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



FA-17 



Enter an «X" in (A) 
if Enumerator's 
Oath of Office ia 
completed and an 
"I" in (B) if You 
nave entered Enum- 
erator' s training 
class rank in the 
apace provided. 




u S. Department of Commerce 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



RECORD OF ENUMERATOR 



1 ENUMERATOR 

CHf\RLES C. OLIVER 

2 AOORESS 

303 ET. Hl&H ST. 
LIBERTY VILLE , Kf\NSf\S 



3 FHOHt NO 



■5tf> Lll^RT^VW-V 



7 EOS ASSIGNED 



4 TRAINING 

(A) S 0»TM OF 0*TICt CO*»»T«TtO 



ZZ-2- 




Enter ED" assign- 
ment and rate of 
pay. 



"■ 5o4 TO* 



15 



(■) [fi RANK 
5 COLOR OF AUTOHOeiLE 



LOR Of AUTOMOBILE ^_ 

DK. &REETM CHEV. 
USOLo 



• LICENSE NO 



Enter color, make 
and license num- 
ber of Enumerator's 
car. 



I RECORD OF VISITS 



J_ 



Enter date and 
summary of visit 
as reported on 
FA-18. 



\\-Lo 




l\-IO 



n-n 



SUMMARY OF I RRI ■ . I *..'.- U.fs IX «•-,., Is''. 



Did-nL zjLTide>sten-\d Tneacnvrci e^ shaded squmes. 
Reviewed aAl wavK txrvd "madej co>>ec±.ior\s. Emim. 
will -veVuvn ard pcVc uup rrr^o. -^ov Sects "SEr'SnE. 
Didrit understand how to plot f\Z Taimbevs an 

TT\Q.p. 

Reviewed axd cawected e-riK*es an FrV3. 



Seems +o be; takmq +00 much tvmeJ pcv M. 

"Discussed WQxis e&- e.T\ixmeTa.t.iTiq -^a=>Tje.v. 
E-vvcirS ot\ FF\-3. Covvected e.-n\-Vies and ex - 
plained TnistoaVces . E-nixrn. dumb, LcndcvsVand 
•ve\cxt\oT\sVnp between ,Ff\-T crnd FtV3. 
E-n-LLxnexcVed auVsidej Wvs ET). Werrit ove> ED baiod" 
a>ics + discussed trveaj, Cheek du.vmq Tie^b visit. 



E7D bouxidcXMes obsewed - OK . 

E^cessivo caUbacKs o^fcstandmq. Discussed 
w\tb Errucrn. ~me\hods -^ov- -vcducmq ca.Mbar:Ks. 



Figure 20. — Record of enumerator (Form FA-17). 



THE ENUMERATION 



43 



Records of unsatisfactory work by the enumerator were recorded 
on Form FA-91 and the crew leader was informed immediately of 
the errors and inadequacies found during the review of the enumer- 
ator's work. If the review indicated 5 or more Agriculture 
Questionnaires (other than those for absentee farm operators) 
were missing, then the enumerator's work was returned to the 
crew leader with instructions to have the missing Agriculture 
Questionnaires obtained. 

When the material for all enumeration districts in a county had 
been received and recorded, an additional review of the enumera- 
tion was performed before the enumeration was considered satis- 
factory. This review included the checking to see that all speci- 
fied farms in the county had been enumerated or satisfactorily 
accounted for, the insertion into the proper enumeration district 
of any Agriculture Questionnaires received by mail from absentee 
operators or operators of farms not enumerated by the enumerator 
and the preparation of a county summary on Form FA-88. 
(See fig. 22 for an example of FA-88.) The data on FA-88 for 
1954 was obtained by adding information from the Agriculture 
Questionnaire. The data for 1950 and for the check item 1954, 
were entered on the Form FA-88 before it was sent to the Field 
Processing Office. The data for 1950 were taken from tabulations 
for the 1950 Census of Agriculture. The data for the check item, 
1954, represented, when available, the acreage of a selected crop — 
usually one of the following: corn, wheat, cotton, tobacco or rice. 
The check data were available only for the county and were ob- 
tained from the Commodity Stabilization Service of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. The acreage for the crops 
selected for check items represented the measured acreage before 
harvest. 

The data on Form FA-88 were compiled for two purposes: (./) 
To determine that the sampling procedures had been followed and 
(#) to determine that the coverage of the Census was reasonably 
complete. Criteria for the acceptability of the Census was 
established prior to the enumeration for each of these two purposes. 
The following table was used for determining the acceptability of 
the sampling procedure. 

Acceptance Table for Percent of Farms in Sample 



Total in column (7) of FA-88 



Less than 100. . 
100 to 199...... 

200 to 299 

300 to 399 

400 to 499 

500 to 699 

600 to 699 

700 to 799 

800 to 899 

900 to 999 

1,000 to 1,249.. 
1,260 to 1,499.. 
1,500 to 1,749.. 
1,750 to 1,999.. 
2,000 to 2,499. . 

2,500 to 2,999- - 
3,000 to 3,999- . 
4,000 to 4,999. . 
5,000 to 7,499-. 
7,600 and over 



Acceptable limits 
(in percentages) 



Not less 
than— 



C) 



13.0 
14.0 
15.0 
16.0 

16.6 
16.8 
17.1 
17.3 
17.4 

17.6 
17.8 
18.0 
18.1 
18.3 

18.6 
18.7 
18.8 
19.0 
19.2 



Not more 
than— 



C) 



27.0 
26.0 
25.0 
24.0 

23.4 
23.2 
22.9 
22.7 
22.6 

22.4 
22.2 
22.0 
21.9 
21.7 

21.5 
21.3 
21.2 
21.0 
20.8 



•All counties to be accepted. 

Acceptable percentages for the coverage of farms, land in farms, 
and for the check items were established for each county and were 
indicated on the FA-88 when it was sent to the Field Processing 
Office. 



Form FA-88's for all counties, including those not meeting th° 
established standards, were sent to Washington for review and 
approval by the Chief of the Agriculture Division. Of FA-88's 
for 3,100 counties, 2,389 were approved when they were submitted 
to Washington. For 711 counties, additional checking and work 
were required before they were approved. The additional work 
included the obtaining of missing questionnaire for specified 
farms, the checking of enumerator maps for indication of areas 
not enumerated, the reenumeration of areas, and the obtaining of 
the required information when the Section VIII through XII of 
the Agriculture Questionnaire was not filled. 

Control over time schedule and cost of the enumeration. — The 
enumeration involved the employment of a large number of persons 
at one time and the expenditure of as much as $350,000 eacn work 
day. In order to insure that the enumeration would be com- 
pleted within the planned time period and with the funds allotted 
for this purpose, time schedules were established for all important 
operations, and the number of employees, maximum length of 
employment, and the rates of pay of all personnel were prescribed. 
Checks on the compliance with established controls both for time 
of performance of jobs and the employment of personnel, and for 
the expenditure of funds were made on the basis of required 
reports. For enumerators, the number of employees authorized, 
the rate of pay, the maximum mileage and the maximum hours of 
employment, were furnished each crew leader on Form FA-32. 
(See fig. 23.) Most enumerators were paid on a piece-rate basis 
and for miles traveled in personally owned automobiles. These 
piece rates were established on the basis of records of work per- 
formance for prior Censuses, distance to be traveled, and the 
estimated time that would be required to fill questionnaires. In 
areas where the distance between farms was great, and in urban 
areas, enumerators were paid $1.25 per hour of work plus $0.07 
per mile traveled by personally owned automobiles. The average 
hourly earnings for enumerators employed on a piece rate was 
$1.15 plus payment for mileage traveled by automobile. 

The date when enumerators were to begin the work was pre- 
scribed, and enumerators were required to work at least 8 hours 
each day until they had completed their jobs. Checking on the 
amount of work performed, hours of work, miles traveled, etc., 
was accomplished through the review and summarization of Form 
FA-7. This enumerator's daily work report was mailed at the 
end of each day to the supervisor of the Agriculture Field Office 
and the Form FA-3 was reviewed by the crew leader each time he 
visited the enumerator. Supervisors of Agriculture Field Offices 
notified crew leaders whenever it appeared an enumerator's work 
was not being performed on schedule and twice each week super- 
visors of Agriculture Field Offices were requested to submit to 
supervisors of Field Processing Offices and to Washington a 
summary showing number of enumerators working, Agriculture 
Questionnaires filled, miles traveled, hours worked, etc. These 
reports were reviewed carefully and immediate action was taken 
when the work was not being completed as scheduled. 

The number of crew leaders, field supervisors, assistant field 
supervisors, and the number of each kind of clerical employee, as 
well as the duration of their appointment, were prescribed in 
advance of their employment and appointment. Extension of 
appointments were made in case of some employees but only upon 
approval from Washington. During the period of recruitment 
and hiring, crew leaders and supervisors were required to submit 
reports showing the number of employees recruited. Action was 
taken whenever necessary to insure that the authorized staff 
had been recruited and were trained and on the job on the day 
scheduled. 



44 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



F. m H-91 U.S. APARTMENT OF-' COMMERCE 
(10-20- 54) BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 


State 




1954 CLNSUS OK AGRICULTURE 

RECORD OF PORTFOLIO REVIEW 


County 


E.D. Number 


Section 1 - PAYROLL VERIFICATION REVIEW 


A. Incomplete Section IV of Al's 


None 


Number 


A2 line Nos. ; 


B. Sample within 5^ 


Yes 


No 


If "No."" % 


C. A3" s missing 


None 


Number 




D. Hrs. claimed within 10/$ (hourly ED'S) 


Yes 


No 


If "No," Allowed 


Claimed 


E. Miles claimed within 10% 


Yes 


No 


Tf "No, ■ Allowed 


Claimed 




P. Receipts or certifications missing 


Yes 


No 


If "Yes, " describe: 






Section 2 - INTENSIVE REVIEW 


A. Hissing FA- 101' s 


None 


Number 




B. Missing M's lor A2 line Nos. 


None 


Number 


A2 line Nos. : 


C. Sampl ing correct 


Yes 


No 


If "No. " A2 line Nos. : 


D. Sample sections missing 


None* 


Number 


A2 line Nos. : 


E. E. 0. Map completed 


Yes 


No 




F. FA- 100 completed 


Yes 


No 




G. FA- 30 completed 


Yes 


No 




H. FA-17 in portfolio 


Yes 


No 




I. FA-5 column (5) completed 


Yes 


No 




J. FA-6 columns (9) or (10) completed 


Yes 


No 




Section ?. Completed b.V (Review clerk) 




Section 3 - TABULATION REVIEW 


A. Missing Al's for followup 


None 


Number 


A2 line Nos. : 


B. E.D. Map in portfolio 


Yes 


No 




C. FA- 100 in portfolio (if required) 


Yes 


No 




D/FA-30 in portfolio ("C" ED' s) 


Yes 


No 








Section 4 - FOLLOW-UP REVIEW 


A Requests for missing receipts, certifications or materials mailed on (date) 


[^J None 


B. FA-92's mulled (if required) on (date) _ . . 


[ ' None 


C. FA-93's mailed (if required) on (date) 


None 


u> ^A-94's mailed (if required) on (date) — — 


L_; None 


Section 4 completed by (Review clerk) 


Section 5 - SUPERVISOR* ACTION 


Describe corrective action taker, by' Supervisor, if any r 

Supervisoi 


squired by review entries above: 


















Comm-DC-4 279fl 



Figure 21. — Record of portfolio review (Form FA-91). 



THE ENUMERATION 



45 











































































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412357 0—57- 



46 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 









FORM FA-J2 U.S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
(7.22-54, BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

CREW LEADER AUTHORIZATIONS FOR 
ENUMERATOR RECRUITMENT AND 
RECORD OF PIECE RATES AND 

MILEAGE ALLOWANCES 
1954 AGRICULTURE CENSUS 


A. CREW LEADER DIST. NO. 5 


b county Adoock 


c - ST »" Kansas 


E. C.L. NAME l^pgjjgg s< 'QXLeT 


F. NUMBER OF ENUMERATORS AUTHORIZED 


T0T»c 


RURAL 


URBAN 


9 


8 


1 


ED 

NO . 
HI 


PRO- 
CEDURE 
COCE 

(2) 


MFTHOD OF PAYMENT 


HIMKR 

OF ACS 
1950 

(7| 


KUMBI H 

OF 

DWELL INMJ 
1950 

(»l 


MAXIMUM 

MILEAGE 

ALLOWAMCl 
(91 


MAXIMUM 

Mn. r*« 

ALLOWANCE 
PER Al 


MAKIMUM 

HOURS 

ALLOWED 

IF RAID 

AT HOURLY 

RATE 


HOU»l 1 

Bate 
11 25 
PEN 
HOUR 

(31 


ruc( RATI 


[«> 


for Al ' s nm 

SECTIONS 
VI I 1 THRU 
■111 NOT 

REQUIRED 
(41 


FOR Al ' S Rl TM 
SECTIONS 
V| | | THAU 

kill 

AEOU'FICD 

(51 


1 


A 




.50 


.70 




132 


193 


343 


2.6 




2 


B 




.50 


.70 




153 


373 


398 


2.6 




3 


c 


1.25 








,** 




202 


2.4 


, 63 


4 


c 


1.25 








it: 




43 


2.4 


h 


5 


c 


1.25 








If: 




u 


2.4 


h 


6 


c 


1.25 








W- 




31 


2.4 


/lO 


7 


A 




.50 


.70 




J249 


351 


697 


2.8 


/ 


8 


A 




.50 


.70 




J 226 


348 


633 


2.8 ; 




9 


B 




.50 


.70 




J 152 


382 


395 


2.6 J 




10 


A 




• 50 


.70 




152 


222 


426 


2.8 / 




It 


A 




.50 


.70 




165 


231 


429 


2.6/ 




12 










| 












13 






















14 










l 














15 










zt 














16 










/ 












17 






















IB 










_L 












■ 9 










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i 


20 


















1 


I 




21 










T 


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. /D l~ T 7 c& ibn/Jvu 




22 










i 


\ 1 




23 










K l 


h / ^J 


24 










- O i 


r J v>- 


J. w 


25 












In 1 hour an enumerator could do 
1 1/3 Al's; BUlUplylng bry 8, 
you get 10.6 Al's which would be 
the standard of production ex- 
pected for the 3rd. ED in Adcock 
County. 








26 
















27 
















28 
























29 






















TO. 

TAL 












1361 




3638 




100 


OIIIGIIUl.: TO PROCESSING OFFICE. cc: TO A.F.O. cc: TO CREW LEADER 





Figure 23.— Crew leader authorization for enumerator recruitment and record of piece rates and mileage allowances, 1954 Agricultu 

Census (Form FA-32). 



CHAPTER III— CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING AND PUBLICATION 



47 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Central Office processing 51 

The job 51 

Organization for the job 51 

Receipt and control over questionnaires 51 

Editing and coding the Agriculture Questionnaire 54 

General 54 

Section I 54 

Section II 54 

Section III 54 

Section IV 55 

Section V 55 

Section VI 55 

Section VII 55 

Section VIII 55 

Section IX 55 

Section X 55 

Section XI 55 

Section XII 55 

Section XIII 

Coding for economic class of farm and type of farm 

Training of editing and coding clerks 

Editing of 10 training questionnaires 

Editing of the first portfolio 

Punching 

Correction of punching and other errors prior to publication 

All cards 

Card A 

Card C for corn 

Card C for sorghums 

Card C for crops other than corn and sorghum 

Card G 

CardH ... 

Card I 

Card J 

Card K 

Card L 

Card M 

Card N 

Adjustment of data for the sample prior to tabulation 

Description of the sample 

Adjustment of the sample 

Tabulation 

Evaluation of the completeness of the Census 

Preparation and publication of reports 

The publication process 

Printing 

Appendix 85 

Description of Series AC54-1, AC54-2, AC54-3, and press releases 86 

48 



CONTENTS 49 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Pane 

Organization chart — Central Operations Office 50 

View of Interior of Central Operations Office, Pittsburg, Kans 52 

Portfolio cover — Al Agriculture Questionnaire 53 

Reference note (Form 2-36) . Used for referring questions for technical review 56 

Verification record (Form 2-43). For recording errors for editing and coding 58 

Punch cards used for the 1954 Census of Agriculture 60 

IBM type 024 Punching Machine 61 

C cards punched per hour by weeks of experience, Pittsburg Operations Office 62 

H cards punched per hour by weeks of experience, Detroit Operations Office 63 

Machine used for verifying punched cards 64 

IBM type 077 collator 70 

IBM type 082 sorting machine 70 

IBM type 101 counting and tabulating machine 71 

IBM type 402 tabulating machine 71 

IBM type 407 accounting machine 72 

IBM type 514 reproducing, gang-punching, summary punch machine 72 

Census machine 487 and 489, multi-column sorter and unit tabulator 73 

Census machine 488, multi-column sorter 73 

Census machine 581, unit tabulator 74 

Census machine 582, multi-column sorter and unit tabulator 74 

Illustrative example of wiring diagram, type 101, control panel 75 

Illustrative example of wiring diagram, type 402-403, control panel 76 

Illustrative example of wiring diagram, type 407, control panel 77 

Illustrative example of wiring diagram, unit counter 101 78 

Test decks of cards used to discover tabulating machine errors 80 

Evaluation program — Location 319 counties comprising sample used in evaluating completeness of enumeration 81 

Aerial view with sample segment delineated 82 

APPENDIX 

Facsimile of preliminary report Series AC54-1 87 

Facsimile of preliminary report Series AC54-2 91 

Facsimile of work sheet or posting form County Table 1 93 

Facsimile of preprinted form for offset typing of County Table 1 95 

Facsimile of county tabulation sheets. 96 

Table of costs 102 



CENSUS OPERATIONS OFFICE 
Detroit, Mich. Pittsburg, Kans. 



OFFICE OF THE CHIEF 

1 Supervisory Survey Statistician (Agriculture) 

1 Secretary 

1 Supervisory Survey Statistician (Agriculture) 

1 Secretary 



TECHNICAL SERVICES SECTION* 

3 Statisticians (Agriculture) 
3 Agricultural Economists 



MANAGEMENT SERVICES SECTION 


1 Supervisory Administrative Officer 


1 Personnel Assistant 


1 Secretary (Stenographic) 


1 Appointment Unit Supervisor 


1 Supervisory Appointment Clerk 


1 Appointment Clerk (Typing) 


3 Appointment Clerks (Typing) 


1 Supervisory Administrative Assistant 


1 Supervisory Clerk 


2 Mail Clerks 


2 Messengers 


2 Laborers 


2 Clerk-typists 


1 Nurse 


1 Switchboard Operator 



EDITING AND CODING SECTION 

1 Supervisory Statistical Assistant 

1 Supervisory Statistical Assistant 

2 Clerk-typists 

10 Supervisory Statistical Clerks 
10 Supervisory Statistical Clerks 
12 Supervisory Statistical Clerks 
12 Supervisory Statistical Clerks 

120 Statistical Clerks 

240 Statistical Clerks 



SCHEDULE 


FILES AND 


SHIPPING 


SECTION 


1 Supervisory 


Clerk 


3 Supervisory 


Clerks 


3 Supervisory Clerks 


60 Clerks 




6 Laborers 





CARD PUNCHING SECTION 

1 Card Punch Operator Supervisor 

1 Card Punch Operator Supervisor 

2 Clerk-typists 

5 Card Punch Operator Supervisors 
5 Card Punch Operator Supervisors 
10 Clerks 
240 Card Punch Operators 
2 Laborers 



*This staff was supplemented by detail of technical personnel from the Washington office. 

Figure 24. — Organization Chart — Central Operations Office. 
50 



CHAPTER III.— CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 

AND PUBLICATION 



CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 

The job. — The objective of central office processing was to 
record the information obtained by enumerators so that data could 
be summarized and published in a useable and meaningful form. 
The job involved the inspection of questionnaires for completeness 
and consistency of information, arrangement of questionnaires by 
geographic areas, the entering of codes to provide for the meaning- 
ful classification of data, the preparation of punch cards, the 
detection and correction of errors arising both during the enumera- 
tion and during the office processing, the tabulating of the data, and 
the preparation and printing of statistical tables and reports. 

Organization for the job. — The conversion of information 
obtained by enumerators for individual farms into published 
releases and reports required the organization of groups of trained 
personnel for performing the major central office operations. 
Since these operations were performed during a relatively short 
period, a considerable number of temporary employees were re- 
quired. During this period of large-scale central office processing, 
the available permanent staff comprised less than 5 percent of the 
total personnel employed and were used largely for preparing 
plans and instructions, training personnel, technical review, over- 
all supervision, and direction of the work. The major operations 
involved in central office processing were receipt and control of 
questionnaires, etc., editing and coding of questionnaires, punching 
tabulating cards, checking tabulating cards and tabulations for 
errors and consistency, the preparation of tabulations and the 
preparation and printing of statistical tables and reports. 

The following table indicates the approximate number of 
employees engaged in operations related to central office proc- 
essing for the first month in each quarter. 



Month 


Number of 
employees 


Montb 


Number of 
employees 


July 1954 


116 

139 

960 

1,560 

1,325 


October 1955 


880 






680 


January 1955. 


April 1956 


640 


April 1955 


July 1956 


400 


July 1955 




2.50 









The temporary staff was recruited in accordance with civil- 
service regulations, largely from registers established from exam- 
inations given primarily to provide personnel for Census work. 
The temporary staff was given temporary appointments usually 
not to exceed 1 year. When the work required employment for 
more than a year, an extension of employment was made of 
personnel who had been trained for the performance of the work 
yet to be performed. In all central office processing, specialization 
and mechanical devices were used whenever possible to expedite 
handling and to reduce costs. A large part of the supervisory 
staff for clerical and machine operations consisted also of tem- 
porary employees. Permanent personnel occupied only key 
positions and positions requiring detailed knowledge of procedures 
or technical knowledge of agriculture. 

The technical staff comprised a very important part of the total 
staff although the costs for the technical staff amounted to less 
than 3 percent of the total cost of the Census. The employment 
of the technical staff totaled approximately 1,100 man-months. 
About 70 percent of these man-months were provided by per- 
manent staff. 



All personnel were given special training for the work and the 
kind and duration of this training is described under the various 
operations. Standards for both quantity and quality of work were 
established for all major processing operations and all personnel 
were required to meet these requirements in order to retain their 
jobs. For many operations, employees, whose work performance 
exceeded substantially the minimum work requirements, were 
given incentive payments. 

Because of lack of office space, central operations offices were 
established for about 11 months in Pittsburg, Kans., and Detroit, 
Mich. All Agriculture Questionnaires were received, edited and 
coded, and cards punched at those two offices. All other opera- 
tions were performed in Washington, D. C. 

RECEIPT AND CONTROL OVER QUESTIONNAIRES 

After the checking had been completed in the 26 Field Process- 
ing Offices, the questionnaires were arranged by counties and 
shipped in boxes to one of the two central operations offices. The 
number of counties for which the questionnaires, materials, 
etc. were received at the 2 central operations offices by months 
were as follows: 



Month 



December or earlier, 1954 

January 1955__ .. 

February 1955 

March 1955 

April 1955 

May and later, 1955 



Number of counties for which 
questionnaires were received — 



During month 



949 
1,059 
329 
439 
242 
72 



To date 



949 
2,018 
2,347 
2,786 
3,028 
3,100 



When the materials and questionnaires were received at the two 
central operations offices, they were checked to determine that all 
the required materials for a county were present and the Agricul- 
ture Questionnaires were separated and placed in portfolio covers 
(these were cardboard covers, see fig. 26). Approximately 400 
Agriculture Questionnaires were placed in each portfolio and the 
portfolio was properly labeled. Portfolios comprised the unit for 
work assignment for subsequent operations and the portfolios 
for a county were transmitted to the next operation as a unit. 
The portfolios were kept in a central file when not in use and 
records were maintained of the location and status of processing 
for each county. 

After the completion of the editing and coding, the question- 
naires for a county were rearranged. The Agriculture Question- 
naires comprising the sample (questionnaires for which information 
in Sections VIII through XII was required) were numbered with 
a numbering machine, for the purpose of having a means of identi- 
fication for the punching of tabulating cards, and were then 
placed in portfolios separate from those questionnaires not in the 
sample. All questionnaires were arranged by minor civil divisions 
and a sheet containing the minor civil division name and code 
was inserted in the portfolio in front of the first questionnaire for 
the minor civil division. For each county, questionnaires com- 
prising the sample were numbered consecutively starting with the 
number 8,000 while questionnaires not in the sample were num- 
bered consecutively starting with 1. Questionnaires for "specified 
farms" were numbered consecutively starting with X001. 

51 



52 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



53 




01 

3 



•c 

to 
< 



o 



CO 
N 

a 
a 
5 
o 



54 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



EDITING AND CODING THE AGRICULTURE 
QUESTIONNAIRE 

Each individual questionnaire was checked, edited, and coded 
by clerks. The checking consisted of seeing (/) that the question- 
naires were completely filled out; (2) that the acreage of individual 
crops harvested was in reasonable agreement with the acreage of 
cropland harvested when 100 or more acres of cropland harvested 
were reported ; (S) that the acres of land classified according to use 
accounted for the entire farm acreage of farms having 200 acres or 
more; (4) that the total of the acreage for the various uses of corn, 
sorghum, soybeans, cowpeas, and peanuts was in reasonable 
agreement with the total acreage reported for all purposes for 
each of these crops; (5) that the age and sex breakdown for cattle, 
hogs, and sheep, added to approximately the total number of such 
animals of all ages; and (6) that all entries for related items were 
reasonably consistent. 

Editing consisted of the identification and withdrawal of 
questionnaires filled for places not qualifying as farms; the selection 
of questionnaires with entries of unusually large size for review by 
the technical staff; the selection of groups of questionnaires with 
common reporting errors in an individual enumeration district 
for referral to technical personnel for review; and the correction of 
obvious inconsistencies, such as reporting in an incorrect unit, or 
reporting in an improper place on the questionnaire. Entries 
determined to be in error were often referred to the technical staff 
and corrected on the basis of relationships existing on nearby 
farms, or, if the entries were large, on the basis of correspondence 
with the farm operator. In case of information missing for a 
group of questions, estimates were prepared on the basis of adja- 
cent questionnaires for farms with similar operations, and, in some 
cases, on the basis of information obtained by mail from the 
operators. When estimates were made, letters were mailed to the 
farm operators to verify the information and, if the estimates 
were not in reasonable agreement with the information contained 
in the replies, the entries were corrected before the tabulations 
were made. 

The detailed instructions for editing and coding of the Agri- 
culture Questionnaire were as follows: 

General. — Each Agriculture Questionnaire was to be examined 
individually. Figures written so poorly that they might not be 
read correctly were to be rewritten. Fractions were to be canceled 
for all questions for which the Agriculture Questionnaire did not 
provide for the reporting of fractions. For questions for which 
the questionnaire provided for the reporting of fractions, all 
fractions were to be converted into tenths. All entries for cents 
except for wage rates of hired employees working by the hour were 
to be canceled. Questionnaires with entries of 10,000 acres or 
more for acres in the place; $25,000 or more of forest products 
sold; 1,000 or more cattle; 10,000 or more sheep, goats, or poultry; 
$20,000 or more expenditure for fertilizer, hired labor, or feed; 
an expenditure of $5,000 or more for lime; a value of land and 
buildings of $1,000,000 or more; or for Indian Reservations were to 
be referred for review by the technical staff. 

Misplaced entries were to be crossed out and entered in the 
proper space. Entries in a unit of measure different from the 
unit of measure shown on the Agriculture Questionnaire were to be 
converted into the appropriate unit of measure. 

Questionnaires for places that might qualify as farms were to 
be selected for review by the technical staff. Questionnaires that 
did not contain entries of at least one of the following were selected 
for examination in regard to meeting the criteria of a farm: 

(1) $150 or more for total value of sales for vegetables, other 
field crops, nursery and greenhouse products, livestock 
and poultry and poultry products, and for forest 
products. 



(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(6) 



One or more cows, or two or more calves on hand. 

Three or more hogs on hand. 

Five or more sheep on hand. 

Fifty or more poultry on hand. 

Three or more acres harvested for corn, sorghum, small 

grains, soybeans, cowpeas, peanuts, dry field and seed 

peas and beans. 
Five or more acres of hay other than sorghum, soybean, 

cowpeas or peanut hay. 
One or more acres of tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables 

for sale, orchard, nursery and greenhouse products, or 

irrigated land. 
Five or more acres of cropland of all kinds. 

Section I. — The editing and coding clerk entered a code for 
color of operator. The code was 1 for white operators, 2 for 
Negro operators, and 3 for other. 

Section n. — The editing and coding clerk was furnished the 
following guide for determining the tenure of the farm operator: 



(7) 



(8) 



(9) 



Ques- 
tion 4 


Ques- 
tion 6 


Ques- 
tion 9 


Other conditions 


Classification 


Code 


Acres 
Acres 
None 
None 


None 
Acres 
None 
Acres 


None 
None 
Acres 
None 


Q.-j-Q./O-Acres in This Place 

(Section IV). 
Q.4+Q.6-Q.!0-Acres in This 

Place (Section IV). 
See instructions preceding the 

table. 
Q.6-Q./0-Acres in This Place 

(Section IV). 


Full owner.. 
Full owner.. 

Manager 

Tenant 


1 

2 

3 

See 
below. 


Question 


Question 8 


Class of tenant 


Code 


7 


a 


6 


c 


d 




No 


Yes 

Yes 

No 
No 


No 


No 




Cash _ 




4 


No 


Yes in either or both 


Share 
Crop- 




5 












No 


Yes 


No 
Yes 


6 


No 








7 


Yes 








8 


No 
No 


No 
No 


No 
No 


No 
No 


Yes 

No 


Other 
Unsp( 


cified.... 


9 


















Questionnaires that would be coded "manager" were to be referred to the technical 
staff for review unless: 

a. The value of all farm products sold was $5,000 or more. 

b. The acres in the farm were 1,000 or more. 

c. There were reported on the questionnaire, 10 or more acres in orchard, or nursery 

and/or greenhouse products, or 50 or more cattle of all ages, 25 or more milk 
cows, 1,000 or more poultry on hand, sold or raised. 



Possible code numbers for the classification of the farm by color, 
tenure, irrigation, economic class of farm and type of farm were 
printed in the center column of the Agriculture Questionnaire. 
Coding was performed by circling the number representing the 
appropriate code. 

Section III. — In the case of such crops as corn, sorghum, soy" 
beans and cowpeas, for which the questionnaire provided for 
reporting the total acres for all purposes, the editing clerk was 
required (/) to enter a total acres when this total was not entered, 
but acres were reported for the various uses, (2) to enter acres and 
quantity harvested when total acres were reported without acreage 
and quantity harvested being reported for any use, and (3) when 
the total acres for all purposes was 100 or more, to add the acres for 
the several uses, check the added total against the total for all 
purposes, and to refer the questionnaire for review by the technical 
staff if the difference in the two totals was 20 acres or more. 

Questionnaires for which the yield per acre exceeded 100 bushels 
for popcorn, sorghum, small grains, soybeans, cowpeas, or 10 or 
more tons for any hay crop or 50 bushels, 1,000 pounds or M ton 
per tree for any fruit were to be referred to the technical staff for 
review. 



CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



55 



The quantity sold was to be checked against the quantity 
harvested and if the quantity sold exceeded the quantity harvested, 
the quantity sold was to be reduced to equal the quantity har- 
vested. 

If the quantity sold was not reported, estimated quantities sold 
were to be entered when the quantity harvested was (/) 100 bushels 
or more for rice or flaxseed, or (2) 200 bushels or more for corn, 
grain sorghums, wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat or barley, and there 
were no livestock or poultry reported on the farm, sold or raised. 
Likewise, estimated quantities sold were to be entered when the 
total bushels of corn, grain sorghums, oats and barley harvested 
but not sold were more than 30 times the number of cattle, horses, 
and hogs on hand or sold. However, no estimates of quantity 
sold were to be entered unless the estimate was at least 100 bushels. 
When the quantity of hay harvested was 25 tons or more, and none 
was reported as sold, the entire amount harvested was to be 
entered as sold when the number of horses, mules, sheep or cattle 
on hand or sold, did not exceed 1. 

The acreage of land in fruit orchards, etc. (question 56) was to be 
estimated when there was no entry and the number of trees was 50 
or more, or the number of grapevines was 500 or more. The 
editing and coding clerk was furnished a table of the number of 
trees per acre for various kinds of fruits for use in calculating the 
acreage. 

Codes were to be entered for the crops reported in questions 
35, 50, 54, 64, and 65. An example of these codes for question 54 
is as follows : 

Crop Code. 

Blackberries 186 

Cranberries 192 

Currants 199 

When there were no entries for acres in Section III, and there was 
an entry of 10 or more acres for question 67a, entries were to be 
estimated for Section III. 

Section IV. — The entry for question 66, Acres in The Farm was 
to be checked with the acres reported for questions 4 to 6, 10 and 
11. If there were no entries for questions 67 to 70, the entries 
were to be calculated. If the entry for question 67a was 100 acres 
or more, the entry was to be compared with the total of the 
acreages of crops harvested as listed in Section III. Differences of 
20 acres or more, not accounted for by the harvesting of two or 
more crops from the same land, were to be referred for review by 
the technical staff. 

Section V. — Acres for question 71 were checked to acres in ques- 
tion 68 and were corrected if greater than acres for question 68. 

In the 20 States where irrigation was important additional 
coding was performed to provide for tabulation of data for irrigated 
farms and irrigated crops. Each questionnaire was coded to 
indicate whether all the cropland harvested was irrigated, part of 
the cropland harvested was irrigated, or none of the cropland 
harvested was irrigated. On farms on which part of the cropland 
harvested was irrigated, the crop code in Section III for each crop 
that was harvested from irrigated land was changed by adding 4 
to the hundreds digit for the code. For example, the code number 
for cotton was 270. If the cotton was harvested from irrigated 
land, this code was changed to 670. 

Section VI. — Estimates were to be entered for sales if none were 
reported by the enumerator when the entry exceeded 50 cords for 
firewood, 1,000 for the number of fence posts or 25,000 boardfeet 
for sawlogs and veneer logs. If area (acres or square feet) was 
reported and no sales reported or vice versa, for nursery or green- 
house products, the questionnaire was to be referred for review by 
the technical staff. 

Section VII. — For cattle, sheep, and hogs, the questionnaire was 
to be inspected to see if there was an entry for a total when there 



were entries for the various age and sex groups comprising the 
total, or vice versa. Entries were to be made when there was a 
total but no entry for the various age and sex groups, and vice 
versa. If the total was 100 or more, the age and sex groups were 
to be added and the sum checked with the total. Differences 
of 20 or more were referred for checking by the technical staff. 

For questions 81 and 83 entries for cows milked or milk produced 
yesterday were estimated when there was an entry for one 
question and no entry for the other question. Entries were to be 
corrected for question 82, when the entry was less than for question 
81. 

Questionnaires with 5 or more cows milked (question 81) and 
no dairy products sold were referred for review by the technical 
staff. 

Questionnaires with probable errors in value of dairy products 
sold and number of animals sold were to be referred to the technical 
staff for checking. Questionnaires to be referred included those 
with a value of whole milk sold of less than $0.01 or more than 
$0.10 per pound; of less than $1 or more than $100 per head 
sold for hogs, sheep or calves; of less than $10 or more than 
$1,000 per head for cattle, horses, or mules; of less than $0.25 or 
more than $2.00 per chicken sold; or of less than $0.10 or more than 
$1.00 for each dozen of eggs sold. 

Questionnaires with 2 or more sows farrowing or 10 or more 
hogs on hand, and no hogs reported as sold; 10 or more cattle or 
5 or more cows and no cattle or calves sold; 10 or more sheep 
and no sheep or lambs sold; or with 10 or more sheep, and no wool 
shorn were to be referred for review by the technical staff. 

Estimates were to be entered when 100 or more chickens and 
no sales of eggs or chickens were reported and when there were 
20 or more turkeys, ducks or geese and no sales were reported. 

Codes were to be entered for each kind of poultry for question 97. 

Section VIII. — Sections VIII to XII were edited by the review 
clerk as the editing of these sections was performed only for 
questionnaires in the sample and as the sorting of the question- 
naires into sample and nonsample groups was not performed until 
after the review of the work of the editing and coding clerk. 

For questions 100 and 101, entries for acres were estimated 
when there were entries for tons or dollars, and vice versa. For 
question 100 entries of less than $10 or more than $100 per ton 
and for question 101, entries of less than $1 or more than $20 
per ton were referred for checking by the technical staff. 

Section IX. — When there was no entry for question 102, and 
there were hired workers reported for question 1036, estimates 
were entered. Questionnaires with no report for question 1026 
and, with reports of $10,000 or more for the sale of vegetables, or 
nursery and greenhouse products, or 10 or more acres in orchards, 
were referred to the technical staff for review. 

Section X. — The entry for 1036 was checked with the entries 
for 103c and 103d, and inconsistencies were corrected. 

Section XI. — Usually no special editing was performed for this 
section. 

Section XII. — Usually no special editing was performed for this 
section. 

Section XIII. — The entries for acres in this section were checked 
with the entries in Section II and the required corrections were 
made. For question 108, the total value was computed and 
entered if only the average value per acre was reported. When 
both total value and value per acre were given, the calculation of 
the total value was checked, but changes were made only when 
the calculated value exceeded the reported value by $10,000 or 
when the reported value was double or more the calculated value. 



56 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



Coding for economic class of farm and type of farm. — The 
coding of farms by economic class of farm and by type of farm 
required estimating the total value of faun products sold. The 
estimates for the various groups of farm products sold were entered 
when required under the "Remarks" section of the Agiiculture 
Questionnaire. The questionnaire contained the value of farm 
products sold for: 

Vegetables 

Other'field crops 

Forest products 

Nursery and greenhouse products 

Dairy products 

Livestock 

Poultry and poultry products 

For many crops the quantity sold was shown in Section III. 
The value of each crop sold was calculated by multiplying the 
quantity sold by State average prices. The State average prices 
were obtained in cooperation with the Agricultural Marketing 
Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, from a 
sample of dealers, buyers, farmers, etc. 

For crops for which the quantity sold was not shown in Section 
III, the value of sales was to be calculated by multiplying the 
quantity harvested by State average prices, if the calculated value 
for the crop would amount to $100 or more. 

Except for farms operated by institutions, etc. (those were 
coded 9 for economic class), the economic class of farm for question- 
naires with a total value of $1,200 or more or under $250 was 
determined by the amount of the value of all farm products sold. 
The code was as follows: 

Total value of farm products sold Code 

$25,000 1 

$10,000 to $24,999 2 

$5,000 to $9,999 3 

$2,500 to $4,999 4 

$1,200 to $2,499 5 

Under $250 8 



If the total value of farm products sold was $250 to $1,199, the 
code for economic class was determined by the entries for questions 
104 and 105. If the entry for question 104 was 100 days or more 
or if the answer for question 105 was "Yes", the code for economic 
class was 7. All other questionnaires with a total value of farm 
products sold of $250 to $1,199 were coded 6 for economic class. 

The coding of type of farm was performed only for question- 
naires with an economic class code 1 to 6, or 9. The type of farm 
was determined by comparing the value of the sales for a farm 
product or a group of farm products with the total value of all 
farm products sold. Usually, the type of farm was determined 
by the farm product or group of farm products that accounted for 
50 percent or more of the value of all farm products sold. 

Training of editing and coding clerks. — At the beginning of 
the training period each employee was given a memorandum 
outlining the work requirements for the training period. Briefly 
these requirements were as follows: 

(iy Editing and coding 10 training questionnaires during the 
training period with not more than six coding errors, nor 
more than ten other errors. 

{$) Editing and coding a portfolio of 350 or more Agriculture 
Questionnaires in 5}i working days with less than 15 
coding errors per 100 questionnaires and less than 50 
other errors per 100 questionnaires. 

Each employee was provided with the following materials: 
(/) Instructions for editing and coding Al's. 

(2) A code card giving all the codes to be used. 

(3) A copy of a reference note for referring questions. (See 
fig. 27.) 

(4) A sheet containing various conversion factors for weights 
and measures. 

(5) A slip to be inserted in place of questionnaire removed 
from a portfolio 

(6) A training questionnaire. 

(7) A Landlord-Tenant Questionnaire. 

(8) Red pencils. 



FORM 2-36 
(1 1 -6-54) 


REFERENCE 

1 1 EDITING 


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

NOTE (Fol io) 

1 1 REV IE* ING 


STATE 


COUNTY 


FOL 10 NO. 


E.D. 


A2 LINE NOS. 


E.D. 


A2 LINE NOS. 


E.D. 


A2 LINE NOS. 


E.D. 


A2 LINE NOS. 


E.D. 


A2 LINE NOS. 


REMARKS 










TECHNICIAN <"«• 


me ) 




DATE 



comm-oc 42914 

Figure 27. — Reference note (Form 2-36). Used for referring questions for technical review. 



CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



57 



Generally, editing and coding clerks were trained in groups of 
10 to 20. The instructor, after asking the trainees to follow along 
with him, read the instructions from the beginning, holding up 
each form as it was mentioned in the instructions so that the 
clerks would become familiar with the terms used. A black- 
board was utilized as much as possible. Its use was particularly 
effective in explaining the following procedures: 

(/) Rewriting or canceling entries. 

(2) Converting fractions. 

(3) Converting units of measure. 

(4) Entering codes. 

(5) Presenting editing problems, 
(fj) Filling out reference notes. 

(7) Illustrating incomplete or impossible entries. 

The giving of instructions required about 8 hours. 

Editing of 10 training questionnaires. — The use of the instruc- 
tions was emphasized. The first Agriculture Questionnaire was 
given out for editing and coding. The trainees were not per- 
mitted to discuss the questionnaire with other clerks. No ques- 
tion covering a specific point was answered by the instructor. 
General questions which seemed appropriate were answered so 
that the whole training group could hear both the question and 
the answer. When most of the group had completed the editing 
of the first training questionnaire the editing of the questionnaire 
was discussed and the correct editing entries on the training 
questionnaire were given. Clerks were told where to look in 
their instructions to find why they had made errors. If the 
same error was made by several clerks the appropriate para- 
graph in the instructions was read by the instructor. After the 
trainees signed their names on the questionnaires, these were 
collected for recording the number of errors. 

The remaining 9 training questionnaires were given out in groups 
of three. The same procedure was followed as outlined for the 
first training questionnaire. 

The 10 training questionnaires were corrected as soon as possible 
and the number of errors recorded. The corrected questionnaires 
were given back to the trainees so that they could see their errors. 

Editing of the first portfolio. — During the editing of the first 
portfolio, the supervisors were instructed to circulate through the 
group of trainees to: 

(1) Answer necessary questions concerning procedures. 

(2) Help clerks find the paragraph in the instructions needed 

to determine whether entries on the questionnaire were 
correct. 

(3) Observe clerks to see if they were working systematically 

and following procedure as outlined in their instructions. 

(4) Check codes to make sure editors were coding correctly. 

(5) Review several edited and coded questionnaires. 

(6) See that reference notes were made correctly when 

required. 

The progress of editing and coding clerks in learning and 
becoming proficient in the performance of their work is indicated 
by the following data on questionnaires edited and errors made by 
weeks of experience. 



Weeks of experience 


Number of 
Agriculture 
Question- 
naires edited 
and coded 
per hour 


Number of errors per 100 
Agriculture Questionnaires 




Total 


Coding 
errors 


Other 
errors 


1 


11 
20 
20 
21 
23 
24 
25 
27 
27 
30 
30 
31 
33 
34 
35 
36 
36 
36 
37 
36 
39 
40 
41 
42 
42 
44 
45 
46 
47 
49 
49 
51 
52 
56 


18.7 

17.3 

14.1 

11.6 

8.8 

6.7 

5.1 

4.6 

3.9 

3.5 

3.5 

3.3 

3.4 

2.7 

2.8 

2.6 

2.4 

2.0 

1.7 

1.7 

1.5 

1.1 

1.1 

1.2 

.9 

1.0 

.8 

1.2 

l.-Z 

1.2 

.9 

2.0 

.9 

1.0 


5.2 

4.8 

3.6 

2.8 

2.1 

1.6 

1.3 

1.2 

1.1 

.9 

.9 

.8 

.8 

.7 

.7 

.6 

.6 

.5 

.5 

.4 

.4 

.3 

.3 

.4 

.3 

.3 

.3 

.3 

.4 

.5 

.4 

.6 

.3 

.5 


13.6 


2 .. 


12.5 


3 


10 5 


4... 


8.8 


5 


6.6 


6 


5.2 


7 


3.8 


8 


3.5 


9__ 


2.9 


10 


2.6 


11... 


2.6 


12... 


2.5 


13 


2.6 


14... 


2.0 


15... 


2.1 


16 


2.0 


17 


1.8 


18... 


1.5 


19... 


1.3 


20 


1.3 


21 


1.1 


22 .. 


.8 


23 


.8 


24 


.8 


25 


.6 


26 


.6 


27 


.6 


28 


.9 


29 


.8 


30 


.7 


31... 


.6 


32 . 


1.4 


33 


.6 


34 


.5 







The work of the editing and coding clerks was reviewed. Clerks 
were selected for review work from the editing and coding clerks. 
The review clerks were given 4 hours of additional instruction. 
These 4 hours were devoted to reading of the instructions, making 
out a sample verification record (see fig. 28), observing a demon- 
stration of how to sort the Agriculture Questionnaires representing 
the sample from other questionnaires, and to practicing the deter- 
mination of codes for economic class of farm and for type of farm. 

The job of the review clerk was to review either on a complete 
basis or a sample basis the work performed by the editing and 
coding clerks, to prepare a record of errors found in the work of 
the editing and coding clerks, to sort the questionnaires into two 
groups — those comprising the sample and those not comprising 
the sample — and to determine and enter the codes for economic 
class of farm and type of farm on questionnaires comprising the 
sample. 

Until the error records indicated each editing and coding clerk 
was performing work of a satisfactory quality, all editing and 
coding work was verified completely. Editing and coding work 
was considered satisfactory if there were less than 3 coding and 
8 other errors per 100 Agriculture Questionnaires. When the 
quality of editing and coding became satisfactory, only every 
tenth questionnaire was completely verified. If the verification of 
every tenth questionnaire indicated the work was not of acceptable 
quality, then all questionnaires were reviewed and all subsequent 
work of the editing and coding clerk was reviewed until the record 
of errors indicated that the work was of acceptable quality. 

The performance of review clerks improved as their knowledge 
and skill improved and also as the work of editing and coding 



58 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



Form 2-43 
(11. 18-54) 






I). S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 


State 


VERIFICATION RECORD 


County 


Name 


□ Editor 

□ Reviewer 


Unit number 


Folio number 


Date edited 




□ Sample of Al's verified 
(A2 line numbers ending 


in 1 


Number of questionnaires 




■type of error 


Sect ions 

I-II 

Color- tenure 

(a) 


Section 

III 

Crops 

<b> 


Sections 

IV-VI 
lrrigat Ion 

(c) 


Section 
VII 

Livestock 

(d) 


Total 
(Non- mmmpl e ) 

(e) 


Sections 
VI1I-XI II 

( S a mp 1 e ) 

Class 
and 
type 
(f) 


1. Poorly written figures not 
corrected 














2. Figures entered by editing 
clerk, illegible 














3. Fractions and decimals not 
cancelled 














4. Fractions not converted or 
incorrectly converted 














S. Correct entries changed 
unnecessarily 














6. Rum of detail - 20 does not 
equal total 














7. Sum of detail - 100 does not 
equal total 














8. Specified cross-checks not 
made 














9. Sizeable production or inventory 
and no value of products sold 














10. other relationships not 
questioned 














11. Not coded 














12. Coded incorrectly 














13. other (Sped r y > 














Total 














Remarks 


Name of reviewer 


Unit number 


Date 



Conn-DC 43246 

Figure 28. — Verification record (Form 2-43). For recording errors for editing and coding. 



CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



59 



clerks improved. The following data indicate work performance 
by review clerks by weeks of experience on the job. 





Number of question- 
naires reviewed per hour 


Weeks of 
experience 


Number of question- 
naires reviewed per hour 


Weeks of 
experience 


On a com- 
plete basis 


On a sample 
basis (10 
percent of 
question- 
naires) 


On a com- 
plete basis 


On a sample 
basis (10 

percent of 
question- 
naires) 


1 


11 
24 
25 
29 
34 
38 
43 
50 
50 
47 
53 
56 
58 
63 
61 


42 
60 
66 
71 
70 
79 
72 
76 
80 
84 
86 
93 
96 
90 
97 


16.. 


60 
62 
64 
66 
64 
63 
55 
67 
79 
62 
91 
60 
71 
88 
79 


98 


2 


17 

18 


97 


3 


103 


4... 


19 

20.. 


97 


5... . 


101 


6 


21 


106 


7 


22 


99 


8 


23 

24 

25.. 


105 


9 


102 


10 


110 


11.. 


26. 


115 


12 


27 

28 

29 

30 


125 


13 ---- 

14.. 


128 
142 


15 


135 







The use of sample verification of editing and coding resulted in 
the saving of approximately 45,000 man hours in reviewing. The 
number and proportion of the Agriculture Questionnaires reviewed 
on a complete basis by week, after review on a sample basis was 
started, were as follows: 





Agriculture Questionnaires 
reviewed 


Week 


Total 


On com- 
plete 
basis 


On a sample 
basis (10 
percent of 
question- 
naires) 


1 


Number 
56.244 
142. 992 

128, 526 
119.783 
130, 278 
153, 067 
162, 567 
184. 742 
201. 976 
206, 372 
210. 533 

221, 399 
214, 820 
210, 864 
213, 337 
197, 176 
212, 481 

222, 535 
206/793 
193; 669 
167,560 
144, 338 
157, 805 
167, 526 

129, 592 
90,957 
96, 759 

. 113,608 
65, 393 
26, 111 


Percent 
85.8 
84.3 
74.8 
78.7 
73.2 
80.0 
76.9 
63.2 
55.7 
49.6 
46.6 
42.5 
38.5 
35.1 
26.5 
29.5 
27.3 
26.6 
22.8 
14.2 
14.2 
10.5 
13.0 
9.2 
9.1 
5.0 
7.8 
13.0 
18.5 
24.3 


Percent 

14.2 


2 


15.7 


3 


25.2 


4 


21.3 


5 


26.8 


6 -_- 


20.0 


7 


23.1 


8 


36.8 


9 


44.3 


10._ 


50.4 


11 


53.4 


12 


57.5 


13 


61.5 


14 - .. 


64.9 


15 


73.5 


16.: -.-. 


70.5 


17 


72.7 


18 


73.4 


19... 


77.2 


20 


85.8 


21 


85.8 


22 


89.5 


23 


87.0 


24 


90.8 


25 


90.9 


26 


96.0 


27 


92.2 


28 


87.0 


29 . ./ 


81.5 


30 


75.7 







PUNCHING 

In order to provide for compilation of data, all information in the 
Agriculture Questionnaires was transferred to punch cards. 
Ten separate punch cards were used. (See fig. 29 for copies of 
these cards.) The punch card used for each part of the Agriculture 
Questionnaire is indicated in the column "Office use only" on the 
questionnaire. (See fig. 1.) For example, the information for 
questions 66 to 72 on the Agriculture Questionnaire was punched 
on the A card. The number of cards punched for all Agriculture 
Questionnaires was as follows: 



Card type 


Number of 

cards 
(thousands) 


Card type 


Number of 

cards 
(thousands) 




Total 


30, 136 


1 

J 

K 

L 


3,831 

398 

3,522 

1,101 


A 


4,856 
9,889 
1.142 
3,674 


C__ 




G.. 


M 

N 


1,082 
642 


H... 







Cards L, M, and N were required only for Agriculture Question- 
naires in the sample. The punching was performed on Inter- 
national Business Machine Company's type 024 punching machine. 
(See fig. 30.) 

All the personnel employed for card punching were temporary 
and none had any prior experience in punching. All employees 
were given a training course consisting of approximately 80 hours. 
During the first 40 hours the punching machine operator was 
trained, in how to use the punching machine, by means of a series of 
punching exercises and 6 tests. The second 40 hours of the train- 
ing consisted of punching cards from a portfolio of Agriculture 
Questionnaires prepared for training purposes and the completion 
of 3 tests. The appointments of operators who did not satis- 
factorily complete tests given during training were terminated. 

Generally, punching machine operators were trained to punch, 
and punched, only one of the 10 types of cards. Work units 
assigned to punch operators consisted of one or two portfolios of 
Agriculture Questionnaires (400 to 800 Agriculture Question- 
naires). 

The number of cards punched per hour varied according to the 
experience of the punching machine operator and the type of card. 
The average number of cards punched per hour for each card type 
was as follows: 



Type of card 


Average 
number 
punched 
per hour 


Type of card 


Average 
number 
punched 
per hour 






147 


I 


150 






J 


47 


A.. 
C. 
G.. 


134 
158 
133 
167 


L... 

M... 


187 
102 
162 


H_. 


N 


114 









60 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




a. 










u 

5 


tr 
O 


Ui 

a 


1 




>- 


CD 

X 




>- 




.■ 


< a lo 


^ 


< 


u 


Ml 


Z> 


< 
►- 


Z 
3 
O 

u 


a 


u 


H 3 










m 




(A 




X 








* 






< 










P 












*j 










5 












/ 














■ 


> 


> 


Li 



CATTLE AMO CALVES 


* < 

-. a 

5 a 

* ul 

8^ 


is 

o < 
ux 

* z 
d O 

z 


o 
u 

= i 
s = 

■- <• 

x M 
_j ^ 

X 


a 

z 




WHOLE MILK SOLO 


C*CAM SOLO 




TOTAL 


COWS 


oS 

z > 

i. 

St £ 

w — 


£ O * 

tfi * * 


*- 
■ 
3 


QUANTITY 


VALUE 

OF 
SALES 


POUNDS 

OF 

BUTTE RF AT 


VALUC 

OF 
SALES 


K 

Ui 

U 

M 
UJ 

,4 




VALUE OF 






V 


SMfS Of 






V 


C"!ER 








FCaiTST ilD 




u 




POaLTBi 

PRODUCTS 


n 


OJ 
UJ 

Ll 





s; 



! = 



iHs 



EQUIPMENT -NUMBER 



LANO OWNED 



VALUE OF 
LANO AND 
BUILOINBS 



VALUE OF 
LANO AND 
BUILDINGS 



hid Hint 10 cms 



VALUE OF 
LANO ANO 

BUILDINGS 



CASH 
RENT 



M 



u 






1 
















z 
z 
2 a 


a 
o 


a 

3 
Z 




o 
u 








r- 


no 


us 








3 3 








OZ 




Ul 





MACHINE 
HIRE 



CASH EXPENDITURES 



HIREO 
LABOR 



Kit FOR 

uvsstoci 
rouLTir 



(•SOI HE 
Oil !tC 







HIREO W C 


R KERS 














:: 


MONTHLY BASIsi WECH.Y BASIS 


DAILY BASIS 


MOUdLV 

BASIS 


■ Tec 


a 

o 

a 
cc 
u 
a 
o 


> 

X 

« 

HO 


SOIS 


RATE 
OF 
PAY 


noons 

•0»E0 


PEI 

SDK 


HATE 
OF 
PAY 


tOUHS 

• WHO 


HI- 

SGKS 


RATE 
OF 
PAY 


HH1 

KMIC 


PE«- 

soe 


RATE 
OF 
PAY 


I 



/I 



N 



COMMERCIAL .[fi.maif PURCHASED 



TONS TOTAL COST 



*C»CS 
ON 

WMiCH 
USED 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER USED 



HAY CROPS 



ACRES TONS .y* 

on ir 

HfM.CH Is 

USC t 



WHICH 

USED 



ACHES 
ON 

WHICH 

USED 



USEO 

1 



OTHER CROPS 



i! 



LIME PURCHASED 



TOTAL 
COST 



■ 



Figure 29. — Punch cards used for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 



CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



61 




60 

c 



c 

3 

- 

(M 

o 
a 



ffl 



o 

M 

H 

IS 
p 

o 



412357 0—57 5 



62 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



Figures 31 and 32 indicate the relationship of the weeks of 
experience of punching machine operators to the number of cards 
punched for C card at the Pittsburg Operation Office and for 
the H card at the Detroit Operation Office. The quantity of 
cards punched per hour was influenced by a system of incentive 
pay. Operators who punched more than a prescribed number of 
cards of acceptable quality during a 2-week period were given 
extra pay for each 100 cards punched above the established 
standard. Incentive pay was paid for approximately one-third 
of all cards punched and approximately 71.4 percent of all cards 
were punched by operators during periods for which they received 
incentive pay. 

The punching of cards was verified either completely or on a 
sample basis. The purpose of verification was not to eliminate 
all errors but to insure that the level of errors was kept within 
acceptable levels. Until the verification of punched cards indicated 
the work was of satisfactory quality, the work of each punching 
machine operator was verified 100 percent. Verification was 
performed by the use of a manually operated verifier. (See fig. 33.) 
All cards found in error were corrected. 



As soon as it was determined that less than 6 percent of the 
cards punched by a punching machine operator contained errors 
and that the number of cards not punched did not exceed 1.2 
percent, only a sample of 4 percent of the work of the card punching 
machine operator was verified. However, when the errors found 
in the 4-percent sample indicated that the quality of the work 
was not acceptable, the work of the operator was verified 100 
percent, until the record of errors indicated that the work was 
of satisfactory quality. Card punching machine operators were 
required to produce work of acceptable quality within a given time 
period in order to be retained as an employee and in order to 
receive incentive payment for the work performed in excess of es- 
tablished standards. Card punching machine operators with the 
poorest work performance were assigned to verification work. 
Except for excess cards (cards representing unusually large quanti- 
ties for an item), cards found in error during verification on a 
sample basis were not corrected. 

The use of sample verification of cards resulted in a saving of 
approximately 140,000 man hours. The number and proportion 



CABDS 
PER 
HOUR 



DISTRIBUTION OF OPERATORS BY CAROS PUNCHED PER HOUR, 
BY WEEKS OF EXPERIENCE 

ICCARD PITTSBURG OPERATION OFFICE! 



370 
550 








1 














1 




1 


1 


• 




1 




. 






















• 


















330 






























• 






■ 


310 






























• • 


• 


: ' 


' 


290 


— 
















• 










• 






: ' • 





270 


— 














. 




• 




! 








• 




— 


2 SO 


- — 
















• • 






• 




. ; i 

• 




I 




\ — 


230 


— 












. 




. 






• t 


t 


i 




I 


• / 


• \ — ■ 


210 












* 


» 


* 


i ; 


f 




1 ; 




r 




e ~- 




•\ 


190 








# 


• 


■ 


.■ 


i 

i 


i ■ 




■ 


i 


.. • 


■ : '; 


r 


: 






1 70 






' 


• 


1 


t 


i 


/i 


! 

.1 * 






>i • • 




; ! : ; ; 


■ 








ISO 




■ 


1 


1 


1 

•1 


i i 


j 




.■. . 


1 

I 


i 


i 


i 
•i 


" 


• 


• 




• 


ISO 






1 

1 


•i 


1 


. ■ 


i 


i 




- 




i 




. 


i 






— ■ 






•• 


-1 




•I 


1 












„ 


. 










110 

to 


n 

- 1 

• 


1 


1 
1^ 

A 

1 

*l 


It 

1 


t 
• 

i 


• ; 

t • 






I 


' 






• 


• 






• 


" 






TO 




• t 


}' 
















• 










• 








/ i 




' 


1 








| 






| 




| 






- 










SO 








5 








k 






15 




20 


2 


s 






■ 







» * 



*••»» of Eip«rl«nc« 

Figure 31. — C cards punched per hour by weeks of experience, Pittsburg Operations Office. 



CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



63 



of the cards verified on a 100 percent basis and on a sample (4 
percent) basis by two-week periods were as follows: 



Period 



Prior to Mar. 13.... 
Mar. 14 to Mar. 26. 
Mar. 27 to Apr. 9.. 
Apr. 10 to Apr. 23. 
Apr. 24 to May 7.. 
May 8 to May 21... 
May 22 to June 4.. 
June 5 to June 18.. 
June 19 to July 2. . 
July 3 to July 16.. 
July 17 to July 30. 
July 31 to Aug. 13. 
Aug. 14 to Aug. 26 



Cards verified 





On 100 


Total 


percent 




basis 


Number 


Percent 


4, 873, 279 


23.9 


2, 567, 911 


6.1 


2, 732, 089 


4.2 


2, 346, 108 


4.7 


2, 476, 149 


4.1 


2, 169, 117 


4.6 


2, 278, 096 


3.6 


2, 470, 653 


3.9 


1, 885, 249 


27.6 


1,986,001 


3.7 


1,909,290 


2.7 


1,392.863 


0.7 


1, 049, 598 


0.5 



On a 

sample 

basis 



Percent 
76.1 
93.9 
95.8 
95.3 
95.9 
95.4 
96.4 
96.1 
72.4 
96.3 
97.3 
99.3 
99.5 



Correction of punching and other errors prior to publication. — 
The checking for errors before the publication of data was per- 



formed at three stages — before tabulation, after tabulation, and 
just prior to publication. 

Before tabulation, all punch cards were subject to an examina- 
tion by means of electric statistical machines for possible errors. 
Mechanical methods were used to select punch cards which lacked 
required information, those on which the data punched were in- 
consistent or unreasonable, and those with data of sufficient im- 
portance to warrant further verification. Specifications were 
established for each card type so as to select cards having any of 
the characteristics of these three groups and all cards were passed 
through the Census Multicolumn Sorter for the purpose of selecting 
these cards. Before the selection of error cards was made, repro- 
ductions of C cards were made, so that the information for only 
one crop appeared on a C card. (The information for as many as 
3 crops was punched on a C card. See fig. 26.) The specifications 
for the selection of cards for further verification were as follows: 
(See fig. 26 for copies of the cards and fig. 1 for a copy of the 
Agriculture Questionnaire.) 



pen 

HOUR 



DISTRIBUTION OF OPERATORS BY CARDS PUNCHED PER HOUR, 
BY WEEKS OF EXPERIENCE 

|H C6R0- DriROlT OPtRMiON u^i.F ) 




Figure 32. — H cards punched per hour by weeks of experience, Detroit Operations Office. 



64 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




■ - 




T3 



3 

bo 

S 



g 

13 



CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



65 



All Cards 

1. All excess cards. (These were cards punched for entries with 

figures larger than the maximum number that could be 
punched in the column or columns provided on the punch 
card.) 

2. All cards with misplaced "X". If there was no entry on the 

questionnaire for an item, an "X" was to be punched in the 
first column provided for punching the item on the punch 
card. Cards with the "X" punched in a column other than 
the first column would contain errors, and hence were 
selected. 

Card A 

1. The number of acres for any land use greater than the total 

acres in the farm. 

2. "Total land" divided by ten (10) greater than any use. 

3. Acres reported as "improved other pasture" greater than all 

other land used for pasture. 

4. 1,000 or more acres in any CROPLAND group. 

5. 20 acres or more of cropland harvested for a card with a code 

of 8 for economic class. 

6. Cards classified as "cropland wholly irrigated" with a number 

for "acres of total cropland harvested" in excess of "irrigated 
cropland harvested." 

7. Cards classified as "cropland partly irrigated" with the same 

entries for "total cropland harvested" and "irrigated crop- 
land harvested." 

8. Any entry for "acres of irrigated cropland harvested" in excess 

of "total acres of cropland harvested." 

9. No number for "acres of irrigated land" with an "irrigated- 

farm" code. 

10. Any entry of less than 10 years for "age of operator." 

11. Any entry for "year began operation" between 55 and 99 
indicating the years 1855-1899 or 1955 to 1999. 

12. All cards for farms of less than 3 acres. 

13. All entries for color code, tenure code, or class code other than 

those provided for by the coding scheme. 

14. Any entry for "irrigated pasture," greater than the entry for 

"cropland pastured" or the entry for "improved pasture." 

15. The number for acres in either "conservation practices" 

greater than the acres for "cropland harvested." 

16. The economic class code of 9 with a code for type of farm other 

than 12. 

17. Any "crop" type of farm code and no entry for "acres of crop- 

land harvested." 

18. 1,000 or more total acres in farm not classified as a "specified 

farm." 

Card C for corn 

1 . Total acreage of corn for all purposes reported without an entry 

of acres for grain, silage, or hogged off. 

2. Total acreage for all purposes less than the acreage reported for 

any use. 

3. Any "total acreage" report of 400 or more acres. 

4. All reports with quantity harvested without acreage harvested 

or acreage harvested without quantity harvested. 

5. All reports of 1,000 or more bushels of grain per acre harvested 

for grain. 

6. Any total production of 1,000 bushels of grain on a farm having 

$1,200 or less "value of all products sold." 

7. 100 or more tons of silage produced per acre harvested, or 200 

tons or more in total. 

8. Less than 1 ton of silage per acre harvested. 

9. Bushels of corn sold exceeding bushels of corn harvested for 

grain. 



Card C for sorghums 

1. Total acreage for all purposes without an amount either for 

acreage for grain, acreage for silage or acreage hogged or 
grazed. 

2. Total acreage for all purposes less than the acreage for any use. 

3. Any total acreage for all purposes of 400 or more acres. 

4. All reports with quantity harvested without acreage or acreage 

harvested without quantity harvested. 

5. All reports of 1 ,000 or more bushels of grain per acre harvested, 

100 or more tons of silage per acre, or 10 or more tons of hay 
per acre harvested. 

6. Acres exceeding the corresponding quantity harvested except for 

acreage hogged off which required no quantity harvested 
entry. 

7. Bushels of grain sold in excess of bushels of grain harvested. 

Card C for crops other than corn and sorghum 

1. Quantity harvested without acreage. When space for quan- 
tity was provided for on the questionnaire, all reports of 
acreage without quantity harvested. 
In addition to the general specifications for all crops there were 
additional conditions for specific crops as follows: 

Small Grains, Sugarbeets, Tree Fruits 

1. Production in excess of 100 units per acre or per tree of bearing 

age. 

2. Quantity harvested less than quantity sold or acreage har- 

vested. 

Hay Crops, Cotton 

1. Production in excess of 10 units per acre harvested. 

2. Less than one-tenth unit of production per acre harvested. 

Tobacco, Seed Crops, Potatoes 

1. Production in excess of 1,000 units per acre harvested. 

2. Less than 1 unit of production per acre harvested. 

Small Fruits 
1. Production of 100 or more units without acreage. 

Vegetables 
1. Ten or more acres of any crop. 

Other Crops 

1. Twenty or more bushels of potatoes without acreage. 

2. Production of tree fruits or nuts with entry for trees of non- 

bearing age only. 

3. Trees of bearing age in excess of 100 with no entry for quantity 

harvested. 

4. Entries of acreage harvested without quantity harvested. 

Card G 

1. All sales of $1,000 or more. 

2. More than 100,000 board feet of lumber cut with no entry for 

the sale of forest products. 

3. No dollar amount representing sales but with an entry of 100 

or more cords of firewood cut, or 1,000 or more fence posts 
cut or any number of cords of pulpwood cut. 

4. Maple trees tapped without report for maple syrup made; or 

gallons of syrup or pounds of sugar made and no number 
for number of trees tapped. 

5. More than 1 gallon of syrup or one-tenth pound of sugar per 

tree tapped. 

6. Any report of $50,000 or more for sales of horticultural products. 

7. Any report of acreage or glass area in horticultural specialties 

with no number for "value of sales"; or value of sales and no 
amount for area. 



66 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



Card H 

1. Number of total cattle reported without a number for any 

age-sex subgroup. 

2. 100 or more cows on hand with no calves or heifers on hand. 

3. Number of cows milked yesterday greater than total number 

of cows on hand. 

4. Number in any age-sex subgroup greater than number of total 

cattle. 

5. Number of milk cows on hand exceeding total of all cows. 

6. Less than one-tenth of milk cows on hand reported as having 

been milked yesterday. 

7. Milk cows on hand numbering five or more and none reported 

as having been milked yesterday. 

8. More than 10 gallons of milk production per cow milked yester- 

day. 

9. An amount punched for quantity of whole milk or cream sold 

without an amount for dollars or the number of dollars 
without the quantity sold. 

10. Ten or more cows milked yesterday with no amount of dairy 

products sold for the year. 

11. More than $1,000 income from dairy products sold for every 

cow milked. 

12. Milk reported as being sold for less than 10 cents a gallon or 

less than 1 cent a pound. 

13. Value of cream sold more than $10 per pound of butterfat or 

less than 10 cents per pound of butterfat. 

Card I 

1. Number of horses or mules greater than the total of both 

kinds. 

2. Number of hogs in either of two age groups larger than total 

for both groups. 

3. A number for total hogs with no number for either age sub- 

group. 

4. Ten or more total hogs on hand and none sold. 

5. The number of "hogs born before June 1" less than the total 

of all ages without a number for "hogs born since June 1." 

6. The number of "sows farrowed or to farrow" greater than 

"total hogs on hand." 

7. Two or more sows on hand but no report for "hogs sold." 

8. The average value of hogs sold less than $1 each. 

9. The average value of calves sold less than $1 each. 

10. The average value of cattle sold less than $1 each. 

11. The average value of sheep or lambs sold less than $1 each. 

12. The average value of horses or mules sold less than $1 each. 

13. The value of hogs sold averaging more than $100 each. 

14. The value of cattle or calves sold averaging more than $1,000 

each. 

15. The value of sheep sold averaging more than $100 each. 

Card J 

1. All cards with a number for sheep 1 year of age or over with no 

number for "wool shorn." 

2. All cards with number for total sheep with no number for the 

age-sex classification. All cards with the number for the 
age-sex group exceeding the total sheep. 

3. All cards with 100 or more pounds of wool per sheep shorn or 

less than 1 pound per sheep shorn. 

4. All cards with total goats and with number for kind of goats 

not shown. 

5. All cards with more than 10 pounds of mohair per goat clipped 

or less than 1 pound of mohair per goat clipped. 

6. All cards with a report for goats clipped less than one-tenth 

of the number of Angora goats on hand. 



Card K 

1. All cards with 100 or more chickens on hand with no number for 

either chickens sold or eggs sold. 

2. All cards on which the amount for "value of other chickens 

sold" or amount for "value of broilers sold" is less than one- 
tenth of the number punched for "number sold." 

3. All cards on which the amount for "value of other chickens sold" 

or the amount for "value of broilers sold" is more than ten 
(10) times the number punched for "number sold." 

4. All cards on which the amount for "value of eggs sold" is more 

than ten (10) times or less than one-tenth (1/10) the number 
representing "dozen sold." 

5. All cards with ten or more turkeys raised or 100 or more of 

"poultry other than chickens or turkeys" raised without a 
report of sales for "other poultry and poultry products" or 
miscellaneous poultry reported as sold and no entry for 
"number raised." 

6. All cards with 1,000 or more chickens on hand. 

Card L 

1. Numbers for value of land and buildings larger than 1,000 times 

the number for acres. 

2. Land values of less than $1 per acre provided value was re- 

ported. 

3. Acres of "land rented to others" in excess of entry for "land 

owned" or "land rented from others." 

4. Entry for "cash rent paid" greater than 10 percent of "value 

of land rented from others," or no entry for acres rented 
from others but with an amount for "cash rent paid." 

5. Any column for farm facilities punched other than "yes" or 

"no." 

6. "Yes" report for "mortgage debt" with no number for 

"acres owned." 

7. A card coded as "livestock-share tenant" with a crop type of 

farm code. 

8. Cards with incorrect tenure codes such as: 

Full owner with no "land owned." 

Part owner with no entry for either land owned or land 
rented from others. 

Tenant with no entry for "land rented from others" 
or with entry for "land owned." 

Manager with no entry for "acres managed." 

Economic class codes 8 or 9 with entry "other than mis- 
cellaneous" for type of farm. 

9. Report of "value" without an accompanying acres entry. 

10. Ten or more ponds, 3 or more garden tractors. 

11. Any digit in column for class, color, tenure, type of farm codes 

other than that specifically provided by the code. 

Card M 

1. All cards representing $20,000 or more for any expenditure. 

2. Hired labor expenditures of S5,000 or more without hired 

workers on farm or any number of hired workers with no 
amount shown for cash expenditure for hired labor. 

3. All reports of $5,000 or more of expenditures for gasoline and 

oil, or for machine hire, and any hired labor in amount of 
$5,000 or more, if the economic class code was 5 or higher. 

4. Any number for total hired workers without the number to be 

employed "less than 150 days" or "more than 150 days" 
or the number of workers in either of these subgroups 
exceeding the total or the number of workers unequal to 
total workers when only one subgroup was reported. 

5. Any card with reports for monthly, weekly, or daily workers 

with the corresponding reports for the number of hours, 
number of workers, or amount of wages paid missing. 

6. All reports for hourly workers with either the number of 

workers or the rate of pay missing. 



CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



67 



Card M — Continued 

7. All reports for hours worked by monthly workers of 400 or 

more hours or less than 100 hours, for weekly workers of 
100 or more hours or less than 20 hours, and for daily 
workers of 20 or more hours. 

8. Any card representing 10 or more workers for any basis of 

pay group. 

9. All cards whereon all the expenditure items were punched "X." 
10. All punches for color, tenure, economic class, or type of farm 

other than that provided by the appropriate code. 

Cardiff 

1. More tons of fertilizer applied to crops than the total of tons 

purchased. 

2. More than 200 pounds of fertilizer applied per acre of hay or 

pasture. 

3. More than 1 ton of fertilizer applied per acre of crop fertilized. 

4. Absence of number for either tons, cost, or acres on which 

applied. 

5. An amount for tons of fertilizer purchased with no entry for 

"acres of crops on which used." 

6. Absence of number for lime for either tons, cost, or acres on 

which applied. 

The number of cards selected for each type for further verifica- 
tion was as follows: 



Card type 


Total 
number 
of cards 


Cards selected by 
mechanical edit 




Number 


Percent of 
total cards 




38, 410, 859 


3, 143, 893 


8.2 






A 


4, 856, 169 

2, 961, 609 
372, 657 

14, 828, 890 
1, 141, 986 

3, 673, 804 
3, 831, 383 

397, 529 
3, 521, 887 
1, 100, 542 
1,081,911 

642,492 


274, 508 
215, 494 

62,883 
1, 188. 824 

52, 013 
452, 188 
160, 862 

58,473 
101,619 
205,288 
202,209 
169, 532 


5.7 


C-l (corn)... 


7.3 




16.9 


C-3 


8.0 


a 


4.6 


H 


12.3 


i 


4.2 


j 


14.7 


K 


2.9 


L 


18.7 


M 


18.7 


N 


26.4 







All cards selected by the mechanical edit were listed on an IBM 
type 402 tabulating machine (see fig. 41). These listings were 
reviewed by members of the technical staff. Cards that appeared 
to be in error were marked on the listings. These cards and all 
excess cards (cards containing very large entries) were checked to 
the Agriculture Questionnaires and corrections were made when 
required. The following table indicates the number and propor- 
tion of each type of card corrected. 





Cards corrected 


Type of card 


Total 

number of 

cards 


Percent of 

cards 

selected 


Percent of 
total cards 
punched 




1,327,918 


42.2 


3.3 






A.. 


152,600 
117,940 

22,091 
394,100 

11,947 
198, 839 

75,881 
6,784 

50,712 

70, 470 
152, 869 

73, 785 


55.6 
54.7 
35.1 
33.2 
23.0 
44.0 
46.4 
11.6 
49.9 
34.3 
75.6 
43.5 


3.2 


C-l (corn) 


4.0 




5.9 


C-3 


2.7 


G 


1.0 


H. 


5.4 


I 


2.0 


J 


1.6 


K 


1.4 


L 


6.5 


M 


14. 1 


N 


J1.5 







Checking for errors after tabulation involved the checking of 
totals for counties, minor civil divisions, or other geographic areas 
for possible mistakes. Part of this checking was clerical in nature, 
and involved the checking for consistency of totals for the same or 



similar item on various tabulations. The major part of this 
checking was performed by technical staff and involved comparison 
of totals, averages and ratios for adjacent areas, for the 1954 and 
prior Censuses, and of totals and averages with data secured from 
other sources. 

Prior to publication, the data in statistical tables were checked 
and reviewed. Checking comprised the comparison of data in 
various tables for consistency and the review involved the visual 
examination of the data by the technical staff. 

ADJUSTMENT OF DATA FOR THE SAMPLE PRIOR TO 
TABULATION 

Description of the sample. — The sample used for the 1954 
Census of Agriculture consisted of specified farms and one-fifth 
of the remaining farms. Thus, the sample for most areas com- 
prised somewhat more than 20 percent of all farms and in fact 
represented 22.5 percent of all farms in the United States. Farms 
in the sample comprised a larger proportion of all farms in the 
Western States than in other geographic areas. 

The actual selection of farms in the sample was made by Census 
enumerators as part of the enumeration procedure. The enumer- 
ator listed the head of each household or each place on a single line 
on Form A2 and determined whether an agriculture questionnaire 
was to be obtained. If he filled an Agriculture Questionnaire, he 
was required to indicate in which one of the 5 size-of-farm groups 
the farm belonged. Each line on the Form A2 contained squares 
listing 5 size-of-farm groups. The enumerator was required to 
indicate for each farm or place enumerated in which of these 5 
size-of-farm groups, the farm or place belonged. A random fifth 
of the squares for each of four of these 5 size groups was lightly 
shaded. (See fig. 9 for a facsimile of a page of Form A2.) If the 
farm was indicated as belonging in a shaded square, the farm was 
included in the sample. The fifth square, always shaded, was 
provided for indicating all farms of 1,000 acres or more; thus all 
farms of 1,000 or more acres were included as a part of the sample. 

In some States, all farms with more than a specified acreage of 
cropland harvested, or irrigated cropland harvested, or more than 
a specified number of total cattle and calves on hand, milk cows on 
hand, or chickens sold also were included in the sample regardless 
of the size of farm. These farms, and all farms of 1,000 acres or 
more, were designated as "specified farms." 

Adjustment of the sample. — For the 1954 Census of Agriculture, 
it was considered desirable to make adjustments in the sample 
in order to improve the accuracy of estimates based upon tabula- 
tion of data for the sample. 

An adjustment in the 20 percent part of the sample was made 
by a process essentially equivalent to stratifying the farms in the 
sample by size, for the purpose of (1) improving the reliability of 
the estimates from the sample on an economic area level, and 
(2) for the purpose of reducing the effects of possible biases intro- 
duced because some Census enumerators did not follow perfectly 
the method devised for selecting the farms in the sample. In 
order to adjust the sample for each State economic area, counts 
were obtained of all farms except "specified farms" and of sample 
farms except "specified farms" for each of ten size-of-farm groups 
based on "acres in this place." The 10 size-of-farm groups were as 
follows: Under 10 acres, 10 to 29 acres, 30 to 49 acres, 50 to 69 
acres, 70 to 99 acres, 100 to 139 acres, 140 to 179 acres, 180 to 
259 acres, 260 to 499 acres, and 500 to 999 acres. In determining 
the extent of the adjustment the difference between the number of 
farms in the sample exclusive of "specified farms" and the total 
number of farms exclusive of "specified farms" divided by 5 was 
obtained for each size group. The actual adjustment for each size 
group in the sample was made by eliminating tabulating cards for 
farms when too many were included in a size group and by dupli- 
cating all tabulating cards for one or more farms when too few 
were included in the sample size group. The farms for which all 
the information was eliminated or duplicated were selected at 



68 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



random from counties over- or under-represented in each size 
group in the State economic area. Although adjustments were 
made in 08 percent of the counties in the United States, the gross 
adjustments involved were small, averaging 3.2 percent for farms 
eliminated and 4.0 percent for farms duplicated for the United 
States. These adjustments are summarized in the following table: 

Summary of Sample Adjustment by Size of Farm for the 
United States: 1954 Census of Agriculture 





Number 
of farms 


Adjustment in 
number of farms 


Total adjustment 


Size of farm 


Farms 
dupli- 
cated 


Farms 
elimi- 
nated 


Farms 
duplicated 
plus farms 
eliminated 


Net ad- 
justment 
(number 
of farms) 


Total 


4, 782, 416 


37, 181 


29.928 


67, 119 


+7, 243 




484, 291 
713, 335 
499, 496 
346, 323 
517, 740 
491, 158 
461, 651 
463, 698 
482, 246 
191, 697 
130, 481 


7,676 
7,468 
5,048 
3,204 
3,661 
3,076 
2,562 
1,974 
1,886 
626 


977 
1,903 
1,886 
1,768 
2,919 
3,205 
3.253 
4,220 
5,109 
4,698 


8,653 
9.371 
6.934 
4,972 
6.580 
6,281 
5,815 
6. 194 
6,995 
5,324 


+6, 699 


10 to 29 acres 


+5, 566 
+3. 162 




+1, 436 


70 to 99 acres 


+742 


100 to 139 acres 


-129 


140 to 179 acres 


-691 


180 to 259 acres .... 


-2, 246 


260 to 499 acres 

500 to 999 acres 


-3,223 
-4,072 

















In order to illustrate the sample adjustment process, the actual 
calculations for Economic Area 3b in New York consisting of 
Chemung, Schuyler, Steuben, Tioga, and Tompkins counties is 
described. The following table shows the summary for the State 
economic area, of the total number of farms in each size group; the 
sample number that would be expected in a 20 percent sample, 
obtained by dividing the total number excluding "specified farms" 







Expected 


Actual 


Differ- 








number 


number 


ence be- 




Size group 


Total 


in sample 


in sample 


tween 




(total acres 


number 


(total 


as desig- 


expected 


Adjustments to be made 


in place) 


farms ' 


number 


nated by 


number 








divided 


enumer- 


and 








by 5) 


ator 


actual 
number 




Under 10 


491 


98.2 


90 


-8.2 


Duplicate information on 8 
questionnaires. 


10 to 29 


596 


119.2 


99 


-20.2 


Duplicate information on 
20 questionnaires. 


30 to 49 


492 


98.4 


105 


+6.6 


Eliminate information on 7 
questionnaires. 


50 to 69 


734 


146.8 


142 


-4.8 


Duplicate information on 5 
questionnaires. 


70 to 99 


988 


197.6 


200 


+2.4 


Eliminate information on 2 
questionnaires. 


100 to 139 


1,379 


275.8 


258 


-17.8 


Duplicate information on 
18 questionnaires. 


140 to 179 


1,007 


201.4 


192 


-9.4 


Duplicate information on 9 
questionnaires. 


180 to 259 


1,247 


249.4 


267 


+17.6 


Eliminate information on 
18 questionnaires. 


260 to 499 


1.103 


220.6 


230 


+9.4 


Eliminate information on 9 
questionnaires. 


500 to 999 


199 


39.8 


43 


+3.2 


Eliminate information on 3 
questionnaires. 



1 Excludes specified farms. 



by five; the actual number designated as sample farms, the differ- 
ence between the expected number and the actual number, and 
the direction of the adjustments specified in each size group. 

The direction of the adjustments to be made in each size group 
was determined by the direction of the net difference for all coun- 
ties in the State economic area. To illustrate the allocation of 
adjustments among counties, data are given for size group "under 
10 acres" in the preceding table. 



County 


Total 
number 
farms ' 


Expected 

number 

sample 

farms 


Actual 

number 

sample 

farms 


Difference 




78 
69 
113 
121 
110 


15.6 
13.8 
22.6 
24.2 
22.0 


10 
13 
20 
25 
22 












Tioga 


+0.8 








Total 


491 


98.2 


90 









1 Excludes specified farms. 

In this illustration 8 duplications were allocated to Chemung , 
Schuyler, and Steuben counties as the original sample in these 
counties was less than 20 percent. Tioga and Tompkins counties 
were not assigned adjustments in this size group because the 
original sample was equal or greater than 20 percent. The actual 
allocation of the adjustments to the various counties was made one 
at a time and each adjustment was assigned the county with the 
greatest ratio for the difference between expected sample size and 
actual sample size to the standard deviation. In this example the 
ratios were as follows: Chemung County, 1.59; Schuyler County, 
0.24; Steuben County, 0.61. Therefore, the first adjustment was 
assigned Chemung County. After this adjustment the new ratio 
for Chemung County became 1.30; the difference for that county 
continued to be the largest, therefore, the second adjustment was 
made in Chemung County. The table at bottom of page indicates 
the sequence of adjustments as they were determined. 

The selection of the questionnaire for which the tabulating 
cards were to be duplicated (or eliminated) was made by a random 
process. In this example, 5 questionnaires were selected at 
random from the 10 farms with less than 10 acres in Chemung 
County, for duplication. 

When the questionnaires to be duplicated or eliTiinated had been 
selected, colored finder tabulation cards with "ears" were punched 
with the identifying information for these questionnaires and these 
cards were inserted with the punch cards for the county. These 
finder cards readily identified cards for questionnaires that were 
to be duplicated or eliminated. Cards to be eliminated were 
removed from the file before making the tabulations and cards 
to be duplicated were duplicated with a reproducing punch and 
placed in the file for tabulating. The adjustments for the sam- 
ple were made only when the cards for the sample were to be 
used for making tabulations. 



Chemung County 


Schuyler County 


Steuben County 


Ratio i 


Adjustment 


Ratio i 


Adjustment 


Ratio I 


Adjustment 


1.59 
1.30 
1.02 
.74 
.45 
.17 


Assigned 1st adjustment (duplication). 
Assigned 2d adjustment. 
Assigned 3d adjustment. 
Assigned 4th adjustment. 
Assigned 6th adjustment. 


0.24 


Assigned 8th adjustment. 


0.61 
.38 
.14 


Assigned 5th adjustment. 
Assigned 7th adjustment. 








Summary 


5 adjustments assigned Chemung County 


1 adjustment assigned Schuyler County 


3 adjustments assigned Steuben County 



1 Ratio of the deviation of the sample number from the expected sample number to the standard deviation. 



CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



69 



TABULATION 

All tabulating work was performed by the use of punch cards by 
electric tabulating equipment. The table below indicates the num- 
ber and duration of use of various types of punching and tabulating 
equipment for the Census, including the preparation of special 
tabulations for special reports. The tabulations were prepared 
using Census-built and International Business Machine Company 
statistical machines. (See table below and figs. 34 to 43.) 

Tabulation sheets showing tabulations made by counties appear 
in the appendix. Tabulations made for State economic areas and 
for subregions were similar to those made by counties. Tabula- 
tions for the L, M, and N cards at the county level and for all 
tabulations for State economic areas and for subregions included 
only the cards for farms in the sample. As it was necessary to 
multiply the totals for cards for farms, except specified farms, in 
the sample by 5 in order to obtain an estimated total for all farms, 



tabulating machines were modified to mechanically make this 
multiplication during the tabulating. Illustrative examples of the 
various diagrams used on the several tabulating machines are 
given in figures 44, 45, 46, and 47. 

Several steps were taken to maintain quality of the tabulating 
work. For most tabulations, card counts were established in 
advance and if the tabulation did not show a total card count 
within 3 of this control count, the tabulations were not usually 
considered acceptable and were rerun. In order to prevent 
errors arising because of machine failure, test decks of cards (see 
fig. 48) were established for each tabulation. These test decks 
were tabulated 4 times each 8 hours and if the tabulation did not 
show the correct totals, immediate steps were taken to locate the 
cause of the error. Immediately after the completion of tabula- 
tions, the tabulated data of a sample comprising one-tenth of the 
horizontal lines were examined for evidence of machine errors. 



Number of Punching and Tabulating Machines by Type Used by Months for the 1954 Census of Agriculture* 



















Reproduc- 


90 or 120 
selector 




Census 60 
counter 


Census 60 
counter 








Collator to 








112 counter 


ing gang- 


combina- 


Multi- 


unit tabu- 


unit tabu- 






Punching 


match, 




Counting 




accounting 


punching, 


tion multi- 


column 


lator old 


lator 




Punching 


machine 


merge, and 


Sorting 


and tabu- 


Tabulating 


machine 


summary 


column 


sorter 


type not 


combined 




machine 


used lor 


check 


machine 


lating 


machine 


capacity 


punch 


sorter 


80 column 


combined 


with multi- 


Month and year 


(IBM type 


card 


sequence 


(IBM type 


machine 


(IBM type 


150 cards 


machine 


and 60 


board wired 


with multi- 


column 




024) 


correction 


of cards 


082) 


(IBM type 


402) 


per minute 


capacity 


counter 


(Census 


column 


sorter with 






(IBM type 


(IBM type 




101) 




(IBM type 


100 cards 


unit tabu- 


machine 


sorter 


moderni- 






031) 


077) 








407) 


per minute 

(IBM type 

514) 


lator 

(Census 

machine 

487 and 489) 


488) 


(Census 

machine 

581) 


zations 
(Census 
type 582) 


1964 


























November 


43 
207 






1 
1 








1 
1 










December.. 








1 












1966 




















327 


18 


2 


9 


1 


1 




•7 


5 










328 


26 


3 


9 


1 


6 




8 


8 


2 


3 




March 


330 


26 


3 


15 


5 


12 




12 


11 


2 


4 


3 


April 


31S 


26 


5 


18 


7 


12 




12 


14 


3 


4 


3 




299 


26 


3 


18 


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CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



71 




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METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




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METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




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81 



EVALUATION OF THE COMPLETENESS OF THE 

CENSUS 

Generally, reliable data to indicate the completeness of the 
Census of Agriculture are not available from other sources. 
Programs for providing measures of the completeness of the Census 
were a part of the 1950 and 1954 Censuses of Agriculture. These 
programs required the making of a special survey to provide 
estimates regarding the completeness of the counting of the num- 
ber of farms, and the acres of land in farms, cropland harvested, 
corn, wheat, and cotton. 

For 1954, two samples were used for this special survey. The 
first sample comprised 772 small geographic areas or segments in 
rural areas in 319 counties. These small areas usually contained 

4 or 5 farms each and the total number of farms for all these areas 
was 2,800. The location of the 319 counties containing these small 
areas is indicated by figure 49. 

The sample of segments was selected by grouping the counties 
in the United States in 200 groups so that each group had slightly 
less than 30,000 farms according to the 1950 Census of Agriculture. 
For each of these groups, a sample of counties was selected with 
probabilities proportionate to the number of farms in 1950. In 
the part of the 200 groups of counties, where the acreage of wheat 
and cotton was important, the selected sample was spread among 
about 50 additional counties in order to reduce variability of the 
sample for the acreage of wheat and cotton. Within the counties 
selected for the sample, a sample of segments, each comprising 3 to 

5 farms, was selected so that the sample would be self-weighting at 
the proportion of 1 in 1,500. 

The second sample was obtained after the completion of the 
enumeration by drawing the boundaries of the 772 segments on the 
enumerator's maps and making a list by the use of the Form A2 
of all places which the Census enumerator indicated as located 
within the segment area. This list sample, covered to a large 
extent, the same places and farms as the 772 segment sample. 



This list sample was supplemented by taking a sample of 1 out of 
950 farms of 1,000 to 9,999 acres (this resulted in a sample of 120 
farms) and a sample of 1 in 20 of all farms of 10,000 acres or more 
(this resulted in a sample of 365 farms) . 

The evaluation program called for the re-enumeration of all 
places in the 772 segments and all places listed in the list sample. 
A group of 60 specially selected and trained enumerators were 
used for this re-enumeration. They were given 40 hours of training 
and were provided with detailed questionnaires for recording the 
information. Aerial photographs or other detailed maps were 
given them for the 772 segments. The enumerators were required 
to indicate on the aerial photograph (see fig. 50 for an illustrative 
example) or on special maps, the location, and boundaries of every 
field within the segment. Detailed information regarding the area 
and agricultural use of each field was obtained. Enumerators were 
required to account for the area of the segment. Enumerators 
were instructed to fill Agricultural Questionnaires for any place or 
farm found in the segment and not included in the list sample. 
For places and farms in the list sample, and not located within the 
772 segments, enumerators were instructed to obtain detailed 
information regarding the area comprising the farm and its 
agricultural use. 

After the completion of the reenumeration the reports of the 
special enumerators were checked against the Agriculture Ques- 
tionnaires filled by the Census enumerators by Central Operations 
Office personnel. In all cases, when there were significant differ- 
ences between the two reports, another special enumerator 
was sent to check and obtain a report for the reasons for the 
differences. 

Estimates on farms missed in the Census were obtained on the 
basis of detailed records and maps of all places located within the 
772 segments. Estimates on the coverage of land in farms, and the 
acreage of cropland harvested, wheat, corn, and cotton harvested 
were based on the detailed data for farms included in the list 
sample, and located outside the segment as well as on the detailed 
data for farms in the 772 segments. 



EVALUATION PROGRAM- SAMPLE COUNTIES 




H BASIC SAMPLE COUNTIES 

g%% COUNTIES IN WHICH A SUPPLEMENTARY 
SAMPLE Of FARMS WITH 10,000 OR 
MORE AREAS WERE SELECTED 



J S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



MAP NO 694994 



Bureau Of the census 



Figure 49. — Evaluation program — Location 319 counties comprising sample used in evaluating completeness of enumeration. 



82 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




CENTRAL OFFICE PROCESSING 



83 



PREPARATION AND PUBLICATION OF REPORTS 

Reports are the important end product of a Census. The kinds 
of data to be published determine not only the content of the 
questionnaire but also the kinds of tabulation made. 

The form of reports was related to timing. Every effort was 
made to make the basic data for counties and States available as 
soon as possible. The series of releases AC54-1 and AC54-2 
were issued with data for each county and State as soon as the 
data became available. (See appendix, figs. 51 and 52, for fac- 
similes of these releases.) The time schedule for the issuance of 
preliminary release, AC54-1, is given on page 13. Final reports 
appeared in three volumes. Volume I contained detailed data 
for counties, State economic areas, and States. Volume II con- 
tained a summary by subject for States and geographic divisions 
of the data presented in Volume I, Volume III comprised special 
reports. A list with a brief description of all final publications 
for the 1954 Census of Agriculture appears on page IV. 

The publication process. — Generally, the offset or multilith 
printing process was used for printing reports for the 1954 Census 



of Agriculture. The setting of type was limited largely to texts 
for all reports and for the preparation of analytical reports. 

In preparing copy for printing, work tables were prepared from 
the tabulations. These work tables (see appendix, fig. 53 for an 
illustrative example) had preprinted stubs and an indication of the 
source of the data. The data were posted on these forms and 
tables were reviewed by subject-matter technical staff before being 
sent for typing for offset printing or multilithing. Preprinted 
forms (see fig. 54 for an illustrative sample) were used for preparing 
typed copy. The typing was performed with electric typewriters. 
After typing, a photoprint was made of the typed table and this 
photoprint was used for verification of the typing. Verification of 
the typing was usually accomplished by proofreading headings, 
notes, and a sample of the lines containing data for each page. 
The verification of data was usually accomplished by adding the 
typed data and checking with established totals. 

Printing. — The printing of preliminary reports was performed 
by the Department of Commerce. The printing of final reports 
(Volumes I, II, and III) was performed by the United States 
Government Printing Office, using either its own facilities or that 
of contractors. 



APPENDIX 

85 



86 METHODS AND PROCEDURES 

DESCRIPTION OF PRELIMINARY REPORTS OF THE 1954 CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE 



Series AC54-1. — One 4-page report for each county and for each 
State in the United States, one summary report for the United 
States, one each for the North, the South, and the West. 

These reports presented preliminary results on number of 
farms, farm characteristics, acreage in farms, value of land and 
buildings, uses of land, farm facilities and equipment, specified 
classes of livestock, specified crops harvested, and fertilizer and 
lime used. Available comparable data from the 1950 Census of 
Agriculture were also included. 

Series AC54-2. — Value of Farm Products Sold by Source. — This 
series supplemented Series AC54-1. There was one report for each 
State with data by counties, and one for the United States with 
statistics by States. The report presented information on the 
value of sales of field crops, vegetables, fruits and nuts, and horti- 
cultural specialties; the value of sales of dairy products, poultry 
and poultry products, livestock and livestock products; and the 
value of sales of forest products. 

Series AC54-3. — Consisted of preliminary reports presenting 
data on selected items from the 1954 Census of Agriculture as 
follows: 

No. 1 — Farm Expenditures for Gasoline and Other Petroleum 
Fuel and Oil. 



No. 2 — Farm-Mortgage Debt Rises with Increasing Farm 
Land Values. 

No. 3 — Summary of selected items from the 1954 Census of 
Agriculture by Congressional Districts, by States. Data 
were presented for number of farms, value of products sold, 
selected facilities, and principal crops, for Congressional 
Districts with 1,000 or more farms. 

Press releases. — Several hundred advance reports, on almost 
as many subjects, were prepared and issued as press releases. 
Among these releases were reports on the following: 

Statistics for selected items of inventory and agricultural pro- 
duction for the leading 100 counties of the United States. 

Sales from farms of different economic classes, for States and 
for the United States. 

Summary reports for the United States on selected items such as 
farms classified by value of farm products sold in 1954; average age 
of the American farmer; increase in farm facilities and equip- 
ment; expenditures for selected items; etc. 

All preliminary and advanced reports or releases were super- 
seded by the final volumes of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 
For a description of final reports, see page IV. 



APPENDIX 



87 



1954 CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE— Preliminary 

FARMS • FARM CHAR VCTERISTICS • FARM PRODUCTS 



U. S. DEPAKTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Bureau of the Census 



April 1955 



LIBERTY COUNTY, GEORGIA 



(57-089) Series AC54-1 



This release presents figures from the 1954 Census of Agriculture, together with available 
comparative data from the 1950 Census of Agriculture The figures from the 1954 Census 
are preliminary and are subject to revision A similar report will lie released for every county 
in the United States A preliminary report, carrying State totals only, will he issued following 
the publication of figures for all of the counties in the State- After that, final figures for this 
county and for other counties in the State will be published in a State Re|x>rt. 



Generally, the data for both 19.54 and 1951) are based ujion the tabulation of rctxirts for 
all farms in the county. However, the 1954 and 19.50 data for items followed by a star Or) 
represent estimates for all farms made on the basis of reimrts from a sample of approximately 
20 (icrcent of the farms. These estimates are subject to sampling errors and hence will not 
agree exactly with totals obtained by a tabulation of data for all farms. 

Inventory items are for Octolier-N'ovember for 1954 and for April for 1950; and production 
items are for the calendar years 1954 and 1949. 



Item 



County total 



Item 



County total 



FARMS, ACREAGE, AND VALUE 

Farms number 1934. . . 

1950... 

Approximate land area..... acres 1954... 

Proportion In farms... percent 1954... 

Land in farms acres 1954... 

1950... 

Average size of farm acres 1954... 

1950... 

Value of land and buildings average per farm, dollars 1954... 

1950... 

average per acre, dollars 1954... 

1950... 

Land in farms according to use: 

Cropland harvested farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

1 to 9 acres farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

10 to 19 acres farms reporting 1954 

1949... 

20 to 29 acres farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

30 to 49 acres farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

50 to 99 acres farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

100 to 199 acres farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

200 acres and over farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

Cropland used only for pasture farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured .. farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Woodland pastured farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954. . . 

1949... 

Woodland not pastured farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 
acres 1954... 
1949... 
Other pasture (not cropland and 

not woodland) farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954.. . 

1949... 

Improved pasture farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Other land (house lots, roads, wasteland, 

etc.) farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Irrigated land In farms farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Land in cover crops turned under for 

green manure farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1949... 

Cropland used for grain or row crops farmed 

on contour farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954.. . 

FARM OPERATORS 

Residing on farm operated operators reporting 1954... 

1950... 

Not residing on farm operated operators reporting 1954... 

1950... 

With other income of family exceeding 
value of agricultural products sold*. . .operators reporting 1954... 

1949... 

Working off their farm, total* operators reporting 1954... 

1949... 

100 days or more operators reporting 1954... 

1949... 



607 

548 

326,400 

31.0 

101,029 

107,554 

166.4 
196.3 

10,217 
6,018 
51.81 
33.36 



488 

500 

4,038 

5,618 

385 

348 

60 

93 

19 

29 

12 



L42 

115 

1,962 

4,389 

255 

124 

2,507 

1,167 

260 

167 

57,448 

72,491 

176 

215 

13,235 

15,537 

107 

57 

4,175 

1,497 

55 

2,544 

564 

499 

17,664 

6,855 



34 

227 



580 
521 



498 
342 

454 
343 
398 
263 



FARMS BY SI2E 

Under 10 acres number 

Under 3 acres number 

3 to 9 acres number 

10 to 29 acres number 

30 to 49 acres number 

50 to 69 acres number 

70 to 99 acres number 

100 to 139 acres number 

140 to 179 acres number 

180 to 219 acres number 

220 to 259 acres number 

260 to 499 acres number 

500 to 999 acres number 

1,000 acres and over number 

FARMS BY COLOR AND TENURE OF 0PFRAT0R 

Farms by color of operator: 

White operators number 

Nonwhite operators number 

Farms by tenure of operator: 

Full owners number 

Part owners number 

Managers ....•...*..................*.....*....•.. .number 

All tenants number 

Proportion of tenancy percent 

Cash tenants number 

Share-cash tenants number 

Share tenants number 

Crop-share tenants number 

Livestock-share tenants number 

Croppers number 

Other and unspecified tenants number 

SPECIFIED FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT* 

Telephone farms reporting 

Electricity farms reporting 

Television set farms reporting 

Piped running water farms reporting 

Home freezer farms reporting 

Electric pig brooder farms reporting 

Power feed grinder farms reporting 

Milking machine farms reporting 

Grain combines farms reporting 

number 

Com pickers farms reporting 

number 

Pick-up hay balers farms reporting 

number 

Field forage harvesters farms reporting 

number 

Artificial ponds, reservoirs, and earth 

tanks farms reporting 

number 



1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 
1954.. 
1950.. 



1954., 
1950.. 
1954., 
1950., 

1954., 
1950., 
1954., 
1950., 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 



1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1954. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1954. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1950. 
1954. 
1954. 

1954. 

1954., 



236 
159 

67 
6 
169 
153 
172 
175 

63 



20 
25 
15 



17 
14 
14 
18 



209 
166 
398 
382 

550 

458 

33 

58 

3 

4 

21 

28 

3.5 

5.1 

2 

8 

1 
3 
4 
1 
2 
2 
2 
10 
6 
6 



37 

14 
518 
380 

94 
187 
124 

34 

10 
2 
1 
3 
3 
3 



10 
1 
10 



16 
18 



Figure 51. — Facsimile of preliminary report Series AC54-1. 



88 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



2_LIBFj)TY C0U.1TY, GEORGIA 



FARMS, FARM CHARACTERISTICS, ARE FARM PRODUCTS 



Item 



SPECIFIED FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT — Continued 

Motortrucks farms reporting 1954.. 

1950.. 

number 1954.. 

1950.. 

Tractors farms reporting 1954.. 

1950.. 

number 1954.. 

1950.. 

Vheel tractors other than garden farms reporting 1954.. 

1950.. 

number 1954.. 

1950.. 

Garden tractors farms reporting 1954.. 

number 1954. . 

Crawler tractors farms reporting 1954.. 

number 1954.. 

Automobiles farms reporting 1954.. 

1950.. 
number 1954.. 
1950.. 
Farms by class of work power: 

No tractor, horses, or mules.. farms reporting 1954.. 

No tractor and only 1 horse or mule farms reporting 1954.. 

No tractor and 2 or more horses and/or 

mules farms reporting 1954.. 

Tractor and horses and/or mules farms reporting 1954.. 

Tractor and no horses or mules. farms reporting 1954.. 

FARM LABOR* 
Veek of Oct. 24-30: 

Family and/or hired workers farms reporting 1954.. 

persons 1954.. 
Family workers, including operator. . ..farms reporting 1954.. 

Operators persons 1954. . 

Unpaid members of operator's family. . .farms reporting 1954.. 

persons 1954.. 

Hired workers farms reporting 1954.. 

persons 1954.. 

SPECIFIED FARM EXPENDITURES* 

Specified farm expenditures farms reporting 1954.. 

1949.. 

Machine hire and/or hired labor farms reporting 1954.. 

1949.. 

Machine hire farms reporting 1954.. 

1949.. 

dollars 1954.. 

. 1949. . 

Hired labor farms reporting 1954. . 

1949.. 

dollars 1954.. 

1949.. 

Feed for livestock and poultry farms reporting 1954.. 

1949.. 
dollars 1954.. 
1949.. 
Gasoline and other petroleum fuel and 

oil farms reporting 1954.. 

1949.. 

dollars 1954.. 

1949.. 

Commercial fertilizer farms reporting 1954.. 

dollars 1954.. 

tons 1954.. 

acres on which used 1954. . 

Lime and liming materials farms reporting 1954.. 

tons 1954.. 
dollars 1954.. 
acres limed 1954.. 
Crops on which commercial fertilizer was used, 1954: 

Hay and cropland pastured farms reporting.. 

tons., 
acres on which used.. 

Other pasture. farms reporting.. 

tons.. 
acres on which used.. 

Corn farms reporting. . 

tons.. 

acres on which used.. 

Cotton. ...................................... .farms reporting. . 

tons., 
acres on which used . . 

Fruits, vegetables, potatoes, etc farms reporting.. 

tons. . 
acres on which used.. 

Other crops farms reporting . . 

tons., 
acres on which used.. 

FARMS BY TYPE OF FARM* 
Field-crop farms other than vegetable and 

frult-and-nut number 1954. . 

1950.. 

Cash-grain number 1954. . 

1950.. 

Cotton number 1954. . 

1950.. 

Other field-crop number 1954.. 

1950.. 

Vegetable farms number 1954.. 

1950.. 

Frult-and-nut farms.... number 1954.. 

1950.. 

Dairy farms number 1954.. 

1950.. 



County total 



188 

143 

225 

161 

82 

56 

103 

75 

82 

39 

90 

53 

6 

6 

6 

7 

196 

176 

205 

198 

275 
215 



473 
620 
469 
444 
108 
128 
25 
48 



593 
475 
302 
174 
200 
83 

18,264 

1,775 

167 

139 

47,641 

65,558 

505 

409 

104,043 

87,822 

107 

99 

36,448 

18,164 

496 

56,541 

1,290 

5,808 

55 

595 

4,037 

655 

63 
242 
938 

44 

257 

1,205 

374 

466 

2,773 

50 

68 
155 
156 

es 

287 
121 
172 
450 



FARMS BY TYPE OF FARM —Continued 
Poultry farms number 

Livestock farms other than dairy and poultry number 

General farms number 

Primarily crop , number 

Primarily livestock number 

Crop and livestock number 

Miscellaneous and unclassified farms number 



FARMS BY ECONOMIC CLASS 
Commercial farms number 

Class I (value of products sold, $25,000 
or more) ........................................ .number 

Class II (value of products sold, $10,000- 
$24,999) number 

ClaBS III (value of products sold, $5,000- 
$9,999 ) number 

Class IV (value of products sold, $2,500- 
$4,999) number 

Class V (value of products sold, $l,200-$2,499) .. .number 

Class VI (value of products sold, $250-$l,199) .. ..number 

Other farms number 

Part-time 1 number 

Residential (with less than $250 value of 

products sold) number 

Abnormal (public and private institutional 

farms, etc.) number 

HORSES AND MULES 
Horses and/or mules farms reporting 



CATTLE AND DAIRY PRODUCTS 
Cattle and calves farms reporting 



Cowe, Including heifers that have 
calved farms reporting 

number 

Mi Ik cows farms reporting 

number 

Heifers and heifer calves farms reporting 

number 

Steers, bulls, and steer calves.. - farms reporting 

number 
Whole milk sold farms reporting 

gallons 

dollars 
Cream sold farms reporting 

pounds of butterfat 

dollars 
BOOS 
Hogs and pigs farms reporting 

number 

Born before June 1 farms reporting 

number 

Born since June 1 farms reporting 

number 

Sows and gilts farrowing farms reporting 

number 

June 1 to December 1. farms reporting 

number 
Average date of enumeration 



POULTRY AND POULTRY PRODUCTS 
Chickens, 4 months old and over, on hand .... farms reporting 

number 

Chickens sold farms reporting 

number 



Broilers sold 

Hens, roosterB, pullets, etc. 



■farms reporting 
number 
dollars 
.farms reporting 
number 
dollars 



1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 



1954... 
1950... 

1954... 
1950... 

1954... 
1950... 

1954... 
1950... 

1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 

1954. . . 

1954... 

1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 

1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 

1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
1949... 
1954... 
1949... 
1954... 
1954. . . 
1949... 
1954. . . 
1949... 
1954... 

1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
,1954... 

1954... 
1950... 
1954 . . . 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1950... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954... 
1954. . . 
1954... 
1954... 



County total 



462 
418 

4,873 

4,517 
434 

2,677 
275 

2,196 
248 
696 
201 
386 
11/14-11/20 



Ipart-tlme farms include those with value of products sold of $250-$l,199 and operator either reporting 100 days or more of off-farm work or reporting other 
exceeding value of agricultural products sold. 



Figure 51. — Facsimile of preliminary report Series AC54-1 — Continued. 



APPENDIX 



89 



FARMS, FARM CHARACTERISTICS, AND FARM PRODUCTS 




LIBERTY C0UNTI, GE0RCIA— 3 


I ten 


County total 


Item 


County total 


POULTRY AND POULTRY PRODUCTS— Continued 




SPECIFIED CROPS HARVESTED— Continued 






30 

92 

12 ,670 


Annual legumes— Continued 

Soybeans grown for all purposes.— Continued 




1949... 








dozens 1954... 


1949. . . 


1 


dollars 1954... 


5,454 






acres grown alone 1954 






23 
18 

97 
945 

10 
97 
13 


acres grown with other crops 1954... 

bushels 1954... 

1949... 

1949... 

seres grown alone 1954... 

acres grown with other crops 1954. . . 




1949. . . 

number 1954... 

1949. . . 


13 
2 
2 


number 1954. . . 


11 
3 


number 1954. . . 


300 


tons 1954. . . 
1949... 


13 
2 


number 1954. . . 


26 

76 


Soybeans hogged or grazed, or cut for 






18 

52 

8 

24 


acres grown alone 1954... 
acres grown with other crops 1954. . . 
Soybeans plowed under for green 




number 1954. . . 






2 


number 1954... 


acres grown alone 1954... 


2 


ANIMALS SOLD ALIVE 




acres grown with other crops 1954. . . 


10 
86 


Cattle, hogs, eheep, horses, or mules sold 




1949. . . 


173 




5 


acres grown alone 1954. . . 


284 


1949... 


253 


1949... 


420 


dollars 1954... 


99,936 


acres grown with other crops 1954... 


105 


1949... 


137,789 


1949... 


206 




135 




64 


1949... 


144 


1949. . . 


171 


number 1954. .. 


1,507 


acres grown alone 1954... 


40 


1949. . . 


1,327 


acres grown with other crops 1954. . . 


48 


Cattle sold alive, excluding calvee. . .farms reporting 1954... 


100 


bushels 1954... 


461 


number 1954... 


674 


1949... 


663 


dollars 195A... 


27,048 




19 




103 


1949... 


42 


number 1954... 


833 


acres grown alone 1954... 


185 


dollars 1954... 


19,831 


acres grown with other crops 1954... 


12 






tons 1954... 


246 




192 


1949. . . 


202 


1949... 


196 


Cowpeas hogged or grazed, or cut for 




number 1954. . . 


2,861 




25 


1949... 


2,676 


acres grown alone 1954... 


59 


dollars 1954... 


51,982 


acres grown with other crops 1954... 


45 




8 


Cowpeas plowed under for green 




number 1954. . . 


37 






dollars 1954... 


1,075 


acres grown alone 1954... 




SPECIFIED CROPS HARVESTED 




acres grown with other crops 1954... 




Corn: 






20 


426 


1949. . . 


49 


1949... 


464 


acres grown alone 1954... 


17 


acres 1954... 


2,461 


1949. . . 


46 


1949... 


3,022 


acres grown with other crops 1954. . . 


42 




407 


1949. . . 


79 


1949. . . 


434 


Peanuts harvested for picking or 




acres 1954. . . 


1,801 
2,470 




4 


1949... 


1949. . . 


33 


bushels 1954... 


21,585 


acres grown alone 1954... 


1 


1949... 


34,099 


acres grown with other crops 1954... 


4 




3 


pounds 1954... 


1,230 


1949... 




1949... 


3,218 


acres 1954... 


5 


Peanut vines or tops saved for hay or 




1949... 






2 


tons.. green weight 1954... 


92 


1949... 


12 


1949. . . 




acres grown alone 1954... 


2 


Hogged or grazed, or cut for green or 




acres grown with other crops 1954... 


2 




64 


tons 1954... 


1 


1949... 


92 


1949... 


20 


acres 1954... 


655 


Velvetbeans grown for all purposes farms reporting 1954... 


53 


1949... 


552 


1949... 


103 






acres grown alone 1954... 


65 


Sorghums: 




acres grown with other crops 1954... 


308 


Sorghum for all purposes except sirup.. . .faros reporting 1954... 


1 


bushels 1954... 


87 


1949. . . 




1949. . . 


263 


acres 1954. . . 


5 


Hay crops, excluding specified annual legumes and sorghum hay: 




1949. . . 




Alfalfa, clover, and their mixtures cut 




Sa.ll grains: 




acres 1954... 








tons 1954... 




1949... 








acres 1954... 




1949... 


1 


1949... 




acres 1954... 




bushels 1954... 




1949. . . 


4 


1949... 




tons 1954... 






11 


1949... 


4 


1949... 


12 


Oats, wheat, barley, rye, or other small grains 




acres 1954... 


68 




15 


1949... 


518 


1949. . . 


5 


bushels 1954... 


800 


acres 1954... 


ISO 


1949... 


6,932 


1949... 


57 






tons 1954... 


117 






1949. . . 


56 


1949. . . 






10 


acres 1954... 




acres 1954... 


35 


1949... 




tons 1954... 


35 


bushels 1954... 




Other field crops: 




1949... 










4 


1949. . . 




acres 1954... 


7 


acres 1954... 




bushels 1954... 


75 


1949... 

bushels 1954... 




Annual legumes: 




1949... 






4 






1949... 


21 


1949. . . 


2 


acres grown alone 1954... 


13 


acres 1954... 




1949. . . 


36 


1949... 


6 


acres grown with other crops 1954... 


13 


pounds 1954... 




1949... 


110 


1949... 


1,500 



Figure 51. — Facsimile of preliminary report Series AC54-1 — Continued. 



90 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



4— LIBERTY COUNTY, GEORGIA 



FARMS, FARM CHARACTERISTICS, AND FARM PRODUCTS 



County total 



Item 



County total 



SPECIFIED CROPS HARVESTED— Con t limed 
Other field crops — Contirued 

Lupine seed harvested farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 195<t... 

1949... 

pounda 1954... 

1949... 

Irish potatoes harvested for home use or 

for sale farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954 1 .. 

1949 2 . . 

bushels 1954... 

1949. . . 

Sweetpotatoes harvested for home use or 

far sale farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954 1 .. 

1949 2 .. 

bushels 1954... 

1949... 

Cotton harvested farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

bales 1954... 

1949... 

Tobacco harvested farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949. . . 

pounds 1954... 

1949. . . 

Sugarcane or sorghum harvested for 

sirup farms reporting 1954... 

1949. . . 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

gallons 1954... 

1949... 

Root and grain crops hogged or grazed, other than 

corn, sorghums, and annual legumes farms reporting 1954... 

1949. . . 

acres 1954... 

1949. . . 

Vegetables harvested for home use (other than 

Irish and sweet potatoes) farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

Vegetables harvested for sale farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 
1949. . . 

Sold dollars 1954. . . 

1949. . . 
Snap beans (pole and bush types) farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Green lima beans farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954. . . 
Cabbage farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Cantaloups and muskmelons farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Sweet corn farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Cucumbers and pickles farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954.. . 
Okra farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
B lac ke yes and other green cowpeas ..farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Sweet peppers and plmientos farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Squash farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Tomatoes farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Watermelons farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 
Other vegetables acres 1954... 

Berries and other small fruits harvested for sale: 

Strawberries farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949. . . 

quarts 1954. .. 

1949... 

Tree fruits, nuts, snd grapes: 

Land In bearing and nonbearing fruit orchards, groves, 

vineyards, and planted nut trees farms reporting 1954... 

1950... 

acres 1954 4 .. 

1950 s .. 

Apples farms reporting 1954... 

1950. . . 

Trees of all ages number 1954... 

1950... 

Trees not of bearing age number 1954... 

Trees of bearing age number 1954... 

Quantity harvested.. bushels 1954... 

1949. . . 



637 
899 

123 

284 

29 

158 

1,908 

8,529 

46 

69 

109 

244 

78 

111 

56 

48 

137 

104 

130,525 

107,599 

71 

212 

25 

83 

1,538 

6,206 

33 

14 

671 

128 



554 
482 

44 
45 
105 
67 
4,806 
4,534 
1 



( 3 ) 



( 3 ) 



( 3 ) 



34 

346 



SPECIFIED CROPS HARVESTED— Continued 

Tree fruits, nuts, and grapes— Continued 

Peaches farms reporting 

Trees of all ages number 

Treeb not of bearing age number 

Trees of bearing age number 

Quantity harvested bushels 

Pears farms reporting 

Trees of ell ages number '. 

Trees not of bearing age number : 

Trees of bearing age ....number ! 

Quantity harvested bushels ! 

Cherries farms reporting 

Trees of all ages number 

Trees not of bearing age number 

Trees of bearing age , number 

Quantity harvested .pounds 

Plums and prunes ...farms reporting '. 

Trees of all ages number : 

Trees not of bearing age number ! 

Trees of bearing age number ', 

Quantity harvested bushels 

Figs farms reporting : 

Trees of all ages number '. 

Trees not of bearing age .....number '. 

Trees of bearing age .....number 

Quantity harvested ......pounds 

Grapes farms reporting ' 

Vines of all ages number ! 

Vines not of bearing age number ', 

Vines of bearing age ..............number 

Quantity harvested pounds ! 

Improved pecans (budded, grafted, or 
top-worked ) farms reporting ', 

Trees of all ages number '. 

Trees not of bearing age number 

Trees of bearing age number 

Quantity harvested pounds 

Wild or seedling pecans farms reporting 

Trees of all ages number 

Trees not of bearing age number 

Trees of bearing age number 

Quantity harvested .pounds 



Nursery and greenhouse products, flower and vegetable seeds 
and plants, 1954: 

Nursery and greenhouse products, flower and vegetable seedB 

and plants, flowers, bulbs, and mushrooms dollars., 

Nursery products (trees, shrubs, vines, ornamentals, 

etc . ) farms reporting . . 

acres. , 

Sold aollars. 

Flowers and flowering plants grown for sale: 

Grown under glass farms reporting. 

square feet. 

Grown in open farms reporting. 

acres. 

Sold farms reporting. 

dollars. 
Vegetables grown under glass, flower and vegetable seeds 
and plants, bulbs, and mushrooms produced for sale: 

Grown under glass or in house farms reporting. 

square feet. 

Grown In open farms reporting. 

acres. 

Sold farms reporting. 

dollars. 

Forest products, 1954: 

Firewood (and fuelwood) cut farms reporting. 

cords (4'x 4'x 8' ). 

Fence posts cut farms reporting. 

number. 

Sawlogs and veneer logs cut farms reporting. 

thousands of bd. ft. 

Pulpwood cut farms reporting. 

cords. 
Value of firewood, fence posts, logs, lumber, pulpwood, 

and piling and poles sold farms reporting. 

dollars. 



1954... 


24 


1950. . . 


145 


1954. . . 


115 


1950... 


613 


1954... 


13 


1954... 


102 


1954... 




1949. . . 


27 


1954... 


38 


1950... 


219 


1954. . . 


709 


1950. . . 


1,738 


1954... 


14 


1954... 


695 


1954. . . 




1949... 


795 


1954... 




1950. . . 


9 


1954... 




1950. . . 


12 


1954... 




1954. . . 




1954... 




1949... 


25 


1954... 


22 


1950... 


183 


1954. . . 


109 


1950. . . 


1,018 


1954... 


4 


1954... 


105 


1954... 




1949... 


31 


1954... 


30 


1950... 


107 


1954... 


79 


1950... 


238 


1954... 


13 


1954... 


66 


1954... 




1949. . . 


1,467 


1954... 


33 


1950. . . 


186 


1954. . . 


130 


1950... 


400 


1954... 


1 


1954. . . 


129 


1954. . . 


1,000 


1949. . . 


3,301 


1954. . . 


36 


1950. . . 


177 


1954... 


346 


1950. . . 


1,029 


1954. . . 


16 


1954... 


330 


1954... 


839 


1949... 


3,741 


1954... 


5 


1950... 


34 


1954... 


58 


1950... 


186 


1954... 




1954... 




1954... 


50 


1949... 


267 



129 
693 

46 

11,095 

23 

1,338 

64 

4,331 

72 
53,439 



For 1954, does not Include acreage for farms with less than 20 bushels harvested. 

For 1949, does not include acreage for farms with less than 15 bushels harvested. 
'Reported Ln small fractions. 

For 1054, d.«.-s not Include acreage for fains reporting less than 20 fruit and nut trees and grapevines; 

For 1950, do'-c not include acreage for farms reporting less than 1/2 acre. 



Figure 51. — Facsimile of preliminary report Series AC54-1 — Continued. 



APPENDIX 



91 



1954 CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE— Preliminary 

FARMS • FARM CHARACTERISTICS • FARM PRODUCTS 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Bureau of the Census 



March 1956 



IDAHO 



(No. 82) Series AC.54-2 



VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS SOLD BY SOURCE 



The value of farm products sold in Idaho amounted to 
$332,125,790 In 1954, an Increase of 18.2 percent from the 
sales of $281,025,323 in 1949, according to the results of 
the 1954 Census of Agriculture released by the Bureau of 
the Census, U. S. Department of Commerce. The value of 
farm products sold in 1954 in Idaho, according to source 
of sales, was as follows: Field crops other than vege- 
tables, fruits, and nuts, $185,145,886; livestock and live- 
stock products, other than dairy and poultry products, 
$90,654,325; dairy products, $37,731,469; fruits and nuts, 
$6,507,486; poultry and poultry products, $5,503,846; for- 
est products, $1,551,888; and horticultural specialties 
(nursery and greenhouse products), 1,433,936. 

A comparison of the value of farm products sold, by 
source, for 1954 and 1949 follows: 



Source 



1954 



All crops sold, total $196,684,262 

Field crops (other than vegetables 

and fruits and nuts) 185,145,886 

Vegetables 3,596,954 

Frui+s and nuts 6,507,486 

Horticultural specialties 1,433,936 

All livestock and livestock products 

sold, total 133,889,640 



1949 



$153,836,501 

146,027,104 
3,345,976 
3,201,619 
1,261,802 



Dairy products . 

Poultry and poultry products 

Livestock and livestock products 
(other than dairy and poultry 
products ) 



37,731,469 
5,503,846 



126,321,394 

27,817,955 

6,134,311 



90,654,325 92,369,128 



Forest products, total 1,551,888 867,428 

Data for 1954 for individual counties in the State are 
given on page 2. 



DEFINITIONS AND 

Total v»lue of farm products sold.— The data given repre- 
sent the value of farm products sold based on information ob- 
tained from farm operators in the 1954 Census of Agriculture . 
The total value of all farm products sold represents the to- 
tal of sales from each farm regardless of who shared in the 
receipts. The landlord's share of the crops and livestock 
sold and, also, the livestock which the landlord took from 
the tenant's farm were considered as sales from the tenant's 
farm. The value of all crops sold represents the value of 
crops sold from the harvest of 1954 regardless of when sold . 
The sales of livestock and livestock products represent the 
sales during 1954 regardless of when the livestock were raised 
or produced. 

In obtaining the value of farm products sold from farm 
operators, census enumerators were instructed to obtain the 
gross value of all sales without deductions of any kind. How- 
ever, in the case of milk, poultry, eggs, etc., deductions 
were often made by the buyers of farm products for hauling, 
handling, marketing, etc., before making payments to farmers. 
In such cases, farmers often considered the amount received 
after the deductions of marketing cost as the gross value of 
farm products sold. 

The data given for the value of all farm products sold 
represent totals for all farms regardless of the amount sold. 
In the case of part-time farms, residential farms, etc., the 
value of all farm products sold may have been very small . 
Therefore, the average value of farm products sold per farm, 
computed on the basis of the data given in the accompanying 
table, may not indicate accurately the value of all farm prod- 
ucts sold by commercial farms . Data cm the number of com- 
mercial farms and for all farms classified by economic class 



EXPLANATIONS 

are given in the preliminary report, Series AC54-1, issued 

for each county. 

The value of farm products sold does not include income 
of farm operators from nonfarm sources, government payments 
for soil conservation, lime and fertilizer furnished, nor sub- 
sidy payments, etc. 

The value of livestock and livestock products sold, the 
value of farm products sold, the value of vegetables sold, and 
the value of horticultural specialties sold were obtained from 
each farm operator at the time of enumeration during the pe- 
riod October to December 1954. The values of field crops and 
fruits and nuts sold were calculated by multiplying the quan- 
tity sold by State average prices obtained by the Agricultural 
Marketing Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 
cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. The value of field 
crops includes all crops sold except vegetables, fruits and 
nuts, forest products, and horticultural-specialty crops 
(nursery and greenhouse crops). The value of vegetables sold 
does not include the value of Irish potatoes or sweetpotatoes 
sold . The value of fruits and nuts sold includes the value 
of berries and small fruits sold . The quantity sold for the 
principal .crops was obtained from each farm operator, while 
the quantity sold for less important crops and for fruits and 
nuts was estimated . 



The statistics given in this release will be included in 
Volume I of the reports of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 
Detailed data for a large number of items for the 1954 Census 
of Agriculture have already been published for each county 
and the State in Series AC54-1 . 



Figure 52. — Facsimile of preliminary report Series AC54-2. 



92 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS SOLD BY SOURCE: 1954 



State 

and 
county 



Ada 

Adams 

Banno 2J: . . . 
Bear Lake. 
Benewah . . . 



Bingham. . . . 

Blaine 

Boise 

Bonner 

Bonneville . 



Boundary . 

Butte 

Camas. . . . 
Canyon . . . 
Caribou. . 



Cassia 

Clark 

Clearwater . 

Custer 

Elmore 



Franklin. 
Fremont . . 

Gem 

Gooding. . 
Idaho 



Jefferson . 
Jerome .... 
Kootenai . . 

Latah 

Lemhi 



Lewis 

Lincoln. . . 
Madison. . . 
Klnldoke . . 
Hez Perce . 



Oneida. . . 
Owyhee . . . 
Payette . . 
Power .... 
Shoshone . 



Teton 

Twin Falls. 

Valley 

Washington . 



(number 



38,735 

2,007 
283 
873 
759 
440 

2,160 

321 

142 

1,150 

1,483 

596 

271 

131 

4,183 

578 

1,225 

67 

389 

290 

407 

1,098 

892 

916 

1,038 

1,090 

1,247 
1,122 
1,324 
1,309 
491 

391 
413 
902 
1,067 
938 

485 
744 
1,113 
397 
168 

447 

2,406 

206 

776 



Value 3f all farm products sold (dollars) 



332,125,790 

11,619,157 
2,121,150 
6,644,395 
3,163,872 
2,584,708 

21,744,327 

3,846,727 

600,840 

1,871,364 

16,180,566 

2,405,720 
2,568,188 
1,813,527 
32,072,372 
6,353,221 

13,892,923 
1,019,605 
1,308,210 
2,099,951 
3,629,143 

5,988,799 
10,100,429 
6,278,951 
8,682,887 
9,638,946 

9,992,414 
15,781,779 

4,236,432 
11,042,694 

3,046,683 

6,713,143 
3,983,054 
8,608,769 
12,262,465 
9,906,768 

4,253,997 
8,063,225 
7,425,788 
5,910,876 
207,545 

2,894,030 
32,371,545 
1,373,013 
5,821,592 



All crops sold 



196,684,262 

2,802,230 
549,265 
4,068,913 
1,088,676 
1,898,917 

15,456,133 

1,063,904 

97,9% 

352,259 

11,332,636 

1,543,461 

1,358,719 

1,373,476 

17,800,659 

3,825,607 

7,706,287 
191,015 
897,635 
494,423 

1,174,509 

2,742,441 
7,021,041 
2,664,365 
3,678,685 
6,293,851 

6,681,582 
9,301,911 
2,315,007 
9,456,914 
345,333 

6,261,744 
2,019,387 
5,339,439 
8,627,217 
8,414,028 

2,940,163 
3,736,929 
3,457,796 
4,933,473 
18,999 

1,611,664 

20,828,136 

574,561 

2,342,826 



Field 
crops 1 



185,145,836 

2,017,078 
192,303 
4,050,989 
1,087,701 
1,898,161 

15,402,181 

1,058,290 

96,376 

322,744 

11,285,110 

1,537,636 
1,358,385 
1,373,430 
14,062,957 
3,825,432 

7,691,203 
190,982 
892,044 
494,198 

1,158,771 

2,653,495 
7,016,302 
550,843 
3,628,850 
6,278,054 

6,656,194 
9,270,652 
2,181,436 
9,422,437 
335,332 

6,151,219 
2,019,147 
5,318,976 
8,602,410 
7,741,611 

2,934,790 
3,558,972 
1,502,109 
4,933,005 
4,204 

1,605,683 

20,254,205 

573,152 

1,956,337 



210,390 

205 

741 

35 

216 

7,274 



231 
5,401 



40 
1,358,207 



3,L22 

50 

13,234 

77,171 

716 

174,689 

33,328 

1,410 

8,875 
11,850 
36,075 

3,750 
806 

110,085 

15 

816 

13,420 

561,412 

5,373 

51,032 

397,413 

50 

1,463 

3,458 
249,772 

1,000 
253,564 



Fruits 
and 
nuts 



6,507,486 

185,921 

356,717 

12,933 

940 

540 

24,027 
214 

1,620 
19,244 

7,183 

3,607 

334 

6 

1,837,363 

175 

1,520 

33 

2,469 

175 

2,504 

4,975 

4,023 

1,938,483 

3,652 

14,387 

11,505 
3,854 

24,081 
17,152 
7,745 

440 
150 

10,562 
907 

55,905 



109,095 

1,515,324 

418 

337 

2,523 

212,039 

409 

111,975 



Horti- 
cultural 
specialties 



1,433,936 



4,250 



22,651 
5,400 



10,040 
34,942 



6,800 

350 
12,855 

5,008 
15,555 
73,415 
13,575 



1,500 2,701,300 



75 

9,065 

10,480 

55,100 

17,830 
42,950 

12,995 



All livestock ano livestock products sold 



133,839,640 



388,841 8,811,927 

1,518,374 

2,575,182 

2,075,196 

478,972 



6,288,194 
2,782,148 
486,816 
1,396,204 
4,844,963 

748,007 

1,209,469 

439,785 

14,266,218 

2,527,614 

6,186,436 

828,590 

249,259 

1,604,828 

2,444,234 

3,246,358 
3,077,888 
3,593,308 
5,004,190 
3,028,795 

3,310,832 
6,479,868 
1,756,181 
1,437,411 



380^248 
1,963,667 
3,269,330 
3,635,248 
1,403,582 

1,313,834 

4,326,296 

3,967,644 

977,403 

173,686 

1,279,766 

11,543,362 

786,886 

3,469,641 



*0ther than vegetables and fruits and 



Dairy 
products 



37,731,469 

4.981,566 
114,288 
611,483 
618,195 
137,620 

1,915,448 

235,741 

22,934 

711,654 

1,151,963 

405,992 
76,435 
29,219 

6,733,944 
498,091 

1,236,527 

2e,486 

41,274 

66,852 

118,047 

1,520,515 

480,466 

1,543,290 

1,435,859 

333,419 

987,650 
1,144,183 
812,327 
466,899 
208,082 

24,414 
636,673 
736,000 
881,161 
248,280 

191,108 
7L4.391 
1,520,517 
198,644 
38,845 

413,417 

2,700,727 

56,555 

652,288 



Poultry 

and 
poultry 
products 



5,503,846 

473,902 
20,341 

179,526 
43,566 
61,799 

224,680 
16,170 
13,022 
80,273 

219,108 

52,036 
46,644 
7,557 

6^0,22? 
61,750 



Livestock 
and 

livestock 
products 2 



90,654,325 

3,356,459 
1,384,245 
1,784,173 
1,413,435 
279,553 

4,143,066 

2,530,237 

450,860 

604,277 

3,473,892 

289,979 
1,086,390 

403,009 
6,932,051 
1,967,773 



154,738 4,795,171 



2,389 
28,700 
14,416 
77,321 

615,784 
90,315 
109,381 
170,745 
115,139 

126,785 
82,755 
386,638 
118,533 
68,434 

30,307 
59,367 

226,909 
94, 343 

133,410 

61,890 
33,557 
112,009 
27,978 
57,056 

16,719 

288,371 

19,279 

79,981 



797,715 

179,285 

1,523,560 

2,243,866 

1,110,059 
2,507,107 
1,940,637 
3,397,586 
i,.580,237 

2,196,397 

5,252,930 

557,216 

851,979 

2,424,784 

325,527 
1,267,627 
2,256,421 
2,659,744 
1,021,892 

1,060,836 

3,578,348 

2,335,118 

750,781 

77,785 

849,630 
8,554,264 

711,052 
2,737,372 



Forest 
product* 



1,551,8811 

5,000 

53,011 

300 



675 

16,028 

122,901 

2,967 

114,252 

266 
5,*95- 



161,316 

700 

10,400 

1,500 

21,278 

12 

316,300 



165,244 
148,369 



71,151 



89,158 



14,860 

2,600 

47 

11,566 

9,125 



Other than dairy and poultry products. 



Figure 52. — Facsimile of preliminary report Series AC54-2 — Continued. 



APPENDIX 



93 



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94 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 



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APPENDIX 



95 



[MD 



STATISTICS FOR COUNTIES 



J 



County Table 1. -FARMS, ACREAGE, VALUE, AND FARM OPERATORS: CENSUSES OF 1954 AND 1950-Continued 

[Data for items shown in italics are based on reports for only a sample of farms. See text] 



(For definitions and explanations, see text) 



FARMS, ACREAGE, AND VALUE 

Farms number 1954 

1950... 

Approximate land area acres 1954... 

Proportion in farms percent 1954... 

Land owned by farm operators acres 1954... 

Land rented front others by farm operators. .. .acres 1954... 

Land managed by farm operators ncres 1954... 

Land rented to others by farm operators 
(see text) acres 1954... 

Land in farms acres 1954... 

1950... 
Average size of farm acres 1954... 

1950... 
Value of land and buildings: 

AueraQe per farm dollars 1954... 

1950... 
Aueraie per a^re dol I ars 1954. . . 

1950... 
Proportion of farms reporting value percent 1954... 

Land in faraa according to use: 

Cropland harvested farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

1 to 9 acres farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 
10 to 19 acres farms reporting 1954... 

1949. . . 
20 to 29 acres farms reporting 1954... 

1949 . . . 
30 to 49 acres farms reporting 1954... 

19i9... 
50 to 99 acres farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 
100 to 199 acres farms resorting 1954... 

1949... 
200 acres and over farms reporting 1954... 

1949 . . . 

Cropland used onlj for pasture. .farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 
acres 1954... 
1949... 
Cropland not harvested and not 

pictured farms reporting 1954. . . 

1949... 

acres 1954. . . 

1949... 

Woodland pastured farms reporting 1954... 

1949. . . 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Woodland not pastured farms reporting 1954... 

1949 . . . 
acres 1954... 
1949... 
Other pasture (not cropland and 

not woodland) farms reporting 1954... 

1949. . . 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Improved (see text) farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954... 

Other land (house lots, roads, 

wasteland, etc.) farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Cropland, total farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Land pastured, total farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Woodland, total farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Irrigated land in farms farms reporting 1954... 

1949... 

acres 1954... 

1949... 

Cover crops turned under and land 

planted to another crop farms reporting 1954... 

acreB 1954. . . 

Cropland used for row or grain crops 

farmed on contour farms reporting 1954... 

acres 1954.. . 

FARM OPERATORS 

Residing on farm operated operators reporting 1954... 

1950... 



Not residing « 



farm operated. .operators reporting 1954. 
1950. 



Figure 54. — Facsimile of preprinted form for offset typing of County Table 1. 



96 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 




APPENDIX 



97 





LlO' KAJAfc 


































AOIFCUITUK 






Bureau or the Census 




COUNTY TABULATION NO. ysnj 






. 














HACHIN1 lAlulAIICW 


k 


KM! 


NUMBER OF FARMS REPORTING AND ACRES. PRODUCTION, AND AMOUNT SOLD; 

l_J 11 IT LO WITHIN MOT 

["") 11 It ItUOATO) f AIMS ONLT WITHIN 00* 


■huh d |-»- 


■%"• 


Mil 


NAM 




Him 1 








( 


mma 


UMM.MACH | 












UK 
Tires, nc 

<*I«LB 1) 


tlW IT 


xin ma. 

rtODUCTION. 

re 

irlEID 1) 


ttOOUCTION. 

AMOUNT tOiO. 

ITC 

(HUD 1) 


NUMltt 
»AtMS 


'*I«J X'OIIIHO AC1IS, >!((». tIC (11(10 l| 


PA IN I llrOIIINO A C 1 t » . I1((S. MODUCTIOH, (tC. ■ ' i ( 1 D » 


IHW 


MAS'HS 


IflO 


££• 


"7» 


J-» 


»- 


»■*» 


RM, 


iCDlft 


— 


.- 


XJn n 


oJm 


Ml 


uta 


~ 


~ 


mm 


mm 


icoo 


l«ft 


urn 


X 


55 


'a^T 




„.-», 


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„,.» 


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COL 11 


ICOIUAOO 11-U1 


MLM 


comi 






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acc :i 


acc. «i 


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TOTAL 


— 




























































, 






























































































































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1 i.-l- ■.-..■ !'.'»! 








COUNTY TABULATION NO. 102 - 11 

FARMS REPORTING AND PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF SALES OF FIRE WOOD, 

FENCE POSTS. SAWLOGS AND PULPWOOO. 

FARMS REPORTING MAPLE TREES AND MAPLE TREE PRODUCTS; BY ED 

T 






























M«C«i»l M1UI1T1D". 




RATI 
COUNTY 




■MM □ 


*;:'*' 


„.. B 


BAH 1 KAMI 






<AI MAO. 












1UAAL *A« 






Ltotbfe. 






SOU INDICATION 


fOTAl 


HIE WOOD CUT 


iCNCf posts cur 


iAW LOCI CUT 


PULPWOOO CUT 


sAiut Of uia 


1A1MS IPTG 


TlllS TA"MD 


SHUf «AD( 


I JUCa« MADE 














:|™» 


»..., 


.. 


UPOITINO 


NUMU. 


3s? 


„«. 


■ NO 


•° A Zl" n 


3k? 


c«os 


"&?■ 


«»o» 


"SUSS! 


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11 


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11 




TOTAL 
































































































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Fi<;t Ki. 55.— Facsimile ( 



s. — Goniiiuiccl. 



98 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 






































































ioiicuiTuir ■ 




Bureau of the census COUNTY TABULATION NO. 131-11 












Census of Agriculture 1954 NUMIO OF farms REFORTINO HORSES OI MULES MOOS AND FIOS. 

SOWS FARROWED OR IO FARROW. ANIMALS SOLD AUVE AND NUMBER 




•UChihi i.iui.mh. | 


utux a 




■SI" 


L..I, 








AND VAIUE OF SALES OF SHEET AND LAMBS; BY ED 


tAI*AO> 














COUNT. 


>u— -.c 












IMf I ■ A it 


.. 


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rT^ 


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C 




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. 


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EBEEOnsa — 




T u -T. M u E o T f °-«"": 5 "r 


























n.uH D 




*%%•" 


DAT! 


-._, 






OF SALES OF SHEEP AND LAMBS, Br E D 


IAI ..O. 














COUMTT 


MM* MAC 














.. 


umuumumm 


HO til 5 AND MUlt) 


HOGI AND nci 


— ..'■^jan* " 





SSJ 


MM 


■ (■Ml 




,'.',?. 


~„ 


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01 


H 


ii 


u 


M 


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M V M 


it to 


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11 


1} 


11 
















• 


TOTAL 
































































































































^^ 








^ 


^^ 




^™ ^W 






„ 
























In 


., 














, . 1 « 1 . 


. ., 


- 


- 


" 


" 


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" 


" 


- 


^J 



CENSUS OF ACS 



COUNTY TABULATION NO. 132 - 1 
FARMS REPORTING AND NUMBER OF HOtSB AND MULES, HOOS AND FtOS, 
SOWS. AND NUMBfR AND VALUE OF SALES Of ANIMALS SOLD AUVE; BY ID 




1'll.t KK 55, 



of. county tabulation shcrts. — Continued". 



APPENDIX 



99 



Department of Commerce 




COUNTY TABULATION NO. 142 - 11 

■AIMS IfKimNO AND NUMia OF TOTAI SHEEP, LAMBS. EWES. RAMS. AND WETHERS. 
SHEEP SMOtN AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARMS REPORTING SHI!/; IT L D. 

V 


J CARD 






- KiSKuinN 


- 


Bureau of the Census 


































h»t» 






,,.,- 


■.: ',•?■.*• 








.!*!_ 


.0 








COUNT. 


.... 


k»"< 




lOtl INBICtTION 


1»[H> .«£■ LAM4S 


Sffl 


[WIS 


■ .Ml 


AMD WtTHItl 


LUIS UXDII 1 Tl (HO 


IHCK jmoin 




ioim <y .At*i 


•tNtttlMG INf IF 














S| | ».... 




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— 


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n 


TOTAL 


















































1 | 

1 










































































































[ 

CEI 


















































^^ 




^!^^ 




Bureau of the Census 


.«..«■■ -«»"V" •«• ■-■ It 






. 


SUS OF AGRICULTURE 1954 


NUMBER OF FARMS UFOfTINO CHICKENS ON HAND. CHICKENS AND CHICKEN 




■UCHIM TAtuumOH 


■ 


k 




IGOS SOU), TUIKEYS RAISED AND TURKEYS KEPT FOR BREEDING. POULTRT 
PRODUCTS AND OTHES FOUIT1Y RAISED AND SOLD; IT t D. 


«I»H 


::-| •%*• 


OA.I 


HAM 




COUNTY 


l.l «*c» 










, 


MMULMCH. 














'wiD* 1 


.. 


■",..(.■:'. IOIB. 


"mus* 


TT 


man 


• aims loonma 




N S C 


'■" 


.'",. 


<"". 


on"S£ 


IT 


"zzr 


™ 


OH1GIIN 


njtmin itfi km uiid.no 


TUBIITI UIUD 


amli »ounli 4AIUD 




*.. 


- 


_,, 


— 


— 


!S 


S^d' 


- 


&£ 


.".'.*,;; 


AN, 


*?£. 


."Vol 


«» 


«- 


o™ 


.ST" 


* 




ra 


«. 


« 


I— 




Aft., 


"ST 


£*M 


*%" 


'A'" 


"i"* 


■"«. 


■ST 


MM 


-"S.'m, 


[£l5 


A 


-«■; 


vsst 


i« < S!; 


44tt'l 


«™««.l 






- 


— 




»C( =1 


ox 


AM #1 


ACC- #1 


l 


• 


i 


t 


t 


>• 


11 


11 


u 


14 


II 


14 


» • 


II 


It 


M 


■1 


n 


11 


H 


u 


M 


TT 


ti 


n 




TOTAL 


-^ 




















































I 




• 












































j^^pj 








^4 r - 


IE- 


" 1= 


«C r. 


• ■- 


.« « 


Men 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


„ 


,, 


„ 


„ 


„ 


„ 


„ 


„ 


,. 1 „ 


w 


„ 


11 n 


„ 


„ 


» ' » 


„ 


„ 


I . 



CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE I 95-4 



COUNTY TABULATION NO. 151-11 

NUMBER OF FARMS KEPOKTING CHICKENS ON HAND, CHICKENS AND CHICKEN 
EGGS SOLD. TURKEYS RAISED AND TURKEYS KEPT FOR BREEDING. POULTRY 
PRODUCTS AND OTHER POULTRY RAISED AND SOLD; BY E 0. 



K c-20 PART II 




















































1 


DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COUNTY TABULATION NO. 152 - 11 K CAtD 


r 
















CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE 1954 TURKEYS RAISED, TURKEY HENS KEPT FOR BREEDINO, OTHER POULTRY RAISED 


•inn. o 


■.: ■ 


■SST" 


...., | "... 








AND VALUE OF SALES OF OTHER POULTRY AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; BY ED 


itAHixn 
















W M--A« 










COUNTY 1 










IHt INDICATION 


SS. 


CRlCHNl OH HA>« 


(pi!'.H"l tout 


KJOl KXC 


mum tm »oi hiilhho 


TUnfTt «AIMT> 


s 


mSSSm 


OtHtl »OUU» l» 















i 




— I" 


— 


or™ 


SSS. 


UMM 


Im ' 


xz 


MM 


OU'WAl 




*. 


— *— 


TOTAL 
























































"f* 
























^ 



department of commerce 
Bu reau of the Cens us 

Census of agriculture 1954 



COUNTY TABULATION NO. 



912 - 11 912 - 12 
922-11 922-12 

Of FARMS REPORTTNO AND ACRES HARVESTED, PRODUCTION. AND 
OP CORN OR SORONUMS SOLD, 



C-l; C-2 CARD 



100 



METHODS AND PROCEDURES 






FAl 










L CMD 


i r 3 .v-LT... 


1 








M.eai»«T»-L.«gA 


t 


SUle 


D Sample. 


IMS REPORTING FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT. WORK ANIMALS. 
AND DATE or ENUMERATION 


R,n, D 


Mifl 1 Baud 


DM 


Nnm I ■ 


































C.aovr Indication 


1 IM 
No. 


Total Numbm 

or Fabwi 
(1) 


TlLEPHONE 

Vu 
(2) 


1 
Eiic-raicrTT i T cut vision 

Vu Vu 
(3) | ») 


Hi-NNF... WaTER 

Yi* 

(6) 


Yn 
(6) 


Pio Bbooobr Feed Gaihdcr 
Yu Yis 

(7) | (81 


Milium.-) Machine 

Yu 

(9) 


Grain Cohrinb 
Ybb 

(10) 




1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
8 
10 

11 

12 
13 
U 

\i 


Cobh Pic* me 


Pick-ct Bales'. 
(12) 


FoKAOa 
BlIRHM 

(IS) 


Ponds, Takii, Motob 
Etc Tbpceb 

(HI (16) 


TlACTOH 


(20) 




An,, i hijit Than 


Wheel Garden 


Crawler 
(10) 




(16) (17) 1 (18) 






Worn. I'owm 


T*i.a»aoNB 
No 

(27) 


iLICTBICITT 

No 

.(28) 


TaLBvuio* 
No 

(26) 


Romroio Watbb 
No 


tttmm 

(21) 


1 animjj ooly 
(22) 


2 or more animal* 

(23) 


Animali aod 
(24) <a * wlw 


T W^i° n ? l) ' ! An, Work 
(25) ^r" 1 "' (26) 








Fuun 

No 

(31) 


No 

(32) 








(38) 


(39) 


(40) 




Fin Gbihdii 
No 

(33) 


Mili.no 

MlCRINL 

No 

(34) 


MoRTOAOt DlBT (ACBU OwMSD) 




(36) 


No No Report 
(36) (37) 




■V«U.l)»N|H 

Ml) 


Acui Rbkted 

haw 

(42) 


ACBBB M.K.OIH 


Acaxa Rsktid 
to Oniu 

(44» 


Cash Ka~ . 
Paid 

(46J 


i >i it or Ehoiubatioh 




(60) 




October 






(46) '-» 1 (47) '0-" J (48) 17 " M 


(49. "-a 1 












D*t« » Drnwina 












Noramm* 


Dkiou 


[bo 1 - 8 


(62) 7 "'» 


<M> '"« 


(64, 21 "" |(66) «" 


(66) H 




6T) *-» | (68) 1 *- 1B 


(69, »«« 


(60) »"« 






















APPENDIX 



101 































































CUUNTY TABULATION NO. 172 - 11 

FARM LAMM AND SPCCTF1ED FARM EXPENDITURES 
WITHIN IAMPLE AND SPECIFIED FARMS 

V 




M CARD 




BUREA'J OF THE CENSUS 
















Census of Agriculture 1954 




r 


M»cninr i.iijuiioi. 






"SS" 


o*.l 


NAME 




COUNTY 


TAl «ACH 












WW. MACH. 








C"««J>.. 




SOlI INDICAtlON 


TOIAl 

no o* 

'AIMS 


OftlATOI WOICINO 


EAMHT 

wont IS 


HlllO WOllll! HUMtCI 


ItIM llflH^IIUIIl •KOUHI 


IEFOITINO 
















!|-"' 




a 


1n££ 


"Sou"^ 


■■» 


,»nr™ 


JBitSS 






nKi'miwn 


•laTTimiVTiii 


"set* 


*ISh 


will 


tS? 


ESS 




14-41 


* 


(C C.) 


a in mi 


(J IN HI 


an 


mm 


i«-*n 


io-oi 


(■■■II) 


m-»i 


OT-lll 


133-11) 


::..". iQ ..v' 


[41.4*1 


UJ-ui 


1*0-411 


IW-MI 


77 n, 












». • 1 e 


D 


1 


1 


1 


* 


» 


• 


T 


• 


t 


10 


II 


ii 


I) 


ii 


IS 


)t 


17 




19 


W 


], 


n 


TOTAL 














































^>J 








































1*^— 




















^■IMM 































_ 
































N c 

I 


1RD 








■- .oiicmiiii 1 


Bureau of the Census 


COMMECCIAl FERTILIZER PURCHASED, AND USED, TONS, TOTAL COST AND 
ACRES ON WHICH USED WITHIN SAMPLE OR SPECIFIED FARMS 

T 










_.,: 


-'V[ I.lmAIio* 








■HUN Q ■•»»« 


"Si" 


0.1. 1 -.-I 








IA» men | 








county 


MIMM. MACH | 




l-MWIS. 






-.1 INDICATION 


commiicial mtiiiiii ni» 


HlllO 


COMMERCIAL P E 1 I I 1 1 I C • USED 












e 




,«,_■ 


i 


WO II' MO 


=», 


™, 


^"'muhc 


MAT AMI C*O».AM0 FAIT 




1>4 CIO> 


4rh CP.OF 


ptuns. via tic 


OTME* 


CIDI1 






; > "*" 


ION* 


Aero 


TON! 


AMU 


TONS 


ACW1 


IONJ 


ACID 


tow 


ACKl 


TON! 


ACMI 


, 


1 1 


IM1 


i 


0. .Hit 


mui 


11(11) 


l» H) 


11 15 


umii 


IH4II 


nun 


nun 


rO-"l 


■. 1) 


mjoi 


ism 


IM-MI 


141-441 


140-411 








» 


)l 


„ 


a 


C 





1 


1 


1 


• 


1 


• 


7 


• 


• 


10 


II 


ll 


IS 


14 


11 


It 


17 


14 


It 


































































































— L-3 


- — 




























| 






















COUNTY 






































Bureau of the Cen 


SUS 




















"I 


fc 






Census of Agriculture 1954 

RATI 

caiMn 


OF HEIFERS, BULLS AND STEERS; BY E. 0. 










tm,H, ; (•■ »«« 


... 


MAMI 








,„""«. 


















iWMt 










t 


FAIMI 4E»0« 


INO IOTAI CAIIll ON 


41N0 






F A ■ H S 


■ IrOIIINO mil COWj on Hand 




A • M N t IE f O 


t 1 N O 




0' 


c"'°. 




«, 


, ... 


'• 


,.,. 


„. 


.. 


mi 


.„. 


' 


' 


' 


• 


"- 


»,. 


„, 


.„ „ 


.,. 


„« 


O.ll 


NAKC 


«. 


COW, 


-,„.. 


:,".'.» 


'£? 


^?e 




IT -41 


».' ". 




»_.,. 


.„ 




£2, 


«»»>» 


COl"l| 


coTin 


n6 o. 


'";.*• 


COl 14. 


3-" 


COlUI 


;.y; 




01 


ii 


n 1 n 


14 


IS 


ii » 


M 


40 1 41 


41 


41 


" 


41 


4* 


41 


•J 


■ la •' 


n 


M 


M 


ii 


M 


, r 


11 


. 




TOTAL 






1 












^1 









































» 




^ 


^^mamm*^^ 


„ 










rr - 


— 


■■■1 


. 1 . 












^^^ 








J 




Fio 


IKK .t.t. — Facsimile of county tabulation shews — Continued. 











102 METHODS AND PROCEDURES 

Man-Hours and Costs for Other Than Personal Services Per 100,000 Farms by Major Functions: 1954 Census of Agriculture 



Item 



Total. 



Preparation of questionnaires and instructions... 

Printing of questionnaires and instructions - 

Preparing enumerator and crew leader maps 

Packing and distribution of materials for enumeration 

Preparing special lists such as of large farms, farms in urban 

areas, etc. 

Planning and central office supervision of enumeration 

Recruiting supervisors, etc. for Agriculture Field Offices 



General administration and control of crew leaders and enu- 
merators—Agriculture Field Offices: 

Supervisory work 

Clerical work 

Travel 

Rental of space. . 

Communications and other expenses 

Training of crew leaders 

Training of enumerators 

Supervision of enumerators ... 

Travel 



Enumeration. 
Travel.... 



General field direction and eontDl— Regional Field Offices: 

Supervisory work 

Technical work 

Checking enumerators . k and preparing payrolls 

Other clerical work 

Travel 



Communications 
Other (space, etc. 



Central office processing 

Receiving, arranging by Minor Civil Division and mis- 
cellaneous checking. 

Editing and coding: 

Supervisory work 

Technical work 

Clerical work 



Punching and verifying tabulating cards: 

Supervisory work 

Other clerical work 

Rental of equipment 

Tabulating cards 

Other 



Selection of cards with probable errors, checking and cor- 
recting cards prior to tabulation: 

Supervisory work _ 

Technical work 

Clerical work 

Rental of equipment 

Other 



Man- 
hours per 
100,000 
[arms 



208,123 
174 



1,406 
440 

557 

1,127 

287 



2,942 
2.367 



2,258 

8.908 

16, 187 

(135, 632 

miles) 

82,669 

(379, 239 

miles) 



844 
113 

2,885 

640 

(9, 935 

miles) 



2.594 

1,158 

/92 

9,434 



592 
7,859 



526 

396 

4,621 



Costs (or 

other than 

personal 

services 

per 100,000 

farms 



113,418 



5,617 
564 



507 
334 



2,907 

973 

2,191 

1,571 

2,048 

427 

9,494 

230 

26,547 



1.191 
1.051 



2.136 

918 

14 



479 
275 



Item 



Central office processing— Continued 

County tabulations: 

Supervisory work 

Technical work _ 

Clerical work 

Rental of equipment 

Other 

Economic Area tabulations: 

Supervisory work 

Technical work 

Clerical work 

Rental of equipment 

Other.... 



Preparation and printing of — 
Preliminary releases: 

Supervisory work 

Technical work 

Clerical work ~_~^ 

Printing ].___.. 

Volume I (Statistics by Counties, and State Economic 
Areas) : 

Supervisory work 

Technical work 

Clerical work.. 

Printing 

Volume II (Statistics by Subject for Divisions and States): 

Supervisory work 

Technical work ......... 

Clerical work 

Printing 

Special reports: 

Supervisory work 

Technical work _. 

Clerical work 

Printing 

Other 

Evaluation program 



General administration and miscellaneous services: 

Overall direction 

Procurement of supplies and services . 

Personnel 

Transportation 

Budgeting 

Accounting and payrolling 

Purchase and repair of general use equipment 

Telephone and communications for central offices- 



Rental of space for central office processing 

Informational activities 

Maintenance of general central office flies. ._ 

General administration of central office processing except 

tabulation 

General administration for tabulation 

Miscellaneous administrative services 

Social security and other taxes 

Other ._ 



Man- 
hours per 
100,000 
farms 



1,010 
1,010 
9.021 



096 

048 

5,461 



226 

74 

1,797 



809 

100 

8.142 



152 

109 

1.584 



914 
1,684 
7,780 



1,849 



244 

1.388 

857 



118 

1.793 



200 
727 

2.224 

1.232 

579 



1,919 



Costs for 

other than 

personal 

services 

per 100.000 

farms 



2,235 
3,135 



1,858 
1,710 



4,280 



897 



2.626 

1.904 

217 



2.685 

2,791 

689 



3.277 
5,582 



3.055 
39 



1, 193 
1. 152 
5,588 
3,321 
2.407 



Figure 56.— Table of Costs. 



U. S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1957