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Full text of "United States census of agriculture: 1954"




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DEPOSITORY 



Vol. ill - pt. 9 ch. 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

(A COOPERATIVE REPORT) 




Cotton Producers and 
Cotton Production 



B«ton Public JLibrary ^ f 3 H' '^ I "^^ ^/ 

Superintendent of Documents ,^ <*^// 

SPECIAL REPORTS aug26 1957 ^/,^ 




1954 

Census 

f 

Agriculture 



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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



i te r\ AJ 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



WASHINGTON • 1956 




p ■^^.■. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Ezra Taft Benson, Secretary 

Agricultural Research Service 

Byron T. Shaw, Adminiitrafor 

U. S. Department of Commerce 

Sinclair Weeks, Secretary 

Bureau of the Census 

Robert W. Burgess, Director 



United States 

c 



ensus 



of 

Agriculture: 

1954 

Volume III 
SPECIAL REPORTS 

Part 9 

Farmers and Farm Production in the United States 

(A Cooperative Report) 



Chapter 11 

Cotton Producers and 
Cotton Production 



CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS and FARM PRODUCTION • 
PRINCIPAL TYPES OF FARMS • 






BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
Robert W. Burgess, Director 

AGRICULTURE DIVISION 
Ray Hurley, Chief 
Warder B. Jenkins, Assistant Chief 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
Byron T. Shaw. Administrator 

FARM AND LAND MANAGEMENT RESEARCH 
Sherman E. Johnson, Director 

PRODUCTION ECONOMICS RESEARCH BRANCH 
Carl P. Heisig, Chief 



SUGGESTED IDENTIFICATION 

U. S. Bureau of the Census. U. S. Census of Agriculture: 1954. Vol. Ill, Special Reports 

Part 9, Farmers and Farm Production in the United States. 

Chapter II, Cotton Producers and Cotton Production 

U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C, 1956. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 
or any of the Field Offices of the Department of Commerce, Price 40 cents (paper cover) 



PREFACE 



The purpose of this report is to present an analysis of the cliaracteristics of farmers and farm production 
for the most important types of farms as shown by data for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. The analysis 
deals with the relative importance, pattern of resource use, some measures of efficiency, and problems of 
adjustment and change for the principal types of farms. 

The data given in the various chapters of this report have been derived largely from the special tabula- 
tion of data for each type of farm, by economic class, for the 195-4 Census of Agriculture. The detailed 
statistics for each type of farm for the United States and the principal subregions appear in Part 8 of Volume 
III of the reports for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

This cooperative report was prepared under the direction of Ray Hurley, Chief of the Agriculture Divi- 
sion of the Bureau of the Census, U. S. Department of Commerce, and Kenneth L. Bachman, Head, Produc- 
tion, Income, and Costs Section, Production Economics Research Branch, Agricultural Research Service of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Jackson V. McElveen, Agricultural Economist, Production, Income, and Costs Section, Production 
Economics Research Branch, Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, super- 
vised a large part of the detailed planning and analysis for the various chapters. 

The list of chapters and the persons preparing each chapter are as follows: 



Chapter VI Western Stock Ranches and Live- 
stock Farms 
Mont H. Saunderson, 
Western Ranching and Lands 

Consultant, 
Bozeman, Mont. 

Chapter VII Cash-grain and Livestock Pro- 
ducers in the Corn Belt 
Edwin G. Strand, 
Production Economics Research 

Branch, 
Agricultural Research Service, 
United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

Chapter VIII. ^ Part-time Farming 
H. G. Halcrow, 
University of Connecticut. 

Chapter IX Agricultural Producers and Pro- 
duction in the United States — 
A General View 
Jack,son V. McElveen, 
Production Economics Research 

Branch, 
Agricultural Research Service, 
United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

The editorial work for tliis report was performed by Caroline B. Sherman, and the preparation of the 
statistical tables was supervised by Margaret Wood. 



Chapter I Wheat Producers and Wheat 

Production 
A. W. Epp, 
University of Nebraska. 

Chapter II Cotton Producers and Cotton 

Production 
Robert B. Glasgow, 
Production Economics Research 

Branch, 
Agricultural Research Service, 
United States Department of 

.Agriculture. 

Chapter III Tobacco and Peanut Producers 

and Production 
R. E. L. Greene, 
University of Florida. 

Chapter IV Poultry Producers and Poultry 

Production 
William P. Mortenson, 
University of Wisconsin. 

Chapter V Dairy Producers and Dairy Pro- 
duction 
P. E. IVIcNaU, 
LTniversity of Wisconsin. 



December 1956 



UNITED STATES CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE: 1954 

REPORTS 

Volume I. — Counties and State Economic Areas. Statistics for counties include number of farms, acreage, value, and farm operators; 
farms by color and tenure of operator; facilities and equipment; use of commercial fertilizer; farm labor; farm expenditures; livestock and 
livestock products; specified crops harvested; farms classified by type of farm and by economic class; and value of products sold by soiu^ce. 

Data for State economic areas include farms and farm characteristics by tenure of operator, by type of farm, and by economic class. 

Volume I is published in 33 parts. 

Volume 11. — General Report. Statistics by Subjects, United States Census of Agriculture, 1954. Summary data and analyses of 
the data for States, for Geographic Divisions, and for the United States by subjects. 



Volume III. — Special Reports 

Part 1. — Multiple-Unit Operations. This report wiU be similar to 
Part 2 of Volume V of the reports for the 1950 Census of Agri- 
culture. It will present statistics for approxuiiately 900 
counties and State economic areas in 12 Southern States and 
Missouri for the number and characteristics of multiple-unit 
operations and farms in multiple units. 

Part 2. — Ranking Agricultural Counties. This special report will 
present statistics for selected items of inventory and agricul- 
tural production for the leading counties in the United States. 

Part 3. — Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, District of Columbia, and 
U. S. Possessions. These areas were not included in the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. The available current data from vari- 
ous Government sources will be compiled and published in 
this report. 

Part 4. — Agriculture, 1954, a Graphic Summary. This report will 
present graphically some of the significant facts regarding 
agriculture and agricultural production as revealed by the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. 

Part 5. — Farm-Mortgage Debt. This will be a cooperative study 
by tlic Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census. It will present, 
by States, data based on the 1954 Census of Agriculture and a 
special majl survey conducted in January 1956, on the num- 
ber of mortgaged farms, tlie amoinit of mortgage debt, and the 
amount of debt held by principal lending agencies. 

Part 6. — Irrigation in Humid Areas. This cooperative report by 
the Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census will present data ob- 
tained by a mail survey of operators of irrigated farms in 28 
States on the source of water, method of applying water, num- 
ber of pumps used, acres of crops irrigated in 1954 and 1955, 
the number of times each crop was irrigated, and the cost of 
irrigation equipment and the irrigation system. 

Part 7. — Popular Report of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. This 
report is planned to be a general, easy-to-read publication for 
the general public on the status and broad characteristics of 
United States agriculture. It will seek to delineate such as- 
pects of agriculture as the geograpliic distribution and dif- 
ferences by size of farm for such items as farm acreage, princi- 
pal crops, and important kinds of livestock, farm facilities, 
farm equipment, use of fertilizer, soil conservation practices, 
farm tenure, and farm income. 

Part 8. — Size of Operation by Type of Farm. This will be a coop- 
erative special report to be prepared in cooperation with the 
Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Dei^artment of Agri- 
culture. This report will contain data for 119 economic sub- 



regions (essentially general type-of-farming areas) showing the 
general characteristics for each type of farm by economic class. 
It will provide data for a current analysis of the differences 
that exist among groups of farms of the same type. It will 
furnish statistical basis for a realistic examination of produc- 
tion of such commodities as wheat, cotton, and dairy products 
in connection with actual or proposed governmental policies 
and programs. 
Part 9. — Farmers and Farm Production in the United States. 
The purpose of this report is to present an analysis of the 
characteristics of farmers and farm production for the most 
important types of farms as shown by data for the 1954 Census 
of Agriculture. The analysis deals with the relative importance, 
pattern of resource use, some measures of efficiency, and prob- 
lems of adjustment and change for the principal types of farms. 
The report was prepared in cooperation with the Agricultural 
Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The list of chapters (published separately only) and title 
for each chapter are as follows: 

Chapter I — Wheat Producers and Wheat Production 
II — Cotton Producers and Cotton Production 
III — Tobacco and Peanut Producers and Production 
IV — Poultry Producers and Poultry Production 

V — Dairy Prodzicers and Dairy Production 
VI — Western Stock Ranches and Livestock Farms 
VII — Cash-Grain and Livestock Producers in the Corn 
Belt 
VIII — Part-Time Farming 
IX — Agricultural Producers and Production in the 
United States — A General View 
Part 10. — Use of Fertilizer and Lime. The purpose of this report 
is to present in one publication most of the detailed data com- 
piled for the 1954 Census of Agriculture regarding the use of 
fertilizer and lime. The report presents data for counties. 
State economic areas, and generalized type-of-farming areas 
regarding the quantity used, acreage on which used, and 
expenditures for fertilizer and lime. The Agricultural Research 
Service cooperated with the Bureau of the Census in the prep- 
aration of this report. 
Part 11. — Farmers' Expenditures. This report presents detailed 
data on expenditures for a large number of items used for farm 
production in 1955, and on the living expenditures of farm 
operators' families. The data were collected and compiled 
cooperatively by the Agricultural Marketing Service of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census. 
Part 12. — Methods and Procedures. This report contains an 
outline and a description of the methods and procedures used 
in taking and compiling the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 



INTRODUCTION 



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S,-. 







INTRODUCTION 



Purpose and scope. — American agriculture is exceedingly diverse 
and is undergoing revolutionary changes. Farmers and their 
families obtain their income by producing a large variety of 
products under a large varietj' of conditions as well as from sources 
other than farming. The organization of production, type of 
farming, productivity, income, expenditures, size, and character- 
istics of operators of the 4.8 million farms in the United States 
vary greatly. Agriculture has been a dynamic, moving, adjusting 
part of our economy. Basic changes in farming have been occurring 
and will continue to be necessary. Adjustments brought by tech- 
nological change, by changing consumer wants, by growth of 
population, and by changes in the income of nonfarm people, have 
been significant forces in changing agriculture since World War II. 
The transition from war to an approximate peacetime situation 
has also made it necessary to reduce the output of some farm 
products. Some of the adjustments in agriculture have not pre- 
sented relatively difficult problems as they could be made by the 
transfer of resources from the production of one product to another. 
Others require substantial shifts in resources and production. 

Moreover, a considerable number of farm families, many of whom 
are employed full time in agriculture, have relatively low incomes. 
Most of these families operate farms that are small when compared 
witli farms that produce higher incomes. The acreage of land and 
the amount of capital controlled by the operators of these small 
farms are too small to provide a very high level of income. In 
recent j'ears, many farm families on these small farms have made 
adjustments by leaving the farm to earn their incomes elsewhere, 
by discontinuing their farm operations, and by earning more non- 
farm income while remaining on the farm or on the place they 
farmed formerly. 

One objective of this report is to describe and analyze some of 
the existing differences and recent adjustments in the major types 
of farming and farm production. For important commodities and 
groups of farms, the report aims to make available, largely from 
the detailed data for the 195-1 Census of Agriculture but in a more 
concise form, facts regarding the size of farms, capital, labor, and 
land resources on farms, amounts and sources of farm income and 
expenditures, combinations of crop and livestock enterprises, 
adjustment problems, operator characteristics, and variation in use 
of resources and in size of farms by areas and for widely differing 
production conditions. Those types of farms on which production 
of surplus products is important have been emphasized. The 
report will provide a factual basis for a better understanding of 
the widespread differences among farms in regard to size, resources, 
and income. It will also provide a basis for evaluating the effects 
of existing and proposed farm programs on the production and 
incomes of major types and classes of farms. 

Income from nonfarm sources is important on a large number 
of farms. About 1.4 million of the 4.8 million farm-operator 
families, or about 3 in 10, obtain more income from off-farm sources 
than from the sale of agricultural products. IMore than three- 
fourths of a million farm operators live on small-scale part-time 
farms and ordinarily are not dependent on farming as the main 
soiu-ce of family income. These part-time farmers have a quite 
different relation to adjustments, changes, and farm problems 
than do commercial farmers. A description of and facts regarding 
these part-time farms and the importance of nonfarm income for 
commercial farms are presented in Chapter 8. 



Except for Chapter 8, this report deals with commercial farms 
(see economic class of farm). The analysis is limited to the major 
types of agricultural production and deals primarily with geo- 
graphic areas in which each of the major types of agricultural 
production has substantial significance. 

Source of data. — Most of the data presented in this report are 
from special compilations made for the 1954 Census of Agriculture, 
although pertinent data from research findings and surveys of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, State Agricultural Colleges, and 
other agencies have been used to supplement Census data. The 
detailed Census data used for this report are contained in Part 8 of 
Volume III of the reports of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 
Reference should be made to that report for detailed explanations 
and definitions and statements regarding the characteristics and 
reliability of the data. 

Areas for which data are presented. — Data are presented in 
this report primarily for selected economic subregions and for the 
United States. The boundaries of the 1 19 subregions used for the 
compilation of data on which this report is based are indicated by 
the map on page vi. These subregions represent primarily general 
type-of-farming areas. Many of them extend into two or more 
States. (For a more detailed description of economic subregions, 
see the pubUcation "Economic Subregions of the United States, 
Series Census BAE; No. 19, published cooperatively by the Bureau 
of the Census, and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, July 1953.) 

DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Definitions and explanations are given only for some of the more 
important items. For more detailed definitions and explanations, 
reference can be made to Part 8 of Volume III and to Volume II of 
the reports of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

A farm. — For the 1954 Census of Agriculture, places of 3 or 
more acres were counted as farms if the annual value of agricultural 
products, exclusive of home-garden products, amounted to $150 
or more. The agricultural products could have been either for 
home use or for sale. Places of less than 3 acres were counted as 
farms only if the annual value of sales of agricultural products 
amounted to $150 or more. Places for which the value of agricul- 
tural products for 1954 was less than these minima because of crop 
failure or other unusual conditions, and places operated at the time 
of the Census for the first time were counted as farms if normally 
they could be expected to produce these minimum quantities of 
agricultural products. 

All the land under the control of one person or partnership was 
included as one farm. Control may have been through ownership, 
or through lease, rental, or cropping arrangement. 

Farm operator. — A "farm operator" is a person who operates 
a farm, either performing the labor himself or directly supervising 
it. He may be an owner, a hired manager, or a tenant, renter, or 
sharecropper. If he rents land to others or has land cropped for 
him by others, he is listed as the operator of only that land which 
he retains. In the case of a partnership, only one partner was 
included as the operator. The number of farm operators is con- 
sidered the same as the number of farms. 



VIII 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Farms reporting or operators reporting. — Figures for farms 
reporting or operators reporting, based on a tabulation of all farms, 
represent the number of farms, or farm operators, for which the 
specified item was reported. For example, if there were 11,922 
farms in a subregion and only 11,465 had chickens over 4 months 
old on hand, the number of farms reporting chickens would be 
11,465. The difference between the total number of farms and the 
number of farms reporting an item represents the number of farms 
not having that item, provided the inquiry was answered 
completely for all farms. 

Farms by type. — The classification of comrrifercial farms by 
type was made on the basis of the relationship of the value of 
sales from a particular source, or sources, to the total value of all 
farm products sold from the farm. In some cases, the type of 
farm was determined on the basis of the sale of an individual farm 
product, such as cotton, or on the basis of the sales of closely re- 
lated products, such as dairy products. In other cases, the type 
of farm was determined on the basis of sales of a broader group of 
products, such as grain crops including corn, sorghums, all small 
grains, field peas, field beans, cowpeas, and soybeans. In order to 
be classified as a particular type, sales or anticipated sales of a 
product or group of products had to represent 50 percent or more 
of the total value of products sold. 

The types of commercial farms for which data are shown, to- 
gether with the product or group of products on which the classi- 
fication is based are: 

Product or group of products amount- 
ing to 50 percent or more of the 
Type of farm value of all farm products sold 

Cash-grain Corn, sorghum, small grains, field 

peas, field beans, cowpeas, and 
soybeans. 

Cotton Cotton (lint and seed). 

Other field-crop Peanuts, Irish potatoes, sweet- 
potatoes, tobacco, sugarcane, sug- 
ar beets for sugar, and other 
miscellaneous crops. 

Vegetable Vegetables. 

Fruit-and-nut Berries and other small fruits, and 

tree fruits, nuts, and grapes. 

Dairy Milk and other dairy products. 

The criterion of 50 percent of the 
total sales was modified in the 
case of dairy farms. A farm for 
which the value of sales of dairy 
products represented less than 50 
percent of the total value of farm 
prod\icts sold was classified as a 
dairy farm if — 

(a) Milk and other dairy prod- 

ucts accounted for 30 
percent or more of the 
total value of products 
sold, and 

(b) Milk cows represented 50 

percent or more of all 
cows, and 

(c) Sales of dairy products, to- 

gether with the sales 
of cattle and calves, 
amovmted to 50 percent 
or more of the total 
value of farm products 
sold. 
Chickens, eggs, turkeys, and other 

poultry products. 
Cattle, calves, hogs, sheep, goats, 

wool, and mohair, provided the 

farm did not qualify as a dairy 

farm. 



Poultry. 



Livestock farms other than 
dairy and poultry. 



Product or group of products amount- 
ing to 50 percent or more of the 
Type of farm value of all farm products sold 

General Farms were classified as general 

when the value of products from 
one source or group of sources 
did not represent as much as 50 
percent of the total value of all 
farm products sold. Separate 
figures are given for three kinds 
of general farms: 
(a) Primarily crop. 
(6) Primarily livestock. 
(c) Crop and livestock. 

Primarily crop farms are those for 
which the sale of one of the 
following crops or groups of 
crops — vegetables, fruits and 
nuts, cotton, cash grains, or other 
field crops — did not amount to 
50 percent or more of the value 
of all farm products sold, but 
for which the value of sales for 
all these groups of crops repre- 
sented 70 percent or more of the 
value of all farm products sold. 

Primarily livestock farms are those 
which could not qualify as dairy 
farms, poultry farms, or livestock 
farms other than dairy and 
poultry, but on which the sale 
of livestock and poultry and 
livestock and poultry products 
amounted to 70 percent or more 
of the value of all farm products 
sold. 

General crop and livestock farms are 
those which could not be classi- 
fied as either crop farms or live- 
stock farms, but on which the 
sale of all crops amounted to at 
least 30 percent but less than 70 
percent of the total value of all 
farm products sold. 

Miscellaneous This group of farms includes those 

that had 50 percent or more of 
the total value of products ac- 
counted for by sale of horticul- 
tural products, or sale of horses, 
or sale of forest products. 

Farms by economic class. — A classification of farms by eco- 
nomic class was made for the purpose of segregating groups of 
farms that are somewhat alike in their characteristics and size of 
operation. This classification was made in order to present an 
accurate description of the farms in each class and in order to 
provide basic data for an analysis of the organization of agriculture. 

The classification of farms by economic class was made on the 
basis of three factors; namely, total value of all farm products 
sold, number of days the farm operator worked off the farm, and 
the relationship of the income received from nonfarm sources by 
the operator and members of his family to the value of all farm 
products sold. Farms operated Ijy institutions, experiment sta- 
tions, grazing associations, and community projects were classified 
as abnormal, regardless of any of the three factors. 

For the purpose of determining the code for economic class and 
type of farm, it was necessary to obtain the total value of farm 
products sold as well as the value of some individual products 
sold. 

The total value of farm products sold was obtained by adding 
the reported or estimated values for all products sold from the 
farm. The value of livestock, livestock products except wool and 
mohair, vegetables, nursery and greenhouse products, and forest 



INTRODUCTION 



IX 



products was obtained by the enumerator from the farm operator 
for each farm. The enumerator also obtained from the farm 
operator the quantity sold for corn, sorghums, small grains, hays, 
and small fruits. The value of sales for these crops was obtained 
by multiplying the quantity sold by State average prices. 

The quantity sold was estimated for all other farm products. 
The entire quantity produced for wool, mohair, cotton, tobacco, 
sugar beets for sugar, sugarcane for sugar, broomcorn, hops, and 
mint for oil was estimated as sold. To obtain the value of each 
product sold, the quantity sold was multiplied by State average 
prices. 

In making the classification of farms by economic class, farms 
were grouped into two major groups, namely, commercial farms 
and other farms. In general, all farms with a value of sales of 
farm products amounting to $1,200 or more were classified as 
commercial. Farms with a value of sales of $250 to $1,199 were 
classified as commercial only if the farm operator worked off the 
farm less than 100 days or if the income of the farm operator and 
members of his family received from nonfarm sources was less than 
the total value of all farm products sold. 

Xand in farms according to use. — Land in farms was classified 
according to the use made of it in 1954. The classes of land 
are mutually exclusive, 1. e., each acre of land was included only 
once even though it may have had more than one use during the 
year. 

The classes referred to in this report are as follows: 

Cropland harvested.- — This inoludes land from which crops 
were harvested; land from which hay (including wild hay) was 
cut; and land in small fruits, orchards, vineyards, nurseries, and 
greenhouses. Land from which two or more crops were reported 
as harvested was to be counted only once. 

Cropland used only for pasture. — In the 1954 Census, the 
enumerator's instructions stated that rotation pasture and all 
other cropland that was used only for pasture were to be in- 
cluded imder this class. No further definition of cropland 
pastured was given the farm operator or enumerator. Per- 
manent open pasture may, therefore, have been included under 
this item or under "other pasture," depending on whether the 
enumerator or farm operator considered it as cropland. 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured. — This item includes 
idle cropland, land in soil-improvement crops only, land on 
which all crops failed, land seeded to crops for harvest after 
1954, and cultivated summer fallow. 

In the Western States, this class was subdivided to show 
separately the acres of cultivated summer fallow. In these 
States, the acreage not in cultivated summer fallow represents 
largely crop failure. There are very few counties in the West- 
ern States in which there is a large acreage of idle cropland or 
in which the growing of soil-improvement crops is an important 
use of the land. 

In the States other than the Western States, this general 
class was subdivided to show separately the acres of idle crop- 
land (not used for crops or for pasture in 1954) . In these States, 
the incidence of crop failure is usually low. It was expected 
that the acreage figure that exchided idle land would reflect 
the acreage in soil-improvement crops. However, the 1954 
crop year was one of low rainfall in many Eastern and Southern 
States and, therefore, in these areas the acreage of cropland not 
harvested and not pastured includes more land on which all 
crops failed than would usually be the case. 

Cultivated summer fallow. — This item includes cropland 
that was plowed and cultivated but left unseeded for several 
months to control weeds and conserve moisture. No land 
from which crops were harvested in 1954 was to be included 
under this item. 

Cropland, total. — This includes cropland harvested, cropland 
used only for pasture, and cropland not harvested and not 
pastured. 

Land pastured, total. — This includes cropland used only for 
pasture, woodland pastured, and other pasture (not cropland 
and not woodland). 

423019—57 2 



Woodland, total. — This includes woodland pastured and 

woodland not pastured. 

Value of land and buildings. — The value to be reported was 
the approximate amount for which the land and the buildings on 
it would sell. 

Off-farm work and other income. — Many farm operators receive 
a part of their income from sources other than the sale of farm 
products from their farms. The 1954 Agriculture Questionnaire 
included several inquiries relating to work off the farm and non- 
farm income. These inquiries called for the number of days 
worked off the farm by the farm operator; whether other members 
of the operator's family worked off the farm; and whether the 
farm operator received income from other sources, such as sale 
of products from land rented out, cash rent, boarders, old age 
assistance, pensions, veterans' allowances, unemployment com- 
pensation, interest, dividends, profits from nonfarm business, 
and help from other members of the operator's family. Another 
inquiry asked whether the income of the operator and his family 
from off-farm work and other sources was greater than the total 
value of all agricultural products sold from the farm in 1954. 
Off-farm work was to include work at nonfarm jobs, businesses, 
or professions, whether performed on the farm premises or else- 
where; also, work on someone else's farm for pay or wages. Ex- 
change work was not to be included. 

Specified facilities and equipment. — Inquiries were made in 
1954 to determine the presence or absence of selected items on 
each place such as (1) telephone, (2) piped nmning water, (3) 
electricity, (4) television set, (5) home freezer, (6) electric pig 
brooder, (7) milking machine, and (8) power feed grinder. Such 
facihties or equipment were to be counted even though tem- 
porarily out of order. Piped running water was defined as water 
piped from a pressure system or by gravity flow from a natural 
or artificial source. The enumerator's instructions stated that 
pig brooders were to include those heated by an electric heating 
element, by an infrared or heat bulb, or by ordinary electric bulbs. 
They could be homemade. 

The number of selected types of other farm equipment was also 
obtained for a sample of farms. The selected kinds of farm 
equipment to be reported were (1) grain combines (for harvesting 
and threshing grains or seeds in one operation); (2) cornpickers; 
(3) pickup balers (stationary ones not to be reported) ; (4) field 
forage harvesters (for field chopping of silage and forage crops); 
(5) motortrucks; (6) wheel tractors (other than garden); (7) 
garden tractors; (8) crawler tractors (tracklaying, caterpillar); 
(9) automobiles; and (10) artificial ponds, reservoirs, and earth 
tanks. 

Wheel tractors were to include homemade tractors but were not 
to include implements having built-in power units such as self- 
propelled combines, powered buck rakes, etc. Pickup and truck- 
trailer combinations were to be reported as motortrucks. School 
buses were not to be reported, and jeeps and station wagons were 
to be included as motortrucks or automobiles, depending on 
whether used for hauling farm products or supplies, or as passenger 
vehicles. 

Farm labor. — The farm-labor inquiries for 1954, called for the 
number of persons doing farmwork or chores on the place during 
a specified calendar week. Since starting dat<;s of the 1954 enumer- 
ation varied by areas or States, the calendar week to which the 
farm-labor inquiries related varied also. The calendar week was 
September 26-October 2 or October 24-30. States with the 
September 26-October 2 calendar week were: Arizona, California, 
Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, 
Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, 
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, 



X 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, 
Wasliington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. States with the October 
24-30 calendar week were : Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North 
Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. 
Farmwork was to include any work, chores, or planning necessary 
to the operation of the farm or ranch business. Housework, 
contract construction work, and labor involved when equijiment 
was hired (custom work) were not to be included. 

The farm-labor information was obtained in three parts: 
(1) Operators working, (2) unpaid members of the operator's family 
working, and (3) hired persons working. Operators were consid- 
ered as working if they worked 1 or more hours; unpaid members 
of the operator's family, if they worked 15 or more hours; and 
hired persons, if they worked any time during the calendar week 
specified. Instructions contained no specifications regarding age 
of the persons working. 

Regular and seasonal workers. — Hired persons working on 
the farm during the specified week were classed as "regular" 
workers if the period of actual or expected employment was 150 
days or more during the year, and as "seasonal" workers if the 
period of actual or expected employment was less than 150 days. 
If the period of expected employment was not reported, the 
period of employment was estimated for the individual farm 
after taking into account such items as the basis of payment, 
wage rate, expenditures for labor in 1954, and the type and 
other characteristics of the farm. 

Specified farm expenditures. — The 1954 Census obtained data 
for selected farm expense items in addition to those for fertilizer 
and lime. The expenditures were to include the total specified 
expenditures for the place whether made by landlord, tenant, or 
both. 

Expenditures for machine hire were to include any labor in- 
cluded in the cost of such machine hire. Machine hire refers to 
custom machine work such as tractor hire, threshing, combining, 
silo filling, baling, ginning, plowing, and spraying. If part of the 
farm products was given as pay for machine hire, the value of the 
products traded for this service was to be included in the amount 
of expenditures reported. The cost of trucking, freight, and 
express was not to be included. 

Expenditures for hired labor were to include only cash pay- 
ments. Expenditures for housework, custom work, and contract 
construction work were not to be included. 

Expenditures for feed were to include the expenditures for 
pasture, salt, condiments, concentrates, and mineral supplements, 
as well as those for grain, hay, and miU feeds. Expenditures for 
grinding and mixing feeds were also to be included. Payments 
made by a tenant to his landlord for feed grown on the land rented 
by the tenant were not to be included. 

Expenditures for gasoline and other petroleum fuel and oil were 
to include only those used for the farm business. Petroleum 
products used for the farmer's automobile for pleasure or used 
exclusively in the farm home for heating, cooking, and lighting 
were not to be included. 

Crops harvested. — The information on crops harvested refers 
to the acreage and quantity harvested for the 1954 crop year. An 
exception was made for land in fruit orchards and planted nut 
trees. In this case, the acreage represents that in both bearing 
and nonbearing trees and vines as of October and November 1954. 

Hay. — The data for hay includes aU kinds of hay except soy- 
bean, cowpea, sorghum, and peanut hay. 

livestock and poultry. — The data on the number of livestock 
and poultry represent the number on hand on the day of enumera- 



tion (October-November 1954). The data relating to livestock 
products and the number of livestock sold relate to the sales made 
during the calendar .year 1954. 

LABOR RESOURCES 

The data for labor resources available represent estimates based 
largely on Census data and developed for the purpose of making 
comparisons among farms of various size of operations. The 
labor resources available are stated in terms of man-equivalents. 

To obtain the man-equivalents the total number of farm opera- 
tors as reported by the 1954 Census were adjusted for estimated 
man-years of work olf the farm and for the number of farm opera- 
tors 65 years old and over. The farm operator was taken to rep- 
resent a full man-equivalent of labor unless he was 65 years or 
older or unless he worked at an off-farm job in 1954. 

The man-equivalent estimated for farm operators reporting spec- 
ified amounts of off-farm work were as follows: 

Estimated 
Days worked off the farm in 1954 man-equivalent 

1-99 days ... 0.85 

100-199 days . 50 

200 days and over . 15 

The man-equivalent for farm operators 65 years of age and older 
was estimated at 0.5. 

Man-equivalents of members of the farm operator's family were 
based upon Census data obtained in response to the question 
"How many members of your family did 15 or more hours of farm 
work on this place the week of September 26-October 2 (or, in 
some areas, the week of October 24-30) without receiving cash 
wages?" Each family worker was considered as 0.5 man-equiva- 
lent. This estimate provides allowance for the somewhat higher 
incidence of women, children, and elderly persons in the unpaid 
family labor force. 

In addition, the number of unpaid family workers who were 
reported as working 15 or more hours in the week of September 
26-October 2 was adjusted to take account of seasonal changes in 
farm employment. Using published and unpublished findings of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture and State Agricultural Col- 
leges, and depending largely upon knowledge and experience with 
the geographic areas and type of farming, each author deter- 
mined the adjustment factor needed to correct the number of 
family workers reported for the week of September 26-October 2 
to an annual average basis. 

Man-equivalents of hired workers are based entirely upon the 
expenditure for cash wages and the average wage of permanent 
hired laborers as reported in the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

Value of or investment in livestock. — Numbers of specified 
livestock and poultry in each subregion were multiplied by a 
weighted average value per head. The average values were com- 
puted from data compiled for each kind of livestock for the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. The total value does not include the value 
of goats. (For a description of the method of obtaining the value 
of livestock, see Chapter VI of Volume II of the reports for the 
1954 Census of Agriculture.) 

Value of investment in machinery and equipment. — The data 
on value of investment in machinery and equipment were developed 
for the purpose of making broad comparisons among types and 
economic classes of farms and by subregions. Numbers of specified 
machines on farms, as reported by the Census, were multiplied by 
estimated average value per machine. Then the total values ob- 
tained were adjusted upward to provide for the inclusion of items 
of equipment not included in the Census inventory ot farm 
machinerj'. 



INTRODUCTION 



XI 



The estiniatos for average vahie of specified machines and the 
proportion of total value of all machinery represented by the 
value of these machines were based largely on published and un- 
published data from the "Farm Costs and Returns" surveys con- 
ducted currently by the Agricultural Research Service, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture.' Modifications were made as needed 
in the individual chapters on the basis of State and local studies. 
The total estimated value of all machinery for all types and 
economic classes of farms is approximately equal to the value of 
all machinery as estimated by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Value of farm products sold, or gross sales. — Data on the 
\alue of the various farm products sold were obtained for 1954 by 
two methods. First, the values of livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts sold, except wool and mohair; vegetables harvested for sale; 
nursery and greenhouse products; and forest products were 
obtained by asking each farm operator the value of sales. Second, 
the values of all other farm products sold were computed. For the 
most important crops, the quantity sold or to be sold was obtained 
for each farm. The entire quantity harvested for cotton and 
cottonseed, tobacco, sugar beets for sugar, hops, mint for oil, and 
sugarcane for sugar was considered sold. The quantity of minor 
crops sold was estimated. The value of sales for each crop was 
computed by multiplying the quantity sold by State average 
prices. In the case of wool and mohair, the value of sales was 
computed by multiplying the quantity shorn or clipped by the 
State average prices. 

Gross sales include the value of all kinds of farm products sold. 
The total does not include rental and benefit, soil conservation, 
price adjustment. Sugar Act, and similar payments. The total 



does include the value of the landlord's share of a crop removed 
from a farm operated by a share tenant. In most of the tables, 
detailed data are presented for only the more important sources 
of gross sales and the total for the individual farm products 
or sources will not equal the total as the values for the less impor- 
tant sources or farm products ha\e been omitted. (For a detailed 
statement regarding the reliability and method of obtaining the 
valueof farm products sold, reference should be made to Chapter 
IXof Volume II of the reports for the 1954 Census of Agriculture.) 

Livestock and hvestock products sold. — The value of sales for 
livestock and livestock products includes the value of live animals 
sold, dairy products sold, poultry and poultry products sold, and 
the calculated value of wool and mohair. The value of bees, 
honey, fur animals, goats, and goat milk is not included. 

The value of dairy products includes the value of whole milk and 
cream sold, but does not include the value of butter and cheese, 
made on the farm, and sold. The value of poultry and products 
includes the value of chickens, broilers, chicken eggs, turkeys, 
turkey eggs, ducks, geese, and other miscellaneous poultry and 
poultry products sold. The value does not include the value 
of baby chicks sold. 

Crops sold. — Vegetables sold includes the value of all vegetables 
harvested for sale, but does not include the value of Irish potatoes 
and sweetpotatoes. 

The value of all crops sold includes the value of all crops sold 
except forest products. The value of field crops sold includes the 
value of sales of all crops sold except vegetables, small fruits and 
Ijerries, fruits, and nuts. 



1 Farm Costs and Retuiiis. 1955 (with comparisons), Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 158, Agricultural Research Service. U. S. Department of Agriculture, June 1966. 



CHAPTER II 
COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



CONTENTS 



Introduction 

Significance of cotton production 

Scope and purpose of this report .._ 

Subregions for which special tabulations are available.. 
Section 1. — Cotton production by economic class and tj-pe 

of farm 

The national picture 

The picture by regions 

Distribution of farms, acreage, and production by eco- 
nomic class for all commercial farms 

The humid belt rt'gions (Regions I to VI) 

The subhumid belt regions (Regions VII and VIII). _ 
The semiarid and arid cotton production regions (Re- 
gions IX and X) 

Cotton production on noncommercial farms 

Cotton production on cotton farms and on commercial 

farms other than cotton farms 

Some implications of distribution of cotton production 

by economic class and region 

Section 2. — Trends in cotton production by regions 

Section 3. — Tenure of cotton farms 

Proportion of cotton farms operated by croppers 

Tenants other than croppers 



Face 

5 
5 
6 

7 

9 

9 

10 

14 
14 
15 

15 

15 

16 

17 
18 
21 
21 
22 



Section 4. — The land resource and its utilization 

Distribution of land, by major uses 

Land use and enterprise organization per farm 

Total acres per farm 

Cropland and cropland use 

Cropland utilization 

Pasture and woodland 

Section 5. — -Labor resources and use 

Age of operator 

Off-farm use of labor resources 

Man-equivalent workers per cotton farm 

Total cropland and cotton acres per man-equivalent 

Section 6. — Investment on cotton farms 

Regional distribution of total investment among eco- 
nomic classes 

Investment per farm 

Investment per acre and per man-equivalent 

Section 7. — -Selected measures of farm income and effi- 
ciency 

Indicated returns per operator and family man-equiva- 
lent worker 

Investment per dollar of sales 



MAPS AND CHARTS 



Economic subregions and state economic areas 

Acres of cotton harvested as a percent of cropland harvested, 1 954 

Cotton farms, number, 1954 

Cotton harvested, acreage, for cotton subregions: 1954 

Economic regions and subregions for cotton: 1954 

Cotton harvested — acreage, 1879 to 1954; and production, 1839 to 1954; for the United States. 

Number of farms with less than 25 bales of cotton harvested, for cotton subregions: 1954 

Number of farms with 25-49 bales of cotton harvested, for cotton subregions: 1954 

Number of farms with 50-99 bales of cotton harvested, for cotton subregions: 1954 

Number of farms with 100 or more bales of cotton harvested, for cotton subregions: 1954 



23 
23 

27 
27 
31 
32 
38 
40 
40 
42 
43 
45 
46 

46 
47 
48 

49 

53 
53 



Page 

vi 

6 

6 

7 

8 

18 

34 

34 

35 

35 



TABLES 

Table— Page 

1. — Farms reporting cotton as a percent of all farms and acres of cotton harvested as a percent of cropland harvested, for specified 

States: 1930 to 1954 5 

2. — Farm cash receipts from cotton and cottonseed as percent of total farm cash receipts, for specified States: 1924 to 1954 5 

3. — -Percent distribution of farms reporting cotton, acres of cotton harvested, and bales of cotton produced, by economic class of 

farm, for the United States: 1954 and 1949 9 

4. — Percent distribution of farms reporting cotton, acres of cotton harvested, and bales of cotton produced, by type of farm, for 

the United States: 1954 and 1949 9 

5. — Farms reporting cotton, acres of cotton harvested, and cotton production for cotton farms as a percentage of the total for all 

commercial farms reporting cotton, for each economic class of farm, for the United States: 1954 10 

6. — Number of farms, farms reporting cotton, and acres and bales of cotton harvested, for commercial farms, by economic class 

and for noncommercial farms, by regions; 1954 10 

7. — -Distribution between cotton farms and commercial farms other than cotton farms, of farms reporting, acres harvested, and 

production of cotton on commercial farms, by economic class of farm, by regions: 1954 12 

8. — Percent distribution of number of farms and acres and bales of cotton harvested, for cotton farms, by economic class of farm, 

by regions: 1954 16 

9. — Percent distribution of number of farms reporting cotton and acres and bales of cotton harvested, for commercial farms other 

than cotton farms, by economic class, by regions: 1954 16 

10. — Cotton acreage, yield per acre, and production for specified 5-year periods, for the United States and regions: 1928 to 1954.. 19 
11. — Ratio of change since 1928-32 in acreage, yield, and production of cotton in each region to change for the United States for 

specified periods: 1933 to 1954 20 

12. — ^Percent distribution of all commercial farm operators, and cotton farm operators in each economic class of farm, by color 

and tenure of operator, by regions: 1954 21 

3 



4 CONTENTS 

TABLES— Continued 

Table— Page 

13. — All land in farms, total cropland, and irrigated land, by economic class of cotton farm, total of ten regions: 1954 23 

14. — Land use for cotton farms, by economic class of farm, by regions: 1954 24 

15. — Land use on cotton farms per farm, by economic class of farm, by regions: 1954 28 

16. — Percent distribution for all commercial farms and for cotton farms in each economic class, by acres in farm, by regions: 1954__ 31 
17. — Percent distribution of farms reporting cotton harvested, by acres harvested, for all commercial farms and for cotton farms, 

by economic class, by regions: 1954 32 

18.- — Percent distribution of cotton farms by acres of cotton harvested, by economic class of farm, by regions: 1954 33 

19. — Distribution of farm sales by source, for cotton farms, by economic class, by regions: 1954 36 

20. — Average number per farm reporting and percent of farms reporting specified classes of livestock, for cotton farms, by economic 

class of farm, by regions: 1954 38 

21. — Percent distribution of operators of cotton farms in each age group, by economic class of farm, by regions: 1954 40 

22. — Percent distribution of operators of each economic class of cotton farm, by age, by regions: 1954 41 

23. — Percent distribution of operators of cotton farms by days of work off farm, by economic class, by regions: 1954 42 

24. — Percent of operators of cotton farms vfith other income of family exceeding value of farm products sold, by economic class 

of farm, by regions: 1 954 , 42 

25. — Total man-equivalent per all commercial farms and per cotton farm, and percent distribution in each economic class of cotton 

farm, by type of worker, by regions: 1954 43 

26.— Percent distribution of farms reporting specified expenditures for hired labor for cotton farms, by economic class of farm, by 

regions: 1954 44 

27. — -Acres of cropland harvested and acres of cotton harvested per man-equivalent for cotton farms, by economic class, and by 

regions: 1 954 45 

28. — Distribution of investment on cotton farms, by economic class, by regions: 1954 46 

29. — Total investment and percent distribution of investment per farm for cotton farms, by economic class, by regions: 1954 47 

30. — Total investment per acre of all land in farms, per acre of total cropland, and per man-equivalent, for cotton farms, by economic 

class, by regions: 1954 48 

31. — Total sales, cotton sales, all crop sales, and livestock and livestock products sales per cotton farm, by economic class, and by 

regions: 1954 49 

32. — Percent of farms reporting and average expenditure for selected items per farm, for cotton farms, by economic class, by regions: 

1954 50 

33. — Sales minus specified expenses per farm for cotton farms, by economic class, by regions: 1954 61 

34. — Estimated interest on investment per farm for cotton farms, by economic class, by regions: 1954 52 

35. — Sales per farm minus specified expenses and imputed interest on investment for economic classes of cotton farms, by regions: 

1954 52 

36. — Sales minus specified expenses (except hired labor) per man-equivalent, for cotton farms, by economic class and regions: 1954. 52 
37. — Sales minus specified expenses (except hired labor) and imputed interest on investment per man-equivalent, for cotton farms, 

by economic class and regions: 1954 52 

38. — Sales minus specified expenses per operator and family worker for cotton farms, by economic class and regions: 1954 53 

39. — Sales minus specified expenses and imputed interest on investment per man-equivalent of operator and family workers for 

economic classes of cotton farms, by regions: 1954 53 

40. — Total investment on cotton farms per dollar of sales, by economic class of farm, by regions: 1954 53 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 

Robert B. Glasgow 

INTRODUCTION 



SIGNIFICANCE OF COTTON PRODUCTION 

Cotton production is one of the most important enterprises 
found on American farms. It talies place in only 20 of the 48 
States, and is of appreciable significance in only 14 States, yet no 
other single crop in this country accounts for so large a projjortion 
of total farm, sales. Moreover, e.xcept for dairying, no other 
single crop or livestock enterprise accounts for half or more of the 
total farm sales on so many farms. 

Cotton is grown to a varying e.xtent in all of the 19 States that 
have some part of their land south of the 37th parallel of latitude, 



and a very small acreage is grown in Kansas just north of this 
parallel. States in which cotton is not of appreciable significance 
are those having southern borders at or near the 37th parallel. In 
addition to Kansas, these are Virginia, Kentucky, lUinois, and 
Nevada. In Florida, cotton does not loom large in the agriculture 
as a whole. 

The 14 remaining States in which cotton production is of con- 
siderable significance are shown in tables 1 and 2. These tables 
also show some data regarding national and State trends, and 
some indications of the relative importance of the cotton enterprise 
to the agriculture of the country as a whole, and to the agriculture 



Table 1. — Farms Reporting Cotton as a Percent of All Farms and Acres of Cotton Harvested as a Percent of Cropland 

Harvested, for Specified States: 1930 to 1954 





1954 


1950 


1945 


1940 


1930 


state 


Percent 
of farms 


Percent of 
cropland 
harvested 


Percent 
of farms 


Percent of 
cropland 
harvested 


Percent 
of farms 


Percent of 
cropland 
harvested 


Percent 
of farms 


Percent of 
cropland 
harvested 


Percent 
of farms 


Percent of 

cropland 

harvested 


Alabama- 


60.2 
29.4 
46.7 
8.0 
9,6 
47.7 

4C.2 
72.4 
6,8 
15,9 
28,9 

22.5 
61.3 
27.7 
43.0 
3,3 

18,1 


24.0 
40,1 
3U, 7 
10,6 
1,7 
16,4 

22 3 
35,2 

3,4 
17.4 

9,5 

8.8 
23,9 
13,0 
30.2 

0, 5 

5,7 


68,8 
16,0 
54,9 
6,1 
9,9 
55.7 

51, 6 
75,9 
7.1 
14,6 
36,5 

28,8 
67.0 
28.9 
46.2 
4,1 

20.6 


32,3 
42,2 
43.4 
10,8 
2,5 
21.9 

29.1 
45.1 
4,8 
15 
14,6 

10,3 

:m. 2 

1.5,9 
37,6 
0,9 

7, 7 


64, n 
7,6 

67,4 
3, 1 
"8 

53.4 

61.3 
80,0 
7 
8,4 
37 1 

37,1 
69,4 
28,4 
45,2 
3.8 

20.8 


22,3 
21.5 
29,5 
3,5 
1,4 
16,4 

23 3 

35,4 

3,1 

5,3 

11,7 

10,6 
24,7 
11.2 
24.0 
0.7 

5.4 


86.6 
10, 8 
69, 5 
4,0 
14,3 
77 4 

76, 2 
89,2 
6,5 
8,3 
37 1 

48,4 
81,1 
31,3 
65, 3 
4,0 

20,1 


27.1 
34,9 
31, 1 
4,8 
3,5 
21, 1 

26.9 
35,2 
3.1 
5,7 
11,6 

13,1 
27,2 
11,0 
31, 1 
0,8 

7,1 


90,1 
24,3 
79.3 
3,2 
20.7 
80,9 

79,6 
90,2 
6,3 
11.9 
54,2 

60,6 
83.2 
36.0 
79,7 
8,2 

31,6 


,50.1 
44.1 
52.4 
4.6 
8,5 
40.9 

47 8 

60.8 

2 7 

9.1 

28.2 

26.7 
47 7 
17 1 
,54.9 
2 2 

12.0 




Arkansas 




Florida 


Georgia 


Louisiana- 


Missouri . _ 


New Mexico... 






South Carolina. 




Texas 

Virginia 


United States 





Table 2. — Farm Cash Receipts From Cotton and Cotton- 
seed AS Percent of Total Farm Cash Receipts, for SpecI' 
FiED States: 1924 to 1954 



Alabama. . 

Arizona 

Arkansas,. 
California - 

Florida 

Georgia 



Louisiana 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Mexico 

North Carolina. 



Oklahoma. 

South Carolina, 

Teimessee - 

Texas.. 



Virginia 

United States,. 



1924 


1929 


1934 


1939 


1944 


1949 


Per- 


Per- 


Per- 


Per- 


Per- 


Per- 


C€7U 


cent 


cent 


cent 


cent 


cent 


71.8 


74.7 


72.4 


45.8 


47 7 


42 3 


31.6 


32.2 


28.3 


24.1 


17.3 


36.4 


70.1 


68,9 


67 9 


54.4 


50.7 


56.7 


2 4 


3,0 


4.6 


6.4 


2 8 


11.7 


3.0 


2.8 


2 4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.6 


62.0 


68.7 


58.3 


35.2 


28.6 


23.7 


45.8 


53.2 


48,2 


.35.6 


31.1 


34.3 


77.5 


78.2 


76,3 


67.2 


70,2 


67 9 


8.3 


6,6 


10.4 


9,1 


7 2 


8,0 


13.6 


15,3 


21.1 


10,8 


14,1 


24.0 


40.9 


30.6 


23.3 


10.4 


13,9 


12.6 


52.0 


40.2 


30.9 


14.6 


14.2 


12,8 


69.8 


64.4 


62.1 


46.8 


44.8 


34.4 


29. n 


30.6 


32 1 


19.6 


21.8 


24.8 


70.2 


52.9 


61.2 


,30 7 


23.6 


37 8 


3.7 


2.8 


3.2 


0.6 


1.1 


0.9 


16.2 


13.4 


13.6 


8.0 


7.5 


9.5 



Per- 
cent 
35.3 
60.4 
50.9 
11.4 
0.9 
21.3 

32,3 
60,6 

8,9 
38.7 

8,3 

9.9 
31.1 
23.7 
38.0 

0.5 

9,0 



Source: USDA, AMS Statistical Bullctm No. 186. 
423019—57 3 



of the major cotton-producing States. 

Tlie fact that the States that grow cotton constitute a vast 
contiguous area extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific 
precludes consideration of cotton as a regional crop in any usual 
sense of that term (see figs. 1 and 2). 

Cotton and the salient economic facts and characteristics of 
cotton production are of significance to thousands of people who 
are not on farms but who are engaged in cotton-oriented services 
and processing industries. Problems a.ssociated with cotton pro- 
duction even concern all consumers of fibers, for despite the tre- 
mendous increase during the last 15 years in the production and 
consumption of synthetic fibers, the per capita domestic consump- 
tion of cotton has remained relatively stable. In 1954, it ac- 
counted for more than two-thirds of all fiber used in the United 
States. 

A further general fact of widely ramifying import is that, al- 
though the United States is, and has long been, the largest single 
consumer of cotton, it is also the world's leading exporter of raw 
cotton, thus making this commodity a notable factor in the inter- 
national trade of the United States. 

5 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



<vj5^L^^ OF COTTON HARVESTED AS A PERCENT OF CROPLAND HARVESTED, 1954 

'^ (COUNTY UNIT BASIS) 




LEGEND 

PERCENT 

i;:;;-;! UNDER lO ^^ 30 TO 39 
^^ 10 TO 19 ^H 40 AND OVER 

^^ 20 TO 29 I I NO COTTON 

* NO FfARMS 

U S OEPflRTMENT OF COMMERCE 



MAP NO A54-280 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 1. 



COTTON FARMS 

NUMBER. 1954 




UNITED STATES TOTAL 
525,208 



BmclU Of Tx cottus 



Figure 2. 

SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT 

It would seem, therefore, that additional information concern- 
ing the economic structure, and the resource-use characteristics 
of this industry, and of the farms which comprise it, would be 



valuable to producers, consumers, handlers, and processors, and 
to those responsible for the planning and execution of govern- 
mental policy. 

Data gathered by the Bureau of the Census have long been a 
mainstay of analyses of this type. The Agriculture Census of 
lOSi provided, for the first time, special tabulations of farm char- 
acteristics for type of farm, cross classified by economic class of 
farm. Census types of farms are delineated by the criterion of 
the commodity source of 50 percent or more of farm sales. One of 
the farm types so established is the cotton farm. This is a farm 
on which 50 percent or more of all sales are from cotton and 
cottonseed. The economic classes of farms used by Census since 
1950 are volume or size-of-business groups classified according to 
the value of total sales of farm products. These groups range 
from Class I farms, having total sales of $25,000 or more, to 
Class VI farms which are characterized by sales of $250 to $1,199. 

Analysis of the 1954 Census data made available, for selected 
subregious, by the special tabulations of data for cotton farms by 
economic class, sheds new light upon the economic structure and 
characteristics of the industry of cotton production and of the 
farms which comprise it. 

Most of this report is concerned with these new data which have 
been supplemented by other statistics from the Bureau of the 
Census and other sources. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



SUBREGIONS FOR WHICH SPECIAL TABULATIONS ARE 
AVAILABLE 

The special tabulations for cotton farms by economic class were 
made for the 30 subregions in which cotton growing is of con- 
siderable importance. The location of these subregions and the 
distribution of cotton acreage in 1954 is shown in figure 3. 

To facilitate the presentation and analysis of the new data the 
selected subregions were grouped into 10 regions (see fig. 4). 
Regions I through VI, extending from North Carolina to eastern 
Texas, comprise most of the humid area of cotton growing in this 
country. Moving west, Regions VII and VIII represent the bulk 
of production under subhumid climatic conditions. In Region IX 
is found the major part of cotton production under semiarid 
climatic conditions. Virtually all cotton grown in subregion 103 
is found in the more southerly of the Texas counties included. 
Much of the crop in this region is irrigated from wells. Region X 
encompasses most of the cotton growing under irrigation in the arid 
southwest of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, and the arid San 
Joaquin Valley of California. 

The six regions which comprise the humid climatic belt include 
some striking differences. The easterumo.st region (Region I) 
represents, in general, cotton production on the Eastern Coastal 
Plain of the United States. In some places in this region flue-cured 
tobacco and peanuts are more important crops than cotton. The 
region, in general, has larger reaches of level land than are to be 
found in either of the next two regions to the west. 

Adjoining the Eastern Coastal Plain to the west is Region 
II, the Southern Piedmont. This region has some stretches of level 



land but in general it is hilly, and the characteristic fields are 
small and irregular in shape. 

The next region to the west. Region III, can perhaps be de- 
scribed as midsouthern hilly, with some level land. This region 
has rather disparate areas within it. Examples are the Black 
Prairie (Black Belt) of Alabama and Mississippi, the Sand Moun- 
tain area of Alabama, the brown loam areas of Tennessee and 
Mississippi, and the sand-clay hills of Alabama, Mississippi, and 
Tennessee. 

Immediately to the west of Region III lies the fabulous so- 
called "Delta" — the Alluvial Vplley of the Mississippi and Red 
Rivers, extending from the "B .(ot Heel" of Missouri to the 
sugarcane countr.v of southern Louisiana. 

Region V is comprised mostly of the Western Sandy Coastal 
Plains of northeastern Texas, northwestern Louisiana, and south- 
western Arkansas. It also includes the piney woods of eastern 
Texas and west central Louisiana, the so-caUed "Post Oak" area 
of east central Texas and the Arkansas River Valley and uplands 
of central Arkansas. It is in some respects the western counterpart 
of Region III. 

The final region in the humid belt (Region VI) is coextensive 
with subregion 78. It is the Gulf Coast Prairie of Texas and 
Louisiana. Most of the cotton here is found in the Texas part; 
much of which is on the alluvial lands of the several streams that 
find their final passage to the Gulf through this region. The 
region includes, also, most of the specialized rice-growing farms 
of Texas and Louisiana. These are generally located on the 
heavy, rather poorly drained soils most typical of the region. 
Cotton and rice are not often grown on the same farms. 



yi 



COTTON HARVESTED. ACREAGE. 

FOR COTTON SUBREGIONS 1954 



^•.«=<3» 





h=3 



UNITED STATES TOTAL 
18,858,145 



us DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



1 DOT= 10.000 ACRES 



MAP NO A54-535 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 3. 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



^i 



ECONOMIC REGIONS AND SUBREGIONS FOR C0TT0N;I954 





YE 




/-r"\ 



^^^ ECONOMIC REGION BOUNDSRt 

ECONOMIC SuBREGIONBOUNDflRV 

STATE BOUNOatT 



A VTTT 



Figure 4. 



Regions VII and VIII, in the subliumid belt, are most dis- 
similar. Tiie first named is composed of tlie Black Prairie of 
Texas, the Rio Grande Plains of southern Texas, and the rolling 
plains of west central Texas and southwestern Oklahoma. Region 
VIII is the lower Rio Grande Vallej' and has, in comjiaratively 
recent years, become a rather highly specialized cotton-growing 
area. Irrigation is general liere but the water supply, mostly 
from the Rio Grande, is generally not adequate to permit irrigation 
of all land in cotton. 

The final two regions (Regions IX and X) encompass, re- 
spectively, most of the cotton production under semiarid and arid 
climatic conditions. 

In Region IX, most of the cotton is grown in the High Plains of 
Texas area. This area was developed for crop farming relatively 
late, and it's farms have always been characterized by relatively 
large areas of land and other resources per man. Supplemental 
irrigation from wells has become a very significant factor in the 
agriculture of the cotton-growing section of this region during the 
past 10 to 12 years. 

In Region X, cotton is grown only under irrigation. Included 
in this region are the Trans-Pecos and upper Rio Grande cotton- 
producing areas of Texas, nearly all cotton-producing areas in 
New Mexico and Arizona, and the fabulous Central Valley of 
California. 



The 30 subregions included in these 10 regions accounted, in the 
aggregate, for 94 percent of all cotton farms and for 97 percent of 
both the cotton acreage and production of cotton on sucli farms in 
1954. During 19.54, the 30 selected subregions accounted for about 
95 to 98 percent of the national total of cotton farms and of cotton 
acreage and production on cotton farms for each economic class. 

Thus, it seems reasonable to conclude that the cotton farms of 
the selected subregions are, in the aggregate, representative of 
all cotton farms in the United States. To a remarkable degree 
cotton growing is concentrated on farms that are classified as 
cotton farms. In 1954, for example, 61 percent of all farms 
reporting cotton, and 80 and 84 percent, respectively, of aU cotton 
acreage and production were on these farms. So although most of 
the data in this report pertain specifically only to the cotton- 
farm type, it would seem that most of the aggregate conclusions 
indicated could be accepted as applying to the general industry 
of cotton production in the United States. Tliis supposition is 
buttressed by several facts: {1} These subregions, in 1954, 
accounted for 68 percent of the number of commercial farms, other 
than cotton farms, that reported cotton, and for 80 percent of 
the cotton acreage and production found on these farms. (S) In 
that year approximately 90 percent of the noncommercial farms 
reporting cotton, and of the cotton acreage and production on these 
farms, were encompassed by the selected subregions. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 9 

Section 1.— COTTON PRODUCTION BY ECONOMIC CLASS AND TYPE OF FARM 



THE NATIONAL PICTURE 

Informiition on the distributions by economic class of the num- 
ber of furms reporting a crop, the acreage harvested, and the 
production, contributes notably to our linowledge of the overall 
structure of that crop production. Such data show in a general 
way the location of production and acreage with respect to the 
size of the farm and they are indicative of the income level of the 
farmers who grow the crop. 

Table 3 shows this type of information for all farms reporting 
cotton ir the United States during 19-19 and 1954. Of the number 
of commercial farms rejiorting cotton, there was a considerable 
concentration in Classes V and VI in both 1949 and 1954. These 
classes, together with noncommercial farms, accounted for more 
than 60 percent of farms reporting cotton in 1954 and for more than 
70 percent in 1949. This means that in 1954 three-fifths of the 
farm operators growing cotton had gross farm sales of less than 
$2,500. As the noncommercial farms are presumed not to be 
primarily dependent upon agriculture for their income, this 
indicated low gross income from farming may not be important 
to them. But the large number of cotton producers found in 
Economic Classes V and VI does suggest that there is a concen- 
tration of farmers with low incomes from farming among the cotton 
farms. For all farms, the proportions classified as Classes V and 
VI were 30.1 in 1949 and 25.7 in 1954. It is thus evident that the 
concentration of these low-production commercial farms was al- 
most twice as large among farms reporting cotton as among all 
farms, in both vears. 



An additional fact of interest is the significant decrease from 
1949 to 1954 in the proportion that Economic Class VI and non- 
commercial farms were of all farms reporting cotton. These 
decreases were accompanied by significant increases for 1954 
over 1949 in the proportions of all cotton-reporting farms in 
Economic Classes I through IV. 

There was considerably less concentration of acreage and pro- 
duction on these low-production commercial and noncommercial 
farms. The stril;ing fact in table 3 about acreage and production 
is their concentration, relative to numbers of farms reporting, on 
Economic Class I and Class II farms. The distributions of farms 
reporting cotton, cotton acreage, and cotton production by type 
of farm for the United States are shown in table 4 for 1949 and 
1954. Cotton farms account for a preponderance of farms report- 
ing, acres, and production in both years. 

Other field-crop farms accounted for a much larger proportion 
of the farms growing cotton than any other commercial type 
largely because of a concentration of tobacco and peanut farms 
in parts of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Alabama, where the growing 
of cotton is also prevalent. 

Perhaps the single outstanding fact brought out by the distri- 
butions in table 4 is that for more than a fourth of the commercial 
farms reporting, cotton is not the major source of farm income. 
Tliese farms harvested about 16 percent of all cotton acreage,in 
1954 and accounted for about 14 percent of total cotton production. 

The data in table 3 for economic class of farm reporting cotton 
are for all types of farms, while the data by t.vpe shown in table 4_are 



Table 3. — Percent Distribution of Farms Reporting Cotton, Acres of Cotton Harvested, and Bales of Cotton Produced, by 

Economic Class of Farm, for the United States: 1954 and 1949 





All 
farms 




Commercial farms by 


economic 


class 




Noncommercial farms 


Item and year 


Total 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Total 


Part- 
time 


Resi- 
dential 


Abnor- 
mal 


Farms reportiiis; 

1954 

1949 

Acres of cotton harvested: 

1954 

1949.-- 

Bales of cotton produced: 
1954 .. 


100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 


84.8 
80.5 

96.1 
94.1 

97,5 
96.6 


2.5 
1.4 

23.3 
18.9 

37.8 
28.1 


4.8 
3.5 

16.3 
17.2 

14.8 
18.2 


10.0 
6.8 

16.1 
14.9 

12.8 
14.0 


21.7 
15.8 

19.1 
15.9 

15.9 
14.7 


28.0 
26.2 

15.5 
16.3 

12.5 

14,7 


17.8 
26.8 

6.7 
10.9 

3.7 
7,0 


15.2 
19.5 

3.9 

6.9 

2,6 
3.4 


11.1 
12.4 

3.2 

4.4 

2.0 
2.7 


4.1 
7.1 

0.6 

1.6 

0.3 
0.5 


(Z) 
(Z) 

0.2 
0.1-, 

0.2 


1949 - -- - 


0.1 







Z 0,05 percent or less. 

Table 4. — Percent Distribution of Farms Reporting Cotton, Acres of cotton Harvested, and Bales of Cotton Produced, by 

Type of Farm, for the United States: 1954 and 1949 





All 
farms 


Type of commercial farm 


Noncommercial farms 




Total 


Cash- 
grain 


Cot- 
ton 


Other 
fleld- 
crop 


Vege- 
table 


Fruit- 
and- 
nut 


Dairy 


Poul- 
try 


Other 
live- 
stock 


General farms 


Miscel- 
lane- 
ous 


Total 


Part- 
time 


Resi- 
dential 




Item and year 


Crop 


Live- 
stock 


Crop 
and 
live- 
stock 


Abnor- 
mal 


Farms reporting: 

1964 

1949 ... 


100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 


84.8 
80.5 

96.1 
94.1 

97.5 
96.6 


1.7 
0.8 

2.8 
1.0 

1.8 
0.9 


60.9 
54.9 

79.8 
79.9 

83.8 
86.0 


10.0 
11.5 

3.0 
4.0 

3.1 
3.2 


0.2 
0.3 

0.3 
0.2 

0.5 
0.2 


0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 

0.3 
0.2 


1.5 
1,2 

1,0 
0,8 

0,9 
0,7 


0,8 
0.7 

0.4 
0.3 

0-3 
0,2 


2,5 
2.7 

2.2 
1.9 

1.4 

1.3 


3.6 
3.3 

3.8 

2,8 

3,8 
2.6 


0.2 
0.3 

0.1 
0.1 

(Z) 
0.1 


3.1 

4.0 

2.6 
2,7 

1.6 
2.0 


0.2 
0.4 

0.1 
0.2 

0.1 
0.1 


1.5.2 
19.5 

3.9 
6.9 

2,5 
3.4 


11, 1 

12.4 

3.2 
4.4 

2,0 
2,7 


4.1 
7.1 

0.6 
1.5 

0.3 
0.6 


(Z) 
(Z) 


Acres of cotton harvested: 

1954 

1949 


0.2 
0. 1 


Bales of cotton produced: 

1954 . 


0.2 


1949 


0. 1 







Z 0.05 percent or less. 



10 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



for all commercial farms. For each economic class, cotton farms 
account for a preponderance of farms growing the crop, and even 
larger proportions of the acreage and production. 

Table 5. — Farms Reporting Cotton, Acres of Cotton 
Harvested, and Cotton Production for Cotton Farms as a 
Percentage of the Total for all Commercial Farms Re- 
porting Cotton, for Each Economic Class of Farm, for 
the United States: 1954 





Economic class of farm 


Item 


All 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 




72 
83 
86 


71 
86 
86 


62 
81 
85 


64 
79 
81 


62 
80 

84 


78 
87 
91 


88 




91 


Bales harvested 


04 



THE PICTURE BY REGIONS 

Data for the selected regions of this study which show the total 
number of farms, the number of farms reporting cotton, acres of 
cotton harvested, and bales of cotton produced, by economic class 
of farm and by type of farm are particularly useful in indicating 
the characteristics of cotton production. They make discernible 
a reasonably clear picture of: (/) The nature of the diverse 
agricultural economies in which cotton growing is carried on; (S) 
the role and relative importance of the cotton enterprise in the 
several regions and on different types of farms; (S) the structure, 
with respect to size of business, of the cotton-production industry 
in the regions. 

Information of this kind for economic class of commercial 
farms and for types of noncommercial farms is shown in table 6. 



The data relating to the number, and proportion, of all farms 
reporting cotton indicate the relative importance of cotton 
production in the agriculture of the region and show the relative 
importance of the enterprise to different size-of-business groups. 

In Regions I, II, and III, the three humid regions east of the 
Mississippi River, cotton is grown on 74, 64, and 87 percent, 
respectively, of all commercial farms. This leaves little doubt 
that in these regions it is an extremely important enterprise. An 
examination of the proportions of the economic classes of com- 
mercial farms that report cotton presents some interesting impli- 
cations. For example, in Region II, where 64 percent of all 
commercial farms report cotton, only about one-fourth of Eco- 
nomic Class I and Class II farms grow cotton, and only slightly 
more than one-third of Class III farms report the crop. To a less 
pronounced degree the same situation prevails in Region III. 
In Region I about the same proportion of Class III farms report 
cotton as of all commercial farms. But here too, smaller pro- 
portions of Economic Classes I and II farms report cotton than 
the proportion of all farms reporting cotton. 

It is noteworthy that a larger proportion of the large farms in 
these areas do not grow cotton. Particularly for Regions II and 
III the general characteristics of the topography, and the effects 
of this upon the practicability of adopting labor-saving methods 
suggest that many of the larger farms may not find cotton as prof- 
itable as other enterprises. In this connection, data of table 7 show 
that in Regions I and 11 a large majority of the farms in Classes I 
through III that report cotton are not cotton farms. These same 
data reveal that in Region III where 89 percent of all commercial 
farms that report cotton are cotton farms, a majority of the farms 
reporting cotton in Classes I and II are not cotton farms. 

A somewhat similar situation with respect to the proportions of 
farms in different economic classes that report cotton is found in 



Table 6. — Number of Farms, Farms Reporting Cotton, and Acres and Bales of Cotton Harvested, for Commercial Farms, by 

Economic Class and for Noncommercial Farms, by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



REGION I 



All farms, number 

Percent distribution 

Farms reporting cotton, number. 

Percent of all farms 

Percent distribution 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 



REGION II 



All farms, number 

Percent distribution 

Farms reporting cotton, number. 

Percent of all farms 

Percent distribution 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 

Bales of cotton harvested — 

Percent distribution 



REGION III 



All farms, number 

Percent distribution 

Farms reporting cotton, number. 

Percent of all farms 

Percent distribution. 

Acres of cotton harvested.. 

Percent distribution. 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 



All farms 



223, 910 

100 

135, 573 

60.5 

100 

:, 680. 374 

100 

986, 051 

100.0 



169, 464 

100,0 

72.282 

42.7 

100 

692. 432 

100,0 

388. 460 

100.0 



357, 989 

100,0 

239, 490 

66.9 

100 

2, 607, 604 

100 

1, 799. 588 

100.0 



Commercial farms by economic class 



Total. 


I 


160, 682 


1,784 


71,8 


0,8 


118,761 


988 


73,9 


65.4 


87.6 


0,7 


1, 508, 759 


109, 668 


95,6 


6 9 


951, 166 


73, 797 


96.5 


7.6 


77, 232 


1,115 


45 6 


0.7 


49. 708 


273 


64,4 


24,5 


68 8 


4 


579. 074 


13, 770 


83.6 


2 


334, 161 


9,171 


86.0 


2.4 


220. 384 


1,723 


61,6 


0,6 


192. OSO 


963 


87,2 


66.3 


80,2 


4 


2, 324, 630 


122, 869 


92,7 


4 9 


1, 693, 480 


110, 222 


94.1 


1 6.1 






6,087 

2.7 

3,898 

64,0 

2 9 

161, 345 

10 2 

108, 919 

11.0 



4,349 

2,6 

1,118 

25.7 

1.6 

30, 966 

4.6 

19, 313 

6.0 



6,723 

1,6 

3,398 

69.4 

1,4 

160. 780 

6,0 

119, 408 

6.6 



III 



20,608 

9,2 

15, 404 

74,7 

11.4 

280.983 

17 8 

195. 394 

19.8 



7,064 

4.2 

2,463 

34 9 

3 4 

46, 426 

6,7 

29, 593 

7.6 



13, 102 

3,7 

9,899 

75.6 

4 1 

252, 504 

10 1 

208. 879 

11.6 



IV 



51.288 

22 9 

40.640 

79 2 

30,0 

485. 708 

30,7 

317, 832 

32.2 



12, 266 

7.2 

7.127 

58 1 

9 9 

124, 512 

18 

77, 767 

20.0 



42, 392 

11.8 

37.882 

89.4 

16 8 

629, 820 

25 1 

497, 088 

27.6 



61, 172 

22,9 

38, 267 

74,8 

28,2 

349, 322 

22, 1 

196, 938 

20.0 



26, 174 

16 4 

19.023 

72 7 

26 3 

228, 017 

32,9 

131, 663 

33.9 



83, 965 

23,5 

76, 866 

91.6 

32 1 

790. 406 

31.6 

552, 657 

30.7 



VI 



29, 743 

13 3 

19,664 
66.8 

14 4 
121, 743 

7,7 

68,276 

6.9 



26, 264 

15,5 
19, 704 

76 

27,3 
136, 394 

19 6 
66, 744 

17.2 



73, 489 

20-6 

63,092 

85.9 

26 3 

378. 251 

15 1 

205. 326 

11,4 



Noncommercial farms 



Total 



63,228 

28 2 

16. 812 

26.6 

12 4 

71,615 

4,5 

34, 895 

3.6 



92,232 
54,4 

22, 674 

24.5 

31.2 

113.358 

16 4 

64,309 
14.0 



137, 606 

38.2 

47, 410 

34.5 

19,8 

182, 974 

7.2 

106, 108 

6.9 



Part- 
time 



25, 919 

11.6 

12, 132 

46.8 

8 9 

60, 087 

3,8 

30, 025 

3.0 



31, 968 
18,9 

17,407 
54.5 
24.1 

98, 914 
14.3 

49, 124 
12.6 



52,958 

14,7 

33,806 

63.8 

14.1 

152,016 

6.1 

92, 113 

5.1 



Residen- 
tial 



37,230 

16.6 

4,671 

12,5 

3 6 

11, 132 

0,7 

4,616 

0.6 



60,179 

35 6 

5,145 

8,5 

7.1 

14, 215 

2.1 

6,060 

1.4 



84,684 

23,6 

13, 590 

16,1 

6,7 

29,906 

12 

13. 310 

0.7 



Abnor- 
mal 



(Z) 

11 
(Z) 

a 

(Z) 

2 
(Z) 



254 



(Z) 



85 



22 
26.9 



(Z) 

5 
(Z) 



229 
) 
126 



(Z) 



63 
(Z) 
14 
22.2 
(Z) 

1.053 
(Z) 

685 
(Z) 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



11 



Table 6. — Number of Farms, Farms Reporting Cotton, and Acres and Bales of Cotton Harvested, for Commercial Farms, by 

Economic Class and for Noncommercial Farms, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 



Region iiiid itom 



REGION IV 



All farms, number 

Percent distribution 

Farms reporting cotton, number- 
Percent of all farms 

Percent distribution 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 



REGION V 



All farms, number _ 

Percent distribution..- 

Farms reporting cotton, number. 

Percent of all farms 

Percent distribution 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 



REGION VI 



All farms, number 

Percent distribution 

Farms reporting cotton, number. 

Percent of all farms 

Percent distribution .- 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 



REGION VII 



,\I1 farms, number 

Percent distribution 

Farms rei^ortin^ cottim, number- 
Percent of all farms 

Percent distribution 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 



REGION VIII 



All farms, number 

Percent distribution 

Farms reitorting cotton, number- 
Percent of ail farms 

Percent distribution --- 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 



REGION IX 



All farms, number 

Percent distribution 

Farms reporting cotton, number. 

Percent of all farms. --- 

Percent distribution-- -_- 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution - 



REGION X 



All farms, number 

Percent distribution -.- 

Farms reporting cotton, number. 

Percent of all farms 

Percent dislritnition 

Acres of cotton liarvosted 

Percent disiritiution 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 



TOTAL, 10 REGIONS 



All farms, number 

Percent distribution _._ 

Farms reporting cotton, number- 
Percent of all farms 

Percent distribution 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 

Bales of cotton harvested 

Percent distribution 



.\11 farms 



174. 763 

100 

143. 524 

82.1 

100.0 

3, 197. 922 

100 

2, 747. 257 

100.0 



150. 257 

100 

47, 102 

31.3 

100 

811.339 

100 

333, 306 

100.0 



33. 054 

100 

10. 517 

31.3 

100 

295. 655 

100. 

214.047 

100.0 



129. 347 

100. 

73. 873 

67.1 

100. 

4, 194. 710 

100. 

1, 286. 179 

100.0 



7,779 
100.0 
6. 163 
79.7 
100.0 

448.047 
100. 

396, 452 
100.0 



78. 374 

100.0 

18. 125 

23,2 

100.0 

2, 286, 967 

100.0 

1, 404, 491 

100.0 



67.292 
100.0 

16. 663 
23.3 
100.0 

1, 615. 866 

100.0 

2, 619. 438 

100.0 



1, 392, 819 

100. 

762, 302 

64.7 

100. 

17, 530, 905 

100. 

12, 174. 269 

100.0 



Commercial farms by economic class 



Total 



145. 977 

83 5 

135.411 

92 8 

94 3 

3. 145, 532 

98.4 

2, 717, 741 

98.9 



57. 109 

38 

31. 651 

55.4 

67.2 

711.278 

87.7 

307. 236 

92.2 



19. 589 

68.2 

9.466 

48 3 

89.9 

282. 096 

95 4 

201.363 

94.1 



94,900 

73.4 

67, 378 

71.0 

91.2 

4, 097, 763 

97.7 

1, 269, 085 

98.7 



6,286 
80.8 
6,747 
91.4 
93,2 
445. 335 
99.4 
395, 108 
99.7 



70. 755 

90.3 

17. 845 

26.2 

98.5 

2, 281. 822 

99.8 

1, 403. 496 

99.9 



63. 396 
79.3 

15. 322 
28.7 
97. 9 

1, 508, 365 

99.5 

2, 609. 709 

99.6 



906. 310 

66.1 

643. 369 

71,0 

84.4 

16. 884, 644 

96.3 

11,882,625 

97.6 



4,979 

2.8 

3,821 

76.7 

2,7 

770, 786 

24.1 

752, 151 

27.4 



K2 
0,6 
374 
38,9 
0,8 
8.5, 359 
10 5 
62,407 
18.7 



2.364 

7,0 

275 

11.6 

2.6 

43. 848 

14,8 

33, 534 

15.7 



2,918 
2.3 

1.868 

64.0 

2.6 

467. 461 

10.9 

275. 368 

21.4 



1. 067 

13,7 

1.027 

96,3 

16. 7 

248. 104 

55.4 

234. 819 

59.2 



8,300 

10.6 

4,878 

58.8 

26.9 

1, 085, 448 

47.5 

848, 409 

60.4 



12, 515 

18.6 

5.997 

47.9 

38.3 

1, 266, 867 

83.6 

2, 269, 282 
86.6 



37, 727 

2.7 

20, 454 

54.2 

2,7 

204. 170 

24,0 

4, 669, 210 

38.3 



6,1 

7,267 

81,7 

5,1 

449, 761 

14 1 

399, 604 

14.6 



3,329 

2,2 

1,129 

33,9 

2,4 

80, 329 

9, 9 

40,940 

12.3 



2.866 

8 6 

896 

31,2 

8 5 

69. 089 

23,4 

61, 399 

24,0 



10, 494 

8.1 

7,561 

72.2 

10.2 

923. 182 

22.0 

318.368 

24.8 



1.493 

19.2 

1.444 

96.8 

23 4 

110. 190 

24.6 

97, 876 

24.7 



18, 864 

24.1 

6,742 

35.7 

37.2 

796, 839 

34,8 

437, 073 

31.1 



12,636 

18,8 

4.083 

33,3 

26.1 

168, 146 

10.4 

234, 309 



74, 739 

5.4 

37, 636 

60.2 

4,9 

3, 930. 616 

16.7 

1, 827, 209 

16.0 



III 



17, 937 

10,3 

16, 657 

92.9 

11.6 

633.502 

16.7 

473. 033 

17.2 



6,019 

4 

2. 775 

46,1 

6 9 

110. 436 

13 6 

51. 426 

15.4 



3.398 

10,1 

2.034 

59,9 

19 3 

77. 120 

26 1 

66. 835 

26.6 



18. 764 

14.5 

14. 540 

77.6 

19.7 

. 126. 042 

26.8 

313. 137 

24.4 



1.287 

16.6 

1,243 

90.6 

20.2 

53. 372 

11.9 

40,012 

10.1 



18, 225 

23.3 

2,922 

16,0 

16, 1 

248, 368 

10,9 

82, 871 

5.9 



11.441 

17.0 

2.630 

23.0 

16,8 

54. 084 

3,6 

72, 012 

2.7 



117,845 

8.5 

70, 667 

69.9 

9,3 

2, 782, 837 

16,9 

1, 633, 181 

12,5 



IV 



39, 331 

22,6 

37, 743 

96.0 

26 3 

688, 036 

21.5 

585, 326 

21.3 



9,014 

6 

5,465 

60,6 

11,6 

156, 139 

19,1 

62,344 

18.7 



4,170 

12,4 

2. 8.59 

68,6 

27,2 

87, 380 

19,4 

40,081 

18,7 



26, 204 

20,4 

20, 645 

78.4 

27.8 

992, 309 

23.7 

240, 810 

18.7 



1.071 

13.8 

962 

89.8 

15.6 

20, 898 

4.7 

14, 694 

3,7 



14. 076 

18,0 

2,084 

14,8 

11,5 

107, 138 

4,7 

27, 360 

1.9 



8.604 

12,8 

1,660 

19.3 

10,6 

21, 824 

1,4 

25, 839 

1,0 



208, 406 

15,0 

166, 967 

75.3 

20.6 

3, 282, 764 

18.7 

1, 889, 030 

15.5 



64.397 

31.1 

62. 301 

96,1 

36,4 

680, 997 

18 2 

440,469 

16,0 



17,083 
11,4 

10, 305 

60,3 

21,9 

176, 122 

21,7 

61.831 
18.6 



3.809 

11,3 

2.183 

57,3 

30 8 

26. 214 

8,9 

15, 614 

7 3 



24,289 

18.8 

16. 598 

68.3 

22.6 

489. 467 

11.7 

102. 402 

8.0 



927 

11.9 

791 

86.3 

12.8 

10.446 

2,3 

6.672 

1.7 



8.462 

10,8 

1.044 

13 4 

5.8 

40. 954 

1,8 

7, 013 

0.6 



6.416 
9.5 
761 
11.7 
4.8 

6.279 
0.4 

7,210 
0.3 



276, 674 

19.9 

218,119 

78.8 

28.6 

2, 698, 234 

16.4 

1, 522, 269 

12.5 



20,445 

11.7 

17, 622 

86.2 

12,3 

122, 450 

3,8 

67, 169 

2.4 



20, 702 

13 8 

11,603 

66,0 

24.6 

103, 893 

12.8 

28, 289 

8.6 



1.210 
40,6 
11,5 
8.445 
2.9 
3,910 
1.8 



12,231 

9.5 

6,206 

61.2 

8,6 

109, 302 

2.6 

19,010 

1.6 



441 
6.7 
280 
63.6 
4.6 

2,325 
0.5 

1,135 
0.3 



2,838 
3.6 
176 
6.2 
1,0 

3.085 
0, 1 
710 
0.1 



1,784 

2.7 

201 

11.3 

1.3 

1.166 

0.1 

1.067 

(Z) 



190, 919 
13.7 

139, 717 
73.2 
18.3 

986, 043 
6.6 

461, 636 
3.7 



Noncommercial farms 



Total 



28, 776 
16,6 

8,113 

28,2 

6 7 

52, 390 

1,7 

29, 516 
1.0 



93, 148 

62,0 

15, 461 

16,6 

32 8 

100,061 

12 2 

26, 070 

7,8 



14.066 

41,8 

1.061 

7,5 

10,1 

13. 659 

4,6 

12, 684 

6.9 



34. 447 

26,6 

6.495 

18.9 

8.8 

96. 947 

2 3 

16, 094 

1,2 



1.493 

19.1 

416 

27.9 

0,8 

3,712 

0.6 

1,344 

0.3 



7, 619 
9,7 
280 
3,7 
1.5 

6.135 
0.2 
995 
0.1 



13, 896 

20.6 

331 

2.7 

2.1 

7,610 

0.5 

9.729 

0,3 



486, 609 

34.9 

118,943 

24.6 

1,5.6 

646, 261 

3.8 

291, 744 

2.4 



Part- 
time 



11,740 

6.7 

6,635 

66.7 

4.6 

38, 926 

1,2 

20, 410 

0,7 



31, 869 

21,2 

9,749 

30.6 

20 7 

74, 775 

9 2 

19, 625 

6.9 



4.802 
14.3 
800 
16,7 
7,6 
4.530 
1.6 
2.076 
1.0 



16, 659 

12.8 

5,196 

31.4 

7.0 

85, 895 

2.0 

14, 212 

1.1 



693 
8.9 
386 
55.8 
6.3 

2,607 
0.6 

1,304 
0.3 



3,749 
4.8 
265 
6.8 
1.4 

4,690 
0.2 
730 
0. 1 



5,886 
8.7 
275 
4.7 
1.8 

1,155 
0.1 

l.OSO 
(Z) 



186, 131 

13.4 

86, 541 

46.6 

11.4 

523, 494 

3.1 

230, 598 

1.9 



Residen- 
tial 



17,000 
9,7 

1,666 
9,2 
1 1 

6,190 
0,2 

1,611 

(Z) 



61,265 

40 8 

6,695 

9,3 

12 1 

23, 870 

2,9 

6, 455 

1.6 



9,266 
27.5 
266 
2 8 
2 4 
706 
3 



280 


10,329 


0.1 


4.8 


17,868 


20 


13.8 


(Z) 


1,296 


3 


7.3 


15.0 


1,8 


(Z) 


7,878 


3.174 


0,2 


0.1 


1,196 


687 


0.1 


(Z) 


796 


5 


10.3 


(Z) 


30 




3.8 




0.5 




105 




(Z) 




40 




(Z) 




3,820 


50 


4.9 


(Z) 


20 


5 


(Z) 


10.0 


0.1 


(Z) 


195 


360 


(Z) 


(Z) 


15 


250 


(Z) 


(Z) 


7,938 


73 


11.8 


0.1 


30 


26 


0.4 


36.6 


0.2 


0.1 


30 


6,325 


(Z) 


0.4 


30 


8.619 


(Z) 


0.3 


99, 936 


442 


21.5 


(Z) 



32. 298 
10.8 

4.2 
93, 226 

0,6 
31, 612 

0.3 



Z 0.06 percent or less. 



12 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Regions V and VI. The general explanation offered for Regions 
II and III would seem to be valid also for Region V. In Region 
VI it is probable that the smaller proportion of the larger farms 
reporting cotton stems largely from the prevalence of large-scale 
rice (cash-grain) farms, for, generally speaking, they do not grow 
cotton. The situation for this region is probably similar to that 
in Region I, where, in general, the topograpliy facilitates the 
adoption of modern mechanized methods. The prevalence in 
Region I of farms with large tobacco- and peanut-acreage allot- 
ments probably explains the preponderance of noncotton farms 
among the larger farms that report cotton, as well as the smaller- 
than-average proportions of Class I and Class II farms that report 
cotton. 

The remaining region of the humid belt, the Alluvial Valley 
of the Mississippi and Red Rivers (the "Delta"), Region IV, is one 
of the most highly specialized cotton-production regions in the 
world. Table 6 shows that 93 jDercent of all commercial farms in 
the region report cotton. Table 7 shows that the vast majority 
of these farms in all economic classes are cotton farms. The 
somewhat smaller proportions — three-fourths and four-fifths 



respectively — of Class I and Class II farms that report cotton are 
no doubt due to the inclusion within the region of a relatively 
small area that has many specialized rice farms. 

Region VII comprises most of the subhumid belt of cotton 
production. Here 71 percent of all commercial farms report cotton 
and, except for Class VI farms, each economic class shows about 
or slightly above the all-farm percentage reporting cotton. Fewer 
Class VI farms report cotton than the average for all commercial 
farms. 

Region VIII, the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, is by far 
the smallest in point of area. It ranks with Region IV and the 
cotton-growing parts of Regions IX and X, however, as one of the 
most highly specialized cotton-producing regions of the country. 
More than 90 percent of all commercial farms here grow cotton, 
and the percentage of farms in Classes I, II, and III that report 
cotton is higher than that for all commercial farms. Table 7 
shows that around 90 percent or more of the farms reporting cotton 
for each economic class are cotton farms. These facts suggest that 
this region has a strong comparative advantage for cotton. 



Table 7- — Distribution Between Cotton Farms and Commercial Farms Other Than Cotton Farms, of Farms Reporting, 
Acres Harvested, and Production of Cotton on Commercial Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



REGION I 
Farms reporting cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms number- 
Cotton farms- percent- 
Other commercial farms percent- 
Acres of cotton harvested; 

All commercial farms acres- 

Cotton farms - percent- 
Other commercial farms percent- 
Bales of cotton prodnced: 

All connncrcial farms bales- 

Coiliin farms percent. 

Other commercial farms percent. 

REGION II 
Farms reportinp cotton harvested: 

All conmiercial farms number. 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent- 
Acres of cotton harvested; 

All commercial farms _ acres- 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent- 
Bales of cotton produced: 

All commercial farms bales. 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent. 

REGION III 
Farms reporting cotton harvested; 

All commercial farms - nmnber- 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent - 

Acres of cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms acres. 

Cotlon farms \ percent - 

Other commercial farms - percent - 

Bales of cotton produced; 

All commercial farms bales- 

Cotton farms _ percent- 
Other commercial farms percent - 

REGION IV 
Farms reporting cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms - .-.number- 
Cotton farms -.percent- 
Other commercial farms.- percent- 
Acres of cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms acres. 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent- 
Bales of cotton produced; 

All commercial farms bales. 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent. 



Economic class of farm 



All classes 



118, 761 
48.3 
51.7 



1, 608, 759 
62.7 
37.3 



951, 166 
62.6 
37.4 



49, 708 
81.0 
19.0 



679, 074 
86.3 
13.7 



334, 161 
86.0 
14.0 



192,080 
89.1 
10.9 



2, 324, 630 
92.2 

7.8 



1, 693, 480 

92.8 

7.2 



136,411 

94.6 

5.4 



3, 145. 532 
96.3 

4.7 



2, 717, 741 
95.6 
4.5 



29.1 
70.9 



109, 658 
68.8 
41.2 



73, 797 
69.7 
40.3 



273 
8.4 
91.6 



13, 770 
36.6 
63.4 



9,171 
37.5 
62.5 



953 
49.8 
50.2 



122, 869 
80.8 
19.2 



110. 222 
83.4 
16.6 



3,821 
78.3 
21.7 



770, 786 
91.6 
8.5 



752, 161 
92.2 

7.8 



3,898 
31.7 
68.3 



161,345 
66.6 
43.4 



108. 919 
.57.0 
43.0 



1,118 
16.1 
83.9 



30, 966 



19. 313 
50.4 
49.6 



3,398 



60.: 



160, 780 
77.6 
22.4 



119.408 
79.6 
20.4 



7, 267 
82.0 
18.0 



449, 761 
91.8 
8.2 



399, 604 

92.8 

7.2 



III 



15, 404 
28.6 
71.4 



280. 983 
51.0 
48. 4 



196, 394 
52.2 
47.8 



2,463 
30.3 
69.7 



46, 426 
63.3 
36.7 



29.693 
66.0 
36.0 



9,899 
69.6 
30.4 



252, 604 
86.6 
13.5 



208, 879 
88.0 
12.0 



16, 657 

90.5 

9.5 



533. 602 
96.4 
4.6 



473, 033 

96,2 

3.8 



IV 



40,640 
36.6 
63.4 



486. 708 
59.0 
41.0 



317, 832 
59.9 
40 1 



7,127 
67.4 
32.6 



124, 512 
86.9 
14.1 



77, 767 
86.6 
13.4 



37, 882 
86.4 
13.6 



629, 820 

93.3 

6.7 



497. 088 

94.3 

6.7 



37. 743 

94.9 

6.1 



088, 0.36 
97.8 
2.2 



585, 325 

97.7 

2.3 



38, 267 
54.6 
45.5 



349, 322 
72.3 



196, 938 
73,4 
26.6 



19, 023 
84.3 
15.7 



228,017 

93.0 

7.0 



131, 663 

93.4 

6.6 



76, 856 

90.8 

9.2 



790, 406 
95.5 
4.5 



552, 657 
90.1 
3.9 



52, 301 

97.3 

2.7 



680. 997 
99.3 
0.7 



440, 469 
99.1 
0.9 



19,564 
80.6 
19.6 



121,743 
87.7 
12.3 



.58. 276 
89.7 
10.3 



19, 704 

93.8 

6.2 



135,394 
97.0 
3.0 



66,744 

97.2 

2.8 



63, 092 

94.6 

5.6 



378, 251 
97.1 
2.9 



20.5. 326 

97.6 

2.4 



17, 622 

98.1 

1.9 



122, 460 

98.6 

1.4 



67. 169 
99.2 
0.8 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



13 



Table 1 . — Distribution Between Cotton Farms and Commercial Farms Other Than Cotton Farms, of Farms Reporting, 
Acres Harvested, and Production of Cotton on Commercial Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 



Region and item 



REQIOX V 
Farms reporting cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms - number. 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent- 

Acres of cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms acres. 

Cottim farms - percent - 

Other commercial farms _ _ -.percent - 

Bales of cotton produced: 

All commercial farms ..bales. 

Cotton farms percent. 

Other commercial farms percent. 

REGION' VI 
Farms reporting cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms number- 
Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms _ percent. 

.\cres of cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms acres. 

Cotton farms percent - 

Other commercial farms percent. 

Bales of cotton produced: 

All commercial farms bales. 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent. 

REOION VII 
Farms reporting cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms number . 

Cotton farms percent - 

Other commercial farms percent. 

Acres of cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms acres. 

Cotton farms percent. 

Other commercial farms percent. 

Bales of cotton produced: 

All commercial farms bales- 
Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent. 

REGION VIII 
Farms reporting cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms _ number. 

Cotton farms percent. 

Other commercial farms percent. 

Acres of cotton harvested: 

-\11 commercial farms acres. 

Cotton farms percent. 

0th .T commercial farms.. ..percent- 
Bales of cotton produced: 

-4.11 commercial farms .bales. 

Cotton farms percent - 

Other commercial farms percent . 

REGIO.V IX 
Farms reporting cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms number. 

Cotton farms percent. 

Other commercial farms percent. 

Acres of cotton harvested: 

.\11 commercial farms acres. 

Cotton farms percent. 

Other commercial farms percent. 

Bales of cotton produced: 

All commercial farms bales. 

Cotton farms ...percent. 

Other commercial farms percent. 

REGION X 
Farms reporting cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms _. .number. 

Cotton farms--- - - percent. 

Other commercial farms percent- 
Acres of cotton harvested: 

All commercial farms acreS- 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms - percent. 

Bales of cotton produced: 

.Ml commercial farms bales- 

Cotton farms percent- 
Other commercial farms percent- 



Economic class of farm 



All classes 



31. fiSl 
70.3 
29.7 



711,278 
80.9 
19.1 



307, 236 
85.5 
14.6 



9. 4,50 
84.5 
15.5 



2S2. 096 
91.4 

8.6 



201. 363 

92.7 

7.3 



67. 378 
66. 7 
33.3 



4, 097, 763 
78.2 
21.8 



1, 269. 0S5 
83.2 
16.8 



5.747 
92.2 



445, 335 

94. S 

5.2 



395, 108 
95.6 
4.4 



17, 845 
82.1 
17.9 



2, 281, 822 

92.3 

7.7 



1, 403, 496 
93.1 
6.9 



15.322 
77.4 
22.0 



1, 508. 355 
85.0 
15.0 



2, 609, 709 
85.2 
14.8 



374 
.57.0 
43. 



85. 3,59 
82.3 
17.7 



62, 407 
86.9 
13.1 



275 
61.1 
38.9 



33, ,534 
.SO. 8 
19.2 



1,868 
63. 9 
36. 1 



457, 461 
77.9 
22.1 



275, 358 
85.0 
15.0 



1,027 
88.9 
11.1 



248, 104 

91.5 

5.0 



234. S19 

94.7 

5.3 



4,878 
86.0 
14.0 



1,035,448 

93.0 

7.0 



848, 469 
93 
7.0 



5.997 
75.1 
24.9 



1, 266. 867 
84.7 
15.3 



2, 269, 282 
84.9 
15.1 



1.129 
48.9 
.51.1 



80.329 
72.3 
27.7 



40, 940 
79.3 
20.7 



895 
86.4 
13.6 



69. 089 

94.5 

5.5 



51. 399 

95.4 

4.6 



7.561 
5.8.7 
41.3 



923. 182 
73.8 
26.2 



318. 368 
80.5 
19.5 



1.444 

90.5 

9.5 



110.190 
95.3 
4.7 



97, 876 
96.6 
3.4 



6,742 
86.0 
14.0 



796, 839 
92.9 
7.1 



437, 073 
93.9 
6.1 



4,083 
75.1 
24.9 



158, 146 
86.3 
13.7 



234, 309 
86.8 
13.2 



III 



54.8 
45.2 



110,436 
78.2 
21.8 



51, 425 
84.1 
15.9 



2.034 
87.3 
12.7 



7.120 

95. 6 

4.4 



56, 825 

95.9 

4.1 



14,540 
65.1 
34.9 



1,126,042 
79.5 
20.5 



313, 137 
83.8 
16.2 



1,243 
91.9 
8.1 



53. 372 

95.1 

4.9 



40,012 
97.3 



2 922 

"so"? 

19. 8 



248. 3,58 
91.8 
8.2 



82, 871 

92.6 

7.4 



2,630 
77.4 
22.6 



M.084 
85. 6 
14.4 



72,012 
87. 2 
12.8 



IV 



5, 465 
67.2 
32.8 



15.5. 139 
81.3 
18.7 



62. 344 
8fi. 4 
13.0 



2.859 
83.8 
16.2 



57. 380 
92.2 



40. 081 

94.2 

5.8 



20.545 
67.2 
32.8 



992, 309 
79.2 
20.8 



240. 810 
82.9 
17.1 



962 

94.7 

5.3 



20, 898 
95.5 
4.5 



14, 594 
96.9 
3.1 



2. 084 
69.0 
31.0 



107, 13S 
84.3 
15.7 



27, 360 
86.3 
13.7 



1,660 
83.7 
16.3 



21,824 

90.9 

9.1 



25. 829 
93.1 



10. .305 
69.8 
.30.2 



176. 122 
82.7 
17.3 



61, 831 
87.2 
12.8 



2,183 
83.2 
16.8 



26. 214 
90.6 
9.4 



15.614 
93.2 
6.8 



16, 598 
68. 5 
31.5 



4S9. 467 
81.3 
18.7 



102. 402 
85.2 
14.8 



791 

95. 6 

4.4 



10.446 
92.9 
7.1 



6.672 
98.0 
2.0 



1.044 
73.8 
26.2 



40.951 
88.3 
11.7 



7.013 
89.3 
10.7 



751 
90.0 
10.0 



6.279 
8fi.S 
13.2 



7,210 
85.0 
15.0 



VI 



11, 603 
78.5 
21.5 



103, 893 
85.7 
14.3 



28.289 
88.7 
11.3 



1,210 
88.0 
12.0 



8, tl5 
91.9 
8.1 



3.910 

94.7 

5.3 



6,266 
74.4 
25.6 



109. 302 
82.0 
18.0 



19,010 
85.8 
14.2 



280 
96. 4 
3.6 



2.325 
97.8 
2.2 



1,135 
96.5 
3.S 



175 
60.0 
40.0 



3,085 
57.5 
42.5 



710 
44.4 
65.6 



201 

94.6 

5.5 



1,156 
77.1 
22.9 



1,067 
76.9 
23.1 



423019 — 57- 



14 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Region IX contains most of tlie semiarid area of the United 
States where cotton is produced. Most of tlie cotton in the region 
is found in subregion 102, tlie High Plains cotton area of Texas. 
A much smaller proportion of the total for the region is found in 
the southerly Texas counties of subregion 103, although in most of 
this subregion no cotton is grown. As subregion 103 is consider- 
ably larger than subregion 102, the overall figures for the region 
with respect to the proportion of farms reporting cotton do not 
reflect the intense specialization which characterizes the cotton- 
growing part. But it is noteworthy that, although only 25 percent 
of all commercial farms of the region report cotton, 59 percent of 
Class I farms report the crop and more than 86 percent of these are 
cotton farms. In fact, except for Class VI, from 69 to 86 percent 
of the farms reporting cotton in each class are cotton farms (see 
table 7). 

The general situation, with respect to the proportion of all com- 
mercial farms that report cotton, in Region X, (which includes 
most of the United States total of cotton production under irriga- 
tion in an arid climate) is much the same as that just outlined for 
Region IX. In large parts of Region X no cotton is grown. Most 
of the farms in the region that do not grow cotton are in the large 
Central Valley of California which comprises the agriculturally 
variegated subregion 116. But subregion 116 is one of the 
principal cotton subregions of the country, and Region X, as a 
whole, produced about 2.7 million bales of cotton in 1954. 

It may be noted (table 6) that about 29 percent of all commercial 
farms in Region X reported cotton, and that 48 and 32 percent, 
respectively, of Class I and Class II farms reported the crop. It 
is also noteworthy that three-fourths or more of all farms reporting 
cotton in each economic class are cotton farms (table 7). 

DISTRIBUTION OF FARMS, ACREAGE, AND PRODUC- 
TION BY ECONOMIC CLASS FOR ALL COMMERCIAL 
FARMS 

In the preceding section we looked at the proportions of all com- 
mercial farms reporting cotton, by economic class, and at some of 
the possible implications. In this section we look at the facts, 
and their implications, which relate to the distribution of cotton- 
growing farms, cotton acreage, and cotton production among the 
several economic classes of commercial farms. 

Since economic classes of farms represent farms grouped accord- 
ing to specified values of production for sale, we may, within 
certain limits, draw from data presented by economic class some 
inferences regarding the levels of income from farming of families 
who operate farms of various economic classes. More detailed 
data concerning income for cotton farms by economic class are 
found in the last two sections of this report. 

In general, the American agriculture sector has participated in 
and contributed to economic growth of the country by producing 
increasing cjuantities of food and fiber while employing, directly, 
a steadily decreasing number of people. There has been a steady 
secular decline in the farm population of the United States since 
1916. These transfers of labor resources from the farms to the 
nonfarm sectors of the economy have taken place mainly because 
farm people have moved to nonfarm employment which they 
judged to be more attractive than the alternatives available to 
them in agriculture. 

Gross indications of income levels such as those afforded by 
economic classes of farms are to be used with some caution, but 
it does appear that from these economic-class data regarding farms 



growing cotton some useful inferences can be drawn. They con- 
cern: (1) The regions and classes of farms where changes in size 
and organization of farms growing cotton would seem most likely, 
and (S) the effect that such changes might have upon cotton 
production in the country at large and within the several regions. 

In this connection it would seem reasonable to regard the farms 
in Classes V and VI as a group likely to change. Part of these 
represent farms where the operators are in the older age groups 
and upon retirement of present operator may be combined to 
form large farms. Many of the younger operators on these 
classes of farms may seek to increase their Income by farm en- 
largement or off-farm employment. 

Many factors besides relative income influence the individual 
farmer's decisions. Information concerning some of these other 
influences will be found later in this report. In particular, the 
sections dealing with tenure, labor force, and investment char- 
acteristics of cotton farms by economic class of farm are relevant 
to this problem. In addition, the nature of government programs 
and acreage controls will have a strong bearing on acreage and 
production trends. But it is of some interest to consider the 
picture for each of the ten selected regions as it is indicated by 
(1) the number of farms growing cotton, (2) the acreage of cotton 
harvested, and (S) the bales of cotton produced by farms in 
Classes I through III and those in Classes V and VI. 

The Humid Belt Regions (Regions I to VI) 

Table 6 shows that throughout the humid belt (Regions I through 
VI) from about one-third to almost three-fifths of all farms report- 
ing cotton are found in Classes V and VI. The proportions of 
cotton acreage and production that are found on these two 
economic classes varies more widely among these regions than 
does the percentage of farms reporting cotton. The range, in the 
instance of acreage, is from 12 percent in Region VI to more than 
50 percent in Region II, while for percentage of production, the 
range is from 9 percent in Region VI to 51 percent in Region II. 

The most striking concentrations of farms reporting cotton and 
of cotton acreage and production in Economic Classes V and VI 
are found in Regions II and III — the Piedmont and midsouthern 
hilly regions. Around 50 percent of the farms producing cotton 
and of cotton acreage and production are accounted for by these 
two smallest size-of-business groups of farms. 

From an overall standpoint Regions I and V indicate abont 
equal degrees of concentration of cotton production on Class V 
and VI farms. In each region more than 40 percent of the farms 
are found in these classes, while around one-third of the cotton 
acreage, and about one-fourth of cotton production is on such 
farms. 

Region IV, the Mississippi Delta, presents a somewhat different 
picture. The proportion of farms reporting cotton that falls in 
Classes V and VI (49 percent) is exceeded only in Regions II and 
III. In Region IV the approximately 20 percent of cotton acre- 
age and production that these farms account for, however, is 
smaller than for any other humid region except Region VI. 

The Gulf Coast Prairie of Texas and Louisiana, Region VI, is 
more similar to the subhumid belt than to the other regions of 
the humid belt with respect to the distribution, among economic 
classes, of farms growing cotton, cotton acreage, and cotton pro- 
duction. About one-third of the farms that grow cotton in this 
region fall in Classes V and VI. These farms, however, account 
for only 12 and 9 percent, respectively, of regional acreage and 
production of cotton. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



15 



In Regions II and III farms in Economic Classes I to III account 
for onl\- 5 and 6 percent, respectively, of farms reporting cotton. 
There is more \'ariation between these two regions with respect to 
the proportions of cotton acreage and jjroduction that are found 
on these three largest size-of-business groups. The proportions 
are definitely minor, however, in both instances. In Region II 
these farms account for 13 and 15 percent, respectivel.v, of cotton 
acreage and production. The comparable percentages for Region 
III are 23 and 24. 

It will be recalled tliat Regions I and V showed rather similar 
distributions for Classes V and VI farms. In the ease of the 
three larger economic classes, however, there is more difference 
than similarity. In Region I, 15 percent of all farms reporting 
cotton fall in Classes I through III, while in Region V only 9 
percent are so classified. But in Region V these farms account 
for 47 percent of cotton production as compared to 38 percent for 
Region I. The proportions of cotton acreage found on these 
larger farms are almost the same for the two regions, 35 percent 
in Region I, and 34 percent in Region V. The nature of these 
distributions suggests that farms in these classes are larger in 
Region Y than in Region I, and that in Region V cotton yields 
on these classes are larger, relative to yields on farms in other 
economic classes, than is the case in Region I. 

In Region IV, farms in Classes V and VI accounted for almost 
60 percent of all farms growing cotton, but for only about 20 per- 
cent of the acreage and production. The relevant distributions for 
Economic Classes I through III for this region are almost the re- 
verse of this. These larger classes account for only 20 percent of 
the farms reporting cotton, but for 55 and 59 percent, respectively, 
of the cotton acreage and production of the region. 

Region VI has a smaller proportion of its cotton-growing farms, 
cotton acreage, and cotton prod\iction in Economic Classes V 
and VI than an.v other humid region. It is not surprising that the 
proportions of each of these items accounted for bj' Economic 
Classes I, II, and III is larger here than in any other humid region. 
About one-third of all farms reporting cotton, and roughly two- 
thirds of the region's acreage and production of cotton are found 
in Economic Classes I through III. 

The Subhuniid Belt Regions (Regions VII and VIII) 

The two regions that represent cotton production under sub- 
humid conditions display distinctly less concentration of farms, 
acreage, and production in Classes V and VI than in the regions of 
the humid belt. On the other hand, significantly larger propor- 
tions of acreage, of production, and of farms growing cotton are 
found in Economic Classes I, II, and III. 

Regions VII and VIII, the two in the subhumid climatic belt, 
do not have much in common in regard to cotton production. The 
differentiation is due mostly to the extensive irrigation of cotton 
in Region VIII and the virtual absence of irrigation in Region VII. 
As there is frequently a shortage of rainfall, at least at the right 
time for crop production, in both regions. Region VIII, with its 
irrigation, has average yields of cotton more than twice as large as 
those in Region VII. In Region VII, about one-third of the farms 
reporting cotton and 14 and 9 percent, respectively, of cotton 
acreage and production are accounted for by farms in Classes V 



and VI. The comparable figures for Region VIII are 17 percent, 
3 percent, and 2 percent. 

Region VIII has a considerable concentration of farms growing 
cotton, and of cotton acreage and production in Economic Classes 

I, II, and III farms. Sixty percent of the farms reporting cotton 
and more than 90 percent of both cotton acreage and production 
are accounted for by farms in these classes. 

About one-third of aU farms reporting cotton in Region VII are 
found in Classes I, II, and III. These larger size-of-ljusiness classes, 
however, account for 60 percent of the region's cotton acreage, and 
more than 70 percent of regional cotton production. It is thus 
evident that, althougli Region VII has a much larger proportion of 
low-total-output commercial farms growing cotton than does 
Region VIII, cotton production in both regions is largely concen- 
trated on the three largest size-of-business farm groups. 

The Semiarid and Arid Cotton Production Regions (Regions IX 

and X) 

In Regions IX and X the number of farms reporting cotton, 
cotton acreage, and cotton production which are accounted for by 
Classes V and VI farms are negligible. Farms in Classes I, II, and 
III account for four-fifths or more of all farms reporting cotton. 
For the arid belt region (Region X) these three classes harvest 98 
percent of both cotton acreage and production. The semiarid 
Region IX almost matches these figures with 93 and 97 percent, 
respectively, of cotton acreage and production found on Class I, 

II, and III farms. 

COTTON PRODUCTION ON NONCOMMERCIAL FARMS 

In the 10 selected cotton-producing regions, noncommercial 
farms account for about 16 percent of the farms reporting cotton, 
but for only 4 percent of the acreage, and about 2 percent of cotton 
production. These farms comprise 35 percent of all Census farms 
in the 10 regions. It becomes evident, therefore, that relatively 
small proportions of noncommercial farms grow cotton, and that 
when they do the acreages are small, and yields are generally less 
than average for the region. 

There is considerable variation among regions with respect to the 
proportion of all farms accounted for by noncommercial farms, and 
with respect to the percent of noncommercial farms that grow cot- 
ton. In the 6 regions that comprise the humid belt, only in Region 
III do as many as a third (34 percent) of the farms grow cotton. 
In Regions V and VI only 16 percent and 8 percent, respectively, of 
noncommercial farms report cotton. In the remaining three 
regions of the humid belt about a fourth of noncommercial farms 
grow cotton. 

In none of the 4 regions outside the humid belt do as many as 
10 percent of noncommercial farms grow the crop. 

Only in the Piedmont, Region II, do noncommercial farms 
account for as much as 10 percent of regional cotton production; 
here they account for 14 percent. Excluding the Delta, where 
the}' account for only 1 percent of production, noncommercial 
farms account for from 4 to 8 percent of production in the other 
regions of the humid belt. 

In each region outside the humid belt, noncommercial farms 
account for 1 percent or less of total cotton production. 



16 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



COTTON PRODl'CTION ON COTTON FARMS AND ON 
COMMERCIAL FARMS OTHER THAN COTTON FARMS 

In preceding sections we have examined tlie distribution in each 
of our regions of farms growing cotton, of cotton acreage, and of 
cotton production among economic classes for all commercial 
farms, and for noncommercial farms. In this section the exami- 
nation relates to similar distributions for cotton farms (those 
commercial farms for which sales of cotton and cottonseed account 
for 50 percent or more of total farm sales) and for all commercial 
farms other than cotton farms. These latter are the residuals 
after subtracting for each item the relevant numbers for each 
economic class of cotton farm from all commercial farms shown in 
table 6. The distributions are shown for cotton farms in table 8, 
and for commercial farms other than cotton farms in table 9. 

In addition to contributing to our basic general information 
about the size of business structure of farms that produce cotton, 

Table 8. — Percent Distribution of Number of Farms 
AND Acres and Bales of Cotton Harvested, for Cotton 
Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 


All classes 


Economic class of farm 




I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


REGION I 

Number of farms 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


Number 
57, 374 
946, 387 
695, 510 


Per- 
cent 
0.5 
6.8 
7.4 


Per- 
cent 
2.1 
9.6 
10.4 


Per- 
cent 
7. 7 
16.3 
17.1 


Per- 
cent 
25.9 
30.3 
32.0 


Per- 
cent 
36.3 
26.7 
24.3 


Per- 
cent 
27.5 
11.3 

8.8 


REGION 11 












. 




Number of farms 


40, 263 
499, 709 
287, 513 


0.1 
1.0 
1.2 


0.4 
3.0 
3.4 


1.9 
5.9 
6.7 


11.9 
21.4 
23.4 


39.8 
42.4 
42.7 


45 9 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


26.3 
22.6 


REGION III 


















171, 185 
2,144,015 
1, 571, 294 


0.3 
4.6 
5.9 


1.0 
5.5 
6.0 


4.0 
10.2 
11.7 


19.1 
27.4 
29.8 


40.8 
35.2 
33.8 


34 8 


Acres of cotton harvested 

B.ales of cotton harvested 


17.1 
12.8 


REGION IV 
















Number of farms 


128,046 
2, 997, 248 
2, 594, (A2 


2.3 
23.6 

26.7 


4.6 
13.8 
14.3 


11.8 
17.0 
17,5 


28.0 
22.5 
22.1 


39.8 
19.2 
16.8 


13 5 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


4.0 
2.6 


REGION V 


















22, 257 
675, 424 
262, 820 


1.0 
12.2 
20.6 


2.5 
10.1 
12.3 


6.8 
15.0 
16.6 


16.5 
21.9 
20.5 


32.3 
25.3 
20.5 


-10 9 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


16.6 
9.6 


REGION VI 


















7,995 
257, 924 
186, 638 


2.1 
13.4 
14.5 


9.7 
25.3 
26.3 


22.2 
28.6 
29.2 


30.0 
20.5 
20.2 


22.7 
9.2 

7.8 


13 3 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


3.0 
2.0 


REGION VII 


















44, 947 
3, 206, 187 
1,056,045 


2.6 
11.1 
22.2 


9.9 
21.3 
24.3 


21.1 
27.9 
24.8 


30.7 
24.6 
18.9 


25,3 
12.4 
8.3 


10 4 


Acres of cotton harvested... 

Bales of cotton harvested 


2.8 
1.5 


REGION VIII 


















6,299 
422, 103 
377, 546 


17.2 
55.5 
68. 9 


24.6 
24.9 
25.0 


21.6 
12.0 
10.3 


17.2 
4.7 
3.8 


14,3 
2.3 
1.7 


5 1 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


0.6 
0.3 


REGION IX 
















Number of farms 


14,650 
2,105,800 
1,305,958 


28.6 
47.9 
CO. 4 


39.6 
35.2 
31.4 


16.0 
10.8 
6.9 


9.8 
4.3 
1.8 


5,3 
1.7 
0.5 


7 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


0.1 

(Z) 


REGION X 
















Number of farms 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


11,858 

1, 282, 203 

2, 223, 185 


37.9 
83.7 
86.6 


25.9 
10.7 
9.2 


17.2 
3.6 
2.8 


11.7 
1.5 
1.1 


5.7 
0.4 
0.3 


1.6 
0.1 

(Z) 


TOTAL, 10 REGIONS 


















603. 874 
14, 437. 000 
10.461,161 


3.0 
26.3 
39.1 


5 
16.8 
15.1 


9.0 
15.8 
12.4 


22.1 
19.0 
16.8 


35.8 
16.7 
13.6 




Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


6.4 
4. 1 



the data in these 2 tables highlight the facts concerning the distri- 
bution, for the 10 regions, of farms growing cotton, and of cotton 
acreage and production on the 3 largest and the 2 smallest size-of- 
business groups for commercial farms. 

In general, in the regions of the humid belt (Regions I through 
VI) there is a higher concentration of farms, and of acres and pro- 
duction of cotton in Classes V and VI on cotton farms than on 
other commercial farms that grow cotton. 

In Regions VII through X the economic class structure of the 
number of farms growing and of the acreage and production of 
cotton is dominated by Classes I, II, and III. In these regions 
cotton farms show either approximately the same distribution by 
economic class as other commercial farms that grow cotton, or 
indicate relativeh' higher concentration in Classes I, II, and III. 

Table 9. — Percent Distribution of Number of Farms Re- 
porting Cotton and Acres and Bales of Cotton Har' 

VESTED, FOR COMMERCIAL FaRMS OtHER ThAN CoTTON FaRMS, 

BY Economic Class, by Regions: 1954 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 





Economic class of farm 


Region and item 


All 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


REGION I 
















Number of farms 

Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


1.1 

8.0 
8.4 


4.4 
12.4 
13.2 


18.0 
24.2 
26.2 


41.9 
36.5 
36.8 


28.4 
17.2 
14.7 


6.2 
2,7 
1.7 


REGION II 


















100.0 
100.0 
100. 


2.7 
11.0 
12.3 


9.9 
20.2 
20.5 


18.1 
21.4 
22.3 


24.6 
22.1 
22.3 


31.7 
20.1 
18.6 


13.0 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


5.2 
4.0 


REGION III 


















100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


2.3 
13.0 
14.9 


8.3 
18.6 
20.0 


14.5 
18.8 
20.6 


24.7 
23.4 
23.1 


33.6 
20.1 
17.6 


16.6 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


6.1 
4.0 


REGION IV 
















Number of farms . _ 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


11.4 
43.5 
47.6 


17.8 
23.2 
23.2 


21.5 
16.5 
14.5 


26.1 
11.7 
10.7 


18.8 
6.0 
3.6 


4.6 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested _ 


1.1 
0.5 


REGION V 


















100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


1.7 
11.1 
18.4 


6.2 
16. 4 
19.1 


13.4 
17.7 
18.4 


19.1 
21.4 
IP. 1 


32.9 
22.5 
17.8 


26.7 




10.9 




7.2 


REGION VI 


















100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


7.3 
38.6 
43.5 


8.3 
15.7 
16.0 


17.7 
14.0 
15.7 


31.7 
18.9 
16.2 


25.1 
10.1 
7.2 


9.9 


Acres of cotton harvested 

Bales of cotton harvested 


2.8 
1.4 


REGION VII 


















100.0 
100,0 
100.0 


3.0 
11.3 
19.4 


13.9 
27.1 
29.3 


22.6 
26.0 
23.9 


30.0 
23.1 
19.0 


23.3 
10.3 

7, 1 


7.2 




2.2 




1.3 


REGION VIII 


















100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


26.4 
58.4 
70.6 


30.fi 
23.1 
19.8 


22.6 
11. 1 
6 2 


11.4 
4.0 
2.5 


7.8 
3.2 
0.7 


2.2 


Acres of cotton harvested 


0.2 




0.2 


REGION IX 


















100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


21.4 
43.3 
61.2 


29.6 
32.1 
27.5 


18.1 
ll.fi 
6.3 


20.2 
9.6 
3.8 


8.5 
2.7 
0.8 


2.2 


Acres of cotton harvested 


0.8 


Bales of cotton harvested 


0.4 


REGION X 


















100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


43.2 

85,7 
88.8 


29.4 
9.6 
8.0 


17.2 
3.4 
2.4 


7.S 
0.9 
0.5 


2.2 
0.4 
0.3 


0.3 




0.1 


Bales of cotton harvested. 


(Z) 


TOTAL, 10 REGIONS 
















Number of farms 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


3.9 
22.6 
41.1 


9.0 
20.7 
17.1 


18.1 
20.4 
16.8 


32.4 
21.8 
16.6 


27.1 
11.7 
8.0 


9.5 




2.8 


Bales of cotton harvested 


1.4 







Z 0.05 percent or less. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



17 



SOME IMPLICATIONS OF DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON 
PRODUCTION BY ECONOMIC CLASS AND REGION 

In the United States, secular trends arc toward increasing size 
of farm business and transfer of labor resources from the farm to 
iionfarm sectors of the economy. In recent years considerable 
emphasis has been placed on solving the low-income problem, in- 
volving the acceleration of the process of reduction in numbers of 
low-income farms througli farm enlargement and development 
and the increase in nonfarm employment. In this context it is 
interesting to review the possible implications for cotton acreage 
and production of the reduction in numbers of Classes V and VI 
farms, and of increases in size of farms. This review covers the 
various areas or regions, and is based on current variations in farm 
organizations by economic class of farm. The following appear 
to be some of the more important implications of a further reduc- 
tion in Classes V and VI farms and of increases in size of com- 
mercial farms in the 10 cotton regions. 

In Region I (Eastern Coastal Plains), 43 percent of all com- 
mercial farms that grow cotton and about 30 percent and 26 per- 
cent, respectively, of the acreage and production of cotton are 
found in Classes V and VI. There is some indication that of the 
larger sizes of farms, fewer grow cotton, and that, of those that 
continue to grow it, fewer are cotton farms. The indication of 
these latter tendencies is not, however, nearly so conclusive in this 
as in some other regions. 

In light of this, a continuation of the trends toward increasing 
size of farm, and a continued reduction in the number of Classes 

V and VI farms might result in continued, though probably not a 
large, reduction in aggregate cotton acreage in the region. The 
extent to which cotton acreage might be affected by a reduction 
in the numbers of Classes V and VI farms would seem to depend 
to some degree upon the extent to which such farms were used as 
part-time units, or combined into larger units. The smaller pro- 
portion of noncommercial farms having cotton would suggest a 
tendency toward reduction of aggregate cotton acreage on farms 
which become part-time units. 

In Regions II, III, and V (Southern Piedmont, Eastern and 
Western Hilly Regions) where Classes V and VI cotton farms are 
numerous and the cotton enterprise is relatively less important 
on larger farms, further changes in farm size, and a reduction in 
low-income farms would appear likely to encourage more emphasis 
on other enterprises and to reduce acreages of cotton. The es- 
sential facts upon which these tentative inferences rest are: (/) In 
each of these regions the jiroportion of commercial farms that 
^row cotton is substantially lower for Classes I through III than 
for Classes V and VI. (S) In each of these regions there is con- 
siderably more concentration of farms and acreage and production 
of cotton in Classes V and VI for cotton farms than for other com- 
mercial farms that report cotton. (3) In these regions. Classes 

V and VI farms comprise around 50 percent of all farms growing 
cotton and they account for approximately 35 to 50 percent of 
cotton acreage, and 27 to 50 percent of cotton production. The 
concentration in these smallest size-of-business groups is much 
larger for cotton farms than for other commercial farms. In these 
regions, cotton farms account for from 84 to 97 percent of the acre- 
age and production of cotton on Classes V and VI farms. 

As an aid to the reader's perspective, it may be pointed out that, 
in 1954, these three regions accounted for 42 percent of all farms 
reporting cotton in the United States, and for 21 and 20 percent, 
respectively, of the national total of cotton acreage and production. 

In Regions IV and VI (Delta and Gulf Coastal Regions) the 
implications of the data, by economic classes for farms reporting 
cotton and the acreage and production of cotton, are considerably 
different. In general, there would seem to be little indication 
that a reduction in numbers of Classes V and VI farms w-ould signif- 
icantly affect cotton acreage in these regions. In each of these 



regions substantial proportions of all farms reporting cotton fall 
into Classes V and VI (49 percent for Region IV and 32 percent for 
Region VI). In this respect there is similarity to Regions II, III, 
and V. Another similarity between these regions and Regions II, 
III, and V, is that smaller percentages of farms in Classes I and 
II report cotton than is the case for the smaller size-of-business 
classes. But this condition is less pronounced and is believed 
to result mainly from the presence in each of specialized rice 
farms. Particularly in Region VI, and to a marked but lesser 
degree in Region IV, rice farms do not grow cotton. In both 
regions rice farms tend to be concentrated in the larger size-of- 
business groups. 

Other significant facts about Regions IV and VI that differen- 
tiate them from other regions of the humid belt are (1) in both 
regions significant proportions (one-fifth for Region IV and about 
one-third for Region VI) of farms reporting cotton fall in Classes 
1, II, and III, and (2) in Region IV, 55 and 59 percent, respectively, 
of regional acreage and production of cotton are found on the three 
largest size-of-business groups. The comparable jii-rcentages for 
Region VI are 64 and 66 percent. 

The geniTal terrain characteristics of these regions would mak(.' 
feasible the use of modern mechanical equipment adapted to 
larger cotton farms. A continued increase in the size of farms, 
given the generally higher yields which characterize larger farms, 
may well result in an increase for these regions in their proportion 
of the national total acreage and production of cotton. 

In 1954, Regions IV and VI accounted for about 19 and 23 per- 
cent, respectively, of all acreage and production of cotton in the 
United States, and for 18 percent of all farms that grew cotton. 

In Region VII (Black Prairie and Plains Regions), it will be 
recalled, about 31 percent of all farms reporting cotton are in 
Classes V and VI. The.se small size-of-business groups have, how- 
ever, only 14 and 9 percent, respectively, of the region's total 
acreage and production of cotton. About one-third of all farms 
that grow cotton and three-fifths of the region's acreage of cotton 
are in the three large size-of-business groups. Classes I through III. 
These three groups of farms account for more than 70 percent of 
the cotton produced in the region. About as large a proportion 
of all farms in Classes I through III report cotton as of those in 
smaller size-of-business groups. To these considerations may 
be added the fact that about four-fifths of all commercial farms 
in Classes I through III that report cotton are cotton farms (which 
is about the same percentage as for other classes). Part-time and 
residential farms are not as important in the subhuinid region. 
In view of these considerations, there does not seem to be any 
reason to expect a tendency for cotton acreage to be materially 
reduced in the region as a result of increases in size of farms. 

Region VII, in 1954, contained about 9 percent of all farms in 
the United States that reported cotton, and accounted for 22 and 
10 percent, respectively, of the LTnited States total acreage and 
production of the crop. 

In the three remaining regions, VIII, IX, and X, the production 
of cotton is now heavily concentrated in the three largest size-of- 
business groups. Effects on cotton acreage or production of re- 
duced numbers of Class V and Class VI farms would appear to be 
virtually negligible. The general tendency toward increasing size 
might work in the direction of increasing emphasis on the cotton 
enterprise. 

But it should be pointed out that these represent implications 
of how- reduction in low-income farms and increased farm size 
might tend to influence farm organization and are ba.sed on the 
current size structure in these regions. They are not predictions 
of trends since many other factors, including governmental pro- 
grams, technological developments, and changes in alternati\'es 
for use of resources, will affect actual trends. 



18 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 
Section 2.— TRENDS IN COTTON PRODUCTION BY REGIONS 



Historical data concerning the geographic location and the 
acreage, yield, and output of cotton, can give \-aIuable insights on 
the role cotton plays in the several regions. The picture drawn 
by data on trends of the acreage, yield, and production of cotton 
for each region shows, in the aggregate, the results of the responses 
of thousands of actual and potential growers of cotton to the whole 
continuously changing range of economic forces and institutional 
arrangements that affect the production of cotton. Figure 5 
indicates the aggregate changes in acreage and production of 
cotton in the United States during the 75-year period 1879-1954. 



regions with which we are dealing (VIII, IX, and X) had far 
greater acreages of cotton in cultivation in 1954 than during the 
1928-32 period. One additional region, the Mississippi Delta 
(Region IV), produced 28 percent more cotton from 29 percent 
fewer acres than in 1928-32. Production during 1954 in Regions 
VIII, IX, and X was, respectively, 590, 347, and 937 percent of 
their average for 1928-32. These four regions, in 1954, accounted 
for 39 and 54 percent, respectively, of the United States total of 
cotton acreage and production. Comparable percentages for 
1928-32 are 17 and 21 percent. 



COTTON HARVESTED -ACREAGE, 1879 TO 1954; AND PRODUCTION, 1839 TO 1954; FOR THE UNITED STATES 



MILLIONS OF ACRES 
20 30 



MILLIONS OF BALES 
8 12 



1954 
1949 
1944 
1939 
1934 
1929 
1924 
1919 
1909 
1899 
1669 
1879 
1869 
1859 
1849 
1839 



IHI^B^nB ^^^HBBB ^^^HBBi ^Sa 
^^^^^■^^^^B H^^^^^^^^H ^^^^^HI^^^B ^H 

■^■Bsn Hi^^^BB inn 


































^^^^^ 






^^^^^^ 






^^ 








■111 ■■■■■II 





















"""""""" 






m^^nmH 


^^ 




U^HDBB 


^■^™ 


» 



• NOT AVAILABLE 

YIELD PER ACRE 0.69 BALE IN 1954 



Figure 5. 



Great changes have taken place during the past quarter- 
century in the overall picture of cotton production. In the 5-year 
period, 1928-32, an average of almost 41.5 million acres of cotton 
was in cultivation annually in the United States, whereas for the 5 
years, 1950-54, the average acreage in cultivation was only 19.8 
million acres — 56 percent of the average acreage 22 years before. 
But the production of cotton in the period 1950-54 averaged 96 
percent of that for the period 1928-32. 

Behind these averages for two widely separated 5-year periods 
there is an interesting story of national and interregional adjust- 
ments to changing conditions of production and demand for 
cotton and for the resources used in its production. 

The gist of this story is presented in the data of table 10. 

The period 1928-32 represents the last 5 years of cotton produc- 
tion in this country prior to initiation of governmental price- 
support and acreage-control programs. The change in the acreage 
and production of cotton since 1928-32 is the result of widely 
varying regional adaptations to the changing conditions of 
production and demand. 

For example, in 1954, the United States as a whole had in 
cultivation, on July 1, only 48 percent of the average cotton acre- 
age for that date during the 1928-32 period. Three of the ten 



In two of the regions (II and V) there has been a steady decline 
in cotton acreage and production since 1928-32. In Region II, 
cotton acreage in 1954 was only 24 percent of the regional average 
for 1928-32, while in Region V only 17 percent as much acreage 
was in cultivation as the average for the earlier period. The 
comparable figures for production in 1954 are 29 percent for 
Region II and 24 percent for Region V. 

In the remaining regions (I, III, VI, and VII), the 1954 acreage 
as a percentage of each region's 1928-32 average acreage varies 
from 41 to 46 percent. The 1954 production, as a percentage of 
the 1928-32 average, ranges from 44 to 79 percent. In Regions I, 
III, and VI the range is only from 76 to 79 percent. It is thus 
evident that the fourth of these regions, Region VII, merits 
special attention in these comparisons, especially in regard to 
yields. For example, 1954 yields for Regions I, III, and VI, as 
percentages of their own 1928-32 averages, are, respectively, 169, 
179, and 154. The comparable figure for Region VII is 108. 
The probable reasons for this virtually unchanged yield level since 
1928 is that water limits the production in much of this region, and 
water is not available in sufficient quantity to permit the effective 
use of the commercial fertilizers that have played a major part in 
increasing the yields in other nonirrigated regions. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



19 



Table 10. — Cotton Acreage, Yield per Acre, and Production for Specified 5- Year Periods, for the United States and Regions- 

1928 to 1954 ' 



Item 



Averaee 1928-32: 

Acres _ _ - _ thousands 

Percent otU. S. total percent-- 

Llnt yield- - ..- pounds 

Percent of U. S. average percent. 

Production _ 1,000 bales 

Percent of U. S. total percent 

ATerage 1933-37: 

Acres --, thousands 

Percent of U. S. total ..percent. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent. 

Lint yield ..pounds. 

Percent of U. S. average percent 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent. 

Production... 1,000 bales 

Percent of U. S. total. percent. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent 

Average 1938-42: 

Acres thousands. 

Percent of U, S. total percent. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent. 

Lint yield pounds.. 

Percent of U. S. average percent- 
Percent of 1928-32 average percent. 

Production 1,000 bales. 

Pcrcent of U. S. total percent. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent- 
Average 1943-47: 

Acres .thousands. 

Percent of U. S. total percent. 

Percent of 1928-32 average - percent- - 

Lint yield-. - poiuids-- 

Percent of U. S. total percent.. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent. . 

Production - 1,000 bales- - 

Percent of U. S. total percent- - 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent.- 

Average 1948-52: 

Acres thousands- - 

Percent of U. S. total percent-. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent.. 

Lint yield pounds. . 

Percent of U. S. average percent.. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent-- 

Production 1,000 bales. - 

Percent of U. S. total percent. - 

Percent of 1 928-32 average percent. . 

Average 1950-54: 

Acres thousands.. 

Percent of U. S. total percent.. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent.. 

LinI yield pounds.. 

Percent of U. S. average percent-- 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent.. 

Production 1 ,000 bales. . 

Percent of U. S. total .percent.. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent-. 

1954: 

Acres thousands. - 

Percent of U. S. total percent.. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent.. 

Lint yield pounds.. 

Percent of U. S. average percent.. 

Percent of 1628-32 average percent-. 

Production ..1,000 bales.. 

Percent of V. S. total percent-. 

Percent of 1928-32 average percent-- 



Region 



3, 66.';. 6 

8.8 



180 
106 



1,374.9 
9.4 



2, 983. 2 
9.3 
81 

230 
120 
128 

1,428.6 

II. 

104 



2, 248. 6 

9.3 

61 

219 
92 
122 

1,025.4 
8.6 



1, 609. 8 

8.1 

44 



285 
111 
158 

955.2 

9.0 

69 



1,939.1 
7.8 
53 

274 
100 
152 

1,105.7 



2,013.5 

8.7 
65 

277 
103 
154 

1,162.9 
8.3 

85 



1.658.7 

8.4 
45 

304 
92 
169 

1,049.1 

7.7 

76 



3.029.3 
7.3 



210 
127 



1,361.9 
9.3 



2, 384. 1 
7,4 
79 

233 
121 

108 

1,159.0 
9.0 

85 



1,746.5 

7.2 
58 

267 
113 
124 

971.5 

8.1 

71 



1,377.3 
6.9 
45 

311 
121 
144 

892.4 

8.4 

66 



1,071.3 
4.3 
35 

270 
99 
125 

603.7 
4.2 
44 



891.4 

3.8 

29 

280 
104 
130 

519.9 
3.7 
38 



741.3 

3.7 

24 

259 
78 
120 

400.2 
2.9 
29 



5, 569. 7 
13.4 

188 
111 

2,175.9 
14.8 



4,173.2 
13.0 

75 

232 
121 
123 

2.018.9 

1,5.6 

93 



3,431.5 

14.2 

62 

203 
111 
140 

1,882.8 

15.7 

87 



3, 054. 2 

15.4 

55 

310 
121 
165 

1,971.6 

18.5 

91 



3,179.6 

12.7 

57 

310 
113 
165 

2, 055. 3 
14.4 



2.912.3 

12.5 

52 

321 
119 
171 

1,945.5 

13.8 

89 



2, 469. 5 

12.5 

44 

336 
101 

179 

1,728.5 
12.6 



4, 825. 6 
11.6 



225 
132 



2, 263. 7 
15.4 



4,027.8 

12.5 

83 

280 
146 
124 

2, 349. 3 

18.2 

104 



3, 334. 5 

13.8 

69 

388 
164 
172 

2, 693. 4 

22.5 

119 



3, 272. 6 

16.5 

68 

368 
144 
164 

2, 506. 9 

23.6 

111 



4, 086. 2 

16.4 

85 

366 
134 
163 

3,117.7 

21.9 

138 



3. 845. 6 
16.5 

80 

368 
136 
164 

2. 947. 

21.0 

130 



3,414.9 
17.3 

71 

406 
122 
180 

2, 886. 8 
21.1 

128 



4,828.3 
11.7 



140 
82 



1,411.3 
9.6 



3, 410. 5 
10. e 



141 
73 
101 

1,000.7 
7.7 
71 



2. 303. 6 

9.5 

48 

179 
76 

128 

860.0 

7.2 

61 



1,159.3 
6.8 
24 

189 
74 
135 

456. 
4.3 
32 



1,206.8 
4.8 
25 

191 
70 
136 

481.0 
3.4 
34 



974.5 
4.2 
20 

194 
72 
139 

393. 6 
2.8 
28 



833.7 

4.2 

17 

195 
59 
139 

339.4 
2.5 
24 



VI 



727.5 
1.8 



196 
115 



305. 1 
2.1 



648.6 
2.0 



168 
87 
86 

228.1 
1.8 
75 



424.0 
1.8 

68 

200 
84 
102 

178.8 
1.6 
69 



349.3 
1.8 
48 



141.0 
1.3 
46 



410.1 
1.6 
56 

289 
105 
147 

249.2 
1.7 



416.7 
1.8 
67 

286 
106 
146 

255.8 
1.8 
84 



332.1 
1.7 
46 

302 
91 
154 

232.9 
1.7 
76 



VII 



10,903.6 
26.3 



139 

82 



3.160.8 
21.6 



8.070.9 

25.1 

74 

142 

74 
102 

2. 392. 3 

18.6 

76 



6.442.9 

22.5 

50 

162 
68 
117 

1,836.3 

16.3 

58 



4, 805. 1 

24.2 

44 

146 

57 
106 

1.464.4 

13.8 

46 



6. 859. 4 

23.5 

54 

154 
56 
111 

1,878.7 

13.2 

69 



5, ,544. 2 

23. S 

51 

139 
61 
100 

1,601.9 

11.4 

61 



4, 493. 8 

22.7 

41 

160 
45 
108 

1, 406. 1 

10.3 

44 



214.0 
0.5 



153 

90 



68.9 
0.5 



179. 4 

0,6 

84 



101 
126 

74.3 
0.6 

108 



0.8 
92 

212 
89 
139 

89.3 
0.7 
130 



2.54. 
1.3 
119 

300 
117 
196 

160.7 
1.5 
234 



639.1 
2.6 
299 

321 
117 
210 

417.3 
2.9 
606 



640.6 
2.8 
299 

286 
106 

187 

381.6 
2.7 
554 



474.0 
2.4 
221 

412 
124 
269 

407. 
3.0 

591 



IX 



1,710.4 
4.1 



131 

77 



4&S. 6 
3.2 



1,621.9 
5.0 
94 

144 
75 
110 

487.3 
3.8 
104 



1,414.5 

5.8 
82 

172 
73 
131 

508. 2 
4.2 
108 



1,231.6 
6.2 
72 

202 
79 

154 

619.6 
4.9 
111 



2. 843. 1 
11.4 
166 

261 
96 
199 

1,647.8 
10.9 
330 



796. 3 
12.0 
163 

282 
104 



1,644.0 
11.7 
351 



2.446.9 
12.4 
143 

319 

96 

244 

1.027.8 
11.9 
347 



387.0 
0.9 



325 
191 



261.7 
1.8 



680. 3 
2-1 

176 

492 
256 
151 

697.6 
6.4 
267 



703. 
2.9 

1,82 

522 
220 
161 

763.9 
6.4 
292 



828.8 
4.2 
214 

570 
223 

175 

984.9 
9.3 
376 



1,828.9 
7.3 
473 

688 
215 
191 

2.241.7 
15.7 

857 



1, 954. 7 

8.4 
606 

6S5 
254 
211 

2. 700. 2 

19. ,■< 
1,066 



1.398.1 
7.1 
361 

842 
254 
259 

2. 453. 3 
17.9 
937 



Total, 10 
regions 



35, 867. 
86.6 

172 
101 

12,858.8 
87.7 



28, 179. 9 

87.6 

79 

196 
102 
114 

11,8.36. 1 

91.5 

92 



21,247.0 

87.8 

69 

206 
87 
120 

10, 808. 6 
90.2 

84 



17,942.0 

90.5 

60 

268 
105 
156 

10,052.6 
94. 6 



23. 063. 6 

92.4 

64 

285 
104 
166 

13,698.1 

90.1 

107 



21,989.8 

94.6 

61 

289 
107 
168 

13,642.2 

97.0 

106 



18, 263. 

92.3 

61 

329 
99 
191 

12. .631. 1 

91.6 

97 



United 
States 



41.423.0 
100.0 



170 
100 



14,667.0 
100.0 



32.178.0 

100.0 

78 

192 
100 
113 

12,9.33.0 
100.0 



24,201.0 

100.0 

58 

237 
100 
139 

11,977.0 

100. 

82 



19,821.0 

100.0 

48 

256 
100 

161 

10,634.0 

100.0 

72 



24,961.0 

100.0 

60 

274 
100 
161 

14. 2.59. 

100.0 

97 



23. 248. 

100.0 

66 

270 
100 
159 

14.061.0 
100. 



19.791.0 

100.0 

48 

332 
100 

195 

13, 679. 

100.0 

93 



' Source: Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. -\er{'s represent acres in cultivation July I and yield represents yield per acre In cultivation July 1. 



20 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



In spite of these low yields relative to all other regions, cotton 
continues as the major crop on most farms in Region VII, and the 
region has maintained a relatively stable proportion of the United 
States total acreage of cotton from 1928-32 to 1954. 

While the data of table 10 gives actual average yields, and 
production of cotton along with percentages, for later 5-year 
periods, of relevant 1928-32 averages, and of the United States 
totals or averages, table 11 presents relative numbers that indi- 
cate for each region how that region's changes compare with 
changes for the United States as a whole in acreage, yield, and 
production of cotton, in comparison with its own past. For 



example, under the column headed "Region IV" and opposite the 
item "Acres of cotton in cultivation July 1 — 1950-54 average" is 
the number 143. This means that for Region IV the 1950-54 
acreage of cotton, as a percentage of the average for the period 
1928-32, is 143 percent of the United States 1950-54 acreage 
expressed as a percentage of the acreage for 1928-32. 

In general, the important figures here are those relating to 
yield. It will generally be found that, if the relative numbers 
for a region are high, that region has maintained or increased 
its importance as a cotton-producing region. 



Table 11. — Ratio of Change Since 1928-32 in Acreage, Yield, and Production of Cotton in Each Region to Change for the 

United States for Specified Periods : 1933 to 1954 

(United States Change=100] 





Region 


Total, 10 
regions 


United 




I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


X 


States 


Acres of cotton in cultivation, July 1: 


104 
105 
92 

88 
98 
94 

113 

88 
105 
94 
97 
87 

118 
91 

9fi 

82 
89 
82 


101 
100 
94 

68 
52 
50 

96 
89 
95 
78 
82 
62 

97 
87 
92 
45 
40 
31 


96 
107 
115 
95 
93 
92 

109 
101 
109 
102 
108 
92 

106 
106 
126 
97 
93 
85 


106 
119 
142 
142 
143 
148 

110 
124 
109 
101 
103 
92 

118 
145 
154 
142 
135 
138 


91 
83 
50 
42 
36 
35 

89 
92 
89 
84 
87 
71 

81 
74 
44 
35 
29 
26 


114 
100 
100 

93 
102 

96 

76 
73 
67 
91 
92 
79 

85 
72 
64 
85 
87 
82 


96 
86 
92 
90 
91 
85 

90 
84 
70 
69 
63 
55 

86 
71 
64 
61 
53 
47 


108 
160 
248 
498 
534 
460 

111 
100 
130 
130 
118 
138 

122 
159 
325 
625 
577 
C35 


121 
141 
1.50 
277 
291 
298 

97 
94 
102 
124 
135 
125 

118 
132 
154 
340 
360 
373 


226 
314 
446 

788 
902 
752 

134 
116 
110 
119 
133 
133 

303 
356 
522 
883 
1,110 
1,007 


101 
102 
104 
107 
109 
106 

101 
86 
103 
103 
106 
98 

105 
102 
108 
110 
110 
104 


100 


Average 1938-42 


100 


Average 1943-47 _ . . 


100 


Average 1948-52.- .. - - 


100 


Average 1950-54 


100 


1954 . . . --- 


100 


Yield of lint per acre: 


100 


Average 1938-42 


100 




100 


Average 1948-52 


100 




100 


1954 . - 


100 


Bales of cotton produced: 

Average 1933-37 


100 




100 


Average 1943-47 - 


100 


Average 1948-52 __ - --. 


100 


Average 1950-54 


100 


1954 - 


100 







COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 
Section 3.— TENURE OF COTTON FARMS 



21 



Detailed analysis of Ihe type of tenure, by which operators 
of cotton farms control the land resources they use, and of the 
economic implications of such tenure arrangements, is not an 
important purpose of this report. But the tenure characteristics 
of cotton farms have some effect on the interpretation of data 
relating to land use, to production expenses, and to investment on 
cotton farms, and the tenure of operator has some influence upon 
the mobility of labor and other resources employed on farms. 
Therefore, tenure arrangements of the operators of cotton farms 
will be briefly examined. 

PROPORTION OF COTTON FARMS OPERATED 
BY CROPPERS 

The legal status of croppers varies from Slate to State. Typical- 
ly, the cropper is one who supplies only the labor input for the 
farming operation. The landlord tyiiically provides the land and 
the power and equipment used, and makes most of the managerial 
decisions. Crops produced on cropper operations are usually 
divided equally between the cropper and the landlord. The crop- 
per usually pays for half the fertilizer used. 

Because of these facts the cropper is often treated, in economic 
analy.sis, as a farm laborer rather than as a farm operator; but 
a farm laborer who shares directly some of the short-term risks 
associated with the farm business. 

In Census statistics, however, croppers are considered as farm 
operators. The principal objective here, in examining the pro- 
portions of cotton farms operated by croppers, is to bring out the 
facts concerning the influence of cropper operations on (1) land 
use, expenses, and investment for various economic classes of 



cotton farms, and (.3) the probable mobility of labor and land 
resources on various size-of-business groups of cotton farms. 

Given the facts concerning the typical cropper operation It 
would seem evident that: (1) The land associated with cropper 
operations would tend to be very largely cropland, (S) livestock 
enterprises would be at a minimum, and (S) to the extent that the 
landlord does not operate a farm, or if he does, to the extent that 
his farm falls in a different economic class from that of the crop- 
per, production expenses and investment in machinery and equip- 
ment may be understated in those economic classes where croppers 
are found. Also, statistics for the economic class in which the 
landlords are found may overstate production expenses, and reflect 
investment in machinery and equipment that is not fully related 
to the operation with which it is statistically associated. 

Because of investments in laud and/or farm machinery and 
equipment by farm operators other than croppers, it would seem 
reasonable to infer that, with other considerations being equal, 
there w-ould be a higher degree of mobility with respect to other 
employment opportunities among croppers than among other 
types of operators. The relatively rapid decline in numbers of 
croppers seems to strengthen such an inference. It follows, also, 
that the land resources used by croppers may be more readily 
available than those controlled by operators of other tenure 
statuses for use in future adjustments which entail increased land 
re.sources per farm. 

With these facts in mind, it is interesting to examine the data in 
table 12 concerning the proportions of farms operated by croppers 
for the various economic classes of cotton farms in the 10 desig- 
nated production regions. 



Table 12. — Percent Distribution of All Commercial Farm Operators, and Cotton Farm Operators in Each Economic Class 

OF Farm, by Color and Tenure of Operator, by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



Percent distribution 



I 



.Ml 

coni- 

niercial 

farms 



REGION I 

All farm operators .. 

White 

Nonwhite 

Owners, part owners, and 

managers 

White .-- 

Nonwhite 

All tenants except croppers.. 

White 

Nonwhite 

Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite.-. 

REGION II 

All farm operators 

White , 

Nouwtiite 

Owners, part owners, and 

managers 

White , 

Nonwhite 

AU tenants except croppers. 

White 

Nonwhite... 

Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite 



100.0 
59.8 
40.2 



51.7 
77.6 
22.4 

26.2 
46.5 
53.5 

22.0 
33.8 
66.2 



100.0 
71.3 



62.2 
89.5 
10.5 

17.1 
54.6 
45.4 

20.6 
30.0 
70.0 



Cotton farms by economic class of farm 



All 
classes 



100.0 
38.8 
61.2 



38.3 
57.6 
42.4 

32.3 
31.2 



29.4 
22.7 
77.3 



100.0 
48.1 
51.9 



38.1 
72.5 
27.5 

25.7 
44.4 
66.6 

36.2 
25.2 
74.8 



100.0 

98.3 

1.7 



98.0 
2.0 



9.8 
100.0 



1.4 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 



95.7 
100.0 



4.3 
100.0 



100.0 
92.8 



76.3 
97.5 
2.5 

17.5 
79.2 
20.8 

6.2 
73.7 
26.3 



100.0 

93.9 

6.1 



93.9 
93.5 

6.5 

6.1 
100.0 



III 



100.0 
58.8 
41.2 



44.7 
81.9 
18.1 

30.4 
49.5 
50.6 

24.9 
28.8 
71.2 



100.0 
81.7 
18.3 



71.6 

92.5 

7.5 

9.6 
76.4 
23.6 

18.7 
42.9 
67.1 



IV 



100.0 
41.0 
59.0 



30.3 
70.7 
29.3 

34.0 
34.6 
65.4 

35.7 
21.9 
78.1 



100. 
51). 9 
49.1 



38.2 
81.2 
18.8 

23.3 
60.3 
49.7 

38.5 
21.1 
78.9 



100.0 
37.6 
62.4 



34.6 
68.9 
41.1 

31.6 
30.3 
69.7 

33.8 
22.6 
77.4 



100.0 
48.1 
51.9 



31.0 
77.9 
22.1 

26.3 
49.9 
50.1 

42.7 
25.2 
74.8 



VI 



100.0 
27.5 
72.5 



45.0 
34.5 
65.5 

33.7 

22.2 
77.8 

21.3 
21.2 



100.0 
46.6 
54.4 



42.2 
65.0 
35.0 

26.7 
37.8 
62.2 

31.1 
26.0 
74.0 



Region and item 



REGION III 

All farm operators 

White 

Nonwhite.. 

Owners, part owners, and 

managers 

White 

Nonwhite 

AU tenants except croppers.. 

White 

Nonwhite 

Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite - . - 

REGION IV 

.\11 farm operators 

White 

Nonwhite 

Owners, part owners, and 

managers 

White 

Nonwhite... - 

All tenants except croppers. . 

White.. 

Nonwhite 

Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite 



Percent distribution 



AU 

com 

mercial 

farms 



100.0 
63.0 
37.0 



52.6 
80.4 
19.6 

26.0 
49.8 
50.2 

21.4 
36.1 
63.9 



100.0 
50.3 
49.7 



31.4 
80.0 
20.0 

26.7 
61.1 
38.9 

42.9 
22.1 
77.9 



Cotton farms by economic class of farm 



AU 
classes 



100.0 
54.0 
46.0 



42.2 
71.6 
28.5 

30.9 
46.6 
63.6 

26.9 
35.2 
64.8 



100.0 
44.0 
56.0 



25.3 
72.9 
27.1 

26.4 
58.0 
42.0 

48.3 
21.3 

78.7 



100.0 
97.9 
2. 1 



81.7 
97.4 
2.6 

16.8 
100.0 



1.5 
100.0 



100.0 
8.6 
1.4 



68.1 

98.8 

1.2 

29.3 

98.5 

1.5 

2.6 

93.5 

6.5 



100.0 
91.6 
8.4 



66.5 
91.5 
8.5 

25.8 
95.4 
4.6 

7.7 
80.6 
19.6 



100.0 
93.0 
7.0 



46.7 
93.3 
6.7 

47.6 

94.3 

6.7 

6.7 
81.3 
18.7 



III 



100.0 
77.4 
22.6 



46.0 
89.4 
10.6 

32.7 
81.7 
18.3 

21.3 
45.0 
55.0 



100.0 
72.9 
27.1 



29.3 
86.0 
14.0 

43.6 
81.1 
18.9 

27.1 
46.5 
64.5 



100.0 
62.2 
37.8 



38.9 
81.2 
18.8 

29.5 
60.5 
39.5 

31.6 
40.4 
59.6 



100.0 
46.3 
53.7 



23.8 
73.5 
26.6 

27.4 
55.4 
44.6 

48.7 
27.8 

■70 O 



100.0 
53.7 
46.3 



38.0 
75.4 
24.6 

30.7 
47.4 
52.6 

31.2 
33.5 
66.5 



100.0 
30.5 
69.6 



18.9 
66.1 
34.9 

20.9 
39.7 
60.3 

60.1 
16.5 
83.5 



VI 



100.0 
46.7 
54.3 



47.4 
60.3 
39.7 

31.9 
32.9 
67.1 

20.7 
32.1 
67.9 



100.0 
27.7 
72.3 



29.4 
54.0 
46.0 

17.4 
34.4 
66.6 

53.2 
11.0 
S9.0 



423019- 



22 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 12. — Percent Distribution of All Commercial Farm Operators, and Cotton Farm Operators in Each Economic Class 
OF Farm, by Color and Tenure of Operator, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 



Region and item 



REGION V 

All farm operators 

White 

Nonwhite 

Owners, part owners, and 

managers 

White 

Nonwhite 

All tenants except croppers- 

White 

Nonwhite 

Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite 

REGION VI 

All farm operators 

White 

Nonwhite 

Owners, part owners, and 

managers 

White -.., 

Nonwhite- _ 

All tenants except croppers. . 

White 

Nonwhite 

Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite 

REGION VII 

All farm operators 

White 

Nonwhite 

Owners, part owners, and 

managers 

White 

Nonwhite 

All tenants except croppers... 

White 

Nonwhite 

Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite 



Percent distribution 



All 
com- 
mercial 
farms 



100.0 
80.0 
20.0 



76.6 
87.0 
13.0 

16.7 
66.6 
33.4 

6.6 
34.0 
66.0 



100. 
89.7 
10.3 

63.5 
91.8 
8.2 

32.5 
88.9 
11.1 

4.0 
63.9 
36.1 



100.0 
96.9 
3.1 



65.4 

98.3 

1.7 

29.6 

97.3 

2.7 

6.0 
74.9 
25.1 



Cotton farms by economic class of farm 



All 
classes 



100.0 
57.0 
43.0 



56.1 
66.3 
33.7 

28.4 
63.3 
46.7 

15.5 
30.1 
69.9 



100.0 
79.3 
20.7 



41.7 
76.6 
23.4 

50.2 
84.4 
15.6 

8.1 
61.3 
38.7 



100.0 

94.4 

5.6 



50.9 
97.0 
3.0 

40.0 

96.1 

3.9 

9.1 
72.3 
27.7 



100.0 
100.0 


100.0 
96.2 
3.8 


75.8 
100.0 


70.3 
95.9 
4.1 


18.6 
100.0 


27.9 
96.8 
3.2 


5.6 
100.0 


1.8 
100.0 



100.0 
97.0 
3.0 



63.1 
100.0 



33.9 
100.0 



100.0 
19.8 
0.2 



70.5 

99.8 

0.2 

28.5 
100.0 



1.0 
100.0 



100.0 

97.4 

2.6 



43.6 

98.5 

1.5 

62.5 

97.5 

2.5 

3.9 
83.3 
16.7 



100.0 
99.7 
0.3 



61.7 
99.8 
0.2 

35.9 
(19.4 
0.6 

2.4 
100.0 



III 



100.0 
84.7 
15.3 



57.6 
90.0 
10.0 

29.3 
84.3 
15.7 

13.1 
02. 6 
37.5 



100.0 
91.8 
8.2 



36.6 

92.9 

7.1 

56.0 

93.0 

7.0 

8.4 
80.0 
20.0 



100.0 
19.2 
0.8 



50.7 
99.7 
0.3 

44.8 
99.2 
0.8 

4.5 
94.1 
5.9 



100.0 
70.8 
29.2 



63.1 
83.4 
16.6 

28.3 
68.7 
31.3 

18.7 
38.0 
62.0 



100.0 
81.4 
18.6 



32.8 
82.2 
17.8 

67.8 
86.3 
13.7 

9.4 

49.1 
60.9 



100.0 
96.7 
3.3 



46.9 

98.8 

1.2 

44.1 

98.0 

2.0 

9.0 
79.6 
20.6 



100.0 
57.7 
42.3 



49.5 
73.4 
26.6 

29.8 
62.3 
47.7 

20.6 
27.9 
72.1 



100.0 
72 7 
27^3 



41.9 
74.9 
25.1 

50.1 
74.2 
25. S 

8.0 

51.7 
48.3 



100. 
92.2 



96.1 
3.9 

38.2 
96.3 
4.7 

13.0 
68.2 
31.8 



VI 



100.0 
42.9 
57.1 



61.0 
49.0 
51.0 

27.6 
38.8 
61.2 

11.5 
20.5 
79.5 



100.0 
48.8 
51.2 



67.1 
44.1 
53.9 

24.4 
53.8 
46.2 

8.5 
72.2 
27.8 



100.0 
76.6 
23.4 



62.8 
84.6 
15.4 

29.6 
76.1 
23.9 

17.6 
53.7 
46.3 



Region and item 



REGION VIII 



All farm operators. 

White 

Nonwhite.. 



Owners, part owners, 

managers 

White 

Nonwhite 



and 



All tenants except croppers.. 

White 

Nonwhite 



Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite. 



REGION IX 



All farm operators. 

White 

Nonwhite.. 



Owners, part owners, and 

managers 

White --. 

Nonwhite 



All tenants except croppers.. 

White 

Nonwhite -_. 



Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite., 



REGION X 



All farm operators- 
White 

Nonwhite.. 



Owners, part owners, 

managers 

White 

Nonwhite 



All tenants except croppers.. 

White 

Nonwhite -.. 



Croppers 

White 

Nonwhite, 



Percent distribution 



All 

com- 

rrercial 

farms 



100.0 
99.6 
0.4 

81.9 
99.8 
0.2 

17.5 

98.6 

1.4 

0.6 
100.0 



67.3 
99.8 
0.2 

32.1 
99.7 
0.3 

0.6 
97.6 
2.4 



100.0 
96.4 
3.6 



86.6 
96.7 
3.3 

14.3 

94.9 

5.1 

0.2 
100.0 



Cotton farms by economic class of farm 



All 
classes 



100.0 

99.7 

0.3 



80.8 
99.9 
0.1 

18.4 

99.0 

1.0 

0.8 
100.0 



100.0 
99.8 
0.2 



62.9 
99.9 
0.1 

46.3 
99.8 
0.2 

1.8 
96.1 
3.9 



100.0 

98.0 

2.0 



79.6 

98.1 

1.9 

19.5 

97.4 

2.6 

0.9 
100.0 



100.0 

98.9 

1.1 



85.1 
99.4 
0.6 

14.9 
96.3 
3.7 



100.0 

100.0 

(Z) 



56.2 
100.0 



42.6 
99.9 
0.1 

1.3 
100.0 



100.0 
99.4 
0.6 



77.6 
99.3 
0.7 



21.4 
99.6 
0.5 



1.0 
100.0 



100.0 
99.6 
0.4 



80.9 
100.0 



18.7 

98.0 

2.0 

0.4 
100.0 



100.0 
99.9 
0.1 



48.6 
100.0 



50.0 
100.0 



L4 

93.8 

fi.2 



100.0 

98.2 

1.8 



75.9 

97.9 

2.1 

23.6 
99.3 
0.7 

0.7 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 



100.0 



16.3 
100.0 



0.4 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 



54.1 
100.0 



44.5 
100.0 



1.5 
100.0 



100.0 
97.8 
2.2 

81.2 

98.8 

1.2 

18.1 

93.2 

6.8 

0.7 
100.0 



IV 



100.0 
100.0 



78.0 
100.0 



20.9 
100.0 



1.1 
100.0 



55.4 
100.0 



42.8 
99.2 
0.8 

1.8 
100.0 



100.0 

96.0 

4.0 



88.0 

96.9 

4.1 

10.9 
96.7 
3.3 

1.1 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 



76.5 
100.0 



21.8 
100.0 



2.6 
100.0 



100.0 

98.1 

1.9 



67.5 

98.9 

1.1 

35.4 

98.2 

1.8 

7.1 
90.9 
9.1 



100.0 

92.6 

7.4 



85.2 

94.8 

6.2 

13.3 

77.8 
22.2 

1.5 
100.0 



VI 



100.0 
100.0 



79.6 
100.0 



20.4 
100.0 



100.0 
95.2 
4.8 



66.7 

92.9 

7.1 

23.8 
100.0 



9.5 
100.0 



100.0 

94.7 

5.3 



6.1 



10.5 
100.0 



2.6 
100.0 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 



It will be observed that, from an overall standpoint, croppers are 
an important tenure type only in Regions I through V of the humid 
climatic belt. In the most westerly of these, Region V, croppers 
account for only 15 percent of all cotton farm operators. In the 
other four regions of this climatic belt they account for from 27 to 
48 percent of all operators. The most significant fact brought out 
is the large percentages of all operators in the three smallest size- 
of-business groups that are croppers in Regions I through IV. It 
will be recalled that these regions contain a preponderance of all 
small size-of-business cotton farms. 

Croppers are a relatively unimportant group in the five remain- 
ing regions. They do account for about 13 and 18 percent, respec- 
tively, of Class V and Class VI farms in Region VII; while in 
Region VI they account for from 8 to 9 percent of the two smallest 
size-of-business groups of farms. 

TENANTS OTHER THAN CROPPERS 

The proportions, among various regions, of the large farms that 
are operated by tenants other than croppers provide some indica- 
tion of the extent to which land for moderate to large size farm 



businesses is available, and attractive to persons with limited 
capital. 

Both relatively and absolutely small proportions of the operators 
of Class I and Class II farms in Regions I and II are found in this 
tenure category. In Region II a verj' small proportion of Class III 
farms are in this tenure group. 

At the other extreme, a relatively high proportion of larger farm 
business groups are found in this tenure group in Regions IV and 
IX (the Mississippi Delta and the High Plains of Texas, respec- 
tively). In Region X (the irrigated West) the proportion of tenants 
other than croppers is low, but the proportions of Class I and II 
farms found in this tenure group are substantially above the 
percentage for all farms. In Region VI, a substantial 34 percent of 
Class I farms are found in this group, while the percentages of 
Classes II and III farms there are larger than those for all farms. 

In Regions III, V, and VII the percentages of Classes I and II 
farms operated b.y tenants other than croppers are smaller than the 
proportion of all farms found in the tenure group. For Region 
VIII, there are less than proportional percentages of both Classes 
I and III farms in this tenure group. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 
Section 4.— THE LAND RESOURCE AND ITS UTILIZATION 



23 



Land accounts for the major part of total investment on all 
sizes of cotton farms and, for a given region, the quantity of land 
controlled by an operator of a cotton farm is, generally, positively 
associated with the level of return to him for his labor and manage- 
ment. 

The present distribution of the land resource among the eco- 
nomic classes of cotton farms for the ten regions is therefore a 
useful statistic. Some summary information of this type is given 
in table 13. 

Table 13. — All Land in Farms, Total Cropland, and 
Irrigated Land, by Economic Class of Cotton Farm, 
Total of Ten Regions: 1954 





Economic class of farm 


Item 


AU 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


All land in farms million acres.. 

Percent distribution percent. . 

Total cropland million acres. _ 

Percent distribution.. _ percent. . 
Irrigated land million acres.. 

Percent distribution percent.. 


62.5 
100.0 

3S.9 

100.0 

5.5 

100.0 


15.4 
24.7 
10.0 
25.7 
4.2 
75.5 


9.4 
15.0 

6.4 
16.5 

1.0 
18.3 


8.9 
14.2 

6.9 
15.1 

0.2 

4.1 


10.9 
17.4 
7.0 
18.0 
0.1 
1.5 


11.2 
18.0 

6.6 
16.6 
(Z) 

0.5 


6.7 
10.7 

3.1 

8.1 
(Z) 

0.1 



Z 0.05 million or less. 

DISTRIBUTION OF LAND, BY MAJOR USES 

In 1954, there were approximately 62.5 million acres of land in 
cotton farms in the 10 regions with which this report is concerned. 
In these 10 regions as a whole, a little more than half of this 
land (54 percent) was on farms in the three largest size-of-business 
groups (Classes I to III). Twenty-nine percent was in farms 
with gross sales of less than .$2,500 and the remaining 17 percent 
was in farms having sales of $2,500 to $4,999. 

Cropland is generally of considerable significance to cotton 
farms. The distribution of cropland by economic class of farm, 
for our 10 regions in the aggregate, is given in table 13. The 
percentage of cropland found on cotton farms in the first 3 
economic classes is slightly larger than the proportion of all land; 
conversely, the 2 smallest size-of-business groups account for 
one-fourth of the cropland and 29 percent of all land. 

Table 13 shows also the distribution of irrigated land among 
economic classes of farms. In our 10 regions there were 5.5 
million acres of irrigated land. This is equivalent to about 14 
percent of all cropland on cotton farms. About 98 percent of 
this irrigated land was on the three largest size-of-business groups 
of farms, and more than three-fourths of it was on farms in 
Economic Class I. Many farms have attained a volume of sales 
that placed them in the larger size-of-business groups because of 
the use of irrigation. 

The distribution of land resources among economic classes for 
the total of our 10 regions, should be considered along with the 
distribution of farm numbers for the same aggregates. Table 
8 shows that 61 percent of all cotton farms fall in Classes V and 
VI; 17 percent in Classes I, II, and III; and 22 percent in Class IV. 

Data on land distribution for all 10 regions as a whole are 
useful but, averages for large nonhomogeneous areas niay be 



somewhat misleading. There are some striking differences among 
the regions with respect to distribution of the land resources 
among economic classes of cotton farms. Table 14 gives data 
for individual regions on the distribution of land by major-use 
classes for each economic class of farm. First, let us examine 
the individual regions with respect to the distribution of cropland 
among economic classes. 

The 4 regions where the highest proportions of cropland are 
on farms in Classes V and VI are Regions I, II, III, and V. In 
Region I, 39 percent of all the cropland is on Classes V and VI 
farms. Comparable percentages for other regions in this group 
are: Region II, 69 percent; Region III, 52 percent; and Region 
V, 44 percent. 

In Region IV ("the Mississippi Delta"), Region VI (the 
Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast Prairie), and Region VII (the Black 
Prairie and Rio Grande Plains of Texas and the Rolling Plains 
of Texas and Oklahoma) the proportions of total cropland on 
Classes V and XI farms are, respectively, 18, 14, and 15 percent. 

The 3 remaining regions in which very small proportions of 
total cropland are found on the two smallest size-of-business 
groups of farms are Region VIII (the lower Rio Grande Valley), 
Region IX (the High Plains of Texas), and Region X (the arid 
irrigated areas of far western Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and 
the San Joaquin Valley of California). 

Regions with low percentages of cropland in Classes V and VI 
farms have relatively high proportions in Classes I, II, and III. 
Similarly those with high percentages on Classes V and VI farms 
have low percentages on the larger farms. In Regions I, II, III, 
and VI the percentage of total cropland on Classes I through III 
farms ranges from 12 to 37 percent, well below the 10-region 
average of 57 percent. Regions IV, VI, and VII have, respec- 
tively, 63, 65, and 61 percent of their cropland on farms in Classes 
I through III. In Regions VIII, IX, and X the proportions of 
cropland on the three larger groups of farms range from 92 to 
98 percent. 

An interesting aspect of the distribution of land by major-use 
categories among economic classes for the several regions is the 
variation by regions of the proportion that cropland is of total 
land in farms. In Regions II, III, and V cropland accounts for 
only about 50 percent of all land in farms for most economic 
classes. Generally, the proportion rises slightly from Class I 
to Class IV; tends to drop for Class V and shows a marked drop 
for Class VI. Region I exhibits a similar pattern, but the ratio 
of cropland to all land is somewhat higher. In all of these regions 
most of the noncropland is accounted for by woodland. 

As would be expected, farms in "the Mississipiji Delta," Region 
IV, have a higher ratio of cropland to total land in farms than 
farms in the 4 regions mentioned above. In Region IV, generally, 
cropland accounts for from 70 to 75 percent of all land in farms, 
but on Class VI farms the average is about 60 percent. Again, 
most noncropland here is woodland. 

The general ratio of cropland to all land in Regions VI and 
VII is about 62 and 71 percent, respectively. In Region VI, 
however, cropland accounts for only a little more than 50 percent 
of total land in the 2 smallest size-of-business groups, and in 
Region VII cropland is less than 60 percent of all land for Class 
VI farms. In these areas noncropland is likcl.v to be open pasture. 



24 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 

Table 14. — Land Use for Cotton Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



REGION I 

Land in farms, acres -.. 

Percen t distribution 

Total cropland , acres ._ 

Percent of land in farms 

Percent distribution 

Cropland harvested, acres 

Percent of total cropland 

Percent distribution 

Cropland for pasture, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Open permanent pasture, acres 

Percent distribution 

Woodland pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Woodland not pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Other land, acres 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of all land in farms 

Irrigated land in fanns, acres 

Percent distri bution 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of total cropland 

REGION II 

Land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution 

Total cropland, acres 

Percent of land in farms 

Percent distribution 

Cropland harvested, acre^ 

Percent of total cropland 

Percent distribution 

Cropland for pasture, acres 

Percent distribution ._ 

Percent of all cropland.--. 

Cropland hot harvested and not pastured, acres. 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Open permanent pasture, acres - 

Percent distribution - - 

Woodland pastured, acres - 

Percent distribution 

Woodland not pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Other land, acres 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of all land in farms 

Irrigated land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution _ 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of total cropland 

REGION III 

Land in farms, acres 

Percent d istr ibution 

Total cropland, acres 

Percent of land in farms 

Percent distribution 

Cropland harvested, acres _. 

Percent of total cropland 

Percent distribution 

Cropland for pasture, acres 

Percent distribution - 

Percent of all cropland 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Open permanent pasture, acres 

Percent distribution 

Woodland pastured, acres. 

Percent distribution 

Woodland not pastured, acres 

Percent distribution - 

Other land, acres 

Percent of farms reporting -- 

Percent of all land in farms - 

Irrigated land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of total cropland 

Z 0.05 percent or less. 



Economic class of farm 



All classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


6, 044, 937 


525, 465 


766. 313 


891, 348 


1, 499, 797 


1. 648. 762 


814, 262 


100.0 


8.7 


12.7 


14.7 


24.8 


26.6 


13.5 


3, 521, 137 


271, 633 


387. 667 


522, 912 


950, 466 


941, 817 


446, 642 


58.2 


51.7 


60.7 


68.7 


63.4 


60.8 


54.8 


100.0 


7. 7 


11.0 


14.8 


27.0 


26.7 


12.7 


2, 949, 769 


216, 060 


310. 801 


446,148 


828, 672 


797,071 


361, 027 


83.8 


79.6 


80.2 


85.3 


87.2 


84.6 


78.6 


100.0 


7.3 


10.5 


15.1 


28.1 


27.0 


11.9 


269, 618 


32, 315 


47, 776 


33, 140 


62, 418 


68,442 


26, 627 


100,0 


12.5 


18.4 


12.8 


24.0 


22.5 


9.8 


7 4 


11.9 


12.3 


6.3 


6.6 


6.2 


6.7 


311.750 


23,268 


29. 090 


43, 624 


59, 376 


86, 304 


70,088 


100.0 


7 5 


9.3 


14.0 


19.0 


27.7 


22.5 


8.9 


8.6 


7,5 


8.3 


6.2 


9.2 


15.7 


199,469 


31, 967 


43. 642 


27, 351 


41,840 


39. 009 


16,660 


100.0 


16,0 


21,9 


13,7 


21.0 


19,6 


7.8 


689, 303 


50, 551 


88. 634 


99, 974 


180, 916 


168. 912 


100, 317 


100.0 


7.3 


12.9 


14.5 


26.2 


24,5 


14,6 


1, 606, 784 


163, 596 


230, 792 


226,399 


295, 172 


364. 490 


226. 335 


100.0 


10 9 


15.3 


15.0 


19 6 


24,2 


15.0 


128,244 


7,718 


14, 578 


14, 712 


31,404 


34,524 


26. 308 


71.6 


92.7 


87.0 


78.3 


69.3 


69.7 


72.6 


2.1 


1.5 


1.9 


1.6 


2.1 


2.2 


3.1 


1,937 


660 


232 


870 


125 


36 


15 


100.0 


34.1 


12.0 


44.9 


6.4 


1.8 


0.8 


0.3 


9.8 


1.5 


1.3 


0.3 


0.1 


(Z) 


0,1 


0.2 


0.1 


0.2 


(Z) 


(Z) 


(Z) 


3,217,057 


49,690 


130, 103 


222, 242 


542, 177 


1, 200, 662 


1, 072, 183 


100.0 


1.5 


4.0 


6.9 


16.9 


37 4 


33.3 


1, 609, 357 


22,078 


68,903 


112,628 


306, 166 


625, 368 


484, 214 


50.0 


44.5 


45.3 


50.7 


56.5 


52.1 


46.2 


100.0 


1.4 


3.7 


7 


19.0 


38.9 


30.0 


1, 231, 478 


15, 716 


39, 774 


77, 873 


241, 665 


497, 690 


358, 760 


76.5 


71.0 


67 6 


69.2 


78.9 


79.6 


74.1 


100.0 


1.3 


3,2 


6 3 


19.6 


40.5 


29.1 


153,050 


4,722 


12, 103 


20, 307 


30, 919 


47. 049 


37,960 


100.0 


3.1 


7.9 


13.3 


20.2 


30,7 


24.8 


9.5 


21.4 


20,5 


18,0 


10.1 


7.5 


7.8 


224, 829 


1,640 


7,026 


14,448 


33, 582 


80. 629 


87,504 


100.0 


0.7 


3.1 


6.4 


15.0 


36.9 


38.9 


14.0 


7 4 


11.9 


12.8 


11.0 


12.9 


18,1 


233, 169 


2,320 


16, 685 


24,772 


37, 982 


81. 549 


70. 961 


100,0 


1.0 


6.7 


10.6 


16 3 


35 


30.4 


462, 799 


10,837 


23,013 


28,738 


68, 165 


161. 251 


160. 796 


100.0 


2.4 


5, 1 


6.3 


15.1 


35.6 


35.6 


821, 664 


13, 805 


30, 164 


50,690 


114,237 


295. 136 


317. 622 


100 


1.7 


3,7 


6 2 


13.9 


35.9 


38.6 


100,078 


650 


2,438 


5,414 


16, 627 


37. 358 


38.591 


82,4 


95.7 


98.9 


87.1 


84.4 


81.9 


82 


3.1 


1,3 


1.9 


2.4 


2.9 


3.1 


3,6 


230 








70 


160 












30.4 
0.2 
(Z) 


69 6 
0.2 

(Z) 




1 










(Z) 
13, 870, 811 










744, 657 


930, 129 


1. 358, 694 


3, 114, 584 


4. 561. 951 


3, 100. 796 


100.0 


5.4 


6.7 


9.8 


22.5 


32.9 


22.8 


6, 922, 192 


375, 092 


463, 713 


720, 033 


1, 747, 812 


2, 285, 530 


1, 330, 012 


49.9 


60.4 


49.9 


.53.0 


66,1 


50.1 


42.1 


100.0 


6.4 


6.7 


10.4 


25.2 


33.0 


19.2 


5, 292, 736 


270,993 


322, 727 


530, 856 


1. 379. 807 


1. 807, 517 


980, 836 


76.5 


72.2 


69.6 


73.7 


78.9 


79.1 


73.7 


100.0 


5.1 


6.1 


10.0 


26. 1 


34.1 


18.5 


975, 355 


81, 899 


100, 825 


129,458 


231, 472 


268, 158 


163, 643 


100. 


8.4 


10.3 


13.3 


23.7 


27.5 


16.8 


14.1 


21.8 


21.7 


18.0 


13.2 


11.7 


12.3 


054, 101 


22, 200 


40, 161 


69. 719 


136, 533 


209, 855 


185, 633 


100.0 


3.4 


6.1 


9.1 


20.9 


32.1 


28.4 


0.4 


5.9 


8.7 


8.3 


7 8 


9.2 


14.0 


1, 629. 066 


95, 679 


134, 688 


160, 589 


321, 445 


494, 642 


332, 223 


100.0 


6.3 


8.8 


9.8 


21.0 


32.4 


21.7 


2, 437. 868 


111, 666 


155, 036 


211, 437 


440, 446 


821,846 


697, 437 


100.0 


4.6 


6.3 


8.7 


18.1 


33.7 


28.6 


2. 395. 308 


140, 296 


143, 266 


224,520 


477, 861 


756,473 


652, 893 


100.0 


5.8 


6.0 


9.4 


20.0 


31.6 


27.2 


586,377 


22,024 


33. .527 


52, 116 


127, 020 


203,460 


148, 231 


77.6 


90.3 


85.2 


82.3 


77.6 


76.0 


78.7 


4.2 


3.0 


3.6 


3.8 


4.1 


4.6 


4.7 


13. 676 


9,283 


917 


1,191 


1.035 


1,000 


150 


100.0 


68.4 


6.7 


8.8 


7.6 


7.4 


1.1 


0.2 


12,0 


1.6 


1,1 


0.3 


0.2 


0.1 


0.2 


2.5 


0.2 


0.2 


0.1 


(Z) 


(Z) 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 

Table 14. — Land Use for Cotton Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions; 1954 — Continued 



25 



R('<;i<)n and item 



REGION IV 

Land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution 



Total cropland, acres 

Percent of land in farms. 
Percent distribution 



Cropland harvested, acres 

Percent of total cropland 

Percent distribution 

Cropland for pasture, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Cropland not har^■estcd and not pastured, acres.. 

Percent distr ibu tion 

Percent of all cropland 



Open permanent pasture, acres. 

Percent distribution 

Woodland pastured, acres 

Percent distr ibut ion 

Woodland not pastured, acres... 

Percent distribution 

Other land, acres 

Percent of farms reporting.. 

Percent of all land in farms. 



Irrigated land in farms, acres. . . 

Percent distribution 

Percent of farms reporting. 
Percent of total cropland... 



REGION V 

Land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution . 



Total cropland , acres 

Percent of land in farms. 
Percent distribution 



Cropland harvested, acres .. 

Percent of total cropland... 

Percent clistrilmtion 

Cropland for pasture, acres . 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Cropland not ha'xesied and not pastiu-ed, acres.. 

Percent distrihutinn 

Percent of all cropland 



Open permanent pastme, acres. 

Pei'cent distriliution. 

Woodland pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Woodland not pastured, acres... 

Percent distribution 

Other land, acres 

Percent of farms reporting.. 

Percent of all land in farms. 



Irrigated land in farms, acres... 

Percent distribution 

Percent of farms reporting. 
Percent of total cropland.. . 



REGION VI 

Land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution.. 



Total cropland, acres 

Percent of land in farms. 
Percent distribution 



Cropland harvested, acres 

Percent of total cropland 

Percent distribution 

Cropland for pasture, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured, acres.. 

Percent distribution 

Pei-cent of all cropland 



Open permanent pasture, acres. 

Percent distribution.. 

Woodland pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Woodland not pastured, acres... 

Percent distribution 

Other land, acres 

Percent of farms reporting.. 

Percent of all land in farms. 



Irrigated land in farms, acres... 

Percent distribution 

Percent ol farms reporting. 
Percent of total cropland. .. 



Economic class of farm 



All classes 



9, 662. 737 
100.0 

B. 984, 120 
72.4 
100.0 

6. 078. 243 

87.0 

100.0 

596. 847 

100.0 

8.5 

310.030 

100.0 

4.4 

403. 098 
100.0 

822. 460 

100.0 

I,0tl.47S 

mil 

3HK. f.'.H 
61.fi 
4.1 

189. 326 

100.0 

2.S 



3. 272. 463 
100. 

1. 652. 770 
50. 5 
100.0 

l.lll. 184 
67.2 
100.0 
380. 962 
100.0 
23 
160. 624 
100. 



626. 941 

ion 

692. 8 10 

100 

318. loa 

100.0 

82.449 

78.6 

2.5 



17. 568 

100.0 

1.1 

1.1 



9.39, MA 
100. (1 

585. 819 
62.3 
100. U 

495. 546 

84.0 

100.0 

43. 213 

100.0 

21.5 

47. 060 

100.0 

8.0 

233. 397 

100.0 

81,919 

100.0 

17.809 

100.0 

20.720 

2.2 

81.6 

6.306 

100.0 

1.5 

l.I 



2. 973. 423 
30.8 

2. 088. 189 
70,2 
29.9 

1. 807. 642 
86.6 
29.7 
211.739 
35.5 
10.1 
68.808 
22.2 
3.3 

137, 714 

34.2 
234, 940 

28. 6 
385. 614 

36.9 
120. 966 

87.2 
4,3 

115, 347 

60.9 

20. 1 

5.5 



400. 320 
12.2 

210. 844 
52.7 
12.8 

145. 468 
69.0 
1.3.1 
53, 913 
14.2 
25. 6 

11. 4&3 
7 1 
5.4 

90. 035 

17.1 

60. 281 

8.7 

29,304 

9.2 

9.862 

93.5 

2.6 

12. 395 
70.6 
30.2 

6.9 



135. 770 
14. 6 

83.068 
61.2 
14.2 

65. 0.59 
78.3 
13.1 

8,508 
19.7 
31.5 

9. .501 
20.2 
11.4 

32. 966 

14.1 

17. 304 

21. 1 

337 

1.9 

2,096 

1.6 

82.1 

3.636 
57.7 
9.5 
4.4 



1.663.157 
16.2 

1, 156. 546 
73,9 
16.6 

1.012.384 
87.6 
16.7 
96. 636 
16.0 
8.3 
47. 626 
16.3 
4.1 

54.973 

13.6 

117. 228 

14.3 

169. 608 

16.2 

65. 802 

85.2 

4.2 

29. .897 
1.5.8 
8.3 
2.6 



314.996 
9.6 

173. 662 
.55. 1 
10.5 

120. 497 

69.4 

10.8 

43.228 

11.3 

24.9 

9.927 

6.2 

.5.7 

55. 226 
10.5 

56. 039 
8.1 

22. 324 

7.0 

7.755 

87.5 

2.5 

3, 245 
18,5 
8.3 
1.9 



232. 260 
24,7 

140. 667 
60.6 
24,0 

115.830 
82.3 
23.4 

10.363 
24.1 
31.7 

14. 464 
30.7 
10.3 

59. 559 

25.5 

19. 234 

23,4 

10, 266 

57,7 

2,546 

1.1 

85.5 

400 
6.3 
0.6 
0.3 



III 



1.541.368 
16,0 

1. 163. .641 
76.6 
16.7 

1. 036. 655 

89.0 

17.0 

81.900 

13.8 

7,0 

46. 986 

14.8 

4.0 

50.465 

12.5 

128. 780 

15.7 

138. 643 

13,3 

59. 939 

67,1 

3.9 

20. 626 

10.9 

4.3 

1.8 



465. 109 
14,2 

224. 149 
48.2 
13,6 

162,443 
72,5 
14.6 
42, 437 
11, 1 
18. 9 
19, 269 
12 
8,6 

87, 853 

16. 7 

103, 641 

1,5.0 

41 320 

13.0 

8. 146 

73.8 

1.8 



5.7 
2.3 
0.4 



240. 712 
25.6 

161.771 
67.2 
27.6 

141. 197 

87,3 

28.6 

7.149 

16.4 

20.4 

13. 425 

28.5 

8.3 

59. 668 

25,6 

12. 133 

14.8 

2, 797 

15.7 

4.343 

1.8 

83.1 

1.3(» 

21.6 

2.0 

0.8 



1. 731, 674 
17.9 

1. 291. 585 
74.6 
18.5 

1, 139. 706 

88.2 

18.8 

91.089 

15.3 

7.1 

60.790 

19,6 

4.7 

69. 342 

17.2 

144, 222 

17.5 

161, 749 

16.5 

fH.776 

50.8 

3.7 

15. 777 
8.4 
2.9 
1.2 



609. 949 
18.6 

319, 760 
62.1 
19.3 

227, 677 
71.2 
20,5 
64. 397 
16,9 
20.1 
27. 786 
17.3 
8.7 

94.220 

17.9 

133. ,527 

19.3 

48. 621 

15.3 

13. 821 

74.6 

2.3 

865 
4,9 
1.8 
0.3 



177, 640 
18.9 

116, 823 
6.6.8 
19.9 

102. 185 

87.5 

20,6 

8.433 

19.4 

21.6 

6.205 

13,2 

6.3 

40. 044 

17,2 

13. 468 

18.5 

1.500 

8.4 

6,705 

3.2 

81.2 

606 
9.6 
1.7 
0.5 



1. 406. 916 
14.6 

1. 028, 309 
73.1 
14,7 

887. 726 

86.3 

14.6 

80, 513 

13.5 

7.8 

60. 070 

19,4 

6.8 

60. 674 

16.0 

129. 482 

16.7 

128. 459 

12.3 

60, 092 

42.6 

4.3 

6.850 
3.6 
1.4 
0.7 



765. .309 
23.1 

388, 051 
61.4 
23.5 

260. 729 
67.2 
23.6 

87. 328 
22.9 
22,5 

39. 994 
24.9 
10.3 

103. 1.58 

19.6 

171.412 

24.7 

72. 369 

22,7 

20.319 

73.2 

2.7 

30 
0.2 
0.2 



(Z) 



109. 742 
11.7 

60,760 
55.4 
10.4 

62, 830 
86.8 
10.7 
6. 896 
13 7 
21.5 
2. 035 
4.3 
3.3 

29, 610 

12,7 

13. 195 

16.1 

2.060 

11,5 

4,127 

.3.8 

81.8 

305 
4.8 
1.1 
0.5 



VI 



(7.) 



436. 199 
4.5 

256. 950 
58.9 
3.7 

195. 130 
75.9 
3.2 
34, 970 
5.9 
13.6 
26.860 
8.7 
10.4 

30, 030 

7.4 
67, 798 

8 2 
60, 405 

5,8 

21.016 

48.3 

4.8 

830 
0.4 
0.8 
0.3 



726. 774 
22.2 

336. 314 
46,3 
20,3 

194, 470 
.57.8 
17.5 

89. 6,59 
23.6 
26.7 

62. 186 
32,5 
15,6 

96. 449 

18,2 

167. 910 

24,2 

104. .625 

32,8 

22, 546 

84.2 

3.1 

35 
0,2 
0,1 



43. 640 
1,6 

22.740 
52.1 
3 9 

18, 445 
81,1 
3.7 
2.866 
6.7 
14.6 
1.430 
3 1 
6,3 

11,550 

4,9 

6.585 

8.1 

860 

4,8 

1,906 

4.4 

76.5 



Z 0. 05 percent or less. 



26 FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 

Table 14. — Land Use for Cotton Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 



Region and Horn 



REGION VII 

Land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution 



Total cropland, acres 

Percent of land in farms. 
Percent distribution 



Cropland harvested, acres 

Percent of ftal cropland 

Percent distribution 

Cropland for pasture, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured, acres.. 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 



Open permanent pasture, acres- 
Percent distribution 

Woodland pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Woodland n< t pastured, acres... 
Percent distribution 

Other land, acres 

Percent of farms reporting. . 
Percent of all land in farms.. 



Irrigated land in farms, acres... 

Percent distribution 

Percent of farms reporting. 
Percent of total cropland... 



HEGION VIII 

Land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution 



Total cropland, acres 

Percent of land in farms. 
Percent distribution 



Cropland harvested, acres 

Percent of total cropland 

Percent distribution 

Cropland for pasture, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured, acres.. 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland... 



Open permanent pasture, acres . 

Percent distribution 

Woodland pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Woodland not pastured, acres... 

Percent distribution 

Other land, acres 

Percent of farms reporting. . 

Percent of all land in farms. 



Irrigated land in farms, acres... 

Percent distribution.. 

Percent of farms reporting. 
Percent of total cropland... 



REGION IX 

Land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution 



Total cropland, acres 

Percent of land in fai-ms. 
Percent distribution 



Cropland harvested, acres 

Percent of total cropland 

Percent distribution 

Cropland for pasture, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured, acres. 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 



Open permanent pasture, acres. 

Percent distribution 

Woodland pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Woodland not pastured, acres.. 

Percent distribution 

Other land, acres 

Percent of farms reporting, . 

Percent of all land in farms. 



Economic class of farm 



Irrigated land in farms, acres. . 

Percent distribution 

Percent of farms reporting. 
Percent of total crojiland.. 



11, 276, 398 
100.0 

7, 957, 946 
70.6 
100.0 

6, 501. 564 

81.7 

100.0 

704, 177 

100.0 

8.8 

752, 205 

100.0 

9.5 

2, 152. 798 

100.0 

862. 883 

100.0 

77. 511 

100.0 

225, 260 

81.7 

2.0 

163, 413 

100.0 

3.4 

1.9 



1, 128, 563 
100.0 

919, 109 
81.4 
100.0 

737, 061 

80.2 

100.0 

52, 588 

100.0 

5.7 

129, 470 

100.0 

47.6 

66, 716 

100.0 

73. 534 

100.0 

16, 666 

100.0 

63, 638 

86.8 

5.6 

484, 807 
100.0 
52.7 
83.1 



6, 657, 656 
100.0 

6, 232, 355 
78.6 
100.0 

4, 742, 138 

90.6 

100.0 

149, 073 

100. 

2.8 

341, 144 

100.0 

6.5 

1. 269. 285 

100.0 

31,368 

100.0 

7. 346 

100.0 

117,302 

91.2 

1.8 

1,930.642 
100.0 
60.6 
36.9 



1, 314, 335 
11.7 

916, 960 
69.8 
11.6 

799, 793 

87.2 

12.3 

64, 184 

• 9.1 

7.0 

52, 983 

7.0 

5.8 

255, 419 

11.9 

109, 527 

12.7 

7,681 

9.9 

24, 748 

86.6 

1.9 

83,593 
64.6 
25.8 
9.1 



647, 862 
57.4 

512, 408 
79.1 
55.8 



2, 378, 047 
21.1 

1, 693, 256 
71.2 
21.3 

1, 396, 242 

82.5 

21.6 

146, 846 

20.8 

8.7 

150, 108 

20.0 



485. 139 

22.5 

146. 109 

16.9 

15, 329 

19.8 

38, 214 

86.6 

1.6 

47, 673 
31.1 
13.6 
2.8 



268, 359 
23.8 

228. 245 
85.1 
24.8 



421. 789 


183, 208 


82.3 


80.3 


57.2 


24.9 


36, 089 


10, 439 


69.8 


19.8 


7.2 


4.6 


63, 930 


34. 598 


41.6 


26.7 


46.4 


50.4 


39, 465 


11, 146 


69.7 


19.6 


60. 839 


13, 209 


69.1 


18.0 


10, 336 


1.650 


66.4 


10.0 


34, 814 


14. 109 


90.6 


85.2 


5.4 


6.3 


288,300 


110, 574 


69.5 


22.8 


56.3 


48.4 


85.1 


80.2 


3,201,171 


2, 140. 343 


48.1 


32.1 


2, 630, 229 


1,780,409 


79.0 


83.2 


48.4 


34.0 


2, 329, 364 


1, 627. 198 


92.1 


91.4 


49.1 


34.3 


61, 893 


46,611 


41.6 


31.3 


2.4 


2.6 


138, 972 


106,600 


40.7 


31.2 


5.5 


0.0 


612, 664 


307, 231 


48.3 


24.2 


7,294 


8,245 


23.3 


26.3 


3,556 


2,026 


48.4 


27.6 


47,428 


42, 433 


91.4 


92.3 


1.5 


2.0 


1,313,214 


553,303 


68.0 


28.7 


90.5 


69.6 


51.9 


31.1 



3, 036, 156 
26.9 

2, 192. 596 
72,2 
27.6 

1, 793, 010 
81.8 
27.6 
197, 555 
28.1 
9.0 
202, 031 
26.9 
9.2 

666, 773 

26.3 

207, 128 

24.0 

11,890 

15.4 

67, 769 

85.6 

1.9 

16, 384 
10.0 
3.7 
0.7 



119, C40 
10.6 

103. 495 
86.5 
11.3 

79, 033 
76.3 
10.7 
4,145 
7.8 
4.0 
20, 317 
15.7 
61.3 

5,375 
9.5 

2,240 
3.0 
800 
.5.2 

7,730 
90.3 
6.6 

63, 270 
11.0 
51.5 
84.1 



762, 566 
11.6 

669, 629 
74.7 
10.9 

497, 770 

87.4 

10.6 

21, 765 

14.6 

3 8 

60. 094 

14.7 



165, 948 

13.1 

11,374 

36.3 

565 

7.7 

15, 050 

91.2 

2.0 

63, 270 

2.8 

31.3 

9.4 



IV 



2, 684, 486 
23.8 

1, 926, 637 
71.7 
24.2 

1, 549, 891 
80.5 
23.8 
171. 288 
24.3 
8.9 
204. 468 
27.2 
10.6 

481, 361 

22.4 

199, 008 

23 1 

20, 996 

27.1 

56. 883 

82.7 

2.1 

3,963 
2.6 
1.0 
0.2 



64, 916 
4.9 

44, 430 

80.9 

4.8 

34,600 

77.9 

4.7 

565 

1.1 

1.3 

9,265 

7.2 

47.9 

705 
1.2 

5,190 
7.1 
406 
2.6 

4,186 

84.1 

7.6 

21, 970 
4.6 
49.4 
86.6 



362, 010 
6.4 

239, 690 

66.2 

4.6 

205, 406 
86.7 
4.3 
12, 484 
8.4 
5.2 
21, 800 
6.4 
9.1 

108, 687 

8.6 

3,425 

10.8 

825 

11.2 

9,383 

87.4 

2.6 

9,080 
0.4 
15.2 
3.8 



1, 441. 665 
12.8 

986. 270 
68.4 
12.4 

781. 639 
79.2 
12.0 
96, 236 
13.7 
9.8 
108, 396 
14.4 
11.0 

267, 860 

12.4 

138. ,679 

16.1 

12, 610 

16.1 

36, 446 

78.2 

2.5 

1,960 
1.3 
0.7 
0.2 



29,637 
2.6 

23,381 
79.1 
2.5 



VI 



1,700 
0.1 
12.3 
6.1 



421, 710 
3.7 

243, 227 
57.7 
3.1 

180, 989 
74.4 
2.8 
28. 069 
4.0 
n.5 
34, 169 
4.5 
14.0 

96, 246 

4.5 

61, 932 

7.2 

9,105 

11.7 

11, 200 

74.1 

2.7 

840 
0.5 
1.0 
0.3 



8,150 
0.7 

7,150 
87.7 
0.8 



15. 306 


3,115 


65.4 


43.6 


2.1 


0.4 


455 


295 


0.9 


0.6 


6.9 


4.1 


7,620 


3.740 


5.9 


2.9 


41.0 


38.9 


25 




?) 




1,951 


105 


2.7 


0.1 


2.370 


5 


15.2 


(Z) 


1.910 


890 


79.6 


77.8 


6.4 


10.9 


8,683 


2,010 


1.8 


0.4 


37.1 


28.1 


83.6 


76.9 


171,231 


20,335 


2.6 


0.3 


105, 588 


6,810 


61.7 


33.6 


2.0 


0.1 


77, 960 


4,450 


73.8 


65.3 


1.6 


0.1 


5, 966 


3,56 


4.0 


0.2 


5.6 


5.2 


21, 673 


2,005 


6.4 


0.6 


20.5 


29.4 


62, 655 


12,200 


4.9 


0.9 


826 


205 


2.6 


0.7 


225 


150 


3.1 


2 


2,038 


970 


88.2 


90.5 


1.2 


4.8 



(Z) 



4.8 
1.1 



Z 0.06 percent or less. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 

Table 14. — Land Use for Cotton Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 



27 



Region :lnd itonl 



KEGIOM X 

Land in farms, acres. ,..- 

Percent distribution 

Total cropland, acres. .-. . - 

Percent of land in farms 

Percent distribution 

Cropland harvested, acres 

Percent of total cropland 

Percent distribution. 

Cropland for pasture, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Cropland not liarvested and not pastured, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of all cropland 

Open permanent pasture, acres 

Percent distribution... 

Woodland pastured, acres.. 

Percent distribution 

Woodland not pastiu'cd, acres 

Percent distribution 

Other land, acres 

Pcrceiit of farms reporting.. 

Percent of all land in farms 

Irrigated land in farms, acres 

Percent distribution 

Percent of farms reporting.. 

Percent of total cropland. 



Kconoraic class of farm 



All classes 



6, 433, lie, 
lUO.O 

3, son. n7fi 

.14. R 
10(1.0 

2, 680, SS.I 

76. H 

100. 

174, 062 

100.0 

a.o 

64.";, 639 

100. 

18.4 

2, 616, 417 

100.0 

110, .307 

100.0 

17, 787 

100. 

282. 629 

91.3 

4.4 

2, 737, 1(10 
100,0 
99.4 
78.1 



6, 434, 874 
84.5 

3,000,211 
6.6.2 
86. n 

2, 310, 230 

77.0 

86.0 

134, 635 

77.4 

4.5 

655, 346 

.86. 

18.5 

2, 153, 607 

86. 6 

5fi. 895 

61.6 

10. 189 

67.3 

213. 972 

92.0 

3,9 

2,351,018 
85.9 
99.6 

78.4 



066, 100 
10.4 

34,6,310 
61.8 
9.8 

266, 7.39 

74.3 

9.6 

,30, 694 

17.6 

8.9 

67, 877 

9.0 

16.8 

264, 566 

10.5 

7, 145 

6.4 

.3. 518 

19.7 

4.6. 571 

94.1 

0.8 

266, 878 

9.8 

99.8 

74.3 



III 



216,811 
3.4 

108, 799 
60.2 
3.1 

81,886 

75.3 

3.0 

5, 377 

3.1 

4.9 

21, ,536 

.3.3 

19.8 

76, 103 

3.0 

16, 090 

14.6 

1,996 

11.2 

1.3, 81S 

94.2 

6.4 

80, 159 

2.9 

99.0 

73. 7 



97, 146 
1.6 

38, 968 

40.2 

1.1 

28, 022 

71.8 

1.0 

2, 226 

1.3 

5.7 

8,720 

1.3 

22.4 

20, 144 

0. S 

,30, 171 

27.4 

2, 0,60 

11.6 

5, 813 

87. 3 

6.0 

2j, 692 

1,1 

9S.9 

73. 6 



16, 370 
0.3 

11,333 
68. 9 
0.3 

8,418 

74.3 

0.3 

1, 075 

0.6 

9.5 

1,840 

0.3 

16.2 

1, 982 
0.1 



26 

0.2 

3,030 

86.6 

18.5 

9,228 
0.3 
98.5 
81.4 



VI 



(Z) 



1,815 



(Z) 



1,455 
80,2 



(Z) 



(Z) 



1,090 
74.9 

45 
(Z) 
3.1 
320 
0.1 
22.0 

25 



(Z) 



10 
0.1 
325 
47.4 
17.9 

1,125 

100.0 
77.3 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 



Cotton f;irm,s in Region V'lII liavc, for all economic clas.S'.'S, a 
higher ratio of cropland to all land than is found in an.y other 
region. The range by economic class is from almost 80 to about 
90 percent. The highest percentage of cropUind is found on 
Class VI farms. This differs from the pattern observed in the 
other seven regions, but appears to be what might logically be 
expected of small farms in an irrigated region. 

In the High Plains of Texas (Region IX) cropland accounts for 
around 80 percent of all land for farms in Classes I, II, and III. 
These three cla,sses comprise about 85 percent of all cotton farms 
in this region. The ratio of cropland to all land drops to GO per- 
cent for Class IV farms, 02 percent for Class V, and 34 percent 
for Class VI, Virtually till noncropland is classed as open pasture. 

The irrigated cotton farms of the West (Region X) exhibit, 
from Classes I through IV^ (about 95 percent of all cotton farms 
are encompassed by these economic cl;isse,s), a ratio of cropland to 
total land which is about the same as that found in the rougher 
wooded regions of the East. The probable explanation here is 
that available water for irrigation is the limiting factor in deter- 
mining the amount of cropland. In the absence of water for 
irrigation most of this land is suitable only for rather extensive 
types of utilization. Many of the larger operators probably 
controlled large acreages of this land before the advent of irrig.a- 
tion. Class VI farms in Region X have an average of more than 
80 percent of all land in cropland, and on Cla,ss V farms the per- 
centage is about 70. 

The data on land use for individual regions show some interest- 
ing facts about the distribution of irrigated land. Irrigation is an 
influential element on cotton farms only in Regions VIII, IX, and 
X. These regions have about 95 percent of the 10-region total 
acreage of irrigated land on cotton farms. In Region X, of course, 
practically no cotton is or can be grown except under irrigation. 
In Regions VIII and IX, on the other hand, this crop is also grown 
without irrigation. Since available moisture is the limiting factor 
for growing cotton in each of these regions, the yields on non- 



irrigated land are only one-fourth to one-half as high as those on 
irrigated land. 

In Region IX only Class I farms appear, on the average, to 
have enough irrigated land to permit all cotton acreage to be 
grown under irrigation. For Class II farms in this region it 
would appear that irrigated land is available for about 70 [jercent 
of the cotton acreage, while on Class III farms the average acreage 
of irrigated land is only about 25 percent of the average acres of 
cotton harvested. In this region farms in Economic Classes IV 
through VI have very little irrigated land. 

Apparently, in Region VIII, the extent of irrigated land avail- 
able is about equal to cotton acreage harvested on farms in Classes 
I through IV, but is somewhat le.ss than cotton acreage for farms 
in Classes V and VI. In these two classes a very large proportion 
of tlie available cropland seemed to be idle. 

LAND VSK AND ENTERPRISE ORGANIZATION 
PER FARM 

The data available in table 15 permit examination of the use of 
the land resource as it is found on typical farms for each economic 
class. 

Total Acres Per Farm 

In all regions farms in Economic Class I have relatively large 
acreages of land. In The Lower Rio Grande Valley (Region 
VIII) the average land size for Class I farms is smaller than for 
any other region. Their average size here is 710 acres. The 
highest average land area for this largest size-of-business group is 
found in Region II, the Southern Piedmont, where Class I farms 
average more than 2,000 acres. After Region II, the largest 
average total acreages per Class I farm are found in Regions I, 
III, V, VII, and X. In each of these 5 regions the average Class 
I farm has well over 1,000 acres of land. 

Class I farms in the 3 remaining regions (IV, VI, and IX) have 
average total acre-size ranging from about 760 acres in The High 
Plains of Texas (Region IX) to around 990 acres in the "Mississippi 
Delta" (Region IV). 



28 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



The average acre-size of Class II farms is very substantially 
smaller in all regions than those of farms in Economic Class I. 
The range for the 10 areas is from a little over 700 acres in Region 
II to just over 200 acres in Region VIII. It will be recognized 
that these are the same regions in which the largest and smallest 
average acre-size for Class I farms are found. 

In general the average acreage for Class III farms is about one- 
third to one-half that for farms in Class II. The range among our 
regions for Class III farms is from highs of around 320 acres in 
Regions IX and VII to lows of just over 100 acres in Regions lY, 
VIII, and X. 

With respect to average total acreage jier farm in Economic 
Classes IV through VI, three distinct groups of regions are dis- 
cernible. In reference to the range among the ten regions in 
average acreage size for each of these three economic classes, the 
three regional groups may be termed the high group, the low group, 
and the medium group. 

The high group is composed of Regions V, VII, and IX. Within 
this regional group region average acreages for Class IV farms 
range from about 165 to about 250. The range for Class V farms 



is from just over 100 to about 220 acres, while for Class VI farms 
the range of region average acreages per farm is from 80 to about 
190 acres. Various combinations of low yields and relatively 
large amounts of noneropland result in these relatively large aver- 
age acreages for farms in these economic classes in this regional 
group. 

The regional group having relatively low average acres per 
farm for Economic Classes IV through VI is comprised of Regions 
IV, VIII, and X. The ranges within this group for regional average 
acreage per farm are: From about 50 to 80 acres for farms in 
Class IV, from about 25 to 40 acres for Class V farms, and from 
10 to 30 acres for farms in Class VI. These relatively low average 
acreages per farm are probably the result of both high yields per 
acre, and relatively small acreages of noneropland per farm. 

The medium group with respect to region-average acre-sizes 
of farms in Classes IV through VI is comprised of the remaining 
four regions. These are Regions I, II, III, and VI. The ranges 
in region-average acres per farm for this regional group are: For 
Class IV farms, from about 75 to around 110 acres; for Class V 
farms, from 60 to 75 acres; and for Class VI farms, from about 40 
to 00 acres. 



Table 15. — Land Use on Cotton Farms Per Farm, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



REGION I 

All farms- number.. 

All land in farms. .-acres per farm.. 

Total cropland do 

Cropland harvested do 

Cropland nsed only for pasture: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Cropland not harvested and not 
pastured; 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Open permanent pasture, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms... 

Woodland pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land In farms 

Woodland not pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting. 

Percent of land in farms 

Average specified crops: 
Cotton: 

Acres per farm 

Percent of cropland harvested . . . 

Corn for all purposes; 

Acres per farm reporting.. 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested.. 

Tobacco; 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. . 

Peanuts for all purposes: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested . . 

AU hay: 
Acres— percent of cropland har- 
vested 

-\cres of specified crops as percent of 
cropland harvested 





Economic class of farm 






AW 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


57, 374 
105 


287 
1,831 


1, 234 

620 


4,399 
203 


14, 858 
101 


20, 841 

74 


15, 755 
52 


61 
51 


946 
763 


314 
252 


119 
101 


64 
56 


45 
38 


28 
22 


22 
20.3 


172 
65.5 


79 
49.3 


25 
30.3 


20 
21.4 


16 
18.3 


10 
16. 1 


22 
25.3 


186 
43.9 


67 
36.4 


37 
27.0 


20 
20.1 


17 
24.1 


16 
30.0 


29 
12.1 
3.3 


266 
41.8 
6.1 


100 

36.4 

6.7 


33 

18.8 
3.1 


24 
11.9 
2.8 


16 
11.6 
2.6 


11 
8.9 
1.9 


47 
25.5 
11.4 


320 
65.1 
9.6 


138 
61.9 
11.6 


64 
35.2 
11.2 


60 
24.3 
12.1 


34 
24.0 
10.8 


27 
23.3 
12.3 


71 
37.1 
24.9 


670 
85.0 
31.1 


272 
68.9 
30.2 


120 
43.0 
25.4 


61 
32.5 
19.7 


49 
3.6.4 
23.5 


37 
38.5 
27.8 


16 
32.1 


225 
29.8 


74 
29.4 


33 
32.5 


19 
34.6 


12 
31.7 


7 
30.4 


23 
92.7 
42.0 


183 
90.9 
22.2 


91 
93.6 
33.9 


41 
96.0 
38.0 


26 
93.8 
43.4 


20 
92.7 
47.3 


12 
91.0 
60.6 


2 
15.4 
0.7 


9 
19.5 
0.2 


5 
16.9 
0.3 


4 
22.1 
0.8 


3 

20.7 
1.0 


2 
14.9 
0.7 


1 
91 
0.6 


11 

39.8 

8.8 


79 

33.1 

3.4 


38 
60.3 
7.6 


21 

48.6 

9.9 


13 
44.3 
10.3 


9 

41.fi 
9.3 


6 

29.9 

7.1 


2.6 


6.6 


3.2 


2.4 


2.1 


2. 1 


3.1 


86.1 


61.2 


74.4 


83.6 


91.3 


91.1 


91.6 



Region and item 



REGION n 

All farms number- 
All land ill farms... acres per farm- 
Total cropland do_ 

Cropland harvested. . do 

Cropland used only for pasture: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent, of farms reporting 

Cropland not harvested and 
not pastured: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Open permanent pasture, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Woodland pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms -_. 

Woodland not pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Average specified crops: 
Cotton: 
Acres per farm -.. 

Percent of cropland harvested.. 

Cora for all purposes: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested . . 

Wheat: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. . 

Oats: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting. 

Percent of cropland harvested . . 

All hay: 
Acres—percent of cropland har- 
vested 

Acres of specified crops as percent of 
cropland harvested 



Economic class of farm 



All 

classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


40, 263 
80 


23 
2,160 


180 
723 


747 
298 


4,803 
113 


16,027 
75 


18, 483 
58 


40 
31 


960 
683 


327 
221 


161 
104 


64 
60 


39 
31 


26 
19 


19 
19.6 


296 
69.6 


146 
46.1 


58 
46.6 


25 
25.3 


16 
18.9 


12 
17.4 


17 
33.6 


182 
39.1 


70 
56.6 


43 
44.7 


24 
28.9 


17 
29.8 


13 

37.5 


17 

33.9 

7.2 


211 

47.8 

4.7 


128 
67.8 
12.0 


72 
45.9 
11.1 


23 

34.6 

7.0 


16 
33.2 

6.8 


11 
33.6 
6.6 


28 
40.1 
14.1 


642 
87.0 
21.8 


147 
87.2 
17.7 


64 
59 8 
12.9 


34 
41.3 
12.6 


26 
38.6 
13.4 


22 
39.9 
15.0 


46 
43.9 
26.5 


767 
78.3 
27.8 


226 
74.4 
23.2 


107 
63.3 
22.8 


61 
46.2 
21.1 


46 
40.3 
24.6 


38 
46.3 
29.6 


12 
40.6 


219 
32.0 


83 
37.5 


39 
37.8 


22 
44.3 


13 
42.6 


7 
36.6 


11 
90.3 
31.2 


118 
95.7 
16.5 


46 
89 4 
18.3 


24 
89.0 
20.2 


14 
91.6 
25.8 


11 
90.6 
31.5 


8 
89.7 
38.7 


6 

30.9 

6.5 


165 
39.1 
8.9 


29 
63.9 
7.0 


17 
65.2 
9.0 


9 

42,0 

7.1 


6 
34.4 
6.5 


4 

23.7 

6.2 


10 
27.3 
8.8 


124 
78.3 
14.2 


62 
69.4 
19.4 


29 
65.7 
18.0 


14 

40.4 
10.9 


8 

28.1 

7.3 


5 
21.2 
6.0 


10.7 


15.9 


15.6 


12.7 


10.7 


10.0 


10.4 


97.8 


87.6 


97.8 


97 7 


98 8 


97.9 


96.9 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 

Table 15. — Land Use on Cotton Farms Per Farm, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 



29 



Rogion and itorii 



REGION nr 

All farms uuraber.. 

All land in farms. . .acres per farm.. 

Total cropland -do — 

Cropland harvested do 

Cropland used only for pasture: 

Acres per farm reporting. 

Percent of farms reporting 

Cropland not harvested and not 
pastured; 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Open permanent pasture, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms _ 

Woodland pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting. _ 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Woodland not pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Average specified crops: 
Cotton: 
Acres per farm 

Percent of cropland harvested. . 

Com for all purposes: 

Acres per farm reporting.. 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested, . 

Soybeans: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percen t of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. _ 

All hay: 
Acres— percent of cropland har- 
vested . 

Acres of specified crops as percent 
of cropland harvested 

REGION IV 

All farms _._ number.. 

All land in farms.. acres per farm.. 

Total cropland do 

Cropland harvested. _.._. do 

Cropland used only for pasture: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Cropland not harvested and not 
pastured: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Open pennanent pasture, acres: 

Acres per fann reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Woodland pastmed, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Woodland not pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of laud in farms 

Average specified crops: 
Cotton: 

Acres per farm 

Percent of cropland harvested. . 

Com for all purposes: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. . 

Oats: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested, _ 

Soybeans: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. . 

Rice; 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. . 

All hay: 
Acres— percent of cropland har- 
vested _. 

Acres of specified crops as percent of 
cropland harvested 

Z 0,05 percent or less. 





Economic class 


of farn 






.\11 


I 


11 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


classes 














171, 185 
81 


475 
1,668 


1.672 
656 


6,888 
197 


32, 740 
96 


69, 768 
66 


69, 642 
63 


40 
31 


790 
671 


277 
193 


106 
77 


53 
42 


.33 
26 


22 
16 


26 
22.9 


270 
63.8 


123 

49.2 


48 
39.4 


25 
27.9 


18 
21.0 


14 
19 6 


16 
24.4 


163 
28.6 


73 
33.0 


30 
29.3 


18 
22.9 


14 
22.2 


11 
27,1 


26 
34.3 
11,0 


451 

44.6 
12.8 


192 
41.9 
14.6 


62 
36.2 
11.1 


29 
34.3 
10.3 


21 
33,8 
10.8 


16 
34.6 
10.6 


39 
36,7 
17.6 


624 
44,8 
15,0 


188 
49.2 
16, 7 


80 
38.4 
16.6 


40 
33. G 
14.1 


36 
33.9 
18.0 


29 
41.0 
22.1 


48 
29.4 
17.3 


618 
57.1 
18.8 


206 
41,6 
15.4 


94 
34.8 
16.6 


49 
30.0 
15.3 


39 
27.5 
16.6 


36 
30.1 
20.7 


13 
40.6 


209 
36.6 


70 
36.2 


32 

41.1 


18 
42.6 


11 
41.8 


6 
37.4 


16 

90.7 
42.4 


14 

88.6 
18.5 


119 
90.3 
27.4 


30 
91.7 
36,0 


19 
91.7 
42.4 


13 

90.9 
45.8 


9 
89.7 
61.1 


16 
10.0 
4.9 


258 
49.9 
22.6 


83 
38,2 
16.5 


25 

22,0 

7,0 


13 
14.6 
4.4 


6 
9.0 
2.0 


3 
6.2 
L3 


7.2 


9.0 


10,9 


9,6 


6.7 


6.6 


6,1 


95,0 


86.7 


91,0 


93,7 


96.1 


96.1 


96,0 


128, 046 
75 


2,991 
994 


5,956 
262 


15, 075 
1(12 


35, 824 
48 


50,913 

28 


17,287 
26 


55 
47 


698 
604 


194 

170 


69 


36 

32 


20 
17 


15 
11 


25 
18,5 


140 
50.6 


40 
39,9 


18 
29,5 


14 
18,1 


13 
12.4 


14 
14,9 


20 
12,4 


92 
25.1 


42 
18.8 


22 
14,0 


14 
12,2 


12 
9.7 


10 
14,9 


27 
11,5 
4,2 


211 
21.9 
4.6 


52 
17.6 
3.5 


24 
13,9 
3,3 


16 
12,7 
4,0 


13 
8.9 
4.3 


16 
10,8 
6,9 


51 
12,6 
8,6 


271 
29.0 
7.9 


105 

18.8 
7,6 


67 
14.9 
8.4 


33 
12,1 
8,3 


26 
9.7 
9.2 


26 
16,2 
16,6 


63 
12,9 
10,8 


305 
42.2 
13,0 


114 
24.9 
10.9 


61 
17.9 
9.0 


36 
12,6 
9,3 


29 
8.7 
9.1 


28 
12,3 
13,8 


23 
49,3 


236 
39,0 


69 
40,8 


34 
49.1 


19 
59,1 


11 
65.0 


7 
61.9 


12 
56,6 
14.3 


70 
72,0 

8,4 


28 
74.8 
12.3 


15 
67.5 
15.0 


10 
60,6 
18,6 


7 
61.1 
20.1 


6 
45.1 
24.0 


32 
6,9 
4,6 


121 
45.2 
9.1 


37 
22,8 
6,0 


18 
11,1 
2.9 


9 
6,4 
1.9 


7 
3.3 
1.4 


5 
3.1 
1.6 


44 
28.0 
26.0 


229 
84.7 
32.1 


78 
81,1 
37,2 


39 
64,0 
30,3 


19 
29,0 
17,5 


12 
16.1 
10,8 


9 
10.3 
7.9 


83 

0.6 
0.8 


221 
6.0 
2.2 


44 
1,0 
0,3 


42 
0,7 
0.4 


16 
0,6 
0.3 


7 
0,1 
(Z) 


2 
(Z) 

(Z) 


3.7 


5.2 


4,0 


2.8 


3.2 


2,2 


4.0 


98,7 


96,0 


99.6 


100.6 


100.6 


99,5 


99,3 



Region and item 



REGION V 

All farms number. 

All land in farms acres per farm.. 

Total cropland...--... do... 

Cropland harvested -..--do — 
Cropland used only for pasture: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Perci'iil of farms reporthig -.. 
Croidand not harvested and not 
pastured: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Open permanent pasture, acres: 

Acres per farm reportrng. , 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Woodland pastured, acres; 

Acres i>er farm reporting 

Perct-nt of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Woodland not pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Average specified crops: 
Cotton: 
Acres per farm 

Percen t of crojiland^har vested. . , 

Corn for all purposes; 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. . . 

Oats; 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. . . 

Soybeans for all pmposes; i.- h: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. . . 

All hay; 
Acres — percent of cropland har- 
vested 

Acres of speci^ed crops as percent"of 
cropland harvested . 

REGION VI 

All farms. number. 

All land in farms. _. acres per farm.. 

Total cropland do — 

Cropland harvested do 

Cropland used only for pasture: 

Acre? per [arm ro]>orting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Cropland not harvested and not 
pListured; 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Open permanent pasture, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting. 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms - 

Woodland pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reportuig 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Woodland not pastured, acres: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of land in farms 

Average specified crops; 
Cotton: 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of croidaud harvested. . . 

Corn for all purposes; 

Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested.. . 

Sorghum for all j^nrposes: 

Acres per farm reporting..- 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested... 

Sweetpotatoes: 

Acres per farm reporting. 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested. . - 

All hay: 
Acres— percent of cropland har- 
vested 

Acres of specified crops as percent of 
cropland harvested - 





Economic class of farm 






-\I1 

cl.isscs 


I 


ir 


III 


IV 


V 


\ 


22, 267 
147 


215 
1,862 


662 
571 


1,521 
306 


3,672 
166 


7,194 
105 


9, 


74 
50 


981 
677 


315 
218 


147 
1U7 


87 
62 


64 
36 




51 
33.7 


499 
50.2 


168 
49.5 


80 
34.8 


61 
34.2 


41 
30.0 


3 


28 
26.9 


176 
30.2 


66 
27.4 


47 
26.7 


35 
21.6 


25 
21.9 


3 


66 
36.2 
16.1 


826 
50.7 
22.6 


225 
44.4 
17.5 


130 
44.6 
18.9 


74 
34.5 
15.4 


41 
34.8 
13.7 


3 
1 


70 
44.8 
21.2 


494 
56.7 
15,1 


230 
44,2 
17,8 


163 
41.7 
22.3 


89 
41.0 
21.9 


60 
39.9 
22.7 


5 
2 


66 
21.7 
9.7 


661 
20.9 
7,3 


186 
21,7 
7.1 


140 
19.5 
8,9 


70 
18.8 
8.0 


55 
18.3 
9.6 


2 
1 


26 
51.8 


327 
48.3 


106 
48,2 


57 
63,2 


34 

65.4 


20 
65.8 


4 


14 
81.6 
22.1 


89 
73.6 
9.6 


36 
76,6 
12,5 


23 
79,2 
17,1 


17 
79.0 
22,0 


12 
78,2 
26.2 


8 
3 


26 
4.2 
2.1 


130 

29.8 
6.7 


36 
26,4 
4,2 


24 
10,3 
2,3 


13 
6,3 
1,4 


9 

2.8 
0.7 




42 
6.9 
6.9 


184 
29.3 
8.0 


98 
36,4 
16,4 


56 
19.0 
10.0 


24 
12,8 
6,0 


16 
4.6 
2.0 




9.8 


17.1 


11,2 


11.3 


8,2 


7.6 




91.7 


88.8 


92,6 


93.9 


92.0 


92.3 


9 


7,996 
118 


168 

808 


773 
300 


1, 776 
136 


2,397 

74 


1,816 
60 


1, 


73 
62 


494 
387 


182 
160 


91 
80 


49 
43 


33 

29 




26 
21.6 


161 
31.5 


42 
31.7 


20 
20.4 


16 
21,5 


15 
21.5 


I 


24 
24.6 


120 
47.0 


46 
40.5 


21 
36.6 


12 
21.7 


8 
14.0 


1 


65 
63.2 
24.8 


320 
61.3 
24.3 


123 

62.9 
25.7 


53 
63.6 
24.8 


32 

52.4 
22.6 


35 
46.8 
27.0 


4 
2 


76 
13.4 
8.7 


386 
26.8 
12.7 


150 
16.6 
8.3 


91 
7.6 
5.0 


65 
10.3 
7.6 


46 
16.7 
12.0 


2 
1 


70 
3.2 
1.9 


66 
3.6 
0.2 


684 
L9 
4.4 


42 
3.7 
1.2 


21 
2.9 
0.8 


40 
2.8 
1.9 




32 
62.0 


206 
53.0 


84 
56.4 


41 

52,2 


22 
61.8 


13 

45.0 


4 


16 

87.8 
22.6 


46 
76.0 
8.9 


29 
89.0 
17.1 


20 
91,3 
23.3 


13 
91.7 
28.3 


11 
84.0 
31.8 


8 
4 


21 
32.8 
11.3 


126 
67.3 
21.8 


45 
52.4 
15.8 


16 
48.1 
9.8 


9 

29.2 

6.4 


20.1 
5.2 


1 


6 

22.1 

1,6 


1 
15.5 
(Z) 


"io.'s" 


7 
21.7 
0.8 


6 

24.9 

4.2 


4 

23.7 
4.6 


2. 


6.0 


4.2 


4.1 


5.0 


4.2 


8.0 


1 


92.5 


87.9 


93.4 


91.1 


94.9 


94.5 


9 



30 FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 

Table 15. — Land Use on Cotton Farms Per Farm, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 







Economic class uf farm 










Economic class 


of farm 






Rni^icn aBcl item 
































All 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 




All 


I 


11 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 




classes 

















classes 














REGION VII 














REGION IX 
















AU farms number- . 


44, 947 


1.194 


4,441 


9, 467 


13, 812 


11, 373 


4,660 


All farms number 


14, 660 


4,196 


6,797 


2,344 


1,438 


771 


106 


AU land in farms. ..acres per farm. . 


251 


1,101 


635 


321 


194 


127 


90 


All land in farms. ..acres per farm.. 


454 


763 


369 


325 


252 


222 


194 


Total cropland do 


177 


763 


381 


232 


139 


87 


,52 


Total cropland do... 


357 


603 


307 


243 


167 


137 


65 


Cropland harvested do 


145 


670 


314 


189 


112 


69 


39 


Cropland harvested do 


324 


555 


281 


212 


143 


101 


42 


Cropland used only for pasture: 
















Cropland used only for pasture: 
















Acres per farm reporting 


39 


126 


70 


44 


30 


25 


23 


Acres per farm reporting 


26 


40 


20 


22 


23 


26 


18 


Percent of farms reporting 


39.7 


42.7 


47.4 


47.9 


41.2 


33.4 


26.8 


Percent of farms reporting. . 


39.2 


37.2 


41.0 


43 1 


37.7 


29 8 


19 


Cropland not harvested and not 
















Cropland not harvested and not 
















pastured: 
















pastm-ed: 
















Acres per farm reporting 


45 


133 


79 


51 


39 


28 


26 


Acres per farm reportmg 


68 


89 


.58 


63 


48 


74 


50 


Percent of farms reporting 


37.4 


33.3 


42.8 


41.6 


38.3 


34.6 


29.2 


Percent of farms reportmg 


34.0 


37.2 


31.8 


33.8 


31.8 


37.9 


38.1 


Open permanent pasture, acres: 
















Open permanent pasture, acres: 
















Acres per farm reporting 


91 


535 


213 


104 


66 


45 


44 


Acres per farm reporting.. . 


183 


306 


125 


142 


136 


160 


152 


Percent of farms reporting 


52.4 


39.9 


.51.2 


67.4 


62.9 


61.8 


46.5 


Percent of farms reporting. _ . . 


47.3 


47.7 


42,4 


49.7 


66. 1 


64.0 


76.2 


Percent of land in farms 


19.1 


19.4 


20.4 


18.7 


17.9 


18.6 


22.8 


Percent of land in farms 


19.1 


19.1 


14,4 


21.8 


30.0 


36.5 


60.0 


Woodland pastured, acres: 
















Woodland pastured, acres: 


















100 


616 


214 


129 


77 


67 


52 


.4cres per farm reporting 


130 


228 


113 


140 


110 


55 


20 


Percent of farms reporting 


19.3 


14.9 


15.4 


16.9 


18.8 


21.2 


25.4 


Percent of farms reporting. . . 


1.7 


0.8 


1.3 


3 6 


2 2 


1 9 


9 5 


Percent of land in farms 


7.7 


8.3 


6.1 


6.8 


7.4 


9.6 


14.7 


Percent of land in farms 


0.5 


0.2 


0.4 


1.6 


0.9 


0.5 


1.0 


Woodland not pastured, acres: 
















Woodland not pastured, acres: 
















Acres per farm reporting 


43 


154 


79 


31 


37 


31 


40 


Acres per farm reporting . 


74 


102 


72 


94 


82 


15 


30 


Percerit of farms reporting 


4.1 


4.2 


4.4 


4.1 


4.1 


3.6 


4.8 


Percent of farms reportmg 


0.7 


0.8 


0.6 


0.3 


0.7 


1.9 


4 8 


Percent of land in farms 


0.7 


0.6 


0.6 


0.4 


0.8 


0.9 


2.2 


Percent of land in farms 


0.1 


0.1 


0, 1 


0.1 


0.2 


0.1 


0.7 


Average specified crops: 
Cotton: 
















Average specified crops: 
Cotton: 

Acres per farm reporting . 

Percent of cropland harvested. - 
















Acres per farm.. 


71 


299 


153 


96 


57 


35 


19 


144 
44.4 


241 
43.3 


128 
46.6 


97 
45.8 


63 
44.0 


47 
46.4 


17 
39.9 


Percent of cropland harvested. . . 


49.3 


44.6 


48.8 


49.9 


50.7 


50.9 


49.6 


Sorghum : 
















Sorghum for all purposes: 
















Acres per farm reporting 


57 


296 


112 


62 


37 


24 


14 


Acres per farm reporting 


164 


270 


143 


107 


76 


56 


32 


Percent of farms reporting. . 


64.9 


87.7 


81.1 


76.6 


64.7 


55.9 


44.1 


Percent of farms reporting 


96.3 


97.8 


97.2 


95.9 


89.4 


81.7 


67.1 


Percent of cropland harvested.- - 


25.7 


38.8 


28.8 


24.7 


21.6 


19.4 


16.0 


Percent of cropland harvested. 


48.3 


47.6 


49. 6 


48.1 


46.8 


4,5.7 


43.8 


Corn for all purposes: 
















Wheat: 
















Acres per farm reporting ._ 


26 


60 


44 


37 


26 


18 


12 


.\cres per farm reportmg 


86 


132 


66 


68 


60 


31 


36 


Percent of farms reporting 


53.1 


26.6 


33.9 


44.3 


66.5 


62.8 


66.3 


Percent of farms reporting. . . . 


17.6 


2.5.3 


14.7 


14.8 


16.0 


11.0 


14.3 


Percent of cropland harvested.. 


9.2 


2.4 


4.7 


8.7 


12.2 


16.6 


20.6 


Percent of cropland harvested.. 


4.7 


6.0 


2.9 


4.0 


6.3 


3.4 


12.1 


Small grams: 
















,\11 hay: 
















Percent of cropland harvested.. 


6.1 


7.1 


7.9 


6.4 


6.4 


3.4 


2.7 


Acres — percent of cropland bar- 


































0.8 


0,9 


0.6 


0.8 


1.3 


1,1 


3 8 


All hay: 






Acres— percent of cropland har- 
















Acres of specified crops as percent of 




















3! 


3.0 


4.2 


4.4 


5.2 


6.4 


cropland harvested 


98,1 


97.8 


98.6 


98.7 


97.3 


96,6 


99.7 




Acres of specified crops as percent of 
















REGION X 
















cropland harvested 


94.4 


95.9 


93.8 


93 8 








All farms number. - 

All land in farms., acres per farm. - 


11,868 
643 


4,602 
1,207 


3,066 
217 


2,036 
107 


1,389 
70 


676 
24 


190 
10 


REGION VIII 
















All farms number. . 


5,299 


913 


1,307 


1.142 


911 


756 


270 


Total crophnid do... 


296 


666 


113 


63 


28 


17 


8 


All land in farms. ..acres per farm.- 


213 


710 


206 


105 


60 


39 


30 


Criiplaiul harvested do 


227 


513 


84 


40 


20 


12 


6 


Total cropland do 


173 


661 


175 


91 


49 


31 


26 


Cropland used only for pasture: 
Acres per farm reportmg 


61 


114 


36 


12 


9 


13 


3 


Cropland harvested.. do 


139 


402 


140 


69 


38 


20 


12 


Percent of farms reporting. .. 


24.2 


20.3 


28.7 


22.2 


18. 5 


12.6 


7.9 


Cropland used only tor pasture: 
















Cropland not harvested and not 
















Acres per farm reporting. 


49 


141 


31 


14 


8 


6 


10 


pastured: 
















Percent of farm reporting 


20.2 


28.6 


26.0 


26.9 


8.2 


9.3 


11.1 


Acres per farm reporting 


138 


257 


50 


31 


20 


11 


9 


Cropland not harvested and not 
pastured ■ 
















Percent of farms reporting 


39.4 


48.0 


37.9 


34.3 


31.8 


2,5.9 


18.4 


Acres per farm reporting 


51 


127 


53 


35 


21 


26 


36 


















Percent of farms reporting 


47.6 


46.4 


60.4 


51.3 


47.9 


41.0 


38.9 


Acres per farm reporting 


1,292 


2,439 


496 


258 


106 


64 


2 


Open permanent pasture, acres: 
















Percent of farms reporting 


16.4 


19.6 


17.4 


14.6 


13.7 


4.6 


7.9 
















Percent of land in farms. . 


39.1 


39.6 


39.7 


35. 1 


20.7 


12.1 


1.4 


Acres per farm reporting 


140 


362 


100 


41 


14 






















Percent of farms reporting 


7.7 


11.9 


8.5 


11 5 


5 5 


7 




Woodland pastmed, acres: 
















Percent of land in farms 


5.0 


6.1 


4.2 


4.5 


1.3 








829 


1,211 


149 


671 


2, 165 

1.0 

31.1 










Percent (jf farms reportmg 


I.l 

1.7 


1.0 
1.0 


1.6 
1.1 


1.2 

7.4 






Woodland pastured, acres: 
Acres per farm reporting 






318 


1,182 


166 


37 


247 


122 


21 


Woodland not pastured, acres: 
















Percent of farms reportmg 


4.4 


4.7 


6.5 


6.3 


2.3 


2.1 


1.9 


Acres per farm reportUig- 


95 


170 


76 


60 


08 


6 


2 


Percent of land in farms 


6.6 


7.8 


4.9 


1.9 


9.6 


6.6 


1.3 


Percent of farms reporting. . . . 


1.6 


1.3 


1.6 


2.0 


2.2 


0.7 


2.6 


Woodland not pastured, acres: 
















Percent of land in farms. 


0.3 


0.2 


0.6 


0.9 


2.1 


0.2 


0.6 


Acres per farm reporting 


177 


369 


82 


53 


40 


237 


1 


















Percent of farms reporting 


1.7 


3.1 


1.5 


1.3 


1. 1 


1.3 


1.9 


Cotton- 
















Percent of land in farms 


1.4 


1.6 


0.6 


0.7 


0.7 


8.0 


0.1 


Acres per farm 


108 


238 


45 


23 


14 


8 


6 


Average specified crops; 
















Percent of cropland harvested-. 


47.7 


40.6 


63.2 


66. 6 


70.8 


04.7 


81.7 


Cotton: 
















Sorghum for all purposes: 


















80 
67.3 


257 
65.6 


80 
67.3 


44 
64.2 


22 
67.7 


13 
63.4 


8 
73.0 


.Acres per farm reporting 

Percent of farms reportmg 


65 
23.9 


100 
33,6 


28 
26,6 


22 
15.9 


11 
8.0 


17 
8.3 


6 
6.3 


Percent of cropland harvested.. 


Com for all purposes: 
















Percent of cropland harvested... 


6.8 


6.5 


8.9 


8.7 


4.3 


11.3 


5.5 


Acres per farm reporting 


13 


33 


13 


9 


7 


7 


4 


Barley: 
















Percent of farms reporting 


30.2 


29.1 


32,9 


36.4 


25.9 


21.2 


33.3 




222 


309 


36 


25 


17 


14 




Percent of cropland harvested.. 


2.9 


2.1 


3.1 


4.6 


4.7 


7.4 


10.4 


Percent of farms reporting 


24.5 


44.4 


19.4 


11.9 


4.0 


2.2 




Sorghum for all purposes: 
















Percent of cropland harvested- -. 


24.0 


26,7 


8.0 


7.3 


3.5 


2.6 




Acres per farm reporting 


72 


167 


69 


28 


13 


12 


4 


Irish potatoes: 
















Percent of farms reporting 


46.4 
23.9 


73.6 
26.6 


54.4 
22.8 


50.4 
20.1 


32.5 
11.0 


21.2 
12.3 


IB. 7 
6.1 


Acres per farm reporting-- 

Percent of farms reporting 

Percent of cropland harvested . 


56 
2.9 
0.7 


67 
6,2 
0.8 


12 
1.6 
0.2 


2 
0.7 
(Z) 








Percent of cropland harvested . . 








All hay: 
Acres — percent of cropland bar- 






















Alfalfa mixtures: 


















1.6 


1.9 


0.9 


1.3 


1.6 


2.5 




Percent of cropland harvested. .. 


13.3 


12.6 


20.4 


15.1 


11.4 


7.4 


3.2 




Acres of specified crops as percent of 
















Acres of specified crops as percent of 


















85.7 


86.2 


84.1 


90.2 


76.0 


85.6 


88.6 




93.6 


94.2 


91.2 


87.6 


89.0 


85. 9 


90.4 







Z 0.06 percent or less. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



31 



Cropland and Cropland T'se 

As cotton farms are, by definition, those on which sales of cotton 
and cottonseed account for 50 percent or more of total farm sales, 
they depend primarily upon the cropland component of their land 
resources. For this reason the size and utilization of the cropland 
resources merit examination for the various economic classes of 
cotton farms. An examination of the enterprise utilization of the 
cropland resource also gives a useful indication of possible short- 
term alternative cropland uses. 

In general, region average acreages of cropland per farm show 
about the same patterns of variations among the ten regions for 
each economic class of farm as the average acreages of all land in 
farms, which were discussed above. 

The approximate range in region-averages of cropland per farm 
for each economic class i.s as follows; 

Class I — from about 980 acres (Region VI) to about 500 
acres (Region V). 



Class II — from about 380 acres (Region X) to about 115 

acres (Region VII). 
Class III — from about 240 acres (Region IX) to about 55 

acres (Region X). 
Class IV — from about 1(15 acres (Region IX) to 28 acres 

(Region X). 
Class V — from aliout 135 acres (Region IX) to about 15 acres 

(Region X). 
Class VI — from 65 acres (Region IX) to about 10 acres 
(Region X). 
In general, as was the case with average total acres per farm, 
the region-averages of cropland per farm for Classes III through 
VI tend to fall in three groups. Regions V, VII, and IX have 
relatively large average acreages of cropland for farms in these 
economic classes. Regions IV, VIII, and X have relatively small 
averages of cropland acreage, and Regions I, II, III, and VI have 
cropland averages per farm that fall between those of the other 
tw o regional groups. 



Table 16. — Percent Distribution for All Commercial Farms and for Cotton Farms in Each Economic Class, by Acres 

IN Farm, by Regions: 1954 





All 
com- 
mer- 
cial 
farms 


Cotton farms by economic class of farm 


Region and size of farm 


All 
com- 
mer- 
cial 
farms 


Cotton farms by economic class of farm 


Region and size of farm 


All 

classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


All 
classes 

100. 

2.0 

34.7 

28.1 

25.7 
7.1 

1.7 
0.7 

100.0 
0.2 
7.4 
17.3 

38.9 
27.0 
6.9 
2.3 

100 

2.5 

30.2 

18.6 

24.9 
15.7 
5.3 

2.8 

100.0 
0.1 
2.0 
3.8 

27.2 

41.5 

19.6 

5.8 

100.0 

2.6 

25.7 

17.1 

21.6 

17.1 
8.4 
7.6 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


REGION I 

Number of farms, total 

Under 10 acres 


100.0 
3.7 
37.7 
22 2 

20.9 
10.0 
3.4 
2.1 

100.0 
4.5 
34.0 
23.7 

23.8 

. 9.6 

3.0 

1,4 

100.0 

4.1 

42.2 

22.6 

19.9 
7.5 
2.3 
1.4 

100.0 
12.0 
52.2 
14.4 

11.8 
5.8 
2.3 
1.6 

100.0 
2.5 
19.8 
19.9 

29.9 
17.6 
6 3 
4.0 


100.0 

2.6 

45. 

25.3 

18.3 
6.1 
1.8 
0.9 

100.0 
3.1 
48.7 
24.3 

18.1 
4.6 
0.9 
0.3 

100.0 
4.5 
60.1 
23.0 

16.7 
4.4 
0.9 
0.4 

100.0 
13.2 
.57.3 
14.1 

9.7 
3.6 
1.3 
0.9 

100.0 
2.0 
33.4 
23.5 

26 7 
10.5 
2.5 
1.4 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 
(Z) 
37.3 
31.0 

23.0 
7.2 
1.2 
0.3 

100.0 
0.1 
34.2 
27.3 

27.6 
8.8 
1.7 
0.4 

100.0 
0.3 
39.8 
28.4 

23.7 
6.7 
0.9 
0.2 

100.0 
0.9 
70.5 
18.0 

8.7 
1.7 
0.2 
(Z) 

100. 


100.0 
0.9 
49.6 
27.2 

17.8 
3.9 

0.5 
0. 1 

100.0 
0.4 
51.4 
24.4 

18.7 
4.4 
0.6 
0.1 

100.0 

2.9 

65.0 

22.9 

15.3 
3.4 
0.4 
0.1 

100.0 
17.1 
70.3 
8.5 

3.5 
0.5 

n.i 

(Z) 

100.0 

1.3 

37.2 

23.3 

28.3 
8.7 


100.0 
8.4 
69.4 
19.5 

10.4 
1.9 
0.3 
0. 1 

100.0 
6.4 
52.6 
23.9 

14.9 
2. 1 

n. 2 

(Z) 

100.0 

9.3 

65.4 

20.8 

12.3 
2.0 
0.2 

(Z) 

100.0 
4.5.7 
41.9 
8.5 

3.3 

0.5 
0.1 
(Z) 

100.0 
4.0 
40.6 
28.8 

22.1 
3.9 
0.6 

(Z) 


REGION VI 

Number of farms, total 

Ui\der 10 acres 


100. 

2.7 

20.7 

19.8 

24.7 
16.6 
8.4 
7. 1 

100.0 
1.2 
5.9 
13.4 

34.0 
28.6 
10.2 
6.7 

100.0 

4,0 

31.9 

18.2 

23.1 
14.2 
6.4 
3.2 

100.0 
1.4 
1.8 
2.1 

12.7 
31.9 
28.1 
22.0 

100.0 

7.1 

38.2 

16.3 

13.9 
9.6 
6.1 
9.8 


100. 


100. 


100. 


100. 


100.0 
0.6 
69.4 
23.9 

14.3 
1.4 
0.3 
0.1 

100.0 
0. 1 
12.3 
33.9 

43.1 
9.7 
OS 
0, 1 

100,0 
7,9 
79.4 
6.0 

5.3 


100.0 
14.1 
66.4 
21.1 

7.6 
0.9 


10 to 49 acres . -. 






13.6 
25.6 

33.8 
18.5 
7.2 
1.4 

100.0 


10 to 49 acres 


3.0 
47.6 
32.7 
16.7 

100.0 


0.6 
6.2 

50. 5 
36.9 
4.5 
2.3 

100.0 


7.0 
36.3 

47.9 
6.5 
2.0 
0.3 

100 


40.7 
37.5 

19.4 
2.1 
0.3 

(Z) 

100,0 


50 to 99 acres . 


3.4 

5.2 

23.0 

68.4 

100.0 


1.6 

16.3 
39.7 
28.0 
14.4 

100.0 


60 to 99 acres 


100 to 219 acres 


100 to 219 acres 


220 to 499 acres - 


220 to 499 acres 


500 to 999 acres 


500 to 999 acres 


1,000 acres and over 


1,000 acres and over 




REGION II 

Number of farms, total 

Under 10 acres 


REGION VII 

Number of farms, total 

Under 10 acres 


100.0 
1 2 


10 to 49 acres 






6.4 
17.4 

26.8 

35.5 

12.2 

2.7 

100.0 








0.3 
2.3 

33.7 

52 2 

9 6 

1.9 

100,0 


2.5 
15.0 

55,2 
24,3 
2,6 
0.4 

100.0 

1.1 

69.9 

25.8 

10,9 
1, 1 
1.1 
0, 1 

100.0 




50 to 99 acres 






50 to 99 acres 


1.7 
28.9 
35. 6 
33.8 

100,0 


0.6 

14.2 
4,8,4 
28,7 
8, 1 

100.0 


34 5 


100 to 219 acres 


100. 6 

100.0 


11.1 
38.9 
31.1 
18.9 

100.0 




24,8 


220 to 499 acres 


220 to 499 acres 


500 to 999 acres 


500 to 999 acres 


0.6 
0.1 

100.0 


1,000 acres and over 


1,000 acres and over 


REGION III 

Number of farms, total 

Under 10 acres 


REGION VIII 
Number of farms, total 


10 to 49 acres- 


Is. 6' 
27.2 
54.2 

100.0 


1.2 

4.8 

25.8 
31.0 
25.1 
12.1 

100.0 


27.3 
22. 2 

24.4 

lU. 1 

.5.4 

1.6 

100. 




13.1 
49.3 
23.7 
13.9 

100.0 


1. 1 
16.1 

5.5.8 

23,4 

2,3 

1,3 

100.0 


21,5 
42.9 

28 4 
6 1 
0,9 
0,2 

100,0 


70.3 
1.9 

1 9 


50 to 99 acres 


50 to 99 acres 


100 to 219 acres.- 


100 to 219 acres 


220 to 499 acres _ 






500 to 999 acres.. 




1.3 
0.1 

100.0 
0,6 
13,6 
14,3 

40.2 
24.7 
5.8 
0.8 

100.0 
20.7 
73.3 
2.2 

3.7 


1.9 


1,000 acres and over 




REGION IV 

Number of farms, total 

Under 10 acres 


REGION IX 

Number of farms, total 

Under 10 acres 


100.0 
4 8 


10 to 49 acres 


0.3 

0.5 

3.7 
29.6 
34.5 
31.4 

100.0 


1.5 
11.5 

47.8 
29.9 
7.0 
2.3 

100.0 


31.8 
34.1 

26.7 
6.2 
1.0 
0.2 

100. 


10 to 49 acres 






1.7 
8.1 

31 4 
49.0 
7.7 
2.1 

100.0 


7.6 
9.3 

47.7 

27.8 

6,3 

1,3 

100.0 

1.8 

82.7 

7.6 

6.8 
1.1 
0.4 
0.6 


33 3 


60 to 99 acres 




2.2 
45.6 
37.8 
14.5 

100.0 


1.9 

36.7 
41.7 
16 9 
2,8 

100,0 




100 to 219 acres 


100 to 219 acres 

220 to 499 acres 


23.8 
23 8 


220 to 499 acres ___. 


500 to 999 acres 


500 tn 999 acres 


9 6 


1,000 acres and over... 






REGION V 

Number of farms, total 

Under 10 acres... 


REGION X 

Number of farms, total 

Under 10 acres 

10 to 49 acres 


100.0 


10 to 49 acres... .. 






9.8 
12.1 

34.3 
31). 
9.3 
4.5 


25.0 
19.9 

33.4 
17.5 


0. 1 
1.4 

22.3 
37. 6 
20.6 
18.0 


6.4 
40.2 

41.9 
8.7 
1.2 
1.6 


57.3 
30.0 

7.6 
2.7 
1.5 
0.9 


21 1 


60 to 99 acres 


2.3 

14.0 
33.0 
50.7 


1.8 

23.7 
40. 8 
19.0 
14.7 


50 to 99 acres 

100 to 219 acres 


2.6 


100 to 219 acres 


220 to 499 acres 


220 to 499 acres 

500 to 999 acres 




500 to 999 acres. 


3. 2 0. 9 
1. 0. 3 






1,000 acres and over 


1,000 acres and over 


0.1 















Z 0.05 percent or less. 



32 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Cropland utilization. — Data in table 15, concerning the acres of 
cropland per farm and the jjercent of cropland used for various 
major crops indicate that: (1) A higher percentage of harvested 
cropland was devoted to cotton for the smaller than for the larger 
size-of-farm business groups; and (2) fewer alternative crops of 
a cash type are grown on the smaller farms than on the larger 
farms. These indications suggest that the smaller size-of-busi- 
ness farms in all regions are more dependent on cotton production 
than the larger farms. 

Data from both tables 14 and 15 bring out the significant fact 
that, in all regions and for all economic classes, a substantial pro- 
portion of cropland on cotton farms was idle in 1954. As 1954 
was the first year since 1950 in which marketing quotas and 



acreage allotments were in effect for cotton, it is probable that a 
higher-than-usual acreage of cropland remained idle because, in 
one season, acceptable alternative uses had not been found. 

In table 15 the average acreage of cotton harvested per farm 
is given for each economic class of farm in each region. The data 
of tables 17 and 18 afford some indication of the variation of the 
acreage of cotton from these averages for each economic class in 
each region. For example. Class II farms in Region I had an 
average of 74 acres of cotton. Data in table 17 reveal that 24 
percent of these Class II farms harvested between 25 and 49 
acres of cotton; 56 percent, between 50 and 99 acres; and 19 
percent, between 100 and 199 acres. 



Table 17. — Percent Distribution of Farms Reporting Cotton Harvested, by Acres Harvested, for All Commercial Farms 

AND for Cotton Farms, by Economic Class, by Regions: 1954 



Region and 

economic class of 

farm 


Percent distribution of farms reporting by acres 
cotton harvested 


of 


Region and 

economic class of 

farm 


Percent distribution of farms reporting by acres 
cotton harvested 


of 


Total 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
lUO. 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100. 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100. 
1(10. 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100. 
100.0 
100. 
100.0 
100.0 


Under 

5 
acres 


5 to 9 
acres 


10 to 24 
acres 


25 to 49 
acres 


60 to 99 
acres 


100 to 
199 
acres 


200 
acres 
and 
over 


Total 


Under 

6 
acres 

6 
3.6 


6 to 9 
acres 


10 to 24 
acres 


25 to 49 
acres 


50 to 99 
acres 


100 to 

199 
acres 


200 
acres 

and 
over 


TOTAL, 10 REGIONS 
All commercial farms 


9.5 
6.0 


28.7 
27.0 


38.8 
42.2 
0.2 
1.5 
19.7 
64.3 
69.3 
19.2 

37.1 
60.0 


11.8 
12.5 
1.3 

19.5 

46.9 

22.6 

6.8 

1.0 

7.3 
11.4 


6 3 

6 8 

13.1 

45.3 

22.2 

7.2 

1.3 

0.2 

1.6 
2.4 
3.8 
66.2 
13.0 
0.7 
(Z) 


3.3 
3.7 
42.6 
24.9 
10.0 
1.2 
0.1 
(Z) 

0.4 
0.7 
60.6 
19.0 
0.5 
(Z) 


1.6 
1.8 

42.9 
8.8 
0.9 

(Z) 

0.1 
0.2 
45.6 
0.6 


region VI 

All commercial farms 

Cotton farms 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100. 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100. 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100. 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


20.4 
16.6 


33,9 
35.0 


24.2 
27.3 
3.0 
6.0 
63.6 
36.1 
6.9 
0.9 

28.8 
28.9 
0.1 
4.3 
10.8 
40.2 
47.0 
19. 1 

19.6 
19.4 


11.5 
12.9 

"ei'e" 

26.6 
1.0 
0.3 


3.4 
3.8 
64.3 
23.9 
0.2 


0.6 
0.8 


Class I 


Class I 


32.7 


II 






II 

III 

IV 








1.6 


III 


(Z) 
0.1 

1.1 

22.5 

16. 5 
6.8 


0.3 

4.6 

32.4 

57.1 

37.0 
28.6 






9.6 
64.7 
58.9 
23.6 

22.3 
16.6 






0.3 
0.8 
24.9 

1.2 
0.3 


7.9 
33.1 

60.7 

4.9 
2.2 




V 


V 






VI 


VI 






REGION I 
All commercialfarms 


REGION VII 
All commercial farms 


26.7 
31.5 

5.6 
24.5 
49.5 
44.7 
17.3 

4.1 

21.7 
22.2 
13.1 
54,3 
22.8 
6 1 
4.0 


12.5 
15.8 
35.8 
46 6 
35.8 
7.7 
1.2 
0.2 

13.2 
13.9 
45.2 
21,6 
3.2 
0.5 


3.6 
4.7 


Class I 


Class I . 


68.5 


II 








24.2 
54.3 
22.6 
2.6 
0.1 

6.8 
6 3 


II_ 

HI 






(Z) 

1.0 

7.1 

32.9 

66.3 

23.3 
22.6 


24.6 




0.1 
(Z) 

1.2 
23.1 

16.2 
9.9 


0.3 

5.1 

30.4 

68.7 

36.4 
35.0 


31.8 

71.7 
66.9 
18.1 

42.4 
47.7 






2.9 


IV 


IV 


"■■(Z)'" 

2.8 

2.7 
1.9 


0.1 

1.6 

17.5 

11.4 
11.9 


0.3 


V 


V 




VI 






VI 




REGION II 
All commercial farms 


0.9 
0.9 


0.2 
0.2 
62.2 
27.2 
0.3 


(Z) 
(Z) 
47.8 
0.6 


REGION VIII 

All commercial farms 

Cotton farms - 


8.1 
8.2 




Class I 

II 

Ill 


41.6 


n 








12.2 
66.3 
30.6 
3.3 
0.1 

6.6 
6.9 


60.0 

22.2 

1.8 

(Z) 






1.1 
26.7 
57.1 
39.0 
22.2 

7,5 
3.0 


20.7 
46,2 
23,6 
2,1 
3,7 

13.1 
10.1 
0.3 
7.1 
14.7 
26.6 
41.8 
4.8 

20.7 
21.8 
3.8 
66.8 
29.3 
4.2 
2.2 


2.3 


III 






12.2 
65 1 
74.2 
22.2 

41.4 
43.9 






2.2 


IV 


0.4 
0.8 
20.7 

12.8 
10.0 


2.1 
21.7 
56.9 

38.8 
38.7 


IV 

V 


"'4.0 
26.9 

0.4 
0.1 


12.6 
60.9 
48.1 

1.8 
0.6 




V 














vi 






REGION III 
All commercial farms 


1.0 
1.0 
7.8 

49.7 

10.5 
0.3 

(Z) 

(Z) 

4.6 
4.6 
9.5 
63.1 
10.6 
0.6 
(Z1 


0.3 
0.3 
61,6 
18,3 
0.1 


0.1 
0.1 
40.6 
0.2 


REGION IX 

All commercial farms 

Cotton farms. 


28.7 
29.8 

5 8 
40.5 
39.6 
47.9 
2L1 

4.8 

17.1 
18.8 
26.3 
32.7 
1.3 
0.7 


30.4 
35.0 
46,6 
36,3 
38,3 
13,2 
9.7 


18.1 
21.3 


Class I 


Class I 


48.4 


II 






1.7 
32.0 
79.3 
57.1 
12.0 

49.7 
60.7 


30.1 

66 9 

16.1 

1.1 

0,1 

15.0 
16.1 
0.3 
22.7 
67.9 
18.9 
1.8 
0.3 

16.4 
19.1 


II 






0,1 
3.0 
10.8 
19.6 
57.1 

26.0 
23.4 
0.6 
9.3 
66.2 
68.6 
22.9 
6.3 


17.1 


III 


0.1 

0.1 

1.3 

27.0 

3.5 
2.9 


0.4 
5.3 
40.5 
60.9 

24.6 
24.0 


III 

IV 






4.4 


IV 


9.5 

3.0 
1.9 


1.4 

6.6 

23.8 

9.3 
7.5 


0.1 


V 






V 




VI 






VI 




REGION IV 
All commercial farms 


1.8 
1.7 
46.8 
13.2 
0.3 


1.0 

1.0 

43.3 

0.3 


REGION X 
All commercial farms 


12.7 
14.1 
36.3 
L2 
0.3 


11.2 
12.6 


Class I 


Class I 


33.0 


II 






0.7 
21.1 
76.3 
61.6 
19.9 

40.9 
44.2 


11 






0.1 


HI 


'o.'i 

1.0 
18.3 

8.9 
5.2 


0.1 
6.3 
36.7 
61.6 

25.0 
20.5 


Ill - 


"""l.9 
14.2 
52.6 


2.9 
24.6 
60.7 
42.1 




IV 


IV -. 




V 






V 






VI 






VI 








REGION V 

All commercial farms 

Cott(m farms... _.- 

Class I 


6.4 
8 2 
5.6 
45.6 
43.7 
18.6 
2.8 
0. I 


1.6 
2.0 
27.0 
37.3 
9.0 
1.0 


0.7 
0.9 
67.4 
8.0 
0.3 












II 






0.2 
5.9 
34.4 
66.6 
41.4 


8.9 
40.7 
45.2 
23.8 

2.4 




III 

IV 


" "o.'i" 

0.3 
12.4 


0.3 

0.7 

7.6 

43.8 




V 




VI 

















Z U.05 percent or less. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 33 

Table 18. — Percent Distribution of Cotton Farms by Acres of Cotton Harvested, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 

Table 18 shows, for each region, the distribution of farms hav- 
ing various sizes of cotton enterprises for each economic class. 
Somewhat more general data concerning the geographic distri- 
bution of cotton farms by size of the cotton enterprise are pro- 
vided by the dot maps of figures 6, 7, 8, and 9. 

The relative importance of cropland, of cotton and of other 
major crops, to the incomes of cotton farmers is further indicated 
by data in table 19. This table shows percentage distributions 
for each economic class of farm in each region, for total farm sales 
by the crop or livestock enterprise source. 

Crops account for about 90 percent of the total sales for each 
economic class in each region except for Class I farms in Region 





Percent distribution of farms reporting by acres 
cotton harvested 


Of 


RcRinn and 

economic chiss of 

farm 


Percent distribution of farms reporting by acres 
cotton harvested 


of 


economic class of 
farm 


Total 


LTnder 

5 
acres 


5 to 9 
acres 


10 to 24 
acres 


25 to 49 
acres 


50 to 99 
acres 


100 to 

199 
acres 


200 
acres 
and 
over 


Total 


Under 

6 
acres 

100,0 


6 to 9 
acres 


10 to 24 
acres 


25 to 49 
acres 


50 to 99 
acres 


100 to 

199 
acres 


200 
acres 

and 
over 


TOTAL. 10 REGIONS 


100.0 
3.0 
5.0 
9.0 
22.2 
35.7 
25.1 

100. 

0.5 

2.2 

7.7 

25.9 

36.3 

27.5 

100.0 

O.I 

0.4 

1.9 

11.9 

39.8 

45.9 

100.0 

0.3 

1.0 

4.0 

19.1 

40,8 

34.8 

100,0 
2.3 
4.7 
11.8 
28.0 
39.8 
13.5 

100.0 
1.0 
2.5 
6.8 
16.5 
32.3 
40.9 


100,0 


100.0 


100. 
(Z) 
0.2 
4.2 
33.8 
60.3 
11.5 

100.0 


100.0 

0.3 

7.7 

33.7 

40.0 

10.3 

2.0 

100. 


100.0 
5.8 
33.2 
29.fi 
23.8 
7.0 
0.6 

100. 

0.8 

60.0 

41.4 

7.4 

0.4 


lon.o 

34.1 

33.3 

24.4 

6.9 

1.2 

0.1 

100. 

36.1 

68.6 

.6.2 

0.2 


100. 

70.8 

24,3 

4,6 

0.4 

100.0 

94.2 

6.8 


REGION VI 


100. 
2.1 
9.7 
22.2 
30.0 
22.7 
13.3 

100.0 
2.7 
9.9 
21.1 
30.7 
26.3 
10.4 

100.0 
17.2 
24.7 
21.6 
17.2 
14.3 
5.1 

100.0 
28.6 
39.6 
16.0 
9.8 
6.3 
0.7 

100. 
38,0 
26,9 
17.2 
11.7 
5.7 
1.6 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 
0.2 
2.1 
61.8 
39.7 
.5.7 
0.5 

100, 

(Z) 

1.5 

7.9 

42 7 

41.1 

6,8 

100.0 


100.0 

"51.4 

46.7 

2.4 

0.5 


100.0 

36 2 

62.1 

L7 


100. 


ClassI 


ClassI 

II 


82.1 












17.9 


III 


(Z) 
0,3 
6.6 

93.1 

100.0 


0.1 
3.8 
42.9 
53.2 

100.0 


Ill 






6.1 

46.8 
38,2 
8,9 

100. 






IV 


1.7 

.5.3 

93.0 

100.0 


14.3 
4.5.1 
40.6 

ion. 




V 


V 

VI 

REGION VII 
Cotton farms 






VI 






REGION' I 


100.0 
0.5 
7.7 
33.0 
43.6 
13.9 
1.3 

100.0 
10.2 
00. 4 
22.1 
4.8 
2.6 


100. 
6.0 
29.2 
47.8 
14.9 
2.0 
0.1 

100.0 

56.1 

38.3 

4.9 

0.7 


100.0 


Class I 


Class I 


33.1 


II 








4.6 

36.4 

60.9 

7.9 

0.2 

100.0 


II 






(Z) 
1.2 
13.2 
50.3 
35.3 

100.0 


61.9 


III 


0.1 

0.1 

6.7 

93.1 

100.0 


0.1 

4.6 

38.8 

50.5 

100.0 


4.9 
37.2 
47.9 
10,0 

100.0 


Ill 






13.3 


IV 


IV 

V 


""3.7' 
96.3 

100.0 


1.1 
17.1 
81.8 

100.0 


1.7 


V 




VI 

REGION II 






VI. .. 




100.0 


100.0 
19.0 
77.8 
3.2 


100.0 
91.7 
8.3 


REGION VIII 
Cotton farms 


100.0 


Class I 


Class I 


87.4 










0.9 
19.3 
58.2 
20.8 

0.8 

100.0 


29.6 

45.6 

23.6 

1.4 


II 






1.3 

26.5 

43.6 

24.7 

6.0 

100.0 


20.2 

,50.3 

20.9 

1.6 

1.0 

100.0 
0,7 
27,8 
23,4 
2,5.9 
21.8 
0.3 

100.0 
6.6 
67.6 
23.1 
2.2 
0.6 


6.9 


III 






0.5 
16.3 
61.9 
21,3 

100.0 


III 

IV 






6.7 


IV 


0.5 

3.3 

96.2 

100.0 


0.7 
24.7 
74.6 

100.0 


"30.6" 
70.0 

100.0 


18.3 
61.1 
20.6 

100.0 








V 










VI 






REGION- III 


100.0 
2.2 
48.7 
42.4 
5.6 
0.2 
0.9 

100. 
4.9 
64.6 
27.3 
3.0 
0.2 


100.0 

43.8 

54.8 

1.4 


100.0 

98.0 

2.0 


REGION IX 

Cotton farms 


100. 
6.6 
53.7 
21.2 
15,8 
3,7 
0, 1 

100.0 

63.3 

45,0 

1.2 

0.6 


100.0 

37.3 

40.0 

17.6 

3,7 

1.6 


100. 


ClassI -.- 

II 


ClassI 

II 


65.0 






(Z) 

2.9 

34.5 

53,1 

9.5 

100.0 


6.0 

38.6 

48.7 

7.4 

0.3 

100.0 
0.1 
7.0 
62.9 
35.0 
4.9 
0.2 

100.0 






1.1 
1.5.8 
35.3 
34.2 
13.0 

100.0 
0.9 
10.3 
48.5 
34.4 
6.6 
0.3 


31.7 




(Z) 
0.1 
5.4 

94.5 

100.0 


(Z) 

2.6 

42.6 

54.8 

100.0 


Ill 






3.3 


IV 


IV 


"60.0 
60.0 

100.0 


21.0 
52.6 
26.4 

100.0 


(Z) 


V 






V 

VI 

REGION X 

Cotton farms 

ClassI 

II 




VI.. 

REGION IV 
Cotton farms 








100.0 

62.7 

36.3 

2.0 


100.0 

98.8 

1.2 


100.0 
97.4 
2.1 
0.6 


100.0 


Class I 


99.9 


II 






0,1 

4.9 

41.5 

48.2 

5.3 

100.0 






0.1 


III 


" "o.'s' 

13.8 

85.7 

100.0 


0.1 

6.2 

69.1 

34.6 

100.0 


III 

IV 

V 


"11.7 

43.2 
45.1 


6.7 
38.3 
46.0 

8.9 




IV 

V 
















VI 








REGION V 
Cotton farms ... 


100.0 
0.7 
13.8 
36.5 
37.5 
11.3 
0.2 


100.0 
13.3 
47.3 
31.4 
8.0 


100.0 

74.7 
22.7 
2.6 










Class I 




II 






(Z) 
0.9 
12.9 
47.9 
38.3 


1.1 
14.5 
39.0 
40.2 

5.2 




III. 


"""o.'i" 

2.2 

97.4 


0.1 
0.6 
11.8 

87.5 




IV 




V 




VI 

















II. For Class I farms in this region crops account for 76 percent 
of total sales. Cotton provides about 75 percent of the total 
sales for most economic classes and regions. In Region I, cotton 
sales account for around 70 percent of the total sales on farms in 
Classes I, II, and III, and on Class I farms in Region II cotton 
accounts for only 60 percent of total sales. Both tobacco and 
peanuts are important sources of farm income on many cotton 
farms of Region I. Livestock and livestock products are an 
unusually important source of income on Class I cotton farms in 
Region II. 

As indicated by data in table 19, cotton sales account for a 
larger percentage of total sales on the smaller than on the larger 
size-of-business groups of farms. 



34 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



;y4~:^MBER OF FARMS WITH LESS THAN 25 BALES OF COTTON HARVESTED. 

FOR COTTON SUBREGIONS 1954 





UNITED STATES TOTAL 
779,567 



1 D0T=200 FARMS 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



MAP NOA54-537 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 




Figure 6. 



^^^^NUMBER OF FARMS WITH 25-49 BALES OF COTTON HARVESTED. 

FOR COTTON SUBREGIONS 1954 



UNITED STATES TOTAL 
45.106 

us DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 





\ 




f 


2- 
i 


■-- ;.59. 


5^ 




I 


I 


VW 1 


r-r] 


\ 




^^— ^— - 


v~ 






I 1 




-\ 




I 
1 

103 


V 




IV" 


r 


] 






^;^J^^oiJ 


> r 




M 

1 


^ 4-5 j^A — ' 



mli^ 




' 1 


1 DOT= 10 FARMS 


^99^ 




r'/ 


MAP NO A54-538 


Figure 7. 





-•" BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



35 



JJUMBER OF FARMS WITH 50-99 BALES OF COTTON HARVESTED. 

FOR COTTON SUBREGIONS 1954 




I 

1 

-- — ^ 


'l 


7 




! 


103 

-L } 




r' 


1 




1—1 L 






/f^-V 


^1 




r^t~^ 




74 S- 




('.4 
















J "'•- 1 




cv e~^ 




II 




I Vv>f». 




ftS^ 




r ■ 




1- roi _j '^r^ 


"i" 


a 


t^ /? 


L 


lij^P 


■ -■' J J': 


/ 


Ur — 


'l~f/ 


i_, 




■ ' ■ r-" f 


/ «° Id f 


''^V^ 





UNITED STATES TOTAL 
20,440 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



iSJ*"' 



I DOT=IO FARMS 



MAP N0A54-539 



-•■■ BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure S. 



^^-^JNIUMBER OF FARMS WITH 100 OR MORE BALES OF COTTON HARVESTED. 

FOR COTTON SUBREGIONS: 1954 




7 4 ^— 'j,-H3 






UNITED STATES TOTAL 
17.903 



:^^'':^ 



D0T=10 FARMS 



us DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



MAP N0A54-540 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



FlGDKK 9. 



36 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 19. — Distribution of Farm Sales by Source, for Cotton Farms, by Economic Class, by Regions: 1954 



Region aud item 



REGION I 

Gross sales 

All crops : 

Cotton 

Corn 

Tobacco 

Peanuts 

Oats 

All otber crops 

All livestock and livestock products 

Cattle and calves 

Ho?s and pig? 

Poultry and poultry products 

Dairy products 

All otber livestock and livestock products. 

Forest products 

REGION II 

Gross sales 

All crops 

Cotton 

Corn 

Wheat 

Oats 

All otber crops 

All livestock and livestock products 

Cattle and calves 

Hogs and pigs 

Poultry and poultry products.-. 

Dairy products 

All other livestock and livestock products. 

Forest products 

REGION III 

Gross sales 

All crops 

Cotton 

Corn 

Soybeans 

All other crops 

AH livestock and livestock products. __. 

Cattle and calves 

Hogs and pigs 

Poultry and poultry products... 

Da iry prod ucts 

All other livestock and livestock products 

Forest products 

REGION" IV 

Gross sales 

All crops 

Cotton 

Rice 

Soybeans for beans 

Oats 

All other crops.. 

All livestock and livestock products. 

Cattle and calves 

Hogs and pigs ._ _.. 

Poultry and poultry products 

Dairy products 

All other livestock and livestock products 

Forest products 

REGION V 

Gross sales 

All crops 

Cotton 

Corn 

Soybeans 

Oats 

All otber crops 

All livestock and livestock products 

Cattle and calves 

Hogs and pigs 

Poultry and poultry products 

Dairy products 

All otber livestock and livestock products- 

Forest products 

Z 0.05 percent or less. 



All classes 



Dollars 



158, 390, 782 


146, 702. 510 


116, 223, 089 


3, 239. 284 


11, 752, 720 


9, 221, 847 


1, 540, 720 


4, 724, 850 


11, 095, 020 


3, 240, 704 


7, 051, 278 


528. 129 


218. 928 


55, 981 



593, 252 



66, 675, 670 


100.0 


62, 110, 765 


93.1 


5.5, 969, 596 


83.9 


1, 064, 273 


1.6 


1. 160. 569 


1.7 


777.119 


1.2 


3. 139, 208 


4.7 


4, 0.59, 875 


6.1 


1,691.067 


2.5 


660, 914 


1.0 


714, 359 


1.1 


954, 332 


1.4 


49,203 


0.1 



505, 030 



366, 693, 693 


100.0 


336,410,511 


91.7 


314,401,906 


85.7 


10,070,290 


2.7 


4, 548. 729 


1.2 


7, 380, .586 


2.0 


28, 762, 558 


7.8 


12. 803. 709 


3.5 


7, 713. 805 


2.1 


2, 203, 220 


0.6 


6. 568, 587 


1.5 


473, 237 


0.1 



1, 520, 624 



683. 700. 660 


100.0 


604. OOS. 500 


96.6 


606. 672, 777 


86.8 


4, S7S, .592 


0.8 


34.191.420 


5.9 


5. 669. 693 


1.0 


12. 506. 018 


2.2 


19. 282. 879 


3.3 


11.697,608 


2.0 


.5. 199. 591 


0.9 


1,280,848 


0.2 


762, 505 


0.1 


362, 237 


0.1 



409. 281 



202. 580 



Percent 

100.0 
92.6 
73.4 
2.0 
7.4 
6.8 
1.0 
3.0 



7.0 
2.0 
4.6 
0.3 
0.1 



(Z) 



61. 382. 197 


100.0 


54. 832. 639 


89.3 


50. 934. 495 


83.0 


689,711 


1.1 


1, 042, 412 


1.7 


303, 065 


0.6 


1, 862, 866 


3.0 


6, 347, 078 


10.3 


4, 502, 117 


7.3 


983, 470 


1.6 


611,068 


0.8 


310,511 


0.5 


39, 912 


0.1 



0.3 



Economic class of farm 



Percent 

100.0 

89.5 

71.0 

2.0 

2.7 

2.4 

. 5.3 

6.1 

9.4 
5.3 
2.9 
0.4 
0.7 
0.1 



100.0 
76.4 
60.7 
1.0 
4.8 
2.4 
7.5 

17.8 
II. 8 
1.0 
0.8 
4.1 



(Z) 



100.0 

88.3 

76.6 

1.9 

6.9 

2.9 

11.1 
6.6 
1.6 
0.2 
2.5 
0.2 

0.6 



100.0 
95.2 
79.4 
2.4 
8.8 
2.4 
2.3 

4.7 
3.5 
0.7 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 



100.0 
88.7 
81.1 
0.6 
1.6 
1.2 
4.4 

11.0 
9.2 
0.9 
0.4 
0.6 



(Z) 



0.2 



Percent 

100.0 
88.2 
68.5 
2 2 
3^5 
5.8 
2. 7 
.5! 5 

11.2 
4.8 
5.3 
0. B 
0.5 



(Z) 



0.6 



100.0 
88.1 
7.3.6 
1.4 
4.0 
3.5 
5.6 

10.9 
7.0 
0.6 
0.5 
2.7 
0. 1 

1.0 



100.0 

88.6 

79.0 

2.4 

5.2 

2.1 

11.0 
6.8 
2 2 
o!8 
1.1 
0.3 

0.4 



10.0 

96.4 

83.0 

0.3 

10.1 

I.l 

1.9 

3.5 
2.2 
1.0 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 

0.1 



100.0 
89.6 
80.6 
1.9 
4.6 
0.9 
1.7 

10.2 
8.6 
0.6 
0.7 
0.3 



(Z) 



III 



100.0 
92. 5 
69.8 
2.1 
10.4 
6.9 
0.7 
2.6 

7.1 
2.1 
4.7 
0.3 



(Z) 
(Z) 



0.4 



100.0 
8.8.3 
73.3 
1.7 
4.1 
2.9 
6.4 

10.6 
5.6 
1.0 
2.0 
2.0 



(Z) 



100.0 

90.1 

83.6 

3.2 

1.6 

1.7 

9.5 
4.3 
3.0 
0.6 
1.3 
0.2 



100.0 
97.1 
88.0 
0.2 
6.6 
0.5 
1.8 

2.9 
1.4 
1.1 
0.2 
0.1 
(Z) 

(Z) 



100.0 
90.1 
83.8 
1.1 
2.8 
0.5 
1.9 



6.7 
1.9 
0.7 
0.2 



(Z) 



IV 



100.0 
94.0 
73.4 
2.3 
9.6 
6.4 
0.3 
2.0 

5.8 
1.2 
4.4 
0.2 

(Z) 

(Z) 

0.2 



100. 
93.1 
8.3.0 
1.8 
2. 1 
1.4 
4.8 

6.2 
2.3 
0.9 
1.4 
1.5 
0.1 

0.8 



0.3 



100.0 

97.4 

92.3 

0.2 

2.4 

0.1 



2.5 
1.1 
1.0 
0.2 
0.1 



(Zl 



100.0 
89.4 
84.6 
1.4 
1.1 
0.2 
2.1 

10.4 
6.7 
2.1 
0.8 
0.6 
0.1 

0.2 



Percent 

100.0 
93.4 
76.6 
1.9 
6.4 
5.9 
0.1 
2.6 

6.4 
1.1 
5.0 
0.3 

(Z) 

(Z) 



100.0 
94.4 
86.1 
1.8 
1.3 
0.9 
4.3 

6.0 
1.8 
1.0 
0.8 
1.3 
0.1 



00.0 


100.0 


92.2 


92.8 


86.4 


88.1 


3.4 


2 7 


0.6 


0.2 


1.8 


1.9 


7.6 


6.8 


2.9 


2.7 


2.4 


1.7 


n.6 


0.7 


1.6 


1.5 


0.1 


0.1 



0.4 



100.0 

97.8 

94.6 

(Z) 

0.8 

0.1 

2.3 

2.1 
1.0 
0.8 
0.3 

(Z) 
(Z) 

(Z) 



100.0 

89.6 

85.1 

1.1 

0.4 

(Z) 

2.9 

10.0 
6.3 
1.9 
1.1 
0.6 
0.1 

0.6 



VI 



Percent 

100.0 
94.4 
81.4 
1.2 
4.7 
4.1 
0.3 
2.7 

5.3 
1.1 
3.8 
0.4 

(Z1 
(Z) 

0.3 



100.0 
94.7 
88.2 
1.0 
0.7 
0.3 
4.6 

4.7 
1.6 
1.0 
1.0 
1.0 
0.1 



100.0 

92.8 

88.4 

1.7 

0.1 

2.6 

6.6 
2.9 
1.5 
0.8 
1.2 
0.1 

0.6 



100.0 
97.1 
94.5 

" 6.'5 
0.1 
2.1 

2.8 
1.6 
0.8 
0.4 
0.1 
0.1 

0.1 



100.0 
88.4 
81.2 
0.9 
0.3 

'e.'o 

10.8 
6.1 
2.3 
1.7 
0.6 
0.2 

0.8 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 37 

Table 19. — Distribution of Farm Sales by Source, for Cotton Farms, by Economic Class, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 



Region and item 



Gross sales. -- 

All crops.- 

Cotton 

Corn -. 

Swectpntatoes.- 

Sorghum 

All other crops. 



REGION VI 



All livestock and livestock prodncts 

Cattle and calves -.. 

Hops and pigs 

Poultry and poultry products 

Dairy products 

.\11 other livestock and livestock products . 

Forest products 



Gross sales ... 

All crops 

Cotton 

Corn 

Sorghum 

All other crops. 



REGION VII 



Xll livestock and livestock products 

Cattle and calves 

Hogs and pips 

Poultry and poultry products 

Dairy products... 

All other livestock and livestock products. , 

Forest products 



Gross sales. -. 
All crops 

Cotton. -- - 

Sorghum 

All other crops. 



REGION VIII 



All livestock and livestock products 

Cattle and calves 

Hogs and pies 

Poultry and poultry products 

Dairy products.. 

All other livestock and livestock products. 

Forcst products 



Gross sales... 
.All crops 

Cotton 

Sorghum 

Wheat 

All other crops. 



REGION IX 



All livestock and livestock products 

Cattle and calves 

Hogs and pigs 

Poultry and poultry products 

Dairy products 

All other livestock and livestock products. 

Forest products 



Gross sales 

All crops 

Cotton 

Barley 

Rice.". 

Alfalfa and mi.\ture . 

Sugar beets 

Sorghum 

Vegetables 

Fruits and nuts 

All other crops 



REGION X 



All livestock and livestock products... 

Cattle and calves 

Poultry and poultry products 

Dairy products 

All other livestock and livestock products. 

Forest products 



All classes 



Dollars 

43, fill), 980 

4(1, 278, 887 

36.110,319 

9X3, 971 

707, 033 

1, .148, 850 
802. 7118 

2. 724, 399 
1, ,593, 951 

31)1, 478 
770, 397 
35, 185 
23, 388 

7,700 



208, 194, 743 

240. 1)45, 470 

201, 803, 204 

0, 551, 292 

23, 840, 124 

13, 790, 790 

22,117,398 
14.418,639 

2, 516, 150 

3, 359, 847 
), 270. 045 

552,711 

31, 875 



319, 545, 051 

310, 726, 070 

251, 809, 122 

51,014,670 

4. 929, 607 

2. 972, 071 

8, 818, 081 
4,924.031 
1, 281, 393 
1, 124, 217 
936, 319 
552, 721 

300 



507. 765, 189 
543, 091, 872 
433, 009. 827 
33, 798, 494 
3, 341, 928 

23, 715, 254 
4,081,571 

7, 941, 113 

8, 009, 691 
0, 040, 5,56 

22, 563, 638 

24, 660, 312 
16. 827, 001 

340, 059 
5, 144, 900 
2. 348, 280 



13, 005 



100.0 
93. 6 
84.0 
2.3 
1.8 
3.6 
2.0 

6.3 

3.7 
0.7 
1.8 
0. 1 
0.1 



(Z) 



c 



100.0 
91.7 
75.3 
2,4 
8.9 
5.1 

8.2 
5.4 
0.9 
1.3 
0.5 
0.2 

(Z) 



89, 657. 922 


100. 


87,118,1,33 


97.2 


72, 806, 378 


81,3 


3, 992, 971 


4.5 


10, 268, 784 


11.4 


2, 536, 589 


2.8 


1, 590, 915 


1,7 


251. 420 


0.3 


171. 290 


0.2 


518, 087 


0.6 


4,871 


(Z) 



(Z) 



100. 
97.2 
78.8 
10.0 
1.5 
0,9 



1.5 
0.4 
0.4 
0.3 
0.2 



(Z) 



100. 
95.0 
70.3 
0.0 
0.0 
4.2 
0.7 
1.4 
1.6 
1.1 
4.0 

4.3 
3.0 
0.1 
0.9 
0.4 

(Z) 



100. 

93.9 

78.2 

2.0 

(Z) 



6.1 

5.6 
0.2 
0.2 



(Z) 



0.1 



100. 
96. 3 
71.4 

0.8 
18.8 

5.3 

3.7 
3,1 
0.2 
0.1 
0,1 
0.1 

(Z) 



100. fl 

96.7 

79.4 

5,2 

12.1 

3.3 
2.2 
0.3 

(Z) 
0.8 

(Z) 



(Zl 



100. 

97.7 

77. 7 

17.2 

1.8 

1,0 

2.3 
1.5 
0.3 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 



100.0 
95.8 
75.5 
6.6 
0.7 
4.1 
0.8 
1.4 
1.0 
0.8 
4.3 



(Z) 



4.2 
3.1 



0.7 
0.4 



(Z) 



Economic class of farm 



Ptrceiit 

100. 
94.3 
85. 3 
2.2 
(Z) 
6.0 
0.7 

6.7 
3.9 
0.5 
1.2 

(Z) 



(Z) 



100. 

92.7 

76.0 

1,8 

9.8 

6.1 

7.3 
6,3 

0.7 
0.5 
0.6 
0,3 

(Z) 



100.0 
98.0 
83,7 
4.0 
10.2 

2.0 
1,0 
0.3 
0,3 
0.4 
(Z) 



100. 

97.1 

80.5 

14.9 

1.0 

0.8 

2.9 
1.4 

0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.1 



100. 

95.0 

80.7 

1.0 

0.2 

6.9 

(Z) 

1.5 

0.7 

2.3 

2.2 

5.0 
2.4 
0.2 
2.1 
0.4 



III 



Percent 

100.0 
94. 1 
80. 9 
2.8 
1.1 
1.7 
1.6 

5.8 
2,7 
0.8 
2.1 
0. 1 
0. 1 

(Z) 



100. 
90.7 
76.5 
3.3 
6.6 
5,3 

9.3 
6.3 
1.2 

1,2 
0.4 
0.3 



(Z) 



100.0 

97.6 

84.0 

2.4 

11.0 

2.5 
1.6 
0.3 
0.5 
0.1 
(Z) 



100. 

95.4 

81.7 

11.3 

1.3 

1,0 

4.6 

2,4 
0.5 
1,1 
0.5 
0.1 



100. 

94.1 

83.1 

1.2 



3.9 



0.6 
0.5 
3.2 
1.4 

5.9 
2.2 
0.6 
2.5 
0.7 



(Z) 



100. 
93.3 
83.2 
2.2 
6.3 
0.7 
1.9 

6.6 
3.0 

0,9 
2.0 
0.1 



<Z) 
(Z) 



100. 

88.0 

70.6 

3.8 

3.3 

5,0 

11.3 
6.4 
1.4 
2.4 
0.9 
0.2 

(Z) 



100.0 
97.7 
85.3 
2.0 
10.4 

2.3 
0.6 
0.4 
1.1 
0.2 



100.0 
92.0 
79.6 
9.2 
2.3 
0.8 

8.0 
3.9 
0.6 
2.0 
1.5 
(Z) 

(Z) 



100.0 
94.3 
85.5 
0.4 



1.4 



0.3 
0.7 
5.0 
0.9 

5.6 
2.3 
0.3 
1.7 
1.2 



Percent 

100. 
91.3 
81.9 
1.6 
4,5 
0,4 
2,9 

8.7 
4,6 
1,1 
2.8 
0.2 
0.1 

(Z) 



100.0 

80.7 

70.8 

3.4 

2.0 

4.6 

13.3 
7.1 
1.6 
3.7 

0,7 
0.2 



(Z) 



100.0 
97.9 
87.0 
0.7 
10.3 

2.1 
0,9 
0.5 
0.0 



(Z) 



100. 

89.5 

79.5 

6.4 

2.2 

1.4 

10.5 
4.4 
0.8 
2.7 
2.6 
(Z) 



100.0 
97.7 
93.3 
0.4 



1.6 



0.8 
0.2 
1.4 
0.1 

2.3 
1.0 

0.7 
0.2 
0.4 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 



38 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Pasture and Woodland 

Examination of the distribution of gross sales by source reveals 
that for most economic classes of farms and for most regions, 
pasture and woodland resources on cotton farms do not con- 
tribute substantially to cash farm income. The data in tables 14 
and 15, however, show that, especially in some regions, pasture 
and woodland resources comprise, from the standpoint of acre- 
age, a substantial part of the land resources on cotton farms. 



In appraising the use of pasture resources on farms it is rele- 
vant to examine the data concerning the kinds and numbers^ of 
livestock found on different economic classes of cotton farms in 
the different regions. Information of this type is given in 
table 20. 

In general, only the larger size-of-business groups of farms in 
each region have livestock enterprises of a commercial size and 
type. The beef-cattle enterprise appears to be the most com- 
mon, but hogs are important in a few regions. 



Table 20. — Average Number per Farm Reporting and Percent of Farms Reporting Specified Classes of Livestock, for Cotton 

Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



REGION I 

Horses and mules: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting,, 

All cattle and calves; 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Milk cows: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Chickens 4 months old and over; 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales 

REGION II 

Horses and mules: 

Percent of farms reporting 

.Average number per farm reporting. 

All cattle and calves: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Milk cows: 

Percent of farms reporting , 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Chickens 4 months old and over: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales 

REGION" III 

Horses and mules: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

All cattle and calves: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Milk cows; 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting , 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Chickens 4 months old and over: 

Percent of farms reporting. 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales 





Economic class of farm 






AU 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


61.8 
2 


80.1 
10 


01.8 
5 


62.1 
3 


58.2 
2 


68.5 
2 


69.3 
1 


58.3 

7 


87.8 
99 


81.1 
40 


68.3 
13 


58.3 


56.4 
6 


55.6 
3 


45.1 
2 


41.1 

7 


49.4 
3 


52.0 
2 


46.1 
2 


44.8 
2 


42.6 
2 


72.5 
12 


66.9 
74 


78.2 
38 


80.2 
21 


74.6 
14 


72.4 
9 


68.1 
6 


78.6 
25 


-14.9 
126 


71.7 
61 


80.9 
35 


79.6 
26 


7S.0 
23 


79.0 
20 


7.0 


9.4 


11.2 


7.1 


6.8 


6.4 


5.3 


58. 9 
2 


9.';. 7 
13 


60.6 

5 


60.4 
3 


52.6 
2 


64.9 
2 


63.9 
2 


69.4 
6 


9.5.7 
213 


95.0 
53 


77.4 
24 


72.9 
8 


70.2 
6 


67.3 
3 


62.8 
2 


39.1 
24 


65.6 
6 


56.9 
4 


64.2 
3 


63.8 
2 


61.9 
2 


72.1 
4 


78.3 
30 


77.8 
12 


68.6 
7 


73.0 

5 


73.7 
4 


70.6 
3 


75.5 
29 


60.9 
249 


66.1 
72 


64.0 
47 


75.0 
42 


75.9 
29 


75.9 
24 


6.1 


17.8 


10.9 


10.6 


6.2 


5.0 


4.7 


56.7 
2 


73.7 
10 


58.4 
5 


49.5 
3 


47.5 
3 


62.6 
2 


67.1 
2 


7.3.1 
9 


79.2 
168 


84.2 
60 


81.5 
20 


75.2 
10 


71.8 
7 


72 1 
6 


62.4 
3 


40.0 
14 


64.6 
6 


67.0 
4 


65.4 
3 


62.4 
3 


60.7 
2 


68.1 
6 


62.3 
44 


67.3 
20 


72.0 
12 


71.3 

7 


68.4 
5 


65.5 
3 


81.4 
30 


50.3 
77 


71.1 
70 


84.0 
46 


84.3 
36 


80.9 
29 


80.5 
24 


7.8 


11. 1 


11.0 


9.5 


7.5 


6.8 


6.6 



Region and item 



REGION IV 

Horses and mules: 

Percent of farms reporting.. 

Average number per farm reporting. 

All cattle and calves: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Milk cows: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Chickens 4 months old and over: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales 

REGION V 

Horses and mules: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

All oattle and calves: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting, 

Milk cows: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reportmg. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Chickens 4 months old and over: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales 

REGION VI 

Horses and mules: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting., 

All cattle and calves: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Milk cows: 

Percent of farms reportmg 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Chickens 4 months old and over: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales 





Economic class of farm 




classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


28.2 
3 


57.5 
7 


30.6 
4 


26.6 
2 


27 9 
2 


26.8 
2 


46.4 
11 


66.8 
112 


63.0 
25 


65.8 
10 


60.5 

7 


39. S 

6 


37.7 
2 


32.2 
5 


43.1 
2 


46.8 
2 


42.7 
2 


33.1 
2 


48.8 
6 


43.8 
35 


48.9 
13 


50.8 
9 


63.4 
6 


47 7 
4 


70.2 
29 


61.1 
60 


72.0 
43 


73.2 
37 


75.0 
29 


68.9 
24 


3.3 


4.7 


3.5 


2.9 


2.6 


2.1 


60.2 
2 


66.0 
8 


51.6 
3 


45.6 
2 


46.9 
2 


52.4 
2 


77.0 
17 


85.1 
242 


83.6 
67 


80.7 
33 


77 6 
19 


72.6 
12 


60.0 
3 


21.4 
13 


49.3 
3 


59.7 
3 


62.1 
3 


66.8 
3 


60.6 
6 


36.7 
34 


44.4 
10 


64.2 
10 


61.7 
8 


69.4 
6 


83.3 
32 


25.1 
38 


66.8 
61 


79,0 
42 


83.6 
39 


83.5 
31 


10.3 


11.0 


10.2 


9.6 


10.4 


10.0 


44.8 
3 


42.9 
5 


36.2 
2 


28.2 
2 


40.3 
3 


58.9 
3 


81.3 
16 


76.2 
106 


81.0 
38 


81.4 
16 


85.0 
10 


82,4 
10 


62.0 
3 


38.1 
3 


53.0 
3 


69.3 
3 


69.3 
2 


66.6 
3 


67.6 
6 


38.1 
13 


52.0 
7 


64.6 
8 


71.0 
6 


73.2 
4 


84.1 
80 


671 
80 


70.0 
133 


86,0 
101 


86.9 
78 


86.2 
62 


6.3 


6.1 


6.7 


6.8 


6.6 


8,7 



VI 



32.3 
2 



31.7 
2 



41.9 
3 



64.1 



2.8 



74.6 
2 



63.4 
2 



63.8 
4 



6.2 
28 



64.8 
3 



72.3 
8 



62.6 
2 



70.4 
4 



87.3 
47 



10.5 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



39 



Table 20. — Average Number per Farm Reporting and Percent of Farms Reporting Specified Classes of Livestock, for Cotton 

Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 



Region and item 



REGION VII 

Horses and mules: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting- 

All cattle and calves: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting-. 

Milk cows: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Chickens 4 months old and over: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales... , 

REGION VIII 

Horses and mules: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

All cattle and calves: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Milk cows: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Chickens 4 months old and over: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales. , 



Economic class of farm 



All 
classes 



21.2 
2 



78.4 
16 



68.0 
3 



42.4 
6 



74.9 
67 



8.2 



47.9 
24 



34.5 
4 



20.2 
U 



37.6 
46 



2.8 



31.9 
3 



67.0 
68 



34.6 
3 



24.3 
18 



39.2 
64 



3.7 



IS. 3 
3 



53,0 

77 



31.7 
10 



15.1 
37 



24.3 
47 



27.6 
2 



77,2 
31 



47.1 
3 



34.2 
11 



60.8 
71 



12,1 
2 



67. 1 
17 



42,7 
3 



22.6 
11 



41.4 
68 



2.0 



III 



20.5 
2 



82,9 
19 



58,7 
3 



41,5 
8 



73.6 
70 



13,2 
1 



54,0 
12 



24.1 
6 



40.4 
45 



IV 



15.6 
2 



80,0 
13 



60.4 
3 



43.7 
6 



78.3 
71 



11,6 
1 



32.5 
6 



23.2 
2 



16.6 
6 



39.6 
47 



19.7 
2 



77.4 
11 



61.6 
3 



44.8 
6 



79.6 
66 



22.0 
2 



37.0 

6 



27.1 
2 



21.2 
4 



37 
31 



VI 



33.7 
2 



67.3 
2 



79.3 
47 



29.6 
2 



42.6 
4 



35.2 
2 



18.5 
3 



48.1 
21 



Region and item 



REGION IX 

Horses and mules; 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per fai-m reporting. 

All cattle and calves: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

MUk cows: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Chickens 4 months old and over: 

Percent of farms reporting... 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales 

REGION X 

Horses and mules: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

All cattle and calves: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Milk cows: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Hogs and pigs: 

Percent of farms reporting _ 

Average number per farm reporting. 

Chickens 4 months old and over: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

All sheep: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Average number per farm reporting.. 

Sales of livestock and livestock products 
as a percent of gross farm sales 



Economic class of farm 



AU 
classes 



17.7 
2 



66.2 
15 



62.6 
3 



23.6 
3 



60.4 
49 



15.4 
14 



40,2 
38 



6,9 
184 



23,0 
2 



64,8 
25 



47.3 
3 



68.3 
67 



34.7 
3 



48.6 
107 



27.4 
13 



12,2 
26 



30.4 
40 



8.2 
368 



16.7 
2 



54.7 
3 



33.9 
11 



70,7 
72 



21.5 
2 



59,0 
21 



43.2 
6 



20.1 
9 



49.2 
38 



8,3 

45 



III 



14,1 
2 



64.8 
3 



75,5 
70 



4.6 



16.1 
2 



51.3 
13 



39.1 
4 



41.9 
43 



6, 1 
19 



IV 



14.0 
2 



68 2 
12 



65.1 
3 



28,0 



73,4 
67 



11,4 
2 



43.7 
10 



30.7 
3 



14 3 
12 



48.7 
34 



5.1 
10 



18.9 
2 



61,1 
11 



62. ( 



27.5 
3 



68 7 
62 



10.5 



12,0 
1 



42,3 
3 



27.6 
1 



14.1 
3 



42.3 
32 



VI 



33.3 
2 



71.4 



71.4 
2 



14.3 
2 



81.0 
41 



7.9 
2 



21.1 
2 



21.1 
1 



6.3 
2 



39.5 
30 



2,6 
32 



40 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 
Section 5.— LABOR RESOURCES AND USE 



For two chief reasons the characteristics and the utilization of 
labor on cotton farms are of special importance. 

First, it represents the input of the human agent in cotton 
farming. Second, the extent to which labor is combined with 
other resources, in patterns that are economically and techni- 
cally effective, determines the levels of income from farming that 
are available to the people on cotton farms. 

This report provides several t.vpes of data on labor resources 
and use: (1) The age comjDosition of the operators of cotton 
farms; (S) the days of off-farm work by operators of cotton farms; 
(3) the proportion of cotton farms for which off-farm income of 
the famih- exceeds the value of farm sales; (4) the man-equiva- 
lents of all labor and its percentage distributions by type of 
worker; (5) the distributions of expenditures for Jiired labor; 
and (6) acres of cropland and acres of cotton harvested per man- 
eciuivalent. 

AGE OF OPERATOR 

Information relating to the distribution of farm operators by- 
age groups bj' economic class of farm, and data concerning the 
proportions of farms in each economic class that are operated by 
persons in each age group, are useful in analyzing the character- 
istics of the labor resource on cotton farms. 



Data concerning the distribution of farm operators of each 
age group among economic classes of farms are found in table 21. 

For most regions about 3 percent of all operators of cotton farm 
are under 25 years of age. In Regions I through V more than 7 
and usually nearer 80 percent of farm operators under 25 years of 
age are found on farms in Economic Classes V and VI. These are 
farms that had gross sales of between $250 and $2,500 in 1954. 
It would seem reasonable to infer that a number of these young 
operators would be relatively receptive to opportunities for non- 
farm work and/or to adjustments that would permit an increase 
In the size of their farm business. 

In Regions I through V about one-eighth of all operators of 
cotton farms are between 25 and 35 years of age. Most of these 
also are on Class V and Class VI farms. They would appear to 
face problems of adjustment similar to those of operators under 
25 years of age. 

In Regions VI and VII about 40 and 35 percent, respectively, 
of operators under 25 years of age are found on Classes V and VI 
farms. Nearly one-third of the operators from 25 to 35 years old 
also operate Class V or VI farms. 

For the remaining 3 regions small percentages of the younger 
age groups of farm operators are found on the 2 smallest size-of- 
business groups. 



Table 21. — Percent Distribution of Operators of Cotton Farms in Each Age Group, 

BY Regions: 1954 



BY Economic Class of Farm, 



Region and age of operator 



REGION I 



All age groups. 

L'nder 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 



REGION II 



All age groups.. 

lender 25 years 

25 to 34 years.. _ 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

£5 years and over 



REGION III 



All age groups., 

[Tnder 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 



REGION IV 



All age groups. 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 



REGION V 



All age groups- 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 



Economic class of farm 



All 
classes 



100. 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100. 
100.0 



ino. 

100.0 
100.0 

ino. 

100.0 
100. 
100. 



100. (I 
100. 
100. 
100. 
100.0 
100. 
100. 



100.0 

ion. 

100.0 

ion. 
if«. n 
inn. 

100.0 



0.5 



0.2 
0.5 
0.5 
0.6 
0.7 



0.1 
0. 1 
0.1 

(Z) 



0.3 
0. 1 
0.3 
0.3 
0,4 
0.2 
0.2 



2.3 
0.5 
2.? 
3.1 
2.3 
2. 1 
2.0 



2.4 
1,4 
0.7 
0.8 
0.2 



2.2 
0,9 
2,4 
2,4 
2.3 
1.9 
1.8 



0.5 



0, fi 
0,4 
0,5 
0,6 
0.2 



1.0 
0.2 
1.0 
0.9 
1. 1 
1. 1 
0.6 



4.7 
2.2 
5. 1 
0. 1 
4. S 
.■(.6 
2.8 



2.4 
1.0 
2.0 
3.0 
2.7 
2.2 
1.6 



III 



7.7 
7 3 
7.4 
9.5 
8.8 
6.8 
4.2 



1.8 



1.6 
2.4 
2.4 
1. 1 
1. 1 



4.0 
l.C 
3.9 
5.4 
4.6 
3.0 
1,9 



11,9 
6.3 
11.0 
13.8 
13.8 
10.4 



6,9 
2.1 
9.8 
9.5 
7.1 
4.8 
4,2 



IV 



25,8 
18,4 
26.8 
30.5 
27.9 
21.6 
16,1 



11,9 
9,7 
11,4 
15,9 
14,3 
8.6 
6.0 



19. 1 
13, 1 
17,6 
25.0 
21.6 
IB. 6 
8,5 



28.2 
19.5 
25.5 
31.6 
31.4 
26,7 
19.5 



16.4 
17.7 
21.4 
21.8 
17.8 
12.3 



36.3 
42.6 
37.4 
36.7 
36.5 
37.3 
30.9 



39,9 
37.7 
44.7 
46.8 
43.8 
34.6 
24.7 



40.6 
45.1 
46.7 
43.9 
41.7 
36.3 
27.8 



39.5 
59.9 
43.6 
36.4 
36.7 
40,4 
42,5 



32.6 
34.4 
37.0 
3.5.9 
34.8 
29.3 
24.0 



VI 



27.6 
30,8 
25.8 
20.4 
24.0 
32.8 
46.3 



45.8 
52.6 
41.7 
34.4 
38.9 
55. 
68,0 



35.0 
39.9 
30.6 
24,6 
30.6 
43.8 
61.0 



13.4 
20.6 
12.6 
9.0 
11.0 
16.8 
26.0 



40.7 
44,8 
27,4 
28.4 
36.9 
50.6 
62,3 



Region and age of operator 



REGION VI 



All age groups. , 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

36 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

.55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 



REGION VII 



All age groups. 

Under 25 years 

26 to 34 years 

36 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

66 years and over 



REGION VIII 



All .age groups, 
lender 26 years.. .._ 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

56 to 64 years 

05 years and o-ver 



REGION IX 



All age groups.. 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

46 to 64 years 

55 to 64 years.- 

65 years and over 



REGION X 



All age groups.. 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years.- -. 

65 years and over 



Economic class of farm 



All 
cla.sses 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100. 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

ion. 

100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100. 



2.3 
2.6 
2.7 
1.3 
0.6 



1.7 
3,2 
3.2 
3.0 
2. 1 
1.4 



Ifi. 6 
42.5 
20.5 
23.0 
17.7 
8.6 
7.9 



28.5 
17 4 
37 3 
35.0 
26.5 
16.4 
9.5 



37 6 
28.8 
47.4 
43.5 
38.6 
26.8 
17.9 



9.7 
9.3 
13.1 
13.9 
7.6 
6.9 
5.8 



10.0 
6.8 
11.4 
12.5 
10.7 
7.7 
6.2 



25,6 
1.9 
29,8 
29,5 
26.2 
25.3 
13.1 



39.6 
48.6 
38.6 
40.6 
42,6 
35,0 
30,2 



26. 1 
25.1 
25.2 
28.3 
26.8 
2.5,4 
20.6 



III 



22,2 
27.9 
22.4 
27.2 
20,5 
21,6 
12,4 



21,2 
22, 1 
26, fi 
24,4 
21,1 
17,5 
14.0 



21.7 



18.3 
16.2 
19.8 
29.8 
29.0 



16. 1 
17.7 
13.0 
14.4 
16. 1 
22.7 
19.4 



17.2 
30. 1 
13. 



15 


2 


15 


1 


23 


9 


21 


7 



IV 



30.0 
23.3 
31.2 
28 6 
37.5 
25.7 
20.7 



30. 7 
34.5 
30.0 
31.7 
33.2 
28.7 
25.5 



16.9 
37.0 
18.3 
12.6 
16.8 
16.3 
23.5 



11.8 
7.4 
6.3 
9.0 
16.4 
22.3 



11.7 
9. 1 
9.7 
9.1 
12.2 
14.8 
17 4 



22.7 
32.5 
24.1 
23.2 
18.8 
23.9 
25.3 



25.2 
24.7 
22.8 
22.0 
23.7 
30.2 
29.6 



14.2 
9.3 
11.8 
12.6 
15.0 
16.3 
16.2 



5.3 
3.1 
3.7 
3.4 
6.4 



5.8 
4.6 
3.9 
3.9 
6.3 
7.0 
12.6 



13.3 
7.0 
6.9 
4.6 
12.9 
20.6 
35,2 



10.2 

10.2 

6.0 

6.2 

8.3 

13.8 

23.7 



5.0 
9.3 
1.3 
6.1 
4.6 
3.7 
11.3 



0.7 
1.6 



0,4 
0,4 
1.3 
3,7 



1.0 
2,1 



Z 0,06 percent or less. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



41 



The differences in the implications of these data for the 3 
most western and 5 most eastern cotton-production regions seem 
significant. 

For the 10 regions used in this report from 25 to 30 percent of 
farm operators are between the ages of 45 and 54. It seems reas- 
onable to suppose that those in this age group would, in general, 
have attained most of tlieir adjustments toward an efficient and 
productive farm business. In this perspective it is interesting 
to examine the distribution, among economic classes of farms, of 
operators in the 45-to-54 j'ears of age group for the various regions. 

In Regions I, II, III, and V from 61 to 83 percent of the opera- 
tors in the age gl-oup 45 to 64 years are found on Class V and Class 
VI farms. From 0.6 percent to about 3 percent of operators in 
this age group are found on farms in Classes I and II in these 
regions. 

Region IV, "Tlie Mississippi Delta," has a substantially smaller 
proportion of farm operators in this age group in the two smallest 
size-of-busincss groups, and a much larger percentage are found 
on Classes I and II farms. The actual percentages here are 7 
and 48 percent, respectively, for the 2 largest and the 2 smallest 
size-of-business groups. 

For Regions VI and VII, just under one-third of the operators 
between 45 and 54 years of age are found on Classes V and VI 
farms, while 10 and 14 percent of the operators in this age group 
in these two regions have farms that fall in the 2 largest size-of- 
business groups. 

In the three remaining regions strikingly larger percentages of 
operators in this age group are found on Classes I and II farms. 
Conversely very much smaller proportions are found on farms that 
fall in the two smallest size-of-business groups. 



The iiicture with respect to the age composition of all operators 
of cotton farms and of the operators of farms in each of the eco- 
nomic classes is shown for each region in table 22. These data 
enable one to appraise, for each region, the proportionate age 
distribution of farm operators in various economic classes. 

For example, in Region IV, 30 percent of the operators of Class 

IV farms are shown to be between 45 and 54 years of age. Opera- 
tors in this age group account for 27 percent of all cotton-farm 
operators in the region. This age group is, therefore, somewhat 
more than proportionally represented among farms that fall 
in Economic Class IV. 

The proportions of the smaller size-of-business groups of farms 
that are operated by persons in the older age groups is a statistic 
of some interest. For it frequently is, and has in this report been, 
assumed that future adjustments in resource use on cotton farms 
will significantly affect the number and characteristics of farms 
that are now in these economic classes. 

It is interesting to observe that in Regions I through V from 
about 40 to 48 percent of Class VI farms have operators who are 
55 years of age or older, and that in these same regions about 23 
to 30 percent of the operators of Class V farms fall in this older 
age group. In each of these 5 regions, except Region IV, Classes 

V and VI farms account for from about 65 to more than 85 percent 
of all cotton farms. In Region IV these two smallest size-of- 
business groups comprise about 53 percent of all cotton farms. 

The older group of operators account for substantially higher 
proportions of all operators of Classes V and VI cotton farms in 
the remaining regions. From the standpoint of the regions as a 
whole, however, these smaller size-of-business farms are of much 
less significance in these regions. 



Table 22. — Percent Distribution of Operators of Each Economic Class of Cotton Farm, by Age, by Regions: 1954 



Region and age of operator 



REGION I 

All age groups 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

65 to 64 years 

65 years and over 

REGION II 

All age groups 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

36 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years„ 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 

REGION III 

All age groups 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years_ 

56 to 64 years 

65 years and over 

REGION IV 

All age groups.... 
Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

36 to 44 years 

46 to 54 years 

66 to 64 years.. 

65 years and over. 

REGION V 

All age groups.... 
Under 25 years 

26 to 34 years 

36 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 



Economic class of farm 


All 

classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


lOOO 


100.0 


100,0 


100.0 


100.0 


loao 


100.0 


3.1 




1,2 


2.9 


2.2 


3,6 


3,5 


13.0 


4.7 


14,3 


12.5 


13.5 


13,4 


12 2 


27.7 


28.3 


30,3 


34.0 


32.9 


28.0 


20.6 


27.8 


28.4 


29,7 


31.4 


30.0 


27.9 


24.3 


17.3 


22 2 


15.3 


13.1 


14.5 


17.7 


20.7 


11.1 


16.4 


9.2 


0. 1 


6.9 


9,4 


18.7 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


loao 


100.0 


2.2 
9.9 








1.8 
9.4 


2,1 
11,1 


2 6 
9.0 




13.3 


8.5 


25.3 


27,3 


23.9 


33.3 


33.8 


29,6 


19.0 


27.2 


27,3 


27.2 


36.2 


32.6 


30 


23 


21.2 


40,9 


29.6 


13.0 


15.3 


18.4 


25.3 


14.2 


4,5 


6.1 


9,0 


7.2 


8.8 


21.1 


100.0 


100,0 


loao 


100.0 


loao 


100.0 


100.0 


3.0 


0,9 


0.8 


1.6 


2.5 


4.0 


4.2 


13.9 


14,7 


14.2 


13.4 


12.8 


16.0 


12.1 


26.0 


26,6 


2,5.3 


35.0 


34.0 


28. 1 


18 2 


28.0 


36,3 


32 6 


31.8 


31.5 


28.7 


24.3 


17.6 


13,4 


20.7 


13.1 


14.3 


15.7 


22.1 


10.9 


8,2 


6.5 


5.2 


4.9 


7.6 


19.1 


100.0 


100,0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


4.5 


1,0 


2 1 


2.4 


3.1 


6.8 


7.0 


16.1 


15,2 


17,2 


14,9 


14,6 


17.8 


16.2 


27.0 


35,6 


3.5,2 


31,4 


30,3 


24.9 


18.2 


27.2 


26,4 


27 7 


31,5 


30,2 


25.2 


22.2 


lfi.9 


14,8 


12,9 


14,7 


16,0 


17.3 


21.2 


8.3 


7.0 


4,9 


5,1 


6,8 


9.0 


16.2 


100.0 


loao 


100.0 


100.0 


100,0 


100.0 


100.0 


2.2 




1.0 


7 


2,4 


2.3 


2.5 


8.4 


20,7 


7.1 


12.1 


11,0 


9.5 


5.7 


21.6 


31,7 


26,9 


29.9 


28,6 


23.7 


15.0 


31.8 


24,5 


35.4 


33.0 


34,3 


34.0 


28.7 


24.5 


20,7 


22.1 


17.3 


18,3 


22 


30.4 


11.6 


2,4 


7.5 


7.0 


6,6 


8.6 


17.7 



Region and age of operator 



REGION VI 

All age groups 

Under 25 years 

26 to 34 years 

36 to 44 years 

46 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 

REGION VII 

All age groups 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 64 years 

65 to 64 years. 

65 years and over 

REGION VIII 

All age groups 

Under 25 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 64 years 

55 to 64 years 

66 years and over 

REGION IX 

All age groups 

Under 26 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

46 to 54 years 

56 to 64 years 

66 years and over 

REGION X 

All age groups 

Under 26 years 

26 to 34 years 

36 to 44 years.- 

46 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 



Economic class of farm 



All 
classes 



100.0 
2.8 
14.9 
24.2 
28.2 
21.5 
8.4 



100.0 
2.1 
12.6 
26.0 
29.1 
21.2 
10.1 



lOOO 
1.2 
15.3 
22 9 
28.6 
21.4 
10 6 



100.0 
4.7 
20.9 
28.9 
26.7 
13.2 
5.6 



100.0 
1.9 
17.0 
28.9 
26.9 
16. 1 
9.2 



100.0 

"li'Y 

30.9 

36.3 

13.6 

2.5 



100.0 
1.4 
14.8 
29.6 
32.1 
16.8 
5.3 



100.0 
2.8 
18 8 
31.8 
30.6 
11.0 
5,0 



100,0 
2.9 
27.4 
3,5,4 
24.8 
7.6 
1.9 



100. 
1,4 
21,5 
33,6 
27.6 
11.5 
4.4 



100,0 
2.6 
20 1 
34,8 
22 2 
16^3 
5.0 



100,0 
1,4 
14,3 
31,4 
31,2 
16,4 
6,3 



100,0 
0, 1 
17,7 
26,4 
29,2 
21,2 
5,4 



100,0 
6,8 
20,3 
29.4 
28.6 
11.6 
4.3 



loao 

1.8 
16.4 
31.2 
27.6 
15.7 

7.3 



III 



100,0 
3,6 
15,0 
29,7 
26.2 
20.9 
4.7 



loao 

2.2 
16.7 
28.8 
28.9 
17.6 



100.0 



12.9 
17.1 
26.2 
29. 5 
14.3 



100.0 
5.2 
16 9 
25.8 
26.6 
18.7 
6.8 



100. 
3 3 
13.6 
25.5 
23.5 
22.4 
11.7 



IV 



100.0 
2.1 

1.5.4 
23.0 
35.3 
18.4 
5.8 



100.0 
2 4 
12.3 
25.9 
31.3 
19.8 
8.3 



100.0 
2.4 
16.5 
17.1 
28.5 
20.7 
14.8 



100.0 
6.7 
16.0 
18.5 
24.7 
22. 2 
12.9 



lOOO 
1.6 
14. 1 
22.4 
28.0 
20.3 
13.7 



100.0 
4.0 
16.8 
24.9 
23.4 
22.6 



lOOO 
2, 1 
11,4 
21,9 
27.2 
25,6 
11,9 



lOOO 
7 
12,7 
20,4 
30.2 
24.6 
11.4 



100.0 
2.8 
14.7 
18.7 
27.3 
20.6 
16.0 



100.0 
1,5 
11.2 
19.2 
28.9 
19.2 
20.0 



VI 



100.0 

1.4 

7.7 

8.2 

27.4 

33.2 

22.1 



100.0 
2.1 
7,3 
15,3 
23,6 
28,4 
23.3 



100.0 
2 
4,0 
28,0 
26,0 
16,0 
24,0 



100,0 
10,6 



16,8 
15,8 
26,3 
31,6 



ino,o 

2,8 



16.7 
22,2 
68,3 



42 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



OFF-FARM USE OF LABOR RESOURCES 

Two types of data are available to indicate the extent to which 
operator and family labor resources on the various economic 
classes of cotton farms in the different regions are used in off- 
farm employment. These data are for operators of cotton farms 
classified by the days of off-farm work, and the percentage of 
farms for which off-farm income of the family exceeded the value 
of farm sales. The information relating to days of off-farm work 
is given in table 23. And those concerning the off-farm income 
of the family in relation to the value of farm sales are shown in 
table 24. 

Questions frequently are raised as to whether the farm families 
on Classes V and VI farms represent, essentially, a welfare problem 



rather than an economic problem in the organization and use of 
resources. 

Few of the data in this report illumine the question of whether 
most of the families on Classes V and VI cotton farms represent 
welfare rather than economic problems. Data concerning the 
age distribution of operators are only partly applicable. These 
data, however, do not indicate, for those regions where there are 
appreeiaVjle numbers of these small farms, that most of them are 
in the hands of the aged. 

The data on off-farm work of operators, and on the proportion 
of farms for which off-farm income exceeds farm sales, suggest 
that most families on Classes V and VI cotton farms are primarily 
dependent upon farming for their incomes. 



Table 23. — Percent Distribution of Operators of Cotton Farms by Days of Work Off Farm, by Economic Class, 

BY Regions: 1954 



Region and days worked ofl 


Economic class of farm 


Region and days worked ofl 
farm 


Economic class of farm 


farm 


All 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


All 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


REGION I 
Total. 


100.0 
70.1 
22.9 
3.1 
3.9 

100.0 
61.0 
29.7 
4.0 
6.3 

100,0 
67.0 
26.1 
3.4 
3.4 

100.0 
71,8 
22.1 
3.1 
3.0 

100.0 

60.2 

32.2 

3.7 

3.8 


100.0 
76.3 
8.0 
4.2 
11.6 

100.0 
65.2 
8.7 
4.3 
21.7 

100.0 
77.8 
7.8 
6.3 
8.0 

100.0 

85.8 
7.8 
1.9 
4.4 

100.0 

82.8 

6.6 

0.9 

9.8 


100.0 
77.0 
9.9 
2.6 
10,4 

100.0 

66.7 

21.1 

5.6 

6.7 

100.0 
79.0 
7.7 
3.9 
9.4 

100.0 

80,4 

13,4 

1,8 

4,5 

100, 
76,4 
12.1 
4.5 
6.9 


100,0 
77,0 
15.5 
2.8 
4.7 

100.0 
69.3 
15.1 
4.0 
11.6 

100.0 
72.3 
17.2 
4.9 

6.7 

100.0 
75.7 
17.1 
3,1 
4,0 

100.0 
71.2 
18.7 
4.2 
6.9 


100.0 
71.2 
20.5 
3.6 
4.7 

100.0 

69.7 

26.2 

5.6 

8.6 

100.0 
69.4 
21.8 
4.5 
4,4 

100.0 
71.8 
21.8 
3.6 
2.8 

100.0 
66.6 
24.9 
5.0 
3.6 


100.0 

66.1 

23.1 

6.3 

5.5 

100.0 
54.2 
27.7 
8.1 
10.0 

100.0 

63.3 

25.4 

5.7 

6.5 

100.0 
68.7 
23.7 
4.0 
3.6 

100.0 

54,2 

30.2 

7.8 

7.8 


100.0 
71.8 
28.2 

100.0 
66.8 
33.2 

160.0 
69.0 
31.0 

100.0 
72.0 
28.0 

100.0 
69.1 
40.9 


REGION VI 
Total 


100.0 
67.4 
23.5 
3.9 
6.2 

100.0 
62.7 
25.3 
6.2 
6.8 

100.0 

72.7 

8.2 

4.7 

14.3 

100.0 

72.4 

17.4 

4.1 

6.2 

100.0 
66.4 
15.8 
4.5 
13.3 


100.0 
80.4 
9.5 
7.1 
3.0 

100,0 

77.9 

11.7 

2.4 

8.0 

100.0 

82.1 

6.0 

3.4 

8.4 

lOO.O 

87.0 

9.5 

1.2 

2.3 

100.0 

82.5 

9.7 

1.9 

5.9 


100.0 

72.4 

22.1 

1.6 

3.9 

100.0 
71.4 
17.4 
3.9 
7.3 

100.0 
79.2 
7.2 
3.4 
10.2 

100.0 

74.2 

17.4 

3.3 

6.1 

100,0 
67.5 
22,3 
3.2 
7.0 


100.0 
68.3 
25.1 
2.8 
3.8 

100.0 
66.6 
24.1 
4.2 
6.2 

100.0 

77.7 

9.2 

4.4 

8.8 

100.0 

59.6 

23.6 

7.3 

9.6 

100.0 
57.9 
17.2 
7.8 
17.1 


100.0 
67.7 
23.4 
3.8 
6.2 

100.0 
60.8 
26.2 
6.5 
6.5 

100.0 

63.8 

9.9 

6.6 

19.8 

100.0 
53.6 
26.3 
8.6 
11.7 

100.0 
38 1 
19,4 
10.3 
32.2 


100.0 
64.6 
17.1 
8.3 
10.2 

100.0 
65.5 
26.2 
7.4 
10.8 

100.0 

48.6 

8.4 

8.4 

34.3 

100.0 
52.6 
22.6 
9.1 
15.8 

100.0 
36.3 
13.7 
7.5 
43.5 


100 


None 






lto99days.. 






100 to 199 days 


100 to 199 days 




200 days or more 


200 days or more 




REGION II 
Total 


REGION VII 




None 




65 7 


1 to 99 days 


1 to 99 days 


34 3 


100 to 199 days 


100 to 199 days 




200 days or more 


200 days or more 




REGION m 
Total 


REGION VIII 
Total 


100 


None.. 




90.0 


1 to 99 days 


1 to 99 days 


10 


100 to 199 days. 






200 days or more 






REGION IV 
Total 


REGION IX 
Total 


100 


None 




68 4 


1 to 99 days 


1 to 99 days 


31 6 


100 to 199 days 


100 to 199 days 




200 days or more.. 






REGION V 
Total.... 


REGION X 
Total 


100 


None 




81.1 


1 to 99 days.. 


1 to 99 days 


18 9 


100 to 199 days 


100 to 199 days 




200 days or more 













Table 24. — Percent of Operators of Cotton Farms With 
Other Income of Family Exceeding Value of Farm 
Products Sold, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 
1954 





Economic class of farm 


Region 


All 

classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


I. 


6.2 
9.8 
6.6 
3.9 
7.6 

6.8 
9.6 

12.0 
6.0 

11.6 

6.2 


8.0 
8.7 
6.9 
1.9 
2.8 

2.4 
5.6 
3.5 
1.6 
2.6 

2.7 


7.8 
14.4 
8.3 
2.6 
4.9 

3.4 

4.9 
4.7 
3.1 
6.0 

4.3 


6.6 
12.6 
6.4 
3.1 

7.6 

6.5 
6.0 
6.1 
9.2 
14.4 

5.8 


5.9 
13.3 
6.6 
3.4 
6.7 

6.9 
10.0 
22.5 
16.1 
32.8 

6.5 


11.2 
19.9 
10.0 
6.2 
17.9 

14.3 
18.0 
35.2 
24.6 
63.3 

15.8 




II 




in 




rv 




V 




VI 




VII 




VIII 




IX 




X 




Total, 10 regions 





For example, two-thirds or more of the operators of Class VI 
farms in each region, except Region V, report no days of off-farm 
work. In Region V, 59 percent of these operators reported no 
days of off-farm work. For Class V farms about 80 percent of 
the operators in all regions, except Regions VIII and X — which 
have very few Class V farms — report less than 100 days of off- 
farm work. Generally speaking, from two-thirds to three-fourths 
of those who report less than 100 days of off-farm work did no 
off-farm work at aU. 

By definition, the value of farm sales for Class VI farms must 
exceed the total of family income from off-farm sources. This 
restriction does not, however, apply to Class V farms. In those 
regions — I through VII — where Class V farms are found in con- 
siderable numbers four-fifths or more of them report the value of 
farm sales as exceeding total family income from other sources. 
The value of farm sales on Class V farms is between $1,200 and 
.$2,499. Data on the average level of sales from these farms will 
be found in Part VII of this report. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



43 



MAN-EQUIVALENT WORKERS PER COTTON FARM 

The data in table 25 provides a more specific picture of the 
characteristics and size of the labor resource on cotton farms. 
These data indicate the average size of the labor force on cotton 
farms in each economic class for each region, in terms of estimated 
man-equivalents. A percentage distribution of this labor force 
in terms of operators, family workers, and hired workers is also 
given. 

The size of the total labor force on cotton farms of various 
economic classes varies by region. Generally, regions in which 
mechanization of cotton production has progressed the most show 
significantly smaller total lalior resources per farm than the other 
regions. Among regions of the humid climatic belt, for example, 
mechanization is more advanced in Regions IV' and VI than in 
Regions I, 11, III, and V. In Regions I, II, III, and V, Class I 
farms have an average labor force of 10 man-equivalents, while 



in Regions IV and VI the labor resource on Class I farms is 
smaller, about 30 and 50 percent, respectively. Similar differ- 
ences, though not as great, exist among other economic classes of 
farms in these two groups of regions. 

Cotton production in Regions IX and X is also highly mecha- 
nized. Region IX has one of the smallest inputs of the labor 
resource per farm for each economic class of any region. This is 
particularly striking in the instance of Class I farms. 

The labor resources per farm on Class I farms in Region X may 
not seem to indicate a high degree of mechanization, since the 
man-equivalents used here are almost twice those indicated for 
Class I farms in Region IX. Average sales of C;iass I farms in 
Region X, however, are more than twice as high as sales for the 
same class farms in Region IX (see table 31). 

The percentage of the labor force which is comprised of operator 
workers, family workers, and hired workers on different economic 
classes of cotton farms is of particular interest (see table 25). 



Table 25. — Total Man-Equivalent per All Commercial Farms and per Cotton Farm, and Percent Distribution in Each 

Economic Class of Cotton Farm, by Type of Worker, by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



REGION I 

Total man-equiviilent number - 

Operator percent - 

Family workers percent- 
Hired labor percent - 

REGION II 
Total man-equivalent - number- 
Operator percent - 

Family workers percent - 

Hired labor percent - 

REGION III 

Total man-equivalent -- -- number. 

Operator percent - 

Family workers percent - 

Hired labor percent - 

REGION IV 
Total man -equivalent - number- 
Operator _ _ percent- 
Family workers percent - 

Hired labor percent- 

REGION V 

Total man-equivalent number - 

Operator -percent - 

Family workers - percent- 
Hired Iat)or percent - 

REGIOiV VI 

Total man-equivalent--- --. number. 

Operator - percent- 
Family workers percent . 

Hired labor percent - 

REGION VII 
Total man-equivalent ..number- 
Operator percent. 

Family workers percent . 

Hired labor percent- 

REGION VIII 
Total man-equivalent number- 
Operator percent- 
Family workers percent- 
Hired labor percent- 

REOION IX 
Total man-equivalent - number- 
Operator - percent - 

Family workers percent- 
Hired labor - percent- 

REGION X 
Total man-equivalent number- 
Operator percent- 
Family workers _ percent - 

Hired labor _ percent. 

TOTAL, 10 REGIONS 

Total man-equivalent number. 

Operator percent- 
Family workers percent. 

Hired labor ..percent - 



All 
commer- 
cial farms 



1.6 
63.6 
24.0 
22.4 



1.3 

60.1 
25.0 
14.9 



1.5 
66.4 
31.4 
12.2 



1.8 
48.6 
30.9 
20.5 



1.3 

59.0 
21.7 
19.3 



1.7 
48.9 
17.8 
33 3 



1.6 
48.4 
16.7 
34.9 



3.3 
2.3.6 

5.4 
71.0 



1.7 

48.0 
15.8 
36.2 



2.8 
20.3 

8.8 
64.9 



1.7 

49. 8 
23.4 
26.8 



Cotton farms by economic class of farm 



All classes 



1.6 
64.5 
.30.4 
15.1 



1.2 
66.5 
27.8 

6.7 



1.5 
S6.9 
34.7 

8.4 



1.8 

48.8 
33.0 
18.2 



1.5 
54.9 
27.8 
17 3 



1.7 
51.6 
25.1 
23.3 



1.8 
46.7 
16.8 
36-5 



3.4 

23.7 
6.6 
70.8 



2.7 
31.9 



61.3 



4.1 
18.9 

6.0 
76.1 



1.7 
49.9 
27.8 
22.3 



9.4 

8.4 

1.5 

90.1 



10.0 
7.8 
2.6 

89.6 



8.6 

1.5 

90.0 



7.7 
11.7 

1.8 
86.5 



10.8 
8.3 
1.5 

90.2 



4.6 
19.8 

6.9 
73.3 



8.1 
10.9 

2.1 
87.0 



9.4 

9.3 

1.6 

89.1 



4.7 
20.2 

3.4 
76.4 



8.3 
10.6 
1.9 

87.6 



7.3 
12.3 

2.2 
86.5 



3.4 
24.1 

6.9 
69.0 



3.1 

27.2 

4.8 

68.0 



3.2 
20.6 
13.0 
60.4 



33.4 
12.4 
54.2 



3.1 

27.8 

8.6 

63.6 



2.2 
40.4 



2.8 
30.7 



6L4 



3.2 
26.7 

4.6 
68.7 



2.4 
37.8 

7.8 
64.4 



2.0 
40.4 



2.7 
32.9 

9.4 
67.7 



III 



2.3 

39.7 
30.6 
29.7 



2.0 
40. 1 
25.0 
34.9 



2.2 
39.2 
37.2 
23.6 



2.0 
43.7 
35.6 
20.7 



2.1 
42.0 
25.5 
32.6 



1.9 
47.0 
24.0 
29.0 



1.9 
40.4 
15.1 
38.5 



2.1 
39.5 

8.3 
62.2 



1.6 

48.6 
12.7 

38.7 



1.4 

50.4 
16.2 
33.4 



2.0 
43.4 
28.1 
28.6 



IV 



1.7 
61.7 
36.1 
12.2 



1.5 
54.0 
34.6 
11.4 



1.8 

48.5 
42.7 
8.8 



1.8 
49.7 
43.2 

7.1 



1.7 
52.0 
33.2 
14.8 



1.6 
56.8 
29.6 
14.6 



1.4 
66.3 
21.9 
21.8 



1.4 

48.5 
14.7 
36.8 



1.2 
60.3 
15.9 
23 8 



1.1 

61.6 
26.7 
22.8 



1.7 

60.8 
38.3 
10.9 



1.4 
60.3 
33.3 

6.4 



1.3 
63 3 
31.6 

5.1 



1.4 
68.5 
37.5 

4.0 



1.6 
68.6 
38.4 

3.1 



1.4 
68.8 
35.1 

6.1 



1.3 
60.2 
32.9 



1.2 
61.9 
26.4 
11.7 



1.1 
66.9 
21.9 
21.2 



1.0 
67.2 
21.7 
11.1 



0.9 
56.2 
31.8 
12.0 



1.4 

59.4 
35.9 
4.7 



1.2 
70.0 
27.6 

2.6 



1.1 

76.1 

23.0 

1.9 



1.2 

70.9 

27.3 

1.8 



1.3 

70.1 

28.6 

13 



1.2 

70.7 

27.5 

1.8 



L2 
69.9 
27.3 

2.8 



1.2 

70.8 

24.8 

4 4 



1.2 

68.1 
23.7 
8.2 



1.1 

63.9 
33.6 

2.5 



1.0 
70.0 
26.2 

3.8 



1.2 
71.2 
26.9 

L9 



44 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



On Class I cotton farms in the various regions operator and 
family labor account for from about 10 to 20 percent of the total 
labor resources used per farm. The percentage of total labor 
resources supplied by operator and family workers is, however, 
generally higher in those regions in which it has been most eco- 
nomically feasible to mechanize cotton harvesting. Mechanized 
harvesting has, in general, been found most feasible in Regions IV, 
VI, IX, and X. For Class I farms in Region X this tendency is 
obscured somewhat by the fact that the average size of business 
for Class I farms in this region is far greater than for any other 
region. 

On Class II farms the proportion of total labor resources ac- 
counted for by hired labor varies from a low of just under one-half 
in Regions VI and X to a high of a little over two-thirds. The 
highest percentages of the labor resources accounted for by hired 
labor on this class of farm are found in Regions I, II, and VIII. 



This same general regional relationship between the degree of 
mechanization and the percentage of the labor resources accounted 
for by hired labor is found on Class III farms. The overall per- 
centages are significantly lower, ranging from a low of about 20 
percent to a high of slightly over 50 percent of the total labor 
resources accounted for by hired labor. 

For some regions, such as Regions VII, VIII, IX, and X, even 
Class IV farms hire a rather substantial proportion of all labor 
used. In general, however, cotton farms in Economic Classes IV 
through VI hire very little labor. 

Data in table 26 show the percentage distribution of farms in 
each economic class for each region by designated ranges of total 
expenditure for hired labor. These data indicate that many of 
the larger farms are operated primarily with operator and family 
labor. For example, a considerable percentage of the Class II 
farms, especially in the more mechanized areas hire relatively 
small amounts of labor. 



Table 26. — Percent Distribution of Farms Reporting Specified Expenditures for Hired Labor for Cotton Farms, by 

Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 



Item 



REGION I 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of— 

Total 

1 to 499 

600 to 999 

1,000 to 2,499 

2,500 to 4,999 

6,000 to 9,999 

10,000 to 19,999 

20,000 and over 

REGION U 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of— 

Total 

1 to 499 

500 to 999 

1,000 to 2,499 

2,500 to 4,999 

6,000 to 9,999--- 

10,000 to 19,999 

20,000 and over 

REGION III 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of— 

Total 

1 to 499 

600 to 999 

1,000 to 2,499.-- 

2,600 to 4,999 -.. 

6,000 to 9,999 , 

10,000 to 19,999- 

20,000 and over--- 

REGION IV 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of— 

Total - 

1 to 499 

600 to 999-.- 

1,000 to 2,499 

2,500 to 4,999 

6,000 to 9,999- -- 

10,000 to 19,999 

20,000 and over 

REGION V 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of— 

Total 

1 to 499 

600 to 999 

1,000 to 2,499 

2,500 to 4,999- 

6,000 to 9,999- 

10,000 to 19,999- 

20,000 and over 



Economic class of farm 



All 
classes 



100.0 
79.6 
10.6 
6.4 
2.0 
1.0 
0.3 
0.1 



100.0 
91.1 
6.4 
2.6 
0.7 
0.3 
(Z) 
(Z 



100.0 
87.6 
7.3 
3.6 
0.9 
0.4 
0.2 
0.1 



100.0 

67.0 

12.6 

11.4 

4.6 

2.5 

1.4 

0.7 



100.0 
73.5 
12.7 
8.6 
3.1 
1.3 
0.6 
0.4 



100.0 



0.3 
2.8 
12.1 
39.8 
33.7 
11.3 



4.3 

8.7 
34.8 
26.1 
26.1 



100.0 
2.4 
0.6 
8.6 
10.6 
31.9 
31.4 
14.6 



100.0 
0.7 
1.8 
6.5 
15.7 
28.6 
29,7 
17.0 



100.0 

0.6 

0.9 

7.0 

10.3 

33.7 

23.8 

23.8 



100.0 
6.1 
7.6 
30.7 
35.0 
17.8 
2.9 



100.0 

5.9 

8.8 

28.2 

34.7 

20.6 

1.8 



100.0 
10.4 
10.9 
30.8 
32.4 
13.4 
2.1 



100.0 
10.9 
10.1 
28,6 
32.7 
16.0 
1.7- 
(Z) 



100.0 
4.0 
6,4 
31.8 
39,3 
16.8 
1,7 



III 



100.0 

33.9 

23.9 

34.2 

6.6 

1.4 



100.0 

28,2 

27,5 

35.1 

8,3 

0.9 



100.0 
36.6 
28.7 
30,1 
3.9 
0.7 
0.1 



100.0 
36.9 
19.0 
37,0 
6,8 
0,3 
(Z) 



IV 



100.0 

74.4 

19.5 

5.7 

0.4 



100.0 

93.7 

5.4 

0.9 



100.0 
78.5 
16.3 
4.6 
0.4 
0.2 



100.0 
78.5 
17.2 
4.1 
0.2 
(Z) 
(Z) 



100,0 

68.8 

22.7 

8.1 

0.4 

(Z) 



100.0 
20,6 
25.2 
43 3 
10.3 
0.6 



100.0 

68.7 

30.2 

10.3 

0.8 



100.0 

95.6 

3.6 

0.7 

0.1 



100,0 

96.9 

2.8 

0.3 

(Z) 



100.0 
94.0 
6.1 
0.8 
0.1 
(Z) 



100.0 

91.1 

8.0 

0.8 

0.1 



VI 



1.2 
0.1 
0.1 



(Z) 



100.0 
99.4 
0.5 
0.1 



100.0 
99.7 
0.3 
(Z) 
(Z) 



100.0 
99.3 
0.6 
0.1 



100.0 
99.0 
1.0 
(Z) 



REGION VI 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of — 

Total 

1 to 499 

500 to 999 

1,000 to 2,499 , 

2,600 to 4,999 , 

6,000 to 9,999 , 

10,000 to 19,999 , 

20,000 and over , 

REGION VII 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of— 

Total 

1 to 499- 

600 to 999 

1,000 to 2,499 

2,600 to 4,999 

6,000 to 9,999 

10,000 to 19,999 

20,000 and over 

REGION VIII 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of— 

Tot.ll 

1 to 499--- 

600 to 999..-- 

1,000 to 2,499.-- 

2,600 to 4,999 

6,000 to 9,999 

10,000 to 19,999 

20,000 and over 

REGION IX 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of— 

Total , 

1 to 499..- 

600 to 999 

1,000 to 2,499 

2,600 to 4,999 

6,000 to 9,999 

10,000 to 19,999 

20,000 and over 

REGION X 

Farms with a dollar expenditure of — 

Total 

1 to 499--- 

500 to 999 -., 

1,000 to 2,499 --, 

2,600 to 4,999 --., 

6,000 to 9,999 

10,000 to 19,999 

20,000 and over.- --, 



Economic class of farm 



AU 
classes 



100,0 

47.7 

22,0 

22.0 

6.3 

1.6 

0,3 

0.2 



100.0 
43.5 
23.3 
21.9 
7.5 
2.5 
1.0 
0.3 



100.0 
19.5 
14.1 
25.2 
17.9 
12.8 
6.8 
3.7 



100,0 
14,7 
12.3 
29.3 
23.1 
14.6 
6.1 
0.9 



100.0 
15.1 
11.8 
21.0 
16,7 
14.2 
10.8 
10.5 



100,0 
0.6 
10.2 
9.6 
26.1 
33.1 
11.5 



100.0 
0.2 
3.0 
6.0 
13.6 
37.9 
29,0 
10.3 



100.0 

0.5 

1.1 

6,6 

5,8 

33.0 

33 

20,0 



100.0 
2.3 
3.2 
14.5 
22.7 
38.0 
16,4 
2.9 



100.0 
1.3 
1.2 
7.8 
13.8 
24.2 
25.6 
26. 1 



100.0 

8.6 

16,0 

35,0 

34.3 

6.1 



100,0 

6.0 

5,2 

30.3 

46,1 

11.4 

1,0 

(Z) 



100.0 
1.6 
2.3 
27.1 
43.2 
23.6 
2.2 



100,0 
9,6 
9,6 
36,8 
36.7 
7.2 
0.2 



100-0 
11.8 
10.3 
27.8 
33 
16,8 
1.3 



III 



100.0 
17.0 
20.7 
56.1 
7.2 



100. 
16,7 
19.2 
56.4 
7.3 
0.3 
0.1 



100.0 
7.6 
12.1 
55.6 
22.5 
1.8 
0.4 



100.0 
16.8 
21.5 
62,6 
8-8 
0.3 



100. 
19.7 
18,8 
46,2 
13,9 
1.4 



IV 



100.0 
60.7 
36,2 
12.8 
0.3 



100.0 
40.0 
46.4 
14.3 
0.3 



100.0 
23.9 
60.3 
20,3 
3,1 
1.8 
0.6 



100.0 
41.5 
39-5 
18-4 
0-2 
0.4 



100 
37.2 
36,3 
24.5 
1.6 



0.4 



100,0 
84,2 
16,4 
0.4 



100.0 

83.2 

14.7 

2.1 



100.0 
77.6 
13.2 
8.5 
0.8 



100-0 
84.7 
12.7 
2.6 



100.0 
68.9 
27.3 
3.8 



VI 



100.0 

98.3 



1.7 



100,0 

97.2 

1.4 

1.4 



11.1 



100.0 
80.0 
20.0 



100.0 
88.2 
11.8 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



45 



TOTAL CROPLAND AND COTTON ACRES PER MAN- 
EQUIVALENT 

Most of the information relating to measures of the relative 
efficiency with which resources are used on the various economic 
classes of farms is presented in Section 7. But data concerning 
the acres of cropland and of cotton harvested per man-equivalent 
are available in table 27. 

In one region (Region IX) there are some special circumstances, 
which will be noted, but generally speaking, the acreage of crop- 
land harvested per man-equivalent on farms of different economic 
classes, for a given region, is indicative of the relative efficiency 
with which the labor resource is used on the various size-of- 
business groups of farms. 

Except for Region IX, there is a steady and substantial increase 
in cropland harvested per man-equivalent from Class VI tlirough 
Class II farms for all regions. In Region IX, Class III farms 
have more cropland harvested per nuxn-equivalent than do farms 
in Class 11. 

The extent as well as the fact of increased cropland harvested 
per unit of labor as between Class VI and Class II farms should 
be noted. For most regions, Class II farms have about 4 times 
as much cropland harvested per man-equivalent as do those farms 
in Economic Class VI. Even between Class III and Class II 
farms there is, for nearly all regions, a striking increase in crop- 
land per man-equivalent. In 7 of the 10 regions. Class II farms 
have about 40 percent more acres of cropland per unit of labor 
than farms in Class III. In Region II, this difference between 
these two classes is about 38 percent. The differences in cropland 
acreage per man between classes within these regions seem large 
enough to suggest that labor is utilized more effectively on larger 
farms, up to those in Economic Class II. 

In Region VII only about 10 percent more cropland is harvested 
per man on Class II than on Class III farms. Special circum- 
stances, which are discussed later, prevail in Region IX. 

While Class I farms are indicated to have much more cropland 
harvested per worker, in most regions, than do farms in Classes 
III through VI, there are several regions in which Class II farms 
indicate more cropland per worker than do those in the largest 
size-of-business group. This situation is shown to exist in Regions 
II, III, V, and VII. In Region IX, the acreage of cropland 
harvested per worker is practically the same for farms in Classes 
I and II. In the other five regions the acreage of cropland har- 
vested per worker is higher on Class I than on Class II farms. 

In the instance of Region IX, the High Plains of Texas, special 
circumstances require that the data of table 27 be carefully in- 



terpreted. Although in this region there is considerable irri- 
gated land, only on Class I farms does there appear to be enough 
irrigated land for all cotton to be grown under irrigation. The 
proportions that irrigated land accoimt for of cotton acreage per 
farm for other economic cla.sses decline rapidly from about 70 
percent for Class II, to 25 percent for Class III, and to insignificant 
percentages for Classes IV through VI. Region IX has a semiarid 
climate which, in general, means that, in relatively frequent years, 
there is too little rainfall for good yields. The average yields for 
nonirrigated crops are, therefore, much lower than for those grown 
under irrigation. At the same time, both terrain and the period of 
its development for crop farming favor large-scale mechanized 
farming units in Region IX. These latter conditions, taken in 
conjunction with the lack of irrigated land and consequent rela- 
tively low output per acre, seem to explain the fact that Classes 
III and IV farms have larger acreages of cropland per worker in 
Region IX than do farms in Classes I and II. 



Table 27- — Acres of Cropland Harvested and Acres of 
Cotton Harvested per Man-Equivalent for Cotton 
Farms, by Economic Class, and by Regions: 1954 



Region 



I... 
II... 
III.. 
IV.. 
V... 

VI.. 
VII. 
VIII 
IX.. 
X... 

I.-.. 
II... 
III.- 
IV.. 
V... 

VI.. 

vn. 

VIII 
IX.. 
X .- 



Economic class of farm 



classes 



III IV 



Acres of cropland harvested 



31.9 
25.8 
20.7 
26.1 
33.3 

36.6 
80,6 
40.9 
120.0 
65.4 



80.1 


74.1 


43.9 


32.9 


27.1 


68.3 


71.3 


52.0 


33.3 


23.8 


57.7 


60.3 


35,0 


23,3 


18.6 


78.4 


03.0 


34,6 


17,8 


11.3 


62.7 


70.3 


51.0 


36.5 


25.7 


84.1 


68.2 


42.1 


26.9 


22.3 


82.7 


112.1 


99.5 


80,0 


57,5 


49.1 


43.8 


32,9 


27,1 


18.2 


118 1 


117.1 


132.5 


119.2 


101 


61.8 


42.0 


28.6 


18.2 


13.3 



18.3 
17.3 
13.3 

8.6 
17.5 

14.2 
32.6 
10.0 
38.2 
6.0 



Acres of cotton harvested 



10.0 


23,9 


21.8 


14.3 


11.2 


8,6 


10.0 


21,9 


26.8 


19,6 


14.7 


10.0 


8.7 


21,1 


21.9 


14,6 


10,0 


7.9 


12. H 


30,6 


25.6 


17.0 


10,6 


7.3 


17 3 


30.3 


33.9 


27.1 


20.0 


14.3 


18,8 


44.6 


38,2 


21.6 


13.8 


10,0 


39,4 


36,9 


64,6 


60.0 


40.7 


29.2 


23,5 


27,3 


25,0 


21.0 


16.7 


11.8 


53,3 


61.3 


63,3 


60.6 


52.5 


47.0 


26,3 


28,7 


22.5 


16,4 


12.7 


8.9 



5.8 
6.4 
6.0 
6.4 
8.3 

6,8 
15.8 

6.7 
16.6 

6.0 



46 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Section 6.— INVESTMENT ON COTTON FARMS 



Information concerning total farm investments and its distribu- 
tion by major categories is particularly useful. Through the 
common denominator of estimated dollar value, such data provide 
the best measure of the quantity of the various kinds and qualities 
of physical resources that are used in production on cotton farms. 
Investment data are available to us for three major categories of 
resources — land and buildings, machinery and equipment, and 
livestock. 

The land and capital resources on these farms are employed for 
other purposes as well as in cotton production, of course, but, as 
table 19 shows, the cotton enterprise accounts for an overwhelm- 
ingly large proportion of total sales from cotton farms in every 
region, on each economic class of farm. The continued employ- 
ment of these resources is, consequently, mainly supported by the 
cotton enterprise. 

The approximately 8.4 biUion dollars of investment on cotton 
farms in our ten regions is an impressive aggregate of resources. 
It amounts to about 8 percent of the estimated total investment on 
commercial farms in the United States. 



REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL INVESTMENT 
AMONG ECONOMIC CLASSES 

In this perspective let us examine the distribution of total 
investment for the ten regions among farms with total annual 
gross sales of less than $5,000. It seems probable that among such 
businesses are likely to occur most of the difficulties of remunerat- 
ing at "opportunity costs" both the resources which comprise the 
investment aggregate and the human agent of operator and family 
labor and management. 

With respect to this distribution three groups of regions are 
clearly discernible. In Regions I, II, III, and V, from just under 
60 percent to almost 90 percent of total investment is found on 
farms in Classes IV through VI. A much smaller, but still sub- 
stantial, proportion of around 35 percent of total investment is 
found in Regions IV, VI, and VII on farms with gross sales of less 
than $5,000. In Regions VIII, IX, and X these smaller size-of- 
business farms account for 9, 5, and 3 percent, respectively, of 
regional total investment. 



Table 28. — Distribution of Investment on Cotton Farms, by Economic Class, by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



REGION I 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment-. 
Livestoct 

REGION II 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment.-. 
Livestock 

REGION III 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment... 
Livestock 

REGION IV 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment.. 
Livestock 

REGION V 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment... 
Livestock 

REGION VI 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment... 
Livestock 



All 
cotton 
farms 



Mil. 

dollars 

428.5 

347.7 

50.7 

30.0 



232.8 
188.8 
29.7 
14.3 



1, 163. 2 

944.1 

126.2 

82.9 



1,717.7 

1. 369. 8 

306.1 

51.8 



248.6 
196.6 
30.4 
21.4 



182.6 

154.4 

20.2 

8.0 



Economic class of farm 



Per- 
cent 
8.3 
8.3 
9.4 
6.1 



1.2 
1.1 
1.4 

1.8 



6.4 
6.6 
6.0 
4.6 



32.7 
33.5 
29.9 
27.1 



16.8 
17.8 
12.7 
13.3 



13.2 
13,6 
11.2 
11.1 



Per- 
cent 
13.2 
13.7 
11.5 
10.8 



3.8 
3.8 
3.7 
3.9 



8.4 
8.9 
6.2 
6.3 



18.6 
18.1 
21.9 
12.5 



11.9 
11.9 
13.4 
9.4 



25.9 
25.9 
28.2 
20.6 



Per- 
cent 
16.3 
16.3 
17.6 
14.4 



7.3 
6.4 



11.4 
11.4 
12.0 
9.7 



16.4 
16.8 
15.0 
13.7 



14,9 
15.3 
13.1 
13.0 



26.8 
25,9 
26.7 
22.9 



Per- 
cent 
26.4 
26.4 
26.8 
26.9 



19.3 
19.6 
18.2 
17.4 



24.8 
24.9 
25.2 
23.4 



16.9 
16.4 
18.2 
21.2 



18.4 
17.8 
21.9 
18.9 



21.0 
20.9 
21.5 
22.4 



Per- 
cent 
24.4 
24.0 
25.2 
27.1 



39.2 
38.8 
41.8 
38.3 



31.7 
31.0 
36.3 
33.9 



12.7 
12.3 
12.9 
19.7 



21.0 
20.4 
22.7 
23.6 



10.8 
10.6 



16.2 



VI 



Per- 
cent 
11.4 
11.3 
10.4 
14.7 



29.7 
29.8 
27.6 
32.2 



17.3 
17.1 
15.4 
22.1 



2.8 
2.9 
2.1 
6.8 



17.1 

16.7 
16,2 
21.9 



3.3 
3.1 
3.6 
6.8 



Region and item 



REGION VII 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment. 
Livestock 

REGION VIII 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment. 
Livestock 

REGION IX 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment. 
Livestock 

REGION X 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machmery and equipment. 
Livestock 

TOTAL, 10 REGIONS 

Total investment 

Land and buildings 

Machinery and equipment. 
Livestock 



All 
cotton 
farms 



MU. 

dollars 

1. 387. 6 

1,191.0 

152.2 

44.4 



384.4 

342.1 

37.8 

4.6 



1, 130. 4 

991.7 

125.6 

13.2 



1, 667. 9 

1,328.6 

198.1 

31.3 



8, 423. 7 

7, 044. 9 

1,076.9 

301.9 



Economic class of farm 



.Per- 
cent 
15.3 
16.0 
12.0 
8.7 



66.6 
66.6 
45.9 
68.7 



64.8 
66,0 
46.0 
44.4 



79,7 
81,0 
70,9 
79.5 



36.9 
37.2 
32.0 
20.2 



Per- 
cent 
23.1 
23.1 
24.5 
17.7 



23.8 
23.1 
30.8 
21.3 



32.8 
31.9 
40.4 
32.3 



13.2 
12.2 
20.0 
13.2 



18.4 
18.2 
21.4 
12.0 



III 



Per- 
cent 
25.9 
26.2 
23.8 
25.3 



11.3 
11.1 
12.2 
12.8 



7.6 
7.6 
7.9 
12.0 



4.5 
4.3 
6.4 
4.8 



13.5 
13.6 
13.2 
13.2 



IV 



Per- 
cent 
22.0 
21.4 
26.1 
26.2 



S. 6 
6.3 
7.6 
3.5 



3.4 
3.2 

4.2 
7.4 



2.0 
1.8 
2.8 
2.1 



14.4 
14.0 
15.7 
20.0 



Per- 
cent 
11.0 
10.7 
11.6 
17.1 



3.1 
3.1 

2.7 
2.7 



1.3 
1.3 
1.4 
3.4 



0.5 
0.6 
0.7 
0.4 



12.3 
11.8 
13.0 

22,1 



VI ) 



Per- 
cent 
2.7 
2.6 
3.2 
6.0 



0.8 
0.8 
0.7 
0.9 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.4 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



5.4 
6.2 
4.7 
12,6 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



47 



INVESTMENT PER FARM 

Aggregate investment data for regions and economic classes of 
cotton farms are useful, but information on average investment per 
farm for economic classes and regions is perhaps of more wide- 
spread interest, and is valuable for several uses. The data on per 
farm investment are given in table 29. Such data measure more 
completely than any other available data the relative quantities of 
physical resources that are used in production on cotton farms of 
different economic classes in the various regions. They also 
suggest, at the readily compreliensible level of the individual farm, 
the quantities of other resources that are used in conjunction with 
human resources. 

Class I farms in all regions have average investments well in 
excess of $100,000, but there is considerable variation in the 
average level of investment among regions. The Class I farms in 
Region X have far larger total investment than do those of any 
other region. 

Total investment in Class II farms shows considerably less 



regional variation. The range here is from a low of about $45,000 
in Region I to a little over $70,000 in Region VII. Considerable 
regional variation will be observed in total investment per farm for 
Classes III through VI. The general level decreases from Class 
III to Class VI. Among Class III farms the range is from about 
$16,000 for Region I to almost $.38,000 in Regions VII and VIII. 
Class IV farms exhibit a range in total investment of from about 
$8,000 to more than $26,000. Investment per farm for Class V 
farms varies from a low of a little more than $4,000 in Region IV 
to a high of almost $20,000 in Region IX. Class VI farms show a 
range in investment per farm from about $3,000 to $12,000. 

Table 29 also shows the percentage distribution of investment 
among land and buildings, machinery and equipment, and live- 
stock. Land and buildings account for 75 percent or more of total 
investment for every region and every economic class of farm. 
Moreover, there is striking similarity for the different economic 
classes in each of the ten regions in the percentage of total invest- 
ment which is accounted for by each of the tliree major investment 
components. 



Table 29. — Total Investment and Percent Distribution of Investment per Farm for Cotton Farms, by Economic Class, by 

Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



REGION I 

Total investment - .dollars- 

Land and buildings percent- 
Machinery and equipment .percent- 
Livestock percent. 

REGION II 

Total investment dollars. 

Land and buildings percent- 

Machinery and equipment percent- 
Livestock percent- 

REQION III 

Total investment dollars. 

Land and buildings percent- 
Machinery and equipment percent- 
Livestock pereent- 

REQION IV 

Total investment dollars. 

Land and buildings percent. 

Machinery and equipment percent. 

Livestock percent. 

REGION V 

Total investment dollars. 

Land and buildings percent. 

Machinery and equipment percent. 

Livestock percent. 

REGION VI 

Total investment doUars. 

Land and buildings percent- 
Machinery and equipment percent. 

Livestock percent. 

REGION VII 

Total Investment. dollars. 

Land and buildings percent. 

Machinery and equipment percent. 

Livestock percent. 

REGION VIII 
Total investment dollars- 
Land and buildings percent. 

Machinery and equipment percent. 

Livestock percent. 

REGION IX 

Total investment dollars. 

Land and buildings percent. 

Machinery and equipment percent. 

Livestock _ percent. 

REGION X 

Total investment doUars. 

Land and buildings percent - 

Machinery and equipment _ percent. 

Livestock pereent. 

TOTAL, 10 REGIONS 

Total Investment -dollars. 

Land and buildings percent. 

Machinery and equipment percent. 

Livestock ...percent. 



Economic class of farm 



All classes 



7,469 

81.2 

11.8 

7.0 



6,781 

81.1 

12.8 

6.1 



6,737 

81.9 

10.9 

7.2 



13,416 
79.2 
17.8 
3.0 



11,167 
79.1 
12.3 
8.6 



22, 843 

84.6 

11.1 

4.4 



30, 872 
85.8 
11.0 
3.2 



72, 638 
89.0 



77, 159 

87.7 

11.1 

1.2 



131, 386 

85.3 

12.7 

2.0 



16, 718 

83.6 

12.8 

3.6 



123, 774 

81.4 

13.4 

6.2 



119,347 
76.3 
16.3 
9.4 



154, 708 

84,6 

10.4 

5,1 



187, 621 
81.2 
16.3 
2.6 



194,311 
84.0 
9.2 
6.8 



143, 470 



9.4 
3,7 



178, 125 
89.6 
8.6 
1,8 



233, 985 

90.7 

8. 1 

1.2 



147, 607 

89.7 

9.3 

1.0 



276, 743 
86.7 
11.3 
2.0 



202, 214 
86.6 
11.4 
2,0 



45, 887 

83.9 

10.3 

5.8 



49, 141 
81.3 
12,4 
6.3 



8, 173 
86.7 
8.0 
5.3 



53,685 
77.0 
21.0 
2,0 



53, 606 
79.4 
13.8 
6.8 



61,210 
84.6 
12.0 
3.6 



72, 053 
85.9 
11.6 
2.5 



70, 106 

86.3 

12.7 

1.0 



64,005 

85,2 

13.7 

1.2 



67, 270 
78.8 
19.2 
2,0 



61, 984 
82,8 
14.9 
2.3 



III 



15, 867 
81.0 
12,8 
6,2 



21, 350 
80.6 
13.7 
5.7 



19, 052 

82.4 
11.6 
6. 1 



18, 669 
81.2 
16.3 
2.6 



24, 282 

81.7 

10 8 

7.5 



26,511 
85. 1 
11.0 
3.9 



37, 942 
86.8 
10,1 
3.1 



37, 882 

88,0 

10,7 

1.3 



36, 584 

86.6 

11.6 

1.9 



34, 363 

82.6 

16.3 

2, 1 



25, 126 
84.0 
12.6 
3.6 



7,614 
81.3 
11,6 

7. 1 



9,346 
82.4 
12.0 

5.6 



8,746 
82.1 
11.1 

6.8 



8,081 
77.0 
19.2 
3.8 



12, 459 
76.6 
14.6 



16, 027 
84.0 
11.3 

4,7 



22, 096 
83.7 
12.5 
3.8 



23,177 
85.7 
13.6 
0.8 



26, 399 

83.6 

13.8 

2.6 



22, 149 
79.7 
18.1 
2.2 



10, 846 
81.1 
13.9 
6,0 



.5, 017 
80 
12.2 
7,8 



6,692 

80.4 

13.6 

6.0 



6,239 

80.1 

12.2 

7.7 



4,271 
77.2 
18.1 
4.7 



7,247 
77.0 
13.3 
9.7 



10, 820 
83.3 
10.0 
6.7 



13, 432 
83.6 
11.4 
6.0 



15, 586 

90 3 

8 7 

1.0 



19, 644 
85. 1 
11.9 
3.0 



12, 032 

80.3 

18.1 

1.6 



5,764 

80 1 

13.5 

6.4 



3,104 

80.2 

10.8 

9.0 



3,739 
81.6 
11.8 
6.7 



3,343 

81.1 

9.7 

9.2 



2,802 
80.6 
13.3 

6,2 



4,659 
77.3 
11.6 
11.1 



78.8 
12.1 
9.1 



8,106 

81.3 

12.8 

6.9 



10, 989 

89.1 

9.6 

1.4 



12,060 
82.2 
13.6 
4.3 



7,873 

81,0 

17.9 

1.1 



3,617 

80.7 
11.0 
8.3 



48 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



INVESTMENT PER ACRE AND PER MAN-EQUIVALENT 

The investment data per farm of table 29 were divided by acres 
of all land, acres of cropland, and number of man-equivalent 
workers per farm, to obtain the investment measures per farm 
shown in table 30. 

Perhaps the most significant economic measure of those shown 
in table 30 is investment per man-equivalent worker. This meas- 
ure provides an index of the relationship of other productive re- 
sources to the human resources used on these farms. 

In general there is a steady and substantial increase in invest- 
ment per worker from Class VI to Class I farms for all regions. 



For the 10 regions, taken as a whole, the average investment per 
worker on Class VI farms is about $3,000, the comparable average 
for Class I farms is almost $28,000. Examination of the data in 
table 30 for individual regions reveals some striking differences 
between regions for the same economic classes of farms. In gen- 
eral, it will be observed that investment per worker is much lower 
for each economic class of farm in Regions I though V than in 
Regions VI through X. It is interesting to note that in several of 
the western regions average investment per worker is higher on 
Classes IV and V farms than such investment on Classes I and II 
farms in some of the eastern regions. 



Table 30. — Total Investment per Acre of All Land in Farms, per Acre of Total Cropland, and per Man-Equivalent, 

FOR Cotton Farms, by Economic Class, by Regions: 1954 









Economic class of farm 






Region and item 
















All classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


REGION I 


Dollars 


Dollars 


Dollars 


Dollars 


Dollars 


Dollars 


Dollars 


Investment per acre of— 


71 
122 

4,6f58 


68 

131 

13, 167 


74 

146 

13, 496 


78 

133 

6,899 


76 

119 

4,479 


68 

111 

3,684 


60 




109 




2,687 


REGION U 
















Investment per acre of — 


72 

145 

4,818 


65 

124 

11, 936 


68 

160 

16,852 


72 

142 

10, 676 


83 

147 

6,230 


76 

146 

4,379 


64 




143 




3,399 


REGION HI 
















Investment per acre of— 


83 

167 

4,491 


99 

196 

16, 627 


106 
210 

18, 179 


97 

182 

8,660 


92 

164 
4,868 


80 

160 

3,742 


63 




160 




2,786 


REGION IV 
















Investment per acre of— 


178 

246 

7,453 


189 

269 

24,366 


206 

206 

19,883 


183 

242 

9,336 


167 

224 

4,489 


165 
211 

2,847 


111 




188 




2,165 


REGION V 
















Investment per acre of— 


76 

150 

7,445 


104 

198 

17, 992 


94 

170 

17,260 


79 

165 

11,563 


76 

143 

7,329 


69 

134 

6,176 


68 




126 




3,883 


REGION VI 
















Investment per acie of — 


194 
312 

13,437 


178 

290 

31, 189 


204 

336 

27,823 


196 

291 

13, 953 


216 

329 

10,017 


179 

323 

8,323 


P? 




266 




4,742 


REGION VII 
















Investment per acre of— 


123 

174 

17, 151 


162 

232 

21,991 


135 

189 

25, 733 


118 

164 

19,969 


114 

158 

16,783 


106 

156 

11, 193 


90 




166 




6,765 


REGION VIII 
















Investment per acre of— 


341 

418 

21,336 


330 

417 
24, 892 


342 

402 

21,908 


362 

418 

18,039 


386 

476 

16, 565 


398 

604 

14, 169 


364 




416 




9, 15S 


region IX 
















Investment per acre of — 

All land in larms - - 


170 
216 

28,577 


193 

246 
31,406 


173 

208 

26,669 


112 
161 

22,866 


106 

168 

21,999 


88 

143 

19,644 


62 




186 




10,964 


REGION X 
















Investment per acre ot— 

All land in farms - 


242 

444 

32, 046 


228 

414 

33,222 


310 

597 

33,635 


323 

643 

24, M6 


317 

790 
20, 135 


497 

718 

13, 369 


824 




1,028 


Investment per man-equivalent - - 


7,873 


TOTAL, 10 REGIONS 
















Investment per acre of — 

All land In farms - 


135 

217 

9,834 


196 

302 

27, 701 


165 

241 

22,967 


129 

194 

12,663 


112 

174 

6,380 


92 

161 

4,117 


68 




146 


Investment per man.equIvaleDt 


3,014 







COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 
Section 7.— SELECTED MEASURES OF FARM INCOME AND EFFICIENCY 



49 



In this section two additional sets of basic data are presented 
for economic classes of cotton farms in the ten regions. These are 
the value of sales per farm, and per farm amounts of expenditure 
for a number of items of cash-production expense. The per farm 
totals of these designated items of cash-production expenses are 
referred to as "specified expenses." 

The basic data on average .sales per farm are shown in table 31 ; 
those concerning designated items of expense are given in table 32. 

The data relating to average sales per farm probably provide the 
best available measure of both the absolute and the relative sizes 
of farm business that are found on the various economic classes of 
cotton farms. 



In recent years concern has been expressed in some quarters 
about the fact of secularly increasing size-of-farm businesses. 
This report is not, of course, designed to analyze the complex re- 
lationships between social goals and necessary economic adjust- 
ments on farms that are involved in questions relating to trends 
in size-of-farm businesses. An examination of the average levels 
of total sales on the three largest size-of-business groups of cotton 
farms does, however, provide an objective measure of the size of 
these largest cotton farms. 

Class I farms include all those with sales of $25,000 or more. 
Except for Region X where the average is $110,000, the farms in 
this class have average total sales of from $40,000 to $60,000. 



Table 31. — Total Sales, Cotton Sales, All Crop Sales, and Livestock and Livestock Products Sales per Cotton Farm, 

Economic Class, and by Regions: 1954 



Region and item 



REGIO.V I 

Total sales 

All crops-- - -. 

Cotton - -- 

All livestock and livestock products 

REQIOX H 

Total sales --- 

All crops 

Cotton -. 

All livestock and livestock products- - 

REGION III 

Total sales 

All crops _ --. 

Cotton — 

All livestock and livestock products 

REGION IV 

Total sales — 

All crops _ 

Cotton 

All livestock and livestock products 

REGION V 

Total sales 

All crops — 

Cotton 

A 11 livestock and livestock products 

REOIO.X VI 

Total sales 

All crops _.- _. 

Cotton 

All livestock and livestock products -.. 

REGION VII 

Total sales 

All crops 

Cotton 

All livestock and livestock products 

REGION VIII 

Total sales 

All crops _ 

Cotton 

All livestock and livestock products 

REGION IX 

Total sales :.. 

All crops 

Cotton 

All livestock and livestock products 

REGION X 

Total sales 

All crops 

Cotton 

All livestock and livestock products 



Economic class of farm 



.\U classes 



Dollars 

2, 701 

2.657 

2.026 

193 



1,666 

1,543 

1,390 

101 



2,142 

1,966 

1,837 

168 



4, 6.W 

4,405 

3,957 

161 



2,758 

2,464 

2,288 

285 



6,380 

5.038 

4.517 

341 



5,967 

5,474 

4.491 

492 



16,920 

16,440 

13. 751 

479 



21,812 

21, 210 

17,188 

602 



47,880 

45,799 

36, 516 

2,080 



Dollars 
42,084 
37, 676 
29,902 
3.958 



48.196 
36,822 
29,252 
8,565 



m. 842 

44,906 

38, 936 

5,663 



57, 071 

64,336 

45, 309 

2,677 



fjO, 316 
63,626 
48, 899 
6,650 



39, 893 

37,468 

31,215 

2,432 



52, 696 

50,747 

37, 622 

1,943 



59,207 

57, 2fi0 

46,999 

1,944 



46, 675 

45,600 

36,248 

1,075 



110,441 

105, 776 

83,368 

4,664 



Dollars 
14,349 
12, 659 
9,830 
1.602 



14,354 

12, 656 

10, 6.53 

1,559 



14, 397 

12, 766 

11,367 

1.688 



14,643 

14, 118 

12, 167 

615 



14, 167 
12,684 
11.398 
1,449 



14,385 

13,668 

12, 276 

822 



14, 473 

13,418 

10,996 

1.064 



16, 670 

16, 337 

13, 967 

333 



16, 962 

16, 472 

13,660 

490 



15,996 

16, 192 

12,903 

802 



Dollars 

6,479 

6,995 

4,628 

461 



6,839 

6,041 

6,016 

726 



6,396 

6,764 

5,348 

606 



6,693 

6,498 

5.891 

192 



6,573 

6,924 

6.609 

630 



6,831 

6,430 

5,938 

399 



6,908 

6, 266 

5,286 

641 



7,826 

7,632 

6,577 

194 



7,723 

7,365 

6,313 

368 



,192 
,765 



Dollars 

3,412 

3.206 

2,602 

198 



3,290 

3,062 

2.731 

203 



3,317 

3.068 

2.868 

248 



3,379 

3,292 

3,118 

84 



3,369 

3,003 

2.842 

349 



3,663 

3,419 

3.047 

■Hi 



3,613 

3,203 

2.766 

410 



3.513 

3,432 

2.997 

81 



3,976 

3,666 

3,166 

319 



3,921 

3,696 

3,352 

218 



Dollars 

1,770 

1, 653 

1,364 

113 



1,732 

1,635 

1,492 

86 



1,729 

1,606 

1,622 

117 



1,769 
1,731 
1,674 



1,706 

1,527 

1.462 

171 



1,894 

1,729 

1,651 

165 



1,916 

1,660 

1,472 

265 



1,918 

1,878 

1,668 

39 



1,%9 

1,761 

1,566 

207 



1,880 

1,837 

1,753 

43 



VI 



Dollars 



796 

750 

647 

42 



776 
734 
683 
37 



757 

703 

670 

50 



774 
753 
22 



658 

582 

534 

71 



787 
704 
673 
83 



840 
735 
673 
106 



835 

827 

783 

7 



721 

617 
578 
105 



868 

854 

847 

6 



50 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



It will be remembered that the range of sales volume possible 
for farms in Class II is from $10,000 to $24,999. The midpoint of 
such a range is $17,500. In no region does average sales per farm 
for Class II farms go as high as the midpoint of the range for the 
class. In most regions, sales for_this class average from $14,000 
to $15,000 per farm. 

For Class III farms the most general level of average sales found 
in the regions is about $6,500. The possible range of sales in this 
class is, of course, from $5,000 to $9,999. Only in Regions VIII 
and IX, where average sales are $7,800 and $7,700, respectively, 
does total farm sales of Class III farms reach the midpoint of the 
sales range for the class. 



It seems doubtful that sales volumes such as the averages for 
farms in these classes would, in the instance of any type of non- 
farm business, be taken to connote unusually large or economi- 
cally menacing size. 

In this general context it is also important to look at per farm 
sales on the three smallest economic classes from the standpoint 
of the adequacy of business volume to supply generally acceptable 
levels of income to a farm family. 

The range among regions for average sales per Class IV cotton 
farms is from almost $3,300 to almost $4,000. For Class V farms 
the comparable range is from about $1,730 to $1,970, while the 
range in region-average total sales for Class VI cotton farms is 
from about $660 to about $860. 



Table 32. — Percent of Farms Reporting and Average Expenditure for Selected Items per Farm, for Cotton Farms, by Economic 

Class, by Regions: 1954 



Region and Item 



REGION I 

Machine hire: 

Percent of farms reporting.. 

Dollars per farm reporting, _ 
Hired labor: 

Percent of farms reporting. _ 

Dollars per farm reporting.. 

Feed for livestock and poultry: 

Percent of farms reporting.. 

Dollars per farm reporting. . 
Gasoline, fuel, and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting.. 

Dollars per farm reporting.. 



Fertilizer and fertilizer material: 
Percent of farms reporting.,. 
Dollars per farm reporting... 

Lime and liming material: 

Percent of farms reporting,,. 
Dollars per farm reporting... 



Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars.. 

REGION II 



Machine hire: 

Percent of farms reporting. 

Dollars per farm reporting. 
Hired labor: 

Percent of farms reporting. 

Dollars per farm reporting. 



Feed for livestock and poultry: 

Percent of farms reporting... 

Dollars per farm reporting... 
Gasoline, fuel, and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting... 

Dollars per farm reporting... 

Fertilizer and fertilizer material: 

Percent of farms reporting... 

Dollars per farm reporting. . , 
Lime and liming material: 

Percent of farms reporting... 

Dollars per farm reporting... 



Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars.. 

REGION III 



Machine hire: 

Percent of farms reporting. 

Dollars per farm reporting. 
Hired labor: 

Percent of farms reporting. 

Dollars per farm reporting. 



Feed for livestock and poultry: 

Percent of farms reporting... 

Dollars per farm reporting... 
Gasoline, fuel, and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting. , . 

Dollars per farm reporting. , . 

Fertilizer and fertilizer material: 
Percent of farms reporting... 
Dollars per farm reporting... 

Lime and hming material: 

Percent of farms reporting,,. 
Dollars per farm reporting,.. 



Economic class of farm 



All 
classes 



67.8 
146 



65.4 
479 



46.0 
151 



47.0 
305 



97.2 
444 



4.6 
112 



1,062 



63.2 
90 



61,5 
226 



44.8 
121 



42.1 
154 



97.2 
281 



Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars.. 



5.1 
81 



569 



55.1 
112 



62.2 
317 



53.6 
128 



43.4 

200 



95.6 
237 



2.2 
110 



60.6 
1,628 



8.3 
U, 681 



61.7 
1,664 



95.8 
3,730 



23, 814 



66.5 
1,191 



100.0 
12, 110 



87.0 
2,216 



100.0 
3.023 



100-0 
8,394 



62.2 
642 



26,411 



69.1 
2,060 



97.9 
12,188 



66.1 
2,000 



97.7 
3,386 



4,326 



23.6 
633 



63.9 
661 



96.2 
3,204 



65.6 
731 



96.6 
1,401 



97.4 
2,471 



21.9 

270 



7,804 



48.9 
670 



94.4 
3,062 



48.3 
984 



94.4 
1,302 



95.0 
2,608 



23.3 
334 



61.6 
722 



92.5 
2,772 



63.8 
752 



93.0 
1,106 



97.2 
1,387 



16.0 
249 



III 



69.9 
343 



84.2 
1,023 



54.1 
316 



77.6 
492 



98.5 
916 



10.8 
129 



2,669 



69.7 
342 



90.6 
1,073 



48.3 
536 



85.9 
651 



99.3 
,197 



21.4 
122 



56.2 



80.0 
866 



60.2 
347 



80.7 
430 



97.2 
589 



7.6 
138 



612 I 22, 414 6, 903 1, 992 832 426 226 



IV 



B8.7 
171 



75.8 
353 



46.0 
144 



57.8 
241 



97.6 
474 



6.0 
83 



1,056 



66.6 
162 



69.3 
346 



43.4 

218 



69.9 
222 



96.6 
479 



9.7 
103 



1,036 



54.2 
160 



64.9 
317 



52.4 
168 



61.0 
213 



96.2 
330 



4.0 



68.4 
106 



34.6 
185 



43.4 
154 



96.7 
320 



3.6 
63 



612 



63.1 
95 



66.6 
161 



42.8 
115 



45.0 
122 



97.6 
281 



5.4 
65 



66.4 
91 



62.6 
143 



61.2 
102 



44.1 
123 



96.7 
201 



1.7 
66 



65.9 
57 



48.6 
87 



46.6 
67 



97.1 
167 



1.6 

64 



62.9 
54 



40.6 
74 



46.6 
72 



32.6 
73 



97.1 
158 



2.7 
41 



276 



63.6 
49 



56.0 
71 



26.7 
72 



Region and item 



REGION IV 

Machine hire: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Hired labor: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting. 

Feed for livestock and poultry: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Gasoline, fuel, and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Fertihzer and fertilizer material: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Lime and liming material: 

Percent of farms reporting... 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars.. 

REGION V 

Machine hire: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Hired labor: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Feed for livestock and poultry: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Gasoline, fuel, and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Fertilizer and fertilizer material: 

Percent of farms reporting 

DoDars per farm reporting 

Lime and liming material: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars.. 

REGION VI 

Machine hire: 

Percent of farms reporting.. 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Hired labor: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm rcportmg 

Feed for livestock and poultry: 

Percent of farms reporting. 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Gasoline, fuel, and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting^ 

Fertihzer and fertihzer material: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Lime and liming material: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 

Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars. 





Economic class of farm 




All 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


v 


68.5 
320 


70.1 
3,366 


73.3 
1,124 


69.3 
474 


67.7 
236 


68.5 
132 


66.1 
1,104 


98.9 
12,644 


95.4 

2,887 


79.3 
1,004 


59.7 
399 


46.9 
184 


40.8 
166 


60.4 
1,444 


64.2 
373 


47.9 
181 


42.5 
118 


36.6 
88 


49.6 
462 


98.6 
3,989 


95.3 
1,064 


76.1 
422 


53.4 
209 


37.6 
120 


87.9 
281 


95.1 
3,286 


90.9 

877 


87.4 
364 


88.2 
198 


88.8 
120 


1.6 

244 


11.3 
713 


5.0 
248 


2.9 
200 


1.1 

93 


0.6 
61 


1,386 


22,726 


6,603 


1,856 


735 


360 


49.1 
228 


06.6 
3,630 


63.4 
1,266 


60.6 
439 


55.9 
225 


49.2 
119 


67.4 
723 


99.5 
15,311 


96.2 
3,190 


86.7 
1,197 


78.8 
497 


60.1 
219 


69.7 
202 


57.2 
2,974 


63.0 
773 


66.3 
401 


64.8 
222 


65.3 
159 


53.9 
302 


100.0 
3,649 


96.4 
1,000 


85.8 
479 


77.6 
272 


68 2 
163 


82.9 
243 


83.3 
3,199 


90.9 
880 


85.8 
459 


83.8 
307 


82.5 
192 


1.3 
126 


10.7 
381 


4.0 
174 


1.7 
162 


3.2 
99 


0.8 
105 


1,033 


25,609 


6,128 


2,378 


1,133 


548 


65.4 
361 


85.1 
2,408 


68.4 
767 


69.8 
387 


49.1 
215 


48.5 
103 


81.4 
968 


93.6 
7,303 


93.5 
2,224 


89.9 
1,236 


87.7 
523 


73.3 
254 


72.9 
259 


75.0 
1,062 


69.5 
506 


74.7 
320 


72.9 
207 


72.7 
161 


76.8 
310 


100.0 
1,648 


94,2 
624 


92.6 
358 


77.9 
199 


66.6 
143 


45.8 
229 

0.6 
71 


66.7 
1,466 

0.6 
1,250 


48.3 

450 


42.2 

267 

0.3 

5 


47.8 
151 

0.6 

45 


60.2 
126 

0.8 
40 


1.613 


12,303 


3,754 


2,069 


942 


612 



COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



51 



Table 32. — Percent of Farms Reporting and 


Average Expenditure for Selected Items per Farm, for 
Class, by Regions: 1954 — Continued 


Cotton Farms 


, BY Economic 




Economic class of farm 


Region and Item 


Economic class of farm 


Region and item 


AU 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


All 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


REGION VII 
Machine hire: 


82,9 
463 

85.6 
1,262 

69.9 
288 

90.4 
447 

21.4 
217 

0.2 
62 

2,107 

58.5 
1,031 

93.8 
4,171 

34.1 
565 

91.8 
1,109 

48.7 
826 

0.4 
319 

6,129 


88.4 
3,128 

99.5 
11,169 

58.9 
871 

99.7 
2,151 

29.1 
1,138 

0.8 
164 

16, 867 

69.1 
2,919 

100.0 
13, 957 

37.2 
1,508 

98 9 
3,128 

68.0 
2,198 

1.8 
376 

21, 132 


91 7 
1,022 

98.4 
2,973 

70.3 
613 

98.2 
893 

23.4 
363 

0.2 
134 

5,184 

62.9 
966 

98.1 
3,736 

40.0 
403 

98,3 
1,108 

54.5 
677 

5,891 


89,4 
507 

94.4 
1,298 

73.6 
331 

96.8 
631 

24,8 
228 

0.2 

48 

2,493 

53.5 
603 

97.4 
1,842 

35.2 
415 

96.6 
023 

60.4 
309 

0.4 
134 

2,966 


84,6 
288 

89,9 
606 

71.4 
267 

93,0 
328 

20,6 
161 

0.3 
46 

1,318 

49.5 
319 

91.8 
981 

29.2 
372 

89.6 
360 

39.0 
201 


77,*3 
169 

77 2 
315 

68,9 
192 

86 6 
222 

20.0 
116 

0.1 
46 

721 

66.3 
223 

86.4 
441 

25.8 
116 

78.8 
230 

31.7 
117 


68, 1 
89 

59,3 
142 

62 8 
128 

69,4 
136 

16,0 

74 

331 

69,3 
99 

66 7 
239 

29,6 
94 

61,1 

182 

27.8 
74 


REGION IX 
Machine hire: 


90,7 
1,431 

93.0 
3,284 

65.3 
470 

98 
1,538 

15.7 
691 

(Z) 
60 

6,274 

81.3 
3,365 

93.1 
9,099 

43.8 
1,298 

94.6 
2,001 

77.4 
2.612 

1.6 
662 

16, 696 


94.2 
2,801 

99.0 
6,665 

69.9 
696 

98,7 
2,951 

28,0 
1,035 

(Z) 
270 

12, 858 

86.7 
7,023 

99.1 
19, 834 

38.2 
3,016 

97.6 
4,103 

92.1 
6,214 

L8 

847 

36. 726 


90.7 
1,157 

94,5 
2,440 

67.1 
440 

99.0 
1,303 

13.8 
406 

0.1 
6 

4,998 

84.4 
1,356 

94.5 
2,828 

51.4 
490 

97.9 
966 

79.6 
717 

1.8 
418 

6, 593 


90.7 
692 

92.0 
1,266 

68.7 
367 

98.0 
675 

7.7 
239 


91.2 
352 

85,3 
618 

69.5 
331 

96.1 
449 

6.6 
108 


75.9 
207 

74,6 
286 

64.9 
231 

92,1 
301 

86 
53 




Dollars per farm reporting 


Dollars per farm reporting 


123 


Hired labor: 

Percent of farms reporting 


Hired labor: 

Percent of farms reporting 


23 8 


Dollars per farm reporting 




259 


Feed for livestock and poultry: 

Percent of farms reporting 


Feed for livestock and poultry: 




Dollars per farm reporting 


Dollars per farm reporting 


138 


Gasoline, fuel, and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting. . 


Gasoline, fuel, and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting 


86.7 
145 


Dollars per farm reporting 


Fertilizer and fertilizer material: 

Percent of farms reporting 


Fertilizer and fertilizer material: 


4 8 


Dollars per farm reporting 


DoUars per farm reporting 


80 


Lime and liming material: 

Percent of farms reporting 


Lime and liming material: 




Dollars per farm reporting - 


Dollars per farm reporting 










Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars. . 

REGION VIII 

Machine hire: 

Percent of farms reporting 


Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars. - 

REGION X 

Machine hire: 


2,633 

77.9 
634 

89.0 
1,418 

48.4 
654 

96.0 
536 

70.2 
303 

2.2 
253 

2,761 


1,615 

73.7 
357 

89.8 
750 

44.3 
277 

88.8 
291 

58.6 
176 

0.4 
250 

1,422 


802 

61.6 
322 

78.6 
352 

33.4 
225 

77.1 
177 

47.5 
108 


327 








Hired labor: 

Percent of farms reporting... 


Hired labor: 




Dollars per farm reporting 


Dollars per farm reporting 


188 


Feed for livestock and poultry: 

Percent of farms reporting 


Feed for livestock and poultry: 
Percent of farms reporting 


36 8 


Dollars per farm reporting. . 






Gasoline, fuel, and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting 


Gasnlme, fuel, .and oil: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reportmg 

Fertilizer and fertilizer material: 

Percent of farms reporting. _ 


66.8 
84 

18.4 
53 


Fertilizer and fertilizer material: 

Percent of farms reporting 

Dollars per farm reporting... 


Lime and liming material: 

Percent of farms reporting 


Lime and liming material: 

Percent of farms reportmg 

Dollars per farm reporting. 

Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars. - 




Dollars per farm reporting 












Average of specified expenses per farm 
dollars.. 


1,567 


762 


378 


738 


256 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 



The interpretation of these sales levels in terms of the levels of 
income from farming that are associated with them is facilitated 
by examination of the data in table 33. In this table the total 
of specified production expense items has been subtracted from 
total sales per farm. The fact should be borne in mind that, 
in general, the total of these specified items of expense probably 
does not exceed 60 percent of total cash production expenses 
when all items are included. 

For Class IV farms the sales minus specified expenses per farm 
are, for most regions, between $2,200 and $2,500. Only in Regions 
IV and VI, which show $2,600 and $2,700, respectively, does the 
average of sales minus specified expenses for Class IV farms 
exceed $2,500. 

In the instance of Class V farms, the cash incomes above speci- 
fied expenses are between $1,100 and $1,200 for seven of the ten 
regions. Farms in Region IV have the highest value for per farm 
sales minus specified expenses for Class V farms. This is shown 
to be $1,400. 

For farms in Class VI average value of sales minus specified 
expenses for the ten regions is $520. The highest value for any 



region is $603, while in the region having the lowest value the 
amount is $394. 

Table 33. — Sales Minus Specified Expenses per Farm for 
Cotton Farms, by Economic Class, by Regions: 1954 





Economic class of farm 


Region 


AU 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


I.... 


Dollars 
1,699 
1,087 
1,630 
3,172 
1,726 

3,867 

3,860 

10, 791 

15, 538 

32, 186 

a, 406 


Dollars 
18, 272 
21,787 
28, 429 

34, 345 
34,711 

27,590 

35, 828 
38, 076 
33. 817 
74, 714 

46.103 


Dollars 
6. 546 
6,884 
8,494 
9, 039 
8, 029 

10. 631 
9,289 
10, 779 
11,964 
10,403 

9,887 


Dollars 
3,910 
3,716 
4, 403 
4, 8,36 
4, 195 

4,772 
4,415 
4,86') 
6, 090 
4,441 

4,547 


Dollars 
2, 3,55 
2,254 
2,485 
2.644 
2,227 

2,721 
2,296 
1, 946 
2,461 
2.499 

2,478 


Dollars 
1.158 
1.199 
1,303 
1,409 
1,159 

1,382 
1,194 
1,166 
1,167 
1,142 

1,289 


Dollars 
496 


II 


498 


III 




IV 


596 


V 




VI 


524 


VII 


509 


VIII 




IX 




X 


603 


Total, 10 regions 


620 







52 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



It has been mentioned that, since Census data do not cover all 
cash expense items, the value of sales less specified expenses per 
farm probably overstates net cash farm income. It also prob- 
ably overstates, even more, net incomes on tenant-operated farms 
since they receive only a share of crops. There is one important 
item of noncash cost for which it is possible to make an estimate 
using Census data as a basis. This is interest on investment per 
farm. Estimated values for this item are shown in table 34. 
These values were obtained by applying rates of 5 percent to 
value of investment in land and. buildings, and 7 percent to the 
value of investment in machinery and equipment and livestock. 



Table 34. — Estimated Interest on Investment per Farm for 
Cotton Farms, by Economic Class, by Regions: 1954 





Economic class of farm 


Region 


All 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


I.__ 


Dollars 
403 
312 
364 
724 
603 

1,211 
1.636 
3,772 
4,012 
6,963 

886 


Dollars 
6,684 
6,504 
7, 735 
10, 132 
10, 298 

7, 604 
9. 263 

12, 167 
7.676 

14.614 

10, 717 


Dollars 
2, 432 
2,654 
3,083 
2,953 
2,889 

3.244 
3.819 
3.716 
3.392 
3,633 

3,285 


Dollars 
857 
1,163 
1,029 
1,008 
1,311 

1, 405 
2,011 
1,970 
1,939 
1,821 

1,332 


Dollars 
373 
495 
472 
444 
685 

849 
1,171 
1,228 
1,399 
1,196 

686 


Dollars 
246 
307 
283 
235 
399 

573 
712 
810 
1,041 
650 

311 


Dollars 
149 


II 


202 


Ill 


181 


IV 


151 


V 


252 


VI 


307 


VII 


438 


VIII 


571 


IX 


661 


X 


425 




196 







When this allowance is made for remuneration of the aggregate 
of physical sources that are employed, the residual of sales that 
is left to compensate the human agent, to take care of nonspecified 
cash expenses, and to allow for replacement of worn-out equip- 
ment, is strikingly small on the three smallest size-of-business 
groups. Even for Class III farms, the residual of around $3,000 
per farm for most regions suggests very modest returns to the 
people involved. 



Table 35. — Sales per Farm Minus Specified Expenses and 
Imputed Interest on Investment for Economic Classes of 
Cotton Farms, by Regions: 1954 



Region 



I- 

II 

Ill 

IV ..._ 

V __ 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

Total, 10 regions 



Economic class of fai-m 



All 

classes 



Dollars 
1,296 
775 
1,166 
2,448 
1,122 

2,666 
2,224 
7,019 
11, 626 
25, 222 

2,620 



Dollars 
11.588 
15, 223 
20,694 
24, 213 

24, 413 

19, 986 
26, 665 

25, 909 
26, 141 
60.100 

36,386 



Dollars 
4.114 
4,230 
6,411 
6,088 
6,140 

7,387 
5,470 
7.063 
8,572 
6,770 

6,602 



III 



Dollars 
3,053 
2,663 
3,374 
3,828 
2,884 

3,367 
2,404 
2,890 
3, 151 
2,620 

3,216 



IV 



Dollars 
1,982 
1,769 
2,013 
2,200 
1,642 

1,872 
1,124 
718 
1,062 
1,303 

1,892 



Dollars 

912 

892 

1,020 

1,174 

760 

809 
482 
366 
126 
492 

978 



VI 



Dollars 
347 
296 
360 
445 
144 

217 

71 

-114 

-267 
178 

326 



Data that relate more specifically to the levels of labor produc- 
tivity on cotton farms are provided in tables 36 and 37. In these 
tables sales per farm minus specified expenses, and sales per 
farm minus both specified expenses and imputed interest on 
investment have been divided by the estimated man-equivalent 
workers per farm. 

For these two tables expenditures for hired labor were not de- 
ducted. This procedure was used because hired workers are a 
component of the farm labor resources. The reader should keep 
in mmd that not all cash expenses are allowed for, and that no 
deduction has been made for depreciation. The values shown in 
these two tables, therefore, overstate the net output and produc- 
tivity of the human agent. 

Attention is invited to the relatively modest values shown for 
even the largest farms. In a different context, and with different 
implications, it is important to note also the progressive increase 
shown in this crude measure of labor productivity as the size 
of business increases from Class VI to Class I in any region. 



Table 36. — Sales Minus Specified Expenses (Except Hired 
Labor) per Man'Equivalent, for Cotton Farms, by EcO' 
NOMic Class and Regions: 1954 





Economic class of farm 


Region 


All 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


I .._ . 


Dollars 
1,272 
959 
1,121 
2,091 
1,393 

2,789 
2,788 
4,405 
6,860 
9,866 

2,401 


Dollars 
3,163 
3,372 
4,064 
6, 055 
4,631 

7,421 
6,846 
5,604 
8,667 
11,396 

8,106 


Dollars 
2,784 
3,132 
3,453 
4,346 
3,664 

6,743 
4,369 
4,488 
6,097 
6,254 

4,734 


Dollars 
2,121 
2,324 
2,281 
2,742 
2,644 

3,091 
3,037 
3,202 
3,766 
3,979 

2,748 


Dollars 
1,648 
1,640 
1,478 
1,600 
1,646 

2,031 
1,926 
1,927 
2,462 
2,907 

1,618 


Dollars 
911 

1,027 
947 

1,006 
942 

1,176 
1,163 
1,435 
1,325 
1,716 

984 


Dollars 
435 


II 

Ill 


470 
461 


IV 


499 


V . 


356 


VI . 


493 


vn 


607 


VIII 


624 


IX 


401 


X -.- 


716 


Total, 10 regions 


459 







Table 37- — Sales Minus Specified Expenses (Except Hired 
Labor) and Imputed Interest on Investment per Man- 
Equivalent, for Cotton Farms, by Economic Class and 
Regions: 1954 





Economic class of farm 


Region 


AU 

classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


I 


Dollars 

1,020 

699 

878 

1,689 

991 

2,077 
1,879 
3,296 
6,374 
8,168 

1,880 


Dollars 
2.442 
2,716 
3,283 
4,739 
3,678 

5,768 
4,702 
4,210 
7,034 
9,634 

6,637 


Dollars 
2. 069 
2,276 
2,490 
3,262 
2,632 

4,268 
2,995 
3,327 
4,684 
4,448 

3,617 


Dollars 
1,748 
1,747 
1,813 
2,238 
1,920 

2,352 
1,979 
2,264 
2,543 
2,678 

2,082 


Dollars 
1,329 
1,310 
1,216 
1,363 
1,143 

1,500 
1,089 
1,060 
1,296 
1,820 

1,273 


Dollars 
736 
791 
746 
848 
667 

735 
660 
699 
284 
994 

762 


Dollars 
311 


II 


286 


in 


310 


IV 


383 


V - 


146 


VI 


237 


VII 


142 


VIII 


48 


IX 


-191 


X - . .. 


291 


Total, 10 regions 


297 







COTTON PRODUCERS AND COTTON PRODUCTION 



53 



INDICATED RETURNS PER OPERATOR AND FAMILY 
MAN-EQUIVALENT WORKER 

The data examined above give some indication of tlie produc- 
tivity and possible returns to all labor. Data are presented in 
tables 38 and 39 to indicate returns to operator and family labor 
and management. Table 38 shows the return per man-etjuivalent 
operator and family worker for the use of capital and their labor 
and management. 



Table 38. — Sales Minus Specified Expenses per Operator 
AND Family Worker for Cotton Farms, by Economic 
Class and Regions: 1954 





Economic class of form 


Region 


AU 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


I . . - 


Dollars 
1,214 
988 
1,093 
2,116 
1,438 

2,976 

3,509 

10, 791 

16,538 

32, 185 

2,620 


Dollars 
20,302 

21, 787 
28, 429 
34,345 

31, 655 

22, 992 

32, 671 
38, 076 
30, 743 
67, 922 

41, 381 


Dollars 
6,546 
6,884 
6,634 
7,632 
7,299 

8,859 
8,445 
10, 779 
10, 876 
10, 403 

8,988 


Dollars 
2,444 
2,858 
2,690 
3,023 
2,996 

3,409 
3.679 
4,860 
5,090 
4,934 

3,248 


Dollars 
1,570 
1,734 
1,462 
1,655 
1,486 

1,944 
2,086 
2, 162 
2,734 
2, 777 

1,662 


Dollars 
891 
999 
1,002 
939 
892 

1,152 
1,080 
1,295 
1,297 
1, 428 

992 


Dollars 
413 


II 


453 


Ill 


443 


IV 


458 


V 

VI 


330 
437 


VII 

VIII 


463 
415 


IX - - 


358 


X 


603 


Total, 10 regions 


433 







In table 39, on the other hand, imputed interest on investment 
has been deducted. The indication here, therefore, is of return 
to operator and family labor and management per man-equivalent 
worker. 



Table 39. — Sales Minus Specified Expenses and Imputed 
Interest on Investment per Man-Equivalent of Operator 
AND Family Workers for Economic Classes of Cotton 
Farms, by Regions: 1954 





Economic class of farm 


Region 


AU 
classes 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


I 


Dollars 
926 
705 
833 
1,632 
936 

2,043 
2,022 
7,019 
11,626 
25, 222 

1,938 


Dollars 
12, 875 
15,223 
20, 694 
24,213 
22,194 

16, 656 
24,150 
25,909 
23,766 
5i636 

32, 169 


Dollars 
4, 114 
4,230 
4,162 
6,072 
4,673 

6,166 
4,973 
7,063 
7,793 
6,770 

6,002 


Dollars 
1,908 
1,972 
1,986 
2,392 
2,060 

2,406 
2,003 
2,890 
3,151 
2,911 

2,296 


Dollars 
1, 321 
1,353 
1,184 
1,294 
1,028 

1,337 
1,022 
798 
1,180 
1,448 

1,261 


Dollars 
702 
743 
785 
783 
685 

674 
438 
396 
140 
615 

752 


Dollars 


II 




Ill - - . 


292 


IV 




V 


120 


VI 




VII 


65 


VIII 

IX - 


-104 
234 


X. 


178 


Total, 10 regions 







It will be ob.served tliat for Class VI farnxs the returns per 
worker for both capital and labor and management are below 
$500 in all regions except one ; there it is only $000. 

After allowing for interest on investment, the range among 
regions of indicated returns per operator and family worker on 
the various size-of-business groups is as follows: Class VI — from 
a loss to about $342; Class V— from $140 to $785; Class IV— from 
about $800 to about $1,450; Class III— from about $1,910 to 
about $2,910; Class II— from about $4,100 to about $7,800; and 
Class I— from $12,875 to $54,636. 

INVESTMENT PER DOLLAR OF SALES 

In table 40 data are given that show the ratio of total invest- 
ment to total sales and to sales minus specified expenses. These 
data afford a very rough indication of the relative productivity 
of capital employed on the various economic classes of cotton 
farms, in the different regions. In a general way, relatively low 
values of investment ner dollar of sales indicate relatively high 
productivity of capital. 

The principal conclusion which might tentatively be drawn 
from these data is that the productivity of capital — like that of 
labor — -is generally higher on the larger than on the smaller size- 
of-business farms. 

Table 40. — Total Investment on Cotton Farms per Dollar 
of Sales, by Economic Class of Farm, by Regions: 1954 



Region 



I... 

II.... 

Ill 

IV 

V 

VI... - 

VII .._ 

VIII 

IX 

X 

Total, 10 regions 



I - 

II 

Ill 

IV 

v.... 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX _ 

X 

Total, 10 regions 



Economic class of farm 



AU 

classes 



I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 



VI 



Investment per doUar of gross sales (doUar) 



2.71 


2.94 


3.20 


2.45 


2.23 


2.83 


3.49 


2.48 


3.42 


3.12 


2.84 


3.29 


3.14 


3.04 


4.04 


2.98 


2.64 


3.03 


2.94 


3.29 


3.67 


2.79 


2.39 


2.41 


4.U5 


3.22 


3.78 


3.69 


3.71 


4.26 


4.25 


3.60 


4.26 


3.88 


4.38 


6.71 


5.17 


3.38 


4.98 


5.49 


6.12 


7.01 


4.29 


3.96 


4.21 


4.84 


6.60 


8.13 


3. ,54 


3.16 


3.77 


4.74 


6.64 


9.98 


2.74 


2.50 


4.21 


4.78 


6.66 


6.40 


3.34 


2.92 


4.03 


3.71 


3.18 


3.27 



3.91 
4.83 
4.41 
3.62 
7.08 

7.23 
9.64 
13.16 
16.72 
9.16 

4.72 



Investment per dollar of sales less specified expenses 
(doUars) 



6.25 
7.50 
6.29 
4.70 
11.77 

10.85 
15.91 
24.03 
30.61 
13.05 

6.95 



4.40 


6.77 


7.01 


4.06 


3.23 


4.33 


5.32 


5.48 


7.14 


6.75 


4.15 


4.75 


4.40 


5.44 


6.85 


4.33 


3.62 


4.02 


4.23 


6.46 


5.94 


3.80 


3.06 


3.03 


6.47 


6.60 


6.66 


5.79 


6.60 


6.25 


6.91 


6.20 


5.76 


6.66 


6.89 


7.83 


8.00 


4.97 


7.76 


8.69 


9.63 


11.26 


6.72 


6.16 


6.50 


7.79 


11.91 


13.37 


4.97 


4.36 


6.35 


7.19 


10.73 


16.83 


4.08 


3.69 


6.47 


7.74 


8.86 


10.64 


4.90 


4.39 


6.28 


6.63 


4.38 


4.46 



U. S. GOVERMMENT PBINTINS OFFICE. I95I