(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "United States census of agriculture: 1954"

r^ 



t 



M 



^ 317^317^ 1 



■^1 




Given By 

XL S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS 






FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

(A COOPERATIVE REPORT) 



Vol. Ill - pt. 9 ch. IV 









Poultry Producers and 
Poultry Production 




SPECIAL REPORTS 




1954 

Census 
Agriculture 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 

WASHINGTON • 1956 




us 



I 



U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Ezra Tart Benson, Secretary 

Agricultural Research Service 

Byron T. Shaw, Administrator 

U. S. Department of Commerce 

Sinclair Weeks, Secretary 



Bureau of the Census 

Robert W. Burgess, Director 



United States 

c 



ensus 



of 
Agriculture 

1954 



W I ill 

Volume Ml 
SPECIAL REPORTS 

Part 9 

Farmers and Farm Production in the United States 

(A Cooperative Report) 



Chapter IV 

Poultry Producers and 
Poultry Production 



CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS and FARM PRODUCTION 
PRINCIPAL TYPES OF FARMS • 



■v\ 








BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
Robert W. Burgess. Director 

AGRICULTURE DIVISION 
Ray Hurley, Chief 
Warder B. Jenkins. Assistant Chief 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
Byron T. Shaw, Administrator 

FARM AND LAND MANAGEMENT RESEARCH 
Sherman E. Johnson, Director 

PRODUCTION ECONOMICS RESEARCH BRANCH 
Carl P. Heisig, Chief 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

JUL 2 5 1957 






;■- 



1 



V'3 



W* 



SUGGESTED IDENTIFICATION 

U. S. Bureau of the Census. U. S. Census of Agriculture: 1954. Vol. Ill, Special Reports 

Part 9, Farmers and Farm Production in the United States. 

Chapter IV, Poultry Producers and Poultry Production 

U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C, 1956. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C 
or any of the Field Offices of the Department of Commerce, Price 30 cents (paper cover) 



PREFACE 



The purpose of this report is to present an analysis of the characteristics of farmers and farm production 
for the most important types of farms as shown by data for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. The analysis 
deals with the relative importance, pattern of resource use, some measures of efficiency, and problems of 
adjustment and change for the principal types of farms. 

The data given in the various chapters of this report have been derived largely from the special tabula- 
tion of data for each type of farm, by economic class, for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. The detailed 
statistics for each type of farm for the United States and the principal subregions appear in Part 8 of Volume 
III of the reports for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

This cooperative report was prepared under the direction of Ray Hurley, Chief of the Agriculture Divi- 
sion of the Bureau of the Census, U. S. Department of Commerce, and Kenneth L. Bachman, Head, Produc- 
tion, Income, and Costs Section, Production Economics Research Branch, Agricultural Research Service of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Jackson V. McElveen, Agricultural Economist, Production, Income, and Costs Section, Production 
Economics Research Branch, Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, super- 
vised a large part of the detailed planning and analysis for the various chapters. 

The list of chapters and the persons preparing each chapter are as follows: 



Chapter I Wheat Producers and Wheat 

Production 
A. W. Epp, 
University of Nebraska. 

Chapter II Cotton Producers and Cotton 

Production 
Robert B. Glasgow, 
Production Economics Research 

Branch, 
Agricultural Research Service, 
United States Department of 

Agriculture. 

Chapter III Tobacco and Peanut Producers 

and Production 
R. E. L. Greene, 
University of Florida. 



Chapter IV 



Chapter V. 



Poultry Producers and Poultry 

Production 
William P. Mortenson, 
University of Wisconsin. 

Dairy Producers and Dairy Pro- 
duction 
P. E. McNall, 
University of Wisconsin. 



Chapter VI Western Stock Ranches and Live- 
stock Farms 
Mont H. Saunderson, 
Western Ranching and Lands 

Consultant, 
Bozeman, Mont. 

Chapter VII — Cash-grain and Livestock Pro- 
ducers in the Corn Belt 

Edwin G. Strand, 

Production Economics Research 
Branch, 

Agricultural Research Service, 

United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

Chapter VIII.. Part-time Farming 
H. G. Halcrow, 
University of Connecticut. 

Chapter IX Agricultural Producers and Pro- 
duction in the United States — 
A General View 
Jackson V. McElveen, 
Production Economics Research 

Branch, 
Agricultural Research Service, 
United States Department of 
Agriculture. 



The editorial work for this report was performed by Caroline B. Sherman, and the preparation of the 

statistical tables was supervised by Margaret Wood. 



December 1956 



in 



UNITED STATES CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE: 1954 

REPORTS 

Volume I. — Counties and State Economic Areas. Statistics for counties include number of farms, acreage, value, and farm operators; 
farms by color and tenure of operator; facilities and equipment; use of commercial fertilizer; farm labor; farm expenditures; livestock and 
livestock products; specified crops harvested; farms classified by tj'pe of farm and by economic class; and value of products sold by source. 

Data for State economic areas include farms and farm characteristics by tenure of operator, by type of farm, and by economic class. 

Volume I is published in 33 parts. 

Volume II. — General Report. Statistics by Subjects, United States Census of Agriculture, 1954. Summary data and analyses of 
the data for States, for Geographic Divisions, and for the United States by subjects. 



Volume III. — Special Reports 

Part 1. — Multiple-Unit Operations. This report will be similar to 
Part 2 of Volume V of the reports for the 1950 Census of Agri- 
culture. It will present statistics for approximately 900 
counties and State economic areas in 12 Southern States and 
Missouri for the number and characteristics of multiple-unit 
operations and farms in multiple units. 

Part 2. — Ranking Agricultural Counties. This special report will 
present statistics for selected items of inventory and agricul- 
tural production for the leading counties in the United States. 

Part 3. — Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, District of Columbia, and 
U. S. Possessions. These areas were not included in the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. The available current data from vari- 
ous Government sources will be compiled and published in 
this report. 

Part 4. — Agriculture, 1954, a Graphic Summary. This report will 
present graphically some of the significant facts regarding 
agriculture and agricultural production as revealed by the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. 

Part 5. — Farm-Mortgage Debt. This will be a cooperative study- 
by the Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census. It will present, 
by States, data based on the 1954 Census of Agriculture and a 
special mail survey conducted in January 1956, on the num- 
ber of mortgaged farms, the amount of mortgage debt, and the 
amount of debt held by principal lending agencies. 

Part 6. — Irrigation in Humid Areas. This cooperative report by 
the Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census will present data ob- 
tained by a mail survey of operators of irrigated farms in 28 
States on the source of water, method of applying water, num- 
ber of pumps used, acres of crops irrigated in 1954 and 1955, 
the number of times each crop was irrigated, and the cost of 
irrigation equipment and the irrigation system. 

Part 7. — Popular Report of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. This 
report is planned to be a general, easy-to-read publication for 
the general public on the status and broad characteristics of 
United States agriculture. It will seek to delineate such as- 
pects of agriculture as the geographic distribution and dif- 
ferences by size of farm for such items as farm acreage, princi- 
pal crops, and important kinds of livestock, farm facilities, 
farm equipment, use of fertilizer, soil conservation practices, 
farm tenure, and farm income. 

Part 8. — Size of Operation by Type of Farm. This will be a coop- 
erative special report to be prepared in cooperation with the 
Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. This report will contain data for 119 economic sub- 



regions (essentially general type-of-farming areas) showing the 
general characteristics for each type of farm by economic class. 
It will provide data for a current analysis of the differences 
that exist among groups of farms of the same type. It will 
furnish statistical basis for a realistic examination of produc- 
tion of such commodities as wheat, cotton, and dairy products 
in connection with actual or proposed governmental policies 
and programs. 
Part 9. — Farmers and Farm Production in the United States. 
The purpose of this report is to present an analysis of the 
characteristics of farmers and farm production for the most 
important types of farms as shown by data for the 1954 Census 
of Agriculture. The analysis deals with the relative importance, 
pattern of resource use, some measures of efficiency, and prob- 
lems of adjustment and change for the principal types of farms. 
The report was prepared in cooperation with the Agricultural 
Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The list of chapters (published separately only) and title 
for each chapter are as follows: 

Chapter I — Wheat Producers and Wheat Production 
II — Cotton Producers and Cotton Production 
III — Tobacco and Peanut Producers and Production 
IV — Poultry Producers and Poultry Production 

V — Dairy Producers and Dairy Production 
VI — Western Stock Ranches and Livestock Farms 
VII — Cash-Grain and Livestock Producers in the Corn 

Belt 
VIII — Part-Time Farming 
IX — Agricultural Producers and Production in the 
United Slates — A General View 
Part 10. — Use of Fertilizer and Lime. The purpose of this report 
is to present in one publication most of the detailed data com- 
piled for the 1954 Census of Agriculture regarding the use of 
fertilizer and lime. The report presents data for counties, 
State economic areas, and generalized type-of-farming areas 
regarding the quantity used, acreage on which used, and 
expenditures for fertilizer and lime. The Agricultural Research 
Service cooperated with the Bureau of the Census in the prep- 
aration of this report. 
Part 11. — Farmers' Expenditures. This report presents detailed 
data on expenditures for a large number of items used for farm 
production in 1955, and on the living expenditures of farm 
operators' families. The data were collected and compiled 
cooperatively by the Agricultural Marketing Service of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census. 
Part 12. — Methods and Procedures. This report contains an 
outline and a description of the methods and procedures used 
in taking and compiling the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 



INTRODUCTION 



00 

< 

w 
3 

•< 

u 
o 

2 

O 

u 

w 

ft 

Q 
Z 

< 

z 

g 

3 

w 

2 

n 

U 

2 
o 
z 

o 
(J 




VI 



INTRODUCTION 



Purpose and scope. — American agriculture is exceedingly diverse 
and is undergoing revolutionary changes. Farmers and their 
families obtain their income by producing a large variety of 
products under a large variety of conditions as well as from sources 
other than farming. The organization of production, type of 
farming, productivity, income, expenditures, size, and character- 
istics of operators of the 4.8 million farms in the United States 
vary greatly. Agriculture has been a dynamic, moving, adjusting 
part of our economy. Basic changes in farming have been occurring 
and will continue to be necessary. Adjustments brought by tech- 
nological change, by changing consumer wants, by growth of 
population, and by changes in the income of nonfarm people, have 
been significant forces in changing agriculture since World War II. 
The transition from war to an approximate peacetime situation 
has also made it necessary to reduce the output of some farm 
products. Some of the adjustments in agriculture have not pre- 
sented relatively difficult problems as they could be made by the 
transfer of resources from the production of one product to another. 
Others require substantial shifts in resources and production. 

Moreover, a considerable number of farm families, many of whom 
are employed full time in agriculture, have Relatively low incomes. 
Most of these families operate farms that are small when compared 
with farms that produce higher incomes. The acreage of land and 
the amount of capital controlled by the operators of these small 
farms are too small to provide a very high level of income. In 
recent years, many farm families on these small farms have made 
adjustments by leaving the farm to earn their incomes elsewhere, 
by discontinuing their farm operations, and by earning more non- 
farm income while remaining on the farm or on the place they 
farmed formerly. 

One objective of this report is to describe and analyze some of 
the existing differences and recent adjustments in the major types 
of farming and farm production. For important commodities and 
groups of farms, the report aims to make available, largely from 
the detailed data for the 1954 Census of Agriculture but in a more 
concise form, facts regarding the size of farms, capital, labor, and 
land resources on farms, amounts and sources of farm income and 
expenditures, combinations of crop and livestock enterprises, 
adjustment problems, operator characteristics, and variation in use 
of resources and in size of farms by areas and for widely differing 
production conditions. Those types of farms on which production 
of surplus products is important have been emphasized. The 
report will provide a factual basis for a better understanding of 
the widespread differences among farms in regard to size, resources, 
and income. It will also provide a basis for evaluating the effects 
of existing and proposed farm programs on the production and 
incomes of major types and classes of farms. 

Income from nonfarm sources is important on a large number 
of farms. About 1.4 million of the 4.8 million farm-operator 
families, or about 3 in 10, obtain more income from off -farm sources 
than from the sale of agricultural products. More than three- 
fourths of a million farm operators live on small-scale part-time 
farms and ordinarily are not dependent on farming as the main 
source of family income. These part-time fanners have a quite 
different relation to adjustments, changes, and farm problems 
than do commercial farmers. A description of and facts regarding 
these part-time farms and the importance of nonfarm income for 
commercial farms are presented in Chapter 8. 



Except for Chapter 8, this report deals with commercial farms 
(see economic class of farm). The analysis is limited to the major 
types of agricultural production and deals primarily with geo- 
graphic areas in which each of the major types of agricultural 
production has substantial significance. 

Source of data. — Most of the data presented in this report are 
from special compilations made for the 1954 Census of Agriculture, 
although pertinent data from research findings and surveys of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, State Agricultural Colleges, and 
other agencies have been used to supplement Census data. The 
detailed Census data used for this report are contained in Part 8 of 
Volume III of the reports of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 
Reference should be made to that report for detailed explanations 
and definitions and statements regarding the characteristics and 
reliability of the data. 

Areas for which data are presented. — Data are presented in 
this report primarily for selected economic subregions and for the 
1 nited States. The boundaries of the 119 subregions used for the 
compilation of data on winch this report is based are indicated by 
the map on page vi. These subregions represent primarily general 
type-of-farming areas. Many of them extend into two or more 
States. (For a more detailed description of economic subregions, 
see the publication "Economic Subregions of the United States, 
Series Census BAE; No. 19, published cooperatively by the Bureau 
of the Census, and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, July 1953.) 

DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Definitions and explanations are given only for some of the more 
important items. For more detailed definitions and explanations, 
reference can be made to Part 8 of Volume III and to Volume II of 
the reports of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

A farm. — For the 1954 Census of Agriculture, places of 3 or 
more acres were counted as farms if the annual value of agricultural 
products, exclusive of home-garden products, amounted to $150 
or more. The agricultural products could have been either for 
home use or for sale. Places of less than 3 acres were counted as 
farms only if the annual value of sales of agricultural products 
amounted to $150 or more. Places for which the value of agricul- 
tural products for 1954 was less than these minima because of crop 
failure or other unusual conditions, and places operated at the time 
of the Census for the first time were counted as farms if normally 
they could be expected to produce these minimum quantities of 
agricultural products. 

All the land under the control of one person or partnership was 
included as one farm. Control may have been through ownership, 
or through lease, rental, or cropping arrangement. 

Farm operator. — A "farm operator" is a person who operates 
a farm, either performing the labor himself or directly supervising 
it. He may be an owner, a hired manager, or a tenant, renter, or 
sharecropper. If he rents land to others or has land cropped for 
him by others, he is listed as the operator of only that land which 
he retains. In the case of a partnership, only one partner was 
included as the operator. The number of farm operators is con- 
sidered the same as the number of farms. 



VIII 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Farms reporting or operators reporting. — Figures for farms 
reporting or operators reporting, based on a tabulation of all farms, 
represent the number of farms, or farm operators, for which the 
specified item was reported. For example, if there were 11,922 
farms in a subregion and only 11,465 had chickens over 4 months 
old on hand, the number of farms reporting chickens would be 
1 1 ,465. The difference between the total number of farms and the 
number of farms reporting an item represents the number of farms 
not having that item, provided the inquiry was answered 
completely for all farms. 

Farms by type. — The classification of commercial farms by 
type was made on the basis of the relationship of the value of 
sales from a particular source, or sources, to the total value of all 
farm products sold from the farm. In some cases, the type of 
farm was determined on the basis of the sale of an individual farm 
product, such as cotton, or on the basis of the sales of closely re- 
lated products, such as dairy products. In other cases, the type 
of farm was determined on the basis of sales of a broader group of 
products, such as grain crops including corn, sorghums, all small 
grains, field peas, field beans, cowpeas, and soybeans. In order to 
be classified as a particular type, sales or anticipated sales of a 
product or group of products had to represent 50 percent or more 
of the total value of products sold. 

The types of commercial farms for which data are shown, to- 
gether with the product or group of products on which the classi- 
fication is based are: 

Product or group of -products amount- 
ing to SO percent or more of the 
Type of farm value of all farm products sold 

Cash-grain Corn, sorghum, small grains, field 

peas, field beans, cowpeas, and 
soybeans. 

Cotton Cotton (lint and seed). 

Other field-crop Peanuts, Irish potatoes, sweet- 
potatoes, tobacco, sugarcane, sug- 
ar beets for sugar, and other 
miscellaneous crops. 

Vegetable Vegetables. 

Fruit-and-nut Berries and other small fruits, and 

tree fruits, nuts, and grapes. 

Dairy Milk and other dairy products. 

The criterion of 50 percent of the 
total sales was modified in the 
case of dairy farms. A farm for 
which the value of sales of dairy 
products represented less than 50 
percent of the total value of farm 
products sold was classified as a 
dairy farm if — 

(a) Milk and other dairy prod- 
ucts accounted for 30 
percent or more of the 
total value of products 
sold, and 
(6) Milk cows represented 50 
percent or more of all 
cows, and 
(c) Sales of dairy products, to- 
gether with the sales 
of cattle and calves, 
amounted to 50 percent 
or more of the total 
value of farm products 
sold. 



Poultry. 



Livestock farms other 
dairy and poultry. 



than 



Chickens, eggs, turkeys, and other 
poultry products. 

Cattle, calves, hogs, sheep, goats, 
wool, and mohair, provided the 
farm did not. qualify as a dairy- 
farm. 



Product or group of products amount- 
ing to 50 percent or more of the 
Type of farm value of all farm products sold 

General Farms were classified as general 

when the value of products from 
one source or group of sources 
did not represent as much as 50 
percent of the total value of all 
farm products sold. Separate 
figures are given for three kinds 
of general farms: 

(a) Primarily crop. 

(b) Primarily livestock. 

(c) Crop and livestock. 

Primarily crop farms are those for 
which the sale of one of the 
following crops or groups of 
crops— vegetables, fruits and 
nuts, cotton, cash grains, or other 
field crops — did not amount to 
50 percent or more of the value 
of all farm products sold, but 
for which the value of sales for 
all these groups of crops repre- 
sented 70 percent or more of the 
value of all farm products sold. 

Primarily livestock farms are those 
which could not qualify as dairy 
farms, poultry farms, or livestock 
farms other than dairy and 
poultry, but on which the sale 
of livestock and poultry and 
livestock and poultry products 
amounted to 70 percent or more 
of the value of all farm products 
sold. 

General crop and livestock farms are 
those which could not be classi- 
fied as either crop farms or live- 
stock farms, but on which the 
sale of all crops amounted to at 
least 30 percent but less than 70 
percent of the total value of all 
farm products sold. 

Miscellaneous This group of farms includes those 

that had 50 percent or more of 
the total value of products ac- 
counted for by sale of horticul- 
tural products, or sale of horses, 
or sale of forest products. 

Farms by economic class. — A classification of farms by eco- 
nomic class was made for the purpose of segregating groups of 
farms that are somewhat alike in their characteristics and size of 
operation. This classification was made in order to present an 
accurate description of the farms in each class and in order to 
provide basic data for an analysis of the organization of agriculture. 

The classification of farms by economic class was made on the 
basis of three factors; namely, total value of all farm products 
sold, number of days the farm operator worked off the farm, and 
the relationship of the income received from nonfarm sources by 
the operator and members of his family to the value of all farm 
products sold. Farms operated by institutions, experiment sta- 
tions, grazing associations, and community projects were classified 
as abnormal, regardless of any of the three factors. 

For the purpose of determining the code for economic class and 
type of farm, it was necessary to obtain the total value of farm 
products sold as well as the value of some individual products 
sold. 

The total value of farm products sold was obtained by adding 
the reported or estimated values for all products sold from the 
farm. The value of livestock, livestock products except wool and 
mohair, vegetables, nursery and greenhouse products, and forest 



INTRODUCTION 



IX 



products was obtained by the enumerator from the farm operator 
for each farm. The enumerator also obtained from the farm 
operator the quantity sold for corn, sorghums, small grains, hays, 
and small fruits. The value of sales for these crops was obtained 
by multiplying the quantity sold by State average prices. 

The quantity sold was estimated for all other farm products. 
The entire quantity produced for wool, mohair, cotton, tobacco, 
sugar beets for sugar, sugarcane for sugar, broomcorn, hops, and 
mint for oil was estimated as sold. To obtain the value of each 
product sold, the quantity sold was multiplied by State average 
prices. 

In making the classification of farms by economic class, farms 
were grouped into two major groups, namely, commercial farms 
and other farms. In general, all farms with a value of sales of 
farm products amounting to $1,200 or more were classified as 
commercial. Farms with a value of sales of $250 to $1,199 were 
classified as commercial only if the farm operator worked off the 
farm less than 100 days or if the income of the farm operator and 
members of his family received from nonfarm sources was less than 
the total value of all farm products sold. 

Land in farms according to use. — Land in farms was classified 
according to the use made of it in 1954. The classes of land 
are mutually exclusive, i. e., each acre of land was included only 
once even though it may have had more than one use during the 
year. 

The classes referred to in this report are as follows: 

Cropland harvested.— This includes land from which crops 
were harvested; land from which hay (including wild hay) was 
cut; and land in small fruits, orchards, vineyards, nurseries, and 
greenhouses. Land from which two or more crops were reported 
as harvested was to be counted only once. 

Cropland used only for pasture. — In the 1954 Census, the 
enumerator's instructions stated that rotation pasture and all 
other cropland that was used only for pasture were to be in- 
cluded under this class. No further definition of cropland 
pastured was given the farm operator or enumerator. Per- 
manent open pasture may, therefore, have been included under 
this item or under "other pasture," depending on whether the 
enumerator or farm operator considered it as cropland. 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured. — This item includes 
idle cropland, land in soil-improvement crops only, land on 
which all crops failed, land seeded to crops for harvest after 
1954, and cultivated summer fallow. 

In the Western States, this class was subdivided to show 
separately the acres of cultivated summer fallow. In these 
States, the acreage not in cultivated summer fallow represents 
largely crop failure. There are very few counties in the West- 
ern States in which there is a large acreage of idle cropland or 
in which the growing of soil-improvement crops is an important 
use of the land. 

In the States other than the Western States, this general 
class was subdivided to show separately the acres of idle crop- 
land (not used for crops or for pasture in 1954). In these States, 
the incidence of crop failure is usually low. It was expected 
that the acreage figure that excluded idle land would reflect 
the acreage in soil-improvement crops. However, the 1954 
crop year was one of low rainfall in many Eastern and Southern 
States and, therefore, in these areas the acreage of cropland not 
harvested and not pastured includes more land on which all 
crops failed than would usually be the case. 

Cultivated summer fallow. — This item includes cropland 
that was plowed and cultivated but left unseeded for several 
months to control weeds and conserve moisture. No land 
from which crops were harvested in 1954 was to be included 
under this item. 

Cropland, total. — This includes cropland harvested, cropland 
used only for pasture, and cropland not harvested and not 
pastured. 

Land pastured, total. — This includes cropland used only for 
pasture, woodland pastured, and other pasture (not cropland 
and not woodland). 



Woodland, total. — This includes woodland pastured and 

woodland not pastured. 

Value of land and buildings. — The value to be reported was 
the approximate amount for which the land and the buildings on 
it would sell. 

Off-farm work and other income. — Many farm operators receive 
a part of their income from sources other than the sale of farm 
products from their farms. The 1954 Agriculture Questionnaire 
included several inquiries relating to work off the farm and non- 
farm income. These inquiries called for the number of days 
worked off the farm by the farm operator; whether other members 
of the operator's family worked off the farm; and whether the 
farm operator received income from other sources, such as sale 
of products from land rented out, cash rent, boarders, old age 
assistance, pensions, veterans' allowances, unemployment com- 
pensation, interest, dividends, profits from nonfarm business, 
and help from other members of the operator's family. Another 
inquiry asked whether the income of the operator and his family 
from off-farm work and other sources was greater than the total 
value of all agricultural products sold from the farm in 1954. 
Off-farm work was to include work at nonfarm jobs, businesses, 
or professions, whether performed on the farm premises or else- 
where; also, work on someone else's farm for pay or wages. Ex- 
change work was not to be included. 

Specified facilities and equipment. — Inquiries were made in 
1954 to determine the presence or absence of selected items on 
each place such as (1) telephone, (2) piped running water, (3) 
electricity, (4) television set, (5) home freezer, (6) electric pig 
brooder, (7) milking machine, and (8) power feed grinder. Such 
facilities or equipment were to be counted even though tem- 
porarily out of order. Piped running water was defined as water 
piped from a pressure system or by gravity flow from a natural 
or artificial source. The enumerator's instructions stated that 
pig brooders were to include those heated by an electric heating 
element, by an infrared or heat bulb, or by ordinary electric bulbs. 
They could be homemade. 

The number of selected types of other farm equipment was also 
obtained for a sample of farms. The selected kinds of farm 
equipment to be reported were (1) grain combines (for harvesting 
and threshing grains or seeds in one operation); (2) cornpickers; 
(3) pickup balers (stationary ones not to be reported) ; (4) field 
forage harvesters (for field chopping of silage and forage crops) ; 
(5) motortrucks; (6) wheel tractors (other than garden); (7) 
garden tractors; (8) crawler tractors (tracklaying, caterpillar) ; 
(9) automobiles; and (10) artificial ponds, reservoirs, and earth 
tanks. 

Wheel tractors were to include homemade tractors but were not 
to include implements having built-in power units such as self- 
propelled combines, powered buck rakes, etc. Pickup and truck- 
trailer combinations were to be reported as motortrucks. School 
buses were not to be reported, and jeeps and station wagons were 
to be included as motortrucks or automobiles, depending on 
whether used for hauling farm products or supplies, or as passenger 
vehicles. 

Farm labor. — The farm-labor inquiries for 1954, called for the 
number of persons doing farmwork or chores on the place during 
a specified calendar week. Since starting dates of the 1954 enumer- 
ation varied by areas or States, the calendar week to which the 
farm-labor inquiries related varied also. The calendar week was 
September 26-October 2 or October 24-30. States with the 
September 26-October 2 calendar week were: Arizona, California, 
Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky. 
Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, 
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, 



423021—57- 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, 
Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. States with the October 
24-30 calendar week were : Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North 
Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. 
Farmwork was to include any work, chores, or planning necessary 
to the operation of the farm or ranch business. Housework, 
contract construction work, and labor involved when equipment 
was hired (custom work) were not to be included. 

The farm-labor information was obtained in three parts: 
(1) Operators working, (2) unpaid members of the operator's family 
working, and (3) hired persons working. Operators were consid- 
ered as working if they worked 1 or more hours; unpaid members 
of the operator's family, if they worked 15 or more hours; and 
hired persons, if they worked any time during the calendar week 
specified. Instructions contained no specifications regarding age 
of the persons working. 

Regular and seasonal workers. — Hired persons working on 
the farm during the specified week were classed as "regular" 
workers if the period of actual or expected employment was 150 
days or more during the year, and as "seasonal" workers if the 
period of actual or expected employment was less than 150 days. 
If the period of expected employment was not reported, the 
period of employment was estimated for the individual farm 
after taking into account such items as the basis of payment, 
wage rate, expenditures for labor in 1954, and the type and 
other characteristics of the farm. 

Specified farm expenditures. — The 1954 Census obtained data 
for selected farm expense items in addition to those for fertilizer 
and lime. The expenditures were to include the total specified 
expenditures for the place whether made by landlord, tenant, or 
both. 

Expenditures for machine hire were to include any labor in- 
cluded in the cost of such machine hire. Machine hire refers to 
custom machine work such as tractor hire, threshing, combining, 
silo filling, baling, ginning, plowing, and spraying. If part of the 
farm products was given as pay for machine hire, the value of the 
products traded for this service was to be included in the amount 
of expenditures reported. The cost of trucking, freight, and 
express was not to be included. 

Expenditures for hired labor were to include only cash pay- 
ments. Expenditures for housework, custom work, and contract 
construction work were not to be included. 

Expenditures for feed were to include the expenditures for 
pasture, salt, condiments, concentrates, and mineral supplements, 
as well as those for grain, hay, and mill feeds. Expenditures for 
grinding and mixing feeds were also to be included. Payments 
made by a tenant to his landlord for feed grown on the land rented 
by the tenant were not to be included. 

Expenditures for gasoline and other petroleum fuel and oil were 
to include only those used for the farm business. Petroleum 
products used for the farmer's automobile for pleasure or used 
exclusively in the farm home for heating, cooking, and lighting 
were not to be included. 

Crops harvested. — The information on crops harvested refers 
to the acreage and quantity harvested for the 1954 crop year. An 
exception was made for land in fruit orchards and planted nut 
trees. In this case, the acreage represents that in both bearing 
and nonbearing trees and vines as of October and November 1954. 

Hay. — The data for hay includes all kinds of hay except soy- 
bean, cowpea, sorghum, and peanut hay. 

livestock and poultry. — The data on the number of livestock 
and poultry represent the number on hand on the day of enumera- 



tion (October-November 1954). The data relating to livestock 
products and the number of livestock sold relate to the sales made 
during the calendar year 1954. 

LABOR RESOURCES 

The data for labor resources available represent estimates based 
largely on Census data and developed for the purpose of making 
comparisons among farms of various size of operations. The 
labor resources available are stated in terms of man-equivalents. 

To obtain the man-equivalents the total number of farm opera- 
tors as reported by the 1954 Census were adjusted for estimated 
man-years of work off the farm and for the number of farm opera- 
tors 65 years old and over. The farm operator was taken to rep- 
resent a full man-equivalent of labor unless he was 65 years or 
older or unless he worked at an off-farm job in 1954. 

The man-equivalent estimated for farm operators reporting spec- 
ified amounts of off -farm work were as follows: 

Estimated 
Days worked off the farm in 1954 man-equivalent 

1-99 days 0.85 

100-199 days . 50 

200 days and over . 15 

The man-equivalent for farm operators 65 years of age and older 
was estimated at 0.5. 

Man-equivalents of members of the farm operator's family were 
based upon Census data obtained in response to the question 
"How many members of your family did 15 or more hours of farm 
work on this place the week of September 26-October 2 (or, in 
some areas, the week of October 24-30) without receiving cash 
wages?" Each family worker was considered as 0.5 man-equiva- 
lent. This estimate provides allowance for the somewhat higher 
incidence of women, children, and elderly persons in the unpaid 
family labor force. 

In addition, the number of unpaid family workers who were 
reported as working 15 or more hours in the week of September 
26-October 2 was adjusted to take account of seasonal changes in 
farm employment. Using published and unpublished findings of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture and State Agricultural Col- 
leges, and depending largely upon knowledge and experience with 
the geographic areas and type of farming, each author deter- 
mined the adjustment factor needed to correct the number of 
family workers reported for the week of September 26-October 2 
to an annual average basis. 

Man-equivalents of hired workers are based entirely upon the 
expenditure for cash wages and the average wage of permanent 
hired laborers as reported in the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

Value of or investment in livestock. — Numbers of specified 
livestock and poultry in each subregion were multiplied by a 
weighted average value per head. The average values were com- 
puted from data compiled for each kind of livestock for the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. The total value does not include the value 
of goats. (For a description of the method of obtaining the value 
of livestock, see Chapter VI of Volume II of the reports for the 
1954 Census of Agriculture.) 

Value of investment in machinery and equipment. — The data 
on value of investment in machinery and equipment were developed 
for the purpose of making broad comparisons among types and 
economic classes of farms and by subregions. Numbers of specified 
machines on farms, as reported by the Census, were multiplied by 
estimated average value per machine. Then the total values ob- 
tained were adjusted upward to provide for the inclusion of items 
of equipment not included in the Census inventory of farm 
machinery. 



INTRODUCTION 



XI 



The estimates for average value of specified machines and the 
proportion of total value of all machinery represented by the 
value of these machines were based largely on published and un- 
published data from the "Farm Costs and Returns" surveys con- 
ducted currently by the Agricultural Research Service, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. 1 Modifications were made as needed 
in the individual chapters on the basis of State and local studies. 
The total estimated value of all machinery for all types and 
economic classes of farms is approximately equal to the value of 
all machinery as estimated by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Value of farm products sold, or gross sales. — Data on the 
value of the various farm products sold were obtained for 1954 b\ 
two methods. First, the values of livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts sold, except wool and mohair; vegetables harvested fur sale; 
nursery and greenhouse products; and forest products were 
obtained by asking each farm operator the value of sales. Second, 
the values of all other farm products sold were computed. For the 
most important crops, the quantity sold or to be sold was obtained 
for each farm. The entire quantity harvested for cotton and 
cottonseed, tobacco, sugar beets for sugar, hops, mint for oil, and 
sugarcane for sugar was considered sold. The quantity of minor 
crops sold was estimated. The value of sales for each crop was 
computed by multiplying the quantity sold by State average 
prices. In the case of wool and mohair, the value of sales was 
computed by multiplying the quantity shorn or clipped by the 
State average prices. 

Gross sales include the value of all kinds of farm products sold. 
The total does not include rental and benefit, soil conservation, 
price adjustment, Sugar Act, and simitar payments. The total 



does include the value of the landlord's share of a crop removed 
from a farm operated by a share tenant. In most of the tables, 
detailed data are presented for only the more important sources 
of gross sales and the total for the individual farm products 
or sources will not equal the total as the values for the less impor- 
tant sources or farm products have been omitted. (For a detailed 
statement regarding the reliability and method of obtaining the 
value of farm products sold, reference should be made to Chapter 
IX of Volume II of the reports for the 1954 Census of Agriculture.) 

Livestock and livestock products sold. — The value of sales for 
livestock and livestock products includes the value of live animals 
sold, (laity products sold, poultry and poultry prodvicts sold, and 
the calculated value of wool and mohair. The value of bees, 
honey, fur animals, goats, and goat milk is not included. 

The value of dairy products includes the value of whole milk and 
cream sold, but does not include the value of butter and cheese, 
made on the farm, and sold. The value of poultry and products 
includes the value of chickens, broilers, chicken eggs, turkeys, 
turkey eggs, ducks, geese, and other miscellaneous poultry and 
poultry products sold. The value does not include the value 
of baby chicks sold. 

Crops sold. — Vegetables sold includes the value of all vegetables 
harvested for sale, but does not include the value of Irish potatoes 
and sweetpotatoes. 

The value of all crops sold includes the value of all crops sold 
except forest products. The value of field crops sold includes the 
value of sales of all crops sold except vegetables, small fruits and 
berries, fruits, and nuts. 



i Farm Costs and Returns. 1955 (with comparisons). Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 15S, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, June 1956. 



CHAPTER IV 
POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



i 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 5 

Types of poultry enterprises 6 

Egg product ion 6 

Size of flock 7 

Trend in size of flock 9 

Prices of eggs compared with prices of feed 9 

Production of broilers 111 

Trend of production. 11 

Capital requirements.- 12 

Broiler clucks 12 

Prices of live broilers compared with retail prices of 

broilers and other meats 12 

Prices of broilers compared with prices of feed 13 

Trends in feed efficiency 13 

Production of turkeys and other poultry products 14 

Turkeys 14 

Ducks 15 

Geese , 16 

MAPS AND 
Page 



Number of chickens on hand and chickens sold for the 

United States, Censuses of 1910 to 1954 

Value of poultry and poultry products sold, dollars, 1954 — 
Percent of farms reporting chickens on hand for the United 

Slates: 1910-1954 

Chickens on hand, number over 4 months old, 1954 

Chicken eggs sold, dozens, 1954 

Dozens of chicken eggs sold, by States: 1954 

Percent of farms reporting chickens and percent of total 
chickens on hand, by size of flock, for commercial farms, 
for the. United States and three geographic divisions: 

1954 

Commercial hroileis: Number produced for the United 

States and geographic areas: 1934-1955 

Average a.djusted retail price per pound and average farm 
price per pound for broilers, by months, based on 3-month 
moving average, for the United States: 1953 to 1956 



11 



13 



Poultry far 1 1 is 

Importance of poultry farms 

Important poultry areas 

Characteristics of poultry farms by economic class of 

farm 

Size of poultry farms 

Tenure and age of operator 

Broiler production in poultry subregions 

Labor use and gross sales per man-equivalent 

Work off farm . _ 

farm mechanization and home conveniences 

Production expenses 

Measures of efficiency levels of the poultry business.. 

CHARTS 

Average retail price per pound of selected kinds of meats, by 
months, based on 3-month moving average, for the 

United States: 1953 to 1956 

Average retail price per pound of broilers in three cities 

based on 3-month moving average: 1953 to 1956 

Trend of feed and broiler prices in the United States: 1947- 

1956 

Turkeys raised, number, 1954 

Poultry areas, United States: 1954 

Number of broilers sold in poultry subregions: 1954 

Number of broilers sold in poultry subregions: 1954 

Number of broilers sold, for subregions 73, 74, and 82: 195 1 
Number of broilers sold, for subregions 115, 116, and 117: 

1954 

Number of broilers sold, for subregion 119: 1954 



TABLES 
Table— 

1.— Value of livestock- and livestock products sold, for the United States and geographic divisions: 1954 

2. — Percentage of farms with chickens, by geographic divisions: 1910 to 1954 

3.— Distribution of farms reporting and number of chickens on hand, 4 months old and over, among commercial farms, part-time, 

and residential farms, for the United States and geographic divisions: 1954 

4.— Percent distribution of commercial farms reporting and number of chickens on hand, 4 months old and over, by size of flock, for 

the United States and geographic divisions: 1954 

5. — Farms reporting and number of chickens on hand, by size of flock, for the United States: 1930 to 1954 _ 

6.— Percent distribution of farms reporting chickens on hand, by size of flock, for the United States and selected geographic 

divisions: 1930 to 1954 

7. — Egg-feed price ratios for the United States: 1940 to 1954 

8. — Number of farms reporting and dozen eggs sold, by size of flock, for the United States: Censuses of 1930 to 1954 _ _ 

9. — Number of broilers sold in 13 leading producing States: 1954 

10. — Number of broilers sold, from 100 ranking counties: 1954 

11. — Farms reporting broilers, by number sold: 1954 

12. — Commercial broilers — Number produced for the United States and geographic divisions: 1934 to 1955 

13.— United States average prices of live broilers per pound, and broiler ration per hundred pounds, by months and annual averages: 

January 1947 through September 1956 

14.— Broiler-feed price ratios, United States, by months: January 1947 through September 1956... 

15. — Estimated average pounds of feed fed to broilers per bird, United States: Year beginning October 1, 19:53 to 1955. . 

16. — Number of turkeys raised in 16 leading States: 1954 

17. — Percent distribution of farms reporting turkeys raised, by number raised, for the United States and selected States: 1939 to 

1954 1 

3 



Page 
16 

16 

16 

19 
20 
21 
26 

27 
27 
27 
29 
32 

Page 

13 

14 

14 
15 
17 
17 
18 
18 

19 
19 



Page 
5 

5 



8 
S 

9 
9 
9 

10 
10 
11 
11 

12 

13 
14 
14 

15 



4 CONTENTS 

TABLES— Continued 

Table— Pag» 

18. — Number of turkeys, ducks, and geese raised in the United States: 1929 to 1954 15 

19. — Number and use of resources for all commercial farms, and all poultry farms in selected subregions: 1954 16 

20. — Poultry farms as a percent of all commercial farms, by subregions: 1954 16 

21. — Distribution of selected resources on all poultry farms and on poultry farms in selected poultry subregions, by economic class 

of farm: 1954 19 

22. — Distribution of all commercial and poultry farms by size of farm: 1954 20 

23. — Percent distribution of poultry farms, gross sales, and total investment, by economic class of farm, for selected subregions: 1954_ 20 

24. — Operators of poultry farms, by tenure of operator: 1954 20 

25. — Percent distribution of farm operators in each economic class of farm, by age, for all poultry farms in selected subregions: 1954- _ 21 

26. — Source of farm income on poultry farms, by economic class of farm, for selected poultry subregions: 1954 21 

27. — Land use on poultry farms, by economic class of farm, for selected subregions : 1954 23 

28. — Percent poultry farms are of all commercial farms, by size of farm, for selected poultry subregions: 1954 25 

29. — Percent distribution of operators of poultry farms in each economic class, by age, for selected poultry subregions: 1954 25 

30. — Source of labor on poultry farms, by economic class of farm, for selected poultry subregions: 1954 26 

31. — Average number of livestock and poultry per farm, for poultry farms, by economic class of farm, for selected poultry sub- 
regions: 1954 27 

32. — Gross sales and specified expenditures per farm, for poultry farms, by economic class of farm, for selected poultry subregions: 

1954 28 

33. — Work off the farm and other income for poultry farms, by economic class of farm, for selected poultry subregions: 1954 29 

34. — Selected facilities and equipment for poultry farms, by economic class of farm, for the United States and for selected poultry 

subregions : 1954 31 

35. — Selected measures of efficiency for poultry farms, by economic class of farm, for selected poultry subregions: 1954 33 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 

William P. Mortenson 



INTRODUCTION 

The place of poultry in American agriculture today is vastly 
different from what it was several decades ago. Great changes 
have occurred in tnb number of poultry on farms and in the meth- 
ods of production, the distribution of poultry production, and the 
demand for poultry and poultry products. 

From the time of early settlement until about 40 years ago, a 
poultry enterprise was found on virtually every farm. It was 
traditionally a minor sideline associated with such farm operations 
as the production of cash grain, livestock, dairy products, or 
cotton. Poultry meat was mainly the byproduct of egg produc- 
tion. Chickens that were no longer laying eggs at a satisfactory 
rate were sold for meat and the cockerels that were raised with 
the pullets were disposed of as fryers or roasters. A limited 
number of chickens were grown especially for meat. Poultry 
meat from these sources was supplemented with turkeys, ducks, 
and geese. 

Evidences of decisive changes began to appear in the early 
1930's. At about that time four developments began to take 
place in the poultry industry. (1) With a greater emphasis on 
flocks of commercial size, light breeds and strains of chickens 
gradually replaced the meat breeds, for use in making replacements 
in the laying flocks. (2) Feeding, breeding, and management 
practices were so improved that more eggs were produced per 
layer, so fewer layers were needed to supply the eggs that the 
market demanded. (3) As the technique of "sexing" chicks 
became perfected, only the female chicks were sold by the hatch- 
eries. The male chicks were destroyed under the assumption that 
it was unprofitable to grow them out. (4) Chicken broilers were 
beginning to claim a profitable part in the industry. 

In 1910, 5.6 of the 6.4 million farms in the United States, or 88 
percent of all farms, kept chickens. Since then the number of 
farmers with chickens has declined steadily; in 1954, only 71 
percent of the 4.8 million farms reported chickens. 

The proportion of farms with chickens declined in all geographic 
regions. However, the change in the percentage of farms report- 
ing chickens was greatest in New England and the smallest in the 
West South Central States. 

In New England, 79.5 percent of all farms reported chickens in 
1910 as compared with only 46.2 percent in 1954. In the East 
South Central States, 85.9 percent of the farms had chickens in 
1910 as compared with 79.5 percent in 1954. 



Although the number of farms keeping chickens has declined 
during the last 45 years, the total number of chickens has increased 
more than 50 percent. 

Statistics give substantial evidences of the changes during these 
several decades. Aside from chickens, the 1910 Census of Agri- 
culture shows that 870,000 farmers had turkeys, 060,000 had 
geese, and 500,000 had ducks. The combined number of ducks 
and geese on farms added up to 7)i million compared with 3% 
million turkeys. During the 44-year period from 1910 to 1954 
the numbers of ducks and geese increased slowly while the number 
of turkeys mounted. In 1954, only 11 million ducks and 1.7 
million geese were raised compared with 63 million turkeys — heavy 
and light breeds. 

In 1954, farm sales from poultry and poultry products, as 
reported in the Census, totaled about 2 billion dollars for the 
United States. Of this amount, $917 million came from the sale 
of chicken eggs, $558 million from broilers, $140 million from other 
chickens sold, and $304 million for the sale of turkeys, ducks, geese, 
and miscellaneous poultry and their eggs. This is equal to 28 
percent of the income from sales of all farm animals (cattle, hogs, 
sheep, horses, and mules) and equal to 58 percent of the income 
from tin- sale of dairy products. 

Poultry production is more important in some parts of the 
country than in others. In New England, the sale of poultry 
and poultry products accounted for 84 percent of the total income 
from livestock and poultry, and their products in 1954; in the 
Middle Atlantic States, 64 percent. On the other hand, in the 
Mountain States poultry sales accounted for only 6 percent of the 
total sales of livestock, poultry, and poultry products. 

Table 2. — Percentage of Farms with Chickens, by Geographic 
Divisions: 1910 to 1954 



Geographic division 


1910 


1920 


1925 


1930 


1935 


1940 


1945 


1950 


1954 


United States 


87.7 


90.5 


86.4 


85.4 


85.6 


84.5 


83. 6 


78.3 


71.4 


New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central 

West North Central 

South Atlantic 

East south Central 

West South Central 

Mountain.. 

Pacific 


79.5 
91.4 
93.0 
90.7 
87.3 

85.9 
85.6 
69. 1 

77.9 


81.7 
91.7 
94.1 
93.3 
90.8 

90. (I 
89.0 
80.6 
82. 1 


77.6 
87.7 
91.2 
91 5 
87.0 

85.2 
82.8 

71. 6 
72.0 


72.8 
86.9 
91.2 
92. 2 
85^8 

83.4 
82.2 
7.5. 3 
69.2 


64.5 
82.0 
88.5 
89.1 
87.5 

87.1 
87.2 
74.4 
68.9 


53.6 
76. 2 
84. 3 
88.2 
87.0 

ss 3 
89.4 
73. 
64.7 


55.6 
74. 1 
83.4 
17. 7 
84. 5 

87.4 
88.8 
77.7 
69.1 


49.2 
67. 5 
75.3 
.11 2 
81.5 

85 :; 
82.6 
69. 7 
59. 3 


46.2 
61.0 
67.7 
76.5 
73.4 

79. 5 

75.5 
61.8 
48.0 



Table 1. — Value of Livestock and Livestock Products Sold, for the United States and Geographic Divisions: 1954 





Value of livestock and livestock products sold (dollars) 


Value of poultry and poultry 
products sold as a percent of— 


Geographic division 


Total i 


Poultry and 
poultry 
products 


Dairy 2 


Livestock and livestock products other than — 


All live- 
stock and 
livestock 
products 


Live- 
stock and 
livestock 
products 
exclud- 
ing dairy 






Dairy and 
poultry 


Dairy 

products 


Poultry and 
poultry 
products 


Dairy 
products 


United States _ 


12. 292. 424. 309 


1.918,935,878 


3. 334, 066, 274 


7.039,422,157 


8, 958, 358. 035 


10.373,488.431 


15.6 


21.4 


57.6 




353,944.583 
1,032,563,394 
2.750,972.615 
3,825,467,516 

912,969.766 

526, 774. 850 

926.171,273 

905,142,006 

1,058,418,246 


143. 149. 632 
273, 185, 605 
285, 625, 679 
329. 726. 452 
350, 653, 386 

93, 093, 607 
155.131.905 

46, 032. 090 
242, 337, 522 


184, 109,033 
603,689,096 
955, 260, 190 
532.111,199 
257. 719, 027 

146,984,760 

174, 110,453 
121.327.106 
358, 755, 410 


26,685,918 

155. 688, 693 

1, 510. 086, 746 

2. 963, 629, 865 

304, 597, 353 

286, 696, 483 

596,928,915 
737.712.17(1 
457,325,314 


169,835,550 

42.1,874, 29S 

1,795,712,425 

3,293.356.317 

655, 250, 739 

379. 790. 090 
752,01111,12(1 
713.114.960 
699,662,836 


210,794.951 

759, ;!77. 7.19 

2, 46.5, 346. 936 

3,495,741,064 

562, 316, 380 

433,611,24! 
771.039.308 
859, 109. 976 
816,080,724 


2.5 i 
26.5 
10.4 
8 6 
31 4 

17.7 

16, 7 

5.1 

22.9 


84. 3 
63. 7 

1 5. 9 
111. 
53. 5 

24.5 

20.6 

5.9 

34.6 


77.8 


Middle Atlantic 


4.5. 3 


East North Central .. 


29.9 


West North Central .._ 


62.0 




136.1 


East South Central 

West South Central- 


63.3 
89.1 




38.0 


Pacific 


67. 5 







1 Includes cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, mules, wool, mohair, chickens, chicken eggs, other poultry and poultry products, milk, and cream, 
only includes cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, mules, wool, and mohair. 

2 Milk and cream. 

423021—57 3 



The livestock and livestock products 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



NUMBER OF CHICKENS ON HAND AND CHICKENS SOLD FOR 
THE UNITED STATES, CENSUSES OF 1910 TO 1954 



MILLIONS 
400 600 




Not Avoiioble 
Chickens on hand 
Chickens iold 



Figure 1 



V),V-^ VALUE OF POULTRY AND POULTRY PRODUCTS SOLD 

DOLLARS. 1954 




Figure 2 



PERCENT OF FARMS REPORTING CHICKENS ON HAND FOR THE UfflTEO STATES 1910- IBM 



X" 



K 

s 




CHICKENS ON HAND 
NUMBER OVER 4 MONTHS 0LD.1954 




Figure 3 



Figure 4 

TYPES OF POULTRY ENTERPRISES 

The three important types of poultry enterprises are (1) the 
production of eggs, {2) the production of broilers, and (3) the pro- 
duction of turkeys and other poultry products. Each of these 
types have significant characteristics and differ in their geographic 
distribution. 

Egg Production 

Although there has been a definite trend toward fewer and larger 
laying flocks on farms, the production of eggs is scattered rather 
widely over the country. Approximately three-fourths of our 
farms have a laying flock but on many farms egg production is 
not large — it is only a sideline. 

Except for heavy concentrations of chickens in New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and California, chickens 4 months old and over are 
distributed over all parts of the United States. Sales of eggs are 
more concentrated than the number of chickens. Almost half of 
all eggs sold are produced in five States — California, Minnesota, 
Iowa, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. 

The East North Central, West North Central, and Middle 
Atlantic geographic divisions lead in total sales of chicken eggs. 
The largest number of broilers is produced in the South Atlantic 
States. Production of eggs has become a highly commercialized 
farm operation in some areas with a continued growth of larger 
flocks concentrated into specific areas, but it continues to be 
a sideline on many farms throughout a large part of the country. 
Fewer than 5 percent of all farms have poultry as the main enter- 
prise. On 95 percent of the farms the poultry is secondary to 
other enterprises, with flocks of relatively few laying hens. 



CHICKEN EGGS SOLD 

DOZENS. 1954 




Figure 5 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



DOZENS OF CHICKEN EGGS SOLD, BY STATES: 1954 

MILLIONS OF DOZENS 
50 100 150 200 250 



NEW ENGLAND 












Me 


1 


N H 




Vt 


3 












Mass 


i 


R.I. 


3 


Conn. 


i 


MIDDLE 


ATLANTIC 




N.Y. 










N J 


1 






Pa 


1 


EAST n 


ORTH CENTRAL 




Ohio 


"'•• 1 






3 


Ind 








III. 










Mich 


1 






Wis. 


1 


WEST r 


ORTH CENTRAL 


Minn. 








Iowa 


.... \ 












Mo. 


:n 


N.Dak. 


Z3 


J 


S.Dak. 








Nebr. 


i 






Kan. 


i 


SOUTH 


ATLANTIC 




Del. 


1 












Md. 


§3 












Va. 


i 


W.Vo. 


1 


N.C. 


\ 


S.C 


m 


Ga. 


• i 


Fla. 




EAST S 


OUTH CEN 


TRAL 


Ky 


=13 












Tenn. 


i 


Ala 


zza 


Miss. 


— i 












WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 










Ark. 


~3 












Lo. 


3 












Okla. 














Tex. 


■, 


MOUNT 


UN 




Mont. 


3 












Idaho 


m 












Wyo. 


1 












Colo. 


m 












NMex. 


] 












Ariz. 


9 












Utah 


TUP 












Nev. 


3 












PACIFI 














Wash. 


; J 


Oreg. 


73 










Calif. 


, —■ 


1 




1 1 1 1 1 54C-57 



Figure G 



On the 4,782,416 farms in the United States, 2.4 million, or 
51 percent, have flocks below 100; on these farms most of the 
eggs and chickens are consumed on the farms where produced. 
Almost nine-tenths of the chickens that are 4 months old and 
over are on commercial farms. The other 10 percent are 011 part- 
time and residential farms. In the South Atlantic, East South 
Central, and West South Central geographic divisions almost 
40 percent of the farms that report chickens 4 months old and 
over, on hand, are on noncommercial farms. Those farms account 
for about 25 percent of the total number of chickens on hand. 

Size of flock. — Table 4 shows the variation in size of flock in 
different parts of the country. The percentage of farms reporting 
chickens and the percentage of total chickens on hand, by size 
of flock, for the United States and for three selected geographic 
divisions are shown in figure 7. Even though the small farm 
flocks are still common in all areas, a large proportion of the 
chickens on hand are in the larger flocks of 400 or more. For the 
United States, 63 percent of the farms reporting chickens have 
flocks of under 100 but these farms account for only 15 percent of 
the chickens on hand. Only about 6 percent of the farms report 
over 400 chickens on hand but these farms have 44 percent of the 
chickens. In the New England States, 56 percent of the farms 
report fewer than 100 chickens but account for only 3 percent of 
the total chickens; the great proportion of the chickens are in 
flocks of 400 or more. The 29 percent of the farms that have 400 
or more chickens account for 92 percent of all the chickens in 
New England. 

PERCENT OF FARMS REPORTING CHICKENS AND PERCENT 
OF TOTAL CHICKENS ON HAND. BY SIZE OF FLOCK.FOR 
COMMERCIAL FARMS, FOR THE UNITED STATES AND 
THREE GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS: 1954 



SIZE OF FLOCK r 

UNITED STATES 



UNDER 100 



PERCENT 
40 60 



100 TO 399 



400 AND 0VER W//////////////////^ 

NEW ENGLAND 
UNDER 100 

100 TO 399 



400 AND OVER 



100 TO 399 



400 AND OVER 




100 



EAST NORTH CENTRAL 
UNDER 100 

100 TO 399 

400 AN0 0VER W///////////A 

SOUTH ATLANTIC 
UNDER 100 



PERCENT OF FARMS REPORTING 



PERCENT OF TOTAL CHICKENS 
»40-irl 



Figure 7 



Table 3.- 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 

-Distribution of Farms Reporting and Number of Chickens on Hand, 4 Months Old and Over, Among Commercial 
Farms, Part-time, and Residential Farms, for the United States and Geographic Divisions: 1954 





All farms 


Commercial farms 


Other farms ' 




Farms 
reporting 


Number of 

chickens 4 

months old 

and over 


Farms re- 
porting as 
a percent- 
age of all 
farms 


Number of 
chickens 
as a per- 
centage of 
total for 
all farms 


Part-time 


Residential 


Geographic division 


Farms re- 
porting as 
a percent- 
age of all 
farms 


Number of 
chickens as 
a percent- 
age of total 
for all 
farms 


Farms re- 
porting as 
a percent- 
age of all 
farms 


Number of 
chickens as 
a percent- 
age of total 
for all 
farms 




3, 437, 491 


383. 970, 844 


70.0 


88.7 


11.5 


5.6 


18.5 










38, 550 
158,287 
544. 101 
696, 367 
632, 534 

C30. 478 
507. 990 
111,182 
118,002 


15,384,386 
51, 138, 685 
73, 232. 252 
109. 005, 263 
38, 528, 982 

27, 105, 797 

29, 282, 688 
9,729,916 

30, 562, 875 


61.2 
68.7 
79.2 
87.9 
59.6 

62.3 
59.4 
77.3 
62.1 


93.6 
93.3 
90.5 
95.2 
77.6 

72.6 
74.6 
87.7 
93.0 


12.8 
13.2 
9.7 
5.5 
13.2 

14.1 
15.0 
9.6 
14.5 


3.3 

4.0 
5.4 
2.7 
9.5 

11.8 
12.0 
6.3 
3.6 


25.7 
17.9 
11.0 
6.6 
27.1 

23.6 
25.6 
13.0 
23.4 


2 3 








3 9 


West North Central 


2.0 




12.6 


East South Central.. - 

West South Central 


15.4 
13.1 




5.0 




2.8 







1 Data ore not shown for abnormal farms. 



Table 4. — Percent Distribution of Commercial Farms Reporting and Number of Chickens on Hand, 
Over, By Size of Flock, for the United States and Geographic Divisions: 1954 



4 Months Old and 



Size of flock 



All farms with chickens. 
Farms with — 

Under 50 chickens 

50 to 99 chickens 

100 to 199 chickens.. 

200 to 399 chickens 

400 to 799 chickens 

800 to 1 ,599 chickens 

1,600 to 3,199 chickens 

3,200 chickens and over 



Percentage distribution in each geographic division 



United 
States 



Farms 
report- 
ing 



100.0 

44.8 
17.8 
17.8 
13.5 

4.0 
1.2 
0.5 
0.3 



Num 
ber of 
chick- 
ens 



100.0 

7.4 

8.0 

16.3 

24.3 

14.3 
9.1 



New 
England 



Farms 

report 

ing 



100.0 

44.0 
12.0 

7.7 
7.4 

9.0 
8.8 
6.7 
4.3 



Num- 
ber of 
chick 
ens 



100.0 

1.6 
1.2 
1.6 
3.3 

7.8 
15.8 
25.0 
43.7 



Middle 
Atlantic- 



Farms 
report- 
ing 



100.0 

29.9 
13.6 
15.5 
15.7 

11.9 
6.9 
4.0 
2.6 



Num- 
ber of 
chick 
ens 



100.0 

1.6 
2.0 
4.6 



14.3 
16.9 
20.5 
30.7 



East North 
Central 



Farms 
report- 
ing 



100.0 

23.2 
20.4 
29.4 
20.6 

5. 1 
1.0 
0.2 
0.1 



Num 

ber of 

chick 

ens 



100.0 

3.9 

8.7 

25.1 

33.7 

16.5 
6.4 
3.4 
2.4 



West North 
Central 



Farms 
report- 
ing 



100.0 

18.4 
16.3 
29.2 
28.7 

6.7 
0.7 
0.1 
(Z) 



Num- 
ber of 
chick 
ens 



100.0 

2.9 

6.3 

23.1 

43.1 

19. 1 
3.9 
0.8 
0.8 



South 
Atlantic 



Farms 
report- 
ing 



100.0 

72.3 
15.3 
6.0 

2.9 

1.8 
1. 1 
0.4 
0.2 



Num 

ber of 

chick 

ens 



100.0 

19.7 
11.6 
9.2 
9.3 

11.7 

14.3 
11.9 
12.2 



East South 
Central 



Farms 

report 

Ing 



100.0 

71.2 
19.8 
6.6 
1.5 

0.6 
0.3 

0. 1 
(Z) 



Num 

ber of 

chick 

ens 



100.0 

32.7 
24.0 
15.5 
7.3 

6.1 
5.4 
3.2 

5.8 



West South 
Central 



Farms 
report- 
ing 



100.0 

60.0 

20.1 

12.4 

5.5 

1.4 
0.5 
0.1 
(Z) 



Num 

ber of 

chick 

ens 



100.0 

19.6 

17 2 
21.4 

18 8 



6.4 
3 3 
3.7 



Mountain 



Farms 
report- 
ing 



100.0 

52.1 
22.8 
15.0 
6.3 

2.2 
0.9 
0.3 
0.2 



Num 
ber of 
chick- 
ens 



100.0 

13.0 
14.4 
18.6 
15.8 

11.6 
10.3 
7.1 
9.0 



Pacific 



Farms 

report- 

ing 



100.0 

60.2 
10.6 
6.1 
5.2 

5.3 
5.7 
4.3 
2.6 



Num- 
ber of 
chick- 
ens 



100.0 

3.2 
1.7 
2.0 
3.5 

7.5 
16.3 
25.1 
40.7 



Z Less than 0.05 percent. 

Table 5. — Farms Reporting and Number of Chickens on Hand, by Size of Flock, for the United States: 1930 to 1954 





1930 


1935 


1940 


1945 


1950 


1954^ 


Geographic division and size of flock ' 


Farms 
reporting 


Number of 
chickens 


Farms 
reporting 


Number of 
chickens 


Farms 
reporting 


Number of 
chickens 


Farms 
reporting 


Number of 
chickens 


Farms 
reporting 


Number of 
chickens 


Farms 
reporting 


Number of 
chickens 


United States 


5, 372, 597 


378, 878, 281 


5. 833, 079 


371, 603, 136 


5. 150, 055 


337, 949, 145 


1,896,374 


426, 654, 467 


4, 215. 616 


343. 108. 669 


2, 406, 338 


340 498, 127 






Farms with— 


2, 948, 635 
1, 189, 082 
859, 753 
305, 791 
69, 336 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


T fi7, 523, 123 

77, 129. 196 

109,050,204 

74, 293, 947 

50,881,811 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 


3. 406, 319 

1, 302, 928 

803, 293 

257, 171 

63, 368 

46,858 

12, 752 

3, 042 

716 


80. 193, 330 
82, 350, 866 
99, 761, 052 
62,118.316 
47,179,566 
23, 322. 929 
13, 241. 007 
6, 494, 733 
4, 120, 897 


3.016,142 

1. 100, 555 

735, 831 

237,010 

60, 517 

42,996 

12,948 

3,634 

939 


69, 579, 051 

70, 505, 334 
92, 586, 630 
57. 273, 801 
48, 004. 329 
21. 465. 478 
13, 542. 791 

7. 762. 999 
5, 233, 061 


2, 429, 924 

1, 075, 835 

869, 533 

113, 054 

ins. ojs 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 


59, 070, 984 

67. 582, 944 

110.276,403 

101, 606, 877 

88,117,259 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 


2, 392. 400 

810, 633 

641, 951 

282, 573 

88,059 

58, 349 

18. 775 

7,745 

3,190 


54. 921, 575 
51,571.059 
83, 937, 037 
70. 701. 746 
81, 977, 252 
29. 578, 209 
20. 001. 503 
16, 509, 680 
15, 887, 860 


1, 077, 385 

429, 049 

427,317 

325, 917 

146,670 

97, 238 

29,305 

12, 971 

7,156 


25,205,511 

27, 100. 590 
55 596 897 


60 to 99 chickens 


100 to 199 chickens... 


200 to 399 chickens 


82, 666, 993 
149, 929, 136 




400 to 799 chickens 


48, 640, 832 


800 to 1,699 chickens 
1,600 to 3,199 chickens 


30. 892. 223 
29, 139, 114 


3,200 chickens and over.. 


41, 256, 967 














Percont di 


stribution 












United States 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100. 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






Farms with — 


54.9 
22.1 
16.0 
5.7 
1.3 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


17.8 
20.4 
28.8 
19.6 
13.3 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 


58.4 
22.3 
13.8 
4.4 
1.1 
.8 

.1 

(Z) 


21.6 
22. 2 

2<i! s 

16.7 
12.7 
6.3 
3.6 
1.7 
1. 1 


58.6 
21.4 

14.3 

-i ■; 

1.2 
.8 
.3 
.1 
(Z) 


20.6 
20.9 
27.4 
16.9 
14.2 
6.4 
4.0 
2.3 
1.5 


49.6 
22.0 
17.8 
8.4 
2.2 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


13.8 
15.8 
25.8 
23.8 
20.7 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 

(NA) 


56.8 

19.2 

15.2 

6.7 

2.1 

1.4 

.4 

.2 

.1 


16.0 
15.0 
24.5 
20.6 
23.9 
8.6 
5.8 
4.8 
4.6 


44.8 

17.8 

17.8 

13.5 

6.0 

4.0 

1.2 

.5 

.3 


7.4 




8.0 


100 to 199 chickens 


16.3 


200 to 399 chickens 


24.3 




44.1 


400 to 799 chickens 


14.3 


800 to 1,599 chickens... 


9.1 


1,600 to 3,199 chickens 


8.6 
12.1 







NA Not available. 

Z 0.05 percent or less. 

i For 1954 and 1950, number of chickens on band. 4 months old and over; for 1945 and 1940, over 4 months old; and for 1935 and 1930, over 3 months old. 

2 Commercial farms only. 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



Table 6. — Percent Distribution of Farms Reporting Chickens 
on Hand, by Size of Flock, for the United States and 
Selected Geographic Divisions: 1930 to 1954 



Geographic division and size of 


Tercent distribution of farms reporting chickens 


Dock ' 


1930 


1935 


1940 


1945 


1950 


1954 




100.0 

54.9 
22.1 
16.0 

5.7 

13 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

58.4 

22.3 

13.8 

4.4 

1. 1 

.8 

2 

A 

(Z) 


100.0 

68. 6 
21.4 
14 3 
4.6 

1.2 
.8 
.3 
.1 
(Z) 


100.0 

49.6 
22.0 
17.8 
8.4 

2 2 

(NA? 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

66. 8 
19.2 
15.2 
6.7 

2.1 
1.4 

.4 
o 

A 


100.0 


Farms with— 


54.2 


50 to 99 chickens 

100 to 199 chickens 

200 to 399 chickens 


17.3 
14.3 
10.0 

4.3 


400 to 799 chickens. 


2.9 


800 to 1,599 chickens 

1,600 to 3,199 chickens. 

3,200 chickens and over 


.8 
.4 




loo.o 

66.8 
16.3 
8.6 
4.9 

3 5 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

70.0 
13.5 
7.5 
4.7 

4.4 
2.8 
1.2 
.3 
.1 


100.0 

65.0 
12.4 
8.2 
6.4 

8.0 
4.7 
2.4 

.7 
.2 


100.0 

63.4 
12.6 
8.6 

5.5 

9.9 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

68.8 
11.7 
8.5 
7.3 

13 7 
6.1 
4.5 
2.1 
1.0 


100.0 


Farms with— 


53.3 




13.5 


100 to 199 chickens- . 


8.3 


200 to 399 chickens 


6.8 




18.1 


400 to 799 chickens- .. 


6.0 


800 to 1,599 chickens 


5.4 


1,600 to 3,199 chickens 

3,200 chickens and over 


4.3 

2.5 


East North Central ._ 


100.0 

31.4 
33.3 
27.1 

7.2 

1.0 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

35.8 
31.4 

24.8 
6.9 

1.0 
.9 
. 1 

(Z) 

(Z) 


100.0 

38.9 

30.5 

23.8 

6.0 

.8 
.7 
.1 

(Z) 

(Z) 


100.0 

31.1 
26.3 
29.3 
11.3 

2.0 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

36.1 
26.1 
26.8 
9.3 

1.7 
1.4 
.2 
.1 
(Z) 


100.0 


Farms with — 


29.9 


50 to 99 chickens,. 


21.6 


100 to 199 chickens 


26.5 


200 to 399 chickens 


16.9 




5.1 


400 to 799 chickens- 


4.1 


800 to 1,599 chickens... 


.8 


1,600 to 3,199 chickens 

3,200 chickens and over 


2 

(Z)' 


Pacific 


100.0 

58.9 
17.2 
8.9 
6.0 

9.1 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

63.9 
16.4 
8.3 

5.1 

6.3 
3.5 
2.0 

.6 
.2 


100.0 

66.3 
14.6 

7.4 
4.8 

6.9 

3.7 

2.2 

.8 

.2 


100.0 

66.7 
16.2 
7.0 
4.1 

6.0 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

69.5 
11.6 
6.2 
4.6 

8.2 
3.6 
2.6 
1.3 
.6 


ioo.o 


Farms with — 


67.8 


50 to 99 chickens 


ll.fi 


100 to 199 chickens- . 


5.7 


200 to 399 chickens 


4.0 


400 chickens and over 

400 to 799 chickens 

800 to 1,599 chickens 


11.0 
3.7 
3.3 


1,600 to 3,199 chickens 

3,200 chickens and over 


2.5 
1.4 



NA Not available. 
Z 0.05 percent or less. 

1 For 1954 and 1950, number of chickens on hand, 4 months old and over; for 1945 and 
1940, over 4 months old; and for 1935 and 1930, over 3 months old. 

In the South Atlantic States, 88 percent of the farms have 
flocks of less than 100 chickens and only 3 percent have flocks of 
400 or more. This geographic division is mainly one of small 
farm flocks so that egg production is not important as a com- 
mercial farm enterprise. 



Trend in size of flock. — During the last quarter century there 
has been a distinct trend toward larger laying flocks in all parts of 
the country. In 1930, 77 percent of the farms reported fewer 
than 100 chickens on hand; in 1954, 71 percent. Only 7 percent 
reported more than 200 or more chickens on hand in 1930, com- 
pared with 14.3 percent in 1954. In New England, this change has 
occurred at a more rapid rate than in the rest of the country. 
More than 83 percent of the farms in New England reported 
chickens in flocks of less than 100 in 1930 compared with 67 per- 
cent in 1954. 

The number of farms with flocks of more than 400 increased 
rapidly over this 25-year period. Only 3.5 percent of the New 
England farms reported flocks of over 400 in 1930, compared with 
18.1 percent in 1954. Moreover, in 1954, 6.8 percent of the farms 
reported flocks of more than 1,600 compared with less than 0.4 
only 20 years earlier. 

In the Pacific States the trend toward large flocks was not quite 
so pronounced as in New England. In the East North Central 
States the trend has not been so marked as in other areas. 

Prices of eggs compared with prices of feed. — The price of eggs 
compared with the price of feed was more favorable during the 
5-year period 1950-1954 than during the 5-year period 1940-1944. 
The ratio of the local market price of eggs to feed price was more 
favorable in 1954 than for any year since 1940. 

The production of eggs is being concentrated on the larger 
specialized poultry farms. 

In 1929, only 21 percent of the eggs sold were produced on farms 
with 400 or more chickens on hand; by 1954, 56 percent of all eggs 
sold came from farms with 400 or more chickens on hand and the 
20,000 farms with 1,600 or more chickens on hand, produced 30 



Table 7- — Egg-Feed Price Ratios for the 
1940 to 1954 



United States: 



Year 


Ratio of 
cost of 
poultry 
egg-feed 
to local 
market 
price of eggs 
(pounds 
of feed) 


Year 


Ratio of 
cost of 
poultry 
egg-feed 
to local 
market 
price of eggs 
(pounds 
of feed) 


1940 


11.5 

13 5 

14 2 
14.5 

11.5 
13.4 
11.3 
11.1 


1948 . 


11 4 


1941 


1949 


13.2 




1950 


10.3 


1943 


1951 . 


12.0 


1944 


1952 


10 


1945 


1953 


12 3 


1946 


1954 . 


9.4 


1947 











Source: Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



Table 8. — Number of Farms Reporting and Dozen Eggs Sold, by Size of Flock, for the United States: Censuses of 1930 to 1954 





Farms reporting eggs sold 


Dozens of chicken eggs sold 


Size of flock i 


Number 


Percent distribution 


Number 


Percent distribution 




1954' 


1949 


1939' 


1929 


1954" 


1949 


1939' 


1929 


19M' 


1949 


1939 8 


1929 


1954 = 


1949 


1939' 


1929 


Total 


1,391.734 


2, 459, 984 


4, 875, 472 


3, 872, 482 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


2. 663. 454. 463 


2, 483. 696. 061 


2.391.091,510 


1. 955, 459. 439 


llHI n 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Farms with — 

Under 400 chickens 

400 chickens and over 

400 to 799 chickens 

800 to 1,599 chickens 

1,600 to 3,199 chickens 

3,200 chickens and over... 

400 to 999 chickens 

1,000 to 2,499 chickens 

2,500 chickens and over... . 


1. 248. 347 
143, 387 
94, 444 
28, 924 
12, 924 
7,095 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


2, 372. 761 
87, 223 
58.197 
18,650 
7,495 
2,881 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


4,815,757 
69, 715 
42.413 
12, 785 
3,589 
928 

47. 725 
10, 098 
1,892 


3, 804, 346 
68,136 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 

57, 095 
9.477 
1,564 


89.7 
10.3 
6.8 
2.1 
0.9 
0.5 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


96.5 
3.5 
2.4 
0.8 
0.3 
0.1 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


98.8 
1.2 
0.9 
0.3 
0.1 

(Z) 

1.0 

0.2 

(Z) 


98.2 
1.8 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 

1.5 
0.2 

(Z) 


1.158.590.290 
1,504,864.173 
409,333,605 
305. 753. 883 
322, 290, 945 
467, 485, 740 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


1. 654, 706, 249 
828,989.812 
282, 984, 008 
212, 265. 553 
176, 558. 654 
157, 181, 597 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


1,931.925,392 
459, 166, 118 
195, 208, 689 
136,891.980 
77, 885. 434 
49, 180, 015 

240. 874, 715 
142. 648. 700 
75, 642. 703 


1, 539, 716. 822 
415,742.617 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 

243. 716, 360 
116,421,355 
55, 604, 902 


43.5 
56.5 
15.4 
11.5 
12.1 
17. 6 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


66.6 
33.4 
11.4 
8.5 
7.1 
6.3 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 


80.8 
19.2 
8.2 
5.7 
3.3 
2.1 

10.1 
6.0 
3.2 


78.7 
21.3 

(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 
(NA) 

12.5 
6.0 
2.8 



NA Not available. 
Z 0.05 percent or less. 

' For Censuses of 1954 and 1950, number of chickens on hand, 4 months old and over; for 1940, over 4 months old; and for 1930, over 3 months old. 

3 Data are for commercial farms only. 

8 Data are for farms reporting and dozens of eggs produced. 



10 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



percent of all eggs sold. Although there were 1,392,000 farms 
reporting eggs sold in 1954, the 50,000 farms wUh 800 or more 
chickens on hand, accounted for more than 40 percent of the total 
sales. The 36,000 commercial poultry farms with 800 or more 
chickens on hand in 1954, produced over one-third of all chicken 
eggs sold. 

Table 9. — Number of Broilers Sold in 13 Leading Producing 
States: 1954 



State 


Number of 
broilers sold 


Percent of 

United 
States total 




792,373.716 


100.0 






Total, 13 States . . 


603, 582, 339 


76 2 








114, 369. 440 
62, 337, 491 
61, 590. 692 
55, 711, 200 
46, 094, 361 

39, 561. 620 
38, 275. 851 
37, 044, 088 
35, 463. 971 

34, 390, 326 
28, 650. 981 
25,816,794 
24, 275, 524 


14.4 




7.9 




7.8 




7.0 




5.8 




5 




4.8 




4.7 




4.5 




4.3 




3.6 




3 3 




3. 1 







Production of Broilers 

From its beginning, the production of chicken broilers has been 
a large-scale commercial operation rather than a sideline of gen- 
eral farming or other types of farming. Growth of the broiler 
enterprise largely replaced the production of spring fryers which, 
up until a decade or so ago, was frequently carried on as a part 
of the poultry enterprise on many farms. The production of 
broilers is more definitely concentrated into specific areas and into 
larger operations than is any of the other segments of the poultry 
industry. The chief broiler areas have developed mainly in five 
widely different parts of the United States: (1) Delaware- Mary- 
land-Virginia ("Delmarva"), {2) Georgia and Alabama, (8) 
Arkansas, (4) Texas, and (G) California. Within these groups of 
States the industry is concentrated into relatively few counties. 

The degree of the concentration is indicated by the value of 
broiler production in the ranking broiler counties. More than 60 
percent of the broiler production in this country comes from 100 
counties. In those counties the number sold in 1954 varied from 
58 million in Sussex County, Delaware, to around l}i million for 
each of the lower 27 ranking counties. 

In the more concentrated areas, broiler production is on such a 
highly commercialized basis that it might perhaps be classed more 
nearly as a rural manufacturing activity than as a farming opera- 
tion. Production is highly specialized and mechanized; it occurs 



Table 10. — Number of Broilers Sold, From 100 Ranking Counties: 1954 






County 


Farms re- 
porting 


Number of 
broilers 


Average 
number 
per farm 
reporting 


County 


Farms re- 
porting 


Number of 
broilers 


Average 
number 
per farm 
reporting 


Total. 100 counties 


26, 022 


477.141,072 


18,336 


Grant, W. Va 


388 
182 
165 

197 
296 

215 
71 
175 
183 
30 

117 
104 
130 

208 
270 

160 
150 
180 
168 
101 

130 
88 

108 
73 

169 

96 
242 

72 

5 

100 

183 
35 

117 
66 

105 

148 
164 
94 
69 
79 

47 
63 
89 
71 
39 

104 
168 
85 
81 
70 
113 


3,184,772 
3,114,663 
3, 103, C04 
3.091.C65 
3, 000, 600 

2.814.188 
2,814,172 
2, 795, 176 
2,793,611 
2, 771, 368 

2,748.411 
2. 667. 432 
2, 600, 898 
2. 540, 030 
2, 445, 222 

2, 442, 650 
2.388,816 
2.313,313 
2, 266, 583 
2, 222, 620 

2.205,339 
2,124,716 
2,104,186 
2,068.811 
1,984,850 

1,944,049 
1,918.553 
1,816.113 
1, 780, 700 
1, 765, 144 

1,685.291 
1, 672, 581 
1, 650, 955 
1, 627, 584 
1,625,553 

1,615,810 
1, 591, 610 
1, 575. 770 
1, 570. 075 
1,559,659 

1, 550. 247 
1,546,150 
1, 538, 120 
1, 505. 795 
1,495,3S2 

1,459,944 
1,455,849 
1,441.700 
1,439.633 
1,430,992 
1,423,961 


8,208 






17,114 




1,299 
882 

1,115 
431 
204 

864 

965 

290 

1,019 

1,049 

322 
498 
259 
498 
339 

270 
661 
259 
464 
256 

454 
246 
263 
532 
258 

212 

485 
161 
318 
305 

120 
256 
276 
289 
158 

343 
296 
308 
455 
75 

222 
292 
138 

1.50 
182 

200 
288 
140 
110 


57,716,993 
17.190.801 
16,894,517 
14, 887, 544 
12,915,636 

12,723.945 
12,644.702 
11,470.942 
11.12.5.356 
10, 959, 546 

8,810.911 
8,217.863 
8,186,347 
7.697.177 
7, 136, 721 

6, 988. 860 
6, 352. 427 
6,236,152 
6,177.550 
6, 006, 473 

5, 999. 949 
.5, 120. 676 
5, 369. 962 
4, 765. 7.52 
4, 726. 973 

4,712.338 
4, 589, 314 
4, 534. 472 
4, 489. 682 
4, 408, 438 

4, 386, 346 
4,343,117 
4, 325. 239 
4.314.270 
4,143,014 

4.124,882 
3, 922, 026 
3, 883, 480 
3. 799, 244 
3, 732, 585 

3,630.115 
3, .578. 484 
3,480.316 
3,458,199 
3, 448, 858 

3, 277, 463 
3,230,140 
3,206,234 
3, 205, 325 


44,432 
19, 491 
15,152 
34.542 
63.312 

14, 727 
13,103 
39, 555 
10,918 
10,448 

27, 363 
16.502 
31,608 
15,456 
21,052 

25, 885 
9.610 
24, 078 
13,314 
23,463 

13,216 

22. 035 
20, 418 

8,958 
18,322 

22. 228 

9,463 

30, 030 

. 14,118 

14, 454 

36, 553 
16,965 
1.5,671 
14,928 
26 222 

12,026 
13,250 
12,609 
8, 350 
49, 768 

16,352 
12,255 
2.5. 220 

23, 055 
18,950 

16,387 
11,216 " 
22, 902 
29, 139 








15,691 






10, 137 








13, 089 
39,636 




Talbot, Md... 






15, 972 


Hall, Ga..._ 


Cobb, Ga 








92, 379 








23, 491 






25, 648 












12,212 
9,056 


Wnldo, Maine 








Whitfield, Oa_ - 


15, 267 
15,925 




Carroll, Ga.. - 


Somerset, Md ... ._. . 




12,852 






13,492 
21,371 


Caroline, Md. 












16,964 






24, 145 


Chatham, N. C 




19,483 


Cullman, Ala. _ _ . 


Walker, Ala 


28,340 






1 1, 745 


Wilke S N. C- 






New London, Conn. _ 


20, 251 






7,928 






25,224 


Hardy, W. Va 




356, 140 


Smith, Miss . 




17,651 


White, Ga 






Jackson, Ga - .. _. .. 


9,209 






47,788 


Kennebec, Maine _ 




14,111 






24. 660 






15, 481 


Accomack, Va 




10,918 






10. 335 


Moore, N. C 

Franklin, Ga... 


Rockingham, N. H._ 


16,764 
22, 755 


Randolph, N. C. 




19, 743 


Pendleton, W. Va 


Aiken, S. C - 1 






32.984 




24. 542 


San Bernardino, Calif 




17,282 


Pickens. Ga 




21,208 


Yell. Ark . 


Hale, Ala 


38, 343 


Kent, Del... _ 






Washington, Ind .. 


14,038 






8,666 


McDonald, Mo 




16, 961 


Fulton, Ga 




17,773 


Winston, Ala - 




20,443 


Fresno, Calif . . 




12, 601 









POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



11 



on most farms within the limits of the broiler house. Very little 
land is required; chicks, feed, and other production items are 
nearly always purchased. 

Broiler production is concentrated mostly on a relatively few 
farms. Only 50,000 farms reported broilers sold, in 1954. More 
than 98 percent of the broilers sold were from the 28,000 farms 
each of which sold 8,000 or more in 19") 1. 

Table 12 shows the broiler production by geographic divisions. 
The South Atlantic produced 462 million; the South Central, 293 
million; and the North Atlantic, 139 million, in 1955. These 
three divisions produced 83 percent of the United States total of 
slightly over a billion birds. 

Trend of production. — Probably no farm enterprise has in- 
creased so rapidly during the last two decades. From a small 
beginning of some 34 million broilers in 1934 the production has 
expanded to about 1.3 billion birds in 1956 — a 35-fold increase. 
The development has been especially rapid since World War II. 

A combination of full employment at favorable wages for 
consumers and heavy food purchases by the Armed Services during 
and after the war, created a powerful overall demand for food, 
resulting in a pronounced advance in food prices, especially for 
meat, including broiler meat. 

Broiler prices were high before 1950, not only compared with 
prewar years, but in relation to the price of feed as well. But 
favorable prices for broilers, in relation to the price of feed, began 
to change about 1950. Notwithstanding the decline in returns 
to the producers, the trend of production continued upward 
although at a somewhat reduced rate until 1955. Between 1955 
and 1956, however, the increase was at a more rapid rate — an in- 
crease of more than a fifth for the country as a whole. 

The volume of broiler production was greatest in the South 
Atlantic, South Central, and North Atlantic geographic divisions. 
The rate of increase in production from 1934 to 1955 by geographic 
divisions is shown in figure 8. (The data in figure 8 are in 
millions of broilers. This type of chart is commonly referred to 
as a "ratio chart" with three "decks" or levels. The bottom 
level shows the figures in units. Thus, the figures on that level 
are from 1 to 10 million. On the second level the figures are from 
10 to 100 million, and on the top level fmn 100 to 1,000 million. 
Hence, the line showing the United States production for 1954 
and 1955 is slightly over 1,000 million. The amount of slope of 
any line in figure 8 indicates the rate of increase.) 

The South Atlantic, South Central, and North Atlantic di- 
visions have had a more rapid rate of increase during the last 10 
years than have the East North Central or the West North 
Central divisions. 



Table 11.- — Farms Reporting Broilers, by Number Sold: 1954 



Farms reporting number of broilers sold as- 






under 8.000... 
8,000 to 15,999. 

16.000 to 31,999. 

32.1 KJ0 to 39,999. 
40,000 to 49,999. 

50,000 to 59,999. 
60,000 to 69,999. 
70.000 to 79,999. 
80,000 and over 



Number of farms 


Total 


Percent 
distribution 


22. 003 


43.9 


12, 483 


24.9 


9,747 


19.5 


1,822 


3.6 


1,662 


3.1 


790 


1.6 


655 


1.3 


337 


0.7 


695 


1.4 



COMMERICAL BROILERS NUMBER PRODUCED FOR THE UNITED STATES AN0 GEOGRAPHIC AREAS 
1934-1955 




Figure 8 



Table 12. — Commercial Broilers — Number Produced for the United States and Geographic Divisions: 1934 to 1955 



Geographic division 


Number (thousands) 




1934 


1935 


1936 


1937 


1938 


1939 


1940 


1941 


1942 


1943 


1944 


United Slates .- 


34,030 


42, 890 


53, 155 


67,915 


82,420 


105, 630 


142, 762 


191,502 


228,187 


285, 293 


274, 149 






North Atlantic 


6,300 
5.700 
1,700 
13, 200 
5. .'.01.1 
1,570 


7,345 

6,415 
1,800 
18, 200 
6, 650 
2,480 


8,660 
7, 365 
1,930 
23,150 
8,750 
3,300 


10, 360 
7,970 
2.070 
32. 100 
10, 700 
4,715 


12,110 
9,030 
2,280 
39, 200 
14,150 
5,650 


14,060 
10. 650 

4, 425 
60, 600 
19, 150 

6,755 


17. 000 
13, 600 

5,125 
76, 900 
22. 516 

7,621 


20, 300 
17,350 
5, 975 
107, 660 
30, 985 
9,232 


24,600 
19,310 
6,725 
132,550 
33, 835 
11,167 


32.210 
24. 405 
8, 237 
162,800 
42. 068 
15,573 


29,164 


East North Central 


21,656 


West North Central 


7, 906 


South Atlantic 

South Central 


157, 148 
30, 741 




21, 534 






Geographic division 


Number (thousands) 




1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1964 


1955 


United States 


305, 572 


292, 527 


310,168 


370,515 


513,296 


631,458 


788, an 


800, 891 


946, 533 


1,047,798 


1,078,264 






North Atlantic 


42, 903 
29, 739 
9.827 

201,709 
44, 690 
33,644 


35, 686 
25, 245 
8,242 
160,647 
40, 365 
22, 343 


34,648 
26,388 
7,801 
175,228 
39, 320 
26, 783 


46,813 

31,984 

13,014 

192, 194 

.-,0, Mil 
29, 706 


62,609 
41,386 
21,959 

■.'.'..', 229 
93,511 
38, 702 


79,119 
52, 637 
25,649 
298, 129 
123, 337 
62,687 


97, 186 
64,942 
32, 413 
348, 724 
178, 569 
66, 767 


106, 205 
69,854 
34, 863 
368, 278 
215,136 
66, 556 


123, 787 
73,916 
37, 178 
405,917 
237, 626 
68,209 


133,096 

78,973 

39. 974 

448, 506 

275. 958 

71,241 


139,083 




76, 297 


West North Central 


38,281 




461,830 


South Central. 


292, 758 




70, 006 







12 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Capital requirements. — Capital requirements are high for a 
broiler operation large enough to provide a satisfactory income 
for a farm family. Most operators find it necessary to borrow 
funds for both fixed and working capital. Fixed capital includes 
mainly capital for land, buildings, and equipment. Short-time 
or working capital includes feed, fuel, litter, chicks, and medicine. 

Investment in buildings and equipment varies greatly from flock 
to flock, depending upon the type and quality of building and the 
amount of equipment. If automatic feeding and watering equip- 
ment is used, the costs of equipment are naturally higher than if 
manual equipment is used. But automatic equipment reduces 
the costs of labor, especially on the larger operations. 

As the capital requirement is relatively high, most broiler 
operators have to borrow a considerable part of it. This is 
especially true of the requirements for chicks and feed. The 
method and extent of financing broiler production might be called 
unique. A large proportion of the required capital is operating 
capital, consisting of feed, chicks, medicine, fuel, and litter. As 
the production period for a batch of broilers is about 10 to 12 
weeks, short-term operating capital is needed in cycles during 3 
or 4 production periods of the year. Peak requirements are 
reached just before the broilers are marketed. 

Few broiler growers have enough funds to finance a large-scale 
operation and some of those who do prefer to be financed by 
others rather than take all the risk themselves. Feed dealers and 
others not engaged in farming often provide these funds. Financ- 
ing is generally carried out under one of four methods: Open 
account, share contract, flat fee, or labor contract. The most 
common source of finance is through the dealer who supplies the 
grower with feed. (See bulletin no. 470, October 1954, Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, Virginia Polytechnic Institute for a 
description of method of farming.) 

Broiler chicks. — Production of hatchery eggs for broiler chicks 
is an important phase of the broiler industry. To supply the 



chicks, hatcheries must obtain the necessary number of eggs from 
broiler breeds and strains. The job of supplying eggs consists 
not only of producing the eggs but also of doing experimental 
breeding work necessary to develop the type of chick that will 
have a high efficiency in feed conversion and will reach market 
weight early. 

In developing "breeding hens,*' consideration must also be 
given to the development of a strain that will have a high rate of 
lay in order that hatching eggs can be produced as cheaply as 
possible. 

Prices of live broilers compared with retail prices of broilers 
and other meats. — Prices for broilers have dropped significantly 
during the last 3 years. Figure 9 shows the trends of the farm 
and retail prices of broilers from January 1953 through August 
1956. To make for better comparison in the chart, the retail 
prices were decreased by 25 percent to allow for actual shrinkage 
in the process of dressing. With this adjustment, the trend of 
price comparisons is somewhat more easily seen than if actual 
retail prices were used. 

It is significant that the two trend (straight) lines are almost 
exactly parallel, showing that the farm prices of the live birds and 
the retail prices of the "ready to cook" broilers have decreased 
by a like amount since January 1953. 

In figure 10 retail prices of round steak, rib roast, and broilers, 
from January 1953 to September 1956, are compared. Prices of 
round steak and rib roast declined in about the same degree. 
Prices of broilers declined at a much more rapid rate than the 
prices of round steak and rib roast and reached an all time low in 
September 1956. 

Even though prices for broilers are highly competitive there is a 
distinct spread in retail prices between cities in some parts of the 
country. Since January 1953, prices have been distinctly higher 
in Seattle than in Minneapolis and much higher than in Washing- 
ton, D. C. (See figure 11.) 



Table 13. — United States Average Prices of Live Broilers per Pound, and Broiler Ration per Hundred Pounds, by Months 

and Annual Averages: January 1947 Through September 1956 



Year 


January 


February 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


August 


Septem- 
ber 


October 


Novem- 
ber 


Decem- 
ber 


Weighted 
average 




Cents pcr'pound. live weight of broilers 


1947 

1948 


29.8 
37.2 
31.1 
21.3 
26.4 

28.8 
27.9 
24.2 
24.4 
20.3 


25.6 
34.5 
28.4 
26.1 
29.2 

29.3 
27.7 
22.6 
25.4 
21.4 


29.4 
36.3 
30.0 
29.6 
30.8 

28.1 
28.1 
23.5 
29.7 
21.9 


30.8 
37.4 
30.2 
28.9 
30.5 

27.1 
28.0 
24.3 
28.4 
20.5 


32.1 
37.5 
27.4 
27.7 
28.8 

25.3 
27.2 
23.7 
27.0 
21.1 


32.6 

38.2 
26.1 
27.1 
29.7 

26.8 
26.2 
24.4 
27.2 
19.9 


32.8 
36.4 
26.7 
29.6 
29.3 

29.3 

28.3 
25.4 
26.5 
21.7 


34.0 
36.6 
29.3 
31.0 
29.7 

31.0 
27.9 
24.9 
26.9 
19.6 


36.3 
36.2 
28.6 
29.9 
29.1 

31.3 
27.1 
23.0 
25.2 
18.3 


35.1 

33.2 
27.3 
26.6 
26.4 

29.1 
26.7 
21.0 
22.0 


32.0 
32.6 
28.4 
25.7 
25.7 

31.6 

26.0 
20.1 
21.2 


35.5 
34.0 
25.6 
24.2 
25.7 

29.7 
23.2 
19.2 
19.4 


32.3 


1949 




1950 .-. . 




1951 




1952 


28 8 


1953 


27 1 


1954 


23 1 


1955 


25 2 


1956 















Year 



January 



February 



March 



April 



May 



June 



July 



August 



Septem- 
ber 



October 



Novem- 
ber 



Decem- 
ber 



Average 



Dollars per hundred pounds of feed 



1947. 
1948. 
1949. 
1950. 
1951. 

1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 



4.65 


4.55 


4.80 


4.95 


4.90 


5.05 


5.20 


5.45 


5.65 


6.80 


5.85 


5.95 


6.15 


5.95 


5.85 


5.85 


5.80 


6.75 


5.70 


5.30 


5.10 


4.95 


4.90 


4.95 


4.90 


4.80 


4.80 


4.85 


4.85 


4.80 


4.90 


5.00 


4.95 


4.85 


4.75 


4.75 


4. 75 


4.70 


4.70 


4.80 


4.95 


4.95 


5.05 


5.15 


5.00 


4.95 


5.00 


6.05 


5.20 


5.25 


5.35 


5.30 


5.35 


5.30 


5.35 


5.35 


5.' 35 


5.45 


5.50 


5.55 


5. 60 


5. 65 


5.65 


5.70 


5.70 


5.70 


5.65 


5.70 


5.75 


5.65 


6.55 


6.50 


5.46 


5.38 


5.34 


5.32 


5.28 


5.26 


6.23 


5.23 


6.22 


6.14 


5.09 


5.23 


5.23 


5.26 


5.32 


5.41 


5.51 


5.39 


6.35 


5.39 


5.33 


5.19 


6.17 


5.18 


5.20 


5.18 


5.15 


5.13 


5.08 


5.02 


5.02 


4.95 


4.85 


4.88 


4.77 


4.78 


4.79 


4.81 


4.81 


4.91 


6.02 


5.06 


5.08 


5.10 


5.05 

















5.23 
5.52 
4.85 
4.92 
5.36 

5.65 
5.26 
5.31 
5. 00 



Source: Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



13 



AVERAGE AOJUSTED RETAIL PRICE PER POUND AND AVERAGE 

FARM PRICE PER POUND FOR BROILERS, BY MONTHS, BASED 

ON 3- MONTH MOVING AVERAGE, 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 1953 TO 1956 

(RETAIL PRICES DECREASED 25 PERCENT BECAUSE OF SHRINKAGE IN DRESSING) 
CENTS PER 
POUND 
55 




JFMAMJ JASONDJ F MAMJJ ASONDJFMAMJJASONDJ FMAUJ J A 

1953 1954 1955 1956 

-^ TRENO LINE FITTED 8Y INSPECTION 54C-I86 

Sources Retail prices from US Bureau of Lobot Statistics 
Form Prices from AMS, USDA 

Figure 9 

The trends of broiler prices compared with feed are shown in 
Figure 12 and Table 13. Feed prices have been maintained at a 
more-or-less constant level since 1949 while the trend of broiler 
prices has continued downward except for relatively high peaks in 
certain months of 1952 and 1955. 

Prices of broilers compared with prices of feed. — The price of 
broilers compared with the price of feed (the broiler-feed ratio) has 
become less favorable to broiler growers since 1948. In that 
year a pound of live broiler would buy 6.5 pounds of feed (1 to 
6.5 ratio). With a few exceptions, the ratio continued to become 
less favorable until 1954, when the annual average dropped to 1 
to 4.3. That is, the price of a pound of live broiler was equivalent 
to only 4.3 pounds of feed, compared with 6.5 pounds in 1948. 
During 1955 the relationship improved somewhat, but in 1956 it 
again grew less favorable and during the first 9 months averaged 
only 1 to 4.1. The lowest ratio during that entire 10-year period 
occurred in September 1956. 



Trends in feed efficiency. — The rapid increase in efficiency in 
broiler production has only partly offset the decline in the ratio of 
broiler prices to feed prices, which has taken place since 1948. As 
feed constitutes about two-thirds of the total cost of producing 
broilers, feed efficiency is influential in the profitableness of produc- 
tion. 

During the last 25 years, the feed efficiency (pounds of feed per 
pound of gain) has increased significantly. About 20 years ago, 
sonic what more than 12 pounds of feed were required to produce 
a 3-pound broiler. Now it can be produced on less than 9 pounds 
of feed — a reduction of more than 25 percent in feed requirement. 
The increase in feed efficiency was gradual until the late 1940's. 
Since then it has been stepped up at a rapid rate. This increase 



AVERAGE RETAIL PRICE PER POUND OF SELECTED KINDS 

OF MEATS, BY MONTHS, BASED ON 3-MONTH MOVING 

AVERAGE, FOR THE UNITED STATES 1953 TO 1956 




JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJAS 

1953 1954 1955 1956 

^SEPTEMBER 1956 ACTUAL PRICES 
^ TREND LINE FITTED BY INSPECTION 
Source U S Buteou of Lobor Sfotlstics 34c-ib» 



Figure 10 



Table 14. — Broiler-Feed Price Ratios, 1 United States, by 


Months: January 1947 Through September 1956 




Year 


January 


February 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


August 


Septem- 
ber 


October 


Novem- 
ber 


Decem- 
ber 


Average 


1947 


6.4 
6.0 
6.3 
4.5 
5.1 

5.1 
5.2 
4.6 
4.7 
4.2 


5.6 
5.8 
5.9 
5.6 
5.6 

5.2 
5.2 
4.3 
4.9 
4.4 


6.1 
6.2 
6.2 
6.3 
5.8 

5.0 
5.3 
4.4 
5.8 
4.6 


6.2 
6.4 
6.2 
6.0 
5.8 

4.8 
5.3 
4.5 
5.5 
4.2 


6.6 
6.5 
5.6 
5.6 
5.4 

4.4 
5.2 
4.3 

5.3 
4.2 


6.5 
6.6 

5.4 
5.5 
5.6 

4.7 
5.0 
4.5 
5.4 
3.9 


6.3 
6.4 

6.4 
5.9 
5.5 

5.2 
5.4 
4.7 
5.3 
4.3 


6.2 
6.9 
5.9 
6.0 
5.6 

5.4 
5.4 
4.6 
5.4 
3.8 


6.4 
7.1 
5.8 
6.0 
5.4 

5.4 
5.2 
4.3 
5.2 
3.6 


6.1 
6.7 
5.6 
5.4 
4.8 

5.2 
5.2 
4.0 
4.5 


5.5 
6.6 
6.0 
5.1 
4.7 

5.7 
5.1 
3.9 

4.4 


6.0 
ti.9 
5.4 
4.8 
4.6 

5.4 
4.5 
3.7 
4.1 




1948 




1949 




1950-.- - 




1951 




1952 




1953 




1954... 




1955 




1956 -_ 















' Number of pounds of broiler masb equal in value to 1 pound of broiler— live weight. 
423021—57 i 



14 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



AVERAGE RETAIL PRICE PER POUND OF BROILERS IN 
THREE CITIES BASED ON 3- MONTH MOVING 
AVERAGE: 1953 TO 1956 




JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJA 



1953 1954 

Source U S Bureau of Labor statistics 



1955 



1956 



Figure 11 



TRENO OF FEED UNO BROILER PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES: I947-I9S6 




Figure 12 

has been due to several factors, such as the development of better 
strains of birds through an effective breeding program, improved 
feeding and management practices, and a great improvement in 
the quality of feed. 

In addition to the increase in feed efficiency there have been 
other gains in operation efficiency. Improvements have been 
made in sanitation and disease control. Increases in the size of 
broiler enterprises have made for more efficient use of labor and 
capital. 



Table 15. — Estimated Average Pounds of Feed Fed to 
Broilers Per Bird, United States: Year Beginning OcTO' 
ber 1, 1933 to 1955 



Year 


Pounds of 

feed per 

bird 


Year 


Pounds of 

feed per 

bird 


1933 


12.3 
12.0 
12.5 
11.8 
12.7 
11.7 

11.9 
12.3 
12.0 
12.5 
11.8 
12 


1945 


12.3 
11.9 
11.5 
11.5 
10.2 
10.3 

9.8 
9.2 


1934 


1946 


1935 


1947 


1936 


1948 


1937 


1949 


1938 


1950 


1939 


1951 


1940 


1952 


1941 


1953 .. 


1942 _ 


1954 .. 


9.0 

8.8 


1943.. 


1955 .. 


1944 











Source: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 



Production of Turkeys and Other Poultry Products 

Turkeys. — Turkeys constituted a small sideline enterprise on 
many farms in 1910. The growing of turkeys has now become a 
highly commercial affair. At that earlier date, 870,000 farmers 
reported 3% million turkeys on hand, averaging 4 turkeys per 
farm. In 1954, 170,000 farmers raised 63 million turkeys, averag- 
ing 370 per farm. Some farmers reported as many as 20,000 
turkeys in a single flock. The number of ducks raised each year 
has been continued at about some 11 million birds but there has 
been gradually distinct concentrations in specific areas. 

Until about 25 years ago, a few turkeys could be found on about 
a tenth of our farms. They were used mainly to add to the family 
meat supply but some were sold locally. In 1929 there were 
638,000 farms reporting turkeys raised, with an average of 26 
turkeys raised per farm. By 1939 the number of farms with 
turkeys had decreased to 390,000 but the average number raised 
per farm had more than doubled. 

After 1940 the number of farms raising turkeys continued to 
decline, but the number of birds raised increased rapidly. From 
1944 to 1954 the number increased from 27 million to 63 million, 
and the average number raised per farm was 370 in 1954. This 
average does not fully indicate the size of the turkey enterprise on 
many farms. The tendency toward larger flocks has been general 
in all parts of the country. A large proportion of the turkey crop 

Table 16. — Number of Turkeys Raised in 16 Leading States: 

1954 



State 


Number 

farms 
reporting 


Number 
turkeys 
raised 


Average 
per farm 
reporting 




6.125 
2,629 
5, 550 
2,163 
25, 356 

3,198 
4,427 
6,389 
1,001 
2,157 

1,594 
2,280 
2,386 
5,213 
6,023 
2,336 


9,911,034 
7, 055, 002 
5, 104, 489 
4, 265, 787 
2, 805, 988 

2, 532, 026 
2, 394, 903 
2, 361, 410 
2, 303, 637 
2,033,179 

1, 660, 672 
1, 702, 836 
1, 501. 596 
1, 392, 286 
1, 353. 799 
1, 107, 880 


1,618 




2,684 




920 




1,972 




111 


Ohio - -- - 


792 




541 




438 


Utah -- - 


2,301 




943 




1,042 




747 




629 




267 




270 




474 






Total -- 


76, 827 


49, 486, 524 


644 







POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



15 



Table 17. — Percent Distribution of Farms Reporting 
Turkeys Raised, by Number Raised, for the United 
States and Selected States: 1939 to 1954 



State and number of turkeys 
raised per farm 



United States: 
Under 100... 
100 to 799... 
800 and over 

Minnesota: 
Under 100... 
100 to 799... 
800 and over 

California: 

ruder 100... 
100 to 799. - - 
800 and over 

Virginia: 

Under 100... 
100 to 799.. . 
800 and over 

M issouri: 

Under 100... 
100 to 799.. . 
800 and over 

Texas: 

Under 100... 
100 to 799... 
800 and over 

Utah: 

Under 100... 
100 to 799... 
800 and over. 

Wisconsin: 

Under 100... 
100 to 799... 
800 and over. 

Nebraska: 

Under 100... 
100 to 799.. . 
800 and over 

Ohio: 

Under 100... 
100 to 799... 
800 and over. 

Pennsylvania: 
Under 100... 
100 to 799. . . 
800 and over. 

Iowa: 

Under 100... 
100 to 799.... 
800 and over. 



Percentage distribution for each year 



1939 



87.6 
11.0 
1.3 



77.4 
18.3 
4.3 



71.8 
18.2 
10.0 



91.9 
7.1 
1.1 



88.5 

11.2 

.3 



88.2 

11.8 

.1 



63.9 
15.6 
20.6 



86.5 
11.5 
2.0 



84.1 

14.7 
1.1 



84.3 
13.6 
2.1 



83.6 
14.7 
1.7 



81.0 
11.0 
8.0 



83.0 
II. 
6.0 



37.2 
25. :i 
36.9 



76.3 
7.4 
16.3 



84.5 
7.4 
8.1 



76.6 
14.6 
8.9 



84.0 

15.2 

.8 



46.8 
6.2 
47.1 



73.6 
13.4 
13.0 



63.4 
16.0 
20.5 



72.0 
18.7 
9.3 



64.6 

28.3 

7.2 



54.4 
12.5 
33.1 



Light 
breeds 



89.9 
5.4 
4.7 



51.6 
11.6 
36.8 



88.1 
4.1 

7.8 



77.9 
3.5 
18.5 



80.5 
9.4 
10.1 



92.6 
6.0 
1.4 



77.4 
2.4 
20.2 



77.4 
11.2 
11.4 



82.9 
5.6 
11.6 



69.9 
18.5 
11.6 



62.6 
27.6 
9.8 



69.1 
11.1 

19.8 



Heavy 
breeds 



80.7 
8.9 
10.2 



29.4 
11.4 
59.2 



71.7 
6.3 
22.0 



7h s 
6.4 
14.8 



70.4 
11.2 
18.4 



80.9 
14.1 
5.0 



58.2 
4.6 
37.2 



67.9 
13.5 

18.6 



70.9 
9.0 
20.1 



57.7 
17.9 
24.4 



53. 
32.3 
14.7 



36.0 
11.2 
52.8 



is raised by relatively large operators. In fact, turkey production 
today is generally a large-scale commercial proposition. Flocks 
of 5,000 to 15,000 birds are frequent in the more important 
commercial areas. 



TURKEYS RAISED 

NUMBER. 1954 




-f I DOT.5.000 TURKEYS 



vj 



Figure 13 

In the main turkey States, except Texas, production is generally 
concentrated on farms that have relatively large flocks. In 
Texas, a leading turkey-raising State, the enterprise has not been 
concentrated on large-scale farms of commercial type. In 1930 
the average flock in Texas was 30 birds; by 1954 the average had 
increased only to 111. The average size of flock in other impor- 
tant turkey-producing States in 1954 was 2,301 for Utah, 1,972 
for Iowa, and 2,684 for Minnesota. 

Turkey production is highly concentrated in the chief producing 
areas. The 16 leading turkey-growing States produced 79 percent 
of the turkeys raised in 1954. Of the 63 million turkeys 
raised in 1954, 31 million or almost half, were raised in the 100 
leading turkey-producing counties. 

There has been a definite trend toward larger turkey flocks 
during the last 15 years in all areas except Texas. In the United 
States only 1.3 percent of the flocks contained over 800 birds in 
1939, as compared with 10.2 (for heavy breeds) in 1954. In 1954, 
Minnesota had a higher percentage (59.2 percent for heavy breeds) 
of flocks with more than 800 turkeys than any of the important 
turkey-producing States. Fifteen years earlier only 4.3 percent 
of the turkey flocks exceeded 800 birds. The percentage of the 
farms with less than 100 turkeys raised in Minnesota dropped 
from 77.4 percent in 1939 to 29.4 in 1954. The change in Iowa 
was somewhat similar to that of Minnesota. 

In Texas relatively small flocks have continued to exist. Only 
5 percent of the flocks had more than 800 turkeys in 1954. 

Ducks. — The extent of duck raising has not changed much. 
For 25 years the number raised annually has been about 11 million. 
But there has been a decided reduction in the number of farmers 
who raise ducks. In 1929, almost half a million farms reported 
ducks raised, by 1954 the number had declined to 200,000. The 
number of ducks raised per farm reporting has more than doubled 
during the last 25 years. 





Table 18. — Number of Turkeys, Ducks, 


and Geese Raised 


in the United States: 1929 to 195- 








Year 


Turkeys raised 


Bucks raised 


Oeeso raised 




Farms 
reporting 


Number 


Average 
number 
per farm 
reporting 


Farms 
reporting 


Number 


Average 
number 
per farm 
reporting 


K:inns 
reporting 


Number 


Average 
number ] 
per farm 
reporting} 


1929 


637, 843 
676,114 
389, 352 
193,540 
162,244 
169,807 


16, 794, 485 
5,381,912 
27, 933. 756 
27, 202, 266 
36,434, 21S 
62, 755, 842 


26 

8 

72 

141 

225 
370 


470, 418 
(NA) 
178. 783 
(NA) 
212, 677 
202, 353 


11, 337, 487 

(NA) 
12. 138.S20 

(NA) 
10, 342, 364 
11,065,481 


24 
(NA) 

68 
(NA) 

49 

55 


396. 727 
(NA) 

85,413 
(NA) 

94, 472 
104, 385 


3, 989, 831 
(NA) 
1, 152, 299 
(NAJ 
1, 160, 045 
1,712,999 


10 


1934 


(NA) 


1939 


13 


1944 


(NA) 


194g . 


12 


1954 _- _ 


16 







NA Not available. 



16 FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 

Table 19. — Number and Use of Resources for all Commercial Farms, and all Poultry Farms in Selected Subregions: 1954 



Item 



Number of farms _ 

All land in farms. _. acres, thousands 

Total cropland. acres, thousands. 

Value nf all farm products sold, total dollars, millions. 

All crops except fruits, nuts, and vegetables dollars, millions. 

Fruits and nuts dollars, millions. 

Vegetables for sale _ dollars, millions. 

All livestock, poultry, and their products dollars, millions. 

Hairy products dollars, millions. 

Poultry and poultry products dollars, millions. 

Other livestock and livestock products dollars, millions. 

All other products.. dollars, millions. 

Total capital dollars, millions- 
Land and buildings ..dollars, millions. 

Implements and machinery .dollars, millions- 
Livestock and poultry ...dollars, millions. 

Man-equivalent of labor 

Chickens 4 months old and over ..number, millions. 

Chicken eggs sold dozens, millions. 

Broilers sold dollars, millions. 

Other chickens sold dollars, millions. 

Other poultry and poultry products.. dollars, millions. 



Commercial farms 



All 

commercial 
farms 



3, 327, 889 

1,032,493 

431,685 

24,299 

9,736 

1,187 

628 

12,223 

3,330 

1,907 

6,986 

525 

110,545 
85,768 
14,280 
10, 497 

4,891,935 

340 

2,664 

556 

141 



Poultry farms 



Total 



154, 251 
12,048 
4,998 

1,486 

62 

10 

5 

1,416 

28 

1,333 

55 

3 

2,727 

2,105 

385 

237 

179, 223 
107 
1,206 
537 
66 
259 



Percentage 
of all com- 
mercial 
farms 



4.6 
1.2 
1.2 

6.1 
2.5 
0.8 
0.8 

11.6 
0.8 

69.9 
0.8 
0.6 

2.5 
2.5 
2.7 
2.3 

3.7 

31.5 
45.3 
96.6 
46.8 
89.6 



Poultry farms In selected subregions 



Total 



56, 525 
3,365 
1,216 

734 
16 
6 
3 
708 
9 
685 
14 
1 

1,204 
950 
145 
109 

70, 963 

57 

672 

291 

34 

97 



Percentage 

of all 

poultry 

farms 



36.6 
27.9 
24.3 

49.4 
30.8 
60.0 
60.0 
50.0 
32.1 
51.4 
25.5 
33.3 

44.2 
45.1 
37.7 
46.0 

39.6 
53.3 
55.7 
54.2 
51.5 
37.5 



Percentage 
of all com- 
mercial 
farms 



1.7 
0.3 
0.3 

3.0 
0.2 
0.6 
0.5 
5.8 
0.3 
35.9 
0.2 
0.2 

1.1 
1.1 
1.0 
1.0 

1.5 
16.8 
25.2 
52.3 
24.1 
33.6 



Production of ducks is important in only a few specialized areas. 
Of the 11 million ducks raised in the United States during 1954, 
more than 7 million were reported in 5 States: New York, Mich- 
igan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Massachusetts. Almost 5 million 
were raised in New York, mostly in Suffolk County, Long Island. 
Other leading duck-producing counties are Saginaw and Gratiot 
Counties in Michigan; Lake and Piatt Counties in Illinois; and 
Racine County in Wisconsin. 

Geese. — Comparatively few geese, 1.7 million, are raised in 
this country. More than a fourth of these were raised in two 
States — New Mexico with 229,000 and California with 216,000. 
Minnesota ranked third in the production of geese, with 134,000. 

Table 20. — Poultry Farms as a Percent of All Commercial 
Farms, by Subregions: ' 1954 



Subregion 


Per- 
cent 


Subregion 


Per- 
cent 


Subregion 


Per- 
cent 


Subregion 


Per- 
cent 


United 


4.6 
12 2 
29! 1 
35.2 
29.0 

31.5 
16.9 
3.0 
7.0 
7.9 

8.3 
26.0 
16.2 
18.2 
21.9 

30.5 
15.2 
14.0 
29.9 

7.8 

8.8 
0.5 
1.0 
1.6 
0.9 

1.9 
20.3 
10.6 
9.4 
4.4 


30-. _ 


7.3 

3.0 

1.9 

21.1 

8.9 

4.6 
1.0 
2.4 
1.5 
6.3 

10.9 
1.2 
18.0 
11.7 
0.9 

0.5 
4.3 
3.1 
4.5 
3.8 

9.0 
3.4 
4.6 
0.9 
1.0 

4.6 
3.9 
1.2 
5.8 
2.5 


60 


1.5 
0.6 
4.6 
1.7 
4.2 

1.8 
3.1 
1.8 
2.8 
1.9 

1.4 
1.9 
5.0 
5.6 
9.7 

0.6 
0.4 
0.9 
3.8 
12.8 

7.5 
9.1 
18.8 
2.1 
3.4 

1.6 
2.1 
2.7 
3.7 
2.0 


90 


4 


States 


31 


61 


91 


9 


1 


32 _-_- 


62 


92 


9 


2 


33 


63 -__ 

64 


93 


1 1 


3 


34 


94 


1 5 


4 


35-. _ 

36. -., 


65 


95 


3.7 


5.. 


66.. 


96 


5 1 


6 


37--. 

38- -,- 

39 


67 


97 


4.8 


7 


68-- 


98 


6 3 


8 


69 


99 


1 


9 


40 


70 


100 






6 1 


10 


41 


71 


101 


1 5 


11 


42 


72 


102 


9 


12 




73 


103 


1 


13 


44 


74 


104 




14 


45 _.. 


75--. . 


105 






3 


16... 


46 


76 - 


106 


1.7 
2 6 


16 


47 _- 


77 


107 


17 


48- 


78 


108 


1 i 


18 


49 


79 - 


109 




19... 


50 


80.. 


110 

Ill 






3 5 


20 


51 


81 




21 


52 __ 


82.. . 


112 


4 


22 


53 


83 


113 

114 - 


4.3 

6 8 


23 


64 


84 


24 


65 


85 . 


115 






22 6 


25.. 


56 


86.. 


116 


6 5 


26.-. 


57 


87 


117 




27.- 


58 


88 






28-.. 


59 


89 


119 


16 1 


29 















' Selected poultry subregions are printed in bold type. 



POULTRY FARMS 

Importance of poultry farms. — An increasingly large part of 
poultry production is being produced on specialized commercial 
poultry farms. This trend seems likely to continue. Information 
on the organization and operation of these farms consequently 
gives considerable insight into prospective as well as current 
conditions in poultry production. Poultry farms comprise less 
than one-twentieth of all commercial farms in the United States 
but they contain less than one-eightieth of the total farmland and 
cropland in all commercial farms. Poultry farms account for 
almost one-sixteenth of the value of all farm products sold, but 
this relative position is mainly the result of the use of relatively 
large quantities of purchased feed. 

Poultry farms account for a smaller proportion of the total 
capital investment and labor force than they do of the total number 
of farms. On poultry farms the sales of poultry and poultry 
products represent almost the only source of farm income. 

Poultry farms generally have much less land than most other 
types of farms. Almost two-thirds of all poultry farms have less 
than 70 acres each. Only 30 percent of all commercial farms have 
less than 70 acres. 

Poultry farms had about a third of the chickens that were 4 
months old and over on all commercial farms, in 1954. In that 
year, they accounted for 70 percent of all poultry and poultry 
products sold, 45 percent of the chicken eggs sold, and nine-tenths 
or more of the broilers sold and turkeys raised. 

Important poultry areas. — In order to indicate the characteris- 
tics of poultry farms by size of business, 16 of the 119 economic 
subregions have been selected as poultry subregions because of 
the relative importance of specialized poultry farms (figure 15). 
In these subregions a considerable percentage of the farms are 
poultry-type farms; that is, the farms obtain more than 50 per- 
cent of their income from poultry and poultry products. How- 
ever, only two subregions (subregions 3 and 18) are considered to 
be mainly poultry subregions. Subregions 2, 4, and 5 are poultry 
and dairy subregions. In subregion 82 poultry (mainly broilers) 
and cotton production are important. In the other 10 subregions 
poultry farming is combined with other kinds of farm enterprises 
such as livestock, general farming, field crops, and fruits and nuts. 
The particular combination is usually determined by the back- 
ground, habits, and traditions of the earlier settlers in the locality 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



17 




Figure 14 

as well as their aptitudes and skills; however, the influence that 
finally determines the combination of farm enterprises is the rela- 
tive economic advantage of the various enterprises in an area. 

Taken together, the production on poultry farms in these sub- 
regions accounts for about one-third of all poultry farms in the 
United States and for more than half of all poultry products sold 
on poultry farms. In general, poultry farms in other areas are 
smaller and less specialized. 

In the selected subregions the poultry enterprise is generally 
important. However, poultry farms are not the most important 
type of farm in any of these subregions. These 16 selected sub- 
regions contain more than one-third of all the poultry farms in the 
United States. 

A brief description of the agriculture in the 16 selected poultry 
subregions follows: 1 

Subregion 2 comprises the southwestern counties of Maine 
and the southern tier of counties in New Hampshire. It is un- 
usual in two respects: (1) Only about half of the farms are com- 
mercial farms; the other half are either part-time or residential 
farms that provide homes for families who earn their living in 
nearby factories or in other nonagricultural work. (2) Poultry 
production has gradually replaced dairying in many places. The 
income from poultry and poultry products accounts for more than 
40 percent of the total farm income in some parts and dairying 
for another 30 percent. Other considerable sources of farm in- 
come include hay, fruits and vegetables, and tobacco. Most of 
the poultry income is from egg production but broiler production 
is also valuable. 

Subregion 3 includes eastern Massachusetts and all of Rhode 
Island. It has some of the same characteristics as subregion 2. 
Poultry farming is the principal commercial type of farming, 
followed by dairy, fruits (especially cranberries), and vegetables, 
and the growing of large quantities of flowers under glass. Many 
of the farms are part-time and residential farms. 

Subregion 4 has a very large proportion of part-time and resi- 
dential farms. A wide belt is covered, including west central 
Massachusetts and the eastern two-thirds of Connecticut. Nota- 
ble distinction between this subregion and subregions 2 and 3 is 
the large quantity of tobacco grown in the Connecticut River 
Valley. Poultry is a principal source of farm income. 

Subregion 5 comprises about the northern half of New Jersey, 
the metropolitan area of New York City, Long Island, and part of 
Connecticut. It includes more than 15 million inhabitants — one 
of the greatest concentrations of population in the United States. 
The part that is farmed can be characterized by many specialized 
as well as many residential and part-time farms. The relatively 
high land values encourage a type of farming that produces a 
large volume on a small area. Under these conditions, poultry 



can compete favorably, hence it is much more important than 
any other type of farming; it outranks both dairying and potato 
production. 

Subregion 14 is relatively small, consisting of three counties 
nestled between subregions 5 and 15. It is characterized by 
he.ivy poultry production similar to that in the two adjoining 
subregions. 

Subregion 15 is relatively large, including southern New 
Jersey, all of Delaware, eastern Maryland, and two counties in 
Virginia. It includes the Delmarva Peninsula and eastern Vir- 
ginia and also Sussex County in southern Delaware — the county 
with the greatest concentration of broiler production in the United 
States. The northern counties in the subregion have a high pro- 
portion of well-drained loam and silt-loam soils suited to staple 
crops like wheat, corn, and hay. Dairying has become a main 
source of farm income. In the southern counties where more 
sandy soils exist, poultry and large-scale truck farming provide 
a large proportion of the farm income. The principal truck crops 
are tomatoes, green beans, lima beans, cantaloups, cucumbers, 
watermelons, Irish potatoes, and sweetpotatoes. Throughout 
the subregion, a type of agriculture has developed that gives a 
large return per acre of land. Poultry production has become one 
of the most important farm enterprises. 

Subregion 18 covers a strip in northwestern Virginia that 
runs northeast and southwest. It comprises the part of the 
Valley of Virginia that is drained by the Shenandoah River. 
The land is level to rolling, and fertile. Poultry and fruit 
production are leading farm enterprises in the area. 

Subregion 26 includes the central part of the Great Valley 
in Virginia and the adjoining ridges and mountains. Much of 
the land is hilly or mountainous. The cropland has been devoted 
mainly to the growing of corn, wheat, or hay, much of which 

NUMBER OF BROILERS SOLD IN POULTRY SUBRE6I0NS:I954 




MILLIONS OF BROILERS 
I J UNDER I 
t ' ;] I TO 2 9 

E3 i io <i 

EBB 5 TO 9 9 

^| 10 AND OVER 



Figure 15 



1 The description is based largely on material from a forthcoming monograph on Systems of Economic Areas prepared by D. J. Boguo and C. L. Beale and to be published by the 
Scripts Foundation for Research in Population Problems in cooperation with Agricultural Marketing Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 



18 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



is used for livestock feed. Broiler production on a commercial 
scale has grown during the last 25 years, but the income from 
the poultry farms is less than that from similar farms in many 
of the other selected subregions. 

Subregion 33 encompasses the Blue Ridge Mountains and 
the associated valleys and plateaus in western North Carolina 
and northern Georgia. Most of the farms here are of a subsist- 
ence type; only a limited quantity of farm products are sold 
through market channels. About half of the land is in farms 
and only one-fourth of the farmland can be classified as crop- 
land. Income per farm is generally low. More than nine-tenths 
of the farms are in Economic Classes V, VI, and VII. Many 
of the farmers supplement their farm income by work off the 
farm. The leading sources of farm income include tobacco, 
poultry, livestock, dairy products, vegetables, and corn. The 
harvesting of timber and forest products provides some income. 

The southern tier of counties borders on subregion 42, one 
of the more highly commercialized broiler localities of the United 
States. The majority of the farms here are poultry farms. 
Compared with the other commercial farms of the subregion, 
incomes are relatively high. 

NUMBER OF BROILERS SOLD IN POULTRY SUBREGIONS: 1954 




MILLIONS OF BROILERS 
E23 UNDER I 

[Mj J TO < 9 

m 10 AND OVER 

] | NO BROILERS SOLD 



Figure 16 

Subregion 42 is comprised mainly of the Georgia Piedmont 
but extends into South Carolina and Alabama. Cotton (until 
recent years the principal crop), and other row crops, have been 
largely replaced by livestock, dairy, and poultry, as major sources 
of income. The land in parts of this subregion is relatively 
level, but much of it is rolling or even hilly, so that when cotton 
was the principal crop, soil erosion was a serious problem. On 
several million acres the cultivation of crops has been abandoned, 
and the land has been returned to forest or planted to soil- 
conserving crops. The agriculture of the entire region has under- 
gone fundamental changes during the last four decades. The 



number of farms has been reduced by almost half in 35 years. 
The 66 counties in this subregion include 6 of the larger broiler- 
producing counties in the Nation. 

Subregion 82 centers in northwestern Arkansas, southwest- 
ern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. The heart of broiler 
production of this subregion is in the two northwestern counties 
of Arkansas — Washington and Benton — the second and third 
ranking counties nationally in broiler production, in 1954, with 
a total of more than 34 million birds. 

NUMBER OF BROILERS SOLD, FOR SUBREGIONS 
73, 74, AND 82:1954 




MILLIONS OF BROILERS 
FTxTl UNDER I 

CZ3' T ° *■» 
E23 ! T ° « 

Hfl 5 TO 9.9 

■H 10 AND OVER 



Figure 17 

Subregion 115 includes a considerable area of irrigated land, 
which grows large quantities of fruits, vegetables, sugar beets, 
flax, dry beans, and hay. Dairy and poultry farming are impor- 
tant farm enterprises. Livestock ranches occupy the rougher 
and drier parts of the subregion. 

Subregion 116 has the largest concentration of fruit farms 
and vineyards in the United States. The production of fruits, 
vegetables, and other cash crops are the chief farm enterprises. 
Dairy and poultry production and livestock ranching are prevalent 
in certain parts. 

Subregion 117 the Central Pacific Coast subregion, is impor- 
tant in poultry and in fruits and vegetables. Parts that are too 
rough for crop farming are occupied by livestock ranches. Poul- 
try farms are numerous and poultry is second to cash crops as 
a source of farm income. Dairying is also prevalent. 

Subregion 119 like the other three Pacific Coast subregions, 
has considerable diversification of agriculture. In that part of 
the area lying in the State of Washington, dairy farms outnumber 
poultry farms, but poultry has a noteworthy place. In the part 
that lies in Oregon, the number of fruit-and-nut farms exceeds 
the number of farms of other types. 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



19 



NUMBER OF BROILERS SOLD.FOR SUBREGIONS 
115,116, AND 117:1954 



MILLIONS OF BROILERS 
1:1 UNDER I 

(223 1 to 19 
E23 3 to is 
GS3 s to 9.9 

■I 10 ANO OVER 




Figure 18 
NUMBER OF BROILERS SOLD.FOR SUBREGION 119:1954 




MILLIONS OF BROILERS 

f£Z3 UNDER I 
E3 I TO 19 
ESJs to 4.9 
5H s to 9.9 

^M 10 AND OVER 



Figure 19 



The four poultry subregions on or near the Pacific Coast (115, 
116, 117, and 119), produce eggs, broilers, and turkeys in large 
quantities. In 1954, these four subregions accounted for almost 
50 percent of the turkeys, 12 percent of the broilers, and 5 percent 
of the eggs, produced in the 16 selected poultry subregions. 

Characteristics of Poultry Farms by Economic Class of Farm 

Poultry farms in the 16 selected subregions include 37 percent 
of all poultry farms in the United States and account for half the 
value of all poultry and poultry products sold from all poultry 
farms, and 44 percent of the total capital invested in all poultry 
farms (see table 19). 

The characteristics of poultry farms in the United States and 
in the 16 selected subregions are similar. Of the total poultry 
farms in the United States, 27 percent were in Economic Classes 
I and II, compared with 17 percent of all commercial farms. On 
the other hand, 37 percent of all poultry farms in the United States 
and 21 percent of all poultry farms in the selected subregions were 
in Economic Classes V and VI. Table 21 shows the percentage 

Table 21. — Distribution of Selected Resources on all 
Poultry Farms and on Poultry Farms in Selected Poultry 
Subregions, by Economic Class of Farm: 1954 



Item 



ALL POULTRY FARMS IN THE 
UNITED STATES 

Number of farms 

All land in farms ...acres-. 

Total cropland acres-. 

Capital invested dollars-. 

Man-equivalent of labor 

Value of all farm products sold, total 

dollars. 

All crops except fruits, nuts, and 

vegetables dollars. 

Fruits and nuts dollars. 

Vegetables for sale dollars- 

All livestock, poultry, and their 
products ...dollars- 
Dairy products dollars- 
Poultry and poultry products 
dollars. 
Other livestock and livestock 

products dollars. 

All other products dollars. 

Chickens 4 mouths old and over 

number.. 

Chicken eggs sold dozens.. 

Broilers sold dollars. . 

Other chickens sold dollars.. 

Other poultry and poultry products 
sold _ dollars. 

POULTRY FARMS IN SELECT- 
ED POULTRY SUBREGIONS 

Number of farms.. 

All land in farms acres.. 

Total cropland- .acres.. 

Capital invested dollars.. 

Man-equivalent of labor 

Value of all farm products sold, total 

dollars.. 

All crops except fruits, nuts, and 

vegetables dollars. . 

Fruits and nuts dollars-. 

Vegetables for sale dollars. . 

All livestock, poultry, and their 

products dollars. - 

Dairy products dollars- - 

Poultry and poultry products 

dollars.. 

Other livestock and livestock 

products dollars-. 

All other products dollars.. 

Chickens 4 months old and over 

number.. 

Chicken eggs sold dozens. - 

Broilers sold.- dollars. . 

Other chickens sold dollars.. 

Other poultry and poultry products 
sold dollars.. 



[Percent distribution by economic class of farm 



Total I II III IV 



ion, 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 



100.0 

100.0 



100. 
100. 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100. 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100. 

100.0 



8.5 

17.8 
19.6 
21.6 
19.9 



33.3 
45.3 
24.7 

44.1 
29.1 



35.4 
27.5 



45.1 
28.0 
47.3 
27.5 

71.5 



11.7 
22 3 
20.0 
25.7 
24.5 



43.6 
47.0 
35.0 



47.7 
36.2 



37.2 
38.2 



29.3 
33.0 
60.8 
33.8 

79.0 



18.5 
22.5 
23.6 
25.5 
22.8 



30.0 
25.0 
34.6 

30.2 
30.3 

30.4 

24.4 
31.2 



33.1 
33.0 
33.6 
29.1 

20. I 



25. 2 

27! 

28.4 
29.9 
28.4 



29.4 
27.8 
37.6 

30.9 
37.2 

30.9 

28.7 
32.7 



37.0 
38.6 
30.5 
33.1 

14.5 



18.5 
IS. 9 
19.0 
18.3 
18.1 



18.7 
12.2 
20.2 

14.0 
16.9 

13.8 

16.2 
20.5 



14.1 
18.3 
13.4 
19.5 

5.6 



23.1 
21.4 
20.3 
20.1 
19.9 



13.3 

15.7 
11.2 
15.5 

13.2 
16.1 

13.1 

16.9 
18.1 



18.0 
16.7 
12.8 
17.7 

4.4 



IV 


V 


17.9 

15.7 
15.6 
14.3 
14.5 


18.8 
13.4 
12.5 
12.5 
12.5 


7.1 


3.7 


11.2 

11.1 
12.1 


5.3 
4.0 
6.6 


6.9 
9.4 


3.6 

6.9 


6.6 


3.3 


11.9 
11.6 


8.4 
6.1 


5.4 
11.1 

4.5 
12.6 


1.9 

6.8 
1.2 
8.1 


1.8 


.8 


18.9 
14.7 
13.5 
12.5 
13.7 


14.5 
9.8 

8.2 
8.2 
8.9 


5.7 


2.2 


7.8 
7.6 
8.0 


2.7 
2.9 
3.3 


5.6 
6.6 


2.2 
3.4 


5.5 


2.1 


10.7 
6.3 


5.2 
3.4 


9.3 
7.6 
4.7 
9.3 


6.0 
3.4 
1.2 

4.7 


,3 


.6 



VI 



17.8 
11.7 
9.8 
7.7 
12.3 



1.2 

1.6 
2.5 
1.9 

1.2 
2.4 



.4 
2.8 

.1 
3.2 



6.6 
4.7 
3.6 
3.6 
4.6 



.7 
.5 
.7 

.4 
.6 



1.3 
1.3 



1.5 
.7 
(Z) 
1.3 

.1 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 



20 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



distribution by economic class of farm, of selected resources for 
all poultry farms in the United States, and for poultry farms in 
the selected poultry subregions. 

Comparisons by economic class between poultry farms and 
other types of farms are of limited usefulness because of the large 
expenditures for feed and other items used in production, on 
poultry farms. The total of specified expenditures on poultry 
farms are equivalent to about three-fourths of the total received 
from gross sales. This compares with about two-fifths for com- 
mercial farms as a group. 

Size of poultry farms. — Specialized poultry farms are usually 
not very large from the standpoint of area. In most of the 16 
selected subregions, poultry farms with less than 29 acres comprise 
one-half or more of all commercial farms under 29 acres in size. 
The average size of poultry farms decreases with the decrease in 
gross sales. Poultry farms in Class I averaged 163 acres of land 
per farm compared with only 51 acres for farms in Class VI. 
Accompanying the decrease in size of farm was an even greater 
decrease in the proportion of the land used in crops. Almost 
one-third of the land in Class I farms was in harvested crops com- 
pared with one-fifth for Class V farms and one-sixth in Class VI 
farms. The crops raised showed little change between economic 
classes of farms other than smaller average acreages — corn and 
hay were equally divided, and represented approximately half of 
the cropland harvested on farms in each economic class. Wide 
variations from this pattern are evident in the different subregions. 



Table 22, 



-Distribution of all Commercial and Poultry 
Farms by Size of Farm : 1954 



Size of farm 


All com- 
mercial 
farms in 
the United 
States 


All poultry 

farms in 

the United 

States 


Poultry 
farms in 
selected 
poultry 
subregions 


Percent distribution by size of farm: 


100 
4 
11 
15 
23 
25 
14 
9 

310 


100 
26 
18 
21 
20 
10 
4 
1 

78 


100 




33 




21 




20 




15 




7 




2 




1 


Average size of farms acres.- 


60 



There are significant differences among the selected subregions in 
the distribution of poultry farms, of gross sales, and total invest- 
ment by economic class of farm. (See Table 23.) In subregions 
15 and 116, almost half of the poultry farms are in Economic 
Classes I and II; on the other hand, only one-fourth of the poultry 
farms in subregions 16, 33, and 119 are in these two economic 
classes. For the 16 selected subregions, more than 78 percent of 
the gross sales of all farm products on poultry farms are on farms in 
Economic Classes I and II. In subregions 2, 4, 15, 115, 116, and 
117, four-fifths or more of the gross sales on poultry farms come 
from farms in Economic Classes I and II. Gross sales on poul- 
try farms in Economic Classes IV, V and VI, represent less than 
10 percent of the gross sales of all poultry farms except in subregions 
4, 16, 18, 26, 33, 42, and 119. 

The investment in land and buildings, livestock and poultry, 
and machinery on poultry farms in Economic Classes I and II, 
comprises 56 percent of the total investment on all poultry farms. 
Among the 16 selected subregions the proportion of the total in- 
vestment on all poultry farms in Economic Classes I and II varies 
considerably. In subregion 116, more than half of the total in- 
vestment is on farms in Economic Classes I and II; in subregion 
42, farms in Economic Classes I and II have less than a fifth of 
the total investment on all poultry farms in the subregion. 



Table 23. — Percent Distribution of Poultry Farms, Gross 
Sales, and Total Investment, by Economic Class of Farm, 
for Selected Subregions : 1954 



Item and subregion 



Number of poultry farms: 

Total, 16 selected subregions 

Subregion 2 

Subregion 3 

Subregion 4 

Subregion 5 

Subregion 14 

Subregion 15 

Subregion 16 

Subregion 18 

Subregion 26 

Subregion 33 

Subregion 42 

Subregion 82 

Subregion 115 

Subregion 116 _. 

Subregion 117__ 

Subregion 119 

Gross sales on poultry farms: 

Total, 16 selected subregions 

Subregion 2 

Subregion 3 

Subregion 4 

Subregion5 

Subregion 14 

Subregion 15 

Subregion 16 

Subregion 18 

Subregion 26 

Subregion 33 

Subregion 42 

Subregion 82 

Subregion 115 

Subregion 116 

Subregion 117 

Subregion 119 _ 

Total investment in land and build- 
ings, livestock and poultry, and 
machinery : 

Total, 16 selected subregions 

Subregion 2 

Subregion 3 

Subregion 4 

Subregion 5 

Subregion 14 

Subregion 15. _ 

Subregion 16 

Subregion 18. 

Subregion 26 

Subregion 33 

Subregion 42 

Subregion 82 

Subregion 115 

Subregion 116 

Subregion 117 

Subregion 119 



Economic class of farm 



Total 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100:0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



11.7 
15.9 

9.8 
17.5 
11.5 

9.0 

17.0 
7.2 

14.8 
6.7 
4.1 
6.4 

7.5 
14.7 
24.3 
14.9 

7.6 



47.6 
57.5 
39.8 
58.6 
40.5 
21.3 

55.9 
41.7 
56.3 
31.2 
22.4 
28.3 

31.3 

50.8 
70.5 
52.2 
39.8 



25.7 
30.5 
25.3 
32.1 
19.8 
16.0 

28.2 
20.8 
33.4 
17.9 
10.7 
14.1 

17.6 
26.6 
49.6 
27.1 
18.7 



11 



25.2 
24.1 
21.6 
27.1 
28.8 
32.3 

37.2 
16.7 
17.6 
18.0 
18.7 
22.7 

27.1 
30.1 
23.4 
28.8 
17.7 



30.9 
26.5 
34.4 
27.5 
37.4 
51.4 

32.4 
29.1 
21.9 
31.5 
36.9 
35.8 

38.2 
31.3 
17.9 
30.5 
29.3 



29.9 
26.9 
24.0 
30.6 
32.5 
33.9 

42.5 
26.2 
22.3 
23.4 
25.1 
29.3 

34.5 
27.2 
21.8 
32.4 
24.4 



III 



23.1 
19.5 
21.0 
15.2 
22.3 
26.3 

19.6 
18.5 
19.5 
28.5 
24.3 
31.0 

29.0 
24.0 
22.1 
23.0 
21.7 



13.3 
9.3 

14.7 
6.9 

13.7 

19.9 

8.2 
14.6 
11.6 
23.9 
22.9 
23.6 

20.9 
11.9 
7.5 
11.2 
16.3 



20.1 
16.5 
18.8 
12.4 
19.3 
23.0 

16.1 
18.3 
16.3 
28.2 
21.4 
28.4 

24.7 

25.0 
14.7 
22.5 
20.9 



IV 



18.9 
17.2 
19.7 
17.1 
18.7 
14.3 

11.8 
21.3 
21.8 
20.6 
23.8 
22.3 

20.7 
16.7 
15.0 
16.9 
25.2 



5.7 
4.5 
7.3 
4.3 
5.9 
5.2 

2.5 

9.0 
7.1 
8.7 
11.6 
9.2 

7.4 
4.3 
2.7 
4.1 



12.5 
12.3 
13.4 
11.7 
14.2 
12.7 

6.6 

15.7 
15.9 
14.2 
21.3 
16.5 

13.9 

10.5 
8.1 
10.1 
20.6 



14.5 
13.9 
18.0 
17.6 
11.3 
11.3 

8.4 
23.2 
17.6 
18.6 
19.1 
14.0 

10.7 
12.0 
11.4 
11.9 
19.3 



2.2 
1.7 
3.1 
2.5 
2.0 
2.0 

0.9 
4.6 
2.7 
4.1 
5.1 
2.9 

1.8 
1.6 
1.1 
1.9 
3.9 



8.2 
9.0 
13.4 
10.7 
7.7 
9.7 

4.5 
13.7 

8.3 
12.7 
14.1 

9.3 

7.0 
7.2 
4.7 
5.6 
10.9 



VI 



6.6 
9.4 
9.9 
5.5 
7.4 



6.1 
13.1 
8.7 
7.6 
9.9 
3.6 

5.0 
2.5 
3.8 

4.4 
8.5 



0.4 
0.4 
0.7 
0.3 
0.5 
0.4 

0.2 
1.0 
0.5 
0.5 
1.1 
0.3 

0.4 
0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.8 



3.6 
4.9 
5.2 
2.5 
6.5 
4.7 

1.9 
5.2 
4.0 
3.6 
7.2 
2.3 

2.4 
3.5 
1.1 
2.2 
4.5 



Table 24. — Operators of Poultry Farms, by Tenure of 
Operator: 1954 



Item 


All poultry 

farms in the 

United 

States 


Poultry 
farms in 
selected 
poultry 
subregions 




154, 251 56. 525 


Farms operated by — 

Owners, part owners, and managers number.. 


144. 381 

93.6 

9. 870 

6.4 


53. 208 
94.1 




3.317 
5.9 







POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



21 



Tenure and age of operator. — More than 9 in 10 poultry farms 
are operated by owners, part owners, or managers. The percent- 
age of farms operated by tenants is lower for poultry farms than 
for any other type of farm. Nearly half of the operators are 55 
years old or older (see Table 25). The older operators are found 
mostly on the smaller operations — Class V and VI farms. More 
than three-fourths of the operators of Class I farms are less than 
55, as are three-fifths of the operators of Class II farms. Three- 
fourths of the operators of Class VI farms are over this age. 



Table 25. — Percent Distribution of Farm Operators in 
Each Economic Class of Farm, by Age, for All Poultry 
Farms in Selected Subregions: 1954 



Item and ago group 



All poultry farms in the United States 

Farm operators reporting age 

Under 25 years. .. 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years _. 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 

Poultry farms in selected poultry sub 
regions: 

Farm operators reporting age 

Under 25 years.. _. 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

65 to 64 years 

65 years and over 



Percent distribution for each economic class of 
farm 



Total 



100 

10 
20 
22 
24 
24 



100 
1 
11 
22 
25 
23 
IS 



100 

1 

17 
30 
29 
17 
6 



100 

1 

15 

28 
30 
19 



100 
1 
15 
26 
28 
21 
9 



100 
1 
13 
28 
28 
21 
9 



100 

1 
11 

23 
26 
24 
15 



IV V 



100 

1 
e 

19 
25 
26 
20 



100 
1 

10 
19 
25 
26 
20 



100 
1 
8 
16 
20 
25 
30 



100 
1 
9 
18 
21 
24 
26 



VI 



100 
(Z) 
2 
6 
11 
24 
67 



100 
(Z) 
3 
9 
12 
24 
62 



Z 0.5 percent or less. 



Table 26. — Source of Farm Income on Poultry Farms, by 
Economic Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry Subregions: 
1954 



Subregion and item 



United States: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale _. 

Fruits and nuts 

All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products... 

Eggs 

Broilers 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products 

All other products 

Subregion 2: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts... 

All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total. 

Poultry and poultry products 

Eggs 

Broilers 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products _. 

Other livestock and livestock 

products 

All other products 



Z BOIcents or.less. 



Average per farm by economic class of farm 
(dollars) 



Total 



9,634 

334 
34 

67 



9,179 
8,644 
3,062 
3,479 

426 
1,677 

181 

354 
20 



14,731 

106 

41 

4 



14.541 

14.205 

7,101 

5,272 

1,567 

265 

256 

80 
39 



1,304 
97 
355 



47, 577 
45, 485 
10, 730 
19, 305 
1,378 
14, 072 
617 

1,475 

67 



53,174 

163 
83 
14 



52, 82' 
52. 059 
24,919 
22,478 
4,596 
66 
672 

96 
87 



15, 727 

641 
63 
90 



14,998 
14,177 
5.379 
6,307 
671 
1,820 
364 

467 

35 



197 
45 
(Z) 



15,911 
15.309 
7.100 
5.495 
1,964 
750 
467 

135 



7,359 

337 
36 
44 



6,919 

6,443 

2,965 

2,518 

449 

511 

165 

311 

23 



111 
64 



6,872 
6,705 
4,063 
1,382 
1,009 
251 
119 

48 
14 



3, 808 

210 
23 
41 



3,521 
3,190 

i.m;. 

878 
298 
169 
95 

236 

13 



3,869 

32 
27 
(Z) 



3,809 

3,706 

2.593 

433 

617 

63 

30 

73 
1 



1,878 

94 
12 
14 



1,751 

1,535 

1,058 

222 

183 

72 

67 

159 

7 



1,758 

1,649 

1,084 

160 

317 

s\ 

49 

60 
2 



666 



29 

4 



620 
523 
418 
10 
78 
17 
25 

72 

4 



617 

18 

5 

(Z) 



574 

542 

335 

20 

166 

21 

14 

18 
20 



Table 26. — Source of Farm Income on Poultry Farms, by 
Economic Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry Subregions: 
1954 — Continued = | 



Subregion and item 



Subregion 3: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts 

All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products- .. 

Eggs 

Broilers 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 

products 

All other products 

Subregion 4: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts 

All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products — 

Eggs 

Broilers 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 

products 

All other products 

Subregion 5: 

Value of all farm products sold , 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts 

All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products 

Eggs 

Broilers 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products- 

All other products 

Subregion 14: 

Value of all farm products sold. 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts 

All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products 

Eggs. 

Broilers.. 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products .. 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products _.. 

All other products 

Subregion 15: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts 

All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products 

Eggs 

Broilers 

Other chickens. 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products 

All other products 



Z 50 cents orlless. 



Average per farm by economic class of farm 


(dollars) 






Total 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


10,353 


42, 086 


16,517 


7,257 


3,822 


1,806 


723 


60 


268 


119 


17 


14 


7 


9 


131 


286 


335 


109 


31 


9 


2 


17 




39 


37 


1 


(Z) 


5 


!0, 116 


41.259 


16.018 


7,084 


3.769 


1.790 


703 


9,988 


40.853 


15,852 


6,902 


3,729 


1,782 


681 


5.514 


17, lur 


9. 263 


4,994 


2,582 


1,290 


450 


1,622 


7.58C 


3.127 


579 


311 


98 


49 


864 


2,392 


1.342 


801 


59C 


237 


137 


1 , 9SS 


i:),iisr 


2,120 


52S 


246 


156 


45 


96 


312 


153 


128 


29 




2 


32 


124 


13 


64 


11 


8 


20 


29 


243 


6 


10 


7 




4 


15,370 


51,370 


15, 580 


6,992 


3,838 


2.190 


763 


168 


743 


88 


31 


30 


21 


8 


24 


15 


43 


7 


36 


14 


2 


47 


185 


28 


30 


17 


(Z) 


.... 


15.120 


50,417 


15.395 


6,916 


3,754 


2.155 


753 


14,681 


48. 922 


14,942 


6,791 


3,716 


2,007 


706 


6,501 


13. 791 


6.814 


3.782 


2,397 


1,273 


542 


7,151 


29. 492 


5,916 


1,399 


684 


285 




1,374 


3.453 


1,731 


1,114 


377 


325 


156 


655 


2,186 


481 


49(1 


258 


124 


8 


333 


1,149 


367 


87 


6 


98 


19 


106 


346 


86 


38 


32 


50 


28 


11 


10 


26 


8 


1 










12,417 


43, 762 


16,140 


7,643 


3,941 


2,168 


767 


214 


616 


228 


226 


106 


58 


10 


35 


46 


34 


55 


30 


19 


3 


11 


9 


14 


14 


3 


9 


12 


12,128 


42.915 


15,853 


7,329 


3,802 


2.069 


726 


11,986 


42,543 


15,687 


7,165 


3,759 


2,011 


712 


8,646 


25.026 


12,942 


5,852 


2,796 


1,579 


506 


938 
865 


4.927 
2.318 


841 
1,186 


406 
648 


210 
372 






268 


172 


1,537 


16,272 


718 


258 


381 


164 


34 


85 


322 


101 


77 


4 


6 


2 


57 


50 


65 


87 


39 


62 


12 


29 


176 


11 


19 




3 


6 


10, 661 


25,118 


16,902 


8,050 


3,885 


1,896 


633 


223 


504 


302 


209 


185 


6 


17 


96 


169 


98 


163 


39 


17 


17 


10 
10. 331 


24, 445 


30 
16, 472 










7,688 


3,676 


1,873 


599 


10.312 


24, 345 


16, 470 


7,682 


3,624 


1.873 


589 


5,676 


5, S41 


10, 599 


4.665 


2,317 


1,273 3P0 


3,473 


IS, 056 


4, 131 


1,611 


538 




111 


653 


448 


901 


705 


690 


224 


1/5 


610 




839 


701 


79 


376 


3 


2 
17 








16 
36 




'1 


100 


2 


6 


7 


1 








5 
















18,646 


61,511 


16,213 


7,772 


3,921 


1,910 


654 


780 


2,236 


780 


363 


237 


109 


33 


153 


431 


140 


96 


44 


40 


6 


2 




4 


(Z) 


1 


1 


2 


17,683 


58,712 


15,276 


7,311 


3,632 


1,754 


608 


17,443 


58. 051 


16,049 


7,191 


3.534 


1,669 


582 


5,483 


10. 007 


7,108 


3,953 


2,034 


1,210 


419 


10,715 


43, 703 


7,145 


2,589 


1,068 


152 


17 


524 


748 


593 


680 


326 


202 


12S 


721 


3,593 


203 


69 


106 


105 


18 


64 


198 


64 


17 


17 


7 


2 


176 


463 


163 


103 


81 


78 


24 


28 


132 


13 


2 


7 


6 


6 



22 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 26. — Source of Farm Income on Poultry Farms, by 
Economic Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry Subregions: 
1954 — Continued 



Subregion and Item 



Average per farm by economic el ins of farm 
(dollars) 



Subregion 16: 

Value of all farm products sold . 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts - 

Vegetables for sale _ 

Fruits and nuts - --- 



All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total.. 

Poultry and poultry products-. - 

Eggs__ 

Broilers 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products- 



All other products. 



Subregion 82: 

Value of all farm products sold 

AU crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts-- - 



All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products. .. 

Eggs 

Broilers 

Other chickens- - -- 

Other poultry products... 

Dairy products. 

Other livestock and livestock 
products..-- 



All other products. 



Subregion 116: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts -- 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts 



AH livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poulry and poultry products — 

E«gs 

Broilers..- - 

Other chickens.. 

Other poultry products 

Dairy yiroducts - 

Other livestock and livestock 
products. 



All other products. 



Subregion 116: 

VbIuo of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts -- -- 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts 



Total 



All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products — 

Eggs -. -.'-. 

Broilers 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products 



9,240 

527 
102 
27 



8, 5119 
7.364 
3. 511 
2,146 

478 
1,229 

403 



802 
16 



14 
18 
110 



10, 535 

9,718 

419 

8, 143 

87 

1,069 

490 

327 

6 



53,11616,133 



1,840 
271 
21 



.10. 9M 
43. '159 
13, 594 
16, 878 

1,2' 
11,915 

2,211 

5,114 
(Z) 



15,332 

90 
20 
376 



14,839 

14,771 

9. 168 

2,763 

798 

2.042 

1 

67 

8 



44, (130 
110 
523 



43,996 

42, 4.14 

1.412 

30, .190 

253 
10, 199 

496 

1,046 



All other products. 



Snbregion 117: 

Value of all farm products sold 

AU crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts - 



All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total-. --. 

Poultry and poultry products — 

Eggs --. 

Broilers.. 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products -'--- - 



23. 265 

837 
23 
521 



21,884 

21,456 

6,338 

4,051 

764 

10,313 

213 

215 



969 

281 

77 



14,742 
12.305 
6, 533 
3, 649 
798 
1,32.1 
1,168 

1,269 

64 



1.1,104 

47 
46 
84 



14,924 

13,761 

179 

12, 823 

21 

741 

773 

387 



52, 819 

475 

49 

1,431 



50. 850 

50, 577 
2.1, 761 
11. 530 
1,929 
11,353 
1 

272 

14 



1,1,943 



16,660 

15,530 

11,294 

:,648 

976 

612 



is 



67, 891 

2,856 

71 

939 



64. 025 
63, 069 

9, .177 
12, 620 

1,188 

39, 684 

504 

452 



All other products. 
Z 50 cents or less. 



15,442 

55 
49 
224 



15,111 
14. SI .5 
8,426 
3, 360 
1.0153 
1.966 
87 

209 



III 



7,297 

546 
89 
53 

6, 600 
5,803 
3, 721 

963 
690 
429 

167 

640 
9 



7,741 

50 

14 

103 



7, 6.17 
6, 728 
379 
5,98! 
115 
24, 
538 

291 

1 



IV 



3,904 

433 
55 
3 



3, 40S 

3.016 

2, 028 

508 

310 

170 

65 

327 



7,007 

31 

"l76 



7,400 

7,381 

5,530 

720 

561 

570 

1 



17,822 

376 

7 
741 



16, lids 

16.270 

9, 530 

3,307 

980 

2,453 

183 

245 



3, 722 

3, 199 

415 

2,600 

72 

112 

313 

210 

3 



1,850 

129 
27 
9 



1,684 

1,554 

1,119 

113 

209 

113 

19 

111 

1 



5 

6 

164 



3,821 

3, 766 

2,762 

164 

324 

216 

(Z) 

55 



1,776 

12 
2 

13 



1,749 
1,484 
493 
825 
101 
65 
160 

105 



1.903 



VI 



678 

70 
9 
3 

595 

538 

434 

11 

77 

16 

9 

48 

1 



76.1 

17 
2 
28 

715 
517 
325 
136 
55 
1 
109 

89 

3 



1,88.1 

1,851 

1, 429 

138 

21 
79 



.14,048 

142 
283 
521 



63, 098 
52, 6615 
22, 050 

15, 188 

3,647 

11,780 

1 



B2 



94 

8 

338 



15.892 

15,349 

10. 945 

2,897 

1,041 

466 

219 

324 



4 (Z) 



7,908 

185 

9 

385 



7,329 
6,997 
5,098 
773 
648 
478 
177 

155 



7,497 

13 
2 

113 



7,36' 

7,136 

5,434 

847 

675 

280 

90 

141 



4,224 



10 
162 



3. 901 

3. 8.16 

3, 0.16 

227 

378 

195 

43 

65 



is 
100 



3, 590 

3. 496 

2.S58 

233 

340 

65 



2,284 

38 

""95 



2,151 

2,109 

1,627 

120 

279 

83 

18 

24 



729 
729 
462 

30 
195 

42 



835 
21 
"J6 



798 
763 
449 
181 
133 



2,440 

22 

""47 



2, 362 

2,312 

1,873 

223 

212 

4 

1' 



33 



773 



15 
16 



732 

723 

598 

20 

94 

11 



9 10 



Table 26.— Source of Farm Income on Poultry Farms, by 
Economic Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry Subregions: 
1954 — Continued 



Subregion arid Item 



Average per farm by economic class of farm 
(dollars) 



Subregion 18: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts 



All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total -. 

Poultry and poultry products — 

Eggs 

Broilers _ 

Other chickens — 

Other poultry products — 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products 



All other products. 



Subregion 26: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts --- 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts — 



All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products. .. 

Eggs 

Broilers 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products.. 

Dairv products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products 



Total 



All other products -. 

Subregion 33: 

Value of all farm products sold. 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale -- 

Fruits and nuts 



U livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products — 

Eggs 

Broilers.. 

Other chickens --- 

Other poultry products 

Dairv products. - - 

Other livestock and livestock 
products. .- - 



All other products. 



Subregion 42: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts.. - --- 



All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total... ■ 

Poultry and poultry products — 

Eggs 

Broilers — 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products -. 

Dairy products 

Other livestock and livestock 
products 



All other products.. 



Subregion 119: 

Value of all farm products sold 

All crops except vegetables, fruits, 

and nuts.. 

Vegetables for sale 

Fruits and nuts 



12,381 



138 

6 

173 



12,04' 

10,805 

948 

4,520 

187 

5,150 

346 

896 

18 



All livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts, total 

Poultry and poultry products.. .. 

Eggs 

Broilers 

Other chickens 

Other poultry products 

Dairy products -- 

Other livestock and livestock 
products 



All other products.. 



8,820 

8,174 

520 

5,137 

98 
2,419 

60 

586 
64 



47, 001 
258 

i'osi 

45, 614 

41, 794 

2,408 

12, 791 

388 
26,207 

868 

2,952 
78 



135 
28 



7. 527 

7.332 

1,836 

5. 133 

325 

38 

56 

139 

25 



15,374 
224 
"68 

15, 052 

13,009 

1,073 

6,604 

201 

5,131 

725 

1,318 

30 



42, 0.11 



240 
3 



41,664 
39, 750 

745 
17,509 

121 
21,375 
21 



70 



15, € 



16,1:16 

14, 508 

649 

9,810 

128 

3,921 

54 



III 



7, 339 



195 
2 
7 



7,134 
6,413 

762 
3,931 

163 
1,55: 

244 

477 
1 



7,548 



119 
2 



7.364 
6,711 
666 
4,936 
131 
978 
76 



874 677 
188 66 



15,333 

209 206 
23 65 
12 100 



9,746 



251 
12 



9,438 
9, 160 
1,1.10 
7,705 

211 
94 

100 

178 
36 



41,560 

40,841 

11.143 

27.086 

1,774 

838 

244 

475 

51 



234 
11 
69 



8, 732 
8, 247 
4,325 
1,482 

437 
2,003 

217 



14, 927 

14.657 

2.738 

11,481 

437 

1 

82 

188 

35 



42,886 



397 
1 
15 



42. 368 

41. 051 

5,141 

34, 796 

614 

500 

778 

539 

105 



15,367 



361 
25 



14. 924 

14,487 

1,449 

12,482 

296 

260 

140 

297 

49 



IV 



3,945 
3,389 
653 
2,402 
171 
163 
138 

418 

5 



3, 801 



(Z) 



3,712 

3,264 

404 

2,772 

74 

4 

74 

384 

29 



7,287 3,771 



145 
32 
21 



7,047 
6,867 
1,430 
5,190 
247 
(Z) 
75 

105 

42 



153 
18 
20 



1,893 

30 
7 
(Z) 



1,853 

1,615 

457 

960 

94 

104 

47 

191 

3 



1,967 



1,902 

1,592 

316 

1,191 

40 

45 

55 

255 

19 



VI 



649 

10 
... 

637 
496 
356 
18 
95 
27 
45 

96 

1 



650 
49 

"io 

590 
414 
268 
43 
93 
12 
27 

149 

1 



47,813 

1,261 
81 
242 



15,034 

362 
9 
41 



268 
52 



4.1,940 14.531 
43.832 13.896 



14.288 
10, 687 1 
1.403' 

17,449) 

784 

1,324, 
. 289!. 



614 
2,211 

657 
3,414 

312 

323 
91 



306 
11 
13 



7.050 

6,894 

818 

5,914 

161 

1 

35 

121 

42 



6,826 
213 



3,567 1, 
3,416! 1,862 



1,242 

1,902 

260 

12 

20 

131 

13 



4.007 



154 
10 



3,824 
3, 692 

631 
2,909 

151 

20 

112 

13 



907 
773 
182 



30 

106 

11 



1,794 

595 

1,063 

126 

10 

18 

77 

12 



6,532 
6,069 
4,704 
67S 
403 
284 
221 

242 

. 30 



3,573 

78 
11 
82 



3, 383 

3,107 

2,296 

442 

311 

58 

136 

140 

19 



831 

67 
6 
8 

749 
666 
463 

63 

137 

3 

16 

78 
11. 



622 
633 
351 
65 
89 
28 
10 

79 

4 



1,832 

36 

5 

43 



1,736 

1, 525 

1,203 

118 

197 

2 

100 

111 

7 



12 

"28 

845 
808 
691 

112 

5 
9 

28 

1 



Z 50 cents or less: 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



23 



Table 27- — Land Use on Poultry Farms, by Economic Class 
of Farm, for Selected Subregions: 1954 





Average per farm, by economic class of farm 




Total 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


United States: 

Laud in farms... acres. . 

Cropland harvested ..acres.. 

Pastureiand, total acres.. 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes. acres.. 

Corn for grain acres.. 

Wheat acres. . 

Barlev acres.. 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain bushels - . 

Wheat ...bushels . 

Oats bushels . 

Barley bushels . 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain bushels. . 

"Wheat bushels. . 

Oats bushels.. 

Barley bushels.. 


78 
20 
32 

6 
5 
2 
3 
1 
li 

194 
43 
100 

18 

57 

31 

23 

6 


103 
50 
64 

15 
13 
4 
6 
2 
13 

649 
112 

240 

78 

233 

99 
67 
33 


95 
27 
38 

8 
7 
2 
4 

1 

7 

275 
62 

143 
28 

95 
49 
36 

9 


80 
21 
32 

6 
5 
2 
3 
1 

173 
52 

115 
17 

50 

37 

25 

5 


69 
18 

28 

4 
2 
3 
(Zl 
5 

145 
39 
92 
12 

33 
24 
19 


66 
13 
24 

4 
3 
1 

(Z) 
4 

103 
21 
56 
5 

17 
10 
11 


51 
9 
23 

3 
2 

1 
1 
(Z) 
3 

59 

11 

27 

2 

6 
3 
4 
(Zl 


Subregion 2: 

Land in farms acres. . 

Cropland harvested- acres. . 

Pastureiand, total acres. . 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres. 

Corn for grain acres.. 


88 
12 

15 

(Z) 
(Z) 


121 
18 
28 

1 

I 


110 
16 
17 

(Z) 
1 


80 
12 
13 

1 

(Z) 


70 
9 

'i 

(Z) 
(Z) 


61 
9 
11 


65 

ft 

13 












(Z) 






(Z) 


(Z) 
















All ha v acresj. 

Crop production: 


11 


15 
30 


14 
3 


12 
6 


s 
2 




6 










(Z) 






2 


1 
















Crop sales: 
Corn for grain bushels.. 


1 


5 


(Z) 


2 






























































Subregion 3: 

Cropland harvested ..acres.. 

Pastureiand, total acres.. 

Selected crops: 


29 
4 
5 

(Z) 
(Z) 


71 
12 
10 

I 


27 
"4 

4 

(Z) 

(Z) 


31 
4 
9 

(Z> 

(Z) 


19 
2 

3 

fZ) 
(Z) 


2 
"l 


20 
3 
1 
















































3 
1 


9 


2 
3 


3 

I 


2 

1 


1 


,, 


Crop production: 










































Crop sales: 
















































































Subregion 4: 

Land in farms .acres. . 

Cropland harvested acres. . 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres.. 

Corn for grain . . _ .acres. . 


48 
7 
12 

1 
(Z) 


76 
13 
16 

1 

(Z) 


4S 
6 
13 

1 

(Z) 


41 

5 
12 

(Z) 

(Z) 


36 
4 
8 

(7,1 
IZ) 


45 
5 
11 

(Z) 
(Z) 


is 
1 


Oats — acres .. 


(Z) 


(Z) 




<Z) 




(Z) 






5 
14 


9 

24 


5 
26 


4 

10 


3 

5 


4 

4 


4 


Crop production: 
Corn for grain bushels.. 




Oats bushels.. 


2 


5 




4 




(Z) 




Crop sales: 


2 


5 




5 


1 


























































Z 50 cents or less: 



Table 27- — Land Use on Poultry Farms, by Economic Class 
of Farm, for Selected Subregions: 1954 — Continued 



Subregion and item 



Subregion 5: 

Land in farms. acres. 

Cropland harvested acres 

Pastureiand, total acres , 

Selected crops: 

Corn for ail purposes acres.. 

Corn for grain acres.. 

Wheat.. .acres. . 

Oats acres. - 

Barley acres.. 

All hay acres.. 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain .bushels.. 

Wheat bushels. . 

Oats ..bushels.. 

Barley. bushels . . 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain .bushels. 

Wheat bushels. . 

Oats ...bushels. . 

Barley bushels 

Subregion 14: 

Land in farms acres.. 

Cropland harvested. acres. . 

Pastureiand, total acres 

Selected (TOps: 

Corn for all purposes. ...acres 

( lorn for grain acres 

Wheal acres. 

Oats acres. . 

Barley . ... .. . . acres 

All hay ..acres . . 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain bushels.. 

Wheat.. bushels. 

Oats bushels. . 

Barley bushels.. 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain.. bushels.. 

Wheat bushels. . 

Oats bushels.. 

Barley ..bushels. . 

Subregion 15: 

Land in farms. acres. . 

Cropland harvested acres.. 

Pastureiand, total acres.. 



Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres.. 

Corn for grain acres. . 

Wheat acres. . 

Oats acres. . 

Barley acres.. 

All hay acres.. 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain bushels. . 

Wheat bushels. . 

Oats bushels. . 

Barley bushels. . 

Crop sales: 

Com for grain bushels.. 

Wheat bushels.. 

Oats _ .bushels. . 

Barley bushels. . 

Subregion 16: 

Land in farms acres.. 

Cropland harvested acres . 

Pastureiand, total acres.. 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres 

Corn for grain ...acres.. 

Wheat acres. . 

Oats acres. . 

Barley. .. acres. . 

All hay . acres 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain bushels . 

Wheat bushels.. 

Oats ..bushels.. 

Barley bushels. . 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain bushels. . 

Wheat bushels- - 

Oats bushels . . 

Barley bushels.. 



Z 50 cents or less. 



Average per farm, by economic class of farm 



Total I II III IV 



(Z) 



155 
42 
31 
10 



(Z) 
(Z) 



185 
21 



242 
17 



405 
150 
61 
60 



78 

106 

6 

10 



389 
109 
47 
51 



128 
101 
22 
38 



238 



132 
56 
14 



1.162 
43 
34 
42 



692 
38 

(Z) 
20 



123 

73 
29 



.200 
477 
112 
190 



210 
418 
20 
37 



I 
4 
1 

1 
(Z) 



172 

39 

27 

7 



(Z) 



318 

56 



33 



50 



30 



.;<ik 



246 
23 



706 
271 
98 

108 



lis 

201 

12 

37 



(Z) 



147 
54 
50 

7 



4 

4 
(Z) 



103 



7 
7 

(Z) 
1 

(Z) 

1 



405 

151 

55 

52 



1 

1 

(Z) 



85 

17 

19 

(Z) 



3 

3 

(Z) 



(Z) 



117 
4 



6 
6 
1 
(Z) 
(Z) 
2 



19! 

17 

21 

7 



354 

l.'S 
81 
55 



(Z) 
14 



4 
4 

(Z) 
1 

(Z) 

1 



106 
10 
21 
4 



VI 



41 
6 
3 



(Z) 



23 

16 
5 



144 
46 
33 
23 



(Z) 



29 
4 
4 



1 
(Zl 
(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 



41 
3 

8 
I 



3 
3 
1 
(Z) 
(Z) 
2 



10 
11 



15 

16 



24 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 27. — Land Use on Poultry Farms, by Economic Class 
of Farm, for Selected Sub-regions: 1954 — Continued 



Subregion and item 



Subregion 18: 
Land in farms acres-. 

Cropland harvested acres.. 

Pastureland, total .acres.. 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres.. 

Corn for grain ..acres.. 

Wheat acres. . 

Oats.- acres.. 

Barley acres.. 

AUhay acres- 
Crop production: 

Corn for grain .bushels.. 

Wheat bushels.. 

Oats bushels.. 

Barley bushels.. 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain .bushels.. 

Wheat - bushels. . 

Oats - bushels. . 

Barley - bushels.. 

Subregion26: 

Land in farms acres. 

Cropland harvested ..acres. 

Pastureland, total acres. 

Selected crops: 
Corn for all purposes acres- 
Corn for grain acres. 

Wheat .acres. 

Oats - acres. 

Barley acres.. 

AUhay acres. 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain . bushels. 

Wheat bushels. 

Oats bushels- 
Barley bushels- 
Crop sales: 

Corn for grain bushels. 

Wheat bushels. 

Oats. - bushels. 

Barley bushels. 

Subregion 83: 

Land in farms -— acres. 

Cropland harvested acres. 

Pastureland, total • acres. 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres. 

Corn for grain., .acres- 
Wheat-- - acres. 

Oats acres- 
Barley-- acres- 
All hay acres. 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain ... bushels. 

Wheat bushels. 

Oats .bushels. 

Barley bushels. 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain bushels. 

Wheat bushels. 

Oats - bushels- 
Barley bushels. 

Subregion 42: 
Land in farms acres. 

Cropland harvested acres. 

Pastureland, total acres. 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres. 

Corn for grain acres. 

Wheat acres. 

Oats acres. 

Barley.. ...acres. 

AUhay acres. 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain bushels 

Wheat .bushels 

Oats _ .bushels 

Barley bushels 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain bushels 

Wheat bushels 

Oats - bushels 

Barley bushels 



Z 0.6 or less. 



Average per farm, by economic class of farm 



Total 



120 
57 
28 
77 



156 
18 
84 



3 
3 
2 
1 
(Z) 
11 



124 
40 
47 
17 



(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 



21 
3 

(Z) 
(Z 



(Z) 



172 
38 



153 

87 
65 
193 



30 



328 

40 
205 



187 
94 
104 
132 



128 

17 

41 



5 

1 

(Z) 



197 
35 
92 



7 
6 
1 
9 
(Z) 



85 

34 

300 



7 

28 

119 

2 



II III IV 



123 
30 
49 



166 
94 

48 

144 



202 
20 
110 



6 
4 
2 
2 

(Z) „ 
12 



5 

5 

3 

(Z) 



179 



6 
11 

4 

C.) 



Ill 
20 
46 



1 

4 

(Z) 

4 



25 
128 
12 



157 
20 
84 



3 
3 
2 
2 

(Z) 
13 



138 
15 
66 



2 
2 
1 
1 

(Z) 



112 
31 
41 
13 



2 

2 

1 

(Z) 

(Z) 



6 
6 

(Z) 
1 

(Z) 



(Z) 



22 

8 

29 

(Z) 



5 
6 

(■/,) 

rz 

(Z) 
3 



5 
6 
1 
1 
(Z) 



100 
12 
62 



2 
1 
1 
1 
(Z) 



6 

1 

2 

(Z) 



63 



3 
3 

(Z) 
(Z 



3 

6 

8 

(Z) 



4 

4 
(Z) 



12 



2 
2 

1 
(Z) 
(Z) 

3 



60 

26 

5 

5 



(Z) 



83 
10 
40 



(Z) 



20 



77 
10 

18 



(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 



11 
4 
1 



84 

9 

44 



(Z) 



47 

7 

22 



Table 27. — Land Use on Poultry Farms, by Economic Class 
of Farm, for Selected Subregions: 1954 — Continued 



Subregion and item 



Subregion 82: 

Land in farms .acres.. 

Cropland harvested acres.. 

Pastureland, total acres.. 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres.. 

Corn for grain .acres.. 

Wheat - .acres.. 

Oats. acres.. 

Barley - - acres.. 

All hay - acres- 
Crop production: 

Corn for grain bushels.. 

Wheat - bushels.. 

Oats bushels- 
Barley bushels- 
Crop sales: 

Corn for grain .bushels. 

Wheat ..bushels. 

Oats bushels- 
Barley bushels. 

Subregion 115: 

Land in farms acres. 

Cropland harvested acres. 

Pastureland, total acres. 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres.. 

Corn for grain acres.. 

Wheat - acres- 
Oats - acres- 
Barley - acres.. 

AUhay acres- 
Crop production: 

Corn for grain bushels.. 

Wheat bushels- . 

Oats ...bushels- 
Barley bushels- 
Crop sales: 

Corn for grain bushels.. 

Wheat bushels.. 

Oats. bushels- 
Barley bushels- 

Subregion 116: 
Land in farms acres- 
Cropland harvested acres.. 

Pastureland, total acres- 
Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres.. 

Corn for grain ..acres. 

Wheat - acres- 
Oats - ..acres- 
Barley acres- 
All bay acres- 
Crop production: 

Corn for grain ..bushels. 

Wheat bushels. 

Oats bushels. 

Barley - bushels. 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain bushels. 

Wheat... ...bushels. 

Oats.. bushels. 

Barley bushels. 

Subregion 117: 
Land in farms acres- 
Cropland harvested acres. 

Pastureland, total ...acres. 

Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres. 

Corn for grain acres. 

Wheat .acres. 

Oats .acres. 

Barley acres. 

AUhay - acres. 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain bushels. 

Wheat - -bushels. 

Oats ..bushels. 

Barley .bushels. 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain.. bushels. 

Wheat bushels. 

Oats bushels- 
Barley bushels. 



Z 0.5 or less. 



Average per farm, by economic class of farm 



Total I II III IV 



(Z) 

(Z) 

2 

(Z) 



(Z) 

(Z) 

(Z) 

(Z) 
1 
1 



(Z) 
(Z) 

1 

(Z) 
2 
3 



(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 

1 

1 



(Z) 
6 
11 
42 



(Z) 
5 
2 
14 



162 
33 

no 



2 

(Z) 

(Z) 

3 

1 

18 



6 
13 
130 
22 



74 
(Z) 



(Z) 



(Z) 

11 



10 

mi 

5 



(Z) 
(Z) 
1 
1 
2 
3 



22 



1 

1 
3 
(Z) 
6 
7 



37 

39 

7 

140 



(Z) 

(Z) 

1 

1 



1 
24 

57 
238 



(Z) 

(Z) 

3 

(Z) 



(Z) 
(Z) 

1 

(Z) 



(Z) 



(Z) 



(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 



(7.1 



(Z) 



(Z) 

1 

3 



35 

6 

20 

(Z) 



(Z) 

(Z) 

1 

2 



(Z) 



CZ) 



(Z) 
(Z) 



<Z> 



(Z) 



'.'II 



(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 



(Z) 



(Z) 



(Z) 



12 



(Z) 
(Z) 



(Z) 
(Z) 



(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 



61 
12 
33 



21 
6 

11 



(Z) 



16 
1 
12 



(Z) 



24 



18 



(Z) 



(Z) 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



25 



Table 27. — Land Use on Poultry Farms, by Economic Class 
of Farm, for Selected Subregions: 1954 — Continued 



Subregion and Item 



Subregion 119: 
Land in farms ..acres. 

Cropland harvested acres. 

Pastureland, total acres- 
Selected crops: 

Corn for all purposes acres.. 

Corn for grain acres. 

v\ beat acres. 

Oats. acres. 

ltiirley acres. 

All hay acres. 

Crop production: 

Corn for grain bushels. 

Wheat bushels. 

Oats bushels - 

Barley bushels. 

Crop sales: 

Corn for grain bushels - 

Wheat bushels 

Oats bushels. 

Barley... bushels. 



Average per (arm, by economic class of farm 



(Z) 
<Z) 
2 
3 

1 
5 



2 
56 
114 
32 



125 
45 
43 



(Z) 



239 
3S7 
126 



213 
153 
81 



II III IV 



(Z) 
(Z) 
4 
5 
1 
6 



3 
93 
180 
52 



(Z) 

(Z) 

2 

3 

1 
5 



1 
61 
131 
35 



(Z) 

(Z) 

1 

2 

(Z) 



(Z) 



I 

1 

(Z) 



22 
3 
11 



(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 



1 

5 
15 
6 



(Z) 



Z 0.5 or less. 



Table 28. — Percent Poultry Farms Are of All Commercial 
Farms, by Size of Farm, for Selected Poultry Subregions: 
1954 



Subregion and size of farm 


Percent 
poultry 
farms are 

of all 
commer- 
cial farms 


Subregion and size of farm 


Percent 
poultry 
farms are 

of all 
commer- 
cial farms 


United States: 


13.8 
6.6 
4.0 
1.5 

64.4 
43.4 
27.1 
11.9 

54.8 

30.7 

12.1 

6.7 

56.5 

33.4 

16.1 

7.8 

53.7 
33.0 
17.9 
4.2 

50.5 
14.3 

5.5 
4.7 

74.1 
32.7 
18.5 
8.4 

63.2 

18.8 
7.1 
2.8 

71.7 
39.0 
26.8 
12.6 


Subregion 26: 


61.7 


30 to 69 acres 




25 5 


70 to 139 acres 




18.7 






13.5 


Subregion 2: 


Subregion 33 : 




30 to 69 acres 




30 to 69 acres. . . 




70 to 139 acres 




70 to 139 acres 






21.3 








18.2 


Subregion 3: 


Subregion 42: 




30 to 69 acres 


22.9 


70 to 139 acres 




21.8 






18.5 






10.3 


Subregion 4: 


Subregion 82: 




30 to 69 acres 




70 to 139 acres 


58.2 






30.8 




70 to 139 acres... 


15.4 


Subregion 5: 


140 acres and over 

Subregion 115: 


7.2 


30 to 69 acres ... 




70 to 139 acres 






32.1 




30 to 69 acres... 


5.8 


Subregion 14: 


70 to 139 acres... 


6.8 


Under 29 acres.. 




4.5 


30 to 69 acres 


Subregion 116: 




70 to 139 acres... . .. 




140 acres and over.. .. ._ _. 


16.0 


Subregion 15: 


30 to 69 acres-.. 


3. 1 


Under 29 acres.. 




1 3 


30to69acres 




1.1 


70 to 139 acres 


Subregion 117: 








Subregion 16: 


33.8 




30 to 69 acres 




30 to 69 acres... 


3.6 


70 to 139 acres 




2.4 




Subregion 119: 




Subregion 18: 
Under 29 acres 


30.1 


30 to 69 acres 


30 to 69 acres.. 


13.1 


70 to 139 acres 


70 to 139 acres 


8.3 


140 acres and over... 




4.9 









Table 29. — Percent Distribution of Operators of Poultry 
Farms in Each Economic Class, by Age, for Selected 
Poultry Subregions: 1954 



Subregion and age group 


Percent distribution of operators In each 
economic class of farm 




Total 


I 

100 
1 
17 
30 
29 
17 
6 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


United States: 
Total 


100 
1 
10 
20 
22 
24 
24 


100 

15 
26 
28 
21 
9 


100 

12 
24 
24 
25 
14 


100 

1 

9 
19 
25 
26 
20 


100 

1 

8 
16 
20 
25 
30 


100 
(Z) 
















24 

57 






Subregion 2: 
Total 


100 
1 
11 
20 
26 
22 
20 


100 


100 


100 
1 
9 
24 
25 
25 
16 


100 
2 
11 
22 
25 
23 
17 


100 
1 
9 
7 
31 
18 
34 


100 


Under 25 years 


25 to 34 years 


16 
27 
34 
15 
8 


15 
25 
27 
23 
10 


2 

5 

10 

20 

63 












Subregion 3: 
Total.. 


100 
(Z) 
9 
21 
19 
27 
24 


100 

13 

28 

29 

24 

6 


ioo 
1 

14 
29 
28 
20 
8 


100 


100 


100 
1 
10 
17 
17 
29 
26 


100 






7 
20 
20 
32 
21 


8 
21 
15 
28 
28 


4 






2 
26 

68 








Subregion 4: 
Total.. 


100 
1 
10 
22 
25 
24 
18 


100 
1 
16 
35 
16 
26 
6 


100 
2 
14 
25 
24 
25 
10 


100 

4 

23 
33 
25 
15 


100 
1 
10 
20 
28 
22 
19 


100 


100 


Under 25 vears 


25 to 34 years 


4 
12 
29 
23 
32 


3 
6 








22 

53 






Subregion 5: 
Total 


100 
3 

8 
17 
26 
28 
18 


100 
1 
20 
29 
23 
19 
8 


100 
1 

7 
22 
35 
24 
11 


100 

2 
10 
13 
21 
35 
18 


100 
1 
3 
11 
33 
35 
17 


100 

4 
7 
13 
21 
25 
30 


100 






4 
16 

7 
















Subregion 14: 
Total 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


Under 25 years 


25 to 34 vears 


11 
18 
27 
28 

16 


27 

46 
18 
9 


19 
24 
24 
24 
10 


6 
14 
26 
43 
11 


5 
16 
42 
21 
16 








33 

13 
33 
21 




















Subregion 15: 
Total 


100 
1 
8 

22 
28 
22 
19 


100 
1 
15 
29 
31 
18 


100 
(Z) 
9 
25 
31 
23 
12 


100 
2 
5 
23 
30 
23 
17 


100 


100 


100 


Under 25 years . 




6 
13 
28 
27 
26 


3 
13 
18 
24 
42 


2 














60 






Subregion 16: 
Total 


100 
3 
17 
20 
20 
17 
23 


100 

2 

29 

30 

27 

4 

8 


100 
8 
20 
33 
21 
9 
9 


100 
3 

19 
28 
20 
21 
9 


100 

18 
14 
22 
18 
28 


100 
2 
15 
16 
21 
23 
23 




Under 25 years... 


1 


25 to 34 years 


3 




8 








13 




63 






Subregion 18: 
Total 


100 
2 
14 
25 
23 
21 
15 


100 
6 
14 
29 
30 
18 
3 


100 
2 
20 
20 
29 
24 
5 


100 

16 
31 
34 
13 
6 


100 
1 

13 
31 
16 
20 
19 


100 
1 
12 
23 
16 
24 
24 








25 to 34 years 






2 




10 




37 




49 






Subregion 26: 
Total 


100 
(Z) 
12 
26 
22 
23 
17 


100 


100 


100 


100 
1 
7 
28 
24 
29 
11 


100 


100 


Under25 years 






14 

25 
34 

19 

8 


15 
25 
20 
25 
15 


18 
26 
25 
14 
17 


12 
25 

14 
28 
21 






12 




21 




24 




43 






Subregion 33: 
Total _ 


100 
1 
13 
27 
26 
18 
15 


100 
3 
14 
37 
21 
14 
11 


100 

19 
36 
22 
14 
9 


100 
3 
12 
30 
27 
19 
9 


100 

12 

20 
28 
20 
19 


100 

13 

28 
24 
18 
16 


100 






25 to 34 years.. 


8 




17 




24 




21 




30 







Z Less than 0.5 percent. 



26 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 29. — Percent Distribution of Operators of Poultry 
Farms in Each Economic Class, by Age, for Selected 
Poultry Subregions: 1954 — Continued 



Subregion and age group 


Percent distribution of operators in each 
economic class of farm 




Total 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Subregion 42: 
Total 


100 
1 

14 
29 
25 
19 
12 


100 

(Z) 

16 

39 

31 
6 
8 


100 
1 
15 
37 
26 
17 
4 


100 
2 
17 
26 
27 
19 
9 


100 

1 

15 
25 
24 
19 
16 


100 
2 
11 
26 
25 
21 
15 


100 








4 




10 




8 




31 




47 






Subregion 82: 
Total _ _ 


100 
1 
12 
23 
25 
24 
15 


100 


100 


100 


100 
2 
10 
14 
27 
28 
19 


100 

10 
19 
29 
35 


100 








18 
37 
27 
13 

5 


15 

31 

28 

20 

6 


15 
25 
26 
23 
11 






12 




8 




42 




38 






Subregion 115: 
Total ... 


100 
(Z) 
9 
20 
26 
28 
17 


100 

12 
28 
33 
23 
4 


100 
(Z) 
11 
23 
32 
24 
10 


100 
(Z) 
6 
16 
23 
30 
26 


100 

10 
18 
22 
32 
18 


100 
2 
6 
19 
19 
30 
24 


100 












11 




22 




30 




37 






Subregion 116: 
Total 


100 
1 

11 
19 
24 
27 
18 


100 

' 14 
21 
31 
21 
13 


100 
1 
12 
24 
27 
22 
14 


100 
1 
10 
20 
23 
30 
16 


100 

7 
17 
20 
39 
17 


100 
2 
13 
8 
14 
33 
30 


100 








5 




5 




22 




26 
42 






Subregion 117: 
Total 


100 
1 
9 
20 
27 
26 
17 


100 

12 
26 
34 
20 
8 


100 
1 
14 
27 
27 
26 
5 


100 


100 


100 


100 








5 
15 


7 
15 


6 
21 
17 
20 
30 


8 








28 29 
34 29 
18 20 


24 




8 




00 










Subregion 119: 
Total 


100 
1 
8 
17 
26 
27 
21 


100 
9 


100 
1 
10 


100 
1 
9 
21 
28 
26 
15 


100 
1 
7 
15 
23 
30 
24 


100 

1 
8 
12 
25 
28 
26 


100 








2 




16 29 
41 28 
29 23 
6 


5 




8 




28 




57 











Z Less than 0.5 percent. 

Table 30. — Source of Labor on Poultry Farms, by Economic 
Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry Subregions: 1954 







Economic class 


of farn 








Total 

1.16 
0.65 
0.29 
0.21 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


United States: 
Alan-equivalent per farm, total 


2.71 
0.83 
0.36 
1.52 


1.43 

0.77 
0.38 
0.27 


1.13 

0.07 
0.36 
0.10 


0.94 
0.59 
0.30 
0.05 


0.77 

0.51 
0.24 
0.02 


0.81 

0.65 




0.14 




0.01 






Subregion 2: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


1.29 
0.66 
0.22 
0.41 


2.79 
0.77 
0.28 
1.74 


1.39 
0.79 
0.28 
0.32 


1.00 
0.61 
0.26 
0.13 


0.87 
0.66 
0.20 
0.11 


0.66 
0.48 
0.13 
0.05 


0.78 
0.66 


Unpaid family labor 


0.07 
0.05 






Subregion 3 : 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


1.40 
0.54 
0.28 
0.48 


3.90 
0.89 
0.42 
2.69 


1.84 

0.77 
0.34 
0.73 


1.12 
0.66 
0.24 
0.22 


0.89 
0.50 
0.27 
0.12 


0.74 
0.45 
0.26 
0.03 


0.80 
0.66 




0.12 




0.02 






Subregion 4: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


1.30 
0.66 
0.31 
0.33 


2.55 
0.89 
0.28 
1.38 


1.28 
0.75 
0.32 
0.21 


1.13 

0.64 
0.39 
0.10 


0.90 
0.55 
0.32 
0.03 


0.72 
0.42 
0.25 
0.05 


0.81 
0.61 




20 




(Z) 






Subregion 6: 


1.39 
0.68 
0.37 
0.34 


2.69 
0.82 
0.60 
1.37 


1.61 
0.79 
0.43 
0.39 


1.24 
0.71 
0.37 
0.16 


1.03 

0.68 
0.34 
0.11 


0.82 
0.50 
0.26 
0.06 


0.76 
0.56 




0.18 




0.02 







Table 30. — Source of Labor on Poultry Farms, by Economic 
Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry Subregions: 1954 — 
Continued 



Subregion and item 




Economic class 


of farrr 








Total 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Subregion 14: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


1.22 
0.68 
0.30 
0.24 


2.40 
0.88 
0.47 
1.05 


1.52 
0.83 
0.33 
0.36 


1.02 
0.64 
0.33 
0.05 


0.78 
0.49 
0.21 
0.08 


0.76 
0.44 
0.29 
0.03 


0.63 

0.53 


Unpaid family labor _ 








Subregion 15: 

Man-equivalent per farm, total 

Operator .. 


1.50 
0.71 
0.31 
0.48 


3.03 
0.82 
0.31 
1.90 


1.50 

0.79 
0.38 
0.33 


1.10 
0.66 
0.33 
0.11 


0.96 
0.58 
0.27 
0.11 


0.75 
0.52 
0.22 
0.01 


0.77 
0.66 
0.09 




0.02 






Subregion 16: 

Man-equivalent per farm, total 

Operator. . 

Unpaid family labor 


1.13 
0.61 
0.29 
0.23 


3.22 

0.84 
0.32 
2.06 


1.51 
0.75 
0.44 
0.32 


1.04 
0.69 
0.29 
0.06 


0.84 
0.52 
0.27 
0.05 


0.72 
0.44 
0.26 
0.02 


0.76 
0.61 
0.14 
0.01 






Subregion 18: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 
Operator _._ .. 


1.15 
0.62 
0.25 
0.28 


2.57 
0.77 
0.34 
1.46 


1.26 
0.84 
0.27 
0.15 


0.96 
0.58 
0.28 
0.10 


0.82 
0.51 
0. 26 
0.05 


0.64 
0.43 
0.19 
0.02 


0.83 
0.71 
0.11 




0.01 






Subregion 26: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 
Operator 


1.03 
0.63 
0.31 
0.09 


1.74 
0.85 
0.48 
0.41 


1.20 

0.69 
0.33 
0.18 


1.06 
0.60 
0.38 
0.08 


0.94 

0.62 
0.27 
0.05 


0.83 
0.57 
0.25 
0.01 


0.79 

0.65 
0.13 


Ilired labor ... .. 


0.01 


Subregion 33: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


1.09 
0.70 
0.31 
0.08 


1.90 
0.82 
0.40 
0.68 


1.30 
0.77 
0.39 
0. 14 


1.06 
0.69 
0.33 
0.04 


0.99 
0.64 
0.31 
0.04 


0.89 
0.64 
0.23 
0.02 


1.04 
80 




24 




(Z) 






Subregion 42: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


1.06 
0.65 
0.28 
0.13 

1.14 
0.70 
0.31 
0.13 


1.92 
0.74 
0.30 
0.88 

2.11 

0.78 
0.24 
1.09 


1.33 
0.74 
0.40 
0.19 

1.27 
0.75 
0.41 
0.11 


1.03 
0.67 
0.29 
0.07 

1.07 
0.72 
0.30 
0.05 


0.83 
0.50 
0.24 
0.03 

0.97 
0.65 
0.30 
0.02 


0.75 
0.55 
0.18 
0.02 

0.79 

0.52 
0.26 
0.01 


0.93 
0.75 




0.17 


Hired labor... 

Subregion 82: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


0.01 

0.85 
0.76 




0.09 




(Z) 






Subregion 115: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


1.31 
0.67 
0.36 
0.28 


2.63 
0.93 
0.37 
1.33 


1.31 
0.75 
0.39 
0.17 


1.08 
0.60 
0.37 
0.11 


0.88 
0.51 
0.34 
0.03 


0.83 
0.52 
0.30 
0.01 


1.05 
0.79 




0.24 




0.02 






Subregion 116: 

Man-equivalent per farm, total 

Operator.. 


1.49 
0.73 
0.33 
0.43 


2.53 

ii s:; 
0.31 
1.39 


1.43 
0.82 
0.33 
0.28 


1.11 
0.64 
0.39 
0.08 


1.02 

0.65 
0.35 
0.02 


0.86 
0.57 
0.28 
0.01 


1.11 
0.79 
0.24 




0.08 






Subregion 117: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


1.27 
0.58 
0.S6 
0.23 


2.17 
0.82 
0.34 
1.01 


1.50 
0.84 
0.47 
0.19 


1.12 
0.66 
0.38 
0.08 


0.83 
0.50 
0.30 
0.03 


0.68 
0.42 
0.25 
0.01 


0.95 
0.69 




0.23 




0.03 






Subregion 119: 
Man-equivalent per farm, total 


1.18 
0.66 
0.35 
0.17 


2.72 
0.87 
0.49 
1.36 


1.49 
80 
0.46 
23 


1.15 
0.67 
0.42 
0.06 


0.93 
0.60 
0.30 
0.03 


0.80 
52 
0.27 
0.01 


0.84 
0.69 




0.14 




0.01 







Z 0.005 or less. 



Z 0.005 or less. 



Broiler production in poultry subregions. — There are great dif- 
ferences between the distribution of broiler production and the 
production of eggs within the 16 selected poultry subregions. 
More than half (53 percent) of the value of broilers sold came from 
the 16 poultry subregions in 1954, whereas only 32 percent of the 
eggs were sold from these 16 areas. Five of these subregions 
(15, 42, 82, 115, and 116) are among the outstanding centers of 
broiler production in the entire country. Sussex County in Dela- 
ware, in subregion 15, is by far the leading county. Of the 3,229 
farms in that county, 1,299 produced broilers in 1954 and the 
average number sold per farm exceeded 40,000. 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



27 



Labor use and gross sales per man-equivalent. — Poultry 
farms in general are somewhat more than one-man operations. 
The average poultry farm requires one and one-sixth men. The 
labor requirement declines rather sharply with reduced sales per 
farm. The man-equivalent per farm for Class I farms was almost 
four times that required for Class V and VI farms. 

The average gross sales per man-equivalent was $8,300 for all 
poultry farms. Both the gross sales and the income above 
specified expenses decreased with the decrease in size of operation, 
as measured by economic class of farm. For all poultry farms in 
the United States, the average gross income per man-equivalent 
for farms in each economic class from I to VI was, in that order — 
$19,000; $11,000; $6,500; $4,000; $2,400; and $800. These 
ratios were similar in the separate subregions. For comparison, 
the sales per man-equivalent for farms in Classes I and VI for sub- 
region 15 were $20,000 and $800; in subregion 82, $21,000 and $900. 

Table 31. — Average Number of Livestock and Poultry Per 
Farm, for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, 
for Selected Poultry Subregions: 1954 



Table 31. — Average Number of Livestock and Poultry Per 
Farm, for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, 
for Selected Poultry Subregions: 1954 — Continued 



Subregions and item 


A verage number per farm by economic class of farm 




Total 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


United States: 


(Z) 
7 
2 

4 

696 


(Z) 

17 

3 

11 

1.993 


(Z) 
10 

2 

5 

1,157 


(Z)_ 

2 
4 

Tor, 


(Z) 
6 
2 
3 

493 


(Z) 
5 
1 
2 

326 


(Z) 
4 




Milk cows 

Hogs and pigs . 

Chickens 4 months old and over. 


1 

1 

181 


Subregion 2: 


(Z) 
3 

1 

1 

1,484 


(Z) 

4 

2 

1 

4, f.l4 


(Z) 

5 

2 

2 

1,539 


(Z) 
2 
1 

(Z) 

963 


(Z) 

2 

1 

(Z) 

703 


(Z) 

2 

1 

(Z) 

494 


(Z) 
2 






1 




(Z) 
179 


Chickens 4 months old and over. 


Subregion 3 : 


(Z) 
1 

(Z) 

1 

1,091 


(Z) 
2 

1 
(Z) 
2, M0 


(Z) 

1 

(Z) 

(Z) 

1,814 


(Z) 
2 
1 

(Z) 
1,042 


(Z) 
1 
(Z) 
(Z) 
618 


<Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
308 


(Z) 
1 






(Z) 
5 




Chickens 4 months old and over. 


262 


Subregion 4: 


(Z) 
3 
1 

(Z) 
1,178 


(Z) 

7 

3 

1 

2, 504 


(Z) 
3 
2 

(Z) 
1,509 


(Z) 
2 
1 

(Z) 
981 


(Z) 
1 
(Z) 
(Z) 
601 


(Z) 

2 

1 

(Z) 

377 


(Z) 




1 




1 






Chickens 4 months old and over. 


219 


Subregion 5 : 


(Z) 

1 

1 

1 

1,965 


(Z) 
2 

1 

1 

4, 563 


(Z) 

1 

(Z) 

(Z) 

2.948 


(Z) 
2 
1 

(Z) 
1, 520 


(Z) 

1 

(Z> 

1 

918 


(Z) 
1 
1 
1 

526 


1 




1 








(Z) 
298 


Chickens 4 months old and over. 


Subregion 14: 


(Z) 

(Z) 

(Z) 

1 

1,324 


4 

725 


(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
2.332 


(Z) 

1 

<Z) 

(Z) 

1.234 


(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 

1 

752 


(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
543 






(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 

170 






Chickens 4 months old and over. 


Subregion 15: 


(Z) 

2 

1 

4 

1.308 


(Z) 

5 

1 

7 

1,711 


(Z) 

2 

1 

4 

1,763 


(Z) 
1 

(Z) 
3 
1,183 


1 

2 

650 


(Z) 
2 
1 
3 

467 


(Z) 




Milk cows.. 


(Z) 




Chickens 4 month-; old and over. 


240 


Subregion 16: 


<Z) 

7 

2 

5 

839 


(Z) 

33 

6 

9 

3,004 


(Z) 

14 

5 

7 

1,366 


(Z) 

6 

1 

5 

906 


(Z) 
4 
1 
5 

551 


(Z) 
2 
1 
3 

366 


(Z) 




Milk cows ... ._ 






2 


Chickens 4 months old and over. 


175 


Subregion 18 : 


(Z) 

14 

3 

6 

208 


1 

38 

5 

10 

426 


1 

22 

5 

9 

229 


(Z) 

10 

3 

5 

174 


(Z) 
8 
2 
4 

155 


(Z) 
4 
1 
3 

139 


(Z) 








Hogs and pigs 

Chickens 4 months old and over. 


2 
140 



Subregions and item 


Average number per farm by economic class of farm 




Total 


I 


II 


III 


rv 


V 


VI 


Subregion 26: 


1 

11 

2 

5 

123 


1 

32 

3 

10 

149 


1 

lfi 

2 

7 

149 


1 

10 

3 

5 

149 


1 

7 

3 

4 

102 


1 
6 
2 
3 
90 
















Chickens 4 months old and over. 


81 


Subregion 33: 


1 
5 
2 
4 
423 


1 

14 

3 

5 

2.036 


1 

7 

2 

5 

577 


1 
5 
2 
3 
317 


1 
5 
2 
3 
327 


1 
4 
2 
3 
262 










2 




:s 


Chickens 4 months old and over. 


258 


Subregion 42: 


1 
8 
2 
4 
285 


1 

23 

4 

5 

819 


1 
12 
2 

5 
349 


1 
6 
2 
3 
228 


1 
5 
1 

3 
214 


1 
4 
1 
2 
202 


1 


All cattle and calves 










2 


Chickens 4 months old and over. 


167 


Subregion 82: 


(Zi 

11 

4 

3 

90 


(Z) 
15 
4 
10 
61 


<Z) 

14 
6 
2 

34 


(Z) 

11 

4 

3 

112 


1 
9 
4 
1 

105 


(Z) 
5 
2 
1 

153 


1 




5 




■> 




•? 


Chickens 4 months old and over. 


118 


Subregion 115: 


(Z) 

1 

(Z) 

(Z) 

1.892 


(Z) 

3 

(Z) 

1 

4,686 


(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
2,273 


(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
(Z) 
1.313 


(Z) 
1 
(Z) 
(Z) 
782 


(Z) 

1 

(Z) 

1 

522 






1 


Milk cows ... 


(Z) 




(Z) 
332 


Chickens 4 months old and over. 


Subregion 116: 


(Z) 

5 

1 

1 

1.358 


(Z) 

11 

2 

1 

1,843 


(Z) 

4 

1 

1 

1,911 


(Z) 
4 
1 

(Z) 
1,174 


(Z) 

(Z)" 
(Z) 
797 


(Z) 
1 
(Z) 
(Z) 
636 


(Z) 
3 
1 


All cattle and calves., 

Milk cows 


Chickens 4 months old and over. 


318 


Subregion 117: 


(Z) 

3 

1 

1 

1,758 


(Z) 
5 

(Z) 

3 

3,972 


(Z) 
4 
1 
(Z) 
2,327 


(Z) 

4 

1 

2 

1,303 


(Z) 
2 

(Z) 
(Z) 
696 


(Z) 
1 
(Z) 
(Z) 
517 


(Z) 
1 


All cattle and calves.. . 




(Z) 
(Z) 
371 


Flogs and pigs 

Chickens 4 months old and over. 


Subregion 119: 


(Z) 
6 
2 
1 

824 


(Z) 
19 
3 

1 

2,131 


(Z) 

7 

1 
1,335 


(Z) 
6 
2 
2 

939 


(Z) 
4 
2 
1 

529 


(Z) 
4 
1 
1 

325 


(Z) 
3 
1 


All cattle and calves 


Hogs and pigs 

Chickens 4 months old and over- 


(Z) 
301 



Z 0.5 or less. 



Z 0.5 or less. 



Work off farm. — About three-fifths of the operators of poultry 
farms spent full-time on their farms. Of the operators of Class 
I farms, three-fourths reported no work other than on their own 
farms but of the operators of Class V farms, more than half re- 
ported work off their farm. Differences among subregions are 
pronounced in this respect. The proportion reporting no off- 
farm work was highest in subregions 5 and 116 where it exceeded 
two-thirds, with less than one-fifth of the operators of Class I 
farms reporting no off-farm work. At the other extreme were 
subregions 18 and 26 where full-time operators represented little 
more than half of all operators. 

Farm mechanization and home conveniences. — Poultry farms 
are preeminently single-enterprise farms engaged in some phase of 
the production of poultry or eggs. Generally, feed is bought 
ready to use and little home-grown feed is provided. Therefore, 
machinery for preparing soil and harvesting crops is not the large 
item on poultry farms that it is on many other types of farms. 
About half the poultry farms have tractors and motortrucks; 
three-fourths have automobiles. 



28 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 32. — Gross Sales and Specified Expenditures Per Farm, 
for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, for 
Selected Poultry Subregions: 1954 



Subregion and item 



United States : 

Gross sales 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry.. . 

Hired labor - 

Machine hire — 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products.- — 

Fertilizer 

Lime... 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses. -- 

Subregion 2: 

Gross sales 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry — 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer.. 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses.. 

Subregion 3: 

Gross sales — 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry — 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses 

Subregion 4: 

Gross sales 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry 

Hired labor. 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products. 

Fertilizer.. 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses 

Subregion 5 : 

Gross sales 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry.... 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses 

Subregion 14: 

Gross sales. 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry.. . 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses 

Subregion 15: 

Gross sales 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer. 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses 

Z 60 cents or less. 



Average per farm by economic class of farm 
(dollars) 



Total 



9.634 

7. 100 

6,336 

418 

£8 

182 
97 
9 

2,534 



14, 731 

10,844 

9. 

800 

26 

180 
29 
3 

3,887 



10, 353 

9.036 

7, " 

894 

30 

200 
25 
3 

1.317 



15.370 

11. 753 

10, 785 

675 

33 

210 
42 
8 

3.671 



12. 417 

10. 748 

9,586 

789 

46 

224 
90 
13 



10. 661 

8,462 

7,644 

468 

50 

197 
92 
11 

2,199 



18,646 

15,043 

13. 581 

895, 

75 

287 
184, 
21 

3, 603 



49.400 

35. 094 

31.024 

2,961 

129 

672 

281 

27 



53. 174 

36.81 

32, 771 

3,405 

53 

520 

64 

5 

16, 356 



42, 086 
34.290 
28. 705 
4,769 
74 

666 

68 



7,796 



51. 370 

36, 766 

33, 064 

2,810 

60 

649 
153 
30 

14,604 



43. 762 

35, 040 

30.790 

3, 216 

97 

671 
237 



8,722 



25, 118 

30, 971 

27. 972 

2,048 

119 

622 

182 
28 

-5 853 



61,511 

47,018 

42,115 

3. 526 

112 

754 

456 

55 



III IV 



15. 727 

11,589 

10, 556 

524 

77 

270 
148 
14 



16, 242 

11,496 

10.590 

625 

30 

210 

36 

5 

4,746 



16. 517 
14. 272 
12, 570 
1, 335 
24 

297 
38 



2.245 



15. 580 

11.787 

11,048 

436 

44 

218 
34 

7 

3,793 



16, 140 
14.017 
12. 689 

925 
59 

234 

96 
14 

2.123 



16, 9112 

11.039 

9.857 

705 

58 

252 
150 
17 

5.863 



16,213 

13,418 

12, 225 

610 

85 

291 
187 
20 

2,795 



7.359 

5. 635 

5,089 

204 

64 

165 

104 

9 

1.724 



7, 051 

6.007 

5,600 

249 

24 

101 
28 

5 

1,044 



7,257 

6.343 

5,724 

401 

18 

160 

38 

2 

914 



6,' 

7. 150 

6.797 

214 

20 

102 
14 
3 



7,643 

7.024 

6,307 

383 

48 

205 
73 
8 

619 



8.050 

5,272 

4,895 

102 



157 

68 

2 

2.778 



7,772 

7, 265 

6,751 

213 

49 

145 

98 



3.808 

3.043 

2, 685 

103 

54 

120 
73 



765 



3, 869 

3, 806 

3. 560 

210 

16 

104 
6 
(Z) 



3.822 

4, 191 

:i, s.'i 
213 
56 

95 
4 
2 



3,838 

3.840 

3.661 

72 

21 

73 
12 

1 



3.941 

4,334 

3,904 

260 

23 

104 
34 



-393 



3,885 

3,255 

2,935 

158 

49 

57 
46 
10 

630 



3,921 

3,889 

3,377 

211 

68 

118 
99 
16 

32 



1,878 

1, 462 

1,248 

44 

39 

79 
47 



416 



1,803 

1,916 

1,750 

97 

17 

37 
15 

(Z) 

-113 



1,806 

1,818 

1,680 

57 



2.190 

1.1 

1,709 

108 

19 

42 

7 
3 

302 



2.158 

2.069 

1,734 

146 

21 

83 

77 



1,896 

1,892 

1,767 

53 

5 

55 
8 
4 

4 



1,910 

1,700 

1,501 

24 

32 

74 
66 
3 

210 



VI 



666 
581 
464 
22 
21 

44 
27 
3 

85 



617 

1,091 

936 

91 



42 
13 
1 



723 

1.181 

1,081 

29 

14 

52 
5 
(Z) 

-458 



763 

741 

686 

6 

13 

24 
12 



757 
1,023 

846 
42 
12 

62 
49 
12 



633 

465 

389 

3 



50 
21 
2 



654 
914 
745 
36 
68 

40 

18 

7 

-260 



Table 32. — Gross Sales and Specified Expenditures Per Farm, 
for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, for 
Selected Poultry Subregions: 1954 — Continued 



Subregion and item 



Subregion 16: 

Gross sales.. 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry. .. 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses 



Subregion 18: 
Gross sale 



Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry. .. 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses 



Subregion 26: 

Gross sales 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry... 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses 



Subregion 33: 

Gross sales 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry... 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses. 



Subregion 42: 



Gro 

Selected expenses, total... 

Feed for livestock and poultry.... 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer 

Lime... 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses _ 



Subregion 82: 

Gross sales 

Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 
products 

Fertilizer 

Lime 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses _ 



Subregion 115: 

Grosssales 

Selected expenses, total.. 

Feed for livestock and poultry 

Hired labor 

Machine hire 

Gasoline and other petroleum 

products 

Fertilizer 

Lime, _ 

Gross sales minus selected ex- 
penses 

Z 60 cents or less. 



Average per farm by economic class of farm 
(dollars) 



Total 



9, 240 

6,288 

5,463 

365 



177 
178 
17 

2,952 



12, 381 

8.136 

7. 383 

390 

62 

200 

94 

7 



8.979 

6,252 

5, 906 

151 

36 

101 
49 



2,727 



7,747 

5,425 

5,117 

111 

30 

81 
79 

7 

2.322 



9.746 

6,611 

6,15.5 

174 

35 

112 
127 



3,135 



10,713 

8,300 

7.807 

224 

73 

142 
50 
4 



IS, 332 

12, 558 

11,314 

948 

48 

240 
8 
(Z) 

2,774 



53,116 
34. 298 
29,572 
3,248 
224 

595 
602 

5; 

18,818 



III 



47,001 

31.875 

28, 666 

2,050 

153 

764 
234 



15, 126 



42, 051 

29,695 

28,511 

643 

53 

346 
118 
24 

12. 356 



41,855 

25.964 

24,481 

945 

64 

342 

125 
17 

15,891 



42, 886 

29, 125 

27, 073 

1,179 

114 

378 

357 

24 

13,761 



44. 630 

35,412 

32,713 

1,879 

189 

497 

121 

13 

9,218 



52, sl'J 
40, 037 
34, 772 
4,491 
103 

645 
26 
(Z) 



16, 133 

10, 024 

8,761 

499 

144 

285 
317 

18 

6.109 



15,374 

9.209 

8,551 

208 

81 

236 
125 



15,693 

11,352 

10.808 

283 

43 

138 

69 

11 

4.341 



15,333 

10, 706 

10,236 

192 

44 

141 

86 

7 

4,627 



15,3117 

10. 061 

9,422 

252 

37 

176 
164 
10 

5,306 



15,104 

11,716 

11,179 

192 

93 

182 
66 
4 

3,388 



15,943 

13, 121 

12, 250 

590 



239 
4 
(Z) 



7,297 

5,404 

4,835 

103 



201 

158 

19 



7,339 

4, 

4,412 

139 

56 

116 

80 

5 

2, 531 



7,548 

5,19' 

4,873 

130 

43 

97 
43 
11 

2,351 



7,287 

5,240 

4, 993 

61 

34 

65 
82 
5 

2,047 



7,422 

5, 002 

4,638 

96 

37 



126 

7 



2. 420 



7,741 

5.719 

5. 395 

83 



116 
50 



7,607 

7,364 

6,804 

361 

35 

161 
3 



3,904 

3,144 

2,695 

75 

92 

121 

143 

18 

760 



4,052 
2,651 
2,3' 

77 
44 

75 
63 



3,801 

2.422 

2,193 

77 

31 

75 

40 

6 

1,379 



3,771 

3,009 

2,789 

60 

22 

55 
76 
7 

762 



4,001 

2, 925 

2,735 

36 

24 

49 
77 
4 

1,082 



3,835 

3,078 

2,900 

27 

46 

78 

26 

1 

757 



3, 986 

3, 953 

3,674 

96 

45 

128 
10 
(Z) 

33 



1,850 

1,593 

1,369 

33 

39 

72 
68 
12 

257 



1,893 

1,296 

1,179 

27 

21 

28 
38 
3 

697 



1,967 

1,179 

1,061 

12 

25 

43 
34 
4 

788 



2, 086 

1,475 

1,307 

32 

24 

43 
61 

8 

611 



,587 

,440 

20 

18 

38 

65 



1,776 

1,310 

1,215 

11 

28 

39 
17 



1,963 

2, 0116 

1,871 

29 

46 

87 
3 

(Z) 

-73 



VI 



678 
674 
655 
20 
22 

31 
44 
2 



649 

524 

458 

14 

17 

11 
21 
3 

125 



650 

371 

277 

23 

16 

24 

30 

1 

279 



831 

778 

640 

7 

11 

32 
83 
5 



691 
830 
719 



25 
68 



-139 



765 

586 

494 

5 

24 

39 

23 

1 

179 



761 

1,396 

1,194 

76 

8 

115 
3 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



29 



Table 32. — Gross Sales and Specified Expenditures Per Farm, Practically all poultry farms have electricity and a high pro- 

for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, for portion have piped running water. Roughly two-thirds have 

Selected Poultr-y Subregions: 1954 — Continued telephones, about half television sets, and somewhat less than 

half, home freezers. About two-thirds of the farms in Class I 
have television sets and home freezers compared with less than 
one-third of the farms in Class VI. 

Production expenses. — Expenditures on poultry farms arc 
high. Expenses were particularly high in relation to income in 
1954, as compared with earlier years, because of the relatively 
low prices for broilers. The total of specified expenses in 1954 
generally ranged from (10 to 90 percent of the sales reported among 
the areas and classes of farms. Cost of feed is the largest item of 
expense. Of the six items included in the 1954 Census, feed 
represented 89 percent of the total expense for all poultry farms 
in the country. The cither specified costs were; hired labor, 6 
percent; gasoline and other petroleum fuel and oil, 2.6 percent; 
cost of machine hire, fertilizer, and lime, 2.4 percent. In some 
cases the total of specified expenses exceeded gross sales, in 1954. 
This situation sometimes arose when the number of farms in the 
group was very small and one or more of the farms in the group 
were just starting in the poultry business that year, and when the 
gross sales of poultry products were not fully reported. On some 
of the farms in Classes V and VI, expenditures exceeded gross 
sales because considerable quantities of poultry products were 
consumed on farms. 

The six specified expenditures do not, of course, represent all 
of the costs on poultry farms. It is significant, however, that the 
proportion that feed is of the total specified expenditures varies 
little with the size of operation as measured by economic class of 
farm. Feed represents between 80 and 90 percent of the total 
in each economic class. Hired labor, the next largest item, 
ranges from 8 percent for Class I farms to 3 percent for the poul- 
try farms with the smallest gross sales. 

Work Off the Farm and Other Income for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry 

Subregions: 1954 



Subregion and item 


Average per farm by economic class of farm 
(dollars) 




Total 


I 


11 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Subregion 116: 


23,265 
17,355 
15,534 
1,360 
108 

302 

44 

I 

5,910 


67,891 

49. 567 
13,979 

4.443 
219 

783 

138 

5 

18, 324 


17,822 
13,681 

12. 198 

908 

89 

259 
26 

1 

4,111 


7,908 

5,913 

5,416 

251 

103 

132 
11 


4,224 
3, 775 

:;..v.n 
64 
28 

79 
10 


2, 2S4 

2. 165 

2,011 

41 

63 

49 

1 


835 




1,192 


Feed for livestock and poultry 


775 
255 




11 


Gasoline and other petroleum 


149 




•y 






Gross sales minus selected ex- 


1,995 


449 


119 


-357 






Subregion 117: 


15,442 

12, 925 

11,969 

695 

41 

214 
6 
(Z) 

2,517 


54,048 
41,800 
38,244 
3,017 
62 

462 

14 

1 

12, 248 


16,332 
14,123 
13,208 

576 
76 

259 
4 
(Z) 

2,209 


7,497 

6, 998 

!'.. 548 

228 

25 

190 


3,721 
4,028 

:i,Mti 
104 
16 

102 
3 


2.440 

2, 283 

2,160 

41 

11 

68 
3 

(Z) 

157 


773 


Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry 


1,385 

1.235 

101 




11 


Gasoline and other petroleum 


37 




1 






Gross sales minus selected ex- 


499 


-307 


-612 






Subregion 119: 


6,098 

6, 695 

6,018 

402 

54 

178 

37 

6 

2,403 


47,813 
30, 538 
26. 272 
3,246 
157 

646 
184 
33 

17,275 


15,034 

11.125 

10,143 

561 

83 

283 
53 
2 

3,909 


6,826 

5.916 

5,548 

147 

48 

154 

40 

9 

880 


3,573 

2,894 

2,661 

64 

43 

114 
10 
2 

679 


1,832 

1,593 

1,460 

30 

19 

71 
12 
1 

239 


886 


Selected expenses, total 

Feed for livestock and poultry 


966 

858 

33 




30 


Gasoline and other petroleum 


36 




8 




1 


Gross sales minus selected ex- 


-SO 







Z 50 cents or less 

Table 33.- 









Ecouomie class of farm 








Total 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


United States: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


60.6 
13.1 

5.2 
18.9 
23.3 


74.2 
10.0 

3.3 
11.0 

9.8 


63.7 
15.3 
5.2 
14.7 
16.0 


55.4 
13.6 
6.7 
22.5 
25.7 


49.6 
12.7 

7.4 
28.5 
34.7 


47.1 

11.6 

7.4 

31.8 

45.5 


81.3 




13.7 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold__ 






Subregion 2 : 
Percent of farms reporting: 


60.1 
12.2 
3.7 
22.2 
25.3 


72.4 
5.2 
2.6 
19.8 
10.4 


69.0 
12.9 
2.6 
15.5 

15.5 


50.0 
13.8 
6.4 
25.5 
20.2 


44.6 
14.5 
6.0 
31.3 
38.6 


49.3 

10.4 
3.0 

35.8 
67.2 


82.3 




17.7 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold.. 






Subregion 3: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


65. 5 
5.3 
3.6 
23. 1 
24. 9 


91.3 


68, 6 
6. 9 
6.9 
16.7 
13.7 


67.7 
5.0 
4.0 
18.2 
14.1 


54.8 

3.2 

1.1 

37. 6 

40.9 


41.3 
8.2 
5.9 
43.4 
57.7 


93.6 




6.4 










1 :: 
4.8 




Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold 






Subregion 4: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


64 6 
5.0 
4.3 
24.0 
24.0 


86. 2 
4.9 
2.0 
4.9 
3.0 


68.2 
7.0 
7.0 
17.2 
17.2 


58.0 

6.8 

5.7 

29.5 

25.0 


53.5 
4.0 
3.0 

39.4 
32.3 


48.0 
2.0 

3.9 
41.2 
53.9 


84.4 




3.1 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold.. 






Subregion 5: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


68.9 
5.5 

3.0 
17.2 
17.0 


82.4 
2.3 


75.2 
7.0 
3.7 
8.4 
5.0 


73.5 
3.0 
1.8 
21.1 
19.9 


52.5 

8.6 

4.3 

28.8 

34.5 


52.4 

6.0 

6.0 

29.8 

36.9 


76.4 




3. 6 


100 to 199 days of off-farm work _ _ . ... 






11.7 
2.0 




Income of operator and members .of family greater than value of all farm products sold. . 







30 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 33. — Work Off the Farm and Other Income for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry 

Subregions: 1954 — Continued 



Subregion and item 


Economic class of farm 




Total 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Subregion 14: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


66.2 

5.3 

3.8 

21.1 

20.3 


83.3 

8.3 


79.1 
4.7 
7.0 
9.3 
4.7 


62.9 
2.9 
2.9 

22.9 
37.1 


47.4 
5.3 


40.0 

6.7 

6.7 

46.7 

40.0 


77.8 




11.1 








8.3 


42.1 
31.6 




Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold.. 








Subregion 15: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


67.7 

9.5 

5.3 

16.2 

18.9 


74.4 
7.7 
3.6 
12.5 
11.3 


71.8 
10.0 
5.6 
12.0 
14.1 


60.9 
8.9 

5.7 
22.4 
22.8 


55.0 

8.3 

8.9 

26.0 

37.9 


56.7 
11.7 
5.0 
25.8 
33.3 


85.1 




12.6 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold- - 






Subregion 16: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


52.9 
15.6 
5.1 
23.3 
23.3 


70.2 
14.7 
7.4 

7.4 
5.5 


60.8 
16.8 
4.8 
14.4 
10.4 


48.9 
22.3 
5.0 
22.3 
18.7 


51.2 

9.4 

4.4 

30.6 

28.8 


35.6 
11.5 
8.0 
42.0 
50.0 


72.4 




22.4 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold. . 






Subregion 18: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


43.8 
21.6 
6,8 
27.3 
29.6 


62.2 
13.8 
3.2 
20.9 
13.5 


53.0 

33.7 

7.2 

4.8 

14.5 


34.8 
19.6 
6.5 
39.1 
42.4 


34.3 
17.6 
11.8 
37.3 
44.1 


30.1 
16.9 
7.2 
43.4 
41.0 


65.9 




34.1 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold . . 






Subregion 26: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


45.8 
24, 4 

18.5 
27.0 


65.5 
26.2 


52.0 
20. U 
8.9 
12.8 
19.1 


38.7 
28.2 
6.5 
18.5 
27.6 


44.1 
18.0 
7.8 
25.6 
34.5 


38.3 
27.2 
3.7 

27.2 
37.0 


63.6 




27. :'. 








8.3 

25.5 




Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold- . 






Subregion 33: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


59.0 
14.4 
6.4 
19.7 
29.5 


77.1 

8.9 

2.8 

11.2 

16.8 


63.2 

16.1 

4.6 

15.6 

21.2 


52.0 
15.2 
10.0 
22.4 
29.5 


53.4 
15.0 
7.8 
23.8 
37.3 


54.5 
11.5 
6.1 
27.3 
46.1 


82.0 




15.1 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold- . 






Subregion 42: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


52.7 
12.9 
7.1 
27.5 
37.0 


60.8 
11.1 
10.0 
18.1 
23.7 


57.4 
14.6 
6.0 
22.0 
24.8 


51.9 
14.1 
8.2 
26.3 
37.0 


46.9 
11.0 
6.0 
35.8 
45.3 


46.2 
8.0 
8.5 
37.2 
59.3 


76.9 




25.0 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold. . 





Subregion 82: 

Percent of farms reporting: 


54.7 
1&2 
8.9 
17.5 
27.3 


70.3 
4.8 
10.0 
12.4 
12.4 


50.7 
25.2 
6.8 
17.3 
23.9 


54.0 
18.6 
9.9 
16.1 
27.9 


53.0 
15.7 
10.4 
20.9 
27.0 


47.5 
13.5 
12.1 
26.9 
57.9 


78.6 




17.9 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold. . 






Subregion 115: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


64.2 

5.8 

5.2 

24.6 

28.4 


88.4 
5.7 
2.5 
3.4 

5.7 


68.6 
7.1 
3.4 
20.9 
22.5 


62.1 

3.9 

6.6 

27.4 

28.6 


46.1 

3.3 

8.9 

41.7 

47.2 


48.8 

7.7 

6.2 

35.8 

50.5 


81.5 




18.5 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold- _ 






Subregion 116: 

Percent of farms reporting: 


69.4 
9.5 
2.9 
17.7 
19.7 


82.3 
6.0 

1.5 
8.7 
7.2 


78.3 
9.3 
2.3 

10.8 
11.6 


58.9 

9.2 

4.1 

26.2 

24.5 


54.2 
14.5 
6.0 
26.5 
39.8 


58.7 

9.5 

1.6 

28.6 

33.3 


85.7 




14.3 










Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold.- 





Subregion 117: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


64.4 

7.6 

4.6 

23.2 

26.4 


74.7 
10.4 

1.4 
13.5 

5.6 


76.1 
7.0 
4.1 
12.8 
10.5 


62.8 

8.0 

4.4 

24.1 

27.0 


43.2 
8.0 
9.0 

39.8 
54.8 


47.9 

2.8 

5.6 

43.7 

59.2 


88.5 




11.5 


100 to 199 davs of off-farm work 








Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold . . 






Subregion 119: 
Percent of farms reporting: 


56.7 
16.0 
7.1 
20.2 
26.6 


72.9 
16.2 
5.4 
5.4 
10.8 


62.3 
22.3 
3.8 
11.5 
14.6 


54.1 
15.1 
7.5 
23.3 
23.3 


51.3 
13.5 
10.3 
24.9 
35.7 


42.6 
14.9 
9.2 
33.3 
47.5 


85.5 




14.5 


100 to 199 days of off-farm work 








Income of operator and members of family greater than value of all farm products sold. . 







POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



31 



Table 34. — Selected Facilities and Equipment for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, for the United States 

and for Selected Poultry Subregions: 1954 



SubregioD and Item 


Economic class of farm 


Subregion and item 


Economic class of farm 




Total 

0.9 
0.5 
0.7 

75.0 

47.4 
53.6 
65.8 
97.6 
48.3 
83.9 
39.7 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Total 

1.0 

0.7 
0.7 

80.0 
52.1 
50.6 
85.0 
98.9 
67.1 
93.5 
41.7 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


United States: 
Average number per farm: 


1.5 
1.2 
1.3 

89.3 
76.1 
70.6 
82.6 
98.9 
65.6 
96.3 
60.1 


1.0 
0.7 
0.9 

80.9 
63.8 
61.3 
72.5 
99 3 
57.5 
93.8 
47.5 


0.9 
0.6 

0.6 

75.7 
54.4 
57.1 
64.4 
98.3 
51.8 
91.2 
40.8 


0.9 
0.5 
0.7 

74.4 
46.0 

55.8 
63.3 
97.8 
46.8 
85.4 
38.7 


0.9 
0.4 
0.6 

75.0 
35.9 
81.6 

63.7 
97.5 
44.8 
79.8 
35.2 


0.7 
0.2 
0.4 

61.8 
23.1 
33.6 
56.8 
94,3 
32.1 
62.6 
26.7 

0.8 
0.3 
0.4 

75.7 
29.2 
38.1 
88.9 
100.11 
40.3 
93.4 
29.2 


Subregion 15: 
Average number per farm: 
Automobiles 


1.5 
1.2 
1.2 

94.3 
70.5 
65.4 
95.3 
99.8 
74.0 
98.3 
61.3 


1.0 

0.7 
0.8 

83.7 
55.5 
52.0 
92.1 
99.6 
73.0 
97.7 
42.6 


0.9 

5 
II 6 

76.9 
48.8 
48.4 
85.1 
98.6 
66.2 
94.3 
29.2 


0.9 
0.5 
0.6 

75.7 

43.8 
45.0 
78.7 
97. li 
61.5 
89.9 
37.9 


0.7 
0.4 
0.5 

65.0 
39.2 
41,7 
65,8 
10(1 II 

58 :i 
88.3 
44.2 


6 




0.2 








Percent of farms reporting: 


Percent of farms reporting: 




















51 7 
























25 3 




Subregion 16: 
Average number per farm: 




Subregion 2: 
Average number per farm: 


1.0 
0.8 
0.7 

81.3 

62.7 
51.2 
88.4 
99.2 
65.4 
96.9 
41.0 


1.4 
1.3 
1.0 

88.3 
79.2 
60.9 
96.1 

100 
75.3 

100.0 
55.5 


0.9 
0.9 
0.8 

86.2 
72.4 
62.1 
87.1 
100. 
69. 
98.3 
43.1 


1.0 
0.7 

0.7 

84.0 
61.7 
48.9 
90.4 
98.9 
70.2 
97.9 
36.2 


0.8 
0.7 
0.5 

77.1 
59.0 
.Mi i; 
88.0 
97.6 
63.9 
96.4 
43.4 


0.8 
0.7 
0.4 

70.1 
56.2 
34 3 
79.1 
98.5 
59.7 
92.5 
32.8 


1.1 
0.4 
1.1 

84.3 

38.4 
71.2 
66.2 
95.6 
44.4 
88.4 
56.9 


2.1 
1.1 
2.1 

94.5 
68.7 
92 
92.6 
98.2 
44.9 
100, 
73.9 

1.7 
1.3 

1.6 

91.4 
81.4 
78.5 
88.3 
95.7 
47.0 
89.7 
67.9 


1.3 
0.7 
1.8 

92.8 
57.6 
90.4 
77 6 
99.2 
47.2 
99.2 
68.8 


1.1 
0.4 
1.2 

85.6 
41.7 
78.4 
64.7 
92. 1 
44 (1 
95.0 
54.7 


1.0 

0.4 
1.0 

80.0 
36.2 
71.9 
58.1 
95.6 
45.6 
85.6 
57.5 


1.0 
0.3 
0.8 

86.8 
27.6 
62.6 
62.6 
97.1 
47.1 
85.6 
55.7 


8 






2 






0.5 
68 4 


Percent of farms reporting: 


Percent of farms reporting: 
Automobiles 










38 8 






5H 2 












33 7 




68.4 






36 7 




Subregion 18: 
Average number per farm: 




Subregion 3: 
Average number per farm: 


1.0 
0.6 
0.5 

79.9 
60.5 
36.6 
89.4 
98.6 
80.1 
93.8 
41.6 


1.6 

1.5 
1.4 

91.3 

84.8 
65.4 
95.7 
100.0 
91.3 
93.5 
63.2 


1.0 
1.0 

0.6 

84.3 

75.5 
48.0 
95.1 
100.0 
83.3 
98.0 
53.9 


0.9 
0.6 
0.4 

81.8 

48.5 
28.3 
90.9 
100.0 
82.8 
97.0 
40.4 


0.9 
0.4 

0.4 

73.1 

36.6 
28.0 
92.5 
98.9 
78.5 
89.2 
35.5 


1.2 

0.4 

0.4 

82.4 
34.3 
34.3 
81.0 
92.7 
75.1 
89.2 
31.7 


0.7 

0.2 
0.3 

63 8 

23,4 
21.3 
76.6 
100.0 
68. 1 
95.7 
25.5 


1.1 

0.8 

1.0 

81.1 
47.5 
64.7 
71.5 
96.4 
38.2 
69. C 
37.3 


1.1 

0.7 
1.4 

88.0 
62.6 
86.7 
78.3 
98.8 
37.3 
83.1 
48.2 


U.9 
0.6 

0.9 

78.3 
51.1 
66.3 
73.9 
93.5 
35.9 
69.6 
29.3 


1.0 
0.4 

0.8 

82.3 
40.2 
58.8 
08.6 
99.0 
37.3 
61.8 
36.3 


0.9 
0.2 
(1 5 

77.1 
24.1 

47.0 
66.3 
96.4 
39.8 
51.8 
21.7 






Motortrucks.- - 

Tractors 

Percent of farms reporting: 
Automobiles _. 


2 




5 


Percent of farms reporting: 






17 1 


















92 7 












63 4 






14 6 




Subregion 26 : 
Average number per farm: 




Subregion 4: 
Average number per farm : 
Automobiles 


1.1 
0.7 
0.6 

85.8 
67.9 
46.4 
94.7 
99.3 
73.3 
96.7 
46.7 

1.1 
0.7 
0.8 

82.6 
60.4 
62.6 
95.0 
99.9 
82.8 
98.1 
47.5 


1.8 

1.2 
1.0 

97.8 
78.3 
63.6 
98.0 
10O.O 
78.3 
99.0 
63.6 


1.1 
0.9 
0.6 

88.5 
68.8 
44.7 
96.2 
100.0 
75.8 
98.1 
47.2 


1.1 
0.6 

0.6 

86.4 
55.7 
44.3 
95.5 
100.0 
75.0 
98.9 
50.0 


0.9 
0.6 
0.6 

81.8 
47.6 
47.5 
96.0 
100.0 
68.7 
99.0 
36.4 


1.0 
0.5 
0.5 

79.4 
44.1 

41.2 
88.2 
98.0 
74.5 
89.2 
39.2 


0.7 
0.2 
0.2 

65.6 
21.9 

18.8 
90.6 
93.8 
50.0 
93.8 
37. 5 

1.(1 
0.5 
0.7 

74.5 
40.0 
45.5 
85.5 
100.0 
70.9 
87.3 
43.6 


0.7 
0.6 
0.7 

62.5 
51.5 
47.6 
34.1 
95.8 
23.5 
61.2 
23.2 

0.5 
0.6 
0.3 

46.2 
55.5 
31.1 
15.9 
97.1 
33.3 
74.9 
18.0 


1.3 
1.4 

1.5 

89.0 
82.8 
80.7 
47.6 
100.0 
51.7 
99.3 
50.3 


0.8 
0.6 

0.8 

75.0 
59.2 
50.0 
36.0 
98.7 
23.7 
74.2 
35.2 


0.7 
0.5 
0.8 

65.6 
48.4 
57.1 
29.0 
92.7 
18.2 
58.9 
19.7 


0.5 
0.6 
0.5 

48.8 
56.3 
41.0 
32.5 
96.4 
23.4 
52.8 
16.9 


0.6 
0.4 
0.4 

60. 5 

38. :; 

34. li 
13.3 
96.3 
23. 5 
48.1 
18.5 


0.4 






II 4 






4 


Percent of farms reporting: 


Percent of farms reporting: 




Motortrucks 




36 4 








Telephones 

Electricity 


Telephones 

Electricity 


42.4 
93. 9 








Home freezers 








Subregion 33: 

Average number per farm: 




Subregion 5: 
Average number per farm: 


1.5 
1.3 
0.9 

91.6 
83.4 
58.5 
97.7 
98.8 
89.5 
98.8 
64.3 


1.1 
0.8 

0.7 

85.5 
66.4 
49.1 
96.7 
100.0 
86.0 
97.7 
49.5 


1.1 
0.7 
0.7 

82.6 
62.0 
49.4 
96.4 

100.0 
81.3 

100.0 
49.4 


1.1 
0.5 

0.7 

83.5 
48.2 
54.7 
95.0 
100.0 
84.2 
99.3 
46.0 


1,0 

0.6 

0.9 

70.2 
52.4 
63.1 
91.7 

100.0 
76.2 

100.0 
36.9 


1.0 
1.1 
0.1 

72.1 
77.7 
57.5 
32.4 
97.2 
60.3 
94.4 
51.4 


0.7 
0.8 
0.4 

61.0 
69.6 
37.3 
23.0 
MS X 
40.4 
82.5 
21.7 


0.5 
0.6 
0.3 

46.2 
56.2 
32.4 
14.7 
96.7 
37.7 
75.7 
15.8 


0.5 
0.5 

0.3 

44.2 
49.1 
26.8 
14. 1 
97.1 
31.0 
75.8 
16.5 


0.4 
0.5 
0.3 

41.2 

47.9 
24 2 
12' 1 
95.8 
23.0 
06. 7 
13.9 




Motortrucks 




5 


Tractors . 






Percent of farms reporting: 
Automobiles _ 


Percent of farms reporting: 


22 1 




Motortrucks 




Tractors . 








10.5 






97.7 


Television sets 




23 3 




Piped running water _. 










Subregion 42: 

Average number per farm: 




Subregion 14: 
Average number per farm: 
Automobiles 


1.0 
0.7 
0.7 

80.5 
56.4 
51.1 
90.2 
99.2 
85.7 
90.2 
33.8 


13 
1.4 
1.1 

91.7 
91.7 
75.0 
75.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
25.0 


1.0 
0.7 
0.7 

81.4 

58.1 
48.8 
97.7 
100.0 
81.4 
95.3 
30.2 


0.9 
0.6 
0.7 

80.0 
54.3 
51.4 
88.6 
100.0 
91.4 
88.6 
34.3 


1.1 

0.5 
0.7 

94.7 
42.1 
52.6 
89.5 
94.7 
78.9 
89.6 
26.3 


0.7 
0.6 
0.8 

73.3 
53.3 
46.7 
100.0 
100.0 
86.7 
93.3 
166.7 


0.4 
0.6 
0.3 

44.4 
44.4 
33.3 
66.7 
100.0 
77.8 
55.6 
22.2 


0.7 
0.6 

0.4 

64.2 
51.4 
38.2 
38.4 
99.2 
58.4 
90.1 
23.6 


1.1 
0.9 
0.9 

79.1 
59.5 
64.9 
51.9 
100.0 
78.6 
96.7 
39.7 


0.8 
0.7 
0.6 

67.0 
61.6 
47.8 
41.1 
99.4 
62.5 
92.9 
24.6 


0.7 
0.6 
0.4 

62.1 

53.5 
38.8 
34.6 
99.8 
58.9 
92.7 
23.5 


0.7 
0.5 
0.3 

61.0 
45.0 
2S. 3 
34.9 
98.7 
55.7 
86.5 
19.5 


0.7 

0,4 
0.3 

63.8 
41.2 
27. li 
42. 7 
98. 
53.8 
85.9 
22.1 


6 


Motortrucks 




0.4 


Tractors 




3 


Percent of farms reporting: 
Automobiles 


Percent of farms reporting: 


59.6 


Motortrucks 




34.6 


Tractors 




26. 9 


Telephones 






Electricity ... 




98.1 


Television sets 




28. 8 


Piped running water 




76. 9 






21.2 













32 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 34. — Selected Facilities and Equipment for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, for the United States 

and for Selected Poultry Subregions: 1954 — Continued 



Subregion and item 


Economic class of farm 


Subregion and item 


Economic class of farm 


Total 


1 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Total 


I 

90.9 
76.5 
70.8 
88.0 
99.2 
66.0 
97.0 
57.7 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Subregion82: 
Average number per farm: 


0.7 
0.6 
0.6 

63.3 

55.0 
50.3 
53.2 
98.2 
23.2 
82.3 
27.5 


1.2 
0.9 
0.9 

73.7 
66.5 
71.3 
72.7 
95.2 
44.5 
88.0 
56.5 


0.8 
0.7 
0.6 

70.8 
62.8 
58. S 
61.2 
100.0 
31.9 
93.9 
25.4 


0.7 
0.6 
0.6 

64.0 
57.8 
55.3 
51.6 
98.1 
19.9 
84.5 
29.8 


0.6 
0.5 
0.5 

57.4 
44.3 
43.5 
40.0 
96.5 
13.0 
72.2 
20.0 


0.6 
0.4 
0.3 

61.3 
42.8 
25.9 
57.6 
98.3 
17.2 
76.1 
27.3 


0.3 
0.5 
0.3 

32.1 
50.0 
25.0 
35.7 
100. 
17.9 
64.3 
14.3 


Subregion 116— Continued 
Percent of farms reporting: 
Automobiles. 


88.0 
56.3 
54.5 
80.6 
99.6 
51.9 
99.1 
46.6 


90.7 
61.3 
62.1 
89.9 

100.0 
53.6 

100.0 
53.6 


86.9 
55.8 
53.4 
76.1 

100.0 
53.4 

100.0 
50.1 


84.3 
42.2 
41.0 
69.9 

100.0 
38.6 

100.0 
27.7 


88.9 
31.7 
33.3 
69.8 
98.4 
41.3 
100.0 
33.3 


71.4 




Motortrucks -.. - 


28.6 






28.6 






76.2 


Percent of farms reporting: 




100.0 




28.6 


Motortrucks.. 




95.2 


Home freezers 


28.6 




Subregion 117: 
Average number per farm: 


1.2 
0.8 
0.6 

87.7 
63.7 
45.3 
85.4 
100.0 
60.4 
98.5 
45.5 


1.7 
1.5 
0.9 

95.3 
88.7 
60.3 
92.1 

100. 
64.1 

100.0 
55.8 


1.3 
0.9 
0.6 

92.4 
70.2 
49.1 
94.2 
100.0 
65.3 
99.4 
48.7 


1.1 
0.7 
0.5 

87.6 
60.6 
45.3 
83.9 
100.0 
64.2 
98.5 
43.1 


1.0 
0.6 
0.4 

81.9 
53.2 
36.3 
76.1 
100.0 
51.0 
95.0 
41.2 


1.0 
0.5 
0.4 

81.7 
43.7 
35.2 
71.8 
100.0 
60.6 
98.6 
47.9 




Television sets. 

Piped running water 


0.9 


Motortrucks 


0.5 






4 


Subregion 115: 
Average number per farm: 


1.2 
0.5 
0.3 

91.3 
38.2 
26.5 
82.2 
99.0 
81.4 
98.6 
44.4 


1.7 
1.0 
0.6 

93.6 
64.1 
41.1 
85.7 
99.7 
82.8 
99.9 
60.0 


1.2 
0.5 
0.3 

92.3 
40.6 
25.5 
87.4 
100.0 
83.7 
99.7 
46.8 


1.2 
0.3 
0.2 

92.7 
28.3 
22.1 
81.0 
98.8 
81.4 
98.5 
35.5 


1.2 
0.4 
0.2 

88.3 
32.2 
20.0 
79.4 
96.7 
80.0 
96.7 
42.8 


1.1 
0.3 
0.3 

89.9 
31.9 
28.8 
76.8 
100.0 
77.4 
97.7 
40.4 


0.9 
0.2 
0.3 

77.8 
22.2 
25.9 
55.6 
96.3 
74.1 
96.3 
37.0 


Percent of farms reporting: 


69.5 




46.6 




31.3 




Telepbones 


84.7 




100.0 






31.3 


Percent of farms reporting: 




100.0 


Home freezers 


12.2 




Subregion 119: 
Average number per farm: 
Automobiles - - 






1.0 
0.7 
1.0 

80.3 
56.6 
71.9 
75.6 
99.2 
43.6 
98.0 
41.7 


1.4 
1.3 

1.8 

94.6 
98.2 
94.6 
92.8 

100.0 
63.9 

100.0 
62.1 


1.1 
0.8 
1.3 

88.5 
66.9 
80.8 
86.9 
100.0 
49.2 
98.5 
60.0 


0.9 
0.8 
1.1 

81.1 
64.2 
76.1 
79.9 
100.0 
49.1 
98.7 
39.6 


1.0 
0.6 
0.9 

79.5 
51.4 
65.9 
71.4 
100.0 
40.5 
98.9 
36.2 


0.9 
0.4 
0.8 

75.2 
39.0 
66.2 
68.1 
97.2 
34.8 
95.7 
38.3 














0.7 




Motortrucks - 


0.4 






0.6 




Percent of farms reporting: 










1.3 
0.7 
0.8 


1.8 
1.2 
1.3 


1.2 
0.7 
0.8 


1.1 
0.6 
0.6 


1.0 
0.4 
0.5 


1.0 
0.3 

0.4 


1.0 
0.3 
0.3 


62.9 






33.9 






54.8 


Subregion 118: 
Average number per farm: 




54.8 




96.8 


Television sets ..- 


29.0 




Piped running water ..- 


95.2 






35.5 









Measures of efficiency levels of the poultry business. Because 
of the conditions affecting poultry income in 1954 and the nature 
of the poultry business, available economic measures are of limited 
usefulness in gauging levels of efficiency and income on poultry 
farms in various economic classes. In general, these measures 
indicate more efficient use of capital and labor on larger farms and 
higher degree of specialization and poultry production. Gross sales 



per farm averaged $9,600 for all poultry farms, and ranged from 
$19,000 for Class I farms to less than $700 for Class VI farms. 
However, the margin of sales over total cash expenditures is 
probably smaller for poultry farms than for any other type of 
farming. For all poultry farms in the United States, in 1954, 
this margin of gross sales over the total of six specified cash ex- 
penditures was $2,500. 



POULTRY PRODUCERS AND POULTRY PRODUCTION 



33 



Table 35 — Selected Measures of Efficiency for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry Subregions: 

1954 



Subregion and item 



United States: 

Gross sales per man-equivalent . .. - dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested... .. dollars. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars. 

Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars. 

Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent 

Subregion 2: 

( irnss sales per man-equivalent. . dollars. 

1 1 loss sales per $1,000 of capital invested dollars. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars. 

Capita] i mested per man-equivaleni ..dollars. 

Expenditure (or feed per $100 gross sales .dollars- 
Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products. perceut. 

Subregion 3 : 

Gross sales per man-equivalent dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested. dollars 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales. dollars. 

Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales . dollars. 

Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products - percent. 

Subregion 4: 

Gross sales per man-equivalent ..dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested dollars. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars. 

Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales ... dollars- 
Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 

Subregion 5 : 

Gross sales per man-equivalent . dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested. _ dollars. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars- 
Capital invested per man-equivalent.. dollars. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars. 

Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 

Subregion 14: 

Gross sales per man-equivalent dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested dollars. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars- 
Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars- 
Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars. 

Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 

Subregion 15: 

Gross sales per man-equivalent dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested dollars. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars- 
Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars- 
Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars- 
Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 

Subregion 16: 
Gross sales per man-equivalent _ .dollars- 
Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested dollars- 
Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars- 
Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars- 
Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars- 
Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 

Subregion 18: 
Gross sales per man-equivalent dollars- 
Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested dollars- 
Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars- 
Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars- 
Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales. dollars. 

Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 

Subregion 26 : 

Gross sales per man-equivalent dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested dollars 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales. ..dollars. 

Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales... dollars. 

Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 

Subregion 33: 

Gross sales per man-equivalent _._ ...dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested ..dollars. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales .dollars- 
Capita] invested per man-equivalent ...dollars- 
Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales .dollars- 
Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 



Economic class of farm 



Total 



8,305 
646 
133 

15, 199 
66 



11.419 
775 
130 

14,869 
67 

90.4 



7, 395 

545 

183 

13, 584 



96.5 



146 

17, 299 
70 



8,933 

388 

257 

22, 939 

77 

96.6 



8,739 

395 

254 

22, 252 

71 

96.7 



12, 431 
811 
125 

15, 467 
73 

93.5 



8,177 
486 
207 

0, 893 
69 



10, 766 
688 
141 

16, 242 
60 

87.3 



8,717 
748 
136 

11,906 
66 

91.0 



7,107 
776 
124 

8,786 
66 

94.6 



18, 229 
1,100 

91 
16. 571 

63 

92.1 



I'.l.O.Vl 
1. 437 

70 
13, 200 

02 

97.9 



10, 791 

1,266 

101 

10, 857 

68 

97.1 



20, 145 
1,352 

75 
15,033 

64 

95.2 



16, 268 
717 
140 

22, 832 
70 

97.2 



10, 406 
405 
248 

25, 924 
111 



20, 301 
1.577 

64 
13, 021 

68 

94.4 



16, 496 
949 
105 

17, 361 

56 



18, 288 
1,175 

85 
15, 553 

61 

88.9 



24, 167 
1, 237 

81 
19, 503 

68 

94.5 



22, 029 
1,674 

59 
13, 005 

68 

97.6 



10, 998 
647 
155 

17,010 
67 

90.1 



11,685 
706 
no 

16,349 
66 

94.3 



8, 977 

706 

138 

12, 343 

70 

96.0 



12, 172 
649 
157 

19, 137 
71 

95.9 



10, 025 
425 
233 

23,301 
79 

97.2 



11, 120 
604 
168 

18, 670 
58 

97.4 



IO.MI9 
624 
162 

17, 487 
75 

92.8 



10,684 
556 
183 

19, 400 
54 

76.3 



12, 202 
699 
148 

17,686 
56 

84.6 



13, 078 
1,046 



12, 789 
69 



92.5 



11,795 

1,179 

84 

9,926 

67 

95.6 



6,512 

422 

237 

15,411 

69 

87.6 



7,051 
415 
213 

17, 260 
79 

96.1 



6,479 

427 

234 

15, 268 

78 

95.1 



6,188 

350 

280 

17, 375 

97 

97.1 



li, 104 

283 

354 

21, 727 

83 

93.7 



7,892 

350 

280 

22, 231 

61 

95.4 



7,065 

432 

228 

15, 927 

87 

92.5 



7,016 

405 

244 

17, 479 

66 

79.5 



7,645 

524 

190 

14, 441 

60 

87.4 



7,121 

629 

164 

11,589 

65 

88.9 



6.875 
810 
120 

8,281 
68 

94.2 



IV 



4,051 

270 

:t7i 

15, 047 

71 

83.8 



4,447 
276 
357 

10, 000 
91 

95.8 



4,294 
273 
362 

15, 464 
101 

97.6 



4,264 

240 

418 

17, 637 

96 

96.8 



3,826 

179 

674 

21, 726 

100 

95.4 



4,981 

162 

608 

30, 410 

75 



4,084 

280 

351 

14, 264 

87 

90.1 



4,648 

279 

353 

10,411 

69 

77.3 



4.941 

338 

299 

14, 967 

58 

83.6 



4,044 
475 
219 

8,848 
58 

85.6 



3,809 
419 
233 

8,953 
73 

90.6 



2, 439 

160 

626 

15, 185 

66 

81.8 



2,732 
150 

675 

18, 418 

97 

91.5 



2,441 

120 

869 

20, 896 

93 



3,042 

146 

701 

21, 429 



2,632 
103 
948 

25, 430 
79 

93.2 



2, 495 
86 

1,159 

28, 972 

93 



2, 547 

159 

653 

16, 544 

79 

87.4 



2,569 

168 

556 

14, 064 

76 

84.0 



2. 958 

237 

397 

11,795 

02 

85.3 



2,370 

246 

419 

10, 105 

53 

81.0 



2,344 
298 
332 

7,837 
62 

89.3 



VI 



822 

87 

1, 154 

9,534 

66 

78.5 



791 

62 

1, 668 

12,832 

156 

87.8 



904 

66 

1,513 

13, 239 

154 

94.2 



942 

64 

1,494 

14, 753 



996 

42 

2,219 

23, 353 

106 

94.0 



1,194 
32 

3,391 

38, 391 

65 

93.0 



849 

9 

1,039 

9,447 

106 



$92 

85 

1.087 

100 

79 

79.3 



782 

81 

1,342 

9,700 

76 

76.4 



823 
108 
890 
7,887 
46 

63.7 



799 

138 

750 

6,769 



79.0 



34 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 35. — Selected Measures of Efficiency for Poultry Farms, by Economic Class of Farm, for Selected Poultry Subregions: 

1954 — Continued 



Subregion and item 



Subregion 42 : 

Gross sales per man-equivalent dollars.. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested- dollars.. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales.. dollars.. 

Capital invested per man-equivalent. dollars.. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars.. 

Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent.. 

Subregion 82 : 

Gross sales per man-equivalent dollars.. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested..- _ dollars.. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars.. 

Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars.. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars.. 

Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent.. 

Subregion 115: 
Gross sales per man-equivalent dollars- 
Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested dollars. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales. dollars- 
Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars- 
Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 

Subregion 116: 

Gross sales per man-equivalent - -_ dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested ._ .dollars- 
Capital invested per $100 of gross sales - dollars. 

Capital invested per man-equivalent _ dollars. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars- 
Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products percent. 

Subregion 117: 
Gross sales per man-equivalent dollars- 
Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested dollars. 

Capital invested per $100 of gross sales dollars- 
Capital invested per man-equivalent dollars- 
Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales .._ dollars- 
Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products. percent. 

Subregion 119: 

Gross sales per man-equivalent _ _ dollars. 

Gross sales per $1,000 of capital invested ...dollars- 
Capital invested per $100 of gross sales _ .-.dollars- 

Capital invested per man-equivalent.. dollars. 

Expenditure for feed per $100 gross sales dollars- 
Percent of gross sales from poultry and poultry products _ percent- 



Economic class of farm 



Total 



9,194 

886 

112 

10,236 

63 

94.0 



9,397 

824 

117 

10, 989 

73 

90.7 



11,704 
529 
188 

21, 955 
74 

96.3 



15,614 
776 
127 

19,887 
67 



12, 159 
515 
196 

23,722 



7,710 

618 

159 

17, 535 

66 

90.6 



22,336 
1,865 

54 
12, 136 

63 

95.7 



21, 152 
1,488 



14. 144 
73 



2ii. ns;( 
927 
107 

21, 549 
66 

95.8 



26,834 
1,113 

90 

24, 191 
65 

92.9 



24.907 
948 
106 

26, 455 
71 

97.4 



17. 578 
1,034 



19, 386 
55 



91.7 



11,554 
1,098 

89 
10,316 

61 

94.3 



11.893 
944 
105 

12, 496 
74 

91.1 



12, 170 
531 



22, 766 

77 

97.4 



12,463 
660 
150 

18,711 
70 

91.3 



10,888 
441 
224 

24, 348 
81 

94.0 



10,090 
569 
177 

10,700 
68 

92.4 



7.206 
742 
138 

9,915 
63 

92.9 



7.235 
704 
139 



7,044 

304 

323 

22, 733 

90 

97.0 



7,124 

395 

250 

17, 759 

69 

88.5 



6,694 

312 

314 

21, 038 

87 

95.2 



5, 936 

373 

266 

17, 337 

82 

88.9 



4,828 
501 
200 

9,652 
68 

92.2 



3.954 
479 
217 

8,500 
76 

83.4 



4,530 

210 

471 

21,407 

92 

94.5 



4,141 

248 

393 

16, 197 

86 

91.3 



4,483 

196 

524 

23,358 

103 

94.0 



3,842 

243 

409 

16, 695 

74 

87.0 



2,664 

250 

382 

10, 185 

72 



2,248 
222 
434 

9,890 
68 

83.5 



2,365 

109 

905 

21,802 

94 

94.3 



2,656 

176 

572 

15, 298 



92.3 



3,588 

153 

649 

22, 897 

90 

94.8 



2,290 

165 

624 

15, 589 

81 

83.2 



743 

99 

1.038 

7,815 

103 



900 

128 

752 

7,076 



725 

54 

1,763 

13, 430 

149 



752 

84 

1,295 

9,332 

97 

91.4 



814 

45 

2,068 

17,416 

154 

93.6 



1,055 

66 

1,615 

13,460 

95 

91.2