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Full text of "United States census of agriculture: 1954"

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Given By 



DEPOSITORY 



Vol. Ill - pt. 9 ch. VIII 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

(A COOPERATIVE REPORT) 



Part-time Farming 




SPECIAL REPORTS 




1954 

Census 
of 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Agriculture 

Mm?*?** 

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AUG 2 6 1957 frf 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 



WASHINGTON . 1956 




y j 

United States 

Census 

of 

Agriculture: 

1954 



Volume 

SPECIAL REPORTS 

Part 9 

Farmers and Farm Production in the United States 

(A Cooperative Report) 



U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Ezra Toft Benson, Secretary 



Agricultural Research Service 

Byron T. Shaw, Administrator 

U. S. Department of Commerce 

Sinclair Weeks, Secretary 



Bureau of the Census 

Robert W. Burgess, Director 



Chapter VIII 
Part-Time Farming 



CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS and FARM PRODUCTION • 
PRINCIPAL TYPES OF FARMS • 








BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
Robert W. Burgess, Director 

AGRICULTURE DIVISION 
Ray Hurley, Chief 
Warder B. Jenkins, Assistant Chief 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
Byron T. Shaw, Administrator 

FARM AND LAND MANAGEMENT RESEARCH 
Sherman E. Johnson, Director 

PRODUCTION ECONOMICS RESEARCH BRANCH 
Carl P. Heisig, Chief 




Iff 



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SUGGESTED IDENTIFICATION 

U. S. Bureau of the Census. U. S. Census of Agriculture: 1954. Vol. Ill, Special Reports 

Part 9, Farmers and Farm Production in the United States. 

Chapter VIII, Part-Time Farming 

U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C, 1956. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 
or any of the Field Offices of the Department of Commerce, Price 40 cents (paper cover) 



PREFACE 

The purpose of this report is to present an analysis of the characteristics of farmers and farm production 
for the most important types of farms as shown by data for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. The analysis 
deals with the relative importance, pattern of resource use, some measures of efficiency, and problems of 
adjustment and change for the principal types of farms. 

The data given in the various chapters of this report have been derived largely from the special tabula- 
tion of data for each type of farm, by economic class, for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. The detailed 
statistics for each type of farm for the United States and the principal subregions appear in Part 8 of Volume 
III of the reports for the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

This cooperative report was prepared under the direction of Ray Hurley, Chief of the Agriculture Divi- 
sion of the Bureau of the Census, U. S. Department of Commerce, and Kenneth L. Bachman, Head, Produc- 
tion, Income, and Costs Section, Production Economics Research Branch, Agricultural Research Service of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Jackson V. McElveen, Agricultural Economist, Production, Income, and Costs Section, Production 
Economics Research Branch, Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, super- 
vised a large part of the detailed planning and analysis for the various chapters. 

The list of chapters and the persons preparing each chapter are as follows: 



Chapter I Wheat Producers and Wheat 

Production 
A. W. Epp, 
University of Nebraska. 

Chapter II Cotton Producers and Cotton 

Production 

Robert B. Glasgow, 

Production Economics Research 

Branch, 
Agricultural Research Service, 
United States Department of 

Agriculture. 

Chapter III Tobacco and Peanut Producers 

and Production 
R. E. L. Greene, 
University of Florida. 

Chapter IV Poultry Producers and Poultry 

Production 
William P. Mortenson, 
University of Wisconsin. 



Chapter V Dairy Producers and Dairy Pro- 
duction 
P. E. McNall, 
University of Wisconsin. 

The editorial work for this report was performed by Caroline B. Sherman, and the preparation of the 
statistical tables was supervised by Margaret Wood. 



Chapter VI Western Stock Ranches and Live- 
stock Farms 
Mont H. Saunderson, 
Western Ranching and Lands 

Consultant, 
Bozeman, Mont. 

Chapter VII Cash-grain and Livestock Pro- 
ducers in the Corn Belt 

Edwin G. Strand, 

Production Economics Research 
Branch, 

Agricultural Research Service, 

United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

Chapter VIII _ Part-time Farming 
H. G. Halerow, 
University of Connecticut. 

Chapter IX Agricultural Producers and Pro- 
duction in the United States — 
A General View 
Jackson V. McElveen, 
Production Economics Research 

Branch, 
Agricultural Research Service, 
United States Department of 
Agriculture. 



December 1956 



UNITED STATES CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE: 1954 

REPORTS 

Volume I. — Counties and State Economic Areas. Statistics for counties include number of farms, acreage, value, and farm operators; 
farms by color and tenure of operator; facilities and equipment; use of commercial fertilizer; farm labor; farm expenditures; livestock and 
livestock products; specified crops harvested; farms classified by type of farm and by economic class; and value of products sold by source. 

Data for State economic areas include farms and farm characteristics by tenure of operator, by type of farm, and by economic class. 

Volume I is published in 33 parts. 

Volume II. — General Report. Statistics by Subjects, United States Census of Agriculture, 1954. Summary data and analyses of 
the data for States, for Geographic Divisions, and for the United States by subjects. 



Volume III. — Special Reports 

Part 1. — Multiple-Unit Operations. This report will be similar to 
Part 2 of Volume V of the reports for the 1950 Census of Agri- 
culture. It will present statistics for approximately 900 
counties and State economic areas in 12 Southern States and 
Missouri for the number and characteristics of multiple-unit 
operations and farms in multiple units. 

Part 2. — Ranking Agricultural Counties. This special report will 
present statistics for selected items of inventory and agricul- 
tural production for the leading counties in the United States. 

Part 3. — Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, District of Columbia, and 
U. S. Possessions. These areas were not included in the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. The available current data from vari- 
ous Government sources will be compiled and published in 
this report. 

Part 4. — Agriculture, 1954, a Graphic Summary. This report will 
present graphically some of the significant facts regarding 
agriculture and agricultural production as revealed by the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. 

Part 5. — Farm-Mortgage Debt. This will be a cooperative study 
by the Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census. It will present, 
by States, data based on the 1954 Census of Agriculture and a 
special mail survey conducted in January 1956, on the num- 
ber of mortgaged farms, the amount of mortgage debt, and the 
amount of debt held by principal lending agencies. 

Part 6. — Irrigation in Humid Areas. This cooperative report by 
the Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census will present data ob- 
tained by a mail survey of operators of irrigated farms in 28 
States on the source of water, method of applying water, num- 
ber of pumps used, acres of crops irrigated in 1954 and 1955, 
the number of times each crop was irrigated, and the cost of 
irrigation equipment and the irrigation system. 

Part 7. — Popular Report of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. This 
report is planned to be a general, easy-to-read publication for 
the general public on the status and broad characteristics of 
United States agriculture. It will seek to delineate such as- 
pects of agriculture as the geographic distribution and dif- 
ferences by size of farm for such items as farm acreage, princi- 
pal crops, and important kinds of livestock, farm facilities, 
farm equipment, use of fertilizer, soil conservation practices, 
farm tenure, and farm income. 

Part 8. — Size of Operation by Type of Farm. This will be a coop- 
erative special report to be prepared in cooperation with the 
Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. This report will contain data for 119 economic sub- 



regions (essentially general type-of-farming areas) showing the 
general characteristics for each type of farm by economic class. 
It will provide data for a current analysis of the differences 
that exist among groups of farms of the same type. It will 
furnish statistical basis for a realistic examination of produc- 
tion of such commodities as wheat, cotton, and dairy products 
in connection with actual or proposed governmental policies 
and programs. 
Part 9. — Farmers and Farm Production in the United States. 
The purpose of this report is to present an analysis of the 
characteristics of farmers and farm production for the most 
important types of farms as shown by data for the 1954 Census 
of Agriculture. The analysis deals with the relative importance, 
pattern of resource use, some measures of efficiency, and prob- 
lems of adjustment and change for the principal types of farms. 
The report was prepared in cooperation with the Agricultural 
Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The list of chapters (published separately only) and title 
for each chapter are as follows: 

Chapter I — Wheat Producers and Wheat Production 
II — Cotton Producers and Cotton Production 
III — Tobacco and Peanut Producers and Production 
IV — Poultry Producers and Poultry Production 

V — Dairy Producers and Dairy Production 
VI — Western Stock Ranches and Livestock Farms 
VII — Cash-Grain and Livestock Producers in the Corn 

Belt 
VIII — Part-Time Farming 
IX — Agricultural Producers and Production in the 
United States — A General View 
Part 10. — Use of Fertilizer and lime. The purpose of this report 
is to present in one publication most of the detailed data com- 
piled for the 1954 Census of Agriculture regarding the use of 
fertilizer and lime. The report presents data for counties, 
State economic areas, and generalized type-of-farming areas 
regarding the quantity used, acreage on which used, and 
expenditures for fertilizer and lime. The Agricultural Research 
Service cooperated with the Bureau of the Census in the prep- 
aration of this report. 
Part 11. — Farmers' Expenditures. This report presents detailed 
data on expenditures for a large number of items used for farm 
production in 1955, and on the living expenditures of farm 
operators' families. The data were collected and compiled 
cooperatively by the Agricultural Marketing Service of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census. 
Part 12. — Methods and Procedures. This report contains an 
outline and a description of the methods and procedures used 
in taking and compiling the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 



INTRODUCTION 



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INTRODUCTION 



Purpose and scope. — American agriculture is exceedingly diverse 
and is undergoing revolutionary changes. Farmers and their 
families obtain their income by producing a large variety of 
products under a large variety of conditions as well as from sources 
other than farming. The organization of production, type of 
farming, productivity, income, expenditures, size, and character- 
istics of operators of the 4.8 million farms in the United States 
vary greatly. Agriculture has been a dynamic, moving, adjusting 
part of our economy. Basic changes in farming have been occurring 
and will continue to be necessary. Adjustments brought by tech- 
nological change, by changing consumer wants, by growth of 
population, and by changes in the income of nonfarm people, have 
been significant forces in changing agriculture since World War II. 
The transition from war to an approximate peacetime situation 
has also made it necessary to reduce the output of some farm 
products. Some of the adjustments in agriculture have not pre- 
sented relatively difficult problems as they could be made by the 
transfer of resources from the production of one product to another. 
Others require substantial shifts in resources and production. 

Moreover, a considerable number of farm families, many of whom 
are employed full time in agriculture, have relatively low incomes. 
Most of these families operate farms that are small when compared 
with farms that produce higher incomes. The acreage of land and 
the amount of capital controlled by the operators of these small 
farms are too small to provide a very high level of income. In 
recent years, many farm families on these small farms have made 
adjustments by leaving the farm to earn their incomes elsewhere, 
by discontinuing their farm operations, and by earning more non- 
farm income while remaining on the farm or on the place they 
farmed formerly. 

One objective of this report is to describe and analyze some of 
the existing differences and recent adjustments in the major types 
of farming and farm production. For important commodities and 
groups of farms, the report aims to make available, largely from 
the detailed data for the 1954 Census of Agriculture but in a more 
concise form, facts regarding the size of farms, capital, labor, and 
land resources on farms, amounts and sources of farm income and 
expenditures, combinations of crop and livestock enterprises, 
adjustment problems, operator characteristics, and variation in use 
of resources and in size of farms by areas and for widely differing 
production conditions. Those types of farms on which production 
of surplus products is important have been emphasized. The 
report will provide a factual basis for a better understanding of 
the widespread differences among farms in regard to size, resources, 
and income. It will also provide a basis for evaluating the effects 
of existing and proposed farm programs on the production and 
incomes of major types and classes of farms. 

Income from nonfarm sources is important on a large number 
of farms. About 1.4 million of the 4.8 million farm-operator 
families, or about 3 in 10, obtain more income from off -farm sources 
than from the sale of agricultural products. More than three- 
fourths of a million farm operators live on small-scale part-time 
farms and ordinarily are not dependent on farming as the main 
source of family income. These part-time farmers have a quite 
different relation to adjustments, changes, and farm problems 
than do commercial farmers. A description of and facts regarding 
these part-time farms and the importance of nonfarm income for 
commercial farms are presented in Chapter 8. 



Except for Chapter 8, this report deals with commercial farms 
(see economic class of farm). The analysis is limited to the major 
types of agricultural production and deals primarily with geo- 
graphic areas in which each of the major types of agricultural 
production has substantial significance. 

Source of data. — Most of the data presented in this report are 
from special compilations made for the 1954 Census of Agriculture, 
although pertinent data from research findings and surveys of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, State Agricultural Colleges, and 
other agencies have been used to supplement Census data. The 
detailed Census data used for this report are contained in Part 8 of 
Volume III of the reports of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 
Reference should be made to that report for detailed explanations 
and definitions and statements regarding the characteristics and 
reliability of the data. 

Areas for which data are presented. — Data are presented in 
this report primarily for selected economic subregions and for the 
United States. The boundaries of the 119 subregions used for the 
compilation of data on which this report is based are indicated by 
the map on page vi. These subregions represent primarily general 
type-of-farming areas. Many of them extend into two or more 
States. (For a more detailed description of economic subregions, 
see the publication "Economic Subregions of the United States, 
Series Census BAE; No. 19, published cooperatively by the Bureau 
of the Census, and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, July 1953.) 

DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Definitions and explanations are given only for some of the more 
important items. For more detailed definitions and explanations, 
reference can be made to Part 8 of Volume III and to Volume II of 
the reports of the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

A farm. — For the 1954 Census of Agriculture, places of 3 or 
more acres were counted as farms if the annual value of agricultural 
products, exclusive of home-garden products, amounted to $150 
or more. The agricultural products could have been either for 
home use or for sale. Places of less than 3 acres were counted as 
farms only if the annual value of sales of agricultural products 
amounted to $150 or more. Places for which the value of agricul- 
tural products for 1954 was less than these minima because of crop 
failure or other unusual conditions, and places operated at the time 
of the Census for the first time were counted as farms if normally 
they could be expected to produce these minimum quantities of 
agricultural products. 

All the land under the control of one person or partnership was 
included as one farm. Control may have been through ownership, 
or through lease, rental, or cropping arrangement. 

Farm operator. — A "farm operator" is a person who operates 
a farm, either performing the labor himself or directly supervising 
it. He may be an owner, a hired manager, or a tenant, renter, or 
sharecropper. If he rents land to others or has land cropped for 
him by others, he is listed as the operator of only that land which 
he retains. In the case of a partnership, only one partner was 
included as the operator. The number of farm operators is con- 
sidered the same as the number of farms. 

vn 



VIII 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Farms reporting or operators reporting. — Figures for farms 
reporting or operators reporting, based on a tabulation of all farms, 
represent the number of farms, or farm operators, for which the 
specified item was reported. For example, if there were 11,922 
farms in a subregion and only 11,465 had chickens over 4 months 
old on hand, the number of farms reporting chickens would be 
11,465. The difference between the total number of farms and the 
number of farms reporting an item represents the number of farms 
not having that item, provided the inquiry was answered 
completely for all farms. 

Farms by type. — The classification of commercial farms by 
type was made on the basis of the relationship of the value of 
sales from a particular source, or sources, to the total value of all 
farm products sold from the farm. In some cases, the type of 
farm was determined on the basis of the sale of an individual farm 
product, such as cotton, or on the basis of the sales of closely re- 
lated products, such as dairy products. In other cases, the type 
of farm was determined on the basis of sales of a broader group of 
products, such as grain crops including corn, sorghums, all small 
grains, field peas, field beans, cowpeas, and soybeans. In order to 
be classified as a particular type, sales or anticipated sales of a 
product or group of products had to represent 50 percent or more 
of the total value of products sold. 

The types of commercial farms for which data are shown, to- 
gether with the product or group of products on which the classi- 
fication is based are: 

Product or group of products amount- 
ing to 50 percent or more of the 
Type of farm value of all farm products sold 

Cash-grain Corn, sorghum, small grains, field 

peas, field beans, cowpeas, and 
soybeans. 

Cotton Cotton (lint and seed). 

Other field-crop Peanuts, Irish potatoes, sweet- 
potatoes, tobacco, sugarcane, sug- 
ar beets for sugar, and other 
miscellaneous crops. 

Vegetable Vegetables. 

Fruit-and-nut Berries and other small fruits, and 

tree fruits, nuts, and grapes. 

Dairy Milk and other dairy products. 

The criterion of 50 percent of the 
total sales was modified in the 
case of dairy farms. A farm for 
which the value of sales of dairy 
products represented less than 50 
percent of the total value of farm 
products sold was classified as a 
dairy farm if — 

(a) Milk and other dairy prod- 
ucts accounted for 30 
percent or more of the 
total value of products 
sold, and 
(6) Milk cows represented 50 
percent or more of all 
cows, and 
(c) Sales of dairy products, to- 
gether with the sales 
of cattle and calves, 
amounted to 50 percent 
or more of the total 
value of farm products 
sold. 



Poultry , 



Livestock farms other 
dairy and poultry. 



than 



Chickens, eggs, turkeys, and other 

poultry products. 
Cattle, calves, hogs, sheep, goats, 

wool, and mohair, provided the 

farm did not qualify as a dairy 

farm. 



Product or group of products amount- 
ing to 50 percent or more of the 
Type of farm value of all farm products sold 

General Farms were classified as general 

when the value of products from 
one source or group of sources 
did not represent as much as 50 
percent of the total value of all 
farm products sold. Separate 
figures are given for three kinds 
of general farms: 
(a) Primarily crop. 
(6) Primarily livestock. 
(c) Crop and livestock. 

Primarily crop farms are those for 
which the sale of one of the 
following crops or groups of 
crops — vegetables, fruits and 
nuts, cotton, cash grains, or other 
field crops — did not amount to 
50 percent or more of the value 
of all farm products sold, but 
for which the value of sales for 
all these groups of crops repre- 
sented 70 percent or more of the 
value of all farm products sold. 

Primarily livestock farms are those 
which could not qualify as dairy 
farms, poultry farms, or livestock 
farms other than dairy and 
poultry, but on which the sale 
of livestock and poultry and 
livestock and poultry products 
amounted to 70 percent or more 
of the value of all farm products 
sold. 

General crop and livestock farms are 
those which could not be classi- 
fied as either crop farms or live- 
stock farms, but on which the 
sale of all crops amounted to at 
least 30 percent but less than 70 
percent of the total value of all 
farm products sold. 

Miscellaneous This group of farms includes those 

that had 50 percent or more of 
the total value of products ac- 
counted for by sale of horticul- 
tural products, or sale of horses, 
or sale of forest products. 

Farms by economic class. — A classification of farms by eco- 
nomic class was made for the purpose of segregating groups of 
farms that are somewhat alike in their characteristics and size of 
operation. This classification was made in order to present an 
accurate description of the farms in each class and in order to 
provide basic data for an analysis of the organization of agriculture. 

The classification of farms by economic class was made on the 
basis of three factors; namely, total value of all farm products 
sold, number of days the farm operator worked off the farm, and 
the relationship of the income received from nonfarm sources by 
the operator and members of his family to the value of all farm 
products sold. Farms operated by institutions, experiment sta- 
tions, grazing associations, and community projects were classified 
as abnormal, regardless of any of the three factors. 

For the purpose of determining the code for economic class and 
type of farm, it was necessary to obtain the total value of farm 
products sold as well as the value of some individual products 
sold. 

The total value of farm products sold was obtained by adding 
the reported or estimated values for all products sold from the 
farm. The value of livestock, livestock products except wool and 
mohair, vegetables, nursery and greenhouse products, and forest 



INTRODUCTION 



IX 



products was obtained by the enumerator from the farm operator 
for each farm. The enumerator also obtained from the farm 
operator the quantity sold for corn, sorghums, small grains, hays, 
and small fruits. The value of sales for these crops was obtained 
by multiplying the quantity sold by State average prices. 

The quantity sold was estimated for all other farm products. 
The entire quantity produced for wool, mohair, cotton, tobacco, 
sugar beets for sugar, sugarcane for sugar, broomcorn, hops, and 
mint for oil was estimated as sold. To obtain the value of each 
product sold, the quantity sold was multiplied by State average 
prices. 

In making the classification of farms by economic class, farms 
were grouped into two major groups, namely, commercial farms 
and other farms. In general, all farms with a value of sales of 
farm products amounting to $1,200 or more were classified as 
commercial. Farms with a value of sales of $250 to $1,199 were 
classified as commercial only if the farm operator worked off the 
farm less than 100 days or if the income of the farm operator and 
members of his family received from nonfarm sources was less than 
the total value of all farm products sold. 

Land in farms according to use.— Land in farms was classified 
according to the use made of it in 1954. The classes of land 
are mutually exclusive, i. e., each acre of land was included only 
once even though it may have had more than one use during the 
year. 

The classes referred to in this report are as follows: 

Cropland harvested.- — This includes land from which crops 
'were harvested; land from which hay (including wild hay) was 
cut; and land in small fruits, orchards, vineyards, nurseries, and 
greenhouses. Land from which two or more crops were reported 
as harvested was to be counted only once. 

Cropland used only for pasture. — In the 1954 Census, the 
enumerator's instructions stated that rotation pasture and all 
other cropland that was used only for pasture were to be in- 
cluded under this class. No further definition of cropland 
pastured was given the farm operator or enumerator. Per- 
manent open pasture may, therefore, have been included under 
this item or under "other pasture," depending on whether the 
enumerator or farm operator considered it as cropland. 

Cropland not harvested and not pastured. — This item includes 
idle cropland, land in soil-improvement crops only, laud on 
which all crops failed, land seeded to crops for harvest after 
1954, and cultivated summer fallow. 

In the Western States, this class was subdivided to show 
separately the acres of cultivated summer fallow. In these 
States, the acreage not in cultivated summer fallow represents 
largely crop failure. There are very few counties in the West- 
ern States in which there is a large acreage of idle cropland or 
in which the growing of soil-improvement crops is an important 
use of the land. 

In the States other than the Western States, this general 
class was subdivided to show separately the acres of idle crop- 
land (not used for crops or for pasture in 1954). In these States, 
the incidence of crop failure is usually low. It was expected 
that the acreage figure that excluded idle land would reflect 
the acreage in soil-improvement crops. However, the 1954 
crop year was one of low rainfall in many Eastern and Southern 
States and, therefore, in these areas the acreage of cropland not 
harvested and not pastured includes more land on which all 
crops failed than would usually be the case. 

Cultivated summer fallow. — This item includes cropland 
that was plowed and cultivated but left unseeded for several 
months to control weeds and conserve moisture. No land 
from which crops were harvested in 1954 was to be included 
under this item. 

Cropland, total. — This includes cropland harvested, cropland 
used only for pasture, and cropland not harvested and not 
pastured. 

Land pastured, total. — This includes cropland used only for 
pasture, woodland pastured, and other pasture (not cropland 
and not woodland). 



Woodland, total. — This includes woodland pastured and 

woodland not pastured. 

Value of land and buildings. — The value to be reported was 
the approximate amount for which the land and the buildings on 
it would sell. 

Off-farm work and other income. — Many farm operators receive 
a part of their income from sources other than the sale of farm 
products from their farms. The 1954 Agriculture Questionnaire 
included several inquiries relating to work off the farm and non- 
farm income. These inquiries called for the number of days 
worked off the farm by the farm operator; whether other members 
of the operator's family worked off the farm; and whether the 
farm operator received income from other sources, such as sale 
of products from land rented out, cash rent, boarders, old age 
assistance, pensions, veterans' allowances, unemployment com- 
pensation, interest, dividends, profits from nonfarm business, 
and help from other members of the operator's family. Another 
inquiry asked whether the income of the operator and his family 
from off-farm work and other sources was greater than the total 
value of all agricultural products sold from the farm in 1954. 
Off-farm work was to include work at nonfarm jobs, businesses, 
or professions, whether performed on the farm premises or else- 
where; also, work on someone else's farm for pay or wages. Ex- 
change work was not to be included. 

Specified facilities and equipment. — Inquiries were made in 
1954 to determine the presence or absence of selected items on 
each place such as (1) telephone, (2) piped running water, (3) 
electricity, (4) television set, (5) home freezer, (6) electric pig 
brooder, (7) milking machine, and (8) power feed grinder. Such 
facilities or equipment were to be counted even though tem- 
porarily out of order. Piped running water was defined as water 
piped from a pressure system or by gravity flow from a natural 
or artificial source. The enumerator's instructions stated that 
pig brooders were to include those heated by an electric heating 
element, by an infrared or heat bulb, or by ordinary electric bulbs. 
They could be homemade. 

The number of selected types of other farm equipment was also 
obtained for a sample of farms. The selected kinds of farm 
equipment to be reported were (1) grain combines (for harvesting 
and threshing grains or seeds in one operation); (2) cornpickers; 
(3) pickup balers (stationary ones not to be reported) ; (4) field 
forage harvesters (for field chopping of silage and forage crops) ; 
(5) motortrucks; (6) wheel tractors (other than garden); (7) 
garden tractors; (8) crawler tractors (tracklaying, caterpillar); 
(9) automobiles; and (10) artificial ponds, reservoirs, and earth 
tanks. 

Wheel tractors were to include homemade tractors but were not 
to include implements having built-in power units such as self- 
propelled combines, powered buck rakes, etc. Pickup and truck- 
trailer combinations were to be reported as motortrucks. School 
buses were not to be reported, and jeeps and station wagons were 
to be included as motortrucks or automobiles, depending on 
whether used for hauling farm products or supplies, or as passenger 
vehicles. 

Farm labor. — The farm-labor inquiries for 1954, called for the 
number of persons doing farmwork or chores on the place during 
a specified calendar week. Since starting dates of the 1954 enumer- 
ation varied by areas or States, the calendar week to which the 
farm-labor inquiries related varied also. The calendar week was 
September 26-October 2 or October 24-30. States with the 
September 26-October 2 calendar week were: Arizona, California, 
Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky. 
Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, 
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, 



423025—57— 



X 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, 
Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. States with the October 
24-30 calendar week were: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North 
Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. 
Farmwork was to include any work, chores, or planning necessary 
to the operation of the farm or ranch business. Housework, 
contract construction work, and labor involved when equipment 
was hired (custom work) were not to be included. 

The farm-labor information was obtained in three parts: 
(1) Operators working, (2) unpaid members of the operator's family 
working, and (3) hired persons working. Operators were consid- 
ered as working if they worked 1 or more hours; unpaid members 
of the operator's family, if they worked 15 or more hours; and 
hired persons, if they worked any time during the calendar week 
specified. Instructions contained no specifications regarding age 
of the persons working. 

Regular and seasonal workers. — Hired persons working on 
the farm during the specified week were classed as "regular" 
workers if the period of actual or expected employment was 150 
days or more during the year, and as "seasonal" workers if the 
period of actual or expected employment was less than 150 days. 
If the period of expected employment was not reported, the 
period of employment was estimated for the individual farm 
after taking into account such items as the basis of payment, 
wage rate, expenditures for labor in 1954, and the type and 
other characteristics of the farm. 

Specified farm expenditures. — The 1954 Census obtained data 
for selected farm expense items in addition to those for fertilizer 
and lime. The expenditures were to include the total specified 
expenditures for the place whether made by landlord, tenant, or 
both. 

Expenditures for machine hire were to include any labor in- 
cluded in the cost of such machine hire. Machine hire refers to 
custom machine work such as tractor hire, threshing, combining, 
silo filling, baling, ginning, plowing, and spraying. If part of the 
farm products was given as pay for machine hire, the value of the 
products traded for this service was to be included in the amount 
of expenditures reported. The cost of trucking, freight, and 
express was not to be included. 

Expenditures for hired labor were to include only cash pay- 
ments. Expenditures for housework, custom work, and contract 
construction work were not to be included. 

Expenditures for feed were to include the expenditures for 
pasture, salt, condiments, concentrates, and mineral supplements, 
as well as those for grain, hay, and mill feeds. Expenditures for 
grinding and mixing feeds were also to be included. Payments 
made by a tenant to his landlord for feed grown on the land rented 
by the tenant were not to be included. 

Expenditures for gasoline and other petroleum fuel and oil were 
to include only those used for the farm business. Petroleum 
products used for the farmer's automobile for pleasure or used 
exclusively in the farm home for heating, cooking, and lighting 
were not to be included. 

Crops harvested. — The information on crops harvested refers 
to the acreage and quantity harvested for the 1954 crop year. An 
exception was made for land in fruit orchards and planted nut 
trees. In this case, the acreage represents that in both bearing 
and nonbearing trees and vines as of October and November 1954. 

Hay. — The data for hay includes all kinds of hay except soy- 
bean, cowpea, sorghum, and peanut hay. 

livestock and poultry. — The data on the number of livestock 
and poultry represent the number on hand on the day of enumera- 



tion (October-November 1954). The data relating to livestock 
products and the number of livestock sold relate to the sales made 
during the calendar year 1954. 

LABOR RESOURCES 

The data for labor resources available represent estimates based 
largely on Census data and developed for the purpose of making 
comparisons among farms of various size of operations. The 
labor resources available are stated in terms of man-equivalents. 

To obtain the man-equivalents the total number of farm opera- 
tors as reported by the 1954 Census were adjusted for estimated 
man-years of work off the farm and for the number of farm opera- 
tors 65 years old and over. The farm operator was taken to rep- 
resent a full man-equivalent of labor unless he was 65 years or 
older or unless he worked at an off -farm job in 1954. 

The man-equivalent estimated for farm operators reporting spec- 
ified amounts of off-farm work were as follows: 

Estimated 
Days worked off the farm in 1954 man-equivalent 

1-99 days 0. 85 

100-199 days . 50 

200 days and over . 15 

The man-equivalent for farm operators 65 years of age and older 
was estimated at 0.5. 

Man-equivalents of members of the farm operator's family were 
based upon Census data obtained in response to the question 
"How many members of your family did 15 or more hours of farm 
work on this place the week of September 26-October 2 (or, in 
some areas, the week of October 24-30) without receiving cash 
wages?" Each family worker was considered as 0.5 man-equiva- 
lent. This estimate provides allowance for the somewhat higher 
incidence of women, children, and elderly persons in the unpaid 
family labor force. 

In addition, the number of unpaid family workers who were 
reported as working 15 or more hours in the week of September 
26-October 2 was adjusted to take account of seasonal changes in 
farm employment. Using published and unpublished findings of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture and State Agricultural Col- 
leges, and depending largely upon knowledge and experience with 
the geographic areas and type of farming, each author deter- 
mined the adjustment factor needed to correct the number of 
family workers reported for the week of September 26-October 2 
to an annual average basis. 

Man-equivalents of hired workers are based entirely upon the 
expenditure for cash wages and the average wage of permanent 
hired laborers as reported in the 1954 Census of Agriculture. 

Value of or investment in livestock. — Numbers of specified 
livestock and poultry in each subregion were multiplied by a 
weighted average value per head. The average values were com- 
puted from data compiled for each kind of livestock for the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. The total value does not include the value 
of goats. (For a description of the method of obtaining the value 
of livestock, see Chapter VI of Volume II of the reports for the 
1954 Census of Agriculture.) 

Value of investment in machinery and equipment. — The data 
on value of investment in machinery and equipment were developed 
for the purpose of making broad comparisons among types and 
economic classes of farms and by subregions. Numbers of specified 
machines on farms, as reported by the Census, were multiplied by 
estimated average value per machine. Then the total values ob- 
tained were adjusted upward to provide for the inclusion of items 
of equipment not included in the Census inventory of farm 
machinery. 



INTRODUCTION 



XI 



The estimates for average value of specified machines and the 
proportion of total value of all machinery represented by the 
value of these machines were based largely on published and un- 
published data from the "Farm Costs and Returns" surveys con- 
ducted currently by the Agricultural Research Service, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. 1 Modifications were made as needed 
in the individual chapters on the basis of State and local studies. 
The total estimated value of all machinery for all types and 
economic classes of farms is approximately equal to the value of 
all machinery as estimated by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Value of farm products sold, or gross sales. — Data on the 
value of the various farm products sold were obtained for 1954 by 
two methods. First, the values of livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts sold, except wool and mohair; vegetables harvested for sale; 
nursery and greenhouse products; and forest products were 
obtained by asking each farm operator the value of sales. Second, 
the values of all other farm products sold were computed. For the 
most important crops, the quantity sold or to be sold was obtained 
for each farm. The entire quantity harvested for cotton and 
cottonseed, tobacco, sugar beets for sugar, hops, mint for oil, and 
sugarcane for sugar was considered sold. The quantity of minor 
crops sold was estimated. The value of sales for each crop was 
computed by multiplying the quantity sold by State average 
prices. In the case of wool and mohair, the value of sales was 
computed by multiplying the quantity shorn or clipped by the 
State average prices. 

Gross sales include the value of all kinds of farm products sold. 
The total does not include rental and benefit, soil conservation, 
price adjustment, Sugar Act, and similar payments. The total 



does include the value of the landlord's share of a crop removed 
from a farm operated by a share tenant. In most of the tables, 
detailed data are presented for only the more important sources 
of gross sales and the total for the individual farm products 
or sources will not equal the total as the values for the less impor- 
tant sources or farm products have been omitted. (For a detailed 
statement regarding the reliability and method of obtaining the 
value of farm products sold, reference should be made to Chapter 
IX of Volume II of the reports for the 1954 Census of Agriculture.) 

Livestock and livestock products sold. — The value of sales for 
livestock and livestock products includes the value of live animals 
sold, dairy products sold, poultry and poultry products sold, and 
the calculated value of wool and mohair. The value of bees, 
honey, fur animals, goats, and goat milk is not included. 

The value of dairy products includes the value of whole milk and 
cream sold, but does not include the value of butter and cheese, 
made on the farm, and sold. The value of poultry and products 
includes the value of chickens, broilers, chicken eggs, turkeys, 
turkey eggs, ducks, geese, and other miscellaneous poultry and 
poultry products sold. The value does not include the value 
of baby chicks sold. 

Crops sold. — Vegetables sold includes the value of all vegetables 
harvested for sale, but does not include the value of Irish potatoes 
and sweet potatoes. 

The value of all crops sold includes the value of all crops sold 
except forest products. The value of field crops sold includes the 
value of sales of all crops sold except vegetables, small fruits and 
berries, fruits, and nuts. 



' Farm Costs and Returns, 1955 (with comparisons), Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 158, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, June 1956. 



CHAPTER VIII 
PART-TIME FARMING 



CONTENTS 



A. INTRODUCTION 

Page 

Scope and purposes 7 

Classification of farms 8 

Definitions used in this study 8 

Comparison with other studies 9 

Implications to agriculture and to the general economy — 10 

B. GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION AND PERCENTAGE 
DISTRIBUTION 

Percentage of farm operators by economic class reporting 
other income of family exceeding value of farm products 
sold 11 

Percentage of farm operators working off their farms in 

1954 15 

Percentage of farm operators working off their farms, by 

economic class, 1954 15 

Comparative distribution of Classes V, VI, VII, and VIII 

farm operators, 1954 20 

Inferences about off-farm income and employment 20 

C. INCREASES AND DECREASES IN NUMBER 

Farm operators working off farm, 1930, 1940, 1945, 1950, 

1954 23 

Farm operators working off farm 100 days or more, 1930, 

1940, 1945, 1950, 1954 23 

Changes in number of farm operators working off farm 100 
days or more, by geographic division, by economic 
class, 1949 to 1954 24 

Changes by geographic divisions: Number of farm opera- 
tors reporting other income of family exceeding value of 
farm products sold, 1949 to 1954 25 

Changes by economic class of farm: Number of farm opera- 
tors reporting other income of family exceeding value of 
farm products sold, 1949 to 1954 25 

Changes by geographic divisions: Part-time and residential 

farm operators, 1949 to 1954 26 

D. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS AND FACILITIES 
BY CLASS OF FARM, 1949 AND 1954 

Land Use and Farm Values 28 

Average acreage per farm 28 

Cropland harvested 29 

Value per farm and per acre 29 

Specified Machinery and Equipment, 1950 and 1954 30 

Grain combines, corn pickers, and pick-up balers 30 

Motortrucks, 1950 and 1954 31 

Automobiles, 1950 and 1954 31 

Specified Farm Expenditures, 1949 and 1954 31 

Machine hire, 1949 and 1954 31 

Hired labor, 1949 and 1954 .32 

Feed, gas, and oil, 1949 and 1954 32 

Fertilizer and lime, 1954 32 



D. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS AND FACILITIES 
BY CLASS OF FARM, 1949 AND 1954— Continued 

Page 
Work Power, Equipment, and Other Specified Expenditures, 

1954 34 

Farms by class of work power, 1954 34 

Other equipment, 1954 35 

Workers on farms, specified week, 1954 35 

Household facilities by economic class, by five regions. 37 

E. ECONOMIC CLASS V FARMS, PART-TIME, AND 

COMMERCIAL, 1954 

Purpose of analysis 38 

Off-farm employment and income 39 

Value of land and buildings per farm and per acre 39 

Total acreage per farm, part-time, and commercial farms. 39 

Cropland harvested 39 

Acreage pastured 40 

Woodland per farm 40 

Summary of land-use comparisons 40 

Classification by type of farm 40 

Classification by type of farm, by regions 40 

Part-time and commercial farms as a percentage of all farms 

of same type 41 

Distribution of farms by cropland harvested 41 

Source of work power: Tractor, horses, and/or mules 42 

Family and hired workers: Week of September 26-October 

2 or October 24-30 42 

Expenditures for machine hire, labor, feed, and fuel 42 

Other specified machinery and expenditures 43 

Farms by tenure of operator 43 

Operators working off farm, by age of operator 44 

Farms having specified facilities 44 

Summary and conclusion 44 

F. OFF-FARM INCOME OF FARM-OPERATOR 
FAMILIES 

Aggregate off-farm income 46 

Distribution of farm operators, sales of farm products, and 

off-farm income by class of farm 47 

Average off-farm income by source of income, by class of 

farm 48 

Distribution of sources of off-farm income by class of farm. 49 

Off-farm income per farm reporting 50 

G. FARM-MORTGAGE DEBT BY ECONOMIC CLASS 

Distribution of mortgaged farms and land in farms, by 

economic class 52 

Percentage of farms mortgaged, by economic class 52 

Land in farms, value of land and buildings, and amount of 
mortgage debt per farm for mortgaged farms, by eco- 
nomic class 52 

Ratio of mortgage debt to value, by economio class 53 

3 



4 CONTENTS 

MAPS 

Page 

Percent of farm operators of Class I farms reporting other income of farmer exceeding value of farm products sold, 1954 12 

Percent of farm operators of Class II farms reporting other income of farmer exceeding value of farm products sold, 1954 12 

Percent of farm operators of Class III farms reporting other income of farmer exceeding value of farm products sold, 1954 13 

Percent of farm operators of Class IV farms reporting other income of farmer exceeding value of farm products sold, 1954 13 

Percent of farm operators of Class V farms reporting other income of farmer exceeding value of farm products sold, 1954 14 

Percent of farm operators of part-time farms reporting other income of farmer exceeding value of farm products sold, 1954 14 

Percent of farm operators of residential farms reporting other income of farmer exceeding value of farm products sold, 1954 15 

Percent of all farm operators working off their farms in 1954 16 

Percent of all farm operators working 100 or more days off their farms, 1954 16 

Percent of operators of Class I farms working off farm 100 days or more, 1954 17 

Percent of operators of Class II farms working off farm 100 days or more, 1954 17 

Percent of operators of Class III farms working off farm 100 days or more, 1954 18 

Percent of operators of Class IV farms working off farm 100 days or more, 1954 18 

Percent of operators of Class V farms working off farm 100 days or more, 1954 19 

Percent of operators of part-time farms working off farm 100 days or more, 1954 19 

Percent of operators of residential farms working off farm 100 days or more, 1954 20 

Operators of Class V farms working off farms less than 100 days: 1954 21 

Operators of Class V farms working off farms 100 days or more: 1954 21 

Part-time farms, number, 1954 22 

Residential farms, number, 1954 22 

Number of farm operators working off their farms, by number of days worked, for the United States and areas: 1930-1954 23 

5 major areas 38 

TABLES 

Table— 

1, — Classification of farms having less than $2,500 value of farm sales, for the United States: 1954 9 

2. — Percentage of farms reporting other income of family exceeding value of farm sales, for the United States: 1949 and 1954 9 

3. — Classification of farm operators by economic class and degree of dependence on agriculture: 1950 10 

4. — Distribution of farms by economic class and percent change, for the United States: Censuses of 1950 and 1954 10 

5. — Number of farms by geographic division and by economic class: 1954 11 

6. — Percent of farms by geographic division and by economic class: 1954 11 

7. — Number of farm operators working off farm 100 days or more, by geographic division, by economic class: 1954 and 1949 24 

8. — Percent of farm operators working off farm 100 days or more, by geographic division, by economic class: 1954 and 1949 25 

9_ — Number of farm operators working off farm 100 days or more, by geographic division, by economic class: 1954 as percent of 1949_ 25 
10. — Total number of farm operators reporting other income of family exceeding value of farm products sold, by economic class of 

farm, by geographic division: 1954 and 1949 26 

11. — Number of farm operators reporting other income of family exceeding value of farm products sold, by geographic division, by 

economic class: 1954 as percent of 1949 26 

12. — Percent of farm operators reporting other income of family exceeding value of farm products sold, by geographic division, by 

economic class: 1954 and 1949 27 

13. — Average iand in farms, cropland harvested per farm, and value of farms (land and buildings) per farm and per acre, by economic 

class, for the United States and regions: 1954 and 1950 28 

14. — Average land in farms, cropland harvested per farm, and value of farms (land and buildings) per farm and per acre, by economic 

class, for the United States and regions: Percent change 1950 to 1954 29 

15. — Percent of farms reporting specified machinery and equipment, motortrucks, and automobiles, by economic class, for the 

United States and regions: Censuses of 1954 and 1950 30 

16. — Specified farm expenditures, percent of farms reporting, and amount per farm, by economic class of farm, for the United States 

and regions: Censuses of 1954 and 1950 31 

17. — Percentage of part-time and residential farms reporting hired labor: 1954 and 1949 32 

18. — Specified farm expenditures, percent of farms reporting, and amount per farm, by economic class of farm, for the United States 

and regions : 1954 33 

19. — Acreage on which commercial fertilizer was used, percent of total acreage and percent of cropland harvested on which used, by 

economic class of farm, for the United States and regions: 1954 33 

20. — Farms by class of work power and specified farm equipment, by economic class of farm, for the United States and regions: 

1954 34 

21. — Workers on farms, specified week, by economic class, for the United States and regions: 1954 35 

22. — Percent of farms reporting electricity, telephone, and piped running water, by economic class of farm, for the United States and 

regions: 1954 36 

23. — Percent of farms reporting television set and home freezer, by economic class, for the United States and regions: 1954_ . 37 



CONTENTS 5 

TABLES— Continued 

Table— Page 

24. — Percent of farms reporting telephone and electricity, by economic class of farm, for the United States and regions: Censuses 

of L954 and 1950 37 

25. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), for the United States and regions: 1954 38 

26. — Class V farms, number of operators and percent, by other income exceeding value of farm products sold and work off farm, 

for the United States and regions: 1954 39 

27. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), by value of land and buildings per farm and per acre, for the United States and 

regions : 1954 39 

28. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), land use per farm, for the United States and regions: 1954 39 

29. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), by type of farm, for the United States and regions: 1954 40 

30. — Distribution of Class V farms as part-time and commercial farms for each type of farm, for the United States and regions: 

1954 41 

31. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), cropland harvested, for the United States and regions: 1954 41 

32. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), by class of work power, farm labor, and specified farm expenditures, for the United 

States and regions: 1954 42 

33. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), specified farm expenditures per farm reporting, for the United Slates and regions: 

1954 42 

34. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), percent reporting specified farm machinery and equipment, for the United States 

and regions : 1954 43 

35. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), by tenure of operator, for the United States and regions: 1954 43 

36. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), by tenure of operator, for the United States and regions: 1954 44 

37. — Class V farms by tenure, by type of farm, for the United States and regions: 1954 44 

38. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), by days operator worked off farm, by age of operator, for the United States and 

regions : 1954 45 

39. — Class V farms (part-time and commercial), percent reporting specified facilities, for the United States and regions: 1954 45 

40. — Off-farm income of farm-operator families, by source of income, by class of farm, aggregate for the United States: 1955 46 

41. — Percent distribution of off-farm income of farm-operator families from each source of income, by class of farm, for the United 

States: 1955 47 

42. — Average off-farm income of farm-operator families by source of income, by class of farm, for the United States: 1955 48 

43. — Percent distribution of off-farm income of farm-operator families by source of income, by class of farm, for the United States: 

1955 . 1 49 

44. — Average off-farm income of farm-operator families by farms reporting specified sources, bj - class of farm, for the United States: 

1955 . '. 50 

45. — Farm operators by age, number of persons in family, education, and family income after taxes, for the United States: 1955 50 

46. — Percent distribution of farm operators by age, number of persons in family, education, and family income after taxes, for the 

United States: 1955 50 

47. — Farm operators of Class VI, part-time, and residential farms, by age, number of persons in family, education, and family income 

after taxes, for the United States: 1955 51 

48. — Percent distribution by economic class of farm of operators of Class VI, part-time, and residential farms, by age, number of 

persons in family, education, and family income after taxes, for the United States: 1955 51 

49. — Percent distribution of operators of Class VI, part-time, and residential farms, by age, number of persons in family, education, 

and family income after taxes, for the United States: 1955 51 

50.-*— Percent distribution of number of mortgaged farms and land in mortgaged farms, of full owners and part owners, by economic 

class of farm, for the United States: 1956 52 

51. — Percent of farms mortgaged, for farms operated by full owners and by part owners, by economic class of farm, for the United 

States: 1956 52 

52. — Average size of mortgaged farms, for full owners and part owners, by economic class of farm, for the United States: 1956 52 

53. — Value of land and buildings, per farm and per acre for mortgaged farms of full owners and part owners, by economic class of 

farm, for the United States: 1956 52 

54. — Value of land and buildings and amount of mortgage debt per farm, for mortgaged farms operated by full owners and part 

owners, by economic class of farm, for the United States: 1956 ' 53 

55. — Ratio of farm mortgage debt to value for mortgaged farms of full owners and part owners by economic class of farm, for the 

United States : 1 956 53 



423025—57- 



PART-TIME FARMING 

H. G. Halcrow 

A. INTRODUCTION 



Farm operators who work at other occupations simultaneously 
with some farming have increased substantially in terms of per- 
centages. This is true in most areas of this country. This 
trend has been most pronounced in the last decade but it has 
been in evidence since 1930, at least. According to the Census 
of Agriculture of April 1930, approximately 3 out of 10 of the farm 
operators reported that they had worked off their farms one or 
more days during the preceding calendar year. In 1954, almost 
half were working off their farms that often. 

The more noteworthy change is not that a larger proportion 
were working off their farms for a few days but that a larger 
percentage were so working at least a third of the year — 100 days 
or more. 

To be precise, in 1929 about 1 out of 10 farm operators (1 1.5 
percent) worked off their farms 100 days or more, whereas in 1954 
almost 3 out of 10 (28.5 percent) spent 100 days or more in working 
elsewhere than on their farms. 

The increase in off-farm employment and income continued 
during 1949-54. In 1949, according to the 1950 Census of Agri- 
culture, about 1 out of 4 farm operators (23.3 percent) worked 
off farm 100 days or more, as compared with 3 out of 10 farm 
operators (28.5 percent) working off farm 100 days or more in 
1954. In 1949, about 1,255,000 farm operators reported working 
off their farm 100 days or more as compared with 1,334,000 in 
1954. This was an increase of 79,000 between the two Census 
years during which time the total number of farm operators 
declined by 600,000. 

One of the most significant or important shifts during 1949-54 
was an increase in the number and percentage of commercial 
farm operators (especially Classes I to IV) working off farm 100 
days or more and a marked decrease in the number of part-time 
(Class VII) and residential (Class VIII) farms. In 1949, only 
9.1 percent of the commercial farm operators were working off 
farm 100 days or more as compared with 13.0 percent of the total 
number in 1954. Stated another way, the number of commercial 
farm operators working off farm 100 days or more in 1954 was 
28.8 percent larger than in 1949; the number of Class I farm oper- 
ators was 25.3 percent larger; Class II was 37.6 percent larger; 
Class III was 42.4 percent larger; Class IV was 35.1 percent larger; 
and Class V was 19.3 percent larger. In comparison, the number 
of part-time (Class VII) farm operators working off farm 100 
days or more in 1954 increased by only 3.4 percent, whereas the 
number of residential (Class VIII) operators decreased by 5.9 
percent. 

The total number of farm operators reporting other income of 
the family that exceeded the value of farm products sold declined 
from 1,566,000 in 1949 to 1,424,000 in 1954, a decline of 9.1 
percent. However, the number of commercial farms in Economic 
Classes I to V with other income of the family exceeding the value 
of farm sales increased from 336,000 in 1949 to 359,000 in 1954, 
an increase of 7.1 percent. The number of operators who had 
other income exceeding the value of farm sales in the part-time 



and residential groups declined sharply in contrast to the substan- 
tial increases among the commercial farmers. The increases 
among the commercial farms ranged from 29.8 percent for Class 
I to 13.3 percent for Class IV and to a slight decline of 0.4 percent 
for Class V. In comparison, the total number of commercial 
farms declined by 379,000 farms— 3,706,000 farms in 1949 to 
3,328,000 farms in 1954— a decline of 10.2 percent. 

The general pattern is that of a continuing migration of farm 
families out of agriculture into other occupations and an increasing 
participation of commercial farmers in nonagricultural employ- 
ment. In some cases, off-farm earnings of the farm operator and 
his family appear to be a continuing supplement to receipts from 
farm sales, while in other cases off-farm employment is an interme- 
diate or transitional step in moving from agriculture to nonfarm 
employment. Also, part-time farming is an intermediate step in 
moving into commercial agriculture. 

There is every indication that the trends toward greater partici- 
pation of farm people in nonfarm employment will continue. This 
raises important questions in regard to national economic policy 
and has significant implications concerning the relationships 
between agriculture and other groups. As the data will show, 
a larger proportion of the farm operators work off their farms in 
metropolitan counties than in nonmetropolitan counties, and the 
percentage of farms with nonfarm family income that exceeds 
farm income is also larger in the metropolitan counties. As the 
industrial sector of the national economy expands and as industry 
becomes increasingly interspersed into areas that were formerly 
rural, the farm people have increased opportunities for off-farm 
employment and for income from nonfarm sources. Farm 
operators and other members of farm families are competing more 
directly with nonfarm employable males and females in the non- 
agricultural labor market. 

To what extent does this trend offer a means for "solving" the 
problem of underemployment and low income in agriculture? 
Under what types of agriculture and in what types of economic 
conditions have these trends been most prevalent? What is the 
continuing role of part-time farming in American agriculture? 

Scope and purposes. — The purposes of this chapter are to 
identify, so far as possible, the major characteristics of part-time 
farms and to compare these farms with commercial farms in similar 
farm-size groups. Farms are classified in various regions according 
to economic class of farm, age of operator, tenure, years of school- 
ing, etc., and some data are given on a national basis for sources of 
nonfarm income. Data are presented on location of part-time 
farms by county, on increases and decreases in number of farms 
between 1950 and 1954, and on number of farms having specified 
facilities, such as telephones, piped running water, and central- 
station electricity. The plan is to break down the data on overall 
sales and on income distribution in order to arrive at conclusions 
concerning the place of part-time farms in the American economy, 
to show the important trends in respect to off-farm earnings and 
employment, and to indicate some of the possibilities and poten- 
tials or policy alternatives. 

7 



8 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



There is little question that off-farm employment with nonfarm 
income is becoming more important to farm people in the adjust- 
ments that can be made within agriculture and between agriculture 
and the rest of the economy. Improved highways and automo- 
biles, and other improvements in transportation and communica- 
tions, have brought farm people closer to industry and other jobs, 
and have made them more familiar with urban life and other 
occupations. Expansion in industry and in the national economy 
has brought an increase in the kinds of services demanded and has 
multiplied the number and kinds of occupations. 

Industry has become widely dispersed in many areas that were 
largely rural a few years ago. This dispersion appears to have 
started in the Northeastern Region of the United States and to 
have spread more recently into the rural parts of the South and 
West. The conversion of formerly largely rural areas into a more 
mixed type of agricultural and industrial development appears to 
be continuing in all of our major regions. New employment oppor- 
tunities are influential in the increased off-farm employment by 
farm people and in the migration out of agriculture. These 
combine to bring an overall reduction in the number of farmers. 

Information on the types of farms and sources of income on 
which part-time farming is conducted builds up data that are vital 
in learning definitely the types of adjustments that are being made 
within agriculture and between agriculture and the nonagricultural 
economy. From the standpoint of economic policy, these data are 
useful in showing the adjustments being made and in suggesting 
the changes that can be brought about through various types of 
programs or through national farm policy. Thus, an overall pur- 
pose of this chapter is the development of data and information on 
part-time farming that will provide a basis for policy. 

Classification of farms. — The merging of farm and nonfarm 
economies has raised a problem of classification that should be 
clarified at the outset. Data on farm sales alone do not indicate 
the relative importance of farm and nonfarm enterprises, because 
a considerable quantity of farm produce is used on farms where 
grown and does not become a part of reported farm sales. Part- 
time farming, therefore, is relatively more important as a source of 
family living and as a component of the gross national product, 
than is suggested by data on value of farm sales. Then too, data 
on farm sales are inadequate to appraise the problems of the dis- 
tribution of income in agriculture, since the income from off-farm 
jobs and businesses adds to the income from farming. Pensions, 
old-age assistance, and incomes from rents and other sources are 
important, especially for older people. The primary need in an 
analysis of part-time farming, therefore, is the tabulation of all 
sources of income. In this study, although several limitations are 
recognized, the attempt is made to identify the major sources of 
farm income and to compare farm and nonfarm income. 

Part-time farms fall into a variety of classes: (1) Many farm 
operators, who formerly had little or no work off the farm, have 
obtained off-farm work but have continued to live on the farm and 



to carry on some farming enterprises. In some cases, this farming 
has continued for many years at about the earlier level. In other 
cases, the farming has been reduced, either as a result of a change 
in family composition or as an outgrowth of increased nonfarm 
income and the diminished time available for farmwork. (#) 
Expansion of industry into agricultural areas has created work for 
members of farm families other than the operator. In such cases, 
the operator continues to farm while the earnings of other mem- 
bers of the family supplement the family income. (3) People who 
have occupations in cities or in industry have moved to rural 
areas where they have supplemented their work income by farm 
enterprises while enjoying the advantages of country living. 
(4) Part-time and residential farms appear in many cases as 
transitional types. In some areas, for example, poultry farms are 
started by one who has another job. As the poultry enterprise 
grows, a point is reached when the other job is discontinued and 
farming becomes the major or sole enterprise. Part-time farming 
also serves as a transitional phase in the migration out of agri- 
culture; in these cases the farm enterprises are discontinued after 
a while. 

The concept of what constitutes a part-time farm has varied 
considerably from time to time. 1 

Generally, a part-time farm is considered to be one that offers 
something less than full employment to a farm family, and the 
family supplements the resulting income to some degree with 
income from other — usually nonfarm — sources. This suggests a 
combination of agriculture and industry. Not all definitions 
involve income from outside agriculture, however, as income 
from work on other farms is sometimes involved. Also, income 
from farm customwork, or from operating a roadside stand or a 
filling station, are sources of outside income. Maintaining 
lodging or boarding places to supplement the income qualifies 
a farm to be classified as part-time. Thus, part-time farming is 
thought of in terms of the amount of money received from farm 
sales versus the family income from other sources. 

Definitions used in this study. — The definition or classification 
of part-time farming used in this study is somewhat broader 
than that generally used in Census tabulations, or in most other 
studies. 

The usual Census procedure is to list six classes of "commercial" 
farms. Economic Classes I to V include all farms (other than 
abnormal 2 ) with value of farm sales of $1,200 or more. 

Economic Class VI farms include those farms with value of 
farm sales of $250 to $1,199, provided the operator did not work 
off farm as much as 100 days and income from other nonfarm 
sources was less than value of farm sales. Farms outside this 
category are classed as "other." These include part-time farms, 
defined as those with value of farm sales of $250 to $1,199, provided 
the farm operator reported 100 or more days of work off the farm 
in the previous year and/or the nonfarm income received by him 



' Cf. Part-time Farming in the United States, United States Census of Agriculture, United States Government Printing Office, 1937, pages 5 and 6. The definition used In this 
report designated part-time farmers as "those operators of farms who spent one or more days ofl their farms at work for pay or income during the calendar year immediately preced- 
ing the Census date" (p. 7). This definition was used for convenience only and with knowledge that such agreement does not exist in the generally accepted view of part-time farm- 
ing. Farms and Farm People: Population, Income and Housing Characteristics by Economic Class of Farm, A Special Cooperative Study (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of 
Agricultural Economics and Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics, U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census), United States Oovernment Printing Office, 
1953. Farms with a value of sales of $250 to $1,199 were classed as part-time provided the operator reported (1) 100 or more days of work off the farm in 1949, or («) the nonfarm income 
received by him and members of his family was greater than the value of farm products sold. For further discussion sec Leonard A. Salter, Jr., A Critical Review of Research in Land 
Economics, Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1948, pages 153-56. 

' Abnormal farms include public and private institutional farms, community enterprises, experiment station farms, grazing associations, Indian reservations, etc. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



and the members of his family was greater than the value of farm 
products sold. Farms with a total value of sales of farm products 
of less than $250 3 were designated in Census tabulations as resi- 
dential farms. Some of these residential farms represent farms on 
which the operator worked off farm more than 100 days in 1954. 
Some represent farms on which the income from nonfarm sources 
was greater than the value of sales of agricultural products. Others 
represent subsistence and marginal farms of various kinds. 

This study does the following: (/) It shows location, percentage 
distribution, and increases and decreases in all classes of farms 
where the operator worked off farm 100 days or more, or where 
income of the family from nonfarm sources exceeded the value of 
farm sales. (2) It compares certain operation and expenditure 
characteristics of the various classes of farms. (3) It presents 
for the first time a tabulation of Economic Class V farms, with 
value of farm sales of $1,200 to $2,499, dividing them into part-time 
farms (those farms where the operator worked off farm 100 or 
more days or other income of the family exceeded the value of 
farm sales) and commercial farms (those farms where the operator 
did not work off farm as much as 100 days and the value of farm 
sales exceeded the other income of the family). Detailed farm- 
operation characteristics of part-time and commercial farms are 
given, and some items that enter into the level of living — such as 
electricity, telephone, and piped running water — are compared 
between the two groups. (4) On the basis of a special restricted 
sample, the study lists sources of off-farm income for all classes 
of farms. (.5) It gives the results of special survey data of farm- 
mortgage debt for part-time, residential, and Class V and Class 
VI farms. 

Detailed comparisons, based on Census data for part-time 
farms, are largely drawn from the farms with value of farm sales 
of less than $2,500 in 1954. This group of 2,679,374 farms, or 
56 percent of the total number of farms tabulated in the 1954 
Census of Agriculture, is classified according to Census tabulations 
as follows: 



Table 1. — Classification of Farms Having Less Than $2,500 
Value of Farm Sales, for the United States: 1954 



Economic class 


Gross sales 


Total 


Part-time 


Commer- 
cial 


Class V ..... 


$1. 200 to $2, 499 


' 769. 080 
462, 442 
574. 579 
879, 094 


'233,780 


i 535. 300 


Class VI 


$250 to $1,199 .. 


462, 442 




$250 to $1,199 .. 


574, 579 
590, 397 






Less than $250 


288,697 








Total 


2, 685, 195 


1,311s, 756 


1, 286. 439 









I Estimate based on a sample of approximately 1 percent of all farms. The total 
number of Class V farms shown by the Census was 763.000. 



Certain inferences are drawn in respect to the Economic Class I 
to Class IV farms with value of farm sales of $2,500 or more 
when the nonfarm income exceeds the value of farm sales, or when 
the operator reported 100 or more days of work off the farm in 
1954 although tabulations have not been made comparing opera- 
tion characteristics of these farms with the commercial farms 
where operators did not work off farm 100 days and other income 
of family did not exceed the value of farm sales. Information 
is given on the location of these farms and on the increases and 
decreases in number. 

In summary, the percentages of farms that reported other 
income exceeding the value of farm sales in 1949 and 1954 are as 
follows: 

Table 2. — Percentage of Farms Reporting Other Income 
of Family Exceeding Value of Farm Sales, for the United 
States: 1949 and 1954 



Economic class 


1949 


1954 


Class I 


Percent 

4.6 

4 2 

5.3 

11.0 

20.7 

S6. 2 

65 9 


Percent 
4.6 


Class II 


4.4 


Class III 


6.4 


Class IV 


12.6 


Class V 


24.3 




82.5 




67.2 







This study is not limited, therefore, to the part-time farms. 
It includes comparison among all economic classes as to farm 
organization and living facilities by regions. It emphasizes those 
comparisons that seem important in assessing the status of 
part-time farming and the impact of off-farm income. Part-time 
farms are generally regarded as those farms on which the operator 
works off farm 100 days or more and/or the income of the family 
from off-farm sources exceeds the value of farm products sold. 

Comparison with other studies. — Previous studies based on 
data of the 1950 Census have classified farm-operator households 
into three groups according to their degree of dependence on 
agriculture: (1) Wholly dependent on agriculture, (2) partly 
dependent on agriculture with agriculture as the major source 
of family income, and (3) partly dependent on agriculture with 
nonagriculture as the major source of income. 4 In 1950, out of 
5,341,000 farms, about 2 million farms (2,031,000), or 3S.0 percent 
of the total, were classed as wholly dependent on agriculture. 6 
The remainder of the farm operators — those partly dependent 
on agriculture — were divided between those who listed agriculture 
as the major source of family income ( 1.444,000 or 27.1 percent of 
the total) and those who listed nonagriculture as the major source 
(1,615,000 or 30.2 percent of the total). A small number (251,000 
or 4.7 percent) were not classifiable. 



3 For the 1954 and the 1950 Censuses of Agriculture, places of 3 or more acres were counted as farms if the annual value of agricultural products, exclusive of home-garden products, 
amounted to $150 or more. The products could be either for home use or for sale. Places of less than 3 acres were counted as farms only if the value of sales of agricultural products 
amounted to $150 or more. Places for which the value of agricultural products for 1954 was less than these minima because of crop failure or other unusual conditions, and places 
that were being operated for the first time at the time Census was taken, were counted as farms if normally they could be expected to produce these minimum quantities of 
agricultural products. 

* See Farms and Farm People: Population, Income and Housing Characteristics by Economic Class of Farm, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, June 1953: 
Louis J. DueofT, "Classification of the Agricultural Population of the United States," Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. XXXVII, Xo. 3, August 1955, pp. 511-523. 

s This classification was more restrictive than the criterion of dependency on agriculture implies. The Census data do not permit separation of ofT-farin work into farm and non- 
farm work, and income from off-farm work on other farms would be classified simply as nonfarm income. The classification understates the size of the groups labeled "completely 
dependent on agriculture" by an estimated 200,000 farm operators in 1950. cf. Ducoff, Ibid., pp 512 ami 513 



10 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



The breakdown of these groups by economic class gives the 
following tabulation for 1950: 6 



Table 3. — Classification of Farm Operators by Economic 
Class and Degree of Dependence on Agriculture: 1950 





Total 


Wholly 

depend- 
ent on 
agricul- 
ture 


Partly dependent 
on agriculture 




Economic class 


Agricul- 
ture 
major 
source 


Nonagri- 
culture 
major 
source 


Unclassi- 
fied 




Percent 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


Percent 
38.0 

50.5 
55.4 
53.4 
49.1 
41.7 
67.3 

8.0 
1.2 
12.5 


Percent 
27.1 

34.7 
34.0 
36.7 
36.2 
32.5 
34.2 

8.6 
7.4 
9.3 


Percent 
30.2 

9.6 
3.6 
4.7 
10.6 
21.0 
3.0 

79.8 
90.0 
73.1 


Percent 
4.7 




5.2 




7.0 


Class III 


5.2 


Class IV 


4.1 


Class V 


4.8 


Class VI -- 


5.5 




3.6 


Part-time and abnormal 


1.4 
5.1 







The relative proportion in the Census classes did not change 
greatly between 1950 and 1954. Although data indicating degree 
of dependence on agriculture among the partly dependent groups 
are not available, the inference is that the most significant change 
is a general increase in income from nonagricultural sources. 

Implications to agriculture and to the general economy. — The 
total number of farms listed by the Census has declined at each 
enumeration since 1929 (excluding 1935 when a different definition 
was used). Meanwhile the number of part-time (Class VII) and 



residential (Class VIII) farms almost doubled in 20 years from 
1929 to 1949. Between 1949 and 1954 the number of part-time 
farms declined, whereas the percentage of operators working off 
their farms 100 days or more increased and the percentage of 
farm families with income from off-farm sources exceeding income 
from farm sales also increased. The trend toward more off-farm 
income and employment is particularly marked in the case of the 
commercial farms of higher income. Suggested inferences or hy- 
potheses are (1) that in all major regions of the United States 
opportunities of farm families for off-farm work and income have 
improved over the last 25 years, especia'ly since 1949, (2) that a 
progressively smaller percentage of the "farm population" is 
wholly dependent, or largely dependent, on agriculture as a source 
of income, and (8) that further opportunities in off-farm employ- 
ment and income will mean a smaller number and proportion of 
farm families who depend wholly on agriculture. 

Table 4. — Distribution of Farms by Economic Class and 
Percent Change, for the United States: Censuses of 
1950 and 1954 





Number of farms 
(000) 


Percent distribu- 
tion 


Percent 
change 




1950 


1954 


1950 


1954 


1950 to 
1954 




5,379 


4,783 


100.0 


100.0 


-10.2 






Class I 


103 
381 
721 
882 
901 
717 
639 
1,029 
4 


134 
449 
707 
812 
763 
462 
575 
878 
3 


1.9 
7.1 
13.4 
16,4 
16.8 
13.3 
11.9 
19.1 
.1 


2.8 
9.4 

14.8 
17.0 
16 
9.7 
12.0 
18.4 
.1 


+30.1 


Class II 


+17.8 


Class III 


-2.0 


Class IV 


-8.0 


Class V 


-15.4 


Class VI 


-35.6 


Part-time (Class VII) 


-10.0 


Residential (Class VIII) 


-14.8 
-25.0 







« Ibid., p. 515. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



11 



B. GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION AND PERCENTAGE 

DISTRIBUTION 



Data on geographic location and percentage of distribution of 
farm operators, presented in maps 1 to 15, are on an economic area- 
unit basis. They show the percentage of farm operators whose 
families have other income exceeding the value of farm products 
sold. They also show the percentage of farm operators who worked 
off their farms 100 days or more in 1954. Both are shown by eco- 
nomic class. 

Attention is invited first to the distribution of farm operators 
by geographic division and by economic class in Tables 5 and 6. 
These tables show that about 84 percent of the total number of 
farms are located in the four central divisions and the South 
Atlantic Division and that the distribution by classes varies con- 
siderably from division to division. For example, in the North, 
Northeast, and Pacific divisions there are relatively higher per- 
centages of Classes I, II, and III farms than in the South. The 
South Atlantic and East South Central divisions contain relatively 
high percentages of Classes IV, V, and VI farms. These relative 
distributions should be kept in mind when the data in the follow- 
ing maps are compared. 

Percentage of farm operators by economic class reporting other 
income of family exceeding value of farm products sold. — Maps 
1 to 7, inclusive, compare the percentage of farm operators by 
economic class who report other income that exceeds the value of 
farm products sold in 1954. In maps 1 to 5, corresponding to 
Economic Classes I to V, the distribution changes markedly from 
class to class. 

The highest percentages of Classes I, II, and III farms with 
other income exceeding value of farm sales is found in the South. 
Here, there are concentrations of 40 percent and more of the 
operators in these classes who report other income exceeding the 



value of farm sales. The higher incidence of other income in the 
South is influenced by the tenure system. Sharecropping is 
prevalent in the South and proceeds to a landlord from the sale 
of his share of the crops or livestock on other farms may be 
greater than sales of products from the farm he operates himself. 
It will be noted, however, that the highest concentration of 
Classes I, II, and III reporting other income exceeding sales 
are in areas where cropper farms are less numerous. Conversely, 
very few of these farms report other income exceeding that from 
farm sales in areas, such as the Mississippi Delta, where share- 
croppers are most numerous. Outside of the South, only a few 
scattered areas report more than 5 percent of Class I farms as 
having operators who have other income exceeding the value of 
farm sales. Significantly these areas are usually close to metro- 
politan centers, and a few are in regions where other resources, 
such as coal and oil, are prevalent. There are areas of concen- 
tration, for example, along the East and West coasts and around 
the Great Lakes. Other areas of concentration — around south- 
central Illinois, eastern Oklahoma, and Texas — suggest income 
derived from oil. 

As one goes down the scale from Class I to Class IV farms, the 
percentage of farm operators with other income exceeding the 
value of farm sales generally increases. The areas of concentra- 
tion first spread across the southern part of the United States 
and along both coasts. Finally, with Class V farms, the largest 
percentage concentrations are found in the West and the North- 
east, whereas a relatively low percentage is found in the Great 
Plains, the West North Central Division, and the South. This 
pattern for Class V farms illustrates the chief areas of close inte- 
gration of farm and urban economies in the Western parts of 
the country and throughout the industrial Northeast. 



Table 5. — Number of Farms by Geographic Division and by Economic Class: 1954 



Geographic division 


All farms 


Commercial 
farms 


Class I 


Class II 


Class III 


Class IV 


Class V 


Class VI 


Part-time 


Residential 


Abnormal 


United States 


4. 783, 021 


3, 327, 617 


134, 003 


448,945 


706,929 


811,965 


763, 348 


462, 427 


574, 575 


878, 136 


2,693 








81,816 
257, 199 
799. 065 
905, 195 

858. 675 

rs'.i. r,i',7 
668,954 

179. 871 
242, 579 


50,371 
176. 754 
619, 665 
781, 093 

508, 837 
490.881 
405, 617 

136. 439 
157. 960 


3.872 
8,348 
20. 176 
26,228 

10. 898 
4,157 
20.058 

13.229 
27, 037 


10, 627 
34,235 
110.613 
143. 168 

30, 076 
13,892 
43, 770 

28,292 
34. 272 


12,911 
48, 194 
169, 456 
236, 214 

70. 469 
38. 167 
64,523 

34,166 
32,839 


10. 983 
42, 043 
158, 182 
200, 112 

142, 617 
105, 956 
93,290 

29. 536 
29,216 


8,081 
30. 070 
113,685 
119,870 

152,093 
181.883 
110,014 

21,654 
26. 098 


3,897 
13,864 
47,653 
55,501 

102, 654 
146,826 
73, 962 

9,572 
8,498 


10, 181 
33, 139 
86, 262 
57.324 

117. 135 
115,882 
103, 573 

18.007 
33, 072 


21,090 
47, 030 
92.685 
66,382 

232, 296 
182, 700 
159, 603 

25. 063 
61,287 


174 


Middle Atlantic 


276 




453 


West North Central 


396 


South^Atlantlc 


407 




20 


West South Central 


16 




362 


Pacific 


26 







Table 6. — Percent of Farms by Geographic Division and by Economic Class: 1954 

[Geographic division as percent of United States] 



Geographic division 


All farms 


Commercial 
farms 


Class I 


Class II 


Class III 


Class IV 


Class V 


Class VI 


Part-time 


Residential 


Abnorma 


United States 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 








1.7 
5.4 
16.7 
18.9 

18.0 
16.6 
14.0 

3.8 
6.1 


1.5 

5.3 

18.6 

23.5 

16.3 

14.8 
12.2 

4 1 

4.7 


2.9 
6.2 
15.0 
19.6 

8.1 
3.1 
16.0 

9.9 
20.1 


2.4 

7.6 

24.6 

31.9 

6.7 
3.1 
9.7 

6.3 
7.6 


1.8 

6.8 

24.0 

33.4 

10.0 
6.3 
9.1 

4.8 

4.6 


1.3 

5.1 

19.4 

24.6 

17.6 
13.1 
11.4 

3.6 
3 6 


1.0 
3.9 
14.9 
15.7 

19.9 
23.8 
14.4 

2.8 
3.4 


.8 
2.9 
10.3 
12.0 

22.1 
31.8 
16.0 

2.0 
1.8 


1.8 
5.8 
15.0 
10.0 

20.3 
20.1 
18.0 

3.1 

5.8 


2.4 
5.3 
10.6 
7.6 

26.4 
20.8 
18.1 

2.9 

5.8 


6.4 


Middle Atlantic 


10.2 




16.8 


West North Central 


14.7 




16.1 


East South Central _. 


7.6 


West South Central 


6.9 




13.4 




9. 







12 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



PERCENT OF FARM OPERATORS OF CLASS I FARMS REPORTING OTHER INCOME OF FARMER 

EXCEEDING VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS SOLD. 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




LEGEND 

PERCENT 
CD UNOER 5 ES 20 TO 29 

ESI 5 TO 9 SSJS 30 TO 39 

10 TO 19 | 40 AND OVER 



J S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



NO AS4 -352 



BUREAU Of THE CENSUS 



Figure 1. 



PERCENT OF FARM OPERATORS OF CLASS II FARMS REPORTING OTHER INCOME OF FARMER 

EXCEEDING VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS SOLD, 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




JS DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



NO A54-353 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 2. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



13 




Figure 3. 



PERCENT OF FARM OPERATORS OF CLASS IV FARMS REPORTING OTHER INCOME OF FARMER 

EXCEEDING VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS SOLD, 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 





US OCPAflTMEKT OF 



WAP NO AB4-30A 



8Uflf.AU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 4. 



423025—57 



14 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



PERCENT OF FARM OPERATORS OF CLASS V FARMS REPORTING OTHER INCOME OF FARMER 

EXCEEDING VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS SOLD, 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




LEGEND 

PERCENT 
I I UNDER 5 ESSa 20 TO J9 

r~~l 5 TO 9 g£gj 30 TO 39 

] I 10 TO 19 m| 40 AND OVER 



US DEPARTMENT Of COMMERCE 



MAP NO AS4-J56 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 5. 



PERCENT OF FARM OPERATORS OF PART-TIME FARMS REPORTING OTHER INCOME OF FARMER 
EXCEEDING VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS SOLD, 1954 
(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




. U S DEPARTMENT OP COMMERCE 



MAP NO A54-3ST 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 6. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



15 



**_ PERCENT OF FARM 


OPERATORS 


OF RESIDENTIAL FARMS 


REPORTING OTHER 


INCOME OF 


FARMER 




w'^SB^*^ 




EXCEEDING VALUE OF 


r ARM PRODUCTS SOLD, 1954 








JRMSph 


ir 


1 


(ECONOMIC AREA U 


MIT BAS 
Hi 


IS) 






P*- 




5 


1 i 






US "r 


] 




SSL 




It w§3 


LEGEND 
PERCENT 

CU UNDER 40 MM 60 TO 69 
OUT] 40 TO 49 SSS 70 TO 79 
M%A 50 TO 59 ■■ 60 AND OVER 








JNITED STATES AVERAGE 


^^ 
















67 2 PERCENT 




^*g 




JS OCPARTMEMT OF COMMERCE 










MAP NO A54-356 


- 


BUREAU OF TmE 


CENSUS 



Figure 7- 



Maps 6 and 7, of part-time and residential farms, Classes 
VII and VIII, show that the Class VII, or part-time farms, usually 
do have more income from off-farm sources than from farming; 
the pattern for residential farms is much more scattered. A 
careful study of map 7 reveals, however, that the residential 
farms in the metropolitan counties are generally receiving more 
income from nonfarm sources than from farm sales, whereas the 
nonmetropolitan counties have larger percentages that fail to 
get a larger income from nonfarm sources than from farm sales. 
Generally, in metropolitan counties more than 60 percent of the 
residential farm operators report other income exceeding the 
value of farm products sold in 1954. 

Percentage of farm operators working off their farms in 1954. — 
Maps 8 and 9 illustrate that the percentage of farm operators 
working off their farms and the amount of off-farm work are 
relatively low in the Great Plains and in the West North Central 
Division, and in most areas where a high percentage of land is 
under cultivation, as in the nonmetropolitan counties along the 
Mississippi River and in the coastal plains of the Southeast. 
On the other hand, relatively high percentages work off farm in 
the more industrialized or urbanized counties, and in the cutover 
areas of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian Highlands, and the 
Rocky Mountains. These maps show that off-farm work is 
closely related to industrial and other opportunities. 

Percentage of farm operators working off their farms, by 
economic class, 1954. — The pattern over the United States shows 
that the highest percentages working off farm 100 days or more 



in each class is found under somewhat predictable circumstances. 
The conducive conditions are found most commonly in areas of 
metropolitan or urban-industrial development; in sharecropper 
farming areas as among Classes I, II, and III in the South; in 
cutover areas as in some of the Lake States in the case of Class V 
farms; and in areas where other resources are available, as oil 
developments in Texas and Oklahoma. In each area where a 
high percentage of farm operators work off the farm, this fact is 
associated with some specific type of urban or industrial resource 
or other source of employment that is readily available (figs. 10 to 
16). The percentage of farm operators working off farm 100 
days or more increases consistently from Class I through Class V. 

Perhaps one of the most striking characteristics by economic 
classes is that off-farm employment of farm operators in Classes 
I to III is spread rather generally over the United States, with 
some concentration in the South. Among Class IV farms a new 
concentration is developing in the Northeast and the Pacific 
Region, indicating that many of these low-income farm operators 
have substantial off-farm sources of income. Among Class V 
farms this concentration in the Northeast and the West becomes 
more pronounced. 

In the case of part-time or Class VII farms, again the Great 
Plains and the South are the two regions with the lowest percent- 
ages working off farm 100 days or more. This indicates a rela- 
tively poorer economic status for Class VII farms in these regions. 
This tendency is further emphasized in the case of residential 
or Class VIII farms. 



16 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



PERCENT OF ALL FARM OPERATORS WORKING OFF THEIR FARMS IN 1954 

(COUNTY UNIT BASIS) 






LEGEND 


V./. v :*% ..«•: 




PERCENT 


%Kj v . .;' 1. ~ 


1 1 UNDER 15 


BaSS 45 TO 59 


fr^ 


E223 15 TO 29 


KU 60 AND OVER 




t£M 30 TO 44 






NO FARMS 







US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



MAP NO 454 -060 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 8. 



PERCENT OF ALL FARM OPERATORS WORKING 100 OR MORE DAYS OFF THEIR FARMS, 1954 

(COUNTY UNIT BASIS) 




LEGEND 




PERCENT 




1 1 UNDER 10 


HS 30 


TO 39 


IBiSfl 10 TO 19 


IS 40 


ANO OVER 


WM 20 TO 29 






• NO FARMS 







U & OCPARTMENT Of CO**IERC£ 



MAP NO A34-022 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 9. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



17 



PERCENT OF OPERATORS OF CLASS I FARMS WORKING OFF FARM 
IOO DAYS OR MORE, 1954 
(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




U S DEPARTMENT Of COMMERCE 



MAP NO A54-34Z 



t-«-t ■'■ v" 11* i I >< .W 



Figure 10. 



PERCENT OF OPERATORS OF CLASS II FARMS WORKING OFF FARM 

100 DAYS OR MORE, 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




LEGEND 

PERCENT 

I I UNDER 5 t r : : -3 20 TO 29 

E13 5 TO 9 ESS 30 TO 39 

10 TO 19 ■■ 40 AND OVER 



US DEPARTMENT Of COMMERCE 



MAP NO A54S43 



BUREAU Of THE CENSUS 



Figure 11. 



18 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



PERCENT OF OPERATORS OF CLASS III FARMS WORKING OFF FARM 

100 DAYS OR MORE, 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




LEGEND 

PERCENT 
CD UNDER 5 E&33 20 TO S9 

EH3 5 TO 9 Kfigg 30 TO 39 

10 TO 19 ^H 40 AND OVER 



U S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



AP NO A!* 544 



BUREAU Of THE CENSUS 



Figure 12. 



PERCENT OF OPERATORS OF CLASS IV FARMS WORKING OFF FARM 
100 DAYS OR MORE, 1954 
(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




J S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



P NO AM-MS 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 13. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



19 



PERCENT OF OPERATORS OF CLASS V FARMS WORKING OFF FARM 

100 DAYS OR MORE, 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




US DEPORTMENT Qf COMMERCE 



> NO AS4J46 



BUREAU C* THE CENSUS 



Figure 14. 



PERCENT OF OPERATORS OF PART-TIME FARMS WORKING OFF FARM 

100 DAYS OR MORE, 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 




LEGEND 
PERCENT 

I I UNDER 40 MM 60 TO 69 

EuiH 40 TO 49 SSS 70 TO 79 

i""~ 50 TO 59 ■■ 60 AND OVER 



'; CEF&KTMEN' OF COMMCjjCj 



MAP NO A54-347 



BUREAU Of THt CENSUS 



Figure 15. 



20 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



PERCENT OF OPERATORS OF RESIDENTIAL FARMS WORKING OFF FARM 
100 DAYS OR MORE, 1954 
(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 






LEGEND 






PERCENT 




CD 


UNDER 40 E5S3 


60 TO 69 


EM! 


40 TO 49 S3S8 


70 TO 79 


W//A 


50 TO 59 Mi 


80 AND OVER 



U S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



MAP MO AM- MS 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 16. 



Comparative distribution of Classes V, VI, VII, and VIII farm 
operators, 1954. — Maps 17 to 20 give the location of Classes V to 
VIII farm operators and provide a basis for the following general- 
izations: (1) In case, of Class V farms the number of operators 
working off farm less than 100 days is mostly concentrated in the 
South. The number of operators working off farm 100 days or 
more is more generally concentrated primarily over the eastern 
half of the United States. (2) There is a heavy concentration of 
Class VI farms in the South. (3) Part-time (Class VII) farms 
are more generally distributed over the eastern half of the United 
States than are the Class VI farms. (4) Residential (Class VIII) 
farms exhibit heavy concentrations in eastern Kentucky and in the 
Appalachian area of the Carolinas, Tennessee, and Georgia. 

In summary, the heaviest concentrations of part-time farming 
are found in the eastern half of the United States. They are in 
the largely metropolitan counties and in specified areas, such as 
the Appalachian coal and industrial areas and in the more heavily 
populated or industrialized areas throughout the eastern half of 
the United States. 7 These concentrations make a different 
geographic pattern than that of low-income commercial (Class VI) 
farms. The low-income commercial farms are concentrated more 
largely in nonmetropolitan counties around the Mississippi River 
in Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee, and in the coastal plains 
of the Southeastern States. 8 A larger percentage of total farms 
are classed as part-time and residential farms in metropolitan 
counties than in the nonmetropolitan counties. 

Inferences about off-farm income and employment. — Several 



inferences are suggested by these data. Among them are the 
following: 

(1) The relatively low-income farm operators in Class IV 
and Class V, generally classed as commercial farm operators, 
actually differ substantially in economic status when broad areas 
of the country are compared. Throughout the South, in the 
Great Plains, and in scattered other areas, a large proportion 
are actually low-income families that have virtually a subsist- 
ence status and have only minor sources of off-farm income. 
On the other h;md, in the Northeast, in the nine or ten most 
westerly States of the country, and in parts of Texas, Okla- 
homa, and Florida, the so-called low-income commercial farm 
operators have more readily available sources of off-farm work 
and they have substantially larger incomes. 

(2) A smaller percentage of Classes I to III farm operators 
work off farm than is the case of Classes IV and V operators. 
Apparently off-farm employment — although as readily avail- 
able — has a higher opportunity cost for them and does not 
attract as many operators. 

(S) Among the Classes VII and VIII farms, the evidence 
suggests that off-farm income is more substantial outside the 
South and outside the Great Plains. 

(4) Throughout the economic classes the importance of urban- 
industrial development in providing off-farm income and em- 
ployment is evident. This probably indicates that urban- 
industrial development is an influential factor in providing 
extra income in areas of low farm income. 



7 Cf. Otis Dudley Duncan, "Note on Farm Tenancy and Urbanization," Journal of Farm Economics, November 1956. 

• Cf. Vernon W. Ruttan, "The Impact of Urban Industrial Development on Agriculture in the Tennessee Valley and the Southeast," Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. XXXVII, 
No. 1, February 1955, pp. 38-56. The data for the 19S0 Census of Population indicated that, "in both the Tennessee Valley region, the Southeast, and the Nation as a whole, the 
(median) income level achieved rural-farm families (from farm and nonfarm sources) does bear a direct and positive relationship to the relative level of urban-industrial development in the sa me 
general area." Pp. 40, 42. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



21 



OPERATORS OF CLASS Y FARMS WORKING OFF FARMS, LESS THAN 100 DAYS: 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 



UNITED STATES TOTAL 
I48.ISI 



J 5 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 




= NO A5A-J66 



• BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 17. 



OPERATORS OF CLASS Y FARMS WORKING OFF FARMS 100 DAYS OR MORE: 1954 

(ECONOMIC AREA UNIT BASIS) 



UNITED STATES TOTAL 
186,572 



US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 




MAP NO AS4-367 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



423025—57 5 



Figure 18. 



22 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



U& 



PART-TIME FARMS 

JGROSS SALES $250 TO $I.I99-FARM PRODUCTS MINOR SOURCE OF INCOME*) 

NUMBER, 1954 




UNITED STATES TOTAL 
574, 575 















^OPERATOR WORKING OFF FARM 100 OR MORE DAYS 

AND/OR FAMILY INCOME FROM OTHER SOURCES GREATER 
THAN SALES OF FARM PRODUCTS 



US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



IDOT= 100 FARMS 

(COUNTY UNIT BASIS) 



MAP NO A54-04I 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



uv 




UNITED STATES TOTAL 
878, 136 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



Figure 19. 



RESIDENTIAL FARMS 

(GROSS SALES LESS THAN $250) 
NUMBER, 1954 




I DOT=IOO FARMS 

(COUNTY UNIT BASIS) 



MAP NO A54-039 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Figure 20. 



PART-TIME FARMING 
C. INCREASES AND DECREASES IN NUMBER 



23 



Farm operators working off farm, 1930, 1940, 1945, 1950, 
1954.— Data tabulated for the Census dates of 1930, 1940, 1945, 
1950, and 1954, presented in Figure 21, show that the number of 
farm operators working off farm in the United States declined 
from 1930 to 1945, increased sharply from 1945 to 1950, and in- 
creased again from 1950 to 1954. As shown in Figure 21, the total 
number working off farm was about 1,900,000 in 1930, a little 
more than 1,500,000 in 1945, and almost 2,200,000 in 1954. The 
largest percentage increases in number working off farm between 
1945 and 1954 occurred in the broad belt of States that runs 
from the Northern Plains and Lake States through to the Southeast 
Region. Relatively little increase occurred in the Pacific Region 
or in the Northeast. 

In the Northeast, the total number working off farm remained 
remarkably steady from 1930 through 1954. The aggregate 
number of farms in the region continued to decline, of course, and 
therefore the percentage of farm operators working off farms 
continued to increase. Evidently, increased mechanization and 
improved highways and transportation facilities made it possible 
for more farmers to enter the nonfarm labor market; this com- 
pensated for those who were discontinuing farming or migrating 
out of agriculture. 

The general additional inference is that in other regions the 
number of farm operators working off farm will reach a maximum 
level as the farm economies reach a certain level of development. 
When this level will be reached in the several regions is of course 
a matter of conjecture. It depends on the economies made in 



the use of labor, on the pace of mechanization, and on the relative 
terms of trade between farm and nonfarm employment. 

Farm operators working off farm 100 days or more, 1930, 1940, 
1945, 1950, 1954. — Striking evidence of the impact of technology — 
farm and nonfarm — on the off-farm labor market is found in the 
Census figures. The number of farm operators who worked off 
farm 100 days or more has increased steadily. There were about 
700,000 in 1930, a little more than 1,000,000 in 1945, and 1,334,000 
in 1954. Not only has mechanization and related development 
paved the way for a pronounced migration out of agriculture, but 
in the short space of 25 years there has been almost a doubling 
of the number of farm operators who work off farm 100 days or 
more. In parts of the United States, past trends have been so 
strong as to suggest that this development has considerable 
distance yet to go. This is true particularly in the Lake States, 
in the Corn Belt, in the Appalachian Region, and the Southeast. 

Increases in off-farm work have been general in each of the 
major regions with the notable exception of the Northeast. The 
trend has been only slight in the Mountain Region. In the 
Northeast the number of farm operators working off farm 100 
days or more actually declined from 1945 to 1954. Table 7, 
however, shows that between 1949 and 1954 the number of com- 
mercial farm operators so working increased substantially and the 
net decline in numbers between these two dates was due entirely 
to the decline in the number of part-time (Class VII) and 
residential (Class VIII) farms. This suggests decided differences 
in trends among economic classes. 



NUMBER OF FARM OPERATORS WORKING OFF THEIR FARMS, BY NUMBER OF DAYS WORKED, 
FOR THE UNITED STATES AND AREAS: 1930-1954 




NUMBER OF DAYS 
"1 1 TO 49 
50 TO 99 



UREAU OF TH£ CENSUS 



Figure 21. 



24 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Changes in number of farm operators working off farm 100 
days or more, by geographic division, by economic class, 1949 
to 1954. — Between 1949 and 1954, farm operators working off 
farm 100 days or more increased from 1,254,610 to 1,333,725, or 
about 6.3 percent (Table 7). Increases occurred in each geo- 
graphic division except in the Middle Atlantic and New England 
divisions. 

The pattern differed sharply, however, by economic class of 
farm. Increases occurred in each region among the commercial 
farm classes as a group, accompanied by net declines in most 
regions for part-time (Class VII) and the residential (Class VIII) 
farms. Substantial increases occurred among Class I farms in 



all divisions except the Mountain Division. Among Classes II. 
Ill, and IV, increases occurred in all regions. The changes for 
Class V farms were more mixed, with substantial increases in 
number in the East North Central, West North Central, South 
Atlantic, and East South Central divisions. Also the pattern for 
part-time farms (Class VII) and residential farms (Class VIII) 
was mixed. Substantial declines occurred among part-time farms 
in the New England, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, and 
Pacific divisions. In contrast, substantial increases took place 
in the South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South 
Central divisions. For residential farms large decreases occurred 
in the New England, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, South 
Atlantic, and East South Central divisions. 



Table 7- — Number of Farm Operators Working off Farm 100 Days or More, by Geographic Division, by Economic Class: 

1954 and 1949 



Geographic division and year 


All farms 


Commercial 
farms 


Class I 


Class II 


Class III 


Class IV 


Class V 


Part-time 


Residential 


Abnormal 


United States 


1954- 
1949- 


1, 333, 725 
1, 254, 610 


433, 746 
336, 796 


10, 478 
8,365 


33, 183 
24, 120 


72, 263 
50,742 


131. 250 
97. 163 


186, 572 
150, 406 


408. 690 
395, 029 


490. 979 
521, 962 


310 
823 


New England 


1954- 
1949- 


33. 252 
38,811 


10, 719 
9,672 


383 
272 


1,374 
1,011 


2.377 
1,817 


3,080 
2,940 


3,505 
3,632 


7,860 
10. 301 


14, 654 
18, 822 


19 
16 


Middle Atlantic 


1954.. 
1949.. 


93, 134 

98, 857 


35. 461 

28. 829 


737 
557 


3,197 
2,153 


6, 655 
5,192 


11,488 
8,941 


13. 384 
11,986 


26, 534 
30. 990 


31,115 
38.950 


24 

83 


East North Central 


1954.. 
1949.. 


235. 187 
220, 394 


105. 393 
74, 160 


1,208 
800 


6,337 
3,473 


18, 042 
10, 531 


36, 095 
23, 620 


43,711 
35, 736 


69, 990 
75. 151 


59. 762 
70, 991 


42 
92 


West North Central... 


1954.. 
1949.. 


139, 958 
125, 48R 


64,011 
49, 407 


1,276 
1,204 


5,118 
3,884 


11,951 
8,623 


20, 771 

14, 607 


24, 895 
21. 089 


40, 975 

41, 059 


34, 919 
34. 885 


53 
135 


South Atlantic -. 


1954.. 
1949.. 


270. 656 
252, 276 


62, 402 

45,988 


1, 722 
ll 121 


4,581 
3,134 


8,816 
5,428 


17. 299 
12,645 


29, 984 
23.660 


79, 805 
71. 713 


128, 418 
134, 447 


31 
128 


East South Central 


1954- 
1949.. 


204, 175 
192. 643 


44, 181 
31, 809 


554 
384 


1,818 
1,413 


4,319 
3,080 


11, 224 
7,649 


2fi, 266 
19,283 


73, 898 
67. 575 


86, 065 
93, 179 


31 
80 


West South Central 


1954.. 
1949- 


209, 647 
184, 233 


55. 448 
47,689 


1,717 
1,647 


5. 031 
4,360 


9,031 
7,446 


15, 062 
12. 474 


24,607 
21, 762 


70, 8S7 
57, 130 


83, 295 
79, 343 


17 

71 


Mountain 


1954.. 
1949- 


50, 472 
46, 394 


20, 851 
17, 668 


826 
885 


1.670 
1,656 


3,868 
3,125 


6,404 
5,306 


8.083 
6,696 


13, 738 
13. 795 


15, 843 
14, S50 


40 

81 




1954- 
1949.. 


97, 244 
95, 516 


35.280 
31.574 


2,055 
1,495 


4,057 
3,036 


7.204 
5,500 


9,827 
8,981 


12, 137 
12. 562 


25, 003 
27,315 


36, 908 
36, 495 


53 
132 



When the data are arranged to show percentage of farm opera- 
tors working off farm 100 days or more, by geographic division, 
by economic class, as in Table 8, the relatively greater increase 
in the percentage of commercial farmers (Classes I to V) working 
off farm is clearly evident. For the United States the percentage 
of commercial farm operators working off farm 100 days or more 
rose from 9.1 percent to 13.0 percent. This was an increase from 
1949 to 1954 (Table 9) of 28.8 percent in total number. 

By economic class, the percentage of Class I farmers working 
off farm 100 days or more did not increase although there was an 
increase of 25.3 percent in total number. At the other end of 
the scale, neither the percentage of part-time and residential farm 
operators (Table 8), nor the number working off farm 100 
days or more, increased substantially between 1949 and 1954 
(Table 9). 

Changes in number of farm operators working off farm 100 days 
or more by economic class are closely related to the stage of 



agricultural and industrial development of the division involved. 

Although the data given here are not conclusive, the following 

inferences are suggested relative to farm operators who work off 

farm 100 days or more. 

(1) Among Class I operators the numbers increased sub- 
stantially in two different situations, (a) among the more 
industrially advanced divisions — New England, Middle Atlantic, 
East North Central, and Pacific divisions and (b) among the less 
developed divisions, namely the South Atlantic and the East 
South Central divisions. Increases were smaller in the West 
North Central and West South Central divisions. In the 
Mountain division the numbers decreased slightly. 

{2) In general, the increases among Classes II, III, and IV 
operators were relatively consistent among divisions with those 
of Class I, except that no division had a net decrease. The 
largest percentage increases among Class II farms occurred in 
the New England, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, South 
Atlantic, and Pacific divisions. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



25 



Table 8. — Percent of Farm Operators Working off Farm ICO Days or More, by Geographic Division, by Economic Class: 

1954 and 1949 



Geographic division and year 



United States 1954.. 

1949.. 

New England _ 19M.. 

1949.. 

Middle Atlantic 19M._ 

1949.. 

East North Central 19.14.. 

1949 

West North Central ....1954.. 

1949.. 

South Atlantic.. ...1954.. 

1949.. 

East South Central... 1954.. 

1949- 

West South Central 1954.. 

1949.. 

Mountain .1954— 

1949- 

Paciflc 1954- 

1949.. 



AH farms 


27.9 
23.3 


40.6 
37.6 


36.2 
33.4 


29.4 
25.8 


15.5 
12.8 


31 5 
26.3 


25.9 
21. 1 


31 3 

23.6 


28.1 
23.8 


40.1 
35.8 



Commercial 
farms 


13.0 
9.1 


21.3 
15.3 


20 1 
13.7 


17.0 
9.7 


8.2 
5.2 


12.3 
9.6 


9 
7.5 


13 7 

9 7 


15 3 
10.2 


22 3 
18.1 



Class I 



7.8 
8.1 



6.0 
6.4 



4.9 
5.7 



15.8 
14.8 



13.3 
11.9 



S. 6 
9.5 



6.2 
7.4 



Class II 



7.4 
6.3 



12 9 
9.2 



9.3 
7.1 



5.7 
4.2 



3 6 
3 2 



15.2 
14.9 



13.1 
12.2 



11.5 
9.5 



5.9 
6.0 



Class III 



10 2 
7.0 



18.4 
12.4 



13.8 
9.9 



10.6 
5.9 



5.1 
3 4 



12.5 
10.9 



11.3 
10.4 



14 
10.4 



11 3 
8.3 



21.9 
14.9 



Class IV 



16 2 
11.0 



28.0 
21.4 



27.3 
18.1 



22.8 
12.3 



10.4 
6.3 



12.1 
9.3 



10 
9.3 



16 1 
11.8 



21.7 
15.1 



33.6 
24.4 



Class V 



24 4 
17.4 



43.4 

34.4 



44 5 
32.9 



38.5 
26.1 



20.8 
14.3 



19.7 
12.7 



14.4 
10.6 



22 4 
15.4 



37.3 
26 3 



46. 6 

36.6 



Part-time 



71.1 
61.8 



77.2 
72.1 



80.1 
75. 1 



81.1 
75.5 



71 5 
64.5 



lis 1 
57.1 



63 8 
51.3 



54.4 



76.3 
70.2 



75.6 
71.1 



Residential 



55. 9 
50.7 



69.5 
63.8 



66.2 
64.7 



64 5 
62 4 



52.6 
49.2 



55.3 
49.6 



47.1 
40.1 



52.2 
46.3 



63 2 
59.4 



72.0 
66.6 



11.5 
19.5 



10.9 
6.5 



9.3 

15.3 



13.4 
20.7 



7.6 
22.5 



15.2 
22.9 



10.6 
19.3 



11.0 
15.9 



20.4 
28.1 



Table 9. — Number of Farm Operators Working off Farm 100 Days or More, by Geographic Division, by Economic Class: 

1954 as Percent of 1949 



Geographic division 


AH farms 


Commercial 
farms 


Class I 


Class II 


Class III 


Class IV 


Class V 


Part-time 


Residential 


Abnormal 




106.3 


128.8 


125.3 


137.6 


142.4 


135.1 


119.3 


103.4 


94.1 


37.7 






85 7 
94.2 
106.7 
111.5 

107.3 
106.0 
113.8 

108.8 
101.8 


110.8 
123.0 
142.1 
129.6 

135.7 
138.9 
116.3 

118.0 
111.7 


140.8 
132.3 
151.0 
106.0 

153.6 

144.3 

• 104.2 

93.3 
137.4 


135.9 
148.5 
182. 5 
131.8 

146.2 

128.7 
115.4 

100.8 
133.6 


130.8 
128.2 
171.3 
138.6 

162.4 
140.2 
121.3 

123.8 
131.0 


104.8 
128.5 
152.8 
142.2 

136.8 
146.7 
120.7 

120.7 
109.4 


90 5 
111.7 
122.3 
118.0 

126.7 
136.2 
113.1 

120.7 
96.6 


76.3 
85.6 
93.1 
99.8 

111.3 

109.4 
124.1 

99.6 
91.5 


77.8 
79.9 
84.2 
100.1 

95.5 
92.4 
105.0 

106.7 
101.1 


118.8 
27.3 
45.6 
39.2 

24.2 
38.8 
23.9 

49.4 
40.2 




East North Central 




South Atlantic 




West South Central 









Changes by geographic division: Number of farm operators 
reporting other income of family exceeding value of farm products 
sold, 1949 to 1954. — The number of farm operators in the United 
States reporting other income of the family exceeding the value 
of farm products sold has declined in recent years in every major 
geographic division (Tables 10 and 11). Numbers decreased from 
1,566,000 in 1949 to 1,424,000 in 1954, or 9.1 percent. The 
relatively largest declines occurred in the eastern part of the United 
States in the New England and in the Middle Atlantic and the 
East South Central divisions. The relative declines were, respec- 
tively, 26.0 percent, 15.2 percent, and 17.5 percent (Table 11). 
The South Atlantic Division had a decline of 8.3 percent. The 
Pacific Division's decline was 7.3 percent. The Midwest and 
Western divisions had relatively small declines ranging from 5.7 
percent in the East North Central to 3.1 percent in the West 
South Central. 

These declines were generally greatest in areas of rapid popula- 
tion growth and in places where industrialization is also rapid. 
This suggests that part-time farming is often a transitional stage; 
the part-time farmers discontinue farming as industrial or other 
nonfarm work becomes available. 



Changes by economic class of farm: Number of farm operators 
reporting other income of family exceeding value of farm products 
sold, 1949 to 1954. — An important change by economic class of 
farm took place, between 1949 and 1954. There was a consider- 
able increase in number of Classes I, II, III, and IV farm operators 
who had other income in the family that exceeded the value of 
farm products sold and this was accompanied by little change in 
the number of Class V farm operators in this category, and by 
substantial declines in the number of part-time and residential 
farmers who had other income exceeding the value of farm sales 
(Tables 10 and 11). 

In other words, between 1949 and 1954, there was (/) a move- 
ment of the farm operators, who had other income exceeding the 
value of farm sales, from a lower economic class to a higher class, 
which would be accomplished by expanding farm operations and 
increasing the value of farm sales, and/or (2) an increase in the 
off-farm earnings of a number of farmers within the higher eco- 
nomic classes. 

The inferences to be drawn from these two possibilities are 
quite different in respect to the economic status of agriculture 
and the welfare of farm people. They merit careful appraisal. 



26 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 10. — Total Number of Farm Operators Reporting Other Income of Family Exceeding Value of Farm Products Sold, 

by Economic Class of Farm, by Geographic Division: 1954 and 1949 



Geographic division and year 


All farms 


Commercial 
farms 


Class I 


Class II 


Class III 


Class IV 


Class V 


Part-time 


Residential 


Abnormal 


United States 


1954.. 
1949. . 


1, 424, 233 
1, 566, 154 


359, 356 
335, 547 


6,194 
4,773 


19, 799 
15, 855 


45, 578 
38, 377 


102, 295 
90, 249 


185, 490 

186, 293 


474, 145 
550, 872 


590, 397 
678, 736 


335 

999 


New England 


1954.. 
1949.. 


31,820 
42,794 


8,703 
9,060 


243 
158 


785 
672 


1,355 
1,553 


2,460 
2,616 


3,860 
4,061 


8,321 
12, 251 


14, 780 
21, 457 


16 
26 


Middle Atlantic 


1954.. 
1949.. 


87,983 
103, 802 


28,618 
26, 577 


381 
335 


1,776 
1,474 


4,075 
4,250 


8,837 
7,792 


13,449 
12, 726 


27, 316 
35,338 


32, 137 
41, 790 


12 

97 


East North Central 


1954.. 
1949.. 


213, 258 
226, 254 


80, 048 
65, 034 


635 
413 


2,908 
1,895 


9,553 
6,674 


26,042 
19, 698 


41, 010 
36, 354 


71, 336 

84, 507 


61,842 
76, 567 


32 
196 


West North Central 


1954.. 
1949.. 


138, 827 
143, 253 


48, 007 
44,302 


660 

581 


2,359 
2,267 


5,585 
5,802 


14,541 
12, 485 


24, 862 
23, 167 


47, 662 
53, 845 


43, 090 
44, 970 


68 
136 




1954.. 
1949.. 


307, 889 
335, 638 


58, 780 
53,722 


1,286 
715 


3,764 
2,439 


7,665 
5,271 


15, 409 
13, 905 


30, 656 

31, 392 


95, 503 
107, 467 


153, 552 
174,294 


54 
165 


East South Central 


1954.. 
1949.. 


243, 806 
295, 433 


38,463 
41, 174 


410 
260 


1,183 
1,114 


3,025 
2,736 


8,592 
8,533 


25, 253 
28,531 


91, 787 
113, 608 


113, 622 
140, 552 


34 
99 


West South Central 


1954.. 
1949. . 


250, 793 
258, 946 


48,868 
49, 049 


1,130 
929 


3,337 
2,620 


6,502 
5,298 


12, 600 
12, 299 


26, 299 
27, 903 


88, 002 
91, 548 


113,899 
118,238 


24 
111 




....1954-, 


48, 583 
50,836 


16, 154 
15, 257 


418 
499 


955 
1,128 


2,368 
2,131 


4,595 
4,210 


7,818 
7,289 


15, 114 

17, 344 


17,282 
18,128 


33 




1949. . 


107 




1954.. 
1949.. 


101, 274 
109, 198 


31,815 
31,372 


1,131 
883 


2,732 
2,246 


5,450 
4,662 


9,219 
8,711 


13,283 
14, 870 


29, 104 
34,964 


40,293 
42,740 


62 
122 



Table 11. — Number of Farm Operators Reporting Other Income of Family Exceeding Value of Farm Products Sold, by 

Geographic Division, by Economic Class: 1954 as Percent of 1949 



Geographic division 


All farms 


Commercial 
farms 


Class I 


Class II 


Class III 


Class IV 


Class V 


Part-time 


Residential 


Abnormal 




90.9 

74.0 
84.8 
94.3 
96.9 

91.7 
82.5 
96.9 

95.6 
92.7 


107.1 

96.0 
107.3 
123.1 
108.4 

109.4 
93.4 
99.6 

105.9 
101.4 


129.8 

153.8 
113.7 
129.6 
113.6 

179.9 
157.7 
121.6 

83.8 
128.1 


124.9 

116.8 
120.5 
153.6 
104.1 

154.3 
106.2 
127.4 

84.7 
121.6 


118.8 

87.3 
95.9 
143.1 
96.3 

145.4 
110.6 
122.7 

111.1 
116.9 


113.3 

94.0 
113.4 
132.2 
116.5 

110.8 
100.7 
102.4 

109.1 
105.8 


99.6 

96.1 
105.7 
112.8 
107.3 

97.7 
88.5 
90.7 

107.3 
89.3 


86.1 

67.9 
77.3 
84.4 
88.5 

88.9 
80.8 
96.1 

87.1 
83.2 


87.0 

68.9 
76.9 
80.8 
95.8 

88.1 
80.8 
96.3 

95.3 
94.3 


33.5 




61.5 


Middle Atlantic - - 


12.4 




16.3 




50.0 




34.8 




34.3 




21.6 




30.8 




50.8 







In respect to Class I and Class II farm operators, the percentages 
of the total number that had other income exceeding the value of 
farm sales were almost the same in 1954 as in 1949 although there 
had been substantial increases in the numbers of farmers in these 
classes (Table 12). In other words, the increase in the number of 
these operators who had other income of the family exceeding the 
value of farm sales was almost directly proportional to the increase 
in total number. At the same time relatively small increases in the 
number of Class III and Class IV farm operators with other 
income exceeding the value of farm sales is contrasted with the 
larger percentages these operators comprise of farms in each class. 
In the case of Class V farms, the total number of such farmers 
remained about the same and the percentage increased decidedly. 

The logical explanation of these changes seems to be that there 
was a general movement up the economic class scale as farm 
operators increased their size of business and at the same time 
there was a general shift toward more off-farm employment and 
income among all of the Classes from I to V. The sharp declines 
in the number of part-time (Class VII) and in residential (Class 
VIII) farm operators suggest that a few of these operators moved 
into higher economic classes by increases in size of farm operations, 



while in general their off-farm earnings remained large enough to 
be in excess of the value of farm sales. The decline in the per- 
centage of part-time operators who had other income of the 
family exceeding the value of farm products sold suggests that the 
more aggressive in this group (those with the largest off-farm 
income) were moving out of this class faster or in greater relative 
numbers than those whose off-farm income did not exceed the 
value of farm products sold. 

Changes by geographic divisions: Part-time and residential 
farm operators, 1949 to 1954. — A sharp downward shift has 
occurred in recent years in the number of part-time and residential 
farm operators in the New England and Middle Atlantic divisions 
(Tables 10 and 11). These are the two divisions of the United 
States where industrial employment is most easily or readily 
available to farmers. The number of part-time (Class VII) farm 
operators dropped by almost one-third (32.1 percent) in New 
England and by almost one-fourth (22.7 percent) in the Middle 
Atlantic Division. The number of residential (Class VIII) 
farmers also dropped by almost one-third (31.1 percent) in New 
England and by almost one-fourth (23.1 percent) in the Middle 
Atlantic States. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



27 



Table 12. — Percent of Farm Operators Reporting Other Income of Family Exceeding Value of Farm Products Sold, by 

Geographic Division, by Economic Class: 1954 aND 1949 



Geographic division and year 


All farms 


Commercial 
farms 


Class I 


Class II 


Class III 


Class IV 


Class V 


Part-time 


Residential 


Abnormal 


United States 


1964.. 
1949- . 


31.9 
29.1 


10.8 
7.6 


4.6 
1.6 


4.4 
4.2 


6.4 
5.3 


12.6 
10.2 


24.3 
20.7 


82.6 
86.2 


67.2 
65.9 


12.4 
23.7 




1954.. 
1949.. 


38.9 
41.5 


17.3 
14.0 


6.3 
4.5 


7.4 
6.1 


10.5 
10.6 


22.4 
19.1 


47.8 
38.4 


81.7 

85.7 


70.1 
72.8 


9.2 
10.6 


Middle Atlantic 


1954.. 
1949.. 


34.2 
35.0 


16.1 

12.4 


4.6 
6.1 


5 2 
4.9 


8.5 
8.1 


21.0 
15.8 


44.7 
34.9 


82.4 
86.6 


68.3 
69.4 


4.3 
21.4 


East North Central - 


1954.. 
1949.. 


26.7 
26.6 


12 9 

8.8 


2.7 
3.3 


2.6 
2.3 


5.6 
3.7 


16.5 

10.3 


36.1 
26.6 


82.7 
84.9 


66.7 
67.3 


7.1 
24.3 


West North Central 


1951.. 
1949. . 


15 3 
14.6 


6.1 
4.S 


2.5 
2.7 


1.6 

1.9 


2 4 
2.3 


7.3 
5.4 


20.7 
15.7 


83.1 
84.6 


64.9 
63.4 


17.2 
20.9 




1949.. 


35.9 
35.0 


11.6 

7.5 


11.8 

9.5 


12.5 
11.6 


10.9 
10.6 


10.8 
10.2 


20.2 
16.8 


81.5 
85.6 


66. 1 
64.3 


13.3 
27.3 


East South Central 


1954.. 
1949.. 


30.9 
32.4 


7.8 
5.2 


9.9 
8.1 


8.5 
9.6 


7.9 
9.2 


8.1 
10.4 


13.9 
15.7 


79.2 
86.2 


62. 1 
60.4 


16.7 
28.3 


West South Central 


1954.. 
1949.. 


37.5 
33.2 


12 .0 
7.9 


5.6 
5.3 


7.6 
5.7 


10.1 
7.4 


13.5 
11.6 


23.0 
19.7 


85.0 
87.2 


71.4 
68.9 


14.9 
30.2 




...1954.. 
1949-. 


27.0 
26.1 


11.8 

9.4 


3 2 
4.2 


3.4 
4 1 


6.9 
5.7 


16.6 
12.0 


36.1 
28.6 


83.9 
88.3 


69.0 

72.5 


9.1 
20.9 




1954.. 
1949.. 


41.7 
41.0 


20.1 
16.7 


4.2 
4.6 


8.0 

7.2 


16.6 
12.6 


31.6 
23.7 


50.9 
43.4 


88.0 
91.0 


78.6 
78.0 


23.8 
26.0 



The next largest relative declines among part-time and residen- 
tial farms were in the East South Central, East North Centra!, 
and Pacific divisions. The two latter divisions generally are 
regarded as coming next after New England and the Middle 
Atlantic States in regard to off-farm opportunities for farm people. 
In contrast to these declines, there were relatively large increases in 
numbers among the Classes I and II farm operators in some of 
these divisions, although the increases were not all consistent with 
the declines. 

Enough evidence is available to suggest the hypothesis that in 
areas where off-farm employment opportunities are most readily 
available sharp declines will occur in the number of part-time and 
residential farms, and farm operators in the higher economic classes 
will take advantage of these opportunities to the extent of increas- 
ing the percentage of farmers in these classes who have off-farm 
income exceeding the value of farm products sold. This also sug- 
gests that many part-time farmers engage in farming activities 
primarily for the additional income rather than as a "way of life." 
Those in the lower economic classes — such as from Class V through 



Class VIII — discontinue farming when off-farm employment and 
income reach a certain level. 

Those in the higher income classes — especially those in Classes I 
and II — take advantage of off-farm employment to a greater 
extent when it becomes available. The evidence suggests that 
these men continue to farm, and at least in some cases the off-farm 
earnings of the family are used to help expand the earning capacity 
of the farm. This inference derives from the fact that the number 
of farm operators in the higher income classes with off-farm income 
exceeding the value of farm products sold increased relatively 
more in the more industrialized regions, which implies either of 
two things: (1) Members of the farm-operator family in these 
classes were seeking outside employment in greater numbers in 
1954 than in 1949, and finding it most readily in the industrialized 
areas, or (2) the earnings of the members of the farm-operator 
family were being used in such a way as to move the classifica- 
tion of a number of farms, on which off-farm income exceeded the 
value of farm products sold, from a lower economic class into a 
higher one. 



28 FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 

D. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS AND FACILITIES BY CLASS OF FARM, 1949 

AND 1954 



Discussion in this section centers around several comparisons. 
They include comparisons of farms by economic class and by 
region. Phases considered are acreage and land use, machinery 
and other operating facilities, farm expenditures for such items as 
feed and tractor fuel, days work off farm, and specified home and 
living facilities. These comparisons provide valuable information 
on use of resources and on levels of living both by economic class 
and by region. They also form the basis for additional inferences 
as to trends in commercial and part-time farming. 

Land Use and Farm Values 

In general, the trends between 1949 and 1954, discussed in this 
section, show that farms have been upgraded (moved upward 
from one economic class to another), that values per farm and per 
acre have increased, that size of farm has continued to increase, 
and that the extent of cultivated or harvested acreage required to 
establish a farm in a given economic class has declined. This 
decline is attributed to the increase in yields that took place 
between 1949 and 1954. Values per acre increased substantially 
more for farms in Class I and Class II than for those in Classes III, 
IV, V, and VI. Although this may reflect a growing advantage on 
the part of Classes I and II farms in taking advantage of new capi- 
tal and innovations, it indicates the increasing numbers in these 
classes of such farms as fruit-and-nut and cash-grain. These 
farms characteristically have high values per acre. Residential 



farm values increased more per acre than did the values of the 
lower commercial classes, thus reflecting the effects of suburban 
expansion and population growth in the country as a whole. 

Part-time and residential farms, as defined in the 1949 and 1954 
Censuses, seem to be declining in relative importance in the total 
agricultural picture. The number of part-time and residential 
farms decreased sharply between 1950 and 1954. The evidence 
suggests that many of the operators who moved out of these 
classes have discontinued farming, others have reduced their 
farming operations. At the same time, a large number of com- 
mercial farmers are working off the farm 100 days or more. 
Inferences that part-time and residential farms have moved into 
higher economic classes do not appear to be well-grounded. 

Average acreage per farm. — Acreage figures suggest two inter- 
esting trends. (/) Farms in general have continued to grow 
larger, according to acreage per unit, and (2) farms have moved 
up from one economic class to a higher one. Between 1950 and 
1954, the average of all land in farms increased from 215.6 acres 
to 242.5 acres, an average increase of about 12.5 percent per farm 
in that 4-year period. This trend was in the same direction in 
each of the three regions given in Tables 13 and 14. The change 
in the North was from an average of 194.6 acres per farm to 213.2 
acres, or 9.6 percent; in the South, from 148.7 acres to 167.0 acres, 
or 12.3 percent; and in the West, from 703.0 acres to 798.9 acres, 
or 13.6 percent. 



Table 13. — Average Land in Farms, Cropland Harvested per Farm, and Value of Farms (Land and Buildings) per Farm and- 
per Acre, by Economic Class, for the United States and Regions: 1954 and 1950 





All land in farms, average 
per farm 


Cropland harvested per 
farm 


Value of farms (land and buildings) 


Region and economic class 


Average 


per farm 


Average per acre 




1954 


1950 


1954 


1949 


1954 


1950 


1954 


1950 


UNITED STATES 


Acres 

242.5 

1,939.1 

537.8 

311.9 

201.0 

134.3 

97.1 

81.1 

47.7 

14, 502. 4 

213.2 

773.6 

369. 5 

263 9 

200. 7 

142.4 

99.5 

67. 6 

42.5 

857.2 

167.0 

2, 286. 3 
691.7 
311.2 
162. 
112.0 

87.4 

86.4 

49.3 

1, 325. 5 

798.9 

3, 333. 3 
1,125.3 

648. 7 

429.1 

289.9 

256. 

96.0 

51.1 

69, 353. 9 


Acres 
215.6 
2,421.7 
566.8 
298.2 
191.2 
122.8 
84.9 
75.6 
50.0 
9, 178. 9 

194.6 

909.8 

383.8 

252.7 

188.5 

134.6 

98.7 

68.6 

46.2 

857.5 

148.7 

2, 910. 8 

706.5 

314.0 

162.0 

103.4 

75.2 

77.4 

51.4 

1, 694. 9 

703.0 

4, 096. 9 

1,144.2 

567.9 

341.9 

223.1 

184.6 

90.3 

50.7 

35, 623. 3 


Acres 

81.1 

397.6 

201.1 

12,8.8 

75.6 

41.0 

23.2 

17.8 

7.3 

290.1 

113.4 

347.5 
209.5 
143.7 
97.5 
58.8 
34.9 
22.0 
9.1 
283.3 

44.6 

444.1 

187.8 

95.1 

50.0 

30.3 

19.0 

15.8 

6.7 

298.1 

115.0 

434.6 

176.8 

107.3 

69.5 

42.3 

32.2 

15.5 

6.0 

296.0 


Acres 

72.8 

442.2 

209.6 

131.0 

77.8 

42.4 

24.9 

19.6 

9.2 

250.5 

101.5 

368.9 

212.7 

141.1 

94.7 

58.0 

35.6 

23.0 

10.7 

226.5 

42.0 

515. 6 

207.2 

105. 1 

54.1 

32.8 

21.6 

18.1 

8.7 

268.1 

105.6 
484.8 
199.0 
114.1 
69.6 
41.9 
29.3 
15.2 
7.4 
287.8 


Dollars 

19, 761 

134, 169 

51,510 

27, 992 

15,880 

9,829 

6,096 

7,781 

5,784 

160,601 

23, 647 
92, 787 
49, 356 
27, 9S6 
17,293 
11,577 
7,883 
8,149 
6,788 
112, 139 

11, 972 

151,009 

61,685 

24, 544 

12,398 

7,631 

4,960 

6,587 

4,618 

119,885 

41, 791 
180, 705 
61,239 
35, 986 
25, 175 
19, 606 
15, 339 
13,888 
11,243 
365, 421 


Dollars 

13,911 

110,008 

41,318 

22,918 

13, 162 

7,829 

4,648 

6.117 

4,675 

105, 795 

17, 152 
75, 352 
39, 674 
22,908 
14, 177 
9.331 
6,390 
6,812 
5.780 
77, 540 

8,495 
126, 448 
41,713 
20,435 
10. 367 
6,046 
3,749 
4,932 
3,678 
101,743 

28,807 

145, 191 

47. 709 

27,901 

18,685 

14. 630 

11.520 

10, 922 

9. 346 

175,648 


Dollars 
84.82 
73.30 
97.03 
89.87 
79.23 
73.89 
62.48 
96.86 
127. 34 
30.22 

107. 76 
120.37 
131.73 
104.88 
84.42 
78.66 
72.33 
117.04 
155. 53 
161.70 

74.97 
66.73 
74.62 
80.60 
78.93 
70. 62 
58.33 
78.13 
93.67 
90.45 

62.46 
69.82 
58. 47 
57.69 
62.25 
71.49 
61.63 
151.76 
262. 01 
14.28 


Dollars 
66.75 




45.65 




74.85 


Class III 


77.68 




68.90 




63.57 




54.79 




80.90 




96.36 




25.91 


THE NORTH 


86.94 




81.41 


































THE SOUTH 


58.30 








66.63 










50.22 
63.93 








60.03 




THE WEST 


46. 51 




43.85 
50.99 
56.28 










64.60 
123. 86 
190. 49 

11.55 















PART-TIME FARMING 



29 



Table 14. — Average Land in Farms, Cropland Harvested 
per Farm, and Value of Farms (Land and Buildings) per 
Farm and per Acre, by Economic Class, for the United 
States and Regions: Percent Change 1950 to 1954 



Region and economic class 



UNITED STATES 



All farms - 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time. 

Residential 

Abnormal... ... 



THE NORTH 



All farms. 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV. 

Class V. 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal .- ... 



THE SOUTH 



All farms. 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Cbss IV 

Class V. 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 



THE WEST 



All farms 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III. 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 



All land in 
farms, aver- 
age per farm 



1950 to 1954 1949 to 1954 



Cropland 
harvested 

per farm 



Value of farms (land 
and buildings) 



Average per 

farm 



1950 to 1954 



Percent 
+42.1 
+22 
+24.7 
+22.1 
+20.6 
+25.5 
+31.2 
+27.2 
+23.7 
+51.8 



+37.9 
+23.1 
+24.4 
+22.2 
+22. 
+24. 1 
+23 4 
+19.6 
+17.4 
+44.6 



+40.9 
+19.4 
+23.9 
+20.1 
+19.6 
+26. 2 
+32.3 
+33.6 
+25.6 
+17.8 



+45.1 
+24. 5 
+28.4 
+29.0 
+34.7 
+ 34.0 
+33.2 
+27.2 
+20.3 
+ 102 3 



Average per 

acre 



1951) to 1954 



J'trcent 
+27.1 
+60. 6 
+29.6 
+15.7 
+15.0 
+16.2 
+ 14.0 
+19.7 
+32. 2 
+16.6 



+23 9 
+47.9 
+27.1 
+ 11.6 
+ 13 5 
+15.6 
+15.6 
+ 19.3 
+26.4 
+57.2 



+28.6 
+58.5 
+22.8 
+20.8 
+21.6 
+19.6 
+16.1 
+22.2 
+30. 9 
+30,9 



+34.3 
+65. 4 
+33.3 
+ 13.1 
+10. 6 
+8 2 
-4.6 
+22.5 
+32.3 
+23 6 



The smaller relative increase in the North in comparison with 
the South and the West suggests that consolidations are taking 
place more slowly in the more industrialized North. The expan- 
sion in average size of farm in the South suggests a continuation 
of the trend toward reorganization within management units and 
a continuation of the trend toward more mechanized farming. 
This also implies a decrease in the number of cropper units and a 
continuation of the shift toward types of farming requiring less 
labor per unit of product. The larger increase in the West is 
associated with trends toward fewer operating units rather than 
with development of more land for agricultural uses. As seen 
below, the increase in the West was associated with increases in 
grazing land per unit, with relatively little change in cropland. 

The trends by economic class are more mixed. In general, the 
average size of Classes I and II farms decreased. This reflects 
increased yields and movement from lower classes into Classes I 
and II. For Classes III to VII, average size increased slightly 
for the country at large; but the changes varied from relatively 



little in the South to sharp increases in the West. Outside of the 
West, this increase in size of unit was largely offset by a shift 
upward from one economic class to another, while the increase in 
size in the West appeared to be largely the result of increases of 
pasture or range land in the unit between 1949 and 1954. Aver- 
age size of part-time (Class VII) farms, which increased from 
75.6 acres to 81.1 acres for the United States, was due to increases 
in the South and the West. 

Cropland harvested. — Cropland harvested increased from an 
average of 72.8 acres per farm for all farms in 1949 to 81.1 acres 
per farm in 1 954, an increase of more than 1 1 percent. However, 
in each of the economic classes in the country as a whole, cropland 
harvested per farm decreased during these same years, as shown 
in Tables 13 and 14. This is further evidence of the shift of 
farms from a given economic class into a higher economic class. 

Thus, a two-way shift is in progress: (1) Individual farms are 
increasing iii total acreage of cropland harvested through consoli- 
dation of land and additional units into a given farm unit. (#) 
Farms moving up from one economic class to another have fewer 
acres of cropland harvested than the farms already in the higher 
class. So, although the individual farm exhibits an increase in 
crop acres harvested as well as in total acres, the advance in in- 
tensity of cultivation and the improvements in farm operations 
in general are such that the crop acreage required to support a 
farm in a given economic class was generally less in 1954 than in 
1949. 

Value per farm and per acre. — Increases in value per farm of 
all farms, averaging 42.1 percent between 1949 and 1954, were 
substantially larger than the average of the increases by economic 
class. Class I farms increased in value by 22.0 percent, for exam- 
ple, as compared with an increase of 24.7 percent for Class II, 
22.1 for Class III, 20.0 for Class IV, 25.5 for Class V, 31.2 for 
Class VI, and 27.2 for part-time (Class VII), and 23.7 for resi- 
dential (Class VIII) farms; or an unweighted average for all 
eight classes of 24.6 percent. This is further evidence of the 
shift upward of farms from one economic class to another. 

The substantially higher values placed on part-time (Class VII) 
farms, as compared with Class VI commercial farms, suggest some 
advantages in location, buildings, etc., for part-time farmers 
(Class VII) as compared with the commercial operators in Class 
VI. This suggestion applies particularly in the South. The 
reverse appears evident in the West. 

Increases in value per acre were uniform among regions between 
1950 and 1954, but rather remarkable differences are shown in 
respect to changes in value per acre by class of farm. Increases 
were more general and greater for the farms in the higher eco- 
nomic classes, such as Classes I and II than for the lower classes, 
such as Classes III to VI. Part-time (Class VII) and residential 
(Class VIII) farms showed a greater increase in value per acre. 
This suggests that urban expansion and the demand for land 
arising out of residential and industrial expansion, were affecting 
the values for these farms more than the values of other farms 
in Classes III to VI. 9 

The sharp increases in value per acre among the higher class 
commercial farms suggests two developments. They are (/) a 
more rapid rate of capital accumulation per farm and per acre 
resulting in a relatively greater capital investment in the higher 
economic classes than in the lower and (2) a more rapid shift 
upward in economic class of those farms that are relatively more 
valuable per acre. The relatively slight increases in value per 
acre among farms in Classes III, IV, and V in the West and the 
decline in Class VI, as compared with increases in value per acre 
in part-time and residential farms, suggest that part-time and 
residential farms did not shift into the other commercial classes 
in large numbers during 1950-54. 



' The assumption underlying this statement is based on the fact that in metropolitan counties, the percentage of part-time and residential farms is higher than in nonmetropolitan 
counties and that the growing demand for farmland for residential or industrial use affected land prices moro strongly during 1949-54 in the metropolitan counties than in the non- 
metropolitan counties. 



30 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Specified Machinery and Equipment, 1950 and 1954 

Data on number of farms reporting specified machinery and 
equipment in 1950 and 1954 attest to the increasing mechanization 
of commercial agriculture in all classes. The data also point to 
the fact that relatively few part-time (Class VII) and residential 
(Class VIII) farms have the machines reported. Generally, a 
smaller proportion of Classes V and VI farms have the machines 
than is the case among Classes I to IV. 

Grain combines, corn pickers, and pick-up balers. — The per- 
centage of farmers reporting grain combines, corn pickers, and 
pick-up balers, increased substantially between 1950 and 1954 
(Table 15). The increases were from 12.4 percent reporting grain 
combines in 1950 to 19.3 percent in 1954; from 8.3 percent report- 
ing corn pickers in 1950 to 14.1 percent in 1954; and from 3.6 per- 
cent reporting pick-up balers in 1950 to 9.3 percent in 1954. 



Percentage changes were similar in direction in each of the three 
major regions. 

For the United States, since the number of Class I and Class II 
farms increased between 1950 and 1954, the increase in number 
of Classes I and II farms having this machinery is greater than 
the percentage changes alone would suggest. Conversely the 
percentage changes — which were relatively larger for the lower 
commercial classes than for the higher classes — were less meaning- 
ful for the lower economic classes, because of the decline in total 
numbers among these classes. Substantial increases in percentages 
occurred among all economic classes; but the weighted average 
of the increases by classes is less than the percentage increase 
for all farms, since many farms moved from a given economic 
class to a higher one and the percentage having this machinery 
is closely correlated bv class. 



Table 15. — Percent of Farms Reporting Specified Machinery and Equipment, Motortrucks, and Automobiles, by Economic 

Class, for the United States and Regions: Censuses of 1954 and 1950 

[Data are based on reports for only a sample of farms. See test] 





Grain combines 


Corn pickers 


Pick-up balers 


Motortrucks 


Automobiles 


Region and economic class 


Farms reporting 


Number per farm 
reporting 


Farms reporting 


Number per farm 
reporting 




1954 
(percent) 


1950 
(percent) 


1954 
(percent) 


1950 
(percent) 


1954 
(percent) 


1950 
(percent) 


1954 
(percent) 


1950 
(percent) 


1954 
(number) 


1950 
(number) 


1954 
(percent) 


1950 
(percent) 


1954 
(number) 


1950 
(number) 


UNITED STATES 


19.3 

60.1 
55.7 
42.0 
23.0 
10.1 
3.9 
3.6 
.8 
26.4 

33.9 

63.8 

65.9 

61.8 

34.4 

18.7 

7.9 

6.0 

1.4 

30.5 

6.7 

45.6 

36.8 

21.3 

9.8 

4.6 

2.1 

2.0 

.5 

26.4 

17.8 

34.0 

33.2 

26.9 

20.6 

12.6 

9.5 

3.7 

1.4 

17.8 


12.4 
40.9 
44.0 
31.1 
16.1 
6.3 
2.2 
1.8 
.5 
16.7 

20.9 

50.2 

50.6 

35.8 

21.3 

10.0 

4.2 

2.5 

.7 

18.6 

4.8 

38.9 

32.9 

19.2 

8.4 

3.6 

1.3 

1.3 

.4 

18.4 

14.1 

29.5 

31.2 

23.9 

15.6 

8.5 

6.1 

2.2 

.7 

10.7 


14.1 

30.4 

44.0 

33.7 

16.2 

6.1 

1.9 

1.7 

.3 

16.0 

30.0 

59.7 

61.4 

47.3 

28.5 

14.6 

5.6 

4.4 

1.0 

26.3 

2.5 

14.0 

14.7 

9.3 

3.9 

1.4 

.6 

.5 

.1 

10.4 

1.1 

2.1 

1.8 

2.0 

1.2 

.6 

.6 

.1 

(Z) 

1.8 


8.3 

22.5 

33.8 

24.5 

9.7 

2.6 

.7 

.5 

.1 

6.7 

18.6 

46.8 

50.0 

34.3 

16.5 

6.2 

2.5 

1.3 

.3 

10.8 

.8 

7.9 

7.0 

3.9 

1.4 

.5 

.1 

.1 

(Z) 

5. 1 

.7 
1.4 
1.7 
1.3 
.8 
.4 
.1 
(Z) 
(Z) 
.9 


9.3 

29.4 

28.6 

19.6 

9.7 

4.4 

1.8 

1.9 

.4 

33.1 

15.5 

38.5 

33.3 

23.4 

13.4 

6.8 

3.0 

2.7 

.7 

41.3 

3.7 

23.5 

19.5 

11.1 

5.3 

2.7 

1.3 

1.4 

.3 

32.6 

9.9 
21.2 
19.0 
14.9 
9.8 
6.4 
3.7 
2.4 
.5 
16.6 


3.6 

18.2 

14.1 

7.8 

3.8 

1.8 

.8 

.7 

.2 

16.8 

6.4 

22.5 

15.9 

8.5 

4.3 

2.1 

.9 

.8 

.3 

18.3 

1.9 

16.3 

12.2 

6.8 

3.2 

1.6 

.7 

.6 

.2 

19.4 

3.9 

14.0 

8.8 

5.5 

3.2 

2.1 

1.0 

.8 

.3 

10.6 


46.3 

89.5 
77.9 
63.9 
50.4 
40.3 
29.5 
37.3 
25.3 
71.1 

50.4 
86.3 
74.5 
61.2 
50.1 
40.4 
28.2 
34.3 
24.8 
68.9 

38.8 
89.9 
82.5 
65.2 
47.1 
38.0 
28.6 
37.0 
23.4 
75.4 

67.3 
93.8 
87.5 
79.1 
71.3 
62.1 
64.1 
50.5 
41.0 
59.0 


34.2 
84.4 
70.2 
62.5 
39.0 
29.7 
19.4 
27.0 
17.6 
56.6 

38.4 
80.1 
66.4 
49.3 
37.5 
30.2 
21.2 
26.1 
19.1 
63.2 

26.9 
85.2 
72.9 
54.4 
36.9 
27.0 
17.7 
25.9 
15.5 
47.9 

55.8 
89.6 
82.5 
69.7 
58.6 
49.4 
41.6 
37.7 
29.9 
54.9 


1.2 
2.4 
1.4 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
5.6 

1.2 
1.9 
1.3 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
1.3 

1.2 
2.4 
1.4 
1.2 
1.1 
1.2 
1.0 
1.1 
1.0 
3.7 

1.6 
2.9 
1.7 
1.4 
1.2 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
16.5 


1.2 
2.3 
1.3 
1.2 

3^0 
1.2 


70.9 
94.1 
92.9 
87.4 
76.1 
63.9 
46.0 
68.8 
58.6 
69.4 

86.1 
96.3 
95.7 
92.6 
87.4 
81.8 
67.5 
82.0 
73.5 
75.1 

55.3 
90.4 
83.9 
73.6 
61.6 
51.5 
36.9 
59.5 
50.2 
68.8 

83.5 
94.4 
92.3 
87.8 
81.8 
77.8 
65.0 
81.8 
77.2 
58.4 


63.0 

89.2 
89.1 
84.8 
74.3 
58.9 
39.3 
60.0 
47.9 
55.4 

80.8 
91.2 
92.3 
89.6 
84.8 
77.4 
62.9 
75.6 
65.4 
58.9 

46.4 
85.1 
80.1 
70.1 
58.2 
45.2 
30.5 
48.3 
38.2 
51.7 

76.7 
90.2 
87.4 
82.4 
76.4 
73.0 
59.3 
74.3 
69.2 
53.2 


1.3 
2.4 
1.4 
1.3 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 
1.2 
1.1 
4.9 

1.3 
2.1 
1.4 
1.3 
1.2 
12 
1.1 
1.2 
1.2 
4.3 

1.2 
2.6 
1.5 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
4.2 

1.4 
2.7 
1.6 
1.3 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.3 
1.3 
7.6 


1.2 


Class I 


2.2 


Class II 


1.4 


Class III 


1.3 


Class IV 


1.2 


Class V 


1.1 


Class VT- 


1.1 




1.2 


Residential . _ ... 

Abnormal 

THE NORTH 


1.2 
3.4 

1.3 


Class 1 


2 


9 
3 

6 


2.0 


Class II 


1.4 


Class HI 


1.3 


Class IV 


1.2 


Class V .-. 


1.2 


Class VI --. . 


1.1 




1.2 




1.2 




3.4 


THE SOUTH 


1.2 
2.3 
1.4 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 
1.0 
1.1 
1.1 
3.3 

1.4 
2.6 
1.5 
1.3 
1.2 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 
1.1 
3.6 


1.2 


Class I . 


2.2 


Class II . 


1.4 


Class III... 


1.2 


Class IV. 


1.1 


Class V. . 


1.1 


Class VI. 


1.1 




1.1 




1.1 




3.1 


THE WEST 


1.4 


Class I 


2.6 


Class II . 


1.5 


Class III . 


1.3 


Class IV 


1.2 


Class V. 


1.2 


Class VI 


1.2 




1.3 




1.3 




4.1 











Z Less than 0. 05 percent. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



31 



Motortrucks, 1950 and 1954. — In contrast to the situation above, 
a considerable proportion of the part-time farms had motortrucks. 
All classes in each major region showed an increase in the per- 
centage having motortrucks between 1950 and 1954 and more than 
one-third (37.3 percent) of the part-time (Class VII) farm opera- 
tors had motortrucks by 1954. Of some significance is the fact 
that considerably more of the part-time (Class VII) operators had 
motortrucks than was the case with Class VI farm operators, 
who had equal returns from farm sales. 

Automobiles, 1950 and 1954. — A substantially higher percentage 
of part-time (Class VII) farm operators had automobiles than did 
the Class VI commercial operators. This gives evidence of a 
higher income and a higher level of living among the part-time 
farmers than among the commercial farmers who have equal 
returns from farm sales. A high percentage of each class of farm 
operators had automobiles and the percentage increased for each 



class. Also the percentage was correlated with economic class. 

Specified Farm Expenditures, 1949 and 1954 

Practically all farms reported certain specified farm expenditures 
in 1954. But these expenditures varied widely by economic class 
in respect to such items or categories as machine hire, hired labor, 
and feed for livestock and poultry (Table 16). 

Machine hire, 1949 and 1954. — The percentage of farms re- 
porting machine hire increased from 39.7 percent in 1949 to 45.3 
percent in 1954 for part-time farms, and from 19.2 percent to 
23.9 percent for residential farms. In contrast, the percentage 
of Classes I, II, III, and IV farms reporting machine hire declined 
somewhat for each class. For most of the Classes I through VIII 
the amount expended for machine hire was slightly higher in 
1954 than in 1949 per farm reporting. 



Table 16. — Specified Farm Expenditures, Percent of Farms Reporting, and Amount per Farm, by Economic Class of Farm, 

for the United States and Regions: Censuses of 1954 and 1950 

[Data arc based on reports for only a sample of farms. See text] 



Region and economic 
class 



Machine hire 



Percent of all 
farms 



1954 
(per- 
cent) 



1949 
(per- 
cent) 



Average amount 
expended per 
farm reporting 



19S4 

(dollars) 



1949 
(dollars) 



Hired labor 



Feed for livestock and poultry 



Percent of all 
farms 



1954 
(per- 
cent) 



1949 
(per- 
cent) 



Average amount 
expended per 
farm reporting 



1954 
(dollars) 



1949 
(dollars) 



Percent of all 
farms 



1954 
(per- 
cent) 



1949 
(per- 
cent) 



Average amount 
expended per 
farm reporting 



19.54 
(dollars) 



1949 
(dollars) 



Gasoline and other petroleum fuel 
and oil 



Percent of all 
farms 



1954 
(per- 
cent) 



1949 
(per- 
cent) 



Average amount 
expended per 
farm reporting 



1954 
(dollars) 



1949 
(dollars) 



UNITED STATES 

All farms 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV... 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time _ _. 

Residential 

Abnormal 

THE NORTH 

All farms. 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 

THE SOUTH 

All farms 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V.. 

Class VI.... 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 

THE WEST 

All farms. __. 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V..._ 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 



53.2 
61.7 
66.6 
68.5 
65.5 
59.7 
47.8 
45.3 
23.9 
35.0 



60.9 
62.3 
68.6 
71.1 
70.5 
65.2 
47.3 
49.1 
24.6 
38.7 



47.0 
63.3 
64.5 
64.7 
61.3 
57.2 
48.3 
43.3 
23.0 
32.3 



49.9 
59.5 
59.9 
60.0 
55.7 
51.2 
40.6 
44.2 
28.9 
30.7 



51.3 
62.9 
73.1 
75.5 
69.2 
57.3 
40.4 
39.7 
19.2 
29.5 



63.4 
68.2 
78.2 
80.6 
76.5 
65.3 
43.5 
43.4 
21.6 
36.6 



41.1 
60.3 
66.3 
65.9 
60.7 
52.7 
39.4 
37.0 
17.1 
23.0 



50.1 
57.7 
60.9 
60.7 
58.5 
52.5 
40.8 
42.7 
28.7 
24.0 



251 

1,676 

455 

289 

202 

138 

82 

89 

52 

893 



223 
607 
339 
254 
199 
150 
101 
''I 
53 
486 



209 

2,215 

713 

345 

190 

121 

72 

80 

47 

505 



626 
2,805 
698 
421 
305 
225 
161 
128 
80 
2,348 



222 

1,496 

460 

276 

189 

127 

78 

80 

59 

605 



206 
682 
345 
244 
180 
130 
92 
83 
54 
318 



192 

2,132 

750 

354 

186 

117 

69 

71 

54 

469 



459 
2, 243 
652 
392 
276 
194 
155 
117 
95 
1,117 



46.4 
93.2 
78.2 
65.7 
58.4 
48.9 
33.9 
30.7 
11.1 



45.4 
90.0 
74.1 
69.3 
47.5 
35.8 
21.6 
21.0 
7.9 
72.4 



46.0 
94.9 
87.0 
80.5 
71.6 
57.2 
38.6 
36.2 
12.3 
68.8 



53.8 
96.3 
85.7 
71.9 
68.4 
46.3 
33.3 
29.7 
11.7 
52.6 



49.6 
93.4 
88.0 
79.7 
68.0 
52.5 
32.9 
32.6 
14.0 
63.5 



55.3 
92.2 
87.3 
78.6 
65.4 
48.3 
27.7 
26.2 
10.0 
58.6 



43.6 
93.9 
90.2 
83.5 
72.0 
55.2 
34.5 
36.4 
15.6 
51.7 



56.6 
94.5 
88.4 
79.3 
67.6 
52.7 
35.0 
32.8 
14.6 
45.8 



1,026 

8,972 

1,491 

642 

366 

217 

126 

149 

121 

13,948 



813 

5.298 

1,093 

470 

177 

197 

155 

159 

174 

14, 295 



753 

9,712 

2,160 

865 

395 

209 

110 

135 

91 

12, 551 



3,181 

3,333 

2,182 

984 

599 

401 

326 

229 

248 

15,218 



906 

10.065 

1,781 

703 

374 

228 

139 

163 

153 

11,583 



701 

6,254 

1,243 

515 

285 

201 

159 

179 

218 

12, 292 



735 

11,067 

2, TS2 

1,077 

439 

218 

122 

141 

116 

11,717 



2, 646 



371 

2,628 

1,138 

644 

462 

363 

263 

331 

9.582 



76.4 
74.7 
85.5 
84.8 
76.4 
69.1 
69.2 
74.5 
76.4 
72.6 



84.4 
86.2 
90.8 
90.2 
86.1 
80.7 
78.1 
75.7 
74.9 
77.0 



70.6 
71.0 
79.5 
75.5 
65.7 
62.1 
65.9 
74.4 
77.6 
79.1 



69.4 
61.2 
.68.7 
71.3 
69.7 
68.1 
iw.u 
70.7 
72.6 
65.3 



72.0 
78.0 
87.5 
88.2 
81.3 
70.3 
59.5 
69.3 
68.5 
57.4 



82.6 
85.8 
92.4 
92.7 
88.9 
82.2 
71.0 
73.1 
59.6 
64.6 



63.6 
75.6 
81.7 
80.1 
72.1 
62.9 
55.7 
67.3 
58.0 
57.2 



68.5 
69.3 
74.9 
74.5 
71.3 
67.6 
60.4 
67.9 
59.4 
43.2 



1,069 

10,883 

2,802 

1,332 

706 

401 

220 

266 

131 

10,454 



1,304 

9,730 

2,602 

1,307 

787 

505 

304 

314 

154 

10, 995 



632 

10, 597 

3.48S 

1,341 

539 

295 

174 

225 

116 

8,204 



2,127 

13. 534 

2,953 

1,522 

922 

604 

374 

365 

186 

12, 879 



780 

8.707 

2,243 

1,065 

666 

333 

173 

236 

135 

8,950 



960 

8.187 

2.212 

1,069 

628 

420 

255 

287 

162 

9,900 



420 

7,151 

2,219 

944 

403 

230 

129 

182 

115 

7,175 



1,633 
11.138 

2, 436 

1,296 
777 
658 
352 
358 
205 

9,207 



68.3 
96.0 
96.6 
94.0 
85.6 
69.7 
47.2 
54.4 
32.5 
75.3 



84.2 
96.7 
96.9 
96.5 
93.4 
84.8 
63.1 
67.9 
45.8 
80.6 



52.6 
94.4 
91.9 
87.5 
75.8 
59.2 
40.0 
45.7 
25.9 
76.6 



77.7 
96.5 
94.8 
93.2 
88.5 
80.7 
70.0 
62.0 
42.5 
62.7 



55.5 
93.3 
94.4 
92.6 
81.0 
67.6 
30.4 
37.2 
16.3 
67.7 



74.9 
93.8 
96.1 
95.5 
90.0 
75.1 
48.1 
49.6 
26.7 
65.6 



36.4 
92.4 
90.8 
84. 7 
67.2 
44.5 
23.2 
27.3 
10.9 
52.5 



69.8 
93.5 
92.2 
89.4 
83.2 
72.2 
56.0 
52.3 
29.6 
48.6 



418 
2,005 
814 
514 
327 
201 
134 
108 
59 
1,551 



446 

1,442 

777 

524 

360 

227 

149 

110 

57 

1,412 



317 
2,605 
927 
471 
270 
171 
116 
102 
56 
1,753 



648 
2,315 
839 
539 
374 
253 
221 
128 
81 
1,620 



380 
1,836 
755 
460 
292 
187 
134 
108 
85 
1,269 



388 
1,387 
721 
464 
307 
201 
143 
105 
68 
1,096 



307 
2,216 
811 
426 
251 
164 
123 
106 
97 
1,64s 



481 
2.129 
825 
497 
336 
230 
178 
123 
98 
1,198 



32 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Several inferences are suggested: (1) The increasing mechan- 
ization of agriculture in this country makes machine hire less and 
less necessary and/or profitable among the larger commercial 
farms. (2) On part-time and residential farms increasing 
employment off farm makes it increasingly necessary and/or 
profitable to hire machines to do work that the farmer or members 
of his family did formerly. This suggests that as off-farm oppor- 
tunities for earning increase, part-time and residential farming 
will continue to decline in importance. 

Hired labor, 1949 and 1954. — The percentage of farms reporting 
hired labor decreased for each economic class between 1949 and 
1 954. Then there was an increase in the average amount expended 
per farm; but in more cases than not there was a decline by class 
of farm from 1949 to 1954. The chief inferences suggested are 
(/) that farm wage rates were increasing, (2) that mechaniza- 
tion — both hired and owned — was displacing hired help, and 
(3) that the decline in use of hired he!p on part-time and resi- 
dential farms was part of the general trend in farms in other classes. 
In the North, especially, the downward trend in percentage of 
part-time and residential farms (as well as other farms) that 
employed hired labor suggests that growing industrial employment 
has had an increasingly strong influence. 

The percentage of part-time and residential farms employing 
hired labor appears to be significantly smaller in the North than 
in the South or West (Table 17). 

Table 17. — Percentage of Part-Time and Residential Farms 
Reporting Hired Labor: 1954 and 1949 





Part-time 


Residential 


Region 


1954 


1949 


1954 


1949 




30.7 

21.0 
36.2 
29.7 


32.6 

26.2 
36.4 
32.8 


11.1 

7.9 
12.3 
11.7 


14.0 


The North 


10.0 


The South 


15.6 


The West... 


14.6 







The lower percentage in the North, together with the declines 
in percentages between 1949 and 1954, suggests that hiring labor 
for part-time farms has become less and less profitable as chances 
for off-farm industrial work increase. The percentage of farms 
employing hired labor and the average amount expended per 
farm reporting are strongly correlated with class of farm (Table 16) . 
Both increase significantly from class to class beginning with 
residential farms in Class VIII and moving upward to Class I. 

The percentage of Class I farms reporting hired labor stayed 
about the same between 1949 and 1954. The percentage for 
Classes II, III, and IV dropped sharply. For Class V, the 
percentage dropped somewhat less, and that for Class VI farms 
increased. 

What can be inferred from these data, assuming the shifts are 
significant? One postulate is that increasing mechanization 



among the farms in the middle classes (Classes II, III, and IV) 
has reduced the need for hired labor. Among Class V and VI 
farms, on the other hand, mechanization has not proceeded as 
rapidly, so the percentage that hires labor has not fallen during 
recent years. Among Class I farms, although the percentage 
employing hired labor held about steady between 1949 and 1954, 
the average amount expended per farm reporting declined by a 
significant amount in each of the major regions listed in Table 16. 
This suggests substantial increases in mechanization for Class I 
farms, plus the effects of the upgrading of Class II and III farms 
into Class I. 

Feed, gas, and oil, 1949 and 1954. — A remarkable uniformity 
from class to class is found in the percentage of farms buying 
feed for livestock and poultry. The amounts expended per farm 
reporting, however, vary widely by class as is the case with 
expenditures on hired labor and machine hire (Table 16). In 
nearly all cases the amounts expended increased from 1949 to 
1954, both for all farms and for farms by economic class. The 
percentage of farms reporting purchases also generally increased. 

Nearly three-fourths of the part-time and residential farms 
bought feed in 1954. The amounts expended averaged slightly 
over $200 per farm. 

These data support the inference that, between 1949 and 1954, 
farms generally became more specialized — more "commercialized" 
in the sense that by economic class larger quantities of feed were 
bought per farm reporting in 1954 than in 1949. 

The amount expended for gasoline and oil per farm reporting 
increased relatively more among the farms in the higher economic 
classes than among the part-time or residential farms, or the 
commercial farms in Class VI (Table 16). 

Fertilizer and lime, 1954. — The percentage of farms reporting 
commercial fertilizer purchases in 1954 is correlated with economic 
class but the differences are not great, ranging from 71.7 percent 
for Class I farms to 55.8 percent for part-time (Class VII) farms 
and to 34.1 percent for residential (Class VIII) farms. A much 
greater difference occurs among farms in amount expended per 
farm reporting, in tons bought per farm, and in acres on which 
used (Table 18). 

In the South the acreage fertilized on part-time farms was 
equal to more than half the cropland harvested acreage. In the 
West it amounted to only about one-tenth the cropland harvested 
acreage on part-time forms. In the North it was about one- 
fourth. Similar variations exist on residential farms but a lower 
percentage of the acreage was fertilized. 

When the data are arranged according to average acreage per 
farm by economic class on which commercial fertilizer is used 
(Table 19), a distinct correlation by size of farm for Classes I 
through VI emerges for both the North and the West. Percent- 
age of total land on which commercial fertilizer is used, and total 
acres fertilized as a percent of the acreage of cropland harvested 
are positively correlated with size of farm or economic class. No 
such correlation emerges in the case of the South. There, these 
percentages are correlated inversely with size of farm. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



33 



Table 18. — Specified Farm Expenditures, Percent of Farms Reporting, and Amount per Farm, by Economic Class of Farm, 

for the United States and Regions: 1954 

[Data :ire based on reports for only a sample of farms. See text] 





Specified 

farm 
expendi- 
tures other 
than for 
fertilizer 
and lime: 
percent of 
all farms 


Machine 

hire 

and/or 

hired 

labor: 

percent of 

all farms 


Commercial fertilizer and fertilizing materials 


Lime and liming materials 


Region and economic 
class 


Percent 
of all 
farms 


Amount 
expended 

per farm 
reporting 


Tons pur- 
chased 
per farm 
reporting 


Acres on 

which used 

per farm 

reporting 


Pounds 
per acre 


Percent 
of all 
farms 


Amount 
expended 

per farm 
reporting 


Tons pur- 
chased 
per farm 
reporting 


Acres on 

which used 

per farm 

reporting 


Pounds 
per acre 


UNITED STATES 


98.2 
99.9 
99.9 
99.9 
99.8 
99.3 
98.2 
98.7 
93.0 
93.2 

99.2 
99.9 
100,0 
100.0 
99.9 
99.8 
99.1 
99.2 
94.4 
95.3 

97.3 
99.9 
99.9 
99,8 
99.6 
99 
97 9 
98.4 
92.3 
98.4 

98.7 
100,0 
99.9 
99.9 
99.8 
99.7 
98.8 
99.1 
94,3 
82.5 


68.7 
96.2 
90.0 
86.0 
83.0 
76 9 
62.5 
57 7 
29.7 
73 9 

72.6 
94.9 
89. 1 
84.7 
80.6 
73.4 
54.4 
55.6 
28.5 
79.8 

65.0 

96.7 
92.3 
90.3 
86.9 
79.9 
65.9 
59.1 
29.6 
76.3 

70.4 
97.6 
91.6 
84.7 
77.0 
69.3 
55.7 
66.6 
34.4 
58.8 


61.0 
71.7 
72.6 
69. 1 
68.2 
69, 1 
65.4 
55. 8 
34.1 
67 (i 

58.3 
79.5 
78.3 
70.1 
61.3 
54.1 
38.4 
46.0 
230 
72 4 

68.3 
68.6 
67.9 
76.3 
82.6 
82.9 
78.1 
66.5 
41.6 
83 

33.6 
63 
52.1 
43.7 
33.6 
26.9 
17.6 
21.0 
10 2 
35.9 


370 

2, 637 

769 

436 

297 

200 

122 

111 

53 

1.928 

405 

1,758 

709 

389 

249 

175 

115 

107 

57 

1,789 

300 

3.666 

1,087 

678 

345 

211 

124 

US 

52 

2.318 

864 
3,274 
620 
328 
220 
140 
125 
80 
60 
1,390 


6.5 
41.0 
12.9 
7.6 
6.6 
3,9 
2.5 
2.3 
1. 1 
37.8 

6.6 

28.4 

11.4 

6.3 

4.2 

3.1 

2.1 

2.0 

1. 1 

34 8 

6.0 

66.9 

21.5 

11.7 

7.0 

4.3 

2.6 

2.6 

1.1 

494 

10.5 
39.5 
7.8 
4.3 
2.9 
1.9 
1.7 
1.1 
1.0 
17 2 


42 

227 

93 

56 

35 

23 

15 

13 

6 

201 

54 
175 
93 
57 
38 
26 
17 
14 
7 
181 

30 

302 

112 

68 

27 

23 

16 

13 

6 

262 

73 
252 
63 
35 
23 
16 
14 
8 
6 
136 


309 
361 
276 
273 
315 
336 
334 
342 
349 
376 

246 
325 
245 
222 
222 
238 
241 
282 
304 
383 

397 
443 

384 
401 
409 
382 
355 
368 
362 
392 

289 
314 
246 
247 
256 
256 
239 
278 
290 
262 


10.9 
18.3 
21.6 
18.2 
13. 1 
9,0 
5.6 
7.1 
3.2 
24.4 

17.6 
30.6 
27.0 
22.2 
17.7 
14.2 

8.9 
11.4 

5.6 
35.0 

6.7 

16.0 

17. 1 

13.9 

9.6 

6.7 

4.6 

6.7 

2.6 

24.6 

1 3 
2,4 
1.9 
1.6 
1. 1 
1.0 
1.0 
1.1 
.5 
1.9 


326 
433 
198 
134 

99 
84 
69 
68 
48 
469 

135 

333 

189 

131 

100 

86 

75 

69 

65 

467 

125 

691 

238 

145 

98 

81 

64 

67 

43 

436 

273 
776 
284 
169 
102 
107 
71 
90 
37 
1,067 


33.2 
96.2 
50.2 
34.6 
25.6 
21.1 
17.1 
15.5 
10.7 
100.9 

36.5 
87.9 
61.4 
35.9 
27.4 
23.1 
19.9 
16.4 
12.6 
102.0 

25.5 
117.1 
45.3 
29.8 
21.6 
18.6 
15.1 
14.7 
9.4 
98.2 

37.3 

127.4 
31.4 
18.8 
11.0 
10.3 
7,0 
9 1 
3.8 
103.1 


20 
64 
28 
20 
15 
14 
12 
11 
8 
72 

19 
47 
27 
19 
14 
13 
12 
10 
7 
66 

22 
116 
39 
25 
18 
15 
13 
13 
8 
83 

23 

65 

20 

14 

13 

9 

7 

8 

4 

97 


3,290 


Class I 


3,021 


Class II 


3,528 


Class III 


3,478 


Class IV.... 


3,314 


Class V... 


3,042 


Class VI 


2,824 




2,781 




2,731 




2,820 


THE NORTH 


3,784 


Class I 


3,717 


Class II 


3.870 


Class III 


3, 843 


Class IV.... 


3,790 


Class V. ... 


3,643 


Class VI 


3.448 




3.426 




3,353 


Abnormal.. 

THE SOUTH 


3,086 
2,302 


ClassI 


2,025 


Class II 


2,304 


Class III 


2,343 


Class IV.. 


2,409 


Class V 


2,408 


Class VI 


2,413 




2,264 




2,267 




2.362 


THE WEST 


3,253 


ClassI 


3,903 


Class II 


3. 096 


Class III 


2,624 


Class IV.... 


1.633 


Class V 


2,235 


Class VI 


1.972 




2,199 




1.857 




2,133 







Table 19. — Acreage on Which Commercial Fertilizer was Used, Percent of Total Acreage and Percent of Cropland 
Harvested on Which Used, by Economic Class of Farm, for the United States and Regions: 1954 



Region and economic 
class 


Total 

acres 

per farm 


Acres on 
which 

com- 
mercial 
fertilizer 

used 
per farm 


Percent 
of total 
acreage 
on which 
used 


Acres of 
cropland 
harvested 
per farm 


Acres on 
which 

com- 
mercial 
fertilizer 

used 
per farm 


Percent 
acreage 
on which 
fertilizer 
was used 

is of 
cropland 
harvested 


Region and economic 
class 


Total 

acres 

per farm 


Acres on 
which 

com- 
mercial 
fertilizer 

used 
I»er farm 


Percent 
of total 
acreage 
on which 
used 


Acres of 
cropland 
harvested 
per farm 


Acres on 
which 

com- 
mercial 
fertilizer 

used 
per farm 


Percent 
acreage 
on which 
fertilizer 
was used 

is of 
cropland 
harvested 


UNITED STATES 

All farms 

ClassI 


242.5 

1, 939. 1 

537. 8 

311.9 

201.0 

134.3 

97.1 

81.1 

47.7 

14, 502. 4 

213.2 
773.6 
369.5 
263.9 
200.7 
142.4 
99,5 
67.6 
42.5 
857.2 


25.6 
162.8 
67.6 
38.7 
23.9 
15.9 
9.8 
7.3 
2.0 
134.7 

31.5 

139.1 

72.8 

40.0 

23.3 

14.1 

6.6 

6.4 

1.6 

131.0 


10.6 
8.4 
12.6 
12.4 
11.9 
11.8 
10.1 
9.0 
4.2 
.9 

14.8 
18.0 
19.7 
15.2 
11.6 
9.9 
6.5 
9.5 
3.8 
15.3 


81.1 

397.6 

201 1 

128.8 

75.6 

41.0 

23.2 

17.8 

7.3 

290.1 

113.4 
347.5 
209.5 
143 7 
97.5 
58.8 
34.9 
22.0 
9.1 
283.3 


25.6 
162.8 
67.5 
38.7 
23.9 
15.9 
9.8 
7.3 
2.0 
134.7 

31.5 

139.1 

72.8 

40.0 

23 3 

14,1 

6.5 

6.4 

1.6 

131.0 


31.6 
40.9 
33.6 
30.0 
31.6 
38.8 
42.2 
41.0 
27.4 
46.4 

27.8 
40.0 
34.7 
27.8 
23.9 
24.0 
18.6 
29.1 
17.6 
46.2 


THE SOUTH 

All farms 

Class I 


167.0 

2, 286. 3 
691.7 
311.2 
162.2 
112.6 

87.4 

86.4 

49.3 

1, 325. 5 

798.9 

3, 333 3 
1,126.3 

648.7 
429.1 
289.9 
256.0 
96.0 
51.1 
59, 353. 9 


20.6 

207.2 

76.0 

44.3 

22.3 

19.1 

11.7 

8.6 

2.5 

209.2 

24.6 

168.8 

32.8 

15.3 

7.7 

4.0 

2,5 

1.7 

.6 

.6 


12,3 
19.1 
11.0 
14.2 
13.7 
17.0 
13.4 
10.0 
5.1 
16.8 

3 1 
4.8 
2.9 
2.3 
1.8 
1.4 
1.0 
1.8 
1.2 


44.6 

444.1 
187.8 
95.1 
50.0 
30.3 
19.0 
15.8 
6.7 
298.1 

115.0 
434.6 
176,8 
107.3 
69.5 
42 3 
32 2 
15.6 
6.0 
296.0 


20.5 
207.2 
76.0 
44 3 
22.3 
19.1 
11.7 
8.6 
2.5 
209.2 

24.5 

158. 8 

32.8 

15.3 

7.7 

4.0 

2.5 

1.7 

.6 

.6 


46.0 

46.7 


Class II 


Class II 


40.6 


Class III 


Class III 


46.6 


Class IV 


Class IV 


44.6 


Class V.- 


Class V 


63.0 


Class VI- 


Class VI 


61.6 


Part-time 




54.4 




Residential 

Abnormal 

THE WEST 

All farms 


37.3 




70.2 


THE NORTH 

All farms 

Class I 


21.3 
36.5 


Class II--. 


Class II 


18.6 


Class III 


Class III 


14.3 


Class IV 


Class IV 


11.1 


Class V._ 


Class V 


9.5 


Class VI 


Class VI 


7.8 


Part-time 


Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 


11.0 
10.0 




.2 









34 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Work Power, Equipment, and Other Specified Expenditures, 1954 

This section summarizes additional data on work power and 
other equipment and specified expenditures in 1954, by economic 
class of farm, by major regions. 

Farms by class of work power, 1954. — A sharp difference is 
found among the economic classes in facilities for work power 
(Table 20). This is to be expected. About one-third of the 
part-time (Class VII) farm operators did not have tractors, horses, ■ 
or mules, in 1954. These percentages were remarkably consistent 
in each of the three major regions. An additional 11.3 percent 
of the part-time farmers and 16.5 percent of the residential (Class 
VIII) farmers had only one horse or mule each. Only 12.7 percent 
of the part-time farmers and 5.0 percent of the residential farmers 
had a tractor and horses and/or mules. However, 41.9 percent 
of the part-time and 18.8 percent of the residential farms had a 
tractor in contrast to 90.9 percent of the Class I farms and 92.3 



percent of those in Class II. As was shown in Table 16, however, 
almost one-half of the part-time farms (45.3 percent) and almost 
one-quarter of the residential farms (23.9 percent) reported 
machine hire in 1954. The amounts expended per farm were 
relatively small — $89 per farm for part-time farms and $52 for 
residential farms. 

Many part-time and residential farmers were apparently 
limited to small plots of cultivated land, to a few head of livestock 
such as two or three cows, or to a flock of poultry. On the other 
hand, 6.8 percent of the Class I farms and 5.5 of Class II did not 
have a tractor, or horses, or mules. Sales of farm products in 
excess of $10,000, under these conditions, would suggest either 
hiring of tractors and machines on a custom basis and/or pre- 
dominance of such an enterprise as a commercial poultry opera- 
tion, a highly mechanized dairy farm, or a feeding operation in 
which all or nearly all feed is purchased and there is little field work. 



Table 20. — Farms by Class of Work Power and Specified Farm Equipment, by Economic Class of Farm, for the United 

States and Regions: 1954 











Percent of farms reporting 












Class of work power 


Specified farm equipment 


Region and economic class 


No 

tractor, 

horses, or 

mules 


No 

tractor 

and only 

1 horse or 

mule 


No 

tractor 

and 2 or 

more 

horses and/ 

or mules 


Tractor 

and horses 

and/or 

mules 


Tractor 
and no 

horses or 
mules 


Electric 

pig 
brooder 


Power 

feed 

grinder 


Milking 
machine 


Field 

forage 

harvester 


Artificial 

ponds, 

reservoirs, 

and earth 

tanks 


UNITED STATES 


24.7 
6.8 
6.5 
6.7 
13.2 
22.7 
29.2 
34.4 
65.3 
18.3 

15.4 
5.8 
4.0 
4.0 
6.4 
13.4 
30.3 
31.2 
53.9 
15.0 

32.6 

7.6 
8.2 
11.7 
20.9 
28.1 
28.6 
35.2 
55.5 
11.3 

26.0 
7.5 
9.4 
11.8 
16.8 
24.8 
32.2 
41.3 
67.8 
33.8 


7.2 

.6 

.6 

1.0 

2.6 

5.6 

13.3 

11.3 

16.5 

1.6 

1.5 

.3 

.2 

.3 

.5 

1.5 

3.6 

3.1 

5.6 

.8 

13.1 

1.1 

1.9 

2.7 

5.2 

8.4 

17.5 

16.9 

22.1 

3.4 

2.8 
.6 
.6 
1.1 
1.5 
2.9 
3.7 
4.7 
6.6 
1.0 


10.1 

1.7 

1.6 

3.1 

8.2 

15.4 

25.1 

12.3 

9.4 

6.2 

4.0 

.6 

.6 

1.2 

2.9 

6.6 

14.7 

5.6 

6.7 

3.9 

16.4 
2.5 
3.7 
8.2 
15.1 
21.8 
29.7 
16.8 
10.5 
7.0 

5.7 
2.4 
2.2 
2.9 

4.8 
7.2 

12.9 
7.7 
9.5 

10.1 


20.4 
36.4 
29.5 
30.0 
28.9 
21.9 
13.6 
12.7 
5.0 
40.4 

21.3 
29.6 
24.5 
26.0 
26.9 
22.2 
16.0 
11.4 
5.8 
38.6 

18.8 
46.1 
41.9 
39.4 
30.9 
21.6 
12.8 
13.3 
4.4 
63.9 

25.1 
38.0 
36.4 
34.0 
31.1 
23.4 
18.6 
13.9 
6.7 
27.3 


37.6 
54.5 
62.8 
59.3 
47.1 
34.4 
18.8 
29.2 
13.8 
33.6 

57.8 
63.7 
70.7 
68.6 
63.2 
66.4 
30.4 
48.7 
28.0 
41.7 

19.2 

42.6 
44.3 
37.9 
28.0 
20.2 
11.5 
17.9 
7.5 
24.5 

40.4 
51.5 
51.4 
50.2 
45.8 
41.6 
32.6 
32.3 
19.3 
27.8 


2.4 

7.4 

8.4 

4.9 

2.1 

1.0 

.5 

.7 

.4 

11.7 

4.7 

14.0 

11.6 

6.6 

3.3 

1.8 

.8 

1.2 

.5 

16.0 

.6 

2.6 

2.2 

1.5 

.7 

.6 

.3 

.5 

.3 

7.9 

1.3 
1.9 
2.0 
1.9 
1.5 
1.0 

.9 
1.0 

.4 
7.2 


14.8 

35.7 

37.5 

30.2 

18.1 

9.4 

4.4 

4.5 

1.3 

35.7 

24.6 
49.0 
43.8 
35.9 
25.3 
15.8 
8.1 
6.4 
2.0 
41.6 

6.6 

30.9 

28.4 

18.9 

9.8 

5.4 

2.9 

3.4 

.9 

38.6 

12.8 
20.5 
20.3 
19.8 
16.0 
11.1 
8.0 
4.6 
1.6 
19.8 


14.9 

18.1 

34.7 

35.7 

21.7 

8.7 

2.4 

3.1 

.8 

37.8 

27.7 
23.8 
41.6 
44.9 
35.4 
18.5 
6.0 
5.8 
1.5 
50.0 

3.4 

12.4 

19.4 

13.6 

5.0 

1.9 

.8 

.9 

.4 

32.0 

16.0 

14.9 

23.5 

28.7 

23.4 

16.4 

7.8 

7.2 

1.9 

19.3 


4.1 

19.7 

15.7 

8.7 

3.2 

1.0 

.4 

.4 

.1 

22.7 

7.6 

30.2 

19.4 

11.3 

5.0 

1.7 

.8 

.4 

.2 

30.6 

1.0 
12.0 
8.0 
3.0 
1.0 
.4 
.3 
.3 
.1 
19.3 

4.1 
11.3 
8.6 
5.7 
3.1 
1.8 
1.5 
.6 
.2 
11.4 


19.0 


Class I 


27.4 


Class II 


22.9 


Class III 


21.9 


Class IV. 


21.1 


Class V 


20.0 


Class VI 


17.6 




19.1 




10.9 




30.1 


THE NORTH 


18.2 


Class I 


24.7 


Class II _. 


19.4 


Class III. -..- 


18.9 


Class IV 


19.1 


Class V 


19.6 


Class VI 


17.9 




16.2 




11.3 




29.3 


THE SOUTH 


20.3 


Class I . 


33.1 


Class II 


36.0 


Class HI 


31.6 


Class IV.... 


24.4 


Class V 


21.0 


Class VI 


17.8 




22.1 




11.3 




35.8 


THE WEST 


15.3 


Class I.. 


26.6 


Class II 


21.3 


Class III 


17.7 


Class IV 


16.3 


Class V 


13.7 


Class VI 


13.4 




10.2 




6.4 




24.9 







PART-TIME FARMING 



35 



Other equipment, 1954. — Relatively few of the part-time and 
residential farms have such equipment as an electric pig brooder, 
power feed grinder, milking machine, or field forage harvester 
(Table 20). This generalization applies in each of the major 
regions where, in most cases, close correlations are found between 
the percentage of farm operators having such equipment and the 
economic class of farm. 

Workers on farms, specified week, 1954. — Relatively small per" 
centages of the part-time and residential farms had hired workers- 
Only 6 percent of the part-time farms reported any hired workers 
at the time of the Census in 1954. Less than 2 percent of the 
residential farms reported hired workers. 



In general, the picture in respect to workers on farms is one of 
a relatively heavy concentration of hired workers among the larger 
farms contrasted with a relatively even distribution of family 
workers per farm by economic class (Table 21). The percentage 
of farms using hired laborers is closely and positively correlated 
with size of farm, or with economic class. Except for Class I, 
the number of regular workers per farm reporting does not vary 
widely although the number of seasonal workers per farm report- 
ing is again closely correlated with size or economic class. This 
contrasts with the distribution of family laborers in agriculture 
which does not vary widely per farm by economic class. 



Table 21. — Workers on Farms, Specified Week,' by Economic Class, for the United States and Regions: 1954 

[Data are based on reports for only a sample of farms. See test] 



Region and economic 
class 



UNITED STATES 

All farms 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III . 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential __. 

Abnormal 

THE NORTH 

AU farms 

Class I... 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time... 

Residential 

Abnormal 

THE SOUTH 

All farms 

Class I 

Class II. , 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 

THE WEST 

All farms 

Class I.. 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 



Family and/or hired 
workers 



Percent 
of all 
farms 



98.0 
97.1 
96.2 
94.5 
92.0 
89.3 
85.7 
76.6 
84.0 



93.3 
98.7 
97.8 
96.9 
95.3 
92.9 
90. 
S8.0 
81.2 
88.5 



86.6 
96.7 
95.2 
94.8 
93.7 
91.6 
89.1 
84.1 
74.1 
89.5 



91.1 
98.1 
96.2 
95.2 
93.1 
90.5 
87.6 
87.3 
82.1 
67.8 



Number 
of persons 
per farm 
reporting 



2.2 
8.1 
3.1 
2.5 
2.3 
2.0 
1.6 
1.6 
1.3 
7.0 



2.0 
5.4 
2.6 
2.1 
1.9 
1.7 
1.4 
1.5 
1.3 
7.1 



2.3 
11.5 
4.4 
3.4 
2.8 
2.2 
1.7 
1.6 
1.3 
7.6 



2.9 
9.2 
3.5 
2.6 
2.2 
1.9 
1.6 
1.6 
1.4 
6.0 



Percent 

distri- 
bution 



100. 
11.1 
13.9 
17.6 
18.4 
14.8 
7.0 
8.1 
9.0 
.2 



103. 
8.1 
19.6 
24.9 
19.6 
11.2 
4.0 
6.4 
6.0 
.2 



100.0 
8.4 
8.0 
12.1 
19.3 
19.6 
10.7 
10.0 
11.8 
.1 



100.0 

32.2 

18.5 

14.9 

10.6 

7.3 

2.3 

6.5 

7.6 

.2 



Family worker (operator and/or unpaid members 
of his family) 



Percent 
of all 
farms 



88.7 
91.3 
94.8 
94.9 
93.4 
91.1 
88.9 
84.0 
76.2 
69.7 



92.4 
94.6 
96.4 
96.1 
91.6 
92.3 
89.7 
87.4 
80.9 
74.6 



85.4 
87.3 
91.0 
92.5 
92.4 
90.7 
88.6 
82.8 
73.7 
72.3 



88.7 
90.3 
92.9 
93.1 
91.0 
88.6 
86.9 
86.0 
81.5 
56.1 



Number 
of persons 
per farm 
icportlng 



1.6 
1.6 
1.7 
1.8 
1.8 
1.7 
1.6 
1.5 
1.2 
1.6 



1.6 
1.7 
1.7 
1.7 
1.7 
1.6 
1.4 
1.4 
1.2 
1.6 



1.6 
1.4 
1.6 
2.0 
2.0 
1.8 
1.5 
1.5 
1.2 
1.6 



1.5 
1.5 
1.7 
1.7 
1.6 
1.5 
1.4 
1.4 
1.3 
1.8 



Percent of 
operators 
working 
1 or more 
hours 



86.6 
90.1 
93.4 
93.4 
91 8 
89.2 
87.2 
81.4 
73.3 
67.9 



90.6 
93.2 
94.9 
94.6 
92.9 
90.4 
88.1 
84 7 
78.4 
72.6 



83.1 

86.1 
89.6 
9a. 8 
90.8 
88.9 
87.0 
79.4 
70.6 



SO. 4 
89.0 
91 4 
91.4 
89.1 
86.2 
84.8 
82.6 
78.0 
65.9 



Unpaid members 
of operator's fam- 
ily working 15 or 
more hours 



Percent 
of farms 
reporting 



36.3 
32.9 
44.2 
47.4 
46.7 
41.9 
31.4 
29.2 
17.0 
9.6 



39.7 
42.8 
47.2 
48.6 
46.0 
39.0 
27.0 
l".i. 6 
15.9 
10.5 



33.8 
24.8 
35.9 
45.9 
48.8 
44.4 
33.2 
28.7 
16.4 
10.0 



34.2 
30.6 
41.3 
42.9 
39.6 
34.8 
28.6 
30.6 
22.0 
7.2 




1.6 
1.6 
1.6 
1.6 
1.7 
1.6 
1.4 
1.4 
1.3 
4.8 



1.5 
1.6 
1.6 
1.5 



1.7 
1.6 
1.7 
2.0 
2.0 
1.7 
1.5 
1.5 
1.3 
4.4 



1.5 
1.6 
1.5 
1.5 
1.4 
1.4 
1.3 
1.3 
1.3 
6.2 



Hired workers 



All hired workers 



Percent 


of all 


farms 


15.7 


75.5 


42.5 


24.2 


15.9 


10.5 


5.3 


6.3 


1.8 


58.2 


16.7 


71.0 


38.3 


20.4 


12.6 


7.8 


3.6 


4.4 


1.4 


65.9 


13.3 


79.0 


54.0 


33.6 


19.7 


11.9 


5.7 


7.3 


1.8 


61.4 


24.5 


79.2 


46.5 


26.9 


18.0 


12.9 


7.8 


7.5 


2.9 


38.3 



Number 
of persons 
per farm 
reporting 



Percent 
distri- 
bution 



3.6 
8.6 
3.2 
2.8 
2.9 
2.8 
2.4 
2.1 
1.6 
8.2 



2.4 
5.3 
2.2 
1.8 
1.8 
1.8 
1.7 
1.7 
1.6 
7.8 



4.5 
12.4 
6.1 
4.2 
3.8 
3.2 
2.6 
2.1 
1.6 
9.2 



3.8 
3.5 
3.1 
2.8 
2.4 
2.5 
1.6 
7.9 



100. 
31.8 
22.1 
17.6 

14.0 
8.2 
2 2 

2.7 
.9 
.5 



100. 
26.9 
31.2 



100.0 

25.1 

17.5 

17.9 

18.4 

12.2 

3.6 

3.8 

1.2 

.3 



100. 

55.8 

20.2 

11.4 

6.1 

3.2 

.6 

1.7 

.6 

.3 



Regular workers 
(to be employed 
150 or more days) 



i'l irrnt 

of all 
farms 



7.0 
62.3 
26.2 
10.1 

4.2 

1.8 
.6 

1.0 

.3 

53.2 



8.4 
67.9 
23.6 
9.1 
4.0 
1.7 



.3 

61.4 



4.5 
65. 3 
34.5 
13.1 

4.2 

1.8 
.5 

1.0 

.2 

54.9 



13.3 

06.3 

26.9 

10.1 

5.0 

2.8 

1.9 

1.3 

.7 

31.1 



Number 
of persons 
per farm 
reporting 



2.1 
4.0 
1.5 
1.3 
1.3 
1.3 
1.3 
1.2 
1.2 
7.2 



1.6 
2.8 
1.3 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.3 
6.9 



2.5 
5.4 
2.0 
1.6 
1.4 
1.3 
1.3 
1.2 
1.2 



2.8 
4.2 
1.4 
1.3 
1.3 
1.2 
1.4 
1.2 
1.2 
6.9 



Seasonal workers 
(to be employed 
less than 150 days) 



Percent 
of all 
farms 



10.5 

36.0 

23.0 

16.1 

12.6 

9.0 

4.7 

5.5 

1.5 

14.8 



10.0 
32.0 
19.8 
12.6 
9.1 
6.3 
3.0 
3.8 
1.1 
15.6 



10.1 
39.8 
31.1 
24.4 
16.5 
10.5 
5.3 
6.4 
1.6 
16.7 



15.3 
38.6 
27.2 
19.1 
14.0 
10.5 
6.3 
6.4 
2.3 
10.9 



Number 
of persons 
per farm 
reporting 



4.0 
11.1 
4.1 
3.4 
3.3 
3.0 
2.5 
2.1 

6^4 



2.6 
6.6 
2.7 
2.1 
2.0 
1.9 
1.8 
1.7 
1.6 
5.7 



4.7 
15.8 
6.5 
5.0 
4.1 
3.3 
2.7 
2.2 
1.7 
7.7 



6.1 
12.4 
5.1 
4.2 
3.6 
3.1 
2.5 
2.7 
1.7 
6.1 



1 Sept. 26-Oct. 2, or Oct. 24-30. 



36 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 22. — Percent of Farms Reporting Electricity, Telephone, and Piped Running Water, by Economic Class of Farm, for the 

United States and Regions: 1954 





Percent of farms 


Region and economic class 


Electricity and 
telephone 


Electricity and no 
telephone 


Telephone and no 
electricity 


No elec- 
tricity, no 
telephone, 
and piped 

running 
water 


Not 
reporting 


Electricity 


Telephone 


Piped 




Piped 

running 

water 


No piped 

running 

water 


Piped 

running 

water 


No piped 

running 

water 


Piped 

running 

water 


No piped 

running 

water 


running 
water 


UNITED STATES 


39.5 
81.6 
73.3 
56.6 
37.2 
26.5 
15.1 
35.8 
30.5 
88.1 

45.1 
93.0 
85.1 
70.7 
50.8 
34.7 
18.5 
41.2 
30.9 
100.0 

16.7 
68.0 
46.0 
23.9 
13.6 
10.0 
7.3 
21.1 
20.1 
94.4 

53.1 
88.3 
79.4 
63.1 
46.5 
40.7 
26.3 
44.6 
38.5 
91.4 

39.7 
74.5 
62.1 
51.0 
36.7 
27.9 
16.2 
34.3 
30.1 
60.0 

65.0 
80.9 
75.3 
67.0 
60.2 
56.2 
41.3 
64.6 
61.5 
71.0 


8.0 

1.8 

6.1 

10.5 

10.6 

8.5 

6.7 

7.2 

6.4 

.7 

6.7 
1.2 
2.7 
5.2 
8.2 
8.4 
6.9 
7 2 
7^2 


18.7 
11.4 
14.1 
17.5 
20.3 
19.0 
17.6 
20.5 
20.6 


25.5 
1.5 
3.8 
11.3 
25.1 
36.1 
43.8 
27.7 
32.0 


0.1 
.1 
. 1 
. 1 
.1 
.1 
(Z) 
.1 
.1 


0.4 
.1 

'3 

.5 
.4 
.5 
.3 
.3 
.7 

.4 


0.4 
.3 
.3 
.5 
.4 
.4 
.6 
.2 
.3 


7.4 
3.2 
2.2 
3.2 
5.8 
9.0 

15.8 
8.2 
9.8 

10.5 

6.6 
2.0 
1.2 
2.8 
4.2 
7.0 
14.7 
6.9 
8.9 


91.7 
96.3 
97.3 
95.9 
93.2 
90.1 
83.2 
91.2 
89.5 
88.8 

92.6 
98.0 
98.2 
96.6 
95.2 
92.3 
84.0 
92.0 
90.3 
100.0 

89.0 
94.1 
95.4 
96.0 
93.0 
88.2 
81.6 
89.3 
88.6 
94.4 

94.2 
97.9 
97.9 
96.5 
94.2 
92.4 
86.2 
93.6 
90.2 
91.4 

90.6 
94.6 
96.6 
94.3 
90.6 
88.6 
81.9 
89.2 
87.4 
66.7 

93.9 
96.1 
96.6 
95.6 
93.0 
90.6 
86.5 
93.8 
93.7 
71.0 


48.0 
83.6 
79.6 
67.5 
48.4 
35.5 
22.3 
43.4 
37.3 
89.5 

52.3 

94.2 
87.8 
76.1 
59.4 
43.5 
26.3 
49.1 
38.6 
100. 

19.8 
68.4 
47.7 
25.1 
16.3 
12.6 
10.2 
25.0 
24.3 
94.4 

68.3 
92.1 
88.6 
78.3 
65.5 
58.8 
45.2 
57.9 
53. 1 
91.4 

51.0 
77.2 
70.0 
65.7 
51.1 
42.3 
23.8 
43.8 
37.2 
66.7 

67.8 
81.7 
76.8 
70.4 
64.3 
68.6 
44.8 
69.0 
63.8 
71.0 


58.7 


Class I 


93.4 


Class II 


87.8 


Class III 


74.7 


Class IV 


58.0 


Class V 


46.0 


Class VI 


33.2 




56. 6 




51.5 




88.1 


EASTERN REGION 


15.6 
3.5 
8.3 
14.3 
17.1 
16.1 
16.1 
18.4 
16.7 


25.1 
.3 
2.1 
6.4 
19.1 
33.1 
42.5 
25.2 
35.5 


.1 


.4 


61.1 


Class I 


96.5 


Class II 






.6 
.4 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.4 
.3 


94.0 


Class III 


.1 
.1 
.1 


.1 

.3 
.3 

.9 
.5 
.5 


85.5 


Class IV 


68.2 


Class V. ... __. 


51.2 


Class VI 


36.0 




.2 


60.2 




47.9 






100.0 


SOUTHERN REGION 


3.0 
.1 
1.4 
1.2 
2.7 
2.6 
2.8 
3.8 
4.0 


24.8 
22.5 
39.1 
37.9 
27.1 
21.3 
18.2 
25.7 
24.8 


44.5 
3.5 
8.9 
33.0 
49.6 
54.3 
53.3 
38.7 
39.7 




.1 
.2 


.3 


10.6 
5.6 
4.0 
3.8 
6.7 
11.5 
17.9 
10.6 
10.9 
5.6 

4.8 
1.8 
1.7 
2.6 
4.6 
6.2 
12.4 
5.7 
9.0 
8.6 

8.3 
4.4 
2.9 
4.4 
8.1 
10.1 
16.0 
9.9 
11.8 
33.3 

4.8 
3.3 
2.7 
3.6 
5.0 
8.2 

10.6 
4.9 
5.5 

25.8 


41.7 


Class I 


.1 
.3 


90.6 


Class II 


.3 

.2 
.3 
.3 
.4 


85.7 


Class III 




62.0 


Class IV 






41.0 


Class V 






31.6 


Class VI 




.1 

.1 
.1 


25.9 






46.8 




.1 


.3 


45.3 




94.4 


CENTRAL REGION 


14.5 
3.8 
9.1 
14.8 
18.1 
16.9 
17.8 
12.6 
13.8 


12.2 
5.4 
6.4 
11.6 
15.7 
13.6 
11.9 
13.5 
13.3 


14.4 

.4 

3.0 

7.0 

13.9 

21.2 

30.2 

22.9 

24.6 


.1 


.6 


.3 
.3 
.3 
.5 
.3 
.2 
.3 


65.6 


Class I 


94.0 


Class II . 




.1 
.4 
.8 
1.1 
1.1 
.6 
.7 


86.1 


Class III... 




75.2 


Class IV. 


.1 

.1 


62.6 


Class V 


64.6 


Class VI 


38.5 




.1 


68.2 






51.9 






91.4 


GREAT PLAINS REGION 


10.6 
2.6 
7.8 
14.0 
13.6 
13.6 
6.2 
9.3 
6.6 
16.7 

2.4 
.5 
1.1 
3.1 
3.8 
2.3 
2.5 
3.6 
2.0 


20.7 
15.1 
21.3 
17.6 
20.7 
23.2 
21.9 
21.7 
22.2 


19.6 

2.4 
6.4 
11.7 
19.6 
23.9 
37.6 
23.9 
28.5 


.1 


.5 
.1 

(Z) 

.6 
.7 
.7 


.5 
.9 
.4 
.6 
.5 
.5 
.7 
.7 
.3 


61.1 


Class I .. 


90.5 


Class II 


.1 

.2 
.2 
.1 


83.9 


Class III 


69.4 


Class IV 


58.1 


Class V 


51.7 


Class VI 


.2 


39.0 






.2 
.3 


56.7 


Residential 


.2 


62.8 
60.0 


WESTERN REGION 

All farms 

Class I 


20.5 
13.4 

18.0 
20.3 
21.1 
23.8 
28.8 
19.4 
22.6 


6.1 
1.3 
2.2 
5.2 
7.9 
8.2 
13.9 
6.2 
7.6 


.2 
.3 
.2 
.2 
.1 
.1 
.5 
.4 
.3 


.2 


.8 
.3 
.3 
.5 
1.7 
1.2 
1.9 
.5 
.5 


86.5 
94.9 


Class II 


.2 
.1 
.2 


93.8 


Class III 


88.0 


Class IV 


83.1 


Class V 


81.3 


Class VI 


.5 
.4 

3.2 


72.5 




84.9 




84.9 




71.0 

















Z 0. 05 percent or less. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



37 



Household facilities, by economic class, by five regions. — The 
percentage of farms that reported electricity, telephone, and piped 
running water is directly related to economic class (Table 22). 
Classes I, II, and III generally have a higher percentage with the 
facility than is the case with the lower commercial classes. Part- 
time farms (Class VII) ranked significantly higher than those in 
Class VI, indicating relatively higher levels of living among the 
part-time farms. The residential (Class VIII) farms are generally 
somewhat lower in percentage than the part-time group, espe- 
cially in the East. 

Comparisons by regions show that the South ranks considerably 
lower than the others. However, almost as large a percentage 
of southern farms (89.0 percent) have electricity as in the United 
States as a whole (93.0 percent). The percentage of farms in the 
South (41.7 percent) having piped running water is lower than 
that of any other region and is significantly lower than the United 
States average (58.8 percent). Telephones show the widest or 
greatest difference. Only 19.8 percent of the Southern farms have 
telephones as compared with 48.8 percent for the United States, 
and a high of 68.3 percent in the Central Region. 

Data on television sets and home freezers give evidence of con- 
siderable differences by economic class in levels of living (Table 
23). For the United States, for example, 63.1 percent of Class I 
farms have television sets as compared with only 16.2 percent of 
Class VI farms. The variation in percentage having home 
freezers is even wider from 65.4 percent of Class I farms to 16.6 
percent of Class VI. The percentage of part-time farms having 
these items is about twice that for Class VI. The relationship or 
percentages are remarkably consistent among the major regions. 

Table 23. — Percent of Farms Reporting Television Set and 
Home Freezer, by Economic Class, for the United 
States and Regions: 1954 



Region and economic 
class 



UNITED STATES 

All farms 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI. 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 

THE NORTH 

All farms 

ClassI 

Class II... 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential , 

Abnormal 



Tele- 
vision 
set, 
1954 


Home 

freezer, 

1954 


Percent 


Percent 


35.5 


32.2 


63.1 


65.4 


56.4 


58.9 


45.3 


46.2 


33.2 


32.6 


26.3 


23.5 


16.6 


14.7 


36.2 


27.4 


32.4 


21.9 


52.9 


63.6 


46.8 


41, 1 


68.1 


68.1 


60.5 


61.1 


48.9 


48.7 


40.4 


37.3 


37.5 


30.8 


26.6 


20.3 


51.4 


33.9 


48.3 
58.6 


28.3 

57.7 



Region and economic 
class 



THE SOUTH 

All farms 

ClassI 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 

THE WEST 

All farms 

ClassI 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V. 

Class VI 

Part-time 

Residential 

Abnormal 



Tele- 


vision 


set, 


1954 


Percent 


25.2 


62. 3 


52.5 


39.2 


24.9 


19. 


12.6 


27.4 


25.1 


57.3 


37.8 


56.5 


42.3 


35.5 


31.2 


30.2 


22.0 


38.5 


39.5 


35.5 



Home 

freezer, 

1954 



Percent 
22.5 
63.1 
53.7 
40.0 
25.8 
17.8 
11.9 
22.4 
17.8 
57.4 



42.3 
63.4 
55.2 
44.9 
38.6 
34.6 
26.8 
36.2 
33.8 
40.2 



The percentage of farms reporting telephone and electricity 
increased sharply between 1950 and 1954 (Table 24). In 1950 
only 38.2 percent had a telephone. In 1954, 48.8 percent had one. 
As to electricity, 78.3 percent had it in 1950, whereas 93.0 percent 
had electricity in 1954. Substantial changes occurred in each of 
three major regions — the North, the South, and the West. 

Substantial and rather remarkable changes occurred in some 
regions and classes. In the South, for example, only 70.5 percent 
of the farms had electricity in 1950, whereas 90.4 percent had it in 
1954. Only 57.5 percent of Class VI farms in the South had 
electricity in 1950 as compared with 82.9 percent in 1954. 



Table 24. — Percent of Farms Reporting Telephone and 
Electricity, by Economic Class of Farm, for the United 
States and Regions: Censuses of 1954 and 1950 



Region and economic class 


Telephone 


Electricity 


1954 


1950 


1954 


1950 


UNITED STATES 

All farms 

ClassI.... 

Class II 


Percent 
48.8 
84.0 
80.1 
68.3 
49.2 
36.2 
25.0 
43.6 
37.9 
83.2 

70.6 
92.7 
87.4 
78.7 
67.8 
. 59.9 
51.0 
64.0 
59.7 
90.0 

26.2 
70.9 
57.7 
39.7 
24.2 
19.1 
14.0 
28.8 
26.3 
88.9 

67.2 
82.6 
76.9 
69.9 
63.7 
59.9 
47.9 
66.5 
61.0 
61.9 


Percent 
38.2 
71.1 
71.1 
63.2 
45.1 
29.4 
16.7 
32.5 
25.6 
60.0 

61.5 
84.4 
81.7 
73.7 
61.7 
62.1 
40.8 
54.0 
47.9 
72.5 

16. 1 
51.9 
44.2 
32.6 
19.3 
12.7 
8.0 
17.0 
14.6 
47.8 

50.9 
69.7 
62.9 
56.0 
49.5 
46.1 
33.1 
IS 3 
42.6 
51. 1 


Percent 
93.0 
97.8 
98.1 
97.4 
95.3 
91.4 
84.2 
92.6 
90.3 
89.1 

95.7 
99.0 
98.7 
97.8 
96.2 
93.5 
87.3 
95.3 
93.1 
93.6 

90.4 
96.5 
97.0 
96.9 
94.4 
90.1 
82.9 
90.8 
88.8 
96.8 

94.5 
97.0 
96.8 
95.7 
94.5 
92.0 
87.3 
94.3 
93.7 
70.4 


Percent 
78.3 
90.8 
93.7 


Class III . 


91.7 


Class IV 


85.2 


Class V 


75.5 


Class VI 


60.8 
78.5 




70.8 




71.8 


THE NORTH 


81.4 


ClassI 


93.1 


ClassII 


95.0 


Class III 


92.7 


Class IV 


87.1 


Class V 


80.3 


Class VI 


68.5 




84.8 




80.0 




77.6 


THE SOUTH 


70.5 


Class I 


87.5 


Class II 


91.3 


Class III . 


89.4 


Class IV . 


82.0 


Class V 


71.3 


Class VI 


57.5 




73.3 




65.6 




69. 2 


THE WEST 


86.5 


Class I 


90. 6 


Class II 


91.1 


Class III 


89.6 


Class IV . .. 


86.6 


Class V 


85.1 


Class VI .. 


75.9 




86.9 




83.2 




63.8 







38 FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 

E. ECONOMIC CLASS V FARMS, PART-TIME, AND COMMERCIAL, 1954 



A special tabulation is presented in this section of Economic 
Class V farms having value of farm sales from $1,200 to $2,499. 
The tabulation divides these farms into part-time and commercial 
groups. Out of 769,080 farms, 233,780, or 30.4 percent of the total, 
are classed as part-time, where the operator worked off farm 100 
days or more, or other income of the family exceeded the value of 
farm products sold. About 535,300 farms, 69.6 percent of the 
total, are classed as commercial, where the operator did not work 
off farm as much as 100 days and the value of farm sales exceeded 
other income of the family. 

The United States is divided into five regions for analysis of 
these farms in Figure 22, and the distribution of farms among 
these regions is given in Table 25. The size of the regions varies 
from 40.7 percent of total farms in the South to only 6.0 percent in 
the West; and from a proportion of 21.0 percent part-time and 



79.0 percent commercial in the South to 53.5 percent part-time and 
46.5 percent commercial in the Western Region. 

Purpose of analysis. — Class V farms are near the lower end of a 
distribution of commercial farms and almost one-third of the 
operators work off the farm 100 days or more. Therefore, they 
illustrate notable characteristics and possibilities in adjustments 
between farm and nonfarm employment. The purpose of this 
tabulation and analysis is to ascertain how part-time and com- 
mercial farms in the Class V group differ as to size of farm, operat- 
ing characteristics, type of farm, use of land, living facilities, 
geographic location, and other factors. Accompanying discussion 
also brings out important differences among the regions, suggests 
directions for necessary adjustments in size and type of farm to 
increase farm income and labor efficiency, and gives some indica- 
tion of the extent to which off-farm employment serves as an 
alternative to farming. 



Table 25. — Class V Farms, (Part-Time and Commercial), for the United States and Regions: 1954 



Region 


Number of farms 


Part-time and commercial as 
percent of all farms 


Region as percent of United States 


All farms 


Part-time 


Commercial 


All farms 


Part-time 


Commercial 


All farms 


Part-time 


Commercial 




769, 080 

116,780 
313, 180 
187, 800 
105, 240 
46, 080 


233, 780 

36, 140 
65,800 
74,360 
32, 740 
24, 740 


635, 300 

80,640 

247, 380 

113,440 

72, 500 

21, 340 


100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


30.4 

30.9 
21.0 
39.6 
31.1 
63.7 


69.6 

69.1 
79 
60 4 
68.9 
46.3 


100.0 

15.2 

40.7 

24.4 

13.7 

6.0 


100.0 

15.5 
28.1 
31 8 
14.0 
10.6 


100.0 




15.1 




46.2 




21.2 




13.5 




4.0 









%M 



5 MAJOR AREAS 



GRJ E A T 



W 



<T 



S , T 



e R 



N 



EN T R A L 



P L A I N S 



SOUTHERN 



US DEPARTMENT OF CO 



MAP NO. A5U-556 



#fc ^ 



auREUI OF TIC CENSUS 



Figure 22. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



39 



Off-farm employment and income. — In 1954, 43.2 percent of 
total farm operators worked off their farms; more than half of 
these, 23.5 percent, worked off their farms 100 days or more and 
almost the same number, 23.2 percent, had other income of the 
family exceeding the value of farm sales (Table 26). The propor- 
tions working off farms 100 days or more differ considerably from 
region to region, with only 15.4 percent working off farms 100 days 
or more in the South as against 40.9 percent in the Western 
Region. Likewise, the proportion with other income exceeding 
the value of farm sales was almost three times as large (44.6 
percent) in the Western Region as in the South (15.3 percent). 
These differences suggest other noteworthy differences in farm 
operation, in off-farm employment, and in level of living. 



Value of land and buildings per farm and per acre. — Part-time 
farms rank consistently higher than commercial farms in terms of 
value of land and buildings, both per farm and per acre (Table 27). 
The average value per farm is higher for part-time farms in each 
of the regions, although the differences are not so large as the 
differences in value per acre. The differences in value per acre 
between part-time and commercial farms are most marked in the 
Western Region. This indicates that the part-time farms generally 
have a smaller acreage than the commercial farms in the West, 
and generally either are located on more productive land or are 
engaged in more intensive farming. 

Total acreage per farm, part-time and commercial farms. — The 
average of 136.1 acres for part-time farms in the United States is 



Table 26. — Class V Farms, Number of Operators and Percent, by Other Income Exceeding Value of Farm Products Sold 

and Work Off Farm, for the United States and Regions: 1954 





Other income and work off farm 




Number of operators 


Percent of operators 


Region 


Total 


Other income 

of family 

exceeding 

value of farm 

products sold 


Working 
off farm 


Working 
off farm 
100 days 
or more 


Total 


Other income 

of family 

exceeding 

value of farm 

products sold 


Working 
off farm 


Working 
off farm 

100 days 

or more 


United States 


769, 080 

116, 780 
313, 180 
187, 800 
105, 240 
46,080 


178, 440 

27, 840 
47,880 
56,440 
25, 740 
20, 540 


332, 080 

47,520 
118,640 
92,560 
47,340 
26,020 


181,020 

28,420 
48, 140 
60,260 
25,360 
18,840 


100.0 

100.0 
100. 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


23. 2 

23.8 
15.3 
30.1 
24.5 
44.6 


43.2 

40.7 
37.9 
49.3 
45.0 
S6.5 


23.5 




24.3 




15.4 




32.1 




24.1 




40.9 







Table 27- — Class V Farms (Part-time and Commercial), by more than the average of 128.4 acres for commercial farms. 

Value of Land and Buildings Per Farm and Per Acre, ( See Tabl e 28.) This larger total acreage for part-time farms is al- 

for the United States and Regions: 1954 most entirel >' due to the differences observed in the South, where 

the average of 129.2 acres for part-time farms is significantly larger 
than the 77.1 acres for commercial farms. In each of the other 
regions part-time farms are smaller in total acreage than the com- 
mercial farms. In the Western Region, in particular, this differ- 
ence is substantial; commercial farms average 367.7 acres per farm 
as compared with 201.5 acres for the part-time farms. 

Cropland harvested. — Cropland harvested per farm is about the 
same for part-time and commercial farms in both the Eastern and 
the Southern Regions, while in the Central, Great Plains, and 
Western Regions it is consistently more for commercial farms 
than for part-time farms, the greatest spread being 52.0 acres per 
farm for commercial farms in the Western Region as compared 
with 22.7 acres for part-time farms. 

Table 28. — Class V Farms (Part-Time and Commercial), Land Use Per Farm, for the United States and Regions: 1954 





Value of land and buildings (dollars) 


Region 


Per farm 


Per acre 




All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Commer- 
cial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Commer- 
cial 




9,100 

8,409 
5.890 
9,868 
13, 027 
17, 865 


10, 798 

9,472 
7,751 
9,933 
13. 570 
18, 226 


8,335 

7,920 
5,384 
9.823 
12, 785 
17,441 


74.42 

87.81 
74 68 
90.85 
56.75 
74.13 


85.25 

10106 
72.42 

110.88 
58.48 

103. 45 


69.29 




81.92 


Southern 

Central ... ... 


75.61 
80.85 
55.98 













Average acreage per farm 


Land use 


United States 


Eastern Region 


Southern Region 


Central Region 


Great Plains Region 


Western Region 




All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


Total acreage per farm 


130.7 
38.0 
10.8 

7.7 
19.8 
14.7 

34.0 

64.6 


136.1 

32.1 
12.4 

7.5 
23.4 
16.0 

38.8 
74.6 


128.4 
40.6 
10.2 

7.8 
17.7 
14 2 

31.9 

69.8 


100.5 
27.5 
13.3 

5.4 
11.0 
23.1 

15.7 
40.0 


98.9 
27.0 
13.3 

6.4 
8.4 
21.2 

18.7 
40.4 


101.2 
27.8 
13.4 

4 9 
12 2 
23.9 

14.3 
39.9 


88.0 
25.7 

7.7 

4.7 
16 9 
19.9 

10.2 
34.8 


129.2 
25.7 
13.6 

6.0 
29.7 
29.6 

19.8 
63.1 


77.1 
25.7 
6.1 

4.4 
13.6 
17.4 

7.7 
27.3 


113.1 
42.4 
10.9 

4.4 
21.6 
8.2 

16.5 
49.0 


94.8 

35.4 

9.4 

4.9 
18.3 
6.4 

13 2 
40.9 


125.2 
46.7 
11.8 

4.1 
23 7 
9.4 

18.7 
54.2 


2.iS 1 
79.4 
14.7 

18.0 
27.9 
3.8 

104.5 
147.1 


235.4 
50.1 
15.0 

14.2 

36.2 
6.7 

107.2 
158.4 


268.3 
92.6 
14.6 

19.8 
24.1 
2.5 

103.3 
142.0 


278.5 
36 3 
16.6 

23.0 
35.7 
10.1 

152.6 
204.9 


201.5 
22.7 
13.2 

11.5 
26.8 
13.1 

105.7 
145.7 


367.7 


Cropland used only for pasture. 

Cropland not harvested and not 

pastured 


20.5 
36.3 


Woodland not pastured _ 

Other pasture (not cropland 


6.7 

206 9 











40 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Acreage pastured. — Total acreage pastured is about the same 
for part-time and commercial farms in the Eastern Region, more 
for commercial farms in the Central and Western Regions, and 
more for part-time farms in the South and the Great Plains Region. 
The largest spreads are found in the South, with 63.1 acres of 
pasture for part-time farms and 27.3 acres for commercial farms. 
The opposite situation is found in the Western Region; 155.7 
acres of pasture for part-time farms compared with 261.9 acres 
for commercial farms. 

Woodland per farm. — Woodland per farm does not differ con- 
sistently between part-time and commercial farms among the 
regions, although for the United States both woodland pastured 
and woodland not pastured is less for commercial farms than for 
part-time farms. In the Eastern and Central Regions, commercial 
farms have more woodland per farm than the part-time farms, 
while in the Southern Region the total of 59.3 acres of woodland 
per farm for part-time farms is almost twice the total of 30.9 acres 
for commercial farms. In the Great Plains a total of 36.2 acres of 
woodland pastured and 6.7 acres of woodland not pastured on 
part-time farms is significantly greater than the 24.1 acres pastured 
and the average of 2.5 acres pastured on the commercial farms. 
In the Western Region the commercial farms have a large acreage 
of woodland pastured and a small acreage not pastured. 

Summary of land-use comparisons. — These differences in land 
use between part-time and commercial farms among regions 
suggest several conclusions. Apparently the part-time farms 
generally have more livestock and less acreage in cash crops than 
commercial farms. The greater extent of pasture for part-time 
farms is most marked in the South; the opposite extreme is found 
in the Western Region. The smaller acreage of cropland harvested 
on part-time farms is most evident in the Central. Great Plains, 
and Western Regions. 

The general picture that emerges is one of cash cropping among 
these small-scale commercial farms, with land being used more 
extensively among the commercial than among the part-time 
farms in the Central, Great Plains, and Western Regions. In 
contrast there is a more intensive type of cropping, typically 
cotton and/or tobacco, among the commercial farms in the South. 

Classification by type of farm. — These general observations 
are demonstrated more precisely in Table 29, and the reasons 
for the differences are made more evident, where it is shown that 
60.1 percent of the commercial farms are classed as field-crop 
farms, other than vegetable and fruit-and-nut farms, while only 
41.7 percent of the part-time farms are so classed. Further, 19.9 



percent of the commercial farms are classed as predominantly other 
field-crop farms, whereas only 10.8 percent of the part-time farms 
are in this class. On the other hand, almost twice as large a 
proportion of the part-time farms (28.7 percent) as compared with 
the commercial farms (15.7 percent) are classed as livestock farms 
other than dairy and poultry. 

Classification by type of farm, by regions. — The classification 
by regions further clarifies the general picture. In the Eastern, 
Southern, and Western Regions, particularly, the percentage of 
commercial farms classified as field-crop farms is higher than in 
the case of part-time farms. In the Eastern Region about twice 
as large a proportion of commercial farms (57.0 percent) are pri- 
marily field-crop, other than vegetable and fruit-and-nut, than is 
the case of the part-time farms (34.2 percent) ; whereas more than 
twice the percentage of part-time farms (14.7 percent compared 
with 6.3 percent for commercial farms) are primarily poultry. In 
the South, 57.5 percent of the commercial farms are primarily 
cotton as against 44.1 percent of the part-time farms; and only 5.4 
percent of the commercial farms are livestock farms other than 
dairy and poultry as against 19.1 percent of the part-time farms. 

On the other hand, in the Western Region, 18.8 percent of the 
commercial farms are primarily field-crop, other than vegetable 
and fruit-and-nut, as against only 10.6 percent of the part-time 
farms. However, in this case the part-time farms are not so 
likely to be primarily livestock, although 30.1 percent are pri- 
marily fruit-and-nut farms as against only 12.8 percent of the 
commercial farms. 

In the Central Region, however, most of the proportions are 
reversed. The commercial farms tend toward livestock and away 
from cash crops, in comparison with the part-time farms. A 
smaller percentage of Class V commercial farms are primarily 
field-crop farms, other than vegetable and fruit-and-nut, 22.0 
percent as compared with 28.6 percent of part-time farms; only 
19.1 commercial farms are cash-grain as compared with 26.9 per- 
cent of the part-time farms; 39.5 percent of the commercial farms 
are primarily dairy and 5.9 percent, primarily livestock as com- 
pared with 29.2 percent primarily dairy and 4.2 percent primarily 
livestock for the part-time farms. The pattern in the Central 
Region is for part-time farming to be associated with grains 
and field crops and for commercial farms to tend toward chiefly 
dairy and livestock. Evidently in the Corn Belt, primarily crop 
farming permits greater mobility for the operators, and it comple- 
ments off-farm employment. 



Table 29. — Class V Farms (Part'Time and Commercial), by Type of Farm, for the United States and Regions: 1954 





Percent of all farms 


Type of farm 


Ignited States 


Eastern Region 


Southern Region 


Central Region 


Great Plains Region 


Western Region 




All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 

farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 

farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 

farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Tart- 
tlme 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 




100.0 

54.7 
26.2 
11.2 
17.3 

19.5 
14.3 
10.6 
5.6 
4.2 

2.9 
2.3 
2.1 
1.0 
.9 


100.0 

41.7 
15 6 
15.1 
10.8 

28.7 
16.1 
11.6 
5.4 
7.1 

4.0 
5.4 
2.2 
1.9 
1.6 


100.0 

liO. 1 

30.5 

9.7 

19.9 

15.7 
13.5 
10.1 
5.6 
3.0 

2.4 

1.1 

2.1 

.6 

.7 


100.0 

50.2 
.4 

8.0 
41.9 

15.4 
15.9 
10.6 
6". 5 

8.8 

3.1 
2.2 
1.0 

1.4 
1.2 


100.0 

34.2 
.3 

10.4 
23.5 

23.2 

18.9 
11.6 
5.2 
14.7 

5.8 
4.3 

.6 
2.0 
1.5 


100.0 

57.0 

.4 

7.0 

49.6 

12.1 
14.6 
10.2 
7.1 
6.3 

1.9 
1.3 

1.2 
1.2 
1.0 


100.0 

80.5 

54.9 

1.8 

23.8 

8.1 
3.6 
6.5 
3.1 
1.9 

3.1 
1.1 

_ 9 
'.9 
.4 


100.0 

67.7 

44.1 

2.7 

20.9 

19.1 
3.7 
8.1 
3.5 

4.8 

4.4 

3.5 

.2 

2.2 


100.0 

83.7 

57.5 

1.6 

24.5 

5.4 
3.6 
6.0 
3.0 

1.2 

2.8 
.5 
.2 
.5 
.3 


100.0 

24.6 
1.2 

22.2 
1.2 

27.4 

35.5 

14.2 

7.4 

5.5 

1.6 
1.3 

5.2 
.7 
1.2 


100.0 

28.6 
.8 

26.9 
.9 

29.7 
29.2 
12.4 
6.0 
7.6 

2. 1 
2.3 
4.2 
1.2 
1.5 


100.0 

22.0 
1.4 

19.1 
1.4 

26.0 
39.5 
15.3 
8.3 
4.1 

1.2 

.7 
5.9 

.4 
1. 1 


100.0 

47.2 

19.4 

25.8 

2.0 

39.9 
6.5 

15.0 
8.1 
2.4 

2.6 
.3 

4.2 
.3 

1.2 


100.0 

46. 
18.4 
24.2 
3.4 

50.4 
6.4 

14.1 
7.7 
3.4 

3.0 
.4 

3.4 
.8 

1.9 


100.0 

47.7 

19.8 

26.4 

1.5 

35.7 
6.5 

15.3 
8.3 
1.9 

2.5 
.3 

4.5 
.2 
.9 


100. 

14.4 

.5 

11.5 

2.4 

36.2 
19.4 
16.3 

7.9 
7.5 

6.7 
21.9 
1.7 
3.1 
2.6 


100.0 

10.6 

8.5 
2.1 

34.6 

18.6 
16.2 
6.5 
6.1 

7.6 
30.1 
2.1 
4.2 
4.0 


100.0 


Field-crop farms, other than vege- 


18.8 




1.1 




14.8 




2.8 


Livestock farms, other than dairy 
and poultry 


38.0 
20.2 


General farms 


16.3 
9.3 


Poultry farms 


10.1 
5.8 




12.8 


Miscellaneous 


1.2 
1.9 
1. 1 











PART-TIME FARMING 



41 



In the Great Plains the differences between part-time and 
commercial farms are perhaps less marked than in any other 
region. About the same percentage of farms are primarily field- 
crop farms, other than vegetable and fruit-and-nut — 47.7 percent 
of the commercial farms as compared with 40.0 percent of the part- 
time farms. A larger proportion of the part-time farms are 
primarily livestock other than dairy and poultry — 50.4 percent of 
the part-time farms as compared with only 35.7 percent of the 
commercial farms. 

Part-time and commercial farms as a percentage of all farms of 
same type. — In Table 30, the comparisons are based on part-time 
and ci immercial farms shown as a percentage of all farms of the same 
type. Of all farms, 2S.S percent are classed as part-time and 71.2 
percent as commercial. Some types of farms are predominantly 
commercial; other types tend toward part-time fanning. For ex- 
ample, 78.3 percent of field-crop f: rms, other than vi getable and 
fruit-and-nut are commercial, S3.0 percent of the cotton farms 
are commercial, 82.1 percent of the other field-crop farms are 
commercial. In contrast, 07. 3 percent of fruit-and-nut farms are 
part-time; 55.0 percent of the miscellaneous farms and 48.8 per- 
cent of the poultry farms are part-time. 

Commercial farms constitute 70.4 percent of the total farms in 
the Eastern Region, 80.3 percent of the total in the South, 61.1 
percent in the Central Region, 71.5 in the Great Plains, and only 
47.4 in the Western Region. In the South, field-crop and cotton 
farms are predominantly commercial (Table 27), while a larger 



proportion of the livestock farms are part-time. Just the opposite 
situation is found in the Central Region, where a smaller per- 
centage of crop farms and a larger percentage of livestock farms 
are commercial. In the Western Region, field-crop and poultry 
farms are predominantly commercial, and fruit-and-nut farms 
tend toward part-time operation. 

Distribution of farms by cropland harvested. — Distribution of 
part-time and commercial farms in Table 31 according to acres of 
cropland harvested illustrates relatively small differences between 
the two groups in the United States generally. The differences 
between tin' two groups are not particularly marked in the Eastern 
and the Southern Regions, but in the Central, Great Plains, and 
Western Regions part-time farms have twice as large a percentage 
in (lie 1- to 9-acre group as do commercial farms and a smaller 
percentage have harvested acreage in excess of 50 acres. 

Perhaps the most important generalization based on these data 
is that a smaller percentage of the commercial farms are found in 
(lie smallest size group and a larger percentage, have more than 
50 acres of cropland harvested. In each region except the Eastern, 
the commercial farms have a smaller percentage in the class of 1 
to 9 acres harvested. In the South there are fewer commercial 
farms with 50 acres or more harvested; in the Central, Great 
Plains, and Western Regions a larger percentage of the com- 
mercial farms are in the classes of 50-acres-and-over of cropland 
harvested. This is consistent with a previous generalization about 
these regions — that the commercial farms generally rely more 
heavily on cash crops or field crops than do the part-time farms. 



Table 30. — Distribution of Class V Farms as Part-Time and Commercial Farms for Each Type of Farm, for the 

United States and Regions: 1954 









Percent distribution of C 


ass V farms as part-time and commercial farms 






Type of farm 


United States 


Eastern Region 


Southern Region 


Central Region 


Great Plains Region 


Western Region 




Part- 
timo 


Com- 
mercial 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 




28.8 

21.7 
17.0 
38.5 

17.9 

42.3 
32.4 
31.0 
28.0 

is v 

40.3 
07. 3 
29.0 
55.0 
47.8 


71.2 

78.3 
83.0 
61 5 
82.1 

57.7 
07. 
08.4 
72.0 
51.2 

59.7 
32.7 
71.0 
44.4 
52.3 


29.0 

20.2 
23.8 
38. 5 
10.0 

44.7 
35.2 
32.5 
23.6 
49.5 

55.9 
58. 3 
18.2 
41.6 
38.5 


70.4 

79.8 
70. 2 
01.5 
83.3 

55. 3 
64.8 
67.5 
76 4 
50.5 

44.1 

41.7 
81.8 
58.4 

61.5 


19.7 

16.6 
15.9 
29. 1 
17.3 

46.2 
20.3 
24.8 
22.5 
49.0 

27.8 
03.6 
14.3 
50.8 
33.3 


80.3 

83. 4 

si 1 
70.9 
82.7 

53.8 
79.7 
75.2 
77.5 
51.0 

72.2 
36. 1 
85.7 
49. 2 

00, 7 


38.9 

45.2 
25.0 
47.2 
28.6 

42.1 
32.0 
34.0 
31.7 

53. 8 

53.8 
08.2 
31.5 

i;r, 7 
47. 


01.1 

54.8 
75.0 
52.8 
71.4 

57.8 
08.0 
I'.!!. 
08.3 
46.2 

40.2 
31.8 
08.5 
33.3 
52.4 


28.5 

27.8 
27.0 
26.8 
47.4 

30.0 
28.1 
26.9 
26.8 
40.9 

32.5 
33.3 
23.1 
62.5 
45.5 


71.5 

72.2 
73.0 
73.2 
52.6 

64.0 
71.9 
73.1 
73.2 
59.1 

07. 5 
00. 7 
76.9 
37.5 
54.5 


52.6 
38.7 


47.4 


Field-crop farms, other than vegetable and fruit- 


61.3 


Cotton farms 

Cash-grain farms ._ 

Other field-crop farms 

Livestock farms, other than dairy and poultry 


100.0 


39. 1) 
45.7 

50.2 
50. 5 
52. 4 
43.6 
35.9 

59.4 
72.3 
65.6 
71.2 
80.0 


61.0 
54.3 

49.8 
49.5 




47.6 




56.4 




04.1 




40. 6 




27.7 




34.4 




28.8 


Vegetable farms.. ... _ 


20.0 



Table 31. — Class V Farms (Part-Time and Commercial), Cropland Harvested, for the United States and Regions: 1954 





Percent of farms reporting 


Cropland harvested 


United States 


Eastern Region 


Southern Region 


Central Region 


Great Plains Region 


Western Region 




All 

farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 

farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercia] 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 

lllllr 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


Farms reporting _ 
1 to 9 acres ... 


100.0 

11.0 
22.3 
18.4 
23.0 

18.4 

5.4 

1.4 

.1 


100.0 

13.8 
19.5 
18.0 
25.0 

19.5 

3.6 

.5 


100.0 

9.8 
23.4 
18.5 
22.2 

18.0 

6.1 

1.8 

. 1 


100. 

18.7 
24.1 
17.6 
24.3 

12.2 
2.1 
.3 


100. 

20.8 
19.9 

14.7 
29. 1 

14.4 
.9 
.3 


100. 

17.9 
25.8 
18.9 

22.4 

12.9 

2.6 

.3 


100.0 

12. 6 
32.8 
24.0 
20.5 

9.0 
.9 

. 1 


100.0 

10.0 
28.9 
22.2 

19.2 

12.3 
1.3 
.1 

. 1 


100. 

11.8 
33.8 
24.5 
20.9 

8.1 
.8 
.1 


100. 

5.3 

11.7 
15.3 
30.5 

30.0 

6.7 

.5 


100, 

7.9 
It. 1 
17. H 
31.7 

25.0 

3.2 

.3 


100. 

3.7 
10.2 
13.6 
29.8 

33. 1 
8.9 

.7 


100. o 

2.6 
5.7 
7.7 
18.3 

36.1 

21.2 

7.9 

.5 


iim i) 

4.7 
7.5 
13.7 

22.7 

34.9 

14.3 

2.1 

.1 


100. 

1.8 

4.9 
5.3 
16.5 

30. 6 

23.9 

10.3 

.6 

. 1 


100.0 

21.5 
21.3 

15.6 

17 :; 

14.7 

6.2 

3.2 

.4 


loo. o 

28.1 
25.0 
17. 1 
10.1 

10. 6 
2.5 
.6 


100.0 

14.1 
17.3 


20 to 29 acres. 

30 to 49 acres 

50 to 99 acres 

100 to 199 acres 

200 to 499 acres. 

500 to 999 acres. 


13.9 
18.6 

19.1 

10.2 

0. 

.8 



























































42 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Table 32. — Class V Farms (Part-Time and Commercial), by Class of Work Power, Farm Labor, and Specified Farm Expenditures, 

for the United States and Regions: 1954 





Percent of all farms 


Item 


United States 


Eastern Region 


Southern Region 


Central Region 


Great Plains Region 


Western Region 




All 

farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 




100.0 
55.9 
33.7 
22.2 
44.0 
20.8 
23.2 

90.9 
75.0 
41.6 
11.0 

2.6 

8.9 
86.5 

76.8 
59.9 
49.2 
48.9 
.3 

70.2 
69.2 


100.0 
64.8 
44.2 
20.6 
35.1 
12.7 
22.4 

86.6 
88.7 
35.7 
16.0 

4.0 

11.6 
83.5 

75.7 
59.6 
49.4 
49.1 
.4 

75.3 
74.7 


100.0 
52.0 
29.1 
22.9 
48.0 
24.4 
23.6 

92.8 

69.0 

44.1 

9.3 

2.0 

7.7 
91.4 

77.3 
60.0 
49.1 
48.8 
.3 

67.9 
66.8 


100.0 
54.2 
31.1 
23.1 
45.9 
24.6 
21.3 

91.0 
92.5 
40.2 
13.7 

3.5 

10.6 
89.4 

73.5 
53.8 
53.2 
52.7 
.5 

73.8 
68.4 


100.0 
64.8 
45.7 
19.1 
35.2 
12.2 
23.0 

87.8 
90.3 
35.7 
19.6 

4.4 

15.8 
85.8 

73.4 
56.9 
53.3 
53.0 
.3 

77.9 
75. J 


100.0 
49.6 
24.9 
24.7 
50.3 
30.0 
20.3 

92.4 
93.6 
42.2 
11.0 

3.1 

8.3 
90.9 

73.5 
52.4 
53.2 
62.6 
.6 

72.0 
65.4 


100.0 
36.0 
15.1 
20.9 
64.0 
32.0 
32.0 

90.2 
49.7 
47.6 
11.5 

2.5 

9.8 
88.4 

81.4 
59.1 
57.4 
57.2 
.3 

57.4 
64.0 


100.0 
49.1 
22.5 
26.6 
60.9 
23.6 
27.3 

84.2 
87.0 
37.9 
18.3 

4.9 

14.7 
80.5 

79.3 

54.6 

61.4 

60.9 

.6 

67.1 
61.8 


100.0 
32.6 
13.2 
19.4 
67.4 
34.2 
33.2 

91.8 

39.7 

50.2 

9.7 

2.9 

8.5 
90.5 

82.0 
60.3 
56.3 
56.1 
.2 

54.8 
61.9 


100.0 
75.8 
65.7 
20.1 
24.2 
9.0 
15.2 

91.9 

92.3 

36.2 

7.3 

2.0 

5.4 
89.9 

74.0 
67.0 
34.0 
34.0 


100.0 
78.4 
62.7 
15.7 
21.7 
6.0 
16.7 

88.5 

89.2 

35.6 

8.5 

3.0 

6.8 
85.4 

73.0 
66.2 
34.3 
34.3 


100.0 
74.0 
61.1 
22.9 
26.1 
11.8 
14.3 

94.1 

94.3 

36.6 

5.5 

1.3 

5.1 
92.8 

74.6 
61.5 
33.9 
33.9 


100.0 
78.5 
49.1 
29.4 
21.0 
8.4 
13.2 

92.2 
93.1 
36.6 
11.1 

2.6 

8.6 
95.2 

75.7 
59.4 
49.4 
49.1 
.3 

81.0 

86.2 


100.0 
71.6 
47.0 
24.5 
28.6 
9.2 
19.4 

86.6 
88.1 
31.6 
14.3 

4.4 

9.9 
84.4 

80.0 
60.2 
57.1 
56.8 
.4 

83.0 
79.5 


100.0 
82.7 
50.7 
32.0 
18.7 
8.2 
10.6 

96.1 

96.6 

39.5 

9.8 

1.8 

8.1 
94.4 

73.7 
69.1 
45.9 
45.6 
.2 

80.1 
89.3 


100.0 
63.4 
41.7 
21.7 
36.6 
12.0 
24.6 

88.3 
91.3 
37.2 
16.1 

3.5 

12.7 
33.0 

68.3 
52.4 
44.8 
43.3 
1.5 

69.0 
76.5 


100.0 
58.3 
41.9 
16.4 
41.7 
12.3 
29.4 

85.0 
89.3 
35.5 
19.2 

3.2 

16.7 
81.3 

72.3 

56.4 

47.1 

45.8 

1.2 

65.6 
75.2 


100.0 




69.3 




41.5 


Tractor and no horses or mules. .. 


27.8 
30.6 


No tractor, but horses and/or mules 


11.6 
19.0 


Week of Sept. 26-Oct. 2 or Oct. 24-30: 


92.1 




93.6 




38.8 




11.8 


Regular workers (to be employed 160 days 


3.8 


Seasonal workers (to be employed less than 


8.1 


Operator working on farm 1 or more hours — 


90.8 
63.8 




47.9 




42.3 


$lto$2499 - 


40.4 




1.9 




83.4 
83.6 


81.2 
83.6 


84.8 
83.6 


72.9 




77.9 











Source of work power: Tractor, horses, and/or mules. — Sources 
of work power are of paramount interest in farming. A larger 
percentage of part-time farms (64.8 percent) than commercial 
farms (52.0 percent) have tractors, and a larger percentage of part- 
time farms (44.2 percent) than commercial farms (29.1 percent) 
have both tractor and horses and/or mules. About twice as high 
a percentage of commercial farms (24.4 percent) as part-time 
farms (12.7 percent) have horses and/or mules and no tractor. 

About the same percentage have no tractor and no horses or 
mules. These generalizations also apply in the Eastern and South- 
ern Regions where tractors are more frequent among the part-time 
farms than among the commercial group. In the South, where 
commercial farms are depending heavily on field crops, only about 
one-third of the commercial farms (32.6 percent) have a tractor 
and about one-third (33.2 percent) have no tractor and no horses 
or mules. Many of these farms are cropper units. 

In the Central Region about the same percentage of part-time 
farms (78.4 percent) as commercial farms (74.0 percent) have a 
tractor. A larger percentage of the part-time farms have horses 
and/or mules (62.7 percent to 51.1 percent), while more of the 
commercial farms have only tractors (22.9 percent to 15.7 percent). 
Also more of the commercial farms (11.8 percent) than the part- 
time farms (5.0 percent) have horses and/or mules and no tractors. 
However, only about one-sixth of the farms, as compared with 
one-third in the South, have neither tractors or horses and/or 
mules. 

The situation is generally reversed in the Great Plains and in 
the Western Region where a higher percentage of commercial 
farms have tractors and a smaller percentage of the commercial 
farms have neither a tractor, horses and/or mules. In fact, in 
the Great Plains Region only 10.5 percent of the commercial farms — 
the low for any group — have no tractor and no horses and/or 
mules. 

Family and hired workers : Week of September 2&-October 2 or 
October 24-30. — The differences among part-time and commercial 
farms are generally not large in respect to family workers and 
hired help (Table 32). On the commercial farms there is some- 
what higher percentage of family workers and a lower percentage 
having hired help. About 44.1 percent of the commercial farms 
and 35.7 percent of the part-time farms had unpaid members of 
the operator's family working on the farm during the specified 



week; and only 9.3 percent of the commercial farms as against 
15.0 percent of the part-time farms had hired workers during the 
same week. 

Expenditures for machine hire, labor, feed, and fuel. — The 
percentage of farm operators hiring machines and labor is remark- 
ably uniform between part-time and commercial farms and among 
the various regions. Moreover, in general there appears to be no 
significant difference between part-time and commercial farms 
as to the proportion hiring machines and labor. 

Part-time farm operators reporting the specific expenditure 
spent more for machine hire, for hired labor, and for feed for 
livestock and poultry than did the commercial farmers (Table 33) . 
Commercial farmers, with the notable exception of the South, 
spent more per farm for gasoline and other petroleum fuels. 
These data further emphasize the fact that, for the United States, 
part-time farmers tend more toward livestock, and the larger 
expenditures for gasoline and other petroleum fuels among 
commercial farms are a result of greater emphasis in most regions 
on field crops. 

Table 33. — Class V Farms (Part-time and Commercial), 
Specified Farm Expenditures Per Farm Reporting, for the 
United States and Regions: 1954 



Specified expenditures andjclass 
of farm 



Machine hire (dollars): 

All farms 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms ... 

Hired labor (dollars): j ~i 

All farms -- 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms — 

Feed for livestock and poultry 
(dollars) : 

All farms 

Part-time farms-. — 

Commercial farms 

Gasoline and other petroleum 
fuels (dollars): 

All farms 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 



United 
States 



131.44 
147.66 
124.36 



221. 69 
261.33 
204.27 



406.40 
494.42 
363.79 



202.22 
186. 36 
210.46 



Eastern 
Region 



114.30 
124.23 
109. 52 



226. 19 
255. 94 
212.99 



478.80 
618.92 
411.63 



163.34 
161. 24 
164.41 



South- 
ern 
Region 



106. 44 
135. 82 
99.30 



206. 48 
258.92 
191.14 



248. 85 
343. 35 
217.80 



168.29 
174.24 
166.39 



Central 
Region 



136. 45 
141.40 
133.29 



165. 69 
198.66 
143.87 



473. 87 
4%. 21 
459. 91 



201.60 
180.02 
216.67 



Great 
Plains 
Region 



180.43 
170. 31 
185. 10 



242.72 
265.10 
230. 12 



472. 30 
664.63 
429.09 



273. 01 
217.30 
295.42 



West- 
ern 
Region 



211. 62 
202.18 
224.38 



459. 69 
409.66 
623.75 



587.81 
568.19 
608.09 



270.69 
217. 18 
329.72 



PART-TIME FARMING 



43 



Other specified machinery and expenditures. — Part-time 
farms generally appear to be more adequately supplied with other 
farm machinery and equipment (Table 34). This is especially 
true of such items as milking machines and motortrucks. In some 



Table 34. — Class V Farms (Part-time and Commercial), 
Percent Reporting Specified Farm Machinery and Equip- 
ment, for the United States and Regions: 1954 



Machinery and equipment and 
type ol farm 



Farms reporting electric pig 
brooder: 

All farms . _ - 

Part-time 

Commercial -- 

Farms reporting power feed 
grinder: 

All farms-. 

Part-time- 

Commercial 

Farms reporting milking ma- 
chine: 

All farms 

Part-time 

Commercial 

Farms reporting grain combine: 

All farms 

Part-time - 

Commercial 

Farms reporting corn picker: 

All farms- _ 

Part-time.. 

Commercial 

Farms reporting pickup baler: 

All farms 

Part-time 

Commercial 

Farms reporting field forage har- 
vester: 

All farms- 

Part-time 

Commercial ._ 

Farm reporting motortruck: 

All farms., 

Part-time 

Commercial 



United 
States 



0.9 
1.2 



8.9 
9.7 
8.5 



8.4 
10.5 
6.8 



9.9 
10.6 
8.8 



6.0 
6.5 
5.9 



4.6 
5.5 
4.2 



1.0 
1.3 



39.6 
46.7 
36.5 



Eastern 
Region 



0.6 
.6 
.5 



8.4 
10.0 
7.7 



9.2 
13.6 
7.2 



4.9 
6.1 
4.6 



3.9 
4.2 
3.8 



6.6 
8.6 
5.7 



1.0 
1.4 
1.0 



39.4 
42.7 
37.8 



South- 
ern 
Region 



0.2 
.2 
.2 



2.8 
4.4 
2.4 



1.7 
1.8 

.5 



3.7 
4.9 
1.3 



1.2 
1.4 
1.1 



1.8 
3.6 
1.4 



33.3 
43.9 
30.5 



Central 
Region 



2.1 
2.7 
1.8 



13.5 
11.7 

14.7 



18.9 
18.3 
19.2 



15.8 
16.1 
15.6 



15.1 
14.8 
15.5 



5.6 
7.5 



1.7 
1.6 

1.7 



35.3 
39.6 
32.4 



Oreat 
Plains 
Region 



0.7 
.6 
.7 



18.2 
17.3 
18.6 



6.1 
5.3 
6.5 



22.6 
16.9 
25.2 



9.1 

5.2 
10.8 



5.4 
4.9 
5.5 



1.5 
1.6 
1.4 



56.6 
60.9 
54.6 



West- 
ern 
Region 



1.1 
.8 
1.5 



11.1 

7 4 
15.4 



14 8 
12 3 

14.4 



12.8 
7.6 
18.8 



8.0 
6.5 
9.7 



1.5 
1.0 
2.2 



62.2 
63.1 
61.1 



cases as with milking machines, however, a somewhat larger 
percentage of part-time farmers would be expected to have the 
given machine since a larger percentage are dairy farms. 

Farms by tenure of operator. — A relatively large percentage of 
all farm operators are listed as full owners or part owners. (This 
is shown in Table 35.) These two groups comprise 69.5 percent 
of the total as compared with 30.4 percent listed as tenants. 

The stronger ownership status of part-time farmers is shown 
in the Eastern, Southern, and Western Regions where significantly 
larger percentages of part-time farmers are full owners. In con- 
trast, in the Central and Great Plains Regions part-time and 
commercial farms are about equal in percentage of ownership. 

Nationally, full ownership or part ownership among part-time 
farms, totaling 82.0 percent of all part-time farms as compared 
with 64.0 percent of ownership among commercial farmers, is 
largely the result of considerably greater ownership among part- 
time farmers in the South, where 69.3 percent of the part-time 
farms are operated by either full or part owners, compared with 
only 44.0 percent of commercial farms operated by full owners 
or part owners. 

If owner operation is accepted as a criterion of financial status 
or well-being, there would be little difference among the part-time 
and commercial farms except in the South. It appears, however, 
that other factors should also be taken into account, such as value 
of farm, off-farm income, and type of operation. Part-time 
farms by definition, of course, have more off-farm income than 
do the commercial farms. In addition, the part-time farms have 
been found to be of higher value per farm and per acre, and except 
in the Central Region or Corn Belt, part-time farms generally 
have larger investments in livestock or, as in the Western Region, 
in specialties like fruits or nuts. Thus, although the percentage 
of ownership, except in the South, is about as high among com- 
mercial Class V operators as among the part-time groups, other 
factors suggest that financial status between the two groups is 
considerably different. In the South, however, the low percent- 
age of ownership among the commercial farms, and the high 
percentage of crop-share tenancy in a situation of predominantly 
field-crop type of farming, suggest considerable insecurity and 
lack of financial reserves among the commercial farm-operator 
families. 



Table 35. — Class V Farms (Part-Time and Commercial), by Tenure of Operator, for the United States and Regions: 1954 





Percent of operators 


Tenure of operator 


United States 


Eastern Region 


Southern Region 


Central Region 


Great Plains Region 


Western Region 




All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Commer- 
cial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Commer- 
cial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Commer- 
cial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Commer- 
cial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Commer- 
cial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Commer- 
cial 




100.0 

53.7 

15.8 

.2 

30.4 

23.4 
2.4 

1.6 

.9 

2. 1 

82.3 
17.7 


100.0 

64.7 

17.3 

.2 

17.8 

10.9 
2.6 
1.5 
.6 
2.2 

(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

48.9 

15.1 

. 1 

35.9 

28.9 
2.3 
1.7 
1.0 

2.1 

(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

65.5 

14.5 

.1 

20.0 

15.3 
1.4 
.1 

1.5 
1.7 

93.3 

6.7 


100.0 

72.9 

14.1 

.3 

12.7 

6.9 

2.2 

.3 

.6 

2.8 

(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 
62.1 
14.7 


100.0 

35.5 

13.8 

.2 

50.5 

44.0 

2.6 

.6 

.4 

2.3 

60.6 
39.5 


100.0 

50.4 

18.9 

.4 

30.3 

25.9 
1.8 
.2 

2.4 

(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

31.6 

12.4 

.1 

55.9 

49.6 

2.8 

.8 

.5 

2.1 

(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 
74.2 
15.2 


100.0 
74.2 
15.5 


100.0 
74.3 
15.0 


100.0 

48.9 

23.7 

.4 

27.0 

13.2 
3.8 
6.2 
1.6 
2.3 

97.0 
3.0 


100.0 

51.4 

24.9 

.4 

23.4 

7.6 
6.3 
5.8 
.9 
2.7 

(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

47.8 

23.2 

.4 

28.7 

15.7 
2.6 
6.4 
1.8 
2.1 

(NA) 
(NA) 


100.0 

74.4 

16.9 

.2 

8.5 

4.0 
1.7 
.9 

"~L~8~ 

98.4 
1.6 


100.0 

80.0 

13.1 

.1 

6.8 

2.9 

1.5 

.1 

.1 

2.2 

(NA) 
(NA) 








Part owners 

Managers 


21.2 
.4 


Tenants 

Crop-share tenants and crop- 


23.2 

19.1 
1.0 


10.6 

3.6 
2.1 

1.9 
1.0 
2.0 

99.6 
.4 


10.4 

3.8 
2.2 
1.7 
1.1 
1.6 

(NA) 
(NA) 


10.7 

3.4 
2.1 
1.9 
1.0 
2.2 

(NA) 
(NA) 


10.4 












1.9 
1.3 

(NA) 
(NA) 










(NA) 
(NA) 







NA Not available. 



44 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Tables 36 and 37 supplement the description of Table 35 by 
providing a direct comparison of relationships (1) with part-time 
and commercial farms as a percentage of all farms with similar 
tenure in the same region (Table 36), and (2) with part-time and 
commercial farms as a percentage of the United States total 
(Table 37) . 

Table 36. — Class V Farms (Part-Time and Commercial), by 
Tenure of Operator, by Type of Farm, for the United 
States and Regions: 1954 



Tenure of operator and 
type of farm 



Total all farms 

Part-time farms.- 

Commercial farms 

Full owners - 

Part-time farms.. 

Commercial farms 

Part owners 

Part-time farms.. 

Commercial farms. 

Managers 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Tenants 

Part-time farms . 

Commercial farms 

Cash 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Share-cash 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Crop-share tenants and crop 
pers 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Livestock share. 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Other and unspecified 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 



Percent distribution within each tenure 



United 

States 



100.0 
30.3 
69.6 

100.0 
36.6 
63.4 

100.0 
33.3 
66.6 

100.0 
44.8 

55.2 

100.0 
17.8 
82.2 

100.0 
32.9 
67.1 

100.0 
27.2 
72.8 



100.0 
14.2 
85.8 

100.0 
20.4 
79.6 

100.0 
32.3 
67.7 



East- 
ern 
Region 



100.0 
30.9 
69.1 

100.0 
34.5 

65. 5 

100.0 
30. 1 
69.9 

100.0 
100. 



100.0 
19.7 
80.3 

100.0 
50.0 
50.0 

100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
14.0 
86.0 

100.0 
11.8 
88.2 

100.0 
49.5 
50.5 



South- 
ern 
Region 



100.0 
?1.0 
79.0 

100.0 
29.8 
70.2 

100.0 
28.8 

71.2 

100.0 
51.9 

48.1 

100.0 
12.6 
87.4 

100.0 
14.9 

85.1 

100.0 

5.0 

95.0 



100.0 
12.2 
87.8 

100.0 



100.0 



100.0 
22.2 



Cen- 
tral 
Region 



100.0 
39.6 
60.4 

100.0 
39.5 
GO. 5 

100.0 
40.4 
59.6 



100 
40,0 
60.0 

100.0 

37.1 
62.9 



100.0 

41.8 
68.2 

100.0 
41.7 
58.3 

100.0 
32.3 
67. 7 



Great 

Plains 
Region 



100.0 
31.1 
68.9 

100.0 
32.7 
67.3 

100.0 
32.7 
67.3 

100.0 
28.6 
71.4 

100.0 
27.0 
73.0 

100.0 
52.0 
48.0 

100.0 
29.1 
70.9 



100.0 
18.1 
81.9 

100.0 
18.3 
81.7 

100.0 
36.9 
63.1 



West- 
ern 
Region 



100.0 
53.5 
46.5 

100.0 
57.5 
42.5 

100.0 
41.6 

58.4 

100.0 
20.0 

80.0 

100.0 
42.9 
57. 1 

100.0 
48.7 
61.3 

100.0 
4.8 
95. 2 



100.0 
38.7 
61.3 

100.0 
100. 



100.0 
64. 3 
35.7 



Operators working off farm, by age of operator. — Table 38 
shows that in each region the number of days the operator works 
off farm is closely correlated with the age of the operator. It also 
shows that whether or not he works off farm at all is considerably 
influenced by his age. Among all farms, for instance, the per- 
centage of farmers working off farm decreases steadily from the 
35-to-44 age group to the group 65 years and over; from a peak 
of 56.9 percent of all farm operators 35 to 44 years of age working 
off farm to 18.6 percent working off farm in the 65-year-and-over 
group. 

Generally, although almost as large a percentage of the oper- 
ators under 25 years of age work off farm as among those 35 to 
44 years of age, the younger operators do not work off the farm 
as many days. Table 38 shows that 92.8 percent of the part-time 
operators under 25, for example, worked off farm, compared with 
94.4 percent of those 35 to 44 years of age; yet only 67.4 percent 
of those under 25 years worked 100 days or more off farm, whereas 
87.7 percent of those 35 to 44 years old did so. Only 42.0 percent 
of the younger age group worked 200 days or more off farm while 
64.6 percent of those 35 to 44 years old worked off farm that 
much. A similar tendency is found among the commercial 
farms, where 33.7 percent under 25 worked off farm as compared 
with 31.0 percent of those 35 to 44 years of age. More of the 
younger ages worked off farm 1 to 49 days and relatively more of 
those over 25 worked 50 days or more off farm. 

In almost all regions the operators of middle age, that is, from 



Table 37. — Class V Farms by Tenure, by Type of Farm, 
for the United States and Regions: 1954 



Tenure of operator and 
type of farm 



Total all farms 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Full owners 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Part owners 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Managers. 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Tenants 

Part-tinie farms 

Commercial farms 

Cash 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Share-cash 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 

Crop-share tenants and crop 

pers 

Part-time farms - 

Commercial farms 

Livestock share 

Part-time farms --. 

Commercial farms 

Other and unspecified 

Part-time farms 

Commercial farms 



Farms in region as percent of United States total 



United 
States 



100 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100 
100.0 

100.0 
100 
100.0 

100.0 
100. 
100.0 

100.0 
100 
100.0 

100 
100 
100.0 



100 
100 
100. 

100.0 
100 
100.0 

100.0 
100. 
100 



East- 
ern 
Region 



15.2 
15.5 
15.1 

18.5 
17.4 
19.1 

13.9 
12.6 
14.6 

8.6 
19.2 



10.0 
11.1 
9.7 

8.7 
13.2 
6.5 



9.9 
9.8 
10.0 

26.2 
15.2 
29.1 

12.4 
19.1 
9.3 



South- 
ern 

Region 



40.7 
28.2 
46.2 

27.0 
21.9 
29.9 

35.5 
30.7 
38.0 

46.6 
53. 8 
40.6 

67.7 
47.9 
72.0 

43.7 
19.9 
55.4 

15.9 

2.9 

20.8 



77.6 
66.6 
79.4 

18.5 

23.3 



44.5 
30.5 
51.1 



Cen- 
tral 
Region 



24.4 
31.8 
21.2 

33.8 
36.5 
32.2 

23.5 
28-5 
21.0 



8.5 
18.5 
6.3 

21.8 
26.5 
19.4 

27.9 
38.0 
24.1 



3.7 
11.0 
2.5 

29.6 
60.6 
21.7 

22.9 
22.9 
22.9 



Great 
Plains 
Region 



13.7 
14.0 
13.5 

12.5 
11.1 
13.2 

20.6 
20.2 
20.8 

36.2 
23.1 
46.9 

12.2 

18.4 
10.8 

21.5 
34.1 

15.4 

52.1 

55.6 
50.8 



7.7 
9.8 
7.3 

25.3 
22.7 
20.0 

15.0 
17.2 
14.0 



West- 
ern 
Region 



6.0 
10.5 
4.0 

8.3 
13.0 
5.6 

6.4 
8.0 
5.6 

8.6 
3.8 
12.5 

1.7 
4.0 
1.2 

4,2 
6.3 
3.2 

3.3 

.6 

4.4 



1.0 

2.8 

.7 

.3 
1.5 



5.2 

10.3 
2.7 



25 to 54 years who worked off farm at all, did so more days than 
those who were under 25 years or those 55 years old and over. 
Also both the percentage working off farm, and the days worked 
by those so working, declined sharply in the 55-to-64 and in the 
65-years-and-over age groups. 

Thus, these small-scale farms — particularly the part-time 
farms — generally did not absorb the full energies of the operators 
in the middle-age brackets. As the operators grew older and 
off-farm earnings declined, the farms served more as a basis 
for subsistence. However, the large percentage working off farm 
in all age groups under 65 possibly suggests that the extent of 
off-farm work and earnings is determined considerably by the 
opportunities that are available, rather than by the willingness 
of the operators to do such work. 

Farms having specified facilities. — In the case of each of the 
facilities a larger percentage' of the part-time farms than of the 
commercial farms have the facility throughout each of the major 
regions (Table 39). Sometimes, as with electricity, the differ- 
ences are not large and possibly not significant. In most of the 
other cases, however, the differences are substantial and they 
indicate a higher level of living for the part-time farmers. These 
differences appear to be greatest in the South and least in the 
Western Region. 

Summary and conclusion. — Dividing the farms in Economic 
Class V into part-time and commercial groups reveals noteworthy 
differences. The part-time farms generally are shown to average 
higher in value per farm and per acre. A higher percentage of 
the commercial farms are shown to be predominantly field-crop 
farms while the part-time farms are more generally livestock, 
except in the Corn Belt or Central Region where the opposite 
situation prevails. Part-time farms are somewhat better equipped 
and apparently have a higher level of living. The work done 
off farm is correlated with the age of the operator. 



PART-TIME FARMING 



45 



Table 38. — Class V Farms (Part-Time and Commercial), by Days Operator Worked Off Farm, by Age of Operator, for 

the United States and Regions: 1954 





Percent of operators 


Days of work off farm and age of 


United .States 


Eastern Region 


Southern Region 


Central Region 


Great Plains Region 


Western Region 




All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 

farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


All 
farms 


Part- 
time 


Com- 
mercial 


Working off farm: 


43 6 
50 2 
55.6 
56.9 
48 3 
35.7 
18.6 

13.6 
20.2 
14 2 
14 1 
16.4 
12.5 
8.4 

6.2 

11 2 
9.0 
7.0 
6.2 
5.7 
2.6 

23.8 

Is 8 
32 3 
35-9 
25.7 
17.6 
7.6 

6.5 
7.1 
8.3 
9.5 
6 8 
5.4 
1.9 

17.4 
11.7 

24.1 
26 4 
18 8 

12 2 
5.7 


87 1 
92 8 
94 (', 
94 4 
91.9 
82.7 
48.5 

4 
7 2 
2 3 
3.0 

4 8 
5.7 
3.9 

5.1 

18.1 

4 8 
3.7 

5 3 
6.6 
3.5 

78 
67.4 
87.5 
87.7 
81.8 
70.5 
41.0 

21.2 
25 4 
22 4 
23.2 
21.8 
21.5 
10.4 

56.8 
42 
65 1 
64 6 
60. 1 
48.9 
30.6 


24 4 
33 7 
32.9 
31 

28 4 
2(1 1 
11.8 

17.8 

25 2 
21.3 
21.8 
21.7 
14.7 

9.4 

6. 6 

8.5 
11.6 
'.i 2 
6.7 
5.4 
2 4 


41.5 

is II 
56.3 
57.5 
50.0 
34.1 
16.1 

12 2 
28 
15.9 
11.0 
15.9 
9.2 
8.9 

4.5 
4 II 
5.6 
6.6 
4.8 
4.7 
1.3 

24 8 
16.0 
34.9 
39.8 
29.3 
20.3 
5.9 

5.8 
4 II 
8.7 
8.8 
6 7 
5.0 
1.3 

19.1 
12.0 
26.2 
31.0 
22 6 
15.3 
4.7 


88.7 
83.3 
98.0 
95 2 
94 6 

SS 'J 

47 1 

4 2 
16.7 
2 
2 9 
4 3 
4.4 
7.9 

4 8 

6.1 
4 8 
4 3 
5.9 
2.6 

79.7 
66.7 

S'l 'I 

87.4 
85.9 
77.9 
36.6 

18.5 
16.7 
22 4 
19.4 
19.6 
19. 1 
7 9 

61.2 

50.0 
67 3 
68.0 
66.3 
58.8 
28.8 


20.2 
36.8 
29 9 
26 
27.0 
15 1 
10.1 

14.9 
31.6 

24 7 
17.9 
21.9 
10.9 

i.l. 1 

4.3 
5 3 
5 2 
8 1 
5.1 
4.2 
111 


38.5 
41.9 
43 2 
4S.8 
37.9 
32.1 
18.8 

15.7 
18.8 
15. 1 
18.1 
17.0 
14.1 
9.0 

7.1 
10.3 

1(1 2 
7.7 
7.3 
5.2 
2.8 

15.7 
12.8 
17.8 
23. 1 
13.6 
12 9 
6.3 

5.3 
6.8 
6.3 

7.7 
4.5 
3 7 
2.3 

10.4 
6.0 
11.5 
15.4 
9.1 
9.2 
4.0 


M 8 
91.7 
87.7 
89.1 
89. 1 
.-:; i, 
46.4 

4.9 
8 3 
1.9 

5 1 
7.9 
3.0 

4 11 

6.2 

211. 8 

6 6 
3 2 
9.5 
6.0 
2.0 

73 6 
62 5 
79.2 
80.8 
71 7 
74.5 
40.4 

24.8 
23.3 
28.0 
27.0 
23.7 
21.2 
14.8 

48. 8 
29.2 
51.1 
53.8 
48.0 
53 3 
25.6 


26.0 
29 
30.2 

32 7 
25 9 
21 4 
13.7 

18.6 
21.5 
19.0 
23. 3 
19. 1 
16 4 
10.7 

7.3 
7.5 
11.3 

9 ;, 
6 s 
5.0 
3.0 


49.3 
75.0 
75.3 
69.1 
59 7 
37 2 
19, 1 

10.9 
20.8 
13.1 

9.6 
12.8 
11.8 

7.4 

5. 9 

12 5 
8.9 
IV 1 
6 5 
5.8 

3 6 

32.5 
41 7 
53.3 
53 1 
40.5 
19.6 
8.0 

8 3 

4 2 
10.5 
11.6 

Hi. 9 
7.4 
2.8 

24.1 
37.5 
42.9 
41.9 
29 6 
12 2 
5.2 


88.8 
100 (1 
96. 4 
97 6 
93 2 
82.0 
50. 1 

3 5 
8.3 

2.7 
1.9 

4.4 

4 9 
4.0 

3.5 
8 3 
1 8 
3 3 

3 4 
4.9 

4 

81.8 
83.3 
91.9 
92 1 
85 1 
72 2 
42.0 

21.0 
8.3 

18 
92.4 
22 9 
27.3 
14.8 

60.7 
75.0 
73.9 
72 4 
62.4 
44.9 
27.2 


23.3 
50. 

46.1 
30.1 
29.6 
20 5 
11.7 

15 8 
33 3 

27.4 
20.3 
20.3 
14.3 
8.2 

7.5 
HI 7 
18.7 
9.8 
9.2 
8. 1 
3.5 


44.8 
54.9 
62.7 
53.5 
54.3 
37.6 
19.1 

15.9 
24.5 
12.1 
15.0 
23.7 
14.8 
9.0 

5.1 
15.7 
7.3 
5.4 
4.0 
6.4 
1.6 

23.9 
14.7 
43.3 
33.1 

26.5 
16.5 
8.5 

6.1 
9.8 
11.4 
8.6 
6.6 
4.4 
1.1 

17.8 
4.9 
31.9 
24.5 
19.9 
12 2 
7.4 


87.2 
100.0 
98.3 
98.6 
91.2 
76.1 
55.4 

3.8 

2.8 
2.8 
9.9 
3.0 

6.0 
25.0 
8.4 
5.6 
2 5 
7 1 
6.0 

77.3 
75.0 
89.9 
90.1 
86.0 
59.1 
46.4 

19.8 
50.0 
23.6 
23.4 
21.6 
15.6 
6.0 

57.6 
25.0 
66.2 
66.7 
64.4 
43.5 
40.5 


26.0 
43.9 
31.0 
27.3 
37.8 
22.7 
11.0 

21.4 
30.5 
24.4 
22.0 
33. 1 
16. 6 
10.3 

4.7 
13.4 
6.6 
5.3 
4.7 
6.1 
. 7 


56.3 
78 
78.9 
79.8 
62 
49 9 
21.5 

7.9 
8.5 
10.5 
5.6 
9.7 
8.9 
6.0 

7.7 
25.4 
11.4 
8.5 
6.4 
9.3 
3 

4u 7 
44 1 
57 
65 7 
45.8 
31.7 
12.5 

9.5 
16.9 

9.6 
18.4 

9.0 

9.7 
.4 

31.2 
27.1 
47.4 
47.3 
36.8 
21.9 
12. 1 


85.6 
89 1 
99 3 

•X, 11 
91 S 

84 6 
42.2 

3 

7.1 

1.8 
8.7 

6.1 
32.6 

2 1 
6.1 
12 4 
3.1 

76.5 
56.5 
92.2 
93.5 
83.9 
63.5 
39.1 

17.9 
21.7 
15.6 
26.2 
16.4 
19.5 
1.2 

58.6 
34.8 
76.6 
67.4 
67.5 
44.0 
37.9 


23.0 




38.5 


25 to 34 years 


46.0 
42.4 




26. 2 




15.3 




11.7 


Working off farm 1 to 49 days: 
All ages. ... ._ . 


13.5 
38.5 




16. 1 
18.8 
19.3 




9.1 


65 years and over. 

Working off farm 50 to 99 days: 


8.8 
9.5 








29.9 




23.6 


45 to 54 vears ... 


6.9 
6.2 




2.9 


Working off farm 100 days or more: 






















































































Working off farm 100 to 199 days: 


































































































Working off farm 200 days and over: 
All ages 










































35 to 44 vears _ 

































































Table 39. — Class V Farms (Part-Time and Commercial), Percent Reporting Specified Facilities, for the United States 

and Regions: 1954 



Specified facility and type of farm 


United 
States 


Eastern 
Region 


Southern 
Region 


Central 
Region 


Great Plains 
Region 


Western 
Region 


Farms reporting electricity: 


93.0 
94.1 
90.0 

48.8 
52.3 
28.7 

58.8 
65. 5 
37.7 

25.9 
41.3 

19.2 

23.4 

34.7 
18.5 

63.1 
75.4 
57.8 


92.6 
95.3 
91.4 

43.2 
111,(1 
35.2 

50.4 

72. 11 
40.4 

35.4 

;-,:t 2 
27. 4 

25. 7 
39. 9 
19.3 

65.4 
79.5 
59.0 


89.4 
92.5 
88.2 

13.2 

28.1 

9.2 

32.1 
54.2 
26. 2 

15.5 
28.5 
12.0 

15.2 
27.2 

12.0 

46.6 
ii9 n 
43.1 


94.2 
96.7 
92.5 

62.0 
65.3 
55.7 

54. 6 
65.8 
47.3 

38.4 
53.1 
28.7 

31.8 
40.3 
26.1 

79.9 
84.2 
77.1 


91.0 
92.1 
90.6 

43.0 
50.3 
40.2 

52.7 
63. 1 

48. 1 

22.4 
nil 7 
18.6 

26. 2 

31.3 
23.9 

73.4 
75.7 
72.3 


91.2 




91.4 




91.0 


Farms reporting telephone: 


68.6 




67.8 




47.9 


Farms reporting piped running water: 


81.7 




87.1 




75.4 


Farms reporting television set: 


30.5 




36.9 




23.4 


Farms reporting home freezer: 


32.6 




34.3 




30.6 


Farms reporting automobile: 


77.6 




82.5 




72.0 







46 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 
F. OFF^FARM INCOME OF FARM^OPERATOR FAMILIES 



The data in this section are from a special survey of farm family 
income and expenditures made by the Agricultural Marketing 
Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture with the cooperation 
of the Bureau of the Census. (See Farmers' Expenditures in 
1955, Volume III, Part 11, 1954 Census of Agriculture.) 
Information was gathered from a national sample of farm-oper- 
ator families on sources of income and family expenditures. 
This sample is deemed reliable for purposes of inferences concern- 
ing distribution of off-farm income for the United States by eco- 
nomic class of farm. The data included in this section are re- 
printed from the survey report and provide the most detailed 
information available on off-farm earnings and other off-farm 
income of farm people. 

Aggregate off-farm income. — The aggregate off-farm income 
of farm-operator families of $8.0 billion for 1955, shown in Table 
40, compares with $11.3 billion realized net money and nonmoney 
income from agriculture, as estimated by the Agricultural Mar- 
keting Service. 10 Thus, off-farm income of farm-operator families 
is an estimated 41 percent of the total realized net money and 
nonmoney income of farm-operator families. 

Total off-farm income of $1.0 billion derived from farm sources 
such as work on other farms, farm customwork, farm trucking 
and hauling, rental of farm real estate, etc., if added to realized 
net income from farming, would result in a ratio of about 64 
percent from agriculture and 36 percent from nonagricultural 



sources. In other words, according to these estimates, more 
than 40 percent of the aggregate net income of farm-operator 
families is derived from sources off their farm and a little more 
than one-third is from sources outside of agriculture. 

The largest or most important source of off-farm income is in- 
come received by the operator from working for others for wages or 
salary with nonfarm work of $3.2 billion constituting more than 
93 percent of the $3.4 billion total from this source. Income 
received by wife — which includes income received from working 
for others for wages or salary as well as from other sources — is 
about 97 percent from nonfarm sources. Likewise, the income 
received by other members of the family is about 89 percent from 
nonfarm sources. 

The largest part of the income from off-farm business or self- 
employment off the farm is from nonfarm business. Of the total 
of $1.3 billion from off-farm business or nonfarm self -employment, 
about 79 percent is from nonfarm business. Farm customwork 
comprises about 16 percent and farm trucking and hauling only 5 
percent of this total. 

The only item of off-farm income in which agricultural sources 
are more important than nonagricultural sources is the income 
from rental of real estate. In this case, income from rental of farm 
real estate is 72 percent of the total income from rental of real 
estate, or more than two and one-half times the total from rental of 
nonfarm real estate. 



Table 40. — Off-Farm Income of Farm-Operator Families by Source of Income, by Class of Farm, Aggregate for the United 

States: 1955 



Source of income 



Total off-farm income of farm-operator families: 

Total from all sources 

Total farm income (except this farm) 

Total nonfarm income- . 

Income received by farm operator: 
Income from off-farm business or self-em- 
ployment 

Farm customwork 

Farm trucking and hauling 

Nonfarm business 

Income from working for others for wages 

or salary 

Farm work.. 

Nonfarm work 

Income from rental of farm real estate 

Income from rental of nonfarm real estate.. 

Income from roomers and boarders 

Income from interest, dividends, trust 
funds, or royalties 

Income from veteran's pensions and com- 
pensation, veteran's school allotment, 
serviceman's family allotment 

Income from retirement pay, unemploy- 
ment compensation, old age pension, 
annuities, alimony, regular contributions 
or welfare received 

Any other personal income 

Income received by wife 

From farm sources _ 

From nonfarm sources 

Income received by other family members... 

From farm sources 

From nonfarm sources 



United 

States 

(000 

dollars) 



8, 000, 472 
1, 066, 728 
6, 939. 744 



1, 267. 414 

205, 521 

65, 485 

9%, 408 



3, 423, 210 

229, 693 

3, 193, 617 

455,880 
173,014 
53,183 

450, 052 
189, 832 



325, 559 
45,480 

828, 916 

22,401 

806, 514 

793, 932 
87,848 
706, 084 



Group I 



Total 

(000 

dollars) 



1, 009, 530 
343, 918 
665, 612 



243, 624 

81,366 

7,819 

154, 339 



236, 129 
91.972 
144, 167 

126,163 
24.460 
4,205 

150, 927 



11,749 



8,766 
6,967 

83,169 
3,145 
80,015 

113,490 
33. 463 
80, 027 



Class I 

(000 
dollars) 



392, 575 
170, 731 
221, 844 



121,617 
46,415 



75,202 



95,006 
61, 034 
33,973 

55, 708 
9,572 
1,200 

57, 538 



1,286 
2,408 

23,287 

150 

23, 137 

23,277 
7,424 
15,853 



Class II 

(000 
dollars) 



616, 956 
173, 188 
443, 768 



121, 907 

34, 951 

7,819 

79, 137 



141,122 
30, 938 
110, 184 

70,445 
14, 889 
3,005 

93,388 



10, 074 



7,480 
4,659 

59, 872 
2,994 
56,877 

90,213 
26,039 
64, 174 



Group II 



Total 

(000 

dollars) 



2, 876, 423 

447, 077 

2, 429, 347 



462, 309 

110,074 

29,258 

322, 977 



1, 043, 567 

68,876 

974,1 

200,064 
73, 279 
20,032 



77. 955 



54,420 
25, 499 

350.153 

11,731 

338, 422 

356, 355 

27, 073 

329, 282 



Class III 

(000 
dollars) 



835,290 
179, 116 
656. 175 



122, 460 

48.268 

5,008 

69, 185 



202,809 
20, 165 
182, 656 

90,920 

32,420 

7,443 



8,270 
5.948 

93, 715 

3,391 

90, 325 

131, 150 
11,375 
119,775 



Class IV 

(000 
dollars) 



1, 008, 824 
151, 107 
857, 717 



175. 042 
31,483 
13,523 

130, 036 



360, 036 

27,396 

332, 640 

03,296 
22, 395 
6,288 

68,839 



15,410 
12, 437 

154, 278 

6. 952 

147, 326 

108, 207 

8,457 

99,750 



Class V 

(000 
dollars) 



1, 032, 308 
116, 856 
915,454 



164,807 
30,323 
10,727 

123, 756 



480, 722 

21, 326 

459, 396 

45, 848 
18, 465 
6,300 



30, 148 



30,740 
7,114 

102, 160 

1,389 

100, 771 

116,998 

7,241 

109, 767 



Group III 



Total 

(000 
dollars) 



4, 120, 518 

275, 733 

3, 844, 785 



661,581 
14, 081 
28,408 

519,092 



2, 143, 514 

68, 745 

2, 074, 769 

129, 663 
75, 274 
28,946 

86, 336 
100,128 



202, 372 
13,015 

395, 603 

7,526 

388, 078 

324, 087 

27,311 

296,776 



Class VI 

(000 
dollars) 



390, 731 
64,056 
326, 676 



43, 675 
3,557 
2,852 

37,267 



82, 325 
12, 778 
69,647 

32, 070 
5,120 
2,336 

5,330 



26, 378 



43, 704 
3,118 

62,909 
4,996 
57, 912 

83,766 
7,802 
75,964 



Part-time 

(000 
dollars) 



1, 683, 006 

99,247 

1, 583. 759 



261,682 
7,249 
6,141 

248, 292 



922,1 

27,029 
895, 150 

49,160 
44,323 
13,278 



77,956 
3,795 

173 67: 

830 

172, 842 

92,028 
8,837 
83,191 



Resi- 
dential 

(000 
dollars) 



2,046,781 

112,430 

1, 934, 351 



266,224 

3,275 

19,415 

233, 634 



1.139,009 

28,938 

1.110,072 

48,433 
25,831 
13, 331 



45,843 



140, 713 
6, 102 

159,023 

1,699 

157,324 

148, 293 
10, 671 
137, 622 



10 Data published periodically In Farm Income Situation (AMS). Includes Government payments. 
$21.6 billion production expenses and $11.3 billion realized net income from agriculture. 



In 1955, according to AMS estimates, gross farm income of $32.9 billion included 



PART-TIME FARMING 



47 



Distribution of farm operators, sales of farm products, and 
off- farm income by class of farm. — Table 41 provides a basis for 
comparing the percentage distribution of all farm operators and of 
market sales of all farm products with the percentage distribution 
of off-farm income by economic class. The various sources of in- 
come in each class are expressed as a percentage of aggregate in- 
come received by all farmers from each source. 

The farm-operator families on part-time (Class VII) and resi- 
dential (Class VIII) farms, constituting 30.4 percent (12.0 percent 
plus 18.4 percent) of the total number of farm-operator families, 
receive only 1.8 percent of the total receipts from market sales of 
farm products and 46.6 percent (21.0 percent plus 25.6 percent) of 
the total off-farm income. Part-time and residential farm families, 
in other words, who have relatively small receipts from farming 
have higher-than-average off-farm income. Income from nonfarm 
work is largely concentrated in the part-time and residential 
groups. The farm-operator families on part-time and residential 
farms received more than three-fifths of the total income from non- 
farm work (28.0 percent plus 34.8 percent). 

Farm-operator families on Class II to Class VI farms, constituting 
two-thirds (67.0 percent) of the total number of farm families, receive 
slightly less than half (48.5 percent) of the total off-farm income. 

The distribution of nonfarm income by class of farm does not 
show as great extremes or as wide a range among the commercial 



farm operators (Classes I to VI) as does the distribution of receipts 
from sales of farm products. Thus, farm operators in Economic 
Classes I and II constitute 12.2 percent of the total number of 
farm-operator families and receive 58.2 percent of the receipts from 
sale of farm products or about four and one-half the mean or 
average for all farms. But they receive only 12.6 percent of the 
aggregate off-farm income. At the other end of the class scale, 
Class V farm operators have receipts from sales of farm products, 
about one-third the average for all farms and receipts from off -farm 
income about three-fourths that for all farm-operator families. 
Class VI farm operators are 9.7 percent of the total (Class VI 
includes farm operators who work off the farm less than 100 days 
or whose off -farm income is less than the value of farm sales), yet 
they have receipts from sales of farm products constituting only 
1.4 percent of the aggregate for all farms, which is about one- 
seventh the level for all farms, while their receipts of off-farm in- 
come, constituting 4.9 percent of the aggregate, are at a level about 
half as high as that of all farms. Thus, the distribution of off -farm 
income is such as to reduce the relative dispersion of aggregate 
income from all sources in comparison with income received from 
farm sources alone. The off-farm income of part-time (Class VII) 
and residential (Class VIII) farm operators is so high, in fact, as to 
form the basis for an inference that the "low-income problem" is 
largely concentrated in the lower class commercial farm in Classes 
IV, V, and VI, and particularly in Class VI. 



Table 41. — Percent Distribution of Off-Farm Income of Farm-Operator Families From Each Source of Income, by Class of 

Farm, for the United States: 1955 





United 
States 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Source of income 


Total 


Class I 


Class II 


Total 


Class III 


Class IV 


Class V 


Total 


Class VI 


Part-time 


Residen- 
tial 


Total off-farm income of farm-operator families: 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
1000 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


12.6 

32.2 

9.6 

19.2 
39.6 
11.9 
16.5 

6.9 

40.1 

4.5 

27.7 
14.1 
7.9 

33.5 
6.2 

2.7 
15.3 

10 
14.0 
9.9 

14.3 
38.1 
11.3 


4.9 
16.0 
3.2 

9.6 
22.6 


7.7 
16.2 
6.4 

9.6 
17.0 
11.9 

7.9 

4.1 
13.5 
3.5 

15.5 
8.6 
5.7 

20.8 
5.3 

2.3 
10.0 

7.2 
13.4 
7.1 

11.4 

29.6 
9.1 


35.9 
41.9 
35.0 

36.5 
53.6 
44.7 
32.4 

30.5 
30.0 
30.5 

43.9 

42.4 
37.7 

47.3 
41.1 

16.7 
56.1 

42.2 

52.4 
42.0 

44.9 

30.8 
46.6 


10.4 
16.8 
9.5 

9.7 
23.5 
7.6 
6.9 

5.9 
8.8 
5.7 

19.9 
18.7 
14.0 

25.5 
13.3 

2.6 
13.1 

11.3 
15.1 
11.2 

16.5 
12.9 

17.0 


12.6 
14.2 

12.4 

13.8 
15.3 
20.7 
13.1 

10.5 
11.9 
10.4 

13.9 
12.9 
11.8 

16.3 
11.9 

4.7 
27.3 

18.6 
31.0 
18.3 

13.6 
9.6 

14. 1 


12.9 
11.0 
13.2 

13.0 

14.8 
16.4 
12.4 

14.0 
9.3 
14.4 

10.1 
10.7 
11.8 

6.4 
15.9 

9.4 
15.6 

12.3 
6.2 
12.5 

14.7 
8.2 
15.5 


51.5 
25.8 
55.4 

44.3 
6.9 

43.4 
52.1 

62.6 
29.9 
65.0 

28.4 
43.5 
54.4 

19.2 
52.7 

80.6 
28.6 

47.7 
33.6 
48.1 

40.8 
31.1 
42.0 


4.9 
6.0 

4.7 

3.4 

1.7 
4.4 
3.7 

2.4 
6.6 
2.2 

7.0 
3.0 
4.4 

1.2 
13.9 

13.4 
6.9 

7.6 
22.3 

7.2 

10.6 
8.9 
10.8 


21.0 
9.3 
22.8 

20.6 
3.5 
9.4 

24.9 

26.9 
11.8 
28.0 

10.8 

25.6 
25 

3.8 
14.7 

23.9 
8.3 

21.0 

3.7 
21.4 

11.6 
10.1 
11.8 




Total farm income (except this farm) 


10.5 


Income received by farm operator: 
Income from off-farm business or self-em- 




Farm customwork 




Farm trucking and hauling 




Nonfarm business 


7.5 

2.8 

26.6 

1.1 

12.2 
5.6 
2.3 

12.8 
.9 

.4 
5.3 

2.8 
.7 
2.9 

2.9 
8.5 
2.2 




Income from working for others for wages or 








Nonfarm work 


34 8 


Income from rental of farm real estate 
Income from rental of nonfarm real estate... 


10.6 
14.9 


Income from interest, dividends, trust 




Income from veteran's pensions and com- 
pensation, veteran's school allotment, 


24 1 


Income from retirement pay, unemploy- 
ment compensation, old age pension, an- 
nuities, alimony, regular contributions or 






13 4 


Income received by wife. .. 




From farm sources 








Income received by other family members 


18.7 











48 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Average off-farm income by source of income by class of farm. — 
Table 42, expressing off-farm income as an average per farm, 
indicates a sharp distinction between part-time (Class VII) and 
residential (Class VIII) farm operators on the one hand and 
Classes II-VI on the other; with the average off-farm income of 
$2,730 for Class VII and $2,382 for Class VIII compared with a 
narrow range of $1,198 for Class II, $1,161 for Class III, $1,228 
for Class IV, and a wider range of $1,668 for Class V to $834 for 
Class VI. Class I farm operators average particularly high in 
income received from farm custom work, farm work, nonfarm 
business, rental of farm real estate, and interest, dividends, trust 
funds, or royalties. Part-time and residential farm operators 
report that nonfarm work for others for wages or salary is their 
major source of off-farm income. Thus, Class I farm-operator 
families derive the major part of their off-farm income from invest- 
ments in machinery or custom equipment, in land, real estate 
stocks, etc., while the high income of part-time and residential 
farm operators is largely from wages or salary. 

Income received from working for others, for wages or salary in 
nonfarm work, averages about the same for Classes II and III, 
increases for Classes IV and V, and reaches a peak for part-time 
and residential farms; thus suggesting that the amount of money 
earned in nonfarm work by the operator is in inverse proportion to 
the labor required for farm operation. The income earned by the 
wife and by other family members does not vary in the same way 
from class to class and there is no apparent consistent relationship 
between size of farm operations and average off-farm earnings of 



the wife and other members of the family. The most notable ex- 
ception is the high average income of the wife in the part-time 
(Class VII) farm-operator group. 

The differences by economic class in average income from wages 
or salary from nonfarm work by the operator — as compared with 
income of wife and other family members from nonfarm sources — 
suggests that nonfarm earnings of the farm operator are limited by 
the time he has available for nonfarm work as well as by the 
availability of off-farm work. This suggests that the growing 
mechanization of "medium-size" farms, in Classes III, IV, and V 
especially, and the consequent reduction in the farm labor require- 
ments of these farms, will lead to increased off-farm employment 
of the farm operator and to more nonfarm family income. The 
low level of mechanization in Class VI, part-time (Class VII), and 
residential (Class VIII) farms — in spite of the increases previously 
noted — leads to the inference that off-farm earnings of the farm 
operator in these classes will increase to a lesser degree, as a general 
rule, as the result of further advances in mechanization. The 
hypothesis might be suggested that increases in mechanization 
among the Class III, IV, and V farms will result in alleviating part 
of their income problem by enhancement of off-farm earning 
ability. Among farm operators in Classes VI, VII, and VIII 
further increases in mechanization will have relatively little effect 
in this regard and the low-income problem of these operators, who 
constitute 40 percent of the total number of all operators, will be 
alleviated primarily through increased off-farm income with reduc- 
tions in the farm labor requirement being dependent more on 
decline in the amount of farm enterprises undertaken. 



Table 42. — Average Off-Farm Income of Farm-Operator" Families by Source of Income, by Class of Farm, for the United 

States: 1955 





United 

States 

(dollars) 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Source of income 


Total 
(dollars) 


Class I 

(dollars) 


Class II 
(dollars) 


Total 
(dollars) 


Class III 
(dollars) 


Class IV 
(dollars) 


Class V 
(dollars) 


Total 
(dollars) 


Class VI 
(dollars) 


Part-time 
(dollars) 


Residen- 
tial 
(dollars) 


Average off-farm income of farm-operator families: 


1, 682 

224 

1,458 

266 
43 
14 

209 

719 
48 

671 

96 
36 
11 

95 
40 

68 
10 

174 

5 

169 

167 
18 
148 


1,538 

524 

1,014 

371 

124 

12 

235 

360 
140 
220 

192 
37 
6 

230 
18 

13 
11 

127 

5 

122 

173 
51 
122 


2,779 
1.209 
1,571 

861 
329 


1,198 
336 
862 

237 
68 
15 

154 

274 
60 
214 

137 
29 
6 

181 
20 

15 
9 

116 

6 

110 

175 
51 
125 


1,332 

207 

1,125 

214 

51 

14 

150 

483 
32 
451 

93 

34 

9 

99 
36 

25 
12 

162 

5 

157 

165 
13 

152 


1,161 
249 
912 

170 

67 

7 

96 

282 

28 
254 

126 
45 
10 

160 
35 

11 

8 

130 

5 

126 

182 

16 

167 


1,228 

184 

1,044 

213 
38 
16 

158 

438 

33 

405 

77 
27 
8 

84 
28 

19 

15 

188 

8 

179 

132 

10 

121 


1,668 

189 

1,479 

266 
49 
17 

200 

777 
34 
742 

74 
30 
10 

47 
49 

50 
11 

165 

2 

163 

189 

12 

177 


2,119 

142 

1,977 

289 

7 

15 

267 

1,102 

35 

1,067 

67 
39 

15 

44 
51 

135 
7 

203 

4 

200 

167 
14 
153 


834 
137 
698 

93 
8 
6 

80 

176 
27 
148 

68 
11 
5 

11 
56 

93 

7 

134 

11 

124 

179 

17 

162 


2,730 

161 

2,669 

424 
12 
10 

403 

1,496 

44 

1,452 

80 
72 
22 

28 
45 

126 
6 

282 

1 

280 

149 

14 

135 


2,382 


Total farm income (except this farm) 


131 
2,251 


Income received by farm operator: 
Income from off-farm business or self- 


298 




4 




23 




532 

673 
432 
241 

394 

68 
8 

407 
12 

9 
17 

165 

1 

164 

165 
63 
112 


272 


Income from working for others for wages 


1,325 




34 




1,292 


Income from rental of farm real estate 

Income from rental of nonfarm real estates- 


56 
30 

16 


Income from interest, dividends, trust 


74 


Income from veteran's pensions and com- 
pensation, veteran's school allotment, 


63 


Income from retirement pay, unemploy- 
ment compensation, old age pension, 
annuities, alimony, regular contributions 


164 




7 




185 




2 




183 


Income received by other family members 

From farm sources 

From nonfarm sources 


173 
12 
160 



PART-TIME FARMING 



49 



Distribution of sources of off-farm income by class of farm. — 
Table 13 presents each source of off-farm income as a percentage 
of the total off-farm income of each class or group. Thus, for all 
farms in the United States, nonfarm income constitutes 86.7 per- 
cent of total off-farm income while 13.3 percent is from farm 
sources other than the farm of the operator. The most important 
sources of off-farm income for all farms arc seen to be nonfarm 
work for others for wages or salary, nonfarm business, income re- 
ceived by wife from nonfarm sources, and income received by other 
family members from nonfarm sources. 

By classes and by groups the percentage of off-farm income re- 
ceived from farm sources generally declines from Class I to Class 
V and from Group I to Group III. Thus, in Group I (Classes I 
and II) 34.1 percent of off -farm income is from farm sources while 
in Group III (Classes VI, VII, and VIII) only 6.7 percent is from 
farm sources; this indicates relatively greater reliance, by the 
higher class commercial farm operators on farm customwork, 
farm trucking and hauling, and other farm investments. Class I 
farm operators are also unique in that they have almost twice as 
much income from farm work as from nonfarm work; whereas, 
Class II farm operators have more than three times as much from 
nonfarm work; and the proportion from farm work declines 
markedly for other classes from Class III to Class VIII farm 
operators. 

The farm ownership status of Classes I, II, and III is clearly indi- 
cated in that the percent of off-farm income received from rental 
of farm real estate of 14.2 percent, 11.4 percent, and 10.9 percent, 
respectively, is considerably higher than 6.3 percent and 4.4 per- 
cent for Class IV and Class V and the 3.1 percent for Classes VI, 
VII, and VIII (Group III). A much narrower range of income 
is indicated in returns from rental of nonfarm real estate. 



There is basis for the inference that operators of large commer- 
cial farms on the average do not have as large investment in 
property outside of agriculture as they do in farm resources out- 
side their farm. This is contrary to a belief that appears to be 
held by many people. The data in Table 43 show that on the 
average the off-farm property of the large-scale operators is 
largely concentrated in agriculture. Thus, Class I farm operators, 
with 14.2 percent of their off-farm income from rental of farm real 
estate and only 2.4 percent from rental of nonfarm real estate are 
shown to have considerably larger investments in rental property 
in agriculture. In addition, although 19.2 percent of Class I off- 
farm income is from nonfarm business and another 8.7 percent 
from nonfarm work, a total of 27.3 percent is from farm work 
such as farm customwork (11. S percent) and from work for others 
for wages or salary (15.5 percent). These percentages, when 
compared with those for farm operators in other classes, illustrate 
that the investments of the large-scale operators are more largely 
concentrated in agriculture than are those of operators of smaller 
farms. 

Classes I, II, and III farm operators, however, are seen to have 
relatively larger percentages of income from interest, dividends, 
trust funds, or royalties, than is the case for the operators of 
smaller-scale farms. This merely points to the fact that operator 
families in Classes I, II, and III have larger equities than other 
groups. 

Operators of Class VI farms arc unique in having a decidedly 
higher-than-average percentage of income from retirement pay , 
old-age pensions, annuities, unemployment pay, etc. One may 
infer from this that these operators are older than those in other 
groups and not as well-to-do. 



Table 43. — Percent Distribution of Off-Farm Income of Farm-Operator Families by Source of Income, by Class of Farm, 

for the United States: 1955 



Source of income 



Total off-form income of farm-operator families: 

Total from all source? 

Total farm income (except, this farm) 

Total nonfarm income 

Income received by farm operator: 
Income from off-farm business or self-em- 
ployment 

Farm customwork 

Farm trucking and hauling 

Nonfarm business. 

Income from working for others for wages or 

salary 

Farm work 

Nonfarm work 

Income from rental of farm real estate 

Income from rental of nonfarm real estate . 

Income from roomers and boarders 

Income from interest, dividends, trust 
funds, or royalties 

Income from veteran's pensions and com- 
pensation, veteran's school allotment, 
serviceman's family allotment 

Income from retirement pay, unemploy- 
ment compensation, old age pension, an- 
nuities, alimony, regular contributions or 
welfare received 

Any other personal income 

Income received by wife 

From farm sources 

From nonfarm sources 

Income received by other family members 

From farm sources 

From nonfarm sources.. 



United 
States 



100.0 
13.3 
86.7 



15.8 
2.6 



42.8 

2.9 

39.9 

5.7 
2.2 

.7 



4.1 

.6 

10.4 

.3 

10.1 

9.9 
1. 1 



Group I 



Total Class I Class II 



100 
34.1 
65.9 



24 1 

8.1 

.8 

15.3 



23.4 
9.1 
14.3 

12.5 
2.4 

.4 



8.2 

.3 

7.9 

11.2 
3.3 



100.0 
43.5 
56.5 



31.0 
11.8 



24 2 
15" 5 
8.7 

11.2 

2.4 

.3 



5.9 



(Z) 



5.9 

5.9 
1.9 
4.0 



100.0 
28.1 
71.9 



19.8 
5.7 
1.3 

12.8 



22.9 
5.0 
17.9 

11.4 
2.4 
.5 



9.7 
.5 



14.6 
4.2 

10.4 



Group II 



Total Class III Class IV Class V 



100.0 
15.5 
84.5 



16.1 
3.8 
1.0 

11.2 



36.3 

2.4 

33.9 

7.0 
2.5 

.7 



12.2 

.4 

11.8 

12.4 

.9 

11.4 



100 
21.4 
78.6 



14.7 

5.8 

.6 

8.3 



24.3 
2.4 
21.9 

10.9 
3.9 



11.2 

.4 

10.8 

15.7 
1.4 
14.3 



100.0 
15.0 

s-, II 



17.4 
3. 1 
1.3 

12.9 



35 7 

2 7 

33.0 

6.3 
2.2 

.6 



1.5 

12 

15.3 
14 6 
10.7 



100 
11.3 

88.7 



1.0 
12.0 



46.6 

2.1 

44.5 

4.4 

1.8 



3.0 

.7 



11.3 

.7 
10.6 



Group III 



Total 



100 

6.7 

93.3 



13.6 
.3 



52 

1 7 

50.4 

3. 1 

1.8 
7. 



6.4 
.3 

9.6 

.2 

9.4 

7.9 
.7 
7.2 



Class VI Part-time 



100 
16.4 
83.6 



21.1 
3 3 

17.8 

8.2 
1.3 
.6 



16.1 

1.3 

14.8 

21.4 
2 (I 
19.4 



100. 

5.9 

94. 1 



15.5 
.4 
.4 

14.8 



54.8 

1.6 

53.2 



2.6 
.8 

1.0 
1.7 



10.3 
(Z) 
10.3 

5.5 
.5 
4.9 



Residen- 
tial 



100.0 

6.5 

94.5 



12. 5 

.2 

.9 

11.4 



55.6 

1.4 

64.2 

2.4 
1.3 

.7 



7.8 
.1 

7.7 

7.2 

.5 

6.7 



Z 0.05 percent or less. 



50 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



Off-farm income per farm reporting. — Comparison of data in 
Table 44, on off-farm income of farm-operator families per farm 
reporting, shows (/) that the income received from most of the 
sources is remarkably uniform from class to class outside of 
Class I, (£) that average total income from nonfarm work is sub- 
stantially higher for part-time (Class VII), residential (Class 
VIII), and Class V farm operators, than for those in Classes 
II-IV, (3) that income received from interest, dividends, trust 



funds or royalties is considerably larger for Class I farm operators 
than for others, and (4) that income received by wife from farm 
work is low in Class I and part-time (Class VII) farms and high 
in Class III and IV. (This is considered significant as there is 
assumed to be an inverse relation between income earned by the 
wife in farm work and the level of living of the family on the 
farm.) 



Table 44. — Average Off-Farm Income of Farm-Operator Families by Farms Reporting Specified Sources, by Class of Farm, 

for the United States: 1955 



Source of income 



Average off-farm income per farm-operator family: 
Income received by farm operator: 
Income from off-farm business or self-employ- 
ment: 

Farm custom work 

Farm trucking or hauling 

Nonfarm business 

Income from working for others for wages or 
salary: 

Farm work 

Nonfarm work 

Income from rental of farm real estate 

Income from rental of nonfarm real estate 

Income from roomers and boarders 

Income from interest, dividends, a trust fund, 
or royalties 

Income from veteran's pensions and compen- 
sation, veteran's school allotment, service- 
man's family allotment 

Income, from retirement pay, unemployment 
compensation, old age pension, annuities, 
alimony, regular contributions or welfare 
received 

Any other personal income .. 

Income received by wife: 

From farm work 

From nonfarm work 

Income received by other family members: 

From farm work 

From nonfarm work 



United 

States, 

total 

(dollars) 



762 

860 

2,249 



712 

2,220 

821 
701 
421 

605 



654 
527 



254 
1,204 



356 
1,391 



Total 
(dollars) 



1,089 

981 

3,390 



1.540 
1,445 

1,659 
689 
674 

773 



594 
420 



243 
1,136 



825 
1,297 



Group I 



Class I 
(dollars) 



2.874 



4,666 

3,739 
2,186 

1,937 
688 
508 

1,283 

277 



.544 
718 



78 



870 
911 



Class II 
(dollars) 



597 

981 

2,691 



713 



1,490 
689 
775 



621 
646 



604 
344 



272 
1,079 



813 
1,449 



Group II 



Total 
(dollars) 



664 

765 

2.054 



592 
1.770 



953 
663 
364 



758 



694 

708 



360 
1.254 



291 
1,535 



Class III 
(dollars) 



599 

369 

2,010 



578 
1,275 

1,408 
813 
412 

676 
788 



635 
516 



458 
1,189 



423 
1,617 



Class IV 
(dollars) 



687 
1.016 
2,229 



628 
1,521 

847 
627 
316 



517 
722 



600 
1,263 



211 
1,419 



Class V 
(dollars) 



774 

942 

1,919 



564 
2,433 

649 
529 
370 

263 



629 
983 



102 
1,304 



277 
1,564 



Group III 



Total 
(dollars) 



480 

950 

2,161 



470 
2,632 

482 
748 
445 

413 



764 



671 
386 



176 

1.178 



241 
1,282 



Class VI 
(dollars) 


Part-time 
(dollars) 


322 
510 
838 


916 

516 

2,609 


288 
845 


689 
2,878 


492 
366 
371 


483 
946 
462 


111 


196 


831 


620 


580 
1,594 


673 
207 


295 
1,015 


79 
1,435 


295 
1,366 


274 
1,368 



Residen- 
tial 
(dollars) 



316 

1,666 
2,323 



462 
2,811 

474 
650 
446 

861 
843 



704 
466 



111 

1,036 



195 
1,197 



Table 45. — Farm Operators by Age, Number of Persons in 
Family, Education, and Family Income After Taxes, for 
the United States: 1955 



Item 



Farm operators by age: 

Total operators 

Under 35 years 

35 to 64 years 

65 years and over 

Farm operators by number of persons inf amlly: 

Total operators 

1.9 persons or less 

2.0 to 4.9 persons 

5.0 to 5.9 persons 

6.0 or more persons 

Farm operators by education: 

Total operators 

Not completing eighth grade 

Completing eighth grade but not completing high school 

Completing high school 

Operators not reporting as to education 

Farm operators by family income after taxes: 

Total operators _ 

Negative income _ 

$0 to $999... 

$1,000 to $1,999 _ 

$2,000 to $2,999 

$3,000 to $3,999 , 

$4,000 to $4,999 

$5,000 to $5,999 _ 

$6,000 to $7,499 

$7,500 to $9,999 

$10,000 and over _ 

Operators not reporting family income 



United States, 
total 



4, 760, 050 
613, 801 

3. 209, 546 
936, 703 



. 760, 050 
244, 520 

i. 126, 786 
573, 472 
815, 272 



4, 760, 050 
1, 535, 263 
2, 083, 240 
1,081,407 
60,140 



4, 760, 050 

189, 133 

1,031,746 

1, 003, 694 

840, 136 

605,229 

322, 017 
212, 970 
137, 102 
90,835 
85, 650 
241,638 



Table 46. — Percent Distribution of Farm Operators by Age, 
Number of Persons in Family, Education, and Family 
Income After Taxes, for the United States: 1955 



Item 



Farm operators by age: 

Total operators _. 

Under 35 years _ _ _ 

35 to 64 years... 

65 years and over 

Farm operators by number of persons In family: 

Total operators. _ ._ 

1.9 persons or less _ 

2.0 to 4.9 persons 

5.0 to 5.9 persons.. 

6.0 or more persons 

Farm operators by education: 

Total operators - 

Not completing eighth grade __. 

Completing eighth grade but not completing high school 

Completing high school 

Operators not reporting as to education. 

Farm operator by family income after taxes: 

Total operators 

Negative income. 

$0 to $999 

$1,000 to $1,999 

$2,000 to $2,999.... 

$3,000 to $3,999 

$4,000 to $4,999 

$5,000 to $5,999 

$6,000 to $7,499 

$7,500 to $9,999.. 

$10,000 and over 

Operators not reporting family Income 



United States, 
total 



100.0 
12.9 
67.4 
19.7 



100.0 
5.1 
65.7 
12.0 
17.1 



100.0 
32.3 
43.8 
22.7 
1.3 



100.0 
4.0 
21.7 
21.1 
17.6 
12.7 

6.8 
4.6 
2.9 
1.9 
1.8 
6.1 



PART-TIME FARMING 



51 



Table 47. — Farm Operators of Class VI, Part'Time, and Residential Farms, by Age, Number of Persons in Family, 
Education, and Family Income After Taxes, for the United States : 1955 



Item 



Farm operators by age: 

Total operators 

Under 35 years -- 

35 to 64 years 

65 years and over — 

Farm operators by number of persons in family: 

Total operators - - 

1.9 persons or less — 

2.0 to 4.9 persons 

5.0 to 5.9 persons 

6.0 or more persons — 

Farm operators by education: 

Total operators 

Not completing eighth grade. 

Completing eighth grade but not completing high school 
Completing high school -'- — 

Operators not reporting as to education 

Farm operators by family income after taxes: 

Total operators 

Negative income 

$0 to $999 

$1,000 to $1,999 

$2,000 to $2,999 ---- 

$3,000 to $3,999 

$4,000 to $4.999 ---- 

$5,000 to $5,999 

$6,000 to $7,499 -. 

$7,500 to $9,999 --- 

$10,000 and over... 

Operators not reporting family income 



Total Class VI, 




Operators of — 




residential 
farms 


Class VI 
farms 


Part-time 
farms 


Residential 
farms 


1,944,357 
204, 971 

1, 180, 754 
558, 632 


468,350 
24, 473 
260,167 
183, 710 


616, 571 

S6.0K2 
420.388 
109, 501 


859, 436 
93, 816 
500,199 
265, 421 


1,944,357 
144,410 

1,249,306 
193,117 
357, 524 


468,350 
37,563 

309, 777 
43, 352 
77, 658 


616,671 
30,830 

399,713 
64,143 

121,885 


859, 436 
76,017 

539, 816 
85,622 

167,981 


1,944,357 

852, 444 

788, 243 

276, 454 

27,216 


468, 350 

242, 863 

180, 747 

37, 508 

7,232 


616, 571 
226, 656 
259, 153 
122,485 
8,277 


859, 436 
382, 925 
348, 343 
116,461 
11,707 


1,944,357 
44, 103 
558, 549 
401, 134 
281,910 
242, 303 


468, 350 
16,019 
233, 774 
105, 838 
53,128 
24, 576 


616,571 
19,322 
106, 757 
132,310 
90,621 
87,706 


859, 436 
8,762 
218,018 
162,986 
138,161 
130,021 


136, 364 
88,725 
58,297 
25, 974 
9,836 


7,009 

7,148 

3, 466 

647 


61,881 
37, 076 
28, 905 
14, 798 
5,708 
30,887 


67, 474 
43,901 
25, 926 
10,529 
4,128 


97, 162 


16, 745 


49,530 



Table 48. — Percent Distribution by Economic Class of Farm 
of Operators of Class VI, Part-Time, and Residential 
Farms, by Age, Number of Persons in Family, Education, 
and Family Income after Taxes, for the United States: 
1955 



Item 



Farm operators by age: 

Total operators.. 

Under 35 years 

35 to 64 years 

65 years and over. 

Farm operators by number of persons in family: 

Total operators 

1.9 persons or less _ 

2.0 to 4.9 persons _ 

5.0 to 5.9 persons 

6.0 or more persons 

Farm operators by education: 

Total opera tors 

Not completing eighth grade 

Completing eighth grade but not completing 

high school _. 

Completing high school 

Operators not reporting as to education 

Farm operators by family income after taxes: 

Total operators.. __ .. 

Negative income 

$0 to $999 

$1,000 to $1,999 

$2,000 to $2,999.. 

$3,000 to $3,999 

$4,000 to $4,999 

$5,000 to $5,999 

$6,000 to $7,499 

$7,500 to $9,999 

$10,000 and over.. 

Operators not reporting family income 



Percent distribution by economic 
class of farm 



Total 


Class 


Part- 


Resi- 


VI 


time 


dential 


100.0 


24. 1 


31.7 


44.2 


100.0 


11.9 


42.3 


45.8 


100.0 


22.0 


35.6 


42.4 


100.0 


32.9 


19.6 


47.5 


100.0 


24.1 


31.7 


44.2 


100.0 


26.0 


21.3 


52.6 


100 


24.8 


32.0 


43.2 


100.0 


22.4 


33.2 


44.3 


100.0 


21.7 


34.1 


44.2 


100.0 


24.1 


31.7 


44.2 


100.0 


28.5 


26.6 


44.9 


100.0 


22.9 


32.9 


44.2 


100.0 


13.6 


44.3 


42.1 


100.0 


26.6 


30.4 


43.0 


100.0 


24. 1 


31.7 


44.2 


100.0 


36.3 


43.8 


19.9 


100 


41.9 


19.1 


39.0 


100.0 


26.4 


33.0 


40.6 


100.0 


18.8 


32.1 


49.0 


100.0 


10.1 


36.2 


53.7 


100.0 


5.1 


45.4 


49.5 


100.0 


8.1 


42.5 


49.5 


100.0 


5.9 


49.6 


44.5 


100.0 


2.5 


57.0 


40.5 


100.0 




58.0 


42.0 


100.0 


17.2 


31.8 


61.0 



Table 49. — Percent Distribution of Operators of Class VI, 
Part'Time, and Residential Farms, by Age, Number of 
Persons in Family, Education, and Family Income After 
Taxes, for the United States: 1955 




Farm operators by age: 

Total operators - 

Under 35 years - 

35 to 64 years 

65 years and over -.. 

Farm operators by number of persons in 
family: 

Total operators 

1.9 persons or less -- 

2.0 to 4.9 persons 

5.0 to 5.9 persons 

6.0 or more persons.. 

Farm operators by education: 
Total operators 

Not completing eighth grade .- 

Completing eighth grade but not com- 
pleting high school 

Completing high school 

Operators not reporting as to education. . 

Farm operators by family income after taxes: 

Total operators - - 

Negative income 

$0 to $999... - - - 

$1,000 to $1,999 

$2,000 to $2,999 

$3,000 to $3,999 --- 

$4,000 to $4,999 - 

$5,000 to $5,999 

$6,000 to $7,499 

$7,500 to $9,999 

$10,000 and over.. 

Operators not reporting family income. - 



Percent distribution of operators of- 



Class VI, 
part-time, 
and resi- 
dential 
farms 



Class 


Part- 


VI 


time 


farms 


farms 


100.0 


100.0 


5.2 


14. 1 


55.5 


68.2 


39.2 


17.8 


100.0 


100.0 


8.0 


5.0 


66.1 


64.8 


9.3 


10.4 


16.6 


19.8 


100.0 


100.0 


51.9 


36.8 


38.6 


42.0 


8.0 


19.9 


1.5 


1.3 


100.0 


100.0 


3.4 


3.1 


49.9 


17.3 


22.6 


21.6 


11.3 


14.7 


5.2 


14.2 


1.6 


10.0 


1.6 


6.1 


.7 


4.7 


.1 


2.4 




.9 


3.6 


6.0 



Resi- 
dential 
farms 



100.0 
10.9 
58.2 
30.9 



100.0 
8.8 
62.8 
10.0 
18.4 



100. 
44.6 

40.5 
13.6 

1.4 



100.0 
1.0 
26.4 
19.0 
16.1 
15.1 

7.9 
5.1 
3.0 
1.2 
.5 
5.8 



52 



FARMERS AND FARM PRODUCTION 



G. FARM MORTGAGE DEBT, BY ECONOMIC CLASS 



The data given in this section are based on estimates published 
in greater detail in Part 5 of Volume III of the reports of the 1954 
Census of Agriculture. The data on the number of mortgaged 
farms are estimates of the mortgage status as of January 1, 1956, 
for farms included in the 1954 Census of Agriculture. Likewise, 
the estimates of land in farms, value of land and buildings, and 
amount of mortgage debt represent totals as of January 1, 1956, 
for farm land and buildings included in the 1954 Census of Agri- 
culture. The data on mortgaged part-owner farms relate only 
to the proportion of the part-owned farm, owned and operated 
by the owner. 

Distribution of mortgaged farms and land in farms, by economic 
class. — The data in Table 50 present full-owner farms and part- 
owner farms according to their distribution by economic class. 
A larger percentage of the full-owner farms are found in the part- 
time and residential class while a relatively heavier concentration 
of the part-owner group is found in Classes I to IV. The distribu- 
tion of mortgaged land shows a similar relationship between full 
owners and part owners providing allowance is made for the 
difference among the economic classes in size of farm. Over one- 
third of all mortgaged farms operated by full owners are part-time 
or residential farms. 

Table 50. — Percent Distribution of Number of Mortgaged 
Farms and Land in Mortgaged Farms, of Full Owners 
and Part Owners, by Economic Class of Farm, for the 
United States: 1956 



Economic class 


Number of farms 


Land in mortgaged 
farms 




Full 
owners 


Fart 
owners 


Full 
owners 


Part 

owners 




100.0 
2,5 
8 1 
15.1 
17.4 
16.4 
6.8 
15.3 
18.4 


100.0 
7.0 
19.8 
26.6 
21.6 
12.6 
4.0 
5.7 
2.6 


100.0 
10.3 
19.3 
21.0 
19.1 
13.2 
4.9 
7.3 
4 9 


100 


Class I 


23.1 


Class II 


31.6 


Class III 


22.6 


Class IV 


13.8 


Class V 


5.5 


Class VI.. _ 


1.6 




1.4 




.4 







Percentage of farms mortgaged, by economic classes. — A larger 
percentage of farms are mortgaged in Economic Classes I, II, and 
III than among the other economic classes, as is shown in Table 51. 
Among commercial Classes I to VI there is a definite correlation be- 
tween economic class and percent of farms mortgaged. Also, in 
each of the classes of commercial farms a higher percentage of farms 
operated by part owners than by full owners are mortgaged while a 
slightly higher percentage of part-time and residential farms oper- 



ated by full owners are mortgaged. Almost a third of the part- 
time and almost a fourth of the residential farms are mortgaged. 

Table 51. — Percent of Farms Mortgaged, for Farms 
Operated by Full Owners and by Part Owners, by 
Economic Class of Farm, for the United States: 1956 



Economic class 


Full owner 


Part 


owner 


All classes ... .. 

Class I 


Percent 
33.1 
47.4 
46.7 
46 3 
40.5 
36.6 
21 
33 2 
22.9 


Pe 


''cent 
42.4 
50.2 


Class II .. 


48.8 


Class III.. 


49.3 


Class IV... 


44.8 


ClassV 


37.0 


Class VI 


27.6 




31.5 




21.5 







Table 52. — Average Size of Mortgaged Farms, for Full 
Owners and Part Owners, by Economic Class of Farm, 
for the United States: 1956 



Economic class 


Full owners 

(acres per 

farm) 


Part owners 

(acres per 

farm) 




164.0 
686. 2 
389. 6 
228.5 
179.1 
132. 4 
117.3 
78.1 
44.1 


317.9 


Class I 


1,054.0 


Class II 


507.3 


Class III. . 


269.2 


Class IV... 


203.4 


ClassV. 


138.9 


Class VI.. 


127.1 




78.4 




44.1 







Table 53. — Value of Land and Buildings, per Farm and 
per Acre for Mortgaged Farms of Full Owners and Part 
Owners, by Economic Class of Farm, for the United 
States: 1956 





Mortgaged farms 


Economic class 


Average value per 
farm 


Value per acre 




Full 
owners 


Part 
owners 


Full 
owners 


Part 
owners 




$19, 385 
97, 253 
45, 747 
27, 114 
18, 296 
12, 821 

9,275 
10, 768 

8,763 


$24, 675 

95, 742 

36, 265 

21, 062 

13, 860 

9,602 

7.544 

8, 811 

7,054 


$118.20 
141.73 
117.41 
118. 68 
102. 16 
96.84 
79.04 
137. 85 
198. 77 


$77. 61 


Class I 


90.84 


Classll — 


71.49 


Class III . 


78.23 


Class IV 


68.15 


ClassV 


69.13 


Class VI .. 


59.37 




112.75 




159.89 







PART-TIME FARMING 



53 



Table 54. — Value of Land and Buildings and^Amount of 
Mortgage Debt per Farm, for Mortgaged Farms Operated 
by Full Owners and Part Owners, by Economic Class of 
Farm, for the United States: 1956 



Economic class 


Value ol land 
and buildings 
per mort- 
gaged farm 


Amount of 
mortgage 
debt per 

farm 






$20,910 
96, 445 
11,035 
24,592 

16. Sll 
12. 054 

8,943 
10, 516 

8, 669 


$5, 504 




20, mo 


Class II 


10,233 


Class III 


6. S40 


Class IV. ... .. 


1,797 


ClassV 


3.412 




2,292 




3. 021) 




2.653 







Land in farms, value of land and buildings, and amount of 
mortgage debt per farm for mortgaged farms, by economic class. — 
The average size of mortgaged farms for both farms operated by 
full owners and part owners declines from Class I to (class VIII 
residential farms). (See Table 52.) Likewise, except for part- 
time farms, the average value of land and buildings and the 
average amount of mortgage debt per farm decreases from Class 
I to Class VIII. (See Tables 53 and 54.) 



Ratio of mortgage debt to value, by economic class. — Among 
both full owners and part owners, the ratio of debt to value is 
lowest for Class I farms and increases from class to class from 
Classes I to IV, after which there is some leveling off. The ratio 
of mortgage debt to value is greater on Class V, on part-time, and 
residential farms than on all farms. As is shown in Table 55, in 
most of the economic classes there is not much difference in ratio 
of debt to value, between the farms operated by full owners 
and those operated by part owners. 

Table 55. — Ratio of Farm Mortgage Debt to Value for 
Mortgaged Farms of Full Owners and Part Owners, 
by Economic Class of Farm, for the United States: 1956 



Economic class 


Full ownei s 


Part 


owners 






Percent 
26. 8 
21.9 

24.4 
27.9 

as 3 
28. 1 

21.il 
28.6 
30.6 


Perce 


25.4 


Class I . 


20.5 


Class II.. 


•_'. r . 6 


Class 111 


27. 6 


ClassIV.. . . 


29.1 


Class V 


29 2 


Class VI... . 


2'J. 2 




30.5 




30.9 







U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE* 19S7