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INDEX 



TO THE 



EKECXJTIVE DOCUMENTS 



OF THE 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



FOR THE 



FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS, 



1881-'82. 



IN 36 VOLUMES. 



VOLTTME 26 —Ho. 228, Agricultoral Seport 



WASHINGTON: 

OOYEBNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1882. 



KMX TO HOUSE EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



CONTENTS OF THE VOLUMES. 



Vou. 1. FOREIGN RELATIONS: No.l,pt.l. 
Tou 2. -WAR: Ko. 1, pt 2, V. 1. 
Tou 3 . . Enginkkrs : No. 1, pt 2, T. 2, pt 1. 

Toi. 4. . EHonntBBS : No. 1, pt 2, t. 2, pt 2 

Tou 5.. EhoocbbbS: No. 1, pt2, T.8,pt3. 

Toe C . Obdkakcx : Na 1, pt 2, t. 3. 

Voc 7 . SiOKAL Offices : Na 1, pt 2, v. 4. 

Tot g. NAVr AND POSTMASTER-GEN. 

ERAL: Na 1, pts. 3 and 4 

ToL f . INTERIOR : Lajto Offick : No. 1, pt 6, 

T.l. 

ToL M. . IJfDIAJf , Ac. : Na 1, pt 5, v. 2. 

TOLll.. GBOIXK5ICAL SUBVBT : Na 1, pt 

6, V. 3. 

ToL 12 . EDUCATIO!! : No. 1, pt. 5, V. 4. 



Vol. 13. .No. 1, pt 6, and Noa. 8 to 12 inolaaire. 

Vol 14. .Na 2: REPORT ON THE FINANCES. 

Vol. 15. .Noa. 3 and 4. 

Vol. 16 . Noa. 5, 6, and 62. 

Vol. 17 NaT: COMMERCE AND NAVIGA- 

TION. 
Vol. 18. Noa. 13 to 19. 
Vol. 19. .Noa. 20 to 86, except Na 02. 
VoL,20..Noa.87toll6. 
Vol.21 .Noa. 117 to 121. 
Vol. 22. .Noa. 122 to 102. 

Vol. 23. .Noa. 193 to 227, except Noa. 219 and 226. 
Vol. 24. No. 219. 
Vol. 25. .No. 296. 
Vol. 26 .Na228: AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 



INDEX TO THE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



A. 

ibandoned military reservatioDs, disposal of 

AeconntB rendered to and settled by the First Comptroller for the 

jttkx ending June 30, 1881 

Act of Jnly 4, 1864, agents employed by the Quartermaster's De- 
partment in the investigation of claims 

arising under the 

list of claims allowed under the 

Act of June 14, 1878, list of claims allowed under the 

Additional room for the Pension* Office 

Adjatant-General of the Army, annual report of the 

Admiral of the Navy, annual rexwrt of the 

Advertising for proposals for supplies for the executive depart- 
ments 

the sale of certain Kansas Indian lands 

Advisory Board of the Navy and its proceedings 

report of the, relative to the condi- 
tion of the Navy 

Agenttf employed by the Quartermaster's Department in the in- 
vestigation of claims arising under the act of July 4, 1864 

Agreement with the Shoshone and Bannock Indians 

Agricnltnre, annual report of the Commissioner of, for 1881 

statistical abstract of 

Alaska, education in 

geological survey of 

waters, report of the United States naval officers cruising 

in 

Allowances to mail contractors during the year ending June 30, 
1881 



Vol. 



19 

18 

22 
19 
19 
19 
2 
8 

22 
19 

8 

19 

22 

18 
26 
22 
19 
20 

19 

25 



No. 


Part 


39 




19 




178 




23 




26 




38 




1 


2 


1 


3 


166 




60 




1 


3 


30 


2 


178 




18 




228 




133 




78 




194 




81 




226 





(III) 






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INDEX 



TO THE 



EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS 



OF THE 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

lojX 
56 



FOR THE 



FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-SEVENTH, CONGRESS, 



1881-'82. 



IN 26 VOLUMES. 



VOLXTME 26— No. 228, Agricoltnral Beport 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PBINTINa OFFICE. 

1882. 



INDEX TO HOUSE EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



CONTENTS OF THE VOLUMES. 



Toi^ 1. 


-FOREIGN RELATIONS: No.l,pt,l. 


Vol. 13 


Vol. 2. 


-WAR: No. 1, pt 2, V. 1. 


Vol 14 


Tou 3- 


Ekgixkbrs : No. 1, pt 2, v. 2, pt 1. 


Vol. 15 


TOL. 4. 


Ehgdivbrs : No. 1, pt 2, T. 2, pt 2 


Vol. 16 


Toi. 5- 


EsonnESBS : No. 1, pt 2, v. 9, pt 3. 


Vol.17 


Vou « 


Obdnaxcs : No. 1, pt 2, V. 3. 




TOL 7. 


SioxAL Officer : No 1, pt 2, v. 4. 


Vol. 18 


TOL 8. 


NAVr AND POSTMASTER-GEN- 


Vol.19 




ERAL: No. 1, pts. 3 and 4 


Vol.20 


Vol. 9 


.INTERIOR: Laud Office: No.l,pt5, 


Vol.21 




v.l. 


Vol.22 


Vol- W. 


I]fDIAX,&c.: No. 1, pt 5, V. 2. 


Vol.23 


Vol 11. 


Gbolooical Survey: No.l,pt 


Vol.24 




5, V. 3. 


Vol.25 


Toi.1; 


EDUCATIOX: No. 1, pt 5. v. 4. 


Vol. 26 



.No. 1, pt 6, and Noa. 8 to 12 inolosive. 
.No 2: REPORT ON THE EINANCBS. 
.Nob. 3 and 4. 
.Nos.6, 6,and 62. 

No 7: COMMERCE AND NAVIGA- 

TION. 
.No8.13tol9. 

, .Nos. 20 to 86, except No. 62. 
.No6. 87 to 116. 
.Nos. 117 to 121. 
.Nos. 122 to 192. 

.Nos. 193 to 227, except Nos. 219 and 226. 
.No. 210. 
.No. 296. 

No 228: AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 



INDEX TO THE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



A. 

AbftudoDed military reservatioDS, disposal of 

AeconntB rendered to and settled by the First Comptroller for the 

Tear ending June 30, 1881 

Aet of July 4, 1864, agent« employed by the Quartermaster's De- 
partment in the investigation of claims 

arisine under the 

list of claims allowed under the 

Art of June 14, 1878, list of claims allowed under the 

Additional room for the Pension Office 

Adjatant-General of the Army, annual report of the 

Admiral of the Navy, annual report of the 

Advertising for proposals for supplies for the executive depart- 
ments 

the sale of certain Kansas Indian lauds 

Advisory Board of the Navy and its proceedings 

report of the, relative to the condi- 
tion of the Navy 

Agenti» employed b^ the Quartermaster's Department in the in- 
vestigation of claims arising under the act of July 4, 1864 

Agreement with the Shoshone and Bannock ludians 

Agricnltnre, annnal report of the Commissioner of, for 1881 

statistical abstract of 

Alaska, education in 

geological survey of 

waters, report of the United States naval officers cruising 

in 

ADowanoes to mail contractors during the year ending June 30, 
1861 



Vol. 


No. 


19 


39 


18 


19 


22 


178 


19 


23 


19 


26 


19 


38 


2 


1 


8 


1 


22 


166 


19 


60 


8 


1 


19 


30 


22 


178 


18 


18 


26 


228 


22 


133 


19 


78 


20 


194 


19 


81 


25 


226 



Part. 



2 
3 



3 
2 



Ciu^ 



IV 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



American citizens imprisoned in Ireland 

in Mexico, arrest and imprisonment of 

in Persia, protection of 

American neat cattle, importation of, into Great Britain 

American Peace Congress 

Annual message of the President of the United States 

production of the precious metals in the United States. . . 

report of the Commissioner of Aericulture for 1881 . . . 

report of the Commissioners of tne District of Columbia 

for 1881 

report of the government directors of the Union Pacific 

Railway 

reports of the executive departments for 1H81 

Annuity goods, sale of, by Indians 

Apache Indians at the Mescalero and Jicarilla Agencies, consoli- 
dation of... .« 

Apache-Jicarilla Indian Reservation in New Mexico, improve- 
ments in the 

Appomattox River at Petersbursh, Va., improvements of the 

Appropriations, disbursements irom the, for the Indian Depart- 
ment for the year ending June 30, 1881 

required for the year ending June 30, 1883, esti- 
mates of 

for light- house structures to be expended by 

contract 

for rivers and harbors, message of the President 

vetoing the bill milling 

for wrapping paper 

Arapahoe and Cheyenne Indians, confirmation of certain lands in 

Indian Territory to 

Architect of the United States Capitol, annual report of the 

(voL2) 

Arctic Expedition, reprint of Captain HalPs Second 

Arctic relief expedition, report on 

Arizona, annual report of the governor of (vol. 2) 



lawlessness in certain parts of 



troops in 

Army, annual report of the Adjutant-General of Uie (vol. 1) 

Chief of Engineers of the (vol.2) 

Commissary-General of Subsistence of 

the (vol.1) 

General of the (vol.1) 

Inspector-G^eral of the (vol. 1) 

Judge-Advocato-Generalof the (vol. 1) 
Paymaster- General of the (vol. 1.) .. . 
Qnartermast«r-General of the (vol. 1). 

Signal-Officer of the (vol. 4) 

Surgeon-Creneral of the (vol. 1) 

Army, deficiencies in the appropriations for the 

education in the (vol.1) 

officers, petition of, relative to rank and pay of, aft«r fifteen 

years' service 

promotion of lieutenants in the 

Assistant Attorney-General of the Interior Department, law clerks 

in the office of the 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

principal examiners of patents 

Attomey-Greneral, letters from, relative to — 

Conrt of Claims, suits in the, under act of June 16, 1880. .. 
District attorneys, marshals, and circuit court commis- 
sioners, compensation of 

Lake Winnebago, awards. &c., by reason of flowage of 
lands upon the borders of .' 



Vol. 


No. 


C 22 


155 


[ 20 


114 


22 


153 


22 


151 


22 


186 


22 


174 


1 


1 



23 
26 

13 

19 

1-12 

20 

23 

23 
19 

16 

16 

20 

23 
22 

22 

10 

19 

8 

10 

J 19 

)22 

23 

2 

2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
22 
2 

18 
20 

22 
19 
22 

19 

22 

22 



216 
228 



41 

1 

101 

207 

220 

28 



107 

222 
122 

122 

1 

75 

1 

1 

58 

188 

193 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
161 
1 

16 
106 

158 

29 

140 

27 

131 

164 



Part. 

1.2,3 
1.2,3 



6 



1-5 



3 
5 



2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



Attomey-GeDeral, letters from, relative to^ 

LJind, care and sale of nnmerons tracts of 

Auditor of the Treasury for the Post-Office Departmeut, annual 

report of the 

Aaditors of the Treasury, annual reports of the First, Second, 

Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth 

Augur, Brig. Gen. C. C, report of (vol. 1) 

Awards for flowage of lanas on Lake Winnebago 

made by the mixed commission against Venezuela 

to informers for year ending June 30, 1881 



B. 

Banks, national .' 

Baanock and Shoshone Indians, agreement with 

Barracks, Columbus, Ohio, buildings at 

at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., completion of the 

Jefferson, Mo., construction of certain buildings at 

plans for buildines at 

Belle Isle, Detroit River, Michigan, light-house on 

Bigamy, ^c, compensation of commissioners under the act for the 

soppVeasion of 

Board of Commissioners of Soldiers' Home, annual report of (vol. 1) . 
Board of Health of the District of Columoia, annual report of the. 

annual report of the National 

expenditures of the National 

Board of Indian Commissioners, thirteenth annual report of the.. 
Board of Visitors of Government Hospital for the Insane, annual 

report of the (vol, 2) 

Boiler-shop and caisson-gate at New York navy-yard 

Bohvia, peace between Chili and Peru and 

Bonds, certain, of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians 

Books imported through the mails 

Boston navy-yard, expenditures in the 

Boundary between the United States and Mexico 

Branch post-office, Washington, D. C, rent of 

Bzidge across the Potomac River at Georgetown, D. C 

Saint Joseph River, Michigan 

Bridges, maintenance of li]y^hts on 

over the Upper Mississippi River, navigation through. .. 
Buildings at David's Island, New York Harbor, and Columbus Bar- 
racks, Ohio 

Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, plans for 

Borean of Construction and Repair, Navy Department, annual re- 
port of the 

Engraving and Printing, plate-printing by steam- > 

power presses at ] 

Equipment and Recruiting, annual report of the 

exchanges, establishment of an international 

Medicine and Surgery, annual report' of the 

Navigation, annual report of the 

Ordnance, annual report of the 

Provisions and Clothing, annual report of the 

Statistics, annual report of the Chief of the, on the com- 
merce and navigation of the United States for 1881 . . 

Steam Engineering, annual report of the 

Yards and Docks, annual report of the 



Vol. 




C. 

California rivers, mining dSbrit in 

Carriage of passengers by sea, message of the President vetoing 

the bill to regulate the 

Cast-iron gnnSf trial of two, at Watertown Arsenal, Massachusetts. 
Caoses before United States consular courts in China 



19 



14 
2 
22 
23 
22 



19 
18 
19 
19 
19 
23 
19 

22 
2 

13 
18 
18 
19 

10 
22 
19 
19 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
21 
22 
22 

19 
23 

8 

23 

8 
22 

8 
8 
8 
8 

17 

8 
8 



20 

23 
19 
23 



Part. 



50 



2 

1 
164 
208 
157 



43 
18 
55 
76 
37 
214 
69 

152 
1 
1 

13 
14 
79 

1 
170 
68 
47 
165 
187 
180 
183 
156 
113 
177 
136 

55 
214 

1 
5199 
^224 

172 
1 
1 
1 
1 

7 
1 
1 



98 

227 

80 
213 



4 
2 



2 

6 



3 
3 
3 
3 



3 
3 



d 



YI INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCC1CE5T8. 



Sulij«rct. VoL No. Pftrt. 



10 
59 



C^&«9», annn^ report of the SoperinteDdent of the . 10 1 

eompkrtioii of tb« work of the Teoth ...... .. 23 215 

exp«ise^ of the < IQ 

C«DtJ^ Brooch Union Paciiic Railroad, aonn^ eamiDgs of the... 2;^ 123 

CentT^ Paeice Bailn>ad. aDnnal earnings of the 22 123 

Certifieation of land? to certain railroad companies, alleged exceas 

in 23 223 

Cherokee In«lians, claim of. for land^ in the Indian Territory ceded 

to the Unite«l Staters 20 89 

Eastern, removal of 20 96 

in North Carolina, lands and funds of certain.. 23 196 
Cheyenne Indian^, continuation of certain lands in Indian Terri- 

torr to Arapahoe and 22 169 

Chicago, encroachments u{H:»n the harbor of 20 9£> 

lights in the harbor of 19 TO 

Chief of the Bureau of statistics, annual report of the. on the com- 
merce and navigation of the Unit*:d Stated for ls?l 17 7 

Chief of Engineers, auxiuai rejiort of the ^in 3 part^ voL 2) 3,4,5 1 2 

Chief of C^nluance. annual lepi^rt of the ^ VOL 3) 6 12 

ienerttxtm, transmitting report of certain te<t» 

of metals made at Watertown Arsenal 13 12 

Chief Signal Ofiicer of the Anuv, annual report of the (voL 4) 7 1 2 

Chili ami Pern and Bolivia, peace between ... 19 6e 

China, causes before Unit<rd States consular courts in 23 213 

Chippewa and Ottawa Indians, disposal of certain lands of the 19 47 

Chiriqui grant, certain lands and harbors known as the ..;... 19 46 

Circuit court commissioners, compensation of .... ... 22 131 

Civil service, promoting the ediciencT of 19 !?4 

Claim of Antonio Yaca 1 :23 212 

Pierre Garreaux 22 159 

the State of Florida for the suppression of Indian lio«tili- 

tie« 23 203 

Claims allowed under act of Jul V 4. l-^ei. list of 19 23 

act of June W, li;74, li*t of 23 202 

balances of exhausted appropriations .. 19 26 

Claims, list of Indian depredation 22 135 

of the State of Mia^uri against the United States 22 IM 

Clerical force of the General Land Odice 19 57 

in the Pension Othce. increase of the 21 120 

in the War Department, increase of the 22 134 

Clothing aecounta of enlisted men 19 44 

Coaling stations on the Isthmus of Panama 19 46 

Coinage of silver dollars and purchases of silver..... 2i^ S? 

statistical abstract of 2i 133 

Columbia Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, annual report of the 

(vol. 2) 10 1 5 

Columbus 'Barracks, Ohio, buildings at 19 55 

Coal and iron, statistical abQ<>tract of ±J 133 

Coal lands npon the San Carlos Indian Reservation 22 1T3 

Commerce and naviiration of the United States for ISSl, xeport 

of the C hief of the Bureau of Statistics on 17 7 

maps and charts for use of the House Committee on 20 li^ 

statistical abstract of :ii i: 

Commissary -General of Subsistence, annual report of the (voL 1). 2 

Commissioner of Agriculture, annual report of the.... .... , 2i6 

Customs, annual report of the 14 

Etiucaiion, annual report of the (voL 4) .. ... 12 1 5 

the General Land Office (vol. 1) 10 1 5 

Indian A^'ain» transmits statement of disbm9e- 
ments, d:c., for the Indian Department for the 

year ending June 3iX Ir^l 16 6 

Indian Affairs, annual report of the (toL 2) 10 1 5 

Indian Affairs, salary of .... 19 *) 

Internal Revenue, annual report of the J J. T 

( lJ» 4 






<•» 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



vn 



Sabject. 




Commiasioner of Patents, annual report of the 

Pensions, annual report of the (vol. 2) 

Railroads, annual report of the TyoI. 2) 

CommMHioners of the District of Columbia, annual report of. ( See 

District of Columbia.) 
Compensation of commissioners under the act for the suppression 

of bigamy, &c 



iuternal-revenue gangers. 



Completion of the new barracks at Fort Leavenworth, Kans 

work of the Tenth Census 

C^nnptroller of the Currency, annual report of the 

Comptrollers of the Treasury, annual report of the First and Sec- 
ond 1 



Condition of Israelites in Russia 

the Navy > 

CoDstmction and Repair, annual report of the Bureau of 

repair, &c , of certain works on rivers and harbors, 
message of the President vetoing the bill making 

appropriations for the 

Consular courts m China, causes before the United States 

officers and diplomatic and consular fees 

service, list of promotions, &.C., in the 

Contagions and infectious diseases, introduction of, iuto the United 

States 

Contingent equipment and recruiting for the Navy, appropriation 

for the 

fund of State Department, disbursements from the.. . 
expenses of the Treasury Department, statement of the 

expenses of the War Department 

expenses of the War Department building, additional 

appropriation for 

fond of the Interior Department, statement of dis- 
bursements from the 

fnnd of the military establishment, expenditures from 

the 

fnnd of the Navv Department 

Contractors, allowances made to, and curtailments effected in the 
mail service, and pay of contractors for the year ending June 

30, 1^1 

Cooline the Executive Mansion during the illness of President 

Gartield, report of naval officers upon 

Cost of pensions for Mexican and certain Indian wars 

Coort of Claims, suits in the, under the act of June 16, 18H0 

Crook, Brig. Gen. George, annual report of (vol. 1) 

Currency, annual report of the Comptroller of 

Curtailments in the mail service and pay of contractors ejected 

during the year ending June 30, 1881 . * '. 

CTwtoms, abstract of fees of officers of 

annual report of the Commissioner of.. 

duties refunded, statement of 

D. 



Dakota, annual report of the governor of (vol. 2) 
Dam on Fox j^nd Wisconsin Rivers 



David's Island, New York Harbor, buildings at 

Davis, William H., claim of 

Deaf and Dumb, annual report of Columbia Institute for the ( vol. 2) 

Deaths in Life-Saviug Service from wounds, 6lg 

Debts of soldiers, certain, to be made a lien against their pay 

Decisions of the First Comptroller of the Treasury, 1881-'H2 

Deficiencies in appropriations for the Army 

Deficiency in the appropriation for payment of pensions 

estimates for year ending June 30, 18H2 



16 
10 
10 



22 

23 

19 
23 
14 

14 
22 

19 

8 

23 
23 
19 
20 

21 

22 
19 

18 
13 

22 

20 

20 
19 

25 



62 
1 
1 



152 

5 210 

}211 

76 

215 

2 

2 

192 

30 

1 



222 

213 

21 

110 

118 

132 
25 
17 
11 

168 

105 

108 
31 

226 



Part 



5 
5 



2,4 
3 



8 


1 


3 


22 


137 




19 


27 




2 


1 


2 


15 






25 


22f) 




20 


91 




14 


2 




19 


22 




10 


1 


5 


20 


93 




19 


i}',) 




13 


9 




10 


1 


5 


19 


74 




20 


115 




24 


219 




22 


161 




23 


201 




19 


VU{ 





VIII 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Sabjeot. 




Department of Agriculture, annaal report of the CommiBsiouer of 

the 

of State, names of persons employed in the 

Departments, executive, the annual reports of the 

Depredation claims, list of Indian 

Des Moines Rapids Canal, dry-dock at 

Destitution from overflow of Mississippi River 

Diplomatic and consular fees 

Director of the Oeologioal Survey, annual report of the (vol. 3). .. 

Mint, annual report of the 

Report of the, upon the production of pre- 
cious metals 

Disbursements of contingent fund of State Department 

made from the appropriations for the Indian De- 
partment for the year ending June 30, 1^1 

District attorneys, marslials, and circuit court commissioners, 

compensation of 

District of Columbia, annual report of the board of health of the. 

list of claims of certain workingmen of the. . 
District of Columbia, annual report of the Commissioners of the, 
embracing reports of — 

The Commissioners 

Assessor 

Attorney 

Auditor 

Board of Trustees of Public Schools 

Central Free Dispensary 

Children's Hospital 

Collector of Taxes 

Columbia Hospital for Women and Lying-in Asylum 

Commissioner and Intendant of Washington Asylum 

Committee on the Poor Fund 

Coroner 

Engineer Department 

Engineer in charge of Washington Aqueduct, &o 

Fire Commissioners 

Government Hospital for the Insane 

Health Officer 

Industrial Home School 

Inspector of Buildings 

Major of Police 

Police Court 

Sealer of Weights and Measures 

Secretary to the Commissioners 

Superintendent of Property 

Treasurer of the United States and ex-officio commissioner 

of the sinking fund 

Trust-ees of the Reform School 

Drawback by internal-revenue tax on stills and worms exjjorted 

to foreign countries 

Dry-dock at Des Moines Rapids Canal 

Dubuque, Iowa, ice-harbor at 

Duck Valley, Nevada, payment of certain settlers for improve- 

■ ments of Indian lands in 

Duties levied and collected on imported merchandise entered for 

home consumption 

refunded, statement of customs 

E. 

Earnings of the Pacific railroads, annual 

Earthquake at Scio, April 3, 1881, report upon the 

Eastern Cherokee Indians of North Carolina, lands and funds of 

the 

Education in Alaska 

the Army, report on (vol. 1) 



26 
19 
1-12 
22 
22 
22 
19 
11 
14 

23 
19 

16 

22 
13 
19 



13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 

13 
13 

19 
22 
19 

19 

17 
19 



22 

8 

23 

19 

2 



Part. 



228 

24 

1 

135 

179 

126 

21 

1 

2 

216 
25 

6 

13 

32 



82 

179 

49 

61 

7 
22 



123 
1 

196 

78 

1 



1-5 



6 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

9 
6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 
6 



1,2 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



IX 



Subject. 



Vol No. Part. 



Errora in Signal Service report 

Emlmikment wall at FraiiKford Arsenal, Pennsylvania, construc- 

tioii of 

Eneroachment upon the harbor of Chicago, III 

Enfineen, annnal report of the Chief of (in 3 parts) 

EnUrgement of the Pawnee Indian Reservation 

EnUstod men in the Army, clothing accounts of 

naval service, increasing the number of 

Estimates of appropriations required for the year ending June 

30, 1883 

payment« of pensions for the next twenty-five years. 

Equipment and Hecruiting, report of the Bureau of 

Ewing, Charles, claim of, against the Osage Indian Nation 

Executive departments, annual reports of the 

estimates of appropriations required by 
the, for the year euding June 30, 1883. 
Executive Mansion, report of naval officers upon cooling the, dur- 
ing the illnfws of President Garfield 

Eihaosted appropriations, claims allowed under balances of 

Eipenditores in the Boston navy-yard 

of the National Board of Health 

for the Signal Service 

errors in the report of 

receipts and, for the year ending June 30, 1875 

receipts and, for the year ending June 30, 1876 

receipts and, for the year ending June 30, 1877 

Expenses of the Tenth Census 



23 

19 
20 
3,4,5 
23 
19 
20 

16 

19 

8 

19 

1-12 

16 



Ute Commission 

Exportation of x>ork from the Uuited States 

F. 



Fees collected by consuls from American vessels 

diplomatic and consular .• 

of officers of customs, abstract of 

Rfth Auditor of the Treasury, annual report of the 

Ficance, statistical abstract of 

FiDances, annual report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the 

eoudition of the 

Tint Assistant Postmaster-General, annual report of the 

Fint Auditor of the Treasury, annual report of the 

First Comptroller of the Treasury, annual report of the 

decisions of the, for 1881-^82. .. 
statement of accounts rendered 
to and settled by the, for 
the year ending June 30, 

1881 

Tisheries Exhibition, International, to beheld in London in 1883. 

Florida, Indian war claim of 

ForeiCT relations of the United States, papers relating to the 

Fort Dodge military reservation in Kansas, disposal of 

Leavenworth, Kansas, completion of the barracks at 

Kansas, qiiartera for troops at 

Military Prison, report on (vol. 1) 

Lewis, Colorado, completion of the military post at 

Maginnis, Montana, completion of 

McKinney, Wyoming, completion of the post at 

Ripley, Minnesota, establishment of Indian training-school at 

Selden, New Mexico, military post at 

Thorn burg, Utah, construction of the post of 

Forts Dodge and Wallace military reservation in Kansas, sub- 
division of 

Fourth Auditor of the Treasury, annual report of the 

Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, dam on the 



197 

45 

95 

1 

218 
44 

100 

5 
52 

I 
73 

1 



8 


1 


19 


26 


22 


187 


18 


14 


22 


128 


23 


197 


20 


97 


21 


117 


21 


121 


13 


10 


19 


59 


20 


111 


23 


209 


19 


77 


19 


21 


20 


91 


14 


2 


22 


133 


14 


2 


8 


1 


14 


2 


14 


2 


24 


219 


18 


19 


22 


185 


23 


203 


1 


1 


23 


195 


19 


76 


22 


129 


2 


1 


22 


146 


22 


176 


22 


160 


22 


175 


20 


92 


20 


90 


23 


225 


14 


2 


20 


93 



3 

1-5 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



Vol. 




Frankford Arsenal, Pennsylvania, constraotion of an embank- 
ment wall at 

Freedmen's Hospital and Asylam, annual report of the (vol. 2).. . 

French Government, restrictions imposed by, upon pork exported 
from the United States 

Funds of the Miami Indians in Kansas 

Ottawa and Chippewa Indians 

G. 

Garreaux, Pierre, claim of 

Gas and meters, annual report of the United States inspector of 

(vol.2) 

General Land Office, annual report of the Commissioner of the 

(vol. I) 

clerical force of the 

Geological Survey, annual report of the Director of the (vol. 3). .. 

of Alaska 

Georgetown, D. C, bridge over the Potomac River at 

Getty, Col. George W., annual report of (vol. 1) 

Gibson, A. M., special United States attorney, report on the star- 

ronte service by 

Governor of Arizona, annual report of the ( vol. 2) 

Dakota, annual report of the (vol. 2) 



Idaho, annual report of the (vol. 2^. 



Montana, annual report of the (vol. 2) 

New Mexico, annual report of the (vol. 2) 

Wyoming, annual report of the (vol. 2) 

Government directors of the Union Paciho Railroad, annual re- 
part of the (vol. 2) 

Hospital for the Insaue, annual report of the board 

of visitors of the ( vol. 2) . . 
deficiency appropriation for 

the 

transportation on certain railroads, payment for 

Great Britain, importation of American neat cattle into 

H. 



HalPs Second Arctic Expedition, reprint of , 

Hancock, Maj. Gen. W. S., annual report of (vol. 1) 

Harbor of Chicago, lights in the 

at New Bufialo, Michigan, condition of the 

Petersburg, Va. , improvements of the 

of refuge at Ludineton, Mich 

Harper's Ferry, Va., sale of certain real estate at 

Home consumption and imposts, report of the Chief of Bureau 

of Statistics, concerning 

Hospital and Asylum for Freedmeu, annual report of the (vol. 2). 

Hot Springs Reservation in Arkansas, improvement of 

Howard, Brig. Gen. O. O., annual report of (vol. 1) 

Hunt, Brevet Brigadier-General, annual report of (vol. 1) 

I. 



19 
10 

23 
19 
19 



22 
10 

9 
19 
11 
23 
22 

2 



8 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 

10 

22 
22 
22 



22 
2 
19 
20 
19 
22 
19 

17 

10 

19 

2 

2 



the 



Ice-harbor at Dubuque, Iowa 

Idaho, annual report ojf the governor of (vol. 2) 

Immigration, statistical abstract of 

Importation of American neat cattle into Great Britain 

Imported merchandise entered for home consumption in 

United States, with rates of duty, amount collected, «fec 

Increase of the clerical force in the Pension Office 

Second Comptroller's and 
Third Auditor's offices 

War Department 

Increasing tli^ number of enlisted men in the naval service 



45 
1 

209 
40 
47 



159 
1 

5 

19 
156 



Part. 



150 
130 
186 



75 
1 

70 
104 

28 
139 

6G 

7 
1 
42 
1 
1 



19 


49 


10 


1 


22 


133 


22 


18C 


17 


7 


21 


120 


22 


162 


22 


134 


20 


100 



5 



5 



4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
;> 
5 



1,2 
5 

2 
2 



5 



1,2 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



XI 



Subject. 



Vol. 



No. 



Part. 



InduLii Affairs, Assistant Commissioner of 

CommisHioner of, aunnal report of the (vol. 2) 

salary of Commissioner of ••.. 

Agencies, Mescalero and Jicarilla, consolidation of the 

C^mmiaaioners, thirteenth annual report of the Board of. . 

oonntry, personal assaults in the. 

Department, disbursements made from the appropriations 

for the, for the year ending June 30, 1881 

depredation claims, list of 

inspectors and Indian agents, term of office of 

lands in Duck Valley, Nevada, payment of settlers for im- 
provements on 

lands in Kansas, accounts for advertising the sale of 

lands, price of Osage 

lands, prevention of trespass on 

reservation in Arizona, coal lands upon the San Carlos .... 

California, settlers on the Round Valley 

Indian Territory, enlargement of the Paw- 
nee 

Nebraska, right of way for railroad through 

Otoe and Missouria 

New Mexico, improvements in the JicarUla 

Apache 

outbreak, alleged connection of certain Mormons with 

Piute and Navajo 

reservations, sale of dead and damaged timber on 

supplies, increase in the appropriation for the transporta- 
tion of 

training-school at Fort Ripley, Minnesota, establishment 

of 

tribes, statement of liabilities to 

war claim of Florida 

Isdians, Cherokee, claim of, for lauds ceded to the United States 

in the Indian countrv 

disposal of certain funds of the Ottawa and Chippewa.. 

interest due Osage 

in Kansas, funds •f the Miami 

nnmberof, at each agency 

in North Carolina, lands and funds of Eastern Cherokee. 

claim of Charles Ewing against the Osage 

removal of certain Eastern Cherokee 

sale of annuity goods by 

Seneca Nation of New York 

Shoshone and Bannock, agreement with the 

Western Miami, at Quapaw Agency 

Informers, awards to, for year ending June 30, 1881 

laaane, Government Hospital for the, annual report of the board 

of visitors of the (vol. 2) . 
deficiency appropriation for 

the 

Inspector of gas-meteiT^, annual report of the United States (vol. 

2) 

Inspector-General of the Army, annual report of the (vol. 1) 

Inspections by Light-House Board and Bureau of Revenue Ma- 
rine, reports of 

Interior Department, detailed statement of disbursements from 

the contingent fund of the 

law clerks in the office of the Assistant 

Attorney-General of the 

building, roof of the 

Interior, Secretary of the, annual report of, in 4 volumes, embrac- 
ing reports of— 

The Secretary (vol, 1) 

Architect of the United States Capitol (vol. 2) 

Arizona, governor of (vol. 2) 



19 


29 


10 


1 


19 


29 


23 


207 


19 


79 


22 


181 


16 


6 


22 


135 


22 


149 


19 


61 


19 


60 


22 


124 


22 


145 


22 


173 


23 


205 



23 

22 

23 

19 
19 

22 

1» 
14 
23 

20 
19 
23 
19 
16 
23 
19 
20 
20 
19 
18 
19 
22 

10 

22 

10 
2 

20 

20 



218 
171 
220 

65 

56 

167 

175 

2 

203 

89 
47 

200 

40 

6 

196 
73 
96 

101 
83 
18 
36 

157 

1 

150 

1 
1 

103 

105 



22 


158 


22 


191 


9 


1 


10 


1 


10 


1 



o 



5 
2 



5 
5 
5 



XII 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 


Vol. 


No. 


Part. 


Interior, Secretary of the, annual report of, in 4 volumes, embrac- 
ing reports of— 
Board of visitors of United States Hospital for the Insane 
^vol. 2) 


10 
10 
12 
9 
10 
10 
10 
10 
11 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 

19 
23 
20 

22 

19 

19 

22 

19 

20 
19 

23 
20 
23 
22 
22 

19 

22 

22 
19 
21 
22 
22 
122 
22 
22 

20 

22 

23 

19 

23 
22 


78 
194 
101 

169 

58 

29 

152 

79 

89 
29 

196 
96 
195 
175 
159 

57 

150 

130 
42 
120 
135 
149 
145 
167 
191 

105 

158 

220 

60 

223 
144 


5 


Columbia Institute for the Deaf and Dumb (vol. 2) 

Commissioner of Education f vol. 4) 


5 
5 


Commissioner of*the General Land Office (vol 1). .......... 


5 


Commissioner of Indian Affairs ( vol, 2).... ...... ...... .... 


5 


Commissioner of Pensions fvol. 2).... 


5 


Commissioner of Railroads ^ vol. 2).... 


5 


Dakota, jrovemor of f vol. 2) 


5 


Director of the Geological Survey (vol. 3) 

Freedmen's Hosnital and Asvlum f vol. 2^.. 


5 
5 


Idaho, arovernor of (vol. 2) 


5 


Inspector of flras and meters f vol. 2^ 


5 


Montana, irovemor of (vol. 2) 


5 


New Mexico, arovemor of (vol. 2) 


5 


Superintendent of the Census (vol. 2) 


5 


Union Pacific Railway Company, government directors of 
the(vol. 2) 


5 
5 


Wyomine, governor of (vol. 2) 


5 


Letters from, relating to : 
Alaska, establisment of schools in 




extension of the flreoloirical survev of..... 




Annuity sroods. sale of. bv Indians 




Arapahoe and Cheyenne Indians, confirmation of certain 
land to the 




Arizona, lawlessness in certain parts of... 




Assistant Conmiissioner of Indian Affairs, creation of the 
office of 




Bieamy, compensation of the commissioners under the act 
U}T the suppression of 




Board of Indian Commissioners, annual report of the 

Cherokee Indians, claim of, for certain lands ceded to the 
United States 




Commissioner of Indian Affairs, salary of the .............. 




Eastern Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, land and funds 

of the 

removal of 

Fort Dodge military reservation in Kansas, disposal of 

Fort Ripley, Minn. . Indian trainin&r-school at 




Garreaux, Pierre, claim of 




General Land Office, temporary addition to the clerical force 
of the '. 




Government Hospital for the Insane, deficiency in the ap- 
propriation for 




transportation on certian railroads, payment 
for 




Hot Springs Reservation in Arkansas, improvement of the. 
Increase oi the clerical force in the Pension Office 




Indian depredation claims, list of 








lands, prevention of trespass on 




supplies, transportation of 




Interior Department bnildinir. roof of the 




disbursements from the contingent 
fund of the 




law clerks in the office of the Assistant 
Attorney*6eneral for the 




Jicarilla-Apache Indian Reservation in New Mexico, im- 
provements in 




Kansas Indian lands, adjustment of accounts for advertis- 
ing sale of certain 




Lands, certified to certain railroad companies, alleged ex- 
cess in 









INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



XIII 



Sabjeot. 



Interior, Secretary of— 

Letters from, relating to : 
Meecalero and Jicarilla Indian Agencies, consolidation of the. 

Miami Indians in Kansas, funds of the 

New Mexico, meeting of the legislature of 

Norria, P. W., pay of, as saperintendent of Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park 

Northern Pacific Railroad, action of the Interior Department 

GODcemingthe land grant to the 

Osage Indians, interest due the 

lands in Kansas, price of 

Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, disposal of bonds and funds 

belonging to the 

Pacific railroads, annual earnings of the 

Patents, assistant principal examiners of 

Pawnee Indian Reservation in Indian Territory,enlargement 

of 

Pension claim agents 

Office, additional room for the 

increase of the clerical force in the 

Pensions, amounts required annually for the payment of, 

for the next 25 years 

deficiency in the appropriations for the payment of. 
estimated cost of, for survivors, &c., of Mexican 

and certain Indian wars 

Personal assaults in the Indian country 

Pinte and Navi^o Indian outbreaks, alleged connection of 

certain Mormons with the 

Pre emption cases approved during year ending June 30, 

1881 

Registers and receivers, salaries, fees^ and commissions of. . 
Republican Valley Railroad, right of way for the, through 

certain Indian lands 

Round Valley Indian Reservation in California, payment 

of settlers for improvements made 

Sale of dead and damaged timber on Indian reservations.. 

San Carlos Indian Reservation, coal lands upon the 

Seneca Nation of New York Indians, memorial of, against 

passage of Senate bill No. 19 

Shoshone and Bannock Indians, agreement with the 

Indians, payment of settlers for improvements 
on certain lands in Duck Valley, Nevada, taken 

for use of 

Tenth Census, completion of the work of the 




expenses of the 



Timber on Indian reservations, sale of dead and damaged.. 
Union Pacific Railway, annual repoi-t of government di- 
rectors of the 

Ute commission, expenses of the 

Vaca, Antonio, private land claim of 

Western Miami Indians at Quapaw Agency 

Internal Revenue, annual report of the Commissioner of 



Bureau, list of officers and employes of the, 
who nave been killed or wounded while en- 
forcing the internal-revenue laws 

gangers, compensation of 



20 

19 
23 
22 

19 
22 
22 

23 
19 
19 
21 

19 
23 

22 
22 

19 

23 
22 

22 

23 
19 
22 

19 

18 



19 
23 
13 
19 



i 



10 
19 
20 
23 
19 
14 
15 



laws, officers and employ^ of the Internal 
Revenue Bureau and Department of Justice 
who have been killed or wounded in the en- 
forcement of the 

tax, drawback of, on stills and worms ex- 
ported to foreign countries 

Interest due Osage Indians , 



19 
19 

2:j 



85 

63 
200 
124 

47 
123 
140 

218 
52 
38 

120 

52 
201 

137 
181 

65 

198 
148 

171 

205 

56 

173 

83 

18 



61 

215 

10 

59 

56 

1 

41 

105 

212 

36 

2 

4 



Part. 




67 

82 
200 



5 



1.2 



1.2 



XIV 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



International bureau of excban^es, establishment of 

IHsheries Exhibition in London in 1883 

Introduction of contagions and infectious diseases into the United 

States 

Ireland, American citizens imprisoned in 

Israelites in Russia, condition of 



J. 

Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, plans, <&c., for construction of 

buildings at 

Jicarilla Apache Indian reservation in New Mexico, improve- 
ments in the 

and Mescalero Indian agencies, consolidation of the 

Judge-Advocate-General of the Army, annual report of the 

(vol. 1) 

Justice, Department of. (See Attorney-General.) 

list of officers and employ^ of the, who 
have been killed or wounded while 
enforcing the internal-revenue laws .. 

K. 

Kansas, disposal of Fort Dodge Military Reservation in 

Inman lands, accounts for advertising the sale of certain. 
Pacific Railroad, annual earnings of the 

L. 

Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, relief of the 

Lake Winnebago, awaMs for flowage of lands on the borders of. . 

Land, care and sale of numerous tracts of government 

grant of the Northern Pacific Railroad, action of the Interior 

Department concerning 

in Indian Territory, conmrmation of, the Arapaho and Chey- 
enne Indians 

Office, annual report of the Commissioner of the General 

(vol. IJ 

general clerical force of the 

Lands on Lake Winnebago, awards for flowage of 

granted by government to certain railroad companies 

to certain railroad companies, alleged excess of certification 

of 

Law clerks in the office of the Assistant Attorney-General for the 
Int-erior Department 

Lawlessness in certain parts of Arizona 

Legislature of New Mexico, meeting of the 

Liabilities of to IndilEtn tribes, statement of 

Lieutenants in the Army, promotion of 

Life-Saving Service, deatlis of persons from wounds, &c., in the.. 
Light-House Board, reports of inspections by the 

on Belle Isle, Detroit River, Michigan 

structures, appropriations for, to oe expended by 

contract 

Lighted buoys, appropriation for 

Lights in the harbor of Chicago 

on bridges, maintenance of 

Ludington, Mich., harbor of refuge at 

M. 

Mail contractors, allowance made to, during year ending June 30, 

matter, second class, weight cost of carriage, and postage on. 

weighing between New York and Chicago 

'/Js, books imported through the 




Part. 



19 



23 
19 
22 



23 
22 
19 

19 

23 

9 
19 
22 
22 

23 

22 
19 
22 
22 
14 
20 
19 
20 
19 

20 
23 
19 
22 
21 



25 
23 
19 
22 



67 



195 

60 

123 



204 

164 

50 

50 

169 

1 

57 

164 

144 

223 

158 I 

58 

188 

138 

2 

106 

74 
103 

69 

107 
217 
70 
177 
139 



1,2 3 



1,2 



226 

206 

72 

165 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



XV 



Subject. 



Mails established daring the year endiug Jane 30, 1881 

offers for carrying the, in certain States 

payment of contractors for carrying the 

Maps and charts for the use of the House Committee on Commerce. 

Marine Corps, reportof the commandant of the 

Marshals, compensation of 

McDowell, Mai. Gen. Irwin, annual report of (vol. 1) 

Medicine and Surgery, annual report of the Bnrean of 

Mescalero and Jicarilla Indian Agencies, consolidation of the 

Metals, annual production in the Unitea States of the precioas . .. 

tests of, made at Watertown Arsenal 

Mexico, arrest and iroprisounient of certain American citizens in.. 

boundary between the United States and 

Miami Indians in Kannas, funds of the 

Miles, Col. N. A., annual report of (vol. 1) 

Military establishment, expenditure from the contingent funds of 

the./. 

Military poet at Fort Lewis, Colorado, completion of 

I>o8t at Fort Selden, New Mexico 

prison at Fort Leavenworth, annual report of the (vol. 1). 

reservation in Kansas, disposal of Fort Dodge 

reservations, disposal of abandoned 

reservations of Forts Dodge and Wallace, subdivision of. 

Mining dihris in California rivers 

Mint, annnal report of the Director of the 

Misoasippi River, destitution from overflow of 

navigation through bridges over the upper 

relief afforded sufferers from overflow of 

Mia»iiii, claim of the State of, against the United States 

Monetary Conference, reassembling of the Paris 

Montana, annnal report of the governor of (vol. 2) 

Mormons, alleged connection of, with Piute and Navajo Indian 

oat break 

Movement of vessels of the Navy, detailed statement of the 



N. 



Nstiooal banks 

National Board of Health annual report of the 

expenditures of the 

letter from the president of the, rela- 
tive to the introduction of conta- 
gious and infectious diseases into 

the United States 

Navajo and Piute Indian outbreak, allcgtHl connection of certain 

Mormons with the 

Kavsl Academy, annual reportof the 

Academy, Annapolis, Md., certain paving at 

Observatory, report ui)on a site for the new 

officers cruising in Alaska waters, report of 

service, increasing the number of enlisted men in the 

Navigation, report of the Bureau of 

commerce and, of tbe United States, report of the 

Bureau of Statistics on 

through bridges over the Upper Mississippi River 

Nary, annual report of the Admiral of the 

appronriation for the contingent equipment and recruit- 
ing for the 

Advisory Board of the, and its proceedings 

condition of the 

Department, annual report of the. {See Navy, Secretary of 

the.) 

contingent fund of the 

presen-ation of timber for the use of the .' 

professors of mathematics in the 



19 

18 
18 



19 
8 

19 
8 

19 

20 
8 

17 
22 

8 

22 

8 
19 



19 
22 
22 



Vol. 


No. 


Part. 


25 


226 




25 


226 




20 


102 




21 


109 




8 


1 


3 


22 


131 




2 


1 


2 


8 


1 


3 


23 


207 




23 


216 




13 


12 




20 


114 




22 


180 




19 


40 




2 


1 


2 


20 


108 




22 


146 




20 


92 




2 


1 


2 


23 


195 




19 


39 




23 


225 




20 


98 




14 


2 




22 


126 




22 


136 




22 


141 




22 


184 




23 


221 




10 


1 


5 


19 


65 




8 ! 


1 


3 



43 
13 
14 



21 118 



65 

1 

116 

1 

81 

100 

1 

7 

136 

1 

132 

1 

30 



31 
143 

190 



3 
3 



3 

3 
1,2,3,4 



XVI 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 




Navy, Secretary of the, annual report of the, embracing reports of— 

Admiral of the Navy 

Advisory Board, and its proceedings 

The Secretary 

Bureau of Constimction and Repair 

Equipment and Recruiting 

Medicine and Surgery 

Navigation 

Ordnance 

Provisions and Clothing 

Steam Engineering 

Yards and Docks 

Earthquake at Scio, April 3, 1881 

Estimates of the Secretary's office, pay of the Navy, &c 

Marine Corps 

Movement of vessels, detailed statement of 

Naval Academy 

New Naval Observatory 

Veutilatinff and cooling the Executive Mansion during the 

iUness of President Garfield 

Letters from, relative to — 

Boston navy-yard, statement of expenditures in the 

Chiriqui grant, certain lands and harbors known as the 

Condition of the Navy 

Enlisted men in the naval service, increasing the number of 

HalPs Second Arctic Expedition, reprint oi Captain 

Naval Academy, Annaj)olis, Md., certain paving at 

Naval officers cruising in Alaska waters, reports of 

Navy^ appropriation for the contingent equipment and re- 
cruiting for the 

Navy Department, expenditures from the contingent fund 

• of the 

Navy, preservation of timber for the use of the 

New York navy-yard, boiler shop and caisson gate at 

Professors of mathematics in the Navy, appointment of 

Transit of Venus, observation of the J 

Navy, steamers now in the United States 

Nebraska^ use of United States troops in 

New Buffalo, Mich., condition of the harbor at 

New Mexico, annual renort of the governor of (vol. 2) 

Met^ting oi the legislature of 

Nevada, Shoshone Indian lands in Duck Valley, payment of cer- 
tain settlers for improvement of 

New Naval Observatory, report upon a site for the 

New York Indians, Seneca Nation of 

Navy-yard, new boiler-shop and caisson gate at 

Norris, P. W.,pay of, as superintendent of Yellowstone National 
Park 

Northern Pacific Railroad, action of the Interior Department con- 
cerning the land grant to 



O. 
Observation of the transit of Venus. 



Ordnance, Navy Department, annual report of the Bureau of 

War Department, annual report of the Chief of the 

Bureau of (vol. 3) 

letter from the Chief of, transmit- 
ting reports concerning tests of 
metals maile at Watertown Ar- 
senal 

Osage Indian Nation, claim of Charles Ewing against 

Indian lands, in Kansas, price of 

Indians, interest due the 

Otoe and Missouria Indian reservation in Nebraska, right of way 
for railroad through the 



8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

22 

19 
19 
20 
21 
20 
19 

22 

19 
22 
22 
22 
20 
22 
19 
22 
20 
10 
22 

19 

8 

19 

22 

19 

19 



20 
22 

8 



13 
19 
22 
23 

22 



187 
46 
30 

100 
75 

116 
81 

132 

31 
143 
170 
190 

87 
182 

30 

127 

104 

1 

138 

61 

1 

83 

170 

85 

63 



87 

182 

1 



12 

73 

124 

200 

171 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



1,2,3,4 



5 



3 



3 
2 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



XVII 



Subject. 



Vol. i No. 



Part. 



Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, dispnaul of certain funds of the.. 
Overflow of Mississippi River, destitution from 

P. 

Pacific Railroa^l, land ({rant to the Northern 

Pacific raiht>ada, annual earnings of the 

Pacific Railway, annual report of the government directors of the 

Union 

Packing trunks for registered mail matter 

Paris Mouetary Conference, reassembling of the 

Passengers by sea, message of the President vetoing the bill to 

regulate the carriage of 

Patents, anDoal report of the Commissioner of 

assistant principal exannners of • 

Paring at Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md 

Pawnee Indian Reservation in Indian Territory, enlargement of 

the 



Pay ot intern al-rt*venne gangers 

the Navy, &c., estimates for the Secretary's office and 

Payment of contractors for carr3'ing the mails 

Payment for government transportation on certain railroads. 

Payniaster-General, annual report of 

Peace between Chili and Peru and Bolivia 

Congress, American , 

in South America, negotiations for restoration of 

Pdletier, Antonio, claim of« against the Government of Hayti 
(See S. Ex. Doc. No. 86, Ist sess. 47th Cong.) 

Pemion Office, additional room for the 

claim agents r 

Office, increase of the clerical force in the 

Office, persons prosecuting claims before the 

PenaioDS, annual report of the Coivroissioner of«(vol. 2) 

cost of. for Mexican and certain Indian wars 

deficiency in appropriations lor payment of 

estimates of the amount requiro<l for the payment of, 

f»»r the iiext twenty-five years 

Pmia, protection of American citizens in 

Penonai assaults in the Indian country 

Persona employed in the Departuinnr. of State, names of 

IVni and Boli via, peace between Chili and 

Peterabari^, improvement of the harbor at 



T--- 



Plate printing by steam-power presses 

Plenro-pnenmonia in cattle 

Piste and Navajo Indian outbreak, alleged connection of certain 
Mofmons with the 



Pope, Brig. Gen. John, annual report of (vol. 1) 

Popolation, statistical abstract of 

Pbrk export«^ from the United States, restrictions imposed by the 

French Government npon 

Postal clerks and route agents 

Service, statistical abstract of the 

Postmaster-General, annual report of, in 1 volume, embracing re- 
ports of — 

Th« Postmaster-General ..., 

Auditor of the Treasury for the Post-Office Department 

First Assistant Postmaster-General 

Gibson, A. M., special United States attorney on star 
route service 

Second Assistant Post master- General 

Snpeiiatendent of the Railway Mail Service 

Third Assistant Postmaster-General 

Topographer of the department 



19 



19 
22 

19 
19 
23 

23 
19 
22 
20 

23 
23 

8 
20 
22 

2 
19 
22 
22 
19 

19 
22 
21 
22 
10 
22 
23 

19 
22 
22 
19 
19 
19 

23 

20 

19 

2 

22 

23 
19 
22 



8 
8 
8 



47 
12J 



63 
123 

41 

34 

221 

227 

62 

140 

116 



<21 
i21 



218 
210 

1 

I 
102 
130 

1 

68 

174 

142 

64 

38 •! 
154 , 
1-^0 

154 : 

1 
137 
201 

52 
151 
181 

24 

68 

28 
199 
224 

99 

65 

1 

133 

209 

51 

133 



1 
1 
1 



8 




8 




8 




8 




8 


■*• 



3 
2 



2 



4 
4 

4 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



H £• 



-II 



XVIII 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 




Postmaster-General : 

Letters from, relating to — 
Allowances made mail contractors during year ending June 

30,1881 

Branch post-office, Wa«bington, D. C, rent of 

Contractors, allowances made to, and curtailments effected 

in the mail service, and the pay of contractors for the 

year ending June 30, 18yl... 

Contractors, payment of, for carrying the mails 

Mails, offers, &c., for carrying the, m certain States 

Mail weighing between New York and Chicago 

Packing trunks for registered mail matter 

Resignations, removals, promotions, and appointments in 

Post-OfiBce Department since March 4, 1881, list of 

Route agents and postal clerks, transfer of certain funds, 

and increased appropriation for 

Salaries of ceilain postmasters, readjustment of the 

Second class mail matter, weight, cost of carriage, and 

postage on 

Steamship communication between San Francisco and Syd- 



ney, New South Wales. 



Waste paper, sale of 

Wrapping paper, appropriation for 

Post-Office Department, annual report of the — (See Postmaster- 
General.) 
Poet-Office Department, Washington, D. C, resignations, remov- 
als, promotions, appointments, &c., in the, since 

March 4, 1881 

In Washington, D. C, rent of branch 

Posts on' the Rio Grande frontier 

Postmaslers, readjustment of the salaries of certain 

Potomac River at Georgetown, D. C, bridge across the 

Precious metals in the United States, annual production of the. 
Pre-emptiom cases approved during year ending June 30, 1881.. . 

Prevention of .trespass on Indian lands .• 

President of the United States : 
Messages from — 

American Peace Congress 

Annual message of the, accompanied by the annual reports 
of the Executive Departments and the Commissioners of 

the District of Columbia, for 1881 

Appropriations for rivers and harbors, message from the 
President returning to the House, without his approval, 

the bill H. R. 6*^42, making 

Arizona, lawlessness in 

Boundary between the Unite<l States and Mexico 

Carriage of passengers by sea, message, returning to the 

House, witnout his approval, the bill to regulate the 

Consular courts in China, causes before the United States. . 
Foreign relations of the United States, papera relating to the. 

Nebraska, use of United States troops in 

United States consular courts in China, causes before the.. 
Transmits, by message, conimuiiications, *SlC., from — 
. The Commissioner of Agriculture: 

Agriculture, annual report of the Commissioner of 

The Secretary of the Interior: 
Advertising the sale of certain Kansas Indian lands, ad- 
justment of the accounts for 

Alaska, establishment of schools in 

Annuity goods, sale or barter by certain Indians of 

Arapahoe and Cheyenne Indians, confirmation of certain 

lands in Indian Territory to 

Arizona, lawlessness in certain parts of 

Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs, ofiice of 

Bigamy, compensation of commissioners under the act for 
the suppression of 



25 
22 



25 
20 
25 
19 
19 

19 

19 
19 

23 

21 
19 
22 



19 
19 
20 

22 
19 
19 



No. Part. 



19 
22 
19 
19 
22 
23 
23 
22 



1-12 



23 
22 
22 

23 j 
23 I 

^' 

23 



145 



22 174 



222 

180 

227 

213 

1 

127 

213 



78 
101 

im 

58 
29 



226 i 
183 



22t: 

102 f 

226 f 

72 \ 

34 ' 

86 

51 
35 

206 

119 I 

71 

122 I 



86 ! 

183 ; 

20 ' 

:^ ' 

156 i 
216 1 

198 ' 



I 



26 I 228 



1-6 



12 I 152 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



XIX 



Sabject. 



Vol. 




PresideDt of the United States: 
Tr&Dsmita, by message, coniniuuicatioDs, &c., from — 
Tbe Secretary of the Interior: 

Board of Indian Commissioners, annual report of the 

Cherokee Indians, claim of the, for certain lands ceded to 

the United States 

removal of certain, to Indian Territory. 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs* salary of the 

Fort Dodge military reservation, disposal of 

Garreaux. Pierra, claim of 

Geuei-al Land Office, temporary addition to the clerical 

force of the 

Grovemment Hospital for the Insane, deficiency in appropri- 
ations for 

Hot Springs Reservation in Kansas, improvement of the... 

Indian inspectors and Indian agents, term of office of 

lands, prevention of trespsiss upon 

supplies, increase in the appropriation for transpor- 
tation of 

irainiug-school at Fort Ri[»ley, Minnesota, establish- 
ment of 

Jicarilla-Apachc Indian reservation, improvements on the. 
Law clerks in the Assistant Attoniey-Generars Office for 

the Interior Department '. 

Mescalero and Jicarilla Indian Agencies, consolidation, 

Ac, of the 

Miami Indiana in Kansas, certain funds of the ..^ 

New Mexic«s meeting of the legislature of 

Norris, P. W., pay of, as superiniendcnt of Yellowstone 

National Park 

Osage Indian lands in Kansas, price of. 

Indians, interest due ! 

Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, disposal of certain bonds 

and funds of the 

Patents, assistant principal examiners of 

Pawnee Indian reservation, enlargement of the 

Payment for government transportation on certain railroa<l8. 

Pension Office, additional room for the 

iucrejise of clerical force in the 

Pensions, amounts annually required f<»r the i)ayment of, 

for the next tio years 

deficiency in the appropriations for 

Personal assaults in the Indian country 

Republican Valley Railn>ad, right of way for the, through 

the Otoe and Missouri Indian reservation in Neraska 

Roof of Interior Department building 

Round Valley Indian reservation in California, paymentsfor 

improvements maile by certain si't tiers on 

Salaries, fees, and commissions of registers and receivers. .. 
Sale of dead and damaged timber (»n Indian reservations .. 

San Carlos Indian reservation, coal lands upon the 

Seneca Nation of New York Indians, memorial of the, against 

the passage of Senate bill No. 19 

Shoshone and Bannock Indians, agreement with the 

Indian lands in Duck Valley, Nev., payment of 

certain settlers for improvements upon 

Tenth Census, complet ion of the work of the 



19 

20 
20 
19 

2:j 

22 

19 

22 
19 
22 
22 

22 

22 
23 



Part. 



expenses of the 

Union Pacific Railway, annual re]>ort of the government 

directors of the 

Ute Commission, expenses of the 

Vaca, Antonio, private land claim of, in Louisiana 

Western Miami Indians at Quapaw Agency 



23 
19 
22 

19 
22 
23 

19 
22 
23 
22 
19 
21 

19 
23 
22 

22 
22 

23 
22 
19 
22 

19 

18 

19 
23 
13 
19 
2 
19 
20 
23 
19 



74 

89 

96 

29 

195 

159 

57 

150 

42 

149 

145 

167 

175 
220 



22 158 



207 

40 

138 

85 
124 
200 

47 
140 
218 
130 

38 
120 

n2 
201 
181 

171 
191 

205 

148 

56 

173 

83 

18 

61 
215 

10 

59 
1 

41 
111 
212 

36 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



President of the Uuited States : 
Transmits, by mefsage, conmiunications, &c.y from — 
The Secretary of tlie Navy : 

HalPs Second Arctic Expedition, reprint of Captain 

Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md., certain paving at 

service, increase of the enlisted men in the 

Navy, appropriation for the contingent equipment and re- 

cniiting for the 

preservat ion of timber for nse of the 

New York navy -yard, new boiler-shop and caisson gate at . 




Pait. 



•; 



Transit of Venus, obser\'ation of the 



The president of 1 he National Board of Health : 

Introduction of contagious and infectious diseases into the 

United States 

The Secretary of State: 

Chili and j^eru and Bolivia, efforts of the United States to 
bring about peace between 

Consular service, list of promotions, removals, and appoint- 
ments in the, since March 4, 1877 

Fees collected from American vessels by United States con- 
suls .* 

Importation of American neat cattle int^ Great Britain 

International Bureau of Exchanges, establishment of 

Ireland, American citizens imprisoned in 

Israelites in Russia, condition of 

London International Fisheries Exhibition, 1883 : 

Mexico, imprisonment of Thomas Shields and Charles 
Weber in 

Paris Monetary Conference, reassembling of the 

Pelletier, Antonio, claim of 

Persia, protection of American citizens in 

Pork exported from the United States, restrictions im^wsed 
by the French Government upon 

Shields, Thomas, arrest and imprisonment of, and other 

American citizens in Mexico 

and Weber, Charles, imprisonment of, in 
Mexico 

Sonth America, negotiations tor the restoration of peace in . 

Supernumerary secretaries of legation, the appointment of. 

Venezuela, awards made against, by the Mixed Commis- 
sion 

Weber, Charh s, and Shields, Thomas, imprisonment of, in 

Mexico 

The Secretary of the Treasury : 

Civil service, unexpended appropriation for the promotion 

of the efficiency of the 

The Secretary of War : 

Abandoned military reservations, disposal of 

Clothing account of enlisted men 

Columbus Barracks, Ohio, buildings at 

David's Island, New York Harbor, buildings at 

Deficiencies in the appropriations for transportation and 
supplies for the Army .' 

Fort Leavenworth, Kans., completion of the barracks at . .. 

quarters for troops at 

Fort Lewis, Colorado, completion of the military post at. .. 

Fort Maginnis, Montana, completion of 

Fort McKinney, Wyoming Territory, completion of the post 
at 

Fort Selden, New Mexico, construction of a military post at 

Fort Thombnrg, Utah, construction of the post of . ... 

Frankford Arsenal, Pennsylvania, construction of an em- 
bankment wall at 

Jefferson Barracks, Mo., plans for, and constniction of, cer- 
tain buildings at 



19 
20 
20 

22 
22 
22 

^20 
i22 



19 

20 

19 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 

22 
23 
19 
22 

23 

20 

22 
22 
13 

2:^ 

22 

19 



22 

20 
20 

19 
19 
2:1 



7,5 
IKi 
100 

132 
143 

170 

«7 

182 



21 118 



68- 

110 

77 
186 
172 
ir)5 
192 
185 

ir»3 

221 

64 

151 

209 

114 

153 
142 

8 

208 
15:5 

84 



19 


39 


19 


44 


19 


55 


19 


55 


22 


161 


19 


76 


22 


129 


22 


146 


22 


176 



160 
92 
90 

45 

.37 

214 



1,'^ 



1,2,3 



1.2, a 



1,2,3 



1,2,3 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMKNTS. 



XXI 



Subject. 



President of the United States : 
Transmits, by messiige, commuuications, &c., from — 
The Secretary of War : 

Lady Franklin Hay Expedition, relief of the 

Potomac River at Georgetown, D. C, bridge acn>H8. the ... 
Rock iMland Arsenal, Illiinois, iniproveniont of the water- 
power at 

Soldiers, certain debts of, to be a lien against their pay... 
War Department bnilding, additional appropriation for con 

tingent expenses of the 

increase of clerical force in the 

Price of Osage Indian lands in Kansas 

Private land claim of Antonio Yaca, in Louisiana 

Professors of matheinarics in the Navy 

ProiBoting the efficiency of the civil service 

Promotions of lieutenants in the Army 

Proposals for supplies for the departments, advertising for 

ProTiAons and clothing, report of I he Bureau of 

Publication of war records, report on ( vol .1) 

Parchaae of silver and coinage of silver dollars 

Q. 

Qaapaw Agency, Western Miami Indians at 

Qoartermaster-General, annual report of (vol. 1) 

Qnartermaster's departments, agents of, employed in the investi- 
gation of claims under act of July 4, 1864 

R. 

Kailroads, Commissioner of, annual report of the (vol. 2) 

lands granted to certain 

statistical abstract of . 

Railway Mail Service, annual report of the SupeiintendcMit of. . 

Sank and pay of Army officers after fifteen years* service 

Beadjnatment of the salaries of certain postmasters 

Reassembling of the Paris Monetary Conference 

Receipts and expenditures for tbe year ending June 30, 1875 ... 

tor the year ending Jun»* 30, 1876 ... 
for the year ending Juno 30, 1877 ... 

Reeeivers, salaries, fees, and commissions of registers and 

Reconstmct ion of the Navy 

Register of the Treasury, annual report of the 

Ri^sters and receivers, salaries, fees, and commissions of 

R^Mt4sred mail matter, packing-trunks for 

Reicalat ion of steam vessels , 

Relief afforded sufferers from overflow of Missisttippi River 

of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition 

Removal of certain Eastern Cherokee Indians 

Rent of branch post-office in Washington, D. C 

Reorganization of the Second National Hank of Cincinnuti, Ohio 

Republican Valley Railroad, right of way for, through the Otoe 
and Missonria Indian res(*ivation in Nebraska 

Revenue Marine, reports of insnectors by tbe board of 

Restrictions impo#MMl bj' tbe French Government upon pork ex- 
ported from the United States 

Revised St4iitnteM, amendoieni to section 21 42 of the 

Rio Grande frontier, posts on the 

Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, improvement of the water-power at 

Roof of Interior Department building 

Round Valley Indian reservation in California, settlers on the.. 

Route agents and postal clerks 

S. 

Sabine Pass, Ttxas, results of the survey of 

Sales of annuity goods by Indians 



Vol. No. Pa It. 



23 


204 


22 


156 


22 


163 


20 


115 


22 


168 


22 


I'M 


22 


U4 


23 


212 


22 


190 1 


11) 


H4 


20 


106 


22 


166 


8 


1 


2 


1 


20 


88 


1 


36 ! 


2 


1 



22 



178 



10 


1 


22 


144 


22 


133 


8 


1 


18 


16 


19 


35 


2:^ 


221 


20 


97 


21 


117 


21 


121 


22 


14- 


19 


30 


14 


2 


22 


148 


19 


34 


22 


125 


22 


141 


23 


204 


20 


96 


22 


183 


82 


189 


22 


171 


20 


103 


23 


209 


22 


181 


19 


20 


22 


163 


22 


191 


23 


205 


19 


51 


22 


147 


20 


101 



3 
2 



o 



XXII 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



Sales of certain real estat-e at Harper's Ferry 

dead aod damaged timber on Indian reservations 

waste paper 

Saint Joseph River, Michigan, railroad bridore across 

Saint Mary's Falls Canal, Tetter from the Secretary of War con- 
cerning 

Raint Mary's River, Michigan, improvement of 

Salary of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

Salaries of certain postmasters 

fees, and commissions of registers and receivers 

San Carlos Indian reservation, coal lands upon the , 

San Francisco and Sydney. New South Wales, steamship commu 
uication between .*. 

Schools in Alaska, establishment and maintenance of 

Search-warrants for the discovery of smuggled goods at the port 
of New York 

Second Assistant Postmaster-General, annunl report of the 

Second Auditor of the Treasury, annual report of the 

Second-class mail matter, weight, cost of carriage, and postage 
on 

Second Comptroller of the Treasury, annual report of the 

Second Comptrollers Office, increase of the force in the 

Second National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, reorganization of the. 

Secretary of the Interior, annual report of the. {See Interior, Sec- 
retary of the. ) 

Secretary of the Navy, annual report of the (See Navy» Secretary 
of the.) 

Secretary of the Navy, estimates for the office of the,and pay of the 
Navy, &c / 

Secretary of the Treasury, annual report of the. (See Treasury, 
Secretary of the.) 

Secretary of War, annual report of the. (See War, Secretary of.) 

Secretaries of legation, supernumerary 

Selden, military post at Fort , 

Seneca Nation oi New York Indians , 

Settlers on the Round Valley Indian reservation in California . .. 

Sheridan, Lieutenant General, annual report of, (vol. 1) 

Shields, Thomas, arrest and imprisonment of, in Mexico, and other 
American citizens , 

Shields, Thomas, and Weber, Charles, arrest and imprisonment 
of, in Mexico 

Shipping, statistical abstract of , 

Shoshone and Bannock Indians, agreement with 

Shoshone Indian lauds in Duck Valley, Nevada, payment of cer- 
tain settlers for improvements of , 

Signal Officer of the Army, annual report of the Chief (vol. 4) . .. 

Signal Service, errors in report of expenditures of , 

expenditures for , 

Silver, purchases of, and coinage of silver dollars 

Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, annual earuings of the 

Sixth Auditor of the Treasury, annual report of the 

Smuggled goods, search-warrant-s for the discovery of, at the port 
of New York 1 

Soldiers, certain debts of, to be made a lien against their pay 

Soldiei-s' Homo, annual report of the Board of Commissioners of 

South Ameri^'a, negotiations for restoration of peace in , 

State, Secretary of: 

Letters fro«i, relative to — 
American neat cattle, importation of. into Great Britain... 
American vessels, amount of foes collected by consuls of 

the United States from 

Chili and Peru and Bolivia, efforts of the United States to 

bring about a peace between , 

Consular officers and diplomatic and consular fees , 

Consular service, list of promotions, removals, &c., in the. 
Exportation of pork from the Unitetl States 




19 


48 


8 


1 


14 


2 


23 


206 


14 


2 


22 


162 


22 


189 



8 



22 

19 

19 
19 
20 
23 



1 



13 


8 


20 


92 


19 


83 


23 


205 


2 


1 


20 


114 


22 


153 


22 


133 


18 


18 


19 


61 


7 


1 


23 


197 


22 


128 


20 


88 


22 


123 


14 


2 


19 


48 


20 


115 


2 


1 


22 


142 



186 

77 

68 

21 

110 

209 



1,2,3 



2 



1,2 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS 



XXIIl 



Subject. 




State, Secretary of: 

Letters from, relative to^ 
Great Britain, importation of American neat cattle into .. 

International Bureau of Exchange, establishment of an 

International Fisheries Exhibition to be held in London in 

1883 

Ireland, imprii»onmeut of American ci tizens in 

laraelites in Russia, condition of 

Paris Monetary Conference, reassembling of the 

Pelletier, Antonio, claim of 

Persia, protection of American citizens in, and establish- 
ment of diplomatic intf'rcourse with 

Plenro-pneunionia in cattle, letter from Mr. H. Cloete, of the 

Colony of Good Hope, concerning cure of 

Pork exported from the United States, restrictions imposed 

by the French Government upon 

Mexico, arrest and imprisonment of certain American citi- 
zens in 

Shields, Thomas, arrest and imprisonment in Mexico of, 

and other American citizens 

Shields, Thomas, and Weber, Charles, and other American 

citizens, imprisonment of, in Mexico 

State Department, expenditures from the contingent fund 

of the 

list of persons employed in the 

South America, negotiations for the restoration of peace in. 
Venezuela, awards made to, by the Mixed Commission .... 
Weber, Charles, and Shields, Thomas, and other American 

citizens, imprisonment of, in Mexico , 

State, War, and Navy Department building, report on the 

statistical abstract of the United States, 1881 (tinance, coinage, 
coBimerce, immigration, shipping, the postal service, popula- 

tioo, railroads, agriculture, coal, and iron, &c. ) 

Statistics, Bureau of, annual report of the Chief of the, on the 

commerce and navigation of the United States for 1881 

Steam Engineering, re}>ort of the Bureau of 

Teasel^ regulation of 

Strameni in the United States Navy 

Steamship communication between San Francisco and Sydney, 

New Sonth Wales 

Suits in the Conrt of Claims 

Saperintendent of Census, annual report of the (vol. 2) 

Railway Mail Service, annual report of the , 

Yellowstone National Park, annual report of the 

rvol.2) 

Yellowstone National Park, pay of P. W. Norris as 

Sapemamerary secretaries of legation 

Sopplemental list of claims allowed under act of June 20, 1874.. . 

Sappliea for the departments, advertising for proposals for 

Sargeon-GeDeral of the Army, annual report of (vol. 1) 

Sorvey of Alaska, geological 

Sabine Pass, Tex., results of 

Sosqoehanna River, estimate for the continuation of the improve- 
ment of the, near Havre de Grace, Md 

Svdney, New Sonth Wales, steamship communication between 
•San l-Vancisco and 

T. 

Tenth Census, completion of the work of the , 

expense of the , 

Term of office of Indian inspectors and Indian agents 

Terry, Brig. G^en. Alfred H., annual report of (vol 1) 

Tests of metals, report of, made at Watertown A-rsenal 

Third Atsistant Postmaster-General, annual rejiort^f 



22 
22 

22 
22 
22 
23 
19 

22 

20 

23 

20 

20 

22 

19 
19 
22 
23 

22 
2 

22 



Part. 



186 
172 

1^5 
155 
192 
221 
(54 

151 

99 

209 I 

114 

114 

153 

25 

24 

142 

208 

15:^ 

1 

133 



1.2. a 



1,2,3 



1,2,3 
2 



17 


7 




8 


1 


3 


22 


125 




19 


30 


3 


21 


119 




19 


27 




10 


1 


5 


8 


1 


4 


10 


1 


5 


19 


85 




13 


8 




23 


202 




22 


166 




2 


1 


2 


23 


194 




22 


147 




19 


53 




21 


119 




23 


215 




13 


10 




19 


59 




22 


149 




2 


1 


2 


13 


12 




8 


1 


4 



XXJY lyi'ill J^'J EXECITITE 1^0 JVWF.ST^ 



^>ul«Kirt- Till. Ko. Part. 



1 I !i. Aiic: 1 iirt^ ii-ft •H„ ii'tir^-jrHt <»1 " ut- f<»rtt- ;l ilit- 22 162 

1 ii'TLimririi. Tiitl. 1 ^ui.. •nuiKi.njtT )(»ii <« liit- i»(»tfl i«f ^* 90 

7 niiH? "i*r "lit iM*» n' "iiH ^L^T". nrei«erviiTH»t ni iS 143 

Tt«.'n»jrri.idKir itf "lik l'i»tr-«.»ftj'.^ I^intmiK'ii'L. aiiuuid TtiKin nf the. ^ 1 

^ ' \ X- - J- \ N ije 87 

i vniis:! 1*2 » taintv- inMHsn iiT.n»ii ic tl*e — ^ ^^ 

i*c :: :...: ^ ip 

^a tHirtu.i Tii/.ruiKiK. imviutail ftc — ^ 130 

TTv**inr«r «f t'ik Villi <«c ?>"u'.-t^t^ iOiiinkJ Tv}»<«n vd \^ 14 2 

miTHnTT-:-*. iwvifiUT'*' 7yijQ«r^ it* 

TTi.-K^ *-- li« 11* 

Trt-atouy I**^iiirtaD«in-. sult;*! r^K«n ad -l»t- xw TrtaiwirT, >eic^ 

Tt'LtiirT <i<f "Lii<^„ 

fTb'-toiKai cc 'i»^o<ii}T.:ijrtXTfXl»RMie*-firil>t-- Ir I* 
TreaMirv. S**f'jyita.TT 4<f '»j»r- auLTitl r?it<in <« "Ll»^, -to. xi»e fs*3>t erf 

Tl>*- Sty3^vnt'7 - v —il "k i'j**f 14 2 

Anc-Utrj' «rf ".Ik Tr^to^rrr l*«^iifcrLiiKXl 14 "i 

(. i«inn:jHK)iii»t*T «f Ontr»«rii*' 14 * 

C\aiiuatiK»(»iKii €<f iTt-rtTiiiJ i-«rT*ii:iK- 14 ^ 

^ \»ll.|»TJ^»l»rffK I'lTKI *tlrt. >t»{'<»l»4 14 i 

* ioi i*!!^*-^^! *<f *.dK ^T.rrt'iJtx . 14 < 

l.^iTtK-K^ir <€ Vxtf H-iii . , 14 , i 

Kr£-it«!«^ ♦'rf' TlK I '^•fc^rr^ 14 2 

IrtM^rjrv vf 'I**- l"i T^ S"j..He* 14 i 

L.:*l«- .:>f* iK- 3ird;iii Zr.it^ , 14 i 

JLttirTfrioi -tie^r: Jttf.fc.'-rK. TT-^^^tJ*- **._.!;£ mtit*^ liif £1x^:^1 iiu£ 

^i\h : :» ^ 

wTTk -^I' . l^^^Z TK" 5 

FirCje Intt- M ': 1^ ^♦^m ^♦"k'T:' cl *C 'Ik. "j^-i; li.*T>«*t Aa ?■? ^ 

5^.-«7*.* n "y*^**'"?*^ 'j'-.tiiri ' 't^ 3ia J* -. Ti Itw* 

&:: " j.*e- - 

'>c' 'lit* "ftt'-'t-nit-T »c ij.** t? ^ 

I-^4L -c vc ^ El* iX 

!iiki.«*r.<^:- i4:ir'r*ii »f •*€' I:? ^ 

•Utrii ♦tit '♦c-kT^men' •»€ W ~ 

Jint?:** l-*^ ".I... \ _ r> 33 

)n I'-rl. ^-infT-ux ,t J :?> !^l 

Lir«»mtrr>. *"¥ wt.'* 3i:u:»* ^k z*>c v«>ru^r •?n»i ix J in»* 3.V It^L 'ii 1^ 

ieLTru**- r»;m»i '4 ,r :*> l».<5 

.kir* 



:iS 1» 



I i tm^A* Erf^v^tQ ir XT-T;!*^!*^ in«rr»rar* jr ':oai^»:a..'<is^:«'a *}t 



•2»J •^ 1,2 



^ ^j 



r.ri -♦••!-! n^^-s^ .In JT a.' iv r I-* "^ 

fin 'iL T-im'..". A:.. r>^:r. -r^i Tvj..»r a :u.«i 1'- "-^ 



INDEX TO EXaCUTIVE BOCUMENTS. 



XXV 



Subject. 




Treasary, Secretary of the : 

Letters from the, relative to- 
Light- House Boardf reports of iDspections by 

establish i eDts,appropriationsVor, tobe modo 

by contract 

Light-buoys, appropriation for , 

Lights on bridges, maint«u»ince of , 

in the harbor of Chicago 

Missouri, claims of the State of, against the United 

States 

National banks *. 

National Board of Health, annual report of, for 1881 

expenditures of the ........ 

Plate-printing by steam-presses , 

Precious metals in the United States, annual production 

of 

Real estate at Harper's Ferry, sale or lease of 

Receipts and expenditures for year ending June 30, 1875... 

for year ending June 30, 1876 . .. 
for year ending June 30, 1877 . .. 

Revenue Marine, roports of injii)ection8 by Bureau of 

Second Comptrollers ami Third Auditor's Offices, increase 

of the force in the 

Second National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, reorganization 

ofrhe 

Silver and coinage of silver dollars, x)urcbase of 

Smuggled goods at port of New York, search-warrants for 

tile discovery of 

Statistical abstract of the United States, 1881 

Steam vessels, regulation of 

Sopplemental list of claims allowed under act of Juno 20, 

1874 

Supplies for the departmentn, advertising for proposal 

for 

Third Auditor's Office, increase in the force of the 

Treasury Department, contingent expenditures of the 

Workingmen of the District of Columbia, list of claims 

filed under act of June 20, 1878, by 

Tren»ass on Indian lauds, prevention of 

Trial of two cast-iron guns 

IVoope in Arizona » 

at Fort Leavenworth, quarters for 

U. 

rnion Pacific Railroad, annual earnings of the 

Union Pacific Railway Company, annual report of the govern- 
ment directors of the 

United States and Mexico, boundary between tho 

Capitol, Architect of the, annual report of the 

(voL2) 

claims of the State of Missouri against the 

consular courts in China, causes before the 

inspector of gas and meters, annual^ report of 

(vol. 2) 

troops in Nebraska, uge of 

Ute Commission, expenses of the 

9 

V. 

Vaca, Antonio, private land claim of, in Louisiana 

VcDezoela, awards made by the Mixed Commission against 

Venoa, observation of the transit of 

VeaKls of the Navy, detailed statement of the movement of 

H E III 



V No. Part. 



20 

20 
2:5 
22 
20. 

22 

19 
18 
18 
23 
«3 

23 
19 
20 
21 
21 
20 



22 

20 

19 
22 
22 

23 

22 
22 

18 

19 
22 
19 
23 
22 



22 
10 
19 
22 

10 
22 
23 

10 
22 

20 



23 
23 
20 
22 

8 



103 

107^ 
217T 
177 

70 

184 

43 

i3 

14 
199 
224 

216 

66 

97 
117 
121 
103 



22 i 162 



189 

88 

48 
133 
125 

202 

166 

162 

17 

32 
145 

80 
193 
129 



123 

1 

41 

180 

1 

184 

213 

1 

127 
111 



212 

208 

87 

182 

1 



5 



o 



3 



XXVI 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



Vessels, fees collected by cousnls from American 

^ailiim umler tbe Eiiirlisb flag witb American certificates. 

Veto of tbe bill to regulate tbe carriage of passengers by sea 

of tbe river and barbor appropriation bill 

Vineyard Haven Harbor, Massachusetts, condition of the 

Virginia, Harbor at Petersburg, improvement of the 

W. 

War Department, annual report of the. (See War, Secretary of.) 

increase of tbe clerical force in tbe 

building, additional appropriation for contin- 
gent expenses of tbe 

War on tbe Pacific 

War Records, report on publication of ( vol. 1) 

War, Secretary of, annual report of the, in 4 volumes, embracing 
reports of— 

Tlie Secretary (vol.1) 

Adjutant-General (vol. 1) 

Angur, Brig. (ien. C. C. (vol. 1) 

Chief of Engiueers (in 3 parts, vol. 2) 

Chief of Ordnance (vol. 3) 

Chief Signal Officer (vol. 4) 

Comniissary-Oeneral of Subsistence (vol.1) 

Crook, Brig. Gen. George (vol. 1) 

Educat ion in the Army (vol. 1) 

General of the Army (vol. 1) 

Getty, Col. George W. (vol. I) 

Hancock, Maj. Gen. W. S. (vol. 1) 

Hatch, CI. Edward (vol. 1) 

How ard, Brig. Gen. O. O. (vol. 1) 

Hunt, Brevet Brigadier-General (vol. 1) 

Inspector-General of the Army (vol. 1) 

Judge-Advocate-General (vol. 1) 

McDowell, Maj. Gen. Irvin (vol. 1) 

Miles, Col. N. A. (vol. 1) 

Military prison at Fort Leavenworth, Kans. (vol. 1) 

Paymaster-General (vol.1) 

Pope, Brig. Gen. John 

Quartermaster-General (vol. 1) 

Sheridan, Lieutenant-General (vol. 1) 

Soldiers' Home, Board of Commissioners of (vol. 1) 

State, War, and Navy Department building (vol. 1) 

Surgeon-General (vol. 1) 

Tt-rry, Brig. Gen. Alfred H. (vol. I) 

Wheaton, Brevet Brigadier-General (vol. 1) 

Willcox, Col. O. B. (vol. 1) 

Letters from, relative to — 

Abandoned military reservations disposal of 

Arizona, troops in : 

Army, deficiencies in the appropriations for supplies for the. 

Ai-my officers, rank and pay of, after fifteen years' s*>rvice . . 

Chicago, III., encroachment upon the harbor of 

Columbus Barracks, Ohio, buildings at 

David's Island, New York Harbor, building at 

Davis, William 1;^., claim of... 

Des Moines Rapids Canal, need of a dry-dock at 

Dubuque, Iowa, construction of an ice barbor at 

Enlisted men, clothing accounts of 

Florida, Indian war claim of tbe State of 

Fort Dodge and Wallace military reservations in Kansas.. 

Fort Leavenworth, Kans., completion of new barracks at.. 

Fort Leavenworth, quarters for troops at 

Fort Lewis, Colorado, completion of the military post at.. . 

Fort Maginnis, Montana, plans and estimates for the com- 
pletion of 



Vol. 


No. 

1 


19 


77 


20 


94 


23 


227 


23 


222 


20 


112 


19 


28 


22 


134 



12 

19 

2 



2 
2 
2 
3,4,5 
6 
7 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

19 
23 
22 
18 
20 
19 
19 
13 
22 
19 
19 
23 
23 
19 
22 
22 



168 

68 ! 
1 I 



39 

193 

161 

16 

95 

55 

55 

9 

179 

49 

44 

203 

205 

76 

129 

146 



22 176 



INDEX TO EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



XXVII 



Subject. 



War, Secretary of: 

Letters tr«»ni, relative to — 
Fort McKinnev, Wyoming Territorv, completion of the post 

at I 

Fort Selden, New Mexico, construction of a post at 

Fort Thomburgh, Utah, construction of the post at 

Fox and Wisconsin Rivers Improvement at Menasha, Wis., 

dam on the ^ 

Frankford Arsenal, Pennsylvania, construction of an em- 
bankment wall at 

Jefferson Barracks, Mo., plans for buildings at 

construction of certain buildings at . 

Lady Franklin Bay Exi)edition, relief of the 

Laidley, Col. T. T. 8., report of, on trial of two cast-iron 

gnns made by 

Lieutenants in the Army, promotions of 

Ludington, Mich., harbor of refuge at 

Maps and charts for the House Committee on Commerce.. . 

Military establishment, contingent expenses of the 

Mioing debris, injury' to navigable waters of California from . 

31 ississippi River, destitution from overflow of 

navigation through bridge over the Upper, 
relief afforded sufferers from overflow of. . 

New Buffalo, Mich., condition of the harbor at 

Petersburg, Va., improvement of the river and harbor at.. . 

Potomac River at Georgetown, D. C, bridge across the 

'i^uartennaster's Department, agents employed by, in the 

investigation of claims 

fiio Grande frontier, acquiring sites for posts for protection 

of the 

JSock Island Arsenal, Illinois, improvement of the water- 
power at 

Sabine Pass, Tex., snrvey of the entrance to 

•Saioi Joseph River, Michigan, bridge across ^ 

iJaint Mary's Falls Canal 

Saint Mary's River and Saint Mary's Falls Canal, improve- 
ment of the 

Signal Service, error in report of expenditures of 

expenditures for 

Soldien, certain debts of; to be made a lien against their pay . 
Susquehanna River, near Havre de Grace, Md., improve- 
ment of the 

Tests of metals made at Watertown Arsenal 

Vineyard Haven Harbor, Mass., condition of 

War Department building, contiogeut expenses of the 

contingent fund of the 

insrease of clerical force in the 

Washi gton, D. C, rent of branch post-oflice in 

Waste paper, sale of 

Water-power at Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, improvement of the. 
Weber, Cliarles, and Shields, Thomas, arrest and imprisonment of, 

in Mexico 

Western Miami Indians at Quapaw Agency 

Wheaton, Brevet Brigadier-General, annual report of (vol. 1) 

WiUcox, Col. O. B., annual report of (vol. 1) 

Wisconsin and Fox Rivers, dam on the 

Workingmen of the District of Columbia, list of claims of certain . 

Wcapping-paper, appropriation for 

Wyoming, annual report of the governor of ( vol. 2) 

Territory, completion of the poet at Fort McKinuey, in 

Yards and Docks, report of the Bureau of 

Yellowstone National Park, annual report of the superintendent 

of the (vol. 2) 

pay of P. W. Norris as superintend- 
ent of 



Vol. 



No. Part. 



22 

20 
xO 



20 

19 
23 
19 
23 

19 
20 
22 
20 
20 
20 
22 
22 
22 
20 
19 
22 

22 

19 

22 
22 
20 

18 

19 
23 
22 

20 

19 
13 
20 
22 
13 
22 
22 
19 
22 

22 

19 

2 

2 
20 i 
19 ' 
22 i 
10 I 
22 

8 

10 
19 



160 
92 
90 

93 

45 

214 

37 

204 

80 

l:J9 
109 
108 

98 
126 
136 
141 J 
104 

28 
156 

178 

20 

163 

147 

113 

15 

54 
197 
128 
115 

53 

12 
112 
166 

11 
134 i 
183 

71 I 
163 I 



153 ' 1,2,3 
36 



1 

1 

93 

?2 

122 

1 

160 

1 

1 

85 



2 
2 



REPORT 



OF THS 



COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE 



VOB 



THE YEARS 1881 AND 1882. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOYXBNMXNT PBINTINO OFPIOS. 

1882. 



JOINT RESOLUTION providiaf for printinjc the Annual Roport of the CommSsaloBer of Agrlewltete 

lor eigateen bimdred and eightj-ono. 

Besolred by tht Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in 
(^ongress assembledj That there bo priuted three hundred thoutumd copies of the Annnal 
Keport of the Commissioner of A»fr^t;ultiire for the year eighteen hundred and eighty- 
one; two hundred and fourteen thousand copies for use of members of the House of 
Representatives, tifty-six thousand for the use of members of the Senate, and thirty 
thousand copies for the use of the Department of Agrioulture; and two hundred and 
nineteen thousand one hundred and sixty-one dollars and fifty-four cents, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury 
not otherwise appropriated to carry out this joint resolution. 

Approved, August 8, ISS2. 



JOINT RESOLTTTIOX relative to the printlnc of the annual reporte of ^e CommiMlonor of Agri- 
cultui'e foi the years ei;;ht4^n hundred and ei;;bty-otie and ci^hteeD handred and eighty^two. 

Resolved by ihf Senate and House of Representafiretf of the United States of America in 
Congress assembled. That the appropriation made by the joint resolution of Congress 
approved Anjjust ei<^ht, eighteen hundred and eighty-two (2*2 Stats., 35395) proTidinff 
for printing the annual report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for eighteen hundred 
and eighty -one, shall and may be used for the printing in one volume of the reports 
of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the years eighteen hundred and eighty-one and 
fighteeu hundred and eighty-two. 

Api'ToNcd, December 12, 18^2. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Itpertof Hie Commiasiondr • • • • 5,677 

Scportof the Bntomologist ••••• *. 61 

liftft of the Saperintendent of Garden* and GroandB.«.« •••• •••• ..•••• .••... 215 

Bipat of the BotaniBt 231 

of D. £. Salmon, t). V. M 258 

of H. J. DetmoTB, D. Y. M « 316,355,363 

lipstof ChM. P. LyiDMi, F. R. C. V. 8 « 352 

li|flrt of Est* H. Hunt, M. D 359 

ExtnftoiktaB letten of correspondents • ••• 371 

lipst of the Chemist ..•• 379 

Bcpoclof theStatifltioian • 577 

3 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Pag*. 

Report of thb Entomologist: 

Plates from I to XX inclusive 208 

Report op the Botakist: 

Platea from I to XXY inclnsiTe 256 

Report op D. E. Salmon, D. V. M. : 

Plates from I to XII inclusive 272 

Report op H. J. Detmers, D. V. M. : 

Platel..... 358 

Report op the Chemist: 

Graphical charts from I toXm inclusive ••• 416 

Graphical charts from XIV to XVII inclusive ......•• 452 

Graphical charts from XVIII to XXI inclusive 486 

Report op the Statistician: 

Diagram showing the production of com for the years 1849, 1859, 1869, 1879, 

by the principal corn-producing States . 588 

Diagram showing the production of wheat for the years 1849, 1859, 1869, 

1879, by the principal wheat-producing States 592 

Diagram showing the production, exportation, and consumption of cotton 

in two periods of seventeen years each 622 

Diagram showing the average rate of wages per month for groups of States 

in 1866, 1869, 1875, 1879, and 1882 638 

Diagram showing the number of miles of railroads in operation and built 

annually from 1832 to 1882 inclusive 664 

Diagram showing the aggregate number of tons of freight moved on the 
Erie Canal, total tons moved to tide-water, &c •.... 666 

4 



REPORT 

OF THX 

COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE 



' Department op Ageioulture, 

WashingUm^ D. 0., November 25, 1881. 
To THE Pbesident: 

I respectfully Bubmit the annual report of the Department of Agri- 
ealtnre for the year 1881. 

When I entered npon my duties as Commissioner, July 1 of the cur- 
i^t year, I found the work for the season, both regular and sx)ecial, 
daborately laid out by my predecessor. Provision had been mMe for 
inTeetigating the agricultural condition of the Pacific coast; for con- 
tinmng the work on the artesian well in Golorado ; for proceeding with 
the experiment in the cultivation of the tea plant ; for concluding the in- 
Tttdgation into the manufacture of sugar from sorghum ; for observa- 
tions on the existence of pluro- pneumonia and other contagious diseases 
of animals, both in this country and in those English ports to which 
American cattle are exported; for continued examinations into the ne- 
cessities and opportunities of American forestry ; for tests of textile 
fibers, both animal and vegetable; for a scientific investigation of the 
babits of insects injurious to vegetation, and of the best methods of de- 
«troying them ; and for the usual work of the various divisions of the 
de^iartment for which appropriations had been made by Congress. 

1 have endeavored to conduct all experiments in which 1 found the 
department engaged, with an ardent desire to bring them to legitimate 
eoiK^lmdons, in the spirit of an investigator and not in the spirit of an 
advocate. 

The process of manufacturing sugar from sorghum has been con- 
docted by the best skill 1 could obtain in the country, under the eye of 
experienced chemists, and with ample and somewhat expensive ma- 
ehiuery, ran by an accomplished and faithful engineer. 

The crop was gathered with the greatest possible economy of time, 
labor, and expense, and the work was carried on with as much expedition 
as the season would allow. The result of this work will be found under 
the av>propriate head of this communicatiou and in the elaborate report 
of the chemist of the department. 

The expenses of the attempt to cultivate the tea plant in South Garo- 

5 



6 RSPOBT OF THE OOMlflBSIONEB OF ▲GBlOnL'nTRB. 

Una have been Romewhat curtailed, without, however, interfering with 
the proposed experiment. In tke management of this enterprise, I have 
been governed largely by the opinions of the accomplished and ex- 
perienced horticulturist of the department, Mr. Saunders, and by a 
proper regard for economy in the exx)enditure of the money appropriated 

for this purpose. 
A thoroughly scientific and practical commission, appointed with great 

care and provided with instructions obtained fix)m Major Powell, has 
examined the artesian well now in process of construction, and has ex- 
plored, under the rules of structural geology, a large i)ortion of the 
arid regions in which these wells may be valuable. 

A veterinary surgeon has been sent to England to confer with the 
Privy Gouncil upon the exact condition of American cattle landed in 
her markets; and agents and experts have been employed to ascertain 
all isiiGtB relating to the existence of contagious diseases in this country, 
in accordance with appropriations for this purpose. And while these 
various commissions and agents have been employed in prosecuting the 
work assigned them, the work of the various divisions of the depart- 
ment has been prosectited with diligence and fidelity by those into 
whose hands it has been committed. 

During the last three months I have considered it my duty to visit 
various important agricultural sections of the country on occasions 
where I could not only witness the exhibited results of the farmers' in- 
dustry, but could also obtain an opinion of the general condition of 
agriculture and the popular expectations of the department. I have 
been especially desirous of ascertaining the sources whence the depart- 
ment obtained its statistics and crop returns, and the estimate put upon 
these reports by those interested in them. 

It seemed to me important to learn how far the distribution of seed 
by the department had improved our old crops and introduced new ones. 
Iliave been anxious to learn what breed of domesticated amimals had 
been introduced wisely and increased judiciously and profitably, with due 
regard to quality and market. For these observations, I have visited 
Few England, Illinois, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Car- 
olina, Maryland, and G^rgia, and have been liberaUy furnished with 
all possible means for pursuing my work. 

That the American soil is producing vast crops, at the hands of dili- 
gent and intelligent cultivators, the returns of the markets constantly 
bear witness ; and I can add my own testimony to the energy and skiU 
with which this work is performed, even under the discouragements of 
drought and flood and frost. I have found the agricultural mind of the 
country active in its desire to obtain the best knowledge, and to exam- 
ine and test all the best methods; and I have been especially impressed 
with the vast opportunities which this department possesses for aiding 
the development of our vast resources, and for accumulating and dis- 
tributing information upon that great cluster of industries upon the sue- 



■SFOBT OF THS OOlfMIflBIONSB OF AGRICULTCBS. 7 

oMsfti] proseeatioii of wbioh the prosperity and power of oar coantry de- 
pends. That in agriculture we have still great room for improvement 
everyone must be aware who realizes that a large ])roportion of our staple 
crops is as yet, as it were, a spontaneous production of the earth, and that 
exhausted soils are abandoned for more fertile regions as the best method 
of fanning. 

That our manofietcturers have but just commenced their career (impor- 
tant as they are) must be evident to him who remembers that fifty years 
ago they had hardly an existence, and that a producing and consuming 
popohition increases here at the rate of a million or more a year. That 
mnch may yet be done to systematize and organize the producing and 
tnuisporting business of our country no one can doubt who has studied, 
sven carelessly, these great economic questions. And I am confident 
that an enlarged and well endowed and well arranged department, de- 
voted to industrial investigations, will commend itself to those who are 
engaged in the work of legislation, upon which the policy and practical 
operation of our government depend. 

By surveys of the great unexplored mineral wealth of the southern 
ikpes of the Alleghanies; by more careful examination of the farming 
lands of the government; by supplying recortled data of our manufact- 
oringand mechanical productions; by obtaining moreaccurate knowledge 
of our agricultural resources and capabilities; by securing all the possi- 
ble fruits of industrial education, and recording all the conditions of 
labor; by pursuing our scientific investigations, in which the Agricul- 
tural Department has been so long engaged, with increased zeal and 
endowment, the Government of the United States may take its stand 
ttiong the most enterprising and prosperous of those nations in which 
iipattments ajie provided and supported for every purpose which can 
possibly increase the national wealth and intelligence and stimulate the 
national enterprise. 

In setting forth these views, I do not overestimate the valne and im- 
portanoe of a department devoted to agriculture and the industries that 
tend around it and depend upon it for existence, nor do I exaggerate 
the picture of that organization which will ultimately be established in 
aooordanee with the legislative wisdom of the land, guided by the de- 
■ands of an intelligent and prosperons people, who will spare no efibrt 
to make this country equally distinguished for prosperity and that cul* 
tiration which always attends the march of industry. 

For the purpose of bringing the department into immediate confer- 
cnee with the Tarious institntions organized to develop the agriculture 
of the country, I have called delegate conventions, composed of repre- 
sentatives of the State societies and the colleges founded on the land 
grant of CSongress, to meet at Washington in January next, and have 
assigned to each convention one of the following topics for considera- 
tion,Tiz: Agricultural education, as promoted by societies and conveyed 
bfeoUeg«i9; Animal Industry ; Horticulture; Cereals and Grasses. I 



8 BEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

have also called a convention of cotton planters^ which met at Atlanta 
Kovember 2, in connection with the admirable industrial exposition 
there, and considered the cotton culture and general agriculture of the 
cotton States. During my visit to Atlanta my attention was called to 
a most remarkable exhibit of the crops, woods, mineral products, &c., 
of a section of our country south of the latitude of Washington, fur- 
nished by many railroads in that section, as an illustration of the re- 
sources which abound there. I have not seen in this country a more 
valuable representative and illustrative exhibition of our natural wealth, 
and, impressed with the idea that the examination of these products 
would impress the mind of all, native and foreign, who might see them, 
I have requested the parties having them in charge to bestow them 
upon the Agricultural Department for proper arrangement and public 
' observation. I am happy to say that several of the roads which have 
made the collections have complied with my request, and I hope to be 
able to exhibit in the department this most important display of some 
portions of that industry, to develop which the department itself was 
organized. 

Of the work of the various divisions in the department, I submit the 
following concise statements: 

DIVISION OP GARDENS AND GROUNDS. 

The distributions during the year have embraced over 100,000 plants 
of^various kinds. Large quantities of the hardiest varieties of the for- 
eign grape have been sent to Texas, Florida, and others of the Southern 
States, with good promise of success. 

The distribution of tea plants has also been continued, and prepara- 
tions are in progress for a more liberal supply of tea seeds, so that the 
efforts to further the intruduction of this important crop may be main- 
tained. 

The purposes of the experimental grounds can never be fully realized 
until focUities are secured for extending the work in various suitable 
localities. The department is constantly subject to demands from Cali- 
fornia, Florida, and similar climatic sections for plants of semi-tropical 
countries. The most important, perhaps, of these requests are those for 
oranges and lemons, and for other species of the citrus family. In the 
climate of Washington the propagation of semi-tropical plants is neces- 
sarily confined to glass structures ; and although several thousands are 
annually produced, the number is totally inadequate to meet the wants 
of correspondents or make an Impression upon the progress of this branch 
of culture. With a propagating establishment in an orange-growing cli- 
mate, operations could be conducted on an extensive scaJe, similar to 
that practiced in regard to peaches, apples, and other hardy &uit trees 
in the Northern States, and to an extent more in accordance with the 
requirements of the country. 

Propagation would not be confined to the orange £amily ; many other 



BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGUEUCULTUBE. 9 

«emi-tropical plants require attention. The pine-apple, banana, guava, 
ehocolate, cinnamon, coffee, tea, pepper, ginger, arrowroot, and many 
fiber-producing and starch-yielding plants might be mentioned as being 
altogether worthy of careftd experimental culture or for propagation. 

But the value of such an establishment is not confined to the propa- 
gation of plants only. There are numerous questions of much moment 
which can be answered only from the results of well-directed and closely- 
oondacted tests. The facts, as well as the principles involved in the 
systematic rotatation of crops, r^st in comparative obscurity ; but little 
is known about it, except that it is a practice absolutely essential to pro- 
fitable cnltare. The same remarks apply in regard to the value of chang- 
ing seeds firom one soil and climate to another soil and climate. It is 
▼dl known that results follow such changes, sometimes favorably and 
wanetimea unfavorably ; but how far these are influenced by soil alone, 
l)j dimate alone, or their combination^ l\fi8 not reached a- decision of 
practical applicability. 

411 of oar cultivated plants have run into numerous varieties, many 
of tl^n comparatively worthless, and many others of local value only, 
or of limited special utility ; it is therefore a matter of much importance 
to acquire a thorough and exact knowledge, as far as practicable, of their 
nspective values, and this can only be secured by comparative tests 
liiere all are cultivated under similar conditions in similar climates. 

the results of such tests will also indicate the line of operations to be 
poisaed in improving by crossing or by hybridizing varieties combining 
spedid values ; this is a most important work, and if properly conducted 
eaooot &0 in reaching results of great value. But to reach these results 
win require several operative points, carefully selected sa as to embrace 
distinct regions for purposes of interchange of crops, &c. 

The subject is one of immense importance and might be elaborated 
in extensive detaiL What has been said above merely outlines some of 
the work which may occupy attention on experimental grounds. 

BOTANICAL DIVISION. 

During the year past the botanist has continued the work of his 
divjflion as thoroughly as circumstances would permit. 

His attention has been largely employed to the necessary investiga- 
tions for the proper classification of the plants in the herbarium. 

Extensive additions have been made during the year, chiefly of plants 
from GaUfomia and the Western Territories. A valuable collection of 
the plants of Southeastern Texas and the adjacent parts of Mexico has 
also been procured. 

These plants, however, still remain in the original packages, on account 
of the withdrawal of the customary assistance which has been employed 
in Uie preparation and mounting of the specimens. 

The work of describing and delineating grasses for the annual report 
has been continued. More extended and practical results might be 



10 UBFOBT OF THX OOMHIflSIONBB OF AGRICULTUBl. 

anticipated with respect of the ciiltiratioii of our native grasses, by 
obsorvatious and investigatioDs in the field, which are not at present 
provided for. 

During the past two or three years botanical investigation in different 
parts of our country, and especially in the new States and Territories, 
has been unusually active ; many new species have been discovered and 
a better knowledge of many others has been obtained. All that is val- 
uable in the collection of these investigators should be procured at the 
earliest opportunity and added to the herbarium, in order that the de- 
partment may have the means of answering any inquiries respecting the 
vegetable productions of the country. 

The herbarium contains a representation of about nine-tenths of all 
the plants at present known as natives. A portion of this number, how- 
ever, are imperfect specimens, which require replacement as soon as 
good and characteristic specUnens can be procured. 

The value of the herbarium is not limited to its uses in connection 
with this department. Inquiries sometimes occur from the Patent Office 
and other departments relative to plants which have medicinal or eco- 
nomic properties. Within a few years a considerable number of Oali- 
fomia plants have gradually assumed importance as standard medical 
remedies, and others for various economic properties, and it is certain 
that as our vegetation becomes better known still other valuable addi- 
tions to the arts and sciences will bo obtained from that source. 

MIOEOSCOPIOAI. DIVISION. 

Dui'ing the past year the microscopist has made many investigations 
relating to plant and animal diseases, with a view of providing remedies. 
Fruits, vegetables, and food adulteration, including butter and oleomar- 
garine, milk, "poisoned cheese," diseases of wheat, orange-tree rust, pear- 
leaf rust, yellows of peach, and diseases of the foliage of various trees, 
have engaged his attention. He has also made many specimens of mi- 
croscopical slides, illustrating animal diseases. He has discovered new 
and effectual methods of distinguishing the fats of, various animals and 
vegetables from each other promptly and decisively, by which means 
butter and oleomargarine are distinguished at once from each other. 

For several years past many correspondents have urged upon the 
department the nee^ssity of publishing information on the edible mash- 
room of the United States. To this end the microscopist has prepared 
for publication a series of twelve typical plates in natural colors, with a 
full and instnictive statement of their character, habits, and habitats, 
together with the most reliable and .improved methods of preparing 
mushrooms for the table. 

His microscopical investigations have also comprised the search for 
trichinsein the swine tlesh of the Washington markets — an animal para- 
site found in the muscles of animals, and sometimes in man, producing 
death by its presence — but in no c^ase has a trace of their presence been 



OF THB OOiaOMIOinU OF AGBICULTUIIB. 11 

ftnnd in tbe flesh of swine sold in this city, although found in speci- 
mens sent from distant parts for microscopical investigation. 

Mka^MOopical investigations have also been made for other divisions 
of this department. 

OHEHnOAL BiyiSION. 

Since the completion of the work reported in the annual report of the 
department for the year 1880, the following investigations and analyses 
have been accomplished in the chemical division : 

Analyses of 57 marls, 47 ores, &c., 2 mineral waters, 9 soils, 11 fertil- 
izers, 1 medicinal plant, 4 sumacs for tannin, and 9 miscellaneous 
analyses, making in all 140. 

Besides the above, there have been made 1,858 analyses of saccharine 
jmces, sinix>s, and sugars ; the greater part of these being the expressed 
juices from thirty -eight varieties of sorghum, and eight varieties of 
maize, grown upon the department grounds. 

A portion of the force of the division has been occupied in making 
fiinp on a small scale from sorghum and maize, and a report of these 
operations, together with the report of the numerous analyses of the 
eue juices, carried on in the laboratory, will be submitted as soon as it 
is possible to complete final averages, tabular statements, &c., which 
itffkis being prosecuted as rapidly as is possible with the force engaged. 

Several other investigations of much importance are in progress, 
aoong which may be mentioned the analyses of grasses and various 
feeding materials, which are being carried out with a view to determine, 
IB accurately as possible by the modes of analysis at present in use, the 
actoal nntritive value of all the agricultural food-materials in the differ- 
ent conditions in which they are sold and fed. For this purpose, a 
hrge and representative collection of samples has been made and care- 
My prepared for analysis. 

Again, extensive work on the question of analysis of commercial fer- 
tilizers is progressing. The importance of the adoption of a uniform 
nethod of fertilizer analysis by all the official chemists of the country 
can scarcely be overestimated. The subject has already occupied nearly 
file entire time of three conventions of agricultural chemists, held in 
Washington and Boston in 1880, and in Cincinnati in 1881. The method 
adopted at the latter meeting, and at present in use, is only provisional. 

Among other subjects that have been awaiting attention, is an exam- 
ination^ certain lands which injuriously affect the growth of the cotton 
plant and orange tree. The same has been earnestly requested of the 
department for a long time, as has, also, a series of exhaustive analyses 
of oar cereals, more especially of corn and wheat, connected in the latter 
ease with experiments as to their milling properties and the bread-mak- 
i&g qualities of the flour obtained therefrom. 

XNTOMOLOaiOAL DIYISION. 

The principal work of the past year in this division has been in rela- 
tioa to the scale-insects or bark lice (family Oocoidae) which so senously 



12 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

affect most kiuds of fruit trees. It grew out of the special investiga- 
tion of the insects affecting the orange begun by Professor Riley in 1878, 
as it was found that the chief enemies of citrus fruits were scale-insects. 
So little attention had been given to this family in the United States, 
however, that the investigations naturally broadened so as to include 
all scale-iiisccts affecting cultivated plants, and the forthcoming report 
of the-entomologist for the year 1880 is chiefly devoted to the considera- 
tion of these injects. It contains a general review of their characters; 
important discoveries as to their habits and mode of development; a 
consideration of the most available means of destro3riug them; a special 
report on the parasitic checks; and descriptions of many new species. 
Various other insects of economic importance are likewise treated of in 
that report, especially such as affect the sugar-cane and com. 

The increased appropriation given to this division by the last Con- 
gress has afforded the means for greater activity in the more practical 
field work of the division, and special agents are engaged thereat in 
various parts of the country. Particular attention is being paid to the 
insects injuriously affecting the chief staples, as com, wheat, rice, sugar- 
cane, and also to those affecting fruit trees and vegetables. 

The United States Entomological Commission, which has done excel- 
lent work under the Interior Department, is, by late action of Congress, 
now connected with this department — a connection eminently appro- 
priate. The commission is at work on its third report ; a revised and 
enlarged edition of Professor Riley's report on the cotton worm is also 
being prepared, and a bulletin on forest-tree insects by Dr. Packard is 
in press and nearly ready for distribution. 

The special investigation of the insects affecting the cotton crop is 
being actively carried on, particularly in its more practical bearings, 
and most valuable discoveries have been made jn mechanical details aud 
principles that lessen the cost of protecting the crop and simplify the 
necessary machinery. 

Recognizing the importance to our Western farmers of acquiring data 
upon which to predicate as to the probable action of the Rocky Moun- 
tain locust in 1882, I have had an agent specially engaged under the 
direction of the entomologist to gather such data in the permanent 
breeding grounds of this pest, lying for the most part in the thinly set- 
tled regions of the Northwest. Remembering the incalculable loss and 
suffering which this insect entailed between the years 1873 and 1877 — 
losses which largely helped to prolong the commercial depression of 
that period — this information seems to me of sufficient moment to war- 
rant annual observations of a more extended nature. There is an in- 
creasing interest manifested in the work of this division, quite out of 
proi>ortion even to the rapid increase in agricultural production, and 
largely due to the greater attention now paid to applied science in our 
educational institutions and to increased facilities for intercommunica- 
tion. The correspondence of the division is so large, and the requests 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGKICULTURE. 



13 



for special information from all parts of the country so numerous, as to 
absorb too much of the time of the division; an increased clerical force 
snd assistance are imperative. In order to relieve the division of 
mndi rex>etition in the replies, the entomologist will soon begin to pre- 
pare a series of well-illnstrated bulletins, each treating of one of the 
more imx)ortant of the insects injurious to our agriculture, and of such 
convenient form and size as to be cheaply and readily mailed. A 
bibliography of economic entomology, which has been commenced, will 
also facilitate this labor, as it will contain a digest of whatever has been 
pablished up to the present time, and a critical synopsis of remedies 
duly classified* 

. SEED DISTRIBUTION. 

TMlar statement §h&wing (he quantity and kind of seeds issued from the seed divisioHy 
Dep4urtmemt of Agriculture, under the general and special appropriation act from July 1, 
1380, to Jnme 30, 1881, inclusive. 



SiKriptleii of seeds. 



fikt 
Jimb 

0*U. 

lUd com 
Bukwbm 

Gtsm...'.! 

Sifvbeei 

C0O4 

Jnc papers 

Total 






105 
97 
1 
5 
10 
4 
1 



13 
3 
8 
1 
3 
5 
3 
2 

12 



d 
o 
O 

«M 
o 

e 

« 

I 

o 

3 

I 



^ 



Papen. 

676.753 

121,933 

277 

80,721 

10 

266 



Quarts. 

77, W6 

18,889 

11,209 

63 

7,907 

9,387 

1,621 

75 

7,987 



229 
90 



21 

23,524 

42 



283 X038.950 






•3 

t 



d 

s 

'a 

o 

i 

OQ 



Paperg. Papers. 
847 108,258 
35 I 100 
8 



814 



14 



QfiartM. 

53 

62 

68 

16 

8 

28 

18 

154 

230 



20 

4 

16 



4 
8 



14,940 



2,088 



htarts. 

16,626 

8,940 

8,906 



4,792 

36 

16 

6 

16 



10 

4 



8 



1,907 1159,746 



i 

g 



Papers. 

13,023 
85 
10 

16,265 



Quarts. 

678 

1,5<)8 

3,278 

2,815 

16 

34 

198 

20 

4,294 

8 

6,700 

1,781 

84 



6,415 



57,808 






I 

CO 



Papers, 



Quarts. 
9,372 



Pa 



fapere. 
13,082 



2,045 

128 

1,194 



9; 872 



Quarta. 

5,011 

328 

779 

285 

354 

836 

423 

485 

2,060 

87 

13 

258 

49 

32 

725 

862 



2S 

go 

P 

•d a 



Papers. 
1499,293 
84 



14 



57,634 



22 
12 



Quarts. 
6,806 
20,645 
13,282 
13,597 



8 
14 



64 

7 



553,860 



3 
s 

•d 

p 



1,825.922 

135,269 

295 

115,199 

138 

8,588 

12 



116,487 

50,372 

82,522 

16,776 

18,077 

10,329 

2,290 

740 

14,651 

102 

7,058 

2,143 

159 

53 

30,676 

914 



1,878,772 



14 



REPORT OF THE OOHMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



Statmnent thawing Ike quantity and Jdnd of seedg i»$ned by ike Department of Agriadtiere to 
Slates and Territories ravaged by grasshoppers, under special appropriation ky dmartss of 

|S«),000. 



Kmism 

Colorado 

Dakota 

Xebraaka^... 

TotalB 






Paptrs, 

225.004 

88, 752 

41.323 I 

106. 124 






Papers. 

21 
7 
8 

4d 



6 



S 



400,203 



84 



14 



I 



Papers. 
14 
S 



10 



I 



12 



28 



12 



i 



QnatU. 



4 

4 



Qnarts. 
6 






QuairU. 



8 



1 

7 



14 



KftDBftA... 

Colorado.. 
Dakota... 
Nebraska 



Totals. 



& 



i 



QtiartM. Quart*. 

4 1 2,587 

818 

202 

3 ; 3,309 



6,806 



I 



Qtiarts. 
6,921 
2,128 
802 

11,294 



JOl 






Quarts. Quarts. 
4,428 21 

1.344 
1,396 
6,429 



20,645 



13,507 



2 

41 



64 



Quarts. 



6 



I 



Quarts. 
3.804 
1.166 
1.006 
6,226 



6 13,282 



Onnd 

toUL 



242,097 

42.031 

45.820 

223,522 



653,860 



STATISTICAL DIVISION. 



The Statistical lUvision of the department, with a working force qoite 
too small for the broad field which it is designed to occupy, has con- 
tinued during the past year its plan of crop reporting which was inaug- 
urated early in the history of the department 

It has also collated current records of official boards, commeroi&I 
organizations, and voluntary associations which hold relationship with 
agriculture, or with the distribution and sale of its products. As here- 
tofore, it has attempted to supply the public demand for such informa- 
tion in systematic form, through published reports; the commercial and 
agricultural press; and in response to requests of departments, boards, 
societies, and individual publicists. 

This is a work of constantly enlarging importance, in a field that is 
continental, with population rapidly increasing and production swelling 
in still higher ratio. It is a work demanded by the producer who would 
know where to find the best markets and highest prices; by the con- 
sumer who would seek abundance at a cost within his means, and with- 
out extortionate exactions of the carrier and the middlemen; and by 
the legitimate dealer who seeks protection, as does the farmer, against 
the piratical course of the reckless speculator. It becomes a necessity — 
an imperative duty, when opportune falsehood is able in a single day to 
wrench millions from the grasp of producers — that the government 
should forewarn and forearm the multitudes which represent its founda- 
tion industry. 



■duction and of the meteorological and economic flactuatione 
fantlj modUy it tbrongliout thirty -eight States and ten Xer- 
if snfficient importance to call for ample means and onremit- 

70T. 

has arrived 'tfben the crop-reporting system should be made 
agfa and accnrate and its results should be commiinicated to 
it the eiirtie^t possible moment. A synopsis of snch results, 
o the press by telegraph, should command g.>neral pnblica- 
^bont the coontry in advance of the fnll printed report for- 
mail. The co-operation of statisticiil authorities of States 
uniformity, and inspiring iiiureased publio confidence, may 
le consammation, as it ia one greatly to be desired if proeti- 

i\ States this service, modeled upwii the plan of the depart- 
i^h manifeAt and profitable efficiency, has gained a strong 
ipon the confidence and regiird of farmers aiul legislators. 
lis system has thus been adopted in several States, and is 
iperation in some European countrieH, its methods may possi- 
roved, and itawork may certainly be rendered more thorough 
formation, and ampler elaboration and test of accuracy, thus 
more uniformly reliable i-esnlts. Its voluntary work, by 
of poblio spirited fanners, should receive all practicable oon- 
uid acknowledgment, and no reasonable expense ahould be 
complete requisite data, and facihtate consolidation and em- 
[1 accnrate resnlts. 

feting of surplus production in Europe, which is yearly 
increased importance, makes it necessary to obtain prompt 
worthy information of current crop reporte of the world, and 
af Eoropean oonntries. 
tartment has already done something in thiis direction, yet 



16 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE 

lands and products, the peculiar adaptation of industries to looriities, 
the rate of development of new and promising industries, and indeed 
the collection and co-ordination of all facts representing the status or 
the progress of agriculture come properly within the provinoe of this 
branch of the department reserve. 

FORESTRY. 

The vast and increasing importance of the subject of forestry has led 
to the establishment of a distinct division in the department, to be ex- 
clusively devoted to such investigations of the subject as will tend to 
the fullest development of the resources of the country in that resi>ect; 
the discovery of the best methods of management, and the preservation 
of our wasting forests, and the maintenance, in all its bearings, of the 
universal interest involved in that industry. 

In furtherance of this design an agent of the department is now on a 
visit to different countries of Europe for the purpose of investigating 
the organization, working, and previous condition of experimental for- 
est stations, schools of forestry, private tree-planting, and the aid af- 
forded by governments to the business of forestry. 

ARTESIAN WELLS. 

By an act of Congress approved June 16, 1880, it was provided: 

That with a view to the reolamation of the arid and waste lands lying in certain 
Western States and Territories, the Commissioner of Agricolture isjhereby authorized 
to contract for the sinking of two artesian wells on the plains east of the Rooky Moont- 
ains ; said wolll are to be snnk at snch places as the Commissioner of Agriculture 
shall designate. • • • The sum of 120,000 is hereby appropriated to carry out th« 
objects of this provision; the same to be disbursed under such rules and regulations 
as the Commissioner of Agriculture shall prescribe. 

Acting under this provision my predecessor in office proceeded to 
make an examination of the arid country lying on the eastern slope of 
the Bocky Mountains in Golorado, and selected for the first trial weU the 
arid plain a few miles from the Arkansas Eiver, adjoining the militaiy 
reservation of Fort Lyon. 

On my accession to office an examination showed that on June 30 this 
well had been bored to the depth of 450 feet, at an expense of $18,353.55. 

By an act of Congress approved March 3, 1881, an appropriation ol 
$10,009 was made ^^ For the reclamation of the arid and waste lands 
lying in certain Western States and Territories.'' 

Bealizing that the success of the well at Fort Lyon was not commen- 
surate with its cost, and believing that the continuance of the work 
would absorb the additional appropriation, without practical result^ I 
conduded to have an intelligent scientific survey made of the country 
to be benefited, and an examination made of the well at Fort Lyon. 
After conference with Prof. J. W. Powell, Director of the United Stat^ 
Geological Survey, I appointed Prof. 0. A. White and Prof. Samuel 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 17 

Anghey, both emment geologists, with instructions to visit the well at 
Fort Lyon, and to explore the eastern slope of the Eocky Mountains with 
a Tiew to determine proper sites for the location of wells in future, 
Bhoold SQch be the pleasure of Congress. 

Hon. Horace Beach, of Wisconsin, a gentleman of large experience 
in sinking wells, was subsequently added to the commission. These 
gentlemen took the field in the latter part of August and prosecuted 
thdr labors as long as the season would allow. A preliminary report 
of this commission accompanies this (Appendix A). 

Acting upon the information contained in the report of these gentle- 
men, that the well was not located in a section of country geologicaUy 
promising success, I have suspended work upon it for the present. 

AORICULTX7RE OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

By act of Congress approved March 3, 1881, an appropriation was 
nude of $5,000, ^^to enable the Commissioner of Agriculture to pro- 
enie and publish data touching the agricultural needs of that portion 
of the United States lying west of the Bocky Mountains." 

To carry out this provision, I appointed Prof. E. W. Hilgard, of the 
State Agricultural College of California, Hon. Robert W. Furnas, of 
l^ebraska, and Hon. T. 0. Jones, of Ohio, commissioners, with instruc- 
tions to investigate and report upon the cultivation of the grape on the 
Pad&c coast, and especially the inducements offered by the soil and 
climate of New Mexico for vine culture in reference to supplying the 
maiket with valuable grapes, wines, and raisins; to report upon the 
animal industries of that section, and to examine and report upon the 
agri<»iltaral methods prevailing, and the general management of land 
fot horticultural as well as agricultural purposes. 

This oommission took the field in the latter part of August, and I 
shall have the pleasure of laying their report before Congress early in 
January. 

EXAMINATION OF WOOLS AND ANIMAL FIBEES. 

The work of examination of wools during the past year has been al- 
most exclnsively devoted to the continuation of the measurement of the 
fineness of the fibers, and the mathematical calculations necessary to the 
^esentation of the results in such form that they may be readily under- 
stood by all interested in the woolen industries, in every part of the 
world, whether they be producers, dealers, or manufacturers. 

It is difficult, by a written description, to make one, unacquainted with 
the methods necessarily involved in the accurate execution of this work, 
eomprehend the amount of tedious and patient labor required, but an 
approximate idea of it may be obtained from the fact that it has been 
neoessiyy to make with the microscope at least 75,000 individual meas- 
urements of fibers, the immediate results of which, to secure the accuracy 
dedied, were of necessity relative, so that each one had to be reduced 

2 AO 



18 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

by calculation to the absolute standard. We have thus measured in 
all about 600 samples of wool of different qualities, making altogether 
about 2,100. 

An interesting feature of our work is found in the fact that through the 
courtesy of Mr. William G. Markham, secretary of the National Associa- 
tion of Wool Growers, we have been able to make measurements of wools 
from Germany, graded by one of high authority on the subject of the 
German system of classification, so that we are able to present authori- 
tative figures for the comparison of the fiineness of our own wools with 
the celebrated products of the old world. 

In this comparison we find that many of our manufacturers are at fault, 
when they complain that it is impossible to obtain in this country wools 
of* the fineness required in the best work. It enables us to confidently 
affirm that it is possible to produce in the United States as fine wools 
as can be produced in any other part of the world j and further, that the 
fineness of the products of the Saxony and Spanish merinos have not 
deteriorated since their introduction to this country, wherever the main- 
tenance of this quality has been kept in view by the breeders. 

Examination of the felting properties of the wools has not yet been 
begun, because our time has thus jfar been fully occupied with the work 
connected with the measurements of fineness, and of the tensile strength 
and of some of the mechanical difficulties involved, requiring the con- 
struction of si)e(jial apparatus, both to facilitate and hasten the opera- 
tions, as well as to insure perfect accuracy in the results. 

This apparatus is now in course of construction, and will in a very 
short time be put into actual operation. It is expected that this branch 
of our investigation will give exceptionally interesting data, upon 
which to base estimates of the commercial and manufacturing value of 
the wools brought to our markets. In the measurements of the tensile 
strength, ductility, and elasticity more progress haa been made. 

A large number of samples have been prepared for examination of the 
minute structure of the fiber, as modified by the breed and the conditions 
to which the animals producing the fiber may have been subject. The 
limited observations that we have made in this direction indicate that 
it will prove an important field of inquiry, and that the results that are 
possible may have a bearing upon the determinations of the purity of 
any given breed under consideration. 

Our report upon this inquiry will be accompanied by drawings, illus- 
trating the peculiarities to which we refer. A large amount of labor is 
still necessary for the completion of the investigation as contemplated by 
the act of Congress ordering it. The work is being pushed forward 
with all due diligence and rapidity, and it is hoped that provision will 
not only be made for its entire completion, but that we may be enabled 
to extend our researches to wools of other sections of the country, and 
produced under different conditions of breeding, feeding, management, 
and climate. 



REPORT OF THE COHBOSSIONER OF AORICULTURB. 19 

I would suggest that an examination of cotton fibers, prodnoed nnder 
different conditions of variety, cultnre, soil, and climate, should be un- 
dertaken and prosecuted in a similar manner, and there can be no 
doubt that, if the suggestion be adopted, the results obtained will be of 
quite as great value to the cotton industry as those we have already 
obtained are to the woolen industry. 

The results of the proposed examination of cottons would make ad- 
ditions of an entirely new character to the literature of the fiber, for we 
know of no investigations looking to the determination of the tensile 
strength, at least. And there is just now a very favorable opportunity 
tor securing the material for examination in the International Gotten 
Exposition being held in Atlanta, Oa., where samples from all parts of 
ihQ world will be obtainable. 

OBiPE OXJLTUBB AND WINE-MAEIN<}. 

During the past year there has been in course of preparation a rex>ort 
upon the caltore of the vine, and the manufacture of wine in Europe, 
having for its object an exposition of the more important principles upon 
▼kich this great industry is based, and upon which success in its prose- 
cotian dex>end8. 

The work is governed by the idea, that for wine-making in this country 
it is better for those desiring to enter upon this branch of agricultural 
isduBtry to begin with inexpensive methods and arrangements, to pro- 
dflce large crops of wines of medium quality, which may be early sent 
to market and sold at low prices, and thus made to yield quick and 
pn^table returns, rather than from the first to attempt to produce wines 
of high grade to rival those of the more celebrated qualities of the old 
▼odd. The latter is believed, with our new vineyards, comparatively 
new varieties, and general want of knowledge and experience on the sub- 
ject, to be practically impossible, and that it may therefore be accepted 
as a general rule that it is better to devote all possible energy to the 
production of good, healthy table wines for the present, and wait for the 
larger exx>erience this will afford and the accession of new varieties to 
lead to the production of wines of higher grades. 

With this end in view it has been the endeavor in the preparation of 
this report to present those principles of vineyard and cellar mana<?e- 
ment, as may be applied, with the greatest measure of economy and the 
greatest probability of yielding profitable results. It is hoped that this 
report will be completed and ready for publication early in February 
next. 

MANUFACTURE OP SUGAR PROM SORGHUM. 

Congress at its last session appropriated the sum of $25,000 for er- 
pent^s of machinery and apparatus, labor, &c., to continue experiments 
in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum and other sugar-producing 
plants, the appropriation to be made immediately availablCt My pred- 



20 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

ecessor had purchased the jnachinery and other apparatus, appointed 
several additional chemists^ and made contracts with parties residing 
near the city to raise the soi^hnm cane for experiment. Upon assum- 
ing the duties of the office I found growing 135 acres of sorghum cane, 
consisting of 62 varieties. One of the farms on which this cane had 
been planted was within the city limits, the other two were located some 
distance beyond the boundary. Having engaged the services of an 
expert in sugar-making, who had been highly recommended for the posi- 
tion, operations were commenced at the mill on September 26, and con- 
tinued with slight interruptions until the latter part of October, at which 
time the supply of cane became exhausted. Forty-two acres of the 135 
planted in sorghum were overtaken by the frost before sufficiently ripe 
for use, and the crop was so badly damaged as to be regarded as unfit 
for experiment. 

The following condensed statement gives the results of the operations 
for the season : 

Statanent showing amount of sorghum cane raised, amount man^faotured into sugar and 

sirup f and to cost of raising and manufacturing. 

Acres of cane passed through crushing-miU • 93.5 

Yield of cane ^er acre in pounds 4,903 

Pounds of cane crushed 456,444 

Gallous of Juice obtained iifter defecation 26,794 

Pounds of sirup obtained 34,985 

Gallons of sirup obtained 2,977 

Pounds of sugar obtained 165 

The expenses of raising the cane were as follows: 

Rent of land $1,854 00 

Labor aud superinteudence 3,474 22 

Tools aud implements 347 13 

Hire of teams aud hauling cane to miU 914 10 

Total 6,589 45 

Expense of converting the cane raised into sirup and sugar: 

Paid for labor and running mill $1,342 11 

Coal and wood 325 48 

Total 1,667 59 

Of the sirup made there has been sold 2,328 gallons, at 33 cents per 
gallon, and the money covered into the Treasury. 

TEA OULTUBB. 

At the last session of Congress an item was included in the agricult- 
ural appropriation biU providing $10,000 for experiments in connection 
with the culture and manufacture of tea. 

On entering upon the duties of my office as Commissioner, I insti- 
tuted a careful examination of the condition of this enterprise both 



BEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONEB OP AGRICULTCTRE:. 2T 

financially and economically. The disposition of the appropriation L 
found to be as follows: 

SorreTing |225 00 

Fumiture 116 00 

Iron safe 365 00 

Wagon and harness 252 00 

Salaries, labor, and expense acoonnt.... 3,377 11 

Total 4,335 11 

In order to ascertain the precise condition and value of the experiment 
being carried on in South OaroUna, I directed, on July 9, Mr. WiUiam 
Saunders, the horticulturist of the department, to proceed to Summer- 
Tille and to examine the premises and report upon the work. His state- 
ment, which will be found in full in Appendix B, sets forth that the 200 
acres of land selected for the experiment are most of them covered with 
a heavy forest growth, the soil being "poor, hungry sand,'' of a charac- 
ter "to support only the scantiest kind of vegetation.'' Of this, about 
15 acres had been cleared and was under a primitive cultivation. On 
these acres operations were commenced in January last; a space was 
prepared for sowing the tea seed, and preparation was made for cover- 
ing the plants, which when young suffer severely on being exposed to 
the sun. The plants were growing well and constituted the entire tea 
crop of the farm. Mr. Saunders reported that " with regard to the future 
prospects of the enterprise, if continued in the line of the present scheme 
aod under the present system, it may be said that there is not much room 
for encouragement." The poverty of the soil and the character of the 
climate, in which frosts sometimes occur, seem to be unfavorable to the 
production of strong, highly-flavored teas, as had already been proved 
bj an experiment in Mcintosh, Ga. 

is to the f nture management of the tea fann [says Mr. Sannders], following the oon- 
Tiction that no experiment which can he made in the culture of tea at this place wiU 
▼srrant a continuation of the undertaking, it may he suggested that expenses he oat 
down to the lowest figures admissible; that all operations of clearing the ground of 
stomps and trees be stopped at onco ; that until further notice the mule team be em- 
jkjtd in d^csp plowing, harrowing, and putting in thorough condition for planting 
about 6 acree of the best portion of the cleared land, which can be used for the forma- 
tion of a nnrsery of tea plants if desired; that the expensive supeiiutendence be modi- 
fied, so that $300 per month will not be paid for the management of |60 worth of labor 
dfiiing the 8anie period of time, as at present, and that all labor cease, except so much 
as may be found necessary to look after the young plants. 

Acting on this advice, I have disposed of all the animals except one 
horse; have removed a large portion of the ontfit to Washington, and 
have employed one person, whose duty it is to look after the growing 
plants, of which a few thousand have been distributed by the depart- 
ment. In concluding his report, Mr. Saunders says: 

In a general way it may be stated that since July 1, 1880, $15,000 have been appro- 
I^iated by Congress for the encouragement of tea culture. So far as is visible to the 
ordinary observer, the only practical, palpable result of expenditurfB from this fund 
k what is to be found and what has been done on this farm. 



22 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 

On assuming control ot the Department of Agricoltnre I found that 
my predecessor had provided for a continuation of the investigation of 
contagious diseases of domesticated animals by assigning to duty those 
previously employed and the appointment of an additional number of 
veterinary surgeons. This additional force seems to have been made 
necessary by the increased duties imposed by Congress in making an 
appropriation for the purpose of determining the extent to which the 
disease known as contagious pleuro-pneumonia exists in the States 
heretofore reported as infected with the malady. Agents for this pur- 
pose had been appointed in the following-named States : New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. Two surgeons had been 
appointed in New Jersey, one of whom had been directed to make 
examinations also in Delaware. 

The agent in Maryland had been directed to extend his investigations 
into the District of Columbia, and such counties on the eastern border 
of Virginia as he might be able to visit. As these agents were engaged 
in an active prosecution of the investigation, it was thought best to 
oontiHue th^n until the work was completed, or at least until satisfac- 
tory evidence was obtained as to the prevalence or non-existence of 
this destructive disease in the territory above named. 

Notwithstanding the many disadvantages under which these agents 
have labored^ being witiiout either State or governmental authority for 
making inspections, their reports indicate the existence of contagious 
pleuro-pneumonia among cattle in the above-named States and in the 
District of Columbia. While but comparatively few acute cases of the 
disease were discovered, many chronic cases and numbers of infected 
stables, premises, &c., were found in a majority of the localities visited. 

The reports of these veterinary surgeons will be submitted in detail 
hereafter. 

In addition to further experiments for the purpose of more accurately 
determining the nature of the diseases known as swine plague and fowl 
cholera. Dr. D.E. Salmon had been instructed to institute and carry out 
as thorough an inquiry as possible into the nature and peculiar charac- 
teristics of the fatal disease among cattle known as Spanish fever. TMs 
inquiry was regarded as necessary for the purpose of more definitely 
determining the nature of the virus or infecting principle of the disease 
— ^the part of the body in which this virus multiplies, and the manner 
in which it is excreted and conveyed to healthy animals. 

To properly understand this disease it would seem necessary to know 
how an animal, apparently healthy, can be the means of so widely dis- 
seminating so fata-1 a malady, and why those actually affected with it 
in its most destructive type are unable to transmit it to other animals. 

Another equally important point to be determined is, as to how the 
virus of this tliscase can become acclimated and resist a temperature 
much lower than was formerly possible, and to what extent this aocli- 



BEPOST OF THE COIOOBSIONEB OF AGBICULTUBE. 28 

mation may continue, and consequently what danger there may be of 
the Northern States becoming permanently infected in the future. 
These points once clearly and definitely established, much more effective 
measures for the prevention of the disease may be devised than are now 
possible. 

The past season has been rather an unfavorable one for the success- 
ful prosecution of this investigation, owing to the fact that the disease 
has prevailed to a much less extent than in former years. Dr. Salmon 
has, however, made some important discoveries in regard to the trans- 
mission of the malady, having already successfully inoculated several 
He is still engaged on this branch of his work, and as soon as the results 
of Ms experiments are more definitely determined, a detailed report of 
his investigation will be transmitted for the consideration of Congress. 

Dr. BL J. Detmers was instructed to continue his experiments with 
the disease known as swine plague, with special reference to ascertain- 
mg what agents seem to offer the best results when used as prophy- 
lactics. He was advised to put to a practical test, on a large scale, the 
subjects selected for experiment. By studying the disease in large 
herds, and watching closely the effects of the agents used, it was thought 
Ihat a cheap, simple, and efficient preventive of this destructive disease 
might be discovered and a lasting benefit thus confen-ed on the farming 
eimimunity and the nation generally. A full report of the results of 
hie exx)eriments will be submitted hereafter. 

In addition to the above-named diseases, which require still further 
exp^iments to definitely determine all their peculiar characteristics, 
there are many other destructive contagious maladies which, as yet, 
have received no consideration at the hands of this department. 

The most important, because the most fatal and destructive, of these 
diseases is that of anthrax or charbon. Many classes of our domesti- 
cated animals are subject to this disease, and perhaps the annual losses 
fit>in this malady are heavier than firom any other single disease now 
prevalent among our farm animals. While the investigations referred 
to were going on in this country, Dr. Lyman, a veterinary surgeon who 
had been employed for that purpose, was pursuing his investigations 
in England with regard to the alleged existence of pleuropneumonia 
and foot and mouth disease among cattle landed in that country from 
the United States. He was accompanied by Professor Whitney, the 
aeoomplished microscopist^ and the results of his scientific inquiry and 
of his conferences with the privy council are interesting and valuable. 
He was instructed by my predecessor to continue the investigations 
imdertaken by the department in England the previous year. In an 
interview with the privy council Dr. Lyman requested that an examina- 
tion of jwrtions of diseased lungs taken from the cattle condenmed last 
year might be made by the veterinary surgeon of the council and him- 
self unitedly, at the same time assuring them that no pleuro-pneumonia 
had been found West, and that this department had employed compe- 



24 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE 

tent officers to inspect all snspected districts along the Atlantic coast. 
As the result of the examination, the British veterinary surgeon, Dr. 
Brown, expressed the opinion that there need be no occasion for alarm 
in the future with regard to condemning cattle, and that "if the United 
States was entirely free firom pleuro-pneumonia no condemnations would 
be made upon lungs presenting the appearances only of those that were 
condemned last year.^ It appears that out of 32,000 animals imported 
into English ports, outside of Liverpool, in six months ending June 25, 
1881, only 35 had been condemned even under the suspicion of having 
contagious pleuropneumonia. And Dr. Lyman remarks that — 

As a result of my conference with the authorities of Great Britain upon this subject, 
I think it may safely be stated that the impressions which they held regarding the 
health, in this respect, of our western herds, have been materially changed, and that 
lungs, having a certain appearance, heretofore condemned as being of contagions 
pleuTO-pneumonia, will not be so considered in the future. 

Between January 1 and May 31, 1881, large numbers of American 
cattle landing at London, Liverpool, and Glasgow were considered as 
having foot-and-mouth disease. Careful investigation shows that the 
disease, if it existed, was caused by infection communicated to the cat- 
tle after they were shipped firom American ports, and is to be attribu- 
ted to exposure to the virus imported into England from France, and 
spread abroad fi^om Deptford market, where it was first discovered. It 
is considered possible that the disease may be imparted to American 
cattle by the use of the head-ropes, which are often taken from diseased 
European animals and used on board American vessels employed in the 
cattle trade, and also by taking on board these vessels articles for ship- 
ment firom wharves where diseased cattle have been landed. K this 
theory is true, legislation will be required to remedy the evil. Dr. Ly- 
man reports that during his stay in Great Britain no diseased hogs 
were landed from the United States. He quotes firom the report of the 
veterinary department of the privy council for the year 1879 a statement 
showing that out of 279 portions of swine flesh taken fi*om American 
hogs that had been condemned and slaughtered on account of swine 
fever, only three were found to contain living trichinae. The British 
report, after giving as a reason why the direct importation of American 
pork was not prohibited, that ^^such a measure would have damaged 
the trade without producing any satisfactory results,'' continues : " Be- 
sides, trichinosis among swine is known to exist in Germany, and it 
probably exists in other exporting countries, so that nothing short of 
prohibition of swine flesh in all forms from all foreign sources would 
have been effectual." "In view of the recent total embargo placed by 
some of the foreign governments upon the imports of our hog products 
on account of the alleged existence in them of trichinflB,'' it is recom- 
mended that measures be taken to ascertain more definitely what per- 
centage of American hogs are thus diseased, the geographical distribu- 
tion of the disease in this country, and all other information which may 



EEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



25 



aid Id devising snch means as shall decrease to a minimum their exist- 
ence in American pork products. 

With regard to the transportation of cattle to the European markets, 
I am happy to say that American cattle, shipped from American ports, 
" arrive at their destination with fewer bruises and in better condition 
generally than do those from some of the neighboring European ports." 

The losses of cattle on ship-board from January 1 to September 30, 
18S0, exceeded 5 per cent. In the corresponding months of 1881 the 
losses were about 2^ per cent. 

SUaAR FROMBBETS. 

Under the act of Congress appropriating $10,000 "for the continua- 
tion of experiments in connection with the manufacture of sugar from 
beets, and for the cultivation of beets for that purpose," my predecessor 
contracted for improved English and French implements for cultivating 
the beet, which were to be loaned to the Delaware Beet Sugar Company, 
at Wilmington, DeL I have carried out the agreement made by him, 
and in addition thereto ^ave contracted for a large quantity of selected 
seed of the sugar beet for distribution to those persons who shall agree 
to grow the beet for sugar-making purposes. 

BISBURSINO OFFICE. 

The following table exhibits in a condensed form the appropriations 
made by Congress for this department, the disbursements and unex- 
pended balance for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1881: 



ObjMt of sppTopriAtkm. 



CaBeetiBg Btatistios 

?ttickMeof seeds 

XxperixMaital gArden , 

and herb*rinm ^... 

Meee, and repairs , 

It expenses 

of erotmds , 

?rntiB|EUid biDutng , 

l^srton forestry 

IiTMtijpUinx the history and habits of insects 

lBv«>tif:atfiiK the diseases of swine. Aco 

IxaninatioDs of wools and animal fibers 

XsehiBcTy . Stc. , for experiments in the mannfkotnre of sagar 

Data reepectinjc the needs of arid regions 

Isrhmarion of arid and wastelands 



Amount 
appropriated. 



$69,200 

10,000 

80,000 

7,600 

1,000 

5,000 

1,000 

4,000 

10,000 

4,000 

5,000 

11,000 

5,000 

6,000 

10,000 

4,000 

7,500 

5,000 

20,000 



Amount dis* 
horsed. 



». 
80. 

7. 
1, 
5, 
1, 
4, 
», 
4. 
5, 

11, 
3, 
4, 

10, 
4, 
7. 



185 22 
985 60 

ouo 00 

GOO 00 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
745 49 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
702 51 
997 31 
000 00 
000 00 
500 00 



18, 353 55 



Amonnt nn- 
expended. 



114 78 
14 40 



254 51 



1, 237 49 
2 60 



1,646 45 



Very respectfully, 



GEO. B. LOEING, 

Commissioner of Agriculture, 



APPENDIX. 



A. 

Hon. Geo. 6. Loring, 

CommisHaner of Agrieulture: 

Sir : In accordance with your verbal request, we herewith anbrnlt to yon, in ad- 
vance of our final report upon the general subject of locating artesian wells upon the 
arid plains of the West, a orief report upon the experimental well which is now being 
bored near Fort Lyon, Colo., under the auspices of the Agricultural Department. 

At the time of our visit there, September 1, of the present year, the boring had 
reached a depth of 658 feet, and the work waft still in progress. No water was flowing 
from the bottom of the boring then, but the superintendent in charge of the work re- 
ported to ns a constant flow of water at the surface, and as coming from a point in the 
boring 430 feet beneath, at the rate of 3 gallons per hour. This amount is too small 
to be regarded as of any practical importance, and the boring may, therefore, be re- 
garded as thus far an unsuccessful one. ' 

After a somewhat careful investigation of the geologj^ of that vicinity, we reached 
the conclusion that even if the boring were to be continued until the granitic or nn- 
Btratified rocks are reached (which would probably be within less than 1,000 feet be- 
neath the lowest point which the drill had reached at the time of our visit), it is very 
probable that a plentiful supply of water*will not be obtained then. Our reasons for 
this opinion are explained in the following remarks. 

In our final rei>ort we shall discuss the dins of the strata within the region which 
we examined during the past summer, togetner with their lithologidal characteristics, 
as those questions are found to bear upon the probabilities or otherwise of obtaining 
water by means of artesian borings. Anticipating briefly a portion of this discussion, 
we may remark, that while pursuing our investigations in the valley of Arkansas River, 
in which valley the boring in question has been located, we ascertained to our satis- 
faction that from a short mstance east of the town of Pueblo to the eastern boundary 
of Colarado that river runs upon a gentle anticlinal axis ; that is, while the surface of 
the region adjacent to the river valley slopes towards the river upon both sides, the 
strata which underlie the surface dip away from the river both northward and soutibi- 
ward. There is also a general eastwardly dip of the same strata, which we ascer- 
tained to coincide almost exactly with the slope of the stream, which slope is esti- 
mated at some six or eight feet to the mile, but the dip of the strata is not nuite so 
uniform as the slope of the stream : that is, there are very gentle and broaa undu- 
lations of the strata, which bring, lor example, certain readuy recognizable layers a 
little above the level of the stream at some places, and at others passing them a little 
beneath it. 

Now, wo find that the borins near Fort Lyon has been located upon one of those 
gentle rises of the strata, which has brought to view in the banks of the river there 
the certain layers referred to, which, in their extension, are beneath the level of the 
river above that locality, and which also pass beneath the level of the river a few 
miles below it. According to these determinations, there is a slight dip of the strata 
in all dii^ections away from the neighlwrhood in which the boring is located, of which 
dips the whole series of stratified rocks, the deeper as well as those which are visible, 
which underlie that locality, doubtless partake. 

Applying the well-known theory of artesian wells to the condition of the strata in 
the neighborhood of Fort Lyon, as we have explained it, an unfavorable result may 
be reasonably expected from the boring now being prosecuted there. 

If that region were a humid instead of an arid one, and the earth there was satu- 
rated with water, as it is in humid regions, it is believed that the unfavorable dips of 
the strata which have been referred to are so slight that a fair supply of water might 
possibly rise to the surface in the boring near Fort Lyons by means of the general 
favorable dip to the eastward, which all the strata have been shown to have in the 
region of the Aikausas Valley. But it is believed that in so dry a region borings ai* 

26 



BEPOST OF THE COMBOSSIONEB OF AGRICULTIJBE. 27 

likely to prore really sncoessfnl only in the most favorable localities as to dip and 
eharacter of strata. 

We ascertained that the boring near Fort Lyon had been begnn upon the Colorado 
or middle group of Cretaceous strata near its base, the valley there beiug excavated 
ont of the npper portion. The drill had passed through the remainder of this group ; 
then throngn the Dakota or lower group of the Cretaceous series ; then through the 
Jurassic series, and int« the Triassic. 

In consequence of the destruction or disarrangement of a large portion of the core 
which had been brought out of the boring by means of the diamond drill before our 
arrival, we were not aole to study fully the fine section of the strata which had been 
pierced by the drill which that core would have presented if it had been carefully 
preserved- 

By examination of the portions of the core that were preserved in connection with 
the statements famished us by the superintendent in charge of the work, we assigned 
to each gronp of strata that had been pierced by the drill the thickness expressed by 

thie following figures : 

Feet. 

L Colorado gronp, Cietaceons 100 

1 Dakota fi^ronp. Cretaceous 300 

IJoiaseic 250 

iXriMsic 28 

The drill bad passed into the Triassic gronp of strata only about 28 feet, and it is 
kaown that mach more of that gronp yet remains to be pierced. The foregoing meas- 
uementa indicAte that the several groups of strata, which have been passed through by 
the drill, are considerably thinner than they are where they are upturned against the 
bsse of the Rocky Mountains, about 100 miles to the westward. This fact indicates 
that all the groaps of strata beneath that portion of the great plains will be found to 
grow thinner to the eastward from the mountains ; and that therefore the whole series 
of itTatilied rocks which exist there may be pierced by boring a considerable distatice 
OBt upon the plains at a much less depth than they would be nearer the mountains 
yihtn the aggregate thickness of those strata, as seen, where they are upturned 
ifiiBst the noiountains. is very great. 

We infer from this also that the Triassic group in which the drill is now working in 
the boring, neai Fort Lyon, is there probably not more than 1,000 feet thick, and 
tlistit may be considerably less. 

At the baae of the mountains the Triassic strata rest directly upon the granitic or 
iiOB-«tratified rocks, and they probably do the same beneath Fort Lyon. If so, the 
bsM of the Triassic and of the whole series of stratified rocks which exist there will 
W reached by not exceeding 1,000 feet more of boring. We also think it is barely 
poinble that water may rise to the surface in that boring, when the base of all the 
Untified rocks there is reached by the ilrill, but, as before explained, we believe such 
i Rsolt to be -very doubtful. 

We are deafly of the opinion that in any case it will be useless to continue the 
boring into the non-stratined rocks. 

3aee yon have expressed a wish that we should be explicit in the expression of our 
Tiews upon this subject, we may add that believing the conditions of the strata which 
■aderhe tbe snrface in the vicinity of Fort Lyon to be unfavorable to success in ob- 
tKAing a satisfactory flow of water from the boring now in progress there, a permanent 
discoDtinaance of the work at any time would be justifiable. 

A» geologists, however, we would mnoh prefer to have the work continued and the 
ton of the drill carefully preserved until the non-stratified rocks are reached. We 
iko beg to improve this and every opportunity to recommend the use of the core-drill 
is all fatare borings that may be made under your direction, l>ecause the prenerved 
eoie of sneh borings will give us a knowledge of the geological structure beneath the 
maface of the great plains that ean be obtained in no other way. 

We have constantly declined any communication or correspondence with any and 
all petaans interested in well-boMag machinery of any kind, and we make the above 
lecommendation wholly in the interests of geological science. 
Very respectfully submitted* 

C. A. WHITE, 
SAMUEL AUOIIEY, 
Oammisnoners f9r locaUng ArMan Wells upon Arid ami H'aate Lands, 

Washdcotoii, D. C, November 9, 188L 



28 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTITRE. 

Hon. Georob B. Loring, 

CommiMtoner of Agriculture : 

Sir : In accordance with yonr letter of July 9, instmcting me to proceed to Snm- 
merville, S. C, for the purpose of examining and reporting npon the condition and 
prospects of the government tea garden, investigate as to its a^cnltural, financial, 
and general condition, the property of the government connected with it, the expense 
of continuing it npon the present basis, the progress of the culture hitherto made, the 
future prospects of the enterprise, and make a thorough examination of the whole 
matter, I have the honor to submit the following report : 

Leaving Washington on the morning of July 12, 1 reached Charleston on the forenoon 
of the 13th, too late for the morning trains to Sommerville; that station was not 
reached nntil evening. 

Earlv on the moning of the 14th I proceeded to the farm and spent the day, as also 
the following day, inspecting the property. 

The land leased by the department consists of 200 acres, most of which is covered 
with a heavy forest growth which may be cleared and fitted for plowing at an expense 
of from $50 to $100 per acre. I understood Mr. Jackson (the superintendent) to say 
that the lowest bid he had received for clearing the forest growth was $80 per acre. 

A portion of the estate, immediately surrounding the ruins of the old mansion, was 
comparatively cleared, scattering stumps and trees only bein^ left. The removal of 
these and other debris has been nearly completed over something like 15 acres, all of 
which is nearly ready for the plow ; and, indeed, with the exception of 4 or 5 acres, 
has been plowed this spring, and most of it sown with cow-pea, to be turned under 
as a fertilizer. 

The soil is a poor, hungry sand. Some portions of the tract might be classed as a 
poor, sandy loam (as some appearance of loam may be detected in it), but it is of a 
character to support only the scantiest kind of vegetation. 

A course of ameliorative culture, including manuring, would be required before 
attempting to procure reasonably satisfactory crops of even such annual maturine 
plants as are usually grown in that climate ; but for permanent ligneous plants, such 
as the tea plant, a much more thorough preparation than that conveyed above would 
be essentially necesbary, including deep plowing and cross-plowing, followed in each 
furrow .by a deep subsoiling, to prepare a proper physical or mechanical condition of 
soil for the fr«e ramification of roots. 

With regard to the progress of the work, operations were commenced during Janu- 
ary of this year. The first object was to prepare a space to sow the tea seeds as soon 
as they arrived, and prepare shading material to cover them, as the yoong plants 
suffer severely when exposed to the sun. 

The shading here is accomplished by using clapboards laid closelv together npon a 
frame- work elevated about 18 inches above tne surface of the ground. 

The seeds were sown as soon as they arrived, and they have germinated very satis- 
factorily, and will furnish plants for many acres. These are uie only tea plants on 
the farm. 

Acting under instructions received from the department, the superintendent has 
marked out a straight road 60 feet in width, which courses through the center of the 
cleared ground, crossing an old artificial lake, which is border^ by trees and low 
vegetation, and which jKissesses a considerable degree of rural beauty. The orosmn^ 
over the lake is proposed to be efi'ected by an iron bridge. This is to be substituted 
for the present road, which gracefully follows the curving outline of the lake at about 
30 feet from the straight ro^ now in course of formation. 

The ruins of the old mansion comprise a large quantity of broken bricks and old 
mortar. This is now being removed and used for making the above-mentioned road. 
The instructions to the superintendent called for the complete clearing out of this old 
material, so that a ground plan of the old house could be secured with a view to 
restoring the buUdin^. 

This brief description shows the condition of the farm, the general character of the 
soil, and the progress made in the culture of the tea^^^fii. 

With regard to the future prospects of the enterprise, if continued in the line of ttie 
present scheme and nnder the present system, it may be said that there is not much 
room for encouragement. 

A few remarks relative to the position of tea culture in America, as at present under- 
stood, may assist us in arriving at an intelligent view of the matter. Por the past 
twenty years the department has annually distributed a number of tea plants, in vary- 
ing quantities of from 10,000 to 50,000 plants yearly, the obiect in view being to intro- 
duce the plant to the notice of farmers and planters, so that they could familiarize 
themselves with its characteristics and its adaptability to climates and localities ; also, 
that experiments might be made with the leaves in the preparation of an article for 
domestic use. 

In many instances this waa bo satia&ctory as to encourage further plantings, so that 



# 



BEPORT OP THE COMBHSSIONER OP AORICULTUBB. 29 

•mall plantations of one-foarth of an aero and npwards in extent were here and 
there to be found. Many of the samples of tea prepared in a domestic way were pro- 
noaaoed to be very good, and the department for the past twelve years or more nas 
freqaenily been the recipient of teas which were creditably manufactured, and other- 
wise con^dered commendable. In the latter part of the year 1879, Mr. J. Jackson, the 
present superintendent of ^e tea farm at SunmiervOle, who had been for many years 
eoj^aged in the manufacture of tea in British India, being in the United States on a 
pleasure tour, had his attention called to the efforts of the department in the introduc- 
tion of tliis industry ; and looking oyer the matter he concluded to purchase one of 
the largeat of these incipient tea plantations, situated in Georgia, for the purpose of 
making experiments in the manuiacture of tea. His first effort at the manufacture 
was made m the spring of last year (1880), and the result was deemed encouraging ; 
eaoples of his teas were received by the department where they were exhibited and 
tested; bnt while the manufacture and appearance of the teas were commended they 
vere pronounced to be deficient in strength. 

Dnnng last fall and winter. Mr. Jackson gave special attention to the plants in the 
way of pnmingy manuring, &c. In consequence, the plants made a most satisfactory 
fToWth, giTiniP five crops of leaves, which allowed Mr. Jackson a fair opportunity to 
vBst tiie cost of manufacture, which has convinced him that teas may be placed on the 
Buu^et at a cost not exceeding twenty-five cents per pound. This crop has also been 
tested by experts, and their opmion again shows tnat the teas are deficient in strength. 

About 20 ponnos of this crop was sent to the department, from whence it was dis- 
tributed for testing as samples of American tea. It is therefore evident that the great 
defect of these teas is lack of strength. 

It is an established fact that the strength of teas depends upon the climate where 
the plant is grown. The warmest tea climates produce the strongest teas. 

Teas prod need in localities where frosts occur are always pronounced to be weaker 
than teas which are produced in localities where the thermometer never reaches to the 
freedng point. This is well understood in all tea-growing countries, and it certainly 
woold not be 'wise to ignore the fact in making experiments in this country. 

He position may be considered as fairly represented as follows : Having every rea- 
lOD to oonolndo that the locality near Mcintosh, 6a., is too far north for the produo- 
tioa of teas which possess sufficient of strength and pungency to command the best 
prices, or even promable prices, it is therefore consideired proper to try the experiment 
at Summsrville, 8. C, which is one and a half degrees further north I 

Bowever unfortunate it may be, it is clearly eviaent that the tea experiments must 
he made in a more southern latitude. The State of Florida may be looked upon as 
pnaenting the most favorable conditions, yid if the experiments are to be proceeded 
with, (iterations should be transferred to that State witnout delay. 

I found the property of the department, as per abstract furnished me, all well oared 
fat. In addition, I found a saddle-hoTse for the superintendent, and several other items 
cf recent pnrchase. 

li to the future management of the tea farm, following the oonviction that no 
a[perinient which can be made in the culture of tea at this place will warrant a con- 
timiation of the imdertaking, it may be suggested that expenses be cut down to the 
lowest figure admissible ; that all operations of clearing ground of stumps and trees 
he stopped at once ; that, until further notice, a mule team be employed in deep plow- 
ing, harrowinff, and putting in thorough condition for planting about 6 acres of the 
hest portion of the cleared land, which can be used for the formation of a nursery of 
tea jMants, if desired ; that the expensive superintendence be modified so that|300 per 
iDonth will not be paid for the management of |60 worth of labor during the same period 
flf tijoe, as at present, and that all labor cease, except so much as may be found neoes- 
WBj to look aner the young plants. 

In the matter of finance, the accounts in the office of the disbursing clerk of the 
department can be referred to at anv time for details. 

m a general way, it may be stated that since July 1, 1880, |15,000 have been appro- 
pfiated by Congress for encouragement of tea culture. So far as is visible to the ordi- 
aarr observer, the only practical, palpable result of expenditures from this fund is 
Tb&t i» to bo found and what has been done on this farm. The only building on the 
{iTDperty is a small shed-looking house, which is used as an office. There is no stable 
cmivenieuces ; the mules and the horse are kept in a rented stable at SummerviUe, 
ahout 3 miles from the farm. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM SAUNDERS, 
Supaintendent of GardeM, fo, 
WASBniGTON, D. C, July 19, 1881. 



30 REPORT OF THE C01IMI88IONER OF AARICnLTURB. 



CONTAGIOUS PLEURO-PNEUMONIA AND FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, 



FouBTH Rkpobt of Chas. p. Lyman, F. R. C. Y. 8. 



Hon. Geo. B. Lorinq, 

Commissioyier of Agriculture : 

Sir: Congress, at its last session, appropriated the snm of $15,000 for the purpose of 
enabling the Department of Agriculture to ascertain, as accurately as possible, all 
facte in relation to the existence of contagious plpuro-pneumonia among cattle in the 
United States. For this puri^ose there were appointed, in March last, several veteri- 
narians of experience with this disease, who were located at various points throughout 
the entire infected region and directed to collect all information which should enable 
them to point out the exact location of all herds of cattle within a certain prescribed 
district, for each one, that might be affected with the disease. They were also ordered to 
rejport the general drift of the movement of cattle within such district, so that, in case 
evidence might be found that such animals were being collected for shipment, or were 
being idiipped out from the district, early knowledge of the fact, together with infor- 
mation relating to their probable destination, might at once be communinat^d to this 
department. Much of this work has been accomplished, and the result of their inves- 
tigations will be found detailed in the accompanying reports which I have the honor 
oiVresentine to you herewith. 

While in this way it was thought that statistics of value as to the number of diseased 
animals and the distribution of the malady over the infected area might be gain^, 
it was well understood that the reports would not, in the nature of the circumstances 
under which the data must necessarily be collected, be anything more than approxi- 
mations of the truth, and as such, simply, they are offered, with the hope and m the 
conviction that they will prove to be of service to any who may desire tomake com- 
putations which shall show the probable number of cattle that would have to be paid 
for in case ''stamping out" with remuneration was decided upon as a moans of ridding 
our country of this foreign disease. And, further, it was thought that it would show 
what became of dangerous cattle, more especially of the calves from such districts, for, 
within the past year, much has been very properly said and written as to the danger 
of transplanting this disease into the great herds of the West by means of a trade to 
them of Bastem-bred calves, a danger wfiich it seemed to be of great importance to 
have accurate knowledge concerning, that restrictive measures, were they found to be 
necessary, might at once be undertaken. While the examinations by these inspectors 
are more thorough than any heretofore made by the government, still I mnst confess 
to a disappointment; for when it is borne in mind that whatever inspections are 
made, whatever advice concerning the disposition of diseased and infected animals is 
followed, that, in fact, whatever knowledge of any kind regarding the absolute condi- 
tion of these herds was to be had only by and through the courtesy of the cattle own- 
ers themselves, many of whom, I am sorry to say, have thrown unexpected obstacles 
in the way, it will be seen that the reports cannot be as full and complete as the neces- 
sity demands. These remarks do not apply, however, to the States of Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey, where the secretary of the State boani of agriculture, Hon. Thos. J. 
Edge, in the former, and the secretary of the State board of health, E. M. Hunt, M. D., 
in the latter, have rendered such cheerful and powerful assistance that the reports 
from thene two States should be looked upon as being more than approximat^ely correct. 

From the honoiable the Commissioner of Agriculture I received in May last the fol- 
lowing instructions: 

** You will, on or about the 10th day of June, proximo, take passage for Great Brit- 
ain, and having arrived there you will continue your investigations undertaken for 
the Department of Agriculture, in England, last season. These examinations may be 
pursued by you during the summer months or such a part thereof as may be found nec- 
essary, at such port or ports of Great Britain as the circumstances exising from time to 
time may seem to demand. 

" It will be well if you can persna<le the veterinarians employed by the Grovernment 
of Great Britain to join you in making a thorough examination of any animals, or 
lungs thereof, arriving from the United States that may appear to them to show symp- 
toms or h'sions of contagious pleuro-pneumonia, with a view to the settlement, if pos- 
sible, of the present conteHted question as to whether the animals now so freely con- 
doniued by them as showing the presence, of this disease really do have it, or if the 
lesions of some other disease have been mistaken for it, as is shown by the i*esult of 
your own examination of the lungs of animals that were pronounced by the British 
authorities to be unmistakably affected by pleuro-pneumonia oanta^fiotfo. 



BEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 81 

''As a part also of yonr dnties yon will, so far as possible, examine in a proper man- 
ner the hogs arriving in Great Britain from the United States dnring your stay there, 
with a Tiew of ascertaining to how great an extent they are diseased or are infected 
with trichinse. 

''Y'oQ will also investigate, so far as possible and as circumstances may seem to de- 
mand, the ouestion of the existence of any other contagious diseases that may be 
present or alleged to be present among any animals arriving in Great Britain from this 
oonntry." 

In accordance with these instmctions, I have the honor to report that upon June 
24 1 arrived in London, and the next day called upon the Right Hon. Mr. Mundella, 
Vice-President of the Privy Council, to whom I presented my credentials and stated 
the objects of my mission. He said that the matter seemed to him to be of great im- 
portance, and that it had best be laid at once before the Lord President of the Council, 
And for this purpose he appointed so early a time as one o'clock the following Monday, 
June 27. 

At the hour designated, in company with his excellency Minister Lowell and Dr. 
Whitney, patbologint, I proceeded to the Privy Council Office, where we were re- 
oei?ed by the Lonl President, Earl Spencer, the Vice-President^ the Right Hon. Mr. 
Mundella. the secretary, Mr. Pe«l. and the Veterinarian-in-Chief, Professor Brown. 
Mr. Lowell introduced us and briefly stated the object of our visit, saying that, as the 
particular request we had to make to the Couucil had been reduced to' writing, with 
m lordship's permission he would proceed to read it. Dr. Whitney then read the fol- 
lowing paper : 

"My Lori> Spekcer and Gentlemen: We have ventured to ask this conference of 
yoo to-day in order to call your special attention to this, the third report upon conta- 
tioai plenro-pneamonia, recently issued by the Department of Agriculture of the United 
States, and to the fact that the conclusions arrived at therein are at variance with 
t]iess of your inspectors. 

'* In oraer that a more thorough understanding of this difference of opinion may be 
ictehfed, we respectfully ask that the question may be reconsidered. 

''For this purpose specimens of condemned lungs, upon which this report is ba6ed 
have been brought to London, and we respectnilly ask leave to submit them to 
7«<i, or to experts selected by you. at any time and place that may be most con- 
Tni^t. And we farther hope that yen will allow us, together with these sanie gen- 
tiemen, to examine the lungs of any Western cattle now coming to Great Britain from 
tkeiioitsof Boston or Portland, which maybe condemned by your inspectors as affected 
vitneootagioua pleuro-pneumonia. As the Government of the Unite<l States have un- 
tertsken to carry out measures which must eventually result in the extermination of 
the disease, and hope before long to be able to show a country entirely free from this 
noorge, it is of the utmost importance that the finer appearances of the disease should 
W cittily recosnized ; for even after the country is entirely free it is very possible that 
Inngs may be K>and from time to time, similar to those condemned last summer, that 
piCMst groeslT the appearance hitherto ascribed to contagious pleuro-pneumonia, but 
m^adi, in reality, result from chronic inflammatory processes entirely unconnected 
vith contagion. And these appearances, unless the antuority of precedent is corrected, 
nd|ht cause insurmountable restrictions to be imposed." 

^Howine the reading of this paper, questions were asked by his Lordship and other 
members of the councU present^ which developed the fact that the Department of 
Agncdture hskd already establuhed throughout the infected district a corps of in- 
•pMtors, all of them veterinarians of experience with pleuro-pneumonia, whose duty 
it vas to knoTV and report to their department the location and numliei-s of diseased 
berda, their movements, and the movement of all calves from among tlieiu ; that Mr. 
LMcLean, M. R- C. V. S., had, in its interest, traveled extensively through the West, 




amy of the large feeding stables in and about the larger cities of the West, and cer- 
ktiii other isolated herds ; in fact, that all intimations coming to the knowMed^xc of tho 
department which seemed to indicate in any way that pleuro-])nenmonia mi;;ht have 
ttexlfitence in the West or anywhere outside of the known infected district, had been 
ttdwonld continue to be thorougly investigated. As yet no such disease hud been 
fcmd; in the event of its making its appearance in any new locality, mosc certainly 
tbe department would have and make x)ublic early and positive information concern- 
ffle it. That I could, as a result of these examinations, together with much reliable 
infonnatiou gleaned, from other sources, most emphatical^ state that pleuro-pncu- 
ttioma had no existence in the West, or along certain lines of rail leading to Boaton 
tod Portland, or in or about these ports, nor did I think it possible that calves fioni 
diiea«ed herds could go West without the fact being known to inspectors of the do- 
pvtnj<eni. 
Asa result, both our requests were very cordially granted; the question was trdered 



32 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



roopenod and the Veteriuarian-in-Cluef was directed to examine, with ua, both the spe- 
cimens of last summer's condemnation that we had brought with us, and the lungs of 
any of the designated animals that might be condemned during our stay in that coun- 
try. 

On June 28 we called by appointment upon Professor Brown with specimens from 
all of the lungs that were condmned for pleuro-pneumonia at Liverpool, during my 
stay there last summer.* These were carefully examined by Professor Brown, who 
said that before giving an opinion he should very much prefer that the whole patho- 
logical part of the question should be gone into by Professor Yeo, pathologiBt at King's 
College, and that he would arrange that we meet the professor fortius purpose as soon 
as possible. 

As a result of this desire, on July 7 we visited King's College^ where we met Pro- 
fessor Yeo, who, after a rather hurried examination of the specimens, said he would 
not absolutely sa^y that these changes were due to contagious pleuro-pneumonia ; he 
could only do so in any case after seeing the fresh specimen, as he considered it im- 
possible to make an absolute diagnosis without noting carefiuly the entire relation of 
the diseased portions of lung to uie healthy tissues of the same organ. He was rather 
inclined to the belief that there is no change resulting in the lungs of cattle, from 
either an acute or chronic inflammation, which may not be, so far as its appearances 
under the microscope are concerned, duplicated by the action of the disease saiown as 
contagions pleuro-pneumonia. 

The only positive thing that he did state in relation to the specimens was that he 
considered the changes shown in them to be the result of a disease of at least two to 
three months' standing. Unfortunately for us during the whole of our stay, which 
was until the 16th of August, no condemnations for pleuro-pneumonia were made, 
therefore we could not furnish to Professor Yeo the fresh specimens demanded, and 
the matter, so far as he was concerned, ended here. 

Before we left. Professor Brown assured me that he did not think there need be any 
occasion for alarm in the future: tJuit if our country was entirely free from pleuro-pneu- 
monia, no condemnations would be made upon lungs presenting the appearances only 
of those that were condemned in my presence last year. 

The following tabulated statement contains the particulars of all of the condemna- 
tions of American animals for pleuro-pneumonia that have been made in Great BritaiD 
this y^ar, so far as I am informed. If others are to be added they have arrived there 
since August 16 : 



Kame of ateamahip. 



lOlaneae 

Greeoe 

Utopian 

Bolileawlg; 

AaaTTiaiiMoxiarch 

Bochester 

Anatralia 

CityofBriatol.... 

Minneaota 

France 

Snmatra 

Edinburgh 

Devon .•• 



From port of— 



Boston..... 
New York 
New York 
New York 
New York 

Boaton 

New York 
New York 
Boaton.... 
New York 
Boaton.... 

Boaton. 

New York 



To port ol^ 



jjondon .•••.■■•. 
I^mdon .....•.•■ 

London •••• 

London......... 

London 

London 

London 

Liverpool 

Liverpool. ...... 

London 

London... 

London......... 

Briatol 



Bate 
landed. 



188L 
Jan. 4 
Jan. 12 
Jan. 13 
Jan. 16 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 28 
Jmn.28 
Feb. 1 
Feb. 4 
Feb. 9 
Feb. 27 
Apr. 15 
Jnnel6 



4 
5 

2 
2 
12 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 






Nomber V 



Ma»king a total of 37 animals from January 1, 1881. 

Of these there were condemned in London from New York 23 ; London from Boston, 
11 ; Liverpool from New York, 1 ; Liverpool from Boston, 1 ; Bristol ftx>m New York, 1. 

There were landed in Liven)ool, from January 1 to August 12, 30,310 cattle, from 
which 2 only were condemned. Exactly what number were landed in London and 
at other British ports during this time, I have as yet been unable to ascertain; but 
during the six months ending June 25, 1881, there were landed in Great Britain from 
the Imited States 56,721 head. This would make at all the other ports except Liver- 
pool, during the six months, about 32,000 animals, of which 1 wasoondemnea in Bris- 
tol and 34 in London, as suffering from contagious pleuro-pneumonia. 

In this connection I feel it my duty to repoft to you as a result of my two seasons' 
inspections in England, that while the governmental examinations at Liverpool are 
conducted so carefully and methodically that there is no danger of a wrong crodit be- 
ing given for a case of disease found, there is, in my opinion, every chance that in 
Lonaon a diseased lung found in the slaughter houses at Deptford foreign 'animads 
market, may be returned as coming from a port in the United States through which 
the animal never passed ; or even that an animal landed there from France or other 
European country, the lung of which is condemned as showing lesions of pleuro-pnen- 

*See Senate Ex. Doc No. 5, 46th Congress, 3d session, p. 9. 



BEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 33 

monifty may be letnmed to the Privy Council O Aoe as coming from the United States, 
or fioteerML 

On the 90th of July last, in the conrse of a conversation on this point, the inspector 
at Deptford stated to me that his method for detecting pleuro-pnenmonia was when 
he did not diagnose it in the living animal (and he aolmowledged that his accommo- 
dations for socn examinations were inadequate) to have all the longs reserved and after- 
vards examine them carefully, and when a nodule of any kind was discovered to cut 
down upon and examine it critically. He further remarked that when he foond adia- 
eated long and had not previously condemned the animal, there ictu goaroely any wuirk 
tpam tibtf ooroaM 6jr which duetutd anifMl could be identiJUd, When asked how he reported 
Boch a case to the Privy Council, he said he simply reported it as one case of pleaio- 
imeamonia. To the further question as to what country, or what cargo the diseased 
uiimal was credited, whenever animals from two or three different countries or ports 
were b«ng sbiagbtered by the same person at the same time, as was very often the 
case, he answered that he never had any diffioulty in identifying the animal. 

As a resalt of my conference with the authorities of Great Britain upon this snbject>, 
I think it m«y safely be stated that the impressions which they held regarding the 
health, in thia respect, of our Western herds have been materially changed, and that 
loBgi naving a certain appearance, heretofore condemned as being that of contagious 
pleoro-pnenmonia, will not be so considered in the future. 

8till the fact remains that we, as a country, are not free from this disease, that it 
eootimies ita ravages to some extent amon^ the herds in a narrow strip of country ex- 
tending froQi about New York City to and including the District of Columbia, and the 
diiteiet abont Alexandria in Virginia, and that so long as this state of affairs is allowed 
to exist it will be impossible to obtain any relief whatever from the present burden- 
mne reatrictionB placed upon all our cattle going to Great Britain. Nor shall we in 
anj way be able to prevent the ultimate spread of the disease to our Western herds, and 
their oooseqaent destruction, unless restrictive measures are at once adopted. 

As a remedy against present loss and future danger from this source, I cannot do 
better than to ask your consideration of my recommendation of last year, viz: Let 
Coo^rBBB enact, such measures, and authorize such an execution of them, as shall im- 
mdiately restrict the movement of cattle out from and within infected districts, and 
la time eradicate every case of lung plague. 

Inasmuch as there are at present two very important questions, both of them having 
s Toy material bearing upon the methods to be adopted for ridding a country of 
plearo-pneoBonia, I would sugg^ the propriety of undertaking, in addition to the 
preKDt work of the division, a plan of experimental study with a view of ascertain- 

UL Whether plenro-pneumonia contagiosa can be communicated in any way except 
hy aetoal contact of the healthy with the diseased living animal ; and 

id. Whetiier or not unprotected animals can safely be introduced into a stable in 
vbch the disease has formerly existed, but into which no animal but those that have 
been properly inoculated and have recovered have been allowed to enter for M>me 
tiae, and in which it is known that the disease in its pure form has not existed ror at 
iesit eix months. 

There is very much that might be said upon these two questions, but probably the 
litateaKnt will be sufficient here that high English authority, including that of tlie 
phTy council, assert an unbelief in the mediate contagion theory of spreacl, while other 
sod perhaps as good authority both in England and in tbe United Slates say that 
their own actaal experience causes them to nold opinions exactly the reverse. 

In regard to the second proposition, while the practice of preventive inoculation is 
by no means new, it is a fact that recently its management h:u) seemed to be better 
inderstood in some ways, and the results of its systematic practice in the Netherlands 
lut in certain parts of Great Britain, as well as upon isolated diseased premises within 
onr own districts seem to show a rather easy way of possiblv ridding ourselves of the 
•eoorge, especially in our larger infected city dairies. While such eminent authority 
a Fleming asserts that it can bo done, the fact still remains that no country has as 
let, in this way, rid itself of the plague. 

FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEA.S1S. 

In Jannary of this year the Veterinary Division of the Department of Agriculture 
was notified by the Veterinary Department of the Privy Council tbat 59 cattle affected 
vith foot-and-mouth disease had been landed at Deptford (London) from New York 
br the steamship France. This warning was followed in a few days by a notification 
that at the name place 267 cattle from the steamer City of Liverpool, from New York, 
had been similarly condemned. These notifications continued to arrive at frequent 
interrala, all of them relating to condemnations made at London, until on March 2Sf 
viih the condemnation of 371 cattle from the Ht.eamMbip City of Liverpool, the mani- 
feitations of the disease among our animals at this port stopped as suddenly as it had 
begmi. 

3 JLQ 



34 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIOOTlR OF * AGRICULTURE. 



In the mean time, however, notice had been received tliat on the 17th of March the 
disease had been found at Liverpool, whou, on that day, 208 animals lirom Portland, 
by the steamship Lake Manitoba, were condemned as suffering from it. From this 
time, notably on May 11, when 694 such condftmnations were made from the cargo of 
the lowa^ from Boston, nntil Jnne 9, notices of its arrival at this port continued to be 
received, trhen it subsided as suddenly as it had done at London, with the condemna- 
tion of 137 animals, by the steamship Istrian, from Boston. Before this desired end 
was reached, however, notice had been received that a cargo had been landed at Glaa- 
ffow from the steamship Phcenician, from Boston, amon^ which 235 bullocks siitfering 
mm fbot^hd-raonth disease had been condemned. Here its appearance began and 
ended with the landing of this cargo. 

Immediately upon the receipt of this information, means were undertaken which it 
was hcmed and supposed would lead to the source of this new and threatening danger. 
Car»fm inspections of animals going abroad were made at the porte of debarkation; 
bertain cattle that had been condemned upon reaching England were traced to the 
Eastern yards and from thence to Chicago, to which place Mr. McLean, M. R. C. V. S., 
was sent. From there he sriccessfully traced them on to other stock yards, and in a anm- 
ber of instances even into th^ stables where they had be<^n feeding for weeks; uotwith- 
standini^ all of whlch^ no indications of the presence of the disease could be discovered. 
This bemg the unsatisfactory state of affair at the time it was determined to send a 
representative to England in connection with the pleuro-pueumouia inqtiiry, the 
added instruction was given me as already detailed, in the hope that some solution 
of the problem might be reached. 

Therefore, upon landing in Liverpool, and before proceeding to London^ I at once 
visited the wharves upon the Birkenhead side of the river, upon which animals frt>m 
the United States are landed. Here I found but few cattle, and they appe^ired to be 
in a perfectly healthy condition. Great precautions had been taken to render the 
buildings and premises free from the contagion of foot-and-mouth disease ; small brick 
furnaces, in which sulphur had been burned, were placed within short dist-iinces of 
one anotner in the buildings ; a very large quantity of strong lime-wash, in which, I 
was told, had been disolved 20 per cent, of crude carbolic acid, had been used tipon 
sdl the walls of the bnildings, both inside and out ; also upon all runs, fbtices, ont- 
buildinffs, &«., about the place, small boxes had been arranged into which, before 
being allowed to leave the inclosed premises, all men that had been in contact in any 
way with the condemned animals were obliged to go and receive a thorough fumiga- 
tion. These sanitary and preventive measures were established by the inspector, 
Mr. Moore, F. R. C. V. S., and were carried out in a most thorough and praiseworthy 
manner. 

As no disease offering opportunity for examinations existed here at this tinie, I 
decided to go immediately to London and there ask permission of the proper authori- 
ties to prosecute my investigations upon premises under their control. During the 
meeting with the council on June 27, to which I have referx'cd in the re]if)rt upon 
plenro- pneumonia, some conversation regarding the landing of foot-and-mouth disease 
took place, and in answer to questions put to me by L<>rd Spencer 1 stated that so fat 
as I knew and believed, and that much time and eOort had been used to demonstrate 
the truth, the disease had no existence among the animals in the United States. This, 
of course, surprised theui, and they were at as great a loss as myself to account for its 
appearance, and immediately offered to do all in their power to help ascertain the 
facts. Afterwards I told Professor Brown that if he would send an inspector with ns, 
that we mi£[ht together investignte the matter, I should bo glad to oave hlni do so. 
This proposition, however, he failed to accept. 

At the Veterinary Department I was furnished a list of the names and dates of land- 
ing of all the steamers from which American animals had been condemned as suffer- 
ing from foot-and-mouth disease upon arrival, as fbllows : 



Name of steamship. 



France 

Citj' of Liverpool 
City of London... 

Kocbestor 

France 

Faraday 

Greece 

l^akeHanitoba... 
City of Liverpool 

PalVstino 

l^iko N<'pi«;on 

l(»\va -. 

Pbrrnician 

Istrian.... 



From port of— 



Total. 



New York . 
New York , 
Now York . 

BoHtou 

New York 
N«w York 
New York . 
Pt»rtLand . . 
New York 

Boston 

Portland .. 
Boston . .'. . 
Boston.... 
Boston 



To port of— 



London... 
London... 
London... 
London ... 
London... 
London . . . 
Xxindon . . . 
Liverpool , 
London . . . 
Liverpool 
Liverpool 
Liverpool , 
Glasgow.. 
Liverpool 



Date of 
landing. 



Number 
condemned. 



1R81. 
Jan. 1 
Jan. 6 
Jan. 18 
Jan. 28 
Feb. 9 
Feb. 13 
Feb. 23 
Kar.lT 
Mar. 23 
Mar. 27 
Apr. 7 
Hay 11 
May 31 
Jnne 9 



59 
267 
12 
43 
66 
839 



871 
118 



9 m 



187 



SEPOBT 0F THE OOttitldfiidl^lnt 6* AGRICULTUltE. 85 

I concluded iti beg^ this inresti^tion h^ calling upon the otriiets, dr thoee repte- 
tmting the rArioiia eteftmen from which condemned animals had been landed. At 
the office of the National Line, represented in the above list by the Ftance and Qreece, 
the statement was made that all of the vessels of this company upon arriving at the 
port of London with cattle trannblp them some distance down Uie river on to a tender, 
which takes them from there to Deptford. Sometimes this change is made in the 
stRsm ; St others the transport boat goes with the vessel into the dock, in which case 
there must be a detention of at least one tide. These transport boats are pit>vided by 
the London General Steam Navigation Company nnder contract to the Veterinary 
Department of the PHvy Council; they are of good size, and there is never more than 
one provided at a time, althongh at various times there have been a number of different 
QOfs nsed. It is understood that this tendet is thoroughly disinfected between each 
esigo. 

8TBAMSHJP TRASCR—niiST DISEASED CARGO. 

The vessel on her outward trip sailed from Loudon on November 27, 1880, having 
jUMDg her cargo manufactured goods oiily. On the homeward voyage she arrived in 
London Janaary 1. 1881. The animals were transshipped without delay, and althongh 
BO one on board had any knowledge of the existence of disease atnong thedi. there 
▼ere condemned, four hours after landing at Deptford, 59 head as affected witn foot- 
ind-month disease. ^ 

STEAMSHIP ERANCE— SECOND DISEASED CARGO. 

This ship sailed acaiu from London January 7, having among her cargo 21 bales 
VarseUleii trdol, 2 bales goat SkinsL 11 bags English wool, 32 bales of skins from Bom- 
b^, 15 casks of tolt^d skins from England, 50 bales unwashed Australian and 200 bales 
SiHtian wool. This wool was stored in No 1 orlop iknd No. 5 steerage deck (she also 
osried two tmUs and eight heifers, consigned to the ''American Horse Exohanffe, 
Limited," in New York, when npon arrival, January 21, 1881,^ they were foiind to be 
affected irith foot-and-mouth disease and quarantined fo^ 90 days.) On herrotilm 
trip all cattle were carried on the main deck. She arrived in London again oh Feb- 
mvy 9, when the following telenam was received from the captain: "France 
arrived at 12 o'clock; lost 18 cattle on the voyage.'' She was not docked until 10 
a^dock next morning. Upon the examination or the cattle at Deptford, 56 heail 
voe ooDdemiied for Sot-and-month disease. 

^TEAMSillP GREECE. 

This t-eiiiel Iniiled from London on her outward trip January 20, 1881, having amotia 
W ear^o t bale rabbit skins, ^ bales raw skins, 2:1 bales dry English skins, and 50 
Vain Rnaiian wool. This wool Was stored in the steerage where the cattle were car* 
ikd on th« return voyage. She arrived back oni the 23d of Febrtiat^, and the captain 
tdqmpbed : ** Af rived at 2.45 p. m., and cattle now going out.'' Upon being exam- 
iara St Deptfbrd 23 head were condemned for foot-ahd-montb disease. 

Becanae these ressels dock some distance down the river, it is believed that no head- 
fofca. griiii-bagSj pails, or other afticles used about the cattle during the voyage, and 
vbi^ are all landed with them at Deptford, under the law, are r^shipped, as the ex- 
pease of tninapbrtation and dockage rates wonUl be vety high. The cattle fittingsare 
iH Rained, but are thorotighly disinfected afiet each voya'je. No live cattle nave 
CTerbeen carried asitdres. Tbe presence of the disease bad nevei* b«iPii^'logge<l." 
Mr. Brinks, visiting agent fbr the compaliy, was very stire that none of the disease in 
qiwtion had been noticed on any Of their bo^ts. At the tiiiie the Fruuce had laudt^l 
ber second "diseased" cargo, he had gotie to Deptford to see the cattle, and fouud 
thnn sick, as he was told, with foot-and-mouth disease : that they Were sick he was 
istisHed. Jnst afterward (February 23), on the arrival of the Greece, he went on 
bnsrrd and made a careful examination of the animals in company with the first officer 
10(1 Mr. Pilling, representing the consignee, Mr. Bell (who had come to the st'Oamei 
etpeeially for this purpose), and the he^ cattleman. As a result, they all agreed iti 
di^lariug that there was no sickness whatever anioug them. 

Captain Pierce, of the Greece, said that he did not notice any disease among the cat- 
xlf" on this voyage ; it is his habit during a voyage to go below ahd among the animals. 
Whmever cattle die on board he logs the fact ; he has never logged an outbreak of 
Brkneas becaose he has never yet had one. 

We next called npon Messrs. William Ross 4l Co., agents of the City Line, repre- 
ttoted in the Mat by the City of Liverpool and City of London. These fetteamei-s never 
Ko to Deptford, bnt transship their cattle in precisely the same hmimer sm do those just 
2e%criljea. 

8TEA3I5H1P CITY OF LIVERPOOL^FIKST DISEASED CAUGO. 

This veasel sailed from London on the outward voyage November 28, 1880^ having 
•BODg heroAigoS bales wool,18tODa salted hides,«nd 19 bales dry Skins. On ths 



36 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

bomeward voyage she arrived in London January 6, 1881. The cattle were traoA- 
shipped at once ; of these, after being landed at Deptford, 267 head were condemned as 
suffering from foot-and-mouth disease. 

STEAMSHIP CITT OF LIVEBPOOL— SECOND DISEASED CARGO. 

On this voyase the ship sailed fh>m London February 11, 1881, having among the 
cargo 22 Ibns salted hides and skins, 5 bales wool, 214 bales '' greasy" wool (probably 
Australian), and 12 bales skins. 

On the homeward voyage she arrived in London on March 20, when, because the 
steamer had not been tele|praphed from Gravesend, there was no transport ready to re- 
ceive the cattle, she therefore docked with them still on board, and it was not until the 
second day after that they were transshipped, and on the 23d, 371 head were condemned 
as suffering from foot-and-mouth disease. 

STEAMSHIP CITY OF LONDON. 

This vessel on her outward trip sailed from London December 11, 1880, having among 
her cargo 35 tons salted hides, 4 tons salted skins, and 2 tons dry skins. On the 
homewf^ voyage %be arrived in London January 17, 1881, where, on account of the 
state of the tide, and to save time, the transport accompanied her into the dock, as is 
very often done under such circumstances. This caused so much of a delay that the 
animals were not examined until the next day, at which time 12 head were condemned 
as suffering from foot-and-mouth disease. 

These vessels have never carried any live stores, nor have they, so far as known, 
over carried back to America any head-ropes, bags, pails, &c., that had been in the 
Deptford lairages. The cattle fittings are permanent, thoroughly disinfected after 
each voyage, and whenever repairs upon them are needed it is done in America, and 
with luml^ procured there. 

We next saw Messrs. Adamson & Ronaldson, who made the following statements 
regarding steamers under their control: 

STEAMSHIP BOCHESTER. 

This vessel, on her outward voyage, ^iled from London on Decembw 8, 1880, hav- 
ing among her cargo 131 bales ox wool (probably Australian unwashed). On her 
homewardtrip, after a long and storm^r passiuj^e, she reached London January 28, when, 
at a considerable distance down the river, the cattle were put on board the tranaport 
boat. This was not the common practice, but was in fact the only time she had not 
gone alongside at Deptford to discharge. Upon being examined, all that were left of 
the oriebial shipment, viz., 42 head, were condemned as suffering from foot-and- 
mouth disease. Concerning this shipment I was told that the animals, before going 
on board, were detained on the railroad four days over time by snow-storms, during 
which they were probably neither fed nor watered. Upon reaching Boston they went 
immediately on board ship; seemed very tired and laid down at anoe; shortly after, 
two died ; soon they commenced dying in large numbers, and the carci^sses were thrown 
overboiffd. Owing to the unprecedented roughness of the passage, the cattle arrived 
very much bruised and exhausted, and, in the opinion of the owners of the vessel, this 
was the cady cause for their oondemnaUon. The practice of the steamers of this line 
is to go alon^de the landing stages at Deptford and discharge the cattle direct, sim- 
ply because it is convenient for tiiem to do so, as they berth at the Millwood docks, 
which are just across the river. They never carry any live stores, and the cattle fit- 
tings are put up at Boston, and when repairs are necessary they are made there. 
When asked if they ever carried back to America any head-ropes, bags, dec, from the 
premises at Deptford, they at first said '^No,''but, upon looking into tne matter, found 
that the steamer Milanese, sailing from London October 2, 1680, the steamer Sumatra, 
sailing from London June 16, 1881,»the steamer Housa, sailing from London June 27, 
1881, had done so, and they now thought it more than possible that upon other occa- 
sions other steamers had carried to Boston bundles of such ropes, which had been 
brought to the ships by watermen's boats directly from the Deptford lairages. 

STEAMSHIP FARADAT. 

This vessel is owned by the Messrs. Siemen Bros., but at the time of the voyage in 
question was chartered to Messrs. Adamson &, Ronaldson. In 1878 she was employed 
in carrying cattle; later she was engaged in laying telegraphic cable and, towards the 
close of the year 1879, she was laid up in Millwood dock, where she remained empt^ 
for more than a year. She had carried live stores while laying cable, but not when 
engaged on these other voyages. 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 37 

The cattle fittingB were put ny partly while nhe was in Millwood docks, and partly 
during the oatward Toyage, of lumber obtained in England ; she has never carried 
any pTOTend^ head-ropes, p^ls* or grain-bags. This vessel on her on t ward trip sailed 
from London in November, 18du, with a cargo among which were 2,b48 bales of Rns- 
sian wool loaded into the tanks, at the bottom of the vessel, generally used for storing 
the cable. The combings of the hatches are raised about 4 feet above the level of the 
docks, so that it was thought if a bale had been broken while being hoisted out the 
wool wOTild have fallen back into the tiuik, and not have been scattered over any of 
the decks npon which cattle were afterwaras carried. Going into New York, when off 
Sandy Hook, she broke her propeller, and was obliged to lay up in Brooklyn for sev- 
eral weeks before taking on board her live cargo, which she did at the Henderson 
docks in New York. The passage home was a very long one, some twenty-one or 
twenty-two days, and it was not until the consignee of the cattle, Mr. Bell, or his 
a^ent, wait on board the ship upon her arrival home that there was thought to be any 
disease among the cattle; he, however, discovered it then. She went alongside the 
landing stage, at Deptford, on February 13. and discharged her cattle, &om which 
were condemned 339 head as suffering from ioot-and-mou& disease. 

8TBAMBHIP LAKE MANITOBA AND 8. 8. LAK1E NEPIGON. 

Although the representatives of the Beaver Line, to which both these steamers 




1861, 1 have to inform yon that 208 head were landed affected with foot-and-mouth 
disHise from the Lake Manitoba, and 113 head from the Lake Nepigon. The outward 
cargoei by each steamer were the usual general cargoes, and contained no hides, skins, 
hesd-npM, i^ails, Slc. The disease did not .develop during the voyage sufAciently to 

kin and ofiftcers of the steamers, and no entries were 



under the notice of the captain 
Bade in the log-book respecting it. On the voyage in question the Lake Manitoba 
left Pcstland the 5th of March, and the Lake Nepigon the 22d of the same month, but 
had no Hve stock on ship^ account on board. The shippers of the cattle were Messrs. 
B. Cnig &, Co. and D. H. Craig, ex. Lake Manitoba ; Messrs. B. Craig & Co. and D. 
E Craig, ex. Liake Nepigon." 

Calling npon Messrs. George Warren & Co., representatives of the steamers Pales- 
tiae aad Iowa, I received the following information: 

8TBAJCSHIP PALEBTINB. 

Tbe steamer left Liverpool on her outward voyage February 24, having among her 
csgo 4 casks skins. Altnough there was no mention of there being any head-ropes, 
4e.^ on board. I was assured that possibly there might have been some, as they often 
. ta^them. On the homeward voyage she left Boston March 12, and arrived in Liver- 
pot^ and discharged her animals bv going alongside the landing stage (as all vessels 
^ It this -part) on the 27th of March, when 186 head were condemned as suffering from 
foot>ai^.montn disease. 

STKAMflHTP IOWA. 

I Tkis vessel on her outward voyaee left Liverpool April 12, having among her cargo 
4€iiks wet skins, 328 bags hide cuttings, 4 Jmndlia com-bdga and 4 huMlea heoM-rwes from 
tUlmngea 1o B. Craig 4* Co., 83 coils old roi>e, 600 salted hides, 21 bales dry hides, and 
1£ bacB Yorkshire wool. She left Boston on the homeward trip April 30, at noon, with 
iboQt 449 cattle shipped by Thomas Crawford & Co., S. W. Clark, C. M. Acer <& Co. 
(wlneh, the eentlemen remarked, is the same as Craig), R. Craig &> Co., John S. Fra- 
*t, 1), Conghlin, F. R Lingham, and T. and F. Uttev. The first disease, said by one 
^ the cattwmen to be foot-and-mouth, was, says the ship's log, noticed at 8 a. m. 
^ the 6th of May, among animals belonging to C. M. Acer A Co., on the port side of 
t^ after steerage ; on the 7th of May, at 8 a. m., the same trouble was showing among 
cutle by the forward hatch, belonging to R. Craig & Co. ; on the 9th, at 4 a. m., it 
vtt discovered among other cattle occupying space in the after steerage, forward 
steerage, main deck, and starbooffd idley-way ; on the 10th, at 4 a. m., it is recorded 
that foot-and-mouth disease is still spreading among the cattle all over the main deck, 
aad on the 11th of May, at 6 a. m., at which time they were landed in Liverpool, the 
^aae had spread throughout the ship, and 694 head were condemned as being affected 
^th the disease. 

The Iowa has never carried to America from England any cattle, calves, sheep, or 
pigs; neither do any vessels of this line carry live stores. The cattle fittings araput 
ift sod repaired at Boston. 



38 REPORT OP THE COmCISSIOl^R OF AGRICULTURE. 

STKAMSHir PHCENICIAN. 

Tliis vessel is of tlio Allan Line, and of Diat division of it liaving its headqoarten 
at Glasgow. From tho firm there I have the following inforinntiou concerning her: 
On the two previous voyages, that is, since the 20th of Septemher, IbBO, she was 
employed in the River Plate traile, where she carried no cattle. Upon the outward 
trip, of the voyi^ge in question, she had simply the ordinary general cargo, not having 
among it any articles that couJd with reason he supiKfsed to have heen in any way 
in contact with diseased animals of any kind. On th^ return voyage she left Boston 
at 1.45 p. m., on the 17th of May. The cattle, 2311 head in afl, were shipped by J. Mc- 
Shane, jr., of Montreal. The first symptoms of sickness amonjB^ them were noticed three 
days ah^^r the vessel had left port, '^on an old bull;" from him the infection speedily 
spread through the rest of the cattle, until, upon the 3l8t of May, when she landed 
tnem at Glasgow, 235 head were conaemued as sutfering from foot-and-mouth disease. 
Her cattle fittings were put in and all repaired in Boston. She did not carry any live 
stores, nor was there anything about her which could have given rise to the disease. 
In a letter on the subject the Messrs. Allan say, ^* We are satisfied t^at the ailment 
originated with the old bull, and was brought from America ; he, however, had recov- 
ered before the eu4 of th® voyage.'* 

Concerning this shipment, 1 had learned early in June, from the Messrs. Allan, at 
Boston^ that of the 23U animals shipped on this vessel by Mr. McShane, p\x c4u:-loa4^ 
consisting of 103 head, were Canadian cattle, and l.*^7 head were Western States Mtpen. 
Thesp steers were bought of Munroe, of l]nghton (Boston), fwd the ]q|; wa§ ipade pipaf 
follows: • 

Thirty-head lot, averaging 1,331 pounds, bqught of JL Str^hom ^ Co., Cl^icago, 
May 7. 

Thirty-seven head, of a lot of 127 hea<^, averaging 1,302 pounds^ b0i)g])ti of R. Stri^ 
hoin & Cq., Chicago, May 7. 

Sixteen-head lot, averaging 1,400 ponD-ls, bought of R. Strahoiu ^^ Co., Chicago, 
May 7. 

Five head, of a lot of 30 head, averaging 1,224 pounds, bought of Reynolds, flnocb 
Sl Co., Chicago, May 7. 

Four head, of a lot averagi^ 1,685 pounds, bought of Robinson, Chicago, May 7. 

Forty-five head, of a lot of 82 head, averaging 1,329 pouuda, bought of Pal^, lifOlw 
Sl Co., ►Saint Louis, May (J. 

Giving the total of 137 animals, malting, Mr. Muiiroe assured me, a i^ipe straight lot 
of steers. 

I afterwards leanic<l that Mr. McShane had frec^uently shipped cattle to Liverpool 
during tho existence in the lairages there of foot-and-mouth disease, and I was tola by 
another shipper, who has had more or less to do with him, that it was McShane*s prac- 
tice, as well ^ that of nearly all exporters, to bring back and use their old head-ropes.* 

BTVAMSHir I6TK1AN. 

I am indebted to Messrs. Frederick Leyland ^ Co., the owne^ of this steamer, for 
the following particulars: She left Liverpool on the outward voyage May 12, having 
among her cargo 9 bales wool wast«, 2 bales hair. 3 casks salte<l skins, 350 bundles 
salted calf skins, 272 coils old rope, 31 bales wool, 11 casks salted skins, 868 wet salted 
hides, 3 bnndlt^s calf skins, and 259 bales wool. On the homeward voyage she left 
Boston on the 29th of ^lay. Although the log makes iio mention of any disease among 
the cattle, it does mention in severiu instances sickuess and death among the sheep on 
board, which fact carries the inference that had anything wrong been noticed with 
the cattif, it, too, would have been ** logged." She discharged the cattle in Liverpool 
at 4.40 p. m., ,)nne 9, when 137 head were condenined as having foot-and-mouth dis- 
ease. The »he.e]} were not uieutionqd as being ali'ectcd. 

This vp.s6cl, iM weU a^ others of this lin»> have frequently carried back head-ropes; 
they are brought from the lairages and taken change of during the voyage by the ser- 
vants of the owners ot tlie cattle who return upon the steamers. 

The Hhi}>pers of the cattle wore Mf^ssrs. Swift Bros. & Co., and Messrs. J. and C. 
Conglijin, w)io are regularly engage*] iq th^ trade between Boston and Liverpool. 
Afterwards, in an interview with one of the Messrs. Coughlin, I learned that their 
pnu'tice was to collect their head-ropes in the lairages and re.ship them for use in 
Auicriia, ?ind that lie w^ould rather qse a utnv rope with every animal than have this 
ditKusi^ ai>pcar ainung them, ami he thought pthershipperseutcrtained the same a^ows. 



*, Tames ^IcShanc, jr., sliipi)ed cattle from Boston to Liverpool as follows; January 
27, 177 h<*;ul, on the Penibrote; Ffhiuary Id, 100 head, on the Olamorgan; February 
23, hO head, on the Pembroke; April 6, 130 head, on the Pembroke; Apnl 13, 175 h^aA, 
on the Glamorgan, 



BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGEICULTURE. 39 

The iiiTestigations so far seemed to point to tbe fact that from whatever source 
the infection had reached the American animals^ the vessels themselves, in their gen- 
eral cargoes and management, shonld be held blameless, and that notwithstanding a 
few instances in which Hh appearance might reasonably be due to other oanses, nota- 
bly in the second cargoes of the steamers France and City of Liverpool, the outbreaks 
were directly chargeable to the self-same infection that had already caused so much 
trouble in Great Britain, conveyed by the indiscriminate use of the head-ropes, &c., 
coming from the foreign animals' wnarves at Deptford and Liverpool, which were, 
at that time, hotbeds of the disease. It remained, then, to ascertain how these prem- 
ises became infected ; how this infection could have been conveyed to these articles ; 
how they, having become impregnated with the virus^ could have come in contact with 
the cattle in such a way as to cause the outbreaks which undoubtedly had taken place 
in mid-ocean, and not at the same time have been introduced to our various seaboard 



DTTBOOUCnOX AND SPREAD OF TUB DISEASE IX THE DEPTFORD MARKET. 

In Uie report of the Veterinary Department of the Privy Council office for 1880| Pro- 
ftsaor Brown writes : 

''In the middle of September last, the inspector of the Privy Council at D9ptford 
h«d his attention called to the existence of tne signs of foot-and-mouth disease in the 
toDfoesof some French cattle which had been slaughtered in the market | no symptoms 
of the disease had been seen in the animals during life, but the morbid appearances 
▼ere characteristic, and left no room for doubt as to the nature of the infection. Soon 
tfterwardsL on September 20, a cargo of cattle from Havre were lauded at Deptford 
from the snip Swallow, and on inspection the second day after landing some oi them 
i«re found to be affected with foot-and-mouth disease. 

"Thedisease thus introduced into Deptford foreign- cattle market continued tospiead 
MBon^ the animals which were landed there, and as the lairs at that time were oyer- 
ennroed with animals from America as well as from Europe, up opportunity vas 
afinded for tbe effectual disinfection of the places where disease had existed, and con- 
leqiMotly animals which were perfectly healthy on landing became infected soon (iftei 
entering tbe lairs." 

From the ssalstant inspector, in relation to the same matter, I hftve it that " foot- 
and-mouth disease was brought to Deptfort by the steamship Swallow f^om P^^vxe. Sep- 
tcBber 20, 1880 ; she had on board fifty-seven cattle, thirty of which w^^r^ affected 
with the disease ; other cargoes with foot-and-mouth disease werp lauded mt Deptford, 
from France, November 8 and December 17, 1880." 

In a eonYersation upon the subject, the inspector of the Privy Council at Deptford 
itid to me that if he remembered rightly their first real trouble was during the latter 
]Mrt of September, 1880, and was caused by some animals coming f^oip France; from 
tkeae, fbot-and-mou th disease spread over the outire premises. From that time onward 
it had caused them much trouble, and they have taken a number of extra precautions 
aito disinfecting,^ and so on. Ho further said that upon going into the lairages ani- 
■abars neceesarily greatly mixed, and in a number of instances he remembered that 
there had been cattle landed from the United States in a healthy condition which 
M afterwards contracted foot-and-mouth disease on these premises through coming 
ia contact, either directly or indirectly, with those from other countries already dis- 



A Iterations were then under consideration, which, when carried out, it was 
haped would overcome this evil. The lairages were not then f July 20) nej^rly as 
kadly infected an they had been, but still it was not improbable that eveu thch some 
af tlMB infection might remain about the premises ; in fact, quite recently he had dis- 
aoTcied its existence in animals that had been landed healthy, and that could have 
aoBtraeted it only from their contaminated surroundings. 

XXTBODCCnON AND SPREAD OF TUB DISEASE IN THE LIV'ERPOOL MARKETS. 

Hie history of the introduction and spread of foot-and-mouth disease into and thTPQg^ 
fta Liverpool lairages is in some respects remarkable, and inasmuch as it has never 
Tat, to my knowletiie, been given publicly, it will, perhaps, be worth while to give 
tther© at length. For my ability to do so I am greatly indebted to Mr. IMFoore, the 
load inspector of the Privy Council, whose exact methods of preserving the various 
4ata in connection with his inspections were invaluable to me in this case. 

Very earlv in January, 1881, the steamship Brazilian, bringing cattle from Boston 
to Liverpool, upon entering the river Blersey, grounded, and in trying to get off be- 
came disabled to such an extent that it was found to be necessaiy to take the cattle 
from her where she lay. Engaged in this work were several small boatSj as follows: 

January 4 — Head. 

Ths tug Cruiser bronght up ^.. 111 

The tug Wrestler brought up ^-... 111 

Tbs tag Rover brought up ,^...„.« 66 



40 KEPORT OF THE dOMMISSIONEK OF ACiRICULTUKE. 

Head. 

The tug Kuigbb Templar brought up M 

The tug Knight of Malta brought up 'Si 

The tug Fury brought up 1 

The tug Bepnblic brought up 3 

Ferry-boat Sunflower brought up «.. 224 

Fiat-boat Mersey brought up 32 

The tug Lord Lyous brought up .».«. 1 

The tug Ajax brought up 4 

Flat-boat Mersey (2 cargoes) brought up .*.... 24 

Mudhopper B brought up 2 

Craue barge Ironsiaes brought up 1 

In all, 665 animals were thus landed at the Woodside lairage. There were ten otheis 
landed, part at Wallasey and part at Hn'skisson No. 2 lairages, and one swam ashore 
and was killed on the oeach. Of the health of these animals, Mr. Moore says: ''I 
examined them all on the 5th and found them free from disease. On the Dth a bullock, 
one of those landed at Woodside, was found sick. He was slaughtered, and the po$U 
morUm examination revealed recent foot-and-mouth disease. There were vesiclea in 
the month and on the tongue, but none on the feet. On the 10th three oases more were 
discovered in the same lot, and on the 11th two more were found.'' It seems that 
these animals, as soon as the disease was discovered, were killed very aoickly, for, 
while at midnight of the dth 452 of them were still alive, there were on the llth but 
9 head remaining. This probably accounts for the fact that no more cases were dis- 
covered among tnem. On the morning of the Uth the premises with the remaining 9 
animals were locked up, and no one but the attendants allowed to enter. The animals 
were quickly killed, and disinfection of the place they had occupied commenced. 

There were on the other half of the wharf 8 bulls remaining from a cargo of 32 
animals landed healthy on the 7th of January, from the steamship England, from New 
York. On the 10th, or eight days after the Brazilian outbreak was first noticed, 4 
of these were found diseased. They were killed, the premises disinfected, and the 
wharf was not again used until after January 29. It could not be ascertained to be 
a fact that any of the boats engaged in thJA transshipment, except the Mersey, were 
in the habit of carrying home-cattle about the river. She undoubtedly was, and 
there was also some little indication that the ferry-boat Sunflower had Aone the same 
thing. To one of these two boats then conv^ring infection contracted from Ei^lish 
animals, previously carried, to those brought uy it from the disabled steamer, mnst be 
ascribed the honor of introducing foot-and-mouth disease into this lairage, for, when 
the history as related is considered, and when it is remembered what a short time is 
necessary for its incubation, any other explanation of the occurrence seems impossible. 

Nothing more was seen of foot-and-mouth disease here until on the 17th of March, 
more than two months afterward, the steamship Lake Manitoba, from Portland, 
landed a cargo of 259 head, among which were found 208 cases. They were landed at 
Woodside, and were all slaughtered by the 19th. The portion of the whurf oocupied 
by them was disinfected ana closed up, remaining so until the 29th. 

On the 27th of March the steamship Palestine landed at Wallasey 240 oxen, among 
which were 186 oases of foot-and-mouth disease. They were all slaughtered by the 
29th, and the whiurf was closed for eleven days. 

On the 7th of April the steamship Lake Nepigon, from Portland, landed at Woodside 
141 oxen, among them 113 oases of the disease. All of these were soon slaughtered 
and the wharf closed for a time. On May 11 the steamship Iowa, from Boston, 
landed at Wallasey 859 oxen, among them 694 cases of the disease. All of these were 
slaughtered by the 16th, and the wharf was closed from then until the 31st. On the 
9th of June the steamship Istrian, from Boston, landed at Woodsido ?n\ oxen, among 
which were found 137 cases of foot-and-month disease. These were slaughtered by 
the 19th, and tie wharf was closed until the 3d of July. 

Regarding the spread to healthy animals in the buildings, Mr. Moore made to me 
the following statement : ** On January 4, oxen ex. steamship England, from New York, 
were infected in the Woodside lairages by^the Brazilian lot. Oxen which were landed 
healthy from the steamship Canox)us on tljo 23d, from the steamship Pembroke on the 
20th, and from the steamship Bavarian on the 22d, were found on the 27th of April to 
have contracted the disease. The steamship Hlyrian, from Boston, landed her cargo of 
346 oxen on the S^th of April, all healthy. These animals were examined carefully 
every day, and on the 30th foot-and-mouth disease was found among them. 

The steamship Lake Manitoba, on the 27th of April, lauded 3:^ oxen, all healthy. 
They were carefully watched, and the disease ma<le its appearance among them on the 
1st of May. 

On the 28th of April the steamship Minnesota landed a cargo of 406 oxen, all healthy. 
On the 1st of May foot-and-mouth aisease appeared among them. 

On the 4th of May the steamship Massachusetts landed 5G5 bullocks, all healthy. 
They were examined every day, and on the 7th one case only had been discoverod. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 41 

Tbey were not "mouthed,'' and the butchers may have removed and killed cases that 
were not seen, but, so far as is known, only 16 of this whole lot became diseased. 

On the 8th of May four cases were found among previously healthy cattle that had 
been landed from the steamship Ontario, May 4. 

On the 9th of May foot-and-mouth disease was found among previously healthy ani- 
mals that were landed on the 4th firom the steamships Bulgarian and Palestine. 

On the 11th of May, at 7.50 a. nu, the steamship Iberian landed a cargo of 352 oxen. 
They remained healthy up to the 16th, when the disease was found to be among thom. 

On the 13th of May the steamship Toronto lauded 251 cattle. The first evidence ef 
the diw>a«e among these animals was observed on the 24th. 

On the 26th of June six cases of foot-and-mouth disease were found among oxen that 
hid been landed healthy from the steamship Palestine on the 17th. This infection was 
BQppoeed to have been from the cargo of the Istrian, which landed the disease on the 
9taofJnneu 

OLAseow. 

From any information that is at present in possession of this Department^ I think that 
it esn scarcely be aaid that the premises at Glasgow have ever become infected, for, 
aHboogh it is true a cargo of condemned animals from the steamship PhoBuician were 
landed there, they were so quickly killed and the premises so thoroughly disinfected 
that it seems not to have gained any foothold. The appearance of the diseased cargo 
thfist seems to be entirely explained by the evfdence already ^ven. 

Hr. McShane, the shipper, had 130 cattle on the steamship Pembroke, wlilch left 
Boston for ^Liverpool on the 6th of April. The Pembroke landed all her cattle in a 
perfectly healthy condition in Liverpool on the 20th of April ; on the 27th, however, 
thej were unfortunate enough to contract the disease in the Woodslde lairages. 
Twenty days afterward, or on the 17th of May, we find Bfr. McShane making a ship- 
uent of 239 cattle on the steamship Phoenician, from Boston to Gflasgow, from among 
which, upon her arrival at that port, 235 head were condemned as sufierinff from foot- 
ud-month disease. It is also in the evidence that Mr. Mcl^ane was in the habit, as 
wero others, of bringing back and usine a^ain head-ropes that had done previous 
lOTice upon animals in the contaminated Liverpool lairages. 

It woold seem, therefore, that the Phoenician outbreak is chargeable to infection 
hiOQght direct from Liverpool. All cattle shipped from America to Great Britain are, 
ifter Kping on board the steamer, tied to stanchions by ropes which have b^n placea 
iiwmd the base of the horns, technically known as " head-ropes.'' Upon their arrival 
It the port of destination, the end that was made fast to the fixture on the vessel is 
untied, and the animals, with the ropes still hanging, are driven into the lairs, where 
they are to remun until taken out for slaughter. At Doptford these ropes are some- 
tinni remored from the heads in the lairage»>when they are sold, at otners they ac- 
oampany them to the shambles. In Liverpool, so far as I have observed, they always 
naain on the animals until they are slaughtered. In this way every chance is given 
&r Uieir thorough impregnation with the virus of any contagions disease that may be 
IRwnt in either the lairs or the slaughter houses. To show how thorough this chance 
II I may say that in London I saw a lot of Dutch bulls tied ''head on'' to the same 
nil with a lot of American bullocks; also a lot of Spanish head-ropes hanging over a 
ail to which American aninuils were tied at the time; and in the shamble pens were 
wot cattle with the original head-ropes on, some with ropes supplied by the butchers, 
aad others -without either, mixed indiscriminately with Spanish and Dutch cattle, all 
ftwiiting shuighter. In several instances the animals in one pen were tied facing 
thoM in the next, all to the same rail. 

U was told by the inspector at Deptford that no head-ropes had been returned to 
America for two years, but I think he must have been mistaken in Hits, for not only 
were dates given me by the steamship owners, upon which they had received and 
ihipfied them, but on several occasions while at Deptfonl I saw large bunches of them 
iiaoging over the cross-rails, which, upon inquiry from the workmen collecting them, 
1 vas told were being got ready for reshipment to the United States. 

At Liverpool, Mr. Moore assured me tnat old ropes were constaiftly returned, and 
tbafhe, realizing the danger from such a practice^ had done what little he could to 
I«evt;nt it. From inquiry and personal observation I find that as a rule cattle going 
ftbmad are ** roped" either after the car load arrives at the dock, when a man goes 
into the car for the purpose, or else not until the animsd has been driven from the car 
«Q ti) the steamer. To this fortunate circumstance, and for no other reason probably, 
ttit that the animals in our home markets have so far escaped foot-and-mouth disease. 

Although following the movements of cont'aglon is, as a rule, not the most certain 
of ail parauits, it dcK^s seem as if tl^s investigation into the causes of the apx>earance of 

(Vu diiiease among some of our cattle landed in Great Britain during the past year had 

Unattended with success, and that while certain dangerous practices are allowed in 

tiie matter of uns:ife articles of import, such as unwashed wools, green hides, skins, &,c., 

tbete is no one cause ameng them all sufBciently constant to be regarded with any- 



42 BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGBICULTTTBE. 

• 

thing more than snapioion. On the othor hand, the evidence plainly shows that to 
an article not looked npon or imported as cargo, but simply sent back to accommodate 
the cattle shippers, and used by them without a thought of danger, must be ascribed 
the cause of the outbreaks, and when the evidence is read the transmission of foot- 
and-mouth disease by the head-ropes seems so simple and easy of accomplishment that 
the wonder is that any one conversant with the practice of the trade need for a moment 
have had any doubt as to the tnie source of the infection. 

To prevent future outbreaks of the kind I shall recommend for your consideration 
that Congress be asked to pass a law prohibiting, under certain penalties, the intro- 
duction of all articles from tlie foreign animals'^wharves of Great Britain, and that 
custom oiHcers be directed enforce such law. 

TRICHINA IN SWINIE. 

in relation to that part of my instructions directing me to examine the hogs arriv- 
ing in Great Britain irom the United States, with a view of ascertaining to how great 
an extent they are diseased, or are infected with trichime, I have to report that during 
my stay no such animals were landed. ' But as tending to give some idea of the per- 
centage of animals thus affected (aud it will not nrobably be found to be in excess of 
these figures), I will call your attention to the following extracts from the report of 
the Veterinary Department of the Privy Council Ofllce for the year 1879: 

"The slaughter of large numbers of American swine at the port of landing, on ac- 
count of swine fever, afforded an opportunity of obtaining specimens of flesh for exxun- 
ination, with a view to ascertain what pix)portiou of the animals were infected witt 
trichinsB. The inspectors of the Veterinary Department examined 279 sepaftite portions 
of swine's flesh which were sent from Liverpool, and detected living trichinae m three 
Bpecimens; • • • but it was not deemed expeilient to prohibit the introduction of 
American pork into this country, for the reason that such a measure would have dam- 
aged the trade without producing any satisfactory results. A large proportion of the 
objectionable meat would have been sent to this country by a circuitous route, and 
thus the object of the restriction would have been defeated, beMde$ tchich, trichinosU 
among awine is known to exist in German y^ and it probably exist^ in other exportinii 
countries, so that nothing short of total prohibition of swine flesh.iu all forms m)m all 
foreign sources would have been effectual." 

In view of the recent total embargo placed by some of the foreign govei^iments 
npon the Imports of our hog products into their couutries, on account of the alleged 
existence in them of irichinccy I would suggest that an inquiry be established wS^h 
shall point out, first, the actual percentage of American hogs that are infected by 
this parasite J second, the portion of the country in which the largest percentage of 
animals so affected are found to exist; third, the nature of the food, if there is any 
difference, that these ings receive; f^irth, whether animals that are kept around 
the home buildings are more subject than are those kept in the field to the invasion of 
this entozoon, and all other matters relating to the (question which may aid in devising 
Buch means as shall decrease to a minimum their existence in American pork products. 

CONDITION OF ANIMALS ARJUVING IN GREAT BRITAIN. 

The losses occasioned bv death and injury to cattle while being shipped abroad havd 
been greatly reduced, and they are now landed at the various ports of Great Britain 
in a much better conoition than formerly. Indeed, notwithstanding the much greater 
distance they are necessarily canned, they arrive with fewer bnuses and in better 
condition generally than do those from some of the neighboring European ports. 
This gratitying condition of affains is due tt> the good care and improved methods of 
ventiTation, &fc., adopted by the owners of steamships. Experience in the trade, and 
the requirements of the insurance <:<>iji|)auie8, have compelled many improvements for 
the comfort and safe transport uf thet«e animals. More light aud space are given 
them, and by means of various ventilating devices an abundance of fresh air is fur- 
nished throughout the entire voyage. In most of the vessels a method of drainage 
into the bilge h&s been arranged, which may be pumped out as often as desirable. 
While mnch has been done in this direction by the steamship owners alone, the*man- 
f^rs of the insurance companies interested have not been idle, but so great has been 
the care exercised by them in the selection of animals for transportation and the prov- 
ident provisions made for them during the voyage that the losses, which amounted to 
more than 5 per cent, from January 1 to September 30, 1.S80, have been reduced to 
about 2^ per cent, during the same months of this year. Notwithstanding this great 
improvement, the weather during some' parts of tlie i)ii8t season has been the most 
severe ever known to the trade. 
Very respectAilly, 

CHAKLES P. LYMAN, F. B. C. V. 3. 

Washington, D, C, Kovmber 15, 1881. 



BKBOBT OF THB CQlfWHSlQNBR QF AGBICULTITBE. 48 



CONTAGIOUS PLEURO-PNEUMONIA IN NEW YOKK. 



Report op Dr. Hopkins. 



Owinp to circumstancr^ ov©r which the department had no control, the invest iv:a- 
tiou in the Sti^teof New York was bronght to a c\ot>e on or about the 'il'th of Ma> hut. 
The examiDatioDB made in that State by James D. Hopkins, D. V. S., from April f< to 
MiT 17, will bo fonnd recorded below. From information received from the hi^^hrst 
tothority in snch matters in this State, it would seem that contuj^ious p1euro-])UtMi- 
BMmia proTails to abont the same extent that it did prior to the recent eft'orts of the 
8tat« snthorities to stamp it ont. Dr. James Law, in writing; to the Commissioner of 
Afjieiiltare, nnder date of October 10, last, says : 

'^ Putnam County, which was purged from the plague in the early part of last year, 
bis been infected (one herd at least) for tho whole past summer; Westchester County 
emtains at least two oenters of infection, and Richuioud (Staten Island) two, though 
both these oonntiea had been pureed of the infection ; New York City, which was all 
bstnd of tlM plag^ne, harboring it only in places known and circumscribed, is a^ain 
idferiDg; and finall^, the east end of Queen's Couiity, which had been long clear, 
kiB been extensiyely infected.'' 

[Vat detailed report of exainlnationa made by Dr, Hopkins see next page.] 



BEFORT OF THE CUUHISSIONER OF AGSICUI/TUBB. 



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BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTUBE. 45 



CONTAGIOUS PLEURO-PNEUMONIA IN NEW JERSEY. 



Reports of Drs. Millbr and Cokldcs. 



Hon. Georgk B. Lorino, 

CoBunissioner of Agriculture: 

6iK : In accordance with your request I have the honor herewith to forward you a 
brief Bunimary report of the work done upon the veterinary staff of the Department 
of Agricoltore since the date of my appointment, May 12 last, until the present 
time. 

Hy firrt official act, aft«r receipt of proper authority, was to establish a border c^nar- 
ntiDe between Philadelphia and Camden, and other points on this side of the river, 
in order that cattle passing over the ferries should be detained for the purpose of 
iiMKction. 

To facilitate the transportation and examination of the same, cattle pounds were 
erected at each ferry yard into which all stock were ordered to be driven and detained 
DQtiJ sach time as they coald be seen and inspected. 

Owing to the distance of some of the ferries from a central locality, much delay 
oust aometimes be necessarily imposed, and I very soon found it absolutely impera- 
tive to employ a proper person to watch and assist at the yards in order to prevent 
loow of the drivers nx»m removing their stock prior to examination. The person so 
employed was invested with authority to arrest any person or persons unwilling to 
comply with the order of quarantine and inspection. I am happy to state that no 
aireaitB have thus far been required, as I have endeavored to accommodate all parties 
fts far as was in my npwer as rapidly as possible, and in order to do bo have very fre- 
quently had to employ the assistance of Dr. Zuill, D. V. S., of Philadelphia, to visit a 
nomber of the ferry yards while I was engaged at others. 

Since the establishinent of the quarantine order, 7,164 cattle have been examined. 
Many of them have been sick with the ordinary diseases of cattle, and quite a number 
have been found to be infected with diseases of an infectious or contagious character. 
Bat I am glad to inform you that but very few cases of contagious plenro-pncnmonia 
(the dJMaae for which I was instructed to examine) have been found iu comparison to 
the noffiber of cattle examined. All of them, however, have been carefully reported 
to the department, and the source of the disease traced whenever it was possible to 
do to. 

The first case was discovered June 29, 1881, and the animal traced back to Wibning- 
toB, Del., where she was reported as one of a lot that came from Btiltimoro, Md. 
Another case, on July 6, in a lot of four calves from Marple, Delaware County, Penn- 
■^hania, all of which were slaughtered at the abattoir, and two of which showed 
lii^ Ifvions. The next case, on July 12, that of a cow and calf in a lot of eighteen 
finm West Philadelphia stock yards. The cow was onlered to be kiUed by the State 
bosrd of health, and a pasUmortem examination revealed the disease well marked in 
both hmgs; lesions wore also plainly seen in the lungs of the calf. On July 22 a 
calf brought from Gnineatowii, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, was detected by Dr. 
Zoill, apd the case referred to me, which 1 Immediatoiy condemned to be slaughtered, 
vheo a pofUmortem examination fully confirmed our (Kagnosis. 

On the 14th of September two cases were ordered into close quarantine as very sus- 
piciorM. A ||ro|)er history was afterward obtained, stating that they originally came 
from West Virginia to Baltimore, where they were resold and shipi)ed from Baltimore 
*oek yards to West Philadelphia. Being fat, they were ordered to the abattoir for 
^agbter, and a post mortem examination showed the suspicions to be well founded. 

On the 22d of September two cows were discovered in a herd that came from Glen- 
iale, Northiunpton County, Pennsylvania. Ou the 21Hh two others, iu a lot that came 
6om Bethlehem, Pa., all of which had been herded together at the New Jersey State 
Fiir, in charge of A. 8. Shimer, and which were affected with lung trouble. A sub- 
Kqaent investigation made by Dr. Gadsden, of Philadelphia, would seem to indicate 
^iA the animals had no contagious disease. He did not, however, see the cattle at 
the time of his visitation, but did see others of the same herd. ' Almost daily cat- 
tle afected with Phthisis JPulmonalis Verminalis (hoose or husk) are seeu at the ferry 
viitk, and in view of the fact that this affection has been alarmingly fatal in young 
Muaals in this State during the last two or three years, it would seem as if some legal 
latanires abonld be adopted to prevent its spread. Other diseases of animals, such as 
■vine plague, glanders in horses, chicken cholera, foot-rot in sheep, etc., are existing 
^^^nKi((hoat the whole State, and call for some action on the part of government. 
Danug the time that has elapsed since the date of my appointment, especially during 



46 REPORT OP THfe COMMISSlOKteR OP AdRlCULTURE. 

the latt€»r part of July and the month of Au<rii8t, I made weekly visits to the State of 
Delaware as instructed, and found many cases of infected farms and several acute and 
chronic cases of pleuro-pni3unioilia. That part bf the Stiito imtnediately bordering upon 
Pennsylvania and the eastern shore of Maj:yland is certainly an infected locality, and 
the section surrounding Wihnington had suffered from the ravages of the disease. The 
law in that State is inoperative, and uo measures are taken to prevent the spread of 
disease. 

From my investigations thus far, I most conclude that contagious pleuro-pneumonia 
of cattle exists in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, alid Mainland; 
that other diseases of animals, especially swine plague, glanders, and chicken cholera, • 
are to be found in every section of the country. From my personal experience, of the 
last two years particularly, I believe that the only way to exterminate these diseases 
is to stop the interstate traffic in animals from infected States, to thoroughly examine 
idl cattle crossing firom one State to another, whether firom iniected States or nOt, and 
to destrov all diseased and exposed animals at sieht. 

Since the system of inspection was adopted at this point a verr decided change has 
taken place in the general appearance of^the animals crossing these ferries. Instead 
of poor, delicate looking, hali-starved animals, or sick or almost disabled, an was for< 
merly the case, none now appear for inspection but the very best, and it cei*tainly has 
proven a source of great benefit to this section particularly. No suspicious or unhealtiiy 
cattle are allowed to pass when they do appear. As a result, dealers ttid drovers do 
not attempt to pass inferior animals over if they can possibly avoid it. OocasioniJly, 
however, a stranger will come with a lot driven directly m>m the conntrv^ or some 
parties will go to the stock yards and purchase a poor class of animals simply becaiise 
thev can bny them cheap, atid I invariably subject them to a thorough examlnatioti 
«nd inspection. 

The work has been vigoronsly and thoroughly accomplished, and great good has 
been derived therefrom. 

RespectfUly sabmitted. 

WM. B. £. MILLEB, D. V. 8. 

Gamdxn, N. J., October 31, 1881. 



Hon. Georox B. Lorino, 

Commiasioner of Agriouliure : 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the work donfe by me since 
acting as agent for the Department of Agilcnltnte in investigating, inspecting, locat- 
ing, and reporting the existence of conti^ous pleuro-pneumonia among ftattle in this 
State. On March 21, 1881, 1 received my appomtment and letter of instructions, and 
immediately proceeded to visit localities that were known to have been infected by the 
malady in tne past. Mv previous connection with an organization that existed in this 
State a year pnor to this time, made me somewhat familiar with such places. I also 
prepared and had printed two thousand circulars which I caused to be circulated 
among stock raisers in different parts of the State, requesting those having the malady, 
or reasons to believe they had it in their herds, to report the same to me at my office 
without unnecessary delay, and I am happy to state a number responded to it. Upon 
investigation, however, a majority of cases proved to be some other fomi of disease re- 
sembling contagious pleuro-pneumonia in its sjrmptoms. I, however, found, as a rule, 
the fiEmners were difficult to approach, and in a number of cases tried to cover up the 
existence of the disease as much as possible. This difficulty may be overcome by arm- 
ing those whose duty it is to make mspectioms, with authority to enter any pretnises 
where they suspect the malady to exist. Being at liberty to exercise my own Judg- 
ment in adopting the best means to find where the disease existed, I consulted the 
State board of health through its secretary, and made a proposition to go personally 
to aU reported infected places, make the necessary inspections, and furnish a dupli- 
cate report to them free of expense, if they would acquaint me with cases reported to 
them. 

The movement of cattle out of the State is limited to high-bred stock, and from fanm 
that are so well managed that contagious diseases cannot get a foothold. There are, 
however, a large number of young caives moved from New York for slaughter, throngli 
the abattoir building, at Jersey City, to various parts of the State, and as there are no 
restrictions imposed they may be a means of conveyingpleuro-pnehmonia to other lo- 
calities. The most of the calves raised in the State are lattened and disposed of to the 
butchers. 

The annexed tabulated report cannot be relied upon as showing the actual extent 
of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in the State at the present time. Enough, however, 
has been gained to show that it has an actual existence, but not to the same extent ss 
it did at the time of the going into effect of the first act, approved Match 13, 1879. 



BEFOST OP THE COMHISSIONIlR OF AaRICULTDRE. 



47 



Number and coriditian Of herds examined. 



Coantiea. 


Herds. 


Number. 


Sick. 


AtbDtic 


2 
5 


40 
76 




Baiiinfton , 




Ciandm , . . r , r , r 




CvmbMiaxnl 








Berctn 


3 

10 
3 

10 
2 

15 

^ 
9 
6 
3 
2 
3 
9 
6 
4 


29 

139 
64 

120 
76 

132 
73 

131 
85 
33 
92 
30 

141 

132 
60 


5 


S^. ::::;:::::::::::;:::::::,::::::;:::;:::.:;;::::::::;:::::::;:::: 


15 


6loio«»«ter....... 




Ha4«nii 


12 


Eii]iteirdo]i.................a ........................................... 




]|idd1«aex 


8 


Mecccr .............................................................. 


5 


MaMmrtoth 




Xorro 


2 


PiMiir , 


2 






I^Hn^fV^^ 


1 


Onw , . 






2 


Whkb ; 


















97 


1,449 


52 







Be^eetfdllj sabmitted. 

N. J., October 11, 1881. 



JAMES C. CORLIES, D, V. 8. 



CONTAGIOUS PLEURO-P]!^EUMONIA IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



Report of Dk. Gadsden. 



Bod. Georgs B. LomiffO, 

Commiseianer of Jgriculittre : 

SiB: In iK^cordance with instructions from yotir dc])artroent, I h^rewitti stibinit ^ 
ititHDent of the extent to whicli "cohtajflous pleuro-paeiimonia " has prevailed re- 
eestlj in this State, and the efforts made by tlie State a^iithorlties for its extirpation. 

The disease has existed in the State of Pennsylvania, to a greater ox less extent, for 
iwanber of years; and although the legislature, by act of April 1*2, 18t)6, endeavored 
to prevent ita extension and prescribed penalties for those disposing of or removing 
ioKcted animals, no systematic attempt seems to have been made lookilig to the 
cndication of the disease by the destruction of affectt^d animals, until the spring of 
1^. when, alarmed by the fact that the ports of Great Britain had been closeia to 
e«ttle shipped, from the United States, and it being learned that in several coimties Of 
tbe State tne disease at that time existed, a bill was introduced in the legislature ptx>- 
▼idiiii; for the 8taiii|iing out of the contagion. This measure met with most vigorous 
Gpp(»ition, cansed, mainly, by the declaration of certain veterinary surgeons, that the 
&eaee was not contagious. By the earnest efforts, however, of Mr. Thomas J. Edge, 
lecrctary of the State bciard of agriculture, who was in posMfiasiou of the tcHtimony of 
dairymen and farmers who had suffered from the ravages of tbe disease, and of yete- 
riuary surgeons who had had actual experience with it both in this country aiid in 
Ea^land, and consequently were well aware of its contagious character, the act of 
lUy 1, lHk79, passed both branches of the legislature, and was approved by the goveruof. 

linmediately after its approval the goveriior anpoiiited a coniiuissiou to *• examine 
»od detenuine whether infectious or contagious pleuro-pneuuumia existed among cat- 
tle in any county or coutities of this commonwealth, and report the satiie without urt- 
ceccasary delay. " After hearing the testimony of a number of practical dairymen 
aiid veterinary surgeons, the commission decided unanimously and reported to thrj 
gOTCTuor that the disease did exist ili at Ifeast two counties in the State. 

Upon the receipt of this report, the governor appointed Mr. 'fhomas J. Edge hU 8l)eeial 
ftgfot and aAssitant, to carry out the provisions of the actK of l^r^n and 1871», for the 
prcTentlon of the sj>rea<l of this disease, and issued to liim a commissloti and iuHtruc- 
timis for his government. ^ 

Too moch praise cannot be riven to this gentleman for the energetic manner in which 
ks has folfilled the daties of his appointment, and the great results hb has acootn- 



48 



REPORT OF THE COBfMISSIONBR OF AQRICULTURE. 



plished at a comparatiYely trifling expense. He immediately appointed, in the several 
coonties of the Stati, 450 persons as official reporters, with instmctions to oommoni- 
cate to him at once the existence of any infected animals, or those supposed to lie 
infected ; and ajion receipt of sach information a veterinary snrgeon was at once sent 
to exa^pine the animals, and if the disease was found to be that of contagions plenro- 
pneumonia. the entire farm was placed in quarantine, the animals appraised, those 
diseased killed and paid for by the State, and the others kept under surveillance until 
three months after the last trace of disease was discovered, when the quarantine was 
removed. 
From May 1, 1879, to the present time, 64 herds, numbering 1,252 animals, have been 

E laced in quarantine, 324 animals have been killed, of which 257 were paid for by the 
tate, the entire cost to the State being only $10,750, of which $4,325 was paid for ani- 
mals destroyed. 

The disease has been confined to nine counties in the eastern and southern sections 
of the State, the herds quarantined being distributed among the counties as follows: 



Montgomery 17 

Bucks 3 

Lehigh • 1 

Total 64 



Adams 1 

York 2 

Lancaster .'••• 2 

Chester 15 

Delaware J..... 17 

Philadelphia 6 

In many of these herds the cause of infection has been traced directly to diseased 
animals brought from Maryland and placed among healthy cattle, numbers of which 
were infected oy them. I& other instances the disease was comniuuicato<l from chrooje 
cases that had apparently recovered ; in others, by the contact of persons who &ad 
been attending diseased animals and afterwards went among healtny ones without 
first disinfecting their clothing. In still other instances it was communicated from 
one farm to another by moans of streams of running water, or by healthy animals 
being allowed to graze in fields adjoining those in which diseased ones were pastured 

At the present time the disease is confined to the counties of Delaware, Montgomery, 
and Philadelphia ; in the former of which three herds numbering 3G animals, in Mont- 
gomery one herd numbering 19 animals, and in the latter one herd numbering 41 ani- 
nials, are now in quarantine. 

The disease at present in Delaware County was introduced to one herd by cattle 
from Baltimore, Md., and communicated from this herd to two adjoining fai^s. -The 
existence of the disease was discovei'od by Dr. Bridge, the State inspector, by the 
meat of diseased animals being exposed for sale in the Philadelphia markets. 

There is no question thi^t tne State of Pennsylvania woulcl be entirely free from 
infection to-day were it not for the fact that no precautions are taken bv the Maryland 
authorities to prevent the spread of the contagion ; diseased animals from that State 
are constantly Drought into this and thus infect healthy herds. 

Since my appointment by the Department of Agriculture, I have been in constant 
communication with the State authorities and they have always co-operate<l with me 
iir all measures for the discovery of the disease and have labored faithfully to prevent 

its spread. 

The calves in all infected districts are slaughtered by direction of the State inspec- 
tor, and are not allowed to be removed into other portions, or out of the State, for fear 
of spreading the infection. 

By official statistics the number and value of cattle in Pennsylvania, last year, was : 

$18,625,000 
14, 962, 000 



Cows &51,790 

Oxen and other cattle 674,000 



1,525,790 -33,587,000 

When the amount of money invested in cattle is considered, the sum exi>etided by 
the State for stamping out the disease seems very insignificant; yet the State ofllcers 
were very much crippled in their operations by a decision of the auditor-gcjiertkl, made 
in June, 1881, that the payment for cattle destroyed was not a necessary expenses within 
the meaning of the act, and refusing to allow any claims for such payment ; and it 
was not until October 15, 1881, that he was induced to reconsider his decision and allow 
such claims, and only then pro\ided the total amount expended for the year should 
not exc^d $5,000. 

In the mean time some diseased animals had been introduced from Baltimore, and 
we have learned of instances where the owners of them concealed the fact, knowing 
that the State had ceased payment. 

In conclusion, from personal observation and the report* received from those ac- 
tively engaged in its suppression, I am oonvinced that the disease can never be effect* 
oally eradicated vrithout — 

First. A more efficient quarantii|e ; 



BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONEB OF AGRICXTLTUBE. 49 

Seeondly. The killing of all chronic caaes, no matter how aj^parmtly healthy the 
Miimalft may he ; and, 

Tnirdly. The adoption of stringent regulations for the proper inspection of all ani- 
mals remored firom one State to another, the inspector to naye full power to cause the 
instant deetmction of all diseased animals. 

The present system of qnarantinr* seems to he almost a &rce. The animals are al- 
lowed to roam at will over a whole farm, and are placed in fields horderin^ on pnbkc 
loftds, and divided from neighboring farms only hy an open fence. In this way the 
disease has been communicated in a number of instances. The onl^ effective way 
▼cmld be to confine all animals that have been subjected to infection in an inclosure 
remote from other cattle, separating the sick animals from the healthy ones, and al- 
lowing no one who has had access to the diseased animals to approach tlie healthy 
withoat first thoroughly disinfecting their clothing. 

Chronic cases, although the animals mav be apparently healthy, are but moving 
centeiB of contagion, for from the nature of the disisase the lungs once affected never 
rMume their normal state, and we have several instances where these chronic cases 
bare affected herds, and the animal communicating the disease has outlived those in- 
fected by it. 

From the experience of this State, the necessity of preventing the transmission of 
the diseaee from one State to another cannot be overestimated, and until a law look- 
ii^ to this end is enacted, it will be impossible to rid the country of the disease, for, 
ooe State refusing action, may endanger all those lyins contiguous to it, even though 
they may be name every endeavor to rid themselves of the puigue. 

Ke^eotfully suomitted* 

JOHN W. GADSDEN, M. B. C. Y. S. 
Philadblphia, OeUlber 31, 1881. 



50 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AUKICULTURE. 



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BEPOBT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 51 



CONTAGIOUS PLEURO-PNEOTIONIA IN MARYLAND, THE DISTRICT OF 

COLUMBU, AND VIRGINIA. 



Report of Dr. Rose. 



Hod. Giobob B. Lorimo, 

C ommian &ner of AffricitUur^: 

8ib: By request I forward yon a report of my investigations thronghont the State 
of MarrlaM and the District of Colamoia, as inspector of contai^ious pleuro-pneumonia 
in catUe. It will be necessary to subdivide my report, in order to impress upon the 
oinda of those who may read it the fact of the existence of such a terrible malady : 
ilto to what extent it has been transmitted, and the amount of virulence contained 
m each infected stable and district. It is my intention to give you a report of the 
paat at well as of the present, and for this purpose I have kept a complete record of those 
wbo have lost stock during the exiatence of this disease. I am satlBfied, however, that 
I bsTe mi^ped many stables where the disease previously exist^ed, which fact I attrib- 
nt« to the fear of owners of neat cattle who have experienced the ill effects of the dia- 
esM imong their stock. One point to be remembered is the non-existence of this 
disease on some farms where it was reported by the owners to have previously pre- 
Tsiled. It is true that some people have confounded this disease with the southern 
eattlfi fever, which may be very readily distinguished by the general observer during 
the existence of either of these diseases; but in making a diagnosis of a certain dis* 
eaaeof thepast, with an imperfect history to guide us, we are compelled to reserve 
oar decision. This I found' to be th<^ cpse about Alexandria, Va., and in some parts of 
Maryland. The mjyority of intelligent people who read the symptoms, course, and 
tennination of oontasious pleuro-pneumonia in cattle, generally quote the remarks 
ciren l^ oar atandard authors of the very malignant form of the disease. It appears 
meply impressed upon their minds that all cases must show these Mevere symptoms. 
It would be well if such was the oase; more of them would die. This would lessen 
the fpread of so contagious and infectious a malady. But all casoit do not die (unfor- 
tonately); convalesoenta transmit the disease to other animals, especially if removed 
from the infected stable to a healthy herd of cattle in some other locality. Again, some 
nusals do not show any symptoms of the disease, although others about them may 
diti I wish t-e impreaa upon the minds of cattle-owners the necessity of watching these 
eaaes with care ; oftentimes they are the means of transmitting the very worst lorm of 
tke disease to other animals. They are often affected but slightly, resolution having 
taken place before any external symptoms are observable. Although these remarks are 
WfU mider9t<x>d by yourself, still I think them very necessary for the benefit of cattle- 
fVDen, especially in Maryland. 

INTECnCD LOCALTTISS IN BALTIMORE CITY AND COUNTY. 

I rammenced ray investigations as inspector of cattle in the State of Maryland for 
the Department of Agriculture, March 28, 1881. In beginning my report of this city 
and county, and before alluding to the ravages of the malady in the past, it will be 
necessary to mention the stables in which the disease existed at the time of my inves- 
tintions. April 7, 1881, I found an infected stable four miles north of Baltimore city, 
bdoQging to Judge D. M. Ferine. He owned at this time some valuable stock. I 
feand several of tnem sick with contagions pleuro-pneumonia. No history relating to 
itB origin amon^ his cattle could be obtained until the hired man spoke of a bull which 
belonged to a neighbor named J. B. Manning. This bull was allowed to enter the bam- 
jud of Jud^e Ferine at aU times. Being suspicious of this animal, I made inquiry 
ngarding his whereabouts during the past six months. I found, by further inquiry 
iid carenil examination of other hvds in this locality, that he hod infected animals 
l«k>nging to Mr. Thos. R. Jenkins and Mr. J. W. Ward. The former had six cows, 
dse of which I examined and found the left lung consolidated in its middle and upper 
portions; hydrothorax was present; temperature 104ifOF.; died April 10. Frecautiona 
were taken to prevent its soread if possible. Mr. Ward, who owned four cows, was 
hm fortunate. He winterea the aniuials belonging to Manning. I found one of-this 
berdaick with the disease. Temperature 104° F.; slight dullness on percussion over 
the right lung, with the characteristic cough. Tliis cow died one month later, but 
previous to her death another one of the four was attacked. Owing to the lack of 
power to destroy these infected animals, I was compelled to allow them to roam about 
tiie fiums, to fhrther disseminate the disease. Manning's place has been infected for 
the last ten years. He has lost cows at different periods, sometimes one, at other 
tiiHi two or tluee animalB| and haa thus kept np a constant supply of virus suffioient 



52 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

to infect animals entering his stables at any scasoii of the year, or that might come in 
contact with his recovered cases. 

About the middle of April last I visited a section of Baltimore ooonty called Ixmg 
Green and Delaney Valley, distance seventeen miles northeast of Baltunore city. Most 
of these farmers have valuable stock in the line vf uiilch-cows. Thos. Pierce claims 
to have had the first outbreak of the disease in his section of Baltimore county this 
spring. His farm consists of 1,000 acres of land, most of which has been used of hite 
as a pasture field. Cattle come here from all parti^ of this county to graze. He conld 
not tell me how his cattle contracted the disease. I found a herd consisting of 30 cows 
and 2 bulls. Four of the cows were sick with the disease, and 5 others had died pre- 
vious to my visit. His neighbor, who owns the adjpining farm, lost 9 cows with the 
same malady, while others were sufiering with it divcro^ jny visit. I wim not satisfied 
with the liistory ffiven me by the hired man on tlxa'lartter place, which is owned by 
General Trimble, out the General admitted that oj»e4Qf his animals jumped the fence 
into the pasture field belonging to Mr. Pierce. Thfe<) weeks after he noticed this out- 
break among his cows. I wont from this place to Lon^ Green, which is 2 miles east 
of Delaney Valley, to examine a herd of cattle,, consisting of 10 cows and 1 boll, be- 
longing to John A. Conkliu. Mr. Conklin allowed 2 of his cows to winter on the Pierce 
farm. Hearing of this outbreak, he had his cows returned to his own farm, but, shortly 
after, the disease appeared in his herd. Five animals were attacked at different perioda, 
and, during the months of March and April, 2 died. No disinfectants were used, and 
great neghgence was manifested, and I was^ not surprised to find on a second visit 
teward the close of April that other animals were atfccted. In the bam one case was 
found. Calling again, about the same time, at Mr. Conklin's place, I found no change 
in his animals, except that, in the interim, he seems to have used disinfectants freely. 
Two sick animals were allowed to -roam at will over his entire farm. 

On May 4th and 5th I visited a place called Glencoe (Northern Central Railroad), 
situated on the Baltimore and Yorktown tumpik^. Hero I found four gentlemen, owning 
adjoining fanus, who had experienced heavy losses in cattle. Dickinson Grorsnchy who 
lives one mile west of Glenooe, had the first outbreak of contagious plenro-pneumonia 
in this neighborhood. Many head of cattle have died with the disease on his place 
since 1876. It was transmitted from this farm to that of T. T. Gorsuch, a relative, 
who lives one-half mile east. On the same turnpike, opposite the former place, lives 
another relative, Joshua Gorsuch, whose cattle also contracted the contagion. The 
latter sold a cow affected with the disease to a man named Jessup, who lives in this 
locality, which soon infected his stock, ultimately causing a heavy loss. I recite this 
history simply in order to explain the transmission of the disease from one place to 
another. I found two chronic cases on the farm of T. T. Gersuch. Ad^joinin^ lives 
another relative named Alfred Ma^s^n whose place I found 3 cows, out of 5, sick with 
the disease. A cow had died previous to my visit. I advise<l the owner not to permit 
his cows to go to other pastures. He paid no attention to my advice, but allowed the 
sick animals to leave his place to graze on his father's farm, distant li miles north. 
I followed the animals to his father's (Jno. P. Mays), where I found the disease pre- 
vailing among his cattle. He has lost 12 hea4 of fine Ayrshires and Alderney cows 
during the past six weeks. I saw 4 others sufi'ering with the disease. The first animal 
to infect this locality was brought from Baltimore city. 

On March 30 I visited a dairy stable near Cathedral street, Baltimore, belonging to 
Jno. McCormack. I found a case of contagions pleuro-pneumonia among this nera of 
seven cows ; recovered, but right lung afiected. On May 10 another cow in this stable 
showed symptoms of the disease. 

On April 1 the stable of Herman Breakman, Highlandtown, contained 5 cows, one 
of which was sufiering with the disease. 

About the same time I visited the 8tableif» of Mr. Dou^his, Upper Canton, 1| miles east 
of Baltimore. This stable contained 52 coV>, all of which Iiad been ijiornlaied with the 
virus of contagious pleuro-pneumonia. I hPive made rep«»ated visits to tins place for the 
purpose of studying the effects of inoculation. But owing to the continual exchange 
of cattle, I have gained but little information. I could detect no cases, although the 
disease existed here last summer. 

'On April 12 I viHited the dairy farm belonging to Chos. P. Harrison, of Pikesvillo. 
This and the Donglas farm are the only farlns on which inoculation has been practiced 
in the State, to my knowledge. Mr. HaiTison says he has been exempt from the dis- 
ease since 1873, and claims inoculation as a great preventive measure. 

On April 2 I visited the dairy of Mr. Jeokel, one mile cast of Baltimore. This herd 
consisted of 50 cows. In his Klable 1 found 5 recovered easee. This gentleman lost a 
great many cattle last summer by the disease; but could not, or would not, tell how 
many. 

On April 5 I visited South Baltimore. I found this section of the city also infected. 
Wm. Hamburger (dairyman), Hanover street, had 18cows, among which was one chronic 
cjise of contagions pleuro-]ineum()nia. This [lUice has been infected for at least six 
years. There are other dairies in close proximity to this one. If one of them remains 

4 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONEB OF AOBICULTUBE. 



53 



free of the disease for a short period the others will have one or more ca^s to contend 
vith. I have made many visite in.this section of the city, and I have invariably de- 
tected at least one case of the acute type of the disease. Keceutly I explained to Dr. 
Lyman the condition of this locality, and on visiting it pointed out to him two acute 
•nd one chronic case of the disease^. I found also one dead animal on the commons 
near these stables. We had the deo^l cow removed to the bone-yard, and the post-mor- 
tem examination revealed all the charateristio lesions of the disease. I may safely 
•iy that the diseased lung weighed at least 35 pounds. The diseased animals on the 
eommons were allowed to commingle with the nealthy ones. This man has lost, by 
contagions plenro-pneumonia at least 35 head of cows within the past sit vcars. In 
all sach infected localities I find the people attribute aU this trouble to dealers in cat- 
tiew A nugority of fresh cows purchased of these dealers are healthy at the time they 
eater theee infected stables, and they develop the disease sooner or later afterwards. 
Edward Sachs and brothers keep separate dairies, but occupy the same stable, which is 
leparated only by a partition wall in its center. Thoy usually have 30 or more head 
cf eowa, among which I have occasionally found a diseased one. 

ComelinB Frostier (dairyman, same locality) owns 13 cows, and tries to keep that 
nmnber on hand. I found 3 cnronio cases of contagious pleuro-pneumonia m this 
itsble on April 5. I have made several visits here eacli month, but have failed to de- 
teet an acnte case. Animals are not often exchanged in this stable, which has a ten- 
dency to lessen the number.of acute cases. On June 10 one of his cows died with the 
malady. 

John Hillar (dairyman, same locality). This stable contains 13 cows and has been 
i Df ecte d for a long time. (»n June 8, after lingering some time with the disease, one 
oow died. On June 10 I found two others^ sulering with the disease. On June 23 
one of the sick animals, which I found on the 10th instant, was missing. The other one 
was still lingering. On July 27 I found two more of these cows sick with contagious 
plenro-pneumonia; four others had been removed from the stable and new cows placed 
in their stalls. 

On April 7 I visited a dairy belonging to David Stevens, at Woodberry. Here I 
fonnd 7 recovered cases, from tho outbreak which he experienced last year. Qe lost 
at least 20 head of cows at that time from the effects of the disease. One cow dibd the 
day previous to this visit. The lungs were shown to me. The right lung was com- 
nl^eiy consolidate<l throughout its anterior lobe. Since then I have been unable to 
detect any more affectod animals in this stable. Mr. Stevens has decided to part with 
eTeiy oow which shows the slightest symptoms of the disease. 

Ittfdcied localities in BalHinore City and County prior to 1881. 



Kame of owner. 



TTeimbeck. 



Xl Jftcbaafanaa 

1ft Kfefer 

XcDorui ^ 

JfrDooflM .... 



l^BnM»ks 

UknSwt^nj 

JAb Hfcnmgartnor. 
iloUuid:.. 



lfn.Hartman.. 

yb.ton 

lln^Claj 

iMillor ... 



^tmrr Hughs... 

Xr. LemMs 

Itmm M. Daria. 



A.8LAbeU 



J.2.]CumiDf. 



▼nUaa Hambiirjror 

G«nice and Edward SaoLs 

MraSveigert 

CorB«lhu Fkioatler 
J«haH01ar 

lehiBair 



Localities of infected stames and premisea. 



ni^hlandtowD, one-half mile east of Balttmore, 
Baltimore Coanty. 

do „ 

do 

do 

One and a half miles east of Baltimore, Balti- 
more County. 

Canton, eaat of Baltimnre, Baltimore Coanty. . 

£a»t of Baltimore. Baltimore Coant v 

Northeast of B;iltimore, Baltimore County 

Philadelphia Road, east of Baltimore, Balti- 
more Coanty. 

do 

Canton, east of Baltimore, Baltimore Coanty. . 

do .^ 

do ^ 

Patansco Neck, tv^ and a half mUes east of 
Baltimore, Baltimore County. 

North end of Baltimore, BaJtimore Coanty 

do 

ilontinf^Ti avonae, north end of Baltimore, 
lioltimore County. 

Four miles not-th .of Baltimoro, Baltimore 
County. 

ThT«^ and a half miles north of Baltimore. 
Baltimore County. 

South of Baliimord, Baltimore County :. 

«lo 

do 

do 
do 



Ko. died. 




4 

3 
Unknown. 
Unknown. 

20 

3 

Unknown. 

85 

Unknown. 

Unknown. 

Unknown. 

8 

Heavily. 

3 

6 

Unknown. 

1 

92 

35 

(*) 
2 
4 

Unknown. 

Unknown. 
17 

Unknown. 



Year. 



1880. 

1880. 
1880. 
1880. 
1880. 

1880. 
1880. 

Unknown. 
187L 

Unknown. 

Unknown. 

Unknown. 

1880. 

1880. 

1879. 
1879. 
187L 

1880. 

Since 186L 

Since 1675^ 

1880. 
Since 1878L 

Since 187L 



S4 



BXPOBT OV THE COMiaSSIONEB OF AGSIOnLTDBB. 



It^eeted locaUt%C9 in BaUimore City and Cktuntyy ^ — Continaed. 



Nam* of owner. 



Hr.Itogazr. 



Mr.Foi^l 

Mra-Kinny... 
Tbo. Languor. 



John Glenn 



Anc. Lnrman 

Kicholae Bbary 

Koee Winnns 

Hayfleld Merryman. 

Mr. Shipley 

Mr.RlOgely 



Dr. Piper... 
John Smith 



Jacob Wiener. 



Samnel E. Parks . . 
William WUliama. 



P.McOreever 

William Anderson 



Gharlea P. Harrison. 

Dr.B. B.Wood 

John W.Wagner ... 
SladeatScribner.... 
O.L.Boger8 



James Lyon 

MoDonouKh Institute. 

McCaiiley 

James Vangban 

Charles Baker 

David Stevens 

Denis Mathews 

William P. Hagan.... 



D. Oorsuch . . . 
T.T. Gorsuch. 
Eli Mathews. . 



Mr.Rnssell. 



Localities of infectod stables and premises. 



Washington Boad, near Bal<^ore, BalUmore 

County. 

do 

do 

Frederick Road, west of Baltimore, Baltimore 

County. 
Catonsv'ille, six miles west of Baltimore, Balti- 
more County. 

do 

Sten-ett street, Baltimore, Baltimore County.. 
Baltimore street, Baltimore, Baltimore County. 

do 

do 

To wsontown, seven miles north of Baltimore, 

Baltimore County. 

do 

Two miles northeast or Towsontown, Balti- 

' more County, 

Oie mile east of Towsontown, Baltimore, 

County. 

do 

Govanatown. fonr miles north of Baltimore, 

Baltimore County. 

do 

Hillen Koad, near* Grovanstown, Baltimore 

Cotinty. 
Pikes viue, six miles northwest of Baltimore, 

Baltimore County. 
Hillen Road, near Govanston, Baltimore, 

County. 
Pikesvillc, six miles norftawest of Baltimore, 

Baltimore County. 
One and a quarter miles from Pikesville depot, 

Baltimore County. 
One mile from Pikesville depot, Bidtimore 

County. 

do .' 

Near Pikesville depot, Baltimore County 

do 

Mount Washington, Baltimore County ... — 

do 

Woodberry. Baltimore County 

Dulaney's Valley, Baltimore County 

Two miles east of Long Green, Baltimore 

County. 
One mile west of Glencoe, Baltimore County. . 

do — .' 

One mile west of Monkton, Northern Central 

Kailroa<l, BaUimore County. 
Mount W iuans, Baltimore County 



Kcdied. 



UnkaowB. 

00 

4 

t7 



8 

15 
Unknowii. 
Unknown. 

85 
1 

1 
20 

8 

10 
5 

6 
20 

Heavfly. 

6 

1 

10 

12 

Unknown. 

6 

Unknown. 

(») 

Unknown. 

20 

3 

5 



8 
8 



8tMel87a 

1880. 

1871 

1878. 

1874. 
1880. 
1884. 
1864. 
1886. 
1880. 

1880. 
1880. 

1880. 

1878. 
187& 

1878. 
1880. 

1878. 

1880. 

1880. 

1879. 

187& 

1880. 



1880. 
1880. 
1879. 

1876.1 

1878. 

1878. 

1880. 



* Not willing to tell tbeir loss, 
nrapossibb" to iv]\, cuostautly changing, 
t Infected since 187G. 



REMARKS. 



I canuot ffive you nccnratoly tlio aggregate loss gnstainod by tlie owners of dairy 
cowB in tliiM city and its subnrlis, on account of so many having retired from the 
business. Many canes of cnntagioun pleuropneumonia are bidden from me, not only by 
the o\vner8 of sucb animals, but nianj' deSeis about here make a practice of excboug* 
ing sucb animals, I bavo repeatedly visit«l stables in tbe eastern and soutliem part 
of Baltimore, fully expecting to tind some acute cases. Occasionally 1 have sncceedcd, 
but not to tbat extent wbicb I ebould bave done. Some cases wbicb arc mild in 
cbaractcraro allowed to remain in these stables, providing tbey assume convalescence. 
I must ccuifess tbat tbcse people are very shrewd in tbeir prognosis of sucb cases. All 
those tbat assume tbe colliquative type ofHbe disease are disposed of prior to death. 
No lal^r tlian la^st year tbe malady existed in tbe eastern part of tbe city to an alarm- 
ing extciit. Very few of tbe dairy stables e8cai)e<l its ravages. I bave found it a 
universal fact, not oifly in this but in other Stat«;s, tbat periodical outbreaks of tlie 
disease are to be looked for wherever its dest met ivo elements bave iKJCome imprisoned. 
In south Baltimore I bave noticed isolated cavses among tbe different dairy stables ever 
since Mareb last. Too luncb buying and selling is done in both of these sections to 
ever rid tbe stables of tbe diseasia. Tbey allow a cow to remain in them long enough 
to develop tbe malady and then she is hurried ofif by tbe dealers to other quarters. 
Tbis practice is tbe cause of tbe transmission of tbe disease into tbe outlying counties 



nPOBT OF TBI OOMliliSIORIB OF AOBIOULTUBB. 65 

kiylAod M well as into the States of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. I am con- 
d that many people have expeilenced serions'losses amon j^ their stock from such 
ea of infection, and yet they seem indisposed to acknowledge the fact. This 
inta in a great measure for they many infected farms throughout the interior of 
land. We have still another source of transmission^ that is from those animals 
i recoveied cases. Their tissue are stamped with the \irus for an indefinite 
d of time after convalescence, and where such animals are allowed to exist the 
Bncy of the disease is only reserved for the infection of healthy animals. Many 
-owners in this State have confirmed opinions as to the poor quality of food 
i and regard this as the cause of disease. This is an absurdity. No matter how 
limal may be fed, it must come in contact with a diseased one or enter some in- 
i stable before the contagion can generate in its system. To illustrate this fact 
ui have no better example than the history of tliis disease as shown throughout 
lounty. 

ring my investigations I have been very careful in trying to trace the malady to 
igin, but as yet I am unable to find any stable where it existed prior to 1864. At 
time most of the cows were sent from the Middle States into Baltimore and Wash- 
Hf the war havingstopped the supply. At this time the disease was known to 
ew people. Ross Winans, of Baltimore, who was among the first to experience 
isease, tried his utmost to prevent the public from kDOwin^ of its existence among 
owB. A few persons fiix the date of its appearance in his stable as early as the 
1863. However, other dairy slablee in the vicinity commenced to lose cows 
the disease, when it was traced to Washington (see rex>ort of Washington). In 
Mr. Shipley succeeded Ross Winans in the dairy business. He used the same 
e, having been told by Winans that no disease of any kind had ever existed on 
remises. Shortly after taking possession Mr. Shipley noticed a few of his cows 
lung, while others became short of mUk and lost appetite. Eventually, ;35 head 
ws died. Mr. . H. Meriyman sustained a loss in this stable about the same time, 
rdairymen commenced to suffer from its rava^s. Outside of this city, all along 
tneof the Western Mar^^land Railro&d, in Baltimore County, can be found stables 
e the disease has existed, and since the above time it has been transmitted from 
eetion of the county tor another. This was caused, generally^ by buying infected 
all at the Baltimore stock-yard, and by allowing animals n-om infected stables 
tsture with healthy ones. We are ^ now able to point out sections in different 
I of not only this but other counties of Maryland, where periodical outbreaks 
e disease occur annually. Sometimes these outbreaks are of a mild and at other 
iof a most malignant form. Baltimore city and its surroundings furnish infecting 
rial for a wide extent of country. 

CECIL COUNTY. 

May 9 I eommen6ed my investigations of this county. Elkton is its connty seat, 
illowing day the members of the Cecil County Agricultural Society held a special 
ng, which gave me am opportunity to converse with men who are anxious to aid 
Been of your department in checking the spread of contagious pleuro-pneumonia. 
Mr. A. xL Magraw, president of the society, I gained considerable information 
ling the hygienic condition of cattle throughout the county. Elkton I consider 
:om the disease at present, although many cattle are brought here in the early 
(un Baltimore to be wintered by farmers, and after being fattened are sent to 
ielphia and elsewhere for human consumption. A great many milch-cows are 
:nt here from the eastern counties of Maryland and from Virginia, thus avoiding 
reat extent the infection which prevails about Baltimore. When we remember 
at extent this city and vicinity is infected, it seems miraculous that any locality 
State should be so exempt as this. Mr. James Yates, three miles northeast of 
Of informed me that, in 1879, he lost three cows with the disease, and from the 
7 he eave me I concluded that snch was the case. 

Ifay 11 I visited a place called Brick Meeting House, where I found a recovered 
f cont-agious pleuro-pneumonia, belonging to Levi Meams, who bought some 
at the Baltimore stock-yard, in company with a neighbor, Mr. Thomas Stevens, 
9. Shortly after the arrival of these animals the disease developed itself among 
four head dying on Stevens', and three on Meams* farm. A few recovered on 
>laoe, which were afterwards sold to a butcher who took them to Philadelphia, 
anall village is situated but a short distance from the State line between Penn- 
aia and Maryland. From here I went to Rising Sun, which is still nearer the 
i>ut oould find no sign of the disease, although it had recently existed near this 
in Pennsylvania, where it had been stamped out by the authorities of that State. 
May 12 and 13 I visited all the principal t>owns along the coimty line from 
g Bun to Perryville. During this investigation I visited many fine dairy farms 
Dspected a number of valuable herds, eacn herd consisting of irom 20 to 30 head 
Ich-oows, bat could detect no signs of disease among any of them. At Penyville 



56 BEPORT OP THE COMlilSSIONEB OP AGRICULTURE. 

I fonnd a ccentleman named John Stamp who, in 1879, lost 11 head of cattle by the 
disease. The disease was brought to his place b^ cattle pnrchased in Baltimore. 

May 25^ 26, and 27 I concln&d the investigation of tiiis connty by visitins all of 
that portion \yiTig south of the Philadelphia, Wilrfyin^n and Baltimore Railroad, com- 
mencing at Fredericktown and working north to Chesapeake. I failed, however, to 
detect a single case of contagions pleoro-pneumcnia in this section of the connty. At 
Chesapeake I found a few gentlemen who deserve great credit for the energy which 
they display in trying to exclade from this place all cattle from infected districts. 
Mr. John A. Harriot, member of the Cecil Connty Agricoltnral Society, seems to be 
the most active in this good work. 

I wiU mention here that I visited a portion of Kent Connty called Galena. I made 
this visit because steamboats ran daily between Baltimore and Fredericktown. The 
two counties are separated by the Sassafras River. Thinking that an occasional in- 
fected animal might enter the county by these boats, I made a close observation of the 
cattle in this place, but I failed to detect the existence of any. disease. 

HAKTORD COUKTT. 

During the earl^ part of June I visited this county, of which Bol Air is the oountj 
seat. I met prominent citizens who informed me of tlie existence of contagious pleuro- 
pneumonia among their cattle in former years. I visited all the towns ana many 
farms, but failed to find a single case of the disease in the entire county. I was well 
pleased with the preventive means adopted by Colonel Stomp and Dr. Magraw. In 
1860 they received, authority frt>m the governor to appraise all animals infected with 
the disease, with anthoritv to destroy them. Early fast year Eldridge Gallop, who 
occupies the large farm belonging to the Citizens' Banking Association of Baltimore, 
brought a lar^e herd of cattle to his place from the Biiltimore stock-yard. Shortly 
after their arrival disease appeared among them, and four died in a few weeks. Not 
knowing the nature of the disease at that time, lie commenced to treat the sick cows. 
Those which showed no symptoms of ailment were sold. Four such were sent into 
Peunsylvania, where they soon infected cows belonging to Mr. Pylc. This fact becom- 
ing known to the Pennsylvania authorities, they destroyed every sick cow and quar- 
antined the stable. Mr. Gallop sold others singly to difierent parties in Abingdon, in 
this county. As soon as Colonel Stump and* Dr. Magraw learned of the condition of 
these animals, thov proceeded to kill every one of the cows that came from Gallop's 
infected herd. Tney then visited the infected stables and killed 22 head. Some 
animals hatl been sent to Baltimore previous to this slaughter, a fact unknown to 
these gentlemen at the time. In this nerd 17 animals in all died frx>m the effects of 
tlie <li8ease. Since this transaction no further trouble has been experienced in ^is 
locality. I visited other sections of the county, where many herds of catt le are raised, 
and where large tracts of land are used for pasturing and wjlntering fat cattle. I 
think this latter pursuit is carried on to a greater extent in this connty than in any 
other county in the State. The most of tms grazing county lies alon^ Deer Creek. 
Farmers in this locality frequently winter fr^om 75 to 100 head each. The cattle pass 
through the Baltimore stock-yard i)revious to their arrival here. In the early spring 
they are sent to the Philadelphia markets. I was told that a Mr. Amos and son, who 
lived in the northern part of this county, had lost cattle from contagious pleuro-pneu- 
monia. I visited their farm on the 7th of June, but from the history of the disease 
given me by the owner, 1 am satisfied it was southern cattle fever, a disease which 
prevails here ccoasionally, and generally causes heavy losses. 

CABROLL COUNTY. 

During the latter part of June I visited the different towns in this connty, but 1 
failed to find any case of contagious pleurft-pneumonia, either acute or chronic, until I 
reached a place called Manchester. After traveling a few miles north of this place I found 
a farm belonging to Barney Zepp, where the disease has existed since April 30. A short 
time previous to this he bought 3 cows from a dealer in this place, who buys cattle iu 
all the different counties of Maryland and Pennsylvania, and sells them in most in- 
stances at the Baltimore stock-yard. At*the time mentioned contagions pleuro-pneu- 
monia broke out among them. Two showed the severe symptoms of the disease aud 
soon died. The remaining cows were taken sick at difierent periods, and two died. 
I think the last two cases will recover. In 1875 they had an outbreak of the disease 
a few miles west of this place, in Bachman's Valley; cows from the Baltimore stock- 
yaM caused this infection. The movement of cattle in the fall of each year from Bal- 
timore here is similar to the movement of cattle into Harford Connty, only to a less 
extent. In the spring and summer months dealers drive most of the cattle to the Bal- 
timore stock-yarai from which very few orthem Tetum during the latter period. 



REPORT OF THE €0BOOSSI0NER OF AQRICULTURE. 57 

FREDERICK COUNTY. 

Od Jnly 14 I visited Frederick City (connty seat). The disease does Dot exist in 
this county at present. The most of the cattle hronght here come from Virginia. 
Tb«* only place where the disease ever existed in this a>unty is Woodboro, 12 miles 
north of this city. George Smith lost eleven head from its efiects last year. None of 
those affected recovered. I am satisfied that Frederick County will remain free from 
the extreme ravages of the disease so long as snch men as Dr. Fairfax Schley is at the 
head of the Agricultural Society. He is well versed in the nature of the disease, and 
is therefore enabled to explain to the members of his society the precautions necessary 
to preTent its sx^read. 

▲NNE ARUNDEL COUNTY. 

I Tisted the principal city (Annapolis) and most of the small places in this county. 
No disease has existed in any of these places during the last three years. Oa the 
dairy farm of Mrs. Berry , one and a half miles northwest of Annapolis, a few animals 
died previous to the death of her husband, which occurred three years ago. Very 
fev dairy stables that contain over 6 or 10 cows are to be found in this city. On its 
outskirts are a few farms stocked with valuable cattle. I was surprised not to find 
more of the disease here, because boats make daily tripa to and frx)m Baltimore, and 
often bring cows from, the stock-yard in that city. Since the outbreak of the disease 
in Baltimore last year, however, most of the people in this county are very careful 
when they purchcuBe their stock. 

PRINCE George's county. 

Daring the early part of August and the latter part of September I made investiga- 
tions in this county. Near the line of the District of Columbia, I found the disease 
had existed in previous years. I could detect no cases at present. • In the year 1879, 
psTid Campbell, dairyman^ three and three-quarter miles southeast of Washington, 
is this county, contracted the disease among his cows by purchasing an animal afivcted 
vith it, from Mr. McDowell, of Washington. A veterinarian was sent from the latter 
plac«, who advised Mr. Campbell to destroy his cows. Two of them were killed, two 
others died, and the remainder were sold. A man named Brooks, who lives one mile 
iouth of this infected stable, lost two cows by the disease. They wera infcicted by 
Mr. Campbell's cattle. I found other farms where the disease had existed in the Dis- 
trict of Colombia, near the county line, which I shall mention* in my report of the 
Diitrict. AjUL of that section of this county bordering on the eastern line of the Dis- 
trict of Colombia has been liable to more or less of the disease among the dairy cows 
liaee its appearance within the District. This is especially so as regards the dairy 
Mws alonff the Baltihiore and Ohio Railroad. A few miles from Washington, near 
Benning's Bridge, I found a farm where the disease exist'Od in 1878. The place belongs 
toW. B. Lacey, who lost 13 head of cows at that time. Those that recovered were 
tM, There ia no disease on his place at present. « 

MONTGOHERY COUNTY. 

On Augnst 10 I visited Rockville, the county seat. I could find no one here who 
6v«r heard of the existence of the disease, except near Sandy Springs, which is situ- 
ated near the border line between this and Howard county. I have been iu most of the 
towns of the county, but 1 have failed to detect a single case. At Sandy Springs, in 
the ye&r 1876, Dr. Thomas and his brother Edward, who have adjoining farms, exi^e- 
lienced a mild form of the malady among their cattle. The disease was communi- 
cate by a cow purchased in Washington. Other owners of cattle in this locality also 
citfereil losses among their stock, among them Philip Stabler and Wni. Moore. The 
litters farm is locat-ed two miles west of Sandy Springs. All of that portion of land 
Ijing west of the Metroplitan Railroad, and bordering on the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Caual, is used as pasture for fattening cattle. Since the termination of the war a 
great many cattle have been bought Som men in Southwest Virginia and afterward 
pastured in this locality until they were fit to send into the market. Very few come 
QQfn either Washington or Baltimore, and the danger of infection is therefore greatly 
IfawiniLnL 

DISTRICT OF COLUAIBIA. 

I consider the District of Columbia and a portion of Virginia as liable to perimlical 
•Qtbieaks of contagions pleuvo-pnieumonia. It has existed in this locality since 1H64. 
•ad is in about the sumo condition as Baltimore city and caunty. I made repeated 



58 BXPOBT OF THK OOiaOflfilONEB OF AGRICULTUBB. 

yisita to thU section in the months of August and September, and found one or more 
cases during each visit. On August 11 I visited the north end of Washin^on, a 
locality commonly called *' Cowtown/' where I found a small portion of inhabitantft 
owning a greater or less number of dairy cows. Near by is a large commons where 
most of these animals are pastuTod< Daring one of my visits in this locality I detected 
a cow with all the symptoms of an acute form of the disease. It was owned by Mr. 
Hollidge, who lives on nherman Avenue. In the same stable I found a chronic case. 
This animal formerly belong^ed to his brother, who kept a dairy stable, two months 
previous to this time, on Spring road, about one and a half miles north of the boundary 
line of the city. This gentleman became disheartened by the loss of cows affected 
with the disease, and sold out. Those bought by his brother showed no symptoms of 
the disease at the time of purchase, but it developed itself in this cow after her arri- 
val. This man lost heavily in cows in the year 1&71. 

Mr. McKay, who keeps a dairy stable on Ninth street, one-half mile north of Bound- 
ary street, bought 7 cows from Mrs. Seidenberger, who was anxious to sell, as she lost 
4 cows by the msease last February. Her stable is located near the infected stable 
on Spring road, which was used by Mr. Hollidge. McKay denied the existence q| the 
disease among his cows, but 3 of them have disappeared in some way unknown to me. 
I wish to mention here that it is useless for me to wa<«h any of the stables where I 
find the disease so long as we have no power to destroy the affected animals. 

Mr. Harman lives at Mount Pleasant, about one mile north of Washington. On Hie 
30th of September 1 found a cow in his stable suffering with the disease. Previous to 
my visit Dr. C. P. Lyman had vtsiiied this stable and found a heifer calf suffering with 
the disease in an acute form. It died the same day. An autopsy was made and a por- 
tion of the right lung preserved. On the same day I visited a stable owned by Robert 
Brown (colored), who lives a short distance south of Mr. Barman's. I found one of 
his cows sick with the disease. This man says that the disease has been on his place 
since 1^5, and that he has lost several cows by it. 

On October 1 I was refused admittance to the stable of Mr. Shngrew, which is 
located a few hundred feet south of Mr. Hollidge's. One of his animals was undoubt- 
edly sick. The rest of them, 14 in number, were running at large. As I was tinablB 
to see the sick animal I could not decide as to the nature of the disease. Since 1871 
this man has lost 30 cows by the mtilady. 

On October 3 I visited the commons about Mount Pleasant. Among a large herd oi 
cows, which belonged to different owners. I found several recovered cases. I also 
discovered a very acute case in a field adjoining these commons, which I learned be- 
longed to Ro1>ert Hays. Six other cows were with her. I thought it important to 
make this case knowji at onpe to the department, in order that some one else would 
go and examine it. From the time of the discovery of this animal until my return in 
company with a representative of the department, which was but two or three hours, 
the cows had been removed to their stables in ^'Cowtown,'' near Seventh Street and 
Boundary, and the sick animal exchanged for a healthy one. When questioned, the 
owner could not give the residence of tlio dealer with whom he had exchanged the 
cow. He acknowledged that he had lost 30 cows by the disease since 1671. 

On the same day I visited the stable of Captain Viall, Meridian Hill, northwestern 
bbnndary of Washington. This place has been infected since 1876. During this 
period he has lost '2S cows. Two have died since last June. One animal is still liv- 
ing, and has been running at large for the last two mouths. She is liable to spread 
the disease among other animals. 

October 7 I walked over the commons on the eastern part of the District of Colum- 
bia, where most of the cows in this section graze. I detected one cow among them 
sick with the disease, and concluded to follow her to the stable, situated on D street 
between Eighth and Ninth, northeast. Mr. Callahugh, the owner, acknowledged hav- 
ing had four cows affected with the disease. Whenever they commenced to grunt or 
showed severe symptoms he disposed of them to the butchers. He said he intended to 
dispose of this cow in the same way if her appetite did not soon return. I found her 
temperature to be 103p F. He noticed his first sick cow in the month of June, and 
has been troubled with the contagion among his cows up to this date. At the begin- 
ning of this outbreak he owned seven cows. Five of them have been affected. Otner 
people in this locality have lost a few cows lately. L. Obenstein, who lives one 
square east of Callahngh's stable, lost one affected with the disease last week. Mr. 
Bresnaham, C street between Eighth and Ninth northe.ost, lost one cow affected with 
the disease during the month ol Sept<imber; also Mrs. Claricey, on Fifth street be- 
tween North A and East Capitol street, lost an animal in the mouth of August. SlnM 
1870 this lady has lost 60 cows by the disease. 



SKPOBT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTUBE. 



59 



The disease in the District of Columbia prior to 1681. 



Naowof ovner. 



Hra.Ke^'fti 

HkhmA White. 
Mr. Uollidfe . . . 
Ovoi .Sfaofrew 
Mn. Mornsy . . 
SobertHavs... 
MACkoeey... 



WnUvaDftTiB. 



H r. Haninctaii 
Mr. Bay , 



Mr.Hoiaeii 



Mn^Sciiaich 



]fr.AB4rk«. 
Mr. Baanrtar 
Gipuia YuU 



Xn^Blmeden , 

Bc^miD Green 

Hn. B. Hamiluni ....^ . 

XrlTi^maa .., 

]ln.Edl7 , 



Locality of infected stables. 



010 Twentieth streetncarK street, Washington. 

Seventh street near Boundary 

Sherman avenae, Boundary, Washington 

do 

Seventh street near Bonndarr, Washington. . . . 

Boundary street near Sovcntn, Washington . . . 

Fifth street between North A and East Capi- 
tol streets, Washington. 

Comer of T and Twenty-seventh streets, Wash- 
ington. 

No. 3418 First North street, Georgetown 

2 miles southeast of Washington, Marlborough 
road. 

2 miles southeast of Washington, Marlborough 
road. 

Comer of Seventh street and Book Creek road, 
Washington. 

Tenallytown near Washington 

do 

Meridan Hill, northwest of Boundary street, 
Washington. 

Fourteenth street, 2 miles north of Washington . 

Fourteenth street, 2 miles north of , Washington . 

Fourteenth streejL 1 mile north of Washington. 

Tenallytown,D.C 

Comer of G andTwenty-flfbhs treets, Washing- 
ton. 



Number 
of deaths. 



4 cows . . . 
80 cows . . . 
TJnknown 
30 cows . . . 
14 cows . . . 
30 cows . . . 
60 cows . . . 

23 cows . . . 

20 cows . . . 
28 cows . . . 

Unknown 

40 cows . . . 

12 cows . . . 
Unknown 
28 cows . .. 

5 cows — 
2 cows . . . 

6 cows . . . 
14 cows . . . 
16 cows . . . 



Year. 



18C4 
1869 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 

1873 

1875 
1875 

1875 

1875 

1876 
1878 
1876 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1879 



8UMMABT. 

t 

The Teeolt of my investigations enables me to give the following summary : 

Kmnber of cattle examined since Maroh,1881 11,270 

KmBberof acate cases of disease found since Marcli/1881 110 

Number of chronic cases of disease fonnd since March, 1881 41 

Total nomber of diseased animals fonnd since March, 1881 151 

Kimber of deaths that have occurred since March, 1881 67 

Ru&bcrof deaths reported as having occurred since 1864 1,029 

fiaipee^ially submitted. 

W. H. ROSE, D. r. A 
BALTDfORB, Md., NovemherX 1881. 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



INTBODUCTION. 

SiB: I have the honor to present herewith the following report of 
lome of the work done by the Entomological Division during the fiscal 
year now drawing to a close. The report necessarily covers but a small 
portion of the work done or being done^ and is devoted to some of the 
more important observations and experiments of a practical nature on 
6Qch subjects as have received especial attention, viz., Silk-culture, the 
Cotton Worm, the Chinch Bug, the Army Worm, the insects affecting 
the Orange, those affecting Rice, some new depredators on Com or 
Maize, and various miscellaneous insects that have attracted more t]^n 
nsoal attention during the year. 

While I hkve not hesitated to embody matter of scientific interest 
tod even descriptive matter when necessary to give greater accuracy 
to the information to be conveyed, yet lengthy descriptive papers have 
been eschewed on the ground that these reports are intended for the 
Iffactical man rather than as contributions to entomological science. 

It is not necessary to draw your attention specifically to the contents 
of ^ following pages, nor to the important practical discoveries which 
tliej refer to. To do so would not add to their value. But a few words 
ttto the general work of the Division, with such suggestions as exi>eri- 
enee indicates, will not be inappropriate in submitting the report. 

Four years ago, when first called to act as Entomologist to the De- 
partment, I found provision made in the annual appropriation for but 
one person who, in addition to a clerk allowed from the clerical force 
>nd known as the assistant entomologist, constituted the Division. 
Mer such conditions it is not surprising that little was attempted in 
te way of original research of a practical nature. The surprise is, 
other, that Mr. Glover accomplished as much as he did during his long 
eoanection with the Department. 

The evil from insects injurious to the various crops of the country is 
i great and growing one which none more fully appreciate than the 
cultivator himself. The aggregate annual loss to the nation from insect 
depredations amounts to hundreds of millions, and there is a loud call 
for rehef ; but relief can come only by a combination of accurate ento- 
i&ological knowledge with extensive field work and experiment, and 
this last is possible only with men and means. My first step, there- 
fore, was to get an increase of means so necessary to such work, and I 

61 



62 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

at once began some special investigations looking to the control of a 
few of the worst of our insect pests. The Division was reorganized on 
a more practical basis, and my successor continued the work that had 
been planned and begun. 

The great increase in the correspondence of the Division may be 
judged of by the fact that during the past year over 2,000 letters of in- 
quiry have been received, most of them requiring full replies, so that, 
in fact, over 1,800 letters have been written. This correspondence consti- 
tutes a very large part of the work of th^ Division, and demands most 
of the time of myself and office assistants. A large proportion of the 
letters received make inquiry regarding some of the commonest and 
best known insects. This dissemination of special information to indi- 
viduals is, I conceive, one of the chief functions of the entomologist, 
yet one of infinitely less importance to the country than original research 
and discovery; and as such routine correspondence, even with the most 
economical division of labor among the present office force, has more 
and more absorbed the time of the Division to the detriment of field 
work and experiment, my aim has been to gain more time for this last 
papt of our work without impairing the efficiency of the Division in the 
matter of said correspondence. ^ 

As greatly helping to this end I have begun, with your approval, the 
preparation of a series of special Bulletins on the most widespread and 
important of our injurious insects, each intended to contain a complete 
account of all that is known in reference to some particular insect or 
some particular set of insects affecting a given crop. Such Bulletins — 
concise, so as to be readily mailed, written in popular style, and amply 
illustrated — will greatly facilitate the correspondence, by rendering un- 
necessary the constant repetition of Ifetters giving detailed information 
to the various correspondents who make inquiries about one and the 
same species. 

A Bulletin on the Northern Army Worm, one on the Boll or Com 
Worm, and one on Canker Worms are prepared and ready for the press, 
while others on Cabbage Insects, and on the Chinch Bug are in prepa- 
ration. If stereotyped, these Bulletins can always be kept in supply, 
and limited editions only need be published at any one time. 

I would recommend further, as a means of increasing the usefulness 
of the Division, that, in addition to the special Bulletins above indicated, 
a periodical Bulletin of the Division be issued touching general entomo- 
logical matters of current interest. Many contributions of value, whether 
from voluntary correspondents or special field agents, are placed on file 
in the Division archives, and they are either not made public at all or are 
used in the Annual Report, which appears long after they have lost much 
of their timely interest With such a system of publication as I have 
indicated, iwlded to the special reports ordered by Congress, the work 
of the Division would be rendered more effective. Three special reports 
are in course of preparation, viz., a Bibliography of economic entomology, 



KEFORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 63 

a Tei>ort on the insects a£fecting the Orange tree, and a report on forest 
tiee insects. These will be too bulky to be issued as Bulletins, or to be 
indadfid in the Annual Report, and should be ordered printed by special 
act of Congress. 

The United States Entomological Commission, which was by act of 
Congress attached to the Department at the beginning of the fiscal year, 
has not attempted any field work, but has been closing up its office work 
in acoordance with the spirit of the last appropriation act. Bulletin 7, 
by Dr. Packard, on forest tree insects, has been issued, and the third and 
fourth reiM)rt6 of the Commission have been completed and are ready 
for the printer. 

As we now have near by, and of easy access, a National Museum ad- 
mirably fitted for the preservation and exhibition of natural history 
specimens, and as the Director thereof is authorized by the organic law 
to claim any collections made by the various other Departments of the 
government,* I have decided, with your approval, to devote as little 
time as possible to pure museum work, limiting it to the preservation of 
gach material as will best illustrate the habits of those insects which 
inter^t the farmer. In this direction a large number of species have 
been reared, studied, and mounted, so that those treated of in the report 
fonn but a fraction of the number actually studied. In systematic mu- 
seran work I hope rather, as curator of Eutomology in said museum, 
to co-operate with Professor Baird in his eflbrts to bring together a 
natioDal collection of insects, and to this end have deposited with him 
my own private collection. It is thus more safe lix)m fire than it would 
be in the Department, and at all times accessible when needed, as is 
c(Histantly the case, in the work gf the Division. 

I have been assisted during the whole of the yeap in my office work, 
and in the preparation of reports, by Prof. W. S. Barnard, Mr. L. O. 
Howard, Mr. E. A. Schwarz, and Mr. Theo. Pergande, and since Sep- 
tember by Mr. B. Pickman Mann; and these gentlemen, together with 
Mr. A Koebele, who has aided part of the time in the office work, de- 
Berre my praise and thanks for the uniform industry and interest which 
thej have manifested in the work assigned to them. The same is to be said 
of the agents and observers in difi'erent parts of the country. Mr. H. G. 
Hubbard has had charge of the Orange insect investigation in Florida, 
iBd Mr. Laurence Bruner of the work in relation to the Eocky Mount- 
am locust in the Northwest. Dr. J. C. Keal, of Archer, Fla., Dr. E. H. 
Anderson, of Kirkwood, Miss., Mr. W. E. Martin, of Oxford, Miss., Mr. 
J. G. Barlow, of Cadet, Mo., and Miss M. E. Murtfeldt, of Kirkwood, 
U(L. have each made special observations for the Division, under in- 
stmction, during some part of the year, while my predecessor. Prof. J. 
H. Comstock, has been engaged at Ithaca, K. Y., on a special report, 
for which he took with him all the notes of importance (with duplicate 

'Beyiaed Statutes, i 5586; Statutes Forty-fifth Congress^ third session, chap. 182, 



64 KEPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

speciraens) that had accumnlated during his administration. His report, 
just submitteil, consists chiefly of a monograph of the JHa^nco^ a sub- 
family of the scale-insects. This monograph includes the species already 
treated of in the last Annual Report of the Department, as well as 
many foreign species, and, at your request to curtail, for want of space, 
I have excluded it. The rest of the report is included herewith. Con- 
siderable matter of my own, has, for the same reason, been excluded. 

The wood-cut illustrations are some of them from my own i)encil, but 
have most of them been drawn by Mr. George Marx, under my direction. 
The photo-engravings illustrating Professor Comstock's report have been 
drawn by Mrs. Comstock, who, together with Mr. H. W. Turner, as 
sisted him during the year. The colored plates are painted from natura 
Where the figures are enlarged the natural size is indicated in hair-line 
or in some other way. 

Eespectfully submitted June 30, 1882. 

0. V. EILEY, 

Entomologist 
Hon. Geo. B. LoBma, 

Commissioner of Agriculture, 



EXTRACTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE. 

The following extracts have been made from the miscellaneous cor- 
respondence as containing entomological observations of interest not 
included in the balance of the report. They could not be extended so 
as to include all such observations made by correspondents without 
trenching on the report proper; while the voluminous correspondence 
from specjal agents wilL much of it, be used elsewhere. The references 
in brackets are to fhe Letter Files, by number and page, to facilitate 
future use of the full communications: 

On July 2d, W. F. Holmes, of Cypremort P. O., Saint Mary's Parish. La., sent a new 
enemy of the sugar-cane, with statement that it eats the heart of uoth stubhle and 
plant SUGAR-CANB and of corn, and hides in the very lowest part of the heart, cans- 
ins its death and decay. The specimens sent were larvs) of noctnid moths, but were 
alfdead, so that it was impossible to determine them more exactly It is evidently a 
new enemy." [L. F. 5: 180.] 

On August 11th, R. M. Sims, Columbia, S. C, sent specimens of a 8x>ecies of Podura^ 
which ** came out in myriads from the ground at the State Penitentiary, from beneath 
brick drains, walls, &c." [L. F. 5: ife.l 

On July 20th, T. J. Davis, of Rixeyville, Culpepper County, Virginia, sent eggs of 
Clisiocampa ammcatra, which he found on twigs of peach trees. [L. F. 5: 217.] 

On August 15th, Wm. Fairweather, of McLane, Erie County, Pennsylvania, wrote that 
his apple crop, in an orchard of 6,000 trees, had suffered greatly from the ravages of 
Anihonomus quadrigibhut, *' Some trees wiU hardly have an apple but what is dashed 
and dotted all over by the proboscis of the Beetle pest." [L. F. 5 : 255. ] 

On August 31st, J. A. Gundy, of Lewisburg, Pa., sent heads of clover, infested with 
Cecidomyia leguminicolaffromniBlocaMty, (.L. F. 5: 263.] 

On October 4th, Dr. D. H.*Webster, of Austin, Mo., wrote that the Chinch Bugs had 
done a great deal of damage to the wheat and corn crops in his locality in 1881. [L. 
F. 5: 291.1 

On October 13th, Theo. G. Fowler, of Union town, Ala., sent specimens of Strachia 
hiairionicaf with an account of their ravages on collards, turnips, cabbages, and 
radishes: and Phakellura hyalimtalia which had riddled the leaves of the squash 
VINES. [L. F. 5: 310J 

On October 4th, H. C. Meyer sent specimens of Calandra oryscBt which had been dis- 
tributed in seed oom by the Department. [L. F. 5: ^0.] 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 65 

Od October 20th, J. E. Willet, of Macon, Oa., sent 8i>eoimens of Onddcret dngvlatuB 
which bad boen pinlling the twij^s of Engush WALNUT. [L. F. 5 : 3G5.] 

On October 25th, J. G. Barlovy, Cadet, WaMhinston County, Missoori, sent specimens 
of /M^oiaa* -which had been fonnd, pupated, above the first or top joint of wheat 
fir.iw& " The crops that were infested by the worm were very poor, and crow mostly 
ill tields that bad been sown in wheat four or five years in sncceaeion.'' Ue sent also 
»pecimeiis of SiUanuB adcena and Typhcca fnmata. which he said he found oiirnestly at 
work upon corn iu stack, eating the grain, witn their heads in the small hole at the 
bottom of the excavation. [L. F. 5 : 376.] 

On November 7th, he added that more than two-tlftrds of the wheat straws in tho 
field had a larva or pupa of the Ibos&ma in them, and the crop was sadly duninishod 
bj them. One farm«^r had 15 bushels off 9 acres, another sow»d 15 bushels of whi'at 
and harvesf^d only 1)0 bushels; another harvested 6 bushels from 10 aM:rcs. [L. F. 5: 
33a.] 

Ou Xovemb«>r liith, Oabtiel A. Fournet, of Lake Charles, La., sent specimens of Par- 
laf«ria ptrgandii, which ho stated had lirst appeared for the season ou the leaf of 
ORANGE TREE!) since the first of the month. ''Slnee four or five years this insect has 
made its appearance and completelif destroyed the valuable orange groves which form 
the principal source of the \%lue of the land here.'' [L. F. 5: 405.] 

On November 7 tb, Almond M ax son, of Minden, Sanilac County, Michigan, sentspuci- 
mens of Calandra granaria, which had been distributed by the Department in seed 
wuEAT to the sufferers by the Michigan fire. It is presumable that the fire had ridden 
the district of all these pests, so that it was particularly unfortunate that the Depart- 
meot should have been the means of reintroducing them so promptly. [L. F. 5 : 427. ] 
On November 19th, Evan J. Prothro, of Richland, Stewart County, Georgia, sent 
ipedmens of an undetermined species of OethuBf stating that they had Lujured cuu- 
Fis early in the spring. [L. F. 5: 465.] 

On November 14th, W. Cornell Caywood, of Marlborough, N. Y., sent, in response t^ 
areqaost, specimens of Phloeotribua l%minari8f upon whose ravages on pkacii trees he 
wrote in the Sural Neto- Yorker of November 12, and again in the same paper later. [L. 
F.o: 480.1 

Od November 21st, he wrote: '' * * * If it is recorded as iiguriously affecting 
PEACH TWIGS it has evidently changed its point of attack, as it in no instance attacks the 
miller branches or twigs, nor even one-year-old trees, and very seldom two years old; 
if they do the number is so small that they do bat little injury. We see them ou three- 
year-old U^es, but in killing nimibers on four years old and older. Since sending the 
aceoQot of this insect to the Rural New-Yorker^ by further examination we find they 
infest all the cnltivate<l and wild cuerriss and plums. We found a cherrv tree six 
year* old as effectively killed as the peach tree we sent yon by express/' [L. F. 
5:4fcl.] 

Go Jannary 2l8t, Matthew Cooke, chief executive horticultural and health officer of 
Califomia, Sacramento, CaL, wrote : '* • • • From practical experiments we have 
proved beyoud a doubt that a successful warfare (against insects) can be accomplished. 
I have DO hesitation in saying that Sunt-a Clara County will increase her produce of 
cLoiee marketable fruit from 75 to 100 per cent, this coming season. The remedy most 
Stored there at present is coal oil. However, I dare not recommend it, as ignorant 
parties migl^ attempt to use it and destroy the trees. I will take the liberty of giving 
.Tou thb experience of a gentlemau owning an orchard two miles from San Jos6, Santa 
Clara Coonty : 

** George W. Rutherford owns extensive mining interests in the State of Nevada, 
and therefore cannot )>e classed as a practical fruit-grower. He bought an orchard 
two vears ago at San Jos^ at a cost of $ti2,000. The crop of 1881 was badly infested by 
the Scale, Aepidiotus pernicioaus. When Mr. Rutherford came from Nevada this last faU 
ke vas willing to sell his orchard (Scale Bugs iuoludech for $15,000 — no buyer. He 
vas not iu favorof coal oil, but bought four tons of lye of American Company. When 
b had his orchard two-thirds washed his neighbors told him he had destroyed his 
tne*. He requested me to go there and see what had been done. I went to his place 
ca the 2^th December. He had killed nearly every Scale Insect and Red Spider on his 
trres so far as he had washed, and every tree showed a healthy green layer. lie now 
Mk% I50.O00 for the orchard. Tho whole cost of cleaning, including 5 tons of lye, 
rill not exceed $1,000. Others are very successful with coal oiL 

On Jannary 31st, George Pitts, luka, Marion County, Hlinois, wrote that In tho i>re- 
vioQs year the Chinch Bugs killed all the CORN. Thejy were so numerous that the 
vbe^ of a wagon were quite wet and gummy with killing them iu going a mile or 
two on the road. [L. F. 6 : 68.] 

On Jannary 8th, J. G. Barlow, Cadet, Washington County, Missouri, sent specimens 
of Jpkoditu lutulentus, which had been injuring grains of corn contained in cow- 
dang. [L.F.6: 118.] 

* See the artiolt Ibosovm triiioi in another part of this Report. 
5 AQ 



66 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

On Jnnnary 6th, E. N. S. Rinffneberg. Lookport, K. Y., sent (through A. S. Packard, Jr.) 
larvflD^f Cecidamyia leguminicola which had infested several clovor-tieldB in his vicinity 
in the previous &11. He writes : ' * One farmer said that in thrashing the clover all that 
came was nearrly clear weevil (as they call them).'' He writ'Os farther : *'A few yean 
ago I sent yoa (Packard) some eggs that were destroying the bearing wood (canes) 
in my father's vineyard, which yon determined to be Ocoanthus niveusy adding that 
they hatched in May. Since then I have had the wood trimmed and burned before 
that time (first of May), and now can say that the result is very favorable, as I should 
estimate a reduction of from one-third to one-half as many injured as formerly." 
[L.F.6: 148.] ^ 

On February 18th, Caleb Oilman, Meddybemps, Washington County, Maine, reported 
that he had nsed a soap-washing at the time of the hatching of eggs of Apple-tree- 
bark lioo successfully in the destruction of the pests. [L^P. 6: 159.] 

On Fobniary 14th, Charles Mohr, of Mobile, Ala., sent larvse of Diatraa $aecharit say- 
ing : *' The crops of the sugar-cane on the seaboard in this county have been almost 
entirely destroyed by it last season, as w^ell as the season before. As far as I could 
learn it is only since the past thred, or at the most four, years that this enemy to the 
sugar-cane has made its appearance in this region, proving worse with every succeed- 
ing one. It affects mostly the crop raised in the lowlattads, with a heavier subsoil, 
richer in vegetable matter, and more or less deficient of drainage. The cane grown 
in the porous sandy soil of the rolling nine lands has so far sufifered but little from it. 
The larva commences its borings in the latter part of the sunmier, when the lower 
Joints begin to ripen ; before reaching their full growth and maturity the canes are 
perforated to a oegree which causes them to be broken down under every gale of 
wind." [L.F.6: 216.] 

On February 2Dth, Prof. A. £. Blount, of the Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colo^ 
sent specimens of Lygceus reclivatuSf with the statement that they live and seenxJio 
hatch all winter and summer in the cracks of brick and stone houses. * ^ It flies readily 
all winter in buildings where there are fires. I have seen it eat nothing but dead flies 
and mosquitoes." In response to a statement of the known habits of this insect, PrD» 
fessor Blount asserts, March 13, '' I am prepared to state on my own observation, and 
on other reliable information, that 'm^bug' lives upon dead flies, mosqutt'Oes, and 
other insects found in and abont buildings. No less than 50 males and females live 
and breed in my room the year round. Tnejjr come out from the cracks 'of my floor 
any day to see me, and from certain cracks m the brick wall outside they come and 
bask all day in the sunshine. They have no vegetable within reach at all. I can find 
nothing in my room they toucli or ipjure, nor have I or any one of us ever seen a 
single specimen away from the buildings. Young specimens can be seen all winter 
long in my room. When trodden upon they made a 'fearful' grease spot." JL. F. 6 : 
465,605.] 

On March 84th, J. B. Quill, statistical correspondent, Burlington, Coffey County, Kan- 
sas, sent specimens of pease infested by Bruchus pisi, which haid been contained in seed 
sent out m>m the Department. [L. F. 5: 607. ] 

Miss M. £. Murtfeldt, of Kirk wood, Mo., gave the following notes of the season: 

'* Cutworms were not so numerous as usual early in the spring, but few of the hiber- 
nating larve probably surviving the excessive cold and the changeable weather of 
Februarv and March. The succeeding brood, however, was quite destructive to early 
vegetables. 

*^Tenthredinid pests were very numerous during May and June. The Rose slug, the 
Raspberry slug, and the Plum slug were unconmionly destructive. The foliage of the 
oaks and willows was also much iijured by the various speoies peculiar to these trees. 

'* The 13-year brood of Cicadas were heard abont the 20th of May, and the woods 
resounded with their peculiar music until nearly the last of June. About one-third of 
the specimens examined were of the small form (C. coMtnii, Fisher). The not«s pro- 
duced by this variety are much finer and shriller than those of the normal fortn, but 
I was not able to observe any othtr diiferenco. The punctures wore made mostly in 
the oaks, the undergrowth being injured more than the large trees. Some of the largo 
orchards suffered slightly, but as a rule the insect did little damage in this locality. 

"The Great £lm-ieaf beetle (i/otta«»ta oaryli, Say) appeared in unusual numbers 
toward the end of June. It is strongly attracted by lamp-light and would swarm into 
brightly-lighted rooms of evenings in such numbers as to be a great nuisance. Its 
larvie were to be found on the slippery elms during the month of tfuly, and I afterward 
observed a few leaves on the American elm skeletonized in the characteristic manner 
of this insect; but as I did not find it at the work, I cannot be positive that it l^ds 
upon any other species of UlmiiB than /ulra. 

''As there were no peaches and very few cherries and plums the Plum curcnlio had 
but little opportunity to multiply, and even the few st^ne fruit« that we had were not 
much aflectcKl. A year ago I bred several specimens of this curcolioffrom goosebeniea. 
ITiere were none or the latter, however, this season. 

* * The Codling moth also was rather rare this year in Kirkwood. It would aeem tiiat 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 67 

the beat «nd droaght of July and Aagnst mnst hare prevented, in a great measure^ 
the emergenoe of tne second brood of moths, since the later apples, thoagh otherwise 
of poor qnmlity, are almost freo from worms. 

^^So iar as I was able to observe there were, this year, uo Phylloxera galls on the 
leavee of those varieties of grapes usually most subject to them, and a thorough ex- 
unination, in September, of the roots of Clinton, Taylor, Concord, and Herbemont 
failed to reveal either the insects themselves or any evidence of their recent work. 
Perbapa the long-continued drought was inimical to them. 

''The Grape-berry moth (EudentU botranttf Schiff) was very abundant, causing nearly 
ill of the so-called ''rof that appeared in this vicintty this year. 

**P9jf(Aamorpha epimenU (Drury) and the Grape vine Plume injured the buds and 
foliage to some extent early in the summer, while Procria Americanu and Detmia macu- 
la^ were very destructive to it later in the season. I have found the last-mentioned 
insect especially partial to the leaves of the Herbemont and similar thin, smooth- 
leaved Tinea. Upon these its ravages were very severe, scarcely a leaf escaping. Pyre- 
thmm iK>wder will kill the larva when it can be made to reach it, but dusting the 
eataideof the leaves within which the depredators are securely folded is an expensive 
lad prodileas process. 

"All species of Blister beetles were, this summer, conspicuous by their absence. 
Plants that nenally suifer greatly from the attacks of the Margined and Striped beetles 
i^jAeautA dmer^a and E, vitUita) enjoyed this season, in this locality, complete immunity, 
I have not been able to discover the cause, unless it was due to the drought." 



SILK CULTURE. 

The correspondence and labor of the Division in the promotion of 
Ailk culture this year has consisted in the distribution of eggs im- 
ported from Japan for the purpose and the conduction. of a large cor- 
reepoDdence with persons inquiring about the adaptation of their several 
climates or localities and of several kinds of trees to the prosecution of the 
industry, as well as making numerous other inquiries upon the subject. 

The disMbution of eggs was begun in the last week of January, 
(1882), but unfortunately a number of the eggs were already hatching 
when we received them from Japan, owing to their exposure to heat 
while on the way, and they continued hatching for a considerable time 
afterwards. 

As yet few returns from the experimenters of this year have come in. 
The repK>rt« received indicate goo<l success wherever eggs were kept 
onhatched until the leaves of the food plants were sufficiently developed 
for use, and no especial mishap befell the brood. 

Mr. L. S. Crozier, who established himself at Corinth, Miss., during this 
iscal year, as manager of the Corinth, Miss., Silk Company, has been the 
most constant of our corre8iK)ndents respecting silk culture. In a letter 
of January 14, 1882, after relating his experience as a silkculturist, 
first in France, then as director of an investigating conuiiittee, sent out 
by the Agricultuial Society of the Depaitment of Anl^che to visit the 
iievaot in search of healthy breeds of Silkworms (where during eight 
jcars he visited Turkey, Wallachia, Asia Minor, Syria, the Caucasus, 
Persia, and Japan), and finally, during ten years, in Kansas, Missouri, 
North Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi, and elsewhere, he says that he 
has come to the conclusion that none of the silk-growing countries he 
hag visited is better adapted to silk culture than our Middle and Southern 
States, adding : 

Onr neled silks were sold In Ard^he, France, where the hest of the world are 
rsisfd and prepared for Lyons weavers, at 130 francs per kilogram, our cocctous at dC 
per kilogram, tne highest price paid tliat year for first-rat^) Kilks and cocoons. Mv 
cocoons and silks exhibited at the Paris Exhibition in lb78, in competition with all 
the best products of the world, caused many Italian and French firms (silk millers, 
ot daslen in nlkwom eggt) to offer me the best prices of the time lot our 



C8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

gooils, eggs, cocoons, and reeled silks — white, yellow, and citron-oolored. Can we 
not now say not only that silk growing is a success in the United States, bat 
that American-grown silk is of first quality when raised under ^ood oondi^onst 
Why, we attain the prices of $d to $9.50 per pound in competition with Japanese and 
Chinese silks worth from $5.50 to $2.50 per pound. 

And then he goes into speculation about the future, where we will not 
follow him. He counsels, however, that silk culture should only be 
taken up as an addition to general farming. 

Mr. Edward Fasnach, of lialeigh, N. C, in a letter of January 27th: 

You are doubtless aware that the "Systbme Pasteur" has proven so effective a pre- 
'^ention against the pebrine that silkworm eggs produced by this method are giving 
Very satisiactory results, so much so, indeed, that with the improved and more intel- 
ligent mode of rearing the silkworm, results are now obtained that far surpass those 
of former years when the pehrint had not made its appearance. The consequence is 
the demand for foreign eggs is growing loss every year, and the American silk grower 
must needs more than ever look for a home market. This brings to mind your sugges- 
tion for the establishmeot of a filature so ably set forth in your admirable pampmet. 
There is a wealth in our numberless mulberries and Osage orange growing almost every- 
where in our broad land, that awaits only tbe filature, and, like the magic wand, it 
needs but to *' strike the rock and bid it flow.'' 

ASSOCIATIONS. 

A ladies' association was formed at Spring Hill, near Mobile, Ala., 
this spring (1882). Miss A. C. Gronn, secretary. 

The Women's Silk Culture Association of California was organized in 
1881 to promote the revival of the silk interest in California. It dis- 
tributed circulars of information, and eggs, and mulberry cuttings to 
those persons who were willing to undertake the rearing of silkworms. 
The new year's issue (1882) of the Sacramento Record-Union contains a 
report by Mr. Theodore Hittell, president, Jide Jeanne C. Carr. 

We believe it was under the auspices of this association that an offer 
was made through the newspapers to send 400 or 500 eggs to any part 
of the country upon application to Felix Gillet, Nevada City, Cal., in- 
closing a three-cent postage stamp. 

The Women's Silk Culture Association of the United States, whose 
office is at 1328 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pa., was organized in 
April and incorporated May 31, 1880, for the purpose of establishing 
" Industrial schools for instruction in the art of silk culture, and in the 
art of preparing silk for manufacturing uses; and the est^iblishmeut of 
auxiliary associations for such instruction throughout the United States." 
During the year following it« organization it brought the subject of silk 
culture before several other associations promotive of agriculture, be- 
sides giving instruction in rearing worms and reeling silk at its rooms 
in Philadelphia, and during the pa^t year it has distributed a large 
number of eggs, mulberry trees, and pamphlets, bought cocoons, from 
which it procured the reeling of the silk, and held an extensive and 
well-attended fair in Saint George's Hjill, at the corner of Thirteenth 
and Arch streets, Philadelphia. To this fair we contributed several 
cases of goods illustrating native and foreign reeled silk and cocoons. 

As an earnest of the encouragement whiclTthe association tenders to 
native producers of silk, and of the practicability of silk culture in all 
its branches in this country, the association procured the manufacture 
of a silk dress for Mrs. Garfield from silk raised in fourteen States, 
reeled at the rooms of the association, and dyed and woven by Hamil 
& Booth at their mills in Paterson, N. J. 

An institution, under the name of the American Silk Exchange, was 
incorporated in New York on the 9th of May, 1882, and proposed to 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 69 

open formally for bufilncss on the 20th of that month. ^'Its object is to 
organize a market for American silk prodacers, and to enconrage silk- 
worm culture in this country." The president says that if the mills will 
uotbny the silk which the exchange will have for sale it proposes to 
start a mill of its own. To attract pablic attention the exchange pre- 
pared to open, on the 5th of June, and to continue until September, a 
silk exhibition, at which every step in the culture of sOk would be 
shown, the cocoons being unwound and the silk spun and woven in 
thehalL 

SALES OF EGGS AND OOOOONS. 

Mrs. John Lucas, formerly secretary, and now president, of the 
Woman's Silk Culture Association of the United States, 1328 Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia, Pa., wrote, March 11, 1882 : 



I find it difficult to discover the statistics yon need for your rexK)rty bnt I feel 
med there are some qoite large lots (of cocoons) that we know have been ndsed 
that the colturists keep back, Loping to obtain a higher market at the great silk de- 
pots of France. • • * The sales of waste cocoons have been about 130 ponndSy 
the priee paid $1 per ponnd. Some inferior and stained and bi&dly cared whole 
eoooons broa^bt 50 cents to 75 cents per pound. Of whole cocoons we have received 
aboQt 250 pounds. Wo have reeled lOO pounds of whole cocoons, for which we have 
paid from 90 cents to $1.15 per ponnd. Some few choice cocoons here brought more, 
18 we gave a price for them as samples. Your llj^nres of $1 to $1.50 I think are 
quite lafe, bat we could not pay $1.50 per pound and then pay $1 per day to reel and 
eoTCT ooraelvee. You see this $1 per day and city expenses is not a criterion for home 
iDdoitrf. • • • 

(Additional) 30 pounds of inferior waste purchased ; 10 pounds of whole cocoons, 30 
ounces of eggs, and 60 pounds of waste produce at our rooms. About 25 pounds of 
reeled silk obtained from the 100 pounds of cocoons reeled. 

EEPOBTS. 

Many of the reports received from persons to whom eggs were sent 
eootain no information which is of service for instruction. 

Mr. Andrew J. Coen, of Jackson Station, Daviess County, Missouri, 
reported (February 1, 1882) tliat most of the eggs sent him in 1881 
were hatched when received, and in the absence of any proper food, the 
trees not having leaved out at the time, he tried feeding the worms on 
cabbage leaves ; at first they seemed to relish that food, but soon began 
dying, and all died. He only kept one egg unhatched until the proper 
season, and from that he obtained a cocoon. 

Mr. G. Damkohler, of Clarence, Shelby County, Missouri, writes 
(February 4, 1882). that he fed the Silkworms only on Osage orange, and 
knew notiiing of tne business except what he had learned from the man- 
ual Mr. E. Fasnachyof Ealeigh, N. C, pronounced his silk superior. 

Mr. S. Wrotnowski, of Baton Rouge, La., an experienced silk cul- 
tonst* formerly proprietor of a magnanerie in Puy-de-Ddme, France, sent 
a ttioael report May — , 1882, of his experiments in raising worms on the 
Uofnu multicaulis: 

Taking tbe product of one day's hatcbing (February 7), keeping them at a temper- 
itnre ranging between 22P and^28^ C. (72P and 82<^ F.), with a moisture between 60® 
and 70^ C, and feeding them from four to six times per day on leaves of Marus multi- 
esulw, they entered their second age on the 7th day, their third on the 13th, their 
Iborih on the 20th, their fifth on the 28th, and mounted to spin on the 35th day, March 
13. The moths reserved for seed came out of the cocoons and began to lay eggs April 
1; most of the cocoons were smothered in a stove at a temperature of 90° C. (194° F.;. 

Dorlng aU the time of rearing no one of the worms died or was sick, but all came to 
maturity in good health. Tliey made the best cocoons that can be made and the dnest 
Wlity of siUi:, as you can judge by the sample that I have the honor to send von bv 
wis day's mail in a paper box. By this experience and another, made in 1860, witli 



i 



70 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

the saHM enccess, I can annul the prejudice asainst multicaulis^ that its leaves are too 
vratery and are unheiilfchy for the worms, an<f conseciuently cannot ])rr>duce good silk 
This is completely enouetius. If during looj; rain the leaves iKiComo t/oo wet I nassed 
them between dry cloths and sprinkled with powder made of leaves dried in tne snn 
or on a stove; if they had been gathered some time and were faded or dry, I sprinkled 
them with water and mixed and then served them to the worms. 

While a student, about the year 1839, in the French institution, "Fenne exp^ri- 
mentale des Borgeries de Senart/^ near Paris, of which M. Camille de Beauvais was at 
that time director, we endeavored to obtain cocoons from mulHcaulia, but the frost 
always destroyed the leaves, and the trees in that climate cannot endure the fixjst. 
But, here, in several States of the 8outh, they prosper admirably ; we have many large 
trees two feet in diaii»eter. 

About four years ago I planted multicaulis cuts, and have now the finest trees of 4 
Inches in diameter. They are thickly covered with large leaves, many 6 by 8 inches, 
easy to gather and abundant. 

No frost ever hurts them here, and, in conclusion, I believe that the imulUcauUi 
leaves are the best and most prolitablo of all mulberries, the healthicMt for the worms, 
and produce the best cocoou.s and the finest <|uality of silk. • • * Being conver- 
sant with this industry, I am willing to give help and service to persons who wish to 
engage in tliis business. 

Mr. H. T. Yose, Sj^racuse, Otoo County, Nebraska, reiwrted, June 10, 
1882, that tbe worms were doing tiuely and were tlieu nearly ready to 
spin, having been fed on the Bois d'arc, orOsage orange. He says: "The 
silk made by the worms from this feed may have a si>ecial value for some 
fabrics." 

E. H. Benedict, IMarietta, Ohio, reported failure, and tbat the egg^ 
were niireliable, June 12, 1882. Only about 150 eggs hatched, and the 
worms from these soon died, not being vigorous. These were of the 
Japanese race which we received and sent out without name, but which 
proved to be yellow. Mr. Benedict fed them on mulberry, and reports 
the temperature at which they were kept as 75^. Fortunately he has 
some eggs, raised by himself, which are of a choice varietj^, and which 
he wishes to sell. 

Under date of June 2, 1882, Mr. John 0. Andrus, of Manchester, Scott 
County, Illinois, sent samples of cocoons raised from eggs furnished by 
the Department, with the following report : 

Abont three-fourths of the white and two-thirds of the yellow eggs hatched. None 
were lost in ditferent molting periods ; six weut into the chrysalis stage without 
spinning. They were all raised on Onage orange leare^, A lady friuud of some seventy-five 
years of age is reeliug uicely the balance of the cocoons, after retaining quite a num- 
ber for eggs. 

This Huiull ex])erinient has satisfied me that we have the food ^oing to waste in our 
State to raine all the silk needed in the United State's; all that is needed is to briog 
this industry before the people when we have more surplus labor than at present. 
Still, I think quite a large ainount of cocoons could be raised if a market could be ob- 
tained for them. * » * The ease of gathering the food from our miles of hedges is 
nothing in comparison to the labor of doing the name with the mulberry. 

Mrs. Theodore H. Hittell, corresponding secretary of the California 
Silk-Growers' Association, writes. May 4, 1882 : 

We take pleasure in forwarding to you the first annual report of tbe California Silk 
Culture Association. We hope you will be gratified in seeing the progress we have 
mfiAe iu our eflbrts to introduce horn? silk culture into our Golden State. 

The idea upon which our efforts haVe been based origiuatoil with you. From the 
very start, acting upon your suggestions, we were satistied that silk culture could be 
made a sutM-ess amongst us, and that its success would be one of the greatest benefits 
that could be conferred up(m our people. The example of France, for example, shows 
of what incalculable advantage it may, with judicious management, be made to the 
prosperity and welfare of a country. And we hope the time is not far distant when 
all tne men of wealth and influence throughout the country and the govenneut itaelf 
will recognize its importance and take the proper measures to make it one of our great 
national industries. 

It seems to us that the future success of silk manufacture in the United States de- 
pends upon the home production of the raw material. In this view it is important 



REPOBT OF THE ENTOMOiiOGIST. 71 

• 
to call attention to the formation of the misohief threatening the silk gnild of Yoko- 
hama, which is deecribed as follows: 

**The Chinese and Japanese now have snfficient interconrse with the United States 
and Europe to avail themselyes of any ' tricks of trade* which they are likely to learn 
from the astnter Caucasian portion of the human race, and to such tuition may largely 
he ascribed the formation of the Japanese silk guild. 

**It is Just possible that the not only non-resisting but acquiescent English silk-Iwiy- 
ers of Yokohama may, for anything but worthy motives, be in league with the native 
Silk broken and merchants. To us at a distance it does seem pasajn^ strange that 
the guild shonld obtain any encouragement from a class for whose obvious advantage 
it is to keep the silk trade as open and unhampered as possible. 

**On a consideration of the whole question, the restrictions sought to be imposed by 
the guild, the probability of the Chinese following the example of the Japanese by 
lonmng a sinMlar obstmctive guild at every port, it is evidently the duty of silk-con - 
■aming countries to aim at beintf independent as quickly as possible of China and 
JapaJD for raw material.'' 

It n clear from the foregoing that it is of prime importance to the silk-mannfactur- 
hig interest of the country to encourage home production ; and that whatever aid in 
the vay of protection that may be necessary to start American silk culture and put 
it on a firm basis is a matter of national concern. We are able with a little encour- 
agement to becoLuo, and we ought to be, entirely independent of Japan and China. 
Ererr spot where the mnlbesry will grow and the silkworm thrive, from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, from Canada to Mexico, shonld be availed of. It is daily becoming 
Biore expensive and inconvenient to import the raw material from Japan and China, 
aad we lind by almost every mail new accountb of additional obstacles being placed in 
tbe way of oar manufacture in those countries. Under these circumstances is it not 
plain that the Interest of the silk manufacturers throughout the country, and we may 
aid of the conntry itself, Are involved in our efforts to naturalize the production of the 
nw Batecial t We ought to be aided in onr start, because it is evident that the re- 
■ak will be of incalculable benefit. Every fiber of silk used in the United States can 
eaflly be and ought to be produced within the circuit of the United States. 

Tat Yokohama Gazette, of November 24, says : 

''The silk war has come to a most lame and 'impotent conolnsion.' The establish- 
■at of a eentral silk warehouse htm been agreed to ; the foreign associations have 
Tirtoally yielded almost everything, and the Ben go Kilto Niadzukansko has secured 
ill the advantages it was formed to obtain. Nominally the trade reverts^ to some ex- 
tent, to its original statns, but in reality it stands on a very different footing. Silk 
buyers wiQ find Lhis out before they are many years <>lder ; in the mean time let them 
CDjoy their dearly-bought treaty of peace as best they may. The Japanese have 
^bably learned a lesson which hereafter they may perhaps be able to turn to accoimty 
vbich is that foreign determination, firmness of purpose^ or whatever else it may be 
edkd, is not impregnable to all assaults. Continual dripping wears away a stone. 
The simile is an old one, but it holds good in this case. Japanese have only to stand 
•at kmg enough and foreign opposition will melt away as surely as snow does in ann- 
ihine." 

We have taken the liberty to call your attention to the above facts and considera- 
tion for tbe purpose of soliciting your further efforts in securing the establishment of 
Aaxricjui silk culture. ^ 

We beg that your infiuence may be exerted in preventing any legislation on the 
■ibject wliicli may hamper the incipient industry, and in securing such legislation 
la nuy foster and protect it. 

The mannfactnrers shonld be made to see that their interests are with the en- 
eomgement of onr efforts. And in our endeavor to make this plain to them, and to . 
odist their sympathy and assistance in securing the object of our association, we ask ' 
the aid of your will and influence and a continuation of your powerful advocacy. 

We shonld be glad to hear any suggestions yon may have to make upon the subject 
tf this commnnication or upon the subject of silk culture in general. 

EXPEBIENCE IN 1882 AT THE DEPAETMENT. 

In tliis Division this year (1882) exx>eriments were made upon several 
races of silk- worms. 

A quantity of eggs which were sent us at two diflferent times, loose 
in boxes, by the "Corinth (Miss.) Silk Company, L. S. Crozier, mana- 
ger," 08 of the yellow race from Cevennes, were rapidly hatching when 
received, and although somewhat checked in their growth for a time 
were only saved by allowing the worms to begin feeding on lettuce 



72 REPOBT OF THE COMHISSIONEB OF AGBICULTUKE. 

• 

leaves about the 1st of April. This food was continued for uearly two 
weeks before mulberry buds appeared. After that, for some time, tbe 
buds had to bo hashed. Before good>sized leaves could be obtained 
most of the worms of this lot had died. Those which survived were so 
much retarded by the cool weather that they occupied about two months 
in getting their growth, and formed their cocoons about the end of 3Iay 
and first of June quite irregularly. This is a striking illustration of 
the influence of the food and temperature on the duration of insect life, 
and of the comparative worthlessness of isolated data or anything bat 
averages in considering the subject The cocoons formed by these 
worms were large, of a saffron yellow color. The moths were amongst 
the earliest to emerge, and such eggs as were not put away in a cool 
place began to hatch about a week after they were laid. 

Another lot, received from the same parties, as of the black race, had 
a history essentially the same as that of the yellow race. The worms of 
this lot were about equally of two sorts, the one being indistinguishable 
throughout in appearance from the yellow race, and the other being 
darker colored. They also were fed on mulberry. Their cocoons did 
not differ from those of the yellow race. From the light variety of the 
worms about an equal number of the two sexes of the moths was 
obtained j from the dark variety nearly all were males. 

A portion of the lot imported from Japan for distribution was re- 
tained, and divided into two parts, one of which was fed on Osage orange 
and the other on mulberry. These were of the sulphur-yellow varie^. 
They also were too far advanced when received by us, owing to the ex- 
posure to which they had been subjected in transportation from Japan, 
but were not allowed to hatch until the third week in April. The worms 
fed on mulberry were more precocious than those fed on the Osage 
orange, and produced a large and gpod crop, but nearly all that were 
fed on Osage orange died after their last molt and just as they were pre- 
sumed to be ready to make their cocoons. 

Mr. E. Fasnach, of Raleigh, N. 0., sent a very few eggs ote black breed 
from Thibet, which were not allowed to hatch until about the first of 
May, and were carefully fed on mulbeiry leaves. These worms, like the 
yellow French ones, presented two appearances, one jwrtion oeing of 
the ordinary color but the others becoming ivory black after the second 
molt. The cocoons w^ere also various, most of them being like those of 
tlie French breeds, but one or two being snmller and pure white. This 
experience would indicate that this black Thibet breed is made up of 
the darker or black individuals of various other breeds, and that there 
is a strong tendency to atavism or reversion to the normal pale coloring. 
It may be stated here that certain individuals of all races show a tend- 
ency to become dark, and thus revert to what were undoubtedly the an- 
costral colors of the species. 

A lot <^f eggs received from Miss L. L. Buster, of Somerset, Pulaski 
Connty, Kentucky, was hatched for experiment, and the worms fed on 
Osago ornnge. AVhen in their fourth stage some of them showed signs 
of disease, and the whole lot was removed to an attic, where it received 
invguluT care. As the worms approached the spinning point they 
bee ame covered with a fetid, green slime. They were remoted imme- 
diately froiii their old trays and the trays cleared of filth, but although 
the slime dried away it left them discolpred, and they died rapidly, de- 
caying almost immediately. The first worms which began making co- 
coons died and rotted before their work was completed, and the oUiers 
made no l>eginniug. The race was evidently diseased. 

W.e had worms from three of our own lots carried through their trans* 



EEPOET OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 73 

formations. These were partly of a Japanese white race and partly of 
a Japanese yellow race, both of which we first fed on Osage orange in 
3S72, and have kept on the plant exclusively every year since. They 
both did well, the white race doing the better. We have been greatly 
interested to find that the yellow race, which in the beginning made 
cocoons of a bright sulphnr-yellow color, have in the course of this 
feeding on Osage orange, come to make cocoons that are only yellowish- 
white, showing, so far as the color of the silk is concemexl, a marked 
improvement over their progenitors : the cocoons, moreover, are fully 
equal, in texture and firmness, to either the white or the bright yellow. 
The white cocoons firom the Osage orange were fully equal if not supe- 
rior to the average of those from mulbeiry-fed worms. 

NEW MT7LBERBY TREE. 

Mr. Abram Thiessen, P. O. box 245, Fairbnry, Nebr., issued an adver- 
tisiDg dicolar in the fall of 1881, from which I make a few extracts. 

He imported frt>m the German colonies in Southern Eussia what he 
calls the '^ Ganeasian mulberry tree,'' which he says grows very well in 
the Western States of North America. In Jefferson County, Nebraska, 
he raised trees which became 8 inches in diameter and 10 feet high in 
sii years: 

Tbe ksveflof the tree are the beet for raising silk cocoons wiliich are of first qaality. 
Tbe alkworms do better here than they did in Southern Russia. • • • 

On mj father's farm, Colony Schcenaa, in Southern Rassia, there were trees of thirty 
yem' growth which reached a height of 35 feet, and the trunks about 5 feet from the 
pmna were 13 feet in circumference. * • * 

Cuttings don't grow very well except with the greatest care. • • • The young 
tiMi should be started by seedlings, • • • from the 1st of October up to the mid- 
dle of May. Spring planting is Mtter than fall planting. ** • • 

Tbe tree thrivea in every soU, even in marsh land. Only in alkali soil the tree gets 
■ek and dies. Ftom Southern Dakota down to Texas the Caucasian mulberry nas 
pown well eTeiywhere. 

BUSINESS YENTUBES: SALE OF EGGS. 

Several parties have nndertaken business ventnres in connection with 
the silk-producing industry. Foremost amongst these has b^n Mr. L. 
S. Crozier, of Corinth, Miss., already referred to, and who offered mul- 
berry trees and silkworm eggs for sale, and offered to buy all the co- 
coons sent to him produced by worms raised on proper kinds of mul- 
beiry trees. 

Abraham Thiessen, P. O. box 245, Fairbnry. Nebr., offers 1,000 silk 
ejSgs for 25 cents ; one ounce for |3 ; 1,000 muloerry seed for 25 cents. 
Wfn have mulbeiry seed to sell by the pound in the fall of 1882. Ho 
'rfTfrs seedling mulberry trees from 4 inches high at 2 cents each and 
tlO per 1,000; 8 feet high at 35 cents each, $20 per hundred and $175 
per thousand, delivered free of charge at the depot in Fairbury. He 
bail reels, but does not offer to buy cocoons. 

The Corinth (Miss.,) Silk Company, L. S. Crozier, manager, offers 1,000 
es:gs for 81, 1 ounce for $6: mulberry trees from one year old at $10 per 
bnndred, two years old at $15 per hundred, and mulberry cuttings at $2 
per hundred. It offers to pay cash at Lyons prices for all good cocoons 
received. 

Tlie Woman's Silk Culture Association of the United States, 1328 
Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pa., offers 1,000 eggs for $1, J ounce for 



74 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

$3, 1 onnoe for $5 ; lower in quantities. It has no mulberry seed or trees 
for sale. It has established a filature, and offers to pay for oocoons ac- 
cording to the market value of the silk obtained therefrom when reeled 
and prepared for manufacturing uses; also to receive and sell at the 
best market prices all silk waste that may be raised, including pierced 
cocoons, floss silk, and wild silk. A commission of 10 per cent. ax>on 
all sales will be charged by the association. 

A " chart and instructions for silfc growers,'' by W. C. Kerr, State 
geologist of North Carolina, can be obtained by applying to the associa- 
tion, inclosing 10 cents postage. 

Messrs. McKittrick & Co., Second street, Memphis, Tenn., offer to pay 
" more than Lyons prices" for cocoons. 

Messrs. Virion des Lauriers & Co., 201 East Sixty-third street, New 
York, imported and sold large quantities of eggs at reasonable prices. 

SUltfMARY OF THE SILK-GROWING QUESTION. 

To meet the increasing demands for information, a second edition of 
our Manual (Special Report No. 11) has been issued, the preface of which 
we reproduce below as a summary of the present condition and pros- 
pects of the silk-producing industry in this country : 

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

That there exists Inst now a very general and widespread int«reflt in the subject ot 
Bilk culture iu the United States is manifest from the recent large increase in the cor- 
respondence of the Entomological Division in relation thereto, and from the demand 
made for this Manual. To avoid the disappointment that is sure to follow exnffge- 
rated and visionary notions on the suhject, it may be well here to emphasize the lacts 
that the elements of successful silk cuUuro on a large scale are at the present time 
entirely wanting in this country ; tliat the prolitjj of silk culture are always bo small 
that extensive operations by organized bodies must prove unprofitable where capital 
finds so many more lucrative lields for employment; that extensive silk raising is 
fraught with dangers that do not beset less ambitions operations; that silk culture, 
in short, as shown in this Manual, is to be recommended only as a light and pleasant 
employment for those members of the farmer's household who either cannot do or are 
not engaged in otherwise remunerative work. 

The want of experience is a serious obstacle to silk culture in this country; for 
while, as is shown in the following pages, the mere feeding of a certain number of 
worms and the preparation of the cocoons for market are simple enough operations, 
requiring neither physical strength nor special mental finalities, yet skill and experi- 
ence count for much, and the bet^t results cannot be attained without them. In Eu- 
rope and Asia this experience is traditional and inherited, varying in different sec- 
tions both as to methods and races of worm employed. With the great variety of 
Boil, climate, and conditions prevailing in this country, experience In the same lines 
will also vary, but the general principles indicated in this Manual should govern. 

The ^eater value of labor here as compsured with labor in the older silk-growing 
countries has been in the past a most serious obstacle to silk culture in the United 
States, but conditions exist to-day that render this obstacle by no means insnx>eTable. 
In the first place comparative prices, as so often quoted, are misleading. The girl who 
makes only twenty or thirty cents a day, iu France or Italy, does as well, because of 
the relatively lower prices of all other commodities there, as she who earns three or 
four fold as much here. Again, the conditions of life are such in those countries that 
every woman among the agricultural classes, not absolutely necessary in the house- 
hold, finds a profitable avenue for her labor in field or factory, so that the time given 
to silk-raisin^r must be deducted from other profitable work in which she may be em- 
ployed. WiUi us, on the contrary, there are thousands — aye. hundreds of thousands — 
of women who, from our very conditions of life, are unable to labor in the field or 
factory, and have, in short, no means, outside of household duties, of converting 
labor into capital. Tlie time that such might give to silk culture would, therefore, 
be pure gain, and in this sense the cheap-labor argument loses nearly ail its force. 
This holds more particularly true in the larger portion of the South and West that 
are least adapted to the production of merchantable dairy products or where bee- 
keeping and poultry-raiaing are usually confined to the immediate wants of thehoue* 
hold. 



HEPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIgT. 75 

Tbe want of a ready market for the cocoons is now, as it always has heen, the most 
SN'iooa obatacle to be overconai^ aqd the oue to which all iuterested iu establisliiu^ 
eilk culture Bhould flr^it direct their attention. Ignore this, and efforts to establish 
the industry are bound to fail, a*» they have failed in the past. A pennanent market 
ODce established, and the other obstacles indicated will slowly, but surely, Tanish as 
mow before the coming spring;. Owinff to the prevalence of disease in Europe, there 
grew lip a oonaiderable demand for silkworm eggs in this country, so that several 
{xmions found the production of these eggs quite iirofitable. Large quantities are yet 
shipped across the continent fmm Japan each winter; but this demand is, in its 
nature, tramdent and limited, and with the improved Pastenr method of selection, 
sad prsTention of disease, silk-raisers are again producing their own eggs iu Europe. 
Bilk cultare must depend for its growth, therefore, on the production of cocoons, and 
tbe^ will find no remnnerative sale except where the silk can be reeled. I find no 
rpason to change tbe views expressed relative to the part this Department might take 
in soeeoring silk eultnrc through Congressional aid; for, however just and desirable 
direct protection to the industry may be by the imposition of an import duty on 
revled silk, no such protection has yet been given by Congress, and silk falatnres can- 
not l)c ftilly and profitably established without some fostering at the start. Undei' a 
beavT protective tarift* our silk manufactures have rapidly grown in importance and 
wraith, until, dnring the year 18^1 (according to the reports of W. C. Wyckoff, secre- 
tary of the Silk Aasociation of America), raw silk to the value of $11,936,865, and 
vsfttesilk and cocoons to the value of $769, IdCi- were imported at the ports of New 
Y<»rk and San Francisco, while our manufactured goods reached in valtie between 
^j,00O,OOO and $40,000,000. Now, the so-called raw silk thus imi»orted to the value 
of Dearly $12,000,000, is just as mueh a manufactured article as the woven goods, and 
its imputation free of duty is as much an encouragement to foreign manufacturers 
snd an impediment to home industry as the removal of the dut^*^ would be on the 
woren ^oods. Tbe aid that Congress, through this Department, shonld, in my judg- 
ment, give to silk-reeling, and thereby to silk-production, may be supplied by private 
ud beneroteDt means ; and I am pleased to leconl, in this oonooction, the recent 
effitftsof the Women's Silk Culture Association of California and the similar associa- 
tion in Philadelphia. Thin last organization has in operation a good hand-reel, worked 
bj a 9kille<l Italian, and the secretary, Mrs. John Lucas, offers to purchase cocoons at 
prices ranging from $1 to $1.50 per pound, according to quality. Messrs. Crozier A 
Co., of Corinth, Miss., and Messrs. McKittrick &, Co., of Memphis, Tonn., also adver- 
tue that they will jiurchase cocoons at Lyons prices. These are beginnings in the 
nght direction, but so far the efforts are warranted only in the former case through 
beaevolent support, and in the latter as an aid to a general businiBss of supplying eggs 
and mulberry trees. 

The obstacles which I have set forth are none of them permanent or insuperable, 
vfaile we have some a4l vantages not possessed by other countries. One of infinite 
importance la the inexhaustible supply of Osage orange (i^fac^ura aurauHaca) which 
oar thousands of mile« of hedges furnish ; another is the greater average intelligence 
and ingenuity of our people, who will not be content to tread merely in the ways of 
the Old World, but will be quick to improve on their methods; still another may be 
fotuid in tbe more spacious and commodious of the farmers' barns and outhouses. 
Every year's experience with the Madura confirms all that I have said of ita value as 
■Ikworm food. Silk which I have had reeled from a race of worms fed on it, now 
Inr eleven consecutive years, is of the very best quality, while the tests made at the 
reoent fiilk fair at PUiladelphia showed that in some instances a less weight of cocoons 
ipan by Afac/Kra-fed worms wa.H required for a pound of reeled silk than of cocoons 
from nTulberry-fed worms. 

C. V. R. 

Washixoton, D. C, February 20, 1882. . 

From the tenor of tbe correHpoQdence of the Division, and from tbe con- 
Bt^ntly increasing interest manifested in tbe subject since tbe above was 
ratten, we feel constrainetl to add a few other words of caution, more 
pttUcularly, since, iu obedience to the large demands for eggs, the De- 
partment has been urged to make very large purchases of these for dis- 
tribution. Under present circumstances we feel more disposed to che«k 
than to encourage the present growing interest in the subject, because 
of the conviction that tlie majority of persons underta,king the raising 
of silkworms are doomed to disappointment. Those who have eggs for 
sale or who are interested in the propagation and sale of mulberry cut- 
tings, and those who are intiueuced by philanthropic or benevolent 
Biouves, eau aftbrd, albeit from opx>osite motives, to stimulate in every 



76 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

possible way the interest naturally felt in the subject, but the disap- 
pointment, u|^der existing circumstances, is apt to be great in proportion 
as the interest increases, so that there is danger of a repetition of the 
many reactions from similar attempts in the past. 

This follows necessarily j&om the fact that the reeled silk is imiK>rted 
free of duty, while there is so very heavy a duty on the woven goods. 
There is a duty to-day on wools valued at 32 cents of 10 to 11 cente per 
pound, and 10 per cent, ad valorem. Still, in past years, as in 1846, wool 
has been imported free of duty. Now wool is essentially a raw product, 
having gone through no expensive process of manufacture ; yet what 
would our wool-growers throughout the country say if it were proxiosed 
to do away with the duty and allow wool to come in as reeled silk is now 
allowed to come in, free ? They would, no doubt, declare that such action 
on the part of Congress would give the death-blow to wool-growing in the 
United States. Silk culture is in just tiie condition that wool-growing 
would be in under such circumstances, and if there is any advantage to 
the country in the protection of one kind of silk-manufacture, tiien, 
logically, that other branch of silk-manufacture, namely, silk-reehng, 
which would add value to the coccoon and give encouragement to its 
production, should also be protected, and we earnestly recommend this 
subject to the serious consideration of the recently-appointed Tariff Com- 
mission. With proper duty on the ."raw silk,'' there would be no ques- 
tion of the steady and permanent growth of the silk culture in the United 
States ; this Department would l^ justified in making eftbrts to widely 
disseminate the eggs, and in the course of two or three years every dol- 
lar of the vast sums sent out of the country for **raw silk'' produced in 
foreign lands would find its way to the pockets of our own people. 



PYRE THRUM: ITS USB AS AN INSECTICIDE. 

[Pi»to» m, rv.i 

A large quantity of Pyrethrum seed has been distributed to corre- 
spondents. The seed was obtained either direct from x)arts of llussia and 
the Caucasus or from Trieste, Austria. The packages were accompanied 
by the following: 

CIRCULAR IN REFERBNCB TO PYRETHRUM : 

Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

biR : lu tbo spring of 1881 Prof. C. V. Riley, on behalf of the United States Entomo- 
logical Commission, distiibated the seed of Pyrethrum ro9eum and Pyrethrum dnerariafo' 
Hum to a number of correspondents in different parts of the country, and while the 
excessive drought rendered the experiments in growing it in many cases unsuccessful, 
yet the reports are sufficiently favorable to warrant further trial. 

The value of these plants in furnishiu'g a perfectly effectual insecticide, that cau be 
used against many of the worst insects ii^urious to our crops as weU as against house- 
hold and greenhouse pests, without danger to man or beast, has been fully established 
by experiments made under his direction during the past two years. The general 
cultiyation of the plants in all sections where they wiU succeed is, therefore, most de- 
sirable. A small package of seed, duly labeled, is sent to you from this Departinciit 
for trial, and the following statement regarding the nature, cultivation, aud ubc of 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 77 

tesplanta, prepared by the entomologist of the Department/ is sent to guide yon 
in neh trisl. I shall be glsd to have yoa report to the Department the result of joor 
•xpoimeDty and to aid in any other way within my power toward its suooess. 
Bcspectfnlly, 

GEO. B. LORING, 
CammisiUmer of Agriculture, 

HI8TOBT OF PTRBTHRUM. 

There sre Tery few data at hand concerning the discovery of the insecticide proper- 
ties of Pjrethram. The powder has heen in use for many years in Asiatic ooimtries 
looth of the Caucasus Mountains. It was sold at a highprice by the inhabitants, who 
ncccasfnlly kept its nature a secret until the beginning of this century, when an 
Annenian merchant, Mr. Jumtikoffl learned that the powder was obtained from the 
dried and pnlrerized flower-heads of certain species of Pyrethrnm growing abundantly 
in the mountain region of what is now known as the Kussian province of Transcau- 
CMia. The son of Mr. Jumtikoff began the manufacture of the article on a large scale 
in \iS^ after whicli year the Pyrethrum industry steadily grew, until to-day the export 
of the dried flower-heads represents an important item in the revenue of those coun- 
tries. 

Still leas seems to be known of the discovery and history of the Dalmatian species of 
Pyrethrnm {Pgrethrum cinerarurfolium). but it is probable that its history is very simi- 
Itf to that of the Asiatic species. At the present time the Pyrethrum flowers are con- 
ndered by far the mont Taluable products of the soil of Dalmatia. 

There ft also very little information published regarding either the mode of growth 
or the cultivation of Pyrethrum plants in their native home. As to the Caucasian 
^»eein we have reason to believe that they are not cultivated, at least not at the pres- 
ent time, statements to the contraiy notwithstanding.! The well-known Dr. Gustav 
Eadde, director of the Imperial Museum of Natural History at Tiflis, Transcaucasia, 
who is the highest living authority on everything pertaining to the natural history of 
that region, wrote us recently as follows : *' The onl^ species of its genus, Pyrethrum 
TDMKs^ which gives a good, efiective insect powder, is nowhere cultivated, but grows 
wild in the basal-alpine zone of our mountains at an altitude of from 6,000 to 8,000 
feet.^ From this it appears that this species, at least, is not cultivated in its native 
ko'i e, and Dr. Radde's statement is corroborated by a communication of Mr. 8. M. 
Hntton, vice-consul-general of the United States at Moscow, Russia, to whom we ap- 
^ied for seed of this species. He writes that his agents were not able to get more 
than about half a pound of the seed from any one person. From this statement it may 
be inferred that the seeds have to be gathered from the wild and not from the calti- 
vsted plants. 

As to the Dalmatian plant it is also said to be cultivated in its native home, but we 
eso get no definite information on this score, owin^ to the fact that the inhabitants 
IK TcfTj unwilling to give any information regarding a plant the product of which 
ihirj wish to monopolize. For similar reasons we have found great difficulty in ob- 
taining even small quantities of the seed of P. oinerarictfolium that was not baked or in 
ocfa«r ways tampered with to prevent germination. Indeed the people are so jealous 
of their plant that to send the seed out of the country becomes a serious matter, in 
which liie is risked. 

The seed of Pyrethrum roseum is obtained with less difficulty, at least in small quanti- 
ties, and it has even become an article of commerce, several nurserymen here, as well as 
is Enrope, advert imn^ it in their catalogues. The species has been snccessfnlly grown 
» a garden plant for its pale rose or bright pink flower-rays. Mr. Thomas Meehan, of 
Ocnuntown, Pa., writes us: ''I have had a plant of Pyrethrum ro$eum in my herba- 
(f*>m garden for many years past, and it holds its own without any care much better 
tbso many other things. I should say fh>m this ezx>erience that it was a plant which 
^nU very easily accommodate itself to onltnre anywhere in the United States.^ Petor 
Headerson, of New York, another well-known and experienced nurseryman, writes: 
*"! have grown the plant and its varieties for ten years. It is of the easiest cultiva- 
tioo, either by seeds or divisions. It now ramifies into a great variety of all shades, 
from white to deep crimson, double and single, perfectly hardy hero, and I think 
likely to be nearly evervwhere on this continent. " Dr. James C. Neal, of Archer. 
Ha., has also soccessfnlly grown Pyrethrum roaeum and many varieties thereof, ana 
other correspondents report similar favorable experience. None of them have found 
a special mode of cultivation necessary. In 1856 Mr. C. Willemot made a serious at- 

*From recent communioalions by him to the American NaturalieU 
t Heport Conuu. of Patents, 1857, Agriculture, p. 130. 



78 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AQRICULTURB. 

tempt to iDtroduoe and cultiTftte the plunt* on a large scale in France. As bis ac- 
count of the cultivation of Pjrethrum is the best we know of, we quote here hit expe- 
rieuco, with but few slight omissions: ''The soil best adapted to its culture should 
be composed of a pure j^onnd, somewhat silicoons and drv. Moisture and the pres- 
ence of clay is injurious, the plant being extremely sensitive to an excess of water, 
and wonld in such case immediately perish. A southern exposure is the most favor- 
able. The best time for putting the 8ee<1s in the ground is from March to April. It 
can be done even in the month of February if the weather will permit it. After the 
soil has been prepared and the seeds are sown they are covered by a stratnm of groond 
mixed with some vegetable mold, when the roller is slightly applied to it. Every five 
or six days the watering is to be renewed in order to facilitate the germination. At 
the end of about thirty or forty days the yonng plants make their appearance, and 
as soon as they have gained strength enough they are transplanted at a distance of 
abont 6 inches from each other. Three months after this operation they are trans- 
planted again at a distance of from- 14 to 20 inches, according to their strength. Each 
transplantation reonires, of course, a new wat-ering, which, however, should only be 
moderately applied. The blossoming of the Pyrethrum commences the second year 
toward the end of May, and continues to the end of September.'' Mr. Willemot also 
states that the plant is but slightly sensitive to cold, and needs no shelter even during 
severe winters. 

The above-quoted directions have reference to the cUmate of France, and as the cul- 
tivation of the plant in many parts of North America is yet an experiment, a great 
deal of independent Judgment must be nsed. The plants should be treated in the 
same manner as the ordinary Asters of the garden or other perennial C^mpositae. 

As to the Dalmatian plant, it is well known that Mr. G. N. Milco, a native of Dal- 
matia, has of late years sncoessfully cultivated Pyrtthrum cineraricpfolium near Stock- 
ton, Oal., and the powder from the California-grown plants, to which Mr. Milco has 
given the name of ''Bnhach,'' retains all the insecticide qualities, and is far superior 
to most of the imported powder, as we know from experience. Mr. Biilco gives the 
following advice about planting, advice which applies more partionlarly to the Pa- 
cific eoast: '' Prepare a small b^ of fine, loose, sanay, loamy soil, slightly mixed with 
fine manure. Mix tbe seed with drv sand and sow carefully on top of the bed. Then 
with a common rake ditittirb the surface of the ground half an inch in depth. Sprinkle 
the bed every evening until sprouted ; ^too much water will cause injury. After it is 
well sprouted watering twice a week is sufficient. When about a month old weed 
oarefmly. They should be transplanted to loamy soil duriqg the rainy season of winter 
or spring." 

Our own experience with Pjftethmni roBewin as well as Pyrethrmm dneraria/olium in 
Washington, I). C, has been so far quite satiaflftctor^. Some that we planted in the 
fall of 1680 came np quite well in the spring, and a few plants bloomed in November 
of 1881, though such blooming was doubtless abnormal. The plants from sound seed 
which we planted this spring are also doing finely, and as the soil is rather a stiff clay 
and the nuns were in early snmmer many and heavy, we conclude that Mr. Willemot 
has overstated the delicacy of the plants. We have o oserved further that the seed ofben 
lays a long time in the gronnd before germinating, and that it germinates beet when 
not watered too heavily. We think that the too rapid absorption of moisture often 
causes the seed to burn prematurely and rot, where slower absorption in a soil only 
tolerably moist affords the best oonaitions for germination. 

PREPABATION OF THB PLdUTTS FOB USB. 

In regard to manufacturing the powder, the flower-heads should be gathered during 
fine weather, when they are about to open, or at the time when fertilization takes 
place, as the essential oil that gives the insecticide qualities reaches, at this time, its 
greatest development. When the blossoming has ceased the stalks may be out within 
about four inches from the ground and utiuzed, being ground and mixed with the 
flowers in the proportion of one-third of their weight. Great care must be taken not 
to expose the nowers to moisture, or the rays of the sun, or still less to artificial heat. 
They should be dried under cover and hermetically closed up in sacks or other vessels 
to prevent untimely pulverization. The finer the fiower-heads are pulverized the 
more effectually the powder acts and the more economical is its use. Proper pul- 
verization in large quantities is best done by those who make a business of it and 
have special mill facilities. Lehn & Fink, of New York, have furnished us with 
the most satisfactory powder. For his own use the fanner can pulverize smaller 

•Mr. Willemot calls his plant Pfpr^hrt du cancase (Pyreilirum WiUemcti Duchartre), 
but it is more than probable that this is only a synonym of Pyrethrum roseum. We 
draw liberally from Willemof s paper on the subject, a translation of which may bo 
found in the Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1861, Agriculture, pp. 
323-331. 



SEPOBT OF THE EKTOMOLOOIST. 79 

()iUHititi6B hj the siinple meihod of iMmBding the flownv in a mortar. It ia ne^cMarr 
dtit th« ZBortar be cloeed, and a piece of leather tbroaeh ^hioh the pestle moves, vada 
as ia gwieraUj used in palyerixiB^ pharmacentio substances in a laboratory, wiU 
Ufwer. The qoABtity to be palvensed shoald not exceed one pound at a time, thos 
tToidiag too hif^h % degree of heat, which would be iojurious to the quality of the 
powder. The palverlxation being deemed sofficieat^ the substance is sifted through a 
nlk sieve, and then the remainder, with a new addition of Howers, is put in the mor- 
ttr and imlTeriaed Main. 

Tbe best ▼eesele mr keeping the powder are fruit jars with patent covera, er any 
other pedectly tisht galeae vessel or tin box. 

Up te a comparativelv reoent period the powder was applied to tbe destmction of 
tboM inaeote co&Iy whicn are troublesome in dwellinga, and Mr. C. Willemot seems to 
have been ^e first, in the year 1857 (f ), to point out its value against insects injorioua 
to agricnlture and horticulture. He goes, however, too far in his praise of it, and 
lome of hia statemimtB as to its effleaoy are evidently not based upon actual ezperi- 
aant. Am^fig others he proposes the following remedy : '^ In order to prevent the 
nvagas of the weevil on wbeat fielrls, the powder is mixed with tbe grain to be 
town, in proportion of about ten ounces to about three busbels^ which will save a 
year^a ovp.'' This is simply ndiouloua, as every one who is familiar with the prop- 
erticB of Pyrethmm will uudenjtand. We have during the past ihree years lairgely 
expensiaitod with it on many species of injurious insects, and fully appreciate its 
Tains as a general inaectioido, which value has been greatly enhanced oy the dis- 
eovc^ that it can be most economically used in liquid solution ; but we are far from 
MDsideiing it a universal remedy for all insects* No such universal remedy exists, 
aod Pyrsthram has its disadvantages as has any other insecticide now in use. The 
foliowiag are its most serions disadvantages : 1, the action of the powder, in what- 
ever fonn it may be applied, is not a permanent one in^the open air. If, sl a., it is 
applied to a pliLnt, it immediately affects the insects on that plant with which it 
eoBMs ia eontaet, hut it will prove perfectly harmless to all insects which come on to 
the plant half an hour (or even less) after the application ; 3, the powder acts in theopen 
air— eaiesB, periiaps, applied in very large qnanticiea— only upon actual contact with 
dM inssst ; iL s. ^., it is applied to the upper side of a cotton leaf the worms that maj 
be on the underside are not affected by it : 3, it has no effect on insect eggs, nor on 
pna ^at aie ia any way proteoted or hardened. 

These dittkdvanta^ render Pyrethmm in some respects inferior to arsenical poisoos, 
bet, OB the other hand, it has tne one overshadowing advantage that it is jterfeotly 
baralres to plants or to higher animals; and if the coltivation of the plants in this 
eooatry shoiud prove a success, and the price of the powder become low enough, the 
ak>vs Moataonea disadvantages can be overcome, to a certain degree, by repeated 
arolications. 

Ia a elosed room the effect of Pyrethmm on insects is more powerful than outdoors. 
Diffeceut ^»ecies of insects are differently affected by the powder. 8ome resist its action 
•ost sfiiactnally, «. g., yerj hairy caterpillars, and especially spiders of all kinds; 
whik otiMSSy especially all Hymenoptera, succumb most reaaily. In no ease are the 
iaieets killed instantaneously by Pyrethmm. They are rendered x>erfectly helpless a 
fgw xsinatsa after application, but do not die till some time afterward, the period 
Tsryiag from several hours to two or even three days, according to the species. 
Many insects that have been treated with Pyrethmm show si^s of intense pain, while 
is othen the outward symptoms are much less marked. Differences in temperature 
aud other meteorologicid changes do not appear to have any influence on the effect of 
P|Tethmm. 

MODES OV APPLICATION. 

Pyitthrnm can be applied— 1, as dry powder; 2, as a fhrae; 3, as an alcoholic extract 
imted ; 4, hy simple stirring of the powder in water; 5, as a tea or decoction. 
Tbe following recommendations are based on repeated experiroonts in the field : 
L AppHeaii0nM of Pyreihrum a$ dryptmdtr. — This method is familiar to most house- 
iMfets, the powder being used by means of a small pair of bellows. It in then gen- 
oiUy ssed without diluent, but if it is unadulterated and fresh (which cannot be 
aaid^'in many instances, of the powder sold at retail by our dmgglsts) it may be con- 
oteablT diluted with other pulverized material without losing its dea<lly effect, the 
nae of the powder thus becoming much cheaiier. Of the materials which can be UHed 
aadiJasBts eommon flour seems to be ^e best, but finely-sifted wood-aslips, sawdust 
from bard wood, dM.— in short, any light and finely-pulverised material which mixes 
wan with the Pyrethmm powder will answer the purpose. If the niixtnre is applied 
immediately after preparation it is always less efficacions than when left in a per- 
fectly tight vessel for about 24 hours, or longer, before use. This has boon proven so far 
only wiui the mixture of Pyrethmm with flour, but holds doubtless true also for other 
diments. Mr. E. A. Schwarz experimented largely under our direction with the mix- 
tns of P^iethnun and flour for the cotton wonui and he found that one part of the 



80 EEFOKT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICUmUKK. 

powder to 11 parts of flonr is ■affioient to kill tho worms (only a portion of the fhll- 
^own worms recovering from the effects of the powder), if the mixture is appUod 
immediately after preparation ; but if kept in a tight glass Jar for about two dayst 
oive part of the powder to 22 parts of iloar is safflcient to kill all ayerage-sized wonns 
with which the mixture comes in contact. For very young oottoji worms a mixtun 
of one part of Pyrethrum to 'SO parts of flonr, and applied one day after i>reparation, 
proved most effective, hardly any of the worms recovering. 

An ordinary powder bellows will answer for insects infesting dwellings or for plants 
kept in pot« in rooms, or single plants in the garden, but it hiuxily answers on a large 
scale outdoors, because it works too slowly; the amount of powder discharged can- 
not be regulated, and there is difficulty in covering all parts of a large plant. An- 
other method of applying the dry powder is to sieve it on to the plants by means of 
sieves, and this method is no doubt excellent for insects that live on the upper side 
of the leaves. For large, more shrub-like plants with many branches, and for insects 
that hide on the underside of the leaves, this method will be found less serviceable. 
A very satisfactory way of applying the powder on large plants, in the absence of any 
suitable machine or contrivance, is to throw it with the hand after the manner of seed- 
sowing. This method is more economical and rapid than those mentioned al>ove, and 
it has, moreover, the advantage that, if the plants are high enough, the powder can 
be applied to the underside of the leaves. 

2. Applicaii<m of Pifrtthrum in fumes, — ^The powder bums freely, giving off consider- 
able smoke and an odor which is not unpleasant. It will bum more slowly when 
made into cones by wetting and molding. In a closed room the fumes &om a small 

Sjuantity will soon kill or render inactive ordinary flies and mosquitoes, and will be 
ound a most convenient protection against these last where no bars are avjulable. 
A series of experiments made under our direction indicates that the fumes affect all 
insects, but most quickly tliose of soft and delicate structure. 

This method is impracticable on a large scale in the field, but will be found very 
effective against insects infesting fhrs, feathers, herbaria, books, d^. Such can easily 
be got rid of by inclosing the infested objects in a tight box or case and then fhmi- 
gating them. Tbis method will also prove useful in greenhouses, and, with suitable 
instruments, we see no reason why it should not be iapplied to underground pests that 
attack the roota of plants. 

3. Aloohotio etrh^Qci of Fjfreikrum powder, — ^The extract ia easily obtained by taking 
a flask fltt«d with a cork and a long and vertical glass tube. Into this flask the alco- 
hol and pyrethrum are introduced and heated over a steam tank or other moderate heat. 
The distillate, condenaing in the vertical tube, runs back^ and at the end of an hour 
or two the alcohol may be drained off and the extTaot is ready for use. Anothw 
method of obtaining the extract is by repercolation after the manner prescribed in the 
American PharmacopcDia. The former method seems to more thoroughly extract the 
oil than the latter; at least we found that the residuum of a quantity of Pyrethrum 
fh>m which the extract was obtained by repercolation had not lost a great deal of its 
iKtwer. The fin^t method is apparently more expensive than the other, but the extract 
IS in either ca^so more expensive than the other preparations, though very oonveiiiently 
preserved and handled. 

The extract may be greatly diluted with water and then applied by means of any 
atonuEcr. Prof. E. A. Smith* of Tuscaloosa. Ala., found that, diluted with water at 
the rate of 1 part of the extract to 1.^ of water and spra3red on the leaves, it kills ootton 
M-onus that hnve come in contact with the solution in a few minutes. The mixture in 
the proiH>rtion of 1 i>art of the extract to 20 narts of water was equally efficacious, and 
oven at tho rate of 1 to 40 it killtnl two-t hints of the worms upon which it was sprayed 
in ir> or :20 ininutos, and the remainder were subsequently disabled. In still weaker 
8n>)ut ».»'». or at tho rate of 1 to 5(1. it !o«««»s in efficacy, but still kills some of the worms 
arul «)KNabltv>i oihvi-s, ProtV«s»i>r Smith experimented with the extract obtained by dis- 
till.^ttion, and another 8eno{!k of exptTimeuts with the same method was carried on laat 
\ o»r by Pioi'. K, W. Jout"^ ot OxfV>rd, MissL* He diluted his extract with twenty times 
it» vohiiue vU' w.^tor, and appli«Ml it by means of an atomixer ou the cotton worm aud 
Uie Ih»U worm w nh ^x^rUs^t sucoes**. Mr. K. A. Schwan txienl, last bummer, the extract 
ootauuNl by n^^H^nn^Uiion.t aiul found thai 10 dracknvs of the extract stirred up in 
X* i:.iiions ot water, aiul applied by nn^ans of Whitmans fountain-pump was sufficient 
txt kiU alliH>itou woiins on the pUntis. Four drachms of the extract to the aame 
auuMint of water was sutttoient t»» kill the very young wonns^ 

4. iyrttk'-mm in timpU imter mW«rieii. — S<>far as our experiments go, this meUkod la by 
far the aimpiest^ nnvnt evXHh>aiicai. aiul efficient The balk of t be powder is most eaaily 
dix^^lved iu water, to which it at v>r.ce im^wirta the insecticide power. Ko 



• Vide J w<ruv» ruNHM^ywt^ Vol 111. p^v :»:»3-3. 

^ W^m one ^vmiul i\f the ix^wdor oiio ',»ait of extract tras made, each drop of the 
extract reprecf^uting ooe grain ol' the ^K^wder. The actual cost of making the extract 
was C^^ cvuisk 



BEPOST OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 81 

li^rnng is neceasary, and the liquid is to be applied in the same manner as the diluted 
extract. The finer the spray in which the flaid is applied the more ecoDomioal is its 
xm, and the greater the chance of re»chiDg every insect on the plaot. Experiments 
with Pyiethmm in this form show that 200 grains of the powder stirred np in 2 gal- 
loos of 'water is amply sufficient to kill the cotton worms, except a very few xiill-grown 
oies, but that the same mixture is not sufficiently strong for many other insects, as 
the boll ^oim, Uie lanra of the Teriaa niMppe, and such species as are protected by 
dense kmg luura. Young cotton worms can be killed by 25 grains of the powder stirred 
op in 2 qnarts of ^water. 

The Pyielhrum ^water is most efficacious when first made, and loses power the longer 
it is kept. The powder gives the water a light greenish color, which, after several 
boms, changes to a light brown. On the third day a luxuriant growth of ftrnj^ gen- 
enUydevelcqpe in the vessel containing the liquid, andit« efficacy is then considerably 



5. Th§ tea ifr decocHan, — Prof. £. W. Hilgard, of Berkeley, Cal., is the only one who 
has expenmented with Pyrethrum in this form, and expresses himself most fieivorably 
as to the resalt. He says : 

" I think, from my experiments, that the tea &r in/uHon prepared from the flowere 
(which need not be ground up for the purpose) is the most convenient and efficacious 
fomi of using this insecticide in the open air ; provided that it is used at Omes when 
A$ wakr wOlnot evaporate too rapidly ^ and that it is applied, uot by pouring over in a 
etnaa, or even in drops, but in the farm of a epray from a syringe with Ane holes in 
its nose. In thia case the fluid will reach the inBect despite of its water-sneddiug sur- 
fMSB, hadss, Ac, and stay loug enough to kill. Thus applied, I have found it to be 
effidcnt even against the armored scale-bug of the orange and lemon, which &lls off 
in the course of two or three days after the application, while the youug brood is al- 
nort instantly destroyed. As the flower-tea, unlike whale soap and other washes, 
leaves the leaves perfectly clean and does not injure even the most tender growth, it is 
prderable on that score alone ; and in the future it can hardly fail also to be the cheaper 
of the two. Thia iB the more likely, as the tea made of the leaves and stems nas 
sBdlar although considerably weaker eftects ; and if the farmer or fruit-grower were 
to grow the plants, he would save all the expense of harvesting and grinding the 
Hower-boads oy simply using the header, curing the upper stems, leaves, and flower- 
beads altogether, as he woum hops, making the tea of tnis material by tne hogshead, 
and distribntinir it frt)m a cart through a syringe. It should be diugently kept in 
Blind that the least amount of boiling will seriously injure the strength- of this tea, 
which ^bonld be made with briskly boiling water, but then simply covered over 
eioaely, so as to allow of as little evaporation as possible. The details of its most 
eccoaiDieal and effectual use on the large scale remains, of course, to be worked out 
hywactice.'' 

Th» method of applying Pyrethrum in either of the three last-mentioned forms is 
evidently Jar more economical in the open field and on a large scale than the applica- 
tioD of the dry powder, and, moreover, gives us more chance of reaching every insect 
lirisg upon the plaot to which the fluid is applied. The relative merits of the three 
aetbods can be established only by future experience, but so far we have found the 
HB^ water solution most convenient and satisfactory. 

EXPEEIENCB WITH PYEETHHUM. 

We shall not get definite reports from this distribution till next year, 
Intthe following extracts from rei>orts of experience with some which 
we distributed in the winter and spring of 1881, and taken without se- 
kdioo, will indicate the varied experience last year, under the most un- 
^Torable conditions, of an exceptionally severe drought. While most 
of tbe failures may fairly be attributed to this drought, many are doubt- 
less due to bad se^ and to the other difficulties of germination men- 
tioned in the circular. 

XiKiSBiPFi. Canton, August 5, 1881.— T. 6. Smith-Vaniz. 

Faflme this season. I watered continually, transferring part of the plants to 
shade, but the excessively hot weather j long continued , was too much for theuL 

Iowa. Sac County, Grant City, September 17, 1881.— Edwin Miller. 
Of the seeds planted May 16 not one germinated. 

Iixorois. Jo Daviess County.— [Friend of Edwin Miller above, September 17, 1881.] 
Of the seeds planted not one germinated. 
6 AG 



82 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

D4KOTA. Mftpleton, September 17, 1881.— H. M. WUliftuiB. 
Seeds did not germinate. 

lLLUfOl0. Rockford, September Id, 1881.— A. B. Willoughby. 

Sowed roseum seeds in a bed of sand and dirt. A dry c^f^ell eame on, and althoug h 
I watered the bed no plants appeared. Perhaps I sowed them too early. 

Nkw JbRjsky. Morris County, Chatham.— October 17, 1881.— James J, X>e^* 

Seed came up nicely in a garden. Plants floarished for a while, bat as the sessos 
advanced they sucoumbed to the severe drought and perished before arriving at 
maturity. 

North Carolii^a. Goldsboi'ongh, October t2y 1^81.— John Robinson. 

Bnt ten plants of ro^eum survived the heat of our excessively hot snuuner, aod 
of these one-half are weakly. 

MiCHiOAK. Cadillac, October 24, 1881.— G. Wallace. 

Some I sowed early in boxes never gomiinated; others late in May with like 
snccess; some I gave to a neighbor did not grow. Sowed the remainder in the 
first week in June in new forest laud after being burned over ; a few came up ami 
seemed to be doing well ; they were destroyed by accident. 

Okorqia. Spring Place, November 1, 1881.— William J. Johnson. 

Seed sown came np very well Aid crew finely, while I gave them the attention 
they needed. Compelled to neglect them about the middle of July ; they all died. 

Alabama. Monroe County, Dennard, October, 1881. — Oliver Taylor. 

The heated term coming on so soon after I sowed the seed I did not save but a 
few plants. I find the dust such a blessing I wish to raise a good lot. 

Missouri. Cameron, November 11, 1881.— John Zimmerman. 

The Pyrethruiu did not do any good this season. The esctreme drought stunted 
and stopped its growth so much Uiat it did not recover when the rains did come. 

Nkw Hampbuirk. East Harrington, December 1, 1881. — William B. Swain. 

Seeds of roseum sown on high loamy soil grew nicely and blossomed in Septem- 
ber. The hard frost of October 3 stopped the blossoming. 1 have used the Dal- 
matian insect powder for almost all kinds of insects without a failure. 

Kbntugky. Louisville, December 18, 1881.— Samuel J. Thompson. 

Roseum did not do well out in the ground ; died of heat and dn>ught. I have 
about two dozen plants in pots in the greenhouse. 

India^ta. Jay County, Dunkirk, December 20, 1881. — D. B. Moore. 

Planted roseum in the garden in mellow clay loam ; sowed the 1st of May ; it 
failed to grow ; condition of ground good ; weather rather dry. 

New York. Union Springs, January 6, 1882. — J. J. Thomas. 

Sowed in difi'erent places in limestone and clay land. I sui)pose my soil was too 
strong and rich. I had none which was unmanured. The seed germinated ami 
the plants grew a few inches, then ceased to grow and finally died. Thoso in the 
hot-bed did best, but did not reach over three or four inches. None flowered. 

GEORaiA. Savannah, January 19, 1882. — A. Oemler. • 

My experiment with the Pyrethrum on Cut-worms was made in captivi^ in a 
match-box without soil, so that they could not rub it off*. The^' were covered with 
the dust for twelve hours, while others ate leaves on the surlace of which it had 
been sprinkled, without detriment. Larvie of Plusia brassicoi and PluUlla cm- 
offeroram were killed. 

Illinois. Champaign, January 28, 1882. — B. F. Johnson. 

Last season I could not, neither could a very skillful person in such niatt^ers, get 
a single seed to germinate. 

Nkw York. Suffolk County, January 31, 1882. — Zophar Mills, jr. 

Last spring I planted half in a hot-bed about 15th April and half a little later 
in the open ground. Half of the sown seeds germinated, but thu hot-bud plants 
did not succeed as well as those out of doors. In June the hot-bed plants w«re 
transplanted to my garden, the weather being warm. Both plants did as well as 
oonld be expected, but the out-of-door ones seemed to be most thrifty. 1 consider 
the plant quite hardy from last year*s experiments. In August we had dr>' 
weather, and the plants suffered from want of attention. They gave uo indica- 
tion of blossoming September 28, when 1 last saw them. 



U5P0BT OP THE EHT0H0L0GI8T. 88 

luiKOiB. SootI CoHnty, If ftnoheoter, Janiuuy 1882.— >F. C. Andros. 

FroiB aeedf pf raseum reoefyed in spring of 18dl I have some 500 good plants 
growing now, or in g6od condition to start in the spring. 

Ksw YoBK. Dntehess Connt^, Pine Plains, January 26, 1802.— J. Walter Righter. 

Planted ro9eum seed 10th May in light, sandy loam, and raised some very strong 
and bealUiy plants, bnt they product only a very few flowers. I also planted in 
Uot-bed and eot a lew plants of a very inferior quality. And, fhrther, I sowed in 
the forevt, where it was slightly shaded, and wasted my seed. (The soil all lime- 
stone.) Have protected the plants from exposare hv throwing some cornstalks on 
thenu Although the thermometer has marked 25^ below zero here, the P. roemm 
looks as green as in midsnmmer. 

KANBaa Oebom County, Kill Creek, January 30, 1882. — J. J. Guy^. 

Planted a part of the ro$eum seed last spring on sandy loam. Only a few of the 
seeds genninated, and owing to the hard summer we had they did not make any 
ftowlS^ All kindfl of garden plants were a total failure here. 

ttioioiA. Lilwrtj County, Dorchester, February 4, 1882.— James A. M. King. 

DiTided seeds with four painstaking parties, and can report yigorous growth 
in sandy loam. The fearful hurricane of August 27 and 28 destroys some plants, 
but thoae left measure now 16 by 18 inches spread, and will bloom early this 

MAiTLamx Washington County, Smithbnrg, February 4, 1882.-— Benton SoholL 

The aaeds of ro sga w receiyed last spring were sown in well-prepared soil, of a 
rather baaTy nature, as soon as the ground was in good wording order. Very 
titHa of la Tegetated, and that did the best which was the most shaded, as that 
whifih waa the most exposed to the sun nearly all perished during the seyerest 
dmnghi evar known in this locality. What surviyed did well enongh until the 
eald snap of 8dd January. I then covered the plants with Utter, but when the 
groud opened I Ibund that the plants were thrown out by the frost, and bnt two 
wwa vet alive. I then (a week ago) planted them in a pot and brought them 
into tba altting-ioom ; they have now started finely. 

AuMAHA. fialma, Febmary 6, 1882.— John D. Wilkins. 

Plantad two lota last season, and failed to even get the seed to sprout*. 

MiCHiGAH. Saginaw City, February 7, 1682.— Leopold Trakat. 

During last summer only about 30 plants came up and survived. I watered 
ttbmm too ftealy Mid made some other blunders. 

Osmxjo. Toronto.— Alfred Henry Moore. 

P^prefknim roMHia would seem to bear the oold of Toronto by shelter in a depres- 
sion Govarad by loose garden refase. Some plants of same seed I distribute to 
otheia have not prospered, by want of oare. 

VutMovr. Brattleborough, February 8^ 1882.— Abner L. Butterfield. 

I planted the seed as soon as the ground was all right, but there was a heavy 
rain the next day, and it rained every day for a week, and then it was rather 
eoid for the time of year, and the ground based down so hard that only a few of the 
seed came up at all, and those that came up made very weak plants. 1 had but 
one bloeeom. One plant which 1 have at the kitchen window appears to be doing 
welL 

Qautorsja. San Francisco, February 10, 1882.— Ed. WoUeb. 

My place lies in Al^nieda County, on the hills overlooking the bay of San Fran- 
<-isco, in the so-called warm belt, 600 feet above sea-level. Three years ago I sowed 
weds of P, roBcum and had it in bloom last season. The plants do well — light 
Itjam, little irrigation. Last year 1 received from Gemianv seed of P. cineraria fo- 
ftuM, and have now thousands of plants. • • * Planted P. ro«eMm amon^ toaVh, 
to protect the ro&es from Diabrotioa, but it had no effect. I put soiuo open Uowcih 
Qna«r a glass with some flies, but they produced no effect iu 4H liours. 

ViRt,i!nA. Norfolk County, Berkeley, February 12, 1882.— William R. Wood. 

But two of last season's plants survived in my hands, and, as far i\» heard froni» 
none of those sent to my corresx>ondente. A slug which ate my pluutH was not 
Injured by the meaL 

New Hampshibk. Goffstown Centre, February 13, 1882.— C. B. Moore. 

Bowed the seed about first of June. Owing to cold weather through lb>' inoutli 
of June it did not come up very well. After it got started it grt-w tiiielv. It 
failed ta Mfliioni before winter. I covered it upon approach of cold weather* 



84 liEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURK. 

Pkxnsylvaxia. Johnstown, February 22, 1882.^Frederick Brelim. 

On April 18, ISr^l, I sowed some of the seed in a hot-bed, bnt received no plants, 
which I think was the fault of my watering too much. April 25 I sowed some 
of the seecls in two pots and placed them in a hot-bed. From Uiis I received several 
plants. May 4 I again sowed some seeds in two pots and placed them in a hot- 
bed. From these I also received several plants. On May 11 1 sowed some of the 
Hcecis in an open field. Thisproved much better than in hot-beds. The soil was 
light and the plants good. Tne plants I watered from two to three times a week. 
Oil June 1 1 transplanted the first plants; in September I had three fiowers. I 
have in all fifty nice plants. The three flowers were not very good. 

Mississippi. Canton, February 25, 1882. — George W. Smith- Vaniz. 

I Iiave plants started under glass, but I must say that last year's trial leads nie 
tu think there is not much chance here for its success. 

Ohio. Glendale, March 3, 1882. — George W. Trowbridge. 

About the 1st of March, 1881, a portion of the P. roseum seed was sown in a box 
and placed in a window of the living-room on the sunny side of the house, where 
in due time (though rather slow) they germinated. When all danger of severu 
fmst was passed the box was placed out of doors, in a sunny exposure, where the 
plants remained until about May 1, when they were pricked out and set in the 
open <n*ound. The remainder of the seed was sowed at two different times, March 
20 and April 5, in the open ground, which had been prepared for the purpose and 
where they were permanently to stand and grow. Soil is rather a neavy clay. 
Seeds rather slow and long in germinating. The usual amount of hoeing and 
weeding was performed that is necessary to keep the plantB growing and free from 
grass and weeds. Notwithstanding my section was visited with the hottest sum- 
mer ever remembered and almost toe diiest known, only a small proportion of the 
plants which became weU established succumbed. The growth was all that could 
be expected under the circumstances. One or two blossoms made their appear- 
ance late in the fall. No very material difi*erence could be noticed when winter 
set in between the plants laised in the box and those grown without transplant- 
ing. About the 1st of December a light covering of straw was placed on the plants 
as a winter protection. In consequence of the open and warm winter the roliage 
was not killed (only slightly injured), and they have already started on the new 
growth, quite visible through the straw. As to the hardiness to stand winter and 
the amount of covering necessary, the one just closed furnishes nothing definite. 

Omo. Cincinnati, March 13, 1882. — Adolph Leu^ 

The seed of both P. roseum and P. dneraricBfoUum was sown on Clifton Highte, 
each package upon one square rod, the soil consisting of yellow clay, which t 
mixed with rich black soil and well-rotten cow manure. The whole was spade<l, 
hoed, and raked. Time for sowing, first week of May. The ground was kejtt 
meUow and free from weeds, which was easily done, as the seeds were sown iu 
rows 15 inches apart. Although the ground was sprinkled in the evenings when 
sprinkling was necessary, none of the seeds came, which I attribute not so mucii 
to the cold nights we had as to the severe heat, as the ground had no shade what- 
ever. 

Ontakio. London, March 5, 1882. — ^William Saunders. 

Has P. raaeum growing. "It seems to stand our winters very well." 

EXPERIENCE WITH THE PLANTS IN WASHINGTON. 

Our own erperience in our private garden at Washington has been 
far more satisfactory than we anticipated. The seed of both species 
sown, whether in the fall of 1880 or in the spring of 1881, germinated 
tolerably well, thongh some was evidently worthless when received. A 
few plants of roseum from that sown in the fall of 1880, bloomed tiie en- 
suing autumn, while all sown in the spring of 1881 bloomed profusely the 
present summer. The colored plates have been drawn from these plants. 

Both species withstood the past two winters very well, and as these 
were extreme winters, the one very severe and cold, the other open and 
mild, the test may be considered a very thorough one. The older leaves 
died off, as is the custom with many allied perennial species, but the 
plants began growing very early in spring and were, in fact, among the 
vernal adornments of the garden. Koseum began blooming early in 
31ay, and showed every variation in color from almost pure white to 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 85 

deep crimson. It also showed considerable variation in the green of 
the leaves as well as in the form, some plants having the leaves much 
more finely cut than others. Cineraruefolium which has a much smaller 
flower, with pure white petals, very strongly resembling the common 
Ox-eye Daisy, began blooming a month after roseum had passed its 
prime. It proved uniform in color, and is always distinguishable from 
TtMfiem, even before blooming, by uie whitish or glaucous green of the 
leaf, and its much deeper and broader incisions. !N^either of them has 
entirely ceased blooming at the date (June 30) this report is submitted, 
though but few flowers of roseum remain. 

A i>ortion of the flower heads were dried and pulverized, the powder 
proving to be fully equal in efficacy to the imported article; while the 
powder from dried stems and leaves is decidedly weaker, but still useful 
when applied in large quantities. 

SPECIAL EXPERIMENTS. 

Hie following experiments with the California and imx)orted powders 
weremade at Eorkwood, Mo., under our direction, by Miss M. E. Murtfeldt: 

On lamb of Heliothis margmidena — which appeared in unusnal numbers during the 
mooths of May and Jane, and almost devastated the rose gardens in this section — ^the 
powder was very effective where it coald be thoroughly applied : but the habit of the 
young ]«rv» of boring into and hiding within the buds rendered its application diffi- 
ealt and bat partially successful in ridding the bushes of the pest. When dUnted 
with two parts flour or air-slacked lime to one of the powder it produced but little 
fAect onleisa applied while the dew was still on the plantft, which caused it to adhere 
bjmater quantities and produced the usual siokuess and irritation. 

For SeUtudfia ro9<B, the pure Pyrethrum is a good remedy where it can be puffed on 
the undezBide of the leaves where the slugs rest. They are not easily killed by it, 
howerer. It is not very^effectual in keeping off the flles^ as the volatile essence is soon 
diMpsted in the open air, after which the flies regard it no more than so much dust. 

A onaU Dipterous leaf-miner, which has for years been very destructive to the 
ioUaee of the Verbena, was kept off the plants by one or two liberal dustings with the 
powder upon the first appearance of the mines upon the leaves. AU Diptira seem to 
be peculiarly sosceptible to the Influence of Pyrethrum. 

ua effect on the Striped Flea beetle (Halttoa siriolata), which riddles the young 
lesTcs of cabbage, cresses, and other, cruciferous plants, is rather to drive the beetles 
off than to kill them. It seldom absolutely kills them, but if thickly applied, it pro- 
daeeo temporary stupefaction. There are at least two successive broods of this beetle, 
sppesring in greatest numbers duriug the latter part of May and of July; and if the 
poVder be applied oc<^ionaltv to plants liable to attack at these seasons a great deal 
of injury may be avened. There are, of course, premature an4 belated individuals 
U be seen Uironghout the summer, but the regular broods only are seriously destructive. 

The powder is equally effective m causing the Cucumber Flea beetle (Haitica (Epitrix) 
ouamaiM) to give such plants as have been treated a wide berth. 

On the common Tomato worm {Sphinx b-tnaculata) the powder was rather slow to 
take effect. From ten minutes to half an hour often elapsed before the usual restless- 
aem and ejection of visceral fluid was observed, but violent sickness, foUowed by par- 
alysis, was sure to occur, from which very few, so far as I could discover, ever recov- 
ered. The larvsB would remain in oue position motionless, except for slight muscular 
wking, for many hours, after which they would fall to the ground, aud, in most cases. 
Of the second or third day, shrink up and die. The younger the larvfe the more rapid 
the effioct of the powder. 

On Datama minUtra the effect of Pyrethrum was not usually fatal. It pro<luced some 
■ekaees and lethargy, but unless very thickly dusted with it the caterpillars usuaUy 
leeovcf^ed. 

Tested the powder on half-grown larv» of AgroHa inermia which were concealed 
nnder chips and stones for hibernation, and in less than three minutes it produced 
Tioleut sickness and convulsions, resulting in death in about an hour. I am con- 
vioeed that if plants liable to be cut off by this worm could each have a Uttle of the 
powder sifted around the stems they would be safe. All noctuid larvae succumb 

mskly to its effects where it is directly applied. The difficulty is to put it where 

taey wiU be sure to come iu contact with it. 
My experience ki the use of Pyrethrum for the destruction of the various species of 

Cabbsfffi worms and the Cabbage Aphis coincides with that of last year. It is as good 

aiemeay as one could wish, aud has the advantage over most other insecticides of 



86 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

beinf^ perfectly harm1<^ss to human life — a ^(reat de«idAratitin in any BithstatiM that 
has to be applied to leaves or blossoms (as m the caiiliflpwer) that are used as fi^d. 

As an exterminator of all kinds of house flies {Atusca dome$iic4iy M. cat$ar^ and 
8tomoxi/H)y as well as mosquit'Oes and other gnats, it has no eqnaL For all species of 
Jphididwy upon which I have tested it, it is also a specilic, used either as a powder or 
fumigator. 

JnseciB upon which U producet little or no Ejfltot, 

Most hard-shelled beetles and bngs resist its effect, althongh it is evidently distaste- 
ful to them and will cause them to desert the plants to whicii it is applied. 

All hairy larvte upf)n which I have testM it seemed but slightly, if* at all, affects 

The larvffi of the Jumping Sumao beetle (Blepharida rhoUf, Forster) are not in the 
least disturbed by beiuje^ thoroughlv dusted by it, their excrementitious covering )je- 
iug Impervious to its etfects. Nor do they seem to object to it as seasoning for their 
food. Paris green in quite large proportions, with tlour or air-slacked lime, is the only 
remedy I have found eifoctnal against this disgusting and destructive pe>st. 

Dermestes and Jnthrtnus larvss will live for weeks in a close box half filled with the 
powder. 

The larvflo of Angonmois Grain-moth (OeUchia oerealella, Linn.) are not susceptible 
to its effects either as fumes or powder. 

All these experiments, excepting the two last mentioned, were made in the open air, 
as I should not consider any others conclusive as to the value of the preparation for 
practical purposes. 

June 10. — Our Purple Fringe (Rhus cotinus) is covered with the disgusting larvsB of 
Bleph-arida rhois to which I administered a thorough dusting of the Persian insect 
powder obtained from our droggist. An examination aft>er several hours showed the 
larv8B feeding as greedily as before, and apparently experiencing no inconvenience 
from the particles of powder that adhered to their slimy and stercoraceous coverings. 
The powder used may have been too old or too much adulterated. 

The same powder applied to the Rose slug, while it did not kill thelarv», nor pro- 
duce any very sudden effect, seemed to diminish their voracity, as plants thoronghly 
dusted in the evening showed bnt little mutilation on the following morning, while 
plants that had not been dusted were seriously skeletonizeiL Some of our neighbors 
who have used the pure Pyrethrum powder consider it the best of all Remedies for 
this garden pest. 

July 7. — Used the powder freelv on some plants of Sweet Elysium that were being 
mined by the Striped Flea beetle (ff. striolata). It did not produce any immediate par- 
alyzing effect, but evidently caused the beetles to "vacate," as none of the latter were 
to be round on or about the plants on the succeeding day. 

July 18. — ^The ^'Striped bug'' (Diabrotica vittata) on encumber and sqtiaah vines does 
not seem to be disturbed by it. 

Septkmber 24. — Having received from Mr. Riley a package of Milco'g pure Pyre- 
thrum powder I proceeded to test it on various larvw infesting cabbage. 

Placed in a large jar a head of cabbage crowded with larvitt of all sizes of P. rapat 
and P. protodice. These were dusted freely with the nudiluted iKiwder, the Jar being 
left uncovered and in the open air. Examined in abont ten nUnutes and found most 
of the larvte jerking themselves from side to side in evident nneasiUf sa and disoomfoft. 
A half hour later most of the jn*o/od{ce larvsB had dropped from the leaves and were 
apparently very sick, ejecting a dark green fluid from the month. 

The rapcB larvae had all ceased to feed and some of these also were sick, though as 
yet not so seriously as the other species. 

September 25. — Protodice larva nearly all dead this morning. Rapes havc» fallen 
from the leaves and seem paralyzed. They do not recover eveh when removed from 
the jar and free^l as much as possible from the Pyre f brum. 

September 26. — All the small larvse are dead. Those in a more mature stage are 
still alive audsouirm when touched, but otherwise lie motionless on the bottom of the 
jar. It is singular, however, thaf one larva that had suspended for change did not 
seem injuriously affected by the powder, although it received a liberat quantity, but 
completed its transformation and appears to-day as a healthy chrysalis. 

October 5. — Prepared an infusion of an even tablespoonful of the powdc^t In a pint 
of water and ap[Uied it to larvu) of rapes, which are ravaging our tumii>sin the garden. 
Selected some isolated plants and gave the leaves and worms a thorough drenching. 
Examining them fonr or five hours later I find only the smaller larvte showing signs of 
sickness. The leaves have dri«l and show but little trace of the powder, except in 
their axils where it settled, and the worms are feeding from them with undiminished 
avidity. 

The same solution was tried on a lot of proiodiee and produced much greater effect 
By the next morning most of them were dead, and those not fatally atfected had deserts 
the plants and were crawling on the ground, evidently in search of i6od not so disagree- 
ably flavored. 



SEPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 87 

OcTOinBR 9. — Dusted with the dry, aoadnlterat'ed powder several plants that were 
Vadly infested with both species of Pi«rt>, and fbnnd in the conrse of a few hours every 
worn Mtliar psimlyzed or deserting the plants. I think the powder preferable to the 
Uqaid, bnt it can only be used economically on still days. 

The other insects afiectin^ cahbafi^es and tamips, sach as Phma brassico) and Plth 
tdla, saccmnbed very speedily to the inflnence of the powder. 

Have iJso tried the powder on HelietkU on rose, and wherever the larva was ex- 
posed so that the Pyrethrom came in contact with it it invariably produced sickness 
and paralysis, and OTontnally death. The same e£fect was observed in the case of 
Jkiiama minUtra on oak and Xotodonia unicornis. 
Fbr all kinds of Aphides it seems to be a specific* 

On Ltftto attrmta and other blister beetles it failed of the desired effect. 80 it also 
did in the case of Red spider and Scale insects. It might be efficient on the latter if 
swHed when the young were spreading over the plants. 

No other devioe or application will so qnickly rid a room of flies and gnats, bnt with 
wHiid met prore ft remedy fbr Red ants, which are our greatest household pest. 



Off INCH BUG NOTES. 

PRKDIOTIONS IN RELATION TO INJURY. 

Ill th6 Amerioan E-ntomologist^ October^ 1880, and aLso in his annnal 
ifpoit for that year, submitted December 30, Professor Thomas, after a 
9^j of the relational between the annual rainfall and temperatare and 
the f ears of Chinch Bug injuries, extending over a series of forty years, 
aniyed at the following conclusions : 

Ab a general rule the Western farmer may expect the Chinch Bug but 
0008 in excessive numbers during a " septenary period," or period of 
eeven years (occasional exceptions). There is a strong probability, 
amoimting almost to a certainty, that there will never be two destructive 
jmn in snooession, since two successive dry years are necessary to de- 
Tdop the insect in great numbers, and the records seldom show three 
dry years in succession. He then prophesied that 1881 would be a year 
of severe damage. 

Ai we have .already shown (American Naturalist^ October, 1881), the 
lm«;did great damage in several of the Western States in 1881, especially 
m Kansas, where a Chinch Bug convention, the first ever held in the 
United States, was convened at Windsor. A resolution was unani- 
Boody adopted to exclude wheat from the growing crops. The length 
ef time was not mentioned, but it is understood that the planting will 
be resumed at the earliest possible practicable period. Anticipating 
that this would be a bad Chinch Bug year. Professor Thomas recom- 
BeDded the sowing of a large area of oats, and had this advice been more 
genendly adopted, it would probably have been of great benefit to the 
temers of that region. It is a curious fact that Profes^r Thomas' own 
State (Illinois) was the only one of the large oat-producing States in 
vUeh the acreage of this crop was not increased, but somewhat dimin- 
iahed.* 

INJXmT IN SPRINa OF 1882. 

During the months of April and May, 1882, in spite of the fact that 
1881 was a destructive Chinch Bug year, and in spite of frequent rains, 

* In lemarkiDg (i5ul. ) npon the abnudance of the bug in 1881 we also mentioned the 
^ that it was noticed by Mr. Schwarz in Jnly in great numbers on ''Sand oats" and 
ote" fl;raflBe8 growing on the dunes at Fortress Monroe, Va., and also that it was ob- 
Mrred in conaideTahle tiunibers in August in the rice fields near Savannah, Ga., by 
Mr. Howard. 



88 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

it looked as if we were already to have a marked exception to the mles 
just laid down. The bugs appeared in large nambers in parts of Illinois, 
Kansas, and Missouri, as the following extracts from our correspond- 
ence will show, the agricultural papers containing many similar reports 
and expressions of alarm : 

Largennmbeninthe wheat-fields Bonth of this.— (Marion County, Illinois, March 12.) 

I hear of Chinch Bags already baying began their depredations upon the wheat. 
Some of the fanners teU me the ''httle red ones" are in great force. — (Washington 
County. Missouri. April 27. ) 

This is the 1st day of Mav, and our fields are alive with chinches, which will doubtless 
destroy a large per cent, of the growing wheat and incoming com crops, leaving the 
count^ in a starving condition. I never saw chinches as numerous so soon in the 
spring, and I am an old settler in this country. The universal cry is from far and 
near, '' What will become of usT'' "What can be done so com may be raised?'' 
Heavy rains may come and save us. but in the event this fiuls this country will be 
mined. Can you suggest a remedy T— (Johnson Counl^^ Missouri, May 1.) 

Could you give us any information with regard to Chinch Bugs T To-day the air it 
full of tiunii.--(Neosho County, Kansas, May 5.) 

The Chinch Bug is doing much damage in this part of the country. — (Smith County, 
Kansas^ June 10.) 

June reports were, however, with some few exceptions, less alarming, 
and the rains seem to have accomplished their work in destroying the 
bugs over most of the Northwest, so that 1882 will in all probability 
not prove an exceptional year, llie exceptional injury that continued 
through June was mostly in Missouri and Kansas, and, in view of its 
severity in parts of the former State, we wrote to one of our special ob- 
servers for an account of the weather there in early spring and summer, 

and append his reply: 

Cadet, WASHmoTON Couimr, Missouri. 

Dear Sib: Your favor of June 6 is received. With respect to the meteorological 
conditions prevailing early spring and summer, I beg to state that the winter was 
mild; the month of March was unusuaUy warm. The early part of April warm uuUl 
about the middle of the month, when rain set in, which lasted something like two weeks. 
Most of the rain was very heavy and cold. The early ^art of May was colder than 
usuaL There occurred severe fiosts upon three or four nights ; ice was formed ; two- 
thirds of the newly-formed peaches were killed, and all potato vines kiUed to the 
ground. Then occurred a spell of unusuaUy hot weather, with now and then a heavy, 
dashing shower. This kina of weather lasted tiU the end of June. 

Chinch Bugs persevere. It would surprise you to see how beautifully and steadily 
their progress is shown across an oat field here. To see the strip whitlen and widetk from 
day to day would interest an enthusiastic naturalist, but a farmer — '' not much." As 
they suck a strip drv and white, they leave it ; none can be found in the strip. Their 
motto is, ** Forwara." When they have begun to march they do not *' look pack." A 
neighbor is trying to keep them in check among his com. He is at least rendering 
their Uvea miserable. He has got a turning plow, and plows pretty near the com, 
and dashes the soil against the stalks, and makes as great a commotion as he knows 
how in the hope of at least thinning them a little. After all he is not very sanguine 
of sucoess. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. G. BARLOW. 

Prof. C. V. RiLBT. 

The appearance of the chinches in early spring in such numbers is 
not astonishing when we consider the great numbers in which they 
occurred last season. 

REMEDIES AND PREYENTITS MEASURES. 

Concerning irrigation as a remedy, and concerning preventive meas- 
ures, we quote fi:^m a recent article which we comlnunicated to the 
American Agriculturist (December, 1881). 

I have found no occasion to change my opinion as to the value and potency of 
irrigation as a remedy for Chinch Bug injuries, a remedy, too, that is within the reach 



KEPOET OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 89 

of rooet £uiners, for there are few who might not, with the aid of proper windmills, 
obtain the water requiAite for irrigating their tlelds at the needed time, while many 
have oatarml irrigating facilities. I have repeate<lly laid stress in my writings on the 
importance of irrigation in combating several of our worst insect enemies, and aside 
from its benefite in this direction, every recuri-ence of a droughty year, sach as the 
present, in large portions of the United States, convince me of its importance as a 
means of guarding against failure of crops from excessive drought. I am glad to know 
that many farmers, and especially small fruit-growers in the vicinity of New York, 
ate preparing in one way or another for irrigation whenever it becomes necessary, 
and I was pleaaed to hear Dr. Uexamer, at the late meeting of the American Pomo- 
iogical Society, urge a general system of irrigation as the most profitable investment 
tlie coltiyator can make in a climate snbject to such periods of drought as onrs is known 
to be. When it comes to prevention a great deal may be done during the winter 
ffSkmn in bnming the hibernating bugl, and, as remarked elsewhere, I cannot lay too 
mnoh streee on the importance of winter work in burning corn-stalks, old boards, and 
all kinds of grass, weeds, rubbish, and litter around gram fields, and even the leaves 
in the adjacent wooda, in and under all of which the little x>est hibernates. Next to 
drowning cot the rascals, cremation is undoubtedly the most effectual mode of de- 
stroction. Next let the spring wheat be sown as early as possible and the gronnd 
rolled. The roiling will apply equally well to the culture of winter wheat, though I 
ironld not advise the early fall planting of the last in sections where it is likely to 
vaStT from Hessian Fly, for reasons not pertinent in this connection. Sow thickly, 
•• the more the ground is shaded the less the Chinch Bu^ likes it. If in late winter 
the bogs are known to be numerous, so as to bode future irgury — and the fact can be 
easily ascertain€»d by the ill-saTored odor they eend up from the corn-shocks, and by 
their general presence in the wintering places mentioned — it will be well to plant no 
wheat or barley. In short, just in proportion as we adopt an intelligent and cleanly 
iTBtcm of enltiire, just in that proportion will the Chinch Bug become harmless; it is, 
is great part, and in its more serious aspects, a result of slovenly husbandry, and wilJ 
lose its threatening character in the more Western States, as it has in those east of 
«a, just as fast as more careful and intelligent husbandry becomes the fashion. 

We have no doubt but that the kerosene emulsion, which will be de- 
scribed farther on under the head of Orange insects, may be used to 
good advantage against the second brood when it is developing in com 
above ground, by being sprayed in proper dilution with force upon the 
plants.* 



THE ARMY WORM. 

(Leucania unipuncta Haw.) 

Order Lepidopteea; family NocTuroiB. 
[Plates II and VI.] 

Ab we have been preparing for the third report of the Entomological 
Commission, and for a special bulletin, an extended account of the Army 
WonD, and as it has been quite prevalent and destructive in several 
States during thepresentspringand summer, or while this report is being 
prepared for the printer, we have concluded to extract in advance from 
the aforementioned bulletin portions referring to the habits and natural 
liistory of the species, and to add the results of special observations 
made during the past two years, as well as an interesting and popular 
leoimnt of the invasion of 1880, which the Rev. Samuel Lockwood, of 
Freehold, N. J., has been kind enough to send us for publication. We 
eommend this last tor the accurate observations it contains and for its 
nuuiy facts both as to the habits of the insect and the meteorological 
ooDditionB under which it prevailed that year. We also reproduce the 
colored plate designed for the Commission report. 

* Since this was written we have urged its use for this purpose upon Prof. S. A. Forbes, 
tbe reeently-appointed State entomologist of Illinois, and he reports admirable suooess 
with it. • 



90 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

HABITS AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

It was not until 1855 that the first step towards ascertaining definitely 
the life-history of the Army Worm was made, although it had been 
destructive at intervals for more than a hundred y^ars before. 

In this year John Kirkpatrick reared the perfect moth from the de- 
structive worm, and described both pupa and adult in the Ohio Agricul- 
tural Report for the same year. Our more extended knowle<lge of the 
subject dates, however, from the gieat Army Worm year of J 801. In this 
year Walsh, Kirkpatrick, Thomas, and K)ip[)ai't at the West, and Fitch 
and Packard at the East, all improvea their opportunities for studying 
the worm. To Walsh we are particularly indebted for a study of its 
parasites, though his views of its natural history have proved singularly 
unfortunate. To Fitch is due the credit of the correct scientific naming 
and the discovery of the synonymy. Kirkpatrick fli'st described the 
most important of all the parasites — Nemorcca lexwanm — and, in the 
light of later developments, he was singularly correct in his ideas as to 
the number of broods and method of hibernation. 

Yet up to 1876 no definite knowledge, based on observation and ex- 
periment, existed on some of the most important points in the natural 
history of the species. The eggs and the mode and place of oviposi- 
tion were unknown ; the question of hibernation and of the number of 
annual generations was still as open to discussion as when so warmly 
debated by Walsh and others, and many minor matters remained un- 
settled. Since 1876 we have been able to rei)lace uucertaintj' in these 
directions by positive knowledge, so that there are no questions having 
any important practical bearing that are now mooted in respect of this 
insect. 

CONCERNING THE EGG [Plate VI, fig. 3.] 

When and where the eggs are laid. — The favorite pla^e to which 
the Avmy Worm moth consigiis her eggs in wild or tame grass or in 
gniin is along the inner base of the terminal blades where they are yet 
doubled, or between the stalk and its surrounding sheath. They are 
by no means strictly confined to these situations, as is shown by the 
fact that we have known the moths in breeding cages to oviposit in crev- 
ices on the side of sward which had been cut with a knife, or even l)e- 
tween the roots. In our first observations, which were nnule in low blue 
grass, the eggs were almost invariably found in the fold at the base 
and junction of the terminal leaf wiih the stalk ; ,but later they were 
f(mn(i thrust down between the sheatii and the stalk, and ocxsasionally 
in the natural curl of a green leaf or the unnatural curl at the sides of 
a withered leaf. 

The rankest tufts of grass, caused in imstures by the droppings of 
cattle and sheep, are preferred by the moth for ovii)osition, and in tjiese 
tufts the oldest and toughest stalks; and in grain-fields also the ranker 
growth caused by an accumidation of manure at some one spot, or 
the previous existence of some foilder heap or the like are preferably 
chosen. 

The observations of the present spring have satisfactorily pi^oven 
that early in the season the moths oviposit by preference in the cut 
straw of old stacks, in hay-ricks, and even in ohl fodder stacks of corn- 
stalks. Old bits of corn-Rt>jilk upon the surface of the ground in ])ast- 
ures have been i-epeatedly found, both in the vicinity of Washington 
and in Northern Alabama, with hundreds of i^'^^'^i^ thrust under the outer 



BEPOBT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 91 

fiheath or epidermis, while the last year'a stalks of ^n*asa in the fields 
armind Washington have been found to contain these eggs in similar 
imition. The evidence collected in 1875, and published in our Eighth 
Missouri Rei>ort, seemed to show that where fodder stacks existed in 
grain-fields the worms originated from th^m or from their near vicinity, 
and the observations just mentioned prove the correctness of the infer- 
ence then made. 

It has, however, been proven by this spring's observations, that, lack- 
ing both stubble and fodder stacks, the moth can and does oviposit in 
spring in young winter grain. Mr. A. Koebele found, in March, in the 
TJcinity of Savannah, 6a., newly -liatched larv<'e in the center of an oat- 
Held, the grain being one foot or more in height, and no straw st4ick in 
the vicinity. 

As stated in the American Entomologist (III, p. 214), the moth will 
also, when exceptionally numerous, lay her eggs without concealment, 
and upon plants, such as clover, which the larva does not ordinarily rel- 
ish. As an instance of this we stated in a foot-note that we had recently 
leeeived from Professor Lintner,* State Entomologist of New York, what 
were apparently the pressed eggs and egg-shells of this moth, thickly 
covering clover leaves and mixed with an abundance of white gummy 
matter, with which the moth usually secretes them,, all indicating that 
tlie moths had in this instance (doubtless from excessive numbers) 
**8lop])ed over.^ 

Semaining concealed during the day, unless disturbed, or except in 
doudy weather, the moth begins to fly at the approach of night, and, as 
fiir as observ^ations have indicated, is engaged in OAix)ositing most act- 
ively during the earlier x)art of the night. It was at Ave or six in the 
afternoon when the first moth, in 1876, was discovered in the act of egg- 
laying, but they have since been found at work most often in the early 
night hoars. The time of j-ear when the eggs are laid will be discussed 
in Chapter V (of the special Bulletin), under the head of "Number of 
Annual Generations." 

MODE OP OVIPOSITION. 

We have already described the compressed horny ovipositor of the 
Pundle which plays with great ease upon the two telescopic subjoints 
of the abdomen. This organ, in the act of ovipositiou, is thrust in l>e- 
tween the folded sides of the grass blade, and the eggs are glued along 
the blade in rows of from fifteen to twenty and covered with a white, 
{listening, adhesive fluid, which not only fastens them together but 
draws the sides of the grass blade close around them, so that nothing 
bat a narrow, glistening streak is visible. This attempt at concealment 
is always made where the eggs are deposited in the leaf; but where they 
are thrust down between the sheath and the stalk, or otherwise natu- 
laflj oonoealed, the gummy fluid is often very sparsely used, and some- 
times not at all. 

We have stated the number of eggs in a string at from fifteen to 
twenty, and this we believe to be alK)ut the normal number ; but we 
have known as few as two or three to be deposited in confinement, and 
large batches of nearly a hundred eggs in from three to eight rows 
hsA'e been fonlid in bits of corn-stalk. 

We have elsewhere exi^ressed the opinion that the grass blades may 
poMibly l>e cla8i>ed by the opening hind border of the ovipositor, so as 
V) give the insect a firmer hohi and close the leaf more firmly on the 
eggs, but more recent actual observations, in the field, of the movements 



1)2 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

of the moth duiijig ovipositiou indicate tliat this opiniou is not well 
founded. She walks or flies around in the grass, alighting every few 
momenta, until she finds a place that satisfies her. She then clasps the 
blade, the head almost invariably upward, or in the same direction 
with the blade. The front j)air of legs clasp the blade forward, the 
middle pair about the middle of the abdomen, and the hind pair about 
the tip of the abdomen, the wings being partly open meanwhile. The 
leaf is thus folded by the middle and hind legs, while the abdomen 
bends and the ovipositor is thrust in, as already described. She is thus 
engaged from one to three or four minutes at a given spot, according 
to the number of eggs laid, and then flies a short distance and in a few 
minutes lays another batch. As we have known thirty eggs to be laid 
in two minutes, it would not require many hours to empty the ovaries, 
and a given female probably lays all her stock of eggs in one or two 
nights, though the time will vary with temperature and other condi- 
tions. We have known the moth to be so fixedly engaged in supply- 
ing a piece of old stubble with her eggs that she was unable to disen- 
gage herself when first disturbed, and she was always sufficiently intent 
on the operation to render observation with a " bull's eye " sufficiently 
easy. 

PROLIFICACY. 

It is evident, when we consider the immense numbers in which the 
Army Worm often occurs, and when we also consider the number and 
importance of its natural enemies, that .the moth must be quite prolific. 
The only recorded statement, however, is that in the Eighth Missouri 
Report (p. 34), where the number of eggs indicated by a single dissec- 
tion is stated to be upward of 200. That this dissection, however, must 
have been made too early or too late is shown by the fact that two dis- 
sections made the present spring showed 737 eggs in the ovaries of one 
female and 562 in the other. 

DURATION OF THE EGKS^ STATE. 

Observations made in Missouri in 1876 indicate that the worms hatch 
from the eighth to the tenth day after the eggs are deposited, while 
others more recently made in Washington make the average duration 
of the egg in the month of May just one week. 

HABITS AND PECULIARITIES OF THE WORM.^ 

Habits when young. — When the eggs have been laid in a green 
grass blade, the larvae on hatching feed for a time in the fold of the leaf. 

- ■ - - - - III I • - - ■ _ - — — 

* It will be interesting and important in this connection t.o tranalato Guen^e's general- 
izations on the larvffi of this genns, as tliey may serve to help us to a more aociirato 
judgment concerning one or two points in the life history of nnipuncta: The lar\*» ol 
Lencania are all closely relat'ed in appearance, and even the most expert entomoloffiBt 
is often deceived by them. No European species, to my knowledge, is of a green color ; 
all have a white dorsal stripe, and are of cameous or brownish gray, with the ordinary 
lines well continued and well utarked, and between the lines a number of other lines 
or supernumerary bands, often resulting from a massing togetlier of brown or reddish 
atoms. These usually constitute all the markings, but olt-eu the subdorsum is filled 
with black marks which are not continued upon the rest of the seguient. The stigmata 
are often wholly black or brown. These larvje live exclusively upon the Graminea^y 
and are to be found upon those which grow with their roots almo.<it in the water, bs 
well as upon those growing only upon the driest hillocks. Those which form thick 
tufts affoi-cl a natural 8ha<ie, in the nlidst of which the caterpillars pass their lives, 
climbing to the extremity of the leaves only in the evening or even at night. Those 
which live on grass with spai*se leaves by which they ai*e not sufficiently snadeil, hide 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 93 

Where tbe3' hatch in the stubble or old stalks they remain sheltered 
therein for three or four days, issuing at night to feed but going back 
for shelter. The newly-hatched worms were also found under the frayed 
hark of the cedai* iwsts around a whea^field at Huntsville, Ala., in such 
numbers and at such an early age as to indicate that they had hatched 
there. At this stage they are whitish in color, walk like loopers in con- 
sequence of the atrophied, or rather non-developed first and second pairs 
of pro-legs, drop suspended by a silken thread, or curl up when disturbed. 
As has been so often said, during the early part of their lives the larvae 
are very similar in their habits to the many species of cut- worms, working 
npon the leaves of grass or grain during the night or in cloudy weather, 
and hiding daring the bright sunshine. 

The fact cannot be too strongly impressed that the traveling of the 
worms in large armies is abnormal. During nearly the whole year in 
regions subject to their incursions the worms may be found in grass- 
fields, high or low (perhaps more often in the lowlands bordering marshes, 
as ^ey are here less liable to disturbance), feeding in the normal 
cat^worm manner. If their numbers be small they may pass their entire 
lives in this manner, for it is only when so very abundant that the food 
of the vicinity is destroyed that the worms march in search of further 
sappliefl. Ordinarily one may pass daily through a grass plot where 
they abound and never suspect their presence until the plot begins sud- 
denly to look bare in patches. Thomas, in his first Illinois report, states 
that, although he particularly looked for the worms during June, 1875, 
he never suspected their presence in a constantly frequented grass plot 
behind his house until it was made manifest in this way, by which time 
Uie worms had disappeared, the abundance of their excrement, however, 
showing well enough that they had been there. From the fact tiiat tlie 
marching is abnormal it always hapx)ens that in marching years many 
fimners insist that the sedentary worms ravaging their fields are not 
Uie true Army Worms, but simply the "ordinary cut- worms'^ which they 
have with them every year. 

When young the worms resemble quite closely in color the plants 
upon which they feed, and this, with the habit of hiding as they do by 
day, and dropping when disturbed, renders them very difficult of detec- 
tion. The lighter color of the young worms found thus concealed has 
given rise to the theory put forth by Thomas and others, that the 
marching worms belong te a distinct race of the species; but there is 
not a particle of reason in such a theory, for the worms of the marching 
bodies possessed the same light color originally, and indeed the varia- 
tioD is such that the same color frequently persists with the full-grown 
▼onus, whether of the marching bodies or of the normal hidden individ- 
uals. The deep color is largely the result of exposure, and whether the 
sedentary or marching habit predominate, depends entirely upon cir- 
cunstances. 

teMelves nnder brush or dry leaves a little* distance aw»y. Finally, some of theiu 
vhich eat the leaves of aquatic srasscs hide themselves within the stalks, the tops of 
'dbich have been cat off by the nand of man or broken off accidentallv. They liury 
tbemael vee until stopped by a node, and their excrement, which partly filifl these tubeA, 
betis witnesft to the fact that they only leave their dwelling to take their food. This 
ittre;*t, if it is not goarded from the punctures of the Ichneumons, at least completely 
tbflters them from the attacks of biras ; but this is not its only use, for they utilize it 
Brill more when they reach the t;me for metamorphosis. They do not bury themselves 
in the earth like their congeners, but content themselves with spinning below and 
tbove them two little partitions mixed with frass. The Leucanias which are ready 
for pupation in the latter part of the season pass through the winter in the larva statOi 
and only ondergo the metamorphosis in the spring. 



94 REPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

DURATION OF WORM LIFE. 

With 80 widenpread aii insect as the Army Worm it is impossible to 
make any general statement concerning the duration of any one stage 
which will hold good. In Saint Louis, in the vivarium, at an average 
temperature of 80^ P., we found that certain of the worms passed through 
their five molts at intervals of three days, making the entire length of 
the laiTal life fifteen or sixteen days. The development, however, even 
of those hatching at the same time firom the same brood of eggs is quite 
irregular and Ynay occupy several days longer. In Northern Illinois. 
Walsh gives the period at from "four to five weeks,'' while the shortest 
period of larval life that Thomas has observed is twenty-eight day& 
iDdividuals reared at the Department of Agriculture indicate that in 
this latitude in late spring the period is from twenty to twenty-five days. 
Everything depends of course upon the temperature, the midsummer 
individuals passing through their changes much more rapidly than the 
spring and fall br(K>ds. As we shall show later, the Army Worm most 
often hibernates in the larva state, consequently the larval life of the 
last brood frequently extends over a space of four months or even more. 
In addition to the details published in our eighth and ninth Missouri 
Eeports, the following observations recorded this spring will illustrate 
the great variation referred to. 

Some eggs of the Army Worm moth, which were deposi te<l May 4, 1882. 
hatched May 11. The worms passed their first molt May 17, the second 
May 20, the third May 23, the tburth May 26, and the fifth May 29, On 
June 2 some of the larvie had entered the ground, and June 17 eight 
moths issued. 

May 28 some moths collected during the evening of the 27tb were 
placed in the vivarium with grasses. June 3 many young larve bad 
already hatched, and on June 20 some had entered the ground for pu- 
pation. 

RSMBDIRS. 

Burning old gbabs, bto. — That fields which have been burned over 
in the winter are free from the destructive presence of the worm is a 
fact in the history of its visitations. But opinion has varied a« to the 
precise effect produced by burning over, Walsh, a« we have already 
shown, always urged this remedy of burning over, thinking that it de- 
stroyed the eggs. The next phase was that suggested in our Eighth 
Missouri Keport, where, after showing that the eggs are preferably laid 
in old gra^s-stalks or stubble, the inference w as plain that the appropri- 
ate nidus would be destroyed by the burning. 

Now that larval hibernation is established, however, we can readily 
see that tlie tires would destroy these hibernating larvje and prevent 
the appearance of the moths and of a second destnictive brood from 
them. But we must not suppose that the burning over would prevent 
a// ^api)earance of the worm; it merely prevents its appearance in de- 
structive numbers. The moths will, when exceptionally numerous, lay 
their eggs without concealment and upon plants, such as clover, which 
the larva does not relish. In such cases of exceptional abundance we 
may well supi)()se that the moths will tiy into fields which have been 
burned over and supj)ly them with eggs; but the instances in which 
this would result in material damage to the crop would be very i^are, 

*'A.< the Army Worm appeal's in vast numbers during certain years 
only, and at irregular intervals, and as this axipearauce is rather sudden 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 95 

mi fiddoin, if ever, anticipated by the farmer, buming as a remedy 
loM« much of ilB importance, except wbere it is practiced annaally ; and 
in view of the benefit of such burning in destroying chinch bugs and 
other insects it ib to be regretted that the practice of winter burning of 
lields, prairies, Btraw-piles, weeds, and other litter and nibbish does not 
more generally x>i*^vaii ; the destruction of injurious inseett^ by suc^h a 
system would far outweigh the benefit derived from plowing these stalks 
and weeds under or leaving them to gradually decay." — [Sth Mo. RejK, 

J9. OJ.J 

Predictions; ]vibteoboix)oioal influences on the species.-— 
What we still need to know, in order to make the burning over of much 
avail, is some method of iictually predictin^;^ the a>ming of the worms. 
Tliat climatic changes have much to do with disastrous years is indu- 
bitable, yet it is very evident from facts we have given that Fitch's 
theory will not hold. We have shown that he had no practical knowl- 
edge of the subject, and that his theory was hurriedly thrown together. 
We are ahso not inclined to admit the truth of Professor Thomas' weather 
arjpiments in the case of Army Worm. The most we can say, after a 
ea^dfol review of past years, is that all, or nearly all of the years of Army 
Worm abundance have followed dry years, the nature of the year in which 
they actually ocx;ur having little or nothing to do with it. This, however, 
helps us only so far as to enable us to say tnat after a year of exceptional 
drought the worms may appear in injurious numbers. We are still very 
for from saying that after such a yetir the Army Worm is a necessary 
<x>ns6quenoe, so that for practical purposes we are still almost as far in 
the dark as formerly. 

In short, however interesting it fnay be to s])eculate as to the weather, 
no well-informed person will pretend to a sufiicient sibyline insight into 
the future to enable him to act w ith absolute confidence sis to results. 
The pretensions of a Tide or a Vennor must be classed, in the Ught of 
whatever there is of science in meteorology, among the utterances of 
charlatans and quacks, and whatever the tendency may be for history 
to repeat itself, so far as weather and season are concerned, the records 
aoffictently show that there is no absolutely relying upon the weather of 
the fatore. Insect probabilities in connectiou with meteorological s^iec- 
nlation offer a most inviting field for theory and speculation for those 
who have few facts to lean upon, but it can never be safe to anticipate 
for more than twoor throe monthsahead at the most. It isquite possible, 
ftom the observed facts during the winter and early spring, to form 
pretty accurate conclusions as to what may happen the ensuing summer 
80 ^ as the Army AVorm is concerned, and this is especially true when 
the preceding summer and autumn have been exceptionally dry. This 
Bay be illustrated by the following opinion, quoted from an article which 
we published in the Rural New-Yorker of May 27, which subsequent 
events have fully justified: 

Anent the Array Wonn I have obtained mnnyinterestinp fartH durinj!: the paist wiiifer 
nd present spring, which all go tocontlrm the correctness (»t' my previous coiicliitiionH 
lad inferences, especially those of InfiO, as presented to the American Ahsoeiation for 
the Advanc«raeDt of Science, viz., that it hibernates princi|»ally in the worm or larva 
Bt^te. iVoni the fact that the worm of all sizes has he«'n lonnd throu'rhont the past 
winter not only around Washington bat in various parts of the South, whenever it 
bas been looked for carefully, and from the further fact that the moths have lately 
buen v#ry namerooa and active in laying their eggs in this immediate vicinity, I drew 
the inference, some weeks since, that we should have in most parts of the country 
!*Tioo8 att^cki! of the insect durini; ihe prewnt year, and sent an it«Mu contniuing this 
iafen^ce to the American Naturalist for publication. In couHrmaiiou of the eonvct- 
netsof tb«t inference the Departnient of Agriculture has just received sccounts of 
alanniDg injury to small grain in Northern Alabama aud Georgia as well as in Arkau- 



96 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

sas. If the Hpring and early sammer prove in any way wet (aa is likely in the ooimtry 
which suffered so much from drought last year) the precise conditions will recar that 
have iu the past marked all great Army Worm ^ears. 

Observations which I have recently been making with one of my assistants. Mr. A. 
Koebele, fully establish the fact which I inferred to be the case in 1877 — that the moth 
necretes her eggs bv preference in old grass and stnbble and even in com-«talks ; and 
this explains two /acts that have long since been recognized by practical men^ viz., 
that the worms in destructive numbers are apt to originate from old stacks or piles of 
corn-stalks, or coarse manure, to which the early moths are attracted for pnrj^oaee of 
oviposition. In short, a field will be free from tne worm in proportion as it is kept 
clean of old stnbble and straw, and in proportion as it is distant from such, or from 
neglected pasturage, or low, rank grass inaccessible to cattle. 

Believing, ther^ore, that serious injnnr now threatens meadows and ffrain fields 
from this insect, and that we shall hear of it farther and farther north with the head- 
iug out of wheat, and knowing, from experience, that an ounce of prevention is worth 
a pound of cure, I recommend that farmers generally take the precaution to bom np 
or plow under at once, wherever it is possible to do so, any neglected meadows, old 
grass or straw upon their farms ; further, to roll the grain in the vicinity of old stacks 
where these may not be burned. Let me add, further, that one mnst not be deceived 
% appearances. The worms may not be visible to an ordinary observer, or even to a 
caretul one, and may yet abound in myriads, for they secrete themselves within old 
stalks, or folded leaves, when very young, and hide under matted grass or grain when 
larger. Yet a field that shows none now may in a fortnight be overrun with full- 
grown worms, so rapidly do they grow. 

While, therefore, annual burning in the fall or winter is to be recom- 
mended as a haphazard way of reducing Army Worm injury, burning 
as late as possible in the spring is much more strongly to be recom- 
mended, especially during certain years, and following exceptionally 
dry seasons and special observations that have been made during the 
preceding winter, 

DiTOHiNa; COAL tar; POisoNiNfr. — " The worms may be prevented, 
a« a general thing, from passing from one field to another by judicious 
ditching. It is important, however, that the (litch should be made so 
that the side toward the field to be protected be dug under. About 
every three or four rods a deep hole in the ditch should be made, in 
which the worms will collect, so that they can be killed by covering 
them with earth and pressing it down. They may also be destroyed by 
burning straw over them — ^the fire not only killing the worms but ren- 
dering the ditch friable and more efficient in preventing their ascent. I 
have also used coal oil to good advantage, and the worms have a great 
antipathy to pass a streak of it. Many of my correspondents success- 
fully headed them off by a plowed furrow 6 or 8 inches deep, and kept 
friable by dragging brush in it. Along the ditch or furrow on the side 
of the field to be protected, a space of from 3 to 5 feet might be thor- 
oughly dusted (when the dew is on) with a mixture of Paris green and 
plaster, or flour, so that every worm which succeeds in crossing the ditch 
will be killed by feeding upon plants so treated. This mixture should 
be in the proportion of one part of pure Paris green to twenty-five or 
thirty parts of the other materials named. K used in liquid form, one 
tablespoonful of Paris green to a bucket of water, kept well stirred, will 
answer the same purpose, as also will London purple, which has the 
merit of being cheaper. These substances should, of course, be only 
used where there is no danger of poisoning stock, poultry, or other ani- 
mals. Logs or fences over running streams, or irrigation ditches, should 
be remov^, otherwise the worms will cross on them. 

" From experiments which I have made I am satisfied that where fence- 
lumber can be easily obtained it may be used to advantage as a substi- 
tute for the ditch or trench by being secured on edge and then smeared 
with ker6sene or coal tar (the latter being more particularly usefol) 
along the upper edge. By means of latiis and a few nails the boards 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 97 

may be 60 secured that they will slightly slope away from the field to be 
protected. Snch a barrier will prove effectual where the worms are not 
too persistent or numerous. When they are excessively abundant they 
win need to be watched and occasionally dosed with kerosene to prevent 
their piling up even with the top of the board and thus bridging the 
barrier. The lumber is not injured for other purposes subsequently."* 

Rolling : fencing ; roping. — ^Where the crop of a field has been 
completely destroyed by the worms, the plan of killing them by heavy 
rollers has been tried. This, however, is an expensive remedy and is 
not as satisfactory as might be supposed. Experiments on Long Island 
in 1880 proved that even where tibe ground was level the rollers soon 
became irregularly covered with mud composed of earth and of the 
juices of the crushed worms, so that the effect was much the same as if 
the ground had been uneven, and many worms escaped in consequence. 

The remedy of " drawing the rope,'^ as it may be termed, was prac- 
ticed as long ago as 1770, and is described in Chapter II of the Bulletin 
in the quotation from Eev. Grant Powers. Although this remedy has 
been practiced from time to time since then we are not aware that any 
odier account hhs been published. This spring it has been tried with 
good effects at Huutsville, Ala., and by Mr. J. W. Sparks, of Murfrees- 
borough, Tenn. We quote from a letter from this gentleman describing 
his method : 

The Army Worm is making such inroads upon the wheat crop and other crops here 
m Middle Tenncrssee, I thoagbt I would write you and give the process I have for ridding 
the whe«t of these vagabonds. I take a rope about 60 feet Ions and cause two men 
to walk ibrongb the wheat field, dragging the rope over the wheat. By this means 
yoQ can so over a large field of wheat in a few hours. The rope dragging over the 
wheat, snakes the worms off on the ground, and they curl up and lie there half an 
hour or more— seem to be mad about it — and then begin to move about hunting some- 
thing to eat : bot the lieurger ones are unable to climb the wheat stalks with all the 
blades off, so that you get rid of the larger ones the first time going over^ and the 
■nailer ones can be shsuLen off so often that they cannot hurt the wheat. If you will 
make known this simple plan to the sections where the worm is at work the people can 
yel save their wheat. I am satisfied I will save mine. I am goin^ over my whole 
crop twice a day. My wheat is looking splendid, and if I succeed in whipping the 
vorms I will make a large yield. You imall have full reports at the proper tune. 

In regard to this remedy it may be well to say that while tolerably 
efficacious when ttie worms are not present in overwhelming numbers, 
or when the crop is far advanced and the stalks are large and.tough, 
under opposite circumstances it will be of little avail, and it will always 
be a question whether the portion of the crop saved by this means will 
be worth the great expenditures of time and labor which this remedy 
calUfor. 

As a fitting sequence to this general statement of the more interesting 
practical facts connected with the Army Worm, we introduce such let- 
ters and extracts of correspondence as are of sufficient interest for pub- 
beation, and also, as intimated at the outset, a valuable account of the 
iiwect in New Jersey in 1880, by one of our esteemed coirespondents, 
Kev. Samuel Lock wood. 

REPORT OP OBSERVATIONS UPON THE ARMY WORM, 1881. 

8iR: In accordance with your verbal directions, and the written order of the Com- 
Buanoner of Agriculture given me July 23d, I started on the morniug of the 24th for 
Chica^, Ul. ArriviDg there on the raoming of the 25th, I spent the afternoon in in- 
teniewiDg the editors of the Farmers' Review and Prairie Banner, with regard to the 

" Quoted from previous articles by the author^ 
7 AO 



98 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AOEICULTURE, 

•xtent of country over which the worms had made their appearance, and in aaoeriain- 
ing the most profitable spot in the State to visit. I started on the morning of the 26th 
for ^ub, Ind., a small station on the Kankakee line. Arriving at Sheldon, Iroqnois 
County, Illinois, however, I was induced to stop by the accounts given by men at the 
station as to the abundance of the worms. I spent the whole of the 26th at Sheldon, 
and on the 27th went over to Kentland, Newton County, Indiana, where great damage 




northernmost appearance of the worms. His reply was that they were reported near 
Madison, and that the northerumost point from which they had been reported was 
Waupun. On the morning of the 2dtn started for Madison, reaching there in the 
evening. The next morning I ascertained that the Armv Worm rumor in that locality 
was a mlse alarm. HelioihU amUgera in sweet com had been taken for Leueania^Mnd 
the work of LaoknoBiema in a few meadows had been supposed to be the work of tkB 
Amiy Worm. Learning from Professor Henry and the editor of the Democrat that the 
only points from which there had been newspaper reports of the worm in Wisconsin 
wereOshkosh, Whitewater, and Wanpnn, I obtained the address of a well-informed 
man in each place — oAe who would certainly have heard of the Anny Worms had they 
made their appearance — and telegraphed to each for absolute information as to whethsir 
the worms haa been seen in his locality, and the auswer was in ev^yoase contrary to 
our expectations. Feeling quite certain, therefore, that the worms were not to be fomid 
in any number in the Stsiie of Wisconsin, I took the night train l^ack to Chicago on 
the evening of the d9th, occasionally getting off at a station and making inquiries 
about the worms. I learned on my return to Chicago that the worms had been re- 

SDrted as doing a great deal of damage at Kalamazoo, Mich., so I bought my return 
cket via Michigan Central and spent a night at Kalamazoo. The most diligent in* 
quiry, however, on the spot failed to find me a man who knew of their presence. 

EXTKNT OV COUNTRY IKJURKD. — I failed, therefore, to find the worms in any 
other locality thau in Northeastern Illinois, and across the border line in Indiana, and 
I am strongly inclined to believe that, outside of a belt embracing portions of Lasalle, 
Kendall, Grundy, Will, Kankakee, Iroquois, Livingston, and Fora Counties, Illinois 
and Newton, Benton, Jasper, Warren, and Tippecanoe, Indiana, the damage was not 
yery great, although the reports from Central and Western Illinois were quite aJwrm- 
ing. From what I could learn of the reported appearance in Iowa, I believe that some 
otner worm has been mistaken for the Army Worm in that State. 

Crops injured.— The oat crop seems to be the only one which has been appreciably 
injured. Some little damage has been done to com, especially young sweet com, and 
in some oases slight damage has been done to flax and millet. The timothy on past- 
ure lands has a]So been somewhat eaten. 

Amount of damage. — The damage to oats has in many cases been very severe. I 
saw fields of several acres which were not considered worth harvesting. At one place^ 
seeing a steam thresher at work, I made inquiries, and found that they were averaging 
about two bushels to the load, when the proper amountr should have been fifteen bus£ 
els. Dr. Bush, of Sheldon, states that, to tne best of his judgment, the crop in Iro- 
quois County has been damaged not to exceed ten per cent. This was indorsed by 
most of •the men I met who were not farmers, the latter placing the damage at from 
35 to 50 per eent. The total amount of oats in that part of the State will not fall be- 
hind the crop of last year, owing to a much greater acreage, Mauy farmers have put 
in oats on account of the failure of winter wheat. In the southern part of Newton 
County, Indiana, the damage done was very great. Mr. Kent, of Kentland, who 
owns several farms, says that while his individual crops should have been 50,000 bush- 
els he would be happy to realize 10,000. He says that the loss in Kentland township 
will easily be 75 per cent, of the crop ; but at the same time realizes that this is loca^ 
and says that the crop of the State as a whole will be immeube. 

The previous season. — ^The persous interviewed seemed to be unanimous in the 
opinion that last season was very wet during the early part, and that this was fol- 
lowed by a very dry late summer and fall. Last winter was, as all over the co^ntry, 
a very severe one, while the winter before was remarkably open. The present season 
has been a very favorable one, the spring, however, being rather dry. 

The previous crop. — In fields which were worst injured I always took pains to in- 
quire concerning the previous crop, and found considerable diversity. In two cases 
it had been com, in two oats, in one flax, in one barley, and in one prairie land. In 
several oases also it was winter wheat which had been plowed up in April./ The dam- 
age in all these fields this year was equally great. 

IllETHOD or WORK. — The method of work in oats is the same as in timothy and 
wheat, as described. The £ruit-Htalk is stripped of its leaves, and the head is cut off 
and falls to the ground, where it is usually eaten to a greater or less extent. Some 
farmers have tafen advantage of this fact, and have turned in their swine to feed 



REPORT OF THE EMTOMOLOOIST. 99 

■poB the fallen grain, and at the same time they ondoabtedly destroy many worms 
tod pnpflB. 

No marching whatever has heen noticed. The worms appeared simaltaneonsly all 
throogh the fields, and having plenty of food there was no occasion for going farther. 
This fact has given rise to an opinion among many farmers that this is not the Army 
Worm but a cut-wonn that is always present in the fields. This fact also pnts an 
effectual estoppel upon the use of the old remedies, and there seems to be no way to 
dedtroy the worms m the fields without a sacrifice of thex^rop. 

Facts brarjno on number of broods. — That the brood damaging oats this year 
WM at leant the 8e<;ond, and^ in case of larval hibernation, the third, seems most prob- 
ilile. The injurious brood in Illinois has been usually in June^ the worms pupating 
ftbout the middle of the mouth, and the moths appeanng from the 20th to the 30th of 
(be month. In the places visited this year the worms were first noticed from the 
liHb to the 15th of July, and at that time most of them were of the sixe of a ''small 
•traw." 

In one instance several empty egg-shells of Leucania were found in the vicinity of 
»last winter's fodder stack. They were in the fold of one of the basal leaves of the 
italk. These, from their position, may have been laid by the first brood of moths, 
tboiiffh frnra the known ovipositing habits they may equally as well have been depos- 
ited by the second moths. 

In the 8<me locality 1 found, by digging, the remains of two empty pnpss, undoubt- 
edly Leucania, which certainly belongea to a previous brood. 

An ACOOMPAXYING CUT- WORM. — In the fields among the Army Worms were large 
oombera of an accompanying cut-worm in the evident proportion of about one of the 
cut- worms to five Army Worms. The size of the former was about that of the latter, 
ind the color a nearly uniform dusky brown, with transvene lateral stripes of a darker 
eolor. They transformed to slender popse, light brown with dorso-lateral longitud- 
inal pinkish stripes.* 

Katurax KNEMiKS. — SoTeral larvte of a ground beetle (probablyCa ^ gts m a $erutator) 
large, black, homy, and active, were found destroying the worms at a great rate. I 
have been unable to breed them, the only pupa obtained dving in the box. In order 
to ascertain the amount of good which these larvs do, I placed mv largest speoimeii 
is a box with 15 full-grown Army Worms, after starving him for a day. In two hours 
I opened the box and found that he had killed every one of the worms, but had sucked 
dry bat two. 

The small white cocoons of an Ichneumonidt were found in enormoos numbers, at- 
tached to the oat-stalks, in the axils of the com leaves, upon the surface of the ground 
and under clods of earth. Often upon lifting a clod of earth the black loam appeared 
ligkt gray from the abundance of these oocoous. They were usually found in small 
miwea attached side by side, with a little loose silk around the mass. I saw largo 
mmabeiB of a large reddish-brown ant tearing these ooeooQS c^>en and feeding upon 
the pupsa. ' 

▲ secondary parasite was bred from these ooooons, which seems to be the M§BO€honu 
fili«s«, of Walsh. 

In one instance, in a corn-field belonging to Mr. Corlett, of Sheldon^ the worms were 
olwrved t4> be extensively infested by a Tachinid from the eggs upon the th(»aoio seg- 
BMBta. Not a single worm was found in this field which did not bear one or more eggs. 
I kave since bred from one of these larvsi a small specimen of what appears to be tne 
eommon yemoraa leucani€B, of Kirkpatrick. I also observed in the act of ovipositing 
as lefaBMunonid about 15 millimeters in length, rofons in color, with white banded 
aatsnas, and wings not extending to the tip of the abdomen, but which I was unable 
toeaptore. 
Ssspeetfrilly submitted. 

L. O. HOWABD. 

Vtot C. V. RlUET, 

. EnUmologistf United Siatn Deptartmemi of AgriouUwrs, 
August 7, 1881. 

OORRB8P0NDEN0M AKBNT THM ABMT WORM^SPEING OF 1881 

I send you the inclosed communication from the Huntsville correspondent of the 
Chattanooga Times in relation to an invasion of the wheat crop in this vicinity by the 
AmiT Worm. I reconnoitered the invaders yesterday and witnessed with feelings of 
Kiach sadness the devastations already wrought by them on Stevens' farm. I cap- 
tved and examined some of them. It is the Army Worm described in the Agricultural 
Beport for 1879, page 187, and the same I think that appeared here in 1861. * • • 

• This proved to be Agrotii e-nigrwm, — C. V. JL 



lOO REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AORICfULTURE. 

The insects are of different ages and it is to be apprehended that there will be sacoees- 
ive crops of them. * * * upon examining an oat-field yesterday, in company with 
Mr. White, I found multitudes of very small worms concealed under the oats sown this 
spring. It was about half past 3 p. m., and the sun shining. They will doubtless 
destroy it. Mr. Bedermann's oat patch, near Stevens' wheat-field, has been completely 
destroyed. Some of the larger worms in Stevens' field show that the Taohina para- 
site has been operating upon them. I never saw a more promising wheat crop than 
Stevens' before this invasion. White said to me that in the beginning of last week 
he would not have taken |2,000 for his own wheat crop ; that he does not now exx)ect 
to reap anything firom it. I hear of this insect in the neighborhood of New Market 
and Whitesbury.^[S. D. Cabaniss, Huntsville, Ala., May 2,1882.] 

An interesting feature of the appearance of the worm in Alabama in May is con- 
tained in the foUowing letter to Mr. Howard upon his return from the investigation 
made at Huntsville. The insect confounded with the Army Worm is the clover-hay 
worm (Asopia costalU) : 

SiB: While you were here a few days since. investigatiDg the phenomena of the worm in wheats I 
had the pleasure of an introduction and a brief conversation with yon, and take, therefore, the libei^ 
of statlDg to you a curious phase of the worm. Mr. J. 6. Baker, liTing here in 1881, produced oIotct 
hay— about two tons per acre— on rich land near the corporate limits of HuntSTille. The hay was ou^ 
cured, and placed in the mow— about eight tons. He used down to about two tons, and a fow days ago 
on ti^dng out and deUverlng a load of hay. after taking it off the waeon, discovered on t}\fi floor of the 
wagon innumerable worms about one-halz inch long, dark or greemsh-brown in color. He then re> 
turned and found on examination of the hay-mow countless numbers of these worms — also what seraos 
to be a kind of web spun In the dibrit at bottom, which had multftudes of eggs half the sise of a mus- 
tard seed and black in color. This was about the first of May, and the worms hare now disappeared. 
It seems to be a theory that these worms are bred in jclover-flelds, and this finding them in dover hay 
would seem to establish their habit of depositing on the clover-stalk in the field their eggs, in this 
case carrying them over to the next year and hatching then. This hay was cut about June 1, ISSl, 
and taken out about May 1, 1882. This theory struck roe as possibly inconsequential, but of enough 
onrioaity to write you.— [L. W, Day, Huntsville, Ala., May 18, 1882.] 

The Army Worm is making severe inroads upon the wheat crop and other crops here 
in Middle Tennessee. — [J. W. Sparks, Murfreesborough, Tenn., May 20.] 

The Army Worm has commenced work. Is it safe to use London purple f — [Saint 
Louis, Mo., May 24, 1882.] 

I send yon by this day's mail, specimens of a caterpiller which is doinjg; great damage 
to the wheat in this locality. I have been unable to find out how &r-spread it is, 
but hear of it in the northern parts of this county and also in Nelson County. It 
attacks and eats the blade of the wheat (so far I do not see that they have hurt the 
heads), and I find many stalks broken o£f. — [H. A. K. Murray, Warren, Albemarle 
Conn^, Virginia, June 8, 1882.] 

Doing considerable damage to oats near Uniontown, D. C. — [L. J. Barber, June 15, 
1882.] 

The Arm^ Wonn lb playing great havoc in this section of the State. All the late 
wheat is being destroyed by them wherever they have appeared. Many fields of grass 
that were mo^ luxuriant a week ago, look now as if a fire had swept over them. Corn- 
fields, wherever they have touched, have been entirely destroyed — ^too late now to 
plant over. Clover alone se^ns distasteful to them. Oats, com, orchaid-grass, timo- 
thy, and wheat they delight in. We have never had them before, and don't Know what 
may be their duration. They appeared about a week a^o and are increasing in num- 
bers most rapidly. — [Robert Beverly, The Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia, June 19, 
1882.] 

Inclosed find tube containing specimens of Army Worm, which has occasionally in- 
fested this country ever since its first settlement. The first serious injury was done 
in June, 1825, when it appeared in some wheat-fields and meadows, and after eating 
the heads and blades of the timothy, and partially stripping the wheat and rye of their 
blades and beards, with little injury to the grain, they moved disastrously upon the 
green corn and oats, eating down the corn and completely beheading the oats. 
* * * This year they appeared in the barley about the 10th of June, and have 
done great damage by eating off the straw just below the bead, and a few days later 
appeared in the wheat and timothy all over the country to a very alarming extent ; 
but just as they had got fairly to work, on the night of the 14th, the whole country 
between Somerville and Indianapolis was visited by very disastrous storms and floods, 
which seem to have caused them to suspend operations, though not to entirely disap- 
pear. — [M. B. Kerr, Aurora, Dearborn County, Indiana, June 19, 1882.1 

My observation of the locality of the Army Worm laying their eggsnas been this: 
In the early spring the moth has not the activity it has later in the season, and the 
greater part of the eggs are laid in the splits of broken straw and in the foldings of 
the leaf-sheatks, mostly covered or secreted, but in the layings of early spring I have 
found the eggs most abundant in the angle made by the leax-sheath when torn from 
the straw at the joints of same, and not secreted. I do not think the hibemated^moth 
would show its specific characteristics as much as those that have undergone their 



REPOET OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 101 

changes and lay their e^gs in a higher temperatnre. I have noticed that a high tem- 
pera&re has a good dei3 to do wiw. the activity of the moth of the Army Worm. 

The migration of the army is not ^ways in quest of food, though at this period, like 
tn worms of this class, they are ravenous. There has heen a migration into a field in 
this vicinity which I have closely watched. Before leaving a wheat-field, where there 
▼as an abundance of food, the worms showed an uneasiness similar to that shown by 
the silk worm before spinning its cocoon (moving the head from right to left). The 
first move was into the blue grass (Poa pratenns)^ and then across a xraveled road into 
i field of com partly plowed over with the rows in the same direction the worms were 
going. They ate fox 10 to 15 rows every bit of com on the plowed ground and but 
uttle on the unplowed. As thev advanced the destruction was less and less, nearly 
stripping the leaves of the 30th and 40th rows, and entirely leaving the unplowed 
ground. These worms were of a very uniform size— full grown. 

To^y I examined a few hills of com on the boundary of their eating as they were 
eongrsgating around the hills of com in their migration. I looked there firstj and at 
i single lull found 18 chrysalides under one small clod. I think this horde or worms 
left &ii wheat-field because it was unfit for the change from larva to chrysalis, not 
flflering any shelter, as the ground in the wheat-field was smoothly beaten down by 
run and was Tery hard. Where food is abundant and shelter can be found for the 
lirvB to undergo their changes, they will not migrate, but from either a shortness of 
Ibod or imfavorable locality for«chrysalides they will move. If the worms are ftill 
mwn the damage will be but little compared with the migration from a shortness of 
lood br Hue worms of a small size. 

In the tihMpe of the ditch, to defend a field against their incursions, there has been 
in ttis locahty quite an improvement over the old undercut ditch. It is made by 
dragging aloDjg we ditch a ditching-gonge, such as is used in laying ^inch tile in 
the angle of we ditch. 

The cutting is on the side you wish to defend, this half-round cut being made by a 
horijKmtai motion, leaving a smoother surface on the half-round than can be done by 
nadcaentting with a spade, and I have never seen a worm pass the npx>er angle in this 
pattsqi of £tch. — [f\ C. Andrus, Manchester, Scott County, Illinois, June 22, 1882.] 

My brother, Alfred B. Bwann, who resides on his farm in Jefferson County, Tennes- 
see, writes me that Army Worms have appeared in vast numbers and are now destroy- 
ing his grain and grass crops. The same thing occurred last season, and as this farm 
is a very Taluable one — near one thousand acres, a large part of which is river-bottom 
laads— the loss involved will amount to several thousand dollars. (It is known as the 
Eagle Bend Farm. )—[ James Swann, New York, June 30, 1882.] 

Aooojnrr of thjb jnyasjok of isso in new jbrsby, 
Bt Rxt. Samuel Lockwood, Ph. D. 

**CftteipiIlsrt, and that withont ntunber."— .BAfe. 

It was tiie first day of summer, 1880. A long^, parching drought had prevailed, and 

le ftlt like choking; in the hot and dusty air. Although Flora's bnghtest month, 
^ Wkoi June's red roses blow," the bees were almost starvmg in their hives, so few 
ipd poor were the fiowers. The stage, on its way to the station, several miles ofiT, 
pieked me np at a farm-house. A strange being, hatless and shoeless, was leaning 
ifsiaat a fence on the road side. 

"That's poor Daft!" whispered the driver, in a compassionate way, as we drew 
■ear. The man seemed about thirty-five, and had a harmless, half-dazed look. Hav- 
iag taken a sitep or two into the road, he accosted us in a solemn manner, causing a 
BooMntary halt. 

Daft. Have you seen the Army Worm? 

Jehu. Nary a worm, Daffle! » 

Daft. Oh, but he's come! He's down the road about half a mile, and's committing 
telation most promiscuously. There wasn't one there yesterday. But this morning, 
lo! a great multitude which no man can number I It's all very mysterious, the piu- 
aer worm and canker worm. His great armyl Maybe that's why nobody can tell 
« vhere they come from and what becomes of them. I'd like to know if it w all post 
tidiDg out. 

JsHU. That's too deep for me, Daffle. GPe 'long, ponies. 

Having started his horses aeain, the driver told me that '^ though feeble-minded 
tlMwiie, Daft was real powerftd on Scripter." 

1 had that moming at an early hour been watching the conduct of an army of 
iMMBia ainpimcto, the very one to which Daffie referred so mysteriously. In tmth, 
•etoated by the vastness of this invasion of the Army Worm, I was then on a season's 
oUerrations, which it is proposed to give with some fullness of detail; and perhaps 

ve may thus true answer make to the wise questions of that innocent. 



102 KEPOBT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

The army above mentioned had Inst made complete havoc of a clover-field. Thej 
were bred from eggs laid in a low-lying^ last years rye-fleld adjoining. After bnt par- 
tially eating the grass in this old field, it was abandoned for the more suocnlent and 
tender clover and grass in the next field. The very unnsnal heat and drought had 
been too much for the yonng worms/ having rendered too tongh the grass in tne field 
where they were hatched. 

In the new field the clover and the grass in its shade were mnch more comestible. 
This field was completely devoured — noM^ spear of grass or leaf of clover escaped the 
invaders. Nothing bnt naked clover-stalks with empty heads remained— even the 
headlands were thoroughly cleaned up. A low but distinct and unpleasant crinkling 
sound accompanied the feeding. As if actuated by one impulse the whole army made 
straight for a wheat field across the highway. The plowing of a trench on the far 
side of the road intercepted their march. Two men with spades cut a clean perpeh- 
dicular face on the side of the farrow next the wheat and a series of little pit-falls in 
the trench at intervals of about 60 feet. This completed the trap. The caterpillars, 
wearied with useless efforts to climb the straight side of the trench , would erawl 
along until they fell into the little pits. Myriads of ants beeet them, sucking out their 
juices, which with the heat of the sun soon destroyed them. They cannot endnre direct 
sunlight but are essentially night-feeders. 

If uninterrupted, their marcn to the new feeding grounds would have been aoeotn- 
plished ere the sun was well up. • 

The time in which the Army Worm did its chief mischief in Monmouth County, Neir 
Jersey, was from about the close of May to about the 20th of June. The first observa- 
tion of real mischief being done was May 28. During the above time my dnties led Ine 
to ride over the entire country on official business with the teachers and scbool-oflleerB. 
Thus opportunities were afforded for observation and inquiry such as a naturalist ootild 
not afford to neglect. I had supposed the aliment of these Insects to be restricted to the 
OrtminecBf that is, the grasses proper and the grains and Indian com. Hence, sftrprised 
at the thoroughness with which they had eaten up that field of clover on the spot, I took 
it for an original observation of an exceptional habit ; bnt on looking into the Riley re- 
ports. I found similtf fkcts on record. I soon ceased to regard th is habit as at all excep- 
tional ; for, so far as Monmouth was concerned in 1860, clover-eating by the Army 
Worm was the rule vod not the exception. In fact I could not learn of one instauce of 
their presence in which the clover eseaped. The following from a letter by a teacher 
is to tne point : 

** On the farm of Charles Allgor, at New Bedford, in passing from his wheat-field to 
his oat-field, the worms had to cross a strip of sward composed of timothy and ted 
clover, of three or four years' standing. They took ever^hing clean. Thoy also ate 
the young clover in the bottom of the wheat-field, killing it entirely. In a mixed 
sward of Qeorge Newman's, the teacher, thoy ate the clover as well as the grasses, 
leaving nothing but the stalks. They also ate the clover on the farm of Albert King, 
at Green Grove. They did not tnake a specialty of clover, but they ate it without 
being starved to it. They ate both the clover and timothv in a mixed sward of James 
Allgor's. They ate Mr. Allen's oat-field, then went over to his sward of grass and clover 
and finished that off", too.." 

Other correspondence might be cited to the same effect, but I have none which states 
the facts so conciselv as the above. Some of the farms here mentioned are miles apart. 
Bat it will appear rorther on that when forced into straits for food this Army Worm 
is almost omnivorous. 

With no special call to examine his young grass-fields, the farmer sometimes got 
his first alarm at sight of the disappearing clover. In faot, wherever the worms ap- 
peared in force the grasses, clover, and Indian com were completely destroyetl. A friend 
lost forty acres of newly-sown grass^ with a large part of the old meadows; a very 
serious score here for one man, as with us ^' Hay is King." Let me instance a forty- 
acre wheat-field of his of which the worms took possession. The wheat when harvested 
proved a good yield^for it had got out of milk when the arm-y made its inroad. The 
straw was not hurt, although tne worms had climbed every stem up to the head; bnt 
straw and ear were nearly npe. It was different, however, with the low and late-grown 
stools. Those they crept up and ate through the thin green neck of the plant, cutting 
off the nubbin-ears which fell and thickly covered the ground. If the outJ^ide of the 
straw was not too hard, the worm would then literally skin it. eating downwards. 
Thoy would eat these nubbin-heads occasionally before catting tliem oil ; but this was 
only when they proved to be soft ; that is, those ears whose growth had been back waril. 

In this wheat-field the young grass and clover were all eaten up and the head-lands 
cleared off. Every weed, too, was cleaned up. Even that bitter nuisance, the Rag- 
weed {Ambrosui artemisiixfoUa)^ was all devoured. With us after harvest the Rag- 
weed takes possession of the soil ; but as this weed makes its appearance in summer, 
the spring timothy and clover get the start and keep this weed under. The fall suc- 
ceeding the harvest above presented the siu*nilar spectacle of a stubble-field without 
a weed. It was sheer nakedness itself. On another farm, having consumed the 



KBPORT OF THE JJNTOMOLOCHST. l03 

^ , the womiB took poMession of a strawberrr-field, eating both leares and the 

unripe fruit. Riley glTee an instanee in which, when driven into straits, these cater- 
piHars ate an onion patch. We must then conclnde that the larva of Leuoania uni- 
fmuia ia weU nish omnivorons. Doubtless when its food is tender and in no stint, like 
ihe Lord Mayors fool, it knows what is f^ood and is mnch more dainty. 

The namber of worms in that forty-acre field was simply fearful. In the parlance 
of the spectators there were ** millions and millions/' The squirming mass and the 
crinkling sound of their feeding were especially repnlsive. But few dared to enter 
the ield. In tmth, strong men tamed pale from nausea, so loathsome was the sight. 
It rpally seemed that nature was smitten with a plague of crawling vermin. 

What ^reruB the direction of travel of these worms t Do they smell the new food 
fnm a distance f I think they do, for they cross naked roads with unerring directness 
to the object sought. The great army in that wheat-field having finished theit havoc, 
divided into two parts: the one left on one side and entered a timothy -field — the other 
left the foraged land and matched straight across the road and took possession of a 
flom-field. Having ruined the timothy and the cotn, the great army disappeated, as 
was remarked, ''As if by magic t^' Bnt the trick Was very simple; they had entered 
thegroand to aasnme the pupa state. The notion prevails that the worms move for 
a eertain point of the compass. Here the phrase was " They moved towards the sea," 
Aatis, sooth ; bnt in another part of the county the movement seemed north. 

Many years ago I saw an army moving west, but the Greeley precept xras rife at that 
time. I attach no importance to the above, my belief i>eing that the insect, attracted 
hj MCDt, in which perhaps the wind plays a part, moves simply in the direction of 
food. A point of greater conseqnence is the time of the first movement. Frotn a num- 
ber oi ebaervationa I believe the time is about seven days after the hatching.* When 
int hatehed they are so small that the damage they effect is slow, and their ftsedifig 
n restneted to the tender parts of the grass. After this comes the first march When 
Ibnr are raToaotis enough to clean np as they go. 

Iliat was a triamnh of painstaking patience and admirable skill when Riley cleared 
■> ttia Byately of tiie origin of the Army Worm. Nor can I forget my own delight 
waeii, in bia laboratory at Saint Lonia in Jnne, 1876, he showed m^ the live Insects 
wfateh ha had raised from the larva) ; nay, more, right before my eyes was the mother 
lewaaia mm^^tmeta laying her eggs in the axils of avy stubble and green grass. For 
iotBce thAt waa * grand discovery. Still more's the pity how few farmers make of it 
^ aesigne of ▼antage.'' Nayi to some good husbandmen do we not seem in these seatch- 
lap Id tampar piouoely : 

Aiid take npon's the mystery of things, 
As if we were Ged's spies. 

TlMse sppearings are regarded as almost miraculous. Says the perplexed mstic: 
"Th^oome in great armies — and all of a sudden — and as suddenly disappear.'' Or, 
u Dame said, *' There wasn't one there yesterday, but this' morning, lo ! a great mnlti- 
tade which no man can number." Friends, this is a delusion. They were there ves- 
teiday and several days. They do not come suddenly. . You do hot observe their 
cosing, yon onl^ see them when they are on you in great numbers. Watched from 
ftseg^ their life-career is that of other caterpillars. The following shonld enable 
ikfis to observe them at their starting point and to stamp them out at the beginning. 

I^ii. It ia important to know wkm to look for the laying of the eggs. Of eooise 
aaeh depends on the nature of the season. With us it is usually the first week in 
Jaae, hot in 1880, for reasons already mentioned, the laying was not later than the 
MK^Maj. 

Beeoiid. where shonld we look for them t Thanks to Riley, we know how the egffs 
hok and the part of the plant where they are laid. The farmer, however, needs, If 
innhle, to know jnst where on his farm he should look for the infested plants. I 
titek eeneially the grain-fields are preferred by the moth when seeking a nesting 
^aee ror her eg^. But if the weather be favorable^ and the young clover and grass 
n tiie best condition, she will also be found laying in the young grass of last fall's 
itehhle-field and in old meadows. In this case we shonld look &r the highest or 
closest grass — that growing in moist places, and notably those little hummocks or tns- 
Heks caused by the droppings of cattle. If heat or dryness affect thoir food they will 
ideet the grai*ii«>field8 as a^ording more snocnlent food, besides better shelter and 
liade. Let me instance some careful observations made on four farms, three of which 
^ftn near together, but the last one to be mentioned was about two miles away. On 
•na was a wheat-^eld, whish coveted the site from which certain stables had been 
ttoved the year before. Another part of the fiehl lay low, and received the " wafeh" 
of the higher ground. On these places the wheat grew thick and high; in fact, too 
Inxmiantly, for it became badly *' lodged." These two spots were shady, and the 

•It is in reality generally somewhat later.— <:!. V. B. 



104 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

food was sweet and tender. There were no other such spots in the field, and these, 
and only these, were chosen by the moths in which to lay their eggs. 

Doubtless yery many moths selected these spots, for here the worms were bred in 
ereat numbers. These spots were soon eaten on clean— clover, and grass, and wheat 
leaves, and heads — for in these places the wheat ears were still green and tender. 
From these nesting spots they spread, a voracious army, over the whole field, clearing 
up everything that had not become too hard to eat. 

On another farm close by was a field of wheat which had received peculiar tillage. 
It belonged to a Mr. Bodee, a very intelligent amateur farmer, whose clear observa- 
tions have been of substantial service to me. He holds that wheat should not be 
crowded, and should be worked with a cultivator, much as we do com ; that room 
and encouragement should be given each plant to enlarge itself by stoles; that one 
well-stoloned plant is better than several plants forced to occupy the same sor&ce of 
ground. In sowing, the field was drilled only one way, and every third drill was left 
seedless; and in cultivating, some of the teeth of the implement were taken out, so 
that it could straddle the <K>uble rows. In this way the field was gone over, both in 
the autumn and in the spring. There were but three little spots where the wheat 
had lodged, all of which were oreeding-places for the worms, from which, after eating 
them on, tne^ spread over the field, but seemed to be comparatively harmless; for the 
tillage mentioned let in the sunlight and quickened the ripening of the grain. It 
was noticed here that the birds, having more wing-room, were quit« busy fieding on 
and carrying off the worms, a fact not observed by us in any other wheat-field. Per- 
haps the cultivator had mellowed the ground, for the worms, during the hot sunshine, 
buried themselves in the cultivated space and were easily unearthMl by the birds. 

In a field on another farm the wheat was somewhat thin ; but on a spot where a oom- 

Sost had lain the wheat was rank and thick. There the worms bred and, after 
evouring their nesting place, they spread over the field. 

The fourth field of which the particular facts must be given, is that forty-acre 
wheat-field, already instanced. The sowing took at least twice as much seed per 
acre as was used by Mr. Bodee's method. It was drilled in one direction, and then 
drilled across at right angles. This secured a crowded growth. During tne summer 
preceding the autumn sowing the field had been used oy a horse dealer to pasture 
a large £ove of horses. Of course their ordure fell everywhere; but in many places 
where the animals had stood in groups the droppings had fiiJlen in auanti^. Here 
I must recall an acquaintance once had with a farmer's boy, named Ned. He had a 
way at time of wheat^wing of putting a shovelful of manure and an extra dropping 
of seed in a few spots in the field to make what he was pleased to call *' King hills.^ 
And it was easy tilling where the lad and his shovel had been^ for Ned's *' King hills'* 
always outranked the rest of the field. And it was similarly with that big wheat-field. 
It was a splendid sight, the close dense growth, and high over all, in many places, those 
stately ** King hills" were conspicuous. Now comes the notable fact ; every one of 
these spots was chosen as th^ nesting place of myriads of the mother moths, for the num- 
ber of eggs laid in them was enormous. These spots were to the Army Worms shelter, 
shade, and food, but so crowded was each of these larval communities that they soon 
ate themselves out of house and home. Then came an immense dispersion. fVom 
every " King hill" went forth a hungry band into that grand foraging ground. The 
wheat, stuiding so close, had by its shade kept the undergrowth protected from the 
drought ; and now it sheltered these marauaers firom the sun. It was but a few 
days Defore that these foraging bands, by their spreading, had all met and made up a 
vast famished army, which, driven into straits, must now devour every comestible 
thin^ or starve. The observed occupancy of the field was seven days ; that is, from 
the time of the dispersion of the foraging army to the timd when it left. It was quite 
common to hear it said that a certain field was eaten up in a day. But such people 
" take no note of time." 

Leucania, the parent of the Army Worm, ranks very respectably among the Lepi- 
doptera. She is one of the owlet moths, and her owUsn capacity for natural selection 
impresses me profoundly. 

Kftture is fine in love: and where it's fine 
It senda eome precions hiatanoe of itself 
After the thing it loves. 

I find so much precision in insect wisdom, such a knowing method, even in the 
propagation frenzy. And I think Leucania's conduct is in point. True, there is no 
bird-lDLe brooding over her trust. Let us get out of the laboratory and watoh her 
where, not hampered by the inquisitorial restrictions of the breeding-cage, she has Na- 
ture's airy freedom, and 

The world is all before them, whence to choose 
Their nesting place. 

And this maternal moth shows such good mothering in her choice. The knowledge 
of this nicety of her election of a nidus is of great economical value. Compare her 



BEPOBT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 105 

iwtriction with the flittlne habit of her queenly relative, the Hawk-moth — MaoroHla 
emmquemaeulata — ^parent of the sreat potato worm. AlmoNBt with a shudder one remem- 
bera that terrible myaaion of Monmouth, when the potato-fields were ruined as if by 
lire, and tlie wason wheels reeked with green dripping gore as they entered our vil- 
lageft. This moth deposits her eggs on the underside of the potato lea^ but onl^ one 
or two, or at meet a very few, on each plant; hence the distribution is pretty uniform 
orer the entire field. 

Though it may seem above that the parent of the Army Worm has fair intelligence, 
we may not think ao well of her larval offspring. That oeautiftQ lawn of Hollywood, 
It Long Branch, was invaded by them. The emerald sward was swept as if burnt. 
When any of the worms came against a tree they went up it, passed over the crotch, 
tJien deecended at the other side. Twelve or thirteen years ago a comer of our coun- 
try was visited by the Army Worm in large numbers. Having sluripped one field they 
marched for the next, but were intercepted by a smalli running stream. There is no 
" torn back " to this singular worm. On came |his great automatic army — ^no halt — 
until, crowded forward, a compacted mass was urged on to the water to serve as a 
living pontoon, over which the army passed and t(K>k possession of the new foraging 
ground TMs crossing of running water has been noticed by BIr. Riley. 

Monmonth is an old county, and the farms generally have been much feduced in 
size by £requent divisions. Grain and grass fields run from ten acres to forty, but the 
latter figure is very high. As we have described, each field, from a few nesting spots, 
wotfld originate an army. Some of these infested fields were miles apart, the inters 
vening territory being exempt. I got returns of twenty of these armies in one town- 
ship. There aiuely could not be less than one hundred in the county. They seemed 
to nave a penchant for the best farms. 

LET us RECAPITULATE. 

1. We can localize the breeding places. The mother moth selects the thick and 
ihady apota in the grain fields and meadows as the right places in which to lay her 

T, thna securing for the larvs shelter and tender food. 
An army is made up of bands, each band having its own breeding spot, and these 
■pots are oentera of dissemination. When these nesting spots are eaten off the bands 
^raad, traveling in the direction of food,' thus uniting, when, so to speak, the clan 
nlsHon ia lost. They now form one hun^^ and marauding army, set in one course 
tad impelled by one impulse. It is at this point of their career that they are gener- 
alh firvt noticed, and the averment is made, '* They have come all of a spdden.^ 

£ A thin tillage is adverse to the worms. It maxes the conditions of life harder for 
tiiem, knahade, more heat, earlier ripening, and quicker toughening of grass and grain, 
wd greaiter freedom for the birds. 

WHAT SHOULD BE DOXE. 

4. Till uniformly, and not too close. Ton may get less wheat, but you will get 
better, and the worms will fare worse. 

& Ttj to find out where the cate^iilar originates. Beginning early in May, watch 
t]M thidE apota and the damp places in meadow and gram. This inspection is.espe- 
eially caOed for if the winter has been mild and the spring is warm. As described oy 
kOey, the eegs are very small and round when first laid, of a glistening white, but 
beecndnff yeUowish. They are laid in stringy groups containing from five to twenty 
tggs. Tney should be looked for in and near the axils of the leaves ; that is. in the 
qKyat-ahaped parts of the blade, near the stem. In this hollow of the leaf tne egm 
•n glued, and sometimes the two edffes of the leaf are so drawn together that tne 
cgp look like a white streak. Should you find the eggs, if in quantity, it might not 
be pneticable to attempt collecting them, but you have found a breeding spot, and 
it is now possible, and without ix\jury to the grain or grass at this early stage, to ex- 
tingoish tne worm with a weak solution of London purple or Paris green. If the 
ip(rts are small they could be cut out with a sickle and fed to stock. If the eggs are 
bitched the crinkling sound made when feeding, which is in the early evening and 
Jut before the morning dawn, will to a good ear betray the presence of the larvie. 

Oar Army Worm is Leutxtma unipwnota, for there are other caterpillars which are 
vrongly so called. The moth is 45°^"V<" about If inches in expanse of wing, and 24"^, 
or about | inch in length of body. The color is very plain, being a reddiui-brown or 
einnamon, with a double white spot or blot«h on each front wing. 

The insect ia with us the whole year. In the pupa state, in the ground or under 
itones and other bodies, they pass a large part of the year, including the winter, 
while many perfect moths hibernate under the shelter of some concealing object. In 
tbe spring the mother moth devotes herself to egg-la Wng, which done, a day or two 
nAeea at moat, when she dies of sheer exhaustion. The appearance of the spotted 



106 KEPOET OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

Leaoania in large armies, as a mle, can only occur after intervals of several jeaxB. 
The weather conditions which caused their appearance in New Jersey in 18S0, in 
such amazing humhers, were very remarkable. The winter had been so exceptionally 
mild that the moths came safely through hibernation and in large numbers. A rain- 
less May, and unusually warm, brought in, in efilect, a premdture summer. Early 
potatoes failed; corn had to be replanted; rye was in ear in April; wheat began 
heading by the 12th of May, and such was the heat that the filling of the ears and 
the getting out of hiilk mllowed fast. Wheat-cutting began Jiine 18, abd at the 
end of the month the harvest generally was over, nearly three weeks earlier than 
usual. And not only was Lett^^ania unipuncta affected by the weather conditions of 
tii£it remarkable year, but the insect tribe generally. 

NOTES. 

1. Since the foregoing was written I have seen " abstract" of a paper on LeucanitL 
rniiptinctUf read bv Prof. C. V. Riley at the Boston meeting of the A. A. A. 8., August, 
1880. He says : "In the latitude of Saint Louis there are two, sometimes three, genera- 
tions In a year, and, perhaps, even four; and ferther south a Succession of genera- 
tions, scarcely interrupted duting mild 'Winters. Probably in New England there are 
two generations, the second one being ^ usually unnoticed,' and existing through the 
autumn, winter, and early spring months. 

** It is an established fact that the species hibernates both as larva and as moth, 
with strong circumstantial evidence that it also hibernates, particularly northward, 
aa a chrysalis ; but we have no evidence that it can hibernat'e in the e^. 

'' Excessive injury may result from natural local increase, or from moths fljring in 
great numbers from other localities, and concentrating in particular fields. Ihy aea- 
aons are favorable to the multiplication of the insect.''^ 



SOALB INSECTS OF THE ORANQII. 

REMEDIES AND THEIR APPLICATION. 
By H. G. Hubbard, Special Agent. 

CHARACTERIZATION OP THE SPECIES. 

In devising practicable remedies for Scale insects, the first factor of im- 
portance is seen to be that there are several kinds of these insects which 
yield to treatinent in very dift'erent degrees. Without entering npon 
the stibject of classification, which has already been fally treats in re- 
ports of the Department of Agriculture, we may, for the purposes of the 
present article, divide those that infest trees of the orange family into 
two groups — the naked Coccidre {LecanincB)^ and those which are pro- 
tected by a homy scale (Diaspince), The former give comparatively 
litfle trouble ; their colonies rarelj^ increase sufficiently to endanger the 
life of a tree, and are invariably checked — often exterminated— by theii 
parasites. Moreover, their unprotected bodies are vulnerable and ex- 
posed to the action of strong lye or soap solutions and other in- 
secticides. 

The Scale-armored Diaspinm are much more destructive in their rav- 
ages^ and their astonishing powers of reproduction frequently enslble 
them to outstrip their natural enemies. Owing to their prot^ective cov- 
ering they are but little affected by most of the washes and insecticides 
in general use. Of this group three species arfe known to me, and are 
universally distributed in orange groves throughout Southeastern 
Florida. 

Myiiias'pis Oloverii (Packard), the common " Long Scale,'' or " Oystttr- 
shell Scale,'' is familiar to orange- growers as a dark-brown, or yellowish 



BEPORT OP THE ElfrOMOLOGIST. 107 

particle, very elongate -in form, which infests the twigs and branches, 
sppeaiiDg finally upon the leaves, and, more rarely, upon the main trunk 
of the tree, 

Mffiitaspis citricola (Packard), to which the name " Purple Scale ^ may 
be given, is somewhat larger than the preceding, which it resembles 
in general form, and with which it is commonly confounded. It is, how- 
ever, nsiially dark-purple in color, individual scales varying to red- 
brown. Like the Jx)ng Scale it is found upon the twigs and branches, 
and it is apt to infest the lemon, citron, and those varieties of orange 
which have large oil cells (Tangierine, &c.) 

Parlatoria Fergandii, Comstock, is a small thin scale, nearly circular 
in oatliDe. In color it so closely resembles the bark that it very often 
escapes notice. In fact, many persons whose groves are suffering from 
die attacks of this scale are unaware of its presence. It infests by pref- 
^enoe the trunk and larger branches, and to these it generally confines 
itself until every iwrtion of their surface is thickly coated and the young 
bark-hee can no longer find places to plant themselves. It is also fre- 
quently seen upon the fruit. The young often form their scales under- 
neath or over the mother, and are found piled upon one atiother, in a 
manner never seen in the other scales. From their resemblance to a 
eoating of fine chafi", or bran, upon the trunk of the tree^ I have called 
this the "Chaff Scale.'' These three scales are so universally distribu- 
ted tiiat it is safe to say no bearing orange tree exists in Southel'n and 
Middle Florida upon which one or the other cannot be found. 

The Long Scale (M. Qloverii) is the most destructive, while it is the 
most readily destroyed. The Purple Scale (M. citricola) is in my expe- 
lie&oe rarer, although not less injurious than the Long Scale, to the 
toes which it infests. It is somewhat more difficult to kill tnan the 
latter. The Chaff Scale (P. Fergandii) is hardly less common than the 
LoDg Scale and is very frequently associated with it. Of the three it 
18 decidedly the most difficult to exterminate, owing, in part at least, to 
its habit of piling or lapping one over the other. Except upon very 
joong threes it seldom does permanent injury, and is much less to be 
feared than the other two species. Its thinner scale renders it liable to 
the attacks of enemies to a much greater extent than the Mytilaspis 
Scales, and tliey often cause its complete disappearance from a tree. 

The life-history of these Scale insects has been so recently set forth 
by Professor Comstock (Department of Agriculture, Eeport 1880,) that 
a fall recapitulation of the subject here is unnecessary. In treating of 
remedies three periods in the development of the insect require to be 
Botieed. 

The PflBiOD OF MiaBATiON, during which the newly-hatched larvae 
ire possessed of legs, and wander over the tree, lasts but a few houfs, 
or at most one or two days, after which the young Qoccids fix themselves 
BpoQ the bark and begin to suck the juices of the plant. 

The PJEBIOD OF GBOWTH, during which the insect loses its legs, un- 
dergoes seveml molts, and excretes a scale, varies in duration according 
to £e season of the year, from one to two months^ and is lengthened by 
eool, and shortened by warm, weather. 

The PBBIOD OF INCUBATION, during which the eggs are deposited 
and hatched under the fully-formed scales^ varies greatly in duration^ 
dep^ding upon the season and temperature. In February, with un- 
iatttTupted warm weather, the females of the Long Scale ( jf. Oloverii) 
oontinue to deposit their eggs during sixteen or eighteen days. The 
eggs hatch in summer in a week or ten days* In winter the time is 
extended indefinitely by cold, which is, however, never of sufficiently 



108 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

long continuance to cause an entire suspension of the process. The 
young, after hatching, remain many days under the parent scale, if the 
weather is unfavorable. 

Up to the time of the first molt the bark-lice are easily destroyed 
by insecticides of moderate strength, but during the remainder of their 
existence they are protected by the scale, a homy covering, excreted 
by the insect, and entirely covering its body above. The under layer, 
or ventral scale, is somewhat thinner, and, although perhaps a separate 
piece, is firmly united to t^e upper scale at the edges, so that the latter 
appears to be turned under at the sides. In Mytilaspis the ventral 
scale forms flanges along the sides, which do not quite meet along the 
center line, but in Parlataria it forms an unbroken shield, which entirely 
separates the body of the insect from contact with the bark. This 
more perfect protection from below renders the Chaff Scale more diffi- 
cult to destroy by means of external applications. The scale is perma- 
nently fastened upon the tree, and so closely molded to its surfEUse 
that the pores of the bark, or the stomata of the leaf, are seen plainfy 
stamped upon it when removed. 

As the Bcaley like the shell of the snail, is formed by successive addi- 
tions^ and ^eeps pace in its growth with that of the body of the insect 
within, its vuhierable point is the growing end, and there are times 
during its formation when tiie posterior extremity of the insect projects 
slightiy beyond it and becomes exposed to the action of penetrating 
liquids. This is particularly the case at the critical periods when the 
coccid sheds its skin. But when the scale is fully completed and tightly 
sealed at all points, no insect is more dif&cult to reach and to destroy. 

The substance of which the upper scale is composed is impervious to 
most liquids, and is not soluble in acid or alkaline solutions strong 
enough to ii^jure the plant. It resists the action of oils and of bisulphide 
of carbon, an almost universal solvent. Many insecticides are therefore 
inoperative, and all insoluble substances, such as sulphur, &c^are clearly 
useless, as they do not reach the eggs or mature insects. The thinner 
ventral scale is not impervious to the more volatile oils or to alcoholic 
solutions, some of which reach and Mil the insect by penetration through 
the bark. 

From the foregoing outline of their structure and history it will be 
seen that for a brief period only in their development these insects are 
easily assailable. During the period of migration the tender young may 
be destroyed by solutions of whale oil soap, lye, &c., sprayed over the 
trees; and were the eggs hatched simultaneously and the broods clearly 
defined, as with many other insects, their extermination would be a 
matter of no difficulty. This is, however, not the case; the open win- 
ters in Florida permit continuous breeding throughout the year, and at 
all seasons scales in every stage of development are found upon the 
trees. There are, however, times when the number of migrating young 
reaches a maximum, and tlie application of remedies then proves par- 
ticularly effective. 

Three such periods occur: the first in spring, usually in March, bnt 
sometimes extending into April ^ the second in June or July; tlie third 
in September or October. During the winter months, if tlie season is 
a mild one, there is a fourth very irregular brood beginning in January 
and continuing through this and the following month. The spring brood 
that follows is greatly confused. In cold and rainy winters, like that of 
1880-'81, the hatching process is retarded, and the appearance of the 
larvae on the return of warm weather is more nearly simultaneous than 
in ordinary seasons 



BEPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 109 

The eggs of coocids, as is the case with all insects, have much greater 
vitality than the insects themselves. Many substances which destroy 
the living insects have no effect upon their eggs. The periods in which 
the majority of the scales are filled with eggs are tiierefore those in 
which the application of remedies is likely to prove least effective, and 
it becomes imx)ortant to know the seasons at which these maxima occur. 
They immediately precede the appearance in numbers of the migrating 
larvaB, and may be stated to include generally the months of February, 
Hay, and August, and tiie winter months from November to January. 

'Die above data concern more particularly the common Long Scale 
(jr. Olaverii). The broods of Ghaff Scale (P. Perga/ndii) have not been 
as careftilly studied at all seasons, and may be found to have somewhat 
different periods. During the past winter ^1881-^82) I have found this 
scale to he about two weeks in advance of tne Long Scale. The Purple 
Scale (M. eitricola) has not been continuously observed, but seems to 
have the same brood periods as Long Scale. 

THE WOBK OF ENEMIES AIO) PABASITES. 

Numerous enemies pi«y upon bark-lice in all their stages, and always 
greatly reduce their numbers. Besides occasional enemies, such as the 
nicking bugs, and other predatory insects, which are general feeders, 
there are others which live almost or quite exclusively upon the Goccidse. 
Some of these confine their attacks to particular kinds of Scale insects. 
Several very common beetles of the fiAmily CoccineUidcBy the ^4ady bugs" 
are useful destroyers of bark-lice. One of the smallest of this family, 
Ef/peraspidius ooccidivarus^ is found to colonize upon the trunks of orange 
tras, thickly infested witli Ghaff Scale, and entirely free them of t£e 
pest The young of a lace- wing fiy (Ohrysapa) feeds upon the bark-lice 
in all stages, and frequently makes its case of scales torn from the bark, 
and often still containing living occupants. The orange basket- worm 
(Pifcke con/ederata 6r. & Bob.) has the same habit, and the caterpillars 
of at least two moths are bark-louse eaters. One of these fan unknown 
'Eneid) inhabits silken galleries, which it covers with half-eaten £n^- 
meats of scales, and performs such efficient service that every scale in 
itspc^ is removed firom the bark and suspended in the investing web. 
The most important external enemies of the Scale insect are certain 
mites, which are omnipresent upon trees infested with Scale, and which 
feed upon the eggs and young lice. They breed rapidly and lurk in 
great numbers under old deserted scales, where their eggs are extremely 
Yell protected from the action of insecticides. For this reason, when an 
effective application has been made by spraying infested trees, the 
tmnks should not be scraped for some time after, but the dead scales 
dioold be allowed to remain upon the bark for several weeks, in order 
that the mites which they harbor may be given time to complete the 
work of the remedy used. Li this they may be confidently relied upon 
tt powerful auxiliaries. When large numbers of the scales have been 
killed by spraying with oils, &c., the mites are often observed to in- 
crease suddenly, as they are much less affected by the application than 
the Scale insects themselves. It seems probable that they feed upon 
the dead aud dying coccids as well as upon the living, and the loosen- 
ing of the scales and abundance of food at such times stimulates them 
to rapid increase. They soon swarm in such numbers as completely to 
exterminate the remnant of the coccids left alive by the wash. 

Of all its enemies, the most efficient destroyers of the Scale insect are 
its bymenopterous parasites. These are minute four- winged flies, which 



110 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOKEB OP AGRICULTURE. 

bore through the scale and deposit within a single egg. The little grab 
hatching from this egg feeds upon and destroys the occupant of the scale 
and completes its own transformations in its place. When fully adult 
the parasite emerges through a round hole eaten in the shell, leaving 
behind an empty domicile to serve as a shelter for the mites. 

The numerous species of these parasites, although not invariably con- 
fined in each case to a single species of bark-louse, have distinct meth- 
ods of attack from which they do not vary. Thus the liong and the 
Purple Scales are parasitized at about the time of impregnation of the 
females, or when they are not more than one-half their adult size and 
the young hymenopteron is developed entirely within the body of tiie 
coccid. The skin of the latter hardens when l^e is extinct and doubly 
protects the parasite during the latter part of its larval and in its pupa 
stage. The parasite of the Ohaff Scale makes its attack at a later stage, 
often when the scale is full of eggs and its larva does not enter Sie 
body of the coccid, but feeds upon it and the eggs indiscriminately, oc- 
casionally devouring the eggs alone and leaving the mother coccid un- 
touched. Its pupa is fiormed naked within the scale and has only such' 
protection as this affords the coccid and its eggs. In individual num- 
bers these hy menopterous parasites abound to such an extent that rarely 
less than 25 per cent, and often more than 75 per cent, of the scales are 
attacked by them, and the work of destruction accomplished through 
their agency alone equals if it does not excel that of all other enemies 
combined. Doubtless without their aid the culture of the orange and 
related trees would, in Florida at least, become impracticable. 

Ordinarily the various checks upon their increase are sufficient to pre- 
vent the spreading of bark-lice to an injurious extent, but at times they 
increase so rapidly that they entirely outstrip their enemies, and all 
parts of the plant become thickly coated with scales. The growth of the 
tree is then checked, the infested twigs and branches die, and oden 
the entire upper portion of the tree is lost. The roots and trunk, how- 
ever, survive, and the tree endeavors to repair the injury by throwing 
out shoots from below. When a tree reaches this impoverished condi- 
tion, matters usually begin to mend. The bark-lice upon the dead or 
dying branches perish by starvation, the parasites reassert their sway, 
and slowly the tree regains its health and vigor, but seldom its pris- 
tine beauty. 

The causes which excite such sudden outbursts of the pest are not 
clearly known^ but it may be conjectured that peculiar conditions of the 
sap are especially favorable to the development of Scale insects, and, 
perhaps, affect the reproductive function, stimulating the females to 
greater productiveness. Experiments upon this point have not hem 
conclusive, but observations show that individual females vary consider- 
ably in the number of eggs deposited, and that they attain their maxi- 
mum size and productiveness when in the full tide of increase upon in- 
fested trees. There is a wide-spread and apparently well-founded 
opinion that vigorous trees are in little danger from attacks, but if firom 
any cause a tree becomes enfeebled, its investment is only a question of 
time. Many persons refuse to apply insecticides, relying upon their 
ability to keep their trees vigorous, or to restore them when out of con- 
dition by the liberal use of fertilizers. It cannot be denied that this 
course of treatment is very often successful, but over-stimulation by means 
of fertilizers is apt to defeat its object, and numerous failures from un- 
known causes might be recorded. 

The utter inadequacy of nearly all the washes hitherto used has led 
many fruit-growers to despair of obtaining permanent baiefit fcom the 



BEPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. Ill 

application of remedies, and a common practice has been to cut back 
badiy-infested trees, leaving only the main trunks, or in the case of well- 
grown trees, a fK)rtion of the main branches, and to scrub thoroughly 
erery part of these with solutions of soap or lye, using a stiff brush, 
and as far as i)osBible removing every scale. This, however, involves 
gres^ care and considerable labor, and the complete extermination of 
the pest is rarely accomplished in this way. The loss of branches is 
indeed replaoed with extraordinary rapidity, but the Scale insects re- 
appear aa if by magic, and in one or two years become as bad as before. 

The opinion is often expressed that the tree will " throw off the scales,'' 
or that they will ^^ disappear in time at the ends of the branches." The 
£Mts upon which this behef is founded are simply that the young lice, 
when the branches become crowded, wander off and on to new growth ; 
thehr eoorse is, therefore, naturally upward and outward. When the ad- 
vsmdng army reaches the ultimate branches, the insects crowd upon Uie 
smaller twigs and leaves, killing them rapidly and involving themselves 
in the common destruction. The tide of scales is then checked, while 
the ffliemies thrive and multiply, feeding upon the dead and starving 
ooecids. There then occurs one of those sudden oscillations of the bal- 
anee which are familiar enough to entomologists; the unseen enenues in- 
crease and the scales visibly diminish. The tree meantime has rest 
and time to recover its vigor, and the trouble for the time being is over. 
It is, however, a mistake to suppose that all the scales are disposed of, 
or that tliis is the invariable termination of the pest. There are not un- 
frequenUy inundations of the destroyer which involve entire orchards in 
their resistless course, and remain for years, blasting successive crops 
of fruit and permanently destroying the symmetry of the trees. 

Very j'ouBg orange trees seldom exhibit these phenomena of the duh 
appearance of scale ^ith little injury to the trees. Their tops being 
small, and the branches few and short, they are usually entirely overrun 
in a single season, and, if not attended to, sustain irrepasable injury, re- 
saltiBgy in the case of budded trees, in the destruction of the budded 
portion. For obvious reasons in young groves of budded trees the 
caMng-back process is not often resorted to, and the only alternative has 
been to go over the trees with a brush or swab, using cleansing soap or 
lye solutions, and removing-by hand as far as possible all the scales. In 
ttisway young trees may be for a time relieved, but while the enemies 
and parasites are nearly exterminated a sufficient number of scales to 
nslock the plant inevitably escape detection. The bark is at the same 
tiflie cleared of obstructions to their spread, and the operation has to be 
ii^eated at intervals of three or four months. By this laborious and ex- 
pofiive process many groves are brought through the critical period 
(tf adolescence and reach the bearing age, but the seeds of mischief re- 
lain a constant menace for the future. 

In the iireceding pages I have eudeayoreil to show, from a brief ex- 
mination of their history and structure, that Scale insects become less 
Tolnerable as they grow older; that during the earlier portion of their 
existence, which I have termed the migratory age, they are easily as- 
lailable, sud although this age is of short duration, and not stri.ctly lim- 
ited to any season of the year, the months of March, June, and Septem- 
ber, which mark the appearance of successive broods, are those in which 
the application of remedies gives the greatest advantage. Various meth- 
ods of treatment have been reviewed and their advantages and disad- 
vantages discussed. Finally, the work of enemies and parasites has 
been indicated sufficiently at jeiist to show their impoilance and the 

danger of interfering with their operations by means of half remediee. 



112 REPOET OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

REMEDIES— THE ACTION OP INSECTICIDES. 

It remains to examine the action of insecticides and to ^ve the re- 
sults of experiments made during the past season, 1881-'82, under the 
direction of Professor Eiley, the Entomologist of the Department of Ag- 
riculture. 

From what has been said of the nature and structure of the homy 
covering that protects the three Diaspinous scales, with which we are 
chiefly concerned, it will be seen that application of solid substances are 
not likely to prove practicable, and that for cheap and effective remedies 
we must look to penetrating liquids. The cost of alcohol renders its ex- 
tensive use as a solvent impracticable. The volatile oils are as a rule 
powerful insecticides, but as they reach the insect from beneath by pen- 
etrating the bark of the tree, and are all to a greater or less degree in- 
jurious to vegetation, their use undiluted can in no case be recommended. 
Some of the light oils, 6, g.j naphtha, turpentine, &c., are extremely haz- 
ardous remedies, and experiments with them are known to have resulted 
In the destruction of the orange trees upon which they were applied. 

EIerosene. — ^The value of this substance as an insecticide is too weU 
known to need further testimony here. Of all the light oils which I 
have tried, or of which I have any knowledge, it is the least injurious 
to plants of the Gitrus family. Keflned kerosene, separated fix>m the 
deadly naphtha oils, has frequently been used undiluted, without injury. 

Grude petroleum is said to destroy the bark, and even the refined oil, 
if applied in the hot sunshine, i^ompletely defoliates the tree. Applied 
in the shade, at sunset, or in cloudy weather I have never known any 
serious injuiy to result from its moderate use. The tree invariably loses 
the old and devitalized leaves, but young and vigorous growth, espe- 
cially tender sprouts and budding leaves, are entirely unharmed by it. 
Nevertheless, so many cases of loss are reported that its use, undiluted, 
must be considered dangerous. In very fine spray, and with proper 
precautions, pure kerosene can probably be used with impunity, but ail 
attempts to apply it in small quantities with other liquids, by dashing 
them together, should be discouraged as dangerous, or at best unsatis- 
factory, since it is impossible in this way to insure an even distribution 
of the oil to all parts of the plant. 

There is, however, a safe and ready method of diluting kerosene and 
similar oils, and rendering them miscible with water. This method, as 
has been indicated by Prof. 0. V. Eiley (Scientific American of October 
16, 1880), is to emulsify the oil with milk. 

The want of success which has attended former experiments with 
emulsions of kerosene and milk (see Department Report, 1880, page 288) 
is due solely to failure in properly combining the ingredients, and the 
consequent use of an imperfect or unstable emulsion. The process of 
forming a perfectly stable emulsion of kerosene and milk is comparable 
to that of ordinary butter making, and is as follows : The oil and milk 
in any desired proportions are poured together and very violently 
dashed or churned for a period of time, varying with the temperature, 
fix)m fifteen to forty-five minutes. The churning, however, requires to be 
much more violent than can be effected with an ordinary butter-churn. 

The Aquapult force pump, which is also the most effective instrument 
I have seen for spraying orange trees, may be satisfactorily used for this 
purpose where moderate quantities only are required. The pump should 
be inserted in a pail or tub containing the liquids, which are then forced 
into union by continuous pumping back into the same receptacle through 
the flexible hose and spray -nozzle. After passing once or twice through 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 113 

th\B pomp the liquids unite and form a creamy emulsion, in which finely 
divided particles of oil can plainly be detected. This is as far as the 
proeess can be carried by stirring or by dashing in an ordinary chum ; the 
product at this point will not bear diluting with water and separates or 
rises at once to the surface. On continued churning through the pum]> 
the liquid fijially curdles and suddenly thickens to form a white and 
glistening butter, perfectly homogeneous in texture, and stable. 

The whole amount of both ingredients solidify together, anrf there is 
no whey or other residue; if, however, the quantity of the mixture is 
greater than can be kept in constant agitation, a portion of the oil is apt 
to separate at the moment of emulsification and will require the addi- 
tion of a few ounces of milk and further churning for its redaction. 

This kerosene butter mixes readily in water, care being taken to thin 
it first with a small quantity of the liquid. The time required to ^^ bring 
the butter^ varies with the temperature. At 60^ F. it is half to three 
quarters of an hour; at 75^, fifteen minutes, and the process may be still 
further fincilitated by heating the milk up to, but not past, the boiling 
point. Either fresh or sour milk may be used, and the latter is even 
preferable. ^ 

The presence of kerosene does not prevent or hinder the fermentation 
of the milk; on standing a day or two the milk curdles, and idthough 
^ere is no separation of the oU the emulsion thickens and hardens and 
requires to be stirred, but not churned, until it regains its former smooth- 
ness. 

If sour milk is used no further fermentation takes place, and if not 
exposed to the air the kerosene butter can be kept unchanged for any 
length of time. Exx>osure to. the air not only permits the evaporation of 
the oil but also of the water necessary to hold the oil in emulsion; the 
kerosene slowly separates as the emulsion dries up and hardens. 

Kerosene emulsions may be made of almost any strength; the quan- 
tity of milk required to hold the oil does not exceed one-tenth. But 
emulsions containing over 80 per cent, of the oil have too light a specific 
pavity and are not readily held in suspension in water. On the other 
liand, in the process of. emulsification, kerosene loses a portion of its 
Talue as an insecticide, and emulsions containing less than 30 per<;ent. 
of the ofl, although they do not at all, or only very slowly, rise to the 
florfiioe when diluted with considerable quantities of water, are never- 
thdess too much weakened for effective use against Scale insects. 

The lolling power of a diluted emulsion depends less upon the amount 
of emulsion used in the solution than upon the percentage of oil con- 
tuned in the emulsion. To increase the efficiency of an application we 
Hhcmld rather add to the percentage of oil in the emulsion than increase 
the gross amount of emulsion used in a single application, the amount 
of the diluent remaining in each case the same. As the result of numer- 
0O8 experiments I would recommend an emulsion consisting of refined 
kerosene 2 parts; fresh, or preferably sour, cow's milk, 1 part (percent- 
age of oil, 66§). Where cow's milk is not easily obtained, as in many 
parts of this State, it may be replaced by an equivalent of condensed 
milk (Eagle brand) diluted with water in the proportion 1 to 2. As the 
cans of condensed milk usually sold in the stores contain exactly 12 
finid ounces (three-quarters pint), the following receipt will be found a 
convenient one : 

Kerosene • 1 gallon = 8 pints =64 percent. 

Condensed milk 2 cans =lij " \ oo i. 

Water 4 cans =3*' " }^36 percent. 

8 AG 



114 KEFOKT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AOBICULTUBE. 

Mi2L thoroughly the condensed milk and water before addiiijg: the oil ; 
chum with the Aqnapult pump until the whole fiolidifles and' forms ati 
ivory-white, glisteniug butter a« thick as ordinary butter at a tempera- 
ture of 750 f! K the temperature of the air falls below 70o, warm the 
diluted milk to blood heat before lulding the oil. 

In applications for Scale insects the kerosene butter should be di- 
luted with water from 12 to 10 times, or 1 pint of butter to 1| gallons 
(for Chaff Scale); 1 pint of butter to 2 gallons (for Long Scale). Tbe 
diluted wash resembles fresh milk, and if allowed to stand, in two or 
three hours the emulsion rises, as a cream, to the surface. The butter 
should therefore be dilated otily as needed for immediate use, and the 
mixture should be stirred from time to time. 

A wash prepared in accordance with the above directions will kill 
with certainty all the oooeids and their eggs under scales with which it 
can be brought into direct contact. Ko preparation known to mo will, 
however, remove the scales themselves from the tree, or in any way 
reveal to the unassisted eye the condition of the insects within. This 
can be ascertained only by microscopic examination of detached scales. 
Time alone, and^he condition of the tree itself, will indicate the result 
of an application. Kerosene^ it is true, loosens the scales from t&e bark, 
so that for a time they are readily brushed off, but they afterwards be- 
come more firmly adherent^ and are very gradually removed by the 
action of the weather. 

Upon trees thickly infested a large proportion of the scales are so 
completely covered up by the overlapping of other scales, or the web- 
bing together of leaves by spiders and other insects, that the wash can- 
not be brought into direct contact with them, and they are only reached, 
if at all, by the penetrating action of the oil. This takes place gradu- 
ally, and the number of bark^lice killed increases for some time after 
an application, reaching the maximum in the case of kerosene about 
the fifth day. in Long Scale the oil penetrates the outer end, killing 
first the eggs at the broad and thin outer end, but its action is gradu- 
ally exhausted and several pairs of eggs in the middle of the sc^e are 
often left idive. It is, therefore, impossible, in .a single application, to 
destroy every scale upon an orange tree. This can, however, be aooom- 
plished by making two or three applications at intervals of four or five 
weeks. The mother insects being nearly or quite all killed by the first 
treatment, and the surviving eggs having in the interval all hatched, 
a second application, if thorough, will clear the tree. 

The great dificulty experienced in reaching every part of the tree 
renders it absolutely necessary that any liquid used should be applied 
in fine spray and with considerable force. An ordinary garden syringe 
does not acomplish this and can never be used satisfactorUy against 
Scale insects. 

The most effective instrument known to me is the Aqnapult force 
pump. This throws a constant stream of moderately fine spray with 
such force that the fluid is driven into close contact with tbe bark, and 
on striking the leaves and branches is dashed into fine mist which 
envelops the tree and wets every leaf. The tree should always be 
sprayed from each of four sides, and rather more liquid should be used 
than seems necessary to drench every portion. 

Although I have thought it advisable to recommend several applica- 
lions, a single very thorough spraying with a good force pump wiU, in 
most instances, prove entirely efi'ectufS in dealing tbe tree, since, if only 
an occaHional e*xg or coecid escai)es, the great army of parasites and 
enemies will be almost sure to complete the work. 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 116 

As has been already said, dilated kerosene does no injury to yonug 
growth or to the bark of the orange trees. It however causes the 
older leaves to drop, and where the tree is badly infested with scale or 
otherwise out of condition the defoliation is sometimes complete, espe- 
dttlly if the wash is applied In the son. The death of moribund branches 
and twigs is also hastened. Beyond this the injury, if such it be oon- 
ddered, is imperoeptiblej and dormant trees are invariably stimulated 
to pash out new growth m two or three weeks after treatment. 

Even in midwinter, if the weather is. mild, sprouts will show them- 
selves^ and this is perhaps the only objection to its use at this season^ 
for it IS clearly not desirable to start the buds at a time when there is 
danger of frost. During the past winter (1881-'82) I have experimented 
with many young trees, using emulsions containing firom 40 to 80 per 
eent of keroeeiie, and in no case has any real injury resulted, although 
some treee in very bad condition have lost a portion of their twiga ttod 
smaller branches that had been long infested with scale and were in a 
dying condition. In the spring, when the trees are in full growth and 
corered with tender sprouts, they may be sprayed with the diluted 
efflolfikm recommended above, without danger of checking their growtJh 

lo Table 1 are given the results of seveuteeti experiments with koto- 
sene in milk emulsions of varying strength. When the percentage of 
ooodds killed is given this was obtained by cutting twigs, leaVes, and 
portions of infested bark from all parts of the tree, and examining mi- 
citaoopicaUy in the laboratory large numbers of the scales ujwn tnem« 
UDder the head of young coccids are included all- those which have 
well-formed scales bat have not begun to lay eggs. The youngest 
hark-lioe, or those which have not yet' molted, were almost invaotiably 
kiDed and are not included in the enumeration. 

The percentage of young coccids killed is given separately, including 
QDder this head all age^ between the formation of the permanent scale 
aod the appearance of eggs, but no larvse before the drst molt ; the 
letter were in uearjy every case all killed. Of scales which contained 
efgs three classes were examined, and the percentage of each obtained : 
(1) Scales in which a portion only of the eggs were destroyed ; (2) 
Scales in which all the eggs were killed ; (3) Scales in which no eggs 
werekiUed* 

Purple Scales (Myiil(m>is citricola) were not abundant but appear 
to be somewhat less reauily destroyed than Long Scale. All the ex- 
periments were made upon young orange trees from three to six years 
<M. An Aquapult punip of medium size was used, and in each case 
thstrees were sprayed from the ground and on tour sides. Where the 
trees were more than eight or ten feet in height, the upper branches 
did not rweive the spray with sufficient force and show in some case« 
a smaller percentage of bark-lice destroyed than the lower portions of 
tie same tree. For fUll-grown ta*ees a larger pump is needed and the 
apparatus should be placed in a cart or otherwise raised above the 
ground when used. 

The emulsions used were n^ade as follows : 

Ko. 2. Kerosene, 1 pint; sour cow's milk, 2 fluid ounces, dashed with 
a ladle; 2 drachms of powdered chalk was iirst added to the milk, and 
2 ounces water during the stirring. 

An imperfect emulsion not readily suspended in water. 

Na 3. Kerosene, 1 quart; solution of condensed miliv, 3 parts; water, 
5 V^TtM. 12 fluid ounces. 

Emulsion made bv spraying through the Aquapult pump and back 
Into the paiL Stable; and readily suspended in water 



116 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

No. 9. Kerosene, 1 quart: condensed milk, 12 fluid ounces, diluted 
with water, 36 ounces ; emulsified with the Aquapult. 

1^0. 10. Kerosene, 25.6 fluid ounces ; condensed milk, 4.8 fluid ounces ; 
water, 14.4 ounces ; emulsified with pUmp. 

1^0. U. Kerosene, 2 quarts ; condensiBd milk, 12 fluid ounces (1 can); 
water, 20 ounces ; with pump. 

Ko. 13. Kerosene, 2 quarts, 4 fluid ounces ; condensed milk, 12 fluid 
ounces ; water, 24 ounces^ with pump. 

Whale-oil soap. — ^This has long been considered one of the best 
insecticides known, and is extensively used as a remedy for bark-lice. 
Experiments show that very strong solutions kill tne coccids but have 
litde or no effect upon their eggs. Solutions of one pound of the 
soap to three gallons of water failed to kill the adult bark-lice or tiieir 
eggs, and did not destroy all the young. The strongest solution used, 
one pound of the soap to one gallon of water, killed all the coocids and 
few or none of the eggs. 

This solution solidifies on cooling, and must, therefore, be applied hot 
The effect upon the trees is about equal to that of effective kerosene 
emulsions ; badly infested trees are somewhat defoliated, but new growth 
and vigorous trees are not apprecibly affected. As the eggs are not killed. 
seversJ applications at intervals of four to six weeks will be required 
to clear a tree of scale. 

Whale-oil soap is sold in Eastern Florida at 10 to 12 cents per pound. 
The cost of an effective wash is therefore much greater than emulsions 
of kerosene. For scrubbing and cleansing the trunks of orange trees 
this soap may be recommended. A solution of 1 x>ound to 4 gallons 
will probably be sufficiently strong for this purpose. 

In Table 2 are given the results of experiments with solutions (rf whale- 
oil soap applied in fine spray to all parts of the trees by means of the 
Aquapult pump. The solutions were all applied hot, being either solid 
when cool or too thick for spraying through the pump. 

Oil of oaEOSOTE.^ — ^The crude oil, dissolved in strong alkalies or solu- 
tions of soap, forms a very effective remedy for Scale insect. It may 
also be emulsified with milk in the same manner as kerosene. The 
undiluted oil is, however, , exceedingly injurious to vegetation, and 
destroys the bark of orange and otiier trees. It is, in fact^ a more 
dangerous substance than kerosene, and requires to be used with great 
caution. Solutions, emulsions, and soaps containing it should be very 
careMly mixed, in order that no globules of free oil may be allowed to 
come in contact with the bark of &e tree. 

Its action upon the Scale insect is even more powerful {han kerosene, 
but it does not destroy as large a percentage of the eggs. The 
effect upon the coccids is not immediate, as in the case of other in- 
secticid^ and for three or four days after an application veiy few of 
the insects die. At the end of a week, however, the bark-lice are found 
to be affected and continue to perish in increasing numbers for a week 
longer. Even after the lapse of three weeks the destructive action of 
the oil is still appreciable. These facts lead me to suspect that the 
insects are killed, in part at least, by the poisoning of the sap upon 
which they feed. 

The visible effect upon the plant appears to confirm this view. Leaves 
upon infested trees begin to drop after four or five days, and the defolia- 
tion reaches a maximum during the second week. As is the case with 
kerosene, the effect ux>on the tree depends upon its condition at the 
time of application ; but creosote is more severe in its action, and there 
is greater loss of leaves and infested *branches. With care, however, 



REPOBT OF THE EITTOMOLOGIST. 117 

anapplication of creosote may be made sufBciently strong to exterminate 

the Bcale tTithont serious injory to the plant, and, as new or vigorous 

giDwtfa is very slightly affected, recovery is rapid. 

The following solation of crude oil of creosote will be found nearly 
if not quite as effective as a 64 per cent, kerosine emulsion, and may be 
applied without danger to orange* trees. Dilute the creosote with twice 
jtB Ycdnme of soap solution (2 ounces common soap to 1 pint hot water). 
tfix thoroughly until all the oil is dissolved. Add, before using, to one 
part of the above solution nine parts water, and apply in as flue si>ray 
ispoBsible. 

The most effective method of using creosote is to saponify it with heavy 
oQs and potash. In this way I have succeeded in obtaining a sokd soap 
«mtainiDg about 12 per cent., by volume, of the oil. The process of 
m^dng the soap is, however, exceedingly tedious and difficult, and un- 
less proper appliances be used the resulting product is imperfect and 
even dimgerous to use, as it contains a large amount of free creosote. 
Mana&ctorers of carbolic soap could undoubtedly supply a better article 
and at a less cost than the consumer could make for himself. 

In Table 3 are given results of exi>eriments with oil of creosote in 
8olation%nd combined with other substances. 

In experiment No. 27, 9 fluid ounces of creosote was applied to a 
aiogle tree about five years old. The tree, which was badly infested 
with Long Scale, and had many branches dead or dying, was severely 
defoliated, and lost some moribund branches, but recovei^ in six weeks 
and pushed oat new growth in midwinter. 

In experiment Ko. 30 a pint measure of crumbled creosote soap was 
applied. Th^ actual amount of creosote contained in this soap did not 
exeeed 2 fluid ounces. The extermination of Long Scale was complete. 
The ^ee, which was very badly infested and in poor condition, was 
almost completely defoliated and lost half its branches, but recovered 
veiy rapidly and pushed out new leaves within thirty days« (January 
25.) 

In experiment No. 21 the other substances added to the creosote so- 
tatiGn inereased the injury to the foliage of the tree and it was very 
Mverely checked, but entirely recovered and was stimulated to vigor- 
OQS growth at a time when aU surrounding trees were dormant. 

In the remaining experiments, 13, 14, 15, and 12, ^e quantity of creo- 
sote used was not sufficient to kill the Scale insects. The effect upon 
tiie trees was also very slight. 

Although firom the greater danger which attends its use and its less 
dfeetive action upon ti^e eggs, creosote cannot be preferred to kerosene 
as a remedy for scale, orange growers will be glad to find in it a specific 
ag:ainst certain destructive bark fungi which are often mistaken for 
Mle and are very frequently associated with it. One of these fungi 
is very widely distributed in Eastern Florida, and in some groves affects 
the health and endangers the life of every tree. It appears upon tiiie 
trunk and branches as little, hard excrescences, of gray color, some- 
times bursting at the end and disclosing a white, cottony interior, from 
which they are often confounded with a coccid. and are called the 
"mealy bug.'' A single application of cresote solution will usuidly en- 
tirely destroy the mycelium of this fungus within the bark and cause 
its <ysappearance from the tree. 

Bifl[UL.PHiDE OF CABBON. — ^In Table 4 are given the results of several 

experiments with th is insecticide. The emulsion, of which the ingredients 

given in Uie table, was formed by beating together witti a spatula 



118 REPORT OF THX OOMMISSIOHXR OF AmiCULTURB. 

tlie carbon and lard oU and then adding the milk and watev, and emol- 
gifying in the same manner. 

The trees in experiments 40 and 41 were very severely checked, al« 
though not seriously injured, and all snbsaqaently recovered* In experi- 
ment 39 the mixture was applied during a rain, and waa entirely witiiout 
effect upon the tree or scale. 

Further experiment is needed to determine whether this anbstanoe 
can be safely and economically used as a remedy ^r scale. Althougli 
a powei^il insecticide, the danger to the trees and the cost of the ma- 
terials detract greatly firom its value. It is also exceedingly volatile 
and explosive, and is to some extent poisonous to man. 

KEAii'a RXTBBHiif ATO&.-^This preparation has been used to a limited 
extent in Putnam Oounty, Florida, and is superior to most of the pro- 
prietary washes in the market It is a liquid, soluble in water, and is 
applied with a brush or in spray. It soon dries when exposed to the 
air,, and forms a gum, which coats the tree and in part peels off, carrying 
with it many of the old dead scales and some living ones. When (irpplied 
in sufficient strength it kills most of the coccids but does not destroy tbe 
eggs. It checks tiie tree rather more than kerosene, with which it can- 
not be compared in efficiency or cheapness. The preparatipA is inert 
and harmless to man and acts mechanically by covering and stifling the 
bark-lice or by removing them bodily firom tbe tree. 

Table 5 gives the resiHt of a single experiment in which the ^^exter- 
minator" was diluted in the proportions recommended by the pro- 
prietor. In other trials, with stronger solutions, the best result obtained 
was 80 per cent, of the young coccids killed, and trees were cleared of 
soale by rei>eated applications at intervals of several weekA; but in these 
cases the bark was hardened and the growth of the trees soinewhat 
checked. 

Lte. — ^Fonr experiments with concentrated potash lye, given in Table 
6, sufficiently illustrate the worthlessness of this substance as a remedy. 
In the strongest solution one pound of solid lye to a gallon and a half 
of water, all applied upon a single, very small tree, only a small per- 
centage of young Long Scales were kiUed } Chaff Scales did not ap- 
pear to be affected, and eggs or adult coccids entirely escaped. The tree 
was, however, seriously ii\jared, and lost nearly all its leaves, with many 
of the smaller branches. 

Solutions of one pound to two, two and a half, and three galloqe had 
no appreciable effect upon the insects, but all seriously aifected the foli- 
age and even the bark of the trees. 

Sulphuric Aon>.-^A single experiment with sulphuric acid, 4 fluid 
ounces in 6 quarts of water, applied with a brush as far as possible to 
all parts of a young tree, killed nearly all the Scale insects, and very 
nearly killed the tree. The bark was blackened but not destroyed, and 
nearly all the leaves dropped. The tree, however, slowly recovered. 

SuiiPSATR 09 iRQN.-^This substauce is exceedingly ii^jiu'ious to vege- 
tation, but is, nevertheless, a very common ingredient of patent and 
proprietary remedies. Its presence can be detected by the inky-black 
or brown stains which it forma in the substance of the leaves and the 
rind of the fruit. 

It does not affect the Scale insect except by destroying the vegetable 
tissues from which it gets its subsistence. 

AjQCOSfU^-^With this in a pure state noe^o^rimentfi have been made, 
but to its presence in fermenting urine is probably due the insecticide 
properties of the latter. Applications of urine have often been recom- 
mended as a remedy for scale, and are certainly not without vtUue, but 



BBPOST OF TBI lllTOXOLOaiflT. 119 

ft 

if allowed to stAnd and ferment, and especially if soot or other absorb- 
ents of the ammonia are mixed with it, it becomes highly injnnoos to 
Tegetation. and if applied at all should be greatly diluted. A mixture 
of loot and ^rmented urine applied undiluted to a small orange tree 
effectnally cleared it of scales but very nearly killed the ti-ee. 

Very many substances used separately, or in various combinations, 
ara recommended as remedies for Scale insect. Among the number 1 
have examined with more or less oare the following, and find them to be 
of dofibtfiil or of no value : sal-soda, muriate of potash, salt, lime^ sul- 
pbar, soot, and ashes. 

Many otherwise valueless washes and applications have been ren- 
dered partially effective bv the addition of a small quantity of free 
kerosene. The result in all such e^ses has been a very unequal dintri- 
Imtioii of the oil, ^me portioms of the tree receiving a dsmgerous dose 
and other portions none at all. It aeems hardly necessary to point out 
tha oselessDefis of such halfway meacfures in combatting a pest which 
the moBi pertbct remedy is powwless to eradicate unless applied mth 
tkoroofhneQS and care. 



120 



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tartment, and more recently they have twen made by sevenU 
ut ezperimeuters in Florida, but particnlarly by Mr. Josexih 
intelligent comwpODdent at Galneaville, who uses kerosene, 
fir-balsam combined at a high t«mperatnre, and prodnces a 
Ir paBt« which Ue calla " mnryite," readily Boluble in water. 
perimentH mtn\e at our request by Mr. Cliftbrd Kichardson, 
demist of the Department, with ordinary eoap, whale-oil soap, 
light and heavy oils, also show that 20 parts hard soap, 10 
!r, 40 parts kerosene, and one part l^ialsam, produce the most 
y results. The enbstauces may be readily mixed into a per- 
Bta which dilutes ad Hbittm with water, forming a milk-like 
which a slight cream in time rises, but which is always easily 
lomogeueous upop slight shaking. Mr. Hubbard's expen- 
id indicatd, however, that for insecticide purposes, notntag 
milk emulsions whicu were first suggested by Professor Bar- 
ng oar work on the Oottoo Worm at oelma, Ala., in 1880, and 
I ose of ordinary emulsifying agents, as various mucilatfiiioas 
I and the phospuates, lactophosphates and hypopl)OSpbit«s of 
aocilitate toe making of kerosene emulsions, we nave not yet 
•nfflciently tested as iuseotdcides, and for the present cas rec- 
loihiiig more simple and at the same time more available to 
ge &rmer than the permaneiit' milk emulsion as produced by 
wi— O.V.B. 

nfSBOTS AFFEGTiyO TBE RICE PLANT. 

the past two yean a oorrespoodenoe with Colonel Soreven, 
18 Barnwell, and other promloent rice planters on the Ba- 
,ver baa shown tJiat the rice crop, although the conditions of 
tiou would seem to prevent insect multiplicatioD, is neverUie- 
Bd to • oonsiderable degree by ipjnriona species. 
orUbDoe of the crop thus aSected is sbown by the followiug 
16 lice production of the United States in 1879, token trom 
olletin of tlie Census Office : 



li 



128 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

In August, 1881, we sent one of our assistants, Mr. L. O. Howard, 
to Savannah to coUect and stndy snch insects as prove ii^jarious to rice, 
and, we here introduce jshort accounts of the principal species observed. 
Tl|e observations were mostly made at " Proctor's,'' a large plantation 
five miles below Savannah on the South Carolina side, owned by Col- 
onel Screven, and, together with the foots elicited by oorrespondence, 
cover about all that is known respecting t^e insects affecting this crop 
in. the field; for, although something is known of the insects affidctlng 
the plant in the East Indies, and quite recently accounts have been 
published abroad of the great injury by a new enemy {Cecidomfia oryza; 
Wood-Mason) there, yet little has, until quite recently, been known 
of those affecting the crop in this country. 

THE EICE GEUB. 

{Ohalepua trachypygtts Burm.) 

Order Coleopteba; family ScARAB.BiDiB. 

[Plate VI, Pig. 5.] 

HABITS AND NATTJBAI. HISTORY. 

The larvae of this large beetle, quite closely related to the Sugar-cane 
beetle {Ligyrus rugicepsy Lee.) and the Sunflower beetle (L. gib^susy De 
Geer), and working in muc& the same manner, have done considerable 
damage in certain portions of the rice plantations. Our attention was 
originally called to this insect by a letter from Colonel Screven, which 
was published with the identification in the American Entomologist (in, 
p. 253, 1880). Further notes were published in the American Naturalistj 
1881, p. 148. Mr. Howard's observations, as taken from his report, are 
as follows : 

At the back of Proctor's, a mile or more from the river, and bordering npon the 
forest, is a tract of land which, from its elevation, it is impos»hle to overflow properly 
and snffieiently to make a good crop of rice, yet it is planted and a smaU crop raised 
from it. On walking through this field I observed that in patches the growth was 
very i^ight and the clusters were dwarfed and vellow. Pulling up a clump by the 
roots two or three large white grubs were exposed which I surmised must be the larvs 
of t^e Chal^ms spoken of in the Amerioan EntatMlogist. A search of an hour or so turned 
up hundreds of tne grubs and a single specimen of the adult beetle, but no pnpse. 

This field, then, was evidently the breeding-place from whence came the beetles 
which iigured the young rice in May and June. The fields are drained for planting 
in March, the young rice grows fast, and in May the l>ectles appear, and, working 
into the ground, feed upon the roots of the plants. When, however, in June, tiie 
fields are fioodea with the harvest-water the beetle and the grub (which will have 
hatched before that time) are drowned out and do no more harm except in such snots 
as are not reached by the water. During all the rest of the year the insect win be 
found in all probability in such fields as the one mentioned. 

But not alone fh)m such chance fields as this are the plantations supplied in early 
summer with the beetles, for along the backs of the plantations and along the banks 
between fields above the water-mark grows a certain quantity of volunteer rice, and 
npon its roots the beetles and their larvss feed unmolested and fly out in spring to 
stock the drained fields. 

The remedv wiU be found in planting snch fields as cannot be thoroughly over- 
flowed at will for a ^ear or so in some •ther crop than rice, and in cleaning out as 
thoroughly^ as possible such volunteer rice as grows above the water-mark. The 
Chalepus is an insect which a little care will render innoxious. I was unable to learn 
that it had injured upland rice in theTback country, but as that crop increases in im- 
portance it is highly probable that it will be heard from, and there it will be almost 
impossible to fignt it snooessfully. There seems to be but one brood a year. 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 129 

Tlie beetles from the larvae sent by Mr. Howard issued in the latter 
part of September and in early October. 

STRUCTURAL AND DESORIPTIYB. 

The genus Chalepus belongs to the tribe Dynastini of the Scarabaeidje 
Pleorostictiy in which subfamily the posterior abdominal spiracles are 
placed in the ventral portion of the abdomen. Omitting here the genus 
Phileoms, the North American genera of this tribe form two divisions, 
the first containing those forms in which the heatl or thorax are armed 
in both sexes, the best-known illustration being Dynastes tityus. The 
second division includes the genera with unarm^ head and prothorax. 
There are only two of these genera existing in our ^una,. Cyclocephala 
and Chalepus, distinguished from eaeh other by the form of the mandi- 
hies, which in the former genus are nan^ow and scarcely curved, while 
in Chalepos they are broad, rounded externally, and curved. There are 
no stridolating organs in either genus, and the males have the terminal 
joint of anterior tarsi much enlarged. Both genera are peculiar to the 
New World, being, however, best represented in South America. Of 
Cyclocephala quite a number of species occur in the more southern por- 
tions of the United States, but only two species of Chalepus are known 
from North America, 0. obsohetus,* from Southern California, and the 
gpeciee nnder consideration, which occurs from New York southward 
and westward extending to Texas and Mexico. It appears to be most 
frequent in Georgia, Alabama, and Florida. It may be recognized by 
the following characters : 

Ayermge length, 16™™. Black, shiniog; antennse, mouth parts and tarsi piceoas- 
Ted. ClypenSy flat, truncate in fipont, finely marg^ed, anteriorly almost smooth, pios- 
teriorly 'knely and sparsely punctnlate; head entirely WMxrmedj sparsely pnnotnlate. 
Thorax bisinnate in front, trnncate at base, unarmed, sparsely and irregularly punc- 
tate, base margined only near the angles. Elytra, oblong-oval, a little shorter in the 
female ; a single sutural and four pairs of dorsal striss composed of shallow approxi- 
mate pnncfcurea, the strise themselves hardly impressed ; outer pair of striss less reg- 
ular and connected with the third pair at the hameri ; interstices between each pair 
of stri» wide, irregularly, not densely punctulate, interstices between the individual 
ittiiB of each pair narrow and smooth ; apex of elytra irregularly, coarsely and rugosely 
punetate.. Beneath, very shining, smootn ; sides of mesostemiuu and of abdomen puno- 
tste. Anterior tibi» tridentate. 

The larva has the general aspect of the ordinary White Grub, and 
may be recognized with the assistance of our figure. We append a de- 
sdiption for the benefit of Coleopterists: 

FwU-fr9wn larva, — Length when crawling about 31™™ (about an inch and a quar- 
ter). The curve of the body is not very pronounced. Color white, although most 
roeeimens have a bluish tinge on account of the black earth with whicfi they are tilled, 
the last two Joints appearing almost black ; labrum and basal two-thirds of mandi- 
bles reddish brown ;> a spot at the iuner base of mandibles, and the apical third of 
Baodiblea, black ; antenna) and the other mouth parts and logs palebrownish-yellow ; 
edgiiiata orange; a poorly-defined yellowish spot above the first abdominal stigmata; 
a eorueons yellowish ridge from the first pair of legs to the base of the head, bro^-n at 
edge. Body sparsely clothed with hairs and with a transverse row of bristles on each 
donal ridge, most marked on joints 2 to 6 ; a number of stilt' bail's around dorsal mar- 
gin of anal joint. Ventral surface of abdomen beset with brown bristles. ' Antenuie 
4-jointed, with a pronounced bulbus; joints 1 and 2 long, subequal in length; joints 
3 and 4 subequal in length and each somewhat more than hali as long as 1 ; joint ^i 
with a slight prolongation on*its inner side at tip; maxillaiy palpi ^Vjointed, joints 
mbequal in length; labial palpi smalL 2-jointed; mandibles largo with four pro- 
nounced teeth, of which the second and third are smallest and are closely united ; 
maxillie 4-dentate. Whole surface of head and base of labruui quite closely punctata 
and furnished with sparse yellowish bristles ; terminal portion of labnnn and the man- 
dibles not punctate, out with delicate, sparse, impressed lines. 

* We have had no opportunity to examine this species, which was described by Dr. 
Le Coote in the Piooeedings Ac. Sc.^ Philad., 1854, p. 222. 

9 AG 



IdO REPORT OF TH£ C0HMIS8I0KEB OF AGRICULTURE. 

THE WATER WEEVIL, 

(Llssorhopirtis simplex Say.) 
Order UoLiiOMEnA; femiljr OuliOtJLioKlDJB. 

[Phit^ VI, Fig. 4.] 

UAJBltb' AND NATt RAX. m^TORY. 

For iDauy yeaitR the tire lilaiitersi of the 8rtvaniij*b baveb^eti familial' 
with two insects which they hHre called " the ftiagjSjot^ and the '' W'at^r 
Weevil,^ the fortifier a itiirinte. white, rathet 8lender, legless ^jfitib, living 
at the roots of the plants aiid the latter a sinall, gray weevil feeding 
upon the Jeares. To Ool. John Bereteii is due the credit for the first 
suggestion of the identity of these two Injects — that the mtlggot ig the 
lar\^a foi'iri of the ^eevil^ — i<iid we ^pioto fi'ohi his letter which we pub- 
lished in the American NabtrdliHt (1881, p, 483), in connection with sotiie 
remarks of ou^ owii on the scientinc positioh Of the siMXjies: 

I ijoud you T»y express a niiinb*'r of ** Watei* Weevils" preserved in alcohol^ to^^ethet 
witli sonie }^eeimetis of ft(e yoTin»^ rice leaves Oti Which tuey were foiiiid feeding. Tort 
will obderve on the Imtter the fnetbod iff the insect in ffeediiij^, und wiU And no diffi- 
culty id cotiolading that -vrhen in sutlici^nt nnmben, as is sometimes the fact, they 
may do much damage in the rice-tields. 

I, have ohserved with great interest and attention your alliisioh to this iiisoL^t in the 
l^eneral notes* fr<mi thu ArtUriean NaturaHst, Febrtinry, 1881. But it has suddenly oc- 
curred to mo a^ possible that these *' Water WeevHs" are the perfect insect of the 
^^ma^^ot" larva which 1 sent y6u last summer. Allow me to suggest some reacions 
for this opinion. 

1. Both the weevil ami the maggot are wat<er insects ; both neek tlie same food, 
namely, the rice plants differing, iKiwever, in this, that the one feeds on the leaf and 
the other oti the root of the plant* 

S. They differ in the periods of existence, the weevil appearing in April and May^ the 
inaggot in the summer mouths; but this may account merely for the time and circum- 
stanees necessary to incnbatiou. Among the specimens sent you, I found several piiirs 
ift what appeltfed to be the act of cdpnlAtion. These speciniens were taken yestenlayj 
April 29, many of them in the very spot where were found the maggots which I sent you last 
summer. My first note of the latter was July 13, and allowing one week for the ap- 
pearance ef the weevil after the fields lire innhdated for the stretch flow, the &tter 
wonM b6 fonnd, sily, Apiril 17, makiiig an interval of, say , ninety days between weevil 
and maggoty or between the beetle and the larva. This may appear an over-long 
period, but 1 assnme that water is necessary to the generation ana existence of this 
insect. New^ the ** sttet^h water" does not last more than thirty days. At the cfxpira- 
tion of this tiJtnethe fields are drained and kept dry for at least ^irty, very often forty, 
days, and I (^re^nme that from this fiUst. forbidding incubating doting this period, it 
would not coihinet^e nniil the harvest-now is put on the fields. In 1880 this flow was 
applied, say, Jane 18. Themaggcrt was fbnnd July 13, say, thirty days after. I am 
quite ignorant ef the periods of insect incnbation^ bnt it appears that if water ia neces- 
sary to the generation and existence of this insect, the '^maggot" larva, if from the 
Water TV^eevll, will hatch within thirty days after the harvest water is applied to the 
field. 

3. The Water Weevil and the maggot are found in the same habitat, and both dis- 
appear on the removal ef the water m which they live. I may note here that the 
weevil is sluggish in its habits, is eiisily caught, and never ** plays 'possum.'' It is seen 
in the greatest numbers in the early morning, feeding on the delicate le^ve;^ of the 
plant, and seeks, crawling down the stem^ the cooler recesses under water as the ann 
grows warmer. Manjr, however, feed all day. 

The following is quoted from Mr. Howard's report: 

The Water Weevil is a Tcry common insect in the rice-fields, and I Judge froin in^ 
observatictfis that only when it exists in enormous numbers is the damage appreciable. 
At the time of my v^it the larvo in all stages of growth were very abanoant at the 
roote of the rice, while the adnlta were com|iaratiYely rare. AliBoet any healthyJoeli^ 



at tlie larva is dependent for iH exiHtence upon the water. The beetle haa 
common uame of ''Wat«r Weevil" from the fact that It Is fboud only when 
in oToTflowed. 

loloiiel Screven pra|iMe8, Id COM of eztensivedamsgeh;the«eUrv»,todiaiit 
a a niucilf. TnaC tMsnoaldproTequileaatisfactoiy, if persisted in Buffl- 
■feel Batisflwl, both from a comparison of the overflowed and dry flelda, and 
it-t that the irplTBcles of the larvffi while jiresent are fctr and TudlmentATy ; 
lid take BO long for the fields to dry out Hnfficlently that meantime the crops 
er even more, perhaps, than by the attacks of the weevils. It may also bo 
net this proposed remedy that this insect undoubtedly breeds iipon other 
its and is fsrfmtu being confined to rice; hence, evenlftbelarvn wereeffbct- 
ven oat," the fields would soon again become populated from other sonrcw. 

-MB were foniid by Mr. Howard, and the beetles vere quite tare 
Ids at the time of bis visit (Angast 20), and were difficult to 
vben foaod. Their fevorite station, in midday at least, is down 
eatii of the leaves, out of sight, or nearly so. Although slug- 
drop into the water when disturbed. In the adult state they 
ttle damage unless very numerous. Their work on the leaves 
f perceptible as 3 brownish patch near the mid nb. The l^af 
b entirely throngh by them. 

:he itrfbrraatlon nt hand it is imitosstble to state the number of 
According to Colonel SCTeven'a letter, the beetles Were very 
t ia late April and May, and presumably disappear later. Mr. 
tlie third week in August, found full-growD larvEc and a tew 
lo tiiat there was abimdant time for the production of auoUier 
>n. 

lecies is extremely common in all parts of the United States 
Oie dry regions of the West) wherever there are swampy places, 
r beetles may be found at sll seasons of the year — in the warmer 
1 the swamp, in winter time under old leaves and other shelter 
plaoes near the swamps. The beetle is just as mnoh at home 
ater as out of it, though not surrounded by an air-bnbble, as ia 
lilidte, Elmids, Psepbenas, and others. It appears probable 
carries its supply of air between abdomen and elytra, the slow 
6n peonliar to most BhynohophoTa no doubt enabling it to re- 
ft long time Id its. watery dement without renewing this air 



132 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

STRUCTURAL AND DESCRIPTIVE. 

The genus Lissorhoptrus, belonging to the tribe Erirhinij is at once 
distinguished from the numerous genera composing that tribe by one 
character not otherwise occuring in this and allied tribes of Gurcu- 
lionidse, viz., the smooth and shining antenual club which is annnlated 
only at the outer third. The deceptive resemblance we find so often in 
Ehynchophora between species of different, and often widely separated, 
genera is well illustrated in our species, as without examining the dis- 
tinguiq||ing generic features it is hardly to be distinguished from a small 
BdgouSj and still less from Onychylis nifprirostris Boh. It was originally 
described by Say (Curcul., 29; ed., Le Cpnte, I, p. 297) as Bagous simplex^ 
and Dr. Le Coute founded, in 1876, the genus Lisftorhoptnis upon this and 
a second species, the NoUodes apiculatm Gyllh. Both species very 
closely resemble each other, the only differences — the usually larger 
size of apieulutus and the transverse lateral im))ression on the thorax of 
simplexy which is wanting in apiculatm — ^being haxdly of specific value. 

The following description will illustrate the genersd appearance of 
our spedes, though as already stated the smooth antenual club is the 
most important character for the distinction of the species: 

LissORHOPTRUS SIMPLEX. — Jmfl^o. —Average length from tip of thorax, 3"™. Ob- 
long-oval, covered with large, dirt-colored scales, but nsually entirely enveloped in 
an argillaceous coating, which renders scales and sculptnre irrecognizable. lEtostrum 
stont, as long as head and thorax, snbcyliudricdl, densely rn^osely pnnctnlat-e, neither 
snlcate nor cariuate ; head densely pnnctnlat'C. Thorax as long as wide, constricted 
anteriorly, lateral lobes well developed, sides moderately rounded, base truncate, a 
finely impressed median line, surface densely ragosely punctate, sides at middle with 
a shallow transverse impression. Elytra much wider at base than thorax and about 
twice as long; humeri oblique, strongly declivous at apex, punctate-striate, inter- 
stices wide, subconvex, 3d and 5th more prominent at declivity than the rest. Pro- 
Btemom flattened, transversely impressed in front of coxsb ; abdomen coarsely punc- 
tate. Tibiffi somewhat curved, armed with a strong terminal hook ; tarsi narrow, third 
Joint not emarginate ; claws slender, approximate. 

Larva. — Length when full grown, 7™°» (a little more than a quarter of an inch). 
Straight, slender, tapering very gradually from second thoracic joint to end of abdo- 
men ; footless ; on the dorsum of each of joints 5-10 is a pair of movable, pale-brown- 
ish thorns, the a^iical ends of which are split and somewhat resemble true claws. 
General color white; mouth-parts brown. Head rounded, convex, corneous; upper 
surface smooth, without hairs ; Y-shaped suture distinct ; anterior i>order sinuate oo 
each side, broadlv arcuate in the middle. Ocelli two on each side, the first near the 
anterior border of the head, behind the insertion of the mandibles, consisting appar- 
entlv of a group of three minute pigment cells beneath the surface of the head, at 
the nase of a bristle ; the second a short distance behind and above the first, consist- 
ing of a very minut« single pigment cell. Antennse scarcely visible as minute tuber- 
cles upon the anterior border of the head near the angles of the clypeus. Clypeus 
separated from the front by an impressed line, transverse, narrowed anteriorly, 
broadlv emarginate at apex. Labrum short transverse, bearing bristles in front. Man- 
dibles broadly triangular, obscurely bidentat«, molar surface concave, not prominent 
Maxlllffi prominent, broadly triangular, moderately thickened, with two or three 
bristles on the under surface ; terminating in a two-Jointed palpus and a short tri- 
angular connate lobe ; the first Joint of the palpus as broad as long, terminal joint 
cyundrical, elongate, projecting beyond the mandibles ; the lobe bearing inside five 
or six curved spines. Labium consisting of a very large triangular mentum and a 
cordiform pijpigerous pieoe. Labial palpi divergent, ^e basal joint tuberculous, the 
terminal joint elongate, conical. No distinct hgula is visible between the widely- 
separated labial palpi. 

Thoracic joints transverse ; the first longer, truncate, conical ; the second and third 
e^ual in length to the following abdominal joints, and slightly exceeding them in 
width. The first 8 abdominal segments subequal in length, graduaUy decreasing iu 
width posteriorly, the second to the seventh bearing above a transverse oval promi- 
nence, each surmounted by a pair of short spines curving forward ; the teimlual ninth 
segment short, obtusely conical, without anal prominence. 

A single pair of spiracles only is discernible ; these are placed upon the sides of the 
prothoracic joint just above the lateral prominence. 

The sides of the body present a double line of prominences, beginning upoii the 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 133 

first thoracic joint as a single longltndinal fold, wliich, npon the nine following Joints, 
diyidcs longitndinally iuto an npper and lower fold, rising into tubercles upon each 
joint. The apper row of tubercles decrease and the lower row increase in prominence 
lioin the anterior to the posterior segments ; the two terminal segments have each a 
single lateral fold. 

Toe body of the yellowish- White larva ia cylindrical, somewhat thickened anteriorly, 
ind curred backward in the form of a letter J, without visible hairs or trace of ]^ro- 
toes. The hcAd ia capable of being retracted into the prothoracio joint. 

Deaeriptioiia of Corcnlionid larvse are few in number, and a comparison of tbis witb 
its nearest relatives is not at present possible. Except in its peculiar curvature, the 
reverse of that seen, in most Rhynchophorous larva?, it does not probablv deviate 
widely from the normal type. From the larvsB of Baridiuavestitua Schonh. (Cand^ze. 
Histoire dea Metamorphoses de qnelques Col^ptt^res Exotlques, p. 48, pi. I^^ fig. 3) 
the larva of Liasorhoptrus differs notably in the form of the mentum, the aosence of 
ftbdonunal spiracles, the presence of ocelli, the distinct T-suture of the head, and the 
dofBftl lecorred spines. 

THE EICE STALK BOEER. 

{Ohilo oryzasellusy K. Sp.) 

Order Lepidoptera; family GHiLONiDiB. 

[Plate Vn, Fig. 1.] 

HABITS AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

This species, the larva of which was found boring rice stalks last 
soBuiier, is now publicly mentioned for the first time. The moth is 
handsome and is generically allied to the sx)ecies which in the larva 
state similarly infests the stalks of sngar cane and com. 

Mr. Howard, in the report of his observations at Savannah, writes as 
iidlows of this insect: 

I noticed while passing throu^ the rice fields that many of the rice heads were dead 
sad while. I learned uiat this appearance was known as ** white blast," and that 
the pcq^nlar /szplanation of its cause was ''poison of the soil." Such an explanation^ 
bowerer, would not account for the dying of onestalk in a bunch, as was almost invari- 
ably the €»i6e, so I immediately suspected insect work. I examined several of the 
bhwted heeds without finding any satisfactory cause, the head seeming dead from the 
We of the grain cluster, but below that point the stalk appearing sound. I soon, 
kowerer, found a stalk where at the first joint bcAow the nead, concealed by the 
sheath of the leaf and inside the stalk, was working a very minute Lepidopterous 
laira, whitiah in color and striped longitudinally, with two subdorsal stnpes of red- 
dish-hrown. Soon after I found other larger larvte of the same species lower down 
in the stelk, and at last reached a spot at the intersection of two ditches, wbere I 
fbond fioB-gTOwn larva» an inch long, ouite at the base of the stalk, and also one or two 
healthy papas. In these cases the stalk appeared dead quite to the roots, aU the leaves 
betng brown and withered. I was told at first that this borer was quite now to the 
planters, and I therefore studied it with a great deal of interest ; later, however. I 
was informed that it had been observed before. In perhaps one-fifth of the stalks 
afflicted with the blast this larva, either large or smaU, was found. I never found more 
than <Mie foil grown individual in a stalk, but frequently found from one to six or •»- 
tight young ones. AU sections of the stalk seemed equaUy liable to be infested, the 
smaller larvs being usuaUy found nearer the head where the stalk is smaUer, while 
the larser individuals fh>m necessity were fouild lower dpwn. 

The &va, as it increases in size, does not, however, continue its burrow down the 
center of the stalk to roomier quarters, as it might easily do, but apparently, when the 
stalk becomee too smaU for it at any one point, it bores its way out through a circular 
hole and crawls down the outside of the stalk to a lower point and entera again. The 
holes of exit and entrance are usuaUy hidden, except at the very base of the stalk, by 
the clasping base of a lea^ the larva being oblig^ apparently to work its way into 
tms tartly-fitting crevice in order to get siu&cient purcnase to bore through the hard 
stalk. 

There seenia little enough for the larva to feed uiK>n in the stalk, and it only eats 
the layer lining the stalk cavity. I have seen a larva passing from one stidk to another. 



134 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AOBICULTTJRE. 

thongh I doubt whether ift is custoiuary for a single larva to destroy more than one 
Btalk in the course of its growth. 

When a li^rva is ready to transform (it is then at tlio base of the stal)c) it continues 
its hole of entrance through the inclosing leaves, making it at the same time larger. 
It then returns to a higher position in the utalk (from one to two inches above the 
aperture) and transforms without reversing its position, and with Its head away firom 
tne openlhg. The duration of the pupa stato is not more than 5 or 6 days. No obser- 
vations have yet been made on the eggH, but they are probably laid on the npper leaves 
close to the stalk. 

There is no evidence of an earlier brood in the cultivated fields, as 
every barrow examined contained either larvce, pupae, of fresh pupa 
skins at the time that harvest had already commenced. 11 n the volun- 
teer rice, howeven another brood is probably developed. 

The duration of the pupa state varied in our vivaria from seven te 
twelve days, and the moths issued from August 20 to September 5. 
The moth is of a very pale-yellowish or straw-yellow color, with golden 
cilia to the firont whigs, a few golden scales scattered over the disk, and 
a series of seven black dots on the hind margin. It ha.s an average ex- 
panse of a trifle more than an inch (27™"'). 

ENEMIEH. 

Dipterous larvie were found destroying a pupa inside the stalk, and in 
a single instance there has been bre<l from them Phora aletkv Comstock, 
a fly whose larvce were supposed to be parasitic, but which seem tp be 
toore scavengers than parasites. 

• 

PREVKNTIVK MBASUBKS. 

The borer, in the fields Mr. Howard examined, occurred in al)outone- 
fifth of the blasted stalks. It was sufficiently abundant, in fact, to 
make 'its destruction a matter of some importance. The later brooa, if 
there is one, must take to the volunteer rice around the edges of tlifi 
fields, or to the large grasses growing uik)u tiie embankments, though 
none were found in such. It is the custom, some time daring the winter, 
to burn the stubble over the entire plantation. Great care is bow- 
ever taken not to allow the fire to reach the trash near or upon Oie 
embankments, as the soil of which these are made is of such a character 
as to burn readily, and their bulk would be gi'eatly reduced by such a 
burning. Instead, then, of burning t)ie weeds and volunteer rice along 
these banks they are simply cut. it is probably here that the insect 
hibernates, either as larva or pupa, and it will be necessary to cut most 
carefully ttue wild rice and gi'ass close to the ground and carry it to 
some safe phiee where it can l)e thoroughly burned. 

STRUCTURAL ADTD DESCaiPTIVK. 

We have had some difliculty in deciding as to the true specific deter- 
mination of this insect, chiefly because of a close general reneuiblance 
whfch it must possess to other si>ecie^. Mr. Grote, when we showed him 
a specimen last autumn in New York, thought it might possibly l)e his 
Chxlo cramhidoides^ while Professor Fernald deteruuned it from a8i>ecimen 
which we sent hima« Biphryx proluielUt Gix)tc,* stating at the time that 
he might be wrong, but that, having seen Mr. Grote's tyi>e, he consid- 
ered our insect identical with it so tar a8 he could trust iiis rel^ollection. 
The specific description of D.prolatella certainly does agree vijry closely 

'N. Am. Moths, BqU. U. S. Geol. Survey; VI, No. 2, p. 273i 



BKPOBT OF THK ElirTOMOLOaiST. ISf) 

with the species we arc cousideriug, wLicli has also the luucroiiate 
cJy peas of Diphryx^ but in order to refer our insect to 1). prolafclla we must 
afisume that Mr. Grote evvrXed his new ji^^enuH, Uiphry.r, ou u niutiUitiMl 
s|)ecimen Tirbich had lost its maxillary and pad of its labial pali>i, for 
the genus is founded ou short labial papi which hardly exceed the faeo, 
and the absence of luaxillary palpi — characters dec;idedly exceptiotuil 
and remarkable in the family, in order to settle tiie matter, tlieivforo, 
we a^n referred, through Mr. Henry Edwards, a i>ertect specimen to 
Mr. Grote, who upon this second more careful examinatioji 4ecides that 
It is neither of the species mentiune(l but »u uudescribed species of Chilo, 
It is in fjEMJt, as we have always felt, cougeueric with the larj^^er 6ug:ar-cane 
and com borers treated of in the last auuual report of the Entomolo^st 
(pag^ 240-245) under the generic paiue Diq.tro'a. 

'Hxe characters of the genus Chilo of Zinck^uSommer, are given by 
Heinemann as *'Male antennae but little longer than those of female. 
Palpi long, projected horizontally, compressed. The hind mid rib of 
bind wings with long hairs. Abdomen pi female without termipal tuft."' 
Zeller, more recently,* adds to the few cbanu)ters of the genus, the long 
abdameq, especially of the female, which extends much beyond the inner 
Mgle of the hind wings j he al&o mentions the acute spc^ of prinyiries, 
ttie point being, however, not specially seppxated from the hind border. 
Accepting Mr. Grote's decision, sinc^ we pave im) opportunity of exam- 
ioing the type of his Difhryx^\ we would characterize our Bice borer as 
follows: 

Cimx) oirrzjERi.LU8 n. sp. — Imago, — ^Expanse. 2$^-83(°'°. Male, general color pale 
•ehMoofl. Labial palpi qoite bntthy and ttlightly !xroadening at tip, horizontal or 
iLidiily depraMed, nearly as long as bead and thoraip togetner, with nnmeroas black 
•euea and bain intermixed witb tbe paler ones; maxtUary palpi c^nite prominent and 
with bat a few dark scales. Primaries ratber darker than secondanes, dne to scattered 
ten^^inooa and dusky scales between the veins, most persistent in an obliqne line 
frsB apex to Just beneath and within the disc: many of these scales haye a golden 
laster, and a mora or less distinet series of sacn scales form a i^brroW| ^abtenninal 
line, rounded and curving away ffom the ape|L ; a series of seven black points alpng 
^ poatarior margin; the fiinges pale golden. Under snrft<;e nale, dLngy^vellow, 
vith the muvtsk ma^nal dots of primaries well indicated, and a few ausky do& snowing 
m hind ouirgin of seeondariea. FimnU differs in being somewhat larger, in having 
the abdomirai, the hind wings above, an4 the whole under surfEK^e silvery- white. The 
sriparitfla have less brown about them and the labial palpi, though equally long, are 
less bushy, and compressed so as to be more |>oiHted. 

DtflciilMd from four laales and six females bred from rice culms. 

I^nH^— Average leocth, 33''^. Diameter a little over 3^*^ ; abdominal Joints 1-7 
equal in size, the second and third thoraeio joints slightly broader. Head di^rk brown, 
piAbed. furnished with a few stiff, brownish hairs. Cervical shield light brown, 
iiMwiijiii Une atUl paler, front margin whitish ; a hlackish triancular spot widening 
towapda the lateral margin each side of medio-dorsal li^ie. Color of nody palo yellowish- 
while, slightly transparent, marked with four rather indistinct, pale, purplish stripes, 
oC which tho«e bordering the stigmata are scarcely half as broad as the others. Tho 
piliteooa spots are larae, oval, pale-yellowish, and polished. Stigmata small, trann- 
▼creely oval, brown, the last pair twice as large Kb the others. Anal plato yellow, 
polished, furnished with a row of three hairs upon each side and two near niiddU; ; 
it is masked with a ibw brownish spots. Legs yellow. 

FkpiS-^ — ^Length, 17»«». Color, yellowish-brown: head, thorax, wing-sheaths, and 
stigmata scmiewhat darker; eyes black. Head Dent forward, \X% front somewhat 
psuited. Thorax with very line transverse strisD. Abdominal joints 5-7 armed dor8.illy 
sear their anterior margm with numerous very minute brownish thorns; all joints 
with extremely fine granulations. 8tigmat-a projecting. Tip of last joint jonnded, 
wiih a longitudinal lateral impression ; expandea dorsally into two t}attencd projec- 
tioos, each being divided into two broad to<>th. 

•Hone Soc. Ent.'Rofj«ic»P, XVL 

t As Kr. Grott;'ci tj\wM sre in Loudon he may be mistaken even in his final opinion, and 
the careless inauuer in which he ban often msniv oth«?r genera r«»ndew1t <|nit4*possibl« 
that D^phrifx is a myth, founded on an^ imperfect speoiiiuui as above iitllicated. 



136 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



WHITE BLAST. 

While it is possible that the diseane known to rice planters as "white 
blasf may have no connection with iiijuries by insects, still it seeins 
necessary to give it some little consideration here, as it may prove that 
insects play a most important part in relation to it. We quote, there- 
fore, from a letter from Colonel Screven: 

• 

It is not nncommon to see a very few, perhaps as few as a half dozen, heads shoot 
out whit« or blasted in an area of 150 feet square (a rice-field half acre), especially 
near the water-gates, where the growth is commonly most luxuriant. Planters have 
long known that this is caused by a small white worm, which bores into the stalk be- 
low the head. After shooting out white these heads turn gray from exposure to the 
weather. Usually the damage from this cause is too trifling to call for more than pass- 
ing attention; but on my place the damage was so extensive as to demand careful 
attention. 

At first I was strongly inclined to the opinion that, while insects might unite with 
them, that deleterious elements in the soil were the main cause of the blast. It was 
evident that in many, indeed in most, instances, the blast was most conspionons in 
spots where the soil was charged with salts and where the j^lants showed want of 
^owth and evidences of defective or morbid nutrition. But evidently the blast could 
not be ascribed to bad soil, because all the heads and stalks were not Effected alike in 
the same spot, or when^generated from the same individual seed. One seed commonly 
produces several, sometimes twoscore heads. All of these heads form on stalks fed 
by roots penetrating the same soil. If like produces like, or like causes produce like 
results, all the heads from one and the same seed, fed from the same soil, would suffer 
alike if the character of the nutriment were the question. But very commonly two 
or three of a few heads in groups from the same individual seed, all conditioned iden- 
tically the same as to soil, were blasted, while the rest were perfect or nearly so. Again, 
the blast occurred also in spots where the growth of rice was excellent and the soil 
known to be good, as at the angles of intersecting ditches where drainage would be 
best. Hence the blast exhibited a want of uniformity for which soil j>oison or defective 
soil would not account. 

As a general fact the blast occurred in fields generally shot out, say July 25, after 
the harvest- water had been applied, say forty days, so subjecting the fields to the same 
conditions in regard to watering and kind of water (at all times drinkable by the 
laborers) and for the same length of time. 

In the fields just alluded to the blast was confined to the margins between the main 
ditches and the embankments, extending sometimes to the outer edges of the main 
ditches, and occasionally a little along the edges of the quarter drains. Bat it was 
marked and comparatively extensive in two instances in the angles of fields. I cannot 
say that in these exceptions the* condition of the soil wonld warrant blast more exten- 
sive in other parts of the same fields, apparently in the same condition. 

As regards the appearance of blast upon the margin, it mifty be mentioned that fire 
is carefully avoided on my place on the embankments, in consequence of the oombnst- 
ible nature of the soil of which they are oonstmcted, and that the stubble was veiy 
imperfectl V burned last winter on account of its wetness, especially in the lowest part 
of the fields and margins where the blast showed most. But as a general thing, with 
the exception to be stated, the blast seemed to be associated with brackish and the 
least-drained soil. Whether such spots are most attractive to insects, or their ova sur- 
vive there for lack of the effects of fire in attempting to bum stubble and brush, I know 
not. But what wiU explain the difference between two ac^oining fields, alike braokish 
in location and soil — both capable of being flowed with salt water — ^the one generaUy 
affected by blast, the other scarcely at all f 

The first of these fields was planted in April, the other in May, a month later. The 
growth in both was luxuriant, but the hesMB first shot ioi the former were blast^ gen- 
erally over the field. 

The heads subsequently shot were large and healthy. Here again we find, on a 
large scale, the same want of uniformity of effect which is logically and naturally to 
be expected from uniformity of soil. 

It was a general fact that when the blast was found the maggot was also present: 
but the maggot was found to be absolutely harmless in my baokisquares, where thS soil 
is peaty and weak and where the blast, comparatively rare, was found exclusively on 
the margin. Here, also, the weevil was found. 

I am safe, I think, in the opinion that as far as my observation goes on my place the 
blast would not be caused by ocean salts or these salts converted. In the blast from 
this cause the head does not ahoot out white but with black spots on the husk, the 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 137 

leftf red at the endi* and spotted black, and dryinf^ np afterwards, the g^ins turning 
fioallj black and remaining empty, or, if filling, with soft, dusky grain of little value. 
Nor in thene cases are insect damages necessarily found, either from borer or fh>m 
iociKionn. 

I cannot recall any other circumstances of value, while I am thoroughly aware that 
the ease mnst be one of dispute. But my conclusions are that the blast under discus- 
fioo, on my plape, was in tlio main x>rodnced by a plurality of insects — by the barer, 
which penetrated the stalk and killed the head as a rule outright, by its fly or other 
inMcty which fed on the pollen of the flowers or cut and fed on tne husks and their 
I»nmat7 eontents. To these we may add the fungus. 

Mr. Howard treats the << white blast '^ in his report as follows: 

The blast not caused by the borer presented a very similar appearance, with the ex- 
ception that the heads alone were aflected, the stalks below the heads remaining green 
Md comparatively healthy. That it is due to no local peculiurity of the soil is shown 
by the fact that often but one stalk in a clump bears a blighted head, the remaining 
itolkji being green and bearing normal heads. The ^een head first turns yellowish 
ind then dead white, the distid end of each grain having a brownish spot. Later the 
head turns black, possibly from a fungus growth upon the sheaths of the seed. I spent 
ft l^reat deal of time in examining such heads and their supporting stalks for evidences 
of insect work, and although I found quite a number either on the head or in the lei^- 
sbealh below, none were f^fficieutly abundant, in my estimation, to haye caused the 
damage. 

Upon nearly all of the blasted heads, where the grain had wholly or partially fonned. 
•ome of the lower grains upon the head had been ^awed by some insect which had 
been small enough to enter the sheath. The only insect which I found which seemed 
etpable of doing such damage was Scymnus fraiemus Leo. I suspect this species of 
being the author of the miscnief, although I am not certain. It was quite common 
upon the beada, and I found a specimen in a single instance inside the sheath of one 
at the izgored nains. I believe this species has not yet been found to be herbivorous, 
md hence I hesitate to enter a formal accusation. 

Upon the stalk below the head were fastened in several instances small, brown Dipi- 
tsrsQs poparia. These were sent to the Department, but beyond a Proctotrupid par- 
asite of the genus ConMcoma nothing has been reared from them. 

A number of specimens of a Gamasid mite were also found upon the heads. Upon 
the stalk below the headj where it is inclosed by the leaf, were found sevenJ long, 
eonred, greenish e^gs, which were sent to the Department, and fiom which have issued 
ft spMiee of Orckehmmm,* 

Coknel Screven described very accurately one of these ** green grasshoppers," which, 
he aaidt did much damage to the rice two seasons ago by eating the leaves. Thla is 
fomhij the same sfiecies. 

Some unknown crimson eggs were also found in a similar location on blasted rice. 

Jk speeiea of ThripB was found in one or two instances on the stalk below the head. 

The common Chinch-bug (BUsiua leucopterua) was also found upon the blasted heads 
in several cases. 

Tromsihe above observations it would seem, that the blast is the after 
effect of some insect injury earlier in the season^ although no traces of 
extensive work either upon stalks or heads was to be seen. »It may be 
the pnnctore of some plant-bng — ^possibly of the Ghmch-bng — arresting 
th6 noonshment of the head and predisposing it to the attacks of some 
fongns growth, though no fungus was detected other than black patches 
on the husks of the grain, which were evidently a result rather than a 
cause of the disease. 

It is possible, also, that the work of the Water-weevil earlier in the 
season, when it abounds, may have some influence in causing tihe blast. 
The subject is one which should be studied the whole season through in 
order to arrive at satisfEictory results. 

The plan already suggested in treating of the borer, viz., of carefhlly 
collecting and burning the trash of the embankments, would of course 
prove effective in destroying many of these other insects, and in so doing 
thight have a beneficial effect upon the blast. 



* Apparently the OrcheHmum glaberrimum.-^. Y. B. 



138 REPORT OF THE COMMIRglONER OF AOBICULTURE. 



OTHKR INSECTS T^NMUIIIOUS TO GEOWRs^G KIOE. 

To the insects already treated we may add a few which are tbaud in 
the rjce-fieUls, and one or two of which may occasionally do some in- 
jury. Prominent among these is the common "Grass Worin'^ of the 
South (Laphy§nia frugiperda Sm. and Abb., see Plate VII, Figs. 4, 5). 
WTien the insect has become excei)tionally numerous for some reason or 
other, the moths of the first or second generation fly out over the rice- 
fields and lay their eggs on the growing stalks. The worms hatching rag 
the plants badly, and, when in great numbers, eat them to the ground. 
In 1881. atler the rice had gotten a good start, in May, the worms ap- 
peared m force upon the plantation of Mr. William Barnwell, the fli-st 
plantation above <* Proctor's,'' and did considerable damage before the 
first <fr second week in June, at which time they went into the ground 
tp transform. Here they were imprisoned and destroyed by the harvest 
flooding. Tbe injuries of the Grass Worm to rice need never bo feare<l, 
as the &b14s can be overflowed almost at will, and if necessary the negroes 
can be sent through the fields to brush the worms from the stalks and 
If^aves into the water. 

The flgnr^ on Plate VII of the Gniss Worm and three varieties of 
the moths are from our eighth Missouri Keport. It is a very common in- 
sect in the vicinity of Savannah. At the time of Mr. Howard's visit a 
toter brood was doing great damage to certain truck fa,rmH a few miles 
north of the city, eating the grass, cabbage, strawberry, and bean plants. 
The most remarkable evidences of canniualism were notic^ed at the farm 
of Mr. John Schley, the older worms destroying the younger oihes by 
hundreds, and when plenty of other food virm at hand. 

During August and later the paths and emban'kments around the 
rice-fields are almost covered by the ^Uubber grasshopper'' (i^owoZ^ 
microptera) and an interesting black variety of the femsle. The num- 
bers in which this species occurred were enormous, yet they seemed to 
do little damage to the rice. 

The large obscure Acridium {A* obnaurum) was very common in the 
fields, and other smaller 8X)ecies of Aorididse were occasionally se-en. 

The most common Heteroptera were Metapodius femoratus Fabr., 
Oehalus pugnax (Fabr.), and Leptoglossm phyilopm (Linn.). 



INSECTS AFFUCTTKG CORN OB MAIZE. 

THE CORK BILLBUO. 

{Splienophorus rohustus Horn.) 

Order OoLEOPTEttA; family Curcumohid^J. 

[Plate VIII, Fig. 2.] 

HABITS AND NATUEAL HISTORY. 

For many years several species of the genus Sphenophoms have dam- 
aged the QhTH crop In various parts of the United St^es, more particu- 
larly ait the South, where they are all known as ^'Bill-bugs." Glover, 
in his 1854 report, spoke of their injury in South Carolina, Alabama, 



BEPORT OP THE ENTOMOI^GIBT. 139 

ntd Arkanaas, and fi^^ured, but did not determine, tbe species. Walsb, 
in 1867 (Practical Entomologist^ II, 117), describes a ^tpecies injiirini? 
corn in Xew York as iS. zta\ but wbicli subaeijueutly proved to be A. 
malptUiM of Cbler. 6'. mulptilis also occurs In t)je South and West, and 
u common in Illinois and Missouri. It has also l^een received at the 
Department of Agriculture from Florida and Alabama, 8. rohustus fi*om 
South Carolina^ and S.parvulus^ from Missouri, all as injuring corn. 

A short aooouut was given in the Department report lor 1880 of tSplie- 
i^korus robustus (call^ S. pertinax by our pjcedecessor) from accounts 
given by S. M. Eoberteon, of Dadeville, 'tallapoosa County, Alabama, 
aod of S. teulpiiliSf received from Bouth Carolina. In 1881, rather alarm- 
^g reports being received from parts of South Carolina concerning the 
damage done by '^ Bill-bugs,'' we sent an assistant (Mr, Howard) to inves- 
tigate tbe injury. The larval habits of all the above-mentioned species 
of Sphenophorus have heretofore been unknown. Walsh surmised that 
8. Bculptilis would be found to breed in decaying driftwood washe<l by 
watfir^ the adqlts migrating to neighboring cornfields, and some subse- 
tP^t facts that bad come to our knowledge, lent weight to his hypothe- 
sis m t^ aa this particular species is concerned, 

Birfbre proceeding further it may be well to state that the damage 
dope bj all these species is principally in early spring, as the young 
com appears above tbe ground. Stationing themselves at or near the 
sarfiftce of tbe ground the beetles puocture the stalk and suck the sap, 
either killing the corn of the hill outright or dwarfing it so as to severely 
ilUme it. Xbe leaves that shoot out later are badly ragged by the^e 
ponctiires. Walsh's correspondent stated that tbe crop of many fields 
in Otaondaga County, New York, was completely destroyed, and Mr. 
Bobertson^ as quoted in last year's report, stated that 8. robmtm was 
vmy daatroi^tive on the swamp-lands near tlie Tallapoosa Biver, killing 
the com aa late ^ August. 

The following account is from Mr. Howard's report of observations : 

The species foand near Colnmbia, 8. C. is 8, robu9iti8. In thei>1antations along the 
bolt0Bi«UMida of the Congaree River much damage u done by toe adalt beetle every 
year, aad the eom not infrequentU- baa to be replanted several times as tbeearlitir 
plantings are destroyed. The beetles are first noticM in the spring after tbe com is 
well np. Stationing themselves at the base of the stalky and also burrowing under 
the snr&ee of tbe earth slightly, they pierce the stalk and kill many plants oatrigbt, 
othtts llTing to l^^w np stunted and dwarfed. 

WUb S. mmlvtilUf in spite of the damage it has done, the earlier stages remain 
pnknowiif Waisti surmising that the larva breeds on rotten wood, so situated that 
it is oontinnally washed bv water. With this statement in my mind I was prepared 
to doabt the statement of Mr. W. P. Spigener, of Colnmbia, who informed me that 
the ** grab form of tbe biU-Bug'' was to be found in the com, but a couple of hours in 
the flald convinced me that he was right, my previous idea having been that he hail 
mistaken the larva of Chilo 8(icch€u-alia for the weevil grub. I searched a field on Mr. 
Spieener's plantation, which was said to be the worst point in the whole neighborhood 
Mr bugs, for some time before finding a trace of the beetle in aay stage, but at last, in 
a defionned stalk, I found in a large burrow, about at the surface of the ground, a 
ftdl-|at»wn larva. After I bad learned to recognize the peculiar appearance of tlie in- 
iettSa. stalks I was enabled to collect the larvsc quite rapidly, 

Tbey Were present at this date (August *^0) in all stages of larval development, but 

fu BMirs abundantly as ftiU-grown larvse. A few were preserved in alcohol and the 

imnaindw forwarded. alive to the Department, but all died on tlie way. Two pnpn^ 

wcvs fonnd at the same time; one was preserved in alcohol and the otlier forwarded 

to the Department. The beetle isnued on the way, and from this specimen we have 

been abl& to.determine the species. From an exami nation of a large number of inj ured 

■talks it seems evident that the egg is laid in the stalk just at the surface of 1 he ground, 

Itteferably andi^ccasionaVy*^ litSie lielow. The young larvte, hatching, work usually 

dewnwazd, and may be found at almost any age in tlwit part of the stalk from which 

the ili^ are giveivput. A few Rpeolm^ns were found wliich had worked upwartl for 

aftwiQchflSmU) the first section of tiie stalk above the ground, but these were all 



140 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

very large indiTidaalfl. and I conclude that the larva only bores into the stalk proper 
after having consumed, all available pith below ^ound. 

The pup» Were both found in cavities opxK)Hit4) the first suckers, snrrounded by ex- 
crement compactly pressed so as to fomi a sort of cell. 

Wherever the larva had reached its full size, tlie pith of the stalk was found com- 
pletely eaten out for at least five inches. Below ground even the hard, external 
portions of the stalji: were eaten through, and in one instance everything except the 
rootlets had disappeared, and the stalk had fallen to the ground. 

In a great majority of instances but a single larva was found in a stalk, but a few 
cases were found where two larvae were at work. In no case had an ear filled on a 
stalk bored by this larva. The stalk was often stunted and twisted, and the lower 
leaves were invariably brown and Withered. 

In the field which Mr. Howard visited, not more than 6 or 10 per cent, 
of the stalks had been damaged. The principal injury was done early 
in the spring, and the hills then killed had been replanted. 

FREYENTIYE MEASURES. 

From the present state of our knowledge and from the fact that the bee- 
tles issue in the fall, it seems probable that the insect hibernates, as do the 
other Gurculionids, in the'^beetle state and in the stalk. Both Mr. Spig- 
ener and his son, intelligent men and good observers, state this to be the 
case. The remedy, then, of cutting stalks in fall or early winter and of 
plowing up the stubble and burning it is very 6bvious. 

In the lowlands where the Bill-bug abounds, the Lepidopterous borers 
are unknown, so that there will be no necessity for.bumingmore than 
the* stubble^ which should, however, be cut high, at least 6 inches above 
ground, to insure the destruction of all. 

Mr. Spigener turns his poultry into the corn-field in spring, but con- 
siders tnis a rather dangerous proceeding, on account of the "remark- 
able grip" of the Bill -bug; he has seen them cause chickens great dis- 
tress by gripping the throat as they attempt to swallow them. 

The testimony of Mr. Spigener just given, relative to the hibernation 
of the adult beetles in the stalks, is corroborated by the experience of 
Mr. S. M. Robertson, as reported to tiie Department. This gentleman 
stated that upon examining the stalks during the winter tiuie fully 50 per 
cent, of the stalks- were found to contain the beetles in the tap-root^ ahve 
and healthy, notwithstanding the extreme severity of the. winter. In 
one field, which was completely under water for six days during January, 
they were found to be as abundant and apparently as healthy as in 
those fields which remained above water. With regard to remedies, 
while the beetles are actually at work in the spring upon the young 
corn, the dusting with some arsenical poison, suqh as Paris green or Lon- 
don purple, mixed with some diluent in the proportions we have so often 
indicated, would probably be effective in destroying many beetles while 
in the act of gnawing their way into the stalks. 

With rega^ to preventives, a most perfect one will be found as 
already indicated in pulling up and burning the stubble during the 
winter, or preferably as early as possible after harvest. With refer- 
ence to this remedy Glover says: "A very perceptible decrease of the 
Bill-bug has been observed where the practice of burning the roots has 
been followed, and, if persevered in, might nearly eradicate them in the 
course of a few years.'' 

STRUCTURAL AND DESCRIPTIVE. 

The distinguishing generic characters of Splienophorus may be briefly 
given as follows: Side pieces of metastemum raUier narrow; epimera 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 141 

of mesostemmn externally truncate (jiot acute) ; front coxae narrowly 
separated by the presternum; third joint of the hind tarsi either gla- 
brous or only pubescent at the sides. A peculiar external appearance 
will render the gemis at once recognizable to the experienced eye, while 
the numerous species are very difficult to distinguish. The form of the 
tibiae and tarsi and the vestiture of the latter have furnished excellent 
characters to divide the genus into natural groups. That to which our 
species belongs is characterized as follows: l^biaB all rounded (not 
tnincate) at outer apical angle ; third joint of hind tarsi conical (not 
broadly dilatedh third joint of anterior and middle tarsi feebly dilated 
and spongy pubescent at the sides.* Of the five species constituting 
this gronp, two are easily known by the third elytra! interval strongly 
derated at basal third; the third species {8. costipennis Horn) has the 
elytral intervals alternately subcostiform in their entire length, and 
the thoracic smooth lines parallel and equal. The two remaining species, 
8,pertmax Oliv. and rohuatus Horn, are so closely allied that Dr. Horn 
hfiiisel^ in describing the latter species, says:t ^^ It is with considerable 
diffidence that I venture to name the present form.'' S.pertinax is much 
iiKHre common than rohustuSj and has long since been known as greatly 
injurious to com, though its eairlier states have never been described. 
The differences between the two are very slight indeed, and hardly en- 
titled to specific value ; in pertinax the median thoracic vitta is "more 
suddenly dOated and more narrowed toward the base, the elytral inter- 
vals feebly alternating in width and convexity, while in robustus they are 
eqaaL 

Omitting characters of minor Importance, and those peculiar to the 
group (already mentioned above), we would give the following short 
diagnosis of our sx>ecies: 

SpHKNOFHORrs BOBUSTUS. — Imogo. — Black, moderately shining beneath, upper sur- 
&oe coTerod with ochreous subsericeous exudation (wnioh, however, is very easily 
nbbed ofi^ the beetle then appearing of a dirty-black color) : thorax with three feeble, 
moothy longitudinal vittsD of unequal width, the intermediate one feebly dilated at 
middle and attaining the base with its broader posterior end; elytra finely striate, the 
iatarvals flat^ snbeqnal, not alternating in width and convexity. 

Icreo. — ^Length 12"^; color, dingy white; head chestnut-brown, with fourviit® 
of ualer color, two upon the occiput, converging towards the base, and one along 
cadi lateral maipnj trophi very dark, dypeus paler; bod^ fusiform, strongly curved, 
•welUne ventraUy from the third abdominal jomt posteriorly, sUghtly recurved and 
roiradea at anal extremity. Head large, oblong, obtu^ly angnlate at base, sinuately 
BSRowed anteriorly; frontal margin with a shallow emargination between the man- 
dibles; upper surface with a median channel, the occipital portion deeply incised, with 
raised edses, continuing as a shallow impressed line to the middle of the front; on 
either noe an engraved line, commencing upon the vertex, becoming deeper after 
oxiannff the branches of the Y-suture, and terminating at the frontal margin in a 
btiatle-Deannj; depression ; front with four additional bristle-bearing depressions; sides 
and vertex with several long bristles arising in depressions: antennse rudimentary, 
oecopyin^ minute pits on the frontal margin at the middle of the base of mandibles ; 
ocelli a single pair, visible only as translucent spots upon the anterior face of tiie 
thickened mntol margin, outside of and closely contiguous to the antennce from which 
they are separated by tne branches of the Y-sutare, a few pigment cells obscurely 
visible beneath the surface ; clypeus free, transverse, trapezoidal, with faint impressions 
along the base and at the sides ; labrum small, elliptical, bearing spines and bristles, 
a fuppw each side of the middle, forming three ndges, so that the organ, when de- 
flected, appears three-lobed ; mandibles stout, triangular, unarmed, with an obsolete 
longttodmal farrow on the outer face ;,roaxill£e stout, cardinal piece transverse, basal 
piece elongate, bearing a palpus of two short joints, and a small rounded lobe, furnished 

* For the classification and systematic arrangement of Suhenophorua and its species 
we refer the read(« to the following papers : Dr. Georg« H. Horn, Contrihutian.8 to a 
Kwtmleife of ike CHrculionida of the U. 8. (Proc. Amer. Pbilos. Soc, 1873, pp. 407-420), 
sod Dr. J. L. Lq Conte in The Ehynchophora of America north of Mexico (2. c. Vol. XV, 
18^ p. 330.) 

tt6.p.419. 



142 REPORT OF THE COMMlSSIOifER OF AGRICULTURE. 

at tip witli A T)rufth of spiny lian^ th^ 16be conc^led by the labium ; labinm omnistlng 
of a large triaorular mentaiA, excavate beneath, and a hastate pf^lpiger^ with a deep 
median ehannel; labial palpi divergent, separated by the li^nla^ of two Joints siibcqasd 
in length ; lignla represented by a prominent rounded lobe, densely ciliate On the alider 
surface. Thoracio joints separated above by transverse folds; the first wider, oov<ired 
above by k traiisverse. thinly chitinons plate; the two foUowing similar to the abdom- 
inal Joints ; abdominal Joints forming on the dorsum narrow transverse folds, separated 
by two wider folds, the anterior fold attaining the ventral surface, ^e second fold 
confined to the dorsum, eighth and ninth abaominal Joints longer, eiciivate above, 
without dorsal folds; beneath, the first three Joints contracted, the Sttoeeediiiff Joints 
enlarged, the termitaal joint broadly rounded, with anal opening upon a fold at its 
base; sides of each Joint presenting numerous longitudinal folds; stigmatai V«ry large, 
nine pairs ; the first on the anterior margin of the protborax, low down upoti the sides t 
the remainder u^on ihe sides of the first eight abdominal Joints, above the lateral 
prominences, beginning uiK>n the first Joint at the iniddie of the Side and gtftdtfally 
rising to Hk dorsal position upon the eighth joint; thoracic and list abdommal ^pain 
large, <rral; the intermediate pairs smaller, elliptical ; all with chitinons margins of 
dara-browu color. The noticeable features of this lajva are its cephalic Vittaj, lisid 
conspicuous spiracles. 

The lArVa of the closely allied Ehodoh€tnu$ IS-punolatM HI. (undeeeribed^^baii ft lliorB 
slendet form; the anal segment is protuberant, armed Mth two blunt termthal npines; 
the bead is broadly rounded^ not vittate, mandibles bidentate, lignla eniar^nate^ not 
ciliate; the ocelli occupy the same relative positions upon the front margih iWih 
SphenopkoruSy bnt are larger, convex, lenticular, with pigment spdts plainly Visible 
beneatn. In all other respects the two larvie agree very closely, even to the ftrlds of 
the body-Joints and position of occipital depressions and bristles. 

The larva of Bkf^uihQpharw Zimmermanni Fabr. (Cand^ze, Hist* ^ Mdtam. de q. 
Col^pt. Exot., p. 5i, PI. IV, Fig. I) agrees in general ibrni of body and trophi, bnt the 
mentum is quadrangular, the laorum distinctly trilobed, and the abdominal splracteji 
wahting. (bee Horn :-~TraUs. Am. Ent. 8oe. YII, p. 39^ 

Pupa. — ^Average length, 17 millimeters. Stout, rostrum reaching between firAt pair 
of tarsi. Antenns, but slightly elbowed and reaching not quite to bend qf anterior 
femora and tibi». Eves scarcely discernible ; fiu^ ^ith three pairs of uiallolr tuber- 
cles, the basal pair the largest, and each giving rise to a stiff, brown hair^ Otbe^ 
minute piliferous tubercles, especially near the posterior dorsal bordet of the ftbdottii- 
nal joints, being very stout on the pre-anal Joint, or pygidium, where they form two 
series of qnlklriaentate ridged 



TAB SMALLE& COEIT STAtK-BOiliaL 

* • 

(Pempetia lignoseUa ^eller^ 

Otder LltePlDOPTfiBAj fiatnily PhycedJe. 

fWate vn, iHg 3.] 

* 

PAST rilStORt. 

This new com pest was first received by us in the latter part of July 
from Mr. Arf O. Walker, of Bichmond County, Georgia, through the 
coinmissioner of agriculture of that State. Mr. Walker stated that 
the Insect wa6 doing great damage to both youn^ and old conj, and 
that on ten acres Of com he had just gathered two wagon-loads of stalks 
which had fallen to the ground from the work of this insect at the roots. 

In the latter part of August we sent Mr. Howanl to study it at At- 
lanta, Ga. and Columbia, S. C, and in September and October it was 
studied at Atlanta by Prof. Barnard. 

Accounts differ slightly as to the length of time for which this pest 
has been known in South Carolina and Georgia, but none place it far- 
ther back than 1878. It seems to have api>eared first in Kortliern 
Georgia, and in the latter part of 1881 it was found as fiir north ns 
Chapel Hill, N. C, by Prof. J. A. Holmes, of the State university at 



:bont the eDlire summer and fall^ aii<l, aa late aa October, cut« the 
med Btalks of tbe late com to snch aa extent that tliey are easily 

to tbe groimd, and tbe eara are often rendered aselesB by con- 
ith tbe vet eartb. The principal work of tbe borers is done at 
iface of tbe gronnd, altfaoifKh tbey are otten found jttst above or 
this point. They bore throngb the stalk in every direction, eome- 
entirely severing it, more otteu veiikeuiiig It, so that tbe slightest 
f wind blows it to the ground. Fjom six to tifteen of the larvie 
aally foand in a single stAlk. Tbe borers are extretoeiy active, 
!treat with great rapidity into tbeir barrows npou tbe slightest 
sanoe. ■ 

IT operations on t^e stalk when yonug are principally below the 
3, tb«ir attacks beingconflned to tbe outer eruat, which they some- 
rampLetely girdle. They generaliy commence to work between tlie 
s, whereby these are also often girdled and die in coDse(|uence ; 
igary to the onter sorface of the rootrstalk extends, occasionally, 
do^n as the depth of two ibches. After the worm has attained 
half its size it bores into the stalk, also below tbe surface, geue- 
above and very close to one of the rootlets, in a more or less 
lit line, until it reaches the opposite hard parts, or it works gnula- 
jwards, widening the channel more and more, antil sometimes 
is formed a large cavity, leaving only tbe rind of tbe stalk on- 
A. The nearly full-grown larva seems to prefer to work just 

Um sorface of the gronnd, and may often be found in company 
he larva of Diatriea taechari (Fabr.). When ready to traiisfonn, 
rea the stalk and spins a deUcate, thongfa tough, white, oval, 
'hat flattened cocoon, which is completely covered with earth or 
Mnt^ pellets. It isnsnally found in a shallow depreaeionon tlie 
e of tbe gnnmd, so that it is extremely difticult to distiuguisb it 
ta BnmHiadings. 

moth laones ta about ten days aQer tbe larva has transformed to 

It has the singular babit of feigning death, and is not readjily 

bed. The com or other object upon which it may be resting can 

idled quite rongbly, and it even allows itself to be touched, when 



144 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

as the first moth was bred August 4; 1881, and the moths were continu- 
ally issuing as late as January 31, 1882. During this time larvse were 
occasionally noticed crawling about, and one specimen which was npt 
yet quite fully grown was seen as late as January 25. This individual 
belonged to a lot of larv» collected October 28, 1881, and it would ap- 
pear from these observations that the insect in its natural habitat hiber- 
nates nx all three states, as larva, pupa, and adult. 

PREVENTIVES. 

It will be impossible to find a perfect preventive for the damage done 
by this insect, since it hibernates, as we have just stated, in all three 
states of larva, pupa, and adult. It seems extremely probable, how- 
ever, that the use of the same remedy recommended for the "Bill-bug,^ 
namely, plowing up and burning the stubble, will greatly reduce the 
numbers of the worms. The earlier this is done the more efiectual wiU 
it prove, 

NOMENCLATURE AND CHARACTERS OP MOTH. 

Fempelia Ugnosella* was originally described by Zeller in Isis, 1848, 
page 883, but this description is inaccessible to us. His short charac- 
terization of the species, however, in his Beitrage zur Kenntniss d. Kord- 
amerikanischen KachtfaJter, corresponds so exactly with the more t3i)i- 
cal forms of our Corn-stalk borer, that until further light is thrown upon 
the subject we must consider them identical.t 

The species is, however, very variable. With the male the middle of 
the front wings is usually pale grayish-yellow, growing darker in many 
individuals. Around this light center is a brown border, intermixed in 
many specimens with grayish scales. In one specimen the front wings 
are of a nearly uniform gray. The hind wings are semi-transparent, and 
the under side of the front wings is dusky. With the female the front 
wings are often black with purplish reflections, varying to a light 
red(Ssh-tirown, shaded with gray. 

The mouth parts of the male merit description. The maxillary palpi 
are thcee-jointed ; joint 1, long and slender ; joint 2, short, stout, and 
shaped somewhat like an acorn ; joint 3, slender, curved ; joints 2 and 
3 covered on the inner side with very long ferruginous hairs. The la- 
bial palpi are also three-jointed^ joint 1, short; joint 2, four times as 
long as joint 1, concave on its mner side and flexible, inclosing in its 
cavity when at rest the entire maxillary palpus, so that even thctip of 
the fong tuft of hairs is rarely seen; joint 3, minute. Joints 2-8 of the 
antennae form acurve-and are furnished with long hairs, so that the whole 
appears as a single latei*ally compressed and tufted joint (See Plate 
VII, Fig. 3.) 

In the female the maxillary palpi are very small and consist of 
but a single tufted joint, and the labial palpi and an t^nnse are simple. 

The range of the species is great, and Zeller records it from Carolina, 
Texas, Columbia, Brazil, and Patagonia. 

DESCRIPTIVB. 

Peupelia xiGKORELLA. — Lorta. — Length, 16"^™; averajje diameter, 2""™ ; nearly cyl- 
indrical. Thecolor is variable. Tbe prevailing color of the young larva) is pale, some- 

*Zeller, in his paper on the Colonibiscbe Chiloniden, Cnimbldeu nud Phyciden, gives 
Blauchard's Elaemopalpus anguatellus and bis own Pcmpclia iriixiuieUa as synonyms of 
P. Ufnosella.^ 

tl^noe this was in type Professor Zeller has corroborated the detenmnatioii from 
spealmeBM Bent him. 



BEPOBT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 145 

tones almost white, changing later to a dark greenish or purplifih brown. Head dark 
brown and highly polished, somewhat smaller than the first thoraoio segment into 
which it can be partially dntwn ; oenrioal shield black, polished, with a ^ale median 
hne, iti front margin pale greenish white ; abdominal segments, each with a trans- 
▼etae wrinkle aeroasite posterior third, which is either of a reddish or purplish color; 
the anterior two-thirds of all segments very pale or almost white and marked with 9 
reddish or pnrplish longitudinal lines : anal snield dnsky, with a few indistinct darker 
spots alon^ front margin ; venter eitner light or dark-bluish green ; legs pi^e, with 
a iSunt blniab-green tinge. 

Pupa, — Length, from 9 to 10™™. Color, yellowish-brown, the sutures of all parts 
and the stigmata brown ; the dorsal line more or less distinct and quite daf k green ; 
eyes black, large, projecting ; head rounded ; thorax faintly transversely wrinkled, 
like donnm of abdominal segments with fine impressed punctures, ventni;! surface 
imooth ; tip blnntly rounded dorsally with a low, sughtly rounded circular projection, 
which along its posterior edge is furnished with 6 nne slender spineS|* having their 
tips curved downward. 



THE BOLLWOBM ALIAS OOEN-WORM. 

(Heliothis armigera Hiibn.) 

Order Lepidopteba ; family Kootuid jeb. 

[Plate I and Plate XII, Fig. 1.] 

INJUBY TO CORN IN 1881. 

The autninn of 1881 was rather remarkable in economic entomology 
from the excessive injury to com in the more northern States by tMs 
insect. The 8i)ecies is one of the most widespread and injurious of the 
fumers' pests, and, as we have treated of it rather fully in the forth- 
coming fourth report of the United States Entomological Commission 
as an enemy to the cotton plant, we repeat in advance what we have 
there said upon its food-plants, other than cottoi), and add a rei>ort of 
observations upon it made under our direction by Judge Lawrence John- 
son, of Holly Springs, Miss. We also reproduce a colored plate pre- 
pared for the Commission report. 

FOOD-PLANTS OTHER THAN COTTON. 

COBH. — It has for some time been supposed tiiat the first occasion on 
which attention was publicly called to the fact of the identity of the 
Boll- worm and the Com- worm was in Mr. Glover's report upon cotton 
insects, published in the Patent Office Agricultural Eeport for 1854, 
where he gives the credit to Col. B. A. Sorsby, of Columbus, Miss., in 
the following words: 

There ia a striking similaritT between the BoU-worm and the Com- worm in ap- 
pearance, food, and habits, both in the caterpillar and perfect state, which leads to 
the snppoaition that the BoU-worm may be the yoang of the Corn-worm moth, and 
tiieeKKadcnpoaited on the yonng bolls as the nearest siibstitnte for green com, and 
i^acM on tnem only when the com has become too old and hard for their food. Col. 
A. A. Sonby, of Colnmbns, Miss., has bred both insects and declares them to be the 
nine ; and, moreorer, when, according to Ids advice, the com was carefully wormed 
on two or three plantations the Boll-worms did not make their appearance that season 
on theootloQ, notwithstanding on neighboring plantations they commit great ravages. 

It IB naturally desirable that so important a discovery as this should 
be rightly credited, and it was therefore with considerable interest that 
we rad tiie following paragraph in the article on the Boll- worm in the 

10 AG 



146 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

American Ootton Planter for July, 1850, by Mr. J. W. Boddie, of Jack- 
son, Miss., from wliicli we have already quoted: 

TliiB insect is an anomaly in the natnral history of inaect«, for it it much moie de- 
structive to the plant, cotton (QoesypiumY for which it was nerer made, thma to the 
one to which it naturally beloncfs, corn {Zea may$). 

If I am right in my supposition, this insect is the caterpillar we find in the end of 
ears of com, eating the silk and some little of the com. Tuls inseot is at the North as 
well as at the South — in fact it is wherever the corn grows and wiU nerer depredate 
on the cotton plant save through necessity. 

The same fact of the identity of the two insects was subsequently inde- 
pendently proven and published by Dr. J. H. Zimmerman in the Amer- 
ican Cotton Planter for 1855, Mr. E. Sanderson, in the same journal, for 
1858, and by the writer, in 1864, in the Prairie Farmer Annual, The first 
time Mr. Glover expressed his belief in this identity was also in 1864, 
the previous demonstrators all having been Southern planters. 

Sufficient has already been said in the introduction concerning the de- 
struct! veness of the Boll- worm to corn, and there remains to discuss here 
only its methods of work. In the North there are normally two broods 
which feed upon corn and exceptionally three. The first brood occa- 
sionally makes its appearance early enough to feed upon the staminate 
flowers, or ''tassels,'' before the ears are formed. Instances of this are 
recorded by Mrs. Mary Treat, of Vineland, K. J., who writes to the 
American Entomologist^ August 25, 1869, as follows: 

The other day I passed a large field of com where the depredations of this worm 
were visible upon almont every stalk. They had done their work weeks before, eat- 
ing through the leaves while they^ were folded around the staminate flowers before 
the ears had begun to make their appearance. 

It is probably the second brood which attracts the most attention and 
does the most damage. In August and September the infested fields 
begin to pre^gent a sorry sight. Many of the busks are seen to be pierced 
by circular holes, and upon opening, the gi*ain is found to be eaten in 
forrows, principally at the outer end of the ear. If the work has been 
done before the kernel has set or hardened, the milky juice will have 
exuded and smeared the end of the ear, wheu mold soon forms upon it, 
other insects work their way in and feed upon it, and the whole ear soon 
presents a disgusting appearance. 

Barely more than one full-grown worm is found in the ear at the same 
time, though frequently several of different sizes are to be seen. In the 
course of its growth the worm by no means confines itself to a single ear. 
As the wl^im seizes him, or as the flavor of one ear palls upon his deli- 
cate appetite, he leaves it and enters another either upon the same or 
an adjoining stalk. The journey from one to another is made in the 
night, and the new ear is usually entered by a circular hole bore<l 
through some part of the husk; so that the mere pi-eseuiM) of a hole in 
the husk does not, as is thought by many, necessarily imply that the 
worm has left the ear to transform. 

From the first to the last of September tlie inarms of this second 
bpood bore out through the husks and enter the ground to trausforni, 
those pupating first frequently, in warm seasons in the more northern 
localines, and always, we believe, in the latitude of South Illinois, Mis- 
souri, and Virginia, giving rise to a third brood, which feeds upon the 
hardened corn if mojre congenial food is not at hand* 

It was formerly thought ^at the ^brts of the worm on corn were 
confined to the tender and milky ears. In fact we stated {American 
JEntomologisty 1, 1869^ p. 212) that— 

The worm cannot Uyo on hard com, and it ia nsaally fuU-grown when the kernela 
.are in the *^ milk'' state. 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 147 

Ri 1870, however, we corrected this idea in the following wotds (see 
TLird Missouri Entomological Eeport, 1870, p. 104) : 

1 wat formerly of the opiDion that tJiis worm could not live on hard com, and it cer- 
tainly does eeuerally disappear before 1^ com fally ripens, but last fall Mr. James 
HarluieM, of Saint Lonis, brooght me, as late as the latter part of October, from a 
oom-field on the Slinois bottom, a number of large and well-ripened ears, eao^ con- 
taining from one to five worms of different sizes, subsisting and flonrishing upon the 
bard kernels. 

Prof. E. W. Claypole, of Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, also 
called attention to the same fact in the S^oyember, 1880, number of the 
American Entomologist, He says : 

In entting my own com yesterday I found many specimens of this insect, and there 
sow lies before me an ear almost uniignred and nearly dry, the kernels being too hard 
to jield to the nail, and full of meal when broken, in which is an almost mil-grown 
worm CD gaged in eating these hard grains. * * * Later. I have as late as the 
first week of this month (October) found small Corn-worms, not more than half an 
inch long, engaged in eating the ripe ears of com, and I can add from experience that 
these small worms can bite sharply. 

Last tall (1881), in the vicinity of Canton, M., Prof. Barnard observed 
that mnch damage was done to late corn, over two-thirds of the ears 
hanrested having contained one or more worms. Live worms were 
foond in the ears np to the time of hnsking, in the latter part of Octo- 
ber, feeding upon the hard kernels. The ears thns damaged exhibited 
on hnsking many shallow grooves through the tops of the kernels, which 
seemed, indeed, the favorite mode of work of the worms; but occasion- 
ally a single kernel would be eaten down to the cob. There, as else- 
where, mildew had served to greatly increase the damage done by the 
worm. 

In the Southern States there are always three broods rf the worm 
upon com, the later broods preferring the tender cotton bolls to the 
tongh com. The moths in early spring lay their eggs on the leaves of 
the corn, and the newly-hatched larvce begin feeding at once on the 
spot of their birth. By these young larvse many irregular holes are 
eaten through the tender leaves, giving them, as has been well said, the 
sppearance of having been riddled by a charge of small shot In 'this 
manner they feed for some time, gradually working their way downward 
mto the sheath of the leaf, and finally reaching the closely-rolled ter- 
minal bud, into yhich they bore and remain feeding until they attain 
their full growth, when they gnaw directly outwards and, crawling into 
the ground, transform to pupaj. 

The eggs of the second brood are laid upon the leaves and upon the 
sheaths of the tassels about the 1st of June. The worms feed, as be- 
fore, upon the leaves at first, upon the tassels, and later, as they ap- 
proach full growth, they are to be found feeding upon the kernels, silk, 
and cob of the forming ears.- 

The third brood, commencing shortly after the Ist of July, may be 
compared in its destmctiveuess to the second brood at the north. It is 
very numerous, and is the last brood which injures com to any extent. 
Tbe eggs are laid upon the end of the husk or amongst the silk, and 
the worms work in the manner previously described, occasionally pierc- 
ing the hnsk and migrating from one ear to another, although the ten- 
dency to do this is much less when the ears are tender than after the 
grains have begun to harden. The worms of this brood pupate in the 
imial way, and those of the next betake themselves almost exclusively 
to cottijn. Occasionally a worm is found working in the ears of hardened 
«>iu in close proximity to a cotton-field, but it is ^ (iprnpuratively rare 
occurence. 



148 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONEE OF AGRICULTURE. 

TomIto. — Perhaps next in imiK)rtance to the damage done to cotton 
and com comes that done to the tomato crop. In 1867 the Boll-worm 
played havoc with the tomatoes of Southern Illineia, eating into the 
green fruit and causing it to rot. (Qee American Entomologist^ I, 212). 
In his Tcport for 1870 Mr. Glover speaks especially of the damage to 
this orop the previous year in Maryland. The worm bored into both 
the ripe and unripe fruit of the tomato, rendering it wholly unfit- for 
use. It was said that a single caterpillar would ruin a number of the 
frnit on one plant alone. 

Mr. Crane, of Mandarin, Fla., an extensive vegetable grower, lost, in 
1878, one third of his crop of tomatoes through this Heliothis. 

Prof. J. E. WiUet, of Macon, Ga., in correspondence with the Depart- 
ment in September, 1879, related the interesting fact that in the vicin- 
ity of Macon, at least, the Boll-worm had developed the mischievous 
habit of boring into the tomato-stalks until they were nearly or quite 
severed, thus doing more damage than it could have done by confin- 
ing it«eif to the fruit. The larv» have also been found feeding upon 
the leaves of tomato, at Washington, by Mr. Pergande, one of our as- 
sistants. 

The Boll- worm has also been found by J. Jenner Weir to feed upon 
the tomato plant in England, and we have already elsewhere commented 
upon the interest attadung to this fact, since the tomato is grown with 
such difficulty in England.* 

ToBAOOO, AND OTHEB SoLANAOKic-r-So far as wc kuow there has 
been no record of injury to tobacco by the Boll worm in this country; 
but Mr. Gh. Goureau, in his Insectes Nuisibles (second supplement, 18^5, 
p. 132), mentions the fact that it devours the leaves of this plant where 
cultivated in Europe. 

Of other Solanaceous plants we may mention the red pepper (Copn- 
cum ontiuiem), the Jamestown or Jimpson weed {Datura ftramonium)^ 
and the Ground-cherry (PkysaUs). The injury to peppers is mentioned 
by Professor French in the report of the Illinois State Entomologist for 
1877, p. 102, while the observation on Stramonium was made by Dr. 
Barnard and Mr. Schwarz. at Selma, Ala., in August, 1880. On PhyaaliB 
they were seen by Dr. A. Oemler, at Savannah, Ga., and we found them 
ruining the fruit of this plant in all parts of Kansas in 1877. 

LEauHiNOS^. — ^The Boll worm is very fond of boring into the xK)ds 
of LeguminouB plants. The x>od of the common g^den pea (Ptei^m 
sat,%vum) is frequently destroyed by it.t 

Boll-worms were discovered feeding on the common string-bean 
{Phojseolus vulgaris) in the vicinity of Kirkwood, Mo., by Miss Mary 
Murtfeldt. In Ootoberj 1879, specimens were received from D. Land- 
reth & Sons, Philadelphia, which had damaged their Lima-beans to the 
extent of from 3 to 5 per cent. Upon the field bean they were observed 
feeding by Mr. Howard, near Savannah, in 1881. With all these s|>ecies 
of beans, and with the garden pea, the method of work is the same — the 
worm bores into the p(^ at some one point, and never leaves until the 
entire contents are ruined. With the common Oow-pea of the South 
( Vigna and BoKohos^ Bpp.), in the pods of which Heliothis is very often 
found feeding, the work is frequently done in quite a different way. 

* American 3ni<nnologi8t, 11, 172. 

tSeo quotation from Mrs. Mary Treat, in the American EntomologiBi^ Vol. XL p. 42. 
See also Gloyei's report of the Entomologist for 1870, p. 84 ; onr third Missouri Rei>ort, 
p. 105; and report of Prof. Wm. Trelease, in the Report on Cotton Insects, 1879. 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 149 

The seeds are separated by marked fleshy partitions, and, rather than 
pierce these partitions, the worm bores through to the outside and enters 
again opx>06ite to another pea. In the same manner it infests Eryihrina 
herhiicea — a leguminous plant which grows wild through the South, more 
commonly near the coast. (See Eeport on Cotton Insects, Department of 
Agriculture, 1879, p. 296.) In Europe it is found on Lucerne {Medicago 
uUiva) according to Goureau (ibid.)^ and upon the Chick-pea (Cicer 
arietinum) according to M. J. Fallon {Inaectologie AgricolCj 1869, p. 205.) 
In the liatter case the young worms feed upon the leaves and the older 
on^ bore into the i>od. 

CucuRBiTAGEiB. — Amoug the CucurbitacesB several useful plants 
are injured by the Boll- worm. Glover, in 1870, -records pumpkins ( Cucur- 
bitapepo)j and Judge Johnson, in his report here appended, mentions 
melons {Cucumis m^lo) and summer squash {Cucurbita verrucosa), Mr. 
Olover, as long ago as 1855, found the Boll- worm feeding in the flowers 
of squash.— (Glover, 1855, p. 100). 

Malyace^. — ^Professor French (seventh report of the State Ento- 
mologist of Illinois) reports the worm as feeding on the growing seed- 
pods of the large-flowered Bose Mallow (Hibiscus grar^iflara) along 
streams in Illinois. He has recently published the fact, however, that 
the larva concerned in this injury was not Heliothis but a Pyralid.* 

The usefid Okra or Gumbo plant (SU)iscus esculentus) is often de- 
. stroyed, according to Judge Johnson, oy this larva. 

Othbb POOD-PLANTS. — ^The families IridacesB, Convolvulaceae^rti- 
caceae, Eeaedacese, G^raniacese each contain a single food plant of Helio- 
this. Mrs. Treat, in her Yineland address on insects, quoted from in 
the American Entomologist^ I, p. 43, mentioned the. Gladiolus, grown 
ftequently in flower gardens, as being occasionally eaten in the spring 
by ^e BoUrWorm. Mr. Schwarz several times found the worm, at Selma, 
Ala., feeding on the green fruit of Ipotnea commutata. He remarks : ^^ It 
is a very curious sight to see this large larva with its head imbedded in 
the comparatively small fruit of this plant." Mr. Gk>ureau (L c^ men- 
tions hemp (Cannabis) as one of the European food plants, and Kalten- 
bach (Pflanzenfeinde, &c., p. 42) states that the worm lives from June 
to August on the Dyer's Mignonette {Reseda luteola). 

Within the last year the worms were received from Mr. Daniel Wilter. 
of Denver, Colo., as boring into the stems of his garden Geraniums, aaa 
also eating the leaves of the same plant. 

These are, so far as we have been able to ascertain, all of the food -plants 
of HeUothis armigera yet known or at least yet recorded. Others will 
midoubtedly be found from time to time, and it is not improbable that 
the present list could be swelled into tne hundreds by a diligent and 
specific study of this insect for a year or two, for enough has been said 
to show that it is a very general feeder. 

In this connection we cannot avoid making the statement that the 
Boll-worm is by no means exclusively vegetarian in its diet, although 
this point wiU be fully discussed in the special report It has been re- 
peatedly known to devour the pup» of the Cotton- worm (Aletia xylina) 
^hen free upon the plants, and has moreover gained a wide reputation 
as a cannibal, the larger individuals frequently dming upon the smaller 
ones. 

*11xia statement was contamed in a report prepared by Professor French for the 
tkixd report of the United States Entomological Commission, but which has been inde- 
P«ndflntly printed in the eleyenth report oxthe State Entomologist of Illinois. 



150 BEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGBICULTUBE. 

EEPOBT UPON HELIOTHIS ABMIGBBA. BY JUDGE LAWBENOE JOHN- 

SONy OF HOLLT SPRINGS^ MISS. 

HoLLT Springs, Miss., November 1, 1880. 

In this vicinity Heliothie armigera (Boll-worm) made no appearance in cotton till 
the first or second week in August. Many of mv observations may he of general in- 
terest and some value. It is worth notice that whilst cotton was free from it« ravages 
so long, all the early com in the county was infested to a remarkable degree. In Uie 
field examined by myself, which was planted at short intervals from the 15th of March 
to the 15th of April, and was in roasting-ear from the latter part of June, not more 
than three per cent, of the ears were found without at least one worm. It is seldom 
more than one is found. If two or three, they were apparently of different ages and 
sizes, and not in the same burrow or on the same side of the cob. This, in common 
estimation, is attributed to the instinot of the parent teaching her to deposit bat one 
egg to the silk. 

Sot one in the habit of observing insects soon finds instinct (if the word should not 
be discarded altogether) a very nnreliable explanation. It is ^ne this moth does not 
oviposit rapidly, and drops but one egg before her restless habits drive her to flit to 
another resting place ; but she may come back again to the same ear. Other moths 
also may use the same shuck to provide a feeding-ground for their young without in- 
quiring whether there is a tenant within or not. This is the reason why, when several 
worms are found on the same cob, they are of different ages. The eggs are laid by dif- 
ferent moths at different times. 

There is another fact to be noticed in accounting for the solitary habits of theee 
worms. They are the most ravenous and cannibalistic of vegetable feeding larvas I 
have noticed. Whenever in the coarse of feeding on young seeds — their normal nutri- 
ment—one comes to the ribs of another he eats right through and seeminglv prefers 
meat to bread. I have seen a nomber so destroyed. True, I have also fou^a contig- 
uous barrows, and toaohing at some one point, both containing live worms : but upon 
close examination I am satisfied the aggressive caterpillar reached the older burrow 
at a point filled only with dSMe* The first having passed on, of course he turned to 
more inviting pastara^. 

ThiB Jolv orop of Hehothis foond in early com, and called the first crop, is not strictly 
such. As in case of many other insects, the period of development in the pupa state 
is irregular. They hibernate in this form, and come forth from the ground in the 
spring, at the return of reviving heat. Their first appearance deserves more attention 
and cTofier observation. They attack the first thing Uiat bears seeds and pods. Tbev 
might well be named seed-eaters or pod-eaters, for before com is in silk they will 
scarcely allow a yoaag squash or a young tomato to escape. But it is true their main 
force is reserved for the young com — ^ana Aot the earliest, that is, the very earliest — 
for the com of the gardens in June is comparatively free from their depredations. 
They reserve their main army for the regular field crops of the farmers. 

The egg is laid on or near the silk, upon the shuck — as often described by others — and 
in about three weeks the worm has run its course; he cuts his way through the envel- 
oping leaves and drops to the ground, which he enters to a depth of three or four inches — 
in some cases, if the soil is uivorable — ^but often stops within an inch or two of the 
surface. I have had them to undergo the change in a box without earth, and appar^ 
ently as healthfiil as in their normid element. The punas remain in the earth an ir- 
regular period. In one or two instances I have had the fly to appear within seven 
days, but generall v ten, fifteen, and twenty days are required ; and I have some of the 
chrysalids yet, at frost, apparently sound, which seem determined to wait for another 
summer. 

From about the 5th to the 10th of August the moth was most abundant, and this 
is called the second crop. For the first time now did they appear plentifully in the 
cotton-fields, but no more to leave them till frost, with a noted falling off, however, 
about the 15th of September. In this latitude, then, it is the month from the middle 
of August to the middle of September that Boll- worms are to be feared, and this is 
exactly the period they do most damage to cotton. It is a mistake to look for their 
work only on the large or half-grown bolls. This popular error originates in the fact 
that only such remain on the stalks after injury. Even the most intelligent farmers 
rarely notice that the fallen bolls and yonng squares (as the unblown buds are called), 
which are shed so plentifully at this season, are, in nine cases out of ten, injured more 
or less by thi» worm. The very young do most of it. I do not deny that atmospheric 
influences may have something to do with the shedding of cotton, as it is callo<l, but 
from a careful watching of several small fields this season I am forced to the conclusion 
that most of this ldi»s is due to insects. There are several of the suctorial Hemiptrra 
aldo taking part in the mischief — and sudden changes in degrees of heat or moisture 
may have some efl'ect — but all the facts point, as you have explained to me in convy- 
sation, to the gnawing of Boll-worms as the principal factor in this kind of blight. In 
the first place the time corresponds with the greatest activity of these larva). 



BEFORT OF THE BNTOMOLOOIST. 151 

Tbe Aurmera asy the wet weather is mftklDg it shed, or the dry weather baa o^uaed 
H, or the cotton waa ploughed a little too wet, or too dry, or too close, or too deep. 
They neyer, for a moment, suspect that the small, soft, downy, salmon-colored moths 
that horer about after sunset haye anythlDe to do with it. 

Addressing the same conunon nnderstanding, their attention may be called to the 
parts of the crop liable to shed (aceordinff to the style of the farmers), lliere are three 
erops to each stalk. The bottom, middle, and top crop ; each of these crops of bolls, 
set with as many partial seasons or summer rains. The bottom crop neyer sheds. It 
tlwsys sets the frait and is neyer irjnred by this worm, except when occasionally a 
grown boU is bore^ or, more frequently, gnawed a little and left to be attacked by 
rot later. The middle crop, at the advent of this enemy, is going oat of bloom, and in 
^ Tffy eonditioii the yonng worms Ioto most. A boll less than the sise of a pigeon's 
e^, eaten ever so little, dies, and generally drops off. Larger than that it may live 
s long time and aeldom falls off whether it dies or not. It is here alone that the 
oidiiiary observ e r disooyers BolUworm work. 

At tills period tlie top crop is in the Mwors, as the nnblown bud with its inyolnore 
if called— the very stage for the nonrisn^ient of the newly-hatched worm — and it is 
here that tiie great majority of the eggs is laid. What are the consequences f When- 
eref Heliothis ia abundant a genenu shedding begins at the top, and extends to the 
Bdddle of the crop. In two weeks the prospect may be changed ten, twenty, or eyen 
fifty per cent. A patch near me this year, earefuUy estimated, was changed twenty-five 
per eent. Generally thronghont the county ten per cent, is the least calculation* Of 
an the ixihiries to cotton in this latitude none can compare with Boll-worm, for it is 
mdyersal and a regular annual visitor. Once in eight or ten years Aletia takes a crop, 
kA occasionally Kust breaks out and sweeps Off a patch. Heliothis is found every 
yesr and in almoet every place. 

Is rr THX 8AMB AS CORK- WORM f—Agaln, it will need no closer observer than the 
sidiiiary fsrmer to weigh these facts and to notice a few more very manifest. For in- 
itanee, it is always near com that BoU-worm is worst; it is generally where cotton 
neeeeds com or cotton that they abound, and worst of all where com is planted 
thrsogh a field of cotton to fill up missing places. But it is easy to settle the ques- 
tion by rearing the worms, as I have done tnis summer, collecting them from different 
Mmrecfl and giving them a variety of food. 

Tbtst are at least three varieties ; all of them seem to feed without hesitation on 
torn (in every stage, from bloom till harvest), on cotton bollir and squares, on the 
fnm pods of besms and eow*peas. and do not hesitate to bore into okra, melons, to- 
matoes, and squashes. Worms takeu from com were successfully fed qu cotton ; and 
from cotton were as easily reared on com, beans, pease, and okra. Com in the soft 
itage was undoubtedly preferred to all other food, but they would eat even leaves, 
^is motha at this period abound, but are difiSonIt to find in cotton during any day- 
fight. They seem to prefer to hide in cow-peas and clover — ^wheiv these grow near— 
and may be seen about sunset, sucking the honey secretions of flower stems of the 
peas and dipping into the blossoms of the clover. Yet I have never found their eggs 
or young in clover, and rather rarely in the cow-peas. Though almost omnivorous, 
HeUothxa larva are essentially pod-borers and seed-eaters. They will take to anything 
having the appearance of a pod. This is curiously manifest in their preference for 
the ehrysalids of other Lepidoptera. The larger worms would leave everything for 
the pupsB of AJetia when they were plentiful. This special carnivorous appetite was 
first noticed September 23 in company with Professor Jones, while we were experiment- 
ing in a field mfested with Aletia. There were hundreds of the popsB devoured by 
some enemy that broke into the larger end. Much of this work was freshly done, and 
when I first obeerved it, a few days previously, I was disposed to attribute it to a 
Bnali black or dark-brown grub (supposed to be Telephorns), many of which I found 
in the newly-rifled ehrysalids devouring the remains. But these were never in suffi* 
dent numbers to account for the destruction of the Aletia pupse. Professor Jones, 
on the occasion alluded to, caught a Boll-worm in the very act, and I have since veri- 
fied this propensi^ by finding them to prefer this diet to any other. Further obser- 
vation, therefore, led me to acquit tlie little Telephori of initiating the robbery — they 
odIj play the jackal at the feast ; the lion they follow is the Boll-worm. 

To COMBAT THE BYiL. — ^My experiments and suggestions may be of some value, but 
I have not to propose any one perfect remedy. Precautionary measures may be used 
with advantage, and can be easily understood by planters generally. It is evident, 
from what is observed as to their /cod and habits, that if all pod-bearing crops could 
be suspended a twelve-month the race would perish.* But as this is not practicable 
some appTOximation to its effects might still be obtained by Judicious rotation. It is 
known to planters, and often remarked by them, that cotton does well after fallow, or 
aft^ wheat, or any other small-grain crop. They still remember how healthy the cot- 
ton was just after the war, and now iroe it is from shedding in sedge land. Herein 

lies a lesson. 

. - ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

*ThiB is altogether too broad an assertion. — C. Y. E. 



152 REPORT OP THE C0MMIS6I0NEB OP AGRICULTURE. 

Heliothidsj as known, pass the winter in the pupa Stat* in the earth, in ootton and 
com fields, where the full-grown worm drops. As often as iK>88ible, then^ ohaaffe the 
cropping, and never plant cotton after com if it can be avoided ; nor shonld it be pmnted 
near corn if the crop can be pitched otherwise. When a cotton-fieltl becomes much 
poUnted sow it down in wheat or oats, or plant in com, to be follow^ b^ one of these. 
Green com is the great nursery of this plague, and next to the com is a great crop 
of Southern cow-peas. 

The worst infested field I observed this year was a small one in which there had 
been a bad stand of cotton in the spring, and to mend it com was planted in the 
missing places. By unskilled working more damage was done to the stand, and to 
mend tMs affain cow-peas were drop]^ in the gaps. No arrangement could have 
suited Helio3u» better. The peas supplied the moth shelter during the day, and their 
favorite repast at fall of evening. 

Some old and formerly large and successful planters tell me that their practice to 
top cotton, about the l(Hh or August, and bum the young shoots was a check to the 
Boll?worm. By this practice no doupt many eggs and young larv» were destroyed. 

Natural enkmies. — ^Their natural enemies a^rd some degree of protection. Birds 
might be fostered, as suggested by yourself with regard to Aletia, by putting up martin 
boxes about in the fields. The bluebirds are fine hunters of the w^rms, but Inave never 
seen them catch the moth. They will take to any kind of a box if the martins do not. 
These are great fly-catchers, as is well known, and fly late — the very time for crop- 
destroyinff moths of all kinds. But of all birds, the most effectnal I have found are do- 
mestic turkeys and chickens. Turkeys range through a cotton-field, looking up into the 
leaves, and well hid must be the worm they do not find. Their value has long been 
known in tobacco-fields. Chickens, on the other hand, not so good after wormsL are 
exceedingly srctive in pursuit of the moths. When two small fiems, near me, and aaily 
visited t£is summer, became naturallv infested with Aletia, the last of August and 
first of September, the neighboring turkeys and chickens were there from morning till 
evening. They never allowed Aletia to get more than half grown. Even when, the 
26th ofSeptember, I brought hundreds ofAletia larvse into one of the fields for exper- 
iments with Pyrethrum the turkeys hunted th^m out, and, with superior interest and 
eyesight, in a &w hours none were left except two, which were old enough to web up 
before thev were found out. 

How they should find the Boll-worm so often I do not know, but as a fact it was 
vain for me to mark 'stalks with young Heliothis upon them with a view to future 
observations. The turkeys were there from morning until night, and no JSeHotitU 
dared to show his head, as they often do at close of day. without danger frt>m these 
vigilant guaras. I^ractically, I was compelled to cage all I proposed to watch. To 
the great planting interest these facts can be df little value. It would require flocks 
of immense num^rs, and to be herded about over the fields, to accomplish anything 
proportionate to what is above related of small patches near habitations. JayB,'black- 
birds, woodpeckers, and crows destroy vast numbers of Heliothis in com about the 
time the grain begins to toughen, but these allies levy toll also on the crop. * * • 
Very respectfully, 

LAWRENCE JOHNflON. 
Prof. C. V. Riley, 

Chief United Staiei EnUnmologioal C<mmi»9hn. 



TEE COTTON WORM. 

{Aletia xyKnOj Say.) 

Order Lepidoptera ; Family Noctuid jbl 

Pending the issaance from the printing ofl^oe of the spedal rei>ort on 
this insect, which will form Yolome lY of the reports of the United States 
Entomological Commission, it will be well to devote a few pages of this 
aunaal report to the subject, in order to meet the constant demand for 
information. This will best be done by reproducing, 1st, part of an 
address delivered at the Atlanta exposition, giving a summary of prin- 
ciples we have established and work we have done ; 2d, a letter to 
Hon. E. J. Ellis, M. C, on the best way to meet a possible emergency 
in the overflowed Mississippi cotton districts ; 3d, an illustrated descrip- 



REPOET OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 163 

tioD by Professor Barnard, adapted in advance from the special report 
on the subject, of what we consider one of the best and siidplest spray- 
ing machines; 4:t\iy a summary of damage done by the worm in 1881, as 
famished by the statistiiMan from replies of the Departm^t correspond- 
ents to a special inquiry on the subject; 5th, some recently-ascertained 
facts in the natural history of the species, and particularly the settle- 
ment of the question of hibernation within our borders. 

▲DDBBSS ON THE COTTON WORM. 

IFrom MB addrea* dellTered by C. Y. BQey befora the Cotton CoBTontloii at Atlanta, Ko^wnber 4, 1881.] 

THX COTTON WOBM; BBIXF BTATEMKNT OF PAST WO^K. 

Toa all know some th|]ig8 about tbis insect. Under the yariooa aliases of Cotton 
Wonn, Caterpillar, Army Worm, or old French Chenille, it has been a dread to the cot- 
ton-grower of the United States since the beginning of the centary. A natiTC of Cen- 
tnl and Sootiti America, its advent in the northern portion of the continent was w^ 
doabt ooetaneoQs with the introduction and cultiyation of cotton. Appearing in de- 
straetiTe numbers at irregular intervals, it was looked upon as an unmitigated evil 
entirelj beyond man's control. 

The most careful statistics, compiled at my request by Mr. J. R. Dodge, the leading 
a^cultund statistician in ^he country, show that during the period from 1S65 to ISTv 
tSe average annual loss to the cotton-growers from this cause was $15,000,000, wbtib 
in some years it reached nearly double that sum. On the principle of '' a penny saved 
i« a penny earned," this is so niuch stolen froiA your poclbets. Since 1879. notwith- 
Btanding mcreasdd acreage, the loss has been less, owing to the more general adoptKm 
of methods for represshig the worm. It at first seems astonishing that with such large 
Vmms to the staple crop no systematic attempt should have been made to overcome 
this, the planters worst enemv ;. that no enthusiastic naturalist should have arisen 
among jon, either before or an-er the war, to take hold of the problem, and at least 
eammsm all the aid that science and intelligence could bring to bear to solve it. 

But whatever the ^planation. the fact remains that up to 1873 the planter was 
praetteally at the mercy of this Aletia, while up to 1878 there existed a vast amount 
of theory and scarcely any exact knowledge relative to its nature and habits. A few 
Southemrmen like the late Thomas AfflecK, of Brenham, Tex., and Dr. D. L. Phares, 
now of the State aericnltaral college at Starksville, Miss.,, had writt<en intelligently 
of what the-v had observed in their own limited regions, but without laying claim to 
that general entomological knowledge and experience which was necessary, whether 
to correct interpretation of the manifestations or the practical solution of the probleuk 
Prof. Townend Glover also did his very best work in this field, but the practical out- 
come had been the use of fires and lamps to attract and kill the parent moth — ^methods, 
at the best, more or leas unsatisfactory and Ineffectual in preserving the crop. 

In 1872 I suggested the use of Paris green to destroy this pest, and in 1873 confidently 
recommended it for the purpose, in an address which was very generally copied in 
Southern journals. The planters, in the more southern portions ot the cotton belt, Who, 
a^er the war, and while struggling against many adverse influences, had seen tl^eir 
crops ruined year after year, and had become well-nigh discouraged, hailed this remedy 
wHn profound joy, and many were the touching expresbions of appreciation and thank- 
fuln^s which I received from various quarters. Meu more zealous for their own gain 
than for the public welfare patented various combinations of Paris gieen and other 
arsenical poisons, and did a lucrative business in selling rights to use their various 
compounds under names that conveyed no idea of their nature. They all had arsenic 
in some form as base, and feeling that the patentees were, in great measure, imposing 
on the public, I used my pen ' and influence to stay the impositions. The period be- 
tween 1875 and 1878 was one of activity in the improvement of appliances for using 
the poisons, but they all had for their object the throwing of these last, in liquid or 
powder, broadcast over the plants. 

Although I had lon^ felt that the subject was one of the greatest importance, well 
deserving the attention of the national government, the opportunity to begin a 
thorough in vesti|;ation of it was first oflered in 1878, wnen, as Entomologist to the De- 
partment of Agriculture, and with the hearty assistance of Senator Mqrgan, of Ala- 
bama, and other Southern Senators knd Kepreueut>ative8, I secured a small apropria- 
tion of $5,000 for the purpose. The inveHtigatiou has not been without obstacles and 
difficoltiea. Daring the fircft two years the prevalence of yellow fever was an imped- 
iment, and as the most interesting sections, from the Cotton Worm standpoint, are the 
most malarious and unhealthy, and obsertations must be made during the ni^ht as 
'well as by day, few of my agents have escaped'Sickifess after a summers Work in the 
field. Prof W. S. Barnard, who is here with me now in charge of the machinery on 



154 BEPORT OP THB^ GOMMISSIOKER OP AORICULTUEB. 

exliibition beneath this hall, and to whose x>er8eyerance and ingenuity we owe Tari- 
ous important mechanical contrivances, was so seriously ill at Selma last fall that I 
once almost despaired of getting him back safe to his home in the North. I men- 
tion these facts because the synopsis of results which I shall now endeavor to pre^>eut 
to you will convey no adequate idea of the time and labor involved in getting at the 
truths which, once obtained, appear simple enough. ''What is missed is mystery, what 
is hit is history,'' and you have all no doubt laughed at the simplicity of some feat or 
trick of legerdemain after it was once explained, where l>efore you hiul puzzled your 
heads in vain for the explanation. Nature's truths are all simple when we have once 
learned to read them, but the key to unlock them is generally revealed to us only 
after much patient and intelligent search in field and laboratory, 

NATURAL HISTORY OP THE COTTON WORM. 

Here [pointinff to diagram] you have illustrated a worm which you are all more or 
less familiar with fh its general aspect-s and it« consequences. It belongs to the same 
order (Lepidoptera) as the Silk-worm. The one industriously spins for us that most 
lustrous and unequaled fi.bcr that plavs such an important part in the commerce 
of the world, and was for a long time a nt emblem of royalty; while the other is bent 
on destroyiag that liber which, though less rich and costly, is more important to the 
mnltitode. The one by study, experience, and experiment man has succeeded in arti- 
AoWiUy propagating ; the other, by the same methods, he may succeed in destrojin^. 

Omne vivum ab ovo. All life comes from an egg. Modem science confirms thie Lm- 
ni&an aphorism. Our Cotton Worm invariably batches from an egg, and the very 
common belief among planters that it has a spontaneous origin, or in some way comes 
from cotton-seed, is childish. The egg is 0.6»™ wide, circular, much flattened, and 
ribbed. Bright, oluish-green in color when first laid, it is attached singly t« the under 
side of the larger and lower leaves, and is easily overlooked. In from two to four days 
after being laid — the time varying with the^season— the young worm hatches. It 
feeds fbr a few days upon the under side of the leaves, making yellowish and semi- 
transparent blotches. These, to the well-posted planter, betoken* its presence, where 
otherwise it would remain unnoticed. It sheds its skin five times and acquires full 
growth in from one to three weeks after hatching, according to the season. It riddles 
the cotton-leaf only in the last half of its worm-Hfe and eats more during the last two 
days than during all the rest of its existence. I want you to bear this fact in mind, 
as it explains tne apparently sudden appearanoe of the worm, so often remarked 
upon. When full-grown the creature spins a slight web, usually in a piece of rolled-up 
leieif, and becomes a chrysalis, which from its nature must always be formed above 
ground and cannot burrow beneath the surface of the soil. This state lasts on an 
ayerage about one week in midsummer, but two or three times as long in spring or 
fall. In due time the moth or imago issues. This moth has a series of wavy, lilac- 
oolored or crimson lines across the somewhat olivaceous front wings, which generally 
have a olay-yellow or faintly golden cast, but it is chiefiy distingui^ed by a dark, oval 
spot on the disk of each wing, and by three minute white specks dividing the space be- 
tween this dark spot and the shoulder in three equal parts. It rests wi th the wihgs fonn- 
jng a straight line along the back. It is nocturnal m habit, resting during the day, and 
taking but a short, startled flight when diaturbed. In the early part of the night it 
is busy feeding and hovering from plant to plant, in flight contrasting strongly with 
its darting day-flight. In tne latter part of the night and small hours of the morning 
the sexes pair and the female is engaged in ovipositing. Its food is chiefly the sac- 
charine exudations fVom certain glanos on the under side of the midrib of the leaves 
and at the bases of the outer lobes of the involucre, though it will feed on all sorts of 
other sweets and is capable of fretting the surface and sucking the Juices of fruits. 

The time elapsing from one generation to another varies according to temperature, 
and, therefore, according to season. There is increa^sing activity and acceleration in 
development fh>m the first appearance till July, and thenceforth decreasing activity 
and retkrdation in development till frost. Thus in midsummer the whole cycle of in- 
dividual Hf^ from the hatching to procreating, may occupy less than three weeks, 
while in spring and late autumn it may occupy twice that time. Taking the whole 
season through, however, the time from the egg of one generation to that of another 
wiU average about one month. 

The first worms appear much earlier than was formerly supposed, viz., from the 
middle of April tiH the middle of May, in the southern portion of the cotton belt. The 
fkct that these early worms generally attract no attention, and that the species seldom 
acquires disastrous foree till the third generation, has given riBe to the erroneous no- 
tion of later first appearance. There are also many more generations than has been 
supposed, seven or more being produced toward^ the Gulf, the last enduring till frost 
cuts it off. When I tell yon that in addition to this rapid succession of broods the moth 
is one of the most prolific with which I am acquainted, capable, in fact, under favor- 



HEPOBT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 155 

ing circnmstaDces, of laying six or seven hnndred eggs, yoa will no longer wonder at 
its destmctiTe capacity. The progeny of a single female may, iD less than two months, 
under the influence of midsummer temperature, reach twenty billions, while you all 
know that half a dozen worms to a plant are snfiicient to jeopardize the crop. Why, 
were it not for the various natural checks upon the increase of the species in geomet- 
rical ratio, snoccssfnl cotton-culture, with all our improved methods for destroying the 
pest, would be ntteriy impossible. Kemove the barriers and the flood comes. The oc- 
casional impotence of the natural ehecks, through one cause or another, very quickly 
gives the Cotton Worm the mastery in the struggle for existonce, and precipitates it 
upon o« in maltitndes almost as if by magic. 

1 have freqoently referred to the southern part of the cotton belt, becanse the 
iofieet acta differently in the southern portion of the belt, where it hibernates, from 
what it does in the northern portion. Here it appears later and only after having 
become excessively multiplied further south. The dividing Hne between these two 
portions has been approximately given in roy Bulletin on the Cotton Worm. 

The manufacturers here present have laid stress on the importance of cleansing your 
eottpn from sand, leaf, and other trash before shipment, and If r. Atkinson emphasized 
the point in his address yesterday. It may not be generally known that it is the gnaw- 
ing of the worm which causes the staining and fra^ents of leaf in the cotton, and 
that this is mach more difflcnlt to remove in ginning than sand or earth, and I wish 
yoa particularly to bear in mind that for this reason the destruction of the worm will 
psy you ten times its cost, even when the worm comes too late to otherwise injure the 

GIDp. 

bow, I feel that I have got on to a theme of great coneem to you all, but I must 
psss over many questions of interest if I am to reach the chief object of my remarks. 
To treat of the conditions of soil and plant most f|ivorable to the Cotton Worm, the 
meteotrological inflnences affecting it, the migrations of the moth, the manner of 
kibeniation, the parasites and other natural enemies, would require many hours' time. 
And I must pass them by for the present. Before proceeding to the more practical 
eooskiemtiona, however, I wish to say a few words, by way of comparison, about an- 
other important enemy of the cotton crop, viz., the Boll-worm. 

[The ptpfo— or's remarks were here iftnstrated by colored diagrams. He gave an 
intecesting accxmnt of the Boll-worm, showing its habits and character, and how it 
difived 6am the Cotton Watm in. transforming underground, in the manner in which 
the moth rests, and in other particulars, but that the two resembled each other in 
both teding at first on the under side of the leaf.] 

From the faats here presented it is obvious tkatpoiaons appUed to the nnder 9urfao$ of 
ike UtBtto will aooompli»kfar more gooi tham when thrown on we upper euffaee. as has been 
the ooinm<m custom. They will more surely kill the young worms before these do 
soy dama^; they will tend to kill the moths, and they will likewise kill the young 
BoU-wonna. Time will not permit me to go into details as to the different substances 
that may be used for the destruction of these worms. It suffices to say that of the 
tons of diflerent ingredients that we have experimented with, Paris green, London 
purple, or arsenic in some form, give the most satisfaction, while the only vegetable 

STodnct that gives any promise of usefulness is Pyrethrum, prepared Arom plants in- 
jgenons to parte of Europe and Asia, and the cultivation of which I have been en- 
dcAToring to establish in various parts of the South. 

IMPBOVBD APPUANGBfl. 

"Planters will apply poisons either in liquid or in powder, according to circnm- 
itaiiese and conveniences. The wet method, according to present practices, i^ the 
nioie expeditions, and the safer, so fan as injury to man and stook is concerned It 
sets lees &vorably in wet weather, the first outlay in appliances is greater, and they 
m often aseless where the soil is heavv and wet. The dry method can be most ad* 
vsDtageoosly uised in wet weather, and the application is most persistent; the cost of 
dilosAta has heretofore been great ; there is more danger to the operator, and an acre 
is poisoned less quickly. 

'^ Experim^it shows that in the broadcast methods of sprinkling there is a limit to 
the subdivision of the liquid beyond which it cannot practicallv ue carried, both on 
sceount of the greater tendency of the nozzle to c^og and oi the greater specitio 
irsTity of the poison compared to water in fine spray ; so that in attemptin^^ to throw 
Bee spray over ten or twelve rows the outer rows receive no poison. This last ob- 
•tacle applies lees to Pyrethrum, which has least sjieoific gravity. In using the poi- 
toDftdry it does not seem possible to advantageously diminish the amount per acre 
by iny |reeent appliancee, but I have reasons to believe that a diluent of simple earth 
wstt dried and pulverized may be used with as much advantage as any more costly.*** 

r ,,,. ,.■■■ i». ■ — -. — I* I 

* Quoted from a paper read' in ItiBO, before the Am. Ass. Adv. Sc. 



tf 



156 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

POISONING FROM BBLOW. 

Now the tlirowin^ of poison from below and tbe introdnction of a new nozzle has 
enabled us to diminish much fhrther the quantity to be thrown on the plant in either 
method. • 

The old-fiishioned punctured sprinklers, and perforated or ganged sifters, with which 
all are familiar, have proved impracticable, because of the fine holes becoming clogged 
by wet poison and other materials. To prevent this, stirring, shaking, and strainmg 
appliances have been combined with them, but without as good results as we desire. 

What may be called slit-nozzles have been made in numerous forms. The fluid, 
being squirted out through a slit, expands in a fan-like shape, and thus breaks up into 
a sheet of spray. The Assures have been cut in different angles and curves to produce 
several kinds of jets, and some can be enlarged or reduced by an adjustable screw. 
Where large and coarse sprays for broadcast sprinkling are desired, and the opening 
may hence be coarse; these answer admirably; but for very small, &ne spray& soehas 
are needed in poisoning cotton from beneatn, the slit must be so fine as to clog. To 
remedy this difficulty we have an improvement adapted to all nozzles of this class. 
The fluid is forced into the round nozzle chamber through a tube or hole tangential 
to its circumference, thereby causing an intense whirling motion against tbe inner 
surface and its slit so as to wash away and keep in action the particks which would 
otherwise tend to aotumulate upon and clog the narrow ontlet. The nozzle chamber 
can be easily opened to remove what collects within. 

Lip nozzles are such as spread the liquid into a shower bjy squirting it against an 
inclined surface or lip, which may be formed flat to deflect m one plane, or angular 
so as to throw in two or more planes, or convoal to produce funnel-shaped spravs. 

Nozzles of this class are excellent for broadcast sprinkling. The lip resists the fluid 
after it is treed from pressure, thereby retarding it slightly and causing a little to 
waste by dripping or falling in large drops unless forced with great velocity. An ad- 
ditional pipe to catch and return the dnp has been used. 

Rotary nozzles are of several kinds. Those in common use, as lawn spxinklem, 
work on the principles of Barker's mill and of the windmill. The water striking tiie 
inclined surfaces oi a rotary part makes it whirl so as to throw and break the fluid to 
pieces. Then there are ormimry tubular hose nozzles with the caliber rifled for all or 
a part of their length to give a spiral movement whereby the fluid is thrown into a 
spray. 

The rotary nozzles noticed are onlv available for broadcast sprinkling ; but we have 
one named the cyclone nozzle, which is not only suited for the same purpose by atom- 
izing fluid fine, and in any volume, but which is well adapted for spraying the foliage 
beneath. The round nozzle chamber has a tangential inlet, and at right angles to 
this a round central ontlet. Fluid forced throngh it whirls with an incomprehensible 
telocity in a volute course to the central orifice, producing a broad, fine, beantifol 
spray. This nozzle is tJio best yet invented for spraying. 

Our machines for throwing poisons are anranged in four natural classes : 

1st. Brush throwers. 

2d. Rotary fan blowers. 

3d. Bellows blowers. 

4th. Squirting machines. 

I must omit fdl detailed consideration (though yon will find on the grounds many 
ingenious improvements which we have made in their application) and confine my re- 
marks to the squirting machines which are the most valuable for our purpose. A great 
many kinds of force pumps have been tried. The Totsaj seems best suited to combine 
in machinery, but as yet we have none cheapenough for tne planter. Amon^'the piston 
pumps several are cheap and work well, as Whitman's fountain pttmp, the Little Giant, 
Kuhmann's, d^c. No improvements of much value have been recently added in the 
pumps which are suited for our purposes. As a rule the simplest are the best and 
cheapest. 

But the greatest advance in this line is shown in our automatic sprinkler, which 
entirely does away with the labor of operating pump. A windlass arrangement ele- 
vates the barrel of poison so high that gravitation supplies the spraying power. Prob- 
ably no more simple or practical methyl than this can ever be inventod, and it will 
remain a standard process. 

Fire extinguishers worked by gas pressure have been tried for spraying fields, but 
those in use are too expensive and waste an unnecessary quantity of chemicals. We 
have an improved method of spraying plants by gas pressure which Lb cheap and 
easily managed. 

We have a rotary fan blower in combination with diverging pipes ending in forked 
Kps and mounted on a triangular tripod fr^me with hind swiveled wheels and front 
gearing, with belt to move the fans at 2,000 revolutions per minute. 

We have rotary fan blowert for throwing fiuid poison. We have bellows blowers 
in combination with a plow or cultivator, whereby the cotton may be poisoned while 




REPOBT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 157 

it Is being coltiyated. We have, farther, oomponnd fountain sprinklers tlirongh 

which 

the 

tomoos], 

from beneath. The flexibility allows no breaf^a^e in pipes, and the trailing flexible 

forks adapt themselves to crookedness and yanations in the width of rows. 

The advantages of the triangular, tripod, tricycle frame are that it conforms to all 
irregnlaiitiea in all directions. It cannot well tip over ; it fomvi the base of a pyra- 
mid sopportine the barrel of poison; it turns easily and short as upon a pivot; it 
piills easily and it opens and shuts to suit the width of the rows. 

With thia machine firom twelve to twenty rows of cotton are easily and efieotually 
poisoned from below at a minimum cost of machinery, and with the minimum quan- 
tity of material. 

As a few minutes spent in witnessing the working of this machinery on these grounds 
will eonvey a better idea than any amount of further description, I will detoin vou 
no longer, but earnestly invite you, ux>on adjournment, to examine it. With a jurat 
outlay of from $10 to $15 for machinery, not more than one cent per acre for material 
iud the labor of one man and a team, one hundred and fifty acres of cotton can be 
poisoned and protected in a day. What more, gentlemen, can you desire t 

No one feature of this marvelous exhibition, which does so much credit to the pro- 
jectors and managers, has interested me more than the trial ground, where your 
Southern crops and cotton from all parts of the world are under cultivation for com- 
parison^ and I felt an intense mortincation when I found upon arrival hem that this 
cotton waa all defoliated by the worm. Estimating that the plot contains two acres, 
it could have been nrotected in less than an hour, and with less than a dollar's outlay, 
and it wovild have been a veritable pleasure to me, and a most telling practical lesson 
to you, to have seen that interesting patch of cotton now in full leaf, while destruction 
was all around, and It should have been had I known of its existence in time. 

There ia one other fact I desire to call your attention to before taking my seat. The 
work we have been doing on th^s Cotton Worm is not sectional. The appliances I 
have described to you, wnich have been perfected for the benefit of the South, will 
benefit all sections of our country, for they are applicable to the XK)tato crop and to 
Bany othuer crops. I wish our legislators to bear this in mind, for our work in this 
field ilhisirates what has proved true in many other fields, viz., that what benefits any 
particular section redounds to the common good. 

I thank yon, gentlemen, in oonclusionf for the attention you have given to these 
fragipentary remarks. I have shown you but the basest outline of the many interest- 
ing and important questions raised by the consideration of a single insect. What I 
have said ia simply susffestive of the many things that have necessarily been left un- 
Mid, and my object wm have been fulfilled if the remarks lead to questions from the 
practieal planters here congregated, and to profitable discussions. The Cotton Worm 
IS hut one of many insects &at affeet your staple ; cottpn is but one of many products 
which form the basis of our prosper! tv as a people, and which are all more or less 
affe^ed by insect enemies which call for attention from the Entomolof^^cal Division 
of the Department of Agriculture. This Division, asain, is but one of several embraced 
in that department, which has for aim the amelioration of the fanner's condition 
sad the advancement of the greatest of all industries. 

PEOTECmON FBOSf INJUBY IN THE EEOIONS OVEEPLOWED BY THE 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Hie following letter of recommendations wSpS written in obedience to 
a request from Hon. E. J. Ellis, M. C, and from Messrs. Shattack & 
Hofi^an, of New Orleans, for information that could be used in the 
papers, and otherwise, in order to enable the planters in the regions 
overflowed by the Mississippi to prepare for possible injury: 

DSPASnCSNT OF AQRICULTURE, ENTOMOLOaiCAL DlYISIOK, 

WasMngtan, D. C, ApHl 25, 1882. 

f^iRii: The planters of the Mississippi flats, espedaUy those in the flood country, are 
pToUablj correct in expecting unusual damage from the worm to follow as a conse- 
(|uence upon the crop Doing belated. It is only a fair supx>o8itiou from the present 
outlook tnat the plant will be seriously attacked before it begins to make a crop. Ou 
tb««e sccouDts the relation of most of the planters of that extensive region as mort- 
Kaferstothe great mercantile houses that advance their supplies on the ruinons credit 
•yitem there prevalent, is at this date very unpromising and unsatisfactory to both 
ptfties. And these premises naturaUy account for the unusual number of letters now 



158 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

coming from planters and merchants of that section of our conntry inquiring for infor- 
mation respecting the pest and the best method of preventing or resisting its progress. 
It would indeed seem wise for those who advance supplies upon security on the pro- 
spective crop to funii^h also the appliances for destroying the pest, and insist on these 
being purchased, and perhaps with an agreement to use them faithfully for 

PROTKCTING THB CROP, 

aa a prerequisite to obtaining such heavy credits as so many have become aoonstomed 
or forced to ask and expect. Such investment should be a kind of insurance or a sort 
of security somewhat equivalent thereto. 

The old-fashioned watering-pots are sold in quantities in some instances, but by 
these the poisoning is done in a poor, primitive manner, which is alwaj'S unsatisfac- 
tory and often quite unsuccessful. None of the barrel-pumps, producing broadcast 
spi^ys, have become such standard machines that the trade could have confidence to 
invest in quantities of them or feel sure of disposing of a large invoice. Many of these 
have considerable local notoriety and sale, and some hy drone ttes of northern manufact- 
ure have found a more general distribution,- but it cannot be said that any one of 
these has become such a standard machine as large jobbers would dare to handle. In- 
deed there seems to h ave prevailed the sense that the special requirementa for the 
thorough and wholesale destruction of the worms were not vet met b^ the machines 
made, and the suitable article haa long been looked for and hoped for m vain. 

Duiing the investigation which I have been conducting, practical machines on new 
principles have been iirvented and tested that satisfy aU the conditions of this diffi- 
cult problem to destroy the worm in an economic, certain and wholesale manner. 
T*e (dea of first importance is, tluit the poison he applied to the under surface of the foliage, 
where the young worms start and grow until lar^e enough to eat through the leaf and 
become destructive, where the poison will remain on and not be washed off by de^i 
or each shower of rain. 

To devise the mechanical means of accomplishing this on a large scale, or in a rapid 
manner, was the more baffling under the conditions that complexity and much expense 
must be avoided. But all the more difficult points hare been overcome by contrivances 
which are beautiftilly simple and practical, and it is to be resetted that they proba- 
bly cannot be put on the market before next season ; hence it would not be worth 
while, did space permit it in aietter like this, to enter upon a detailed description of 
the improved machinery referred to, which will appear in a final report soon to be 
printed. For the present, then, only the older macumes are available, and I have sent 
to Messrs. ShattncK &, Hoffman, of New Orleans, such copies as the Department has 
to spare of a report in which their descriptions and relative merits are presented, only 
directing your attention specially to the broadcast spray pumps maoo by Mr. R. T. 
Deakin, Philadelphia, Pa.; Mr, J. P. Ruhmann, Schnlenburg, Tex.; and Mr. John 
Schier, Ellinger, Tex. 

The only desirable poisons that will be obtainable in great quantites by the planters 
are the Tarioua arsenical preparations, and foremost among these are 

PARIS GREEK Ain> LONDON PURPLE. 

By the ordinary method of spfinkUng poison from water-pots, or in broadcast aprays 
from barrel pumps, about 40 gallons of water containing one pound of Paris green or 
two-fifths or a pound of London purple, kept well mixed by stirring or shakins^, may 
be applied to the acre. When a bellows atomizer is used to diffuse it more finely and 
more thoroughly, which is much preferable, leas than half that quantity of poison and 
water to the acre wiU give equally good results. In sifting ondry poison by such sifters 
as are usually employed, one pound of the Paris green to 35 pounds of such mixture 
of flour and ashes, or one pound of London purple to 45 pounds of such mixture, are 
proper proportions to use. The flour is adhesive, holding the poison fast to the leaves 
and coating the particles of poison so that they came less in contact with the surface 
of the plant, and hence it helps to prevent their oaustic action or burning of the leaves. 
The ashes have a still greater ameliorative effect in preventing the caustic action, and 
on this account it is well to use as much as one-third ashes to two-thirds flour to form 
the mixture. With this preparation the poison cannot be too thoroughly mixed. 
Better devices for mingling these homogeneously with each other are still to be sought. 
The best now easily prepared by the planter consists of a barrel with a. number of rods 
put through it endwise and a great number of large spikes driven through its aides to 
project far into the cavity. 

THE SUBSTANCES TO BE MIXED 

are put into the barrel through a large hole, whish is then closed, while the barrel is 
hung upon an axis and rotated until thoroughly nuxed. 

It should be added that in case the poisons reconuucndod are in any instance not 
obtainable, the pure arsetiic or arseniate of soda may be resorted to, Biuce these have 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 159 

l>Mn naed to ndYantage, though ||ot always with the best satisfaction. Although 
these substances are cheap, their caostic effect on the plant is greater. The mixture 
DOW most used consists of 20 grains of arseniate of scma and 200 grains of dextrine, 
dissolTed in one gallon of cold water. Four ounces of this mixture to 40 gallons of 
water can be sprinkled on each acre. The common aTseaic water, which every drug- 
gist knows how to make, will answer well. To make it firom the while arsenic (arse- 
nions acid) and common baking (carbonate of) soda is cheaper than to buy the arse- 
niste. although the arseniate method of preparatipn involves less time and labor. 
One-fifth of a pound of sal soda to a pound of arsenic shouldibe boiled in a gallon of 
wtter until dissolved. The solution is perman^ni;, no stirring or shaking being neces- 
Biry to keep the poison mixed. One quart of the solution to 40 gallons of water is 
nasd on eacn acre. 

In applying poison with blowers, a much smaller quantity of the poison and its 
dilutent* will be sufficient, and when the poison is blown onto the under anrfaces the 
adhesive element is no longer needed. 

BoUi Paris green and London purple, when not adulterated and where properly ap- 
plied have always given satisfactory results. The latter seems to act a little slower 
than the Paris ^^reen ; perhaps because the worms do not eat it so quickly, for they 
nfiose to ent poisons until they become very hungry, but it is much the cheapest, and 
bnng a finer powder is susceptible of a much thinner distribution than it usually 

Sets. If verv thinly and evenly applied it will be eaten sooner, and when used in 
ae time will prove equally as effective as the Paris green. And it is likewise com- 
mendable to administer any poison whatever that is to be used so early as to destroy the 
wocms before they reaoh destructive size, and before they appear on the upper sur- 
Isees of tiio leaves. Planters must be urged to watch carefully the under surfaces of 
tlie foliage throughout the cultivating season. The very young worms are less easily 
leen than the small spots of light color made by their gnawing off little patches from 
the lower sorfaoea of the leaves. As soon as and wnenever the young ones have 
Karted, apply the poison immediately beneath the foliage. The plowman or ^ weed- 
ebopper ^ snonld be taught how to see the young worms and be carefully trained to 
find them. At the same time he should have hanging from his shoulder or plow a 
lieht bellows atomizer charged with poison ready for use. 

it must always be remembered that the worms are at work now on certain plants 
in eertain fields firom March until winter ; that the killing of one early \nseot may 
pcevent ihooaands of future progeny and save hundreds of dollars. In the wet coun- 
tiy the early worm will probably be found first on the earlier cotton on the dryer, 
sandy ridges, or higher clay slopes; while the later worms, w^iich have generally' been 
the mst ones noticed, and only observed when they appear in very destructive num- 
ben, may, to the less careful observer, first come i^ view in either the same kinds of 
"euts^ or in the wet buckshot lands, upon which they thrive especially well in the 
latter part of the season. 

A foller history of the insect's life would help the planter better to undei^tand Hs 
habits, but these details cannot be briefly enough presented to be further described 
in thii letter. 

POISOWHTO DEVICES. 

As already stated (p. 153), only one example can be selected from the 
special report on the Cotton Worm for preliminary presentation here, 
fuid we will describe the apparatus represented in Plate IX, Figs. l-*3. 

Several other combinations and adaptations of the parts to be noticed 
will appear in the other report. 

HAOHUfS FOR SPSAYHfG FROM BELOW. — This machine is transported 
by combination with a wagon or cart or other suitable vehicle, and con- 
listB of a skid, bearing a barrel or other x)oison receptacle, the force 
pomp and stirrer operated therein, the hose-pipe leading from t^e 
pomx>-8pont and communicating with the several branched pipes which 
termini^ in noziles carried or trailed beneath the plants to deliver the 
poison spray upward onto the under surfaces of the foliage. 

The skid is a simple frame to hold the horizontal barrel from rolling, 
and consists of two pieces, Fig. 1^ a a, of wood, about the length of 
Hie barrel, and in section about 3 by 4 inches, joined parallel apart from 
each other by two cleats, h b. The inner, upper angles may be cut to 

iBftlch the carve of the barrel, as at o o. The barrel being placed upon 

tlus frame is nest to be filled. 
A good device for miring the poison thoroughly with the water and 



IfiO REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

for filling the barrel is shown in section in Fig. 2. It consists of a 
large funnel that will hold a bucketful, and has cylindrical sides, </</, 
that rest conformant on the barrel. In this is a gauze or finelyxH^fo- 
rated diaphragm, or septum, ^, and a funnel-shape<l base, J j, with its 
spout, j>, inserted through the bung. The London purple or other pow- 
der is to be put in the funnel and to be washed through the fine perfo- 
rations by the water which is poured or pumped in through it into the 
barrel, h. Thus no lumps of poison can enter, and the grains of poison 
being thoroughly wet and separated remain better suspended in the res- 
ervoir. Where flour or other adhesive material or diluent of the powder 
is to be used such ingredients should be washed in first and the poison 
afterwards. 

By reference to Fig. 2 the barrel, fc, will be seen in section, and some of 
its details, together with those of the pump and stirrer, may be noticed. 
The fulcrum,/, has a foot below screwed to the barrel. Through its 
top is a pivot, o, on which tilts the pump-lever, {, which is similarly 
hinged, at &, to the top of the piston-rod, t The pump cylinder, g, is 
also hung upon trunnions, t, projecting into eyes. In this illustration 
the eyes, ee, have each a neck fitting in a slot cut through the stave 
oppositely from the side of the bung-hole, and beneath the stave is a foot 
on the eye-piece. Its neck is so short that the eye is held down firmly 
against the top of the stave, while the foot is as tight against its under 
surface. The length of the eye-piece is a little less than the diameter of 
the bung-hole, into which it may be inserted to be driven laterally into 
the slot. The slot is longer than the eye-piece, so the lattor may be 
driven away from the bung-hole for a distance greater than the length 
of the trunnion- pivot. Then the pump being inserted, until these pivots 
come opposite the eyes, the latter may be driven back as sockets over 
the pivots which play in them when the pump is worked. To hold these 
eyes toward the pump and upon the trunnions a wedge, v, is driven in 
the slot beyond each eye-piece. Thus the pump is easily attached or 
removed and its union with the barrel is strong and fjrm. Perchance it 
be desired that this pump hole be bunged the side slots may be wedged 
to make the barrel tight. 

The parts of the pump being hung a>s described, the hinge, by forms a 
toggle-joint, and in its action causes the pump to oscillate on its trun- 
nions, its basal end swinging wider than its top, as indicated by the 
dottea line from xtoy. Upon the extremity of this swinging end is a 
loop, A, through which is passed a stirrer-bar, mn, made to sweep back 
and forth in the lower side of the barrel thus to agitate and mix the sab- 
stances considerably during the operation of the pump, every stroke of 
the handle causing one or two strokes of the stirrer. 

The method of inserting and extricating the stirrer-bar is as follows: 
It is raised with the pump until the end, m, comes opposite the bung- 
hole, a?, through which the bar may be pulled out by the cord, w, which 
is attached to the end, n, and also preferably to the bungs, r and Zj as 
shown. Through the same hole the bar may be inserted. This stirring 
device is the simplest in construction and operation of any yet contrived, 
while working as it does with reference to the concavity of the barrel 
it is perfectly efl:'ective. 

Pumps having other external or internal constructions than those 
shown here may be similarly mounted, and it matters little if the eye or 
the trunnion be either on the pump or on the slot-piece. But some of 
the points in the internal construction of the pump may be briefly noticed 
here. The lower extremity of the piston-tube is closed and has a cir- 
cular seat above which is a slot-shaped entrance to the cavity of thd 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 161 

piston-tabe. Higher, is another circular seat, and immediately above it 
anoUier inlet to the piston-tube. Between the two seats is an circular 
sUde- valve, which bears a packing.on its face and plays loose or free 
np and down as caused by the pressure to open the lower inlet during 
the downward stroke and to close it on the upward stroke. The upper 
cap of the cylinder is quite loose about the piston-pipe, and holds one 
end of a sheath or tubular packing, the lower free end of which fits 
snugly around the piston-pii>e and tighter to the same when the fluid- 
pressure is on tiie outside of tL The piston-tube has about half the 
capacity of the outer cylinder, and the whole arrangement is such that 
the pump discharges during both strokes, being a constant-acting or 
double-acting force pump, which operates the same whether tiie dis- 
charge be taken from a spout, ux>on the side of the cylinder or from 
the side or end of the piston-tube. With the discharge from the piston 
end, and a suction-hose upon its opposite extremity, the pump may be 
used apart from the barrel, like the so-called ^^ fountain pumps" and ' 
^< hydronettes " of the trade. Its valves are all metallic, and it may be 
made for the highest pressures or to throw any volume desired. A one- 
half inch discharge-spout delivers volume enough for an eight-row ma- 
chine like the one before us. 

Fiom the spout a main pipe or hose communicates to a pipe extending 
across and above the rows and bearing branches descending in the 
alternate interspaces between the rows, while each is provided with ^ 
fork or pair of arms to supply a pair of rows. In this special form of 
the madune the main cross-pipe is hinged to the two sides of the body 
of the wagon, and at one of these junctures is a lever with a ratchet 
quadrant whereby to elevate the descending pipes with the arms and 
nozzles when turning^ or to surmount stumps or other obstacles, for in 
this oaae the descending pipes are inflexible and stiffly attached to the 
main cA)ss-pipe and the lever, that they may be elevated by depressing 
tiie latter, which can be set at^ny notch desired, so that the arms may 
be allowed to trail or drag, or may be suspended partly or wholly near 
the ground or higher to suit the operator. 

There are other ways of attaching this apparatus which allow it to 
conform to the irregularities of the ground more thoroughly and inde- 
pendent of the rocking of the vehicle, but it is unnecessary to describe 
them in Uiis connection. 

The two arms of the main cross-pipe extend in a direct line and have 
all the joints and segments stiff, while the segments have each a length 
equal to ttie width of a pair of row spaces^ whereas by another construc- 
tion set forth in the large report, the mam arms are either partially or f 
wholly flexile in their joints or segments, or both, and they may stand 
at an angle with each other, or continuously parallel, as desired. In 
those cases the parts are supported by a bar or frame which may or may 
not have runners or legged-wheels other than those of another vehicle 
combined therewith, and the descending branches are also usually made 
partially or wholly flexile, that they may trail or drag more thoroughly, 
conformant to the irregularities of the ground and the rows. Similarly 
the terminal branches on the descending tubes may stand parallel or at 
an angle with each other and be straight or curved, with or without 
texile joints or segments, but the exact construction in the present ex- 
ample is Olustrat^ in Fig. 3. While some curve seems usually desir- 
able, it may be made either in the descending branch or its fork, or in 
the terminal arms, or in all these parts. 

deferring to Fig. 3, t is the descending pipe, y its fork, which may be 
^^niced by an additional piece, and this may serve as a weight to hold 

U XQ 



162 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

tbe fork from being lifted or tilted, or as a slide plate, beneath, to pre- 
vent tbe ground from wearing the parts above it, or a sepsu^ate slide-plate 
or independent weight, freely remoi^able or not, i^ sometimes combined 
with the fork, as will be shown in the other report referred to. There 
are also different ways of making the angle-piece, and one of the best is 
where two curved pieces of tube are cut and matched together so as to 
form a 3- way fork, the angle, ^, between the horizontal parte being about 
9(P, and the elevation of the part, tj which is inserted in the descending 
branch, is about 45^ from the horizontal 'base-plane. Such a fork offers 
the least possible resistance to the fluid forced through it. In the figure 
the t\:(bular arms, i t, are joined to the angle piece by tlie flexile slieath 
couplings, 6 e, having stout wraps. To prevent the joint thus formed 
from being too flexile, and to give it additional elasticity, a rod of spring 
metal extends inside. These spring rods cause the arms to spring to 
the bases of the cottou plants and the fork to open or dose as pressed 
Ui>on by the row or not, and thereby conform the positions of their ter* 
minal uozzles, n n, to the variable width or courses of the rows, to apply 
the same to discharge from about the basal center of each plant upward 
into its foliage. 

The nozzles may be joined inflexibly or by an elastic union with sheath 
apd spring rod, or in any of the flexile parts named spring-liued suc- 
tion hose or a torsion spring to allow partial but not complete rotary 
movement may be employed. Each terminal arm forms a supply tube 
\o its nozzle chamber, which has an eccentric inlet-passage, ftt)m the 
same t<augeutially through its wall, admitting the fluid so excentrically 
that it whirls in the chamber and discharges through a side outlet in 
the form of a spray. The whirl thus produced is very intense and 
gives the fluid such centri^gal motion as will disperse it broadly &x>m 
the orifice and thus produce a very finely atomized spray. The spray- 
ing power varies with certain details in the proportions »iid construc- 
tion of the passages and other parts. With a suitable straining device 
in the base of the pump, bodies large enough to clog the small outlet 
cannot enter, but, should clogging materials enter otherwise to interfere 
with the discharge, the face and back of the chamber may be easily 
taken apart to remove matters irom the interior. The nozzles project 
so little beyond the supply-pipe as haxdly to catch upon the plants, and 
in case any objection be raised to the slight recess sometimes occurring 
between the chamber and its pipe, that may be filled completely by metal. 
This same nozzle is used with equally good effect on other jnpes, hy- 
dronettes, syringes, or pumps, as well as on blast atomizers, and is 
unsurpassed for spraying from the ground upward, as here desired. 

The whole contrivance as an eight-row machine is liglii, can be hauled 
rapidly, and has been tested sufficiently to show that it is prucUcal. 
By adding two additional arms twelve rows may be coveiml. 

DAMAGE IN 1881. 

Alabama. — Talladega: Appeared late and only on luxuriant growth 
in some sections. Limestone: Shed more from want of* proper cultiva- 
tion and rain and drought. Lawrence : In low bottom-lands to some 
extent. Conecuh : All the top crop destroyed. Barbour : Partially in 
many fields rust preceded the caterpillars and destroyed what tiiey 
would. Ferry: Prairie early and sandy land later. ChiUon: About 
three-fourths stripped of leaves early ^ after rain budded out but 
.nuBlSe AQfthing. De Kalb: Stripped in some sections. Saint Clair: 



BEPOBT OF THB WRTCMOhOQlffT. 168 

Some fields were not touched while others were entirely stripped. 
Ckerokse: Some fields 8tnp}>ed early, others not at all. Kunsell: On 
boltom-landt early. Marengo : Stripped entirely where no poison was 
used. 

ABKAJ^BkB.^-^Hempigtead : Some spots none ; others as high as 50 per 
ceuU FuUuki : Barlier than ever before. Woodruf: Only the foliage 
and uumatnred bolls. Jackson: fiy the Army Worm. Montgomery: 
Many fields 6trip]>ed after the cotton had matured. Pope: Later than 
Qsaal. Motcard: Leaf Worm came early bnt did do damage. Monroe: 
Whole region stripped bare of foliage. 

Georgia. — Bibb : On bottom and new land only. Mvscogee : On low- 
lands early inplands later. Lowndes : Second Crop of foliage entirely 
stripped. Hanoodi : Entirely on low, wet lands. Jones : Stripped 
entirely on red lands $ gray land suffere<i but little. Dooly: Only 
Morgan: In consequence of the very late fall and frost 

incoln: Few fields. Liberty: Partially. Early: Some locahties 
eariy. Oconee : Picking of the best cotton was done before the worms 
came. 

Florida. — Oohmbus : Many fields stripped. Madison : Only in por- 
tions of the county. Sumter : Was stripped entirely. 

Tbnkbssss. — Bedford : Boll- worms are unknown here, though^ oat- 
tefpillani stripped the leaves. Lincoln : Stripped of leaves. I>ielison : 
Tery litfle damage done in this county. White: Boll- worms do the most 
daniafe. 

South Caboliwa. — Oconee: Only partially in limited localities. 
BfeenvUle : Crop made before worms came. Newberry : In some local- 
ities, bnt so late in season as not to injure yield ; rather benefit it by 
exposing the unopened bolls to sun. Abbeville : Where it appeared diil 
not more than eat the leaves on the plant. Barnsmlle : Stripped clean 
of leaves and young bolls, which came too late to make anything. 

North Carolina. — Came too late to do any damage. Lenoir: Did 
not appear only in a few places. Columbus: Only appeared in a few 
plioea and too late to do any damage. Cabarrus: Did not appear till 
after crop was picked; they then stripi)ed the plant. Wilson: A few 
appealed just before ft^t, but did no damage. Cumbm^land : Few fields 
had the leaves eaten ofi", but too late to do any diunn^e. Pitt: Few 
plaoee they appeared, but too late to do any damage. Cleveland : Very 
little. 

Louisiana. — Union: A few places had then reported, bnt no damage 
done. JodfcMm.* Stripped, but ai%er maturity. Lincoln: lu some places, 
bat not until after it was picked. Franklin : Not until jiicking was over, 
tben only partially. JB!ast Carroll: Stiipped, exuept very high land or 
shaded. 

M188I8SIPFT. — Union: In some localities, but after eotton matured. 
Tate : Second g^rowth eaten by them (leaves), bolls not hurt. Chickasaw : 
Army Worm destroyed top crop. Alcorn: In a lew localities, but after 
the crop had mostly opened. Prentiss : Did not appear until about frost, 
and did no harm. Rankin: Very little, and after bolls were matured. 

Jefferson: Destroyed all top crop. Clay: Bottom crop at maturing. 

Itsaquena: Only partially, and that late. Clarke: Owing to the early 

droQght the leaves became so hard and dry that they made very slow 

progress. 
l^XAS. — Qonzales: In some places early; others late. Bee: Damage 

at first of season by Grass- worm. Colorado: In some sections where 

liot poisoned. Denton : Partially by the Web- worm. Lee : Where iK)ison 

^u not used the plant was generally stripped. Houston : In very &w 



164 



REPORT OF THE COMBOSSIONEB OF AGRXCnLTURE. 



sections, and yery late. Wise: Game, but too late to do harm. Brazos: 
Yeiu late ; too late to injure. Live Oak : In some localities. Wood : Too 
late to damage. Lampasas: Game too late to damage. MHam: Second 
crop damaged in some localities. Va/n Za/ndt: Gaterpillars came early 
and made clean sweep. Orimes: Only top crop injured, which seldom 
amounts to anything. Palo Pinto: Stripped bat very little. Leon: In 
some places, bat too late to do damage. Fannin : Some fields were 
stripped, bat not until it was all opened. 

JLos$ of cotUm ^y warnu as reported. 



StetM. 



ArkuiflM. 
Florida... 
Qeorsia.. 
linAi 



Iionii 
Iflwrimilppl-, 



North. Carolina.. 
Sontlfc Carolina.. 



Texas... 
Tlrgiflia 



Total 



I 






46 
45 
16 
93 
29 
39 

6 
56 
25 
28 
88 

4 



Loat. 



JBaUt. 
61,348 
15,0&5 
4,077 
20,968 
29,649 
38.111 

204 

10,288 

1,374 

22,472 



193,482 



Total, per 
cenAus. 



JBdUt. 
509,616 
407,342 

29,623 
682,332 
273,356 
683,763 

16,185 
346,931 
413,948 
146, 150 
661.778 
7,800 



8,880,769 



Pr.eent 
10.1 

3.7 
13.8 

3.6 
10.8 

6.5 



2.5 
0.9 
4 



5 



Total ootton produced, 6.589,000 bales ; total ootton produced in counties reporting wonn, 8, 880, 796 
bale% or ff7.4 oithe wUole crop. 

POSSIBLE POOB-PLAIVTS OF 'fSE OOTTON WORM.* 

One ofiihe most interesting characteristics of the Cotton Worm is that 
it is so strictly confined to Cotton as its food-plant. All attempts hith- 
^*to made to discover additional food-plants have proved futile ; nor have 
we been able to ever make it feed successfally on other plants allied to 
Oossypiam.t We have, however, long felt that there mast be some 
other wild plant or plants npon which the species can exist, and this 
belief has been all the stronger since it was demonstrated two years ago 
from observations made by Dr. P. E. Hoy that the larva may occur in 
Wisconsin, and, consequently, out of the range of the cotton belt4 We 
have given special directions to those in any way connected with the 
Cotton Worm investigation to search for such additional food-plants, 
but so far no additional food-plant has been discovered. Last Novem- 
ber we received from Dr. J. C. Keal, of Archer, Fla., specimens of a 
plant with eggs and newly-hatched larvsd which he believed to be those 
of Aletia, but which belong to an allied species — ^the Anomis erosa Guen. 
The plant proved to be one of the Malvacesd ( Urena lobata Linn.), which 
is reported as quite common in that part of Florida and further south, 
being a tall, branching, and straggling weed with annual stems and 
perennial root, from which new shoots arise in January. It blooms 
from February to December, and is a valuable fiber plant, the bark 
of both stem and root being very strong, and used very generally for 
whip and cording purposes. The leaves have three very conspicuous 

* Communicated by the author to the American Naturalist April, 1882, pp. 327-8. 
tThe only partial success in this line is that mentioned in our Bulletin on the Cotton 
Worm, p. 12. 
t See Keport on Cotton Insects, Department of Agriculture, 1879, p. 89. 



BEPOBT OP THE ENTOMOLpGIST. 165 

fiaccharme glands on the principal veins toward the leaf-stem, and the 
plant, Dr. Keal rex>orts, is much less sensitive to cold or frost than 
Oossypinm. We find that the plant has been received by Dr. Vasey, 
botanist of the Department of Agricalture, from several parties in 
Florida, with inquiries as to the value of the fiber. Urena lobata was, 
until very recently, not known to occur in the United States. It is 
common on dry hiU pastures almost everywhere in the West Indies and 
southward to Guiana and Brazil, and is also reported from Western 
AMca, East Indies, China, and some of the Pacific islands. It seems 
to thrive very well in Florida, and is likely to spread to other adjacent 
States. 

The Anomis erosa^ the eggs and young larvsB of which were not un- 
common on the leaves of l^e Urena, may be distinguished from Aletia 
by the paler, more translucent charaoter of both e^gg and larva, and 
by the first pair of prolegs being .quite obsoletCj^ in which character it 
resembles the AiMymis exacta that affects cotton in Texas. Aletia larvsd 
that had been fed on cotton^ when placed upon the Urena, refused to 
feed ux>on it, and finally perished. 

We recently took occasion to carefully examine the Malvaceous plants 
in the herbarium of the Department of Agriculture with some quite in- 
teresting results, although a herbarium is naturally the least favorable 
place one can choose for an entomological investigation of this charac- 
ter, as plants that are least injured by insects are most apt to be col- 
lected, and the mode of preserving the plants still further reduces the 
chances of finding traces of Aletia, because only one side of the.leaf is 
available for examination. How smsdl this chance is may be illustra- 
ted by the £Eict that on the specimens of Gossypium in the herbarium 
no Aletia eggs or egg-shells could be discovered, and that only one 
specimen showed any trace of being injured by any insect whatever. 
Nevertheless a number of eggs or fragments of such — some of them 
from their structure very closdy related to Aletia — were found on the 
following plants: MaVvastrum spioatumj from Florida and Nicaragua; 
Urena ribeHa (which is considered a form of U. lohata)^ from Southern 
Florida; Pavonia typhaleaidesy from Cuba; Sida glamerataj from Cuba. 

One object of this examination was to discover, if possible, the par- 
ticular Malvaceous plant uxK)n which Aletia feeds in the States north 
of the cotton belt, but this proved to be an almost complete failure, be- 
cause the herbarium contained only six specimens of such plants nrom 
the more northern States, not counting sixteen specimens cultivated in 
the agricultural grounds at Washington. However, on a specimen of 
Sida 9pinosa^ from York County, Pennsylvania, an egg was found which 
has every appearance of that of Aletia. 

We would earnestly call upon entomologists who may read these 
Images to aid us in obtaining evidence of the food-plant of the insect in < 
the more northern States by an examination of the plants indicated by 
an asterisk in the following list, as it is upon such that the insect will 
probably be found at some future time, but only late in the season : 

LOGAUnXS FOR MALVACEOUS PLANTS FBOM GRAT'S FLORA. 

iUk4M offUiMaUB L. — Salt marshes coast of New England and New York, (Nat. from 

En.) 
^tk^roUmdifoUa L. — ^Waysides and coltivated gronnds, common. (Nat. from £a.) 
tjfUttiria L.— Waysides. (Adv. from Eu.) 

momikata L. — Has escaped fix>m gardens to waysides. (Adv. from Eu.) 
aZoea L. — Has escaped from ganlens in Chester County, Pennsylvania. (Adv. 
v from Eu.) 



166 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AOStCULTURE. 



CaUirrhoU triangulatn Gray.— Dry prairieu, Wisconsin, Illlnoit, and sonthwardL 
alcaa . . - - . — , , ^ 

Napcea dioiva L. 



alcccoides Giuy.~ Barren uak laiids, Southern Kentucky and Teutiesse<». 

LiineKtoiio valleys, PiMiuHylvania and southward to the Valley of 



Virginia, west to Ohio and Illinois, rare. 
* Malvasirum anguetum Gi*ay.— liock Island in the Mississippi, Illinois. 

^'coedneum Gray. — ^Abounds on tho plains ttom Iowa and MinniftoiA W^it- 

ward. 
*Sida napcea Car.— Rocky river banks, Pennsylvania; York County, Kanawha County, 

Virginia. (Cnltivated in old gardens.) 
elHoUH T. & G.— Sandy soil, Sonthem Virginia and southward. 
"spinOfta L. — WaHte places, common southward. 
AbiitiloH aricenno' Gaatn.— Waste plac4?s, wcupod from gardens. (Adv. from India.) 
Alodiola muliijida Mtuiich. — Low groiintls, Virginia and south wjird. 
Konieletzkya uryuiim Prt*l. — Mai-sheh on the coa.st, New York to Virginia and south- 

wani. 
Hibiscus moschtutos L. — Brackish niaifilies along the oonst, sometimes exteudiDg np 

rivers far beyond the inlluenoe of salt water (as abova 
Harrisburg, Pji.), al8o Onondaga Lake, N. Y., and west- 
ward, usnally within the influences of salt springs. 
^ronrfyforM* Michx.— IllinoiH and southward. 

militaris Cav. — River banks Pennsylvania, to Illinois and southward. 
trionum L. — Escaped from gardens or grounds. (Adv. from En.) 
syriacus L. — Escaped frt)m gardens or grounds. (Adv. from En.) 

Of tliese twenty-two flpecies, eijrlit of wliich are introduced, at least 
eleven ai'e not likely to occur in Wisconsin, ao that tlie number of plants 
upon which the insect will probably be found is very limited, it) as is 
most probiil)le, the plant really is one of the Malvaoe«. 

THK QUESTION OF HlUKENATION SETTLED. 

In presenting some of the more recent discoveries of import^ince anent 
this insect to the National Academy of Sciences, at its annual session 
in this city hist iM.'O'i ^^'^ considered the question of hibernation in the 
following words: 

Bnt my chief object in refemng to this insect is to convey the information to the 
Academy, which, thou<::h perhaps of loss practical import, is nevertheless of scieutifto 
interest. In the remarks which I made in 1871> it was shown that there wore various 
theories held by competent men — hoth entomologists and planters — as to the hiliema- 
tionof this Aletia; some l)elieving that it hibernat^Hl in the chrysalis state, some that 
it survived in tlie nwdli stato, wliile wtiU others contended that it did not hibernate at 
all in the United States. There were many known facts which gave weight to this 
last hypothesis whicli was espousod by Prof. A. R. Grote. The strongest points in its 
favor were that the insect had not before been seen iti any state during the months of 
March, April, and May, together with the tendency of eri*or from mistaking other 
species on the ]iart ol those who reported having found either the chrysalis or the 
moMi dnring the winter mouths. 

Yet there were many facts which, as I then stated, led me to believe that the theory 
was erroneous, and tliat, as I have always contended, tho insect did hibernate in the 
southern portions of the cotton belt. How difhenlt it ha«< been to get abs(dnte and 
experimei:tal j)roof of tlio correctness of thin belief may bo gatheretl from tho fact 
that I liavo had comin'tont agents each wiiiter since that of ld7«-'79 fully instructed 
to search lor and obtain such evidence, and that until tho present winter it h^s never 
been forthconting. I am glad to bo aide to st-ate, however, that hibernation is now 
an established fact upon indisputable evidence, and that during arecent trip to South 
Georgia and Florida 1 was able to completely bridge the^gap which had hitherto been 
supposed to exist in the annual cycle of tho insect's history. 

We have, dnring the past wiliter, been able to obtain the moths dnring evehy month, 
and have watchetl them in fact until tho early part of March. We have found the eggs 
deposited, als-^, in the early part of March, just as the hibernating moths were dii^p- 
poaring, and I fonnd the worms of all sizes on rattoon cotton during the latter part of 
that month. I received chrysalitles l'r(»m this (irst brood of worms two weeks ago, or 
in the first days of April, ami the fresh moths are now issuing. This is fully six weeks 
to two months earlirr tl»an the first worms were disooveie«l in thn spring of 1870 and 
I860, thongh we then ijiseovtred them in the latter part of April, or several v^euks 
earlier than they had previously been recorded. 

In short, there is nothing moro fully established now than that the moth hibernates 



REPORT OF THE EITTOMOLOGIST. 167 

principallr nnder the shelter of rank wire-ffrass in the more heavily-timbered portions 
of the South, and that these moths begin laying on the rattoou cotton when this is 
only one iuch or so high. That the first few generations of worms are rarely noticed 
sod never particularly injurious is due to the fact that they are more generally dis- 
persed (the moth appearing to fly great distances, laying here an egg and there an 
t%g^ instead of laying hnndreds on the same plant, as it does later in the season), few 
in nombers, and quite liable to the attacks of their rarious enemies jnst issuing from 
their tdnter qnarters and finding a scarcity of other food ; also to the less rapid devel- 
opment dnriui; the cooler «{mnjs months. 

Aside from the satisfaction of bridging over so important a gap in the natnral his- 
tory of this destmctive insect, the fact established has this important economic bear- 
ing: Whereaa. open the theory of annual invasion from some exotic country, there 
was DO incentive to winter or spring work looking to the destruction of the moths, 
there is now every incentive to such action as will destroy it either by attracting it 
during mild winter weather by sweets or by bnming the grasses in which it shelters. 
It should also be a warning to cotton-growers to abandon the slovenly method of cul- 
tivation which leaves the old ootton-stalks standing either until the next crop is 
planted or long after that event ; for many planters have the habit of planting the 
seed in a furrow between the old rows of stalks. The most careful recent researches 
all tend to confirm the belief that Qossyninm is the only plant upon which the worm 
fteds in tbo Southern States, so that in tne light of the facts which I have presented 
tt jon there im all the greater incentive to that mode of culture which will prevent 
tbe growth of rattoon cotton, since it is very questionable whether the moth would 
samve lonfi[ enough to perpetuate itself upon newly-sown cotton except for the inter- 
vaitHm of tno rmttoon cotton. 



UISCiSLLANBOXrS IJfSEOTS. 

THE DEBIfA ANOMIS. 
[Anomis erosa Hub.) 
Order Lepibopteba; family I^OOTUID^. 
[Plate VIII, Pig 1.] 

IIBITS AND NATURAL HISTORY; RESEMBLANCE TO THE COTTON 

WORM. 

Of the niinierons insects, the history of which we have traced in the 
last few 5 eai 8, one species of considerable interest may here be recorded; 
for it is not only iut/erestinp: on account of its occurrence upon a fiber-pro- 
ducing plant, whi(5b some day may prove of considerable importance, but 
also on account of its relations to the Cotton Worm {Aletia xylina) for 
which it might easily be mistaken in its earliest stages. 

The sx^ecies under consideration apx)ears to be quite generally dis- 
tributed over most of the Gulf States wherever its food-plant ( urena 
hbata), and x)068ibly other nearly^related plants, are found growing. 

The belief that the eggs of the sx>ecies now under consideration were 
those of Aletia was strengthened in the minds of those who first found 
them b}' the inference that after the disappearance of cotton, Aletia 
woold have to search for other suitable plants to sustain its offspring 
until new cotton should commence to grow the following spring; but so 
iar neither its eggs nor its lai'va3 have ever been discovered upon any 

other plant but cotton. 
The ej:;j:s f»f this Anomis, which so far have been found only on the 

leaves of Urena, appear, if examined with a common hand-lens, to be 

8tnicturally indistiii^^uishable from those of Alotin. mid were sent to the 

Department from Florida by Dr. Neal, with ihu acs-^uraiice that they really 



168 REPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONEB OF AGRICULTURE. 

belonged to that insect, and that its winter food-plant was discovered. 
An examination under the microscope, however, showed considerable 
differences, notwithstanding the great similarity in size and sculpture. 
The color is, however, paler, and not of the peculiar bright-green char- 
acteristic of Aletia, and it is by this character that the egg of the Anomis 
may be distinguished from the other, when firesh, by the ordinary observer. 

The radial ridges are more numerous, ranging between 35 and 40, and 
the transverse ribs from 12 to 14. The radiating ribs of the Aletia egg are 
considerably rounded, with the spaces between them rather narrow, ap- 
pearing like deeply-impressed strisB, while the ribs of the Anomis egg 
are sharp and triangular if viewed from above, with the spaces between 
them shallower and broader. The intersection of the transverse with 
the radial ribs of Aletia are not sharp, and are only marked by low, 
rounded elevations. Another quite marked feature of the eggs of Aletia 
is the arrangement of the radial ribs in five groups, connect with each 
other by an elevated ridge which forms around the center a large pent- 
angular cell, into each angle of which one of the radial ribs terminates, 
the other ribs between them being somewhat shorter and connected by 
the terminal transverse rib. This arrangement is quite noticeable in 
fresh eggs, but still more in dry ones. The radial ribs in this Anomis, 
however, are not arranged in separate groups, and the longest ones 
sorround the center in a perfect circle without terminating in a circum- 
centi^ rib. 

This TJrena Anomis is exclusively a Southern species, and it continues 
breeding with scarcely any intermission throughout the whole year. 
Moths have been captured in various parts of the South from August, 
throughout the winter, till May. and the eggs and larvae of different 
sizes are found in Florida througnout the winter. 

The general habits of the larvsB ave quite similar to those of Aletia, 
though as a rule the Anomis larvae are less active, especially after they 
have attained one-half their growth. The newly-hatched larvae are 
almost indistinguishable from those of Aletia, both being of the same 
size and of the same pale color. The former may, however, be at once 
recognized by the first and second pairs of prolegB being entirely obso- 
lete, whereas, notwithstanding their minute size, the second pair is id- 
ways present in Aletia. In this stage the Itirvae are most active and 
nervous, and are usually found feeding on the lower side of the leaves, 
which they resemble so much in color &at it is difficult to detect them 
when at rest. 

They stretch to their fullest length when resting, but very often may 
be seen in a position similar to that of the larvae of Geometrids, and will 
then, if disturbed, leap from their hold and hang suspended by a thread, 
which, after a short rest, they will climb with great rapidity. The mode 
of climbing is very interesting. The head is suddenly bent downwaa^d, 
first to one side and then to the other, and each time the thread is 
grasped with the thoracic legs when the head is lowest. Growing larger, 
they become more and more sluggish, and can seldom be induced to spin, 
but usually hold to the leaf very tenaciously, so that some force is needed 
to remove them. If disturbed they will try to escape in a looping gait 
which is similar to that of Aletia. The full-grown larvae usuaUy assume 
a very peculiar position when at rest. The body is bent at about the 
middle in such a way that both halves lie close to each other so as to form 
a long and narrow loop, and the larva remains in this position sometimes 
for hours. 

The principal time of feeding, as observed in the vivarium, apx)ears 
to be at night, and the larva usually rests during the day on the lower 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 169 

side of the leaves. The smaller larv® eat only the softer parts, leaving 
the ribs nntonched, bnt the older ones gnaw large irregular portions 
from the edge of the leaves, and will often consume two-thirds of a leaf 
in a single night. They also have the habit of devouring their own cast 
skins, sometimes not even leaving the head, and the newly-hatched 
worms will frequently feed upon the empty egg-shells before attacking 
the leaf. We have in one instance, however, observed a young larva 
which had* only partly issued from the egg already at work gnawing 
the leaf. 

In March last we still found the larvae of all sizes on the TJrena around 
Crescent City, Fla., but failed to find any trace of them on any other plant. 
This has also been the experience of Messrs. Neal and Hubbard, who 
were instructed to make observations on this point. 

The moth was first figured by Htlbner (Zutr.. 287, 288), and is ftdly de- 
scribed under the name of Cosmophila erosay* oy Guen^e, who describes 
the larva in a few words and gives its food plant as Hibiscus. It occurs 
in South America^ the specimens from Brazil being darker and brighter 
than ours accordmg to Guen^e. The many specimens we have bred 
and captured show comparatively little variation. The color of the basal 
half of the front wing is bright yellow, speckled more or less intensely 
with ferruginous or brown. The posterior half is deeper, with oli?pih 
oeous and brown shades, and with more or less of lilaceous. The hind 
wings are dull-yellowish, more or less shaded with reddish-brown. GQie 
markings are "withal so unique, as shown in the figure, that the species 
cannot well be confounded witiii any other. 

During winter the time elapsing from hatching to maturity has aver- 
aged, in our vivaria, about seven weeks, but development will be much 
more rapid during summer. 

Should the TJrena ever be cultivated for its fiber, this its chief enemy 
will readily be destroyed by the same methods adopted against the 
Cotton Worm. 

DBSCRIPnVS. 

Anomis crosa, Hub. — Egg, — Diameter 0.8"™, clrcnlar, flat below; the tipper gurface 
varies somewhAt in conyexity, in aonie being almost hemispherical, whilst with others 
it is quite flat, in general shape and size reminding one of the egg of Aletia xylina. 
Color, pale yellowish-^reen, almost of the same shade as the lower side of the leaves. 
The nnmber of ribs which ran from the base toward the summit varies in different eggs 
from 31 to 38. Of these ribs from 11 to 13" reach to about one-foAth the distance above 
th»baae, 5 to 7 half way toward the summit, and 16 to 18 to near the summit. The space 
between these ribs is divided quite constantly by 12 low transverse ribs, which at the 
isterseetion with the radiating ribs form a small though quite sharp triangular point, 
which is especially conspicuous in the emptv egg. The spaces between these ribs form 
shallow, squarish depressions, which are nnely granulated. The summit is almost 
soxwth, snrronuded with three series of small, roundish cells, which become larger 
iway from the center, and beyond these another series of three rows of larger cells of 
different shapes, though more or less squarish. 

Larva. — Firtt stage, — Length of the newly-hatched larva, 2"". Color very pale 
greenish-yellow along the dorsum, white and transparent toward the sides; head pale 
yellowish, without any markings; eyes black, tips of mandibles brown. Antenme 
short, t^jointed; first joint stout, very short and somewhat conical; second Joint 
longest, clavate, its tip obliquely truncate externally, bearing at inner and outer an- 
gles a stout spine, which is a little long^than the third joint; third -joint shorter 
Uian seeond, cylindrical, with a small tubercle at tip, resembling a fourth joint, and 
^vided at its tip with a fine hair; at the inner side of the third ioint, at base of the 
apical tubercles, arises a stout spine which is almost as long as the joint itself. Pilifer- 
008 warts, pale brownish, each bearing a long and slender pale hair. Legs rather 
kmg, white; only two pairs of prologs, situat^ on abdominal joints 8 and 9. 
— « ^ ^- — ' — * ' '^ ' ' 

'Hist. Qen. d. Ins. Lep., Nocta^lites, II, p. 395. 



170 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AQRICULTURB. 

Second itage.-^The first molt takes place seven or eight days after hatching; at this 
time the larvse differ from the newly-hatched specimeus only in the somewhat larger 
size and slightly darker color. 

Third stage. — In from six to seven days the second skin is cast, and with this molt 
appears the third pair of abdominal legs on joint 7. They are, however, extremely 
small and scarcely noticeable; they are not nsed in walking. The color now is a 
darker green, lighter toward the sides, and with a pair of rather indistinct whitish 
dorsal stripes. Head highly polished, pale, faintly greenish, with two pale, dnsky 
oblique stripes. Cervical shield slightly dusky, with d darker posterior margin. Pilifer- 
ous watts black, the hairs colorless. The abdominal legs are marked externally with 
a broad dnsky stripe. 

Fourth $tage. — The third skin is cast sis or seven days after the second molt. The 
larva is now ahnost of the color of the leaves, and measures about 14™" in length. 
The median and somewhat wavy lateral lines are darker than the test of the body; 
the subdorsal stripes and sutnies between the joints are whitd. The prolegs on ab- 
dominal joint 7 are now quite distinct^ though rather small, and are nsed in walking. 

Fifth stage. — ^The fourth skin is cast three to five days lat-er, the larves having changed 
very little in appearance, except that the dorsal and lateral lines and the piliferoos 
watts are distinctly dusky. 

Sixth $idge. — Five or six days later the fifth skin is shed, and the larva does not change 
in appearance. 

Seventh stage. — The sixth molt takes place aboat five days after the fifth, and the 
whole appearance of the insect is considerably changed. The color is pale, translu- 
cent, pea^green. The head is not polished, of the color of the body; the two oblique 
dusky strij^ies are composed of several irregular spots; the labnlm is whit-e, antannis 
pale ereenish, and the eyes black. The median and the two subdorsal lines are com- 
posea of numerous irregular spots of a lemon-bellow colo^, of which those on median 
t and the lower dorsal lines have a more or less distinctly dusky shade on either side ; the 
lateral line is quite broad and almost whit^. Biliferous warts pale yellow, surrounded 
1>jr transversely oval, indistinct, dusky rings. The wh6l6'body is speckled ^th niimer- 
onB, nsuaUy transversely oval, small, lemon-yellow spots, which inclose fh>m two to 
three almost colorless, glistening, round dots. Stigmata orange. Legs pale green; 
claws and booklets pale urown ; venter bluish-green. 

Length of fnll-grown larva about 35™*" (!{ 'inches). 

Pupa. — Length, 15™°*. Color, blackish-brown ; wing-sheaths opaque, the remaining 
portuni flatly polish^. Front of head prolonged into a short, stout, conical projec- 
tion; near its base ventrally are two fine and quite long hairs and two similar pairs 
dorsally near insertion of antennae. Eyes prominent and considerably polished. Legs 
reaching to tip of wing-cases: antennte shorter. Mediai^line of prothorax quite sharp 
and cannate, median line or mesothorax faintly elevated, somewhat polished. The 
whole anterior portion of body finely and closely granulated. Metathorax and the 
three following abdominal segments, with numerous shallow, circular depreesions, 
each having a central granule. The circular depressions on abdominal joints 4-8 are 
somewhat larger and their margin is slightly elevated ; the posterior third of joints AS 
is of a lighter color than the rest of the body and very closely and quite coarsely gran- 
ulated, while the posterior third of abdominal joints 7 and 8 is polished and not gran- 
ulated. The last joinjkis verv peculiarly formed; its tip is broad and prolonged each 
side into a short, stour^aud sharp tooth directed forward, and between these two is a 
pair of slender and also bristle-like spines, directed forward and with their tips curved 
in the shape of a loop; another pair of similar bristle-like spines, which are directed 
forward and inward, are situated, ouo at each side, on a small projection at the base 
ventrally of the stout lateral teeth, and between these is a lar^e pi-ojection which is 
armed at its edge with two largi^, stoat, claw-like teeth, which stand at right angles 
to the body of the pupa. The anal swelling is smooth, circular, and (|uite prominent; 
the remaining portions of the tip are marked with coarde, elevated ridges, both dor- 
sally and ventrally. 



BBPOBT OF THS BNTOMOLOGIST. 171 

THE CLOVER LBAFBBETLE. 

{Phytonomus punctatus Fabr.) 
Order Ool^optbra; family OuroulionidA 

[Plate X, Fig. l.J 

HABITS OV THE GENUS.* 

Daring the year another European insect has made its appearance in 
the role of an enemy to an import4\nt branch of American agricnltore. 
This in«6ct — the Phytonomus punctatuis of Fabriciiis — has been w^U 
kDowu in Europe for almost a century, but has never done any serious 
damage to crops. Yet so common is it there that almost every one en- 
tomologically inclined who has traveled through Germany or France 
lias doubtless found it under sticks or stones in pastures and meadows. 

In looking up the literature on the habits of the insects of this genus 
in Eoropei we find much written on the history of the earlier states of 
several species. From what is known in Europe, it appears that the 
sp^es of the genus show a variety of habit and mode of development. 
Ilie greeuisb larvas (recalling in general appearance those of Syrphus 
or certain Tenthredinid larvie) feed in May or June on the leaves and 
flow»« of the plants they infest, and spin in July a net-like cocoon 
on various parts of the plant, changing therein to pupas within eight 
(X twelve days, the beetle issuing in July or August. Only one annual 
geDerati<m is recorded — the beetle hibernating. 

Pkytonamus murinus Fabr. oviposits on the young shoots of Lucem 
(Miiieago^cUiva). Ph, meles Fabr. feeds as larva and beetle on the common 
redelover (Tri/olium pratense) and on Lncern, and proves injurious to 
the latter plant in some parts of Germany. Ph» nigrirostris Fabr. (which 
by the way occurs also, though rarely, in the United States from Can- 
ada and Massachusetts westward to Michigan) feeds as larva on Trijb- 
UMmpratense said Bnphthalmum salid/olium; Ph. pollux GylUi. on SUene 
inflata and Polygonum kydropiper; Ph. rumicis Fabr. on various species 
of Rumex and also on Polygonum avwulare; Ph» vicice Gyllh. on Vicia 
tjiltatica; Ph. plant4iginis De G. on PlanU^go l^nceolata and Lychnis 
dioiea; Ph. polygoni Linn, on young shoots of Uuinthiis and on Pylygo* 
WLM avicularej the larvm feeding on the leaves as w«ll as on the blos- 
aoms, and also boring in the stems ; PL sitspiciosus Hbst. on Lotus uligi- 
wmu and Lathyrus pratensis ; Ph. palumbarius Germ, on Mentlia aqua- 
Uoi and Stilria glutinosa. 

So far a8 iieretofore known the habits of the genus in this country 
conform to the above experience in Europe. We have reared Ph. comp- 
tm Say from Polygonum nodosuin^ upon which the larvse and pupae may 
be found in July, the cocoon having tKe usual net-work appearance. 
Of the nine species known to occur iu this country this and Ph. eximius] 
Lee, the habits of which were briefly given by E. A. Popenoe (Trans. 
Kans. Acad. JSci. 1877, p. 38) are the only ones (exclusive of Ph. puno- 

tatnn) whose habits have been observed, though, as above shown, those 

of Ph. nigrirostris have been recorded by Ei^ropeau observers. 

HISTORY OP THE SPBOtES IN NORTH AMERICA. 

Concerning the appearance of Ph. punctatus in this country we stated 
in the American Naturalist (in which we have recorded the above facts) 

*CoBiptled frou oontaribntions to the American Natnmlist. 

. tAooordiug to Profeisor Popenoe the larya feeds on Jiumex britanhicaf and transformi 
ui a umilar cocoon on the plant. 



172 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AQRICULTURE. 

for March, 1882, that Dr. Le Gonte received a beetle as long ago as 1853 
from Canada, from Mr. D'Urban, who was then connected with the geo- 
logical survey of that country, and another specimen from the late Dr. 
Melsheimer, frx)m Pennsylvania, and that these specimens had been de- 
scribed by him as Phytonomtis (ypimus (Ehynchophora, p. 124). He had 
recognized, from what we had publishea in the Naturalist, for November, 
1881, regarding Phytonomus ptmctatusj that his opimus was identical, and 
upon receiving specimens from me he wrote that, after a careful examina- 
tion, there was no doubt in his mind as to the identity of the two si)ecies. 
Ph. punctattiSy in its typical and most common form, is so easily recog- 
nizable by its coloration (tiie suture and margins of the elytra being 
yellowish-white) that one would not suspect its identity with Ph. opimus 
from the description of this last. 

It would appear, however, that opimus is identical with a variety of 
Ph. punctatus described by Capiomont {Annales de la SociMS JEntomolo- 
gique de France^ 1868, p. 123), in which the scales of the elytra are almost 
uniformly gray, and which is not rare in Europe. The specimen from 
Melsheimer is, moreover^ evidently rubbed. It is a strange coincidence, 
that the numerous specimens we collected on Mr. Snook's farm were all 
identical in coloration with the typical form, and that just those de- 
scribed by Dr. Le Gonte as opimus should belong to a comparatively 
rare form. 

The identity of the two forms once established, it becomes probable 
that the insect had made a permanent lodgement in this country years 
ago, and that it was simply overlooked as an injurious insect till last 
year. That a beetle is quite liable to be overlooked by Coleopterists, 
although quite injurious to some cultivated plants, is not only prob- 
able, but has often occurred. Coocotorus seutellarisj which iiguriously 
affects the Plum; Tyloderma fragarice^ which depredates on the Straw- 
berry plant ; and HyUsinus trifoliiy which is so injurious to clover, are ex- 
amples among many which occur to us of species very common on cul- 
tivated plants, yet rare in collections. Tlie same is equally true in 
other orders of insects. A notable instance is found in the Hessian Fly, 
which, though more or less injurious every year in some of our wheat- 
producing sections, is yet so rare in collections that Dr. Packard had 
much difficulty in procuring specimens to figure for his bulletin on the 
species. 

There is the other alternative, however, (which is also not so improb- 
able), that the two specimens that have remained solitary so many 
years in the largest American collection of Ooleoptera may really have 
come into the country through European exchanges, especially as it is 
known that Dr. Melsheimer did in some instances mix up European 
and American species. 

Our attention was first called to this insect by letter from Mr. L. D. 
Snook, of Barrington, Yates County, Kew York, in July, 1881, stating 
that great damage was being done to the clover on his farm. In the 
latter part of April he first noticed on a field of clover, here and there, 
small patches where the leaves were badly eaten. The damage in- 
creased rapidly in extent, and by the end of July the whole field 
(about seven acres) was badly infested, one comer of nearly two acres 
having scarcely a whole leaf of clover remaining. Oth^ fields in the 
same neighborhood were attacked in the same manner, while an occa- 
sional field escaped injury. 

We visited Mr. Snook in August of 1881, and found acres of his 
clover ruined, but in passing through the field none but an expert 
would suspect the cause, since the beetles were, as a rule; hiding in the 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 173 

groimd or slightly beneath the surface, and the few that were feeding 
dropp^ and " played 'possam ^ upon the slightest approach, their color 
being so nearly that of the earth that they are not easily observed. 
That ^ey had been much more numerous earlier in the season than they 
were then was apparent from the number of dead specimens, more or 
less broken, and from the cocoons imbedded in the ground. Ko traces 
of eggs, larvae, or pupae were found, though many empty cocoons were 
obtained either on the surface of the ground or imbedded just in the 
ground, as we then supposed, from the battering of rain. None were 
found upon the plants. 

In Jane of the present year we sent Mr. E. A. Schwarz to Barring- 
too to look after the progress of the pest. His report shows an alarm- 
ing state of affairs in Yates County, the insect having spread in all 
directions. He writes as follows on this point : 

.Upon my airiTal at Mr. Snook's place at Barrington, N. T., (Juno 13), I found that 
the field where the weevil was first discovered had been ploughed about a fortnight 
ago ; bat a few isolated p1ant« growing, near the fence of this field proved to be in- 
fwted with the insect. Two oloyer-flelds near by harbored countless specimens of 
Ihe insect (now mostly in the larva state), while other more distant fields were in 
similar conditions. I traced the insect for about one mile from the original field 
toward Crooked Lake without finding that it became less in numbers. Further investi- 
gatioiia showed that it not only infested the clover in the fields and on pasture lands 
but ihe iaolated plants growing in the gardens and on the roadsides. It is no exag- 
Ration to say tnat I had difficulty in finding a clover plant that was not infested. Con- 
tinoinj; my researches at Dundee the next day I began by finding the Phytonomus in 
the middle of the town on the clover plants in the gardens, along the roadsides, 
in the ditches, and npon going in the fields in the direction of Rock Stream I found 
the same oondiUon as at fiurington. Upon my return trip I noticed the presence of 
the insect at Starkey, on the Northern Central road, three miles east from-Dundee, and 
fiiudly found the larv», upon a hasty investigation during rainy weather, under 
dover plants growing along tlie roads near Watnns, N. Y., aoout fourteen miles from 
Baningtoti* 

From these &cts it may be assumed that the pest is at present much 
more widely distributed than it was suspected from last year's observa- 
tions. 

Since last fall numerous experiments in rearing this insect have been 
carried on in the Division, and from the notes, as well as from this year's 
ohftervations in the field, we are enabled to give the following life -his- 
tory of tiie sx>ecies: 

LIPE-HISTOBY OP THE SPECIES. 

The smooth, greenish-yellow, oval eggs are deposited by the female ^ 
beetle in irregular clusters, mostly in the hollow leaf-stems or flower- 
stalks, where such situations can easily be found, or they are pushed 
into crevices near the base of the plant. In confinement the females 
lay their eggs promiscuously upon the glass and wood work of the 
breeding cages, or upon almost any part of the plant given them for 
food. When deposited upon a plane surface, however, they are not 
finnly attached and are easily removed, which argues that their natu- 
ral location is in some craek or hollow. 

The newly -hatched larvae are pale yellow in color, and feed preferably 
upon the under side of the leaves, or between the young leaves before 
tbese get separated, eating small, round holes. While feeding the body 
is somewhat curved and the larvae evidently hold to the hairs of the 
leaf by the folds between the joints of the body, as they are entirely 
legless. As they increase in size they acquire a greenish tinge, the 
broad dorsal stripe alone remaining whitish. A few of them, however, 
teUun the pale-yellowish color throughout their development. After 



174 EEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

the third molt thoy feed at the sides of the leaf, eating out large irreg- 
ular patches, as shown in our figure. (PI. X, fig. 1 b,) The shape of 
the larva at this time is also so well indicated at h and o as to need no 
further description. The whole length of the larval life in the broe<ling- 
cage vaxies from forty days in summer to several months in winter and 
fall. 

Only the very young larvae can be observed upon the plants, the older 
ones invariably dropping to the ground when approached. Most of the 
larvie, however, do not feed on the plants during the daytime, but are 
to be found under all sorts of shelter in or on the ground, sometimes 
quite a distance from the plant, but prefe^^.bly among the roots and old 
stalks. Here they lie curled up in a similar manner to our saw-fly lar- 
v(B or cut-worms. When handled they often eject, in a long stream, 
their serai-fluid, pitchy-black excrements, probably as a means of de- 
fense. .When teased they finally stretch out and walk off more rapidly 
than could be expecteil of a legless Curculionid larva. When crawling 
they not only use the ventral tubercles, which are very pronuuent, re- 
sembling legs without the claws, but they use also the head and anus 
in a very peculiar manner. The head is pressed downward until the 
front touches the ground. The body is thus stretched forward as much 
as possible when the anus leaves its hold, quickly following tbe rest 
of the body and taking a firm hold near the head. The larva then 
stretches itself out, and the same movements are repeated. The anns 
evidently plays an important part in the locon^otion; it is somewhat 
extensile, and each time the larva uses it to take hold of the leaf a small 
drop of a sticky fluid is ejected. The anus seems also to possess the 
power of suction as the larvae are capable of erecting themselves so as 
to look around for some object to take hold of, turning, at the same time, 
their bodies in all directions and holding solely by the anal end. 

Toward evening the larvae begin to be more active and ascend the 
plant, undoubtedly continuing to feed throughout the night. However, 
even at dusk they do not become less timid than at daytime, and can 
only be observed upon the plants at a considerable distance, curling up 
and dropping down when approached. Their favorite position is with 
their bodies around the edge of a leaf, but more rarely one may be seen 
stretched out on the surface of a leaf. 

The damage done by the larvae in the month of June was already 
quite considerable, the presence of four or five half-grown ones being 
suflBcient to give the plant a ragged appearance, and in some places 
where the plants were completely defoliated, not less than 32 larvae were 
counted under one plant, which was not a very large one. 

After feeding for from ten to fifteen days, having suffered three molts, 
the larva commences to spin its cocoon. The cocoon is oval, pale yel- 
low in color, and is composed of coarse threads forming an irnbgular 
net-work, as shown at / and g in the figure. In the breeding-cages 
(during the winter of 1881-'82) it was usually spun between two or more 
leaves or leaf-stalks aud attached to them. This is in accord with what 
is recorded on the subject by European writers, but all the old cocoons 
we found in 1881 were either on or in the ground, and Mr. Schwarz 
found them in June, 1882, invariably under ground, i. «,, so completely 
covered up with soil that in clearing away all ddbris no tiace of them 
could be discovered from above. Usually they were just covered with 
the soil, but in some instances they were more than half an inch in the 
ground, each cocoon lying in a nicely-smoothened cavity. This habit, 
though different from the known habits of otlier species of the genus, 
IS undoubtedly normal with punctatm in tbe field. 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 175 

In spinninfir among leavoa the abdomen bends under, and the larva 
is thns able to braee itself with two points against the fastened leaves, 
whereby the hea<l and front portion of the body can be easily moved 
in every direction; it then touches with its mouth the leaf, applying 
at the same time a drop of a transparent, pale-yellowish liquid, which 
is stretched out to a thread until the next point is reached with the 
month. In this way it continues for some time, and then turns the body 
in another direction, and works in the same way until a nearly oval cell 
is formed; when this is done it fills up the space between the meshes 
more and more, and the cocoon becomes more regular. It then follows 
the different threads with its mouth to strengthen them with additional 
ap[)licivtious, and at the same time fills up the too large spaces till the 
cocooD is quite compact, leaving only smaU, round, or oval holes through 
which the larva is but indistinctly seen. The spinning of the cocoon 
la«ts for a^ut one day, when the larva ceases to work and remains l^ing 
in a more or less curved x>osition until it finally casts itjs last skm to 
transform to a pupa. 

Mr. J. A. Osborne, in an interesting note on Phytoriomus rumicUj in the 
Entomologists Monthly Magazine for June, 1879, states that the spinneret 
of the larva is anal. Be this as it may, Fh. punctata spins with its 
mouth, bracing itself against the part of the cocoon already formed while 
constructing the remainder. The silk issues from the spinneret in a 
verj- perceptibly liquid condition, but soon hardens, and the thick Uireads 
fonning the walls of the cocoon are coarse, tough, and strong. The 
length of the pupa state in late fall is about twenty-five days. 

As will perhaps have been gathered from the preceding, the principal 
damage is done by the insect after it arrives at the perfect or beetle state. 
The beetle is very voracious, and devours the leaves at a rapid rate, eat- 
ing the flower heads and stalks and also the leaf petioles — ^in foct all 
parts of the plant above ground. It feeds principally late in the after- 
noon and at night, and during the daytime generally hides itself around 
the roots of the plant or in some crack in the ground. It is easily dis- 
tnrbed when feeding, drawing up its legs, dropping to the ground, and 
remaining motionless for some time. 

This Phyt^omus feeds upon all sorts of clover, on the white as well 
as upon the different varieties of red clover, and apparently without any 
special preference for any variety.* It thrives well on every Idnd of 
6oi], and the only locality of any extent so £a.r examined in Yates Goun^ 
where the insect was not found was a steep slope at the edge of a fleld, 
where the clover was most luxuriant and the^oil very rich and soft. 

Our notes on the length of life of one generation or the beeUe (taken 
from specimens kept in breeding cages at Washington in the fall of 
1881) give the following result: The eggs hatch within from nine to 
twelve days afler being deposited ; the first molt of the young larva 
take^ place eight or ten days after hatching ; the second molt takes place 
seven to ten days after the first; the third molt eight to ten days after the 
f^econd. The time elapsing between the third molt and the formation of 
the cocoon is very variable, one larva beginning to spinJ.?, another 24, a 
third 28 days after the third molt, while with a fourth 31 days elapsed. 
The cocoon is finished in about one day, the larva remaining therein un- 
changed from seven till ten days. The beetle issues about one month 
later. Thus it takes almost four months frt)m oviposition to the hatch- 

^Tlte CloTefT Boot-Borer {HyltBinuB tr^olii) seems to feed only upon TrifoliumprateMe, 
^ wii neyer observed upon white clover, nor did it Attack, on Mr. QnooVs farm, the 



176 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

inff of the beetle. In summer time the insect no doubt develops more 
rapidly, as beetles issued in the last days of Juno from cocoons spun 
about the 20th of that month. 

NUMBER OF ANNUAL BROODS. 

The beetles which were so injurious in July and early August laid eggs 
in the latter month, and the larvae issued in September, transforming 
in October or November, and ax)pearing as beetles in the latter month. 
A portion of these beetles, without doubt, hibernated as such without 
ovipositing; others laid their eggs, and there is strong reason to believe 
that certain of these hibernated, as a flower-stalk was received a* late 
as January 28, from Barrington, which contained a well-developed egg- 
cluster. Many eggs hatched in the same fall, the young larvae doubt- 
less hibernating within the old stalks. 

Mr. Schwarz found, on June 13 and 14, the insect in all stages except 
the egg state, by far the most common form being the half-grown larvje, 
then following very young larvae, then full-grown larvae, then the co- 
coons, which were all freshly spun (not one containing the puj^a), the 
rarest form being the beetles. There can be no doubt that the beetles 
then found were all hibernated specimens, since they were all very much 
rubbed. A large portion of the larvae reached maturity and spun up 
by the 20th of the month, and at the date when this report is submit- 
ted, (June 30) the beetles nave been issuing for four days. The younger 
larvae (which in all probability come from eggs laid this spring by 
hibernated beetles) will not reach the perfect state before the end of 
July or perhaps some time in August. 

We have thus followed the development of the speciSs for nearly one 
whole year, yet it is impossible to say whether or not it is regularly 
single or double brooded. In considering the number of annual gener- 
ations in any species we have to bear in mind that there is great irregu- 
larity in development, which is also much influenced by the character of 
the season. We have strong reasons for believing that during a severe 
and protracted drought, such as we had in the late summer and fall of 
last year, multiplication in this species comes pretty much to a stand- 
still, and our first observations in August showed that the species oc- 
curred in none of the earlier states. This fact, together with the other 
weM-known fact that the Bhynchopliora in the imago state are otYen 
long-lived and do not begin ovipositing immediately after maturity, 
leads us to believe that there is normally but one annual generation, 
and that the beetles which are perfected during the months of June 
and July beget a generation which either hibernates in the immature 
or the mature condition, according as it is developed earlier or later. 

While this would seem ta be the rule, as we know it to be with many 
other Ehynchophora, yet our notes and observations as here recorded 
would indicate that a second generation may exceptionally occur. lu 
other words, the monogoneutic generation of one year may become 
digoneutic the following year, because of the irregularity in the develop- 
ment of the individuals. The only thing that becomes certain in tins 
uncertainty is that the larvae are in greatest and most destructive force 
during the latter part of May and in June : that the new generation of 
beetles work during July and August, so far as we now know, without 
propagating, and that only a portion of their issue that is found in the 
Jarva state later in the autumn attains the perfect beetle state before 
winter sets in, when brought to a more southern latitude like that of 
Washington ; the presumption being that in Yates County, Kew York, 
all would remain in the earlier states and thus hibernate. 



BEPOBT OF TIIE ENTOMOLOGIST. 177 

BEMEDIBS. 

It 18 impossible to say whether or not this Phytonomas will spread 
fiuther. The encouraging presumption, however, is, if we may predi- 
cate upon analogy, that it will not, since we recall no very injurious 
beetle introduced from Europe (excluding those feeding upon stored 
products) which has spread over the whole country, the most prominent 
examples of such introduced species, Crioceris asparagi^ QaUruca xan- 
ikemeUjtna^ &c, being yet confined to the Atlantic coast.* 

Oar exjierience and observations during the winter show that this 
Phytonomus hibernates principally in the young larva state, and tiiat 
any mode of winter warfare that would crush or bum these larvsB hiber- 
nating in the old stalks would materially reduce the depredations of the 
apecies the ensuing summer. Clover stubble is, however, not so easily 
burned in winter, and whether rolling could be advantageously em- 
ployed will dei>end very much on the smoothness of the field and other 
conditions. 

The extreme timidity of the larva as well as of the beetle, and the 
protected position of the insect in all stages render Uie application of 
pyrethrom, or any other remedy acting upon oontact, entirely useless. 
To poison the clover with London purple or Paris green would no doubt 
be ^ectjf^e, but can be safely applied only wherever the clover is not 
used for fodder. 

Should the Phytonomus be very bad in a field, it would be well to 
plow t^e clover under rather than to allow such field to become a source 
of contagion. This should be done in the month of May, when the iu- 
sect is mostly in the larva state, and when all eggs from the beetles that 
hibernated have been hatched. To plow the field when the Phytono- 
. mas is in the imago state would have no other effect than to disperse 
the beetles over o&er fields. 

NATURAL BNBMIBS. 

Of the various species of Ichneumon flies known in Europe to prey 
npcm the larv» of Phytonomus, none have been observed so fiEhr in this 
coantry,and to this immunity from the most efficient natural checks the 
undue multiplication of the species is no doubt to be attributed. Of 
other insect enemies only one has been actually observed so far, viz., 
the larva of a small beetle, ColUygs quadrimaculatusj which was found 
feeding uiM>n the eggs sent from Barrington in January. Mr. Schwarz 
foand Hiree dead larvae on the plants, and from the manner in which 
they w^re kflled he thinks that they were sucked out by Soldier bugs, 
several species of which were seen in the fields, but none in the act of 
sucking Phytonomus larvae. Several ground-beetles {Harpalus pleu- 
riHeuSj B. peniisylvanicus)^ a PterosHchus larva, and numerous specimens 
of a large red mite (genus Trambidium) aro found under the infested 
plants, and these probably prey upon the Phytonomus in its earlier 
stages, but no proof thereof can be given at present. Ants do not seem 
to trouble the larvae, as on several occasions 8X)ecimens of the latter 
^ere found in the middle of the ants, which build thdr colonies under 
small stones and sticks in the field. This species is in all probability 

* Aa an inteiMtiiig fMt in oolmeotion with imported oloyer enemies, we woalSanen- 
tba thmt MTeral species of the Onvoolionid senas SiiameBf espeoially 8. flavetcmu-mnd 
iMisi, which in Eniope are ii^Jarious to clover and luoem, and which harre long 
■OM become natoraliae^ in our country, have pevei been reported here as injoiioasy 
^^Mgh they occur quite O^immonly In some localities. 

12 AO 



178 BEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER O* AGRICULTURE, 

extensively fed upon by Tiger beetles (Cicindelidce)^ which, both in the 
larva and beetle states, doubtless attaek and devour the J?hytonomu8 
larvae, whether when they feed or crawl over the ground, or in the ground 
to pupate ; for we found, during August, on Mr. Snook's farm, that the 
ground in the infested clover-fields was in many places literally riddled 
with holes of larvae of Cicindtla repaauUhf most of them apparently nearly 
fullgrown, and many just having changed to the perfect beetle. 

DESCRIPTION OP EARLIER STATES. 

Phytonomus PUNCTATU8 — Egg. — Lcn^h, 1"»™ (^ inch). Elongate oval, rather 
more than twice as long as thicK. cyliudrical, highly polished, and without any ap- 
parent Bcnlpturing when recently deposited. Color pale yellow. When abont tive or 
six days old the color changes to a quite dark greenish-yellow, and the egg appears to 
he quite rou^h, an examination under the microscope showing that the whole suriJaoe 
has divided into numerous hexagonal, shallow depressions. 

Larva — Fint stage. — Length, 1.5"»™. Body somewhat thickest at the middle, taper- 
in^ gradually toward the ends. Color pale yellowish, head blackish-brown, polished, 
wifh fine transverse wrinkles ; eyes black, small, round and projecting; ajitennse short, 
2-jointed; first joint very short and very stout; somewhat conical, with the tip ex- 
ternally oblique, and with two short spirt's on its distal side near the base of the 
second joint ; the second joint very slender compared with the first, but almost twice 
as long, tapering gradually towards the tip, wnere it forms a short nipplo, curved 
slightly upwards; a long, stout bristle above, near inner angle of base of antenu»; 
mandibles light brown, with basal two-thirds verv broad, terminating in two large, 
sharp teeth, one above the other, the edge of "the lower one being armed with three 
minute rounded teeth; palpi pale. Cervical shield dusky, narrow, divided bv a 
pale dorsal line. Spiraeies duskv, oval^ with transverse wrinkles. The whole cior- 
sal surfaee is closely covered with minu^, sharp, transversely oval, sliffhtly dusky 
points. All Joints have smaU^xonical, dusky warts, as* follows: 6 dorsal, the out«r 
four quadrangularly^ arranged,- th6 inner four much the smallest; ther^are two addi- 
tional lateral warts, one aoove the other, on the thoracic joints, and one lateral wart 
on each of the abdominal joints; each of these warts bears a very conspicuons olav»te 
spine. The ventral side of the body is similarly armed, though the spines are more 
slender. There are no legs, but in their place are very prominent swellings. Those 
of the thoracic Joints are conical, and those of the abdomen are somewhat trans- 
verse, and each of them is longitudinally subdivided so as to form two rounded swell- 
ings, which are used in grasping when walking. The end of the body is divided into 
three round lobes or swellings, which surround the anal opening, one above and two 
below. 

Second eUtge, — General appearance very similar to that of the previous stage, except 
that the color has become greener; the head, which at first is yellowish-brown, is now 
dark brown ; the cervical shield is of the color of the body, with the firont mamn and 
lateral angles more or less blackirii ; the davate spines are somewhat shorter, out the 
principal feature is a broad whitish dorsal line wnich on each joint is bordfiired by a 
more or less distinct smidl blackish streak. 

Third etage, — ^The appearance is not much changed, except that the dorsal line and 
its bordering blackish streaks are more distinct; the head is at first palegreenish-yeUow, 
and graduafly changes to brownish ; eyes deep black ; the anterior margin of prothorax 
is lined with twelve blackish warts ; all other ioiuts are divided into two very distinct 
folds, of which the anterior ones bear each side of the dorsal line a blackish wart, the 
posterior a transverse row of twelve warts and two lateral^^arts ; all these warts bear 
short, quite stout clavate bristles or spines, those on the lateral warts being somewhat 
longest. There is a pair of simple and longer spines on joints 10 and 12; all spinee on 
ventral side of the body are also simple. 

Fourth etage, — The larvae are now quite dark green, especially the anterior half of 
the body, the posterior, half having a lighter and more yellowish color, especially 
along the lateral margin, and the last two joints are tinged with brown. The dorsal 
line is very distinct and of a yery pale rose color; its lateral borders are black, form- 
ing two quite broad interrupted lines: head brownish. The whole surface of the 
body, above and below, is veiy rough ; the thoracic and abdominal swellings are very 
prominent, and have a great resemblance to legs without the claws; the prothorax 
possesses three of these swellings, of which the middle one is the most remarkable ; 
it forms a prominent conical tubercle, which at the tip is divided into two separate 
conical tubercles, with a stout, black, recurved bristle anterjorly near their base : simi- 
lar bat less coqipicuons tubercles on the other thoracic, joints ; joints 4-lt each with 
two pairs pf siimlar tubercles. Length of the fuly grown larva whea stretched, about 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. ~ 179 

• 

-^'ns form of the pnpA is well represented in the figure (PL X, Fig. 1, A). Itsros- 
tmC imleoBA, legs, ftnd wing cases sre yellow ; head yellowi^-green ; sbdomen d^rk 
gieso, with » pale flesh-oolored doisal line, the sides and venter somewhat paler ; eyes V 
Tsry smaU ana black. These are the colors soon after transformation. The front of 
the head has a deep longitudinal impression, and there are two deep transverse im- 
pnsikkDS near the middle of the pronotnm. Head and thorax sparsely hairj ; wing 



wmmm With iiine deep stri»: abdominal Joints each with a transverse dorsal row 
ibart^ hrisllo-Uka haizsi ana quite a number of hairs around tip of abdomen* 

THE VAGABOND OBAMBUS. 

(Orambus vidgivagellus Glem.) 

Order Lbpidoptebi.; family Grambidjb. 
[Plate X} Fig. 2.] 

HISTORY OF ITS Hf JUBY AND IDENTIFICATION. 

Early in May, 1881, considerable damage wa^ done to meadows in the 
vietnity of Watertown, Jefferson Ooon^ New York, by an insect which 
was popularly thought to be the Army Worm. Specimens were sent to 
08 in May last by Mr. J. Q. Adams, of Watertown, and by Professor 
LiDtoer, tiie State entomologist at Albany, N. Y. 

The worms sent by Professor Lintner, and which he was not quite 
aure were the Army Worm, were chiefly the larvae of Nephelodes vUnam^ 
la aoooont of which, with figure, we had prepared for this report, but 
which, among other things, we have been obliged to exclude for want 
of ipaee. TEose sent by Mr. Adams were partiy Kephelodes, but chiefly 
the Orambus under consideration, which proved to be the principajl 
awthor of the damage. On July 2nd Professor Lintner wrote us: 

I ka^e Josl handed in to the Evening Journal a eonection and explanation of my 
lefennee of the raTasee in Northern New York to Nq^helode9 violans. From examples 
of the eoooona and inlbnnation sent me by Mr. Adams, I find that the work is due, as 
I had lately suspected, to the small larva, which I have determined as that of Crambua 



%0n the 5th of the same month we wrote Professor Lintner: 

I hare joat read your artiole in Journal of the 3d. I have some reasons for believinc 
that your Crtunhu exiicoatua was an accidental kirva different from the Pyralid which 
ii every instance is yet in the larva state (not parasitized), and the long larval life 
b Ihe oocoon is so common in the Pyralidas. 

We first reared the moth on August 2, and early in the month informed 
both Mr. Adams and Professor Lintner that the destruction was done 
without doubt by Orambus vul^vagellus. 

Mr. Lintner studied it in the field, and presented a lengthy report 
upon it to the State Agricultural Society in September (published in 
me Elmira (N. Y.) Husbandman for September 14). He also read a 
pap^ upon it before the American Association for the Advancement of 
Saence, in August, at Cincinnati. 

Later in the season we found the moth very abundant in all parts of 
the Eastern States which we visited, and it was so common in the 
ndiuty of New York as to be a positive nuisance in collecting, as we 
were informed by Mr. Henry Edwards (see American Naturm.istj No- 
vconber, 1881, p. 914). It was also present in lar&:e numbers in the Dis- 
trict of Golumbiai where the fall larvsB were studied. 

« 

HABITS AND NATTTBAL HISTOBT. 

The eggs are difficult to find, as they are dropped singly by the moth 
wlarever she happens to rest; and the slightest jar causes them to tsXL 



180 BEPOBT OP THE COHUSSIONEB OF AGBICULTUBB. 

into some orack or oreTioe. The larvfe, if DOt too nomerooB, are also 
difBcoIt to find, on accoont of their nocturnal habita^ bat more partica- 
larly from their secluded mode of life. From the time of hatching to 
the assumption of the papa state they remain nearly in the same spot. 
The newly-hatohed larva spins a delicate white web, near or among the 
roots of the grass, and commences at once to feed apon the softer parts 
of some leaf near at hand, or bore tbrongh its surrounding sheaths 
into the stem itself, near its base. Whenever they have settled they 
protect themselves by a delicate web, which they gradually cover with 
their greenish frass, forming a tabe, in which they are entirely hidden 
from view. They are very sluggish, and, if the tube be disturbed, carl 
up into a helix-like roll. As t^ey increase in size the tnbe is extended 
either upward, when npon the groaud, or tlownward^if somewhat above 
the surface, and the opening is often lined with bits of green grass. 
When the larva is full grown its tabe measures, often, neatly 5U™" (two 
inches) in length. A half inch at the lower end is thicker than the 
rest, is rounded and closed, serving both as a retreat for the larva 
and as a receptacle for excrement. The npper or open end is osn- 
ally very delicate, and is generally so constructed that if the larva is 
distorbed and moves dowliward it closes entirely. 

When fidl-grown and ready to transform, the larva leaves its tabs 
and commences to spin among the roots, and near or just beneatii the 
sor&ce of the ground, an elongate clnb-shaped cocoon, similar in appear 
ance to the lower end of the larval tube. It is composed of smootti uid 
delicate white silk, gummed over with earth. Both ends are rounded, 
the thicker end be&ig about 6"" in diameter, and the narrower end 
about 4"". In this cocoon the larva remains for a long time befin« 
transforming. Mr. J. Q. Adams, of Watertown, states that whUe every , 
larva was inclosed in a cocoon by the last of May, an examination as 
late as July 16 failed to show any change to pupa. By August 15, 
however, tbe moths began to issue in large numbers, and, as Mr. Adams 
says, "at this date, August 22, any farmer of the countiy can widk his 
meadow or pasture and drive up moths in countless numbers, or, in 
places, in a small cloud." * 

There can be little question that other species of the genus axe asso- 
ciated in moderate numbers with tbe Vagabond Orambns, and tlie 
breeding of Cramltut exsiccatua by Professor Lintner so much earlier in 
the season would indicate that there is considerable variation in tlie 
period of development between them. 

JTaturally, the moth is rather shy if disturbed, though as a rule it will 
not fly very far, and when at rest may be approached quite closely. It 
seems to prefer dry stems or leaves of grass or weeiis when alighting, and 
it is very difficult to detect in such situations, owing to tbe similarity 
of its color to ihat of the object upon which it rests. It swoops sod. 
denly to the ground when startled, but does not feign death, as do so 
many allied insects. Instead, it slips, with a peculiar gliding motion, 
under the dry leaves or oth^r objects upon the surface of the ground, 
or even makes its way into cracks of the soil. 

The number in which these worms must have appeared to do tlie 
damage reported is enormous. Some pasture lots of 40 acres were en- 
tirely mined, and as many as a dozen worms were often found in a spaoe 
as big as the palm ^f a man's h^nd. Mr. Lintner, in his paper read be- 
fore tiie American Association for the Advancement of Science, at Oin- 
cirinati, stated that on an island in the Boquette Biver, whioh had 
'•<>eii absolutely denuded of gnisa, the worms Jiad so thickly o(mgreg»ted 
'ler the shade of a solitary oak tree that its base for about 18 indiei 



BEPOBT OF THE ENT0H0L0GI8T. 181 

• 

WM ooyered with a fine layer of silken web. The worms had evidently 
been forced, from sheer lack of food and sh^e, to migrate, and they 
naturally collected under the first shade in their way, constantly spinning, 
aa IB their nature, until tbe compact web was formed. 
The injury, he stat^, extended over eight of the northern counties. 

Hundreds of acres of grass presented a brown appearance, as if tbey had been winter- 
killed. A pasture lot oT fifty acres, whicli ten davs before oifered good pasture, was 
boined so tnat in places not a blade of grass conld be seen to the square yaid. Numer- 
<mt dead caterpillars were adbering to tbe dead stems of last year's grass, which it 
WIS believed bsud fallen victirad to starvation. The upland pastures were first attacked. 
The progress was remarkably rapid ; entire fields were 'laid waste in ten or twelve 
days. * * * In two instances the larve were observed in immense numbers col- 
iM^ed on the trunks of trees, so that they could have been scraped up by handfhls.— - 
{CmuidiamEntaniologUt, September, 1881, p. 18*i.) 

We reared two different parasites from the species j one of them Lam- 
ffonoia /rigida Cr., the other a Cryptus not yet specifically determined. 

SIMILAIIITY OF HABIT IN A EUBOPEAN SPEOIES. 

Curiously enough, Mr. William Buckler, during the same year, has 
worked out the life history of an English species, Oranibui warrington- 
tiiuij and it corresponds perfectly with the observed facts in relation 
to Tulgitiigdltis, The eggs were received August 14 and 22, and had all 
hatcJied by September 1. The progress of the larvae was noted up to the 
middle of November, when they began to close their galleries for hiber- 
nalian. They began work again early in the spring of 1881, and issued 
ift moths from July 7tb to the 17th, some of the larv» having beioome 
foil-fed and having spun up by the end of May. (Entomologists Monthly 
MagagmOy November, 18S1, p. 129.) 

REMEDIES. 

The moths which were so abundant in August laid their eggs in the 
latter part of that month and in September. Egg-shells Were abundant 
in the earth from some sward sent to tbe Depa^ment September 14 by 
Mr. Adams from a field which had been greatly injured, showing that 
tlie lanrsB must have hatched prior to that date. Moths collected at 
WaAington Jctober 13 deposited many eggs during the night, which 
hatched in from seven to ten days. Tbe young larvae began feeding and 
ipinning their tubes almost immediately. Some had cast their first 
ikin November 1, their second November 15, and their third December 
12. At tills point our notes upon their development cease, but they 
evidently hibernate in the larva state, and, as ftdl-grown larvsB, do their 
priaeipal damage the ensuing April and May. This proves, then, but 
a single brood in a season, and suggests the simple remedy of burning 
over infested meadows in the dead of winter, or, better, in the late fall. 

DESCSIPTIYE. 

The larvaD of C vulgivagellus are slender, subcylindrical, and of a pale 
porplish-green color. Tbe moth has an expanse of wings of 25^™ 
(1 inch); the fit)nt wings are very pale- yellowish, dusted witii brownish 
betwe^i the veins, and tbe bind wings are somew^t dusky; the cilia 
at the edge of the front wings are golden. The principal variation is in 
• the extent of the brown streaks upon tlie front wings. 

Spedmens of the moth Iroin Vancouver's Island differ only in their 
lonewhat smaller size. {Can. EnUj 1880, p. 17.) 



18S BIPOBT OF THB OOMllXSfllOirEB OF AQUOULTUBX. 

We append descriptioiis of the earlier states: 

Cbavbus VULGIVAGELLU8— -E^*;.— Lenffth. 0.7»"» ; dinmeter, 0.3"»; oolor, pale yellow 
irheu laid ; polished, elongate oval, slightly thicker and a little more flattened at lower 
end than at upper. There are about 18 quite sharp longitudinal ridges, the spaces 
between them shallow, and divided by numerous low transverse ribs; the color changes 
after three days to bright orange. 

Xoroa.— Length when newly hatched about 1™"; seneral color dingy yeUow, with 
very pale, irregular, reddish markings. The head is large, and the hwij tapers grad- 
ually from it towards the end. Heaa deep black, and fhmtshed with a few long hairs ; 
antenuffi white, 4-Jointed ; joints 2 and 3 are each furnished at their apical angle with a 
stout spine, that of joint 3 being longer than the joint itself; the last ioint is very 
minute, bearing 2 fine hairs at tip. Cervical shield blackish, with 6 long black bristles 
along anterior margin, and 6 smaller hairs somewhat in IVont of posterior marg^in; 
the other joints are each famished with a trauHverse row of 8 long, blackieh hairs, 
arising from prominent, conical, somewhat dusky tubercles. Thoracic legs slightly 
dusky; abdominal legs white, Ions, and conical. 

In the fourth stage the color of the body is quite dark and purplish, instead of pale 
aa before; the cervical shield is black. Each joint has a transverse wrinkle across its 
posterior third ; the piliferous swellings are large, oval, and faintly darker than the 
rest of the body, and the black hairs each arise from a small white wart, which is 
surrounded by a narrow black ring. Legs purplish, those of the thorax darkest with 
the tips of the joints white. 

The full*(nrown larvte vary more or less in size, though the largest measure about 
IQaim Iq length ; the color is pale purplish green, the head black, polished, with thai- 
low, transverse wiinkles ; the cervical shield brownish, with a few small blaeklsh 
markings, and a narrow, whitish median line. The posterior wrinkle of abdominal 
Joints is piliferous, warts large, oval, brownish, somewhat polished; dorsal line iwtf- 
row, of the same purplish color as the body, bordered each side by an irregular whitish 
line : interrupted subdoreal line broader and whitish in color ; stigmata black, and 
shield brownish, slightly polished ; venter pale. 

Pm|ni.— Length 15 to e(W">; color yellowish, polished; eyes black, not promiaeiit; 
kecKi enrved forward, front somewhat projecting, rounded ; stigmata brown ; veiitndly 
near the end, transversely flattened, and somewhat concave, Uke edge quite aharp and 
ihmished with three fine straight spines. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LIST. 

The followiDg contains all the essential published references to the 
species, though various journals have had abstracts or repetftions, 
especially of Professor Lintner's articles: 

Clsmeks, Brackknkidgr. ~ Proceedings Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, 1860 
p. 203. 

(Orighisl dMcription of Oramhut vuiiiivagfttut.] 

GnoTB, A. U.— Canadian EntomoJogUt, January, 1880, (Vol. XII, p. 17). 

[Kotcfi tbftt Rpeclmens of Crambut vulgivagellut from Vancouver's Island are amaller than eatten 
■pedmena.] 

LiNTNKR, J. A. — Alhany Evening Journal^ May 23, 1881. 

[Personal obeerrations on the supposed ArmT-worm. Doubts as to whether It Is Lmteania tcai 
puneta^ Statement that no descriptioiis or the earlier stages of the larva of this last axisC ts 
cunpare with.* Distribution and Ravages.] 

LlKTXEB, J. A.— Coart«f and Freeman (Potsdam, N. Y.), May 26, 1881. 

LiNTNER, J. A,— St Lawrence (N. Y.) liepuhlioan^ June 8, 1881. 

Rli^Y, C. V. — "Supposed Army- worm in New York and other Eastern States."— 

American Naturalisiy July, 1881, p. 574. (Publinhed the previous month.) 

(An account of the mrtthod of work from J. Q. Adams, of Wnt^rtown, K. Y., of what he supposes 
to be the true Army-worm. Its detennination by Mr. Kiloy as an unknown Pyralid wluoh ht 
bad previously seen in Missouri iu pastures.] 

LiNTNER, J. A. — Albanff^ Evening Joumalf July 1, 1881. 

(Bsfars to the work of the species ; shows that the insect supposed to bo doinff danafto U aot 
the Army-worm, but Xej)helodea violant ; refeis to a second Pyralid larva which will probably 
prove to l>e Crambus extiecatxu, one of this species having been reared. 

* Thia is a misUke. Soe onr Mo. £nt. Sep. YIII (187tt), pp. IM, 186. 



RBPOBT OF TSB S1IT0X0L00I8T. 188 

A]>AMS, J. Q.— ''The late so-called Army-wonn.''— Waiertown (N. Y.) Daily Hmm, Au- 
gust 22, 1881. 

(GiTM an accoont of h*bito of and damage done bj Orambua vidgivcig^hUt eomparing it to the 
trtie Army'irorm.] 

RmsT, C. V. — "The Genuine Army- worm in the West." — Atnerioan NaturalUt^ Septem- 
ber, 1881, p. 750. (Puhlisbed the previous month.) ' 

(In a foot-Doto to thie article the aothor ideatUies the euppoeed Anny-woim of northern New York 
aa Ortunbut vutgi9iigUlu$.] 

Ldttner, J. A.~'*The Vagabond Crambos.''— Elmira (N. Y.) HutUuidmant September 
14, 1881. 

[An article read by Mr. Lintner before the New York State Ai^IciDtnral Society, gfrln^ an ex- 
tended acooont of the damage done by Oram^bua wukfivagellui in Korthem New York in 1861, 
and the coinplete life*hlatory of the apeciee, except method of hibernation. The only i-emedj 
mentioned ia attracting the moths to ughted keroaene upon the surface of water in barrels.] 

BAJJHDKR3,WTLLiAM.--CanadianEnUmologi8t, September, 1881 (Vol. XIII, p. 181). 

(A abort reTiew of Mr. Lintner's paper on OrambuM mtlaivaffdlut^ read before the 1881 meeting of 
the Anwioaa Aseoolatlon for the Advancement of Science.] 

LnmrsR, J. A. — Ogdenshurg (N. Y.) Dailp Journal^ September 81, 1881. 
f Common name of Vagabond Cnunbns proposed ; remedies snggested.] 

BiLZT, C. v. — " Crambus vulgivagellua.^^^AvMrican NaturaUat^ November, 1881, p. 914. 
(Beraarts open the abundance of the species in all the Eastern States in 1881, and desoribes the 

BXLgY,C.Y.— American ^aterali^f, December, 1881, p. 1009. 

[A short reriew of Mr. Lintoer's A. A. A. S. paper on "A remarkable inTasion of Korthem New 
Yttrk by a Pyralid Ikisect,^ objecting to the use of the term ** invasion" in this conneotion. j 

THE WHEAT ISOSOMA. 

{Isosoma iritici Biley.) 
Order Hymbnopteba; fiamily Chaloididjb. 

[Plate Xn, Fig. 3.] 

PAST HISTORY AND HABITS. 

"For nearly two years past I have been studyiDg the habits of a new 
species of Isosoma which has been iDJuring wheat-stalks in Illinois, 
Tennessee, and Missonri. The larv® were first received by me in Jane, 
1880, from Mr. J. K. P. Wallace, of Andersonville, Tenn., who stated 
that nearly every stalk was affected, and that, as a consequence, the 
straw is inclined to fall before the wheat is fully rii^e. I replied to his 
letter asking information, in the American Untomologist (UI, p.lSl), 
stating that it was a new wheat enemy, evidently Hymenopterous. 
Prof(Rssor Thomas had found the same worm that year in wheat in Illi- 
Dois, and from having bred a two-winged fly (a species of Chlorops) 
from some collected stalks, wrongly attributed the parentage of the 
Worm thereto. Professor Packard, during a trip made to Virginia and 
other Southern sections that same year, found this new wheat enemy 
tolerably common. The insect passed tlie winter either in the larva or 
ia the pupa state, and the perfect fly issued in March and April, 1881. 
Specimens received the present year have issued in December and Janu- 
^, induced doubtless by the long-x|i'Otracted warm weather. 

/^Although congeneric with the Joint Worm of Harris and Fitch, it 
differs widely from the latter in habits and appearance. The Joint 
^'orni, it wiU be remembered, forms a gall-like swelling at a joint near 
tbe base of the stalk. The species under consideration, hdwever, feeds 
ou the interior of the stalk between the joints, high up, without causing 



184 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AOBICULTURE. 

a swelliDg. It undergoes all of its transformations within the stalk, its 
work causing a premature ripening and greatly reducing the yield. 
<<Mr. J. G. Barlow, of Cadet, Mo., says in one of his letters to me : 

** More than two- thirds of the straws Id the field had a larva or pupa in thorn, and the 
crop was sadly diminished by them. One fanner had 15 bushels off nine acres; an- 
other sowed 15 bushels of wheat and harvested only 30 bushels. My nearest neighbor 
harvested 6 bushels from ten acres ; he could not get a oian to cut it for the crop. 
These are my nearest neighbors. Many did not got their seed back.'' 

The above statement in reference to this insect was published by us 
in the Rural New Yorker for March 4, 1882. 

In the meanwhile Prof. G. H. French had been studying a Wheat 
stalk- worm in Dlinois, and we quote from his communications to us : 

The first work of this insect observed by myself was just prior to the harvest of 1830, 
in the vicinity of Carbondale, lU. Upon passing a field of wheat my attention was 
attracted by seeina a great many apparently light beads, some of which were on stalks 
that were partly uead| though the grain, as a whole, was not quite rix)0. Examina- 
tion sbowea that many of the heads were only partially filled. The first thought was 
that Hessian flies had caused the damage, but there were very few signs of either 
brood of them to be found. Upon cutting open the stalks there were to be seen on the 
inside one or more small yeUowish worms, and as these were in more than half the 
stalks examined, the conclusion was natural that here was the cause. From the ex- 
amination made with the pocket leus they were thought to be the larvse of some Dip- 
terous insect, as they were without feet. A few of the pieces containing worms were 
taken by myself^ but Mr. John Marten, then one of the assiHtants in the 8t;at>e entomol- 
ogist's ofiioe, and who was with me at the time, took a lai*ger number for examina- 
tion and rearing, for the i)urpose of deciding what they were. 

As my time was fully occupied with other matters, the portion of stalks taken by 
me received but Uttle attention, and, as a consequence, thoy dried up instead of produc- 
ing the perfect insects. Mr. Marten afterward ooUected more of the stalks, and after 
keeping them for a time found a single fly in the Jar containing the stalks, evidently 
hatched from a larva in them when collected. The fly was thought to be a species of 
ChloropSf though what species was not determined, and, indeed, cannot well be now, 
for the specimen was acculeutly destroyed, though it might be approximately from the 
description that was taken when the specimen was first found. No other specimens 
were obtained. • * • They are to be found on the inside of the culms, usually just 
above the joints, varying from the joint or intemode supporting the head to the second 
one below this, or in any one of the three upper int«rnodes. The usual place is the 
second or third one from above ; very few in the upper. I do not remember to have 
found any below the third joint from above. • • * i have noticed this season 
that in grain infested with Wheat-Stalk Worms the heads were shorter than in fields 
free from them, as well as not so well filled out at the ends. This would seem to imply 
a continuous irritation dui'iug the whole growth of the worm. 

• 

OOMPABISONS WITH THE JOINT- WOBM AND OTHEB ALLIED SPECEBS. 

During the past winter between twenty and thirty specimens of the 
adult have been reared. Of these a single specimen only was fully 
winged, two were furnished with hind wings only, and the rest were 
wingless, or furnished with mere rudimentary pads.' After a careful 
comparison with the known species of the genus we found that tbo 
species was new to science, and published descriptions, under the name 
of Isosama triticij in the American Naturalist for March, 1882, and in the 
Rural New Yorker j as above quoted. 

Tritid differs from hordei principally in its smaller size, more slender 
form, in the smoothness of t^e head and thorax, in being hairy, and in 
possessing the large pronotal spot. , In this latter respect tritid proves 
a marked exception to the rule laid down by Walker, (Notes on Ghal- 
ddidsd, p. 7), that this spot, though present in the European species, is 
absent in au American and Australian members of the genus. This 
role, however, must have been laid down upon very insufftcient grounds, 
as even in hordei this pronotal spot is as evident as upon the Europ'eau 



REPOBT OF tH£ ENTOMOLOGIST. 185 

7. verticiUata Walker, of which we have received many specimens firom 
Walker himself! 

Considerable confosion respecting this wheat insect has arisen dnring 
the past year firom the fact tiiat Professor fYench, in the Canadian 
Entomoloffistj and also in the Prairie Farmery described the work of what 
is evidently this species in the wheat-fields of Illinois, and pnblished a 
technical description of the adnlt, under the name of Isosoma allynii. 
From this description, and from specimens which Professor French for- 
warded at onr request later, it was evident that this species did not 
belong to Isosoma at all, but to the well-known genns JEupelmus^ and, 
as the latter genus is, so fiEir as known, always parasitic, it became at 
once evident that Professor French had mistaken a parasite of the 
liosomaj or of some other wheat insect, ibr the true author of the dmnage. 
One reason for this mistake can probably be traced from the following 
facts: Before the adult Isosoma tritici had been bred there was some 
diaeussion between Professor Thomas and ourself as to whether the 
larvsD in the stalks were really Hymenopterous or Dipterous. We in- 
sists that they were Hymenopterous, and that a ChloropSj which he had 
bred fix>m wheat and published as the true author of tiie damage, had 
oome from some other larva. Upon breeding the Isosoma^ in the spring 
of 1881, we wrote Professor Thomas we had done so, in support of the 
correclaiess of our supposition. It was probably this fact that led Pro- 
fessor French to consider the insect which he bred an Isosoma. 

At the same time another species, found on a wild grass {Ulymus cana- 
densis), was described by Professor French as Isosoma elpni. This species 
proved to be a true Isosoma^ and it was thought by Professor French that 
it might be identical with tritici; but a comparison of a specimen which 
he sent us with types of tritici ahowed several marked points of differ- 
ence; so tiiat this question, refeired to by Professor French in an article 
in the Prairie Farmer of March 11, 1882, may be considered as settled. 

It is worthy of remark that J. tritici seems to be quite closely relat(^ 
to the European Isosoma lineare. This latter species was bred from 
wheat by Dr. Giraud, who considered it as an inqmline, or a parasite upon 
OdUhipkila pohfsUgma Meigen — a Dipterous insect making swellings in 
Uie stsJks. Kaltenbach, however, remarks that although he many times 
obtained the Isosoma fix>m the wheat, he never succeeded in rearing the 
Ochthiphila — a suggestive fact, and which would seem to indicate that 
the J. linearcj like our species, is the real author of damage to the wheat 

KTTKBEB OF BBOODS. 

From the facts gathered in relation to J. tritici it seems most probable 
that there is but a single annual generation, and, as already stated, that 
it hibernates normally in the larva and pupa states in the wheat stubble 
and straw, the adult insects apx>earing in March and ApriL 

BEMEDIES. 

With this state of afbirs the remedy is obvious, namely, the burning 
of the stubble after harvest. As plowing under seems never to have 
proved particularly efficacious with the Joint-worm, we have no reason 
to suppose that it will be more so with this insect. Inasmuch as wheat- 
fields after harvest are often allowed to grow up with weeds. Professor 
^i^Dch suggests that*a mowing-machine be run through the weeds, and 
that after they have dried sufficiently, the burning of the stubble can 
thus be made more thorough. Certain observations made by Professor 



186 BEPOBT OF THB OOlflllflSIOHEB OF AeBICULTURE. 

French the present Bommer would seem also to show that rotation of 
crops will prove a good preventive. A critical examination of three 
fields, two of which were last year also in wheat, while the third was in 
clover, showed that in the former case 93 per cent, of the stalks con- 
tained from one to three worms each, while in the latter not more than 
5 per cent, of the stalks were infested. 

PARASTTBS* 

Although we cannot yet say with certainty that Eupelmtu allynii is 
parasitic uiK)n our wheat Isosoma, yet, consideringthe circumstances 
under which it was obtained, this seems probable. We have bred, how- 
ever, a true parasite from the specimens received irom Tennessee, which, 
according to Mr. Howard, belongs to Forster's genus Stictonotus. It 
may be described as follows: 

Stictonotus isosomatis, n. sp. — FemdU, Length of l>ody 3.26»» ; ezpauae of wings 
4iuia. greatest width of fore wing .Sd"!^. Antenu» #ab-clavate, finely pilose. HoimI 
and face finely panctored; pro-and meso^horax rather more closely punctured: abdo- 
men yerv delicately shag^reened. General color metallic sreen; ^antennxe black, club 
brownish; front cozse and itemora^metaUic ^en; distal end of femora, all of tibias 
and tarsi excej^t tMsal olawJboney-yeUow ; middle coxss metallic green ; femora black, 
veUowish at either end; tibi» honey-yellow 4irith a longitadinaT dorsal streak, titfsi 
honey-yellow except laslriointjiiiiind.coxiB, femora, ana {Ibiie shining black, with 
distal end of femora and either en<^of tibi8Blioney-yeUow;'taiBi honey-yellow except 
last joint, which is^lack; wii^ yeins honey-yeUow. Entire body sparsely covered 
with short delicate white haixs. 

The ^ has more markedly olavate antenna and is nearly tea from the whitish 
hairs, except at jdn^of meso-sc«telinm and atvi^p of abdomen. 

Described from 1 $ , 2 '^B/4>re^from I»09<ma triUd BUey. 

BESCBIPTiyS. 

We ap{>end the original descriptionrof the adult from the American 
Ifaturalisty together with a descriptioR oMihe larva: 

ISOSOMA TBITXCI. N. sp. FemaU, — ^Length of bo^ 2,S^'°; expanse of wings. 4°^™ ; 
greatest width of front 'wiug,^.7™";''anteoniB, sub-clavate, three-fourths the length 
of thorax: whole body (witSthe exception oftmetanotum, which is finely punotalate) 
highly polished and snmelyN^OTered with long hairs toward end of abdomen ; abdo- 
men longer than the tnorax, and stouter. Color, pitohy-black ; scape of antennse, oc- 
casionaUy a small patch on the cheek, mesoscutnm, femoro-tibial articulations, coxis 
above and tarsi (except last Joint) tawny: pronotal spot large, oval, and pale yellow- 
ish in color; win^ vems dusky yellow and extending to beyond middle of wing; sub- 
marginal three times as lont^ as marginal; post-marginal very slightly shorter than 
marginal, and stigmal also shorter than marginal. 

Described from twenty-four specimens. Of these twenty-fonr specimens only one 
was full^ winged ; two were furnished with hind ^vings only, and the rest were wing- 
lees. Male mumown. 

Larva, — ^Length, 4.5"^ (nearly i inch); of the shape indicated in PI. XII, Fig. 3, a, h. 
Color, pale yellow : mouth parts brownish. Antennsd appearing as short two-jointed 
tubercles. Mandioles with two teeth. Venter furnished with a double longitudinal 
row of stout bristles, a pair to exich Joint. Each joint bears also, laterally, a short 
bristle. Stigmata pale, circular; ten pairs, one on each of joints 2 (mesothoracic) 
toll. 

BIBUOaSAPHIOAL LIST. 

Riley, C. V.— "Worms in Joints of Wheat.— -iwsnoaa Entomologht, III (1880), p. 181 
(JulyX 

[Aoknowledffes the receipt of Hym«nopteroiui lame in wheat from J. K. P. Wsltaoe, AndeTMnviOa, 
Ky., audoomparea with the comnon Dipterone wheat fUea, flgisrlng Mtrcmyut mmttiaama.} 

Thomab, Cykus.— "A new Enemy to Wheaf— Prairte jPonn^r, August 28, 1880. 

[DeBCxibee briefly the habiU of the new Wheat «talk-wonD« and givee a detailed deecriptioa of s 
•peciet of Ohloropt (bred from wheat},. whiolx he considen the trueaathor of the dsBoage.] 



mOBT OF THX BOT0M01KMI8T. 187 

FUBIOH, a H.— ^< A new Wheat VeasL'*^Fr4ririe Farwur^ December 31, 168t 

{ Um t Jtihm ** im ttm a ■Hlmi L** tabeMiieBtly pToreo to belong to Sapolaiiu, e pendtie gMiiis, lai 
pMtaklj puMfttIo ppon iMionM MMi, Um work of whi^ Fnneli leeiiui to 1«to toea.) 



FsE!fCR, O. H.— "The Wheftt-Stalk Worm.^— Pmirid FtunMTf January 98, 1868. 

(ConoetioB m to kaicth of 1mt», and statement that wheat not sown after wheat ia eomparatiTely 
iiiwpt from ii^ury. J 

FuKcv. O. H. — "Two new Species of Isoaoma,"— CJanadian EnU>mologi$tf Jannatr, 
1883, p. 9. 

p)ea eri bca lioeoMa oUifnU from wheat, and I. dymi from Ef^fmut eanadentit.] 



BiLrr, C. V,— "The Wheat Ifloaoma."— iJiiraZ New-Yorker^ March 4, 1882. 



(DMflKftaa Itwma friMe< and (ireB aa aooonnt of its habits; oaUa attentioD to the flu)t that 
lVeach*a /. wBfnH belongs to Sapelmus and is parasitic; glTea also the differences between 
CfttM aad Jbofrisi.] 

FmrcH, G. H.—'< Entomological Notes.''— Prairie ^oraMr, March 11, 1882; ibid,. M«r 
87,188S. 

(CocvsiCa his BUatahe In regard to I. aUutdi^ but considers his /. dvmi, bred originally flram the 
■Calka 9i a wQd grass, as the real anthor of the damage to wheat J 

FnnoH, O. H.— "On some Ohalcidid».''— Oifuuliaa EtUwmolo9%$i^ March, 1682, p. 48. 
pJetufaMrtinythaaame as the abore.] 

BnxT, C. y.— "A new Depredator infesting Wheat StaUu."— wimertcai? NaiwralUL 
Mtfch, 1882, p. 847. 

llSgnsa lavraof 1. frttM; oorreets French's error with regard to L oQynii; republishes deocrlptioB 
sf /. IrMe^ and gires an acooont of habits, comparing with Snropeaa /. I w isaf ^ .) 

VuDiCH,O.H.— "The Wheat-«traw Worm."— Eleyenth Report of the State Sntomolo- 
fiat of Illinois, 1881, pp. 73-81. (Published May, 1^) 

• 

(0h«s a Isagtlty aeeoont of the damage doas by the "Wheat«traw Worm", under fibensaieof 
Inrnmu mBL^ftM. The deseriptlons of Jams and pnp» are erldentlv those of Snpslmiia. Au 
s4ditknialproof oflhisfaetisfiMind InhiastatemcnVthathe bredthe peribotfly fttna Ja|y 10 
OB thnmgh AngnsC whereas liessma trUiei issues in winter and spring. The araole contains 
naay ooufbsing staiemeiits, owing to the'unoertalnty as to whether IsMoma or jAopehntts is 
referred to in &e Tarious portions. In a foot-note at the end of tbia aiiiele he annewiMea his 
error in ealling the Snpelmus an Isosoma, and states Itotuma elymi to be the anthor of the dam- 

FincH, G. H.— ''Notes on Isosoma Elymi."— Canoifian EntoiMioguif May, 1882, p, 97. 
(&SVS that /. 4^mi is distinct from /. triHH lUley. ] 

THE SORGHUM WEB WORM- 

(Nola sorghielUij new species.) 
Order Lepidopteba ; family Bombtcid A. 

[Plate XI, Pig. 1.] 

ITS INJURIES. 

OnriDg the past snmtner the heads of sorghum in Sonthem Alabaioa 
wem found to be infested with a new Web worm. Specimens were sent 
to the Department in July by J. P. Stelle, of Oitronelle, Mobile Oounty^ 
Alabama. The letter accompanying them is well worth quoting : 

hft mftnX yean the people of Kansas havo been deeply intereeted in a ▼arie^ el 
Jjfkesi wi le erny whieh they oaU rioe com or pampas lice. They claim tiial it snceieds 
"«tt«t on dry and poor land than any gnin known. We of the lowet Sointh lu|Y« 



188 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

been patting it to the test, with mnch enoonragement. I have grown it for three yt^n, 
and haTe found it wonderfully productive (yieidingr two crops each season), and highly 
Talnable as a fodder for cattle and a grain for fowls. By to-day's mail I send yon a 
head of the plant, a fair sample of ten acres now under culture, which seems to 
demonstrate uiat its fate is sealed, for this localitT at least. I neyer before saw an 
insect of any kind working upon it. I find that the patches belonging to my neish- 
bors aro all in the same condition ; it is literally a clean sweep. I am saving seed oy 
clearing a few heads of the worms and binding gauze cloth over thorn. The sadden 
appearance of the present immense brood of the caterpillars was the first indication I 
haa of their presence. They confine their operations entirely to the head and gndn 
of the plant, totally destroying the grain while in the milk. 

HABITS. 

The specimens sent by Mr. Stelle were carefully stadied and reared 
to the adult stage. The sorghum heads sent were, for the most part, 
so interwoven with silk as to form a compact mass, ia which was pro- 
fusely mixed the whitish excrement of the larvoe. Kunning through this 
mass were numerous delicate tubes, forming channels, through which the 
larvsB passed from one seed to another unexposed to the attacks of para- 
sites. The kernels of grain were sometimes entirely eaten, but in gen- 
eral were only partly destroyed, the germ, however, seeming to be the 
portion of the seed preferred, as in almost every instance it was eaten. 
The larvse were very active when disturbed, and left the heads when 
ready to transform, spinning small silken cocoons upon the surface of 
the ground or in some sheltered place. The cocoons were about 7™" (a 
little more than a quarter of an inch) in length, somewhat thickest at 
the anterior end. and with a small opening at the posterior end, through 
which tiie last larval skin was partially pushed. They were made of 
delicate, closely-spun white silk, firmly &stened to the object selected 
by the larva for attachment, and were covered with particles of wood, 
bark, or excrements, so that they were readily recognized. 

The moths issued in late July or early August, a week or more after 
the spinning of the cocoons. 

SYSTEMATIC POSITION. 

The species seems to belong to the rather composite genus Nola of 
Leach, in the same group with Zeller's nigrofasdata. The nialana of 
Fitch and zeUeri of Grote are now placed by Grote under JSolapkana 
in the Koctuidae. The species under consideration possesses the pecu- 
liar scale tufts of the Nolas described by ZeUer, and agrees in the vena- 
tion of the front wing with the N. confusalis^ H. S., given by Zeller in bis 
Beitrdgej differing only in the lack of vein 5 in the hind wing. 

The species seems to be new. Lord Walsingham, in a private letter, 
states tiiat it comes near the Nola innocua^ describeil by Butler, from 
Formosa, and that it is also closely related to a species figured by Snellen 
von YoUenhoven. 

DESOBIPTIVB. 

KoUl 80RGHIELLA, n. sp. — Imago (PL XI, Fig. 1 g^ A).~Ayerage expanse 9.3™" 
Head and thorax heavily scaled. Color si I very- white; the front wings with thiee 
equidistant tnfts near ooeta, the basal less distinct than the others, the distal one at 
abont onter third of wing ; the tufts, an aronate shade towards posterior border, and a 
spot Jnst within the disk, vello wish-brown; the costa (except pale costal mark) and a 
•hade along posterior border, broadeifing anaUy, of a deeper brown, and often mixed 
with a few deep.brown or blaok scales. Scales loose aud marking easily effaced. An- 
tennis in ^ finely ^ctinate and yery sparsely scaled. Palpi in $ longer, but with 
•horter, lessjdense mles than in 9 • Trophi pale yellowish. Legs in both aexea, and 
mgxe bnahy palpi of $ marked with pale yeUo wish-brown. 



REPOBT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 189 

Datsribed ftom seTen roeoiiiiena bred from Sorghum tmlgare yar., and two spedmens 
eaptmed in Florida in 1881 bv llr. A. Koebele. 

Larva (Hg. 1 e, d). — Length when full grown 13°*™. General color either yeUow- 
iah or light greenish-yellow. with two qnite broad brownish dorsal stripes, and some- 
timea nanow sabdorsal and lateral lines of same oolor, dorsal line aunoet sulphur^ 
yellow. Head yellow, small, and retractile. Stigmata small, brownish, situated an- 
teriorly at base of piliferous warts. Each segment with a transverse dorsal row of six 
praodnent piliferoos warts of the color of the bod^, and a somewhat smaller similar 
wart at baae of legs, all fhmished with short, stin, and vexy sharp vellowish bristles 
with brownish tips; those of the lateral waits are intermixed with a fow long and 
slender hairs. Legs yellowish. 

P^pa (Fig. 1 e). — Leneth between 5 and 6™™. Color brownish-yellow, darkest on 
donom and abdomen. Of almost eaual thickness throughout; abdomen beyond the 
wing-cases somewhat curved towards the venter. Head rounded. The two posterior 
legs extending beyond wing-cases almost to posterior margin of fifth abdominal seg- 
menk Postenor margin of segments 4-6 prominent and rounded. Last segment small, 
roonded, with a small longitudinal dark brown ventral impression and witJiout any 
spines aniinid tip. Stigmata small, not very prominent, placed in a somewhat oblique 
direction. The whole surface dosoly coveied with minute brownish granules. 

THE OATALPA SPHINX 

(Sphinx oataipm Boisd.) 

Order Lepidopteba; family Sphingidje. 

[Plate Xin,] 

Tha« has existed great difference of opinion as to the valne of the 

Oatalpa, whether as a shade or timber tree, a difference to some extent 

doe to the confounding of two distinct forms. Dnring the past year 

(18$L) Dr. John A. Wturder, the veteran horticulturist, now president 

of the American Forestry Association and senior vice-president of the 

American Agricultural Association, published a pajier in the journal 

of ttie latter association on the Western Oatalpa tree, CatfApaweeiosOj 

wherein he gave a historical account of the introduction of that ana 

/tfl Bastem relatKe, Catalpa biffnonioidesj into the several parts of the 

United States where those trees now grow, and distinguished the two 

apeeies by description, setting forth the superiority of these trees to 

Hiost others for their durabili^ and the especially excellent qualities of 

the Western form, which, at first characterized by Dr. Warder as a 

Variety only of b^inonioaesj has now been accepted as a species and 

iuUy described by Dr. Engelmann. 

Herein Dr. Warder refers to th^ almost complete exemption of these 
trees &om the attacks of insects, noting, however, that they are fre- 
quentiy defoliated by one species, the Sphinx oatalpce of Boisduval, the 
larva dT which he describes as greenish, a description that is misleading. 

PAST HISTOBY OF THE SPECIES. 

Owing to the interest lately manifested in the Gatalpa, we have thought 
it meet to give an account of the insect which is its chief enemy, espe- 
cially as the species has an exceptional interest for the entomologist: 
ftrtt, because it departs from the typical characteristics of its family in 
Uying its eggs en nuusey and in the larvse being at first gregarious and 
of onnsually bright color : secondly, because the moth is so rare and 
Httle known that it is neitner incluaed in Grote and Bobinson's List* 

• List of the Lepidoptera of N. A., Phila., 1868. 



190 REPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

nor in that issned by the Brooklyn Entomological Society daring the 
past year. 

Thk species was first ^escribed from Georgia, where it is quite com- 
mon. Abbot mentions the fact that the fishermen who inhabit tiie 
borders of the swamps hunt for it as the best bait for catching flsb^* 
and it is so esteemed for this purpose in Florida that the Oatalpa is 
often cultivated for no other purpose than to attract the insect, and 
thus afford bait easily accessible. It occurs throughout the native habi- 
tats of the Oatalpa trees in the western and southern United States, 
i. e.j to quote from Warder, from the Oulf of Mexico in West Florida 
and on the rivers in Alabama and Georgia, westward and northward 
along the Mississippi and its southern tributaries in the great delta for- 
mation, to above the mouth of the Ohio, thence up the Wabash and 
White Bivers of Indiana to its most northerly point hitherto known, 
near Yincennes, in latitude SS^ 42^ It doubtless also occurs along the 
Tennessee and the Cumberland Rivers, having been seen near the em- 
bouchures of those streams into the Ohio. 

We fii*st received this insect in the summer of 1875, from Mr. Lewis 
B. Parsons, of Flora, Clay County, Illinois, who sent the larvae, inquiring 
as to the species, &c. The following year he wrote : 

Flora, Clat County, Illinois, June 14, 1876. 

Dear Sir : The worms of which I wrote you last year are again troubling my Ca- 
talpa trees. Can you not suggest to me something which may be effectual in destroy- 
ing them, by throwing some preparation over theleaves or in any other way f AU the 
Catal])a8 in this neighoorhooa are infested in the same way. 
Your early reply will much oblige, 
Very respectfully, 

LEWIS B. PASSON8. 
Prot C. v. RnjBY, State EnUmologieU « 

We wrote recommending syringing the trees with Paris-green water, 
and somewhat later received from him the following experience : 

JUNB 17, 1876. 

Thankai for your postal oard. Before I had achance tot^ yourpreecriptioD of Paris 
coeea I heard of lim^water and tried it. Once syringing the trees so e£feotaally drove 
tnem off I have not yet been able to find any worms to send you. If they appear again 
I will send you as yon desire. 
Vonis, truly, 

LEWIS B. PARSONS. 

In September, 1878, we received the larva again from Mr. John Robin 
SOD, of Ooldsborough, Wayne County, North GaroliDa, with an acoonn 
of its injury there. 

Finally^ the following year, Dr. Warder wrote : 

North Bend, Ohio, January 20, 1879. 
Dear Sir: There is in Sonthem Illinois a large, naked, greenish caterpillar whi 
feeds in great nmubers on the follase of the Catalpa, often stripping the trees; 
Alabama it is six inohes long. What is it f 

I will send yon some pnpse of a small insect found in the seed-pods of the same ' 
to be identified, t 

From your Mend 

WARD£JEL 
Prof. C. V. RiLET. 




•Boisd. Spec. gen. Wp. het., 1874, vol. 1, p. 104. 

f A smaU Mnscid, of which we hope soon to publish an account. 



REPORT OP THE EUTTOMOLOGIST. 191 

On October 9 of the same year we received nnmerons specimens of 
the lanra, of all sizes, from Mr. A. E. Ebert, of Knoxville, Tenn., with 
an aooonnt of the iBjury there. All the soecimens were badly para- 
sitised by Apanteles congregatus (Say), a small ichnenmonid of the Micro- 
gaster groupi which infests many otlier Sphingid larvse.* 

CHABACTEES AND NATURAL HISXaET. 

Since then we have frequently met with the work of this species in 
oar travels in the South, and in 1880 had the good fortune to obtain the 
eggs at Atlanta, Ga., where the insect often totally strips the Catalpas 
that are commonly grown in the city as shade trees. 

The eggs are laid in convex masses, a habit belonging, so far as we 
now knoWy to no other species of the family* One mass In our pos- 
sessioii contains nearly 1,000 eggs, and this betokens a prolificacy un- 
paralleled in the family, and, we may say, very exceptional in the whole 
order Lepidoptera. Each egg is about 1.2™™ long, broadly ovoid, be- 
ihg alightly broader anteriorly than posteriorly, the shell being delicate 
and smooth, and the color pale yellowish-green. The eggs are but 
slightly held together irregularly, and the mass but slightly faatened 
to the underside of a leaf. They must, also, according to the obser- 
vations of Mr. Albert Koebele, who has reared the species in Florida, 
and has, under the name of Dtwemma oatalpw, published a description 
of the egg and larva,t be laid at times in smaller masses on the stems 
and branches. 

The newly-hatched larvae are pale-yellowish, with a rather stout caudal 
black hom« They are gregarious, feeding side by side, and they have 
a carious liJiU)it of following one another in procession when moving 
from leaf to leaf or from branch to branch. The gregarious habit en- 
duies-more or less till they are nearly grown. There are, judging from 
the different larva in our cabinet, four molts, the immaculate color 
giving way after the first molt to the series of black spots shown in the 
smaller larvsD in our figure. 

While the younger larvse are always pale-yellowish (sometimes nearly 
white) and spotted, there are very great variations in the markings of 
the older specimens. A few of these variations are indicated in our 
iUustration, but the darker form there figured predominates. 

The pupa is slender, reddish-brown, about 35°^ long and S^^ broad, 
finely punctate, with an acute, rather long, terminal spine, very slightly 
notched at tip. There is, on each side, a long, transverse, open slit on 
the anterior margin of abdominal joints 5, 6, and 7, the lower end nearly 
in line with the lower end of the spiracles. 

The general color of the moth is grayish-brown or ashy, marked as 

in the figure. The front wings are crossed by two indistinct blackish 

lines or shades beyond the middle, and by three such shades between 

the middle and the base, these shades sometimes obsolete. There is a 

wnall spot, of the ground color or lighter, near the middle of the wing, 

surrounded by black, and a patch lighter than the rest of the wing at 

tlie tip, bounded below by an oblique, wavy, black line. The hind 

^Qgs are smoky brown, crossed by two blackish bands, which meet at 

tbe inner angle. The fringes of the wings are alternately cinereous 

and whitish on the outer margin, whitish on the inner margin. The 

^iiigs beneath are ashy and smoky brown, shaded, and show traces of 

*See "Notes on N. A. Microgasters.'' Trans. Acad. ScL, St. Looia, IScJl. Sopa- 
rate ed., p. 14. 
iBaUetin, BiooklTn Ent. Soo., 1881, v. 4, p. 20. 



199 SEPORT OF THE C0MMI8SI0NEB OF AQHICULTURE. 

tbe bttiids of the upper surface. Thorax whitish on lower part of sides, 
mbj OQ top, darker on upper part of sides, with a black line runniug 
thxmgk the latter portion. Abdomen ashy, with a central black line 
oa top, and witiii a subdorsal and traces of a lateral band of black spots 
on eadi side. 

Li the extreme South the insect may be found in all stages during 
the summer, there beiug three or four broods, and the last brood hiber- 
noting in the pupa state beneath the ground, and giving forth the moth 
tlie fioUowing March. The time required in summer from the laying of 
Ae egg to tiie emergence of the moth averages, according to Mr. Koe- 
bele^ about six weeks. 

BEMEDIES. 

Tlie wfNnns thoroughly denude the trees as they spread firom the 
fcatffhing center, and it is because of their gregarious nature and the 
great fecundity of the species that the iiyury it causes is often so great, 
though eenersdly restricted to one or more trees in a row. 

In admtion to the parasite already mentioned, which often sweeps off 
iriiole broods, the worms are attacked by various birds. It is fortunate, 
m fiMst) that the species is so persistently followed by natural enemies, 
J6r were it otherwise the Oatolpa could hardly be grown without per- 
Sisleiit effort on man's part to protect it. That the tree may be easily 
{toteoted would appear from Mr. Parsons' experience with Ume- water, 
while we have no doubt that a spraying of London purple or Paris- 
green water would prove still moree ffectual. The gregarious habit, also, 
IS a great inducement to vigilance on the part of those who suffer firom the 
dep^ations of the worms, as they may easily be detected when young 
and destroyed in a body before they have scattered over the whole tree 
or spread to adjoining ones. 

As Boisduval's figures are not firom life, and are in fact rather poor, 
we shall indicate the chief characteristics of the species for the entomo- 
logical reader : 

DESOBIPTIVE. 

SpmNX CATAJJPM.—Eggf 1.2b*>» long; aUiptioa!, slightly wider and more obtuse at 
anterior than at posterior end, nsoaUy very slightly flattened ; smooth ; pale yeUowish- 
greenish; white and iridesoent after the escape of the larva. 

Xorvo. — ^The newly-hatched larva is abont 3™« long, of a pale-yellowish color, the 
ocelli and oandal horn alone being dark. This last is stent, slightly tnberonlate, 
and abont half the length of the larva, ending blnntly with two stiff, diverging 
hairs. The head is smooth and polished, and the whole body is sparaelv covered 
with minnte colorless hairs. In the second stage the head remains smooth an({ i>olished, 
and nsnally becomes dark, and there are three (a medio dorsal and a subdorsal) series 
of hlack, subqnadrate patches. The eight wrinkles to each joint are perceptible, ba^ 
the hairs are mostly lost, and ^ve way to a transverse series of very minnte papilla;, 
lu the third stage the black shghtly increases by the elongation of the patcnes and 
thoir partial connection on the subdorsal line. The head and cervical shield are now 
covered with papillose points, and the papillss on the general surface of the body are 
proportionally more reduced. In the fourth stage the nead and the whole surface of 
tbo body become smoother and more velvety, the minnte papilln of the previous 
bta^e being lost, except on the head and cervical shield. The black series of spots 
goiierally coalesces on the back, so as to form a broad, black dorsal surface, with a 
narrow pale line near either border. A snbstigmatal line of black and an irregular 
supra-sti^matal series of spots or dashes nsuafly obtain. In the fifth stage the nead 
aiul cervical shield also become smoother. 

The above description, so far as color is concerned, applies to the more common and 
darker form. In the paler larvse the head and legs retain their pale color till maturity. 

Chrysalis. — Shiny, roddish-brown, nnicolorons, slender, cylindrico-conic, about 'Sb^^ 
long; the thorax slightly broader than the abdomen, which latter tapers acutely ho- 
hind. (In the only pupa-skin at hand the portion which covered the head and limbs 
-" broken away, except that oyer the hind wings and hind edge of the front wings.) 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 193 

Thb whole sarface, except on the abdominal joints 4-6, shallowly punctate, the pnno- 
tAtioos iM^coiniDg denser anteriorly above until the thorax appears mgose. Terminal 
spine slender, iinbGonical, acute, I"*™ long, its tip very slightly notched. Region 
anterior to the spine beneath evenly ronnded, with a short longitudinal median salens. 
A transverse open pocket or elongate concavity on the anterior margin of abdominal 
joints 5, 6, ajid 7, three to four times as long as the spiracnlar openings, with its lower 
end in line with the lower end of the spiracle on joints 5 and 6, and slightly higher 
on joint 7 ; edges of the slits black. The ends of this slit are rounded and the entire 
edze is dark and sharply produced. On the inside the pnpa shell shows this pocket 
to oe entirely closed and rigid, resembling, in fact, an elongate, egg-like swelliug.* 

Iwnngo, — The moth, already described and here fibred, differs from the figures given 
by BQisdnval so markedly that identification by his figures alone would bedifiicnlt or 
impossible. It has no greenish tinge whatever, the apical oblique line is very differ- 
ently carved, and the apical patehes differently shaped, not at all vellow ; the trans- 
verse lines are far less distinct and are diff'erently curved; and the bands on the hind 
wings converge toward the inner angle. 

THE OSAGE ORANGE SPHINX. 
{Sphinx hageni Grote.) 
Order Lepidoptera; family Sphingid^. 
[Plate XH; Fig 2.] 

The value of the Osage orange as a hedge-plant, of its bright yellow 
wood as a durable timber, and particularly the value of its leaves as 
silkworm food, give interest and importance to the consideration of any 
insects that affect it injuriously. The plant is remarkably free iVom such 
iDjurions species, and, with the exception of the Lightning Tree-hopper 
I^PcKilapterapruinosa), which is known to do serious injury to hexlges in 
m Southern Illinois, a longicom beetle {Dorcaschenia altematum), which 
bores into the root and stem, and an undetermined Pyralid, we know of no 
oUier insect that can be called injurious beyond that under consideration. 

This Sphinx is sufficiently rare in most parts of the country not to be 
recorded in Grote and Robinson's List of Lepidoptera of North America, 
already referred to (p. 189, ante) ; yet the late Jacob Boll, of Dallas, Tex,, 
from whom most of the specimens in collections have been derived, in- 
formed ns that the larva is sufficiently common in that part of Texas 
to sometimes defoliate special trees. It is because of this fact, and the 
futher fact that no good published account exists, that we have had 
the accompanying figures made, and have drawn up this short account. 

The species was originally described by Grote,t who referred it to the 
genus Ceratomiaj a genus founded by Harris for a species {Ceratomia 
puxdricamisDj which feeds on the Elm, and the larva of which is charac- 
terized by four short horns placed quadrilaterally on the second and 
third thoracic joints. 

'Tbia elongate concavity is a pecnliar stmctnre, not mentioned bv Weetwood, Bur- 

meister, Kirby 6l Spenoe, Girard, Clomens, UarriH, Graber, or any modem author whom 

we hare been able to consult. There is an approach to it in the pupa of Ceratomiu 

mpUor, and it occurs in that of Sphinx harrmif in ttimilar position and form as in 

esla]p«. In Maoratila ^maoulata it is somewhat above the spiracles, and that on the 

fifth abdominal Joint has a second larger ridge running around it posteriorly. It does 

not occnr in any of the species of the genera Sesia, Thyreus, Darapsa, Deilephila, Phil- 

unpelns, and Smerinthns in our collection. It has no internal connection with the 

respiratory or circulatory systems, and its function is probably sound-producing by 

friction with the posterior margin of the preceding joint. This organ may, in fac^ 

tbrow some light on the mfthod by which the noise is produced which the pupa of 

^iss airopo$ it known to be capable of. Unfortunately, we have no pupa of thi^ 

i^ies for examination. 
♦Ball Buffalo Soc. Nat. ScL, 1874, v. 2, 5. 149.. 
t Afrivi amyntar Httbn. . 

l3Aa 



194 EEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGEICULTUEE. 

CHARACTERS OP THE SPECIMI. 

We have never seen the epr^. The prevail in^j color of the larva i« 
pale apple-green, iucliniug more or less to yellowish-green, the candal 
horn being cameoas, the thoracic legs rose-red, and the venter some- 
what reiidish. 

The moth is one of the most beantifnl of the Sphinges, the general 
color being light brown, with olivaceous shades, an*l markeil with bluek 
and white, a« indicated in the figure. There is a small white spot, snr- 
roundeil by black, near the middle of the front wings, and a large white 
patch immediately outside of this, as well as another at the tip of the 
wing, the latter l>ounded behind b}^ an oblique, wavy, Uactk line. TJie 
wing is crossed by four transverse black lines outside of the central 
Bi>ot, one of which runs into that spot, and two or three nearer the base, 
The outer margin is strongly slivwled with white, and the fiinges alter- 
nately of the ground color and white. The hind wings are smoky 
bmwn, lighter toward the base, crossed by an indistinct darker band. 
The under side of the wings is cinereous, crossed by darker lines. The 
middle of the thorax is of the color of the Aire wings, the edges whitish, 
with a bhvck line running through the white porti«)n. Abdomen brown- 
ish cinereous, with dorsal, subtlorsal, and traces of lateml bla<;k lines, 
as shown in our figure. The variation is great, some specimens being 
veiy light, others almost black. 

APPINTTIES. 

Tills insect somewhat resembles, both in the larva and imago state, 
Bphinx (I)aremma^ undulosa of Walker, which we have bre^l from Ash. 
This last is, however, larger, and never has any olive-green coloring on 
the wings. Hageni still more closely resembles, in markings of the 
front wings, the iSphhu: lugens of Walker, which feeds in the Western 
States on the wild sage {Salvia IrwhosfemmoiaeH); this species has two 
broods, and hibernates in the chrysalis state, and it is more than likely 
that hageni will agree with it in these resj»ects. 

We do not know why Mr. Grote referred this species to Cerafomia^ 
nor is it easy to understand upon what good and permanent classifica- 
tory diameters in the imago the genera Ceratomia^ Daremma^ and Macr(h 
sila are founded. We consider that hageni is congeneric with lugens^ 
which by all systematists is placed in the genus tiphinx. 

Besides the original description of the species, mention of it may be 
found in the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, for 1877, 
vol. 0, p. 021, by A. G. Butler: and in H. Strecker's Le])idoptera, Uhopa- 
loceres et lleteroceres, 1877, ko. 14, p. 127, Plate 14, Fig. G. 

DESCRIPTIVE. 

Spmxx HAOKNi. — Larva — Average length when fuU grown, 55»"»; head triangnlar, 
flat in Iront, threc-fonrihs m wide as hi^h ; apex nlightly bitirl ; aUlomiual joints 
cylimtricu); ihorHcic joints tapering forwards to the beail, covered with pale grann- 
lationH, tbicliest on tlie sidoH of the head, on the thorax, and the candal horn and 
anal plate. Th> re in a Hertes of theae papiliie on each of the ei^ht transverse wrinkles 
of each joint, taking the torui of. two pretty regniar medio-ilorHJil linoN on jointM to 
10, and largeMt on the ordinary ohlique pale st ripen, which tire norma), and hroa«lest 
and luoNt d<stinct posteriorly. Candal horn of medium length, stout, curneous. Head 
and iNtdy nniformly green; mandibles and eye-spots blaek ; a yfllowish white striiie 
on each wide of tin* bead, rnnning fr4tm the inn«T edge cd' the eye-npot to the tnbt^n'Ie 
on the crown. The oldique lines are yellowiHh-green. and apparently in the living 
specimen a superior sbaile of roHe may have accompanicnl those on the middle joints. 
Each spiracle ou joints 4 to II is white, and is pUccd in an irregular, reddish- brown 
Bi>ot. 

Deeoribed from a blown specimen received from Mr. Jacob Boll* 



REPORT OP THE EKT0M0L0GI8T. 195 

REPORT ON MISCULLANEOUa INSECTS. 

By Prof. J. Hknrt Comstock, of Cornell UniverHtyf Ithaea, IT. Y. 

THE APPLE MAGGOT. 

( Trypetn pomonella Walsh.) 

Order Diptera; family TRYPETiDiB. 

[Plate XIV.] 

Eating into tlie pnlp of apples and caaniuf^ them to decay; a white cylindrical niAggati 
which wh«*u foil grown k<^s into the ground to traiLiform. The adult la a blaoli 
and white fly, with banded wings. 

Witboat doubt the most important insect enemy of the apple is the 
Codlio-moth or Ap])le-worm,a8 it is often called. This is the small whito 
or pinkish caterpillar which infests apples near the core, and in leaving 
tbe apple makett an u^ly burrow tbrough its side. The im[»ortance of 
this pest is due to two facts: firat, it is very widely distributetl, occurring 
almost every where that ap])les are cultivated; second, it is usnally so 
abundant wherever it occurs that it destroys a large iiroportion of the 
fruit 

There is another enemy of the apple which, in certain localities, rivals 
the Codliu-moth in tbe extent of tbe injury it does. I refer to tbe insect 
known a-i the Apple Majrgot, and wiiich is becoming quite common in 
certain paits of New York and New England. This insect was described 
nearly fifteen years ago* by Mr. Walsh, under tbe name of Trypeta porno- 
neUd, Bat tbe report in which this description occurs is now out of 
print, and almost unknown in the localities in which the Apple Maggot 
has attracted attention, extrept to entomologists. I will, therefore, give 
tbe results of the studies which I have made of this insect during the 
past two ye^irs. 

The Apple Maggot is a small white footless larva, mea^suring from 5"*™ 
to7""(.ll>to.27incb) in length. In some instances tbe body is yellowish- 
white; in others it bus a greenish tinge. Tbe important peculiarity in 
the habits of this insect is that it bores tunnels in all directions tbrough 
the pulp of the fruit; frequently tbese tunnels enlarge into cavities 
the size of a pea; and when several larvae are present in the same apple 
it is honeycombed so as to be rendered useless. 

It will be sern at once that the injury done by this pest is even more 
serious than that done by tbe Codlin-motb. For as tbe injury caused 
hy the latter insect is confined to tbe neighborhood of the core an*l to a 
single, nearly straight, and conspicuous tunnel which tbe larva makes 
when leaving tbe apple, it often happens that the injured ]>arts of an 
apple may be cut away and tbe remainder eaten. But tbe nature of the 
injury caused by tbe Apple Maggot is such that wben fruit becomes 
inffMeil by this insect no one cares to attempt to use it. 
Tlie Api>le Maggot is a nati^ American insect, which naturally feeds 

on the diffcHMit species of bawtborn {Cratcvgnu) and upon crab api>le^. 

it is probable that this insect occurs throughout the ct)untry wherever 

bawihorns or crab-apples are found. Mr. Walsb observetl it long ago 

* Am^ean Jonmal of llortiuulture, Dec, 1867 : alao, Eeport Aotinff State Entomolo* 
imiL, Iddb, p. SW. 



196 REPORT or THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURB. 

as far west as Illiiiois, and I have bred the adnlt insect firom a species 
of Crataegus growing on the Agricultural Grounds at Washington. 

In certain parts of New York and New England the species has ac- 
quired tiie habit of feeding upon the cultivated apple. But, what is 
very remarkable, it does not appear to have done so in other parts of 
the country. Thus, although Mr. Walsh bred this insect from haws in 
Illinois twenty years ago, I can find no record of its infesting apples in 
that State yet. And in Washington it infests haws growing near an 
orchard in which it has not been observed. 

In those localities in which this insect has spread to the cultivated 
apples and become common it is even a more serious pest than the God- 
lin-moth, except that it seems to be more fastidious in its choice of food 
than that insect. Thus, although I have observed it for several seasons 
in one of the orchards of Gomell nniversity, I have found it only in a 
few varieties of fruit. This may account for the slowness of the spread- 
ing of the species from haws and crab-apples to the cultivated apple, 
and may afford a means of reducing to a minimum the injuries of this 
pest. 

In certain parts of New Hampshire the Apple Maggot is known as 
the " Railroad Worm''. The extent of the ravages of this insect in cer- 
tain parts of that State is indicated by the following extract from a let- 
ter which I have received from Mr. N. W. Hardy, of the town of Nelson: 

In regard to the Railroad Worm, I never saw one In this town. In the last six 
years they have worked in the adjoining towns of Hancock and Dublin. They are 
confined to early apples as soon as they ripen. 

I saw a man the other day that said that this insect had mined his apples ao that 
he would have to eraft them into winter apples. 

Many of the early varieties of apples in Hancock and Dublin were rendered entirely 
worthless. We have more to fear from this insect than any other that preys upon 
the apple. 

Mr. Isaac Hicks, of Long Island, who was one of the first to observe 
this insect in apples, many years ago, does not consider it so serious a 
pest as does the correspondent just qnoted. The following extract from 
a letter recently received from him is interesting as bearing on this point, 
and as suggesting remedial measures: 

Thine of 17th received; and. in reply, will give thee what little I know of the 
Apple Maffffot, JVypeta pomonella. Its ravages bear no comparison to the injury done 
by the CodHn-moth to fruit. Last year being the non-bearing season, we saw very few 
apples, if any, infested with it. It is different from the Codlin-moth, which can place 
its tigg in the very young fruit, go through its transformations, and lay its eggs iji 
winter apples. We seldom see the Trypeta until about the 1st of September, and 
never in trreen fruit. Only in the ripest apples and in sweet or mellow subacid fruit 
are they found by us. I tliink they cannot exist to much extent if pigs or sheep run 
in the orchard, as they prefer the ripe apples, in which alone the Apple Maggots can 
develop and attain their growth. Hence, where the fruit that falls is pick^ up fre- 

Siently and sent to mill to be ground, or where pi^ and stock or the family consume 
freely, very few of the Maggots arrive to perfection. 

It is evident, firom my observations and from those of my correspond- 
ents, that the Apple Maggot is mnch more apt to infest early apples 
than the winter varieties. Bnt the latter are not exempt from its at- 
tacks. Mr. Henry Thacker, of the Oneida Community, New York, 
writes me as follows : 

This worm at this place, and at this time, is mostly confined to certain varieties of 
autumn apples. But at Wallingford, Conn., the wiuter applies were ravaged as well. 
Of late years, however, the Baldwin and some other varieties of winter apples grow- 
ing here have been found bored by this maggot. 

I will now give an account of each of the stages of this insect^ which 
are represented on Plate XIV, excepting the egg, which has not yet 
been observed* 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 197 

I 

Larva. — According to my observations and all published acconuts, the 
Apple Maggot does not occur in the vpple till the latter part of the 
sammer. As already stated, it is a footless larva about one-fourth inch 
io length and white in color, with sometimes a yellowish or greenish 
tioge. Several figures illustrating its form and structure are given on 
Plate XIV. Figure 1 represents its general appearance when greatly 
magnified. The caudal two-thirds of the body is cylindrical ; the cephalic 
ODe-third tapers slightly to the head, which is the smallest segment of 
the body. On the dorsal surface of the body there is on each side, at 
the union of the first and second segments, a pale-brown tubercle. 
These are the cephalic spiracles. The structure of these spiracles is quite 
eomplicated. (See Plate XIV, Figs, la and Ifr.) Each one is expanded 
iDto a plate, the free margin of which is fiinged by a double series of 
cylindrical projections, about twenty in number. With a very high 
power of the microscope the distal end of each of these projections ap- 
pears to be sieve-like ; an arrangement which doubtless prevents the 
entrance of any foreign matter into the respiratory system. With a 
low magnifying power the main trachesa connected with these spiracles 
may be seen. These are represented in Fig. 1, a single large trunk on 
each side extending the whole length of the body. These nre connected 
near each end of the body by a large transverse trunk. Many of the 
smaller tracbesd which branch firom the main tracheae are usually visi- 
ble, but they are not represented in the figure. The caudal end of each 
of the two main trachese opens by means of a very complicated spiracle. 
These differ much in structure from the cephalic spiracles, and are 
situated on the last segment of the body. One of them, the right, is 
represented at Fig. Ic. There are three transverse slit-like openings, 
which are fringed by a series of teeth, which are apparently chitinous. 
The function of these teeth is doubtless the same as that of the sieve- 
like membrane closing the ends of the tubular projections of the cephalic 
spiracles. Each of the caudal spiracles is accompanied by four groups 
d" bristles, two upon the lateral side and one each upon the cephalic 
and caadai sides. 

The caudal end of the body is obliquely truncate, the ventral part 
projecting farther than the dorsal part. This sloping part of the body 
besffs four j[>airs of tubercles. One pair of these is more prominent than 
the others. 

The month is armed with two black, strong, curved, parallel hooks, 
which are used in rasping the food. The hooks are connected with an 
internal, apparently chitinous. framework, which is also black. This is 
figured from the side in Fig. la and from above in Fig. Ifr. 

These black oral hooks and the two pairs of spiracles, both of which 
are brown^ are visible to the unaided eye, but their structure can only 
be made out by the aid of the microscope. 

Pmpa. — In the autumn when the larvsB are full-grown they leave tlie 
apple and enter the ground and transform to pupsB. In my breeding- 
cages the pup® were found about one-half inch bdow the surface of the 
ground. When the change to pupa occurs the body shortens, but the 
larval skin is not molted, the transformation occurring within the dried 
akin of the larva. The pupa (Plate XIY, Fig. 2), therefore* resembles 
the larva very much, except that it is shorter, of an oval outline, and of 
a pale yellowish-brown color. Length about 5™° (^ inch). 

Adult. — The insect remains in the pupa state during the entire winter 
and early summer. Specimens which I bred in Washington began to 
ci&ezge as adults May 28, and continued to emerge till July 6. Bat as 



198 EEPORT OP THE C0MMIS8IOSEE OF AaElCHLTUSE. 

tliese were kept in a -warm room during the entire winter, their develop- 
meiit was doublless accelerated. 

The atliilt tiy la rejireBi'irted greatly enlarged at Fig. 3. The avtiial 
length of the liotly of the male itt 5"""' {\ inch); of the fcumlu, G"" (i inch). 
This tiy can be easily recognized by the puuuliar shape of the black 
bands on the wiugs, bv the milk-wliiie B|iut on tlie c^iiidal part of the 
thorax (xcntelliitn), aiul i>y the white bauds on the abdomeo. A more 
detuilt'd deBcri|)tion follows: 

The head is nist-red, with the eyes niid the bristles black. Tlie thorax 
is block, nitli a white stripe on each side, and two silvery stripes on the 
dorsal aspect; scutellum white excejit at base. The abdomen is black, 
with transverse silvery stri|>es above; of tbene there are in the male 
three coiispicnoiis ones, inaliing the candal margins of the second, third, 
and fourth Bejrments; in the female there are lour, which are lti»ii con- 
8picuouH,and are borne by the flint to thefonrth segments inclusive. The 
■hape of the altdomen diflers also in the two sextw. In the male it is 
a» ivprescnted in the figure; the segmenta sntHtexsively wider to the 
fourth. The margins uf the Urst to tlie fourth segiiicnts form two diver- 
gent and nearly stniight tines. lu the female the abdoaien suddenly 
enlarges, so that the second segment is the widest, and the outline of 
the w bole abdomen is elli|itical. Tlie legs are luile rust red; the four 
posterior femora, except at the proximal ends, are brownish black. The 
icings are byabiie, with four blauk cross-bands; the flrst^ which is near 
the proximal end of the wing, is con tlueut with the second nearthe caudal 
border of the wing; the second, third, and fourth are confluent near the 
oejihalic margin of the wing and diverge caudad, 

Jiemedies. — The more practicable ways of lessening the injuries caused 
by this [>ef t are those Kuggei>ted in the letters quoted above — the destruc- 
tion of infested fiiiit pi-omiitly after its full from the tree, and before tha 
maggots leave it to go into the ground to transform; and when tho post 
is very abundant, the grafling of the trees into varieties less liable to 
be infested. In such a case it might be well to leave one or two trees 
of early apples to serve as traps, and pronii)tly destroy the fruit as it 
falls from them. If such trees could be incluseil, and sheep or pigs 
pastured un<ter them, the success of the trap would lie nssiirHd. 

TliB Apple Maggot can be readily distinguished InHu the larva of the 
Codlin moth by the absence of feet and tlie fact that it infests the ]mlp 
riitlier than tbeviuiuity of thecoro. but there are other niaggol^ which 
are associated wilh this s]iecie«, and with the larvaof the Codliu-moth also, 
whicli are not readily dii^tiugnished from the true Apple Jbiggot. The.se 
other spLties [K'rtain to the genus Drosophila, anit feed upon deciiy- 
lug fruit. They cannot be e<m&idered, therefore, under oi-dinary eircuin- 
stances, as noxious insects in ati omhard. Tn'o s)iecies of this genus 
are described iu following articles, under the name of ruiiiaoe Ftie*. 

TUE VISE LOVING PUMACEFLY. 

{BroiopliUa amjjclophila Loew.) 

Order DiriERA ; fhmily DKOSopniuuvB. 

[Plate XV.] 

i, Bad prodaoiog a moaik 

^^'iiile studying the Apple Maggot (Trype/npomoneJfjjjnat described 
ud associated with it two kinds ut smaller and more sleuder mag- 



BEPOBT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 199 

jrotR, which, so far as my obRervations ^o, feed only on the decaying 
part of tUe apple, following the Apple Maggot in its work of desiruc- 
tion. 

As these magjrots are the young of flies which in all stages are very 
oomuiou about tije retune of cidiT nulls and fennenting vats of grn]>e 
poniaoc, I have c^letl them Pomace-Flies. And 1 have distinguished 
the two siiecies studied by prefixing to that name in eiich case a tnins- 
latiou of the s]M'cific name. Thus, one which bears the technical name 
Drogcphila amptlophila may be known as the Vine-Loving i^omace-Fly; 
and the other, which is JJroHophila amwna^ may be called the Pretty 
Pomace-Fly. 1 have preferred the tenn Pomace-Fly to a translation of 
the generic name, as being both shorter and more characteristic than 
"moisture-loving flies". 

Althoiigh, nnder onlinary circnmstances, the Pomace-Flies feed only on 
decaying fruit in an orchard, and cannot on tbis ac/count be considered 
as pests of the a])ple, there are cases in which they become quite nox- 
ious. They are, therefore, worthy of consideration in this place. More- 
OTer, it is important that the Pomace- Flies should be described in con- 
DfctioB with the Apple Maggoty as they are very liable to be mistaken 
for it; and a mistake of this kind might cause a fruit-grower a great 
deal of uunec)es8ar>' trouble. 

Mistakes of this kind in regard to these very insects have been made 
by entomologists of extende<l experience I have, therefore, taken much 
pains to work out the specific characters of the different larvse. 

Tlie Pomace- Flies may be found in any orchard during the autumn, 
flying about the rotten apjdes. And their lar\'{e may usually be seen 
feeding in great numbers in the d^H^yed fruit. They go through their 
transformations very rapidly, so that there are several geueratious in a 
single Keason. Numerous observations made by myself and by students 
in my laborator>^ show the following to be the periods of the different 
stages of the Vine-Loving Pomace-Fly during the month of October. 
Duration of e^g state, three to five days; of larval state, three to five 
days, osually four ; of pupal state, three to five days also ; and the time 
which e]ai>sed between the emerging of the flies and the beginning of 
laying eggs, in some cases, was not more than two days. 

This r.i])i4iity of multi]dicatiou greatly increases the seriousness of 
the evil where this insect is a pest. And this is very apt to be the case 
wherever fruit is ground up or crushed and exi)OSed. Thus thej^ aliound 
about cider-mills, where often it is almost imtK>ssible to prevent the flies 
from oxipositiiig in tlie pomace or fmm falling into the cider. The wine- 
makers also fiini them a nuisance al>out fermenting vats of grape pom- 
aee, and about wine faucets in the summer. 

Hut the most serious trait in the habits of this insect is reported by 
Xr. W. L. Devereau, of Clyde, N. Y. Mr. Devereau writes me as fol- 
lows: 

Tbe larvae of this fly oorapletcly eat ont the ioRide of grapes whioh^ while hanfi^ing 
QQ tbo \inv9y hare firHC lieen picked o)>eii by birds. The decayiug JuiceH rniiuiiigoiit 
OQ the other beirieB of tlie ciuNter spn*ail decay^ and thus |;ave more ftH^thold for the 
iirv», ludetfd, Ih** larva» borefioui one grai>e to another^ while the im -gOH ar»i con- 
^ntly, b>' ef?$:H, putting iu new oolouies until the cluster iti nearly or quite detttroyed, 
Boiluug reuiaiaiug but the empty gruiie-skios. 

IIl»ou Plate XV of this report are represented the various stages of 
^e Viiie-Loving Pomace-Fly. The more important characters pre- 
is^ivted by each are as follows: 

VCartfnl oljservatioiis made by Mepsra. W. H. Cobb. W. E. HanViug, H. Saz6, and 
JobnT.TQck«-r, uieiuliers of tho olatis iu agriculture^ have materially aided me in the 
l^l>^ilien oi this account. 




2C0 8SP1BT OP rWR CQlDiiaSIOBrER OP AGBICULTUBE. 

-i^*'— F^is r renrpsenrs ^e ^^^z* vfiich is elon^ted in form and white 
in eoion Hie iniJ>r -HTTiiin;! -!!iiu::ieteri*tic of it is a pair of long, slender 
;&pp€3iiiiurK neiir 'iie Lt-nuaiic end. Tlie egg is inserted into the soft 
pain .jf oie le^^r-uix Tmr; dieae appeniiages leave the ovipositor last, 
ami Are "^pretid -)ar tp^ui aie ^winutre of the mass. They in this way 
:^«rre a» i£i?t»p liie »*tr-: .n ni:u*e. and til as insure the ^mergence of the 
kurvik inia oie '»n*»a dir 'Jii?r*-H4L of mro the more or less fluid mass in 
wtuck aie etrr '^ iinare^L Ihe larva L^^snes from the egg just above 
tite b;k*e or iLie^H? inrHHiiiii:?*^. The e^^, without its appendages, is 
;kb«iac -J*" Y7 -^^^ ^ leair^Li; die apwndages are about three-fifths as 
Soo^r as tie etrr. Xlie wuoie sortUAre of the egg is facetted with cells, 
wiudi^ 4ii:ii«MUL!i .rrvz^i.Hr Ji ooriine. are asaaUy pentagouaL Projecting 
the f!t^^aa^♦.• etiii is A smikd ciibenrie, the micropyle. 

. — ^tlie liiT^A J* ;& ^leader wiuce maggot, which, when full grown, 
»in?ur> 7 men m leni^rii. The onid hooks and internal skele- 
i» wtLLca 'key Are amM-tieil are vn<ible to the nnaided eye as a 
bl:i£k ^:^l^^- T!ie eaadiil part \}f the botly usually appears brown ; this 
eoior i» dme ta tiie eoarencs of the alimentary canal. The general 
ci tiuf LiTT^ i2i r^onftjented by Fig. S of Plate XV. It is widest 
tlie BMcle« aziil t^i^H^ toward t:'j^b end, but more towards the 
eepkahc eofd thiaa ti «uru5 the eaadaL The main tracheal trunks are 
TiBb^ wrtk a lev po^^er ^f the uicrusirope. The general arrangement 
of them is shsiLat to rkju of che Apple Maggot. The important char- 
acter by which this Urra c;iy be di;>tin;nii>hed from the Apple Maggot 
mad from the larv;* i>f the Preoy Pomaee^Fly is the structure of the 
cephalic spiraele^ One i^f tht»t» ts represented, greatly enlarged, at Fig. 
5 of Plate XT. TNe main traehea divides into several, usually seven or 
eight. divi^MiSL Tbet^e divisioos all arise from nearly the same point, 
and each one opens indepecKirntly. This ciimpound spiracle may be 
exserted to qnite a distance* as shown in Fig. 8, or may be drawn en* 
tirely within the me^^Mhoracic ;»^nnent; whereas it pertains to the pro- 
tfaoracic segment. The tvo caudal spimdes project backwards promi- 
nently. Each one consists of a brown tnbercle, in which the trachesd- 
sabdivide, and each division apparently opens separately. There ar^ 
several semicircular tuits of bristles on each spiracle. These probably^ 
prevent the openings frt>m being closed with foreign matters. A sid^^ 
view of this spiracle closely resembles a similar view of the correspond. — 
ing spiracle of the larvae of the Pretty Pomace-Fly. (See Plate XVH-^ 
Fig. Ic.) The caudal segment of the farva we are describing bears fir- 
pairs of blunt, rather short, tubercles. These are represented in Fig. 
Plate XV. 

Pupa, — AVhen the larva is ftill grown it changes to a pupa within 
about the apple upon which it has feil, instead of going into the ground, 
as does the Apple Maggot Like the Apple Maggot, this Pomace-Flj 
transforms within the dry skin of the larva. Consequently what we 
naturally see of the insect in this stage resembles somewhat the larva 
It is, however, shorter, measuring only 3"™ (,12 inch) in length, but is 
much thicker. The cephalic spiracles" and the tubercles of the caudal 
end of the body project conspicuously. There is a large concavity on 
the dorsal surface of the cephalic end. This indicates the point at 
which the adult fly emerges. On the ventral surface of the cephalic end 
may be seen the oral hooks of the larva. 

Fig. 2, Plate XV, represents the ventral aspect of the puparium, and 
Fig. 3 is a lateral view. 

Adult— Tht^ form of tiie adult is carefully represented by Fig. 1, Plate 
XV. The head, thorax, and legs aie light-brown, with black bristles and 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 201 

bairs. The abdomen is very pale brownish -yellow; on the dorsal sur- 
fiace the caudal margin of each segment is dark-brown, and in the male 
the entire doisai surface of the two caudal segments is of the same 
color. The male of this species bears a remarkable comb like api)eud- 
age upon the first segment of the tarsus of each of the first pair of legs. 
The venation of the wings is carefully represented in the figure. 

Remedies. — ^Doubtless much can be done to prevent the undue in- 
crease of the^^. insects about cider-mills, wine-cellars, and similar places 
by keeping these places clean, and esi)ecially by using care to not leave 
any decaying fruit exposed. When they infest vineyartls, as described 
by Mr. Devereau, probably nothing will be found practicable except to 
inclose the clusters of grapes in paper bags, as is already done by many 
viticultnnsts to protect the giapes from the grape curculio, birds, and 
mildew. A few pin-holes should be made in the bottom of the bag, to 
allow the water to run out, which otherwise in case of a storm would 
collect and either rot the grapes or burst the bag. 

THE PEETTT POM40E-FLT. 

{Droscphila am<ena Loew.) 
Order Diptera; fkmily Drosophilib^. 

[Plate XVI.] 

A mall white maggot, resembling the larva of the ViQe-LoYiug Pomace-Fly, and, like 
that epecies, found in decaying apples ; bat unlike that species in going into the 
gnmnd to transform, and dev^oplug into a red-eyed fly with blaok spots on ita 
wingB. 

Associated with the Vine-Loving Pomace-Fly I found another species 
belonging to the same genus, the Drosophila amoena of Loew. For this 
I prox>08e the popular name of Pretty Pomace-Fly. This species I have 
Dot found as abundantly as D. ampelophila; but as it is also associated 
with the Apple Maggot {Trypeta)^ it is liable to be mistaken for that 
species. I therefore present the following description of the different 
stages of it : 

Egg. — ^Bepeated efforts to find eggs of this species failed, although by 
imprisoning flies with apples we afterwards found larv» on the apples, 
from which we bred adults of this species. Either we overlooked the 
^gs or the species is viviparous. At least, it is not probable that the 
^gs are as large and conspicuous as are the eggs of D. ampelophila. 

Larva. — ^The larva of the Pretty Pomace- Fly is of the same length as 

that of the species just described (4.5°^, nearly ^ inch), but it is much 

more slender. The form of the body is cylindrical, tapering slightly 

toward the head. (See Plate XVI, Fig. L) The body is white ; the oral 

liooks and the skeleton to which they are attached show as a black line 

to the unaided eye. The form of these organs is repcesented in Fig. la, 

Plate X YI. Thehooks are not conspicuously toothed, as in D. ampelaphilay 

ani the firamework to which they are attached is more elongated than 

in that species. The main tracheae are plainly visible with a low power 

of the microscope, as with the two species already described; and, as 

with those species, the most obvious specific character presented by the 

httra is the form of the first pair of spiracles. These project from^ the 

cephalic margin of the first thoracic segment, or may be withdrawn within 

the segment. Each consists of seven or eight divisions of the trachea^ 



202 REPORT OF TUB COlOaSSIO^TER OF AGRICVLTUIffi. 

which branch off in a Reries on each of the two opposite Rides. (Plate 
XVI, Fi^. 1^0 The? twoniiiiii trache^T are each itTiniiiateil by a spiracle 
at the caudal eud of the IkkIv. A si^ie view of oii*^ of the>e spiracles is 
given at Fi^. le. The tiacliea dividers into several branches, each iu*anch 
ojK*niu;r w-paratrly. There are several seniicircniar tufts ot bristles on 
each Kjiiracle. Tho^e probably ]>revent the o)>enincrs from being ob- 
Ktrueteil with dirt. The caudal s^i^inent is tniucsitetU and bears eight 
fleshy tubercles, the two longest of which are situated laterad of the cau- 
dal sf)iracles. Each of these tubercles is tipped with several hairs; only 
six tuberch'8 are visible from above. 

Fupa. — When full grown the larvse enter the ground to transform, 
dift'ering in this respect from JK ampelophila. My exi)erinients seem to 
indicate that this s|>ecies must necessarily go into the giound. From 
apples thickly infested with the larvse of both species, but placed in a 
jar without sand, 1 was able to breed only />. ampelophiia. But atter the 
same apples, still eontaining larva; of both, were tnmsfeiTed to a jar con- 
taining sand the adult forms of l>f>th siMcies were reared. 

The length of the puparium is 3'""* (.12 inch) ; color brown ; the cephalic 
spiracles project directly cephalad ; the caudal spiracles diverge, llie 
puparium of this species may be i<lentilied by the structure of the 
Ci'phalic spiracles described above. For general form of this stage, see 
PlateXVl, Fig. 2. 

Adult — The adult of this species is represented by Fig. 3 of Plate XYI. 
As com]>are4 with D. ampelophila^ the body is more slender, the head 
relatively larger, and the wings are marked with black spots. The flies 
have the habit of flapping their wings at short and regular intervals. 
The periods of this s|>ecies are longer than those of D, ampelophila^ as 
it requires a month or more for it to pass through all its stages. 

Remedies, — In case the Pretty Pomace Fly becomes troublesome, the 
same course of treatment that is reex)mmended for the Vine-Loving 
Pomace-Fly will serve to keep it in check. 

TIIB OCELLATE LEAF GALL OP RED MAPLE. 

{Sciara ocellaris O. S.) 
Order Diptera ; family Mycetophilidjb. 

[Plate XVII.J 

On the leavMof the red maple (^cer ruhrum) circnlar ocellate Rpots about three-eighths 
in<-h in diameter, with dink yellow, and margin and central dot, during ou6 stage 
of their growth, cherry -red.. 

The foliaire of red maple (Acer ruhrum) is often seriously injured by 
certain very small larvee, which make lar^e and cons]>icuous Siiots or 
gal s upon it. This insect is apparently widely distributed. I have ob- 
served it both at Washinprton and at Ithaca, N. Y. At the last-named 
place it occurs so abundantly that 1 have repeatedly seen trees every 
leaf of which was infested. 

This insect is so small that of itself it would not readily attract atten- 
tion, but the result of its work is so conspicuous that it may be seen 
from a lonpr distance. This appears in the form of a circular spot three- 
tenths to three eighths inch in diameter, wliicb at a certain period 
of Its growth is liglit yellow in color, with a cheiry-red margin and cen- 
tral dot. (Se« Plate XVll, Pig. 1.) At other periods the spot is siiiiply 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 203 

light green or jcllow. Frequently these spots occur so thickly as to in- 
tersect each other and to completely cover the leaf, tifty or more beings 
on a single leaf. At the center of eadi H]>ot may be seen, on tlie npper 
side of the leaf^ an nlevated portion. Corresponding to this, on the lower 
sorfaoe of the leaf, there is a pit, within which the larva lives. Larvad 
that were partially grown were fonuil to be held in ])h)ce in the pit in 
the leaf by what ap}>eared to be a larval skin. This pellicle covers the 
body entirely, and is with difficulty removed from it: the edges of 
the pellicle adhere quite tightly to the loaf. When tlie larva is full 
grown it forces itself from under this skin, which then falls back into 
Uie cavity, or is pushed to one side, where frequently it may be seen ad- 
hering to the leaf. The larva at this time drops to the ground, iuto 
which it enters to undergo its transformation. 

The laivae aro translucent, vis id, nearly colorless. Those in the 
galls are broad oval (see Plate XVII, Fig. 3); but those which have left 
them are more elongated, tapering ahnost equjrily towards each end. 
On the lateral margin of each abdouiinal segment there are one or more 
short spines, which are directed towards the caudal end of the body. 
And on the dorsal surface of each abdominal segment, near each lateral 
margin, there is a small tubular spiracle. There is a diNtinct head ^see 
Plate iVIl, Fig 3/i), which bears short but conspicuous antennae. The 
caudal end of the boily (see Plate XVII, Fig. 36) bears a pair of fleshy 
appeudges, each of which is furnished with a pair of spines similar to 
those on the margin of the segment, and a large number of triangular 
teeth. 

The larva spins something like a cocoon a short distance below the 
surface of the ground. To this cocoon the particles of sand firmly adhere, 
80 that it can be distinguished from the soil only with difficuit3'. The 
pupa is yellowish- white, with large black eyes. When the pupa is about 
to transform to an adult it emerges for about two-thirds of its length 
from the cocoon. The pupa skin remains firmly attached in this posi- 
tion (see Plate XVII, Fig. 4). 

From larvjB collected at Washington May 15 the adult emerged from 
June 14 to June 10. 1 have not yet sutticient data to determine the 
HQtuber of generations each year; but I believe there are several. LarvEB 
^ere observed at Ithaca during the latter part of September; they 
^ent into the ground September 20. 
A description of the iidult is appended to this account. 
The galls made by this insect have long been known. Osten Sacken,* 
from a study of the galls and the larva which he saw in them, proposed 
the name Cecidomy'm occUarin tor the species, belicvijig the iiisetJt to be 
a member of the Cecidomyidw. But the fly which I have bred proves to 
belong to the genus JSdnra, of the family MyieUq)hilhla:,\ This result 
is quite interesting, for the species of Sciara are usually found *' among 
decaying leaves, in vegetable mold, in cow-dung, under the bark of 
dead trees,'' &c.J One other species (Sciara tlUcola) is known to pro- 
duce a gall. This species infests the leaves of young linden trees in 
ihady, sheltered situations. The lemon-yellow larva, cajjable of leap- 
ing like the cheese-maggot, lives in numbers in the stem, generally 
near the origin of the last or of the two last leaves. Each of them 

*Mofsoj;niph of tb«» Diptora of North Am., Part I, 199. 

Miin iiiclebre«l to Baron Onten Sacken for the (^enerio determinatioti of thiR inn^ct, 
indfor tlie specific detenuinaCluDa of the two speeiea of Mrosophila ilescribtfd in thii 

tOst«& BftckeQ, Proc. Eot. Sue., PhH.> 1, 1^. 



204 B£PORT OF THE COMMI8SIOHER OF AGRICULTUKE. 

baa a hollow of its owil, and produces a swelling of the size of a pea, 
which it ahandoDs before the transformatioD.* 

DeffenptianofaduUmale.—P\sLteXVIl,Fifi.2. Head dark. Eyes black, 
kidnej'Sbaped^aod meeting in a point on the dorsal surface of the head. 
AnteniisB sixteenjointed, inserted close together ; color dark brown, 
with the basal segment light yellowish-brown. Epicraniam quite large 
and convex; dark brown, bearing three ocelli, which are whitish and 
glintening. Pronotum licht yellowish-brown. Mesoscntum arched, yel- 
lowish-brown in the center and darker at the edges. Scutellum dusky 
brown« Metathorax dark brown, almost black. Abdomen, with caudal 
portions of segments, blackish, the cephalic portions yellowish-brown. 
The claspers lighter brown. Poisers. with knob, blackish, and base 
light brown. Tibise and tarsi dusky brown; femora lighter ; cox® still 
lighter. The dintal end of each tibia furnished with two long brownish 
hairy brushes (Plate XVU, Fig. 2a). 

LADYBIRDS. 

{Cooeinellida!.) 

[Plate XVnLl 

Among the most beneficial of insects are those which constitute the 
family Coccinellidsd, and which are popularly known as '^ Lady-birds." 
There are many species of these beetles. They are commonly found 
running over the surface of plants, where they prey upon other small 
insects, and also destroy the eggs of insects. Their larvae are also pre- 
daceous, and are found in the same situations as are the adults. The 
larvsB, however, differ very much in appearance from the adult insects, 
as may be seen by reference to the accompanying plate. While study- 
ing Scale insects in California I found many of the Lady-birds on the 
trees infested by these pests, and devoted considerable attention to the 
study of them. The following descriptions and the figures on Plate 
XVIII will enable the reader to recognize the more common species of th< 
Pacific coast And the species* which occur elsewhere resemble these 
much in their different stages that the plate will enable one to recog— - 
nize as belonging to this family any members of it he may meet. Ii 
case of the adult of each species described here two figures are givi 
the smaller one indicates the size of the insect, tiie larger one the marl 

The Ashy-gbat Ladybibd {Cycloneda abdamindlis Say). — This 
beetle was found very abundantly upon different infested trees. T 
larva was found upon an olive tree extensively infested with an aphi-^^ 
and as it has not been before dcvscribed, we submit the following: 

Description of larva. — Plate XVIII, Fig. 1. Length, when full grow^Ti, 
10»»°»; color spotted with dirty greenish-white; black and orange abois^^; 
Aioe yellow, remainder of head black; prothorax black, irregu£u:ly m^u*- 
giued before and behind with light yellow; mesothoracic segment witli a 
broad longitudinal dorsal yellow stripe; metathoracic segment witli s 
broad central dorsal spot; each of the abdominal segments, except the 
last, with a dorsid yellow spot, which upon the founh abdominsd seg- 
ment is very broad; segments 1 and 4 each with a pair of subdorsal 
yellow spots; all segments except the last with a row of lateral yellow 
spots on each side. There is a pair of small subdorsal black spots to 

*Oitaik'SaokAii, Fxt>c. Eat Soc,, PhU^ 1, 164. 




BEPOBT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 205 

each abdominal segment, and mnch larger ones to the^meta- and meso- 
tlioracic segments. Upon abdominal segments 2, 3, 5, 6, 7j and 8 is also 
a pair of small dorso-sablateral black spots. 

When about to transform to a pupa this larva attaches itself to a leaf 
by the end of its abdomen, and the skin, splitting at the back of the 
head, shrinks back about the posterior end of the body. 

D^eriptum of pupa. — Plate XVIII, Fig. 2. Length, 6""; shape, broad 
oval, the width being about 3.5™°*; general color white, tinged in some 
lights with purplish; around margin slightly yellowish; wing-covers 
yellowish ; all spots black, those on the thorax and wing-covers resem- 
bling in form, size, and position those on the adult insect. On the dor- 
sum of each abdominal segment except the first, is a transverse row of 
four black spots. These are largest on the third segment and decrease 
in size toward posterior end of body, those uiK>n the second segment 
being very smalL There are also small black lateral spots on the third 
and fourth, and a trace of one on the fifth segment. 

The adult beeUe is a small ashy-gray insect of the usual semi-globular 
shape. There are seven black spots on the thorax, and eight upon each 
wing-cover, of the size and shape indicated in the figure (Plate XYIU, 
Fig. 3). 

The Bix)OD-S£D Ladybibd (Cycloneda sanguineaj Linn). — ^This eme- 
des was not so common as the one just described, and we are only able 
to describe the pupa. 

Description of pupa.— Plate X VIII, Fig. 4. Length, 5»" ; width, 3.5"». 
Shape, broadly oval. General color of body dirty yellow ; median line 
of thorax of a light orange color; first, fourth, and fifth abdominal seg- 
ments terminate laterally with bright orange-colored spots, and the 
fourth abdominal segment bears two dorsal spots (one on each side of 
the median line) of the same color; there is also a subdorsal row of 
black spots on each segment except the second abdominal ; wing-covers 
blackish. 

The adult beetle is small f5™™ long), and is almost hemispherical in 
Bhape. Its color varies from brick-red to blood-red ; thorax black, with 
two orange spots, and edged with the same color, and head black, with 
two light spots. (Plate XVIII, Fig. 6.) 

This is a common species all over the country, and is frequently men- 
tioned in entomological reports, under Say's name of OocdnMa mundnj 
as preying upon injurious insects. 

Thf Ladybikd op the Cactus {ChUooorus cactij Linn.). — ^A number 
of the larvsd of this insect were found preying upon the black scale upon 
oleander, and the beetles themselves were found abundantly upon dif- 
ferent plants. 

Description of terra.— Plate XVIIT, Fig. 7. Length, 6«». The body 
ifl covered with many long spines, each of which is armed with delicate 
Bopplementary spines. The color is entirely black, with the exception 
of first abdominal segment, which is light yellowish, the spines of the 
same color as the segment except at the tips, where they, too, are black. 

Description of pupa. — ^Plate XVIII, Fig. 8. The pupais formed within 
the larval skin, which simply splits along the back sufficiently to show 

the inclosed pnpa, but still remains around it and protects it The pupa 

ift perfectly smooth with the exception of sparsely-scattered tufts of 

fine hair, shining and black in color. 
The beetles themselves are shining black in color, with an irregular 

reddish s]M)t on each wing cover, and closely resemble the '*Twice- 

atabbed Lady-bird'' of the East {Chilocorus bivulnerus Muls.^, well 



EXPLANATION TO PLATES. 



SXTLAXATTON TO Pl.ATS L 

HeKothi$ armigera. 

(From Report 4, U. S. E. C.) 

Pig. 1.— E|^. 

Pig. 2.— Young larva. 

Pig. 3.— Square gnawed into by young larva. 

Fig. L—Vale yellowiah larva, with Ixdl gnawed 

and eaten into. 
Pio. 5. — Fun grown larva, normal colors. 
Pio. <L — Chryaalia in earthen ceU. 
Fio. 7^-Hoth with ochreoua tint 
fie. &— Moth with olivaoeous tint. 
PiO. 8. — Moth at rest, showing how wings remain 

partly open. 

EXPLAHATIOR TO PLATK IL 

Jjetteania unipuneta. 
(From Report 4, U. 8. B. C.) 

fw. 1.— GlisteDing seoreti<m which often shows 

where eggs are laid between fold of 

green leaf. 
Fl6. 2.--Yonng larva. 
Figs. 3, 4. 5.— Full-grown larve,ventral.dorsa],and 

lateral views. 
Fio. 6.— Larva, showing Tachina eggs near head. 
Pio. 7— Pupa. 

Fui. 8.— Moth with wings expanded. 
Flo. 9.— Moth showing normid pcMitlon of wings 

when closed, back view? 
FiQ. 10.— Pale specimen of moth fh>m side. 

SZPLAXATIOK TO PLATB IIL 

Plfrethrum rotewm. 

(Original.) 
Showing variation is leaf and in color of 
flower, as grown by C. V. Riley. 

Ezplah ation to Plats IV. 

P yn t hru m eineraru^oUum. 

(Original) 
Showing variation in leaf, as grown by 
C. V. Riley. 

ExPLAn ation to Plate V. 

Scale insects on orange. 
(From (^om^tock's Report for 1880.) 

ftOb l^MytOatpU eUrieola ( Pack.) : 1, scales on 
orange, natural size ; la, scale of female, 
dorsal view; Ifr, scale of female with 
ventral scale and eggs ; le, scale of male 
—enlarged. 

^'^-MytilaMpit GloveHi (Pack.): 2, scales on 
orange, natural size; 2a, scale of female. 



dorsal view ; 26, scale of male ; 2e, scale 
of Itiuiale with ventral scale and eggs 
— enlarged. 
FiQ. Z.—Parlaioria PergandU (Tomst : 3a, scale of 
female; 36, scale of male— enlarged. 

Explanation to Plate VL 

Fio. l.—Leueania unipunUOt fall-grown larva. 
(After Riley.) 

Fig. 2. — Leueania unipuneta, genitalia of male 
moth : At end of body, denuded of hairs, 
showing the upper clasps protruding, 
and the natural position of the hidden 
organs by dotted lines ; B, the organs 
extruded— enlarged. (After Riley.) 

Flo. 9.—Leueanim unijntneia, ovipositor of female 
moth: a, end of abdomen denuded and 
showing ovipositor at rest; 6, same with 
ovipositor fiiilly extended; e, /, retractile 
subJoinU; A, egga— enhurged; ^, eggs, 
natural sise. (After Riley.) 

Fio. 4.— Xt««orAop(ru# timpUa (Say): a, larva, 
aide view ; 6, under side of head, show- 
ing mouth-parts, the mandinles omitted 
so as to show more clearly the position 
of the parts in relation to the face; e, 
labrum and antenna; d, beetle, dorsal 
view; «, do., outline, aide view— en- 
larged. (Original.) 

Fio. 6.— Cfcoiapia trachypifgut Bnrm.: a, beetle; 6, 
larva, natural size ; e, head-parts fh>m 
beneath, enlarged ; d, mandibles ; e, au- 
tenne ; /. maxilbe, with their palpi ; g, 
labium, with iU palpi. (OriginaL) 

Explanation to Plate YIL 

Fio. 1. — ChUo oryueeflua n. sp.: a, larva, side view, 
in split stem ; 6, do., back view ; «, pupa ; 
d, female moth— natural size; s, tip of 
pupa ftt>m beneath ; /, head of do. from 
side— enlarged. (Original.) 

Fio. 2.— jRAodo6£mu« IZ-punetatiu ( 111.) : a, beetle, 
dorsal view, showing markings; 6, do., 
outline side view— enlarged. (After 
Riley.) 

Fig. 8.— P«tnpe2ta l^oteOaZell.: a, stalk, showin;; 
work of larva; 6, larva; e, pupa; ei,a, 
moth with wings expanded and at rest 
—natural size ; e, middle Joint of larva, 
dorsal view ; /, do., side view; g, K winga 
of moth showing variation ; <, head of 
male with mouth-parts denuded; j, 
maxillary palpus, male ; ib, do., female ; 
2, labial palpus, female ; f?», base of an- 
tenna, male, dotted lines indicating out- 
line of scales— enlarged. (Original.) 



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iteporl or'I-:ntoniiiUibiHl,Dt1itof'A{!ricultur«>,IB(H-2. 




miKTiiHiM r/.v/;RU{|.?J-()i,irM. 



))eportof'Enloinolukitit,l)«p'.o('A^icultiuv.l8fll'2. 




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B^ortof thaEBtamologbt.SepiitmaitofAsiicaltniMSgl-'Sl. PLATB V. 




BqMtt or tbB KntDtDOloilit, DepHtaunt of Afrianltan. l«ai-'tt PltATB VZX. 




of the SalomidoglBt, Department of l.gri(iiiltiue, 1881-'B3. PLATE VUX. 




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rfti»EmMB«*>«ii*.»«P«*»»«^"'-**^"'''^*°^ 




«t Ite btomoldgti^ DaputiiMDt at Agrionltar^ Igai-'Sl FXiATB ^ 




S*p«nof ttobtaiialoslrt, tlspuliiieiitDrA[rlonltare,18gl-'BS. PIiATB XII. 




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X^drtof the Botamolc^lit, Deputmantof AcMcnltnre, ISH- n. 




Bajnt or tlis Kotamalaeiar, Doputmaut of AgrloDlhm, lBai-'B3. PIiATE JUV. 




if Uie BnUmolPEiit, DepftrtmeDt ot AKricnUare, 18§I--B2. FIiATE XT. 




of tke XnMBKiioKM, 6«parbn«it of Agrfeaitun, ISBI-'SZ. ^L&TB ^.VL 




Bapdrtof tbaEBbnuoloslit, DsputiiwiitDr AGricnltoTB, IMI-'Bl PLATE ZTIL 




BapoTi of the XntOTDObclat, Depaitmrat of AgrloalUTa, 1«81-'B3. PLATE XVUX. 




ifon of tka EDtoDoInglal, DfputmeDt of AeHoDltlire, ]881~'S2. 



PLATBZIX. 




BeroTl of 41w EnlanuloKirt, DeputdieDt of Airicnltnre, I881-'B3 PIiATB ZZ. 




REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 209 

refirained from patentmg his ^< bamboo extension." It may, therefore, 
b^ attached to any other force-pump, and furnished with any other 
spray-tip than those mentioned above, if it is found desirable to do so. 

LAO INSEOTS. 

• 

It is now more than one hundred years since Carieria husca^ the insect 
which produces the lac of commerce, was first described.* Since that 
time many articles have been written respecting it. Owing to the im- 
portance in the industrial arts of shellac and the lac dyes, tilie origin of 
these substances is discussed in nearly all of tiie larger cyclopedias ; and 
the list of the memoirs on this subject in the scientiiic jounuJs is a long 
one. Notwithstanding this, an examination which I have made of the 
matter convinces me l^at the subject is not yet well understood. 

I was led to study this insect by the fiarct that I. have met with two 
other species of Lac insects which are as yet undescribed. The result 
of this study shows that although the two new Lac insects are Ameri- 
can tiiey are congeneric with the Asiatic species. 

The opportuni^ of comparing three species of this important genus 
has enabled me to make some interesting observations, but owing to 
lack of time I can now give only a genersd statement of the results of 
my studies. I am led to make this statement now, as the knowledge of 
Uie Cbk^ that true Lac insects occur in this country may prove of eoo- 
noniio importance. 

The genus Oarteria was established by Signorett for the Lac insect 
of conmierce.^ The two undescribed Lac insects agree with this one in 
Uie following* characters : 

Genus Gabt£bia Signoret. 

Body of the adult female sac-like in form, with no legs, and imbedded 
bi a mass of tha substance known as lac The caudal end of the body 
>B famished with three prominent tubercles ; one, the largest, consists 
of the caudal segment of the body and is terminated by the anal ring ; 
^ach of the others bears at its distal extremity a perforated plate, pre- 
sumably the organ through which the lac is excreted; near the base of 
each of the lac ibubes is a large spiracle. In the triangular space inclosed 
by the three tubercles described is a fourth tubercle which bears a very 
prominent spine-like organ. The anal ring consists of sev^^ plates, 
which are x>^orated by many openings ; the anal ring bears ten hairs. 
aiid is at least partially surrounded by a series of toothed plates and 
spines. 

Castkru. lagca (Kerr). Plate XIX, Fig. 3, 2g. 

Cmm Jaeea Kerr. Fhil. Trans., 1781, 374. 
Cmmi ;f0M Fabr. Mantissa, 1787, U, 319. 
CwUria laeoa (Keir) Signoret. Essai, 1874, 101. 

IWi a quantity of commercial stiok-lac purchased in New York I ob- 
^^ed spedmens of an insect which *I have no doubt is the OooGU8{Oar' 
^^^) lacoa of authors. From these specimens the following descxKption 
^^^aecompanying figures were drawn. 

*^ best specimens of tiiis lac is in the form of an inenurtatioii from 
^^foarth inch to three-eighths inch in thickness upon small twigs 

* James Kerr, Philosophical Transactions, 1781, 384. 
tEssai, 1874, p. 101. 

14 AG 



210 • REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

(Plate XIX, Fig. 2). This incrustation is filled with elongated cells. 
The longer axis of each cell is at right angles to the twig, and in ea«h 
case the end of the cell next the twig is small, while the outer end is 
considerably enlarged. In well-preserved specimens three tubular open- 
ings may be seen extending frem the outer end of each cell through the 
iucnistation to the open air, and in each cell may be found the shriveled 
remains' of an insect, which, when alive, 'evidently nearly filled thfe cell 
cell and determined its form. 

By soaking the insects in water they may be made to swell out, and 
thus the natural form of the body be ascertained. This is represented 
at Fig. 2rt. The cephalic end is small, and, in addition to mouth parte of 
the form characteristic of the Coccidie, is furnished with a pair of fleshy- 
appendages, Fig. 2d. The body enlarges gradually toward the caudal 
end. This end is of the peculiar form described above in th^ character- 
ization of the genus. In a word, the shape of the body is that of a jug 
with three necks and a pointed botton^, the cephalic end fbrming the 
bottom. Each of the neck-like prolongations of this jug-shaped body 
fits into one of the three tubular openings of the cell. One of these 
openings is larger than the others ; this is the one occupied by the anal 
tubercle. 

* The anal tubercle consists of the whole of the last segtnent of th^ body, 
and a part of the penultimate segment. Fig. 2e. The anal ring bears 
ten hairs and consists of several plates, Fig. 2/. The hairs of the anal 
ring are spine-like. Each is curved outward near the middle of' its 
length, and each one is hollow and situated over a large opening itt ttie 
plate which bears it. There are also many smaller openings distributed 
evenly over the surface of the plates. 

There is a fringe of notched plates and spines on that side of the seg- 
ment which is toward the lae tubes. Figs. 2e and 2g, I have been un- 
able to trace any tracheae extending to the numerous openings with 
which the lac tubes are furnished ; but the distal extremity of each 
tubercle contains many tiibular glands, which in some instances I have 
traced to these openings. The structure of these organs is represented 
atPig.,2fc. 

There are four spiracles, a large one at the base of eaeh of the lao 
tuberoles, and a pair of smaller ones near the head-end of the body. 
Evidently the air must hare free access to the cell, else thdse spiraeles 
wottid be of little dse. The air probably enters through the opening 
made by the caudal segment. In all the specimens which I have exam- 
ined, in which the insect was unbroken, the lac tubes were within the 
corresponding tubular openings of the cell, but in no instance liave I 
found the anal tubercle in the third opening. In each case it had been 
withdrawn into the cell, and occupied a position just below the anal 
opening. Fig. 2a. This withdrawal may be due to the shiinking of the 
, body after death ; but the fact that it is always the anal taberole that 
is withdrawn, and not either of the others,^ indicates that durmg life 
this tubercle cannot be permanently fixed in its opening. The with- 
drawal of the anal taberole at intervals would admit the air to tbB cell, 
and thus provide for veispiration. 'The peculiar bending of the hairs of 
the anal ring is such aa would fadlitate the pushing of &e anal tubercle 
into the opening after it had been withdrawn. 

I hawe been unable to ascertain the function of the large spiAe. - As 
these insects are viviparous the spine cannot be an ovipos^r. The 
only author who I fipd makes mention of it is Ghemet,* who simply 

* Einiges ueber Cocciu lacoa tmd deaaen Parasiten, Maakau, 1863. 



BBPOBT OV THB BHTOHOLOOXR. til 

states that there exists midway between the thiee taberoles a smilL 
thickened spine, which appears to be nothing else than an enlarged 
bristle of the last, or next to the last, segment of the abdomen^ He also 
states that sometimes t^ere are two of these spines, and figures a female 
with two. This is undoubtedly an error. 

The fullest account which has been published respecting this insect 
is that of H. J. Garter,* in whose honor the genus was named. Mr. 
Carter's memoir is a very important one, but he has fell into some 
errors. From his account it is evident that the insect, like many others 
of the CoccidsB, excretes considerable masses of appsyrentTy wooly mat- 
t^Xt, fC^ matter is probably excreted by spinnerets upon each of the 
three eaudal tubercles, and projects firom each of the three openings in 
the cell. Q[3ie remains of these threads of excretion may sometimes be 
seen in the stick-lac as it reaches us^ but the greater part of them are 
brushed or blown away. Garter beheved these threads to be extemal 
tiaches, and he figured internal trachea communicating with them. He 
even represents ^^ tufts of trachea" projecting from &e anus. He ap< 
pears to have overlooked entirely the true spiracles, and believed the 
paired tul^ercles to be simply for respiration. Ko mention is made of 
the spine, and in the description of the male the caudal threads of ex- 
cretion are spoken of as tracheae. 

CiBTBBiA LABBB^, n. sp. (Plate XX, Figs. 1-lA.) 

. 

Hie Greosote plant {Larrea mexic4ma) is a shrub growing, tsom 4 to 6 
feet high, very abundantly in certain regions in the southwestern por- 
tion of the United States and in Mexico. It is said to form — 

tdeoie and Almost impassable scmb, partieiilarly on the borden of the Oolimido 
desert, where its luxuriant growth puts a stop to the drifting sand. It is a sure sign 
of s sterile soil, for wherever it flourishes little else can be found, and although it 
giTes the scenei^ a beautiful, verdant appearance, its strong, creosote-like odor ren- 
QOB it so repulsive that ho animal wilf touch it. Moreover, as it can scarcely be made 
to bum, il 18 useless even for the purpose of fuel. The resinous matter to which the 
odor is due abounds in all parts of the plant. The Pimos Indians collect and fonn it 
intobans, which they kick before them as they Journey from one point to the other of 
their traU.t 

Tlds extract gives^ in a few words, what was until recently the ac- 
cepted belief respectmg American lac. But in April, 1880, Mr. J. M. 
Stillman presented to the OaUfomia Academy of Sciences { a very able 
and hnportant paper on this subject, in which he showed Uiat the 
8<H»lled resinous exudation of the creosote plant was apparently identi- 
cal with the gum-lac from India. Mr. Stillman also gave very cogent 
chemical and physical reasons for believing that in each case IJie lac is 
exereted by the insects found in it instead of being mmply an exuda- 
tion of , the. plant caused by the punctures of these insects, as is stated 
in nearly all of the- writings on the subject. The presence of the large 
and oomplicated excreting organs, which I have termed lac tubes in 
each of the species described in this paper, confirms this conclusion. 

A study of the insect which produces the American lao shows that it 
is gpeciflcally distinct from Oarteria Uuxm. I tilieiefore propose the name 
C. larrea for it^ In all the specimens which I have seen, the incrusta- 
tion of lac is not as thick as that produced by 0. Zooca, being rarely 
more than one^eighth of an inch in thickness. And the masses excreted 

'Annals and Magazine of Natural History^ 1861, p.p 1-10. 

tA. Smith, in the Treasury of Botany. 

t Bee American Natnraliflti YoL ISY, p. 782. 



212 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AORICULTURE. 

by the different individuals are not crowded together ho compactly as 
in the Indian species, but preserve a more or less globular form. (See 
Plate XX, Fig. 1.) In the case of isolated masses there is a tendency 
to a six-lqbed condition. 

This species is the smallest of the three known Lac insects, the adult 
femtde being bnt little more than 2™™ (.08 inch) in diameter. The body 
is nearly globular in outline, with, however, prominent la<5 tubes and 
anal tubercle. The caudal spiracles are also prominent. Fig. la rep- 
resents an individual from which the greater part of the lac has been 
dissolved. A specimen treated in this way served to show the general 
form of. the body. The structure of the diii'erent organs was studied 
upon specimens which had been boiled in caustic potash, and from 
which in this way all the excretion had been removed. Fig. Id repre- 
sents the anal tubercle with the anal ring and fringe. Fig. 1/ shows 
a part of the fringe enlarged. One of the lac tubes with its perfor- 
ated plate is represented at Fig. 1^, the corresponding spiracle at Fig. 
1/*, and the spine at Fig le. Scattered over the surface of the body are 
groups of organs which appear like the compound spinnerets of tlie 
DiaspinsB. One of these groups is represented at Fig. Ic. The male of 
this species was found, but iu too mutilated condition for detailed de- 
scription. A shrivelled balsam-mounted specimen showed the body, 
including the style, to be 1°^ (^ inch) in length. The length of the 
style is two-sevenths of the whole length of the body. On each side of 
the style there is a pair of hairs which resemble those of Ehizoooccus 
araucarias. (See Agricultural Beport, 1880, Plate X, Fig. lb.) The an- 
t6nn» and wings are normal. The sac of the male is egg-shaped. Only 
empty ones were observed, each of which had an opening at one end 
from which the male doubtless emerged (Fig. Id). The sac ijs about 
1.5°^ (.06 inch) in length. They occur in masses. 

Gartesia mexioana, n. sp. (Plate XIX, Figs. l-lh. 

On lookiDg over the collection of coccids in the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, which Dr. Hagen kindly placed at my disposal, I found a 
twig of Mimosa from Tampico, Mex., which bore a number of globular 
or more or less stellate masses of what proved on furtheir examination 
to be lac. Each of these masses contained an insect. This ipsect 
proves to belong to the same genus as the two Lac insects already de- 
scribed, but is specifically distinct from either. 

As the specimen which I have is a very small twig, which bore only 
about fifteen insects, it may not represent well the usual appeaii^nce of 
this lac.- On this twig the lumi)s of lac excreted by the individual insects 
occur singly or are but slightly massed. Each lump is six-lobed at iU 
base; ihis is more marked in the case of the immature specimens than 
with the adults (Plate XIX. Fig. 1). This stellate form of the lump of lac 
is due to a similar form of the lM)dy of the insect whidi excretes it. Fig. 
la represents an immature female seen from above, which is approxi- 
mately from the caudal end. The natural attitude of the insect is, like 
that of the other Lac insects, with its cephalic end next to the plant and 
the caudal end ffirthest from it. G^bie specimen from which the figure 
was drawn had been boiled in caustic potash, and thus rendered titans- 
parent. The mouth-parts and antennsB are represented a« showing 
through the body ; the other organs figured are on the caudo-dorsal 
surface of the body. The anal tubercle and the spine are well devel- 
oped. The perforated plates, tlie openings of the lac glands, are also 
well developed, but are sessile. This is the most obvious difference 
between this stage and the adult. Closely associated with each perfo- 



BSPOBT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 213 

rated plate is a large spiracle^ these being on the sides of the body are 
shown only in profile. 

The fonn of the body of an adult female is represented at Fig. Id. 
Ill this stage the lac tubes are well developed, as shown in (he figure. 
The extremity of a single lac tube, with its perforated plate, is repre- 
sented at Fig. le. Four spiracles are present, one on each side of the 
body latarad of the anal tubercle, and a pair near tie mouth-parts (Fig. 
1 d). One of the caudal spiracles is represented at Fig. Ig. As in the 
other species of this genus, the opening of the spiracle is surrounded in 
each case with a number of spinnerets. The anal ring (Fig. 1^) con- 
sists of four plates, two of which bear three spines each, and two two 
spines each. Surrounding the anal ring is a pair of chitinous pieces 
forming a ring. This second ring I have observed in many genera of 
tliis family, and I believe the number and shape of the plates of which 
it is composed will be found to afford generic characters. These two 
rings are i>artially surrounded by a fringe of plates and teeth (Fig If). 

A iraiw WAX nrsBOT. 

In tbe old collection of the Department of Agriculture I found several 
tmga of oak bearing large masses of bright, yellow, and nearly spheri- 
cal, sac-like bodies which appear to be largely composed of wax. Each 
of the sac-like bodies contained the shriveled remains of an insect 
which evidently excreted it, and which* proves to belong to an undo- 
seribed genus of the OocciruB. The twigs of oak belong to two spedes, 
native of Amona, QuercuB obhngifolia and Quercus imdiilata, variety 
WrigktH. I have also specimens of the same insect from the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology infesting what is "pTob&hly Querctu agrifoliaj 
aQd which were collected in Galifomia by Osten Sacken. 

Judging from the specimens before me, tibds insect occurs in suffi- 
ciently great numbers to be of economic importance if the excretion 
can be utilized as is the excretion of an allied insect which produces the 
true white wax of commerce. The matter is now being investigated by 
the chemist of the Cornell Univ^orsity Experiment Station, and will 
probably be discussed in the next report of that institution. 

I submit the following characterization of the genus to which this 
iiiiect belongs : 

Cebooogous, new genus. 

Adult female apodus ; body covered with a layer of waxy excretion, 
wUdi forms a continuous sheet, not composed of a number of plates 
nioie or less closely united, as in Ceroplastes. The excretion forms a 
complete sac about the body of the insect. At the caudal end of this 
^^ there is an opening; and on the dorsal part near the center the 
larval skin is imbedded but plainly visible. The adult female is pro- 
dded with spinnerets of two kinds, which maybe designated as double 
pores, and simple pores, respectively. Anal segment with the two 
<^dal lobes characteristic of the CoccinsB : anal ring with eight spines^ 
^al plate of a single piece, and situated dorso-caudad of anal ring. 
Mentum of two segments. 

Cbhococcus qtjebous, n. sp. (Plate XX, Figs. 2-2e.) 

. &c of female. — ^The sac in which the body is inclosed is bright yellow 
l^color, elliptical in outline, very convex above. The lat^d margin 
"^^ a row of tubercles which evidently correspond to the segments of 



tl4 BBPOBT OF THB OOlOIIMIOnB OF AOIIOUUIMm» 

the body. Length 6»" (.24 inch), width 5*" (.2 inch). TlBually these 
sacs are more or less massed aroond the twig. (Plate XX, Fig. 2.) 

The form of the sac of the immature female is represented by Fig. 2b. 
The larval skin occupies the center of the dorsal surface, and the ex- 
cretion forms a thick ring around tins skin. 

Female. — ^The body of the female is elliptical in outline, with neither 
legs nor antenn». The caudal end of the body is terminated by two 
prominent lobes (Fig. 2e)j each of which bears a long terminal bristle 
and several shorter ones. GHie anid ring is situated in a deep depres- 
sion, from which the spines of the ring hsurdly project. This is repre- 
sented in optical section in Fig. 2e. Dorso-caudad of the anal ring, 
near the opening of the depression in which this ring is situated, is the 
anal plate. The edge of it is represented as a line extending from the 
base of one lobe to tiie other in Fig. 2e. Scattered over the surface of 
the body are a large number of paired pores. These are represented in 
Figs. 2e and 2o. A few single pores occur also. Fear the caudal end 
of the body there are several round bodies, which I have termed the 
madreporiform bodies (Fig. 2o). * 

Sao of male. — ^The sac of the male is oval, with an opening at one end 
from which the male emerged (Fig. 2d). The male was not observed. 

NOTE ON THE STBUOTXJEB OF MBALT BUGS. 

In DaetylopiuSy and presumably in other genera of the Coccinso, the 
opcftung of t^e oviduct is distinct from that of tiie posterior end of the 
idimentary cimal, being on the ventral side between the sixth and seventii 
abdomiiial segments. I have watched a female during the act of oviposit- 
ing, so there is no doubt resx>ecting this matter. Consequently the ex- 
pression ano-genital ringj which has been applied by authors to the ring 
of hairs and spinnerets at the caudal end of the body, is not correct. 
The term anal ring is the appropriate one. 

We have also observed in Ditctglopiut a pair of openings on the dorsal 
Bide of the sixth abdominal segment, which are evidentiy homologous 
with the honey tubes of the Aphididse. A female mealy-bug was gently 
rubbed near the caudal end of the body^ when suddenly there appeared 
two drops of a clear fluid, resembling in api>earanoe tiie honey-dew of 
plant-lice. This experiment was repeated many times and with many , 
specimens. Mr. Pergande assures me that he has observed a similar ' 
excretion from a pair of oi^enings on the cephalic margin of the firaf 
thoracic segment also. / 



f 



s 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OP GARDENS 

AND GROUNDS. 



SiB: I have the honor to submit the following notes on matters per- 
taining to the duties and objects of this division : 

THBIPS ON GBAPES. 

Foiiseyeral years the foreign grape vines under glass have been severely 
injured by thrips. All efforts and expedients to eradicate them have been 
bnt partially effective. Duiing the early part of the growing season 
the insects oould be kept in cheeky either by fumigations with tobacco, 
i^ringing with water in which tobacco had been steeped, or spraying, the 
foliage with a weak solution of quassia chips ; but when the fruit ap- 
proached maturing, or rather when it commenced to color, these appli- 
cations had to be discontinued, so that the fruit would not be rendered 
unfit for use; then the iiisects would increase rapidly and injure the 
foliage so that the fiiiit became comparatively worthless. -Further than 
this, the annual destruction of the foliage before the growth was ma- 
tored was gradually weakening the plants, so that their utter destruction 
was only a question of time unless some means could be adopted to 
annihilate the insects. 

This means has been adopted. It consists simply in covering the 
floorof the h(5use with tobacco-stems, the refuse of cigar inanufactories; 
this mulchiilg proves quite effectual, ks, since' the application was made, 
no thrips have been seen, and, although the insects had spread con- 
fiideratly before the tobacco-stems were used, they rapidly disappeared 
after the application. 

It is perhaps worthy of remark that, since using the tobacco mulch- 
ing, no sign of mildew has been observed on the grapes. Of course it 
is known that mildew may be avoided by strict attention t<J ventilation, 
hnt in the early part of the season, when the ventilators have to be 
closed at night and opened during the mominff, it is not always pmcti- 
cable to prevent cold currents of air from striking some portion of the 
foliage, a circumstance which will induce fungus growths on the leaves ; 
not the slightest indication of mildew has been obsen^ed siuse the 
tobacco-stems were sprinkled over the floor. 

Letters are frequently referred to this Division containing inquiries 
wgwding the adaptability of various tropical and semi-tropical plants 
forculttvatian in Southern Florida and in Southern California. Many 
of the plants about which information is sought are probably too trop- 
ical in their nature to succeed well in any part of the United States, 
but, when we take into con^deration the almost tropical character of 
tihe indigenous vegetation of Southern Florida, it may ^ot be well to 
pronounce too decidedly, in advance of practical tests, in regard to the 
fi^WJceesfttl culture of any tropical product. 

215 



216 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

The following notes on some of the plants which have been the sub- 
jects of special inquiry are submitted as information to those who are 
interested in them, and also as they may be available for future reference : 

The TAMARIND TREE (Tamarindus indica). 

This plant is a native of the East and West Indies, Arabia, and Egypt- 
In general appearance it somewhat resembles the yellow-locust tree, but 
the branches are more of a spreading character; its pinnate leaves are 
sensitive to cold^ closing up Hke the well-known sensitive plant of the 
gardens. It is sometimes cultivated in warm conservatories, where it 
frequently produces its fragrant flowers and occasionally ripens its fruit. 

There are two very distinct varieties of the tamarind ; the kind indi- 
genous in the East Indies has larger fruits than that cultivated in the 
West Indies. The East India tamarind fruit is from 4 to 6 inches in 
length, and consists of a brown, brittle shell, containing from 6 to 10 
seeds enveloped in a soft, acid pulp, the whole being held together by a 
thin membranous covering. They are darker in color, and have a larger 
and sweeter pulp than the West Indian variety, and can be preserved 
without any addition of sugar or sirup. The West India tamarind lias 
pods from 2 to 4 inches in length, containing from 2 to 4 seeds in each. The 
outer pericarp, or shell, having been removed, they are placed in casks 
in layers with sugar; when pack^, the interstices are filled by pouring 
boiling sirup into the cask, whidi is closed up after the contents have 
cooled. 

The West India variety is considered to be hardier than that culti- 
vated in the East, but the fruit is not so highly prized. But none of 
them will grow in climates where frosts occur. 

The oherimoyer (Anona clieriinolia). 

The Oherimoyer or sofb-fruited custard apple is a medium sized tree, 
a native of Peru, Few Grenada, and other parts of South America. It 
is cultivated to some extent in ihese and other tropical regions for the 
sake of its fruits, which are highly esteemed by the natives of those 
countries. The fruit is large, firam 2 to 4 pounds in weight. The flesh 
is sweety slightly fragrant, and about the consistency of a custaid.^ 

The sweet sop {Anona aqucmimosa). 

This tree is cultivated both in the East and West Indies for the sake 
of its fruity which is called the Sweet sop. It Is an egg-shaped, fleshy 
fruity covered with a thin tubercular coat; it has a thick rind which ill- 
doses a soft, sweet pulp of a peculiar flavor, not much relished by those 
unaccustomed to its use, but it is highly esteemed by the natives. 

The leaves of the tree have a disagreeable odor, and the seeds con- 
tain an acrid principle which is fatal to insects; and a powder made 
from the seeds is used for the destruction of insects on animals. 

The BULLOOK's HEART APPLE {Anona reticulata) and the ALLiaA- 
TOR APPLE {Anona palustris) are sometimes mentioned among fruits 
worthy of culture, but compared with our cultivated fruits tihey are 
unworthy of notice. 

BROMELIA SYLVESTRIS AND BROMELIA KARATAS. 

These plants belong to the pineapple family, and contain a fine,tough 
fiber in tiieir leaves, which is known inthe West Indies a6 silk-grass; in 
Central America it is known as pita, and in Mexico as istle, and some- 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OP GARDENS. 217 

tames as ixtle fiber. The silky fibers are held togetlier by guraniy matter 
'which is capable of being dissolved, after which the fibers are easily sep- 
arated. The primitive mode of preparing this fiber is by steeping,- beat- 
ing, and scraping the leaf in a green state. After the removal of the 
^latinoas matter it is combed out and mbbed by hand until the fibers are 
separated. When the plant is young the fibers are fine and white: in 
older plants it is longer and coarser. The broken leaves are worked 
into a good paper fiber. The fiber from these plants is known in British 
Guiana as corawa fiber. 

The Bromelias are short-stemmed plants, .having a densely pjicked 
liead of stifl: leaves which are from 3 to 6 feet in length and 2 to 3 
inches in width. They are sometimes used for hedges,* for which they 
are well adapted. They are cultivated in a manner similar to tliJit 
adopted with pineapple? in Florida, and are propagated mainly from 
off-sets or suckers from the stem. 

The PARAGUAY TEA TREE {Ilex paraguuyenftis). 

This is a large growing tree, a native of South America, where it%s 
leaves. are collected and used in infusion as an article of food, under the 
nameofmat^.' 

In rich soils the tree will reach to a height of from 70 to 90 feet; trom 
the accounts of some it is said to be confined to mountain slopes, never 
appearingontable-landsnoronthebroadplainswhichskirt the river beds, 
while others mention that the tree is plentiful in all the moist valleys 
that branch out of the extensive chain of piountains that divide the 
waters of the Parana and Paraguay Eivers. It is well understood, how- 
ever, that the leaves of various species of Hex are collected in common 
by ^e natives, and that the trees are found over a widely-extended range 
of country and in a diversity of soils and situations. 

The ^^Herva de Palmeim^ of the Brazilians is produced from different 
species of Ilex which grow on the banks of the river Uruguay, and the 
leaves are considered to be equal in value as a beverage to that of the 
wtatS or herva yerba qf Paraguay. 

The tea as prepared in Brazil is a mixture of the leaves of two very 
distinot species, the Ilex giga/ntea'j which has large leaves and yields the 
artide known as lierva mausa^ or mild mat^, and the Ilex Humboldtianaj 
yielding herva brava^ or wild mat6. 

The Herva de Palmeira is considered equal to best Paraguay tea; the 
mauta and brwva aire considered inferior, although when nyxed in cer- 
tain proportions a mat6 equal to the genuine Paraguay yerba is pro- 
duced. 

For the preparation of mat6 proper the leaves are dried, or rather 
roasted, in cast-iron pans* set in brickwork and heated by fires under- 
neath; when the leaves aresufftciently heated they are pounded in stamp- 
ing-mills worked by water or steam power until reduced to powder, and 
then packed in bags by means of presses. 

There are three quabties or sorts of yerba known in the South Amer- 
ican markets. The best is said to be prepared from the youbg leaves 
"vhen they are about half expanded from the bud, called caacuys; the 
second consists of the full-grown leaves, carefully picked and separated 
^ twigs, and frequently the midrib and veins of the leaves are re- 
'"^oved; this is called caa-mira; the third is the cua-guaza^ or Yerva 
^^Palos, made from older leaves, carelessly broken up with the small 
lynches and leaf-stalks, all of which undergo the roasting and p&und- 
^S process together. 



S18 BIFOBT OV THB OQMipSSXOHBB OV ▲OBIOULTUU. 

The leaves are also coUected and dried in a similar manner to that 
adopted in the preparation of Chinese tea. This is called mat6 in leaf, 
and is prepared for use by infusion and taken with milk and sugar the 
same as ordinary tea. Mat^ in powder is also prepared by infusion, by 
putting into a small vessel about an ounce of the powder and pouring 
boiling water over it; as the fine dust does not fall to the bottom but 
remains suspended in the water, the mat6 is taken by means of a 
sucker, that is, a tube terminating in a small hollow ball, pierced with 
very fine holes. 

Mat6 contains theine, the same active principle as tea and coffee, but 
it is not possessed of their volatile and empyreumatic oils; it contains 
less essential oil, and is therefore not so exciting as coffee or tea; it con- 
tains more resin than coffee, less than tea; it is therefore more diuretic 
than coffee, and is as stimulating as tea. Chemical analyses show that 
it contains nearly double the quantity of theine that the same weight 
of grains of coffee contains, and about the same quantity as tea leaves* 
The Brazilians recommend mat^ as a nourishing, warm, aromatic, stim- 
ulating diuretic and very cheap beverage; its extreme cheapness is a 
guarantee of its genuineness, as it is not worth adulterating. 

The trees furnishing these leaves are not known to be cultivated any- 
where. The natural forests seem to be able, so far, to supply the con- 
sumptive demands. The Department has had repeated inquiries regard- 
ing the best climatic conditions for the culture of the plants, and how 
plants may be obtained; to the former inquiry, it would seem to require 
a strictly tropical climate, and as to propagation, no satisfactory infor- 
mation has been obtained. 

The chocolate-plant {Theohroma cacao). 

This is a small tree, reaching -from 15 to 20 feet in height, a native ol 
tropical Am.erica, where it is cultivated to a large extent for the sake of 
its fruits, which contain the seeds called cacao-seeds. It is also culti- 
vated in some of the West India Islands and in other tropical countriea. 

Young plants are raised from seeds which are ^wii in nursery rows, 
and transplanted when two years old. Rich bottom-lands are preferred 
for starting a plantation; the plants are placed about 15 fe^ apart and 
shaded by bananas and similar fast-growing plants. They come well 
into bearing when five or six years old, and in well managed planta- 
tions receive careful culture so as to thoroughly repress all other 
growths. It is said that there are several varieties in cultivation, some 
being better fitted for hilly situations, but the best seeds are from plants 
growing in rich, low-lying lands. It is probable that some of the hardier 
varieties would flourish in the warmer portions of the Southern States, 
but it may be doubted as proving a profitable culture. 

The fruits of the cacao very much resemble small cucumbers; they 
vary in length from 6 to 10 inches and from 3 to 5 inches in width. Each 
fruit contains from 50 to 100 seedB, imbedded in pulp; these seeds fur- 
nish the cacao of commerce. 

The fruits remain green until within a short time of ripening; after- 
wards they rapidly change to a yellow color, when they are re^y io be 
gathered. As they become dry the outside pod shrivels and changes 
to a brown color; they are then split open, the seeds taken out, cleaned 
from the pulpy matter adhering to them, and subjected to a process of 
fermentation for several days, which improves their color; they are then 
dried in the sun for some time, and afterwards packed for shipping. 



nPOST OV TBM iUPM tL f MWM T OF «ABDIHL tl9 

TUBMBBIO. 

This snbfitance is produced by the Curcuma longa^ a low-growing her- 
baoeons )[)lant9 a native of the East Indies^ bat widely spread and culti- 
vated over the West Indies, Central America^ and other warm countries. 
Hie culture of the plant is similar to that of the arrowroot. A rich 
son is necessary to produce the best root-stalks. The old roots only 
yield turmeric; the young tubers furnish a kind of arrowroot. The 
plants are increased by division ; they are set out in rows and cultivated 
like i>otatoes. It is an easily managed crop so far as culture is con- 
cerned. 

The article turmeric is prepiared by reducing the roots to powder, 
which acquires a fine yellow color. It is used for various purposes, such 
as an ingredient in cookery dishes, as chemical tests for the presence of 
alkalies, and to some extent in medicine. 

Thb SICILIAN SUMAO {Rhus coviaria). 

This small tree is a native of Southern Europe, where it is cultivated 
for the tannin contained in its leaves, which fiimish thei sumac of com- 
merce. It is Ubrgely grown in Sicily, near Palermo and Alcamo, that 
grown near the former place being considered of superior quality to that 
grown on the south or eastern coasts. To grow sumac in perfection 
requires a soil of only medium fertility: it is found thata very luxuriant 
growth is produced at the expense of the tannin principle; an exposure 
to sun on a southern slope is also favorable to an increase of tannin. 

The planting of sumac is effected in a manner very similar to that 

adopted by farmers in planting potatoes ; furrows are drawn about 3 feet 

apart, in which pieces of the running roots'of the plant are deposited at 

regular spaces about 2 feet apart, and covered by turning a furrow over 

ti^em with tiie plow. This planting takes place in early spring, and for 

the first year the only care is to keep the ground f^ee from weeds. In 

the fall tiie young plants are headed down — cutting them back to near 

the surfiace of the ground; this is done for the purpose of increasing 

the number of shoots for the growth of the ensuing year. In some 

plantations this heading back is continued to the second year's growth, 

imder the bc^ef that it increases the value of the leaves. 

The hsffvesting process is very similar to that adopted in making hay 
from grass ; the branches are mown over and careftdly cured by drying 
in the sun. * After being thoroughly dried the leaves are threshed from 
tlie branches ; Uiey are then collected and ground to powder by a sys- 
tem of millstones set on edge, running on a smooth, hard surface^ on 
vhioh the leaves are placed. V arious methods are adopted in grinding, 
tbe desideratum being to produce a fine powder. After being clean^ 
of small portions of branches by sifting it is ready for market. 

A plantation is not expected to remain profitable for a longer period 
^han 10 years. The average yield is 2,600 pounds per acre. 

The JAPAif YABNISH TREE {Rhus vemidfero). 

. ^ plant yields, in part at least, the varnish used for lacquer- work 
^ Japan. It is a low growing tree, seldom exceeding 20 feet in height, 
^d ig suflficiently hardy to stand the climates over a large portion of the 
yetted States. The varnish is collected from incisions made in the tree 
^nring the heat of summer j at first it is of a milky -white color, but turns 
"^ by exposure to the air. The preparation of the article to be var- 



220 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

Dished is an important process of the art of lacquering. It has been said 
that the modem lacquer is of an inferior quality to that of the ancient, 
and that the Japanese have lost the secret of its preparation 5 to this it 
has been replied that less care is now given to the work, and that when 
the articles are prepared by repeated coatings of lime, gum, and soft, 
coarse clay, first allowed to harden and then scraped and rubbed off, until 
the surface is rendered exceedingly hard and smooth, and afterwanls 
receiving as many as fifty coats of the varnish, each coat being allowed 
to dry in a close, dark room, and severely rubbed down before receiv- 
ing the next coating, that the surface becomes perfect and as durable 
as the older specimens of this kind of work. 

The lee-chee tree {Nephelium Utchi). 

« 

This tree is cultivated in orchards in Southern China for its frnits, 
which are highly esteemed in that country, and in a dried state are 
exported in considerable quantities. 

The tree grows to a height of from 25 to 30 feet It may be cultivated 
in many of our Southern States if found to be profitable. The fruits 
occasionally aj^ear among other articles of import, but it is believed 
that the culture would not be remunerative ; it is also known as the 
Lichi, or Litschi. The fruits are produced ip small bunches ; the sin- 
gle berries are nearly round, about one inch in diameter, and coveied 
with small, wart-like protuberances. When ripe they are of a reddish 
color, and contain a pulp of the consistence of honey, and of a very 
sweet, pleasant flavor. As seen in commerce, in tiie dried state, they 
present a wrinkled appearance, are dark in color, and somewhat resem- 
ble prunes. 

Ak allied species, Nephelium longanum, is known in China as the 
longan tree. It is also subjected to cultivation in that country. The 
fruits are much like those of the lee-chee^ only they are smooth, and 
have a very tender skin which incloses a thin layer of semi-transparent 
pnlp which has a pleasant, subacid flavor, and to which the Cbine^^d 
ascribe medicinal qualities. 

The sago palms {Sagus rumphii and Sagm Iccvis). 

These palms are natives of the islands of the Indian Archipelago, and 
yield the palmaceous starch called sago. The first mentioned is knbwn 
as the prickly sago palm; it forms a tree 30 to 40 feet in height, tiie leaf- 
stalks being armed with sharp spines from half an inch to an inch in 
length. The second mentioned species is spineless, and is called the 
spineless sago palm; this grows somewhat teller than the other and 
furnishes the largest portion of the sago of commerce. These plants 
thrive well only in marshy or even muddy soils, wh^re there is constant 
water about their roots; they receive nothing of what might be temiecl 
cultivation, and a plantation, when once established, luay be maintained 
for an indefinite period, as they throw out lateral shoots, which grow up 
and take the place of the older trunks, which are removed for the sake 
of the starch. 

The time for collecting the sago is immediately after the flower-spike 
makes its appearance on the plan^ which generally occurs when the tree is 
12 or 14 years old. In order to procure it the tree is felled and the trunk 
cut into pieces about 6 feet in length, which are Split open and the pith 
taken out; this pith is pounded to a coarse powder and thrown into 
water, which is afterwards drained off from the pulpy mass, and the 
starch is removed with the water. On being allowed to stand undis- 



REPORT OF THE 8UPBRIKTENDENT OF GARDENS. 221 

t4irbed for a short time the farina subsides and the crater is removed 
froui it, and the article is purified by successive washings with pure 
water. This is the sago meal, from which is manufactured the i^eaxl 
eago of commerce. 

An ordinary sized tree, of 14 years' growth, yields from 600 to 800 
IxMind^ of this nutritious matter. 

JLLOES. 

The aloes of commerce are furnished by several species of the aloes 
family, but mainly by Aloe vulgaris^ Aloe spicataj and Aloe 8ocotriiui. 

The aloes are usuaUy short-stemmed plants, having thick, fleshy leaves ; 
they are easily propagated by side-shoots, or suckers from the roots, and 
can be cultivated in fields like cabbages. 

The most esteemed aloes of commerce is that furnished by Aloe soco- 
ifina^ a native of the island of Socotra, on the south coast of Arabia, 
in the Indian Ocean. This appears in commerce in pieces having a 
yellowish or reddish-brown color; occasionally it appears of a Ughtei* 
color, but becomes darker by exposure to the air. The color of it^ 
powder is a golden-yellow, aiud it has a peculiar but not unpleasant 
odor, and a bitter, disagreeable taste, with an aromatic flavor. Socotrine 
aloes is held in high esteem. 

Hepatic aloes is considered to be an inferior selection from the soco- 
triple. 

Barbadoes aloes is produced in the West Indies from Aloe vulgarisj a 
i^idely diffused species, extending to Arabia and the African coast. 
The color of this article is generally dark brown or black, but sometimes 
it is of a reddish-brown or liver color, or some intermediate shade. It 
has a dull fr^u)ture, and the powder is of a dull, olive-yellow color. It 
is made by expressing the juice from the leaves, or chopping them and 
then evaporating their decoction until it has attained such a consistence 
that it will harden in cooling, when it is poured into vessels and allowed 
to concrete. Barbadoes aloes is in great demand in veterinary practice. 
Cape aloes is the product of Aloe spicata^ and is from the Gape of Gtood 
Hoi)e. It is sometimes called shining aloes. When freshly broken it 
has a very dark-olive or greenish color, approaching to black. Its odor 
is strong and disagreeable. When .hard it is very brittie and easily 
powder^, but in very hot weather it becomes soft and tenacious. 15ie 
quality of the drug depends much upon the method of prepp,rin^ it. 
The finest kind is that obtained by exudation and subsequent inspissa- 
tion in the sun. The plan of bruising and expressing the leaves and 
boUing down the juice yields an inferior article, as a large portion of the 
liquor is derived from the mucilaginous juice of the parenchyma. The 
^orst plan is said to be that of boiling the leaves in water and evapor- 
ating tiie decoction. 

The bitter, resinous juice from which the drug is prepared is stored 

ttp iu vessels lying beneath the skin of the leaves. The juice is collected 

by cuttiug off the leaves close to the stem and placing them at once into 

tubs vu an upright x>osition, so that the sap may flow freely from the 

cut (surface. The crude juice is then exposed to the sun, wh^re it is 

gradually evaporated to a proper consistence, and is then poured into 

v^^sels, where it hardens into a black, compact mass. Much of the value 

^* the.article depends upon the care bestowed upon its preparation for 

uiarket 

Horse aloes is a very coarse article made from refuse leaves, and is 
^ in veterinary medicine. 



222 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTDBE. 

The oloye tree {Oaryophtfllus aromatieus). ^ 

• 

This is an evergreen, and attains to a height of from 20 to 25 feet. It 
is a native of the Molacca Islands, but has been introdticed and culti- 
vated very generally throughout tne East and West Indies. 

In forming a plantation ^e trees are planted in rows about 16 feet 
apart, and the soil is kept clean and mellow by cultivation. The cloves 
of commerce are the unopened flower-buds ; these are collected before 
they expand by beating them down with reeds, and are received on 
sheets spread for the purpose. They are prepared for market by smoking 
them brown over a slow, wood fire, and finally drying them fully in the 
sun. The quality of the clove is greatly influence by climate, and 
although they are largely produced in many parts of the world those 
from the Moluccas are held in the highest esteem. 

The best cloves are dark in color, heavy, and strongly fragrant, the ball 
on top being unbroken, and yielding oil when pressed by tiie finger-naiL 
They contain from 17 to 20 per cent, of essential oil, wMch is extremely 
pungent, and is specifically heavier than water. When they are newly 
gathered a certain quantity of oil may be obtained by pressure; the 
cloves are impaired in value by this operation, but they are mixed with 
sound samples, where, however, they can be detected by their pale 
color, shriveled appearance, and lack of flavor. 

The CHINESE tallow tree {Exccecaria sebifera). 

This tree has been introduced into many semi-tropical climates and 
has become common in some of the Southern States. The fruit yields a 
kind of tallow, which is separated from it by steaming; this is effected 
by placing the fruit in wooden cylinders having numerous holes in the 
bottom. These are fitted over caldrons of boiLmg water, which softens 
the tallow; the mass is then bruised in a mortar:, afterwards it is placed 
in straw tnats and the oil squeezed out under heavy pressure, when it 
soon hardens into a white, brittle, opaque mass. This tallow melts at 
104^ F., and is composed mainly of tripalmatine, a substance which is 
saponified by alcoholic potash and produces palmitic acid. .It is used 
for candle-making in Cluna; the candles are coated with insect wax to 
prevent them from becoming soft in hot weather ; they are generally 
colored red or green, and compare favorably with those made from 
spermaceti. 

An oil is also extracted from the kernels which bums well in lamps; 
a good black dye is obtained from the leaves ; tiie wood of the tree is 
very hard and is used by the Chinese for printing-blbcks. 

The tree is of free growth and will grow in any ordinary arable soiL 
It is easily raised from seeds and soon reaches to a fruiting condition, 
so that a plantation of them may be secured in a few years. 

The ohooho, or ohayote root. 

These names are given to the root of a climbing plant, indigenous to 
Mexico, South America, and the West Indies, where it is cultivated for 
the sake of its edible roots and fruits. The botanical name of the plant 
is Sechium edule. The root is fleshy and large, some specimens weighing 
20 pounds ; these resemble, both in appearance and eatable qualities, 
the common yam. It is much used in the West Indies under the name 
of chocho. It was cultivated by the ancient Aztecs under the name oi 
chayotti, and is now known in Mexico as ihe chayote root. Samph 
of starch prepared from the tuber were displayed in tibie Mexican exhibit=; 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GARDENS. 223 

at Philadelphia in 1876, accompanied with the following analysis of the 
root: Water, 71; starch, 20; resinons matter, soluble in water, 0.20; 
sugar, 0.32; vegetable albumen, 0.43; cellulose, 5.60; extractive matter, 
tartrate of potash, chloride of sodium, sulphate of lime, and silica, 2.25; 
lofis, 0.20. 

Seeds of the Sechium sown in spring famish plants which mature fruit 
the same season. After the growth of the second year a portion of the 
tuber can be removed without destrqying the plant, an operation which 
can be repeated for several years, at least in climates where there are 
DO frosts. A plant that produces eatable fruits, with a valuable farina- 
ceous root, seems to be worthy of attention. 

The cork tree (Querous suher). 

This a native of Southern Europe and Northern Africa. It grows to 
a height of 40 or 50 feet. It is the greiat source of the cork of commerce ; 
this substance is the outer bark of the tree, which is of great thickness 
and elasticity, owing to an extraordinary development of the cellular tis- 
sue. The corky bark ultimately cracks and separates from the inner 
bark, which remains attached to the tree. Both the outer and inner barks 
abound in tannin, and the former contains a peculiar principle called 
suberine and an acid called suberic acid. The cork tree flourishes well 
south of Virginia; it will stand ordinary winters north of this State, but 
severe winters injure it considerably, especially when the plants are 
young. A plant in the grounds of the department was killed during Uie 
severe winter of 1880-'81, whien the thermometer indicated 18 degrees 
below zero. It is readily raised from the seeds, which, however, have to 
receive 8i)ecial care in packing, so that they may retain vitality during 
the time necessary for transportation from Europe. The trees are usually 
allowed to grow for sixteen years before the first removal of the bark 
takes place. The flrst crop of bark is considered of but little value, ex- 
cept for tanning purposes, being full of cracks and cells. AfteY* a period 
of eight or ten years the bark is again removed, but this is also consid- 
^^ of an inferior quality, and is employed for floats for nets and similar 
purposes. At the end of ten years or more a third cutting takes place, 
when the cork is of esteemed thickness and quality. The bark is re- 
moved by making longitudinal and transverse incisions so as to allow it 
to be taken off in flakes. When flrst removed from the tree the bark is 
carved; tiie pieces are* flattened by placing them in water and laying 
beavy weights on them ; they are sftterward^ held over a blazing fire tiU 
tlie BurfEU^e becomes scorched or blackened, which has the effect of clos- 
ing the pores and giving a closer texture to the cork. 

The best cork is not less than one and a half inches in thicknesis; it is 
Bupple, dastic, neither woody nor porous, and of a reddish color. Yellow 
cork is considered of inferior quality, and wliite cork, which has not been 
charred on the suiface, as the worst. Although the charred surface is 
considered evidence of good quality, yet it is said that the charring pro- 
cess has a detrimental effect, as it secretes an empyreumatic oil, which 
is given off, and is frequently taken up by the liquid which the cork con- 
fines when in use. The firing is sometimes partially superseded by the 
process of boiling the cork and afterwards scraping its surface, which is 
^d to be more effectual in closing the pores. 

The oamphob tbee {Oamphara officinalis). 

J^ tree m a native of China and Japan, where it is found in great 
abundaiM^ei especially in the island of Formosa. The camphor plant 



224 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

flomisbes iu perfection in some of the Southern States, especially along 
the Golf coast, and as many inqoiries have been made in regard to the 
culture of the tree, the mode of collecting the camphor, &c., the follow- 
ing remarks are offered on Uiese sultjects : 

With regard to culture, the plant grows rapidly from seeds which can 
be procur<^ from the southern localities, where it seeds freely. The de- 
partment has frequency received seeds from this Source, which, when 
sown in a garden border, as the cominon garden pea is sown, rapidly 
vegetate and form plants from 18 inches to 2 feet in height the first sea- 
son. Camphor is obtained by chopping the wood and roots into small 
pieces and boiling them with water in un iron vessel till the camphor be- 
gins to adhere to the stirring utensil ; the liquor is then strained, and 
the camphor concretes on standing. It is afterwards mixed with a finely- 
powdered earth, and sublimed from one metallic vessel into another. 
In Japan the chips are boiled in a vessel to which an earthen head con- 
taining straw has been ^tted, and the camphor sublimes and condenses 
on the straw. Crude camphor very much resembles moist sugar before 
it is cleaned. It is refined by sublimation, an operation which requires 
care and experience. 

Camphor is also yielded by Dryohalanops aromaticay a tree a native of 
the ishmd of Sumatra. This tree furnishes an oil called camphor oil, 
which is obtained from incisions made in the tree. A solid camphor is 
found in cracks of the wood, which is usually obtained by cutting down 
the tree, cutting it into blocks, which are split and the camphor ex- 
tracted. Tills camphor is rarely found in commerce. The tree is too 
tender for the climate of the United States. 

The cinnamon tree {Cinnamomum zeylanicum). 

This tree is a native of Ceylon, where it reaches to the height of 30 
feet. It is cultivated in Java, Cochin China, and many of the East India 
Islands ; it is also grown in several of the w est India Islands, in Brazil, 
and other South American countries. 

The best cinnamon is produced on light, sandy soils ; strong shoots 
from rich soils produce a coarse, inferior article, deficient in aroma. The 
plant requires a tropical climate, and flourishes best in low, sheltered 
localities^ where the atmosphere is moist and rains frequent during the 
period of most active growlh. When cultivated for the bark the plant 
is not allowed to grow up to a tree ; young plantations, after making four 
or five years' growth, are cut down to the surface of the ground; .several 
shoots then spring up which are in turn fit for peeling in four to six years; 
a cinnamon plantation thus closely resembles a field of willows when 
cultivated for twigs used in the manufacture of baskets. 

In the East Indies cinnamon-culture is conducted in a very syst^n- 
atic manner. Nurseries are provided for the preparation of young 
plants, which are usually raised from seeds which are collected from 
trees allowed to grow up for the particular purpose of iumishing them. 
The inner bark of the tree constitutes the cinnamon of commerce, the 
best being procured from young branches. The quality of the article 
depends upon the age and tiiickness of the bark, and several grades 
can be selected from a shoot six feet in length. In Ceylon the bark is 
peeled during the month of May, at which time it separates readily from 
the wood. The branches or twigs are cut and their outer bark stripped 
off; a longitudinal incision is then made with the point of a knife, and 
the inner bark or liber is 'gradually loosened until it is entirei|y re- 
moved ; this, as it dries, curls up and forms ^^ quills." Before these be- 



I 

REPORT OP THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GARDENS. 225 

come dry and brittle the smaller are inserted into the larger; space in 
packing is thns saved, and complete sticks or pipes are formed, which 
are afterwards tied in bundles, and dried on open platforms under cover. 
The cassia bark, or ^^ ccLssia lignea " of commerce, is mainly furnished 
by Cinnanwnium cassia; it is supposed that other species of the genus 
afford aromatic barks equally valuable and not distinguishable in mar- 
ket. But all the trees yielding this bark are natives of the warmer parts 
of Asia from India eastward, where the temperature may be considered 
as being strictly tropical. Cassia "buds'' are the dried flower buds of 
the cassia tree ; they bear some resemblance to cloves, and are used to 
flavor confectionery and for culinary purposes. 

The NUTMEG TREE {Myristica moschata). 

This a native of the East Indies, but has been introduced and culti- 
vated in the West Indies and in other warm countries ; it forms a medium- 
sized tree and is grown in orchards ; a nutmeg plantation and a x>each 
orchard closely resemble each other. 

Nutmeg-culture was at one time confined to the Banda Islands, and 
strong efibrts were made to monopolize the production, a scheme which 
failed, it is stated, on account of birds carrying the seeds and dropping 
them beyond the assigned limits, and thns spreading the trees over the 
whole of the islands of the Malayan Archipelago, from the Moluccas to 
New Guinea. 

The tree is cultivated to a limited extent in Jamaica, where it succeeds 
best in a deep, rich, friable soil, which is drained. Undulating ground 
is preferred in order to assist the running off of all superfluous water, as 
Uiere is no one thing more injurious to the plant than water lodging 
around its roots, although in order to thrive well it requires an atmos- 
phere of the most humid kind. Young plants are readily raised from 
fresh seeds. The fruit requires nine months of tropical weather to ma- 
ture. 

ALLSPICE, OR PIMENTO. 

The allspice tree, Eugmia pimenta^ is a native of the West Indies, 
where it is cultivated for its fruits, which are known in commerce as 
allspice. It is a very beautiful tree, and avenues planted with it in 
Jamaica are said to be greatly admired. As a shade tree, or as an 
ornamental tree on lawns and pleasure grounds, it is well worthy the 
attention of planters in the warmer parts of Florida. The berries have 
a peculiarly grateful odor and flavor, resembling a combination of . 
cloves, nutmeg, and cinnamon ; hence the name allspice. The berries 
are gathered while green and are laid in the sun to dry ; when perfectly 
dry they are ready for storing. The leaves when bruised emit a fine 
aromatic otlor, as powerful as that of the fruit, and yield on distillation 
a delicate odoriferous oil, which is said to be used in medical dispens- 
aries as oil of cloves. Pimento berries bruised and distilled with water 
yield the pimento oil of commerce. 

THE BAYBERRY TREE. 

^^mia acrisj the wild clove, or bayberry tree of the West Indies, is 
* tree closely resembling the pimento tree. In Jamaica it is also called 
fte black cinnamon tree. The refreshing perfume known as bay -rum is 
Prepared by distilling the leaves of this tree with rum. It is stated the 

15 AG 



226 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

leaves of the allspice tree are also ased in this preparation. As this tree 
is of rapid growth, and has beautifal evergreen foliage, which can l>e 
thus utilized by distillation, its introdaction as an ornamental and useful 
plant is worthy of attention in orange-growing climates. 

ARROW-ROOT. 

The arrow-root, Maranta arundinacea^ is a native of tropical America ; 
it is largely cultivated in the East and West Indies for the starch con- 
tained in its roots. 

The Island of Bermuda has the reputation of producing superior 
arrow-root. The mode of culture adopted is very similar to that prac- 
ticed in the culture of the common potato. The ground is well manured 
and plowed deep. It is then harrowed and laid out in drills about 6 
indies in depth and 3 feet apart. In these drills the roots are set about 
8 inches apart, covered with the plow, and the surface smoothed by 
harrowing. The plants require a whole year to mature, and economical 
planters set the drills somewhat wider apart and introduce an inter- 
mediate row of the potato, the crop of which is ready for removal be- 
fore it can injure the arrow-root crop. Sometimes Indian corn is planted 
in these alternate rows, which is cut for forage while green ] if allowed 
to mature the main crop would be impaired by it. 

The mode of preparing the fecula from the roots greatly influences 
its value, and the superiority of the Bermuda article is attributed to the, 
extreme care and cleanliness exercised in the processes of manufacture.' 

The roots, after being collected, are washed and their outer skin com- 
pletely removed. This process has to be performed with great nicety, 
for the cuticle contains a resinous matter which imparts color and a 
disagreeable flavor to the starch which no subsequent treatment can 
remove. After this process the roots are again carefully washed and 
then crushed ^between powerful rollers, which reduces the whole mass 
into a pulp; tids is thrown into large perforated cylinders where it is 
agitated by revolving wooden paddles, while a stream of pure water 
carries off the fecula from the fibers and parenchyma of the pulp and 
discharges it, in the form of milk, through the perforated bottom of the 
cylinder, from whence it is conveyed in pipes and passed through fine 
muslin strainers into large reservoirs, where it is allowed to settle and 
the supemated water drawn off. 

After being repeatedly washed it is allowed to settle for some time, 
when the surface is skimmed with palette knives of German silver, in 
order to remove any slightly discolored particles which may appear on 
the top, and retaining only the lower, purer, and denser portion for dry- 
ing for market. 

The rollers and cylinders are made of brass and copper, so as to pre- 
serve the purity of the material. 

The drying is conducted with equal care and cleanliness. The sub- 
stance is spread in flat copper pans and immediately covered with 
white gauze to exclude dust and insects. These pans are placed on 
rollers and run under glass-covered sheds when there is any danger 
from rains or dews. When thoroughly dry it is packed with (Jerman- 
silver shovels into new barrels; these are first lined with paper, which 
is gummed with arrow-root paste. 

The barrels are exported on the decks of vessels under cover; if 
placed in the hold the arrow-root might be tainted by the effluvia of 
other freight. Such are the processes employed and the care bestowed 
in the preparation of arrow-root in Bermuda. 



REPOST OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GARDENS. 227 

TEE CASSAVA PLANT. 

The bitter cassava (Manihot utilisHma) is a crooked-growing, shrabby 
plant which attains to a height of 6 to 8 feet. It is a native of tropical 
America., but long introdac^ into various tropical regions, where it is 
more or less cultivated for the starch contained in its fleshy roots. The 
roots contain a bitter, poisonous principle, which is readily separated 
by rasping the roots to a pulp and expelling the poisonous juice by 
heavy i>re8sure; the pulp, being placed in coarse bags for the purpose of 
pressing, is afterwards placed upon heated iron i)lates, which has the 
effect of dissipating any of the poison which may remain after pressure. 
So volatile is this x>olson that when the fresh root is cut into slices and 
exxH>sed for several hours to the direct rays of the sun cattle then eat 
it with x>erfect safety. The Indians also partake of the root after roast- 
ing it in hot ashes, and without any previous preparation. 

The process of drying on hot plates lessens the nutritive value of the 
product, as many of the starch cells are thus broken and dextrine is 
produced, but t^is process is essential in order to get rid of the poisonous 
acid. 

The fecula, or starch, is prepared by torrefying and granulating on 
hot plates; the grains burst and agglomerate in irregular gum-like 
masBes, and in this condition is known as tapioca. 

Brazilian arrow-root is the fecula that deposits from the expressed 
juice when it is allowed to settle, and is also known as cassava flour or 
mancliocca meal. An intoxicating beverage called piwarrie is made 
by chewing Cassava cakes, or dried pulp, and placing the masticated 
material into a vessel to ferment, after which it is boiled for use. 

The juice of the root, concentrated by boiling, which also expels all 
injurious properties, under the name of cassareep, forms the basis of 
the West India dish called pepper-pot. It is highly antiseptic, and 
meat which has been boiled in it will be preserved for a much longer 
period than can be done by any other culinary process. In Seuth 
America a sauce called arube is prepared by boiling down the fresh 
juice before the starch is precipitated ; this is concentrated to a yel- 
lowish paste and seasoned with piepper ; it is kept in stone jars and 
Uused as a relish to flsh. Tucupi sauce is made from the juice after the 
starch has been separated, boiled, and seasoned with peppers and small 
spices. It is used in a liquid form and tastes like essence of anchovies. 
The sweet cassava {Alanihot aipi) is supposed by some to be mer^y 
a variety of the preceding. Its roots are sweet and wholesome, and are 
eaten when cooked as any other edible vegetable. With the exception 
of the poisonous quality, the products of the sweet and the bitter cas- 
sava are precisely alike. The bitter plant is most cultivated because it 
in most productive. 

Tlie plants are propagated from cuttings made of the stem, prepared 
aud planted in a manner similar to that employed in the culture of the 
sagar-cane. A warm, dry soil is essential. In wet soils the roots decay 
^^ are worthless. The most careful cultivators repress the flowering 
^ud^ 80 as to increase the size and vigor of the leaves, ui>on which de- 
pends the greater increase in the size of the roots. 

THE PISTAOIO NX7T. 

1*he Pigtacia tera^ which yields the pistacio nuts of commerce, is a smaU 
^ a native of Western Asia, but has long been cultivated in Southern 
AQiope. Its dimatio requirements being similar to those of the olive. 



228 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

it may be expected to flourish in many of the Southern States. The 
fruit is a thin-shelled, oval, acuminate nut, which is esteemed as being 
of a more agreeable flavor than the Albert or the almond, and is some- 
times made into articles of confectionery. Peculiar horn-shaped galls 
are collected from the leaves, which are used for dyeing silk a green 
color. 

CHIOS TURPENTINB. 

This substance is much sought afber for medicinal purposes. It is 
furnished by the terebinth tree, Pistacia terehinthusy a medium-sized 
tree of Southern Europe and Northern Africa. The turpentine, or resin, 
is procured by making incisions in the trunk of the tree, from whence 
it flows quite freely if the operation is performed in early summer. At 
flrst the exudation is clear, of a honey-like consistence, and very fragrant, 
but quickly becomes thick and tenacious, and ultimately becomes hard 
when it is scraped from the bark. Galls, caused by the punctures of 
insects, are formed on the leaves. These are gathered and employed 
for dyeing and tanning purposes. One of the kinds of Morocco leather 
is said to be tanned by them. 

VANILLA. 

The vanilla of commerce is furnished by two species. Vanilla aro- 
matica and Vanilla planifolia. These are succulent, climbing plants, 
natives of tropical climates, where they are cultivated for the sake of 
their pods. The best vanilla is said to be that produced in Mexico from 
Vanilla planifolia. Both species are in cultivation in the East and West 
Indies, also in various parts of South America. 

The stems of these plants climb to the height of 20 feet and upwards, 
twining round the trunks of trees and throwing out a profusion of aerial 
roots, some of which eventually reach the ground, while others continue 
to float in the air or attach themselves to the tree. The leaves are thick 
and fleshy, as also are the greenish- white flowers. The pods, which are 
the most important part of the plant, are narrow and flattened, from 5 
to 10 inches long, and of a dark-brown color; they are pulpy witiiin and 
contain a great number of very small, dark seeds. 

The cultivation extended to the plants is very simple. A space is 
cleared around the foot of a tree, in which cuttings of the plant are set 
at the approach of the rainy season, and they soon begin to grow and 
spread themselves up the trunk. Weeds are carefully repressed on the 
cleared space in which the cuttings are set, and in about three years 
from the time of setting the cuttings the plants yield fruit. The fruits 
are gathered during December, at which time they become of a yel- 
lowish-green color. The details of i)reparation for market are varied. 
One mode is that of spreading the pods in the sun on woolen blankets, 
which are laid on straw mats. After about two months' daily exposure 
they are tied up in bundles of 50 and packed in tin boxes for sale. 

Another method consists of stringing together a number of pods by 
the lower end, as near as possible to the footstalk ; the whole are plunged 
for an instant in boiling water and then hung up in the open air, where 
they are exposed to the sun. After being thus exposed for a few hours 
they are lightly smeared with oil and laid in woolen cloths for a time, 
after which they are dried, and if not smooth they receive a second 
rubbing with oil to keep them soft and prevent them from becoming 
wrinkled. When vanilla pods are in good condition they become cov- 
ered with an efflorescence of needle-like crystals of vanillic acid; the 
interior of the pod is then soft, unctuous, and balsamic. 



\ 



REPOKT OP THE . SUPERINTENDENT OF GARDENS. 229 

ORRIS-ROOT. 

The Iris florentina belongs to a genus of popular flowering plants, 
which have long been cultivated in gardens foi* their beautiful, many- 
colored, curiously-constructed flowers. The above-named species is a 
native of Italy, and is cultivated there and in Tuscany for its fleshy 
' rhizomes, called orris-root. 

In its fresh state the root is extremely acrid, and, when chewed, ex- 
cites a pungent heat in the mouth which lasts for some time. It loses 
this when drjj and exhales a delightfiQ violet fragrance, which makes 
it useful in scenting toilet and sachet powders. 

When cultivated for commercial purposes, the roots are lifted in 
spring before the plants begin their annual growth ; the top is cut off 
with a small portion of root, and then set out to form a new plantation. 

The plants require a growth of three years before the roots attain suf- 
ficient size for harvesting, so that the farms on which the plants are 
grown contain plants in three stages of growth. When taken out of the 
ground the roots are spread out to dry; afterwards they are trimmed 
into 8hax)e for market. Dark-colored pieces are often bleached by the 
fumes of burning sulphur, which is very detrimental to them for per- 
fumery purposes, although for bead manufacture they are improved by 
being whitened. The manufacture of orris-beads is quite an extensive 
industry ; individual turners will sometimes work out two tons of the 
beads annually. For this i)urpose the root, having been slowly and 
perfectly dried, is cut with circular saws into cubes, which are then con- 
verted into beaas. These have no beauty, but their fragrance is lasting 
and always fresh. 

The chips and shavings from the turnery and pieces of broken root 
are used to produce the tincture or essence of orris. This is made by 
I^acing 8 i)ounds of the roots into one gallon of rectified alcohol, and the 
mixture allowed to stand for about a month; when drawn off tihe tinct- 
ore is bright and ready for use. This extract enters largely into many 
of the celebrated perfumes and *' bouquets," for although it possesses 
but little aroma itself it has the power of strengthening the odor of other 
fragrant bodies. 

hi the preparation of orris-powder the root is first perfectly dried, 
then crushed under millstones, and finally reduced to powder in a drug 
mill. The orris-powder thus produced is mixed with dry wheat starch 
m the projwrtion of 2 pounds of orris to 12 pounds of starch-powder ; 
after being sifted and blended they are allowed to remain together for 
a time, when the starch becomes fragrant, and the product is the ^^ violet 
powder'' of commerce, which is largely used in the composition of tooth 
powders. Sachets of orris-flour give a delightful odor to clothes and 

linens in wardrobes or drawers. 

PEPPEB. 

The black pepper of commerce is the seed of Piper nigrum^ a half- 
^candent, or climbing plant, a native of India; it is cultivated in vari- 
?^ warm countries. The pl^nt is propagated from cuttings taken from 
it8 climbing, shrubby stem. Eich lowlands, but not wet, are selected for 
? plantation. Young plants are set about 10 feet apart, and their climb- 
^g habit rendering it necessary to provide them with some support, a 
Pfop ig set along with each plant; these props are generally made of 
f'^^gh-barked or thorny plants, and on account of being set when green, 
j^t as they are taken from the tree, they sometimes grow, which has 



230 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AaRIOULTURE. 

given rise to the statement " that the pepper is planted near to the root 
of a tree upon which it climbs.^ 

The tops of the plants are usually turned down after reaching a height 
of 6 or 8 feet, or to the top of the prop, so that a well-managed pepper 
plantation greatly resembles a vineyard when the vines are trained to 
poles or stakes. Much attention is given to careful culture, and an aci*e 
will yield on an average 1,000 pounds of pepper-conis. The berries, or 
fruits, are borne upon a spadix, that is, they are arranged in dense clus- 
ters round a central stalk. They are of a re<l color when rii)e, but tuv. 
gathered before being fully matured, and just as they begiu t^) clmnge 
from the green to the red-colored state. When gathered they are sjiread 
in the sun to dry, and when they shrivel and turn black are rea<ly to be 
packed for market 

White pepper is the same fruit allowed to ripen ; it is then gathered 
and soaked in water until the outer skin is soft, which is then removed 
by rubbing. The seed itself is of a whitish-gray color, and when dried 
forms white pepper. 

Respectfully submitted 

WILLIAM SAUNDERS, 
BarHcuUH/rittj Pomologtti^ Landscape- Gardener, and Suj^intendent of Qrounde. 

Hon. Geo. B. Lorino, 

Commissioner of Agriadtvre. 



REPORT OF THE BOTANIST. 



Sm : I beg herewith to submit the following report of the work of 
this division for the past year : 

aSASSES FOB TEXAS. 

As the result of our many inquiries with reference to the native 
grasses of Texas, much information has been elicited respecting several 
^>ecies which give promise of fully meeting all the wants of that sec- 
tion of coantry. The principal need is of a permanent pasture grass, 
one which will yield well, bear the tramping of stock, and endure the 
drought of summer. Such a pasture grass would supply good grazing 
for nine or ten months of the year. During the two or three (Lrieat months 
the supply will generally need to be supplemented by annual grasses 
provided for that purpose. In many parts of Texas farmers do not feel 
any need of a supply of hay, as the winters are so open as to allow 
stock to graze in the opefl fields, provided suitable pasturage is fur- 
ni^shed. However, in parts of the country where there is any liability 
to severe or protracted winter storms, it will be prudent to provide k 
supply of hay. 

The grasses that thus far seem to offer the most promising results for 
permanent pastures are: Johnson grass {Sorghum halapense), liescae 
grass (Bromus umoloides)^ Texas blue grass {Poa arachnifera)^ and the 
Jptutpoiutn avatum described and figured in last year's report. 

The Poa arachniferaj locally called Texas blue grass, has been known 
for many years as one of the native grasses of Texas, and during the 
past six years has been made the subject of some extended experiments, 
chiefly by Mr. Geo. H. Hogan, of Ennis, Ellis County. The species was 
first described by Dr. John Torrey in the report of Captain Marcy's ex- 
exploratiou of the Red River of Louisiana, as having been found on the 
headwaters of the Trinity, and named Poa ara^lmifera from the pro- 
ftse webby hairs produced about the flowers, although it is found that 
"this is a variable character, probably depending somewhat on the 
amount of shade or exposure to which the grass is subject. 

Sevmd years ago Mr. Hogan sent specimens of the grass to this de- 
partment, which were examined and determined by the botanist, and as 
it was shown to be a relative of the Kentucky blue grass, Mr. Hogan 
adopted for his species the name of Texas blue grass. We give below 
Boine extracts from his letters relating to the subject: 

I call it Texaa blue grass, and if it were possible t^ patent it I would not give it for 

•U the mineral wealth of Texas. I find it is spreading rapidly over the country, and 

I claim for it all and more in Texas than is awarded to the Poapratensis in Kentucky. 

Xtieemsto be indigenous to all the prairie country between the Trinity River and the 

^razon in our State. It blooms here about the last of March, and ripens its seeds by 

tt« 15th of April. Stock of aU kinds, and even poultry, seem to prefer it to wheat, 

^^or auythiug else srown in the winter. It seems to have aU the characteristics 

of the FoapratenHs, only it is much larger and therefore affords more grazing. I have 

known it to grow 10 inches in ten days during the wiulcr. The coldest winters do 



232 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

not even nip it, and although it seems to dio dov^n dorin^ summer it springs up as 
soon as the first rains fall in September and grows all winter. I have Known it in 
cultivation some five years and have never been able to find a fault in it. It will be 
ready for pasture in three or four weeks after the first rains in the latter part of Au- 
gust or first of September. I have never cut it for hay. Why should a man want 
hay when he can nave green grass to feed on T With a pasture well set in this grass 
you cannot run after your cows fast enough to get them to eat hay in our coldest 
weather. Very few of our farmers are paying any attention to grass, but most of 
them are raising cotton to the exclusion of com, wheat, oats, &.C., and I am convinced 
it will take some very severe lessons in experience to teach them that grass is the 
main stake in agriculture, either as hay or pasture. 

Mr. S. 0. Tally, of Ellis County, Texas, has sent specimens of this 
grass for identification. He says it is abundant there, bears hea\^ 
pasturing, and makes a beautiful yard or lawn grass. He went to Ennis 
to see the grass grown by Mr. Hogan as Texas blue grass, and was 8a^ 
isfied that his grass was the same. He will be glad to aid in bringing 
this grass to notice. He writes further as follows : 

I have shown it to several Kentnckians from the blue grass region of Kentucky and 
they have become deeply interested in it, and some are of the opinion that it is very 
nearly equal to the Kentucky blue grass, which also grows well here when once set; 
the difficulty is in getting a stand owing to the looseness of the surface soil, unless 
the season is favorable. The Texas blue grass, if we accept Mr. Hogan's name, comes 
spontaneously apparently where all other vegetation is killed by tramping. I find it 
by the roadside, by fences and hedges, and growing luxuriantly under Osage orange 
trees 15 feet high. Shade dees not appear to hurt it any more than orchard grass. 

Mr. C. B. Bichardson, of Henderson, Texas, says of the same grass, 
the seed of which he obtained from Mr. Hogan: 

I planted the seed in the spring in three short row A)n quite a poor, sandy spot in my 
garaen. They came up well and grew finely until the dry weather set in about the 
middle of June. It then appeared to dry up and I|decided it to be a failure on high, 
sandy lands. But when the rains came on m September it started up afiresh and is 
now (March 27) 6 inches high, after having been eaten to the ^pround in December and 
again in January. I planted the rows 2 feet apart, and while it was yeung kept down 
the crab grass. Now it has entirely sodded the space between the rows by means of its 
runners. It stood the very hot and dry summer when only four months from the seed. 
I am much pleased with it, and intend to save seed and plant a meadow in the fall. 

Paspalum avatum was described and figured in the report for 1880. 
Since then we have received specimens from a gentleman of Louisiana, 
without particular remarks as to its value, and more receutly from our 
statistical correspondent at Guntersville, Marshall County, Alabama, Mr. 
A. J. Baker, who says it is one of their best perentiial grasses, with- 
standing the severest drought, and is relished by all stock. 

Johnson Gbass {Sorghum Juilapense) is growing in popularity as 
farmers become more familiar with its value as a hay grass. It yields 
a larger quantity of hay to the acre than Bermuda grass, but is coarser 
and inferior in quality. One correspondent says : 

It produces enormously as a hay crop, but has the disadvantage of being eradicated 
with difficulty and is liable to spread to the cultivated pounds. It also requires a 
good soil. These obiections tend very much to diminish its culture on a large scale, 
particularly on small and medium sized farms. 

BERMUDA GBASS. 

Mr. S. 0. Tally, of Ellis County, Texas, says : 

Bermuda is now the most popular grass here, and it is being planted by plowing n 
the Bermuda sod, cutting it up, and then scattering it on the land selected for pas 
nre, and plowing it in shallow when the land is as wet as it will do to plow. 

Of Alfalfa, or Lucem, he says: 

Alfalfa also does well. The difficulty is in the first year. The weeds grow so ra 
idly in the spring that tbciy smother the young plants unless sown very thick 





REPORT OF THE BOTANIST. 233 

clean land, or land nearly frco from seeds of weeds. Our farmers are beginning to see 
the folly of their former neglect of the grasses and now would willinglj'^ pay more to 
have part of their land reset in grass than it cost them to have the sod broken and the 
f^rass destroyed, many of them having broken every acre to pnt in corn and cotton, 
and now cannot buy unbroken land near them, and have to feed their work stock as 
regularly in summer as in winter. 

WILD OATS. Avenafatuu. 

In tlie description given of this grass in connection with the figure 
in another part of this report, it is stated that the common cultivated 
oat is believed sometimes to degenerate into the wild oat. The follow- 
ing case, described by Mr. J. G. Pickett, of Pickett's Station, Wiscon- 
sin, certainly seems to afford evidence to that effect. The circumstance 
can only be otherwise accounted for by supposing the accidental intro- 
duction of the wild oat through seed obtained from some foreign source. 
It shows also how easily this pest is spread after being once introduced 
into a field. Mr. Pickett writes as follows: 

Inclosed I send you specimens of a plant known in this section as wild oats. The 
history of the plant is as follows : In the year 1856 Mr. Lucius Hawley, of this town, 
threshed with a machine about 15 acres of common white oat-s from the stack upon 
Ihe ground on which the crop grew. The straw was indifferently piled up, and so re- 
' mained through the winter. In the following spring the straw was set on fire, but 
being wet was but partially burned, and what remained was scattered over about an 
acre of ground, and with the balance of the field was plowed under and the field sown 
to spring wheat. At harvest time the threshing ground and the land upon which 
the partially burnt straw had been drawn was found to be completely occupied by a 
erop of oats, and so thick upon the ground as to have completely smothered the wheat. 
Mr. Haw lev, supposing the oata were from those of the former crop, did not examine 
the grain closely, but cut the wheat and oats with a reaper, at the same time keeping 
the grains separate as much as possible, and he did not discover, until stacking the 
grain, that the oats were not the common oat, but something different from any "he had 
Been before. The oats, ripening early, had shelled upon the reaper and were carried 
more or less over the entire field, and a crop of spring wheat again following, the 
new oata were found scattered over the whole field. This was the first known of this 
pest here, and up to this time (March, 1882,) it has continued to spread over tlie coun- 
try bv being mixed with seed wheat and oats, and transported from.iarm to farm by 
threshing machines until the damage done can hardly be estimated. It will effectually 
ran out any crop and take entire possession of the soil. Seeding down the land for 
three or four years will eradicate the grain^ and this is the only remedy yet found. 
This oat is a winter grain and will not germinate and grow until it has laid in or upon 
the ground over winter and been frozen. I have known a field of 40 acres sown in 
the spring with clean seed wheat and nothing else, from which was threshed 600 
bnshels of these oats and wheat, about equaling the amount of seed sown. The oat, 
^hile growing, looks precisely like the common oat, but ripens early and shells easily. 
The kernel, wnen ripe, is nearly black, and has attached to it a spiral barbed tail, by 
^hich it will attach it«elf to clothing, grain bags, and to every crevice about a thresh- 
ing machine, fanning mill, or reaper, and will even penetrate the skins of animals, 
^'heii cleaned the grain weighs from 12 to 18 pounds per bushel, and is only used by 
finely grinding the grain for stock, or by cutting, before ripening, for hay, of which 
itDiakea a ^o^ quality. My own theory of its origin is that by the action of fire 
anu the wmter exposure the common oat on the farm of Mr. Hawley changed its 
yjnety and nature into this wild winter oat, which is now the worst pest this part pf 
Wiaconun has yet known. 

CIECULAB LETTER. 

The following circular was sent to the correspondents of tlie depart- 

^^eut and to others interested in grass-culture in the South and West, 

^ which a large number of replies were received, a digest of which fol- 
lows: 

Department of Agriculture, DmsioN or Botany, 

Washingionj D, C, November 16, 1881. 

. 8iH: I am well aware of the immense importance of the grass crop to the agricultural 
^^rtsU of the country, and that man^ districts are subject to heavy losses and dis- 
^vantages from the want of grasses suitable to their peculiarities of soil and climate. 



234 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

With the purpose of doing all that is possible for the benefit of the country in this 
direction, it is desirable to obtain very full information from all obgerving and pro- 
gressive farmers and stock-raisers concerning the different kinds of grasses which, in 
their respective districts, are found valuable, and the various conditions of soil, nioistiire, 
or elevation which atl'ects their successful culture. The acquisition of such information 
will, we hope, enable us to arrive at some conclusions that will be of service to the 
country, and to this end we ask your attention to the subjoined questions, hoping that 
you will give as full replies as possible. 

1. What are the natural pasture grasses of your district T 

2. Are any natural pasture grasses cut for the hay crop; and, if so, whatT 

3. What cultivated grasses are used for making a hay cropf 

4. Have any experiraeuta been made, to your knowledge, in the introduction of new 
grasses; and, if any, what? 

5. Please suggest any grasses that might be usefhl in your section. 

6. What is the character of the soil upou which each kind of cultivated grass does 
the bestT 

An early reply is respectfully requested. 

Truly, yours, «fec., GEO. B. LORING, 

Cammisnoner of Agriculture, 

DIGE.ST OF INFORMATION RECEIVED. 

Some 350 returns were received to the circulars sent out. In many 
instances the answers to the inquiries were not so full and complete as^ 
desired. Some, however, in addition to the formal report, wrote more* 
fully upon the subject, giving the value of particular grasses for grazing 
and hay, and their comparative merits, together with some of the causes 
which have operated to produce failures. 

As a general thing the correspondents were not acquainted with the 
botanic or technical names of the grasses, and gave the common or local 
name where there was one. It frequently happens that the same grass 
will have different local names even in places not far remote from each 
other, and also that the same name will be applied to grasses very un- 
like. Many have no common name, and are referred to as wild grass, 
woods grass, swamp grass, &c. 

So, in examining the reports, a perplexing difficulty was often en- 
countered in not being able to detcrniino to what species a grass belonged 
from the name given. In some instances this dilliculty was obviated by 
obtaining specimens of the plants referred to; in others they were not 
sent, or failed to reach here. 

The reports were sent in with commendable promptness, and all 
evinced a great interest in the subject, and expressed a strong desire to 
aid the undertaking by all means in their i)ower. 

WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND OREGON. 

From Washington Territory twelve rei)()rts were received, and from 
Oregon thirty-one. They are so much alike that we consider them to- 
gether. 

NATIVE PASTURE GRASSES. ^ 

Bunch grass is found in the drier places and on the hills. Wild pea- 
vine and a few wild grasses in the timber; clover upon bottom-lands; 
wild-rye grass, a species of Elymus^ upon lowlands, and a variety of 
mixed grasses upon the ])rairie8. 

Several species of grass are called bunch grass, the principal of which 
are Poa tenui/olla Xiitt., Fesiuea acahrdlay Eriocoma cuspidata^ and sonte 
of the species of Siipa. 

Bunch grass, which formerly was the principal pasture grass upow> 
the uplands, has become about extinct, partly from the land being take 



REPORT OP THE BOTANIST. 235 

for cnltivation and partly from overfeeding. Its place has been token 
by wild chess (Bromus secalinnn) and other poor grasses. 

But little native grass is cut for hay, some little wild red top, wild- 
O e grass, salt marsh grass upon tide- water, and east of the Cascades a 
little bunch grass is cut. 

CULTIVATED GRASSES.* 

Timothy is found universally distributed throughout this section, and 
Uiui become so well established that some consider it indigenous. It 
bas so tenacious a hold upon the soil that it can scarcely be killed out. 
As a hay grass timothy has no superior; for a pasture grass it gives 
out too early in July. 

Next in general diffusion come the clovers and orchard grass. Red 
top also is quite common. Kentucky blue grass, though not so exten- 
sively introduced, seems well adapted to some portions of this section. 

The soil and climate of Oregon and Washington Territory are admir- 
ably adapte<l to the culture of grass, and any kind will do well if allowed 
a fair chance. There is a great diversity of soil; and often on the same 
farm all kinds may be found, from the black sandy loam to red clay. 

From some come inquiries for a grass that will do well upon lands 
worn out by constant wheat-cropping. Others say that they are sowing 
clover on their exhausted lands to recuperate them, and no better advice 
can be given the former than to do likewise. By this means the tired 
lands C4\n soon be restored to fertility. 

A better way, and one which the intelligent farmers will soon learn to 
follow, is to avoid depleting the land at all, but by a suitable rotation 
of crops, among which the clovers and grasses should have a prominent 
place, the lands can be kept in a normal state of fertility, and being 
oatui-ally rich will yield a generous reward to the husbandman's toil, 

CALIFORNIA. 

From California thirty-seven reports were received. They give the 
following as the i)rincipal grasses : 

NATIVE PASTURE GRASSES. 

Wild oats {Alvena fatua)^ alfilaria {Erodium cictUarmm), bur-clover 
(MeHicarga denticulata)^ wild clovers, of which there are several species, 
anil bunch grass, in the order named. In the northern part of the State 
alittle wikl rye grass (J5Jiym««), wild red top, and wild pea vine are found. 

Acccouuts firom the central and southern counties state that the na- 
tive bunch grass, which formerly furnished a nutritious feed for a large 
part of the Pacific slope, has of late years become about extinct, and in 
sfune sections the alfilaria, bur-clover, and other forage plants, which 
*ere found *>n the uncultivated lands during spring and early summer, 
^ slowly but surely dying out, and their places are being taken by a 
worthless grass that nothing will eat, green or dry. 

Mr. C. O. Tucker, of Ballena, attributes this gradual disappearance 
<>f the native grasses to the constant and too close pasturage at and 
prior to the time for maturing their seeds, and to a too persistent pastur- 
age with 6he<*p at other times, causing the ground to become thoroughly 
trodden and compacted. This has been followed, during the last few 
yeaw, by unusually hot and dry summers. He knows of no section 
where the need of useful forage plants is more severely felt than here. 



236 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

-Ml the native grasses of California, except the bunch grass, are an- 
nuals; hence, bel^een the vegetation of the seed and the time when the 
plants get large enough to furnish grazing is a period very trying to 
stock. A perennial that would afford feed during this time, they say, 
would be a very great acquisition. 

Mr. Mart Walker, of Saint Helena, says that there is an intense de- 
sire among farmers to obtain a grass capable of resisting the intense heat 
and drought of summer, and afford grazing for cattle during that period, 
and if possible one that will grow on poor soil. For the want of some 
such resource many districts are fiast becoming worthless. He says that 
this results from the system of continuous cropping to which the land 
has been subjected for the last thirty years. 

NATIVE Brasses citt for hat. 

Except wild oats and bur-clover but little native grass is cut for hay. 
In the northern part of the State a little wild-rye grass, wild red top, 
and in some localities rushes, are cut. 

CULTrVATED GRASSES. 

The various grains, as wheat, rye, and barley, cut when in the milk, 
are principally relied upon for hay in many parts of California. They 
come as volunteers, or very often after the grain iQ taken off a "half- 
cast" of seed is sown on the stubble at the first rain in the fall and 
harrowed in. Wild oats are cut extensively, and alfalfa {Medicago 8aii'ea\ 
often called lucem, is cultivated largely for hay, especially in the south- 
ern part of the State, where by irrigation large crops are made. 

In the northern and central counties timothy and clover are cut to 
some extent, and are commented on favorably. Thus far but very little 
attention has been given to this subject. The general system of farm- 
ing in vogue here is so different from that of other parts of the country, 
and so few experiments have been made^ that no particular grasses or 
forage plants can be recommended at this time. 

Further experiments and developments will have to determine this 
important question. 

IDAHO AND MONTANA. 

Bunch grass is common throughout the hill countryi In the lowlands 
the wild-rye grass and other coarse grasses are found. Timothy is found 
successfully cultivated everywhere. In Idaho clover is cultivated exten- 
sively, especially in the Boise Valley, where some very large crops are 
reported. Some farmers have put their whole places in it. The small 
red clover is preferred. Alfalfa succeeds well in Montana. 

Timothy and clover are recommended for the bottoms, and alfalfa for 
the " bench lands." All the grasses would succeed well with attention. 
The soil and climate are well adapted to their growth, and all things 
seem favorable to their culture, both for pastm*e and hay. All the 
farmers have to do here is to avoid the mistake made in many new sec- 
tions, that of overpasturing and continuous cropping, and for years to 
come they will have a never-ceasing source of wealth. 

UTAH. 

The principal native pasture grasses of Utah are the bunch grass, wire 
grass (Juncus Balticus), salt grass {Vilfa dapanperata), and b£ffialo grass 
(Buchloe dactyloides). 



REPORT OP THE BOTANIST. 237 

The wire grass and salt grass are cut for hay. Lucern, or alfalfa (Med- 
icago sativa), is cultivated for forage and hay to a greater extent than any- 
thing else, and succeeds well. In some counties scarcely any other forage 
plant is cultivated. 

Clover is reported successful in some places and timothy in others, 
though neither has been cultivated largely. 

NEW MEXICO. 

The gramma grass (Bouteloua) is common on the high ground through- 
out New Mexico. On the river bottoms there is a little blue grass. Al- 
falfa has b^n cultivated more than any other forage plant, and on the 
bottoms it will thrive after the second year without irrigation. The 
millets have been raised some, and should receive more attention. No 
exx>eriments worthy of note are reported. 

The reports from Utah and New Mexico were so few in number and 
the area so great and so diversified that no suggestions can be made as 
to what grasses will be best adapted to this section. Many experiments 
will have to be made to determine this. 

TEXAS.— NATITE GRASSES. 

From Texas therewere sixty-nine reports. Tb e n atural pasture grasses 
consist of the mixed grasses usually found on the prairies which occupy 
so large a part of the State. The sage or sedge grass holds a prominent 
place among them, but when overpasturcd it is run out, and the mesquite, 
both hardier and better, takes its place. The mesquite is found in the 
northern, central, and southern parts of the State, but not much in the 
northeastern part. 

The term mesquite is used somewhat indefinitely, being applied to a 
njimber of grasses, but here it is probable that the buffalo grass of the 
plains {Buchloe dactyJoides) is meant. It is found chiefly on the black 
lands. The gramma grass {Bouteloua)^ of which there are some patches, 
is rapidly disappearing, and is being replaced by the mesquite. Prairie 
grass thus far has been the chief reliance for hay as well as pasture. 

Texas has always been a great stock-raising State, and while the range 
was uninterrupted no attention was given to cultivating grass or to im- 
proving pastures. But of late years portions of the State have been 
rapidly filling up, and the range consequently diminishing, so now the 
farmers are giving considerable attention to improving their pastures 
and to the hay crop. This, intelligent farmers write, should receive all 
the encoaragement and assistance possible. 

Mr. Talley says that the greatest difficulty in making the cultuije of 
Kentucky blue grass a success is in getting it to live the first year. 
The same remark is applicable to most of the grasses. The main reason 
of failure he says is not so much on account of the drought as on ac- 
count of the nature of the soil. It* is loose and porous, and dries up 
very quickly on the surface ; hence they often find it difficult to get a 
"stand'' of turnips in the fall, or a "stand ^ of millet in the spring. The 
soil holds moisture well below the depth of 2 inches. 
He further says : 

Ilia?e taken ereat interest in investigating the subject of grasses, and my labors 
^Wft rewarded by finding a much greater variety on my place than I had ever sus- 
P^ted, and all I nave to do is to cultivate and take care of what I already possess, 
^CQt the weeds to prevent their shading and smothering out the grasses already in 
"Aground. 



238 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

Texas is naturally a grass State, and only needs fair attention to suc- 
ceed. Johnson grass and Bermuda are receiving considerable atten- 
tion, and for the most part are spoken of favorably. 

Bur, or California clover, does well in this State, and is highly esteemed 
in California for the feed it aflfords, though* the burs or seed-pods stick 
to the wool of sheep and impair its value. Alfalfa is cultivated largely 
here, and does very well. Timothy, orchard grass, and clover are not 
reported on so favorably as could be wished. 

The millets are cultivated quite extensively and do well. Mr. Clarke, 
of Hempstead, Waller County, Texas, has recently sent to the depart- 
ment samples of several kinds, among which were specimens of the so- 
called double-headed German millet 4J feet high, and estimated to yield 
3 tons to the acre. 

Mr. W. H. D. Carrington, of Austin, says that there is but one na- 
tive grass cultivated for hay, and that is what is called Colorado bot* 
tom grass; sometimes called goose grass, and in some places Green 
Kiver grass (Panicum Texanum). The method of culture most com- 
monly adopted is the same as that for crab grass. It comes voluntarily 
after com is "laid by." A few farmers have found it so profitable that 
they plow and harrow their land in winter and cut the grass as soon as 
it matures. In this way they secure two crops annually. It is preferred 
by all kinds of stock to Hungarian grass or to oats in the sheaf. It 
seeds itself freely. The hay sells now (Febioiary, 1882), at $25 per ton, 
while prairie hay sells at from $10 to $12 per ton. This might be intro- 
duced into the Southern States without requiring any change in the 
method of culture generally pursued. It is figured and described in 
the report for 1879. 

THE SOUTHERN STATES. 

The returns from Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Lou- 
isiana are so similar in general character that they are considered to- 
gether, differences being noted as they occur. 

NATIVB PA8TURS GRA8SK8. 

By an examination of the returns from this section, crab grass (Pani- 
cum mnguinale) is found to be the most extensively diffused pasture 
grass for summer and fall grazing^ while crow-foot (JEleusine Indica) is 
quite common in Georgia and Florida. 

The sedge grass also holds a prominent place as a pasture grass in 
Georgia, Bahama, and Louisiana, being reported from nearly one-half 
tiie counties. Several grasses are called sedge and broom sedge. They 
are for the most part some species of Andropogon or Stipa. 

Bermuda grass {Gynodon ductylon) is reported in over one-thlnl of 
the counties, and is probably growing in many more, and though an in- 
troduced grass it has become so well established that it is generally 
referred to as a native. The wild-pea vine is also plentiful and in some 
places quite popular. In Florida it is said to do well on the poor sandy 
soil, and to endure the heat and drought of summer. Mexican clover 
(Richardsonia scabra) is spreading over the sandy uplands along tlie 
coast. Tick trifoil, or tickseed, two species oi Besfnodiumj is frequent 
in rich woods, and is esteemed as a milk-producing plant. Nimble will 
(Muhlenhergia Mexicaiia and diffusa) are found in open woods iu the 
northern and central counties. 

In Alabama and Mississippi Japan clover (Lespedeza striata) has spread 
extensively over the roadsides and uncultivated fields. It will grow 



REPORT OP THE BOTANIST. 239 

upon all soils, even the iworcst, and withstands the heat and drought 
of summer remarkably well. It spreads rapidly, and some say it will 
root out the broom sedge and even Bermuda. It is rather a coarse plant, 
and should be tried only in places uusuit^ible for the better grasses. 

In Louisiana crab grass, though still common, is gradually giving 
place as a pasture grass to Bermuda and white clover. Several sx)ecies 
of clover seem to be spreading over this section; some of them are said 
to afibrd considerable seed. 

The bur, or Califomia clover, {Medicago denticulata) is reported in 
two counties of Alabama, and haa been successfully tried in Georgia. 
In Califomia it is highly esteemed. 

Pa^palum ovatum is found in Texas and Louisiana. It is highly spoken 
of as a pasture grass by those who have examined it. (See report of 
the botanist for 1880.) 

Numerous other grasses are found growing with the foregoing species, 
but generally are of no particular value, and, having for the most patt 
no common names, they are spoken of as wild grasses, &;c. 

In regard to nat^ive pasture grasses, Mr. Hawkins, of Hawkinsville, 
Ala., says : 

There is but Tery little grass of any kind here, except the wild varieties wliicli come 
apontikneonsly on all old fields with the broom sedge, and our very best pastures are 
on these old fields. Old fields, when turned out, usually grow weeds the first two 
years and require about four years for them to become sodded with broom sedge. 
Bam this off in early spring, ana with sufficient cattle it need never be burned again, 
M the cattle Vill keep it down. I have an excellent pasture of 150 acres of this kind, 
which wiU keep in good condition 30 head of cattle, half as many mules when not at 
work, and some hogs. 

* NATIVE HAT GRASSES. 

In this section crab grass is cut very extensively, being reported from 
neariy every county where any attention at all is given to hay. Crow- 
foot, as a crop grass, is chiefly confined to Georgia. Some of the coarse 
8wamp grasses are cut to a considerable extent in certain localities. 

CULTIVATED GRASSES. 

Over one-half of the reports from this section state that no attempts 
liave been made*to cultivate grass for hay. They rely entirely upon the 
volunteer grasses, the principal one being crab, which some consider to 
to be superior to the so-called cultivated grasses. 

The chief reasons given in favor of crab grass as a pasture grass and 
for bay are that it is indigenous, and therefore well adapted to with- 
stand the effects of the climate ; that the ground has only to be smoothed 
after the com is ^^laid by,'' and it comes voluntarily; that it never fails, 
and does well on poor and sandy soil. 

In the remaining counties more or less introduced grasses have been 
cut for hay, consisting principally of herds grass (red top), the clovers, 
timothy, and orchard grass in the order named. Bermuda grass is re- 
lK)rt<?d to be cut for hay to a greater extent than any other, except the 
crab grass. The millets are cultivated for hay, and are deserving of 
J»ore attention, for, being annuals, they can be grown successfully in 
all parts of the South. In Louisiana the cow-pea is considered one of 
the best forage crops, and its cultivation is extending. In the Red River 
district sorghum of various kinds is largely raised for feed. 

JOHNSON GRASS. 

. Johnson grass is steadily growing in favor and its cultivation extend- 
H» It is being introduced on the low, wet prairie lands of Texas, and 



240 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

the reports are qaite favorable. It is essentially a hay grass, and may 
be cut three or four times a year. It should always be cut before the 
seed stalks run up, else it wUl be too coarse. It is even more difficult 
to exterminate when once well set than Bermuda, hence should not be 
allowed to seed. The best way to eradicate it is by frequent plowings 
in July and August, exposing the roots as much as possible to the sun. 
It will not bear tramping. 

Both this grass and Bermuda are regarded as a great blessing, or as 
an unmitigated evil, according to the standpoint from which they are 
viewed. The exclusive cotton-planter is apt to look upon them with 
unabated hostility, while those who are beginning to diversify their 
crops look upon tiiese and other grasses as a great boon. 

In these States hay should be secured early enough in the season to 
allow the meadows to get a good start before the summer drought sets 
in, so that the roots may have a good protection during this trying 
period. Meadows should not be pastured until the fall rains set in, smd 
then only lightly, and never when the ground is soft from much raio. 
Care should be taken not to pasture too late in the spring, thereby pre- 
venting the grass from growing tall enough to cut before the heat of 
summer. According to the reports, the farmers are accustomed very 
generally to pasture too closely, which causes great injury, if not de- 
struction, to the grass. 

PERMANENT PASTURE. 

For a permanent pasture grass the Texas blue grass {Poa arachnifera) 
promises to be one of the very best grasses yet brought to the attention of 
the South. It is a strong, deep-rooted grass, with an abundance of foli- 
age, and seems to possess all of the characteristics necessary for a grass 
to be successful in most parts of the South. It grows in woods or open 
prairie, and thrives upon a variety of soils, poor as well as rich, but has 
not so far as reported been tried upon a dry, sandy soil. This grass 
seems worthy of earnest consideration by all interested. As it is figured 
and so fully described in another part of the report, more need not be 
said here. 

The Texas blue grass dies down during the heat of summer and 
springs up with the first fall rains and lasts till summer again. Ber- 
muda comes in early spring and lasts till frost comes, thus being a sum- 
mer pasture grass. 

WINTER PASTURE. 

From several places, especially in Georgia and Alabama, requests^ 
come for a grass that will make good winter pasture, and if possible 
one that will succeed upon weak, sandy soil. The cultivated grasses 
best adapted for winter pasture at the South are the tall meadow oal 
grass (Arrhenatherum avenaceum), which will thrive on more sandy soL ^ 
than most of the cultivated grasses (though it prefers a rich upland^ -, 
and will yield more green food in winter than any other grass. 

Orchard grass {Dcwtylis glomerata) is next in value. It does well i"mi 
orchards and thinned woods, and will do well on any rich, dry soL^. 
After being cut or eaten down by stock it springs up again with gres^t 
rapidity, thus rendering it of peculiar value as a pasture grass. Experri- 
ment demonstrates that these grasses will thrive and do well in tlJ^e 
northern and central counties of the Gulf States, and ought to succeed 
in all sections, except, i)erhaps, on a very dry sandy soil. These t^s^o 
grasses are thought to endure the heat and drought better than otlm^^ 
cultivated grasses. Italian rye grass {Lolium Italicum) is one of tb^ 




REPORT OP THE BOTANIST. 241 

very best grasses for this section — by being sown and harrowed in at the 
first fall rains it will be ready for pasture by midwinter, and will aftbrd 
a rich pasturage during the latter x)art of winter and spring, and can 
then be plowed under for the following crop, thus enriching the land as 
well as furnishing abundant winter feed. By only pasturing very lightly 
a crop of hay can be cut and the stubble turned under for a following 
wheat or other grain crop. The attention of fanners cannot be too 
strongly called to this useful grass. Wild-rye grass (JSlymus) and wild 
meadow barley (Hardeum pratense)^ also the common cultivated rye and 
barley, make excellent pasture. 

BERMUDA GRASS. 

Bermuda has of late attracted more than usual attention. It has 
been referred to and discussed by so many of the correspondents that 
an idea of the estimation in which it is heldcamiot better be given than 
by making a few extracts from their letters. 

Mr. Hawkins, of Barbour County, Alabama, says that he is very cer- 
tain now, and has been for years, tliat the great want of the South is a 
grass with which the tired lands may be seeded, and some return had 
while the land is being recuperated. Bermuda, he says, is the grass to 
do this if it seeded, and could be easily destroyed when the land is 
wanted for cultivation. These difficulties, he says, operate sufficiently 
to almost exclude it from the tillable land. A correspondent from Mis- 
sissippi says : 

BermndA ia the grass for this conntry, resisting both the drought of snmmer and 
tbe frost of winter, and affording a richer pasturage than any other grass. With this 
for -pmstuie, and the Johnson grass {Sorghum 'halapense) for hay, stock-raising will be 
more profitable than cotton. 

Greorgia has taken the lead in introducing Bermuda grass. In the 
central part of tiie State it is found in every county, and is steadily 
glowing in favor. The report of the State board of agriculture for 
1881 says : 

The hay crop of Georgia has been onusaally fine in 1881. The clovers and oolti- 
Tated grasses made heavy crops before the summer's drought commenced. Large bar- 
Tests of Bermuda hay were realized in some of the counties of Middle G^rgia, where 
this valuable grass is being more highly appreciated every year. It makes a hay in- 
ferior to none, with the advantage m being x>e]teanent when once well set. Quite a 
Qomber of farmers now realize a better income from lauds set in Bermuda than they 
did from the same when in cotton. 

A^nother correspondent says : 

Bennuda, beyond aU doubt, is the best grass for pasture, but for hay we need other 
patMes, and I am satisfied that Johnson ^rass is the one for that purpose. These two 
Sraases have the power to make this section a great stock country. 

Such expressions as this frequently occur in the reports : " Bermuda 
is the best, but the farmers are afraid of it.'' 
Ur. F. Seip, of> Bapides Parish, Louisiana, says : 

Of all the usual cultivated grasses nbne can compare in general usefulness to the 
^nnuda. It is invaluable as a pasture grass for aU kinds of stock, furnishing, through 
^^i\^ the entire year, and even in winter^ under some circumstances, an extraordi- 
nary amonnt of food. For hay purposes it cannot be surpassed. Under favorable 
circnuiatanecs it will yield more to the acre than any other known grass with the ex- 
*^ptioD, possibly, of lucem {Medicago BaHva) and Johnson grass, the latter being too 
^^^nb to maJce superior hay. 

Again Mr. Seip says of Bennuda : 

U can onl^ be recommended for permanent pastures or meadows, as it is very diffl« 
^l to eradicate, but still it is practicable to remove it. The best method, I think, is 

IG AG 



242 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

Bummer plowing rex)eatcd frequently , followed by oats in the fall and winl^r, and 
after the oat crop by a heavy crop of pease. If this is well done there will be no 
trouble in making a crop of com or cotton the following year. 

Colonel Lane, in " Forage plants at the South," says, in reference to 
destroying Bermuda : 

Upon ordinary upland I have fonnd no difflcnlty in destroying it by close cnltiTa- 
tiou in cotton for two years. It requires a few extra plo wings to get the sod thoroughly 
broken to pieces. The breaking should be done witli a small plow first, and a harrow 
run over it once or twice in winter or early spring. Take advantage of the drv, hot 
months of summer to have the grass that may be found alive plowed and hoed, an<l 
exposed as much as possible to the sun. lu ordinary seasons so much of the g^ss 
will be killed the first year that but little interference with the next crop need be 
apprehended. 

Bermuda is essentially a southern, summer-pasture grass, and as 
such possesses superior qualities. It will thrive upon poor soil and 
stand the heat and drought of summer. It is nutritious and is eaten 
by all kinds of stock. It is permanent when once well set, provided it 
is pastured; otherwise, the broom sedge and other grasses will run it 
out. It requires ti*amping to flourish. The objections it encountered 
during the first years of its introduction have gradually given way, as 
the farmers have seen more of it, and have become bett^er acquainted 
with its nature and habits. To make hay it requires a rich soil — a soil 
rich enough to produce good crops of timothy and the more valuable 
grasses. It is an ameliorating crop. A field kept in Bermuda a few 
years will become so much enriched that should it be wanted for culti- 
vation the increased crops will more than pay for the extra labor and 
expense required the first year on account of ^e sod. 

Often in the reports a request is made for a grass that will do well 
on their exhausted lands and yield some return while they are being 
recuperated. Lands naturally fertile, but depleted by cropping, if not 
" turned out in commons,'^ can be recuperated by proper management 
through the agency of ameliorating crops, the particular ones to be used 
varying with wie different conditions of location, nature of soil, &c., and 
cannot be entered into minutely here, but which the intelligent cultiva- 
tor will soon learn to determine. 

Immediate and constant returns, as some ask for, should not be ex- 
I)ectcd from a soil already exhausted. But in a short time, by generous 
treatment, they can be brought to a condition to once more reward the 
toiler for his labor, and will prove in the end to be much more economi- 
cal than to " turn the fields out" and wait thirty or forty years for the 
slow process of natural recuperation, expending, meantime, on^s en- 
ergies in clearing and bringing into cultivation new tracts, to be in turn 
abandoned and ^< turned out.'' 

Some ask for a grass that will do well upon a soil naturally poor or 
barren. Such a soil will not yield anything without fertilizing, except a 
few worthless weeds or some of the coarser plants. Good grasses wil! 
not grow on land that will not produce medium crops of grain. By using 
fertilizers and turning under green crops the productiveness can be in- 
creased so as to give fair returns, and then by suitable rotation the land 
can be continuously improved. 

BXPKRIMBNT8. 

In nearly one-half of the counties, according to the roports, no ex- 
periments introducing new grasess have been made, whfle in many o^ 
the other couuties they have been made only on a small scale, and were^ 



A> / 



KEPORT OF THE BOTANIST. 243 

too often abandoned as failures before they had been fairly tested. Fail- 
ures frequently result from not fully understanding the nature and re- 
quirements of the grasses, especially during the early stages of their 
growth. At first they are weak and of slow growth, and require special 
care until well established. They need to be protected from the vigorous 
and already well-rooted native species, and especially from being smoth- 
ered and killed out by the dense growth of weeds. Neither should stock 
be permitted to commit depredations and tramp them out. Often ftt)m 
neglecting to take these precautions the grass dies out and the experi- 
ment is abandoned. 

Some, however, by proper care, secure a good stand and have a promis- 
ing prospect of success, but by overpasturing or pasturing at unsuit- 
able times they are apt to ext^nninate the grass and attribute the Ml- 
nre to a want of adaptability of the grass to the conditions of soil and 
dimate, or to the heat and drought of summer. Hence there is a wide- 
spread and often-expressed sentiment that introduced grasses will not 
sacoeed in the South. 

It may be true that in the extreme South, in the Gulf belt, the in- 
t«n8e heat and long drought of summer, combined with a weak, sandy 
soil, presents difficulties to the culture of grass, and the same things 
affect more or less all crops. But we have abundant testimony from 
those who have given careful attention to the subject that in a majority 
of cases the causes of failure are such as can be successfully overcome 
by proper management. 

Mr. J. J. Barclay, of Wheeler, Ala., says : 

I have experimented on my place with most of the caltivated grasses, and find they 
do ^ell if protected from the tramping and depredations of stock for one season. 
* * * I am confident of their success and feel that their introdaction into this por- 
tion of the South will be of incalculable benefit to the country and people, and espe- 
cially attractive to the immigrant, whose first question is, ''Do grasses grow in your 
State t" 

Another says that orchard gra^^s, tall meadow oat grass, and Johu- 
«ou gi-ass will do well if properly attended to and the ground suitably 
prepared. Mr. Hawkins says that his experiments show that any of the 
gnkises will do well upon rich loam, or on moist, stiff laud, or on moist, 
^dy laud. Mr. D. P. Hurley, of Pike County ,says : 

I would add, on the important subject of grasses, that their cultivation is sadly 
^l«cted, not because the climate is hostile or the soil nuadapted, nor because they 
^Qot be successfully cultivated, but for the reason that diversified agriculture is 
Practically disfavored. 

Mr, P. M. Morehouse sent from Texas a sample of Kentucky blue 
Si^, grown on the open prairie, without shade or extra care after well 
^t. It has withstood the heat and drought of summer for three yeai*s 
extremely well. 

Other extracts might be given, all tending to show that the grasses 
tau be successfully cultivated in a large portion of the South. All through 
^^e uortheru and central counties no difficulties will usually be encount- 
ered iu cultivating all the more valuable grasses that cannot be overcome 
oy using ^ood judgment in selecting the soil best adapted to each kind, 
^^'iug suitable attention to the preparation of the ground, and giving 
tlie grass due protection during the first stages of growth. The expeii- 
^^nU made in these counties and the success attending them fully de- 
^^istrate the truth of the above statements. 

J^et there are large tracts of country, often embracing counties, where 
^ meadow of gra^ is not to be found. Mr. Hawkins says that he does 



244 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

Tiot know of a meadow of cultivated grass in Southeastern Alabama. 
ISimilar statements come from Louisiana. This unfavorable condition ? 
has arisen from several influences, which can only be referred to here. 
Among them may be mentioned the custom of exclusive cotton-plant- 
ing, which has been so sedulously followed for so many years, leaving 
but little time for anything else; also the habit of ^^ turning out" fields 
when depleted instead of recuperating them by ameliorating crops. 

Another is the reluctance and hesitation which persons naturally feel 
about changing old-established ways for untried methods, without the^u- 
couragement and aid of example to guide them in their neyr enterprise. 
The want of seed has been quite an impediment to increased attention 
being given to the grass crops. The correspondents say that a lib^l 
distribution of grass seed would relieve a deeply-felt need and do much 
toward determining the important question of extending grass-culture. 

Portions of Florida and the district ajong the Gulf presents some diffi- 
culties to the culture of grasses as well as of other crops. This is due 
to several causes, and experiments will have to determine what forage 
crops are best adapted to this section, and what modes of culture are 
best suited to them. An experimental station established here would 
do much toward solving this important problem, and would also furnish 
useful and much needed information in regard to the best method of 
treating all crops. 

Fifth inquiry: "Please suggest any grasses that might be useful in 
your section.'^ 

The replies to this request were somewhat limited, and often rather 
suggestive than definite. There are but few to be added to those already 
mentioned. But for convenience, all of the grasses recommended foV 
tiial by the correspondents will be given here, together with such sug- 
gestions as the general tenor of the reports and correspondence, and 
information obtained elsewhere, would seem to warrant. They recom- 
mend as follows: 

For Washington Territory and Oregon, — ^Italian rye grass, orchard 
gi*a«s, the clovers, taU meadow oat grass, Kentucky blue graiss, Texas 
mesquite, and Bermuda. 

For California. — Timothy, large red clover, the millets, orchard grass, 
Italian rye grass, white clover, Guinea grass (Panicum jumentorum)^ 
Bermuda, and alfalfa. 

For Idaho and Montam^a. — All the grasses for bottom lands, and alfi^ fa 
for "bench lands.'' 

For Texas. — Alfalfa, Bermuda, timothy, the clovers, orchard grass, 
Johnson grass, and the millets, in the order named. 

For Georgia, — Kentucky blue grass, orchard grass, herds grass (called 
red top in New England), timothy, the clovers, and alfalfa, in the ordei 
named. 

For Florida.^— Bermndsby alfalfa, Guinea grass (Panicum jumentarum). 
orchard grass, Johnson grass, and clover. • 

For Alabama. — Orchard grass, Kentucky blue grass, timothy, herds 
grass (red top), Johnson grass, alfalfa, and California clover. 

For Mississippi. — Orchard grass, herds grass (red top), the clovers, 
Kentucky blue grass, and the millets. 

For Louisiana, — Kentucky blue grass, orchard grass, Bermuda, tim- 
othy, herds grass (red top), the clovers, and alfalfa. 

The above are the principal forage plants enumerated for trial. It 
will be observed that in some instances, instead of suggesting new 
grasses for trial, those are named which have already been so fully tried 
that there is no question about their success. 



1 



REPORT OP THE BOTANIST. 245 

It appears from the reports and correspondence that the principjvl 
need of Washington Territory and Oregon is a pasture grass for the 
dry hills in place of the nearly extinct bunch grass ; some are desirous 
that Bermuda and Texas mesquite be tried. The latter has already 
heen reported as successful in several counties. There is some uncer- 
tainty concerning what grass is referred to, as several go under the 
name of mesquite. It is probable that some mean the Buchloe dacty- 
loideSy the bufialo grass of the plains, a valuable pasture grass and simi- 
lar in habit to Bermuda. In Texas it is called mesquite. The sugges- 
tions of these correspondents appear worthy of attention. 

In Southern California some wish Bermuda to be tried for their past- 
nre land which cannot be plowed, and where the bur-clover, &c.,.is 
being tramped out. They also think that the Guinea grass {Panicum 
\umentorum) might possibly succeed. 

The suggestions from Florida were from only a few counties; the 
general impression seems to be that crab grass and other native grasses 
are superior to the so-called cultivated ones. Some think that a grass 
will have to be obtained from Cuba or the tropics to be suited to the 
climatic conditions existing there. 

Bur, or California clover {Medicago denticulata) and alftlaria {Erodium 
ctctttortum), both valued in California, are deserving of consideration for 
the Southern States. Experiments will have to determine whether or 
not the climatic conditions here will be favorable to their success. 

The culture of grass crops in the section of country under considera- 
tion is comparatively new and undeveloped, and the inquiries made 
through the circulars elicited in part its present condition and some of 
the more pressing wants, but the information afforded, though valuable, 
was not so i^U and complete as to enable the department in numerous 
<^e8 to determine with sufficient exactness the kinds of forage plants 
hc«t suited to their several wants. 

To accomplish this will require further investigation, and must rest 
largely upon the result of experiments. These, to be of such practical 
valne as the importance of the subject seems to demand, will need to be 
^^tmaticaUy and thoroughly carried on, either at experimental stations 
t'stablished by the department, or through the agency of intelligent 
^•iltivators in numerous locations, all working methodically and making 
frequent detailed reports through properly prepared blank forms. 

A personal inspection of the prevalent modes of culture practiced in 
different places, and of the experimental crops in several sta;ges of 
RTowth, would be a very desirable aid for determining the causes that 
^P^te to produce failuEe, and the best methods to pursue to affonl a 
'^asonable assurance of success in the cultivation of the different species 
of grasses which are subject to many varying conditions. 

The subject is of such vital importance to all that no efforts should 
^spared for accomplishing the desired end. Those already made by 
the department have met with the most gratifying approval and com- 
mendations from every place to which the circulars were sent. A gen- 
eral desire is expressed for their continuance and much anxiety mani- 
fested for their success. The farmers all gladly proffer their services 
^aid m the work, and are anxiously waiting to see what will be done. 
^ general tenor of the reports goes to show that seldom has a subject 
^n presented which has awakened a more universal and deeper inter- 
est throughout the South and the Pacitic slope than this. 



/ 



246 BEPOBT OF THE COlimSSIONEB OF AGBICULTUBE. 

DESCRIPTION OF GRASSES FIGURED. 

POLYPOGON MONSPELiENSis— Beard grass. 

An annual grass frequent in California, Oregon, Arizona, and Utah, 
and sometimes found on the Atlantic coast. It is a native of Europe. 
The culms are from 6 inches to 2 feet high, rather stout, apt to be pro- 
cumbent at the base, and often branching below. There are usually 
three or four leaves on the culm, which are broad, flat, 3 to 6 inches 
long, and somewhat rough. The sheaths are rather loose and striate, 
and the ligule long and obtuse. The panicle varies from I to 4 inches in 
length, contracted into a dense, cylindrical spike, of a yellowish-shining, 
green color, the long awns or beards of the flowers being very conspic- 
uous. The spikelets are 1-flo wered, very small, about one line long. The 
outer glumes are nearly equal, 1-nerved, notched at the apex, and ex- 
tended into a slender awn or beard from two to four times as long as the 
glume. The flower inclosed by these two glumes is very small, the flower- 
ing gliyne usually having a fine, short awn ; the palet is miuute, very thin, 
delicate, and awnless. It is quite an ornamental grass, but of little ag- 
ricultural value. (Plate I: a, spikelet; &, flowery o, flowering glume 
more enlarged.) 

AGROSTIS MICBOPHYLLA. 

Apparently an annual or biennial, frequently with several culms spring- 
ing from one root. Radical leaves few. Culms erect, rigid, 1^ to 3 feet 
high, with four or five rough and rather rigid leaves ; the sheaths long 
and roughish, the leaves 3 to 6 inches long, two or three lines wide, grad- 
ually pointed. Upper part of culm nak^. The panicle is 3 to 5 inches 
long, erect, rigid, spike-like, narrow, and densely flowered, oometimes 
interrupted below. The spikelets are densely crowded on the short, al- 
n^ost sessile branches, and single flowered. The outer glumes are slightly 
unequal, rather more than a line in length, awn pointed, narrowly lanceo- 
late, scabrous or hispid on the keel, 1-nerved. The flower is very min- 
ute, consisting of a thin, flowering glume about half as long as the outer 
glumes, iS-tootlied at the summit, and on the back furnished with a slender 
awn three times its own length, readily seen projecting beyond the outer 
glumes. There is no proper palet, or only a microscopic one. This grass 
gives some promise of utility. (Plate II : a, outer glumes ; ft, flowering 
glume with its awn.) 

Agbostis exarata— False Red top. 

This is one of the most variable of grasses. In the report for 1878 
we gave a figure of the form common in the mountains of Colorado and 
eastward. We now present a figure of one of the western fonns occur- 
ring in Alaska and southward to Oregon and California. It grows 
from 2 to 3 feet high, with a stout, firm culm, clothed with three or four 
broadish leaves 4 to 6 inches long. The culms and leaves are eitiier 
scabrous or smoothish. The panicle is 4 to 6 inches long, pale green, 
rather loose, but with erect branches. There are five or more at each 
joint^ and of unequal length (from half an inch to 2 inches), and flower- 
bearmg nearly to the base. The spikelets, as always in this genus, are 
single-flowered. The outer glumes are acuminate, of about equal length, 
rough on the keel. The flowering glume is about one-third shorter than 
the outer glumes, rather acute, 4-nerved, and sometimes with a very 



REPOBT OF THB BOTANIST. 847 

short awn on the back. The paiet, if present, is very minute, scarcely 
a8 longf a8 the ovary. There is reason to believe that this will be a 
valuable grass in many localities, but as yet too little is known respect- 
ing it. (Plate III: a, outer glumes; 2), Hower.) 

Calamagbostis sylvatica. 

A coarse, perennial grass, growing in large tufts, usually in san<ly 
ground, in the Kocky Mountains at various altitudes, also on hill-sides 
in California and Oregon. It furnishes a coarse forage in uncultivated 
land, but cannot be recommended for cultivation. The culms are from 
I to 2 feet high, erect, rigid, and leafy; the radical leaves are ^quently 
as long as the culm and two or three lines wide, sometimes flat, some- 
times involute and rigid. The culm leaves are from 3 to 6 or 8 inches 
long, and, like the radical ones, rigid and scabrous. The panicle is 
narrow and spike-like, 3 to 5 inches long, rather dense, sometimes inter- 
rupted below, and varying from pale green to purple. The rays are 
mostly in fives, very short and rough. The spikelets are single-flow- 
endj about a quarter of an inch long, on short, roughened j^dicels ; 
the outer glumes are nearly equal, ovate-lanceolate, acute, the upper 
^-nerved, the lower 1-nerved. The flowering glume is rather shorter than 
the outer ones, of similar texture, 3-nerved, 4-toothed at the apex, and 
bearing on the back a twisted and bent awn about one-half longer than 
itself; surrounding the base are a few short, silky hairs; there is also 
a hairy x)edicel or rudiment of another flower. The palet is about as 
long as its glume, thin, 2-nerved and 2-toothed at the apex. (Plate lY: 
<M, outer glumes; bj flower.) 

MUHLENBEBOIA OOMATA. 

This has been heretofore known as Vaseya comata^ but it differs too 
litUe from Muhlenbergia to be separated from it. It grows throughout 
the Rocky Mountain region in Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada, 
^nd California, usually on the sandy or alluvial banks of streams. It 
grows in tufts from firm, creeping roots-stocks. There is reason to think 
itmay l)e a valuable grass for arid regions. The culms are erect, simple, 
2 to 3 feet long, leafy below, the leaves 3 to 6 inches long and roughish, 
the tipper one at first inclosing the base of the panicle, the joints 
slightly pubescent. The panicle is 2 to 4 inches long, narrow, and some- 
what dense, sometimes interrupted below, generally of a purplish or 
^ead color, and soft texture. The rays are mostly in twos or threes 
densely flowered. The spikelets are single-flowered, nearly sessile, 
^e outer glumes are very narrow, acute, nearly equal, 1-nerved, IJ 
to 2 lines long. The flower is rather shorter, and is surrounded by a 
^pious tuft of long, silky hairs arising from its base. The flowering 
Rhime is very narrow, acute, and terminated by a slender awn three or 
four times the length of the flower. The palet is slightly shorter than 
^^ gliune, and acute. (Plate Y : a, magnified spikelet ) 

Ebiooma cuspidata— Bunch grass. 

^is grass has a wide distribution, not only on the Sierras of Cali- 
foniia, but northward to British America, and eastward through all the 
JJ^terior region of Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, and Ne- 
"^ka to the Missouri River. It is a perennial, growing in dense tufts, 
^Aence its common name of bunch grass. The culms are 1 to 2 feet 



248 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

h\g;hy with about three narrow, convolute leaves, the upper one having 
a long,- inflated sheath which incloses the base of the panicle, or ap- 
parently of a terminal and one or two lateral panicles. The radical 
leaves are narrow, rigid, and as long or longer than the culm. The 
panicle is about 6 inches long, very loose, and flexuous. The rays are 
in pairs, slender, at considerable distances, and are branched in pairs. 
The spikelets are single at the ends of the capillary branches, and are 
each 1-flowered. The outer glumes are about 3 or 4 lines long, inflated 
and widened below, graduaUy drawn to a sharp-pointed apex, thin and 
colorless, except the three or five green nerves, and slightly hairy. The 
glumes inclose, apparently, an ovate flower, which is covered externally 
with a profusion of white, silky hairs, and tipped with a short awn, which 
falls away at maturity. This apparent flower is the flowering glnme 
of a hard, coriaceous texture, and incloses a similarly hard, but not 
hairy, and smaller palet. (Plate VI: a, spikelet; ft, flower.) 

Stipa SETiaERA — ^Beard grass. Bunch grass. 

A perennial grass, growing in bunches on dry hills and plains from 
Oregon to Southern California, and eastward in Arizona and t« Texas. 
The culms are 2 to 3 feet high, erect, somewhat pubescent at the joints, 
with about three leaves. The sheaths are long and somewhat scabrous, 
the up})er one loose and inclosing the base of the panicle; the blade flat^ 
2 or 3 lines wide, 4 to 6 inches long, roughish, long-pointed; the upper 
one nearly as long as the panicle, which is about G inches long, loose, 
the rays slender and in pairs, rather distant, near the extremity bearing 
the few spikelets on short pedicels. Spikelets 1-flowered; the outer 
glumes J to § of an inch long; the upper one rather shorter, narrow, 
iicute, purplish, and 3-nerved. The glumes inclose the flower, which, 
as iu other species of this genus, consists of a flowering glume rolle<l 
together in cylindrical form, inclosing a short palet, stamens, and iiistil. 
This flowering glume at the base has a short, hairy point called a callus ; 
it is also sparingly hairy above, with a hardened ring at the top, to which 
is attached a slender, twisted awn 2 to 3 inches long, the lower part of 
which is softly pubescent. Professor Brewer says : this is the most com- 
mon and moat valuable " bunch grass ^ of the hills in California. (Plat^ 
Vri: a, outer glumes; b, flower, with its awn.) 

Stipa eminens — Feather grass. 

This species is very common in California on dry hills, growing in 
rather small tul'ts, with numerous short and narrow root-leaves. It is 
a perennial, growing usually 2 to 3 feet high, with rather slender culms 
and slightly hairy joints. The leaves are very narrow and convolute, 
rather rough and rigid, the lower ones about half the length of the 
culm. The panicle is rather narrow, but open and loose, usually about 
G inches long, at first sheathed by the upper leaf, but becoming exserted ; 
the rays are slender, in pairs, and flower-bearing above the middle. 
The spikelets are single-flowered, the outer glumes about half an inch 
long, very narrow, 3-nerved, and long, sharp pointed. Inclosed be- 
tween the glumes is the flower, which at first view may be taken for the 
grain or seed. It consists of a floweiing glume, closely rolled together 
in a cylindrical form, inclosing the short palet and the flowering parts, 
and terminated by a twisted and bent awn about an inch long, which 
readily separates from the proper glume. This is nearly half shorter 
than the outer glume, hairy and pointed at the ba^e, with scattered hairs 



REPORT OP THE BOTANIST. 249 

on its external surface, and at the apex crowned with a ring of very 
short hairs. The 8i)ecies closely resembles the Stifa avenaeea, or oat 
^rraAs of the Eastern States. (Plate VIII : a, outer glumes ; ft, flower 
with its awn.) 

AlRA DANTHONIOIDES. 

A slender, annnal grass, common in Oregon and California, growing 
in moist meadows, where, according to Mr. Bolander, it often forms a 
large portion of the herbage. From its slender culms ^nd small leaves 
it cannot furnish a large bulk of hay. The culms vary from 3 inches to 
a foot or two in height, sometimes bent and branching at the base. 
The leaves are 1 or 2 inches long and very narrow 5 the upper sheaths 
are very long. The panicle is loose, very slender, usually 2 to 5 inches 
long, the lower rays being in twos or threes, the upper ones in pairs or 
solitary. The- rays are distant, appressed, branching from below the 
middle, and few-flowered. The spikelets are 2-flowered and on slen- 
der i)edicels. The outer glumes are about three lines long, lanceolate, 
gradually acutely pointed, 3-nerved, and slightly rough on the keel. 
The two flowers are together shorter than the outer glumes, being each 
about one line long, each with a small tuft of white, silky hairs at the 
base, and a hairy pedicel continuing the rachis. The flowering glumes 
bave a truncated apex, with four small teeth, and a fine awn on the 
back inserted about the middle, which is three or four times, as long as 
the glume, and usually more or less twisted and bent. (Plate IX: a, 
Rpikeletj ft, flower enlarged.) 

Trisetum cernuum. 

Tliis grass grows to the height of 2 or 3 feet, with flat, wide leaves, 
which are about 6 inches long, and fine, open, spreading panicle, 6 to 9 
inches long. The rays are slender, solitary, or .sometimes clustered 
l^low, and much branched from near the middle. The spikelets vary 
from one-quarter to nearly half an inch in length, and have two to three 
^^ rarely, four flowers each. The outer glumes are very unequal, the 
'ower one being very narrow and awl-shaped; the upper one broad, 
•^nerved, obtuse, and tipped with a fine point, and longer, souietimei^ 
twice as long as the lower. The rachis of the spikelet is clothed with 
fine, rather long hairs. Each flower consists of a lanceolate flowering 
Jjlame, ending in two slender, pointed teeth, and bearing on the back, 
^ear the point, a slender awn twice its own length ; a nan'ow palet, 
lather shorter tnan its glume ; and the inclosed stamens, and a somewhat 
hairy ovary. Of this grass Mr. Bolander remarks that it deserves fur • 
ther attention. It grows on dry hill-sides near the bay of San Fran- 
^Rco and Oakland hills, and also extends northward to Oregon. (Plate 
X: c, outer glumes ; ft, flowers.) 

Trisetum subspioatum. 

A perennial grass of the mountaineous regions of Europe and North 
A^ierica. It is found sparingly in New England, near the great lakes, 
'" the Bocky Mountains of Colorado, Utah, California, Oregon, and 
^rthward to the Arctic circle. It varies in height according to the al- 
^tode at which it grows, being sometimes reduced to 3 or 4 inches, at 
<^ther times running up to 2 feet high. The culms are erect and firm, 
jynooth or downy. The leaves are flat and from 1 to 4 inches long. 
•*^he panicle is spike-like, dense, and cylindrical, or elongated, and more 



250 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AaRICULTURE. 

or less interrupted, generally of a purplish color. The spikelets are 
flat and 2 to 3 flowered. The outer glumes Si,re unequal in size, the 
lower one being shorter and l-ner^'^ed, the upper longer (about three 
lines long), broader, and 3-nerved, both scarious on the margin. The 
flowers are slightly longer than the outer glumes 5 the flowering glumes 
are lanceolate, acute, slightly scabrous, 6-nerved, 2-toothed or bifid at 
the apex, scarious and purplish on the margins above, and bearing on 
the back above the middle a stout awn slightly longer than its glume. 
The palet is thin, membranous, 2-nerved, and 2-toothed at the apex. 
(Plate XI: a, outer glumes 5 fc, flowering glume and its awn.) 

AVENA FATUA. 

This is the so-called wild oat which occurs so commonly in California. 
It is generally thought to have been introduced from Europe where it 
is native, but it has become diffused over many other countries, includ- 
ing Australia and So