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RARIES 



•STANFORD 



TANFORD 



UNIVERSITY 



NIVERSITY 



LIBRARIES 



iRQ UNIVERSITY LIBRARI 



^SITY LIBRARIES STANI 



IBRAt^lES • STANFORD UNIVEI- 



F? ,iTY LIBRARIES 



f^AvlES STANFORD 



.NFORD UNIVERSITY 



STANFORD university 



LIBRA' 



UNIVERSITY »-«BRARIES STA: 



.NFORO UH^ 



LIBRARIES STANFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRARI 



:rsity libraries STANFORD university LII 



STANFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



TANFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES STANFORD Ul 



STANFORD university libraries STANF( 



UNIVERSITY libraries . STANFORD UNIVER 



r I.IBRARES • STANFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRAR 



EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS 



PRllfTXD BT ORDZR Of \ ' • 



EE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIYES, 



DURING THE 



FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS. 



IV VINETEICIf VOIiUMES. 



WASHINGTON: 

A. 0. P. NICHOLSON, PEINTEK. 

1854. 



r' LIBRARY ^ 

OF THE 

Lr'.AND STANFORD JUNIOR 

, UNIVERSITY. J 

'■ liy OEX 

THE EXECUTIYE D 



OCUMENTS, 



THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION. 



IN NINETEEN VOLUMES. 



Volume 1 No. 1, Parts 1,2, and 3. 

Volume 2 Noa. 2 and 3. 

Volume 3 Nos. 4 to 11. 

Volume 4 No. 12. 

Volume 5 Noa. 13 to 36. 

Volume 6 Noa. 37 and 38. 

Volume 7 No. 39, ParU 1 and 2. 

Volume 8 Noa. 40 to 65, except 53. 

Volume 9 No. 53. 

Volume 10 Noa. 66 to 85. 

Volume 11 Noa. 86 to 96. 

Volume 12 Noa. 97 to 106. 

Volume 13 Noa. 107 to 111. 

• Volume 14 Noa. 112 to 120. 

Volume 15 No. 121, in aeyeral parta. 

Volume 16 Nos. 122 to 128, except 125?^ 

Volume 17 No. 125. 

Volume 18 No. 129. 

Volume 19 Commerce and Nayigation. 



Title. 



A. 

Abert, J. J., Colonel Topographical Engineera, report of 

Academy, estimates for the Naval 

practice ^hip, propelled in part by steam, recommended 
for the Naval 

annual report of the Board of Examiners of the Naval 

Africa, W. F. Lynch, report of mission to 

Alcatrazas inland and Fort Point, California, fortifications at 

Alexander, Prof, report on alimentary substances 

Alimentary substaucos, report of Prof. Alexander 

Almanac, estimate fur the Nautical 

a report z-elative to the progress of the Nautical 

Amazon river, free navigation of 

report of Lieut. Gibbon 

American citizens, Spauish violation of the rights of. 

List of documents with the same 



Part. 



Vol. 



Doc. 















10 


82 
























53 


11 


86 


11 


86 



^^' 



3 
417 

402 
404 
329 

396 
396 
412 
394 
7 



INDEX. 



Title. 



imerican neamen, abstract returns of. 

Affliitad, icbooner * 

Appraiser'a store at San Francisco, letter from the Secretary of the 

Tretrary recommendiog an appropriation for 

Appnker's store at San Fra ^figp, letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury recommending an /i^^priation for 

impropriations, letter from tttt< Secretary of the Treasury, with es- 
timates for the civil and diplomatic expenses of 
the government for the year ending June 3;), 1855. 
letter from the Secretary of the Treasury recom- 
mending an appropriation for an appraiser's store 

at San Francisco 

letter from the Secretary of the Treasury recom- 
mending an appropriation for an appraiser's store 

at San Francisco 

letter from the Secretary of the Treasury relative to 
paying Gibbons & Kelly for extra work on light- 
bouses on the Pacific 

letter from the Secretary of the Treasury relative to 

an appropriation for an assay office in New York . . 

for the War Department for the fiscal year ending 

June 30, 1853 

for carrying into effect certain Indian treaties, esti- 
mates of. 

« to meet the debts of the last Mexican Boundary Sur- 
vey Commission 

Area of each State and Territory, a report showing the 

Armories, applications for the office of Superintendent of the national, 
letter from the Secretary of War, with a statement of 

expenditures at the national 

Army and navy 

Army Register, transcript of 

Army Register, for the year 1854 

Assay office in New York, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury 

relative to an appropriation for 

Astronomical Expedition (in several parts) 

Attorney General, letter on the manner of conducting the legal busi- 
ness of the government 

AoAria. correj^pondeuce between the State Department and the 
American charge at , 



Part. 



B. 

Badie, A. D., Superintendent of the Coast Survey, report of. 

Balances, letter from the Comptroller of the Treasury, with lists 
of 



Banks, report on the condition of the State 

Beecher, Captain Thaddeus, and crew, of the schooner North Caro- 
lina, Imprisonment of 

Belligerents an i neutrals, rights claimed by, and accorded to, in the 
war now pending between certain European powers 

Big Sioux river, survey of road from Mendota to 

BUck Warrior, report relative to the seizure of the 

Blackwater harbor, estimates for 

BUke, Commander, riiport relative to a coal depot at Key West, 
Florida. 



Boarding station at the Southwest Pass of the Missisi^ippi river 

Boundary Hue between Great Britain and the Uuited States on the 
northwest 

Bnzos river, Texas, Georgetown harbor, South Carolina, and Savan- 
nah river, Georgia, report of surveys of 

Breakwater at Point Isabel, Texas, estimates for 



Vol. 



5 

14 

14 

14 

3 

16 



Doc. 



10 



10 
1 

15 

119 

2 

15 

119 

113 

117 

5 

122 



Far-. 



5 


33 


10 


80 


16 


128 


5 


19 


1 


1 


8 


59 


10 


66 


14 


117 


15 


121 


11 


95 


8 


41 


4 


12 


5 


26 


12 


102 



29 

103 

97 

76 

1 



1 ! 1 



69 

1 

124 
bl 



10 



143 

410 



INDEX. 



TiUe. 



Vol* 



Ihte. 



British Minister, message from the President transmitting two com- 
munications from the British Minister, relative to health of im- 
migrants on shipboard from foreign countries 

British provinces and the United States, boundary line on the north- 



west. 



Brooklyn navy-yard lands, postponement of sale recommended 

Bureaus, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury relative to the 
compensation of the heads of. 



C. 

California, appropriation for an appraiser's store at San Francisco — 
appropriation for an appraiser's store at San Francisco — 
marine hospital at San Francisco, memorial of the con- 
tractor 

additional estimates for marine hospital at San Francisco. . 

estimates for the custom-house at San Franoisco 

letter from the Secretary of War relative to pay of vol- 
unteers under Captain J. C. Fremont, in 

fotifications at Fort Point and Alcatrazas island 

letter from the Secretary of the Interior, with an esti- 
mate for surveying service in 

California land claims, estimates for salaries and expenses of the 

commission for •• 

Campbell, James, Postmaster General, report of 

Cape May, letter from Secretary of War relative to survey of Crow 
shoal , 



Capitol Extension, report on the 

Capitol and penitentiary of Minnesota, letter from the Secretary of 

the Treasury relative to finishing the 

Cayuse war in Oregon, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury 

relative to a further appropriation for expense of 

Census, letter from the Secretary of the Interior, with a report of 

the Superintendent of 

Central America 

full mission to 

Charg6 d'affaires, iSz:c., to foreign courts 

Cherokees, east and west of the Missisnippi river, letter from the 

Secretary of the Interior relative to an appropriation for the 

Chickasaw trust fund and land sales, condition of the 

Chihuahua, boundary luie between New Mexico and the Mexican 

State of 

China, intercourse with 

China, correspondence between the State Department and the late 

CommiBsiouer to 

Claims of our citizens against Great Britain 

Clerks and others in the Navy Department 

State Department 

Treasury Department 

War Department 

Clothing and provisions, estimate for 

Coal depot for naval purposes at Key West 

Coast Survey, report of A. D. Bache 

list of employ6sin the 

Colbert's Shoals, report relative to removal of obstructions in the 

Tennessee river at 

Columbia, District of 

Commanding General Winfield Scott, report of 

Commerce and navigation 

Commercial intercourse with foreign nations 

Commissary General, George Gibson, report of 



13 

1 
1 

14 



14 

8 
II 
14 

10 
10 

11 

5 

1 

8 

1 



3 
1 

1 
10 

10 
5 

1 

1 

16 

1 
8 
5 
6 
8 
1 
1 
4 
5 

8 
1 
1 
19 
8 
1 



116 

1 
1 

120 



15 
119 

54 

94 

118 

77 



96 

35 
. 1 

56 

1 

48 
45 

9 

1 

1 

67 

85 
34 

1 
1 

123 
1 

58 
23 
38 
61 
1 
1 

12 
13 

51 
1 
1 

47 
1 



INDEX. 



Title. 



Part 



Vol. 



Pace. 



antioople, message from the President, transmitting copies of 
re^odence between the State Department and the American 
litter at 



ruction, equipment, and repair, detailed estimates for 

i^Qt expenses of the Interior Department 

Military Establishment. 

Navy Department 

State Department and foreign intercourse. 

Treasury Department 

War Department 

List of papers with the same 

lets, letter from the Secretary of War, with a statement of. - - 
icts hr the improTement of harbors and rivers on Lake Michi- 



, Hariin, oath of allegiance to the United States 

certificate of naturalization 

H. K., Colonel of Ordnance, report of 

icent City" steamer, at Havana, letter from the Secretary of 

e relative to 

ihoal. at Cape May, letter from the Secretary of War relative 

he survey of 

and Porto Rico 

m-bonse at San Francisco, California, appropriation for 

m-hoQses, original cost of 

me, letter from the Commissioner, with a list of balances due 

D officers of 

re, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, recommending 
ippropriation for revenue 



D. 



, Charles H., report relative to the Nautical Almanac 

.Jefferson, Secretary of War, report of 

List of documents with the same 

8, resignations, and dismissions in the navy 

rtions and fines, report of the Postmaster General 

[oines and Rock River rapids, in the Mississippi river 

rsements and receipts of the Post Office Department 

sfiions, deaths, and resignations in the navy 

ct of Columbia 

insane asylum of the 

annual report of the Board of Directors of the 

penitentiary 

I and yards, postponement of sale of the navy-yard land at 

Brooklyn recommended.. 

estimates for 

n, James C, Secretary of the Navy, report of. 

List of documents with the same 



E. 

>y6t in the Coast Survey, list of 

eer, Joseph G. Totten, report of Chief 

eers, report of the Board relative to western rivers and lake 
twrt.. 



ment. Repair, and Construction, estimates for 

Prof, letter relative to meteorological observations from 

atei for the civil and diplomatic expenses of the government 
for the year ending June 30, 1855 

for the southwest executive building 

for the navy, summary statement oif 

general, for the aapport of the marine corps, 

geaenJ, ibr tiie Mupport of the /wij..,,,. 



no 

1 

88 
17 
77 
7 
20 
49 
49 
63 

71 
1 

1 
1 

90 

56 

1 

118 

60 

57 
13 



1 

1 

1 

1 

22 

104 

101 

1 

1 

1 



13 

1 

1 
1 

1 



31 1 



2 

1 

1 
1 
1 



545 



50 
263 



394 
3 

35 
322 



322 
13 
13 



409 
435 
297 
320 



157 

195 
545 

393 



080 

Od4 



INDEX. 



Title. 



Part. 



Vol. 



Doc. 



PV- 



r 



Estimates, general, for special objects under the Nary Department. .. 

for the office of the Secretary of the Navy 

for public buildings and grounds 

for completion of Huron harbor 

for repairs at Vermillion 

for repairs at Blackwater harbor 

far opening the channel at St. Clair 

additional, for marine hospital at San Francisco, Cal 

for cuHtom-house at San Francisco, Cal 

of expense of Rogue River war 

for a breakwater at Point Isabel, Texas 

European Powers, messsage from the President transmitting copies 
of correspondence relative to the rights accorded to neutrals, and 
the rights claimed by belligerents, in the war pending between 

certain 

Expenditure of the contingent fund of the Navy Department 

Treasury Department 

Expenditures and receipts of the government for the year ending June 

»M853 

Expenditures under the head of contingent expenses, as settled at 

the office of the Fourth Auditor of the Treasury 

Expenses, civil and diplomatic, estimates for the year ending June 30, 

18:)5 

of the Rogue River war, estimate of 

contingent, of the State Department and foreign inter- 



contingent, of the War Department.. 
List of papers with the same. 

F. 



Finances, report of the Secretary of the Treasury 

of the country 

Fines and deductions, letter from the Postmaster General, with a 

report of 

Fisheries, message from the President, with letters, &c., relative to 

the 

on the northeastern coast 

r'oreign Powers, our diplomatic relations with 

Foreign nations, commercial intercourse with 

Foreign inforcourse, contingent expenses of the State Department. ., 

Foreign gold and silver coin, report relative to the value of 

Foreign courts, American ministers, charges, &c., at 

Fortifications at Fort Point and Alcatrazas island, Cal 

Fort Point and Alcatrazas island, Cal., fortifications at 

Fourth Auditor of the Treasury, expenditures under the head of 

contingent expenses, as settled at his office 

France, our relations with * 

Frauds upon the Pension Office 

Fremont, Capt. J. C., letter from the Secretary of War, relative to 

pay of volunteers in California, under 



G. 

General Land Office, report of John Wilson, Commissioner of the 

Schedule of documents with the same, includ- 
ing the annual reports of surveyors general . 
report of John Wilson, Commissioner, rela- 
tive to depredations on timber lands 

Georgetown and Washington, water for 

Georgetown harbor, South Carolina ; Savannah river, Georgia ; and 

Brazos river, Texas — report of surveys of. 

Georgia, report of survey of Savannah river 



1 

1 

5 

1 

1 

1 

1 

11 

14 

12 

10 



12 

10 
5 

14 



2 
12 

3 

8 
8 



5 
1 

1 
8 
3 
10 
10 
10 
10 

1 
1 

12 
10 



1 

1 

14 

1 

16 
16 



1 
1 

25 
1 
1 
1 
1 

94 
118 

96 

81 



103 
79 
20 

112 



2 
98 

7 
49 
49 



3 
1 

22 

21 
1 
1 

47 

7 
68 
67 

82 
82 

1 

1 
105 

77 



1 

1 

115 
1 

124 
124 



6BS 
413 

139 
143 
143 
145 



71 



13 



LNDEX. 



TlUc. 



aibons sod Kellj, relative to pay for extra work on ligh^houses on 

the Pacific coast 

ibboD, lieut., explorations of the Amazon river, report of 

ibsoo, George, report of Commissary General 

t>ld and silver coin, report relative to the value of foreign 

rest Britain, claims of our citizens against 

message from the President, transmitting copies of a 

treaty with 

roino, exportation of. 

omisoa's report of Pacific railroad route survey 



Part. 



H. 

[&rbor and river improvements, orders respecting 

orders respecting 

general order from Secretary of 

War relative to 

[iriwrs and rivers on Lake Michigan, contracts for improve- 
meat of. . 



l^sdsof Bureaus, compensation of 

[ospitds, report of Col. S. H. Long, relative to maiine 

[ol»emann's letc«r to William L. Marcy, Secretary of State. 

[aron harbor, estimates for 

[jdrDgraphical office, estimates for 

[jdrography and Ordnance Bureau, estimates for 



I. 

IlJnois river improvements, report of Col. S. H. Long relative to 

Dorigrants on ship-board from foreign countries, message from the 
Pruadent, transmitting two communications from the British min- 
ister relative to the health of 

Binigrants by sea to the United States, health and comfort of 

idian Afiaini — 

No. 53, report of D. P. Aspberry 

No. 37, report of Francis Barker 

No. 89, letter to E. F. Beale 

No. 90, letter to E. F. Beale 

No, 91, report of E. F. Beale 

No. 92, report of E. F. Bealo 

No. 101, letter to E.F. Beale 

No. 94, letter from E. F. Beale 

No. 95, letter from E. F. Beale 

No. 6, report of A. Bingham 

No. 17, report of James Loyd Breck 

No. 48, report of George Butler 

No. 74, report of Cyrus Byington 

No. 58, report of Thomas C. Carr 

No. 67, report of Jason D. Chamberlain 

No. 66, report of D. H. Cooper 

No. 88, letter to A. Culbertson 

No. 25, report of A. Gumming 

No. 10, report of Rev. F. H. Gumming 

No. 51, report of D. B. Cummings 

No. 46, report of A. J. Dom 

No. 45, report of Thomas 8. Drew 

No. 28, report of J. B. Duerink 

No. 57, report of E. B. Duncan 

No. 93, report of H. B. Edwards 

No. 100, e>^timateB for removing Indians 

No. 44, report of Thomas Filzpatnck 

No. 19, report of J. E. Fletcher. 

"So. 33r report of Harvey W. Forman 



Vol. 



14 
9 
1 

10 
1 

16 

10 

5 



10 

14 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 



Doc. 



113 

53 

1 



127 

70 

18 



1 
1 

1 

71 

120 

1 
1 

> 
1 
1 



116 

98 

I 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
' 1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



P»«f. 



141 

4 



45 
W 

21 



57 

25 

139 

417 

417 



84 



390 

340 

464 

406 

467 

469 

480 

474 

475 

282 

304 

381 

422 

394 

408 

405 

463 

320 

288 

387 

377 

371 

325 

391 

472 

4^ 
%9 
%^ 



INDEX. 



Title. 



Indian Affaire — Continued. 

No. 52, report of W. H. Garrett 

No. d2^t instructions to Joseph M. Garrison 

No. 41, report of James M. Gatewood 

No. 4, report of Henry C. Gilbert 

No. 15, report of Gov. Willis A. Gorman 

No. 80, report of £. A. Graves 

No. 96, statement of Hon. Wm. M. Gwin 

No. 18, report of Sherman Hall 

No. 42, report of William Hamilton 

No. 75, report of John Harrell 

No. 62, report of A. L. Hay 

No. 16, report of D. B. Herriman 

No. 81, report of J. H. Holeman 

No. 73, report of E. Hotchkin 

No. 11, report of Francis Huebschmann 

No. 1 , instructions of the Secretary of the Interior relative to . 

No. 31, report of 8. M. Irwin 

No. 39, report of B. A. James 

No. 3, report of Marcus H. Johnson 

No. 38, report of Thomas Johnson 

No. 70, report of C. Kingsbury .^.. 

No. 9, report of A. Lacoste 

No. 68, report of Edwin Lathrop 

No. 8, report of P. P. Lefevre 

No. 55, report of Mary Lewis 

No. 59, report of R. M. Longbridge 

No. 27, report of D. Lykins 

Report of George W. Manypenoy, Commissioner of 

No. 2, report of George W. Manypenny relative to Indians 

west of Missouri and Iowa 

No. 76, reportof W. L. McAlister 

No. 98, letter from Hon. J. A. McDougal 

No. 40, reportof Rev. Jotham Meeker 

No. 79, reportof Gov. D. Meriwether 

No. 36, reportof E. S. Morse and J. G. Pratt 

No. 87, instructions to Lieut. Mullen 

No. 21, reportof R. G. .>*urphy 

No. 78, report of R. 8. Neighbore 

No. 82, report of Joel Palmer 

No. 99, report of Lieut. Parke 

No. 71, report of R.D. Potts 

No. 36, report of J. G. Pratt and E. S. Moree 

No. 24, report of P. Prescott 

No. 30, report of Sarah Rea 

No. 50, reportof H. D. Reese 

No. 72, report of Alexander Reid 

No. 23, reportof Rev. 8. R. Riggs. , 

No. 34, report of B. F. Robinson 

No. 35, reportof B. F. Robinson 

No. 65, reportof J. C. Robinson 

No. 5^ reportof Thomas B. Ruble 

No. 47, report of John Schuenmaker 

No. 5, report of Rev. James Shaw 

No. 13, report of Jeremiah Slingerland 

No. 7, report of G^rge Smith 

No. 64, report of A. J. Smith 

No. 63, reportof B. H. Smithson 

No. 83, instructions to Gov. 1. 1. Stevens 

No. 84, letter from Gov. 1. 1. Stevens 

No. 85, letter from Gov. 1. 1. Stevens 

No. 86, letter from Gov. 1. 1. Stevens 

No. 64, report of E. Stidham 



Part. 



Vol. 



Doc. 



INDEX. 



TiUe. 



Part. 



Vol. 



Doc. 



Page. 



Indian Affairs — Continned. 

No. 99, report of Lieut Stoneham 

No. 12, report of John v. Suydam 

No. 14, report of John V. Sujdam 

No. 77, report of N. M. Talbott 

No. 60, report of William H. Templeton 

No. 20, report of Francis D. Tivoldi 

No. 29, report of D. Yanderslice 

No. 43, report of Alfred D. Vaughn 

No. 61, report of D. G.Wataon 

No. 97, letter from Hon. J. B. Weller 

No. 26, report of John W. Whitefield 

No. 32, report of James Williams 

No. 99, report of Lieut. Williamson 

No. 22, report of Rev. Thomas S. Williamson 

No. 49, report of S. A. Worcester 

No. 69, report of H. B. Wright 

No. 80^, report of Gov. Brigham Young 

Indian hostilities in Oregon 

Indian service in New Mexico, letter from the Secretary of the In- 
terior, asking for an additional appropriation for 

Indian titles to land vest of the Missouri and Iowa, extinguishment of.. 

Indians, letter from the Second Auditor of the Treasury, with copies 

of accounts of persons charged with the disbursement of 

moneys for the benefit of 

in Oregon and Washington Territories, letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, with a report of the Commissioner of 

In<Uan Affairs 

Insane Asylum of the District of Columbia 

Interior Department, letter from the Secretary, with a statement of 

balances 

contingent expenses of the 

Interior, letter from the Secretary, with estimates for salaries and 

expenses of the commission for California land claims 

letter from the Secretary, with a statement of the number 

of acres of public lands which have been donated 

letter from the Secretary relative to appropriations for the 

Cherokees east and west of the Mississippi 

letter from the Secretary, with an estimate for surveying 

service of California 

letter from the Secretary, asking an appropriation to meet 
the debts of the last commission on the Mexican bound- 



ary survey 

letter from the Secretary, with a list of rejected applicants 

for pensions 

Internal improvements 



Japan, interoonrse with 

Jasap, Thomas S., Quartermaster General, report of. 

Judicial system 

Judicial system, plan for enlargement of the 



K. 

Kdlj Sl Gibbons, an appropriation to pay for extra work on light- 
houses on the Pacific 

Key West, reoort of Commander Blake relative to a coal depot 
for naval pu^oses at 

King, William H., Wee President of cbe United SUtea, death of. 

KontM, Msjtin. , 

ojUA ofallejgmace to the United StAtea 



14 



43 

81 



37 



8 
1 


55 

1 


3 
11 


6 

88 


5 


35 


8 


52 


10 


85 


11 


96 



113 



478 
291 
294 
424 
31)7 
312 
327 
352 
397 
476 
322 
3:)4 
4TS 
315 
3^4 
4C9 
441 
37 



13 



14 



6 

129 

14 




10 



INDEX. 



TiUe. 



Part. 



Vol. 



Doc. 



P»r 



KoBzta, Martin, certificate of naturalization 

seizure and rescue of 

List of documents with the same. 



Lake harbors and western rivers, report of engineers 3 



report of James Kearney. 

report of James Keamej 

Land Office, report of Commissioner John Wilson 

schedule of documents with the same, including the an- 
nual reports of surveyors general 

report of Commissioner John Wilson, relative to depre- 
dations upon timber lands 

Land sales and Chickasaw trust fund, condition of 

Lauds west of the Missouri and Iowa, extinguishment of Indian 

titles to 

Lamed, Benjamin F., Paymaster General, report of. 

Lawson, Thomas, Surgeon General, report of 

Legal business of the government, report of the Attorney General 

relative to the 

Light-houses on the Pacific, an appropriation to pay Gibbons & Kelly 

for extra work on 

London Exhibition, illustrated works of the 

Long, S. H., Colonel of Engineers 

Colonel of Engineers 

Lynch, W. F., mission to Africa, report of 



M. 



Macomb, J. N., engineer, report of 

Mail ocean steamship service, estimates for 

Mail, offers for carrying 

Mail-route No. 5502, from Montgomery to Mobile, Alabama , 

Mail service, estimate for 

estimates for ocean , 

Manypenuy, George W., Superintendent of Indian Affairs, report of. .. 
Schedule of documents with the same. — (See 

* Indian Affairs) 

Marcy, William L., Secretary of State, report of 

letter to Mr. Hulsemann 

Marine corps, report of the commandant, with detaUed estimates 

from the paymaster and quartermaster 

general estimate for support of. 

Marine corps and navy, pay of officers 

Marine hospital fund, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 

with a statement of receipts and expenditures of the 

Marine hospital at San Francisco, Cal., memorial of contractor for the. 

additional estimates fbr 

Martha Washington steamboat, burning of 

Mason, Charles, Commissioner of Patents, report of. 

table of contents to Part 1 

report of 

index to Part 2 , 

McClelland, Robert, Secretary of the Interior, report of. 

Medicine and surgery, estimates 

Mendota, road from, to Big Sioux river, report of survey of. 

Message, annual, of the President 

our diplomatic relations with foreign Powers 

fisheries on the northeastern coast 

Central America 

claims of our citizens against Great Britain 



1 
91 
91 



115 
34 

84 
1 
1 

95 

113 

32 

1 

1 

1 



1 

11 
12;> 
89 
92 
93 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

44 

28 
54 
94 

87 



39 
39 
1 
1 
9/ 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



2 

St 



en 

6) 



4: 

6( 



INDEX. 



11 



TiUe. 



MMitgc CoDtinqed . 

boaDdaiyliae between the United States and the British 
Proviucegin the northwest 

France, our relations with 

Spain, our relations with 

Cuba and Porto Rico 

schooner Amistad 

Martin Koszta 

Commander Ingraham 

China, intercourse with 

Japan, intercoerse with 

Chihuahua, boundary line between New Mexico and the 
Mexican Stale of 

Central America, full mission to 

Amazon river, free narigation of. 

Peru, our relations with 

finances of the country 

army and navy 

Post Office Department 

Pension Bureau, frauds upon 

public lands surveyed, &c 

District of Columbia 

Insail^ Asylum of the District of Columbia 

water for Washington and Georgetown. ., 

judicial system 

Smithsonian Institution 

mtemal improvements 

Pacific railroad routes, survey of. 

Vice President, death of 

William L. Marcy, Secretary of State, report of. — . 

Hulsemann's letter to Mr. Marcy 

Mr. Marcy's letter to Mr. HuUemann 

Martin Koszia, oath of allegiance to the United States 

Martin Koszta, certificate of naturalization 

report of R. McClellHnd, Secretary of the Interior 

report of John Wilson, Commissioner of the General Land 

Office 

Schedule of documents with the same, including annual 
reports of surveyors general 

report of George W. Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian 
Afiairs 

reports of superintendents of Indian affairs, agents, super- 
intendents and teachers of schools in the Indian country, 
&c.y accompanying the annual report of the Commissioner 

of Indian Afiairs for the year 1853 

No. 1 . Instructions from the Secretary of the Interior 
to Commissioner George W. Manypenny... 

2. Report of Commissioner George W. Many- 

penny 

3. Report of Marcus H. Johnson, sub-agent for 

New York Indians 

4. Report of Henry C. Gilbert, agent for Indiana 

in Michigan 

5. Mission report of Rev. James Shaw 

6. Mission report of Rev. A. Bingham 

7. Misbion report of Rev. George Smith 

8. School report of Right Rev. P. P. Lefevre... 

9. School report of A Lacoste 

JO. Mission report of Rev. F. H. Gumming 

11.* Report of Superintendent Francis Huebsch- 

^ mann 

I • 12. Report of Sub- Agent John V. Suydam 

J J. School report of Jeremiah Slingerluid ... 1 1 ' 



Part. Vol. 



Doc. 



Page. 



6 
7 
7 
7 
9 

10 

10 

11 

11 

13 

13 

13 

13 

14 

14 

16 

20 

25 

25 

30 

26 

50 

53 

71 
89* 
243 



265 



276 




12 



INDEX. 



Title. 



Message— Continued. 
No. 14. 

15. 

16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
SO. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 

50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
70, 
71 
72. 



Abstract of school reports, by John V. Suy- 

dam 

Eeport of Gov. Willis A. Gorman, superin- 
tendent ex-ofiicio 

Report of Agent D. B. Herriman 

School report of James Loyd Breck 

School report of Sherman Hall 

Report of Agent J. E. Fletcher 

School report of Francis D. Tivoldi 

Report of Agent R. G. Murphy. 

Mission report of Rev. Thomas S. Williamson. 

Mission report of Rev. S. S. Riggs 

Farm report of P. Prescott 

Report of Superintendent A. Gumming 

Report of Agent John W. Whitfield 

School report of D. Lykins 

School report of J. B. Duerink 

Report of Agent D. Vanderslice 

School report of Sarah Rea 

School report of S. M. Irwin 

School report of James Williams 

Farm report of Harvey W. Forman 

Report of Agent B. F. Robinson 

School report of "Friends" ^ 

School report of E. S. Morse and J. G. Pratt. 

School report of Francis Barker 

School report of Thomas Johnson 

Report of Agent B. A. James 

Mission report of Rev. Jotham Meeker 

Report of Agent James M. Gatewood 

School report of William Hamilton 

Report of Agent Alfred D. Vaughn 

Report of Agent Thomas Fitzpatrick 

Report of Superintendent Thomas S. Drew.. 

Report of Agent A. J. Dom 

School report of John Schuenmaker 

Report of Agent George Butler 

Mission and school report of Rev. S. A 
Worcester. 

School report of H. D. Reese 

School report of D. B. Cummings 

Report of Agent W. H. Garrett 

School report of D. P. Aspberry 

School report of £. Sddham 

School leport of Mary Lewis 

School report of Thomas B. Ruble 

Mission report of Rev. E. B. Duncan 

School report of Thomas C. Carr 

School report of R. M. Longbridge 

School report of William H. Templeton 

School report of D. G. Watson 

School report of A. L. Hay.J 

Report of Sub-Agent B. H. Smithson 

Report of A. J. Smith 

School report of J. C.Robinson 

Report of Agent D. H. Cooper 

School report of Jason D. Chamberlain 

School report of Edwin Lathrop 

School report of H. B. Wright 

School report of C. Kingsbury 

School report of R. D. Potts 

School report of Alexander Reid 



Part. 



Vol. 



Doc. 



INDEX. 



13 



TiUe. 



Part. 



Vol. 



Doc. 



Page. 



S. 



etMge— CoDtinned. 

No. 73. School report of £. Hotchkin 

74. School report of Cyrua Byington 

75. School report of John Harrell 

76. School report of W. L. McAlister 

77. School report of N. M. Talbott 

78. Report of Principal Special Agent B. 

Neighbors 

79. Report of Qov. D. Meriwether, superintend- 

ent ex-officio 

80. Report of Agent E. A. Graves 

80^. Report of Gov. Brigham Young, superintend- 
ent ez-officioo 

81. Report of Agent J. H. Holeman 

82. Report of Superintendent Joel Palmer 

82j|. Instructions from Superintendent Palmer to 

Agent Jos. M. Garrison 

Instructions to Gov. I. I. Stevens, superin- 
tendent ex-officio 

Letter from Gov. 1. 1. Stevens 

Letter from Gov. 1. 1. Stevens 

Letter from Gov. 1. 1. Stevens 

87. Instructions of Gov. I. I. Stevens to Lieut. 
Mullen 

Instructions of Gov. 1. 1. Stevens to A. Cul- 
bertson 

Instructions from the Secretary of the Int^ 
rioi to Superintendent Beale 

Instructions from the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior to Superintendent Beale 

Report of Superintendent Beale 

Report of Superintendent Beale 

93. Report of H. B. Edwards 

94. Letter from Superintendent Beale to Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs 

Letter from Superintendent Beale to Hon. 

Messrs. Gwin and Latham 

Statement of Hon. Wm. M. Gwin 

Letter to Superintendent Beale, from Hon. 

John B. Weller 

Letter from Hon. J. A. McDougal to Super- 
intendent Beale 

Letter from Lieutenants Stoneman, William- 
son, and Parke, to Superintendent Beale. .. 

Estimate of expense for removing Indians 

Letter from Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

to Superintendent Beale 

Report of L. P. Waldo, Commissioner of 

Pensions - 

essige from the President, transmitting letters, &c., relative to the 

fisheries 

transmitting correspondence in refer- 
ence to the imprisonment of Captain 
Thaddeus Beecher and crew, of the 

schooner North Carolina 

transmitting works illustrative of the 

Loudon Exhibition 

transmitting the annual report of the Di- 
rector of the mint 

tnnswUting correspondence between 

the State Department and the Ameri- 

can charge at Auatria 



83. 

84. 
85. 
86. 



88. 



90. 

9L 
92. 



95. 

97. 

98. 



100. 
101. 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

21 



419 
422 
423 
424 
424 

425 

429 
434 

441 
443 
447 

451 

453 
457 
458 
460 

462 

463 

464 

466 
467 
469 
472 

474 

475 

476 

476 

477 

478 
480 

480 

485 




14 



INDEX. 



TiUe. 



Message from the President, transmitting a report from the Secre- 
tary of State on the subject of the 
eommercial intercourse of the United 
Stat«*8 with foreign nations 

transmitting Lieut. Gibbon's report of 
the explorations of the Amazon river. 

transmitting report upon the exporta- 
tion of guano 

transmitting copies of contracts for the 
improvement of harbors and rivers in 
Lake Michigan 

transmitting annual report of the Board 
of Inspectors of the penitentiary of 
the District of Columbia 

transmitting a plan for the modification 
and enlargement of the judicial system. 

with a report in reference to the seizure 
of the "Black Warrior" 

with a statement showing the area of 
each State and Territory 

transmitting a report in regard to the 
extinguishment of the Indian titles to 
lands west of the Missouri and Iowa. . . 

transmitting a report relative to Spanish 
violations of the rights of American 
citizens 

transmitting list of documents accompa- 
nying the same 

transmitting a communication from the 
Secretary of State relative to the 
steamer " Crescent City," at Havana. . 

transmitting correspondence growing 
out of seizure and rescue of Martin 
Koszta 

transmitting list of documents accompa- 
nying the same 

transmitting report of the Attorney Gen- 
eral, suggesting modifications in the 
manner of conducting the legal busi- 
ness of the government 

transmitting copy of correspondence on 
the subject of the health and comfort 
of immigrants by sea to the United 
States 

transmitting correspondence relative to 
Rev. J. C. Richmond and the United 
States consul at Trieste 

transmitting list of documents accompa- 
nying the same 

transmitting correspondence relative to 
the rights accorded to neutrals, and 
the rights claimed by belligerents, in 
the war pending between certain Eu- 
ropean powers 

• transmitting correspondence in relation 
to the imposition of " sound dut's" 
upon our commerce to the Baltic 

transmitting copy of a treaty between 
the United States and Mexico 

transmitting copies of correspondenco 
transmitted by the American Minister 
at Constantinople to the Department 
of State 



Part. 



Vol. 



10 


72 


10 


73 


10 


76 


10 


80 



Doc. 



47 
53 
70 

71 



Page 



84 

86 
86 

90 

91 
91 

95 



100 
100 

103 

108 
109 

110 



INDEX. 



15 



1^ 



Title. 



Menage from the President, tnuBmittiiig papers relative to instrac- 
tioDs referred to by President Mon- 
roe, on the subject of the issue of com- 
missions to private-armed vessels 

transmitting two communications from 
the British Minister, relative to the 
health of immigrants on shipboard 
from foreign comitries to the U nited 

States 

transmitting report of astronomical ex- 
peditions, in several parts 

transmitting correspondence between 
the State Department and the late 

Commissioner to China 

transmitting reports relatiye to the de- 
struction of San Juan de Nicaragua... 
transmitting oopj of a treaty with Great 

Britain 

Meteorological observations, letter from Prof Espy relative to 

Mexican boundary survey, letter from the Secretary of the Interior 

•iking an appropriation to meet the debts of the commission of the. 

Mexican State of Chihuahua, boundary line between New Mexico and 

tlie 

Mexico, message from the President transmitting a copy of a treaty 

between the United States and 

Michigan \&ke, contracts for improvement of harbors and rivers in. . 
Midihipmen, late cruise of the practice ship, report of commandant. . 
Military establishment, letter from the Secretary of War, transmit- 
ting a statement of the contingent expenses of the 

Military roads in Oregon, instructions relative to 

Militia, letter from Secretary of War, with abstruct returns of the 

Milvaukie harbor, instructions by J. J. Abert relative to 

letter from James Kearney , 

letter from J. J. Abert relative to 

letter from J. J. Abert relative to 

MioisterB, charge d'affaires, ^^r c, at foreign courts , 

Minnesota capitol and penitentiary, letter from Secretary of Treasury 

relative to finishing 

Mint of the United States, report of the Director relative to the condi- 
tion of the dies of medals ordered by Congress 

List of the same 

Mioissippi river, papers relative to a boarding-station at the South- 
west Pass of the 

Des Moines and Rock River rapids, in the 

Letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting a 

report on deepening the passes of the 

instructions relative to the survey of the Upper 

Mobile harbor, a report from the Secretary of War 



rtbt. Vol. Doc. 



N. 



Kational armories, applications for office of Superintendent of. 

scatement of expenditures 

Haotical Almanac, report relative to progress of 

estimates of Superiotendent 

Hgral Academy, a vessel propelled in part by steam recommended as 

apractice ship 

annual report of the Board of Examiners 

estimates for 

Karal Obaenratory, estimates for 

Navigation and conmierce 

Havy and mtw^. ----..— .... 



13 



111 



Page. 



13 


116 


15 


121 


16 


123 


16 


126 


16 

1 


127 
1 



33 



109 

71 

1 

17 
1 

50 
1 
1 
1 
I 

67 

48 

40 

106 

106 



10 

12 I 104 



16 

1 
8 



128 
19 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 



393 



40€ 



67 

178 
181 
Ul 
182 



75 



IV) 

I M 



304 
412 

402 
404 , 
417 
4\T 



\^ 



16 



INDEX. 



'ntie. 



Part. 



Vol 



Doe. 



F-i 



Nafy Be|i&rtment, XattoT from tho Secretary of tbti Nai?y, with liHts 

of clerks, &c., in the 

statement of balances of appro|>riation8, 1852 and 

1853 

letter from the Secretary, with a stalement of the 

expenditare of the contingent fund^of the 

Nlivy, letter from the Secretary, with information relative to the steam 

navy of the United States 

letter from the Secretary, relative to the adaptation of ocean 

mail steamers to war purposes 

letter from the Secretary, with a statement of the amount of 

pay of officers of the marine corps and the .'. - . 

report of James C. Dobbin, Secretary of the 

Navy, list of papers accompanying the report of the Secretary of the 
Navy, December 5, 1853 

A. List of deaths, resignations, and dismissions in the navy, 

since the last report 

B. Report of Commander W. F. Lynch, in relation to his 

mission to the coast of Africa 

C. Professor Espy's letter, in relation to meteorological 

observations 

D. Report of Lieutenant Charles H. Davis, superintend- 

ent of American Nautical Almanac, in relation to 

its progress 

£. Professor Alexander's report as to investigations and 
experiments upon the character of alimentary sub- 
stances 

F. Recommendation of board of examiners of Naval 

Academy, that a vessel propelled in part by steam be 
•> used as the practice-ship 

G. Report of annual board of examiners, in relation to 

organization, condition, &c., of the Naval Academy. . 
H. Report by the commandant of midshipmen of the late 

cruise of the practice-ship 

I. Letter from chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, 
recommending that the sale of navy-yard lands at 
Brooklyn, authorized by act of March 3, 1853, be 

postponed 

K. Report of Commander Blake, as to arrangements for 
establishing a depot of coal for naval purposes at^ey 

West 

No. 1. Detailed estimates of the office of the Secretary 
of the Navy, and detailed estimates of the su- 
perintendent of the Nautical Almanac 

No. 2. Report and detailed estimates of the chief of the 
Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, includ- 
ing Hydrographical Office and Naval Observa- 
tory, and Naval Academy 

No. 3. Report and detailed estimates of the chief of the 

Bureau of Yards and Docks 

No. 4. Report and detailed estimates of the chief of the 
•Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Re- 

, pair 

No^ 5. Report and detaUed estimates of the chief of the 
Bureau of Provisions and Clothing 

6. Report and detailed estimates of the chief of the 
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery 

7. Report of the commandant of the marine corps, 
and detailed estimates from the paymaster and 
quartermaster of the corps 

8. General estimate of office of the Secretary of the 
Navy, and the several bureaus of the depart- 
ment 



No. 
No. 



No. 



8 

1 
10 

8 
10 

8 



58 
1 
79 
65 
76 
44 



I < 
I ^ 
I < 



I i 



INDEX. 



17 



Title. 



I 



KiTf, lilt of papers — Continued. 

No. 9. General estimate for sonthwest executive building 
No. 10. Summary statement of the estimates for the navy 

No. il. General estimate for the support of the navy 

No. 12. General estimate for the support of the marine 

corps '. 

No. 13. General estimate for special objects under the 

Navy Department 

No. 14. Abstract of expenditures under the head of con- 
tingent expenses, as settled and allowed at the 
office of the Fourth Auditor of the Treasury, 
from July 1, 1652, to June 30, 18rj3, inclusive. .. 
No. 15. Statement of the appropriations for the Navy De- 
partment, viz: balances of appnipriatious on 
the Ist of July, 18o2; appropriations fur the 
fiscal year 1852-'3; repayments and transfers 
in same time; the amounts applicable to the 
servi^jeof the year 1852-'3; the amounts drawn 
by requisitions from the treasury in tlie same 
period; and the balances on the 3<ith of June, 
1853, with such sums specially designated as 

have been carried to the surplus fund 

KiTjr Register for the year 1854 

Neutrals and bellig»'rents, rights accorded to and claimed by, in the 

war now pending between certam European Powers 

New Bedford harbor and Taunton river, survey of 

New Mexico, letter from the Secretary of the Interior, asking for an 

additional apprc»priation for Indian service 

New Vork, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, relative to an 

appropriation for an assay office at 

"Nertb Carolina," schooner, imprisonment of the captain and crew 



Part, 



North river and Scituate harbor, report of surrey of. . 



Obaenratory, estimates for the naval 

Ocean mail sorvice, esiimates for 

Ocean mail steamship service, estimates for 

Ocean mail steamers, adaptation of to war purposes 

Ohio river, near Marietta, letter from the Secretaiy of War relative to 

examination of 

report of C. A. Fuller 

Ordnance, report of H. K. Craig 

Ordnance and hydrography, estimates for 

Oregon and Washiugum Territories, letter from the Secretary of the 
Interior, with a report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

Oregon, Ca>u«e war, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, rel- 
ative to a further appropriation to pay expense of 

Indian hostilities in 

military roads, instructions relative to 



P. 



Pacific railroad route, surveys of 

• report of Col. S. H. Long 

surveys of 

letter from Secretary of War, with surveys of. 

Pacific railroad, central route, a report relative to Captain Gunnison's 

survey 

Burvej'g 

Pmnigeri hrriving^Ja the United Stntea {jrom foreign countries, by 

mm - 

^ - .... 



Vol. 



Doc. 



1 
64 

103 
30 

43 

117 

29 
31 



1 

93 

11 

75 

114 

1 

1 

1 

1 

55 

45 

I 
1 



1 

1 

46 

129 



Pace. 



680 
681 
664 



686 



417 



77 

86 
263 
417 



37 
67 



86 

59 




lA 



18 



INDEX. 



TiUe. 



Patents, report of Charles Mason, Commissioner of, (Manufactures).. 

table of contents to Part 1 

Commissioner of, (Agriculture) — 

index to Part 2 

Paymaster General, report of B. F. Lamed 

detailed estimates for the marine corps 

Penitentiary and capitol of Minnesota, letter from Secretary of War 

relative to finishing 

Penitentiary, District of Columbia, annual report of the board of 

inspectors of the 

Pensions, report of L. P. Waldo, Commissioner of 

Pension Office, frauds upon the - --- 

► Pension Bureau, frauds upon the 

Pensioners, letter from the Secretary of the Intedor, with a list of 

rejected applicants 

Peru, our relations with 

Pierce, Franklin, President of the United States, annual message 

Point Isabel, Texas, estimates for a breakwater at 

Porto Rico and Cuba 

Posmaster General, letter relative to post-office blanks 

annual report 

estimates for ocean steamship mail service 

letter, with a report respeoting mail service on 

No. 5502, from Montgomery to Mobile 

letter, with estimates f.ir the mail service for the 

• year commencing July 1, 1854 

letter, with an estimate for the ocean mail service . 
letter, with receipts and disbursen^ents of Post 

Office Department 

letter, with offers for carrying the mails 

a report of fines and deductions 

Post office blanks, letter from Postmaster General relative to 

Post Office Department 

receipts and disbursements 

Practioe-ship, propelled in part by steam, recommended by board of 

examiners at Naval Academy 

report of the commandant of midshipmen, late cruise 

of the ^ 

Private armed vessels, message of the President, transmitting papers 
relative to instructions referred to by President Monroe, on the 

subject of the issue of commi8;«ions to 

Provisions and clothing, estimate for 

Public buildings and grounds, letter from the Commissioner, transmit- 
ting estimates of deficiencies 

Public lands, surveyed and brought into market 

letter from Secretary of Interior, with a statement 
showmg the number of acres that have been donated. 



Quartermaster General, report of General Thomas 8. Jesup. .. 
Quartermaster of the marine corps, detailed estimates, by the. 



Kailroad routes to the Pacific ocean, surveys of. — 

letter from the Secretary of War 

relative to surveys of 

HaQroad to the Pacific, surveys of routes 

report of Colonel S. H. Long 

H^fteipte and disbnrsements of the Post Office Department 

'^ipts and expenditures of the government for the year ending 
ae 30, 1853 



Part. 



Vol. 



Doc. 



39 

a9 

89 
39 

1 
1 

48 

72 
1 

105 
1 



5 


27 


1 


1 


1 


1 


10 


81 


I 


1 


10 


83 


1 


1 


3 


11 


11 


89 


11 


92 


U 


93 


12 


101 


17 


125 


5 


22 


10 


832 


1 


1 


12 


101 


I 


1 


1 


1 



111 

1 

25 

1 

52 



. 46 

129 
1 
1 

101 



Page. 



435 
137 
664 



485 
11 



10 

402 

406 

636 
U 



129 

664 



14 [ m 



16 

59 



INDEX. 



19 



TiUc. 



Eed riTer, letter from the Secretary of War, with reports relative to 
the navigation of. 

Repair, Construction, and Equipment, cstiinates for ,.... 

BeRgnations, deaths, and dismissions in the navy 

Revenue, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury relative to the 
manner of keeping the 

Revenue cutters, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury recom- 
mending appropriation for 

fichmond. Rev. Jas, Cook, and the United States consul for Trieste, 
message from the President, with copies of correspondence rela- 



tive to. 

List of documents with the same 

Biter Illinois, report relative to 

Biver Mississippi, instructions relative to the survey of the Upper... 

KrerObio, report of C. A. Fuller relative to 

Biver Sau Diego, report of G. H. Derby...- 

report of G. H. Derby 

report of G. H. Derby 

Biver and harbor improvements, orders relative to 

letter from the Secretary of War 

relative to 

general order from the Secretary of 

War relative to 

Bivers and harbors on Lake Michigan, contracts for the improvement 
of 



Bivers, western, report of Colonel S. H. Long relative to the. 

BiverE, western, and lake harbors, report of engineers 

Boids, military, in Oregon, instniciicms relative to 

Bock River and Des Momes rapids, in the Mississippi river .- 
Bogne River war, estimates of expense of the 



8. 



Salaries of American roinisters, charg6s, &c., at foreign courts 

8alt, statistics, letter from Secretary of the 'Freasury 

8tn Juan de Nicamgua, reports relative to the destruction of 

fiivannah river, Ga., Georgetown harbor, S. C, and Brazos river, 

Texas, report of surveys of 

Seammon, E. P., engineer, report of 

Scituate harbor and North river, report of the survey of 

Scott, Winfield, Commanding General, report of 

Seamen, abstract returns of American 

Secretary of State, letter, with abstract returns of American seamen. 

letter, with annual statement of the uunibrr of 

passengers arriving in the United States by sea 

from foreign countries 

report relative to our commercial intercourse 

with foreign nations 

communication relative to the steamer "Crescent 

City" at Havana 

Slver and gold foreign coin, report relative to the value of 

Smithsonian Institution 

Snag-boats, instructions to captains of 

Sound dues upon our commerce to the Baltic, message from the 

President transmitting correspondence relative to 

Soufh Carolina, report of survey of Georgetown harbor, in 

Spain, our relations with 

Spanish violations of the rights of American citizens 

List of documents accompanying the same 

State banks, report upon the condition of the 

State Department, contingent expenses of, and foreign intercourse. .. 
list of clerks and other employes in 



Part. Vol. Doc. 



10 



24 

1 
1 



8 42 
5 13 



12 100 
12 100 



Pafc 



J 
1 
1 
] 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

71 
1 

1 

1 

104 

96 



67 

36 

126 

124 

1 
31 

1 
10 
10 



78 

47 

90 

68 

1 

1 



108 
124 

86 

80 

102 

7 

23 



545 
322 



2 

84 
75 

86 

112 
114 
45 

19 

21 



63 
195 

67 



93 



14 

80 



14 
2 



20 



INDEX. 



Title. 



Part. Vol. 



Pa, 



State Department, correspondeDce between late Commissioner to 

China and the 

message /rom the President, transmitting copies 
of correspondence between the American min- 
ister at Constantinople and the 

correspondence between the American charg6 

at Austria and the 

State, Secretary of, report of William L. Marcy 

letter to Mr. Hulsemann 

State and Territory, area of each 

St. Clair flats, estimates for 

Steamboat **Martha Washington," burning of. 

Steamers, ocean mail, adapted to war purposes 

Steam navy of the United States 

Surgery and Medicine, estimates of Bureau of 

Surgeon General, report of Thomas Lawson 

Surveying service in California, estimates for, by Secretary of the In- 
terior 



Surveys of Pacific railroad by Captain Gunnison. 
Surveys of Pacific railroad routes 



T. 

Tariff, circular, and replies thereto, relative to the .* , 

Taunton river and New Bedford harbor, survey of , 

Tennessee river, report relative to the removal of obstructions at 

Colbert's shoals, in the 

Territory and State, area of each 

Texas, report of survey of Brazos river , 

estimates for a breakwater at Point Isabel 

Timber lands, depredations upon 

Topographical Engineer, report of J. J. Abert , 

report of J. N. Macomb , 

Topographical, instructions relative to river and harbor improvements 
general order relative to river and harbor improve- 
ments 

Topographical Engineer, E. P. Scammon, report of 

S. H. Long, report of 

G. K. Warren, report of 

S. H. Long, (marine hospitals,) report of — 

S. H. Long, Pacific railroad report 

S. H. Long, western rivers 

S. H. Lopg. instructions relative to survey 

of the Upper Mississippi river 

S. H. Long, survey of Ohio river 

S. H. Long, instructions to Lieut. Warren.. 
S. H. Long, instructions to captains of snag- 
boats , 

S. H. Long, letter to C A. Fuller 

S. H. Long, letter relative to the improve- 
ment of IllinoiB river 

Topographical report of Charles A. Fuller, Ohio river 

Joshua Barney, U. S. agent 

Topographical Engineer, J. W. McClellan 

George H. Derby 

George H. Derby, San Diego river 

George H. Derby, San Diego river 

George H. Derby, San Diego river 

W. Turnbull 

Topographical report of M. P. Hatch, U. S. agent 

''^opographical Engineer, Howard Stansbury 

opographical report of J. A. Potter, U. S. agent 

Geo. S. Patterson, U. S. agent 



16 



}3 

8 
1 
1 

10 
1 
11 
10 
8 
1 
1 

11 
5 
1 



10 
5 

8 

10 

16 

10 

14 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 



3 




3 




3 




3 




3 




3 




3 




3 




3 




3 




3 




3 




3 





123 



110 

41 

1 

1 

80 

1 

87 

75 

65 

1 

1 

96 

18 
1 



30 



SO 
124 

81 
115 



INDEX. 



21 



TiUe. 


Part 


Vol. 


Doc. 


pm^. 


priphical Eogineer, ettimatea for completion of the harbor of 
Huron 


3 
3 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 

3 
3 
3 

3 
3 

3 

3 

3 

'2 


3 

2 
2 
5 

5 

5 

5 
5 

6 

8 

8 

8 

I 8 


2 
3 

20 

26 

28* 

34 
36 

38 
42 
45 

48 


139 


eBcimates for repairs at Vermillion 


142 


e«timat«8 for repairs of the harbor of Black- 
water. 


143 


A. Canfield, estimates for opening a channel 
through St. Clair flats 


145 


A. Canfield, report of 


150 


J. D. Webster, report of 


153 


rapluc&l report of Samuel Hall, U. S. agent...... ........... 


159 


John R. Bowes, U. 8. agent 


160 


J. A. Carswell, U. 8. agent 


169 


H. W. Gunnison, U. 8. agent 


171 


William Gamble, U. 8. agent 


176 


raphical, instructions relative to Milwaukie harbor, by J. J. 
Abert 


178 


letter from James Kearney, relative to Milwaukie 
harbor 


118 


letter from J. J. Abert, relative to Milwaukie harbor, 
letter from J. J. Abert, relative to Milwaukie harbor, 
"aphieal Engineers, James Kearney, W. G. Williams, and J. 
McClellan, report of. 


lei 

181 
183 


T. J. Cram, report of. 


188 


abstract of proceedings of the Board of 
Engineers of lake harbors and western 
rivers, by James Kearney 

estimates for lake harbors and western 
rivers, by James Kearney 


195 
219 


estimates, reports, &c., on lake harbors 
and western rivers, by James Kearney... 

Joseph 6., Chief Engineer, report of 


223 to 
257 
157 


'er's accounts : 




7 Department, letter from the Secretary, with estimates for 
civil and diplomatic expenses of the govern- 
ment for the year ending June 30, 1855 

letter from the Secretary, on the finances 


.... 




expenditure of contingent fund of 






letter from the Comptroller, with list of bal- 
ances , 






letter from the Secretary, with a statement of 
receipts and expenditures of the marine 
hosnital fund.... ...... 






letter from the Secretary, with a strftement of 
the condition of the Chickasaw trust fund 
and land sales 






letter from tn^ Secretary, with salt statistics. . . 

letter from the Secretary, with a list of clerks 

in his department 


.... 




letter from the Secretary, with information 
relative to the manner of keeping the reve- 
nue 






letter from the Secretary, relative to a further 
appropriation to pay expense of Cayuse war, 
1847-48, in Oregon ... 






letter from the Secretary, relative to finishing 
the capitol and penitentiary of Territory of 
Minnesota -.- 






letter from the Secretary, ^»ith a memorial of 
the contractor on the San Francisco marine 
hospha) - 




\ 


letter from the Secretary, with a statement of 
tlie original coat of cuatom-hou$eB 




\ 8\ 60 


\ 



i 



22 



INDEX. 



TiUc 


Part. 


Vol. 


Doc. 


Page. 


Treaanry Department, letter from the Secretary, with a statement of 
lalarie* of American miuistere, charg68, &c., 
at foreign coarts ....................... 




10 
10 
10 

10 

10 

11 

12 

12 

14 

14 

14 
14 

14 

14 

1 
5 

5 

16 

13 

12 
12 

8 

1 
1 

10 


67 

68 

69 

74 
81 

87 

94 
102 

106 

112 

113 

117 
118 

119 

12i) 

1 
13 

15 

122 

109 

100 
100 
62 

1 
1 

77 




letter from the Secretary, with a report re- 
specting the quality and value of foreign gold 
and silver coin ........................ 






letter from the Secretar>% with papers relative 
to boarding station at the Southwest Pass of 
the ^lissi^ippi river..-. .............. .--. 






letter from the Secretary, with copy of circu- 
lar, and replies thereto, in reference to the 
tariff 






letter from the Secretary, with an estimate 
for a breakwater at Point Isabel. Texas. .... 






better from the Secretary, relative to the burn- 
ing of the steamboat Martha Wa^hin^ton 

letter from the Secretary, with an additional 
estimate for the United States marine hospi- 
tal at San Francisco. Cal 


.... 




letter from the Secretary, with a report upon 
the condition of the State banks ..... .... 






letter from the Secretary, with a report of the 
Director of the Mint, relative to the condi- 
tion of the die-" of medals ordered by Con- 
gress, with a list of same...... . ...... 






letter from the Secretary, with an account of 
the receipts and expenditures of the govern- 
ment for the vear endini? June 30. 1H53. .... 






letter from the Secretary, relative to an appro- 
priation to pay Gibbons & Kelly for extra 
work on light-houses in the Pacific 

letter from the Secretary, relative to an appro- 
priation for rent of the assay office in New 
York 


.... 




letter from the Secretary, with estimates for 
the custom-house at San Francisco. Cal. .... 






letter from the Secretary, asking an appro- 
priation for an appraiser's store in San Fran- 
cisco, Cal ......: ........ 






letter from the Secretary, relative to the com- 
pensation of the beads of bureaus 






Treasury expenditures under the head of contingent expenses, as 
settled at the office of the Fourth Auditor -... .............. 


3 


68^ 


Treasury, Secretary of, list of employes in coast survey... - . .. 




recommending appraiser's store at San Fran- 
cisco 






Treaties, estimates of appropriation for carrjing into effect certain 
Indian . 






Treaty with Mexico, message from the President, transmitting a 'copy 
of a 






Trieste, message from the President, with copies of correspondence 

relative to Rev. J. C. Richmond and the United States consul for.. 

Li«t of documents accompanying the same 





i 


Twelve Mile creek, report relative to survey of * 






V. 
Vermillion harbor, estimates for repairs of. 


3 
1 


14^ 


Vice President William R. King, death of 


2i 


Volunteers under Captain J. C. Fremont, in California, letter from 
^he Secretary of War relative to pay of * 





INDEX. 



23 



Title. 



W. 



Wildo, L. P., Commissioner of Pensions, report of 

"War Department, appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 



\^ar, report of Jefferson Davis, Secretary of. 

li«c of doenments accompanying the report of the Secretary of 
War, (as follows) 

reports respecting Indian hostilities in Oregon 

regalations and orders respecting river and harbor improve- 
ments 

instructions for sarveys of a railroad ronte to the Pacific 

instructions rfspeciing military roads in Oregon 

report on the Capitol extension 

report of Commanding General Winfield Scott 

report of Quartermaster General Thos. S. Jesup 

report of Paymaster General Benjamin F. Lamed 

report of Commissary General George Gibton 

report of Surgeon General Thomas Lawson , 

report of the Chief Engineer, Joseph G. Totten 

report of chief of Topographical Engineers, J. J. Abert 

report of Colonel of Ordnance, H. K. Craig 

letter from the Secretary, relative to river and harbor Improve- 
ments 

letter from the Secretary, with general order relative to river 
and harbor improvements 

letter from the Secretary, relative to the navigation of Red 
river 

letter from the Secretary, with a report of survey of Taunton 
river and New Bedford harbor .* 

appropriation for the Cayuse war in Oregon 

letter from the Secretary, with a report of survey of " Scituate 
hjirbor and Nonh river" 

letter from the Secretary, with reports of surveys of railroad 
routes to Pacific ocean 

lett«?r from the Secretary, with a statement of contingent ex- 
penses of that department 

List of papers with the SHme 

letter from the Secretary, with an abstract of returns of the 
militia 

letter from the Secretary, with a report in reference to the 
removal of obstructions at Colbert's shoals, in the Tennessee 
river 

letter from the Secretary, in reference to the survey of " Crow 
shoal,' ' at Cape May 

letter from the Secretary, with a transcript of the official 

Army Register 

letter from the Secretary, with a list of clerks and others em- 
ployed in that department 

letter from the Secretary, with a report of the survey of 

"Twelve Mile creek" 

letter from the Secretary, with a statement of contracts 

letter fiom the Secretary, with the Army Register for 1854 

letter from the Secretary, in reference to the pay of volunteers 

under Captain J. C. Fremont, in California , 

letter from the Secretary, with information relative to fortifica- 
tions at Fort Point and Alcatrazas island, in California 

letter from the Secretary, with a report of survey of road from 

Mendota to Big Sioux river 

letter from the Secretary, with an estimate of the expense of 

Rogne River war 

letter from the Secretary, with a report on the Dea Afoines and 

BtH^A Eirer Rapids, in the Mia^iaaippi river, , 



Pan. 



Doc. 


Pofe. 


1 


486 


5 




1 


3 


1 


35 


1 


37 


1 


45 


1 


55 


1 


67 


.1 


69 


1 


m 



1 

24 

30 
45 

31 

46 

49 
49 

50 



129 
137 
141 
143 
157 
3 
263 

19 

21 



w 



24 



INDEX. 



TiUe. 



War, letter from the Secretary, relative to the Ohio river, Marietta., 
letter from the Secretary, with a report of surveys of George- 
town harbor, S. C, Savaimah river, Ga., and Brazos river, 

Texas 

letter from the Secretary, with papers relative to applications 

for office of superintendent of national armories 

letter from the Secretary, with a report of surveys of Pacific 

railroad routes 

letter from the Secretary, with a statement of expenditures at 

the national armories 

letter from the Secretary, ^ith a report relative to deepening 

the passes of the Mississippi river 

report of the Secretary relative to Mobile harbor 

letter from the Secretary, with a statement of the contingent 

expenses of the mUitary establishment- 

Washington and Georgetown, water for 

Washington and Oregon Territories, letter from the Secretary of the 

Interior, with a report of Commissioner of Indian Afiairs 

Water for Washington and Georgetown 

Western rivers and lake harbors, report of engineers on 

Wilson, John, Commissioner of General Land Office, report of 

Schedule of documents accompanying the same, 

including annual reports of surveyors general. .. 

report of, relative to depredations upon timber lands.. 



Yards and Docks, letter from the chief of, recommending a post- 
ponement of sale of navy-yard lands at Brooklyn, 
estimates for 



Part. 



Vol. 



14 

16 
16 

18 

5 

5 
3 

5 

1 

8 
1 
1 
1 

1 
14 



Doc. 
114 

124 

128 

129 

19 

16 

8 

17 
1 

55 
1 
1 
1 

1 
115 



Page. 



13 



13 

195 

71 

89 



409 
435 



83d CoxoaESS, [HO. OF REPS.] Ex. Doc. 

itt Session. No. 1. 



MESSAGE 



PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 



TWO HOUSES OF CONGRESS. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE FIRST SESSION 



THE THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS. 



DicKiniR 6, 1853. — ^Bead, committed to the Committee of the Whole on the state of the 
Unioa, and, together with the accompanylog docmnents, ordered to be printed; and that 
%iOOO extra copies, with the accompanying documents, be. printed. 



PART III. 



WASHINGTON : 

BOBEBT ABMSTBONO, FBINTEB. 

1S63. 



I 



H. Doc. 1. 8 



BEPOET OF THE COLONEL OF TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS. 



Bureau op Topographical Engineers, 

Washington^ December 2, 1853. 

Sm : I have the honor to submit the customair annual report. 

A resolution of the Senate of the 3d of March last decides "thattne 
Secretary of War be requested to commtmicate to the Senate copies of 
all instructions and reports, with the accompanying plans ana esti- 
mates, that have been issued from or been made to that department in 
executing the surveys and improvements of harbors and nvers, under 
the act approved August 30, 1862. These instructions and reports to 
include the directions distributing the duties between the two corps of 
engineers ; establishing the two boards of internal improvement ; as- 
signii^ the oflScers of tne two corps to the several works ; establishing 
special commissions ; calling for estimates ; directing the final plan of 
operation, and the reports of local engineers, special commissions, the 
two boards of internal improvement, and of the chiefs of the two corps 
to the Secretary of War, upon which the final instructions are based ; 
and, also, that copies of all such instructions issued during the year be 
transmitted to Congress with each annual report of the Secretary of 
War." 

It is considered the better mode of meeting the requirements of this 
resolution to take up each item of the submitted annual estimate, and 
to add, in an appenaix, the required information as referable to each 
item. 

In conformity with the resolution, the regulations 1 and 2 are hereto 
annexed. 

This estimate was carefully revised by the board of engineers when 
sent in last year, and has also been carefully revised this year. The 
board has been governed in each item by a strong desire to reduce the 
estimates of each item to the least amount admitting of judicious and 
economical expenditiu'e. 

For military and geographical surveys west of the Missis- 
sippi 1 26,000 

This estimate is for the continuation of the surveys, which constitute 
the same kind of surveys and explorations as have been made west of 
the Mississippi by Nicollet, Frdmont, Emory, Johnson, Cook, Abert, 
Simpson, Stansbury, and Sitgreaves, which have been so well received, 

, and which have thrown so much Ught upon the unexplored regions of 

I the west. 

' For continuing the surveys of the northern and northwestern 

lakes, including Lake Superior ^50,QQQ 

The amouDt oFtue estimate is the same as that of last year, aad\a 



4 H. Doc. 1. 

not more than is coHsidere«l highly desirable for the continuation of 
the works. The vast commerce of these lakes but beginning to de- 
velop itself, the amount of life and of property exposed to thejr navi- 
gation render that knowledge of them, which can be obtained only by 
actual and careful survey, matter of strong necessity. 

Serious embarrassments have ensued from the small appropriations 
for this work, by which the*department has not been enabled to meet 
extensively involved national interests. 

Moreover, it is frequently desirable that distinct harbors should be 
surveyed before the general survey reaches them, particularly on Lake 
Superior, for which this appropriation can be applied under approba- 
tion of the War Department 

Since the last report, a base line, with suitable apparatus, and with 
proper scientific considerations, has been measured on the main land 
south of the straits of Mackinac, which, as soon as the final computa- 
tions connected with it are prepared, will be made the subject of a spe- 
cial report. 

The following is a summary of the work done during the last season: 

1. Survey of the obstructions to the navigation of the St. Clary's 
river — entrance to Lake Superior. • 

2. Survey of the coastline and adjacent hydrography of the western 
portion of the south shore of the straits of Mackinac, as far as the limits 
oi the shore ground about Wangoshance light. 

3. Deep water- soundings ; completion of the main triangulaticm of 
the straits. 

4. Observations for latitude and azimuth. 

The survey of the straits of Mackinac is complete, with the excep- 
tion of some deep-water soundings in the western section. These 
would have been made had it not been for the necessity of detaching a 
party to the survey of the St. Mary's river. 

It embraces an area of about 3,000 square miles, as it includes the 
approaches to the straits from Lakes Huron and Michigan. Within 
its limits all the shores (main land and island) have been traced out, 
together with the minute hydrography from the shore lines to the 
depth of five and ten fathoms, as well as that of twelve shoals, which 
have been completely examined from their crests, in every direction, 
to deep water — ^the shoals being accurately determined in position by 
the triangulation. Deep-water soundings fill up the remainder of the 
work. 

This survey has been executed in a manner highly creditable to the 
officers engaged in it and to the corps ; measures will be taken to have 
the results pubUshed with all despatch. 

For further details, reference is made to Appendix A, A 1, A 2, &c. 

Roads in Minnesota. 

Road from Point Douglass to St. Louis river of Lake 

Superior $20,000 

The whole extent of road now completed and in good travelling order 

js that comprised between Stillwater and a point twelve miles beyond 

the falls of Su CroiXf a distance of forly-t]i\Tee miie%* TV^a ^tlion at 



H. Doc. 1. 5 

nder contract, and to be finished during the present year, is 

^rehended between the 21st and and 25th mile stations. Pro- 

ive also been opened to-day (17th September) for the con- 

of a bridge over Sunrise river, which is ako to be finished 

inter. 

e is made to Appendix B. 

rom Point Douglass to Fort Ripley, (Gaines) S10,000 

y-eight miles have been completed by contract, and a bridge 
a river, which has been contracted for, will be completed this 

nee is made to Appendix B. 

)m the mouth of Swan river to the Winnebago 

S at Long Prairie $5,000 

Dntract for the section included between the 3d and 7th mile 
and the 25th mile station, and the Mississippi river, inclusive 
idge and causeway over Turtle creek; the bridge over Bear 
lek, and the bridge over Swan creek, have been completed, 
nee is made to Appendix B. 

□a Wabashaw to Mendota $15,000 

)llowins: contracts are in process of completion, and will be 
during the pesent fall : 

»ntract for tne bridge over the slough at Wabashaw ; the bridge 
ith's creek, with its approaches, and the portion of the road 
Reed's landing and stake 407, a distance of nearly three 
ad the contract for the grading of the blufi' back of Mendota. 
nee is made to Appendix B. 

was a survey ordered of a military road between the mouth 
ig Sioux on the Missouri, and Mendota on the Mississippi, 
/ey has been completed. The officer. Captain Reno, is now 
in making up report, pliin, and estimate, which will soon be 
• any call that may be made. 

Rivers. 

[nuing the improvement of the navigation of the Mis- 

•i below the rapids $84,000 

inuing the improvement of the Des Moines rapids, in 

ssissippi river.. 1 8,000 

inuing the improvement of the Rock River rapids, in 

ssissippi river 18,000 

inuing <he improvement of the harbor of Dubuque, in 

ssissippi river 15,000 

irticuLirs, reference is made to Appendix C, and the reasons of 
i in Appendix K. 

tinuing the improvement of the navigation of the 

J river U&,OQQ 

han^e in the agency for the improvenient of iViia fiver W» 



6 H. Doc. 1. 

prevented the adoption of measures for a preliminary survey of it till 
a very recent date. The new oflScers are probably at this time engaged 
in the necessary preparation for the survey. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix C. 

For continuing the improvement of the navigation of the 

Missouri river $40,000 

Two of the twin snag-boats lately constructed for use on the western 
rivers were despatched to the Missouri at the end of July last. 
For fiirther particulars, reference is made to Appendix C. 

For continuing the improvement of the navigation of the 
Ohio, including the repair of the dam at Cumberland 
island $90,000 

This season's work embraces the construction of a steam dredge- 
boat, the equipment and outfit of a large twin snag-boat, the repairs 
of tlie Cumberland dam, the dredging of a channel between the Ken- 
tucky shore and Cumberland island, and the removal of snags and 
other obstructions above the falls. 

These operations have been prosecuted with due diligence, except as 
relates to the removal of snags, which has been unavoidably suspended 
by reason of the low stage of the Ohio. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix C, and the 
reports hereto annexed. 

For continuing the improvement of the navigation of the 

Tennessee river $35,000 

An examination has been made of the various shoals, and other ob- 
structions, from Knoxville to Kelly's ferry. 

At Knoxville shoals two dams are being constructed. 

At Lyons' shoals the dam constructed by the State has been repaired. 

At Williams' shoals a dam has been built. 

At Little River shoals an old dam has been removed, and a new one 
is being constructed. 

At Chota shoals, materials for the necessary repairs, &c., have been 
contracted for, and the work was to be commenced in the early part 
of September. 

At Booth's shoals the necessary work would be commenced in 
September, and completed this season. 

At Caney Creek shoals, the materials for constructing the necessary 
dams were nearly ready, and should the stage of low water continue 
favorable long enough, they will be completed before the close of the 
working season. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix D. 

For continuing the improvement of the navigation of the Ar- 
kansas river $40,000 

Two of the twin snag-boats were despatched to the Arkansas river, 
but one of them grounded on a bar at French island, 150 miles below 
the falls of the Ohio, and the other grounded on a bar in the Arkansas, 



H. Doc. 1. 7 

>ai twenty--five miles above the mouth of that river. These boats 
; still waiting for a rise of the water suflScient to release them. 
For turther particulars, reference is made to Appendix C. 

)r the construction of two light-draught snag-boats, two ma- 
chine-boats, one dredge-boat, and lour discharging-scows, 
for the Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, and Arkansas 
rivers, and for repair of snag-boats, dredge-boats, dis- 
charging-scows, and machinery used on the same rivers. .. $70,000 
The construction of five twin snag-boats (one being of light draught) 
13 been prosecuted with due diligence, but has been attended with 
)me embarrassment, from the advances in the prices of materials, 
.bor, and subsistence, since the works of construction commenced- 
These changes in the prices not only contributed to delay the work 
f construction, but to render it far more expensive than it would 
iherwise have been. 
For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix C. 

'or continuing the construction of a levee across the mouth of 
the river San Diego, California, and for other works to turn 

it into False bay S3P,000 

A survey of the locality was made during the season, and a report 

submitted. The matter was referred to the board of engineers, ana a 

>lan adopted by them transmitted to the oflScer in charge for his 

i[aidance. 
For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix E. 

For the preservation of pubUc property, and contingengies of 
western river improvements ; and for commutation of trans- 
portation of baggage, and of quarters and fuel of oflScers in 
cases no longer provided for by the Quartermaster's depart- 
ment ; and for allowances to meet extra expenses, under the 

special direction of the Secretary of War $10,000 

This item is necessary, and its necessity is manifested by daily ex- 
perience. 

The report of the board of engineers on lake harbors and western 
rivers, hereto attached as Appendix K, is referred to. 

Harbors. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Burlington, 
Vermont $18,000 

The work at this place is a breakwater 1,069 feet in length, and 35 
feet broad, of crib- work ballasted with stone. It is placed immediately 
in front of the wharves of the town in 30 feet water, and affords very 
good protection. 

The operations of this year consist in adding 100 feet to the north 
end ; which was done by sinking cribs of the proper dimensions. 

At the date of the annual report, September 1st, the timber-wox^L ot 
this extension was three feet above watev^ and the work upou il ViW. 
be completed during the present working season. 



8 H. Doc. 1. 

It IS recommended that the north end be fiiither extended two hun* - 
dred Feet, to afford a shelter from northwest gales, for which the oflScer 
in charge estimates $18,000 will be required. ^ 

. More details of this work will be found in the report oi Brevet Col 
TumbuU, attached to this report as Appendix F. 

^or keeping in operation the dredge-boat for Lake Chaip- 

plain $7,500 , 

Under the appropriation of 1852, a contract was made for a dredge- 
boat on this lake. The item now submitted is to enable the depart- ■-■ 
ment to use and work the boat. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Oswego, 

New York $21,000 : 

This season the operations have been con6ned to rebuilding the 
west pier, from the point at which it was breached in the gale of No- 
vember, 1852, to the pier-head, and very good progress has been ' 
made. 

At the date of the annual report, 690 feet in length of the old work 
had been renewed ; of which, 120 feet had been entirely rebuilt, aud 
wanted only planking ; 200 feet wanted but one course of timber to 
complete it, and the remaining 270 was from one to four feet above 
thi surface of the water, the whole filled with stone. 

The character of the work is of the best description, and executed 
with great care and judgment. It will be completed this season. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix F. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Sodus bay, 

Cayuga county. New York $14,500 

The entrance of the bay was so materially changed since the survey 
was made in 1845, that it would have been improper to commence a 
work for its improvement on the plan originally proposed. 

A survey being indispensable, it was ordered and made, and the plan 
for its improvement left for the action of the board of engineers. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor at Sodus bay, 

Wayne county, New York $10,000 

The works at this place were found to be in a very dilapidated con- 
dition, and the appropriation being so inadequate for the repairs re- 
quired, that it was difficult to decide upon the most advantageous mode 
of expending it. 

Considering that it was most important to preserve the entrance into 
the harbor, there being abundance of room tor shelter inside, the sea- 
son's operations were confined to rebuilding the breach in the east 
channel pier, which has been completed, and the new work carried 
past the angle a short distance, to secure it better. The top timbers of 
the channel pier were removed for some distance north fix)m the breach, 
and planked to where it was left unfinished in 1845. 

The whole of the east harbor pier requires to be rebuilt, as well as 



H. Doc. 1. 9 * 

the west harbor pier, ad far inland as it is covered by the accumulated 
breach. 
For further particulars, reference is made iq Appendix F. 

For continuing the improvement of Charlotte harbor, at the 

BQOuth of Genesee river, New York $24,000 

These piers were found very nearly demolished. The west pier, on 
\iriucfa the beacon-hght stands, being the most important, the season's 
vork was confined to that. All the breaches have been filled with 
IKW crib-work, and a large portion of the remaining old work has been 
tsken up and rebuilt* Tne whole pier will probably be finished this 
falL The east pier should be entirely rebuilt, for which the officer in 
charge submits an estimate of $21,500. 

For further particulars, see Appendix F. 

. 
For continuing the improvement of the harbor at the mouth 

of Oak Orchard creek. Lake Ontario, New York $14,500 

The piers at this place, although much decayed, remained entire ex- 
cept in two small spaces. This season the west pier has been length- 
ened 290 feet, the small breaches in the old work rebuilt, and the new 
wcM-k planked. 

The east pier should be rebuilt, and both piers extended into tne lake 
to 18 feet water, for which an estimate of $77,856 87 is submitted by 
the oflBcer in charge. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix F. 

For keeping in operation the steam-dredge on Lake Ontario. . $7,500 

This dredge-boat having been authorized by a previous law, and a 
contract having been made for its constraction, the appropriation now 
asked for is to make use of it when finished. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Buffalo, New 

York $33,000 

The work at this place was iound in nearly the same condition in 
which it was left in ld46. Operations were resumed in the month of 
May last, and up to the date of the annual report (September 1st) the 
bee wall had been raised 4.8 feet over a length of 368 feet, 230 feet of 
it coped one foot thick and four feet wide, 320 feet of slope wall filled 
in 10 feet wide, and 386 feet of wall flagged seven feet wide. 

An estimate is submitted by the officer in charge for rebuilding 360 
feet of sea-wall, for raising 460 feet of old wall three feet higher and 
coping, and for taking up and relaying tow-path; in all, $31,686 48. 

The location of the breakwater built by the State of New York, north 
of the piers, is condemned as injudiciously placed, and as having al- 
ready Deen the cause of disasters, wrecks, and loss of life. 
For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix F. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Dunkirk, 
New York $30,000 

The works at this place have been entirely demolished, and nol\uivg 



10 H. Doc. 1. 

has been done this season towards rebuilding, the plan being before 
the board of engineers. 

A small beacon has been erected near the entrance, to mark the po- 
sition of a sunken breakwater. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix; F. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Erie, Penn- 
sylvania - $25,500 

This fine harbor is very much exposed, from the want of protection 
at the west end. The travelling beach from the west is gradually fill- 
ing up the harbor. 

This season an experiment, on a small scale, was tried, to intercept 
the moving sand, by making wattlings of brush normal to the shore, 
and extending a short distance into the lake ; but as yet little eflect is 
produced, owing perhaps to much calm weather. 

Some more effectual method will have to be resorted to. The north 
channel pier at the east end of the harbor has been repaired to the 
water's edge ; 700 feet in length have been repaired. 

The oflScer in charge submits an estimate for the extension of the 
piers, for repairing the present south channel pier, and for the protec- 
tion of the west end of the harbor, amounting to $50,259. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Conneaut, 

Ohio $11,600 

It was found necessary to rebuild the outer angle of the west pier 
from the surface of the pier, which has been done in a thorough manner. 

A portion of the east pier, repaired under the last appropriation, 
being defective, it was deemed advisable to rebuild it lor the distance 
of 275 feet. This will be •entirely completed this fall. This pier has 
also been extended inland 125 feet. A careful survey of the harbor 
has also been made this season. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix G. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Ashtabula, Ohio. 

This work at the beginning of the season was in a very dilapidated 
condition, and during the summer the outer angle of the east pier was 
swept away by a gale ; a breach in the east pier extended for 250 feet, 
and the outer end of the west pier was also gone for six to nine feet 
below the surface. 

The work of repairs has been vigorously pushed during the season. 
On September 20th the foundation cribs throughout the whole damaged 
part of the east pier were in place, and the superstructure completed 
(except the planking) for the distance of 300 feet. This pier will be 
entirely completed this fall, and the outer end of the west pier secured. 

Reference is made to Appendix G. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Fairfort, 

Grand river, Ohio $13,000 

At this place the timbers of the old cribs were found to be so much 



H. Doc. 1. 11 

torn up and displaced, that it became necessary to remove the stone 
and old work for several feet below the surface of the water, to obtain 
good foundation for new work. In some places (for a distance of 250 
feet) no foundation could be obtained without removing the old work 
entirely. 

Up to the date of the report, (September 20th,) 300 feet of the worst 
portion of the work had been rebuilt, the outer angle of the west pier 
thoroughly repaired, and the outer end refilled with stone and secured. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix G. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Cleveland, 
Ohio $10,000 

At the commencement of the season, railroad companies and private 
individuals were found in possession of nearly the whole of the east 
pier, and having erected buildings upon it, and leased parts of it to 
others, had set up a claim to it. It became necessary to suspend all 
work upon the harbor until the question as to the right of the govern, 
ment should be decided. This nas eventually been settled, by the 
parties interested relinquishing their claims and acknowledging the 
right of the government. But this settlement was not made until the 
season was too far advanced to commence operations. 

A survey has been made of the harbor and adjacent waters, and 
contracts will be made for the delivery of materials during the winter, 
so as to be ready as early in the spring as the season will permit. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Black river, 
Ohio $10,000 

On the west pier 210 feet of new work has been constructed upon 
the foundation of the old work, in a depth of water averaging seven 
feet, and a considerable amount of stone and timber is on hand for 
operations in the spring. Some 400 feet of pier will require to be re- 
built from the surface of the water. 

In the east pier two breaches have been made by the sea, sixty and 
ninety feet in length, and to a depth of three ana six feet below the 
water, which will have to be repaired ; 872 feet will have to be re- 
built above water, and a pier-head will be necessary for the security 
of the pier. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Huron, Ohio $13,600 

The work at this place was commenced in April, and has been con- 
tinued during the season. 

Five hundred and forty feet of the east pier has been rebuilt, twelve 
feet wide, from an average depth of six and a half feet below the sur- 
face of the lake. 

At the date of the annual report the agent was engaged in building 
up above water, and as much of the work as possible will be raised 
four and four and a half feet above water before the winter sets in. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Sandusky, 
Ohio $28,600 



12 H. Doc. 1. 

The season's work has consisted in securing a distance of 2,600 feet 
on Peninsula point with crib-work. This has not only checked the 
current, but the sand has already accumulated on both sides of the 
cribs, forming a beach which will aid materially in resisting the vio- 
lence of the storms. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix G. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor (Monroe) at 

the mouth of River Raisin, Michigan $10,000 

The local agent at this place reports that the materials necessary for 
the repair of the piers have been procured, and that the work is pro- 
gressing well, in accordance with the advice given him by Major Bache, 
of the board of engineers. 

For keeping in operation the steam dredge on Lake Erie $7,500 

A steam dredge having been authorized lor this lake, a contract for 
its construction having been made, this item is to keep the boat in use 

For continuing the improvement of the St. Clair flats, Lake 

St. Clair $45,000 

The importance of this improvement cannot be over-estimated. The 
loss of time from lying aground, and the expenses of towing and light*^ 
ering occasioned by these obstructions, are very great and increasing, 
as, whatever internal improvement may be made in the northwest, the 
heavy commerce must pass this way. 

It is proposed to deepen, by dredging, the entrance of the south chan- 
nel of the St. Clair river sufliciently to allow the passage of the largest 
vessels navigating the lakes. 

A survey of the locality was made last fall by Capt. Macomb, and 
the result being compared with a survey made ten years ago by the 
same oflScer, shows that very little change has taken place in the depth 
of water within that period. 

A contract was entered into for the construction of a dredge-boat to 
be used at this locality, and on the 1st September it was so far flnished 
as to be put in operation for the purpose of testing the machinery, &c. 
The result was favorable, and the machinery found capable of doing 
all that was contracted for. 

After paying the cost of the dredge, there will be a balance of only 
about $3,000 available for the wotk. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix A. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Clinton river, 

Michigan $6,000 

An examination and estimate have been made. It is proposed to 
deepen the entrance into the river to nine i'eet, for the accomplishment 
of which an additional appropriation of $5,000 is deemed necessary. 

See Appendix H. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor (Grand Haven) * 
at the mouth of Grand river, Michigan $20,000 



H. Doc. 1. 13 

Tbe plan proposed for the protection of this harbor is to secure the 
sand bluffs on the southern bank of the river from the action of the cur- 
rent, and to extend two piers into the lake. 

The whole cost of the improvement the agent estimates to be 
$162,126, for which $2,000 only has been appropriated — a sum made- 
quate to purchase the machinery necessary for tne work; under these 
circumstances but little work has been done. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix I. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Black lake, 
Michigan \ $20,600 

The limited amount of the present appropriation made it difficult to 
adopt a judicious mode of expending it; as most advisable, it was ap- 
plied to foundations for the southern or windward pier. The necessary 
buildings for the workmen and the preparation of machinery con- 
sumed some time, but still 200 feet of piUng has been driven and 
decked, and it is expected that by the close of the season a sufficient 
length will be constructed to admit the reception of the stone. The 
work of the season may be considered as auxiliary, although it is at the 
same time a portion of the general plan. 

The plan embraces two parallel piers, for the completion of which 
an estimate of $97,225 78, in addition to the present appropriation, is 
submitted by the agent in charge. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix I. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of St. Joseph, 
Michigan .* $ 1 8,000 

During the present season the operations have been directed exclu- 
sively to repairing the two piers, the completion of which will nearly 
exhaust the present appropriation. 

After the repairs are completed, a further extension of the south pier 
will be required, to control tne current between the piers and insure an 
easier access for vessels. 

An estimate of $36,523 62 is submitted by the agent for an extension 
of 600 feet. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix I. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of New Buffalo, 

Michigan ., $16,000 

The plan proposed is to cut through the sand spit (lying between the 

mouth of Galien river and the lake) a channel 300 feet wide, and to ex- 

t«id, in connexion with it, two piers into the lake, 1,600 and 700 feet 

in length. 
The operations at this work for the last season have been confined to 

receiving materials under the contract. 
The expenditures, up to the 20th September, amounted to $5,186, 

leaving but $2,814 to be applied to the construction of the work. 

The estimate for completing the work is $ 104,267 49 

For further particulars, reference Js made to Appendix 1. 



14 H. Doc. 1. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Michigan 

city, Indiana $19,000 

The breakwater will be located in 25-feet water, to consist of cribs 
30 feet long and 30 feet wide, and 12 feet above the surface of the lake* 
It is to be 2,000 feet long, the line of direction being N. 61^ E. 

The active operations commenced in the latter part of July, and have 
been confined principally to procuring machinery and materials. 

During the month of August, 200 feet of bridge-pier was constructed, 
and timber sufficient for two cribs of the bieakwater contracted for. 
One of these cribs will be sunk during the month of October. 

In the law of August 30, 1852, the appropriation is for the old work, 
"or the laying down of a floating breakwater and safety anchorage, as 
the Secretary of War may determine." 

There being an option in this case,. the matter was referred to the 
board of engineers on lake harbors and western rivers. 

The report of that board is hereto annexed, as Appendix K, which 
being approved by the Secretary of War, '*the floating breakwater and 
safety-anchorage plan" was not adopted. 

The agent estimates the cost of each crib at $4,742 59, being an 
average of $1 58 per foot; and the whole amount required for 2,000 
feet ot breakwater, exclusive of the present appropriation of $20,000, 
is $301,000 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix I. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Chicago, 

Illinois '$24,000 

Nothing has been done in prosecution of this improvement during 
the year, the plan for improvement being still before the board of en- 
gineers. 

For further particulars, reference is made to Appendix I, and to the 
report of the board. Appendix K. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Wauke- 

gan, Illinois $16,000 

It was decided by the War Department, on the 16th of August, to 
reduce the length of the breakwater, proposed by the board of engi- 
neers, so as to bring the expenditures within the original estimate pre- 
sented to Congress. Since then fhere has been Uttle time to advance 
the work. 

Reference is made to Appendix I. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Kenosha, 

Wisconsin - $15,500 

The season's operations have been confined to repairing the existing 
piers, and dredging the channel between them. 

The action of the waves during storms, this summer, worked out 
stones from the ends of the piers, which may endanger them during 
the winter. At the date ot the last report the agent was engaged in 



H. Doc. 1. 15 

utting cribs at the ends of each, and protecting them by piles driven 
losely across the ends. 
Reference is made to Appendix I. 

^or continuing the improvement of the harbor of Racine, 
Wisconsin $11,000 

The work done during the season has consisted of repairs of the 
existing pier, and dredging the channel. 
Reference is made to Appendix L 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Milwau- 
kie, Wisconsin , $17,500 

Nothing has been done at this work beyond the depositing by the 
contractors of a quantity of stone upon the ground. It awaits the 
adoption of a plan. 

In reference to the appropriation for Milwaukie, it is in the fol- 
lowing words : "To be expended at the point on the Milwaukie river 
known as the North cut, surveyed by Lieutenant Center." 

The estimate was for the continuation of the old work, but it could 
not be so expended under the law of 1852 ; and, considering this ques- 
tion as now settled by the law # 1852, the estimate now submitted is 
in further prosecution of that law. 

The whole matter will be found fully explained in Appendix L. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Sheboy- 
gan, Wisconsin $11,000 

Up to the 1st September no work had been done, and only a small 
portion of materials had been received. 
Reference is made to Appendix I. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Manito- 
woc, Wisconsin $12,500 

No work has been executed at this harbor. A small quantity of 
5tone and a few sticks of timber have been gotten upon the ground — 
the contractors having failed, as in other instances, to fulfil their 
contract. 

Reference is made to Appendix I. 

For keeping in operation the dredge-boat on Lake Michigan $7,500 

This is a boat authorized by the law of 1852, and contracted for. 
The estimate is to enable the department to use the boat. 

For repairs and preservation of public property, and con- 
tingencies of lake harbors; and for commutation of trans- 
portation of baggage, and of quarters and fuel of officers 
in cases no longer provided for by the Quartermaster's 
department ; and for allowances to meet extra expenses, 
under the special direction of the Secretary of War $20,000 

The necessity of this item is manifested by the experience of ^vety day • 



16 H. Doc. 1. 

For printing and distributing charts of the lake surveys $1,500 

The duty for which this small amount is required is to make public 
the results of the lake surveys, and to distribute them so that the navi- 
gators of the lakes shall receive, as early as practicable, the benefits of 
the work. 

The entire commerce of the lakes is deeply inteiested in this work, 
as well as in the surveys ; and the publications which have been made 
have been received with much favor, but have not yet extended be- 
yond — 

1. A chart ,of Lake Erie. 

2. A chart of the dangers to navigation at the western end of Lake 
Erie. 

3. A chart of the harbors of refuge near the Bass islands. Lake Erie. 
The navigators of the lakes speak highly of the advantages they have 

derived from these charts. The appropriation now asked for will, in 
addition to ihe small balance on hand, enable the bureau to extend 
these publications, so as to give charts of the straits of Mackinac, of 
the head of Green bay, of parts of Lake Huron, and of St. Mary's river, 
which connects Lake Huron with Lake Superior. 

For the repairs of instruments of theiiorps of topographical 

engineers • $5,000 

Instruments are daily returned to the bureau out of order and requir- 
ing repairs. There is no fund out of which the required repairs c:an 
be made, and in consequence expenses for new instruments have to be 
incurred which could be avoided. Also, serious delays occur in the 
equipping of a party ; new instruments are not always to be procured, 
and those in the depot of the bureau requiring repairs, delay to make 
these repairs is unavoidable. 

Both economy and expedition are, therefore, involved in the granting 
of this item. 

The demands for the oflScers of the corps, for various services, call 
off many of its officers, and have rendered the organization ot 1838 too 
small to meet present necessary wants ; on these accounts an increase 
of the corps is respectfully recommended. 

These demands consist — 

1. In the duties required of it by the War Department. 

2. In the duties required of it by the Treasury Department. 

3. In the duties required of it by the Department of the Interior. 

4. In the duties required of it by the several military commands. 

5. In the duties naturally following from the increase and extension 
of our territory. 

On these accounts an increase of the corps is respectfully recom- 
mended. 

This increase will require, to what is now authorized by law, of not 
less than four captains, of ten first and of ten second lieutenants, by 
regular promotion of the officers of the corps, and by appointments to 
lowest grade of graduates from the Military Academy; also, that there 
be added to said corps, not exceeding one for each captain, brevet second 



H. Doc. 1. 17 

mts, graduates from the Military Academy, at a ratio not exceed- 
fbr each year. 

n the corps was enlarged, in 1838, it was done in consequence 
port fix)m the Secretary of War, Hon. Mr. Poinsett, who gave 
>wing reasons for his recommendation, viz: 

* duties of this corps require the combined knowledge of the mil- 
id the civil engineers. Their military duties consist in surveys 
defence of frontier, inland and Atlantic, and of positions for for- 
ns; reconnoissances ot the country through which an army has 
, or in which it has to operate ; the exanunation of all routes of 
nication by land or by water, both for supplies and for miUtary 
ents; the construction of military bridges ; the position and erec- 
field- works ; the defences of encampments, fords, ferries, and 

For these purposes topographical en^neers should always 
any armies in the field, and without their aid the organization 
ff 18 defective and incomplete. Their civil employment, in the 
of the coast, rivers, harbors, bays, and water-courses, in order 

• being improved for commercial and other purposes, and in 
tending the various works for these improvements ; in surveys 
s and canals, under the law of 30th April, 1824, and in con- 
all civil constructions cbnnected with the commerce of the 

', and such internal communications as Confess may direct." 
e reasons still exist with great force, in addition to demands for 
of the corps for the services of other departments, and from the 
5 and extension of our territories. 

he mere military duties of several commands, it can be said that 
now wanting at least — 

he miUtary command including Texas, one captain and three 
mts. 
he military command including New Mexico and Utah, one cap- 

I four lieutenants. 

he military conmiand including Oregon, one captain and three 

nts. 

he military command including California, one captain and four 

nts. 

present small number of the corps, in addition to its inability to 

government wants, forces an extreme and imremitting labor 

> officers, and the employ, at high rates, of various civil agencies 

II engineers. 

estimate of this report will be found attached to the report as 
lix K, together with the reasons of the board for each item, 
following exhibition in detail, in reference to each officer of the 
vill furnish full information on that point : 
lel Abert, chief of the corps, in charge of the bureau, 
enant Coldnel James Kearney, on the Light-house Board, and 
Soard of Engineers for lake harbors and western rivers, 
r S. H. Long, survey of the delta of the Mississippi, and mem- 
Board of Engineers for lake harbors and western rivers, 
r H. Bache, member of Board of Engineers for lake hatbota 
stern rivers. 

' J. D. Graham baa completed the restoration of the mapa o£ 
Partiii'—S 



18 H. Doc. 1. 

the northeast boundary ; has delivered the same to the State Depart- i 
ment ; is now engaged upon the report and statements to accompany i 
said maps. ^ 

Major W. Tumbull, superintending the harbor works on Lake Cham- r 
plain, survey of Ogdensburgh, harbor works on Lake Ontario, harbor r 
works on Lake Erie as far west as Erie, and when said works are a 
suspended, at Washington, as assistant to the bureau. 

Captain A. Canfield, directing harbor works on Lake St. Clair, work ^ 
on the St. Clair flats, and Sault St. Marie canal. 

Captain C. Graham, on sick leave. ^ 

Captain T. J. Crane, survey of the coast. 

Captain J. McClellan, Tennessee river improvement. 

Captain H. Stansbury, specially in charge of harbor oi Cleveland, >. 
and general superintendent of harbor works on Lake Erie, except ^ 
those under Major TurnbuU. ^ 

Captain J. E. Johnston, in the superintendence of western river im- >. 
proveraents. 

Captain Thomas J. Lee, assistant to the bureau, and superintendiag ^ 
improvements to the President's house. 

Captain A. A. Humphreys, absent in Europe. 

Captain W. H. Emory, under Department of the Interior, in the su- 
perintendence of the Mexican boundary survey. 

Captain J. N. Macomb, directing the survey of the northern and 
northwestern lakes. 

Captain J. H. Simpson, superintending the construction of certain 
roads in Minnesota. 

Captain Lorenzo Sitgreaves, on light-house duty. 

Captain J. C. Woodruff, on light-house duty. 

Captain J. W. Gunnison, survey of Pacific railroad route. 

Captain E. P. Scammon, survey of the lakes, under Captain Macomb. 

Captain W. R. Palmer, survey of the coast. 

Captain J. D. Webster, specially in charge of harbor and light-house 
work at Chicago, and in general superintendence of harbor works on 
Lake Michigan. 

Captain G. Thom, on Mexican boundary survey, under Major 
Emory. 

Lieutenant A. W. Whipple, Pacific railroad survey. 

Lieutenant George G. Meade, certain light-house duties in the Gulf 
of Mexico. 

Lieutenant M. L. Smith, Florida canal survey. 

Lieutenant John Pope, survey from Dona Afia to the crossing of the 
Pecos, and to Preston, on Red river. 

Lieutenant J. W. Abert has completed and repOTted survey of mili- 
tary reservation of Fort Snelling. 

Lieutenant Wm. B. Franklin, light-bouse duty. 

Lieutenant Wm. G. Peck, assistant instructor of mathematics, U« 
8. MiUtary Academy. 

Lieutenant Wm. F. Smith, attached to command of eighth military 
d^artment. 
Lieutenant E. L. t\ Hardcastle, secretary to the Ligbtrhouse Board. 



H. Doc. 1. 19 

Lientenant F. T. Bryan, Florida canal survey, under Lieutenant M. 
Smith. 

Lieutenant George H. Derby, superintending harbor improvement 
Tks at San Diego, CaUfomia. 

Lieutenant R. S. Williamson, Pacific raihoad survey. 
Lieutenant N. Michelet, Mexican boundary survey, under Major 
nory. ' 

Lieutenant John O. Parke, Pacific railroad survey, under Lieutenant 
illiamson. 

Lieutenant G. K. Warren, western rivers, under Lieutenant Colonel 
hnston. 

Lieutenant 6. H. Mendell, lake survey, under Captain Macomb. 
Lieutenant W. Rose, lake survey, under Captain Macomb. 
Lieutenant P. Ives, Pacific railroad survey, under Lieutenant A. W. 
Tiipple. 

Lieutenant W. R. Bog^s, assistant to tbe bureau. 
The Red River raft will be made the subject of special report. The 
[vertisements for proposals have not been successfuL 
Respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, ^ 

J.U. ABERT, 
Colonel Corps Topographical Engineers. 
Hon. JsFFERSON Davis, 

Secretary of War. 



Regulations in relation to river and harbor improvements. 

I. All civil works of public improvement committed to the War De- 
irtment w^ill hereafter be planned and constructed under the direction 
either the chief of the corps of engineers or the chief of the corps of 
pographical engineers, as may be deemed most advisable. 

II. The several works assigned by the Secretary of War. as above, 
all be committed to officers of said corps, respectively, under the 
ecial approval of the Secretary. Every officer in charge of a work 
all be under the orders of, and responsible to, the head of his own 
rps. Whenever it may be necessary to commit a work to a civil 
jent, he shall be appointed by the Secretary of War ; to be in like 
inner responsible to, and under the orders of, the bureau to which his 
Dfk has been assigned. 

III. From each of the above-mentioned corps a board shall be or- 
nized, to consist of three members of the corps, who shall be aided, 
benever it may be deemed necessary, by a naval officer, to be de- 
iled by the Secretary of the Navy for that purpose. 

To this board shall be submitted, by the respective chiefs of corps, 

I plans or projects for river and harbor improvements. Every plan 

project for a work will be accompanied by an estimate of its cost. 

the estimate should vary from aay heretofore made, the reasons for 

ch variance will be given. 

Tbe duties of each of these boards shall be as follows : 

L Toexaw/ne, approve, modify, or reject every project or plan oV 



20 H. Doc. 1. 

civil improvement proposed by any officer or civil agent, under instruc- " 
tions from the chief of the corps. - 

If any of said plans be approved by the board, with or without mod- - 
ideation, they will submit them, with such remarks as may be thought - 
necessary, to the chief of the corps. 

If the board reject the plan of the officer or agent, they will either 
substitute a plan of their own, or they will recommend the course they * 
may think best for procmring another project ; at the same time return- 
ing the rejected project with their objections. 

Any member of the board shall have the privilege of making a mi- 
nority report. 

In every case the said chief will lay the project under consideration; 
and the recommendation of the board, together with any minority re- ^' 
port, before the Secretary of War, with any remarks he may have to 
make in support, by way of amendment or in opposition. 

On the approval of a plan by the Secretary ot War, it shall be car- " 
ried into execution, without alteration, by an officer of the corps to » 
which the subject was assigned by the Secretaiy of War, or by a civil 
agent employed ibr the purpose, under the direction of the chief of 
that corps. 

If, however, in the opinion of the said officer or agent, circumstances c 
should demand an alteration or abandonment of the plan, he will ^ 
promptly report all the circumstances to be laid before the board, who, 
if they deem it necessary, will consider the subject anew. 

2. The board will, as often as they may deem necessary, detail from ; 
their number one or more members for the inspection of works under ii 
execution. 

The duty of these inspectors shall be to examine carefully, and re- 
port to the board, the character of the work in relation to prices paid; 
the quality of material and workmanship, and the general system of 
expenditure and administration ; also, as to the conformity to the ap- \ 

J)roved plan; and how far the actual expenditures conform to or vary 
rom the estimate — ^if they should exceed the estimate, the cause of 
such excess. 

Every such report shall be submitted to the Secretary of War by the 
chief of the corps, whose duty it shall be to call the attention of the 
Secretary to any point demanding notice; and especially to any neg* 
lect, want of skill, misconduct, or mal-administration on the part of any 
officer or agent in charge, whether knowledge of the same shall come 
to him through the reports of inspectors or in any other manner. And 
it shall also be the duty of the chief to make frequent personal inspec- 
tions of these operations. 

3. All plans and estimates to be submitted to Congress for new 
works, or for the completion of works already commenced, or the re- 
pairs of old works, will be prepared under the direction of the boards, 
and communicated to the chiefs of their respective corps. 

4. Each board shall have an office in the building of this department, 
and, when necessary, shall be assisted by one or more subaltern offi- 
cers of the corps; and also by one or more clerks, who shall record the 
proceedings in a book, and perform such other duties as may be im' 
^osed by the board. 



H. Doc. 1. 21 

Whenever the business of the b«ard shall not require them to be in 
session, the members shall be employed in the inspections above pro- 
vided for, or on other duty, as the chief of the corps, with the sanction 
of the Secretary of War, shall direct 

C. M. CONRAD, 



War Department, September 10, 1852. 



Secretary of War. 



General order. 

The following works, provided for by the act entitled "An act 
making appropria^tions for the improvement of certain rivers and har- 
bors," shall be executed under the direction of the chief of the corps 
of engineers, viz : 

1. All works and surveys on the Atlantic, and' rivers emptying 
IDtO it. 

2. All works on the Gulf of Mexico, including those on the rivers 
emptying into it, except those of the Mississippi river, which, on 
the superinteodenoe of the renaoval of the bar at its mouth, shall be 
assigned to him. 

3. All surveys, estimates, reports, and other papers, relating to the 
works placed under the direction of the chief engmeer, will be trans- 
ferred to him by the colonel of the topographical corps. 

All other works than those above mentioned, emoraced in the act, 
are assigned to the chief of topographical engineers. 

C. M. CONRAD, 

Secretary of War. 

War Department, 

Washington, September 16, 1862. 



In the Senate of the United States, 

March 3, 1863. 

Resolved, That the Secretary of War be requested to communicate 
to the Senate copies of all instructions and reports, with the accom- 
panying plans and estimates, that have issued irom, or been made to, 
that department, in executing the surveys and improvements of harbors 
and rivers, under the act approved August 30, 1S62. 

These instructions and reports to include the directions distributing 
the duties between the two corps of engineers, establishing the two 
boards of internal improvement, assigning the officers of the two 
corps to the several works, establishing special commissions, calling 
for estimates, directing the final plan of operation, and the reports of 
local engineers, special commissions, the two boards of internal im- 
provement, and of the chiefs of the two corps, to the Secretary of 
War, upon which the final instructions are based ; and also lV\al coigivea 



22 H. Doc 1. 

of all such instructions issued duriftg the year be transmitted to Con- 
gress with each annual report of the Secretary of War. 
Attest : 

ASBURY DICKINS, 

Secretary. 



APPENDIX A- ^ 

Anntial report ow ttie survey of the north and northtvest laJceu. ^ 

Detroit, October 25, 1853. ^ 

- Sir : For the information of the Bureau of Topographical EngineerSr « 
I have the honor to submit the following account of the operations of ^ 
the force under my command since the time of making my last annual i 
report : 

On returning to Detroit, the headquarters of the survey of the lakes, 
from the labors of the field, in October last, I found instructions from 
you to place the surveying steamer at the disposal of Captain Can- g 
field, topographical engineers, to enable him to ascertain the result of 
the changes that may have taken place at the flats of the St. Clair ^ 
during the previous ten years. On this duty I gladly accompanied 
Captain Canfield with a small portion of my command, when we were 
enabled, in the course of a few days, to make a satisfactory re-exam- 
ination of that portion of the field, by using three triangulation points 
established by me ten years previously. 

From November, 1852, until May, 1853, the several parties of the 
survey were occupied with the computations necessary to enable them 
to make the detail maps of their sections of the work, and in the con- 
struction and drawing of those maps. 

Captain Gunnison prepared a new computation of the positionis of 
the triangulation points in Green Bay, based upon a comparison of the 
rods used for the measurement of the base hne in that quarter, with 
the standard measure recently furnished to this work. In this new 
computation he introduced the latitude of a point of the triangulation 
from my observations with the zenith telescope, and an azimuth ob- 
served by himself with one of our large theodolites, a superior instrument 
to any owned by the survey at the time of making the original observa- 
tions in that part of the field. Shortly after the commencement of our 
office duties. Captain Scammon was taken from my command and 
ordered on duty in Florida. He had, however, before leaving me, 
perfected the preliminaries requisite for making the maps of his section 
of the previous summer's work; which maps were duly finished by 
the able assistants attached to his party. 

In the month of November my force was increased by the addition 

of Lieutenants Mendell and Rose, who had recently joined the corps. 

On reporting to me, they were assigned to duty in the oflSce under 

Captain Gunnison and Lieutenant Reynolds, whom they assisted in 

the duties of their respective subdivisions of the work, and also in the 

laborious computations for the reduction oi iVie baaeXvne^ xiie xsv^asure- 



H. Doc. 1. 23 

ment of which had been participated in by the whole force on duty in 
Se^ember, 1852. ^ 

Early in the spring of this year, just as I bad made the allotment of 
field duties for the opening season, my plans were temporarily sus- 

S;nded by the necessity which occurred, causing the bureau to detach 
aptain Gunnison ; and also by the loss of one of our experienced civil 
assistants, Mr. Potter, who was placed in charge of some of the harbor 
improTements under the topographical department I was, however, 
soon reheved from this state of suspense by the agreeable announce- 
ment that Captain Scammon had been directed to rejoin our work ; 
at the same time, my attention was called to the prooiso, in the bill ap- 
propriating funds for the survey, requiring the immediate examination 
of the obstacles to navigation in the St. Mary*s river, and calling for 
an early report thereupon. I accordingly made such a disposition of 
our force as the accomplishment of these new requirements seemed to 
call for. 

A large party was ordered to the St. Mary's river, in charge of Capt. 
Scamnion, assisted by Lieut. Mendell and three civil assistants, two of 
whom bad served under Capt. Scammon in other parts of the field. 
This party was instructed to complete the survey of those portions of 
the St. Mary's river where obstacles, to the navigation exist, and also 
to finish the surveys about the entrance of that river, by the detour, 
passage into Lake Huron: the firg, being required to comply with the 
nroviso already alluded to, and the last falling within the limits which 
nad been marked out as constituting the area to be represented on a 
proper chart of the straits of Mackinac. 

The party in charge of First Lieut. W. F. Reynolds, assisted by 
Lieut. Rose, topographical engineers, and two civil assistants, who had 
had a little experience on the work, was directed to take up the survey 
of the coast hne and adjacent hydrography at the western termination 
of the last season's work on the south coast of the straits of Mackinac, 
and to continue to the westward to tbe limits of the shoal ground about 
Wangoshance light-house, and thence to the southward along the coast 
of Lake Michigan, to the southern limit of the sheet of the straits. 

The part which I allotted to myself in the prosecution of the season's 
operations was, in addition to the general superintendence of the par- 
ties, the execution of soundings remote from snore, and the completion 
of the main trian^lation which had been thus far conducted by me; 
also the observations for latitude and azimuths ; in which last named 
operations I intended to associate one of the officers with me, and was 
enabled to detach Lieut. Reynolds from his party, for this purpose, 
towards the latter end of September. 

The parties have now all returned from the field, having remained 
oat as long as it was possible to prosecute our labors of the survey with 
a due regard to economy ; the interruptions to field-work on the upper 
kkes becoming very frequent from the storms usual at this Season of the 
year. 

The great distance at which the two shore parties were from each 
other, (varying fi-om seventy to one hundred miles,) together with the 
necessity for executing at once the survey of the obstructions to the 
easy navigation of the St. Mary's river, although they have not pre- 



24 H. Doc. 1. 

vented me from accomplishing as much work as I anticipated, yet they 
have somewhat diverted my labors from Uie straits of Mackinac, and 
kept me from finishing the deep-water soundings in the western section 
of the straits. This part of the work, however, can be completed be- 
fore the engraver can be ready for it, as we have now the elements of 
what may well be considered a most perfect chart of the straits of 
Mackinac, and the approaches thereto from Lakes Huron and Michi- 
gan, embracing an area of about eighty miles by forty, or about 3,000 
square miles, within which all the shores (main land and island) have 
been traced out, together with the minute hydrography from shore lines 
to the depth of five or ten fathoms, as well as tnat of twelve detached 
shoals, which have been completely examined from their crests in eveiy 
direction to deep water; the shoals being accurately determined in 
position by the trlangulation which extends over the whole work. 

During the season which has just closed, I have accomplished the 
following work, in addition to the general business of correspondence 
and attention to the fiscal affairs of the survey, viz : 

Number of stations of main triangulation built or repaired 6 

Number of stations of main triangulation occupied with 10-inch 

Gambey theodoUte 21 

Number of tripod water stations on shoals 4 

Number of buoys remote from shore 21 

Soundings remote from shore, (chief^ in deep water) 1,1 16 

Sextant and theodolite angles, for positions of same 250 

Theodolite workforgeneraltrianguktionj tl'S^reSg^f ^*766 

Micrometer readings (on Polaris) for azimuth 142 

Observations for time 68 

Observations for value of level scale 20 

Observations on twenty stars passing within a degree of ze- 
nith, for determination of the latitude 69 

The following is a synopsis of work done by the shore parties during 
the past season. 

1. By the party in command of Capt. E. E. Scammon : 

Number of stations built for secondary triangulation 133 

Number of sounding stations 351 

Number of buoys located 305 

Number of tripod water stations on shoals 10 

Number of mnes of shore line run out with theodolite and 

chain 70i 

Number of casts of the lead made and recorded 36,691 

Number of miles of cutting through woods (for triangulation) . 8 J 

Number of theodolite readmgs 9,000 

Number of sets of observations for true meridian ,. . . 2 

Also, a map of the " East Neebish rapids," and one of the ** flats of 
Lake George," each on a scale of eight inches to a mile. 

2. By the party in charge of First Lieut. W. F. Reynolds, topograph- 
ical engineers : 

Number of stations built for secondary triangulation 19 

Number of sounding stations 96 



H. Doc. ]. 25 

Nomber of buoys located 348 

Number of water stations on shoals 2 

Number of miles of shore line run with theodolite and chain. 61} 

Number of casts of the lead made and recorded 30,886 

Number of miles of cutting through woods (for triangulation) . 6 

Number of theodolite readings 3,369 

Number of angles read with sextant 506 

Number of sets of observations for true meridian 3 

During the month of August Lieut. Reynolds was detached to Green 
Bay to finish some topography and get the requisite memoranda for the 
completion of the Green Bay chart. This change left Lieut. Rose in 
command of the party during that month. The results of Lieut. Rey- 
iK)lds' work at Green Bay were forwarded to the bureau in the early 
part of tlie present month. 

Our force will be fully occupied during the coming winter in making 
the maps in detail from the notes of the past season's surveys, and with 
the computations and reductions for tfie general chart of the straits of 
Mackinac. 

I would recommend that the work in the St. Mary's river be re- 
sumed in the spring by the party engaged there during the past season, 
that we may get the elements for a perfect chart of that route by the 
time of completing the ship canal to Lake Superior. For the remainder 
of the force, I would suggest the complete hydrographical survey of the 
Beaver Island group, and the prosecution of the main triangulation to 
the westward towards Green Bay. This would confine our operations 
to portions of the field of which it is daily becoming more desirable to 
have peiAt charts ; and it would be adhering to the good principle of 
finishmg OTie district before commencing another. 

With this report I beg leave to lay before you an estimate for con- 
tinuing our operations next year. In this estimate it will be observed 
that I have introduced an item of fifty thousand dollars for an iron 
steamer, suitable for the operations upon the upper lakes, as the work 
is pushed forward to the less sheltered localities. The small iron 
steamer which we now have cannot be spared for the extensive re- 

Girs which she needs until her place can be supplied by another 
at ; and, as our work advances, there will be full employment for 
both steamers. 
All of which is respectfully submitted bv your obedient servant, 

" J. N. MACOMB, 
Captain Topographical Engineers. 
Col. J J. Abert, 

Com*g Corps Top. EngWs U. S. A.j 

Washington City, D. C. 

Estimate of funds required for the survey of the north and northwest lakes 
for the year ending June 30, 1855. 

For pay of civil assistants : 

1 at $3 60 per day> for36S days $1,21T 50 

4a/ SOO do 4,380 00 



26 H. Doc. 1. 

4 at $2 00 per day, for 366 days $2,920 00 

1 at 4 00 do as draughtsman and 

computer 1,460 00 

Rent of office in Detroit 400 00 

Fuel for office 100 00 

Allowance to five officers of topographical engineers in . 
lieu of quarters and fuel, no longer paid by Quarter- 
master's department 1,825- W 

For wages of petty officers and^ men, and ihe subsistence 
of parties in the field — ^three parties, (accorcfingto our 

present force,) at S9,000 each 27,000 00 

Purchase of four new boats, at $200 each 800 00 

Purchase of tents and camp equipage, $500 for each 

party 1,500 00 

Transportation of men and freight on supplies 1,250 00 

Steamer Surveyor, in ordinary six months 2,610 00 

Coal for steamer— 200 tons, at $5 1,000 00 

Contingencies, viz: For transportation of boats, smith's 
work, lumber, spikes and nails, buoy anchors, rope 
and flags, paints, oils, leather, stationery, and draw- 
ing paper 4,000 00 

50,522 50 
For a new steamer for the survey 50,000 00 

Total amount of estimate 1 00,522 50 

All of which is respectfully submitted by your obedient smrant, 

J, N. MACOMB, 
Captain Topographical Engineen. 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Com'g Corps Top. EngWs^ U. 8. A. 



Camp, Potagannissing Bay, 
North side of Dri^mmond Island, 

October 1, 1853. 

Sir: Herewith I present maps of the East Neebish rapids and the 
flats of Lake Georse, as required by the act of Congress granting 
appropriations for the lake survey for the current year and your in- 
structions to me at the commencement of this season's work. 

The map of the Neebish will show that little is required to make it 
a safe and commodious channel for vessels drawing less than fifteen 
feet. The removal of a few small boulders would give a good chan- 
nel, two hundred to three hundred feet in width, through the only part 
of the passage presenting any difficulties. At present, boats pass on 
the east side ; but I am of opinion that the west side is more suscep- 
tible of improvement, as well because the passage on that side would 
the more direct as because the existing obstacles are smaller, and 
dd therefore be more easily removed. Small beacons should be 



H. Doc. 1. 27 

erected at tbe northern and southern extremities of the rapids, on the 
shoal, to &cilitate the navigation in thick weather. Material for their 
coDstmction <:an be obtained on either side of the Neebish. I think 
that the rapidity of tbe current at the rapids has been over-estimated 
when stated at four and a half miles per hour ; it does not exceed 
three when the water at its two extremes is at the stage marked on 
tbe map. I am unable to give the difference of level between these 
points, although two attempts to run a Une of levels were made ; both 
failed on account of storms arising suddenly, and I did not think the 
immediate importance of this part of the work sufficient to justify the 
detention of my party, then about moving to our present camp to 
complete our work upon the straits of Mackinac. 
As to the improvement of the flats in Lake George, it is impossible to 

f've a definite opinion until our map of the whole lake is constructed, 
ither side of the lake can be readily dredged ; but I am disposed to 
think that the west side offers a better channel than that now taken, a 
map of which is presented. At the north end of the flats there are 
three old cribs remaining, which formed part of a wharf constructed 
many years ago by the Hudson's Bay and American Fur companies. 
These would have to be removed before a good channel could be 
opened on the east side. On the west there are no such obstacles ; 
besides which, for the greater part of the distance on this side there is 
DOW upwards of four fathoms of water ; and I think that the map will 
show tor the remaining distance a surer and easier passage than could, 
without great expense, be attained on the east. This opinion may be 
contradicted by the results of our survey. As it is impossible U) con- 
struct a map of the whole lake without interrupting the work in the 
field, I have therefore been content to offer a plat of soundings on 
what is known as the "bar," leaving the rest of the lake imtil our 
return firom the field. 

I herewith present an estimate of cost for improving the "Ship Chan- 
nel or East Neebish rapids," River Ste. Marie, as proposed in my re- 
port of October 1, 1863 : 

1. Two scows, at $1,000 $2,000 

Derric, clamps, cordage, &c 1,000 

2. Twenty men, at $1 per diem, for 60 days 1,200 

One foreman, at $2 120 

Subsistence, transportation, &c 700 

Contingencies 880 

5,900 



3. The cost of the proposed beacons, if erected, would of course 
depend upon the material employed, and the quality of the work, even 
if Its precise character were determined. I would propose a triangular 
pyramid of stone and iron; the foundation of stone rising some five 
feet above the water, the upper portion of the structure being formed 
of three bars of iron unitea at the top and securely fastened to the three 
comers of the foundation, and so coimected by horizontal lies as to 
give solidity to the whole. This wight be painted so as to make a cow- 
Rpicuous mark ibr vessels at any necessary distance. The aVdea ot 



28 H. Doc, 1. 

the triangular foundation of such a beacon need not be more than ten 
feet long at its top, as I presume that no great weight of masonry 
would be needed to resist the pressure of the ice, which must be very 
much broken befere it reaches this point of the rapids. From the best 
information at ray command, I presume that the two pyramids might 
be erected in a suitable manner, at the points indicated, for a sum not 
exceeding $5,000 ; but it would be impossible to give an estimate, in 
detail, until I have the means of ascertaining the cost of material, as 
well as of forming a more accurate notion of thq details of the struc- 
ture itself. 

I remain, very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

E. P. SCAMMON, 
Captain Topographical Engineers.^ 
Capt. J. N. Macomb, 

Topographical Efigineersj V. S. -4., com*gj 4^., S/t. 



APPENDIX B. 

Saint Paul, M. T., September 17, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of operations 
for the past year upon the general government roads of this Territory: 

Road from Point Douglass to the 8t. Louis river of Lake Superior. — 
The following contracts have been completed upon this road during 
the year : The contract of Albert Harris, for the bridge over Deep 
Ravme at Stillwater; the contract of Messrs. FuUerton & Ford, for the 
section of road between the forty-ninth and fifty-sixth mile stations; 
and the contracts of John Rollins, for the section between fifty-sixth 
and sixty-eighth mile stations. The whole extent of road now com- 
pleted, and in good travelling order, is that comprised between Still- 
water and a pomt twelve miles beyond St. Croix, a distance of forty- 
three miles. The portion at present under contract, and to be finished 
during the present fall, is that comprehended between the twenty-first 
and twenty-fifth mile stations. Proposals have also been opened to- 
day, according to advertisement, for the construction of a bridge over 
Sunrise river, which is also to be finished before winter. The amount 
expended on account of this road, from the 31st June, 1852, has been 
$19,469 67. 

Road from Point Douglass to Fort Ripley (Ouines.J The following 
contracts on this road have been completed during the past year: The 
contract of O. W. Rice, for the section included between station forty- 
nine and mile station twenty-one, a distance of nearly five miles; the 
contract of Geo. W. Sweet, for the sections included between sixty- 
fifth and eighty-second mile stations, a distance of seventeen miles ; and 
a contract of Wm. Steorgis, for the section between the one hun- 
dred and first, one hundred and fifth, one hundred and thirteenth, 
and one hundred and fifteenth mile stations, a distance of six miles. In 
addition to this, the contract of O, W. Rice, for the bridge over Rum 



H. Doc. 1. 29 

river, is in process of completion, and will be finished during the present 
&1L The amount expended on account of this road since June 30, 
1852, has been $11,942 10. 

Roadjrom the mouth of Swan river to the Winnebago agency^ or Long 
Prairie. — The cotitracj of S. B. Olmstead, for the section included be- 
tween third and seventh mile stations and the twenty-fifth mile sta^ 
licMi, and the Mississippi river, inclusive of the bridge and causeway 
over Turtle creek ; the bridge over Bearhead creek ; and the bridge 
over Swan creek, has been completed. The amount expended on ac- 
count of this road since the 30th June, 1862, has been S6,732 79. 

Road from Wabashaw to Mendota. — The following contracts for this 
road are in process of completion, and will be finished during the 
present £all: The contract of F. S. Richards, for the bridge over the 
slough at Wabashaw ; the bridge over Smith's creek with its approaches, 
and the portion of road between Reed's landing and stake four hun- 
dred and seven, at the top of the ravine back ot Ra5cicots, a distance 
of nearly three miles ; and the contract of J. W. Bond, for the grading 
of the bluff back of Mendota. The amount expended on account of 
this road since 30th June, 1852, has been $1,070 90. 

For each of these roads I would recommend for the coming year the 
appropriation of at least the amounts which were made by Congress 
at Its last session, except the amount appropriated for the road fix)m 
Wabashaw to Mendota; and this should be not less than $16,000, on 
account of the bridging which is absolutely required on the road to 
make it passable. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. H. SIMPSON, 
Captain Corps Top. Engineers. 

Col. J. J. Abebt, 

Chief of Corps Top. Engineers^ Washington^ D. C. 



APPENDIX C. 

Office Westbbn Riveb Improvements, 

Louisville J September 1, 1853. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit my eleventh annual report on the 
improvement of western rivers, and in relation to the various other 
duties that have occupied my attention during the fiscal year beginning 
July 1, 1852, and ending June 30, 1853. 

The duties for consideration embrace the following details, viz : 

1. Th^ improvement of the western rivers. 

2. The direction of the office work, &c., relating to the survey of the 
delta of the Mississippi. 

3. Sundry duties relating to the construction of marine hospitals at 
Louisville, Paducah, Napoleon, and Natchez. 

4. Duties as a member of the " board appointed to make a survey 
and examination of the various plans for canals around the faWa o? \)a!B 
Ohio river, and the enlargement and extension of the present cauaV^ 



go H. Doc. 1. 

6. Duties as a member of the board of lake harbors and western 
rivers. 

6. Resumption of duties relating to the improvement of the western 
rivers, especially of the Ohio, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, and Illi- 
nois rivers, including the agencies at Dubuque harbor. Rock Island 
rapids, Des Moines rapids, Ohio river, including Cumberland dam and 
lUuiois riven 

!• Improvement of the western riven. 

This head comprises the duties and operations relating to the dispo- 
sition proper to be made of the instruments, books, maps, station- 
ery, &c,, and of the various articles of public property prociured for 
said improvements ; to the sale of various articles of public property 
of a nature too perishable to be preserved for future use; to additional 
surveys at the falls of the Ohio, &c., &c. 

The means of prosecuting these duties are such as have been derived 
fh)m old appropriations hj Congress for western river improvements; 
and, more immediately, from the sale of boats and other perishable 
property damaged and partially worn out in service, and thereby ren- 
dered unfit for future use. 

The receipts and expenditures on account of western river improve- 
ments, including sales of public property as above, are as follows, viz: 

RECEIPTS. 

Unexpended balance on hand, arising from the sources 

above mentioned, July 1, 1862 $5,686 23 

Amount received from J. W, Russell, for old machinery 

transferred 6,734 49 

Amount received from J. W. Russell, for machinery 

transferred 1,463 06 

Total of receipts to be accounted for 12,873 78 

EXPENDITURES. 

For 3d quarter of 1862 $606 60 

For 4th quarter of 1862 818 06 

For 1st quarter of 1863 418 46 

For 2d quarter of 1863 882 98 

Total for the year 2,626 99 

Unxepended balance on hand July 1, 1863. . . 10,247 79 

The disposition proper to be made of this balance is, that it be held 

in reserve to meet contingent expenses incident to the prosecution of 

the snag business generally, and to other services pertaining to western 

iLuprovc mcots, including travelling allowances, commutation for 

id quarters, office rent, attendance and fuel, clerk hire, compen- 

^ pay-agents, and to other individuals necessarily employed on 

ler duties* 



H. Doc. 1. 81 

2. Ofice-^corkj and pertaining to the ddtu iurtey. 

The arrangement of the field-notes taken on the surrey, and the exe- 
cntion of drawings based thereon, has been confined to Lieutenant 
Warren, who was instructed to avail himself of the assistance of Lieu- 
tenant Abert and George E. Fuller, esq., in their preparation. 

The report of Lieutenant Warren (see Appendix, Document A) will 
show the progress made in these delineations, &c., and the work still re- 
maining to be done in reference thereto. 

• The office-work, &c,, pertaining to the hydrometric operations at 
and near New Orleans, had been mtrusted to C. G. Forshey, esq., of 
Carrolton, in the vicinity of New Orleans, who has had all matters of 
this sort under his personal charge, but has not yet submitted his final 

T>rt in relation thereto, 
have been apprized bom time to time of the progress made in his 
work, and of the difficulties attending it, but have hitherto had no op- 
portunity of collating the partial reports submitted, nor do I deem such 
an eflfort needful, as the whole is expected to be embodied in proper 
form by the superintendent of the hydrometric survey. 

The receipts and expenditures on account of the delta survey, 
during the last fiscal year, are as follows, viz : 

RECEIPTS. 

Unexpended balance on hand July J , 1853 $205 46 

Amount of receipts for fiscal year ending 30th June, 1853. 4,000 00 
Receipts for sales of damaged public property 214 47 

Total receipts to be accounted for 4,419 93 

EXPENDITURES. 

For 3d quarter of 1852 $141 54 

For 4th quarter of 1852 1,691 27 

For 1st quarter of 1853 1,244 91 

For 2d quarter of 1853 1,082 28 

Total for the year 4,160 00 

Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1853 259 93 



This balance is deemed applicable to^e liquidation of sundry out- 
standing claims for services, and for thcTOCOunts incident to the pro- 
secution of the drawings, and of the hydrometric operations stiU in pro- 
gress; for the completion of which, additional requisitions, under the 
appropriation for tne delta survey, may from time to time be found 
necessary. 



82 H. Doc. 1. 

3. Construction of marine hoipiUxU. 

The marine hospitals at Louisville, Paducah, and Natchez, in so far 
as relates to the buildings proper, have been so far completed that 
they have been deemed ready for occupancy, in furtherance of the ob- 
jects for which they were intended. 

The hospital at Napoleon still remains unfinished, and unfit for such 
occupancy, and in the condition represented in my last annual report 
A few additional remarks, explanatory of the condition of the several 
hospitals, will be given under the head of each respectively, %& 
foUows, viz : 

Marine hospital a^t Louisville* 

On the opening of this hospital for the reception of patients, on or 
about the 1st of January, 1852, which was done without any formal 
official notice to me as the superintendent of its construction, the 
drains leading from the water-closets to the sink-vaults were incom- 
plete, and in some respects defective, especially for want of sufficient 
declivity to convey away the furs deposited in them. The alterations 
required on the account last mentioned, and the proper completion of 
the drainage, could not be effected at that time, by reason of the almost 
entire exhaustion of the funds that had been appomted for the construc- 
tion of-the hospital. 

[The unexpended balance on hand, at the time referred to, was only 
$24 31, as per account current, rendered for 4th quarter 1851.] 

These imperfections remained as unabated nuisances till the 3d 
quarter of 1852, nearly an entire year from the date of occupancy. 
On the 21st September of that year funds were received from the 
treasury under an appropriation of Congress, approved August 30th 
of that year, and suitable remedies for the evils alluded to were applied 
as early thereafter as practicable. At the same time, and with similar 
means, measures were taken for the construction of the hot-air fur- 
naces, air-conductors, &c., for warming the building, supplying the 
bath-rooms with hot water, &c., which were accomplished and brought 
into operation prior to the commencement of the wmter season. 

The receipts and expenditures on account of the Louisville hospital, 
during the last fiscal year, are as follows, viz : 

RECEIPTS. 

Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1852 $107 61 

Amount of receipts from U^ted States treasury for suc- 
ceeding fiscal year ending June 30, 1853 2,000 00 

Total receipts to be accounted for •... 2,107 61 

EXPENDITURES. 

3d quarter of 1852 $650 00 

4lh quarter of 1852 977 79 



H. Doc. 1. 88 

Ist quarter of 1863 $25 00 

2d quarter of 1853 00 

Total expenditures for the year Sl,009 29 

Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1853.. 1,098 32 

This balance may be advantageously applied to the laying of brick 
pavements in front, and at the ends, and in rear of the hospital, to 
serve as walks around the building, affording easy communication 
with its doors in muddy weather, 

Maririe hospital at PaducaA. 

The operations relating to the construction of this hospital, within 
the last fiscal year, consist mainly in the removal of a large body of 
earlh from the easterly to the westerly side of the hospital lot, in front 
of the building, which has been done for the purpose of forming a 
regular ramp, or descending grade, from the front line of the hospital 
downwards to the surface of extreme high water of the river. This 
work was arrested in its progress, when nearly completed, for want of 
fimds lor its entire accomplishment. 

The receipts and expenditures on account of the Paducah hospital, 
during the last fiscal year, are as follows, viz : 

RECEIPTS. 

Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1852 $540 69 

EXPENDITURES. 

3d quarter of 1852 $460 40 

4thquaiterof 1852 35 20 

l8t quarter of 1853. 37 50 

2d quarter of 1S53 00 

Total expenditures for fiscal year 533 10 

Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1853 -... 7 59 

This balance is applicable if! part payment of an unliquidated claim 
of $15 still outstanding against the hospital. 

. Marine hospital at Napoleon. 

This hospital remains in an unfinished condition, very little having 
been done in relation to its construction since the date of my last 
annual report — ^the carpenter's work being nearly completed, espe- 
cially with respect to the ceilings of the piazzas. The entire buildings 
without and within, remains unpainted, although the oil, paints, &c., 
Part ni—3 



34 H. Doc 1. 

requisite for thai purpose, have been procured, and various other items 
of work relating to the construction continued in the condition ex- 
plained in the report above cited. 

An appropriation of $4,000 was passed and approved on the 3d of 
March, 1853 ; and on the 1st of June of the same year I forwarded 
a conditional requisition for 2,000 for carrying on the work ; but as 
yet the requisition remains unanswered. (See Appendix, Doc. B.^ 

Agreeably to a report from the individual to whom the custody of 
the building and of the public property pertaining thereto were in- 
trusted, dated on the 24th May last, considerable injury had been done 
to one of the sink vaults, in consequence of the high water then pre- 
vailing at the site of the hospital, the repair of which may no doubt be 
effected at a moderat-e cost; but no funds for this or any other 

Eurpose relating to the construction and completion of this hospital, 
avmg been placed at my disposal, nothing has been done in these 
respects. 

The ordinary outlayjs incident to the custody and safe-keeping of 
the hospital, and other public property pertaining to the same, are the 
only expenses incurred on account of this hoapitd. 

The receipts and expenditures on account of the Napoleon hospital, 
during the last year, are as follows, viz : 

RECEIPTS. 

Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1853 $191 06 

Amount received from United States treasury for succeeding 

year, (errors included.) 2,001 29 

Total receipts to be accounted for.. . .J 2,192 35 

EXPENDITURES. 

3d quarter of 1852 $1,978 76 

4th quarter of 1852 73 30 

1st quarter of 1853 00 

2d quarter of 1853 00 

— « 

Total expenditure for fiscal year 2,052 06 

Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1853 140 29 

This balance should be applied to th# liquidation in part of outstand- 
ing claims, on account of the custody and safe-keeping of the hospital 
and other public property pertiiining to the same, the accounts for 
which have not yet been presented. 

Marine hospital at Natchez. 

The condition of this hospital remains the same as represented in 
my last annual report. Nothing has been done towards the grading at 
the hospital site, the fencing of the hospital yard, or the construction of 
bot-air furnaces for warming the building, &c., &c. 



H. Doc. 1, 35 

By an act of Congress approved March 3, 1863, S4,000 was appro- 
priated for the completion of this hospital; also, a conditional requisition 
for 2,000 of this appropriation was made on the 1st of June last, but 
BO funds were remitted in answer thereto, and of course no arrangements 
have been made for the accomphshment of the objects of the appropria- 
tion. (See Doc. B, before cited.) 

The receipts and expenditures on account of the Natchez hospital, 
during the last fiscal year, are as follows, viz : 

RECEIPTS. 

Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1852 $95 62 

EXPENDITURES. 

3d quarter of 1852 $4 25 

4th quarter of 1852 56 00 

1^ quarter of 1853 00 

2d quarter of 1853 00 

Total expenditure for year 60 25 

Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1853 35 37 

This balance, together with an amount considerably greater, will 
probably be abscftbed by outstanding claims not yet presented. 

4. Examination, survey , and report on the various methods devised for the 
improvement of the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville, 

• 

These subjects were referred to a board of engineers, consisting of 
Lieutenant Colonel Long, Colonel Turnbull, and Charles B. Fisk, esq., 
to which Lieutenant J. W*. Abert was appointed secretary. The mem- 
bers of the board assembled at Louisville, Kentucky, and after having 
completed the examinations, surveys, and other investigations deemed 
appropriate, adjourned to meet at Washington, D. C, for the purpose 
of preparing and submitting their report on the main topics to wnich 
their attention had been directed. 

Their report was compiled and submitted on the 14th February last, 
and subsequently printea under the designation of Senate Doc. No. 42, 
32d Congress, 2d session. 

To the report just cited I take leave to refer for all details rela 
ting to the investigations, and for the results derived therefrom. As 
disbursing agent for the board, I subjoin a statement of the receipts and 
expenditures incident to the services in question, which are as follows 
viz: 



$6 H. Doc 1. 

RECEIPTS. 

October 4, 1852. Treasury draft No, 3,025, on war war- 

rant7,441 $2,600 00 

February 19, 1853. Treasury draft No. 3,726, on war 

warrant No. 8,212 2,000 00 

Amount of receipts 4,600 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Amount of expenses incurred by direction of the board. - . . 3,688 93 



Unexpended balance on hand July 1, J 853 811 07 

This balance will , be refunded to the Treasury Department on the 
adjustment of my accounts relating to the same, rendered in February 
last. 

5. Duties mth the board of lake harbors and toestem rivers. 

On the 17th January, 1853, I entered on my duties as a member of 
this board, and continued to serve in this capacity, at the office of said 
board at Washington, from that date till the 27th of April following, viz : 

During this period the attention of the board, and myself, as a mem- 
ber of the board, were directed to various topics proper for the consid- 
eration of the board under its titular cognomen, and to various other 
subjects relating to projected railroads from Savannah, Georgia, to the 
Gulf of Mexico; from Charleston, South Carolina, through Vicksburg, 
and to San Diego; ancj to the contemplated national railroad from the 
Mississippi to the Pacific ocean. (See Appendix, Doc. 6.) 

The proceedings of the board, prior to the date last mentioned, have 
been duly reported to the Topographical bureau, and to them I have to 
refer for any information that may be required in relation to the sub- 
jects submitted to their consideration. 

6. Resumption of duties relating to the improvement of the Ohio, Mississippi, 
Missouri, Arkansas, and Illinois rivers, 4^. 

By an order from the TopoCTaphical bureau, dated April 27, 1853, 
and expressly sanctioned by the honorable Secretary of War on the 
same day, I was directed to take the charge and direction of all works 
and operations relating to the improvement of the rivers above men- 
tioned. 

On the same date I issued a circular, addressed to the several agents 
appointed to the charge and direction of various local works, relating to 
the construction of snag-boats, dredge-boats, &c., and to the improve- 
ment of the Ohio river, including Cumberland danl ; to the improve- 
ment of Rock Island rapids, including the harbor of Dubuque ; to the 
improvement of tKe Des Moines rapids ; and to the improvement of the 
TUinms river. A copy of the circular is herewith submitted. (See Ap- 
^nd/x, Doc. D.) 



H. Doc. 1. 37 

On repairing to headquarters western river improvements, which 
were established at Louisville by the order above cited, and on the 
receipt of information called for by the circular above mentioned, I 
found that the requisitions made on the United States treasury for funds 
required for the prosecution of the works and operation then in progress, 
were likely to exceed, in one or more instances, the speciBc appropria- 
tions designed for the individual works then in progress. 

The requisitions upon the United Stales treasury appear to have 
been made, and funds remitted thereon, without due regard to the 
nature and extent of the objects to be effected thereby, or the limita- 
tions fixed by Congress to the several appropriations applicable to these 
objects. 

An appropriation for S150,000 was made for the construction of snag- 
boats, mud-scows, &c., under which five twin snag-boats, two steam 
dredge-boats, and eight mud-scows were contracted for and authorized 
to be constructed. The appropriation proved inadequate, by a large 
deficiency, to the construction, equipment, and outfit of the several crafts 
that had been contracted for. To supply the deficiency, encroachments 
must be made on other appropriations. The appropriations thus in- 
vaded were those for the improvement of the Ohio including Cumberland 
dam, of the Mississippi below the rapids, of the Arkansas, of the Mis- 
souri, and of the harbor of Dubuque. 

In the vouchers that had been taken, except in so far as they were 
based upon specific contracts and stipulated salaries, and in the pay- 
ments made thereon, charges made for items of construction, items of 
equipment, items of outfit, &c., were indiscriminately blended in the 
same voucher, and could not be arranged under the several heads in 
any other way except that of splitting or distributing the items charged 
in the voucher under two or more distinct heads. The work of con- 
struction has been so long in progress, and so far advanced at the lime 
of my arrival, that the preparation of new vouchers, arranged in con- 
formity to the appropriation to which they properly related, was utterly 
impracticable ; and the only alternative expedient remaining for choice 
consisted in the employment of the old vouchers, and the arrangement 
of their contents under different heads, corresponding to the several 
appropriations that had been invaded. 

My attention was accordingly directed to such a classification of the 
expenditures and liabilities already incurred as would bring them under 
the specific appropriations to which they were legitimately chargeable. 
The nature and extent of the charges, both actual and anticipated, 
having been ascertained with the utmost attainable precision, a method 
of classification was adopted, and a project of the same made the sub 
ject of a report to the Topographical bureau, under dale of May 25, 
1853. A modified copy of the report is hereto annexed. (See Ap- 
pendix E.) 

The classification and arrangements in the report just referred to 
were not sufficiently correct in all their details, for want of adecjuate 
returns from some of the agents. Accordingly, they have been revised, 
corrected, and extended so as to embrace all expenditures under iVve 
specific appropriations there;/? enumerated^ (except those for l\\e '\m- 
provemew^ of the Illinois and of the rapids of the upper Mlssissip^'v, 



88 



H. Doc. 1. 



which have not yet been encroached upon,) and have been substituted 
in the appendix report for the original schedules inserted therein. 

In further explanation of the modified arrangement or classification, 
it should be observed that all the expenditures made by J. W. RusseU, 
J, Barney, and C. A. Fuller, esqs., fi-om the commencement of their 
agencies to the end of the second quarter of the current year, are in- 
cluded in the schedules contained in the report. 

Accordingly, all the expenditures that have been made to the end of 
the last fiscal year, in relation to which there can be any doubt as to 
the particular appropriations to which they are respectively chargeable, 
are brought witnin the classification, and may readily be adjusted by 
the accounting officers of the Treasury Department in a manner con- 
formable thereto. This mode of adjustment may indeed be regarded 
as the best if not the only method by which the expenditures can be 
arranged under the respective appropriations to which they are legiti- 
mately chargeable. 

Moreover, by adopting the method of adjustment proposed as above, 
we shgJl be able to enter the current fiscal year, beginning on the 1st 
of July ultimo, in so far as relates to existing appropriations affected 
by the disbursement of the last or preceding fiscal year, with the ex- 
penditures and balances exhibited in the following synopsis, derived 
from the schedules of the report above cited. (See Appendix, Doc. E.) 

Synopsis of appropriations, expenditures end unexpended balances, existing 
on the 1st of July, 1853, according to class'ijicaxion in Document E. 



Object of appropriations, appiOTed August 
30, 1650.' 



Amount of 
appropriation. 



Am'nt disbursed 
June SO, 1853. 



Unexpended 

balances July 1, 

1853. 



Dt9igmat%on of appropriations affected. 

Construction of snag and dredge-boats .... 
Improvement of Ohio, including Cumber- 
land dam 

Improvement of Mississippi below rapids.. 

Improvement of Missouri 

Improvement of Arkansas 

Improvement of harbor of Dubuque 

Total of appropriations affected 

Designation of appropriations not affected. 

Improvement of rapids of upper Biissis- 

sippi 

Improvement of Illinois river 

Total of appropriations affected and 
unaffected 



$150,000 00 

90,000 00 
90,000 00 
40,000 00 
40,000 00 
15,000 00 



$146,039 18 

7,847 87 
16,821 81 
7,476 38 
7,476 38 
9,370 67 



425,000 00 



100, 000 00 
30,000 00 



195,022 29 



•2.000 00 
M.OOO 00 



555,000 00 



198,022 29 



$3,970 82 

82, 152 13 
73, 178 19 
^,523 62 
32,523 62 
5,629 S3 



22,977 71 



98,000 00 
89,000 00 



356,977 71 



* Sums drawn but not accounted for. 



H. Doc. 1. 



89 



For the purpose of aflbrding* a direct and ready contrast between 
the summary classification as above, and a similar classification of the 
accounts actually rendered, I here subjoin a synopsis of specific appro- 
priations of the amounts actually drawn under each, respectively, and 
of the balances undrawn and remaining for expenditure on die 1st 

July, 1863. 

• 

Synopsis according to the accounts rendered. 



Object of appropriations, approTed Aogast 
30,1852. • 


Amount of 
appropriation. 


Am*nt disbursed 
June 30, 1853. 


Unexpended 

balance July 1, 

1853. 


Constmctioii of snag and dredge-boats 

ImproYemeut of Ohio riyer, inclading Cam- 
Wrland dam -t-, ^^,,,,^, ,,,^,_,^_,-^ 


$150,000 00 

90,000 00 
90,000 00 
40,000 00 
40,000 00 
15,000 00 


$144,121 35 

21,807 90 

14,096 60 

6,779 00 

6,770 92 

2,497 19 


$5,879 65 
68,192 10 


Improvement of Mississippi below rapids... 
ImiDTOTement of 3lissoan ................ 


75,903 40 
35,221 00 


Improvement of Arkansas ............... 


33,229 08 


Improvement of harbor of Dabaqae 


12,502 81 


Total of appropriations affected 

Improvement of rapids of upper Mississippi. 


425,000 00 

100,000 00 
30,000 00 


196,072 96 

2,000 00 
1,000 00 


228,907 04 

98,000 00 
29,000 00 






Grand total 


555,000 00 


199,072 96 


355,927 04 





On a comparison of the two synopses above given, discrepancies of 
a considerable amount are observable, which may be explained as fol- 
lows, viz : 

1. In J. W. Russell's account for the first Quarter of 1853, 

two credit vouchers were introduced and charged on the 
debit and credit sides of his account current, amounting to 
$934 42, as stated at the end of schedule No. 1, (in Ap- 
pendix, Doc. E,) which ought not to be credited to the ap- 
propriation, viz $934 42 

2. In J. W. RusseD's account for the fourth quarter of 1852, 
on voucher No. 2S, is a charge for transportation on offi- 
cial business, which has not been sanctioned by the Topo- 
graphical bureau, the amount of which is 41 25 

3. In accoimts of same agent for first quarter of 1853 is a 

similar acccount (voucher No. 37) of transportation not 
sanctioned by the Topographical bureau, the amount of 
which is 75 00 

The amount of these several items is 1,050 67 



This amount is precisely equivalent to the discrepancy in the two 
synopses, and exactly covers the same. 

Hence the arrangements m the ciassification, and those basedi oti 



46 H. Doc. 1. 

the accounts proper, with respect to receipts and expenditures, are 
precisely equivalent the one to the other. For example : 

1. The total amount of disbursements under the affected 
appropriations is, by the accounts $199,072 96 

2. Tne total amount of disbursements under the affected 
appropriation by the classification is 198,022 29 

The difference between these two amounts is equal to the 
amount of discrepancies 1,060 67 

• 

3. The total amount of unexpended balances under the 

affected appropriations by the classification is 356,977 71 

The total amount of unexpended balances under the 

affected appropriations by the accounts is 355,927 04 

The difference between these two amounts is the same 
as above, viz: 1,050 67 



In regard to the unaffected appropriations mentioned in the foregoing 
synopsis — ^viz : those for the improvement of the rapids of the upper 
Mississippi and for the Illinois — ^it is proper to observe, in this connex- 
ion, that $2,000 was received on the 7th of June, in answer to a requi- 
sition for that sum, on account of the survey of the rapids ; but as the 
survey was not commenced till about the first of July, and as partial 
returns merely have yet been made in reference to the expenditures 
incurred on account of the survey, the disbursements must remain for 
exhibition in a fiiture report. Also, that $1,000 was received on the 
15th of August, in answer to a requisition for the survey of Illinois 
river, the returns for which are in like manner wanting, and must 
remain for future consideration. 

The measures taken and instructions given in reference to the im- 
provements mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, are explained in 
my instructions to Lieutenant Warren and Messrs. Barney and Floyd, 
a copj of which is appended to this report; (see Appendix, Doc. F;) 
also, m my report on an examination and mspection of the Ohio river, &c., 
(see Appendix, Doc. G,) and in additional instructions to Lieutenant 
Warren. (See Appendix, Doc. H.) 

It should, moreover, be observed, in reference to the Illinois river, 
that a change has taken place in the agency for the improvement of 
that river, which has prevented t]ie adoption of measures for a prelimi- 
nary survey of the river till a very recent date. 

The new agents, assisted by the engineer recently appointed, are 
probably at this time engaged in the preparation of boats, &c., requi- 
site for the survey, the latter having been directed to repair hither, as 
early as practicable, for the attainment of instruments proper for that 
purpose. 

The progress made in the duties confided to J. W. Russell, esq., 
and other agents operating within the limits of my superinlendency, 
will now be considered. 

The agency for the construction of snag-boats was conferred on 



H. Doc, 1. 41 

J. W. Russell, esq., by letter of appointment from Hon. C. M. Conrad, 
late Secretary of War, under date of September 8, 1852.* He entered 
upon the duties of his appointment soon after the receipt of the letter, 
and made arrangements for the construction of four twin snag-boats, 
and afterwards recommended the construction of a light-draught snag- 
lioat with a single hull; instead of which, he was subsequently instructed 
by the Topographical bureau to construct a hght-draught snag-boat 
vith twin hulls. The construction of these boats has been prosecuted 
with due diligence, but has been attended with serious embarrassments, 
occasioned by the heavy a^ances in the prices of materials, labor, 
and subsistence, which look place soon after the work of construction 
was commenced. 

The changes in the prices of materials, labor, &c., contributed not 
only to delay the work of construction, but to render it far moreexpen- 
fflve than it would otherwise have been. 

Agreeably to the returns of Captain Russell, the receipts and ex- 
penditures in relation to the construction of the boats within the last 
fiscal year are as follows, viz : 

RECEIPTS. 

1. Under the appropriation for construction of snag- 

boats $122,934 42 

2. Under the appropriation for improvement of the Mis- 
[ sissippi 21,000 00 

3. Under the appropriation for improvement of the 
Arkansas 6,000 00 

4. Under the appropriation for improvement of the Mis- 
souri 6,000 00 



Total of receipts, as above 155,934 42 

EXPENDITURES. • 

1. Under appropriation for construction of snag-boats, as 

above $126,202 00 

2. Under appropriation for improvement of the Mississippi, 

as above 14,096 60 

3. Under appropriation for improvement of the Arkansas, 

as above 6,770 92 

4. Under appropriation for improvement of the Missouri, 

as above 6,779 00 



Total of expenditures, as above 153,848 52 

Unexpended balance in the hands of J. W. Russell, 

United States agent, on the 1st July, 1853 $2,085 90 

This balance will be absorbed in the final adjustment of the accouuta 
af J. W. Russell, as hereinafter considered, in connexion with eslunate, 
kc., for the current Bscal year. 



42 H. Ddc. 1. 

With respect to the services confided to the supervision and direction r- 
of C. A. Fuller, esq., United States agent for the improvement of the - 
Ohio, including da-raberland dam, they embrace the construction of a >. 
steam dredge-boat; the equipment and outfit of a light twin snag-boat, .^ 
planned and constructed tor the most part under the direction of J. W, ; 
Russell, esq.; the repairs of Cumberland dam; the dredging of a chan- ,£ 
nel between the Kentucky shore and Cumberland island, and the re- ;_ 
moval of snags and other obstructions from the Ohio above the falla. >,^ 

These operations have been prosecuted with due diligence till the .; 
present time, and are still in progress, ex^pt in so far as relates to the ^ " 
removal of snags, &c. ; this business having been unavoidably suspended ^^ 
by reason of the low stage of the Ohio, and the impracticability of Z 
passing the snag-boat over the falls, and of entering upon appropriate ...^ 
service below that point. ^ 

For statements of work done in removing obstructions from the Ohio j;; 
above the falls, I take leave to refer to the report of C. A. Fuller, esq., .^ 
herewth submitted. ^ 

In accordance with the returns of C. A. Fuller, esq., the receipts and ; 
expenditures relating to the services performed under his direction are 
as follows, viz : ' 

RECEIPTS. ^^ 

Total receipts for the last fiscal year on account of im- 
provement of Ohio, including Cumberland dam, as per 
returns of C. A. Fuller, esq S27,300 00 



EXPENDITURES. 

For 3d quarter of 1852 $0 00 

For 4th quarter of 1852 ^ 00 

For 1st quarter of 1853 336 00 

For 2d quarter of 1853 2 1,47 1 90 

21,807 90 



Unexpended balance in the hands of C. A. Fuller July 1, 

1853 $5,492 10 

This balance lias already been absorbed in the prosecution of the 
duties above mentioned within the current year. 

The progress made in these duties since the 1st of July last, and the 
probable cost of their prosecution during the current year, are sufficiently 
discussed in a report of C. A. Fuller, esq., appended to this report; 
agreeably to whicn, the expenditures incident to the services under his 
direction are likely to exhaust the appropriation for the improvement 
of the Ohio, &c., prior to the close of the current year. 

The attention or Mr. Fuller, since the beginning of the fiscal year, has 
been directed to certain surveys and examinations on the Ohio above the 
falls, under instructions dated on the 2d of August last. 

The report of C. A. Fuller, esq., above cited, will show the nature 
and extent of bis proceedings under these iiYSViueUona* 



/ 



H. Doc. 1. 43 

The duties of J. Barney, esq., within the last fiscal year, have been 
such as relate almost exclusively to the construction of a dredge-boat, 
intended to operate, in the first instance, in dredging the harbor of Du- 
kque, anci subsequently at other points on the western rivers where 
the process of dredging might be required. The boat, mud-scows, &c., 
were not suflBciently advanced towards completion to admit of their 
being eniployed in dredging till the close of the year. 

The returns of Captain Barney, like those of J. W. Russell, have 
been rendered somewhat complicated and confused by reason of en- 
croachments upon different appropriations. 

His requisitions for funds for the prosecution qf his operations have 
been answered by remittances from the United States treasury, under 
the appropriation for the construction of snag-boats, dredge-boats, &c., 
and under the appropriation for the improvement of Dubuque harbor ; 
whereas the work of improvement proper at this point was not com- 
menced within the year. Nevertheless, the equipment and oulfikof his 
boat, and the expenses incident to its conveyance firom Louisville to 
Dubuque, may fairly be regarded as chargeable to the latter appro- 
priation, t 

Agreeably to the returns of J. Barney, esq., his receipts and expend- 
itures under the appropriation above mentioned, and within the last 
fiscal year, are as follows : 

RECEIPTS. 

1. Under appropriation for harbor of Dubuque $4,283 00 

2. Do do for construction of snag-boats, &c. . 18,596 00 

Total amount of receipts for the year 22,879 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Under 1st appropriation as above $2,497 19 

Under 2d do do 17,918 36 

Total amount of expenditures for the year 20,415 54 

Unexpended balance in hands of J. Barney July 1, 1853 . . 2,463 46 

This balance, together with additional funds already remitted on 
requisition of J. Bamey, will have been absorbed in expenditures for 
the current year, a portion of which — ^viz. about $15,000 — ^will be charge- 
able to the account of the construction of three mud-scows completed ^ 
within this year, and of course not included in schedule No. 3 of Ap- 
pendix, Doc. E. 

The classification explained and exhibited in the Appendix (see Doc. 
E) embraces the identical accounts from which the foregoing summa- 
ries are derived, and exhibits precisely the same results with respect to 
the aggregate of receipts and expenditures, though differenUy modified 
in their relations to specific appropriations. 

For example, the total amount of receipts from United Stales tiea- 



44 



H. Doc. 1. 



sury, exhibited in the statements derived from the returns of the three 
agents above mentioned, including unexpended balances in hands of .« 
agents, is $205,179. ^ . • 

The same amount of receipts is also exhibited in the arrangement ^^ 
presented in Doc. E, including unexpended balances in the hands of 
agents, viz : $205,179. ^^ 

The total aniount of expenditures derived as above from the returns *^ 
of the same agents, due allowance being made for discrepancies as be- 7 
fore, is $195,022 29. i 

The same amount of expenditures is also exhibited in the arrange- T 
ments presented in Dpc. E, viz : $195,022 29. 

While, at the same time, the unexpended balances of the several ap- '-'^ 
propriations in one case are very different from the corresponding bal- ~\ 
ances in the other case, as may be readily seen by an inspection of the 
following tabular synopsis : ]t 



Object of appropriar 
tion. 



Construction of snag- 

boatSf &c 

ImproTement of the 

MiBsisuppi , 

ImproTement of the 

Arkansas 

Improvement of the 

Missoori 

ImproTement of the 

Ohio, 4&c 

Harbor of Dubuque .. 

Total 



$150,000 00 

90,000 00 

40,000 00 

40,000 00 

90,000 00 
15,000 00 



425,000 00 



^1 



$144,121 35 

14,096 60 

6,770 93 

6,779 00 

21,807 90 
%A97 19 



196,072 96 



li 



$5,879 65 

75,903 40 

33,229 08 

33,221 00 

68, 192 10 
12,502 81 



228,927 04 



$146,029 18 

16,821 81 

7,476 38 

7,476 38 

7,847 87 
9,370 67 



195,022 29 



•Sri 

11 

5 



$3,970 82 

73, 178 19 

32,523 62- 

32,523 68 

82, 152 13 
5,629 33 



229,977 71 



In addition to the appropriations considered in the foregoing synopsis, 
two other appropriations nave been made, viz : one of $100,000 ifor 
the improvement of ihe rapids of the upper Mississippi, and the other 
of $30,000 ; all approved on the 30th August, 1862. 

On the 6th June the sum of $2,000 was remitted to my credit, under 
the appropriation for the improvement of the rapids, and preparations 
were at once made for the preliminary survey of these obstructions. 
But as the field and river work could not be commenced till about 
the close of the last fiscal year, my account current for the last quarter 
of that year (2d quarter of 1853) embraces an expenditure of $181 90 
only. 

The account current embraces the following items, viz : 



RECEIPTS. 



June 6, 1853. Treasury draft No. 4,373, on war warrant 
JVo. 8,986, for $2,000 00 



H. Doc. 1. 45 

EXPENDITURES. 

Amount of expenditures incurred under said appropriation . $181 90 



Unexpended balance on hand July 1, 1853 1,818 10 

This balance is applicable in defraying the expenses of the survey 
now in progress at the rapids, undef the direction of Lieutenant War- 
ren, aided by Messrs. Barney and Floyd, United States agents for the 
improvement of said rapids. • 

7. The equipment and outfit of the snag-boats, and including an 
adjustment of the accounts of J. W. Russell, esq., United States agent. 

6. The disposition made of the several boats with respect to west- 
em river improvements. 

9. The improvement of the harbor of Dubuque, of the rapids of 
the upper Mississippi, and of the improvement of the Illinois river. 

10. £stimated probable cost of prosecuting these several improve- 
ments during the current fiscal year. 

11. Estimated probable cost of continuing the same improvements 
during the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1854, and ending on June 
30, 1855. . 

The discussion of the several topics comprised under the foregoing 
heads, in so far as relates to their fiscal bearmgs, will be considered as 
being in continuation of those statements under the preceding heads, 
which have been based upon the classification in the Appendix, (Doc. 
E,) and must, fi-om the nature of the cases, for the most part, be predi- 
cated on mere suppositions and probabilities. 

With respect to the equipment and outfit of the snag-boats, however, 
and especially those which have been completed and furnished under 
die direction of J. W. Russell, esq., adequate returns have been made, 
in which all the items of equipment and outfit of the snag-boats, not 
included in the returns for the last fiscal year, have been distinctly set 
ibrth, as hereinafter explained, except in so far as relates to the per- 
sonal services, &c., of Captain Russell, as hereinafter mentioned. 

7. Equipment and outfit of snag-boats. 

On the representation of J. W. Russell, esq.. United States agent for 
the construction of snag-boats, &c., that these boats (numbered 1, 2, 3, 
4) were completed and ready for service, they were transferred from the 
charge and custody of that oflBcer on the 26th day of July last, and 
assigned to the command of captains duly appointed, by orders of the 
honorable Secretary of War, to those stations. 

The transfer as above having been made, the boats* were at once as- 
signed to their appropriate duties on the Arkansas, Missouri, and Mis- 
sissippi rivers, and took their departure accordingly on the 29th of the 
same month. 

The first object claiming attention thereafter was a settlement of all 
accounts relating to the agency of Captain Russell up to the date in- 
clusive on which it terminated, viz: on the 26th July, 1853. The seV 
llement resulted as follows / 



46 H. Doc. 1. 

RECEIPTS. 

Unexpended balance from last fiscal year, ending June 30, 
1853, as per account current of J. W. Russell, for second 
quarter of 1853 $2,085 90 

Funds advanced by Lieut. Col. Long, under appropriation 

for the improvement of the Mississippi 8,555 34 

Funds advanced by Lieut. Col. Long, under appropriation 

for improvement of the Arkansas 3,802 33 

Funds advanced h^ Lieut. Col. Long, under appropriation 

for improvement of the Missouri 3,802 33 

To whicn should be added amount of suspended voucher 
No. 28, for fourth quarter of 1852, Russell's accounts, now 
in my possession 1 .' 41 25 

Also for credit voucher No. 1, for improvement of the Arkan- 
sas river, now in my possession 20 00 

Total amount of receipts, as per account current of J. W. 

Russell, for month of July, 1853, now in my possession. 18,307 15 

EXPENDITURES. 

Under appropriation for improvement of the Mississippi . . . $9,536 20 

Do do Arkansas 4,237 45 

Do do Missouri 4,235 94 



Total amount expended July 26, 1853 18,009 59 

Balance still remaining in the hands of J. W. Russell, agent $297 56 

The agency of John W. Russell in completing the work of construc- 
tion, equipment, and outfit of the several snag-boats, all of which were 
commenced and prosecuted under his direction, was deemed not only 
desirable but indispensable during the entire progress of the work, and 
was accordingly continued by my direction to the date last above men- 
tioned. (See Appendix, Doc. I.) 

Subsequently to that date. Captain Russell has been employed as my 
assistant in collecting and settling the outstanding claims, fi-ora which 
the settlement of his accounts, as shown above, has been effected to 
the full extent practicable ; all of which is believed to be in accordance 
with instructions from the Topographical bureau. 

The impediments in the way of a fiiU and final settlement of his ac- 
counts appear to be of the following import, viz: 

1. Agreeably to my understanding, the compensation to be allowed 
for his services as assistant, from the expiration of his agency about the 
end of July till the final settlement of his accounts should be effected, 
was $5 per day ; whereas Captain Russell is now of opinion that the 
salary allowed him as United States agent should be continued to the 
present time. 

2. Captain Russell is of the opinion that he is entitled to an allow- 
ance for oSce rent during the period of his services thus protracted. 



f 



H. Doc. 1. 47 



3. That he is also entitled to an allowance for clerk hire during the 
same protracted period. 

4. Moreover, his clerk, who officiated as clerk for this office from the 
10th May last till about the middle of August, at the stipulated rate of 
91,200 per year, seems to expect an extra compensation of about $2 50 
per day for the same period, on account of his services as clerk for 
Captain Russell, on the plea of his having been employed in the latter 
capacity out of office hours. 

These allowances, in view of the instructions I have received from 
the Topographical bureau and War Department, are regarded by me as 
extra-official, and of course cannot be allowed without express instruc- 
tions from the departments above mentioned. 

The accounts rendered by Captain Russell are, of course, defective 
to the extent above implied, which also includes a balance of $297 66 
still in his hands, and remaining to be accounted for by him. 

8. DUpoiition made of the snag-hoaU. 

As already intimated, the light-draught twin snag-boat No. 6, which 
was commenced under the direction of J. W. Russell, and completed 
and furnished for service by C. A. Fuller, esq., after having served to 
great advantage in removing snags, wrecks, &c., from the Ohio above 
the falls, was compelled to relinquish operations and retreat to this 
place, where she arrived in the latter part of July, and has remained 
in port ever since, waiting for a rise of the river suffiq;ent to convey 
ber across the falls. Her detention thus occasioned has afforded an 
opportunity to introduce sundry alterations in her arrangements, which 
vere deemed necessary to her efficient and successftd operation, and 
which are now in progress, and will probably be completed prior to 
the time of the rise hoped for. 

Snag-boat No. 1, under the command of Captain H. R. Day, and 
No. 3, under the command of Captain N. M. Ferguson, were despatched 
for service on the Missouri; and snag-boat No. 2, under the command 
of Captain Thomas Riddle, and No. 4, under the command of Captain 
H. Fendren, were despatched /or service on the Arkansas river. A 
circular, containing instructions for the guidance of these officers, 
tc^ether with a copy of the printed rules and regulations, was furnished 
for the use and information of each captain. A copy of the circular is 
herewith furnished. (See Appendix, Doc. K.) 

The four snag-boats mentioned in the preceding paragraph left the 
harbor of Dunkirk, about four miles below Louisville, on the 29th of 
July. No. 2 grounded on a bar at French island, 160 miles below the 
fells, where she remains to this time, waiting for a rise of the river 
sufficient to raise her from the bar ; while the other three boats passed 
all the shoals of the lower Ohio without serious difficulty, and pro- 
ceeded to their respective points of destination. 

By a report from Captain Fendren, the snag-boat No. 4, under his 
command, grounded on a bar in the Arkansas, about 26 miles above 
the mouth of that river, on the 22d ultimo, and must, in consequence, 
remain inactive whilst in that condition. 

The dredge-boats bavjuffieen completed and fitted for service, VvL'. 



48 H. Doc. 1. 

dredge-l?oat No. 1, under the direction of J. Barney, esq., and No. 2, 
under the direction of C. A. Fuller, esq., were assigned to appropriate 
duties — the former in di*edging the harbor of Dubuque, and the latter 
in opening a low-water channel between Cumberland island and the 
Kentucky shore of the Ohio. No. 1 commenced work on the 1st of 
July, and No. 2 in the latter part of the same month. 

Whenever the dredge-boats can be spared from the localities at 
which they are now operating, one or both of them will be assi^ed to 
service in improving the Ilhnois. The entire improvements m that 
river are to be effected almost exclusively by the use of dredge-boats. 

9. Improvement of the harbor of Dvbuque^ of the rapids of Upper MisM" 

sippi, and of the Illinois river. 

As before estimated, operations in relation to these several improve- 
ments have already been commenced. The instructions given in 
reference to the survey of the rapids are presented in the Appendix. 
(See Doc. F.) Those relating to the improvement of the Illinois are 
also appended to this report. (See Appendix, Doc. L.) 

It is proper to observe, in this connexion, that the rapids of the 
upper Mississippi have been arranged under two distinct agencies, 
vjz : Into the agency for Rock Island rapids, which has been confided 
to J. Barney, esq. ; and the agency for the Des Moines rapids, which 
has been confided to Major J. G. Floyd, both by special appointment 
from the War Department. In accordance with this arrangement, the 
appropriation for the improvement of the rapids of the upper Mississippi 
will be called for under two distinct heads, corresponding to an equal 
division of the appropriation between the two agencies, unless other- 
wise directed by the War Department. 

The improvement of the Illinois river constitutes a separate agency, 
and has been conferred on George A. Dunlap, esq., and Major G. W. 
Long — the former to serve as disbursing agent, and the latter as en- 
gineer for the improvement. 
• 

10. Estimated probable cost of prosecvtii\g the several improvements during 

the current fiscal year. 

Under this head will be included an estimate of the cost of works in 
progress at the commencement of the current fiscal year, the probable 
cost of their prosecution during the year, the unexpended balances on 
hand at the beginning of the year, and the balances likely to remain for 
application at the close of the current year; all of which will be treated 
of in the following order: 

The annual period during which the snag business can be prosecuted 
to advantage may be estimated at nine months. During the residue of 
the year — viz : three months — the western rivers are generally too much 
swollen to admit of any operations in removing obstructions. 

Accordingly, the showing under this head will embrace a period ol 

nine months for the active operations of the snag-boats, and of three 

months during which the boats will be laid up for safe-keeping and re- 

pairSf and wUl cover the annual cost of the operations, custody, and 



H. Doc. I. 49 

repairs of the snag-boats, the estimated probable cost of which is as 
follows, viz: 

The estimated annual cost of working five twin snag-boats, 
at $24,500 per year for each, all expenses included, is. . . . $122,500 

The annual cost of workng a dredge-boat for a period of six 
months in each year, and of the custody and repairs of the 
same during the residue of the year, may in like manner be , 
estimated at $6,000 for the former, and $1,500 for the latter 
period, amounting per year to 7,500 

Hence the estimatea annual cost of working two dredge- 
boats, at $7,500 per year, for all expenses included, is 15,000 

To the foregoing outlays must be added the expenses incident to the 
superintendence and management of all operations relating to western 
river improvements, includmg office rent, clerk hire, &c., &c., which 
may be estimated as follows : 

Rert of headquarters of western river improvements, consist- 
ing of one room for superintendent, one room for agent of 
the Ohio, one room for drawings, one room for clerks, and 

one room for storage of instruments, &c $420 

Fuel for four rooms 125 

Hire of two clerks for headquarters 2,000 

Commutation for fuel and quarters for superintendent and one 

military assistant 804 

Contingencies, including stationery, postage, &c 651 

Total 4,000 



The amount likely to be expended on the improvement of the Ofiio 
river, including Cumberland dam, during the current fiscal year, will 
probably absorb the entire appropriation for those objects. 

The appropriation for the harbor of Dubuque, also, is likely to be 
absorbed during the current year, leaving »he improvement incomplete. 

The improvement of the rapids of the upper Mississippi, when the 
nirveys of the same shall have oeen completed, will be treated of under 
two distinct heads, viz: theimprovement of the Des Moines rapids, and 
the improvement of Rock Island rapids ; Major J. G. Floyd having 
been duly appointed agent for the former, and J. Barney, esq., for the 
latter. It is, moreover, contemplated to divide the appropriation for this 
improvement into two equal parts, viz : $50,000 for the former, and 
$50,000 for the latter — less in ooth cases by the cost of the preliminary 
survey. With respect to the encroachments likely to be made on the 
appropriation during the current year, very little can be known till the 
wcH-ks of improvement shall have been contracted for. 

We shall assume, however, that one-third of the appropriation will 
have been absorbed within the current fiscal year, viz : $33,333 33 J ; 
leaving a balance of $66,666 66§ for the next fiscal year ; or, for the 
Des Moines rapids, $33,333 33i, and for Rock Island rapiSs, $33,333 33 J. 

With respect to the improvement of the Illinois river, also, very little 
can be anticipated in regard to its progress or duration till the woik 
of dredging shall haye been commenced, which is expected to take 
Part Hi' — 4 



so 



H. Doc. 1. 



place before the close of the present low-water season. Of the 
priation for this improvement, one-half is likely to be expended 
the current year, viz: $15,000 ; leaving an equal sum for expe 
during the ensuing fiscal year. 

The subjoined tabular synopsis will show the balances of the 
appropriations on hand at the beginning of the current fiscal yej 
probable amount of expenditures under each appropriation dui 
year ; and the corresponding balances likely to remain on hand 
each appropriation, at the end of the current fiscal year, 

Sijnopsii for the current fiscal year ending June 30, 1854. 



Object of appropriatioDi, approTed August 
30, 1852. 


Unexpended 
July 1, 1853. 


Expended du- 
ring current 
fiscal year. 


Vwa 
July 


Conitroction of inag-boats and dredge-boata. 

ImproTement of the Ohio, mcliidiDg Cum- 

bf^rland dam ..^.x.. ,..,-.,,...... 


$3,970 82 

82, 152 13 
73, 178 19 
32,523 62 
32,523 62 
29,000 00 
49,000 00 
49,000 00 
5,629 33 


$3,970 82 

82,152 13 
67,367 24 
29,938 69 
29,938 69 
15,000 00 
16,666 66 
16,666 66 
5,629 33 




Tmpiirovenn<^nt of th^ Mi9tfi9«ippi .^,, 


1 


Improvement of the MimoiiH -^^-r 


ImproT^mPDt of tho Arkanwi -.t,,,t ...... 




ImproTemeut of the niinoii ....... ........ 


1 


Improvement of Des Moines rapids 

Improvement of Rock Island rapids 

Improvement of harbor of Dubuque 


2 
S 


Total 


356,977 71 


267,330 22 


g 







The foregoing synopsis shows the sums likely to be expended 
the current fiscal year, and covers the probable cost of working tl 
boats and dredge-boats, and all allowances for travel, transpo 
clerk hire, ofl[ice rent, commutation of quarters and fuel, &c., & 

With respect to the operations that must be prosecuted by m 
the snag-boats and dredge-boats, it is proper to observe, in this 
that this cannot be confined to any particular run or locality, 
the same time be prosecuted with due diligence, during the enti 
sons or periods annually accruing, and appropriate to such ope 
For example: 

The vernal or spring floods of the Ohio and Arkansas rivers 
earlier than those of any other of the western rivers above mei 
and of course these rivers are susceptible of being operated upc 
earlier date in the spring, when none of the other rivers will a 
operations, by way of removing obstructions to their navigatioi 

The vernal floods of the Mississippi and Illinois usually subs 
the first of June, when the removal of snags in the former, a 
process of dredging in the latter, may be commenced. ' 

The summer floods of the Missouri generally occur in the m< 
July, and the bftsiness of removing snags and other obstructior 
its channel may be commenced in the latter part of that mont 
prosecuted during a period of about two months. 

On the Mississippi the snag business may be jprosecuted ai 



H. Doc. 1. 01 

without interruption, from the latter part of July to about the first of 
March, during a period of about eight months. 

The process of dred^n^ may be carried on annually in the Ohio, 
Illinois, and upper Mississippi, during an aggregate period of about six 
month in each year, viz : from about the middle or last of June to the 
middle or last of December. 

From the views presented in this report generally, and from the 
foregoing remarks particularly, it is obvious that specific appropria- 
tions for the •improvement of the several rivers cannot be properly 
made. I would accordingly suggest that a general appropriation be 
made for the whole, with a specigu provision that a specific sum shall 
be held in reserve for the improvement of each river, with the under- 
standing that the sum thus reserved shall be applied exclusively to the 
im{)rovement of the river for which it is reserved, within the year for 
which the appropriation is made, if practicable; but if otherwise, that 
it be retained for the improvement of the same river during the ensuing 
year. 

Among the reasons for this suggestion, it may be urged that the 
stages of water in the different rivers are so variable, that the period 
for operations in one may prove too limited for the expenditure of the 
entire appropriation designed for its improvement ; while the period for 
operations on another may be sufficiently protracted for the expendi- 
ture of its entire appropriations. Moreover, the removal of the snag- 
boats and dredge-boats from one river to another, in order to keep them 
iD service during the season appropriate for their operations, will be 
likely to occasion embarrassment and confusion in any system of ac- 
counts that can be adopted under specific appropriations ; while un- 
der a general appropriation, with specific provisions, the system would 
be for less complicated, and equally conducive to the accomplishment 
of all the objects of the appropriation. 

11. Estimate cost of continuing the same improvement during the fiscal 
year beginning July 1, 1854, and ending June 30, 1855. 

Under this head will be presented a synopsis similar to thit given 
mider the preceding general head, which will embnice the amounts 
deemed needful to the accomplishment of the several objects embraced 
in the synopsis alluded to, and for which new appropriations will be re- 
quired. 

The synopsis will exhibit the probable amount required for each ob- 
ject during the ensuing fiscal year ; the unexpended balances likely to 
remain on hand at the close of the current fiscal year on account of 
each object; and the new appropriations required for the prosefution of 
each object. 

In this connexion it should be observed, that the snag-boats recently 
conslructed are not well adapted to efficient operation in the Arkansas, 
in low- water stages, and that they are equally, inapplicable to the re- 
moval of obstructions in the Ohio and Missouri rivers in similar stages ; 



52 



H. Doc. h 



light-draught single hull snag-boats are indispensable in such cases, and 
each light-draught snag-boat should be accompanied by a machine-boat 
of proper construction, tor operation at the margins of the channel, for 
the purpose of removing obstructions inaccessible even to light -draught 
snag-boats in low stages of the river. 

Accordingly, I shall include in the synopsis an estimate of the prob- 
able cost of two light-draught snag-boats, at $16,000 each, and two 
machine-boats, at $2,500 each ; which is deemed suflScient to cover 
not only the cost of construction, but that of the equipment of each boat 
of each class mentioned. 

The numerous sandy shoals of the rivers in question, especially of the 
Ohio, Illinois, and Upper Mississippi, are deemed susceptible of great 
improvement by the use of dredge-boats, in deepening and widening the 
channels across them. The two dredge-boats now in service are ob- 
viously incapable of performing all the service required in this way. 
llence it is thought advisable and proper to include in the synopsis 
an estimate for the construction of an additional dredge-boat. 

Synopsis for the ensuing fiscal year. 



Object of appropriatioDi for fiscal year beginning 
July 1, 1854, and ending June 30, 1855. 



Estimatei for 
ensuing fis- 
cal year. 



Balances from 
current fis- 
cal year. 



Appropriat*nfl 
for ensuing 
fiscal year. 



2 ligbt-draugbt snag-boats, at 115,000, complete . 

2 machine-boats, complete, at $2,500 

1 dredge-boat, complete 



Improvement of the Mississippi river 

Improvement of the Arkansas river 

Improvement of the Missouri river 

Improvement of the Ohio, including Cumberland 

dam 

Improvement of the Illinois river 

Improvement of the Des Moines rapids 

Improvement of the Bock Island rapids 

Improvement of the harbor of Dubuque 

Contingent expenses of all kinds 



$30,000 00 

5,000 00 

20,000 00 

90,000 00 
40,000 00 
40,000 00 

90,000 00 
30,000 00 
50,000 00 
50,000 00 
15,000 00 



$5,810 95 
2,584 93 
2,584 93 



14,000 00 
32,333 34 
32,333 34 



$55,000 00 



84,189 05 
37,415 07 
37,415 07 

90,000 00 
16,000 00 
17,666 66 
17,666 66 
15,000 00 
4,000 00 



Total amount required for ensuing fiscal year. 



374,352 51 



From the foregoing synopsis, it appears $874,252 61 will be required 
for the prosecution of the several improvements now in progress On the 
western rivers ; which amount, for the sake of round numbers, may be 
varied and arranged in a manner to cover all contingencies, and in the 
following order, viz : 

For the construction of two light-draught snag-boats, two 

machine-boats, one dredge-boat, and four mud-scows. . . $55,000 

For improvement of the Mississippi river 84,000 

For improvement of the Missouri river 40,000 

For improvement of the Arkansas river 40,000 

For improvement of the Ohio river, including Cumberland 

dam 90,000 

For improvement of the Illinois river 16,000 

For improvement of the Des Moines rapida \'^^^^^ 



H. Doc. 1. 6Z 

For improvement of the Rock Island rapids $18,000 

For improvement of the harbor of Dubuque ..-^.. 15,000 

Amount required for the ensuing fiscal year 376,000 

In conclusion, I take leave to inform you that this report would 
have been prepared and forwarded at an earlier date, but tor the sud- 
den and unexpected withdrawal of my principal clerk at the time of 
its commencement, and the late date at which the accounts of J. W. 
Russell, late acent for the construction of the snag-boats, &c., for the 
month of July last, were rendered at this office. 

Also, that the accounts last mentioned are now in my possession, and 
\«rill be forwarded in due time to the Topographical bureau, with such 
remarks thereon as the case seems to call for. 

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

S. H. LONG, 
Lieut, Col. Top. EngWsy 8upt. Western River Improvements. 

CoL J. J. Abert, 

Chief Topographical Engineers^ Washingtany D. C. 



H U. Doc. 1. 

DocrMENT A. 

Report of Lieut. Warren on the survey of the Mississippi delta. 

Office Western River Improvements, 

Louisville, June S, 1853. 

Sir : In obedience to your instructions of June 6, I have the honor 
to present the following as a statement of the present condition of the 
portion of the drawings of the delta survey placed in my charge, and 
the assistance rendered me in executing them. 

As a preliminary, I will present a short description of the surveys to 
which they relate ; their condition when placed m my charge, and the 
manner in which I have been employed under your orders. 

Nature and extent of the surveys. 

The notes taken under the direction of Captain Humphreys were oi 
three kinds, viz : topography, levels, and hydrography of the Missis- 
sippi river, its banks and vicinity from the moutn of Red river to New 
Orleans; including also series of observations on the rise and fall of the 
river at several points between Lake Providence and Port St. Philip, 
examinations at the Balize, &c. ; the notes of which are in the posses- 
sion of C. G. Forshey. 

The topography is mainly on the right bank, from Red river to Baton 
Rouge, the floods having prevented operations on the left bank after 
getting three miles below Raccourci cut-ofT. From Baton Rouge down 
both banks of the river were surveyed, and offset lines were run when- 
ever necessary. A line was also run from Mississippi river to Lake 
Borgne, at a point about 12 miles below New Orleans. The whole 
amount of line measured, including triangulations, was about 613 miles. 

The levels were taken continuously over the whole distance just 
mentioned, but the tests made between Baton Rouge and New Orleans 
showed discrepancies, and the whole work will need reviewing before 
accurate calculations can be based thereon. 

The hydrography was greatly interrupted by the flood, and by cur- 
rents much swifter than we had been led to expect or were prepared to 
stem, so as to make accurate transverse sections of the river. Velo- 
cities were measured at high water at all necessary points within the 
limits of the topographical survey, and it was intended to make trans- 
verse sections at these points. In many instances this was prevented 
by the appropriation being exhausted. Hence the results expected 
from this portion of the survey cannot all be obtained. 

Condition of drawings, December, 1850.« 

When I reported for duty at his office, December 15, 1861, the main 

line of topography had been plotted by J. Bennett, civil engineer, or 

under bis direction, from Baton Rouge to New Orleans, with the excep- 

>o of ode sheet in the vicinity of Bonnet Catt^ and on^ at. Garrolton. 



H. Doc. L 55 

The line surveyed had simply been plotted (no small operation) and 
put in red ink, and about one sheet of topography pencilled in ; the 
work done occupying fourteen antiquarian sheets, on a scale of one 
ten-thousandth, ( looft y*) 

The level notes had been plotted by K. Ford, civil engineer, from 
Red river down to station 468,000, about 85 miles, to a scale of i^iog * 

The hydrography had been neatly plotted under direction of G. C. 
Smith, civil engineer, at Philadelphia, and on various scales ; but all of 
the drawings were more or less incomplete. 

Personal employment at Louisville. 

From December 15, 1851, to April 13, 1852, in copying various pa- 
pers about the office, and in arranging the correspondence relating to 
the survey, and copying the same in a book of records. From April 
13 to October 15, m examining and plotting the notes, during which 
time I had a leave of absence for sixty days. From October 15 to 
January 1, 1853, was wholly engaged in assisting in making drawings* 
&c., for the board on the improvement of the falls of the Ohio. From 
January 1 to March 9, 1 was again employed on the delta drawings. 
At this last date I was ordered to New Orleans, to dispose of the public 
property, (see my communication of April 13,) and on my return was 
assigned to duty as an assistant in the improvement of the western 
rivers. 

During the above period, I was employed about seven months on the 
drawings of the delta survey ; in which time, besides some other office 
duties, I plotted the work from Red river to Baton Rouge, and finished 
it in pencil— one sheet was also put in ink ; examined the entire topog- 
raphy ; plotted sheets between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, and 
sheets of offset lines; and made an abstract of the notes, in which are 
noted all discrepancies found anywhere ipi the work, and to which I 
must refer for an exact and detailed account of the drawings and notes. 

The sheet No. 1, near the mouth of Red river, contains several disa- 
greements, and, as this is the point where the parties commenced work, 
it might be well to have it resurveyed. In sheet No. 20 a discrepancy 
of 300 feet was found, which is the most serious far that has beei^ 
found anywhere in the topography. 

The time occupied in plotting was very great ; to insure accuracy 
and make argument at the triangulations, some sheets had to be plotted 
six times, and always three or four times. 

Assistance received. 

Daring a portion of the time I was at work upon the drawings I 
was assisted by G. F. Fuller, civil engineer, who executed in pencil 
twelve of the sheets, from Baton Rouge to New Orleans. Yor the na- 
ture and amount of labor performed by Lieut. Absrt, I can only refer 
to his report of May 14, 1853. 



66 H. Doc. 1. 

Present condition of the drawings. 

The entire notes of topography have now been plotted on antiquarian 
sheets, to a scale of Tu^inri (with the exception of one sheet at Carrol- 
ton, and about six miles of tne line down bayou Plaquemine,) and the 
surveyed lines put down in red ink, with the exceptions mentioned, 
and one other that has the surveyed line simply in red ink. All the 
details of topography have been executed in pencil, and occupy twenty- 
nine antiquarian sheets. 

There remains about one month's work for one person to complete 
the topography i;i pencil. Four-fifths of the level notes (about 300 
miles) remain to be worked up, and about three months' work on the 



After this is done, it would probably occupy one man fifteen months 
to ink, letter, number, fix., the different portions of the work, if done 
with the same care I have used in plotting the topography. 

The intention of Captain Humphreys was to have the drawings of 
jt ltd as the finished maps of the survey ; and they have been made 
with the care and attention which such require. 

They were to contain the whole of the data derived from operations 
of every kind, many portions of which are still incomplete. As long 
as the drawings remain in pencil, alterations can be made without 
injury to the sheet; whereas, if inked, a change makes it necessary te 
repeat the whole. 

Captain Humphrey says, in his letter to J. it. Ford, August 26, 1861 : 
"I prefer that the finished drawings should be put in pencil only for the 
present, as there is a certain method of inking the shore-lines, putting 
m the topjography, foliage, lettering, figuring, &c, which I prefer giving 
personal instructions about. It will be well to take some memoranda 
of discrepancies, as I shall wish to examine the work thoroughly and 
minutely. It has been my intention, from the first, to have the levels 
run over a second time entirely, or at least on one side of the river, 
with elaborate transfers from one side to the other, at regular inter- 
vals." , 

Now, it is well known to be of the greatest importance to the discus- 
sion of the subject of outlets and cut-offs, in their relation to overflow, 
that the level notes, giving the slope of the water's surface, should be of 
the most accurate description. Captain Humphrey's instructions were 
to use the same care as in canal surveys ; still the discrepancies before 
mentioned exist, and it is necessary to have this portion of the work re- 
vised. The sooner it is done the less expensive will be the revision. 
Bench-marks were made at least every mile, and will be convenient 
to test upon whenever they can be found. 

I think it is but just to those employed in levelling to add, that 
they were as careful as men could be, under the circumstances. The 
instruments were much of the time imperfect, and the great heat of 
the sun made observing painful tg the eyes, and produced refraction 
sufficient to make the target appear to vibrate. Under all these disad- 
vantages, they frequently had to level over five and six miles a day. 

The topographical work seems to have been very accurately per- 



H. Doc. 1. 57 

formed, but in several places is incomplete, according to the original 
design, and the parts need connecting together. 

I would, therefore, respectfully recommend that some person be 
authorized to complete the necessary surveys as soon as the next 
autumn weather will permit, and the drawings he retained in their 
present condition until a decision is made concerning future field oper- 
ations on the survey. 

G. K. WARREN, 
Lieutenant Topographical Evginetrs. 
Lieutenant Colonel S. H. Long, 

Corps Top. Eng*r8f Superintendent Western River Improvements. 



Document B. 

Report on condition (^marine hospitals. 

Office Western River Improvements, 

Louisville^ June 1, 1853. 

Sir : In view of my relation to the marine hospitals formerly com- 
mitted to my charge, of the attitude in which I stand with respect to 
the completion of the works pertaining to their construction, i feel it 
my duty to. submit the following statements and remarks on this sub- 
ject: 

The appropriations that have been made by the 32d Congress, within 
the years 1852 and 1863, on account of the construction of said hos- 
pitals, and the unexpended balance of the same still remaining, to be 
as follows: 

For the hospital at Louisville, appropriated Aug. 31, 1862. $2,000 00 

Do do at Paducah do .do do. . 2,000 00 

Do do at Napoleon do do do. . 2,000 00 

Do do at Natchez do do do.. 2,000 00 

Do do at Louisville, appropriated March 3, 1863 

Do do at Paducah do do do 

Do do at Napoleon do do do. . 4,000 00 

Do do at Natchez do do do . . 4,000 00 

The amounts and balances remaining unexpended at the end of the 
first quarter of 1853 — ^viz, April 1, 1853— on account of the construc- 
tion of the same hospital, are as follows : 

On account of the hospital at Louisville, April 1, 1863 $1,098 32 

Do do Paducah 2,007 69 

Do do Napoleon 4,140 29 

Do do Natchez 4,036 37 

The disposition to be made of the several sums is now respectfully 
submitted to the Treasury and War Departments, through the Topo- 
graphical bureau. 

The condition of the several hospitals on the 1st September, 18&2, 
and the progress made towards their completion, also the works pei- 
\sinmg wereto and remaining to be done, have been explained vnAi 



58 H. Doc. 1. 

suflScient clearness and fullness in my annual report of that date, and m 
in other documents therein referred to. To these accounts I beg leave i? 
to refer for any desired information on these subjects. i a 

Since that date (September 1, 1862^ the draining of privy sinks, the lisr 
construction of hot-air furnaces, and tne tubing, &c., for supplying hot n^ 
water to the bath-rooms of the Louisville hospital, have b^n efiected ::t 
at a cost of about $1,000, more distinctly stated in my accounts for ;; 
the fourth quarter of 1862 and first quarter of 1853, already forwarded, i^- 

With respect to the other hospitals, very little expense has been in- • ^ 
curred, except on account of the custody of the hospital at Napoleon, '^ 
since the date of my annual report of September last. -r 

In the event of my resuming the work of completion still remaining ^ 
to be done in connexion with the several hospitals above mentioned, 1 ^^ 
take leave to subjoin the following estimate and requisitions lor funds f j- 
necessary on account of the same respectively, to wit : = 

For the marine hospital at Paducah, firom appropriation ap- *^ 

proved August 31, 1852 $2,000 ^- 

For the marine' hospital at Napoleon, from appropriation ap- - 

proved March 3, 1853 2,000 - 

For the marine hospital at Natchez, from appropriation ap- ^ 

proved August 31, 1852, and March 3, 1853 2,000 - 

For the marine hospital at Louisville, being the unexpended - 
balance already in my possession from the appropriation ap- 
proved August 31, 1852 1,098 32 > 

Should it be deemed proper that I continue in the direction of the ;|^' 

works above mentioned, or either of them, I take leave to request that I 

the sum or sums corresponding thereto be remitted to my address at I 
this city. 

8. H. LONG, ;, 

Lieutenant Colonel Topographical En^ineerSy ^.^ 

Superintendent nestem River LnprovemenU. ^ 

Col. J. J. Abert, ^ 

Chief Topographical Engineers^ Washington^ D. C 



Document C. 
Report in reference to the Pacific railroad. 

Washington, March 24, 1853. 

Sir : In accordance with your instructions, I take leave to submit 
the following project of surveys for ascertaining the practicability of 
routes for railroads across the Rocky mountains, and connecting the 
coast of the Atlantic with that of the Pacific ocean, proper to be made 
in conformity to an act of Congress appropriating $150,000 for that 
purpose. 

In view of the vast region to be traversed, the multiplicity of routes 

claiming atteDtion, and the intricacy of numerous passes, on the prac* 

ticabiliiy of which depends the possibWily ot a TBivto^A coiivm\\Tvicatioa 



H. Doc. 1. 59 

across the region in question, the amount of the appropriation, and the 
duration of the surveys, as conteipplated by the law, are obviously too 
limited to admit any investigations beyond a mere cursory reconnois- 
sance and hasty preliminary survey of the most intricate, difficult, and 
(ffmidable passes through which a railroad, spanning the continent 
within the limits of the United States, must be carried. 

The practicability of railroads between the Mississippi and the At- 
lantic ocean has already been developed by surveys in numerous in- 
stances, and is susceptible of being confirmed by future surveys in 
other instances far more numerous. 

Westward of the Mississippi, several routes for railroads leading in 
various directions across the States of Missouri, Arkansas, and Loui- 
siana^ have also been surveyed and found practicable for railroads, on 
terms more or less favorable. But the broad region westward of these 
States, and spreading far away to the easterly base of the Rocky 
mountains, has been recently traversed in a few directions only, with-? 
out instrumental surveys of a character to indicate the position or direc- 
tions of the most practicable routes. The region, however, is entirely 
destitute of high mountains, and presents a surface generally adapted 
to the reception of railroads in almost every direction except in the 
vicinity of the Rocky mountains, where insumted tracts of table lands, 
of greater or less elevation and extent, are frequently to be met with, 
especially to the southward of the Arkansas river. 

From the 43d degree ot north latitude to the sources of the Pecos 
river, in latitude about 34J^, the region under consideration is bounded 
on the west by basal slopes of the Rocky mountains ; thence south- 
wardly to thedlst degree of north latitude^ it is separated from the 
mountains by the Pecos river ; and thence to the Gulf coast by the Rio 
del Norte. To the eastward of the limit thus defined, the region may 
be traversed by practicable routes to the Missouri and Mississippi 
rivers, in positions more numerous than the integral parallels of latituae 
by which it is intersected. 

With respect to the general altitude of this vast district of country, 
and its general declivities from west to east and fi-om north to south, it 
should be observed that the barometrical measurements show that its 
altitude above tide at the base of the mountains, in latitude 42°, or 
at the points where the tributaries of the Platte issue from the moun- 
tains, is about 6,000 feet, and at the same latitude on the Missouri 
river is about 1,000 feet ; that its altitude at the mountain base, in lati- 
tude 36°, or the point at which the tributaries of the Arkansas issue 
&om the mountam, is about 4,000 feet, and at the Mississippi is about 
275 feet in the same latitude. Hence its average aggregate of dip or . 
declination eastward is 3,860 feet, or about 4} feet per mile ; ana its 
average of declination southward is 1,000 feet, or about 2J feet per 
mile. The elevation of the region in latitude 31*^, where the streams 
all flow in a. southerly direction, varies according to the following ba- 
rometrical measurements at the different points, viz : 
At the Del Norte, 3,700 feet above tide. 

At the aununit between Del Norte and Pecos, 4,600 feet above ude. 
At the Pecos liver, 266 feet above. 
At various other points eastward of the Pecos river, the elevauoa 



60 



H. Docv 1. 



varies from 1,000 to 3,000 feet, declining eastward as we approach tl 
Mississippi river. ^ 

The region of the Rocky mountains stretching from 30 to 43 degre< 
of north latitude, embracing the vast mounlam ridge or Back-bon 
avoiding the waters that flow into the Gulf of Mexico from those of tl 
Pacific ocean and the Gulf of California, next claims attention. 

It has a length from south to north of about nine hundred miles, ar 
a width from east to west varying from one to two hundred mile 
The altitude of its ridges, summits, and peaks, varies from 5,000 1 
17,000 feet above tide ; the altitude first mentioned being the height • 
the main summit at the head of the principal sources of the Gila rive 
and that last mentioned, viz : 17,000 feel, being the estimated heigl 
of Long's peak, in latitude iOJ degrees north. 

It is worthy of particular notice that the eastwardly base of tl 
Rocky mountains, in latitude 42 degrees, has the same elevation abo> 
tide as the summit of the main Back-bone ridge, in latitude 32 degree 

This anomaly in the relative heights of the Rocky mountains i 
different points has an important bearing upon the selection of tl 
most favorable pass for the transit of a railroad across the mounta 
region. 

From what has been advanced, it is obvious that, wherever the mo 
favorable pass for crossing the Back-bone mountain may be found, 
railroad leading through it, and extending eastward to the easterly ba 
of the mountain range, may be conducted thence to the Mississip 
without serious diflSculty. 

The localities proper to be examined and surveyed, for the pnrpo 
of ascertaining the most §LVorable pass for a railroad across the mou 
tain region, may be enumerated and designated as in the followir 
tabular synopsis : 

Table showing the number^ designation^ latitude^ longitude^ and proximo 
height aJbove tide^ of the several passes proper to be surveyed across t 
summit of the main dividing ridge of the Rocky mountains. 



No. 


Designation of passes. 


N. latitade. 


W. longitade. 


Prox. height 


1 


South Pass 


o / /' 
42 24 32 
41 08 02 
38 10 00 
36 30 00 
34 50 00 
32 30 00 


O 1 // 

109 26 00 
10^ 24 11 
106 15 00 
108 a5 00 
108 25 00 
108 30 00 


Feet. 
7.220 


9, 


Stansbury's Pass...... ..... 


7,200 


3 


Cooch&toDa Pass. ...... ..... 


8,0U0 


4 


North Zaiii Pass 


7,000 
7,000 
5,000 


5 


South Euiii Pass 


6 


Cook*s Pass.. ..••.... 


" 





The statements in this table have been compiled by Mr. R. H. Ke 
from observations and barometrical measurements of Colonel Fr^mor 
Captain Stansbury, Colonel Emory, and Colonel Graham. 

It is apparent from the table that the three northerly passes designate 
therein have altitudes very considerably greater than those of the thr< 



II. Doc. 1. 61 

ontherly passes, and that the most southerly pass is lower by 2,000 to 
1,000 feet than those further north. 

Hence, if we admit that every rise of twenty feet is equivalent to 
I mile of horizontal distance, (which is undoubtedly true with respect 
D the simple economy of transportation,) we shall find that a route 
through Cook's pass (the routes being relatively equal in other respects) 
wrill be virtually shorter by 100 miles than a route through either of 
the Zufii passes, by 100 miles than a route through either of the 
northerly passes, and by 150 miles than a route through the Coocha- 
topa pass. From the several passes designated m the table, careful 
examinations and instrumental surveys, if necessary, should be made, 
with ihe view of determining the character and practicabiUty of routes 
extending eastward quite to the base of the mountains in that direction. 

Similar examinations and surveys should be extended westwardly 
trom the same passes, for the purpose of determining the most favorable 
localities and directions by wnich practicable routes may be prolonged 
indefinitely towards the Pacific ocean. 

Thorough and adequate examinations of all the localities that ought 
to be explored in order to discover a practicable route^ and more especi- 
ally to ascertain the most favorable route^ will undoubtedly require a 
much larger expenditure, and a much more protracted period, than 
those contemplated in the law of Congress making provision for the* 
surveys in question, or for any other surveys that can oe instituted for 
the same objects. 

Of the region west of the Rocky mountains, extending from the Gila 
westwardly to the Great Desert basin, whence there is no outlet through 
which its welters can escape to the ocean, and bounded westwardly by 
the Sierra Nevada and the Gulf of California, very little is known with 
respect to the practicability of routes for railroads leading through it 
in any direction. Extensive groups of high and rugged mountains are 
said to be presented in various parts of the region, while insulated 
table lands of greater or less extent and elevation are said to prevail 
over large portions of it. The plateaus are bounded by abrupt slopes 
and precipices, and separated from each other in some instances by 
deep and narrow chasms, and in others by valleys and plains of great 
extent. The lower grounds are traversed by water-courses, through 
which the rains that fall upon the surface find their way to the principal 
streams; all of which run westward, and are discharged into the Gulf 
of California through the channel of the Colorado. The considerable 
tributaries of this great river have their sources in the main chain of 
the Rocky mountains, whence they flow through deep cafions or 
chasms, bounded by insurmountable precipices of great height, which 
render the passage of railroads through their immediate valleys totally 
impracticable. 

To the general character of the mountain streams and their valleys, 
as above represented, there may be (and indeed are said to be) some 
few exceptions. Ravines or valleys of moderate declivity and gently 
sloped sides are supposed to occur on the westwardly slope of the 
main mountain, through which a practicable route for a railroad, with 
admissible gradient, may descend from some one or more of the mouu- 
tain passes, and be continued more or less directly downward, ViYL'vX 



62 H. Doc. 1. 

enters the low grounds at the bases of the insulated table lands before 
mentioned. Thence it may probably be extended, by courses more or 
less devious and winding, to Walker's pass, in the Sierra Nevada, at 
the head of the San Joaquin, or to Warner's pass, in the same moun- 
tain, in a direction towards San Diego, or downwards in the valley of 
the Colorado to the head of the bay of CaUfomia. z- 

From all accounts of travellers who have traversed this region, it is ir- 
pretty evident that a route leading downward from the mountain sum- zz 
mit, west of £1 Pg#o, to a point on the Gila below the cafions of that jI 
river, on its southerly side, is far more favorable for a railroad than any y^ 
that can be found on its northerly side. At the point just designated, t 
the route may cross the Gila and be continued northwestwardly towards >-- 
San Diego, or northwardly towards the head of the San Joaquin. >- 

In view of the prevailing dearth of information that now exists with »- 
respect to the nature, character, and aspect of this singular region, and 5_ 
especially in reference to the facilities presented by it tor railroad com- t- 
munication, I would suggest that, while the survey of the main moun- v^ 
tain passes are in progress, careful examination should be made by ^^ 
skilful and experienced engineers, to the uttermost practicable extent, >i 
for the purpose of ascertaining, with some degree of precision, the prac- .- 
licability of extending a route from each pass downwards quite to the ^ 
J)oint at which the cafions cease to present themselves. 

Chasms or cafions of this character are said to occur on most if not .. 
all of the principal rivers of this region, and to extend downwards 
more than half the distance from the dividing ridge to the westerly 
limit of the region. On the Colorado they cease at the confluence of 
the Rio Virgin with this river, and on the Gila at a point 150 miles 
above its mouth, below its confluence with the river San Pedro. 

The lofty mountain chain called the Sierra Nevada, which towers 
far upward into the region of perpetual frost, and stretches without 
interruption from Cape San Lucas to the Columbia river, next claims 
our attention. 

The two lowest passes across this mountain are said to occur within 
the distance of about 160 miles of each other, and are distin^ished 
by the names of Warner pass and Walker's pass, both of which are 
comparatively low depressions in the crest of the mountain. Warner's 
pass is situated at the distance of about 80 miles eastward of San 
Diego, and has an elevation of 3,013 feet above tide. Walker's pass 
is situated near the main source of the San Joaquin river, and has a 
probable elevation of about 4,000 feet above tide. The former is rep- 
resented as exceedingly abrupt and rugged, especially on the westerly 
side of the mountain, while the latter is said to present gentle declivities 
on both sides. Both of the passes should be examined, and carefully 
surveyed : Warner's pass with a view of a railroad communication 
to the bay of San Diego, and Walker's pass with a view of a similar 
communication to the bay of San Francisco. 

S. H. LONG, 
Lieutenant Colonel Top, Engineers. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Chief Top. Eng*rsj Washington, D. C 



I 



U. Doc. 1. 63 

Document D^ 

Circular. 

Washington, April 27, 1853. 
Sir: 1 have ihe honor to inform you thai by a recent order of the 
Hon. Secretary of War I have been assigned to the direction and 
superintendence of all works and operations relating to the improve- 
ment of the Ohio, Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas, and Illinois rivers. 

You are accordingly requested to prepare and submit, for my in- 
formation at headquarters of western river improvements, in the city 
of Louisville, Kentucky, on or before the 10th aay of May next, a full 
clear, and correct exposition of your proceedings in the public service, 
comprising a copy of your letter of -appointment; a statement of all 
receipts and expenditures of public funds; of the public property 
tmder your charge ; of the progress made under your directions in the 
works and operations of your agency, and of the nature and objects of 
the expenditures made by you, from the date of 3^our appointment to 
the 1st of May next. 

On receiving the information called for as above, I hope to have the 
ability to prepare and furnish such additional instructions as are proper, 
and expedient in the further prosecution of the duties that have been 
assigned you. 

S. H. LONG, 
LieutenatU Colonel Topographical Engineers^ 

Superintendent of Western River Improvements. 
To Joshua Barney, Esq.,y<>r Dubuque^ Iowa. 

C. A. Fuller, Esq., for Ohio, including Cumberland dam^ Louis" 

viUe^ Kentucky. 
Charles Daulton, Esq., U. S. agents Jachonvillej Illinois. 
Captain J. W. Russell, Louisville, Kentucky* 



Document E. 

Office of Western River Improvements, 

Louisville, Kentucky, May 25, 1853. 

Sir : In conformity to your instructions of the 27th, directing my 
attention to the disbursements made and incurred by John W. Russell, 
agent for the construction of snag-boats, &c. ; Joshua Barney, agent for 
harl>or of Dubuque; and Charles A. Fuller, agent for Ohio river, in- 
cluding Cumberland dam, under appropriations for the improvement 
of western rivers, approved August 30, 1862, my investigations have 
been extended through the entire period of operations of the officers 
above mentioned, in so far as they come within the purview of the ap- 
propriations, and are embraced within the 4th quarter of 1852, and the 
1st and 2d quarters of 1853. 

The results of my investigation will be exhibited in the subjoiued 
papers, containing sundry statements and explanations, showmg \!tie 



64 H. Doc. 1. 

arrangements, &c., deenaed most advisable and proper for the purpose 
of distributing the expenditures under their appropriate heads of ap- 
propriations. 

The papers, &c., above mentioned, are as follows, viz : 

Appropriation for the improvement of the western rivers. 

1. For improvement of navigation of Mississippi river below 

the rapids $90,000 

2. For improvement of Ohio, including the dam at Cumber- 

land island 90,000 

3. For improvement of Missouri river 40,000 

4. For improvement of Arkansas river * 40,000 

6. Construction and repair of snag-boats, dredge-boats, dis- 

charging-scows, &c., for Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, 
Arkansas, &c 150,000 

6. Improvement of Rock River (island) and Des Moines rapids 

of the Mississippi 100,000 

7. Improvement of tne IlHnois river 30,000 

8. For harbor of Dubuque, upper Mississippi 15,000 

Amount of appropriations for western river improvements, 

August 30, 1852 555,000 

The disbursements claiming attention have been made, and charged 
to the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, and 8th items of the foregoing list of ap- 
propriations, and have been applied mainly to the construction and 
equipment of five twin snag-boats, two steam dredge-boats, with mud- 
scows, &c. 

The construction of four of the snag-boats was committed exclu- 
sively to John W. Russell, United States agent for the construction of 
snag-boats, &c. ; while that of the fifth snag-boat, which is of a smaller 
class, has been accomplished, in part, under his direction, and com- 
pleted under the direction of Charles A. Fuller, United States agent 
for the Ohio river, including Cumberland dam. 

The construction of one of the dredge-boats, &c., was committed to 
the agency of Chas. A. Fuller, esq., and the other to that of Joshua 
Barney, esq.. United States agent for the improvement of the harbor 
of Dubuqu^, &c. 

The disbursements made, liabilities incurred, prior to May 10, 1853, 
on account of the several boats above mentioned, and the several 
agents by whom they were made and incurred, are as follows, viz : 

By John W, Russell, agent for construction of snag-boats . $154 ,051 87 
By Charles A. Fuller, agent for Ohio river and Cumber- 

*land dam 27,965 32 

By Joshua Barney, agent for harbor of Dubuque, &c. . . 20,044 96 



Total 202,062 16 



H. Doc. 1. 65 

This aggregate amount has been drawn indiscriminately from the 
several items specially designated above^ — viz: from 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 
5th, and 8th items of the appropriations — and applied in a similar man- 
tter to the objects of the appropriations prior to the date last mentioned, 
viz: 10th May, 1853. 

September 1, 1863. 

The foregoing exposition relates to the affairs of western river im- 
provements as they existed at the time when I entered on the duties 
assigned me, under existing "rules and regulations for the government 
of the officers, &c., employed on duties relating to the improvement of 
the western rivers," viz : on the 10th May last. 

The returns then submitted were not sufficiently complete to enable 
me to do more than merely to devise and adopt a system of arranging 
the accounts relating to expenditures actually made, and liabilities 
incurred, imder the several appropriations referred to. 

By means of additional returns since received, I have been enabled 
to correct some few errors that have been detected in the amounts 
relating to expenditures, and especially in those relating to habiUties, 
and have amended and extended the schedules in conformity thereto. 

The forms of the schedules, as originally prepared and submitted, 
have been retained ; while the corrections requirea therein, and the addi- 
tions made thereto, have given occasion for a very considerable enlarge- 
ment and extension of all the schedules. 

As now presented, the schedules exhibit a full arrangement of all 
expenditures actually incurred under the several appropriations men- 
tioned in the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 8th items of the appropriation list 
before given, and include all outlays and expenditures that have been 
incurred prior to the close of the last fiscal year, ending June 30, 1853. 

With respect to Schedule No. 3, in relation to the expenditures made 
under the direction of J. Barney, esq., his returns, which were before 
defective, are now complete, in so far as relates to the fourth quarter 
of 1852 and the first and second quarters of 1853. 

In the third quarter of 1852, a small expenditure was made by Mr. 
Barney, amounting to $55 10 only, for which no vouchers have been 
received at this office. This amount, however, is chargeable entirely 
in the column of outfit and services. 

The revised and amended schedules exhibit with entire accuracy 
the aggregate amounts expended under the direction of the several 
United States agents therein mentioned, prior to the 1st day of July, 
1853, and are as follows, viz : 



Part iii— 5 



€6 



H. Doc. 1. 

SCHEDULE No. 1. 



Accounts of John W. Riusell, United States agent for the constructm 
snag-boats, 8(c., arranged in conformity to apprbpriatumsfor the impr> 
ment of vxstem rivers. 



i 


i 


i 
1 


Objpct of ippn>priailonB 
wad expendJturei. 


1 








1852 


4th 


1 


Construction and equip- 
ment..>. ..•■ .... .... 


$5,446 94 
85 00 
13 50 

18,900 00 

3 85 

19 00 

266 66 

100 00 

30 00 

6,000 00 

5, 125 04 

27 46 

31 50 
197 22 
784 72 


$4, 112 45 


$1,334 49 




3 


Outfit 


$8 


3 


Construction and repairs 

Construction, per con 

tract 


13 50 
18,900 00 




1 4 to 16 






17 


Outfit 






18 








1 


19 


....do 






26 


20 








10 


21 


....do............ .... 






3 


22 


Construction, per con- 
tract 


6,000 00 
5, 125 04 






23 


Construction and repairs 
Outfit 






24 




2 


25 


.... do ...... ...... .... 






g 


26 


.... do ...... .... ...... 






19 


1 1 27 


...do 






' 78 


28 


(Suspended) 










lat 


29 
ltol2 

13 to 15 


Outfit 


1 35 

23,400 00 

10,500 00 

1,779 48 

2,506 87 

12,286 68i 

3,581 80 

1,237 12i 

630 80 

154 50 

36 50 

300 00 

200 00 

250 00 

625 00 








1853 


Construction, per con- 
tract.. 


23,400 00 

10,500 00 
1,779 48 
2,505 87 

12,286 68i 
3,581 80 
1,237 12i 
630 80 








Construction, per con- 
tract 






16 


Construction and repairs 
....do.. ....... .do.... 

....do...... ....do.... 

....do do 

.... QO >..... .... QO .... 

do do 

EauinmeDt . . .......... 






17 






18 






19 






20 






1 21 to 30 
31 






154 50 




32 


Outfit 




I 


1 33 








3( 


1 34 








2( 


35 


....do ............ .... 






2f 


36 


....do 






6-( 


37 


(Suspended) 








38 


Outfit 


14 15 
2 61 

1,453 06 
3,345 79i 
2,502 75 
l,3•^8 67 
132 624 
541 55 






] 


39 


....do 








1 


Improtement of the Mis- 
Equipment 




1,453 06 
3,345 794 
2,502 75 
1,328 67 
132 624 
541 55 




2 


....do 




.... 


3 


....do 




.... 


4 


....do................ 




.... 


5 


....do 




.... 


.6 


....do 







H. Doc. 1. 

SCHEDULE No. 1— Conlinued. 



67 



I 



^ 

tf 



1853 



lit 



g 



2d 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 to 11 

12 
1 to6 

7 to 10 

11 to 14 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



Object of appropriatioiiB 
and expenditures. 



Imprownumt of the JlfiM- 

iouri. 

Equipment 

do 

Equipment 

....do 

Outfit 

Conttrootion and equip> 

ment 

Equipment 

....do 

....do 

bnfrotement of the Ar^ 



Equipment p.... 

— do 

do ^ 

do 

do ,. 

Outfit 

Equipment • 

Outfit 

Equipment 

Outfit 

Equipment 

Construction, per con- 
tract 

Conttruction and repairs 

Construction, per eon- 
tract 

Outfit 

Equipment 

Equipment and outfit. 

Equipment 

....do 

Outfit 

Equipment 

Outfit 

Equipment 



S 



» 



Improvement of die Mis' 
sitsippi. 



Outfit 

Equipment 

Outfit 

Construction, equipment 

and outfit 

Outfit 

Equipment 

....do 

....do 

....<7<7.... 



$1,619 75i 
975 75 
711 92i 
303 21 

300 00 

295 92 
15 00 

417 22^ 
25 00 



1,607 47i 

1,025 50 

774 08 

321 38 

253 65 

90 00 

65 00 

90 00 

7 42 

78 00 

338 05 

13,380 00 
5,474 55 

11,760 00 
89 60 

175 00 
1,286 97 

131 75 
38 93 
96 60 
48 12 
56 20 

195 20 



44 75 

1,633 56 

110 00 

1,420 32 
171 40 
170 96 

47 82 

48 15 
270 19 



It 
H 

f 



$1,619 75i 
975 75 
711 92i 
303 21 



$36 00 



I 



250 92 
15 00 

417 22i 
25 00 



1,607 47i 

1,025 50 

774 08 

321 38 

253 65 



13,380 00 
5,474 55 

11,760 00 



300 00 



65 00 
33805 



41 



$300 00 



175 00 

643 48 

131 75 

38 93 



48 12 
195* 20 



1,633 56 



560 16 



170 96 

47 ea 

48 15 
270 19 



90 to 
ooio 

'7800 



89.60 



643 49 



98 60 
'56*20 



44 75 

'iio'ob 



660 16 
171 40 



"•-• 



68 



H. Doc. 1. 



SCHEDULE No. 1— Continued. 



^ 



I 






Objact of appropriations 
and expenditurds. 



ii 






ife 






s 



1863 



2d 



10 
11 



Outfit. 
....do. 



Improvemeni of the MU- 
tauri. 



Outfit 

do 

....do 

Equipment and outfit. 

Equipment 

do 

Outfit 

....do 

....do 



$625 00 
250 00 



20 00 

7 80 

8 48 
537 50 

1,420 45 

47 82 

34 62 

33 75 

4 80 



1268 75 

1,420 45 

47 82 



$625 00 
250 00 



20 00 

780 

8 48 

268 75 



34 62 

33 75 

4 80 



152,797 87 



121,023 30 



25,214 12 



6,560 45 



K. B.— In Toucher No. 1 of the 4th quarter of 1852, the charge against the 
United States is $5,734 49 

In credit voucher No. 2 of 1st quarter of 1853 is a credit for broken machinery 
of. 287 56 



The credit voucher deducted from charge as above leaves a remainder of. 5, 446 94 



And this remamder is to be regarded as the true charge against appropriations for western 
river improvements, and is substituted therofor in this ei^bit. 

In voucher No. 23 of the 4th quarter of 1852, the charge against the United 
Statesis 5,771 914 

In credit voucher No. 1 of 1st quarter of 1853 is a credit voucher for "iron sold" 
of 646 874 



The credit voucher deducted from charge as above leaves a remainder of. 5, 125 04 



And this remainder is to be regarded as the true charge against appropriations for western 
river improvements, and is substituted therefor in this exhibit. 



H. Doc. 1. 



69 



SCHEDULE No. 2. 

AeeomnU ^ Charles A. FuUer, United States agent for construction of snag 
and dredge-boats, arranged m conformity to appropriations for the im- 
procement of western rivers. 



I 



Object of appropriations and 
expenditorec. 



I 



•s 



lj 



I 



1663 



l«t 
2d 



Ontfit 

Conttroctaon, per contract .... 

Outfit 

do 

....do 

do 

....do ...... .......... •••••. 

....do 

....do ...................... 

do 

....do 

Conitmction, per contract 

....do..... do .......... 

Equipment 

....do ...................... 

Outfit ...................... 

....do ...... ................ 

....do 

....do ...................... 

....do ...................... 

....do ...................... 

Conttmcdon, equipment, and 
outfit 

Outfit 

do 

Equipment 

Outfit 

do 

do 

— do 

Conitmction, per contract 

Equipment 

Equipment and outfit 

Equipment 

Equipment and outfit 

Construction, per contract 

....do do 

Equipment and outfit 

Outfit 

do 

....do 

Equipment and outfit 

Outfit 

Equipment 

Outfit 

Equipment and outfit 

Outfit 

Equipment 

do 

Outfit 

....do .................J 

JSgaJpmeae / 



$336 00 

980 00 

900 

81 S5 

21 87 

4 00 

637 

23 00 
7 50 

401 50 
3 70 
1,000 00 
980 00 
317 27 
343 25 

24 03 

60 00 

25 00 
36 09 
27 74 
17 25 

1,893 75 
36 43 
12 00 

26 85 
108 20 

500 
21 00 
92 50 

980 00 
41 30 

232 20 
16 75 

338 42 
2,000 00 
2, MM) 00 

225 70 

361 03 
66 26 

136 28 
11 75 

61 32 
24 40 

3 00 

510 83 

240 40 

30 00 

1 45 

540 00 

3750 

139 28 



$980 00 



1,000 00 
960 00 



$317 27 
343 25 



1,700 00 



187 38 



26 85 



980 00 



41 30 
56 75 
16 75 
89 65 



2,000 00 
2,500 00 



197 50 



4 50 



24 40 



50 65 



30 00 
1 45 



$336 00 



900 
81 25 
21 87 

4 00 

6 37 
23 00 

7 50 
401 60 

3 70 



24 03 
60 00 

25 00 
36 09 
27 74 
17 25 

637 
36 43 
12 00 



108 20 

500 

21 00 

92 50 



175 45 



248 77 



28 20 

361 03 

66 26 

136 28 

7 25 

61 32 

,,j 

3 00 
460 18 
240 40 



MQ^ 
V ^ 



139 28^ 



70 



H. Doc. 1. 

SCHEDULE No. 2— Continued. 



1 


1 


1 

1 


Object of appropriatioBi and 
eipendiiurea. 


& 






4i 

a'3 


1853 


2d 


51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 


Outfit 


$5 00 

20 50 

16 75 

2,000 00 

417 59 

41 45 

58 15 

130 85 

112 00 

82 75 

132 00 

1, 177 93 

16 95 

1,800 00 

29 12 

20 00 

52 22 

287 96 

8 23 






$5 

2C 




...do 








..do 






16 




ConBtrnction, per contract .... 
CauiDinfiiit ....... .......... 


$2,000 00 








$417 59 






Outfit - 




41 




do 






56 




....do ...................... 






13C 




EauiDineHt . . ................ 




112 00 






Outfit 




8a 




....do 






13S 




Equipment. ................. 




1,177 93 






Outfit 




16 




ConstructioD, per contract .... 
Cauinment ......... ...... 


1,800 00 








29 12 






Construction, per contract .... 
Outfit 


20 00 








5S 




do 






287 




do 






8 














21,807 00 


13,960 00 


3,263 62 


4,584 



H. Doc. 1. 



71 



SCHEDULE No. 8. 

AecounU of J. Barney, United States agent for the conslruclion of a dreige- 
hoat, S(C., arranged in conformity to appropriation* for the improvement of 
tcettem rivert. 





1^ 


1 

'S 


Object of appropriationa and 
expenditures. 


1 






Outfit. &c., in- 
cluding ser- 
▼ices. 


UG2 j 3d 


1 

2 
1 
2 
3to5 
6 
1 
2 
3 


Construction 


$22 50 

103 00 

230 00 

1,000 00 

15 00 
2,830 00 
1,565 43 

940 00 

14 20 
71 98 

1,440 00 

16 25 
45 93 
76 02 

463 94 

20 30 

180 59 

233 96 

101 60 

22 07 

29 69 

41 25 

2,002 44 

55 00 
4,058 10 

15 71 
136 10 

89 37 
165 85 
105 03 

41 85 

52 50 
115 37 

39 00 
321 62 
191 12 
605 56 

32 50 
377 50 


$22 50 








4UI 
1st 

2d 

3d 
4th 


Outfit 




$103 00 
230 00 




....do 

Construction, p^r contract.. 
Outfit 






1853 


1,000 00 








15 00 




Construotion, per contract.. 
Equipment. 


2,880 00 






$1,565 43 






Construction, per contract.. 
EfOuipment 


940 00 






14 20 

71 98 

1,440 00 






















Outfit 




16 25 




6 


Eauinniait 




45,93 




7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 

1 
1 
2 
3 

4 


Outfit 




76 02 




£quiDnient .....•• ...... .. 




463,94 




Outfit •. 




20 30 




Equipment. . .............. 




180 59 

233 98 

101 60 

22 07 




.... QO ............ ........ 














.... QO .................. .. 

Outfit 










29 60 




....do 






41 9Fk 




Construction, equipment, &, 
outfit 

Construction, equipment, & 
outfit 


1,880 00 

34 10 
3,455 17 


114 80 

725 
602 93 


764 
13 65 




Construction and equipment. 
Outfit 


15 71 




Equipment and outfit 

Outfit 




85 81 


50 29 






89 37 




Equipment and outfit 

do do 

Equipment ........... 




139 35 
47 11 
41 85 
52 50 


26 50 






57 92 










do 

Construction 








115 37 
39 00 






....do 

Equipment and outfit 

Outfit 








288 05 


33 57 






191^12 




Construction of scows 

Outfit 














32 50 




....do 

IhAmjiu harbor. 
Outfit 






377 50 










\9SA 


17,918 35 

32 60 

139 10 

12 50 

360 

300 


10,971 70 


5,519 37 


1,427 28 
32 60 




.... QO ...... .............. 

....do 

....do 

-<fo / 






139 10 








• 12 50 










1 







72 



H. Doc. 1. 

SCHEDULE No. 3— Continued. 



1 


u 


1 


Object of appropriationa and 
expenditures. 


i 

1 


1^ 


11 


Outfit, Slg., in- 
cluding ser- 
vices. 


1852 


4th 
2d 


5 

6 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 


Outfit 


$12 65 

230 00 

3340 

28 76 
38 10 

151 91 

65 79 

10 00 

3 75 

80 00 

33 39 

40 79 

100 00 

245 15 

58 95 

90 00 

29 50 
650 

596 36 
452 50 






$12 65 

230 00 










1fl!i!t 


• • • • QO •••••••••••« •«•••••• 






33 40 








28 76 




• • • • QO •••••• ••«»•••••««••«• 






38 10 








151 91 










65 79 










10 00 




do ............... .... 






3 75 




. ..do 






80 00 




Construction and repairs . . . 

....do.... .••••.do. 

Outfit 


$33 39 
40 79 
















100 00 




do 

.... QO •••••.•••• •••.••.... 

... do .... . ..... ........ 






245 15 








58 95 








90 00 








29 50 










6 50 




— .do 






596 36 








452 50 












20,416 55 


11,045 88 


5,519 37 


3,851 30 



Summary of Schedules Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 



1 


Summary recapitulation of the 
foregoing schedules. 


4> . 

SB 


Construction and re- 
pairs. 


t 




1 

2 
S 


Expenditures incurred by Jolm 
W. Russell, U. 8. agent 

Expenditures incurred by Chas. 
A. Fuller, U. S. agent 

Expenditures mcurr^ by Joshua 
Bamev. U. 8. affent ..... ... 


$152,797 87 
21,807 87 
20,416 55 


$121,023 30 
13,960 00 
11,045 88 


$25,214 12 
3,263 62 
5,519 37 


$6,560 45 
4,584 25 
3,861 30, 




Grand total 




195,022 29 


146,029 18 


33,977 11 


14,996 00 







I 



I 



H. Doc. L 73 

Explanation of ickeiules. 

In fiifther explanation of the foregoing schedules the following remarks 
are deemed proper, viz : 

1. The column beaded "aggregate of expenditures," shows in detail 
all the items of expenditure incurred, on all scores, relating to the im- 
provement of the Ohio, including Cumberland dam ; the Mississippi, in- 
duding the harbor of Dubuque; the Missouri and Arkansas rivers, from 
ihe date of the appropriations to the close of the last fiscal year, including 
June dO, 1853. 

The aggregate amount of the expenditures is $196,022 29, as shown 
at the footing of the schedules and of the summary recapitulation. 

2. The column headed "construction and repairs," shows in like 
manner all the items of expenditure incurred and required on account 
of the entire construction and repairs of engines, &c., of snag-boats, 
dredge-boats, discharging-scows, &c. The amount disposed of for these 
parpoaes being $146,029 18, as shown at the footing of the columns. 

3. The two columns headed "equipment of boats," and "outfit, &c., 
iDcluding services," exhibit the eijpenses that ought to be defrayed out 
of the appropriations specially provided for the improvement ol the 
Ohio, including the Cumberland dam ; the Mississippi, the Missouri, and 
the Arkansas rivers, and for the harbor of Dubuque. 

The aggregate amount of the items in these two columns ($33,997 11 
far equipment of boats, and $14,996 for outfit, &c.) is $48,993 11, as 
shown by combining tty footing of both columns. 

[Special reference! to appropriatioiM.] 

4. The expenditures incurred by Charles A. Fuller, esq., as ex- 
hibited in the two columns just before designated, (viz : $3,263 62 
added to $4,584 25,) amount to $7,847 87, and are chargeable to the 
appropriations for the Ohio river, including Cumberland dam. 

5. The expenditures incurred by Joshua Barney, esq., as exhibited 
in the same two columns, (viz: $5,519 37 added to $3,851 30,) amount 
to $9,370 67, and are chargeable to the appropriation for the improve- 
ment of the harbor of Dubuque. 

6. The expenditures incurred by John W. Russell, esq., as exhibited 
in the same two columns, (viz : $25,214 12 added to $6,560 45,) amount 
to $31,774 57, and are chargeable to the appropriations for the improve- 
ment of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Arkansas rivers, in proportions 
corresponding to the amounts appropriated to these riveis, respectively, 
as follows, viz : 

Nine-seventeenths of the amount, (viz : ^ of $31,774 57,) equal to 
$16,821 81, is chargeable to the appropriation for the improvement of 
the Mississippi. 

Four-seventeenths of the amouqt, (viz : tV f>f $31,774 57,) equal 
to $7,476 38, is chargeable to the appropriation for the improvement 
of the Missouri. 

Four-seventeenths of the amount, (viz: tV of $31,774 57,) equal to 
$7,476 38, is chargeable to the appropriation for the improvemeivl oi 
the Arkansas river. 



74 H. Doc. 1. 

Appropriations and unexpended halanccM 

Item 1 : Amount of appropriation for the improvement of 

the Mississippi $90,C 

Chargeable to tnis appropriation 16,8 

Unexpended balance of same 73 J 

Item 2 : Amount of appropriation for the improvement of 

the Ohio $90,C 

Chargeable to this appropriation 7,€ 

Unexpended balance of same 82,1 

Item 3 : Amount of appropriation for the improvement of 

the Missouri $40,( 

Chargeable to this appropriation 7,4 

Unexpended balance of same 32,^ 

Item 4 : Amount of appropriation for the improvement of 

the Arkansas $40,( 

Chargeable to this appropriation 7,4 



Unexpended balance of same. . ^ . . . 



32, 



Item 5 : Amount of appropriation for the construction of 

snag-boats, &c $150,( 

Chargeable to this appropriation 146,( 

Unexpended balance of same 3,? 

•Item 6 : Amount of appropriation for the improvement of 

the rapids of the upper Mississippi $100,( 

•Item 7 : For the improvement of Illinois river 30,( 

Both amounts remaining unexpended, viz. . . 130,( 

r— 

Iten 8 : Amount of appropriation for the harbor of Du- 
buque, upper Mississippi $15,( 

Chargeable to this appropriation 9,c 

Unexpended balance of same 5,( 

The data employed in the compilation of the foregoing stalt 
embrace the quarterly returns of John W. Russell, esq., for the 
quarter of 1862 and the first and second quarters of 1853, as sub 
by him through this oflSce to the Topographical bureau ; and \ 

* Under these two heads no returns of expenditures hare been made, and none 
^eirabJe prior to the begmnng of the current fiscal fear. 



U. Doc. 1. 75 

returns made by Joshua Barney, esq., and Charles A, Fuller, esq., for 
the fourth quarter of 1862 and the first and second quarters of the cur- 
rent fiscal year. These refurns have enabled me to carry forward the 
exhibit in a manner to show, with a high degree of certainty, all the 
expenditures that have been made under then* respective agencies to 
the end of the last fiscal year. 

The total amount of receipts from the United States treasury, as 
credited by the agents above mentioned, is as follows, viz : 

On accounts of J. W. Russell $166,000 00 

Oq accounts of C. A. Fuller 27,300 00 

On accounts of J. Barney 22,879 00 

Total of receipts 206,179 00 

Total amount of expenditures (exclusive of discrepan- 
cies or credit vouchers and suspended accounts, 
amounting to $1,050 67) 196,022 29 

Amount of unexpended balances in hands of agents 
July 1, 1863 10,166 71 

In conclusion, it is proper to remark, that all the expenditures treated 
of in the schedules, &c., were incurred prior to the 30th of June, 1863, 
when, with the exception of the snag-boat No. 6, (the Terror,) neither 
of the snag-boats and neither of the dredge-boats were yet completed 
and ready for service, and when of course nothing had been or could 
be done towards the improvement proper or the removal of snags, &c., 
in the Mississippi, Missouri, and Arkansas rivers, for which four of the 
snag-boats were specially intended. 

With exception of the snag-boat (Terror) No. 6, none of the snag- 
boats were ready for operation till the 26th of July following, although 
the expenditures had been carried to the extent above mentioned. 

Respectfully submitted. 

S. H. LONG, 
Lieut. Col. Top. Engs.^ Supt. Western River Improvements. 

CoL J. J. Abert, 

Chief Topographical Engineers^ JVashington^ D. C 



Document F. 

Circular containing instructions to Messrs. Warren, Barney , and Floyd, in 
reference td surv^ of rapids of Upper Mississippi. 

Office of Western River Improvements, 

Louisville, June 1, 1863. 
Sir : The survey of the rapids of the upper Mississippi is confided 
to your supervision and direction, with the understanding that you take 
all appropriate steps pertaining thereto with due promptness, and le- 
port thereon to ibis omce prior to your departure. 



76 H. Doc. I. 

In the survey of the Des Moines rapids, you are desired to consult 
with John G. Floyd, esq.. United States agent for the improvement of 
those rapids, who is hereby instructed to cAifer with and aid you in all 
duties and operations relating to the survey as hereinafter explained. 

In the survey of Rock Island rapids, you are desired to consult with 
Joshua Barney, esq., United States agent for the improvement of those 
rapids, who is hereby instructed to confer with and aid you in all duties 
and operations relating to the survey thereof as hereinafter explained. 

The objects of the surveys in both cases are to determine the mtost 
direct, favorable, and economical passes or routes along the bed of the 
river, for the formation of a continuous navigable channel at least two 
hundred (200) feet wide and four feet deep at the lowest stage of the 
river ever known, or likely to occur again, at either of said rapids. 

The proper position of such channel having been determined with 
all due precision at both rapids respectively, those parts of the passes 
or channels where enlargement by deepening, widening, or straighten- 
ing, by means of rock excavations at its sides and bottom, is needful, 
will be divided into sections not exceeding one mUe in length on any 
part of the rapids. 

In fixing the length of the sections, special attention must be given to 
the character and extent of the excavations required thereat, and to the 
distances to which the excavated material must be conveyed for depo- 
sition — at the depth of at least four feet below the surface of extreme 
low watei>— in order that the work required on each section may be 
uniformly the same, or as nearly so as practicable, for every lineal foot, 
yard, or rod, in the entire length of the section. 

At both rapids occur spaces of very considerable extent, occasionally 
one to three or four miles in length, which need not be divided into 
sections nor numbered as sections, no improvement being required 
thereat. 

In numbering the sections, begin with a unit at the foot of each of 
the rapids, and numbering successively upward in the order of the sec- 
tions as they occur, omitting those portions on which no work is to be 
done. 

Let the sections be distinctly demarked by floats or buoys set in the 
middle or at the sides of the channel; and let land-marks be conspicu- 
ously set at or near both shores of the river, in pairs, in such manner 
that a right line, extending from one mark to the other of each pair, 
may pass through the point or portion of the buoy to which the marks 
relate; and let these land-marks be numbered in pairs, (both marks 
bearing the same number,) thus indicating the successive numbers of 
the sections. 

Let the field-notes of the survey be taken, and kept with such neat- 
ness, care, precision, and accuracy, as to efibrace and afford the data 
required in preparing correct delineations of 'the channels and other 
leading features, including soundings, &c., of both rapids. 

Let the order in which the surveys are to be made, and the details of 
the same, be determined by the concurrent counsel of yourself and the 
gentlemen agents who are expected to co-operate with you in the exe- 
cution of the surveys, in so far as relates to tne improvement committed 
to their charge respectively. In view of tlve cvrcumstances of the case, 



H. Doc. 1. 77 

it seems to me desirable that the survey of the Rock Island rapids should 
have precedence ; but, as before observc»d, this question is submitted to 
the jomt counsel of yoiurself and your coadjutors. 

You are expected to execute the surveys with all practicable de- 
spatch, so that the whole may be completed, and especially the sec- 
tions of the work on both rapiiis may be clearly demarked in season to 
subject the work to contracts by the time of the subsidence of the river 
to its lowest stage, which is likely to occur in the latter part of July, 
or early in August next 

Agreeably to common usages sanctioned by the civil authorities, and 
of course by the military authorities of the community, the average 
daily duration of labor is ten hours per day, Sundays excepted, for all 
persons employed in the public service. The terms of service; espe- 
ciaSly in field operations, are expected to be regulated in conformity to 
these and such other proper usages as may consistently be applied in 
the prosecution of the duties assigned you. 

Funds will be furnished, on your requisition and receipt, to an 
amount sufficient to defray the expenses of the field works, exclusive 
of any allowance to the United States agents whose names have been 
herein mentioned. 

Having prepared and completed your outfit, so far as it may be done 
at this place, you will report thereon, and receive such additional in- 
structions as may be deemed relevant. 

8. H. LONG, 
Liiut. CoL Top. Engineers J Supt. W, R. JmpUs, 

Lieut. G. K. Warren, 

Corps Topographical Engineers, Lotiisvillef Ky, 



Document G. 

Report on a tour of examination and inspection of Ohio river, ^t. 

Office Western River Improvements, 

Louisville, July 13, 1853. 

Sir: I have the honor to report, briefly and compendiously, the re- 
sults of my observations and inquiries made on a late tour of examina- 
tion and inspection, in the discharge of my official duties, and in accord- 
ance with your instructions of the 27th April last, the journeys having 
been performed between the 21st of June last and the 16ih of the cur- 
rent month. 

The tour of examinations, &c., embraced the Ohio below the falls ; 
the Mississippi from the mouth of the Ohio upwards to Dubuque ; the 
Illinois from its mouth to the head of its natural navigation, und the 
country thence by way of Chicago, Upper Sandusky, Cincinnati ; to- 
gether with the Ohio river between Cincinnati and Louisville. 

The depths on the more difficult bars, between Louisville and the 
mouth of the Ohio, varied from 3 to 3 J feet; whereas the draught of tVv^ 
snag-boats, when in trim for service^ is about 4 feet. 

The navjgatioo of the Ohio, below the falls, is not only obaUucXe^ Va 



IB H. Doc. 1. 

low water by numerous sand bars, but many snags and sunken 1 
which render the navigation in a low stage quite hazardous. The 
bars were, moreover, infested with logs and prostrate trees, all of wl 
require removal, and were intended to be operated upon as soon as 
snag-boats could be got ready for service. 

The. Mississippi W£is at a medial stage, too high for observing 
snags, &c., in the way of low-water navigation. That portion of 
river situated between Cairo and the mouth of the Missouri is re 
sented to abound in snags, &c., which can only be operated upon 
stage of water much lower than that existing at the time of my 
examination. 

The upper Mississippi, at the same time, was swollen to a deptl 
6 to 9 feet above extreme low water. Impediments to its navigat 
in the shape of snags, sunken logs, &c., are seldom to be met with.# 
low-water channels afford a depth sufficient to admit ot boats drav 
nearly 3 "leet to pass freely in the principal channels, except at 
rocky bars that exist at the Des Moines and Rock Island rapids, at 1 
of which, and especially the former, the channels are exceedii 
crooked, and in places very narrow and winding. 

The low-water depth on the shoalest reefs does not exceed 18 inc 
and the width of the channel does not exceed 40 to 50 feet. . The si 
of the river, at the time of observation, was too elevated to admi 
any measurements by which the width and depth of the low-w 
channels could be determined. 

Agreeably to instructions previously given, I found Lieutenan 
K. Warren, assisted by J. Barney, esq., and Major Floyd, engagec 
the survey of the Rock Island rapids, or rather in preliminary sur^ 
on shore, for the purpose of examining stations, to which trian^ulat 
tor determining the width of the river at various points, and for de 
nating the position of the channels, where improvements are require 

The sand bars of the upper Mississippi, traversed by low-w 
.channels, admit the passage of boats drawing 2i to 3 feet in ordir 
low stages of the river. Hence it may^ be inferred that the dept 
the channels through the rapids, in corresponding stages, need not 
ceed 3i feet, which will be the depth to which the channel will 
opened, unless otherwise ordered ; the width, as before contempla 
being 200 feet. 

The rocks, constituting the bed of the river at both rapids, beinj 
the most part a loose slaty or shistose limestone, unfavorable for bi 
ing, will prove more difficult of reduction and removal than hith 
supposed, especially as the work of blasting must, in all cases, 
effected beneath the surface of the water. 

At the harbor of Dubuque, the process of dredging was resui 
under the direction of J. Barney, esq., on the 1st day of July, inst 
Disappointments unavoidable, in the preparation of the requisite n 
scows, rendered an earlier commencement impracticable. 

With respect to the method of improvement adopted by J. Ban 
esq., with the view of connecting the harbor with the main navjgj 
channel of the river, the reasons have not been fully explained to 
but as it has no doubt received the approbation of the Topograph 
bureau, no question of its propriety will now be raised. 



H. Doc. 1. 79 

The work of dredging will no doubt occupy the entire period from 
the 1st of July to the 1st, possibly to the 16th, September next; after 
which the dredge-boat is expected to be employed in the improvement 
of the Illinois river. 

The Illinois river has an extent of natural navigation of 244 miles 
from its mouth to Lasalle, and has its navigation obstructed in low 
water by shoals or bars, of greater or less extent, at no less than 83 
points. 

The low-water depth at the several bars varies from 12 to 80 inches, 
while the channels or basins between the bars are said to aflbrd a 
constant depth of 3 feet in the lowest stage. The aggregate distance 
through wmch the channel requires widening and deepening does not 
probably exceed 8 or 9 miles. A channel 3 feet deep and 200 feet 
wide, to be opened across the several bars, is deemed the beSt im- 
provement of which the river is susceptible. 

I have employed Geo. W. Long, esq., formerly of the United States 
army, to perform a reconnoissance of the river, at a compensation of 
$5 per day, and travelling allowance for the time actually employed, 
and to report thereon as early as practicable; on the receipt oi his re- 
port I shall probably be able to take measures for the speedy com- 
mencement of preliminary surveys and demarcations, of a character to 
show the curvatures and area of the low-water surface of the river, 
and designate the positions at which improvements will be required. 

The Ohio river, between Cincinnati and Louisville, has been ope- 
rated upon by the small snag-boat No. 6, (the Terror,) during the 
months of May and June, and to the present time. Numerous impedi- 
ments to its safe navigation, consisting of wrecks, snags, sunken logs, 
impending trees, &c., &c., have been removed, and the facility of its 
navigation greatly improved. 

1 regret to inform you that the continued low stage of the Ohio has 
rendered it impracticable for the snag flotilla to descend to the mouth 
of the river, and commence operations in the removal of obstructions 
from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Arkansas rivers. 

S. H. LONG, 
Lieut. Col. T. jB., Supt. W. R. Improvements. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Ch'cf Topographical Engineers^ Washington, D. C. 



Document H. 
Additional instructions to Lieutenant Warren. 

Office Western River Improvements, 

Louisville, July 20, 1853. • 
Sir : I find that I have no sufficient leisure to revise and amend the 
instructions given you under date of June 1, 1853. My recent 
examination of the rapids induces the opinion that the moditicaVioii oV 
those instructions, verbally proposed and explained to you at Daveiv- 
port on tb^ 4th and 6th instant, are appropriate, especially in so iar as 



80 H. Doc. I. 

relates to the setting of buoys along the centre instead of the sides 
the channel, where improvements are required^ and the mode of & 
structing and anchoring the buoys. 

Other deviations from the instructions of the 1st of June are a] 
admissible, on the showing of good and suflScient reasons therefor. 

You are expected to study every case connected with your operatic 
with care ana close attention, and regulate your proceedings by t 
best lights that can be thrown upon every subject connected with yc 
investigations, with the conviction on your part, as well as on the pj 
of your colleagues, that your proceedings in all cases are most cone 
cive to the public good. 

Mr. Barney was instructed to co-operate with you in the survey 
the rapidJ as soon as his duties at Dubuque would admit of 1 
absence from that place. 

If I recollect rightly, I authorized and instructed you while at E 
venport to pay Mr. Barney's accounts for travelling allowances ; a 
the accounts of Major Floyd, both for salary and travelling allowan< 
to the extent for which such considerations are allowable on su 
accounts during the progress of your survey. 

You are authorized to obtain the services of Mr. Hare and his sm 
steamer, with its crew, &c., at a rate not exceeding $40 per day for t 
whole, provided you cannot be accommodated with another steam 
&c., on more favorable terms. 

You are also authorized to employ similar help for the survey of t 
Des Moines rapids. 

In both cases you will make such arrangements as will be likely 
restrict the employment of steamers to the lowest practicable duratii 
I conclude with the repetition of the injunction, that you have all yc 
accounts prepared and rendered in conformity to tne usages of t 
oflSce, studiously avoiding all entries therein in the shape of cs 
charges, and with the requisition that you keep me apprized of y( 
progress, and the circumstances affecting it, as promptly as practicab 

S. H. LONG, 
Lieut. Col. Top. Eng^Si SwpU Western River Improvements. 

Lieut. G. K. Warren, 

Corps Top. Eng^Sj Davenport^ Iowa. 



Document I. 

Circular containing instructions issued to the captains qftlie several snag-boi 

Oppicb Western River Improvements, 

I^uisvilley July 20, 1863 
Ptr: The snag-boat No — , to the command of which you have Ix 
assigned agreeaoly to instructions from the War Department a 
Topographical bureau, having been completed and now ready 
service, you are hereby directed to take personal charge of the sai 
together with all articles of equipment and outfit pertaining there 
and to make all such arrangements as are needful to a timely departi 
/or appropriate service in the prosecution of the snag business, on si 



H. Doc. 1. 81 

of the western rivers, and at such points thereon, as may be here- 
after designated by special instructions. 

As you will be held accountable for the preservation, proper manage^ 
ment, efficient employment, and economical use of the boat and all 
pubUc property pertaming to the same, you will be required to furnish 
an inventory, setting forth the number and designation of your boat, 
with your official receipt annexed to the inventory ; also an inventory, 
duly receipted, in which all articles of equipment, comj)rehending an- 
cbcrs, cables, blocks of different sizes, warps, hawsers, rigging, chains, 
bellows, anvils, and smith tools of all kinds ; saws, axes, augers, and all 
other detached and movable articles and utensils that are needful in 
woiiung the boat, and liable to be injured, lost, or stolen in the service ; 
and in Oke manner an inventory, duly receipted, in which all articles 
of kitchen and cabin furniture, including tables, chairs, table linen, 
towels, &c., and all provisions on board of the boat and fit for use ; 
all of which are hereby committed to your care and charge. 

Agreeably to the rules and regulations, all officers, men, &c., con- 
stituting the boat's crew, are to be employed by the captain of the boat, 
with the approval of the superintendent. You are accordingly desired 
promptly to report the names and capacities of service of all persons 
contemplated to be employed by you, and will furnish such credentials, 
in relation to the qualihcaiion of the officers you have selected, as will 
enable the superintendent to decide upon their qualifications to fill the 
stations for which they have been selected, and to ratify the selection. 

In order that you may be more fiiUy apprized of the nature and 
extent of the duties required and expected of you, you are herewith 
famished with a printed pamphlet, containing the rales and regulations, 
articles of enrolment, &c., approved and adopted by the honorable 
Secretary of War, and orderecl to be carried into effect by the Topo- 
graphicad bureau under my direction. 

A strict and scrupulous conformity to the regulatbns thus prescribed 
and adopted is required of yourself, and of the officers, meclianics, and 
laborers serving on board of your boat. 

In accordance with said rules and regulations, and articles, your 
particular attention is directed to the observance of the several items of 
instruction detailed in the following order, under the head of 

Special instruclions. 

Item 1st. — The movements, places of operation, and nature of work, 
number of obstructions removed, and all events and occuirences worthy 
of notice, will be recorded daily, by the clerk of your boat, in a log- 
book furnished for that purpose. 

lum 2d, — The clerk will also keep a monthly time-roll, showing the 
days, or part of days, actually employed in the service by every officer, 
mechanic, and laborer serving under your command. 

Item 3d. — The clerk ^ill also keep all accounts, vouchers, &c., re- 
lating to incidental charges for fuel, provisions, and all other items of 
expenditure, and cause the same to be neatly and accurately kept, and 
carefully preserved. The whole to he done under your superv\^ou, 
and in SLCCordaaoe with forma that will be iljrnished for. your gavd«iice« 
Fart Hi- — 6 



82 H. Doc. L 

Item 4^.-^etuni« of work done, and of the actual number of days 
for which services have been rendered bj each individual employed 
ander your commt^d, will be transcribed from the log-book and time- 
kook at the close of each month, and forwarded, by maul or other safe 
conveyance, as early thereafter as practicable, with your certificate 
and signature annexed in the form of each return. 

^em 5th. — ^Funds for the purchase of fuel and prorisions, and for 
defraying incidental expenses on account of the service, to an amount 
mot exceeding $600, will be advanced, from time to time, on your 
lequisition for the same, accompanied by a statement showing the 
amount previously expended, ana the balance on hand applicable to 
finther expenditures. 

Item 6ih. — In conformity to the usages of the Topographical bureau, 
you are required to give a bond, in duplicate, in the sum ot one thousand 
dollars, \vith good and acceptable sureties, under which you will be 
authorized lo draw on me, ^from time to time, according to the exi- 
gencies of the service, for a sum not exceeding $600, all unexpended 
balances being included. 

If em Ith. — The sums drawn as above may be expended in payments 
for foel, provisions, and other contingencies, vouchers for all of which 
respectively will be filed and executed, in due form, by the clerk of 
your boat, and in accordance with samples furnished fi'ora this office. 

Item Sth. — Blank enrolments, pay-rolls, vouchers, time-books, &c., 
together with such articles of stationery as may be required for public 
use on board of your boat, will be famished, from time to time, a 
occasion may require, on your requisition therefor. 

Item 9th. — ^No allowance will be made by you for services of any 
sort on board of your boat, except such as may have been expressly 
sanctioned by the superintendent. 

Jtem 10th. — The pav lo the clerk of your boat will be limited to $60 
per month, till he shall have evinced a capacity and ability to perform, 
m a neat, skilful, and satisfactory manner, all the duties enjoined by 
item 4th of the printed preliminary regulations. Inexperienced clerks 
will in no case be allowed a compensation exceeding $36 per month. 

Item llth. — ^A 11 reports, returns, and other communications relating 
lo the duties assigned you, will be addressed to the superintendent of 
the western river improvements, Louisville, Kentucky, and promptly 
forwarded, by mail or other safe and speedy conveyance, to this office, 
from which suitable replies will be transmitted as early as practicable 
after the receipt of communications, &c. 

Item 1 2th. — The points and localities on which your operations in 
removing sna^s, &xi., are to be performed, when not designated in pre- 
vious instructions, will be selected by yourself, and adopted with the 
view to render the most efficient service in furtherance of western river 
improvements, care being taken, in all cases, to avoid long voyages in 
which no work of improvement can be done. In exercising the dis- 
cretion allowed as above, you are not expected to invade the localities 
assigned to, or selected by, captains of other snag-boats, or to transfer 
your operations firom one river to another, without instructions fix)m the 
aaperintendeaiB 

Jfem l3iA. — In alJ your operations you wVft\)e caxe&\\o avoid being 



fl. tiot. i: ^ 

m any position on any river from which you cannot escape with your 
boat on the subsidence of the river. 

Item 14M — ^In the prospect that any river on which you are em- 
ployed soon becoming too low to admit of your retreating from it with 
your boat, you will at onCe descend towards its mouth, and continue to 
operate lower down, or withdraw from the river entirely, according to 
circumstances. 

bemfi 16th. — ^In the purchase of supplied of aU kinds for use oi^ con- 
^mptkm on board of your boat, you are eitpected to exercise a souni 
discretion and discrimination, procuring such articles only as are nieces* 
iary to the successflil operation of the boat and comfortable accomi- 
ibodatioti of all on board ; a strict regard beiifg paid to all regulatioiig 
ttkcting theiir efnplbyment, accdtomodations, ana subsistence, with die 
uhderstanding^ always that the articles for subsistence, procured at the 
poblic expense, are to be similar in all respects, whether for the use of 
the officers, or the mfen, &c., employed as laborers. 

I^M 16rA. — As captain of the boat, you are of coarse ifivested with 
aB the authority and privileges usually accorded to such station or 
cemmUnd, and are expected to exercise them in a matiner strictly con- 
fbrm^ble to th^ printed mles and regulations, and to the roost approved 
custom and usages prevailitig in similar cases. 

Item 17th. — ^Whenever you may have occasion to discharge any 
oflScef, liiechatiic, or laborer, on account of incompetency, or other 
sufficietit caus^, yotf are expected to settle (to the date of his discharge) 
fats accoutits in dtie form by pay-roll, and liquidate the same out of 
any public funds you may luive rn your possession. 

Iteth ISth. — ^Additronat instructions will be issued from this office to 
your address from time to time, as occasion mny require. 

It^m 19th. — It is expected and reqcfired that all orders and instruo- 
tidns, whether iti print or in manuscript, issued from or through this 
office, will be attentively perused, and carefully considered and ob- 
served in all their details and provisions, especially by the captains, 
mates, and clerks of all the snag-boats ; and m casie of any explana- 
tions being required in reference thereto, or to any part thereof, thej 
will be given from this office, on requisitions made therefor. 

8. H. LONG, 
Lt. Col. Top. Eng^rs, 8vpt. Western River ImprovemeiUe. 

Capt. H. R. Day, commanditig snag-boat No. 1. 
Capt. Thos. Riddle, do. * No. 2. 

Capt. N. M. Ferousojj, do. No. 4. 

Capt. H. Fendren, do. No. 6. 



H H' Doe. I. 

DOOUMENT K. 

Instructiam to Charles A. Fuller^ esq. 

Offxcb Wbste&n River Improvements, 

Louisville, August 2, 1863. 

Sir : I herewith enclose for your information a copy of a letter from 
Dr. C. Bauer to the honorable Secretary of the Interior, in reference to 
the use of stone deposited in a wing dam of the Ohio near Belleville^ 
ifiland, Virginia, for the construction of a wharf at Belleville. You are 
desired at your earliest convenience, consistently with other duties, to 
examine the dam, investi^e the question of its utility, and the pro- 
priety of granting the pnvilege solicited, and report your views and 
the results of your investigations in reference to the whole subject. 
(See document marked A, herewith enclosed.) 

With this service in prospect, you will in the mean time make ar- 
rangements to inspect all the wing dams of the upper Ohio, including 
that above mentioned ; explain the nature and extent of their efficacy, 
or otherwise of their inefficiency ; notice the alterations, removals, or 
repairs proper to be made upon them ; and point out with care other 
localities when the navigation is susceptible of improvement by the 
construction of similar works. 

In connexion with the duties assigned as above, you are moreover 
especially directed to make arrangements for a careful survey of the 
harbor of Marietta, and for a full and clear exposition of all circum- 
stances aflecting the improvement of that harbor. 

I enclose herewith, lor your use and information, copies of sundry 
communications relating to the improvement of said harbor. (See 
documents herewith, marked B and C.) 

Your attention to the services designated as above, and your reports 
thereon, are desired at your earliest convenience. 

S. H. LONG, 
Ij. Col. Tof. Ei^Wsi Supt. Western River InvprovemenU. 
C. A. Fuller, esq., 

U. S. Agent jor improvement of Ohio, tfc., LouisvilUj Ky. 



Document L. 
Instrucivms relative to the improvement rf Illinois river. 

Office Western River Improvements, 

Louisville, August 22, 1853. 
Gentlemen : In the discharge of the duties of your respective ap- 
pointments, of which you have been duly notified, you are desired to 
reculate your proceedings in a maimer conformable to the printed 
rules and regulations herewith submitted for your information, and to 
such special instructions as are hereto subjoined, and to such also as 
may hereafter issue Grom this office for your gviidaace and direction. 



H. Doc. I. 8^ 

The probable subjects claiming your attention are presented in the 
following order, viz : 

1. A project showing the manner in which you propose to execute 
Ae requisite preliminary surveys, deemed advisable as a means of aa- 
certaining the nature and extent of the shoals of the river at which im- 
provements are required. 

2. A description of the quarter-boot, skiffs, and various articles of 
equipment and outfit, includmff instruments, stationery, field-books, Scc^ 

'required for the prosecution of the survey. 

3. The method of improvement best adapted to the formation ol 
channels leading across the shoals and bars of the river, whether by 
dredging or otherwise, the channels to be formed having a width of 
200 feet, except at very narrow passes, where they may, if deemed 
necessary, be limited to a width of 120 feet ibr short distances, and a 
depth of 3 feet below the surface of extreme low water in all cases. 

4. A roll setting forth the capacity, rates of compensation, dbc., in 
accordance with which the several individuals required for the execu- 
tion of the surveys may be employed. 

6. Two dredge-boats have afreadv been constructed for the improve- 
ment of the western rivers, one or ooth of which, as soon as they can 
be transferred from the services in which thej are now employed to 
the contemplated improvement of the Illinois nver, will be assigned to 
the service last mentioned, with three officers and crews as now organ- 



6. The disbursements required for the improvement of the lUinoit 
river are expected to be made by Geo. A. Dunlap, esq., the United States 
agent appomted for this purpose, who is hereby directed to submit 
monthly estimates of funds required in the first instance, on account of 
the boats, &c., necessary to the commencement of the survey ; and 
subsequently, similar estimates of fiinds for the prosecution of the 
surveys; and lastly, similar estimates of the probable monthly expenses 
on account of the formation of the new channel. To every monthly 
estimate as above he is expected to subjoin a statement of the unex- 
pended balance on hand at the end of the month, and to deduct the 
same firom the amount required as per estimate for the ensuing month* 
For the remainder thus obtained, he is authorized to make a requisition 
monthly, on or about the beginning of each month, for funds required 
for the prosecution of the survey and other operations relating to the 
improvement of the Illinois river. 

7. All official correspondence relating to the improvement of the 
Illinois, including the estimates and requisitions provided for in the 
preceding item, will pass to and through this office; and all reports in 
relation to the same will be addressed to the superintendent, and 
forwarded to this office for his inspection, £md such other disposition as 
may be properly made of the same. 

8. Blanli enrolments, pay-rolls, accounts current, common vouchers, 
&c., accompanied by model accounts, &c., of the same sort; also blank 
time-rolls, journal, memorandum book, drawing paper, &c., are here- 
with fiimished for his use in the discharge of his duties as a dlabuxavcvft 
officer. 

10. As be&re intimated, one or both of the United States dted^e- i 



30 H. Pfc. 1. 

))oats, with their scows and equiptnents, and with their ojpewB comj^tei 
Vill be ordered on service in the Illinois river as soon as they can be 
spared from duties at the poipts where tjiey are now operating. 

11. On or before the time of commencinff the business of dred^ii|^ 
additional instructions will be given in rdation to operations of this 
character; and whenever you may desire instructions on any topic, I 
shall cheerfully respopd to your requisitions for the same. 

S. H. LONG, 
Lieut. Col. Top. Eng'rs^ Supt. Western Hiver JmprovmenU. 
pEOUGE A. PuNL^?, esq., 

Suvenntendent of jpisbtir^ements. 
Georgp W. Loi^o, esq., 

Engineer /or v^propemem o/Illitm^ river • 



pjpyicp op 0^0 RiV9|i JnfTOpy^sj^ENTS, 

Loui^vUlei September 1, 185^. 

gfif : In compliancjB yrith the regulations of the Topogr^ipbicaJ bu- 
reau, I have the l^onor to sqbnii^ a report of ipy operations during th^ 
past year, in furtheraQce pf the improven^ent of the Ohio river, includl- 
ing repairs of jCuniberland (|ain, together lyith an estiiB^te for thp 
|urther prosecution pf ^he worjt during the next fiscal year. 

My receipts and expenditures for the year commencing July 1, 1852, 
and ending June 30, |p53, pii account of ^^ service, ^^ ^ foUpws, 
Jp wit: 

Treasury draft No. 3,907, reqeivcd Ma^ch §2, 1863. •• $600 00 

Do,. 3,966... <^o...ApriU, 1863 • 3,000 00 

Do... 4,118... do... April $6, 1863..... 8,000 00 

Do 4,368... do... June 2, 1863...... 4,800 00 

Pp.. 4,4?3.,,dq...Jwine k% 1863..... 11,000 QO 

^mountiftgto, 27,300 00 

Amount expended 3d quarter, 1862 $QOQ 00 

Do do.*. 4th. ..do. .1862. -•..-.... 000 00 

Do...... do... 1st... do.. 1863 ,... 336 00 

Po do... 2d... do.. 1863.. 21,471 90 

Amounting to 21,807 90 

Balance on hand June 30, 1863 6,492 10 



Which balance has since been applied in the prosecution of the duties 
9f niy a^ncy . 

From the date of my appointment as "local agent and engineer," 
viz: on the 3d February , 1863, to a^ early dale iu March, rpy attention 



H. Doc. ]. 



8T 



was principally directed lo an examination of such drawings and other 
documents pertaining to former surveys, &c., of the Ohio river and 
Cumberland dam, as were available, and which misht be useRil in the 
prosecution of my duties. On the 12th March, autnority having been 
given me to construct a dredge-boat for operation in the vicinity of 
Cun^rland dam, and such other points on the Ohio as might be deemed 
expedient, I made the necessary coutracts for the hull, ei^ne, and 
machinery, which were duly forwarded to the Topographical bureau, 
under date of the 24th March. The boat was finished complete in all 
its parts and appendages, together with four discharging-scows, and 
left Louisville on the 14th July for Cumberland dam. The amount 
expended on account of the construction, &c., of the dredge-boat, prior 
to June 30, 1853, was $11,696 14. 

Pursuant to instructions fi-om the Topographical bureau of the 24th 
March, in which I was authorized to receive from Captain J. W. Rua- 
seU, United States i^nt, any one of the siiag-boats then constructing 
at New Albany, Indiana, under his directions, should it answer mjr 
piirpoee, I selected the light-draught boat (No« 5) Terror, and that it 
mignt be made available for operations on the upper Ohio, I caused it 
tone brought above the falls to Louisville. The construction, equip- 
ment, and outfit, having been completed under my directions on the 6th 
May, it left Louisville for Pittsburg under the command of Captain J. 
K. Dillingham, an old and experienced snag-boat captain. 

My instructions to Capt. Dillingham were, mainly, that he should 
proceed as rapidly as possible to the head of the Ohio, and from thence 
work down, removing all obstructions in the shape of logs, snags, &c*, 
&x:., in and near the channel, and to return to Louisville in season to 

Eass over the falls with the usual June freshet, and to operate on the 
iwer Ohio. Unfortunately no " June freshet" of sufficient magnitude 
occurred, and the boat was compelled to remain above. 

The total number rf snags and other obstructions removed by the 
TerrcNr, prior to the 30th June, 1863, is as follows, viz : 



Date. 


finagtre- 
noved. 


Roots, Ac, 
Matted. 


laUed. 


Logs, ^., 
removed* 


Impendiiir 
trees fellel. 


May 6 to June 30... 


93 


16 


. ^ 


7 


10 



The amount expended by me on account of the construction, equip- 
ment, outfit, &c., tc., of the boat, prior to June 30, 1863, was 
$8,797 71. 

For reasons submitted to the bureau and duly approved, I decided 
to make the repairs and enlargement of Cumboriand dam by contract, 
rather than by hired labor. Accordingly, having advertised ifor propo- 
sals for the delivery of the amount of stone required, and having re- 
ceived many propositions from different contractors, that of Mr. Robert 
Swan was deemed most acceptable. Mr. Swan having made the 
lowest proposal, and beii^ well kDown as a former coutiacVot oxv xVie 
river, and as a maa of energy, honesty ^ and ability, 1 felt no YieaiXaXAOTi 



88 



H. Doe. 1- 



in recommending him for the contract My course having been ap- 
proved, a contract was entered into with him for the delivery into line 
of dam of about 3,000 tons of stone, which amount it was then sup- 
posed would be sufficient to make the required repairs. A copy of the 
contract was transmitted under date of June 7, 1853. 

Prior to the 30th June but 1,686 tons of stone had been deposiledy 
and no payments had been made by me on account of said contract. 

Of the work done at Cumberland dam and on the Ohio river, from 
the 3 St day of July to the present date, I will treat briefly, as follows: 

At Cumberland dam, to the date of the last report received from the 
supervisor of that work, (20th instant,) there had been 16,973 tons of 
stone deposited, which, together with that deposited prior to July 1st, 
viz : 1,686, gives a total of 17,669 tons. Having been, by reason of 
my other duties, unavoidably prevented from visiting this locality since 
the 26th July last, I cannot report from persongQ observations the 
eflfects, either beneficial or otherwise, of the repairs so far as tbey have 
progressed. At the date of my last visit I round the depth of water 
m the Kentucky chute of Cumberland island considerably increased, 
so much so that no boat attempted to pass through or over the dam, 
but all availed themselves of the Smithland channel. At that time no 
stone had been placed in the V or gap. Since that date the dredge- 
boat has been operating at and near the head of the Kentucky chute, 
in straightening the entrance, and widening and deepening the channel 
over the bar. 

The bar at the foot of Cumberland island probably now requires the 
services of the dredge-boat; and I have already sent instructions to the 
commandant of the Gopher to examine that locality, and to operate 
there, if found necessary and expedient. 

The snag-boat (No. 6) Terror, from the 1st to the 22d July, worked 
to great advantage between Cincinnati and Louisville. On her arrival 
here, at the date last mentioned, finding the water too low either to 
operate above Cincinnati or to pass the falls, and having removed all 
the obstructions that could be found near the channel between Cincin- 
nati and Louisville, I caused her to be laid up for repairs and some 
necessary alterations. The working crew were paid off, and the boat 
put in ordinary, with only the necessary officers and laborers required 
for the time, and at reduced wages. 

The total number of obstructions removed since July Ist is as 
follows : 



Date. 


Snags re- 
moved. 


Roots, &c.y 
blasted. 


Flatrboato 
raised. 


Logs,^., 
removed. 


Impending 
trees felled. 


July 1st to July 22d. 
Prior to July 1st 


47 
93 


13 
16 


14 
9 






7 


10 


Total since May 6, 
1863 


140 


28 


23 


7 


10 







H. Doc. 1. 8d 

On the 2d ultimo, by instructions from headquarters western river 
improvements, I was directed to make arrangements for a careful sur- 
vey of Marietta harbor ; to examine the dam at Belleville islands, and 
to inspect all the wing-dams on the upper Ohio, &c., &;c. 

In compliance with these instructions, I left Louisville on the 10th 
August, and have performed the duties required. 

The survey at and near Marietta has been made by my assistant, Geo 
F. Fuller, corps of engineers, under my directions. This survey was re- 
quired in consequence of a memorial having been received from sundry 
citizens of Marietta, urgently calhng for an improvement at that focaUty. 
I am not yet prepared to report fully on this subject ; but, from my 
personal observations on my recent visit, my views in reference thereto, 
as set fi)rth in my communication of the 17th June, 1853, remain un- 
changed, and to which I take leave to refer for further information on 
this subject. 

The drawings and report of this survey will be prepared and trans- 
mitted to headquarters western river improvements at an early date. 

The examination at Belleville, Illinois, was made particularly in 
reference to a request from C. D. Bauer, M.D., to the Secretary of the 
Interior, "that permission might be granted to use a portion of the rock 
br a wharf at feelleville." 

The petitioner evidently misapprehends the object for which this dam 
was built. He says "that the asm in question is not of the least utili- 
ty, as it is built at such a place that when the water is required in the 
channel it is perfectly dry around the dam." The dam in question 
ii intended to turn the water at a stage somewhat elevated above ex- 
treme low water, and also to back the river over Belleville shoals, a 
short distance above. Both of these objects are effected by the dam, 
and with very beneficial results. 

Belleville shoals have been a great obstruction to navigation in that 
part of the river; and, from the peculiar form and position of the bars, 
can be moie easily, economically and successfully improved, by means 
of the dam referred to, than by any other plan of improvement. I 
would, therefore, recommend that this dam be repaired, and elevated at 
least one foot above its present level. 

Belleville is located nearly equi-distant between the dam and the 

Suarries from whence the rock was obtained for the construction of the 
am, and doubtless suflScient stone for the purposes desired by Dr. 
Bauer could be obtained at these quarries. 

Having inspected the various dams on the Ohio between Pittsburg 
and Cincinnati, I am gratified in being warranted in reporting that in 
almost every instance they have proved decidedly benencial to the low- 
water navigation. Many of them, however, were not completed on the 
suspension of the work of improvement in 1844, and nearly all of them 
required both repairs and enlargement. Most of the breaches found on 
them have evidently been made by individuals, either for their own 
private advantage or with malicious intent. A remarkable resemblance 
was observed in several instances between the rocks at certain land- 
ings, in saw-mill ways, &c., &c., lo those remaining in the neighboring 
dams. 

The location of the dams inspected, their present condition, lihe le- 



M H. Doc. 1. 

pairs required, &:c., are biiefly enumerated as follows, eommenciog with 
the first dam below Pittsburg, aud proceeding in regular order down 
the Ohio : 

Deer Island iam. — ^Extending across the kft-haud chute of Deer 
island ; is in good condition, but will require about 3,000 tons of stone 
to complete it. 

Dam from foot of Neville^s island to tow-head. — A breach has been 
made in this dam, evidently for the passage of skiffs and other smaH 
boats ; about 400 tons of stone will nil the gap and repair the dam« 

Whke^s Ripple and Trap. — The lone dam extending aownwards from 
the ibot of tow-head should be raised about eighteen inches; the croas 
dam from Middletown requires elevating about one foot ; and the open- 
ing left for the ferry-way should be dimmished in length. 

LfOgstotcn havp' — The aam at this locality has been but partially con- 
structed. For a distance of five hundred and eighty-seven feet fi-om 
shore the dam requires no alteration ; thence, about five htmdred feet, a 
dam six feet in height will be necessary ; thence, about six hundred feet, 
tlie present dam should be elevated about one feoU 

naker'*s island. — Dam should be elevated about one foot. 

BIojcVs i4and. — No repairs necessary. 

Brown^s island. — ^A portion of the crest of the dam at the head of the 
island, for about half its length, has been washed off*. The wing-dam 
on the Virginia side has two small gaps requiring about fifty tons to 
fill them ; and about five hundred feet of the dam Gcom the shore dowop 
wards should be raised two feet; 8,000 to 10,000 tons of stone would 
make the necessary repairs^ 

Minm) Lland dam. — Requires about 3,000 tons of stone to raise it 
fer a custance of seven hundred feet in length. 

Bea^h Bottom dam. — ^No repairs required. 

Twin islands. — ^A breach in this dam four hundred feet in length ; 6,000 
to 7,000 tons of stone required. 

Captain island. — ^Middle portion of the dam requires elevating; about 
1,000 tons necessaiy. 

Fish Creek island. — The dam for about six hundred feet in length 
should be raised ; 3,000 tons would be sufficient. 

Fishing creek.-^Ahont four hundred feet of the dam to be elevaled one 
feot, and the dam extended downwards from three hundred to feur hun- 
dred feet further. As the water is shoal along the line of the dam, bat 
3,000 tons of stone would be required. 

WiUiamMfmU island. — Lower end of the dam should be raised, and a 
small ^p near the fcK>t filled ; 1,500 tons sufficient. 

WhittonU tow-head. — The dam at this locality had only been com- 
menced, and but little progress made towards its construction, at the 
date of the suspension in 1844. To make the improvement here, 
nearly an entire new dam will be necessary. 

Mtlls^ island. — The upper portion of the dam for about four hundred 
feet is perfect. There are two small breaches to be filled, and two 
spaces of four hundred and three hundred feet to be elevated two feet; 
4,000 tons sufficient. 
Jfi/i Creek Island dam. — ^No repairs required. 



H. Dqc. h 91 

Orand JUver idamd. — Lower end pf dam should be raisedf and the 
dam extended two hundred feet towards head of island. 

Peuicoat bar, — The right-hand dam is about two feet lower than the 
left, and might be raised at least one foot to advantage. Aboi^ one 
handred feet of the left-band dam requires raising. 

Three Brothers. — ^Dam was completed as far as built ; is in good 
order ; should be extended downward to head of Dry ba^', at Second 
Brother* 

yietima island. — ^Dam in good order, with the exception of a space 
about four hundred feet long, which require^ tp be raised about ope 
foot. 

Blaimtrhatsett^s island. — ^D^m at the head, for about three hundred feet^ 
Qommencin^ at Virginia shore, is in good condition ; thence for seventy- 
five feet it would he raised one foot ; the balance, about seven hundred 
feet, should be raised two feet. The dam at the foot of the island re- 
quires about 600 tons of stone to repair it^ 

Newberrn bar- — This dam requ^es elevatipg between two and three 
feet nearly its whole length. 

Bvfington island^ — ^Nq less than six gaps have been made in this dam, 
viz: one of thirty feeti one of fprty feet, two of sixty feet, one of fifty 
feet, and one of one hundred and thirty feet* Judging from their ap- 
pearance, they have been intentionally made* These gaps all require 
filing, and the Ipwer end of the dam, for a distance oi six hundred 
jfeet, should be raised. This dam was never coippleted. The im- 
provements at this locality require the completion of the old dam 
and the constrnction of one acroi^a the Ohio chute oi* the island^ as 
originally designed. 

Letarfs iifeiSi.— The whpJe dam requires raising fi^om one to two feet. 
Maqy of the stones appear to have been inteutiQna^Y removed. 

Raccocn inland. — ^Four hundred feet of dam from shore hne in perfect 
order ; thence, for a distance of one hundred and fifty feet, the dam 
should be raised from one to two feet ; and thence, about six hundred 
feet, at least three feet. Pilferinff from the dam appears to have been 
practised extensively at this locaUty. 

Brush Creek Mamd dam. — The entire length requires elevating about 
tioeefeet. 

There are several localities where no dams have a* yet been con- 
structed, but which present serious obstructions to low-water naviga- 
tion. The most prominent of these are Beaver shoals. Raccoon bar, 
and Warsaw bar. A dam at the head of Raecpop bar, which is im- 
mediately below Beaver shoals, would doubtless not onlv improve the 
channel at the bar, but would at the same time back the water over 
the foot of the shoals. 

Having never examined Warsaw bar at low w**ter, I am not pre- 
pared to suggest any plan of improvement at that locality. It is the 
most serious obstruction between Cincinnati and Louisville, and some 
improvement should doubtless be made thereat. A dredge-boat could 
be advantageously worked at Beaver shoals and Warsaw bar, as well 
as at many other peaces on the Ohio. 

The dams on the lower Ohio, with the exception of that at Cuvubei- 
land island, wre in 4 very dilapidated coziditipn ; and the cxpeOlveiic^ 



92 H. Doc. 1. 

of attempting any repairs of them is, to say the least, very question- 
able. The character of these bars is very different from that of those 
of the upper Ohio, nearly all of them being composed of h'ght-shifting 
sand. 

The navigation at these points may be improved temporarBy by 
dredging at a stage of water somewhat above the lowest; and the 
channels thus formed will remain open at least until the occurrence of 
the next freshet. The system will require the constant use of one or 
two dredge-boats, to operate during the summer months throughout 
the lower part of the river. 

The unexpended balance of appropriation for the Ohio river, including 
Cumberland dam, at this date, viz: $42,436 11, will be insufficient to 
complete the repairs and enlargement of the dam and at the same time 
cover the expenses of snagging, dredging, and other contingencies in- 
cident to the improvement of the river. In submitting an estimate for 
funds for the ensuing fiscal vear, therefore, no unexpended balance is 
supposed to remain on hancl at the close of the current fiscal year, viz: 
on the dOth June, 1854. 

The surveys and estimates for the repairs of Cumberland dam were 
made in 1848. During the period of nearly five years that has elapsed 
since that date, many changes have taken place at that locality. A 
portion of the extreme lower end of the dam, as it then existed, has been 
washed away, and throughout the length of the dam generally the stone 
has been displaced to some extent. The original estimate consequently 
falls short of the amount required at the time of commencing the present 
work, rendering a fiirther appropriation necessary to complete this im- 
provement. 

It now remains that I submit an estimate for fimds required, in the 
prosecution of the duties assigned me, for the ensuing fiscal year com- 
mencing July 1, 1854, and ending June 30, 1855, which is as follows, 
to wit : 

Eslimatem 

For continuing the improvement of the Ohio river, including 

Cumberland dam $90,000 

Respectfully submitted. 

CHAS.-A. FULLER, 
{7. 8* Agentt (ind Engineer Ohio River Impravementi ^. 
Lieut. Col. 8. H. Long, 

Superintendent Western River ImprovcnumUi Louitville, Ky. 



Dubuque, September 1, 1853. 
Colonel: I have the honor Xo furnish the following history of my 
operation for the past year, in relation to my duties as agent for the 
United States " for the improvement of the harbor of Dubuque, Iowa, 
for the upper rapids of the Mississippi, and to build a dredge-boat." 

I received the appointment as agent for the above-named works on 
the 2!2d September J 1852, and, agreeably to oidet^feotatke Topograph- 



H. Doc. 1. 98 

k^ bureau, repaired, to Dubuque, made the necessary examinations, 
"reported the condition of things and the work to be done," and con- 
tracted for the cuts above water, " in conformity with the understanding 
at the oflBce of the cofonel of the corps of topographical engineers," 

These cuts were necessary for the enlargement and improvement of 
the cut, oo which former ^propriations had been expended under the 
sanction of the Topographical bureau* 

1 found, by reference to the map of the surveys I had made in the 
year 1844, and a critical examination of the islands and river opposite 
the city, that some modifications and additions to the plan sanctioned 
bjr the bureau would be necessary, in order to make the improvement 
of a nature more permanent and suitable to the rapidly-advancing im- 
portance of the city. 

The current of the Mississippi, from some cause, had, within the 
preceding few years, taken a more direct course across firom the Wis- 
consin and Illinois shore, so as to impinge against the outer island with 
much greater velocity, about 200 yards above the outlet of the harbor, 
and had washed away nearly 100 feet of it, both above and below the 
outlet. The material from this abrasion has formed a bar about 150 
jards from the outer island, visible at low water for an extent of 200 
yards, and about parallel to the shore. The head of this bar was just 
(H)posite the upper side of the outlet, and made it very difficult for boats 
descending the river to make an entrance to the haroor, particularly so 
as the velocity of the current at this place was nearly 2.6 miles per 
hour. 

In addition to the improvements made under the appropriation of the 
general government, the citizens of Dubuque had made an excavation 
of 100 feet in width through the Bass island, immediately opposite the 
oadet, which excavation was then completed to within two teet of low- 
water mark ; and the piles which had been driven by direction of the 
Topographical bureau, in a line across the slough immediately opposite, 
had SLll been removed. 

From the changes which had taken place I inferred that, as the river 
continued to encroach upon the islands, the bar might extend upwards, 
and make the entrance by the present outlet still more difficult. I 
therefore recommended that a cut through the outer island should be 
made, from a point opposite the cut through Bass island, and extending 
obliquely up the river so as to meet the current of the Mississippi near 
the point where it impinged against the outer island. I also suggested 
that the lower cut through Bass island should be perfected, so that the 
entrance could be made, by boats coming up the river, through this cut, 
and their egress could be made by the upper cuts ; and, by boats going 
down, the entrance could be made by the upper and egress by the 
k)wer cut. 

On the 14th October I concluded a contract for removing the earth 
above water necessary for the enlargement of the entrances of the out- 
let and cut through Bass island, and forwarded a copy of the same to 
the Topographical bureau. The contractor, however, was not able to 
finish Ins work, owing to an imusual rise of the river and the inclemency 
of the weather. 
After having completed my examinations of the harbor, and repoxleA. 



$4 li. Dm. 1. 

thereon to the Topographical bureau, 1 proceeded, according to direc- 
tions, to Su Louis, and thence to Louisville, to make inquiries as to the 
facilities for constructing a dredge-boat, and on the 3d November re- - 

Eorted from St. Louis that it would be better to have the boat built at ^ 
louisville. 

I arrived at Louisville on the 8th, when I received instructions from ' 
the Topographical bureau not to enter into any arrangements for a ' 
dredge-boat until further orders. 

On the 29th November I received orders from the Topographical bu- 
reau to famish estimates of the probable cost of completing the improve- 
ments suggested by nie foi* the harbor of Dubuque, which were for- 
v^arded on the 30th. 

On the 22d December I received orders to niake the necesaarj^ ^ 
arrangements and have a dredge-bdat constructed ; and on the 25th, 
after having made the necessary inquiries as to the probable cost of 
materials, labor, &c., I suggested to the Topographical bureau that 
$20,000 be reserved of the appropriation for snag-boats and dredge- 
boats, for the construction of the dredge-boat. 

Measures were immediately taken ; and on the 7th of Januair, 1853, 
I reported that arrangements had been made with D. and J. Howard, 
of Jeffersonville, for the construction of the hull, framing, &c.; with 
William H. Granger, of Louisville, for the engines, castings, &c.; and 
with A. Van Devinter for bucket and bucket-chains — estimating the 
cost at $16,000. 

I remained at Louisville superintending the construction of the dredge- 
boat until it was nearly completed, when, in the latter part of April, I 
repaired to Washington, when I received verbal orders from the Topo- 
graphical bureau to proceed to Dubuque with the dredge and commence 
operations in the improvement of the harbor, in conformity with the 
plans I had suggested in my report of the 21st of October, r852. 

Having previously written for information on the subject, I was in- 
formed by telegraph, on the 1st of March, that two or more scows could 
be constructed at Dubuque by the 1st of May. I accordingly directed 
that they should be built, ana immediately sent drawings and specifica- 
tions to govern their construction. Disappointments in obtaining suita- 
ble timber were, however, met with, of which I was not apprized in 
time, and the scows were not commenced whed I reached Dubuque 
with the dredge on the 21st May. 

I immediately took measures to have the timber sawed and materials 
procured, and had workmen engaged on their construction by the 24th. 
Every effort was made to have them completed with as much expedi- 
tion as possible, but it was the 1st of July before one of them was 
ready for operations ; and the dredging was commenced on that day on 
the contemplated cut through the outer island opposite the upper cut . 
through Bass island. 

The water of the river was then nine feet above low-water marki 
and it was hoped that it might be found practicable to make this cut 
entire by means of the dredge, as there was then sufficient depth of 
water on a greater part of the surface of the island to float the boat, 
and the river still rising. It was found, however, that the firmly-rooted 
stumps, which covered the ground in many ipVace^^ ^x^seiiXfid ^eat ob- 



H. Doc. 1. 95 

icles to the operations; and this, together with the want of scows and 
e rapid subsidence of the water, made it impossible to effect the re- 
lired excavations with the dredge. The work at this cut was conse- 
lently suspended when the water became so low that the dredge 
ould not float them ; and from that time to the present it has been em- 
byed in removing the obstructions which existed in the former im- 
rovements, and enlarging ihe channels for approaching the harbor. 

The estimated amount of excavation above low water, in the cut 
irough the outer island, was ^,710 cubic yards, of which there re- 
lains about 20,000 cubic yards ; and I have advertised for proposals to 
emove it by contract during the low stage of water this fall — the 
reposals to be received until the 16th instant. When this earth is re- 
K)ved, there will be no difficulty whatever in removing the remainder 
rith a dredge-boat durmg the high water of next spring, and thus per- 
»cl the contemplated improvement to the harbor, by making it accessi- 
le at all stages of water to boats ascending or descending the river. 

It is contemplated that the dredge-boat will be used as long as it can 
e advantageously employed this fall in removing obstructions and en- 
irging the channels, and also in enlarging and deepening the harbor, 
rluch, in a low stage of water, is very contracted ; and, by a judicious 
lanagement with the use of the dredge-boat, the present appropriation 
rill be adequate. Very little can be e&cted without the use of a dredge, 
% all the improvements to be made, except the above-mentioned exca- 
ition through the outer island, consist in the removal of mud fi-om the 
dttom of the channels and harbor, which is at times covered with 
ater. 

In the construction of the dredge-boat, it was thought expedient so 
» model it as to suit the general purposes for which it was intended ; 
lat is, the improvement of the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, and Arkan- 
18 rivers, w^here it was supposed it would generally be employed in 
amoving the bars, whilst there was water enough in them to float the 
oat. For such use, experience has convinced me, it is well adapted, 
'be arrangement of the machinery is good, and it is capable of exca* 
ating, in such material as is usually found on the bottom of these rivers, 

00 cubic yards an hour, when working fairly over the material to be 
icavated. 

But experience has also found that it is not at all adapted to work 

1 narrow channels or confined harbors when it is contemplated to en- 
u^ge them, as this can only be done by working one bucket-chain at a 
me, and that nnder great disadvantages, as neither the dredge nor the 
K)w which received the load have room to float so as to work the 
uckets with full force. It is impossible to keep the buckets in con- 
tant successive action against a bank which the boat has to approach 
bliquely, and the scows can very rarely receive more than half a load. 

A different model should, therefore, be adopted for dredge-boats in- 
»ided for the enlargement of harbors or channels, and for the removal 
Fbars in the rivers ; I would merely suggest that the hull be increafied 
3 as to lesson the draught of water. 

I find that the steel bushings in the eyes of the links of the bucket- 
bains answer well the purpose for which they were intended, aa iJlQej 



98^ H. Doe 1. 

preserve the links entire, and wear the bolts much less than ihey were 
worn tfefore the bushings were introduced. 

As the werk for the improvement of the upper rapids has not yet 
been placed under my direction as agent, it would, I presume, be an 
a€t ot supererogation te make any report on the subject, other than to 
state that I have, agreeably to your instructions, aided the oflScer put 
in charge of the surveys by your orders, by my counsel and advice, 
whenever I have been called on by him to do so, and have requested 
him to execute the surveys in such manner as to enable the agent who 
may have the work in charge to form a correct idea of the extent and 
nature of the contemplated impediments. 

I am, with much esteem, your obedient servant, 

JOSHUA BARNEY, 

TJ. S. Agent. 
Col. S. H. Long, 

Suipt. W. R. Improvements, LauUville. 



APPENDIX D. 

Officb op Tennessee River Improvement, 

Knoxville, September 1, 1853. 

Colonel: I have the honor to submit the following report of the op- 
erations in the improvement of the Tennessee river since I took charge 
of it in April last, together with an estimate of funds necessary to com- 
plete it. 

Soon after taking charge of the work, I made an examination of the 
river as far down as Chattanooga, (formerly Ross' ferry,) one hundred 
and eighty-eight and a half milus below Knoxville, to ascertain the 
effect, at a moderate stage of the water, of the improvements made 
some years ago by the State of Tennessee, and how far these improve- 
ments conformed to those recommended by Colonel Long, topographi- 
cal engineers, in his report to the commissioners of the State. I was 
prevented, by a rapid rise of water in the river, from extending this 
examination to Kelly's ferry, the lowest point of the river contemplated 
in the act of Congress making the appropriation for its improvement. 
In the month of June I made an exammation of the river as far down 
as the ferry, and the water being near its lowest stage, and the dams 
already constructed nearly bare, I had an opportunity to ascertain 
their positions ; the effect they have had on the depth, direction, and 
velocity of the current, and their present condition. I found that in 
every case except one, at the Suck, the plans of improvement recom- 
mended by Colonel Long had been disregarded, and, in every instance, 
the dams constructed have either failed to give the requisite depth at 
low water, or have changed the direction of the channel, and given the 
current a velocity so great that steamboats require the aid of warps to 
stem it ; and it is at imminent risk that flat-boats, in which all the pro- 
duce of the country above Knoxville passes down the river, pass these 
dams at all; and frequent and serious losses have been sustained by 



H. Doc. 1. 97 

1 passing a dam — ^being forced by the current and wrecked upon 
n below. 

natural velocity of the current of the river is so great at most 

points requiring improvement, that whenever the obstruc- 

o be overcome are such that 'the requisite depth at low water 

obtained without the aid of wing-dams, they should be dispensed 

Tbey would, if properly placed, cause but little impediment to 

x>ats, which have the power to change their direction in most 

ions of the current, but ihey endanger descending flat-boats ; 

ire, the plan of improvement which will afibrd a sufficient depth 

' ^water for steamboats^ without increasing the velocity of the 

it so as to endanger descending flat-boats, is the one to be 

Hi. - 

; obstructions to the navigation of that part of the Tennessee 
rontemplated in the act of Congress making the appropriation for 
provement, between KnoxviUe and KeUyUferry^ arise from several 
i, all of which can be removed at an expense small in comparison 
be importance of the trade that will pass through it when the 
ed regions %i the river and its tributaries are brought into use. 



From the division of the river by islands, at various points, into 
il channels, neither of which has the required depth, at low 
, on the bars formed at the islands. 

From ledges of rocks called hog-backs^ which in m|ny cases ex- 
rom one shore to the other, and on which, at low water, there is 
fficient depth. 

From large rocks in the channel — some loose, and others fixed to 
5d of the river. 

. From trees which project from the shore on the boat channel. 
. From the contraction of the river to a comparatively small 
, forcing the whole body of water through a narrow channel, with 
x;ity so great that no steamboat can stem the current ; this, with 
rous rocks in the channel, constitutes the most formidable obstruc- 
:> the navigation of the river — the Suck. 

e first work in the order in which the improvement of the Ten- 
e river was commenced under my instructions, is at the Knoxville 
3. Here, at extreme low water, there is not more than thirteen 
s depth ; over the bars a large portion of the water of the river 
8 between the islands and the left shore. The improvement 
sary is the construction of two dams — one 480 feet long and 2 feet 
between the islands ; the other 460 feet long, from 2 to 4 feet 

between the uppermost island and the left shore. These will 
3 a sufficient depth of water on the bars which are situated near 
K>t of the second island. 

is work was commenced on the 12th day of July ; has progressed 
ily since, and the whole of the dam between the islanas is com- 
1; and the upper dam, between the first island and the left shore, 
lenced on the 28th of August, will, if the stage of the water in the 
continues favorable, be completed in the course of the present 
b* In the mean time, the rocks most prominent on the bais v^'uSl 
moved. 

Partm—7 



•^ 
n 



96 H. Doc. 1. 

The first improvement below Knoxville is at Lyons* shoals. The 
obstruction here is a rock bar 300 yards wide, having on it, at low 
water, but 19 inches. I have causeatbe dam constructed by the State 
to be thoroughly repaired, by placing heavy rock on it througteut its 
whole length, 1,350 feet; and an extension of 400 feet in len^ to be 
built to it, in a direction to bring the water into the channel over the 
bar beforefl can spread over the space below the dam ; this will insure 
a suflScient depth at low water. The extension to, and repair of, the 
old dam were completed on the 30th of August. 

The second improvement made is that at fFilUams^ shoals. This con- 
sists of a dam across the slough between the first island and the left 
shore. Here the efiect of the dam has been but little, because the 
water, after leaving it, passed around the first tow-head below it, and 
does not reach the boat channel. I have caused a dam to be built from 
the head of the main island to the second tow-head above it, which, in 
addition to the water of the river, will bring that which passes on the 
left of the tow-head into the boat channel, which is on the right of the 
main island. This will insure a depth of at least two feet at low 
water, and will not increase the velocity of the current so as to impede 
the passage of ascending steamboats, or endanger descending flat-beats. 

Little River shoals. — The improvements made at these shoals, by the 
Stale of Tennessee, have not only failed to improve the navigation of 
the river at this point, but have closed the natural channel, always 
passable by ^teamboats and descending flat-boats, and have reduced 
the former to a channel through which they have to use uxtrps in as- 
cending and to stop their engines in descending, and the descending 
flat-boats of using every precaution in passing the upper dam to avoid 
being wrecked on the lower — a very difficult thing to accomplish after 
leaving the first dam, with the velocity given to the current by it 

The dams necessaiy at these shoals were two. The first to extend * 
fi-om a point 200 yards above the mouth of Little river, to a tow-head > 
between the left shore and the main island ; the other to extend fi-om '^ 
the tow-head to the head of the main island. ^ 

The first work done at these shoals this year was the removal of the '^ 
dam on the right side of the channel, which closed the old channel, and ^'^ 
the construction of a new dam 800 feet long on that side parallel to that ■ * 
channel. The work now in progress is the construction of the new ^^ 
dam between the tow-head, near the mouth of the river, and the head ^^ 
of the main island. The old dam between the left shore and the tow- ' 
head alluded to above, 770 feet in length, has been thoroughly repaired, 3 
by placing heavy rocks on it throughout its whole length. To complete |" 
the work at this point, it is contemplated to romove 270 feet of the > 
lowermost dam, which extends from the large island towards the right ■ i 
shore, which will increase the space, in passing the dams, to — feet, and -^ 
thus render descending flat-boats more secure ; and the materials taken i 
from this dam will be used in rebuilding and replacing others which ■ 
require it. 

Wright's shoals. — The obstructions here consist of two bars — the first 
at the nead of Wright's island, the other near the foot of it. The upper ' 
bar has a depth of two feet four inches at low water over it; the 
ower bar bos a channel over it of sufficient depth at low water, and 



»i- 



H. Doc. I. 99 

in width. All that is required at these shoals is the removal of 
•ic yards of rock to widen the channel over the lower bar, and 
en logs from it, and of impending trees from the shore of the 

fall in the river at the upper bar is three feet four inches in a 

J of 420 yards, and at the lower bar of three feet two and a 

inches in the distance of one-quarter of a mile. 

r skoals, — ^All that is required at these shoals is the removal of 

logs from the channel and of impending trees from the shore. 

IPs shoals. — It is necessary to straighten the boat channel through 

loals by the removal of 460 cubic yards of rock and sunken 

n it; also, of impending trees from the shore pf the river. The 

ugh these shoals is three feet eleven inches in a distance of one 

^eighth of a mile. 

a shoals. — These obstructions extend through a distance of a 

The first is a bar situated near the head of the main island, over 

lie boat channel has a depth of but twenty inches at low water; 

iring the old dam. and giving it the necessary height, a sufficient 

r water will be obtained at this point. 

lext bar is distant from the first about three-quarters of a mile. 

the boat channel has a depth at low water of but sixteen inches. 

)air of the old dam built at this part of the shoals, and the re- 

f rocks from the channel below the dam, will insure «the requisite 

f water. 

een the dams built at these shoals there are bars of rocks, one 

h extends from the island to the left shore ; a channel of suffi- 

dth and depth should be cut through this. The fall ofAe liver 

shoals is, m one mile, three feet, 
•ials for this work have been contracted for, and it wiU be eom^ 

in the early part of this month. 

'*8 shoals. — The obstructions at this point consist of a gyavel bar, 
xtends from the upper island to the right bank of the fiver, near 
le low-water boat c-hannel is situated. Over this bar, a distance 
yards, the depth at low water is but twenty iBches% This 
tion could be overcome by building a dam to extend from, a point 
ipper island above the bar obUquely towards the right shore, 
velocity of the water (three feet four inches i»half a mile) is too 
r this means to be used ; the remedy, therefore, is the excavation 
and gravel; the quantity necessary to beiemoved is estimated at 
>ic yards. 

V the middle of the second island another obstruction -^a rock 
ch extends from the island to the right bank of the river — is 

The boat channel through this reef has a width of but 40 feet., 

sufficient width to it, it will be necessary to excavate about 176 

irds of rock. 

een the bars there are some detached rocks, and on the bank, 

lich the channel is, some impending trees— all of which should 

ved. 

sure a sufficient depth of water in passing the second island, it 

sed to close the slouch between the islands by a dam 750 feeX 



100 H. Doc. 1. 

long, 2 feet h%h. This work will be commenced this month, (Septem- 
ber,) and completed this season. 

Turkey Creek sheab. — The only obstructions at these shoals are k 
few sunken logs and rocks in the channel, which can be removed at 
small expense* The fall of the river in passing these shoals, in a dis- 
tance of three-fourths of a mile, is 2 feet. 

Shaw's shoals. — There is a suflScient depth of water at these shoals, 
but the channel is crooked, by rocky bars projecting from the island 
and the banks, which should be removed to straighten the channel. 

About 600 yards below the island there is another obstruction caused 
by three bars. The upper one is al)out 100 feet wide, and has 20 
inches water ove^it at low water; the second is 60 feet wide, and has 
only 18 inches water over it at low water ; the third is 40 feet wide, 
and has but 18 inches water on it at low water. A short distance be- 
low these there is a reef of rocks extending clear across the river, on 
which the channel has a width of but 40 feet. The improven}ent ne- 
cessary for the latter obstruction is the removal of rock and gravel fronji 
the channel, to give it suflScient width and depth. The quantity of 
rock to be excavated will be about 460 cubic yards. The lall in the 
river here is 3 feet 6 inches in one and a half miles. p 

Bustle's shoals. — There is sufficient depth of water at these shoals 
except at two points, at which there are reefs of rocks extending clear 
across the river. There are also a few detached rocks, which should 
be removed. The quantity of rock to be removed, to straighten the 
channel and to excavate a channel of sufficient width and depth 
through the reefs, is estimated at 276 cubic yards. The fall of the 
river anihese shoals is 8^ inches in 613 yards. 

Belle 'CatUon shoals. — There is sufficient depth at these shoals 
at the lowest stage of the water in the river. All that is re- 
quired is the removal of a few sunken logs and rocks from the channel 
and impending trees from the shore. The fall in the river here is one 
foot in five-eighths of a mile. 

Lenmr's shoals. — These shoals are situated at the confluence of the 
Holston and Little Tennessee rivers. The obstruction consists of a bar 
260 feet wide, extending from the island to the right shore, through 
which the boat channel has a width of but 40 feet. There is another 
channel of sufficient depth near the lower mouth of the Little Ten- 
nessee, which is frequently used by ascending steamboats. The im- 
provements required here are widening and deepening the boat chan- 
nel across the bar, and removing simken logs from the channel at the 
mouth of the Little Tennessee. 

Browder's shoals. — The obstruction at this point consists of a reef of 
rock near the foot of a small island of the same name, extending from 
one shore of the river to the other, having a depth of but 12 inches 
water at the lowest stage. The improvement necessary is to cut a 
chaimel of sufficient width and depth near the present boat channel 
The quantity of rock to be removed will not exceed IGO cubic yards. 

CarmichaeCs shoals. — There is sufficient depth of water on these 
shoals near the right bank of the river, the only obstructions being logs 
sunk in the channel and trees overhanging it. These should be re- 
moved 



[ H. Doc. 1. 101 

Wmding $hoaU. — ^The only obstructions to be removed at this point 
are about 60 cubic yards of rock in the boat channel, together with a 
few sunken lo^s and ioipending trees from the shore. The fall in the 
river is three feet in a distance of one-fourth of a mile. 

Harriton^t shoah, — There is a" sufficient depth of water at these 
shoals. AD that is required is the removal of several hog-back rocks 
ftom the boat channel. The fall of the river is 4J feet in the distance 
of half a mile. 

Creesey^s $hoals. — There is sufficient depth of water at these shoals, 
th« only obstruction being a few hog-back rocks and sunken logs, which 
can be removed from the channel at a small expense. 

Bweet-water shoals. — The obstructions at these shoals consist of a baa: 
of rock and gravel at the foot of an island of the same name, and hog- 
back rocks near the head of it. The depth of water across the upper- 
most bar is about 20 inches, and across the lower about 30 inches, at 
low water. The best naode of improvement at these shoals will be by 
excavating a channel of sufficient width and depth across the upper, 
and removing the rocks from the channel across the lower bar. 

Bogarfs skoaJs.— The shoals at this place are about 610 yards in ex- 
tent, near an island of the«same name. There is also a reef of rocks, 
15 yards in width, extending across the river at the head of the shoals, 
and another of near the same width at the foot. The channel through 
the shoals is crooked. To straighten the channel, and to give it suffi- 
cient depth on the bars, will require the removal of about 260 cubic 
yards ot rock. 

Pond Creek shoals. — The only obstruction at this place is a few hog- 
back rocks, estimated at about fifty cubic yards, which should be re- 
moved. The depth of the low-water channel is twenty-four inches. 

Bailty*s shoals. — A low-water channel of sufficient depth can be 
obtained by the removal of about fifty cubic yards of rock and im- 
pending trees fi-om the right shore, near which the boat channel is. 

The Sev^n Island shoals — The obstructions at this place are, first, 
near the head of the first island, where there is a gravel bar, extending 
nearly across the slough, on which the channel, which is close to the 
right shore, is obstructed by sunken logs, which should be removed. 
About half a mile below the head of this slough there is a bar of rock, 
on which at low water there is but twelve inches depth ; and opposite 
the two lowermost islands there is a gravel bar, on which there is but 
fifteen inches at low water. It will be necessary to remove the logs 
fiDm the bar at the head of the slouch, to cut a channel of sufficient 
width and depth through the bar of rocks, and to build a wing-dam 
130 yards long, 2 feet high, to concentrate the water on the lower bar, 
to extend fi-om the lowermost island towards the right bank. 

Big Island shoals. — At this place dams have been built. The height 
given to them was not sufficient. By repairing them, and increasing 
their height in a necessary degree, an adequate depth at low water will 
be obtained through^ut the shoals, which are situated, the first at the 
head of the slough used by boats, the second about two miles below. 

Caney creek. — The obstructions at these shoals extend through a dis- 
tance of nearly four miles. They are caused by numerous rock\>ar%% 
over which the depth of the low-water chaimel is but twelve incVie*. 



102 H. Doc. 1. 

The shoals commence near the head of Caney island, at which a rock 
bar of fifty-five yards width extends across the river. The boat chan- 
nel across this bar is near the right shore. The channel passes along 
the right shof e to jhe mouth of Caney creek, where it turns to the left, 
passes near the foot of the island to the left shore of the river, along 
which it is situated, until it passes the foot of the shoals. 

The improvement necessary here is the construction of two damsi 
one between the head of the large island and a smaller one near to it, 
and another short dam between the latter island and the left shore. 
These dams will insure a sufficient depth in the low-water channel 
In addition to these improvements, it will be necessary to remove 
sunken logs and about sixteen hundred cubic yards of hog-back rocks. 

From the lower end of the island to the foot of the shoals there are 
several projections of rocks on the channel, which are obstructions at 
the lowest stage of the water. These will be removed in the course of 
this and the early part of the next month, and in May thus obtain a 
sufficient depth of water ; if not, then by contracts already entered 
into, the materials for constructing the dams necessary will be ready, 
and should the stage of water continue favorable long enough, they 
will be completed before the close of the working season. 

King^s shoals. — ^At this place there is a bar of rock near the middle 
of the river, which is exposed at low water. From this bar there are 
several ledges which extend to either shore. The requisite depth at 
low water may be obtained by removing about one hundred and ten 
yards of rock. 

About half a mile below the first shoal there is another, which ex- 
tends across the channel. Here the removal of sixty cubic yards of 
rock will be necessary. 

WintmCs shoals, — These are amongst the most formidable obstructions 
in the parts of the river to which the present appropriation is to be 
applied. 

The river is divided into two sloughs by an island called Winton's 
or Crescent island. The boat channel is in the left slough. At the 
head of this island are two others, separated from it, the first by a 
slough ninety yards wide ; the uppermost from the latter island by a 
slough of the same width. The deepest channel is situated between 
the two small islands. The width of the main slough of the river is 
four hundred yards, and is on the right of all the islands ; that of the 
slough between the islands and the left shore varies from one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred and fifty yards. 

The main slough is obstructed by numerous hog-back and other 
rocks, some of which cross and others pioject into the channel. The 
slough on the left of the islands has no other obstruction than the shoal- 
ness of the water and a ledge of rocks at the lower end of the island, 
near the head of the uppermost island ; and between the two small 
islands and the shore there are a few hog-back rocks to be removed. 

The improvements necessary at these shoals are, the construction of 
a dam one hundred yards long, three feet high, between the head of 
the large island and the small one next above it ; a dam one hundred 
and fifteen yards long and four feet high between the two small islands; 
and a dam three hundred yards long and three feet high, extending 



H. Doc. 1. lOS 

I head of the uppennost island obliquely towards the right shore 

iver. 

dition to the above improvement, it is proposed to widen the 

through the ledge of rocks below the large island, and to ex- 
^ opening towaros the left shore, so as to avoid the short turn 
pessary around the foot of the island. The quantity of rock to 
yvedis estimated atone hundred and seventy cubic yards. The 
Lte fall of the river in the left slough, through a distance of five 
alf miles, is three feet. 

? Creek ihoalt. — The difficulties of navigation at these shoals are 
by th(3 crookedness and shoalness of the boat channel at low 
md the number of fast and loose rocks in the channels. The 
divided into two sloughs, by two tow-heads and two islands, 
in slouffhis on the right of these tow-heads and islands, and has 
age width of 450 yards ; the slough between the islands and 
bank afibrds the best channel for navigation, Pnd was improved 
State of Tennessee, some years ago, by constructing dams con- 
the tow-heads and islands. These dams require repairs, which, 
3 removal of rocks 25 cubic yards fi-om the channel, will insure 
lisite depth at low water. 

rpie^t thoiali. — The obstructions here are caused by a bar of rock, 
ixtends nearly across the river, and is situated near Gillespie's 
nd another bar, 600 yards below the first, and extends ahout 
urths the way across the river. The passage around the point 
rst bar, although narrow, affords the best water. The improve- 
scessary at these shoals is the removal of rock from the ends of 
^ and of loose rock fix)m the channel. 
7fC$ shoals. — The obstruction here is a bar of fast rock, which 

from Walton's island to the right shore, over whi^ the boat 
[ has. a depth of but 16 inches through a distance of 50 yards. 
ly improvement necessary at these shoals is to deepen the chan- 
blasting rock. The quantity of rock to be removed is estimated 
3ubic yards, 
(all of the river at these shoals is about 2 feet li inch in 1,40D 

' skoals. — The obstruction here is a gravel bar, which extends 
le shore to the other. The only improvement necessary is to 
te a channel through the bar of sufficient width and depth. 
fieUts shoals. — These shoals extend through a distance of 2| 
At two points — the first at the head, the other near the foot of 
d — ^it is necessary to remove rock to give the channel sufficient 
t low water ; also, sunken logs from the channel between the 
id impending trees from the bank of the river, 
descent of the river, in a distance of 2i miles, is 2 feet 4 inches. 
'i shoals. — The difficulties of navigation at these shoals are caused 
erous bars of rock, which pnyect from either side of the river, 
der the boat chaqpel very crooked. At the lower end of the 
bere is not a sufficient depth at low water ; and there are also 
hog-back rocks in the channel, 
iest method of improving these shoals is to open a cVianneV^ 



ll»l H. Doc. }. 

near the present boat channel, of sufficient width and depth : to effect - 
which it will be necessary to excavate about 1,320 cubic yards of rock, r 

The descent of the river at these shoals is three feet in one mile. t= 

Hitoassee lAooZf.^The depth at low water over these shoals is twen- , 
ty inches. It may be increased to two feet by building h wing-dam, »= 
one hundred yards long and two feet high, to extend from a point of 
the island near the bar obliquely towards the right bank of the river. 
This, together with the removal of a few snags from the channel, is 
all the improvement necessary at this place. 

Sale Creek shoals. — Clearing the channel of sunken logs, and the bank 
of the river of impending trees, is all that is necessary to be done at - 
these shoals. If, after this is done, there is not sufficient water, then - 
a dam, 200 yards long and two feet high, extending from the head of 
the lower island, parallel to the right bank, will insure it. 

Sanda shoals. — -The boat channel at these shoals is very crooked, ren- 
dered so by hog-back rocks, and in several places is obstructed by - 
rocks in it. 

The improvement required at these shoals is the construction of a 
dam 125 yards long and 4 feet high, Commencing at the head of the - 
uppermost island, and to extend obliquely up stream towards the left 
shore of the river. A dam, 4 feet high, should be c(Histructed between _ 
the two islands. A third dam should be constructed from the foot of ^ 
the main island, parjdlel to the right shore, to extend a distance of 450 I 
yards — the object of which is to turn the water, which passes the foot . 
of the island in the present boat channel, into the channel near the right - 
bank of the river. . 

In connexion with this improvement, it will be necessary to remove I 
a number ^ rocks from the slough near the foot of the main island, and 
at another point, 600 yards from the foot of the island, near the right ^ 
bank of the river. 

Before commencing the construction of the last-mentioned dam, but 
after completion of the two first, the rocks and other obstructions should 
be removed from the points near the foot of the main islsmd, and below 
it near the right shore. 

The fall of the river through these shoals, a distance of 2| miles, is 
3 feet. 

Opossum Creek ripple — The only improvement necessary at this place 
is the removal of a few rocks and logs from the channel, and impend- 
ing trees from the bank of the river. 

North Chickanuitigo shoals. — The removal of sunken logs from the 
channel, and of impending trees from the bank, is all that is required 
at this place. 

South Chickamango shoals. — The obstructions to be removed are hog- 
back rocks and sunken logs from the channel, and of trees which over- 
hang it from the banks of the river. 

Ross^ First shoal. — There are two obstructions at this place. The 
first is a gravelly pebble bar situated near the head of Koss' island, 
over which, at low water, the boat channel has a depth of but fifteen 
inches ; a similar bar is found about one-third of its length from the head 
of the island. The improvements necessary here are the construction 
o/'a dam two hundred and ten yards long and three feet high, to ex. 



H. Doc. 1. 105 

t^id from the head of the island obliquely towards the left bank ; this, 
together with the removal of suDken logs, will insure a depth of at 
least two feet water in its lowest stage. 

Rm9^ Second ttunU. — The obstructions at this place consist in a ledge 
of rocks which extends across the river above the head o(Ro$i idand; 
and another, at the foot of the same island, occasioned by the division 
of the river into several narrow channels by sand and gravel bars. 

The improvement necessary here is, blasting rock from the ledge 
above the head of the island, in and near the boat channel, clearing 
away sunken lo^ and impending trees. If this should not effect the 
object, the velocity of the water through the shoals will not be rendered 
too great if a wing-dam were built, two hundred yards long, three feet 
b'gh, to extend from the head of the island obliquely towards the head 
of the right shore of the river. This will increase tne volume of water 
to pass over the impediment at the foot of the island, and give it veloc- 
ity sufficient to clear them away. 

The fall of the river here is ten inched in a distance of three-eighths 
of a mile. 

♦ The TuvMing shoals. — The obstructions at these shoals consist of a 
rapid current, a narrow, crooked low-water channel, and of numerous 
rocks, fast or loose, in and near the channel. In a high stage of the 
water, where it spreads over the area on either side of tne channel, and 
there is suflScient vent for the water from the eddy, these cease to be 
obstructions. 

The difference between the levels of the head and foot of the shoals 
is two feet four inches in a distance of one-quarter of a mile. The aver- 
age width of the channel through the shoals is fifty-five feet, that ot 
the eddy above them about eight hundred feet, It is only necessary, 
therefive, to reduce the level of the head of the shpals to near that of 
the foot to increase the width of the low-water channel to near that of 
the eddy above; and to remove the rocks from the channel by these 
means, it is believed that the obstructions at these shoals will be entirely 
removed.. 

• The Suck. — The great difficfllty to navigation at this point is much 
greater than at any other between Knoxville and Kelly's ferry, and to 
overcome which much greater expense must be incurred, from forcing 
an immense body of water, collected in an eddy five hundred feet 
wide and varying in depth fiY)m eighteen to fifty feet, through a rocky 
passage one hundred and fifty feet wide, and in which there is a fall 
of feur feet four and a half inches in a distance of one thousand nine 
hundred and forty feet. 

The only plan of improvement, it appears to me, that wiU insure 
success, and enable boats to ascend through the Suck without the aid of 
warps, as they do now through the canal constructed some years ago, 
and which cannot be used in the lowest stage of the water at all, is 
to reduce^ the level of the foot of the eddy to near the same as that of 
the foot of the Suck; to increase the width of the Suck to near that of the 
eddy, and to remove the rock in the Suck; thus increased in width to a 
depth of three feet below the surfece of the water. 

The plans that I would propose for the improvement are — 



106 



H. Doc. 1. 



1st To excavate a channel three hjjndred and thirty feet wide, which 
after completion shall be but four inches higher at the foot of the eddy 
than at the foot of the Suck. 

2d- To equalize the levels of the eddy and foot of the Suck as nearly 
as in the first plan, and to excavate a channel forty feet wide. 

The latter would be much the most expensive plan, but I have no 
doubt of its success, and that it would enable boats to ascend without 
the aid of warps. The first might be tried, and if it does not a£S>rd 
sufficient vent for the water, and reduce its velocity so that boats can 
ascend without difficulty, then the work can be continued at once, as 
the failure to effect this purpose will be seen, and the second plan car- 
ried out 

I have inserted in the table of estimates an estimate for each plan 
separately. 

1 could not carry out the survey of the Pot, the Skillet and the Pan, 
and have therefore made no estimate for them in the report. 
I am, very respectfuUy, your obedient servant, 

J. W. McCLELLAN, 
Brev. Lieut. Colonel^ Captain Top. Engineers. 

CoL J. J. Abert, 

Chief United States Topographical Engineers. 



Estimate of funds required to complete the improvement of the Tennessee river 

m dam. 



Localitief. 



EnoxTille shoali ..... 

Lvons's shoals 

Williams's shoals . . . . 
Little River shoals ... 

Choata shoals 

Booth's shoals 

Bogart's shoals 

Beven Island shoals... 

Big Island shoals 

Caney Creek shoals... 

. Winton's shoals 

White's Creek shoals 
Hiwassee shoals .... . 
Sale Creek shoals.... 

Sanda shoals 

Boss's 1st shoals . . . . . 
Bou's 9d shoals 

Total.. 



t 



900 

900 

700 

1,500 

1,620 

750 

480 

360 

870 

2,310 

1,500 

1,920 

300 

600 

1,650 

630 

600 



16,990 



I' 



2 
2 
2 
2 

Bepairs. 

2 
Bepidrs. 

2 
Bepairs. 

2 

2i 
Bepairs. 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 



r 



$2 25 
2 25 
225 
225 

1 50 

2 25 

1 50 
225 
225 

2 25 
2SH 
1 50 
225 
225 

3 37i 
3 37i 
3 374 



1 



$2,025 00 

675 00 

1,575 00 

3,375 00 

2,430 00 

1,687 50 

720 00 

810 00 

1,957 50 

5,197 50 

4,218 75 

2,880 00 

675 00 

1,350 00 

5,568 75 

2,126 25 

2,025 00 



39,296 25 



H. Doc. 1. 

ESTIMATE—Continued. 
Estimate for the removal of tnagt, sunken logs, ^. 



107 



Loealitiet. 



I 



It 






Knoxrifle iboala 

Lyoa i'i ghoftli 

Wmumt's iboiUi 

Little BiTer alioali 

Wright's thoalf 

Low't thoalf 

fiuMell'fl thoalfl 

Turkey Creek ihoalf 

Choauthoak 

Booth's ihoals 

Shaw'tthoali 

Bvtle'i shoala 

BeDe Caotoo ahoala. 

Lenoir's ahoalt 

Browder'fl thoala 

Cannichael't thoali 

Winding shoals 

Harrison's shoals 

Creesey's shoals 

Sweet-water shoals 

Bogart's shoals 

Pond Creek shoals 

Bafley's shoals.. 

The Seven Island shoals. 

Big Island shoals 

Caney Creek shoals 

King's shoals 

Wmton's shoals 

White's Creek shoals. . . . 

Gillespie's shoals 

Walton's shoals 

WtUs's shoals 

GoodSeld Creek shoals .. 

Kelly'sshoals 

Lea's shoals 

Hiwassee shoaU 

Sale Creek shoals 

Opoasom Ripple shoals.. 

Sanda shoals 

North Chicamanga 

South Chicamanga 

Boss's First shoids 

Boss's Seoond shoals.... 
Tombling shoals 



30 

50 

40 

S50 

150 



$3 25 
285 
225 
225 
225 



$45 00 
112 50 
90 00 
562 50 
337 50 



460 
60 
200 
250 
460 
275 
30 
450 
160 



225 
225 
225 
225 
225 
225 
225 
225 
225 



1,035 00 
135 00 
450 00 
562 50 

1,035 00 

616 75 

67 5a 

1,012 50 
360 00 



60 
150 

40 
200 
260 

50 

50 
200 

40 

2,000 

170 

200 

25 
200 
420 

80 

100 

1,320 



225 
225 
225 
225 
225 
225 
225 
225 
2 25 
225 
225 
225 
2 25 
225 
225 
225 
225 
225 



135 00 
337 50 

90 00 
450 00 
585 00 
112 50 
112 50 
450 00 

90 00 

4,500 00 

382 50 

450 00 

56 25 
450 00 
945 00 
180 00 
225 00 
2,970 00 



50 
100 



225 
225 
225 



112 50 
225 00 

810 00 



150 



Total. 



240 
400 



8,820 



225 
225" 



337 50 



540 00 
900 00 



2,187 00 



$40 00 
50 00 



100 00 
30 00 
50 00 
70 00 
80 00 
50 00 



50 00 
100 00 



60 00 
120 00 



20 00 
100 00 



40 00 
100 00 

40 00 
140 00 

40 00 
250 00 

80 00 

60 00 



40 00 
140 00 



40 00 

60 00 

250 00 

70 00 

150 00 

120 00 

200 00 

60 00 

70 00 



2,870 00 



$45 00 
152 to 
140 00 
562 50 
437 50 
30 00 

1,085 00 
205 00 
530 00 
612 50 

1,035 00 
618 75 
117 50 

1,112 50 
360 00 
60 60 
255 00 
337 50 
110 00 
550 00 
585 00 
112 50 
152 50 
550 00 
130 00 

4,640 00 
422 50 
700 00 
136 25 
510 60 
945 00 
220 00 
365 00 

2,970 00 

40 00 

60 00 

362 50 

295 00 

960 00 

120 00 

537 50 

60 00 

610 00 

900 00 



24,740 00 



108 



H. Doc. 1. 



Estimate for widening the channel at the Suck — relative cost of a vnith of 
four hundred ana forty feet, and of three hundred and forty feet. 



H 

*^ a ca 

1"^ 



K 

o 

I 

s. 

I 



I 

I 

I 



The Suck . 
Do... 



440 feet. 
340 feet. 



24,913 
10,691 



$150 
1 50 



16,296 
13,580 



$2 50 
250 



$78, 109 50 
49,966 50 



Difference . 



28,123 00 



Hence the eitimated cost of deepening the channel, m> fiir as this operatioa 
dependa on the remoTal of rocks, logs, trees, &c., as shown hj the foregoing 
table, is 

And the estimated cost of improvements, by building and repairing dams, is. .. 
Also, the estimated cost of improving i^^.Suek, so as to have a width of 440 feet. 



To this amount should be added 10 per cent, for contingencies 

Which gives the aggregate cost of improving the navigation of the Holston and 
Tennessee rivers, between Knozville and Kelly's ferry, in the manner herein 
proposed 

Deduct balance of the appropriation for the improvement of the Tennessee 
river, passed the 1st session of the last Congress 

Leaving a balance of funds necessaiy to be obtained to oom])lete the improvement 
of the navigation of the river, in the manner herein proposed, of. 

The estimated oost of deepening the channel, so fiur as this 'operation depends 

on the removal of rocks, logs, trees, &.o., as shown by a foregomg table 

And the estimated cost of improvement, by building and repairing dams 

Also, Che estimated cost of improving the Suck^ so as to have a width of 340 feet. 



$24,740 00 
39,296 25 
78,109 50 

142, 145 75 
14,214 57 



156,360 33 
96 301 00 

120,059 32 



To this amount should be added, for contingencies, 10 per cent 

Which gives, for the aggregate cost of improving the navigation of the Holston 
and Tennessee rivers, between Knozville and Kelly's ferry, in the manner 
herein proposed 

Deduct balance of the appropriation for the improvement of the Tennessee river, 
passed at the last session of Congress^ 

Leaving a balance of funds necessary to be obtfuned to complete the improve- 
ment of the navigation of the river, in the manner herein proposed, of. 



$24,740 00 
39,296 25 
49,986 50 

114,022 75 
11,402 27 



125,425 02 
36,301 00 

89,124 02 



H. Doc. 1. 109 

APPENDIX E. 
San D1E0O9 California, April 10, 1853. 

• Sir : I have the honor to report, that in compliance with your in- 
structions of the Ist of November, 1852, I have made " an accurate 
8ur\Ty of the locality involved in the project of building a levee across 
San Diego river for the purpose of changing its course ;" and have 
prepared five plans, with estimates of their probable cost, for that 
purpose. 
I transmit herewith the following maps and documents : 

1. An accurate map, on a large scale, of the mouth of San Diego 
river and its vicinity, on which is delineated a plan of the line which 
I propose for the new bed of the river. 

2. A map of San Diego river and harbor, enlarged from a small 
chart of the coast survey, with the soundings made by me put down in 
red ink, showing the alteration that has taken place in the harbor 
during an interval oi eight months. 

3. Profile of the proposed bed of the river. 

4. Profile of the present bed of the river. 

6. Plans and estimates for changing its course. 
6. Memoir of the San Diego river from its source to its mouth. 
During the interval that will elapse before receiving further instruc- 
tions from the bureau on this subject, I shall make duplicate maps of 
the river and harbor, and prepare my notes and field-books for trans- 
mission. 

In collecting information for the memoir of the river, I have been 
much mdebted to the Hon. J. J. Warner, an old and well-known resi- 
dent of this part of California, whose statements on the subject may be 
considered perfectly reliable. 

I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

GEORGE H. DERBY, ' 
Lieutenant Topographical Engineers. 
Col. J. J. Abert, • 

Chief Corps Topographical Engineers. 



Memoir of the San Diego river. 

San Diego, California, March 30, 1853. 

The San Diego river has its source in a small lake or pond called 
Cuyamaca, about forty miles W. S. W. of San Diego bay, and some 
twenty miles south of the point called Aqua Caliente. This lake is 
situated in a valley circumscribed by the range of mountains (border- 
ing the coast) which separate the waters flowing into the Pacific from 
Uiose discharging into tne river Colorado. It is surrounded by an ex- 
tensive marsh and forest. 

In seasons of extreme drought the lake becomes entirely dry, at 
which time the bed of the river is dry also throughout its extent, with 
a few exceptions where the water flows for a short distance, and then, 
sinking in the sand, disappears. 

The txibutaiies of the river are wmnportaxxt mountaixi ttteaxas^ v 



110 H. Doc. I. 

the portion of country drained by it of small extent ; as on the north- 
west, at a short distance, it has the streams of Soledad, San Diegoita,. 
and San Luis Rey ; and on the southeast the Sweet-water, all of which 
empty into the ocean. 

The entire bed of the river from source to mouth, with the exception 
of two points, is of light drifting sand. At these points— one about 
twelve miles from San Dieco, and the other fifteen miles above— the 
mountains come down to the river on either side, forming high and 
precipitous banks, about one mile in length at each place ; and here the 
bed of the stream becomes hard and rocky. 

With these exceptions the banks of the river are low, alluvial bot- 
toms, varying in width from one to five miles, and mostly destitute of 
forests or shrubbery. The soil of these bottoms is fertile, and they 
afford excellent pasturage, and are available for agricultural purposes. 

Above the first canon or gorge spoken of the bed of the river is 
never dry, except in seasons of extreme drought. At the Mission, six 
miles firom San Diego, it is usually dry during the months of August, 
September, and October ; and at San Diego, for six months during the 
year, commencing about the 1st of May and terminating in November. 

It usually commences running about the 1st of November, or imme- 
diately after the commencement of the rainy season ; and from this 
time, until the first of the following March, freshets are of frequent oc- 
currence. • 

During the summer months the counti-y about the sources of the 
river is subject to severe thunder storms, which bring down to its bed 
from the high and rugged mountains immense quantities of sand, which 
the winter freshets carry towards its mouth. 

The ordinary rapidity of the current is from two to three miles per 
hour, and its greatest ordinary depth Srom two to three feet ; but during 
a freshet it increases its velocity to five miles, and its depth to six and 
even eight feet. 

Like all streams with sandy bottoms, it has a wide channel in pro- 

E onion to its length, the distance between its banks varying from one 
undred to four hundred feet. 

By reference to the maps it will be seen that a large sandy plain 
separates the False Bay (Puerto Falso) from San Diego harbor. At the 
time of the first establishment of the Mission of San Diego, and the 
" Presidio," or military post, this plain, and in fact the whole valley 
for six miles above, was covered with a, dense forest of sycamore, 
willow, and cotton-wood, with an undergrowth of various kinds ol 
shrubbery, among which the wild grape was most abundant. At 
this time the river ran through the most northerly part of the plain, 
skirting the hills represented on the plan, and emptied into False bay. 
This course it continued until 1811, when, by the continued deposit of 
sand, its bed was so much elevated that it altered its channel 16 the 
southwest, still however emptying into False bay, until 1S25, when a 
great freshet occurring it overflowed its banks, destroying many gar- 
dens and much property, and formed a new channel discharging into 
the harbor of San Diego. From the continued accumulation of sand 
its course has somewhat fluctuated, but has never been essentially 
altered siace that period. 



H. Doc L 111 

Judging from the topography, it may be supposed that the False 
Bay and San Diego harbor were originally one sheet of water, the 
sandy plain now separating them havmg been formed by the deposits 
of sand from the river ; if this ^s the case, it was before the settle- 
ment of this part of the country, as none of the old Spanish residents 
remember, or have any tradition of such a thing. I nave, however, 
been told of the existence in San Francisco of an old Spanish chart on 
which the bays are thus represented. 

Before 1810 the False oay was suflBciently deep to admit of the 
ingress of vessels of very considerable size ; at present it is filled with 
shoals and sand bars, and has hardly sufficient water at low tide for 
an ordinary sail-boat. 

The gradual inroad upon the channel of the harbor, caused by the 
deposits of the river, has been noticed from year to year since 1825, 
and the local authorities, alarmed for the harbor, have made frequent 
attempts to turn its course, some of which have for a time been suc- 
cessful ; but as«the barriers used were merely sand and brushwood, 
they were soon worn away, and of late years the attempt has been 
abajndoned. 

It will be seen that the river is not deep but rapid, the current 
moving with about the same velocity at the bottom as on the surface. 

It not only forces along a bed of sand at the bottom, but is con- 
tinually excavating its banks and its bed, and the current continually 
changing, the sides of the furrows, formed rapidly, fall and swept 
abng; thus moving tons of sand a few feet in as many minutes. 

By sounding the bank of the river, in many places I find six feet 
and a half of light sand ; below this about two feet of bluish mud — 
which has a strong smell of sulphuretted hydrogen — and then clay. 

It is noticeable, also, that the sloughs emptying into False bay (into 
one of which I propose to turn the river) are half-filled with fresh water 
at low tide ; and the people of San Diego inform me that water 
may always be obtained by digging four feet in the bed of the river 
when apparently dry in the summer. From these facts, I conclude 
that the whole of the plain has a substratum of quicksand, through 
which the water penetrates at all seasons of the year. This will render 
necessary a great deal of excavation, as any barrier would soon be 
undermined if built on such s<)il. 

Considering the general character of the river, continually filling its 
bed by deposits of sand, and then changing its direction to find a lower 
level, liable at any time of freshet to overflow the whole of the plain 
between the two bays, and cut itself a new channel into one or the 
other, it appears to me that the only way to insure its permanently 
directing its course to the False bay is to build a bulkhead, or construct 
a levee firom the high hill on its leit bank, on which are the ruins of the 
old Presidio, the entire distance, (6,220 feet on the line A B,) across to 
one of the larger sloughs, making the work of sufficient height (say 
eight feet above the ordinary level of the river) to insure its never being 
overflown. 

This course, though very expensive, would prove effectual, as the 
river would have no opportunity of breaking in any direcUou loviacd^ 



U2 H. Doe. 1. 

the harbor, it being securely environed by the high land on the north 
and west. 

As the expense of building a barrier of this description far exceeds 
the amount of the present appropriation, I submit a plan for construct- 
ing a levee of shorter extent to turn the course of the stream, and then 
to continue the work by cutting a ditch through (on the line A B) f >r 
the bed of the river, throwing up the sand excavated on the southern 
side to form a bank, which may prove successful in retaining the chan- 
nel permanently after it is once turned. 

It is a matter of regret, however, that sufficient appropriations have 
not been made to construct the levee entirely across, as a work of so 
much importance, preserving from utter destruction one of the finest 
harbors on the Pacific coast, should, when done, be done thoroughly. 

Respectfully submitted. 

G. H. DERBY, . 
. Lieutenant Topographical Engineers* 



Plans and estimates for turning San Diego river ^ causing it to discharge 

into False bay, 

1st. On the line A B to erect a bulkhead, by driving piles at an 
angle of 60° with the horizon, five feet apart fi-om centre to centre, each 
second pile to be braced to the rear as m figure Ist, and the up-stream 
surface to be sheathed with three-inch plank well spiked on, an exca- 
vation being first made throughout the line A B, to permit the planking 
to commence below the quicksand. 

Estimate. 

7,490 yards of excavation, at $1 20 per jrard $8,988 

1,264 redwood piles, 30 feet, at 60 cents, $16 18,960 

Driving piles, 1,264, at $12 15,168 

(101 X M. surface) 3-inch plank, 304 M., at $70 21,280 

60 kegs of spikes, (8-inch,) at $12 ^ 600 

Spiking on plank, $2 60, for 20 feet length 790 

632 braces, 6,320 feet, at 60 cents 3,792 



69,678 



NoTB. — The prices aimexed are the lowest furnished by several con- 
tractors applied to (for information) in San Francisco. 

2d. From the point A, on the line A B, to throw up a levee or em- 
bankment of eartn, to be taken firom the Presidio hill near the point A, 
where an abundance of suitable gravel, mixed with large and small 
stones, may be obtained. The levee to be three feet on the upper line 
of its cross section, eight feet perpendicular, and twen^-seven feet 



H. Doc. 1. 113 

base, with a substructure of gravel twenty-seven feet wide and e'ght 
feet thick, as in iSgure 2d. 

EstinuUe. 

Excavation for foundation, 60,560 yards sand, at $1 20.. $60,672 00 
Embanking foundation, 50,660 yards gravel, at $1 20.. 60,672 00 
Embanking levee, 28,088 yards gravel, at $1 20 \ . 33,706 60 

166,049 60 

Note. — Either the line A B or A C may be used, but it is believed 
that the former is preferable, the slough commencing at B b6ing much 
wider and deeper than that at C, and being also protected on the south 
by high land. 

The direction of the line A B is also preferable, as will be seen by 
reference to the map. 

3d. From the point A to the point D, on the line A B, to erect a 
bulkhead, as in plan 1st. From the point D to the point B, to exca- 
vate a canal for the new channel of the river twenty feet wide, its bed 
sloping regularly from the bed of the river to the bed of the slough at 
B, the sand excavated to be thrown up on the south bank of the canal. 



Estimate. 



* 



For bulkhead excavation, 1,920 cubic yards, at $1 20. . . $2,304 00 

324 piles, at $16 4,860 00 

Drivmg piles, at $12, (324) 3,888 00 

78 thousand 3-inch plank, at $70 6,460 00 

Spiking plank and spikes 300 00 

162 braces, 1,620 feet, at 60 cents 972 00 

Excavation for canal, 13,926 yards, at $1 20 16,711 20 

34,496 ^0 

From the point A to the point D, on the line A B, to throw up a levee 
as in plan 2, with the same foundation. From the point D to the point 
B, to excavate a ditch for the new channel of the river 20 feet wide, its 
bottom sloping regularly from the bed of the river to the bed of the 
slough at fe, the sand excavated to be thrown up on the south bank of 
tbecanaL 

Estimate. * 

Excavation for foundation, 12,960 yards, at $1 20 $16,662 00 

Excavation for canal, 13,926 yards, at $1 20 16,711 20 

Embankment of levee, 7,200 yards, at $1 20 8,640 00 

40,905 20 

Tartiii—S 



114 H. Doc. 1. 

There can be no doubt but that this work will " turn the river and 
cause it to empty in False bay," and probably it might continue to 
empty there when turned ; but in case of a great freshet the south 
bank of the canal would perhaps be undermined, and the river again 
alter its course. 

4th. From the point A, on the line A B or A C, to put in a row of 
iron screw piles, thirty feet long, their surface covered with three-inch 
plank ; this line to be continued to the point D or D', and from thence 
a canal to be excavated as in No. 3. 

The cost of these piles not being known, it is impossible to furnish 
an estimate of the expense of the work. They CEUinot be obtained in 
California at present. 

Respectfully submitted. 

GEO. H. DERBY, 
Lieutenant Topographical Engineers. 



San Diego, April 16, 1853. 

During the last two days, the river having fallen considerably, I 
have caused soundings of the bed to be made with long iron rods on 
the lines A D and A D'. The average depth of the light, loose sand 
of the bed is from six to eight feet, under which are strata of different 
degrees of thickness (see profile annexed) of coarse sand mixed with 
gravel and small stones. On penetrating these strata I^nd the light 
and quicksand below. Sounding to a depth of thirty-five feet, I have 
been unable to reach the substratum of clay on solid earth which 
probably underlies the river bed. 

The layers of gravel and sand passed through become more dense 
as the sounding rods are driven down. No appearance of clay has 
been found in these experiments, but on the banks, at various other 
points, (as mentioned above,) mud, impregnated with ammonia and blue 
clay beneath, was discovered, seven and a half feet from the surface. 
The layers referred to seem to me to be suflSciently sohd to hold piles 
oi*^upport an embankment. 

They could only be penetrated by repeated blows of a sledge-ham- 
mer on the sounding rods, made with such force as to bend and batter 
the rods in some instances. 

The rods were round, of three-quarter inch iron. 

I am not prepared to say that such a foundation is all that could be 
desired ; but driving piles to a depth of 40 or 50 feet cannot be con- 
templated. 

5th. The line A B being in the prolongation of the river, it is pro- 
bable that if a dam was thrown across from it to D, and a ditch fi-om 
that point to B excavated, the river would continue to empty into False 
bay, unless some extraordinary freshet, like that of 1825, were to occur. 
Even then it does not follow necessarily that the dam should be under- 
mined, and the high sand bank, formed by excavation, overflown. This 



H. Doc. 1. 115 

dam and canal can be constructed for the amount of the present ap- 
propriations, provided that no excavation be made for a foundation, 
viz: 

Estimate for plan 6. 

For levee 1,600 feet long, 8 feet high, and 20 feet base, 
5,452 cubic yards, at SI 20 $6,542 40 

Excavating canal 20 feet wide, 4 feet deep, 4,700 feet long, 
13,926 cubic yards, at $1 20 16,711 20 

23,253 60 



Note. — The bulkhead, as in No. 1 of plan 3, might be adopted at 
smaller expense. 

ft is, moreover, very probable that responsible parties may be found 
who will contract to remove dirt for embankment and excavation for 
a much less price (perhaps $1) than $1 20 per cubic yard. This price 
has been inserted here as th*e maximum. 

The same work could be executed on line A C for a smaller sum; 
but the river impinging on the levee nearly at right angles, it would soon 
be undermined. 
Respectfully submitted. 

GEO. H. DERBY, 
Lieutenant Topographical Engineers. 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Chief Topographical Engineers. 



APPENDIX F. 

Oswego, N. Y., September 17, 1853. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the annual report, required by reg- 
ulations, of the progress of the various works committed to my care 
on Lake Champiain, Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie. I would premise 
by stating that the work at each place was very much retarded by the 
neglect of the contractors to furnish materials at the time required by 
the contracts ; there was not a single instance of punctuality. 

The appropriations for each place being so limited, it was a very 
diflBcult matter to determine how to spend the money judiciously, as 
the decayed and ruined condition of many of the works was greatly be- 
yond the means to restore them to their former condition. 

Burlington^ Vt. — The work at this place is a breakwater 1,069 feet 
in length and 35 feet in breadth, built of crib-work and ballasted with 
?lone ; it is placed immediately in front of the wharves of the town, in 
thirty feet water, and affords very good protection. I found it in very 
good preservation, and my instructions were to add one hundred feet in 
length to the north end, which has been done by sinking a crib of iViat 
dimensions, and will be completed this fall. The timber-woik is at tive 
present time three feet above the surface of the water. 



116 H. Doc. 1. 

I would respectfully recomniend that two hundred additional feet 
in length be added to the north end ; this will bring it under cover of — 
a point ofland to the north, and afford a shelter from northwestwardly 
gales. An estimate for that purpose is herewith submitted ; a plan of 
the work has already been sent to the bureau by the agent. 

Estimate. ~ 

232 sticks round hemlock timber, 60 feet long and 12 in. small end. 
54 do do 48 do do 

54 do do 46 do do 

54 do do 44 do do 

54 do do 42 do do 

186 do do 40 do do 

28 do do 38 do do 

28 do do 36 do do 

360 do do 34 do do 

428 do white pine timber 35 do do 

4,000 lineal feet square wjiite pine, to square 18 inches, length 35 feet 
and over. 
350 pieces white oak plank, 11 feet long, 3 inches thick, and 8 inches 
wide. 
9,000 white oak treenails, 2 feet long, 2y inches square. 
16,000 perches stone. 
1,000 lbs. 8-inch wrought spikes. 

43,072 lineal feet hemlock tunber, at 8 cents $3,445 76 

14,980 do round pine, at 10 cents 1,498 OO 

13,000 cubic feet square pine, at 15 cents 1,950 00 

7,700 feet white oak plank, at 25 cents 192 50 

9,000 treenails, at 7 cents 630 00 

16,000 perches stone, at 40 cents 6,400 00 

1,000 lbs. wrought spikes, at 9 cents 90 00 

1 boat, augers, rope, &c., &c 200 00 

1 foreman 120 days, at $2 50 per day 300 00 

10 carpenters 120 days, at $1 50 per day 1,800 00 

14 laborers 120 days, at $1 1,680 00 

Services of agents 1,460 00 

Do of assistant 120 days, at $3 360 00 

20,006 26 

Survey of the harbor of Ogdensburgh. — ^It was not in my power to com- 
ply with my instructions to have the survey made, in consequence of 
being unable to procure the assistance of a proper person. 

Oswego. — At this place the piers were in a very decayed condition ; 
in many parts the timber haa crumbled away and lelt the stone ex- 
posed. 

In the month of November, 1852, a violent gale of wind caused a 
breach of 195 feet in length in the west pier, where it connected with the 



H. Doc. 1. 117 

masonry, throwing down a portion of the masonry, and leaving the west 
side of the harbor entirely exposed to the sea. The breach was pro- 
tected by great exertions on the part of Lieutenant Franklin, of the to- 
pographical engineers, and the harbor made^secure before winter. 

This season the operations have been confined to rebuilding the west 
pier, from the point at which it was breached to the pier-head, and 
very good progress has been made. 

At the present time, five hundred and ninety feet in length of the old 
work has been removed, of which one hundred and twenty feet has 
been entirely rebuilt, and wants only the planking ; two hundred feet 
wants but one course of timber to complete it ; and the remaining two 
hundred and seventy is from one to four feet above the surface of the 
water, the whole filled with stone. The character of the work done 
is of the very best description, and has been executed with great care 
and judgment, under the direction of Mr. Hatch, and will be completed 
before the winter. On the east side of the harbor a system of improve- 
ments connected with the east pier has been undertaken by individuals, 
under a grant from the State legislature, a^escription of which I quote 
trom tiie report of Mr. Hatch, the agent. 

In the year 1851 the legislature of the State of New York granted to 
the city of Oswego all the land under water lying in front of and adja- 
cent to the land oelonging to the United States on which Fori Ontario 
is situated, extending from the Cove property, so called, to the east 

Eier. Subsequently the common council of the city procured from the 
onorable Secretary of War, Mr. Conl-ad, a recognition of their rights, 
under certain limitations. On the 2d day of August, 1852, the city of 
Oswego leased the said land under water to individuals on a permanent 
lease, restricting them to a plan of improvements indicated on a sketch 
of the harbor herewith submitted ; which plan is now in a rapid course 
of realization; and will probably be completed during the present 
autumn. The lessees of this property have reconstructed nearly the 
whole of the superstructure of the east pier, and intend to complete it 
this fall. 

The maintenance ofthe east pier being indispensable to the lessees 
to protect their works, and also convenient for their business a^a wharf, 
they are willing to keep it in repair at their own expense. Permit me 
to suggest some ofthe reasons that I suppose influenced the legislature 
to grant and the Secretary of War to confirm the grant to the city. 
The prevailing winds are westwardly. Vessels making the harbor in 
westwardly gales of wind were liable to ground upon the shoals upon 
this properly, there being no good anchorage within the harbor, and it 
iiot being possible at all times to make fast to the west pier. In tact, 
there had been annually more or less wrecks from this cause, and the 
loss of property averaged not less than $10,000 per annum. Another 
reason that doubtless had weight with the legislature and Secretary, 
was the fact that the improvements contemplated would add more than 
5,000 feet to the wharf front ofthe harbor; an addition of the greatest 
value to the commerce ofthe port, as the wharf front is quite too lim- 
ited for the present wants of commerce. 
The east channel pier was built last season ; and, during lYie ga\^ 



118 H. Doc. 1. 

at that time, the work proved very useful in preventing any wrecks, as 
had heretofore occurred. 

There was, however, an objection, which manifested itself, that was 
not anticipated. The refkix of the sea, from the east channel pier, 
caused so great a commotion of the water in the western portion of the 
harbor as to seriously injure the wharf property on that side. To 
obviate this objection, the common council have granted to individuals 
the privilege of cotistructing a pier upon the west side of the channel, 
which is now in process of construction, and will probably be com- 
pleted before the winter. 

This, it is believed, will effect the object intended, and will also add 
materially to the so much needed wharf-room. This work is also laid 
down upon the sketch submitted. 

In the past five years the business of Oswego has at least quadrupled, 
and is annually increasing. The capacity of the harbor is very inade- 
quate to the wants of commerce ; and the necessity of constructing a more 
capacious harbor in the lake cannot be too strongly urged upon the gov- 
ernment. Until this is don^it will be necessary to keep in repair the 
existing piers ; and I submit the following 

Estimate Jar removing the unfinished masonry of the superstructure that was 
shaXteTtd by the storm of last winter^ (part under water^J and rebuilding 
the same with timber and stone^ as follows : 

Removing old work : 

20 common laborers 60 days, 1,200 days, at $1 $1,200 00 

2 overseers 60 days, 120 days, at $2 240 00 

Blacksmith's work, making and repairing tools 200 00 

Ship-chandler, for blocks, cordage, &c 200 00 

Total for removing old work 1,840 00 

Rebuilding : 
6,760 feet cubic measure pine timber, at 16 

cents .$1,012 60 

760 feet cubic measure oak timber, at 25 cents 187 60 

10,600 feet board measure pine plank, at $12. . 126 00 

6,000 feet board measure oak plank, at 20 cents 120 00 

2,600 pounds 1-inch rolled bolt iron, at 6 cents 126 00 

2,000 pounds spike, at 6 cents 120 00 

400 white oak treenails, at 3 cents 12 00 

1,200 days common laborers, at $1 1,200 00 

600 days carpenters, at $1 60 900 00 

60 days each of overseer and master car- 
penter, at $2 240 00 

Blacksmith's work 100 00 

Total for rebuilding in breach 4,143 OO 

For rebuilding the top of the counter-forts inside 
of the pier, 326 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 6 
/eet high : 
11,625 cubic measure pine timber, at 16 ceivls 1^1 ^^ T S 



H. Doc. i. 119 

28,250 board measure plank, at $12 $329 20 

1,500 lbs. 1-inch rolled bolt iron, at 5 cents. ... 75 00 

1,000 lbs. spike, at 6 cents 60 00 

400 lbs. white oak treenails, at 3 cents 12 00 

12 mooring posts, at $10 120 00 

300 days common laborers, at $1 300 00 

120 days carpenters, at $1 50 180 00 

30 days each of master carpenter and over- 
seer, at $2 120 00 • 

Blacksmith's work 50 00 

Total for rebuilding counter-forts $2,989 95 

For removing the large stone under water that 

have been washed from the top of the pier. 

One crab-scow, with captain and eight men, 

five months : 

Eight men 130 days, 1,040 days, at $1 1,040 00 

Captain of scow 130 days, at $2 260 00 

Chains, grapplings, ropes, &c 500 00 

Blacksmith's work and repairs 150 00 

Total for removing stone under water 1,950 00 

For rebuilding pier in the breach caused by the 

storm of last winter : 

12,540 feet cubic measure pine timber, at 15 cts. 1,881 00 

950... do do... oak... do... 25 cts. 237 50 

17,100 feet board measure pine plank, at $12 . . 205 20 

7,600. . .do do. . .oak. .do $20 . . 152 00 

3,500 lbs. 1-inch round iron, at 5 cents 175 00 

3,000 lbs. spike, at 6 cents 180 00 

700 white oak treenails, at 3 cents 21 00 

4 mooring posts, at $10 40 00 

1,800 days of common laborers, at $1 1,800 00 

900 days carpenters, at $1 50 1,350 00 

2 overseers 60 days each, at $2 240 • 00 

1 master carpenter 60 days, at $2 120 00 

Blacksmith's work 100 00 

Total for rebuilding pier in breach 6,501 70 

Compensation of agent for one year 1,440 00 

18,864 65 
Contingencies, 10 per cent. 1,886 46 

Total for rebuilding pier and removing stone 20, 751 11 

Sadus bay of Cayuga county. — The entrance to this bay was so ma- 
terially changed since the survey made in 1845, that it was useless to 
commence the work for its improvement on the plan origiually ipio- 
posed for it; a resurvey was recommended, which being approvea \s^ 
the board of engineers, and ordered by the bureau, has been majde^ BXid 



120 H. Doc. 1. 

the map transmitted to the bureau. Until apian for the improvement of 
this harbor is made by the board of engineers, an estimate cannot be 
submitted. 

Big Sodus bay. — The works at this place are in a very decayed con- 
dition. The east harbor pier is breached in many places from one to 
three feet below the surface of the water, and of the remainder the stone 
only shows above the water, the timber being entirely destroyed. The 
east channel pier was breached near the angle with the harbor pier. 
the west channel pier is in pretty good condition, the top timber de- 
caying, but the planking sound. The west harbor pier is entirely de- 
stroyed to the water's edge, the stone remaining. 

The appropriation being so limited and inadequate to the repairs 
required, 1 was very much at a loss where to begin, and how to ex- 
pend it with most advantage; but considering that it was most im- 
portant to preserve the entrance to the harbor, as there is abundance of 
room for shelter inside remote from the piers, and the entrance being 
in danger from the breach in the east channel pier, I determined to 
give my attention to it first. This breach has been rebuilt, and the 
new work carried past the angle a short distance, in order to secure it 
better. The top timbers of the channel pier were removed for some 
distance north from the breach, and planked out to where it was left 
unfinished in 1845. 

The whole of the east harbor pier requires to he rebuilt, and the 
west harbor pier also, at least as far inland to where it is covered by 
the accumulated breach. 

The following estimate is submitted : 

Mouth of Genesee river. — The piers at the mouth of Genesee river 
were very nearly demolished. The west pier was breached in many 
places below the water, and the remainder showed but one timber 
above the water in places, and at others the stone only was to be seen. 
The east pier is in equally bad condition, being breached and decayed 
to the water's edge. A sketch is herewith showmg the condition of the 
pier in 1853. 

The west pier, on which the beacon-light stands, being cpnsidered the 
most important^ I determined to commence with it. All the breaches 
have been filled with new crib-work, and a large portion of the re- 
maining old work has been taken up and rebuilt ; the whole pier will 
probably be finished this fall. 

The east pier must be entirely rebuilt, and the following estimate is 
submitted: 

Estimate. 

Pine timber, 12 by 12 $6,600 

Oak timber, 12 by 12 4,730 

Three-inch pine plank 2,000 

Stone ballast 800 

Wrought-iron spikes 400 

Bolt iron 2,000 

Labor and tools 5,000 

21,530 



H. Doc. 1. 121 

Oak Orchard creek. — The piers at this place, although very much 
decayed, remained entire. There was no breach ; and although not 
planked, the stone ballast was not washed out in any place. In two 
small places the stone had settled sh'ghtly. The alignment was perfect. 
This season ten new cribs have been added to the west pier, which 
lengthens it 290 feet, and the old work rebuilt. The new work will 
be planked. 

The east pier requires to be rebuilt, and both piers should be ex- 
tended into the lake to 18 feet depth of water; an estimate for this 
purpose is herewith submitted. 

Estimate for buUSng pier 30 feet Icmg and 20 feet vndc in 13 feet 3 inches 

of vMler. 

3,010 feet hewn timber, 12 in. square, at 13 cents $391 30 

63 cords crib-ballast stone, at $3 25 162 2^ 

1,305 feet pine plank, 3 in. thick, at $11 14 35 

60 lbs. wrought spike, at 7 cents 4 20 

S64 lbs. 1 J in. rolled bolt iron, at 4J cents 38 88 

Mechanics and laborers 250 00 

Total for building crib 30 feet long 860 98 

For extending west pier 1,107 feet, as per above estimate . $32,865 68 
For extending east pier 1,151 feet, as per above estimate.. 34,171 65 

For rebuilding east pier, 373 feet long and 20 feet wide : 

7,829 feet timber, at 13 cents. $1,017 77 

15,785 feet pine plank, at $11 173 64 

783 lbs. spike, at 7 cents 54 81 

Mechanics and laborers 1,000 00 

Total for rebuilding east pier, 373 feet long 2,246 22 

For rebuilding pier, 420 feet long and 10 feet wide : 

5,040 feet limber, at 13 cents $655 20 

9,450 feet pine plank, at $11 104 95 

504 lbs. wrought spike, at 7 cents 35 28 

Mechanics and Liborers 700 00 

Total for rebuilding 420 feet pier 1,495 43 

70,778 98 
Contingencies, 10 per cent 7,077 89 

77,856 87 

Buffalo. — The work at this place remained in the same condition in 
which it was left in 1846, without much deterioration, excepting the 
tow-path, which was broken in several places by vessels running into 
it Operations were resumed in the month of May last, and since lYvaX 
time the face wall has b^en raised 4»8 feet, over a length ot 36S feet, 
and 230 feet of Jt coped one &ot thick and 4 feet wide; 320 feet cit 



122 H. Doc. I. 

the slope wall has been filled in 10 feet wide, and 386 of wall flaggea 
7 feet wide. 

There has been laid 314 cubic yards of ashlea and bucking wall 
and coping; 355.5 cubic yards of exterior slope wall; 1,245.5 cubic 
yards stone filling; 3,938 superficial feet cutting of ashlea and coping; 
3,259 feet of flagging cut; 300.89 yards of flagging laid; and 685 
tons of stone transported firom the quarry. There is required 350 feet 
additional length of wall to connect it with the old wall, which stands 
entire, and which will answer as well as a more expensive wall, being 
well protected by the sand which has accumulated m fi-ontof it. The 
quarry wall or towing path is in a very dilapidated and uneven condi- 
tion. I would recommend that it should be taken up, faced, and filled 
in with concrete, and the flagging relaid. An estimate will be submit- 
ted for that purpose. The accompanying drawing shows the present 
condition of the work; the shaded part is the work done this season. 

The State of New York has constructed a breakwater north of the 
piers built by the United States, its trace being east of north, for the 
purpose of forming a basin between it and the shore. It seems to me 
to be very injudiciously placed. It is, I am told, universally com- 

i)lained of, and has already been the cause of disasters, wrecks, and 
OSS of life. It being shoal off* the light-house, vessels bound in are 
compelled to stand more to the north to keep the channel, and should 
there be a heavy swell on, are likely to be thrown upon the breakwater, 
whether bound into the harbor or into the basin. Mr. Pettes, the 
United States agent, says he has understood that it is in contemplation 
to remove a part of the north pier, hoping thus to remove the diflBculty ; 
but this cannot be the case, as the difiiculty occurs before the pier is 
reached; it is in the breakwater, not the pier. I am at a loss to offer 
a remedy for the evil, but hope that one may be suggested by the 
board of engineers. 

Estimate. — Recapitukuion. 

For rebuilding sea-wall (350 feet) $12,165 23 

Raising 450 feet old wall 3 feet higher, and coping 150 

cubic yards, at $6 900 00 

Taking up and relaying tow-path 18,621 26 

31,686 48 



Dunkirk. — The works at this place have been entirely demolished, 
and nothing has been done this season towards rebuilding, the plan 
being before the board of engineers. A small beacon has been erected 
near the entrance to mark the position of a breakwater, (under water.) 

JEne, Pa. — This fine harbor is very much exposed, from the want 
of protection at the west end. The sea has made a breach in the low 
strip of land which connected the beach, and from the west is gradu- 
ally filling the harbor, and the island itself is rapidly wearing away by 
the constant abrasion of the sea. Several efforts have been made to 
stop the breach and check the abrasion of th^ island, but without suc- 
'iss. The crib'Workj filled with stone, v?W\i^^a\ast constructed, 



H. Doc. 1. 123 

has been entirely demolished. This season a small experiment was 
made, by making wattlings of brush normal to the shore, and extending 
a short distance mto the lake, hoping to intercept the travelling sands ; 
but since they were put down the weather has been unusually quiet, 
and they have not produced much effect. 

I rather think that some more effectual method must be resorted to. 
By instructions from the bureau, the north channel pier at the east end 
of the harbor has been repaired to the water's edge. I directed the 
repairs should begin at the Deacon-light, and work towards the harbor; 
700 feet in length have been removed, and the whole will be finished 
in a few days. It may be advisable to extend the channel piers further 
eastward, but my impression is, that the bar which now exists beyond 
the piers would only be thrown further east in proportion to their ex- 
tension, and that it would be more economical to keep a channel open 
by dredging annually. Supposing, however, that the first may be pre- 
ferred, I submit an estimate for the extension of the piers, for repairing 
the present north channel pier, and also an approximate estimate for 
the protection of the west end of the harbor. 

Estimate. 

Repairs to nortli channel pier $250 00 

Extending do do 500 feet 11,200 00 

Extending south channel pier 500 feet 1 1,200 00 

Repairs to the south channel pier 1,000 00 

Protection of west end of harbor 20,000 00 

Superintendent's and clerk's salary 2,040 00 

45,690 00 
Contingencies, 10 per cent 4,569 00 

50,259 00 



Respectfully submitted by your obedient servant, 

W. TURNBULL, 
Major Tap. Engineers, Brevet Colonel. 
CoL J. J. Abert, 

Chief Topographical Engineers. 



Office of Oswego Harbor Improvement, 

Oswego, September 1, 1853. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report : • 
In compliance with an order from Col. J. J. Abert, chief of the corps 
of topographical engineers, dated March 1, 1853, I took immediate 
possession of all the United States property at Oswego belonging to 
the harbor improvement. 

It will be recollected that no appropriations hacj been made fox a 
number of years previous to the year 1S62 for the work, and lYvatli^e 
old BpproprhtJon had been expended long before. The coiiseqvienc^ a 



124 H. Doc. 1. 

was, that the structures that had been erected for the protection of the 
harbor, being chiefly of timber filled with stone, had fallen into a state 
of great decay. In fact, it had been necessary from time to time for 
the inhabitants of the city of Oswego to expend large sums of money 
to prevent their entire destruction. The^buildings that had been 
erected many years before (originally of slight construction) had gone 
to decay. The tools and machines had become nearly worthless. 
The materials on hand for the prosecution of the work consisted of a 
trifling amount of timber andiron, and about 550 cubic yards of lime- 
stone that had been procured for the purpose of continuing the super- 
structure of masonry that had been commenced upon the west pier. 
That plan, however, having been abandoned, the stone was no longer 
necessary, and they have smce been sold. 

In the summer of 1851 the legislature of the State of New York 
granted to the city of Oswego all the land under water lying in front 
of, and acljacent* to, the land belonging to the United Stales on which 
Fort Ontario is situated, extending from the Cove property, so called, 
to the east pier. Subsequently, the common council procured from 
the honorable the Secretary of War a recognition of their right under 
certain limitations. On the 2d day of August, 1852, the city of Oswego 
leased the said land under water to individuals on a permanent lease, 
restricting them to a plan of improvement indicated on a sketch of the 
harbor herewith submitted, which plan is now in a rapid course of re- 
alization. The lessees of this property have reconstructed nearly the 
whole of the superstructure of the east pier, and intend to complete it 
this fall. The maintenance of the east pier being indispensable to the 
lessees for the protection of their works, and also convenient for their 
business as a wharf, they are willing to keep it in repair at their own 
expense. 

Among the reasons that induced the legislature to grant this property 
to the city, and the secretary to confirm the grant, were the following: 

The prevailing winds here are westwardly. Vessels making this 
harbor in a westwardly gale of wind were liable to ground upon the 
shoals upon this property, there being no good anchorage within the 
harbor, and it not being possible at all times to make fast to the west 
pier. In fact, there had been more or less wrecks every year from this 
cause, the loss of property averaging probably not less than ten thou- 
sand dollars annually. 

Another reason that doubtless had weight with the legislature and 
the Secretary was the fact that the improvement contemplated would 
add more than five thousand feet to the wharf fix)nt of the harbor — an 
addition of great value to the commerce of the port, as the wharf front 
is quite too limited for the present wants of commerce. 

The eagl channel pier was ^uilt last season, and proved useful in 
preventing such wrecKS as had heretofore occurred. 

There was, however, an objection that manifested itself that was not 
anticipated. The reflux of the sea from the east channel pier during 
gales of wind caused so great a commotion of the water in tne western 
portion of the harbor as to seriously injure the wharf property on that 
side. To obviate this difficulty, the common council have this season 
ranted to Individuals the privilege of coiisUuc\m^^.^veio\v the west 



H. Doc. 1. 125 

side of the channel, which is now in the process of construction, and 
will probably be completed before winter. This, it is believed • will 
eflfect the object intended, and also add materially to the needed wnarf- 
room. This work is also noted on the sketch. 

After the appropriation for this harbor was made in 1852, Lieut. 
Franklin, of the United States topographical engineers, was placed in 
charge of the work, but he arrived here too late to oo more than make such 
temporary repairs to the west pier as appeared most necessary to se- 
cure thai work through the winter, which he energetically commenced, 
but was interrupted early in December by one of the most severe gales 
of wind that has been witnessed here for many years. By this gale a 
breach was caused in the west pier, immediately east of the unfinished 
masonry of the superstructure, about one hundred and ninety feet long, 
and to a depth of from five to seven feet below the surface of the 
water, and the masonry was much shattered. The remainder of the 

Eier was left by the gale in a very precarious condition ; great appre- 
ensicHis were entertained by the people of the city that it would be 
impossible at that late season of the year to prevent the entire destruc- 
tion of the pier and the consequent ruin of the harbor. The Board of 
Trade, an intelligent and highly respectable body of merchants and 
ship-owners, called an extra meeting, and appointed a committee of 
their number to aid Lieut. Franklin m every possible effort to secure 
the harbor. With the assistance of the committee, Lieutenant Franklin 
succeeded, by the most persevering efforts, in the midst of an inclement 
winter, in securing the breach by crib-work, as represented on the 
accompanying sketch, and in making such repairs to the remainder of 
the pier as enabled it to resist the subsequent gales of wind of the 
stormy season. 

As soon as the ice disappeared in the spring of this year, I com- 
menced making preparations for rebuilding the superstructure of the 
west pier of oak and pine timber, filled with stone ballast, as had been 
directed. 

On the 25th .day of April I concluded a contract with a highly re- 
spectable commercial firm in this city for the necessary oak and pine 
timber, one cargo of which was to have been delivered on or before 
the 1st of June, and the remainder on or before the 1st of Sep- 
tember, delivering it from time to time as fast as it should be 
wanted- The contractors have delivered but a portion of the timber 
called for by the contract, and the work has been somewhat retarded 
in consequence. I have also been disappointed in relation to the plank, 
the time having expired within which they were to have been de- 
livered. I am informed, however, that a vessel is now gone for the 
plank, and that they may reasonably be expected within ten days. 

The water of the lake, on the 4th day of June last, was four feet five 
inches higher than the low water of 1848, and is still three feet higher. 
This stage of the water is a serious embarrassment in connecting the 
new superstructure with the old work under water. 

The early part of the season was more boisterous than usual, but 
since the middle of July the weather has been as good as in an average 
of seasons. 

The work that I have been able to accomplish is as follows : 



126 H. Doc. 1. 

Five hundred and ninety feet of the old superstructure of the west 
pier has been removed to a depth of from two to four feet below the 
surface of the water, (from to on the sketch of the pier herewith 
submitted,)" of which one hundred and twenty feet (from to on 
sketch) has been completely rebuilt, except planking, height six feet 
above the present water level. Two hundred feet more (from to 
on sketch) wants but one course of timber ; and the remaining two 
hundred and seventy feet is from one to four feet above the surface ot 
he water. The whole is filled with stone ballast as far as built. 

A good tool-house and work-shop, with convenient sheds, and an 
oflSce, have been built mostly from the materials of the old buildings; 
a well has been dug and enclosed ; about two hundred cords of stone 
have been quarried and placed in a convenient position for locating; 
a large number of the heavy limestones that were under water in the 
breach of last winter have been removed, preparatory to rebuilding. 

Some trifling repairs have been made on tne east end of the pier. 
The pier wharf has been raised one foot, to bring it above high water. 

The stone quarry has been put in condition to be worked to advan- 
tage whenever more stone is wanted. 

The tools, scows, machines, &c., are in good order, and in suflBicient 
quantity. 

The limestone procured for the masonry has been sold for $3 20 
per cubic yard, and the avails are credited in ray account. 

No circumstance materially retarding the work has occurred other 
than as above noted, and no loss of consequence occurred from the 
effect of storms or otherwise. The purchases of materials have been 
made within my estimates. 

The wages of labor have been increased in consequence of the de- 
mand caused by the great fire of the 5th July, by which this city 
suffered so severely. 

There will be necessary for the completion of the works at this 
place the following sums in addition to former estimates : 

Estimate for removing the unfinished masonry of the superstfucture that was 
shattered by the storm of last winter, (part under water,) and rebuilding 
the same with timber and stone, a^ follows: 

Removing old work : 

20 common laborers 60 days, 1,200 days, at $1 $1,200 00 

2 overseers 60 days, 120 days, at $2 240 00 

Blacksmith's work, making and repairing tools 200 00 

Ship-chandler, for blocks, cordage, &c 200 00 

Total for removing old work 1,840 00 

Rebuilding : 

6,750 feet cubic measure pine timber, at 15 cts. $1,012 50 

750 feet cubic measure oak timber, at 25 cts. 187 50 

10,500 feet board measure pine plank, at $12. . . 126 00 

6,000 feet board measure oak plank, at $20. . . 120 00 

2,500 lbs.. 1-inch rolled bolt iron, at 5 cents. . . . 125 00 



H. Doc. 1. It? 

2,000 lbs. spike, at 6 cents $120 00 

400 white oak treenails, at 3 cents 12 00 

1,200 days common laborers, at $1 1,200 00 

600 days carpenters, at $1 50 900 00 

Blacksmith's work 100 00 

60 days each of overseer and master carpen- 

, ter, at $2 240 00 • 

Total for rebuilding in breach $4,143 00 

For rebuilding thq top of the counter-forts inside of the pier 
325 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 5 feet high : 

11,625 feet cubic measure pine timber, at 15 cts. $1,743 75 

28,250 feet board measure pine plank, at $12. ... 329 20 

1,500 lbs. 1-inch rolled bolt iron, at 5 cents 75 00 

1,000 lbs. spike, at 6 cents 60 00 

400 white oak treenails, at 3 cents 12 00 

12 mooring posts, at $10 120 00 

300 days common laborers, at $1 4?^^ ^^ 

120 days carpenters, at $1 50 *180 00 

30 days each of master carpenter and over- 
seer, at $2 120 00 

Blacksmith's work 50 00 

Total for rebuilding counter-forts 2,989 95 

For removing the large stone under water that have been 
washed from the top of the pier ; 1 crib-scow, with cap- 
tain and 8 men, 5 months : 

8 men 130 days, 1,040 days, at $1 $1,040 00 

Captain of scow 130 days, at $2 260 00 

Chains, grapplings, ropes, &c 500 00 

Blacksmith's work and repairs 150l 00 

Total for removing stone under water 1,950 00 

For rebuilding pier in the breach caused by the storm of 
last winter : 

12,540 feet cubic measure pine timber, at 15 cts. $1,881 00 

950 feet cubic measure oak timber, at 25 cts. 237 50 

17,100 feet board measure pine plank, at $12. , . 205 20 

7,600 feet board measure oak plank, at $20 152 00 

3,500 lbs. 1-inch round iron, at 5 cents 175 00 

3,000 lbs. spike, at 6 cents 180 00 

700 white oak treenails, at 3 cents 21 00 

4 mooring posts, at $10 40 00 

1,800 days common laborers, at $1 1,800 00 

900 days carpenters, at $1 50 1,350 00 

2 overseers, 60 days each, at $2 240 00 



128 H. Doc. 1. 

1 master carpenter, 60 days, at S2 $120 00 

Blacksmith's work 100 00 

Total for rebuilding pier in breach $6,601 70 

Compensation of agent for one year 1,440 00 

• 18,864 65 

Contingencies, 10 per cent 1,886 46 

Total for rebuilding pier and removing stone 20,751 11 

This sum, with the necessary dredging, will be all that in my opinion 
will be required to render this harbor as eflBcient as it is capable ot 
being made while of its present size. But the business of this port 
has so far outstripped all former estimates of probable increase, that the 
harbor is inconveniently small for the number of vessels now employed. 
What, then, will it be in the future? 

In the year 1846 the commerce of the port of Oswego was $9,500,000. 
(See Colonel Abert^ report, Ex. Doc. No. 19, 1st session 30th Congress.) 

In the year 185!^t had reached an aggregate of more than $30,000,- 
000, as I am informed by the late collector; and if the business of the 
current year is to be taken as an index for the future, the ratio of ior 
crease will be greatly enhanced. 

The amount of duties received and secured here four years ago 
were about $30,000; and in the year 1852, I am informed by the 
collector, they were about $400,000 ; and he gives it as his opinion 
that this year they will be more than half a million of dollars. It 
will, I think, be a moderate culculation to estimate the commerce of this 
port in 1857 at $60,000,000, and in 1861 at $120,000,000, provided 
the busmess of the place is not checked by the wants of the necessary 
harbor room ; but the harbor of its present size is totally inadequate to 
the protection of the vessels necessary to be employed in a trade of 
that magnitude. 

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

M. P. HATCH, 

United States Agent. 

Col. W. TURNBULL, 

U. S. Top. Engineers J in charge of Lake Harbors^ Ostcego, N. Y. 



APPENDIX G. 

Office General Superintendent Public Works, 
Cleveland, JSovember 22, 1853. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of work done 
on the several harbors under my charge during the past season : 

Harbor of Sandusky. — ^From the report of the local agent for this 
work, which has been transmitted to the bureau, it appears that, for the 
protection of Peninsula point, a pier, consisting of rougn crib-work filled 
with stone, bos been constructed on the point, two thousand six hun« 



H. Doc. L 129 

dred and fifty-seven (2,667) feet in length, to serve as a breakwater 
against the action of the lake, which was rapidly wearing it away, 
and threatened to destroy it altogether. The construction of this work 
has been attended with the happiest results. The sand has rapidly 
accumulated on both sides of tne pier, and froKi present appearances 
the experiment promises to realize our expectations to their fullest ex- 
tent. The test of the winter, however, has yet to be undergone before 
the work can be pronounced entirely safe. The pier is constructed 
of round timber, firmlv bolted with long iron bolts, and filled with 
stone. No piling has been resorted to, and it is hoped that the effects 
of the coming winter will not render it necessary to the future stability 
of the work. 

The agent submits an estimate to close a cut between the small 
island, at which the work commenced the past season, to the main land 
of the peninsula. This cut is about three thousand feet in length, with 
an average depth of four feet. The amount of the estimate is $25,000. 

Understanding that the whole subject of the improvement of this 
harbor is before the board of engineers, I refrain fi'om oflfering any 
opinion upon the character or extent of the works required for its pro- 
tection. The total expenditure for the work the past season is $10,000. 

Harbor of Huron. — A large portion of the east pier, six hundred and 
thirty feet in length, has been rebuilt fi-om an average depth of three 
and a half feet below the water, refilled with stone, and planked; leav- 
ing two hundred and ten feet of its outer extremity to be completed. 
This will restore the pier to its original state as constructed by the 
government. 

The western pier is so much decayed and broken by storms, that 
il will require to be entirely renewed above the water its wliole length, 
and three serious breaches below the surfiice will have to be filled up. 
Some progress has been made, under the light-house appropriation, m 
effecting the latter object. The breach next the pier-head has been 
stopped by sinking cribs, for a length of ninety feet, upon the old work, 
which had been carried away to an average depth of six feet below 
the surfoce of the water. This portion of the work will be carried up 
to a height of six feet above the water, should the season admit of it. 

A considerable quantity of material is on hand, ready to commence 
operations early in the spring. 

The pier-head, upon which the beacon is erected, will require to 
be renewed firom the water surface, the timber for which will be Scn,med 
during the winter. It was my intention to complete this portion of the 
Work during the autumn, but the risk to the beacon, in case of a storm, 
determined me to defer it until the coming season. The eastern pier 
will also require to be protected and secured by a pier-head, provision 
for which is made in the estimate. 

A detailed estimate of the cost of completing the repairs of this 
harbor is herewith submitted, amounting to $30,585 72. 

Vermillion river. — The works at this harbor appear to have suffered 
more firom decay than those of any harbor on the lake. The west pier 
is twenty-four feet in width, and irom its great weight has withstood 
the force of the sea without injury, except in one spot near iVie sViote 
One hundred and twenty &et of the norihenx end* whicb was paixW 



laO U. Doc 1. 

unfinished, is also cone to the surface of the water, and will have to be 
raised to the level of the rest of the pier. The work beneath the 
water appears to be in a sound condition; but nearly the whole of the 
upper work, owing to some peculiar cause, has rotted to such a degree 
that it will require to be entu-ely renewed. The pier never was planked 
all over its width ; and the ties, twenty-four feet in length, being without 
any support in the middle, have, many of them, sunk down and broken 
into two by their own weight ; and the others, as well as the longitudi- 
nal timbers, are so far decayed as to be almost useless. 

The extreme rapidity of the decay of the timber in this work is 
worthy of remark, as being so much greater than in the other works, 
most of which were constructed many years before this was commenced. 
It is fairljr attributable, in my opinion, to the character of the material 
with which the pier was in part filled at the time it was constructed. 
This consisted, in a great measure, of the mud and sand dredged fix)m 
the bottom of the harbor and deposited within the cribs. The gases 
and acids, ascending from and generated by this mass of decomposing 
vegetable deposit and mould, must have acted upon the wood so as to 
cause the very rapid decay alluded to. In no ptter way can I account 
for it. 

The amount available for the repair of this pier, which was derived 
from the light-house appropriation, was so very small that nothing 
further was attempted than to bring up the breach at the outer end to 
a level with the rest of the work, to remove the gallows-frame (upon 
which a small lantern is raised and lowered) to me extremity of the 
pier, and to construct a temporary walk firom the shore to the hght, to 
enable the keeper to reach it. 

One crib has been sunk, to bring the whole of the breach to the level 
of the water, and I am now engaged in raising it to the required height. 

The keeper's walk was constructed by laying down two parallel 
string pieces of eight-inch timber, flattened, upon such of the ties as 
would support them, and, where these were wanting, supplying their 
places by others. The old planking was then taken up, and, where 
sound enough for use, sawed into lengths of six feet and spiked down. 
This walk cannot be expected to last more than a year or two, but it 
was the only mode of effecting the object with the means at command. 
The amount expended has been about $1,200. 

The whole of this west pier, (which is the Ught-house pier) will have 
to be renewed from the water surface; the estimated cost of which, 
herewith submitted, is $17,779 41. 

Of the east pier, two hundred and seventy feet require to be re- 
newed from the water surface, and a small portion for a few feet below. 

These are repairs only, and when completed will merely place the 
work where it was before the repairs became necessary ; the estimates 
submitted are intended to effect this object alone. Should the plan of 
the work, as projected by the bureau, require a further extension into 
the lake, an additional amount will be required for the purpose. 

The estimated cost of putting the present work in a state of repair 
amounts to $24,453 63. 

Black fiver. — ^In the east pier of this harbor two breaches have been 
made by ike seOf severally 60 and 90 feet in length, and to a depth of 



H. Doc. ]. 131 

three and six feet below the water, which wfll have to be repaired. 
Kght hundred and seventy-two feet will have to be rebuilt above the 
Water, and a pier-head will be necessary for the security of the pier. 

On the west pier, two hundred and ten feet of new work has been 
constructed upon the foundation of the old work in a depth of water 
averaging seven feet, and a considerable amount of stone and timber 
is on hand for operations in the spring. 

Some four hundred feet of pier will require to be rebuilt from the 
surface of the water. 

The estimated cost of the repairs upon this harbor is $22,344 60. 
The amount expended during tne season, $4,000. 

Cleveland harbor. — ^When I took charge of this harbor, I found nearljr 
Ac whole of the east pier in possession of railroad companies and pri- 
vate individuals, who had set up a sort of claim to it by erecting build- 
ings upon it and leasing parts of it out to others. Upon reporting these 
fects to the bureau, I received instructions to suspend all work upon 
the harbor until the question as to the right of possession by the gov- 
ernment should be decided. The question has eventually been settled 
by the parties referred to relinquishing their claims and acknowledg- 
ing the right of the government. But this setdement was not effected 
until the season had too far advanced to render the commencement of 
operations advisable. A survey has been made of the harbor and the 
adjacent waters, the charts of which are nearly completed. 

Contracts will be made for the delivery of materials during the 
winter, so as to be ready as early in the spring as the season will 
permit. 

A separate estimate will be made for this harbor, and transmitted to 
the bureau. 

Harbor of (xrand River. — At this harbor, four hundred and fif^ feet 
cf pier have been constructed entirely anew, from a depth of from 
three to eight feet below the surface of the water. This part of the 
work is complete except the planking. 

Three hundred feet of old work has been thoroughly overhauled, 
timbers replaced, rebolted, and planked. 

The outer end of the west pier was found to have a breach below 
the water; this has been repaired, and the crib refilled with stone. 

A substantial crane-scow has been constructed, with other machinery,, 
for the removal of old work, and a good yawl-boat purchased. 

A detailed survey of the harbor has been made, and the charts; 
transmitted to the bureau. 
The expenditures during the season have been $7,000. 
The estimate^ cost of the contemplated extension of the work into the- 
lake, according to the report of the agent, which has been transmitted! 
to the bureau, is $36,277 88. 

Ashtabula harbor. — Three hundred feet of new pier have been rebuilt^ 
from two to five feet below the water, and completed, except the 
planking. 

Two hundred feet of new facing has been constructed on the west 
ade, to prevent the sand from filling up the harbor. 

A detailed survey of the harbor has also been made, and t\ye leauVt* 
fiarward^d to Washington. Expenditures by the present ageOl, ife6,00^v 



132 H. Dod 1. 

The estimated cost of the extension and completion of this work, 
the details of which have already been forwarded, amount to 
$23,031 26. 

CanneatU harbor. — -Four hundred feet of new work have been rebuilt 
from the surface of the water, and completed. 

A crane-scow has also been constructed this season, and a good 
yawl-boat purchased. 

A survey of the harbor has been made, and the charts are in the po» 
session of the bureau. 

The expenditure for the season has been $6,000. 

The estimated cost of the proposed extension of the work is 
$19,855. 

For further details respecting these three last-mentioned harbors, I 
respectfully refer to the lull report of the aeent, Mr. J. A. Potter, under 
whose immediate charge the work upon aU of them has been executed; 
and I beg also to express my satisfaction with the very substantial 
character of the work done by him, and the manner in which his op- 
erations have been conducted. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

HOWARD STANSBURY, 
Capt. Top. Engineers f General Super'tnten/deHU 

CoL J. J. Abert, 

Chief Corps Topographical Engineers^ Washington. 



Painesvilb, Ohio, September 20, 1863. 

Sir : In compliance with the directions of the chief of the corps of 
topographical engineers, dated May 31, 1853, 1 have the honor to sub* 
mit tne following report: 

From the 1st September, 1852, until the 19th day of April last, I 
was engaged as assistant engineer upon the survey of the north and 
northwest lakes, under the orders of Captain J. N. Macomb, of the 
corps of topographical engineers. On the 19th April my appointment 
as engineer and United States agent for the harbors of Grand River, . 
Ashtabula, and Conneaut, took eflect, and 1 immediately assumed the 
charge of the works at those points. After a careful inspection of the 
works at those points, plans for their repair were reported to the bu- 
reau, and approved, and I was ordered to carry them mto eflect. The 
following will show the progress made up to this time: 

Grand River harbor. — The west pier at this point was reported to be 
gone, for the distance of twelve hundred feet, to from one to three feet 
below the surface of the water. Upon a closer and more minute 
examination, it was found in a much loorse condition. The timbers of 
the old cribs were found to be so much torn up and displaced, that it 
became necessary to remove the stone and old work to a much greater 
depth. For the distance of two hundred and fifty feet no foundation 
could be obtained until everything was removed to from seven to 
liine feet bekxw the surface. This was a labor of time and difficulty, 
wjtb the laperlbct machinery at hand. \\ was found almost impossible 



H. Doc. 1. 188 

to get good fbimdalioTO for the new cribs to rest upon, even at that 
def^. In many places we found the old cribs buflt of timber (round 
logs) not more than six or eight inches in diameter, and settled without 
any apparent reference to direction or connexion with the adj<»ning 
cribs. 

In repairing work of tiiis kind, the first operation is to remove every- 
thing, as above, and get as fair a surface as possible for the new work 
to rest upon. Accurate soundings are then taken, and a crib, con- 
structed to fit the bottom exactly, floated over the spot, settled with 
care, and bolted down, (if possible,) and fiUed immediately with stone. 
If it is ibund difficult to bolt securely, a bottom is put in the crib, and 
we are obliged to trust to the weight of the stone and the fastenings of 
the superstructure to keep it in place. Up to the present time the 
expenditures have amounted to about five thou^ma dollars. Three 
hundred feet (entirely through the worst portion of the work) have 
been rebuilt as above, the outer angle of the west pier thoroughly over- 
hauled and repaired where necessary, and the outer end refilled with 
stone and secured. 

The work is done in a thorough and substantial manner. Iron bolts 
are used exclusively, and are found to be cheaper and far more satis- 
factory than the wooden pin. All the timber used is square, and at 
least one foot in diameter, and above water is of the best of oak and 
red beech. An excellent crane-scow has been constructed this season, 
with other machinery for removing old work. A good yawl-boat has 
also been purchased. 

The prices of materials have ranged fit>m thirty to fifty per cent, in 
advance of former prices. A survey of this harbor has oeen made 
this season, and the greatest care used in obtaining correct soundings* 
Accompanying this, I forward a chart exhibiting the soundings as they 
existed on the first day of September. 

The lake is rapidly falling again, and at my last observation was 
deven and a half inches lower than on May 10. I herewith submit 
an estimate for the proposed extension of the piers, on the plan sug- 
gested to me by Major Bache, of the corps. 

The width of the entrance of lake harbors (in most cases) being 
necessarily small, it is often the case that, although the extension of a 
pier on one side of a harbor forms a sort of lee for a vessel, yet it is 
not sufficient, in heavy weather, to prevent her drifting oflT below the 
shorter pier, as at Grand River. With a strong wind from the west or 
southwest, a vessel makes the harbor with great difficulty, and they 
have often been drifted to the leeward of the eastern or shorter pier, 
and either gone on shore, or been obliged to stand out into the lake 
again. On approaching this harbor from the westward, a vessel, as 
soon as opposite the entrance, changes her course, loses her heading in 
a measure, and, in consequence of the distance to be run before reaching 
the real entrance between the piers, is in great danger of being drifted 
entirely to the eastward of the shorter pier. 

In view of all these circumstances, I would recommend the improve- 
ment proposed, as it at the same time gives the harbor aU the advBH^ 
tages of the angle of the tcestjnerf which I consider all imporlanl. 



134 .H. D0C..I. 

This port, as it ever has been, is of the utmost importance m 
harbor of refuge for the lake craft ; and its usefuhiess to the surrou] 
ing country as an outlet for their products has already been set (o 
from year to year by the reports otthe bureau. 

A railroad is now in process of construction, connecting this harl 
with the Ohio river and the immense coal region of central Ohio. 

Estimate of/Muds required far continuing the inwrovement efthe harbor 
Grand Biver^ Ohio^ during the year ending June 30, 1855. 

80,800 feet crib timber, at 10 cents per foot ^,080 

40,780 feet ties, at 10 cents per foot , 4,078 

19,800 feet long timber, at 10 cents per foot 1,980 

28,700 feet longitudinal and cross-ties, at 10 cents per foot. 2,870 

913 feet posts, at 10 cents per fix)t 91 

14,300 feet plank, at $30 per thousand 429 

, 2,000 feet lumber, at $10 per thousand 20 

1,738 cords stone, at $5 per cord 8,690 

10 tons iron, at $90 per ton 900 

■ 2,200 pounds spike, at 6 cents per pound 132 

3,735 days carpentry, at $1 50 per day 5,362 

1,463 days labor, at $1 per day 1,483 

825 weeks subsistence, at $2 per week 1,650 

Smithery 275 

Crane-scow 750 

Stone-scow 300 

Contingencies, ten per cent on amount 8,207 

Total amount of estimate 35,277 



Ashtabula harbor. — Operations, under the instructions of the Bun 
of Topograpliical Engineers, were commenced at this point on the 1 
day of October, 1852, for the purpose of repairing (it possible bef 
the winter) the breach made in the east pier during a severe gale 
July of that year. The season proved unfavorable, and, after m£ 
inefiectual attempts, the whole matter was suspended until the com 
spring. 

I assumed the charge of this work, under the orders of the bure 
as before stated, on the 19th day of April, and made an immediate 
spection of the works, and reported their condition to the bureau, 
follows : 

The outer angle of the east pier very much out of repair, timl 
broken in many places, plank torn up, &c., &c., and recommended 
being rebuilt from the surface of the water. ^I will here mention tl 
before we had reached this point in our repairs, this whole angle ^ 
swept away, during a gale, to from three to six feet below the surf 
of the water.^ I also found a breach existing in the eastern pier, c< 
mencing at the inner end of the part above described, and extend 
two hundred and fifty feet towaras the shore ; everything gone to fi 
£ve to seven ieet below the surface of the water, and the sea from 
eastward making a clear sweep tlu[Oug\i lU TVjfe wxXrx end of 



H. Doc. 1. 135 

west pier was also gone, from six to nine feet below the surface, for 
the distance of one hundred feet. 

My suggestions as to the mode of repairs necessary having been laid 
before the proper authority and approved, I was ordered to take imme- 
diate measures to cany out the proposed plans. 

During the winter, the agent m charge had procured a large quantity 
d* materials, thoroughly repaired the scows, &;c., and operations were 
commenced without delay. 

The work has been vigorously pushed up to the present time ; the 
ibundation cribs throughout the whole damaged portion of the east pier 
are in place ; and the superstructure completed (except the planking) 
for the distance of three hundred feet. 

The superstructure is composed entirely of the best of white oak 
and red beech timber ; and the work is done in the most thorough 
manner, bolted with iron, and secured in the most approved style. If 
the weather continues favorable, this pier will be entirely completed 
this fall, and the outer end of the west pier secured. 

The expenses up to this time are not far from five thousand dollars ; 
the balance on hand will be sufficient to complete the proposed repairs. 
A detailed survey of this harbor and vicinity has been made this 
season. 

I forward herewith a chart, exhibiting the sounding as taken with 
the greatest care. An estimate for the further improvement of this 
harbor is herewith submitted. 

I have not the means at hand for furnishing the statistics of the busi- 
aess of this harbor; but, situated as it is in the midst of one of the finest 
and most densely-populated districts of northern Ohio, whose products 
find their outlet at this port, its importance in every sense is rapidlv 
increasing. This harbor has been selected as the terminus of a rail- 
road, traversing the fertile region of eastern Ohio, placing it in connexion 
with many of the important inland towns and the Ohio river, opening 
at the same time a new and valuable coal district, which must nnd its 
way to this port for a market. 

Estimate of funds required for continuing the improvement of the harbor Of 
Ashtabula^ Ohioj during the year ending June 30, 1865. 

19,600 feet crib timber, at 10 cents per foot $1,960 00 

27,460 feet ties, at 10 cents per foot 2,746 00 

12,600 feet long timber, at 10 cents per foot 1,260 00 

18,900 feet longitudinal and cross-ties, at 10 cents perfect. 1,890 00 

600 feet posts, at 10 cents per foot 60 00 

9,100 feet plank, at $30 per thousand 273 00 

1,600 feet lumber, at $10 per thousand 16 00 

1,106 cords stone, at $6 per cord 6,630 00 

6^tonsiron, at $90 per ton 496 00 

1,600 pounds spike, at 6 cents per pound 90 00 

2,27^ days carpentry, a;t $1 60 per day 3,412 60 

931 days labor, at $1 per day 9^1 00 

676 weeks subsistence, at $2 per week 1,0&0 00 

Smithiz^ 115 0^ 



136 H. Doc. 1. 

Crane-scow $760 00 

Stone-scow .* 300 00 ^ 

Contingencies, ten per cent, on amount 2,093 76 < 

Total amount of estimate 23,03126 ^ 



Conneata harbor. — ^I assumed the charge of this harbor on the 19th 
day of April last, and immediately reported the condition of the works 
to the bureau, together with my views as to the necessary repairs* 

This report was approved by the bureau, and I was ordered to 
carry out the proposed plans. 

Subsequent examinations convinced me of the necessity of entirely 
rebuilding the outer angle of the west pier from the surface of the water. 
This has been done in the most thorough manner. It was also found 
necessary to rebuild a portion of the east pier for the distance of two 
hundred and seventy-five feet. 

This part was thoroughly repaired under the last appropriation ; but, 
upon examination, it was found that in many places the sea was making 
breaches through it. The deck being still m very good condition, as 
much as possible was used in the rebuilding of the work. 

This part is also nearly ready for the dect, and will be entirely com- 
pleted tnis fall. 

The east pier has been extended inland for the distance of one hun- 
dred and twenty feet, in accordance with instructions received from 
the bureau. 

A superior crane-scow has been constructed this season, and a yawl- 
boat purchased for the service of the works. 

The sand does not appear to be accumulating on the west side of 
this harbor, as at Grand Kiver and Ashtabula. 

A careful survey of this harbor has also been made, and a chart is 
herewith transmitted to the bureau, together with an estimate for the 
proposed extension of the piers. 

This harbor is situated about fourteen miles to the eastward of Ash- 
tabula, and like it, is surrounded by a fertile and densely-populated 
country, whose products find their way to market through this port 
A railroad is now in process of construction connecting this port 
directly with the city of Pittsburg, passing through the coal region, 
which will at once insure an immense amount of business at this port 

Estimate of funds required for continuing the improvement of the harbor al 
Conneautf Uhio^ during the year ending 30th June^ 1855. 

16,800 feet crib timber, at 10 cents per foot $1,680 00 

22,680 feet crib-ties, at 10 cents per foot 2,268 00 

10,800 feet long timber, at 10 cents per foot 1,080 00 

16,200 feet longitudinal and cross-ties, at 10 cents per foot 1,620 00 

500 feet posts, at 10 cents per foot 60 00 

9,600 feet plank, at $30 per thousand 288 00 

1,200 feet lumber, at $10 per thousand 12 00 

950 cords stone, at $5 per cord 4,750 00 

4^ tons iron, at $90 per ion 406 00 



H. Doc 1. 187 

lySOO pounds 8]Mkei at 6 cents per pound. $72 00 

1,950 days carpentry, at $1 60 per day 2,926 00 

800 days labor, at $1 per day 800 00 

460 weeks subsistence, at S2 per week 900 00 

Smitbing 160 00 

Stone-scow 300 00 

Crane-scow 760 00 

Contingencies, 10 per cent on amount 1,806 00 

19,866 00 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

In the repair of the harbors intrusted to my supervision, the expend- 
itures have been carefully directed to the purpose of making the har- 
bors serviceable, with the present works, as far as possible. The 
appropriation being small, it was not deemed advisable to attempt any 
work that could not be completed with the means available ; the great 
essential being to put the present works in a taft conditianf not trusting 
to future appropriations to complete unfinished extensions. 

In the surveys made of each port, and herewith transmitted, the 
greatest care has been taken to note all points of interest as far as pos- 
sible. A red line on each map will show the line of beach as it existed 
at the date of the surveys. 

I also forward a sheet showing the different plans adopted in the re- 
pairs at the several points. Either kind of work is sufficient for the 
purposes intended; but that at Conneaut is the most complete in all its 
parts, and the kind of work that I would most respectfully recommend 
to the consideration of the bureau. It combines nearly all the requi- 
sites of a good pier, in my estimation. A model of a pier constructed 
on this plan is also forwarded to the bureau for inspection. This 
model is constructed for water of any depth up to fifteen feet. It is 
twenty feet wide, which is the least width that I would recommend 
fin* any pier resting upon cribs that are liable to settle ; and in all cases 
beyond that depth, the base should be in proportion to the depth of 
water. A pier constructed upon this plan is more Jimdy connected in 
all its parts, stronger in every particvtar than any work that I have 
yet examined, and I am confident, if adopted, would answer the pur- 
poses intended much better than iome of the old methods. In repairing 
works at different points, I have rarely found two cribs constructed 
alike, or fastened in the same manner; generally of round timber, inse- 
curely fastened, without any particular regard to size of the logs, nature 
of the connexions or Joints, and the quantity of work done, without re- 
gard to the Quality, the main object. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. A. POTTER, 
United States Agent. 

Capt. H. Stansbury, 

Carpt Topographical Engineers^ U. S. Army^ 

Gei^rat Sitpt. Lake Harbors^ Cleveland^ Ohio. 



138 H. Doc. 1. 

Office of the UinTED States Agency, 

Sandusky Cityf September 1, 1863. 

Sib: Agreeably to your instructions, I herewith forward you my an- 
nual report oi my operations for the past, and my recoomiendations 
for the coming year, for the harbor at Huron, Ohio. 

I have built up, from the foundation, averaging at least 6} feet be- 
low the surface of the water, about 540 feet of the east pier 12 feet 
wide, with square timber bolted together with iron, and filled the same ■ 
with stone. The work was commenced in April, and has been pro- 
gressing since with such despatch as the circumstances of the case u 
would permit. Materials have been difficult to procure, and laboring r 
men have been scarce; the great demand for laborers upon our numer- . 
ous railroads has made it quite difficult to procure labor or materials 
for the construction of a work at anything like satisfactory prices or . 
regular despatch. ^ 

The fitting and placing new work upon the old and uncertain faundor ^ 
tion left from the oestruction of the old piers, which were first built at ^ 
this place, is both cosdy and difficult. I make no doubt, if the old pier 
were entirely gone, I could have^built and sunk a pier 16 feet wide, « 
and the same length, for even less money. 

I propose, during the remainder of the season, or so long as the pre- 
sent appropriation shall last, to build up the pier sunk to 4 or 4} feet 
above the water, and still continue to sink, if circumstances shall war- 
rant; but build up what is already sunk, and secure the same from d^ >^ 
stroction by the seas, leaving it perfecdy safe, in this respect, until fur- 
ther appropriations shall be made by Congress to finish the work. 

There is something over 200 feet of the east pier remaining 
to be built up from 6J or 7 feet below the surface of the 
water, which will require a further appropriation of, say $8,000 00 i 

Former estimate to build upcast pier 17,000 00 

26,000 00 



Therefore, in my judgment, an appropriation of $25,000 will be re- 
quired to prosecute successfully the work of improvement for the coming 
year at this place. This amount of appropriation by Congress would, 
I make no doubt, place this harbor in capital condition. My expenses 
during the past year are as follows, to wit: 

Paid out for tools and materials on hand $1,461 88 

Paid out for tool-shop, &c 100 00 

On hand 948 39 

2,610 27 
Add actual cost of work put in 4,739 73 

7,260 00 



H. Doc. 1. 139 

My receipts for the same time are as follow: 

For March $260 00 

For April 3,000 00 

For June 1,000 00 

For July, received in August 2,000 00 

For August : 1,000 00 

Total 7,250 00 

The entire balance of $10,000 will be nearly or all expended before 
the close of the navigation* 

This harbor is an important one, although the commerce for a few 
^ears past has not been very considerable, jet it is now assuming au 
unportance by no means insignificant. This place is the termination 
of the Huron and Oxford railroad, and a brancn of the Sandusky City, 
Mansfield, and Newark railroad. The Junction railroad also passes ai- 
rectly through this place, and, when the harbor is sufficiently improved, 
will aflS>rd shelter for many lake vessels and considerable commerce. 
I therefore have no hesitation in strongly recommending this work to 
the &vorable consideration of your department. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GEORGE S. PATTERSON, 

UnUed StaU$ AgenU 
Capt. H. Stansbitrt, 

Carpi Tapof^aphical Engineerif 

General SuperinUndetU Harbor ImprovemenUi Cleveland^ Ohio. 



Eitimate of funds required to complete the repain of the harbor of Huron. 

WEST PIEB. 

1. To bring 160 feet at the northern end up to the surface of the 
water, seven courses, twelve feet wide. 

2,240 feet crib timber, 12 inches by 12, at 14 cents $313 60 

1,848 feet ties, do do 268 72 

76 cords of stone, at $6 376 00 

I ton I iron bolts, at $96 71 26 

1,018 67 



MIDDLE BREACH. 

2. To bring 360 feet up to the surface of the water, five courses. 

3,600 feet crib timber, 12 inches by 12, at 14 cents $604 00 

2,280 feet ties, do do 403 20 

1 J ton bolt iron, at $96 118 76 

121 cords of stone, at $6 606 00 



140 H. Doc. 1. 

BRBACH NEXT THB SHOBB. 

S, To bring 180 feet up to the surface of the water, three courses. 

1,080 feet crib timber, 12 inches by 12, at 14 cents $161 20 

864 feetties, do do 120 96 

J ton bolt iron, at $96 31 66 

86 J cords stone, at $6 182 60 

496 32 

SUPERSTSUCTURB* 

4* To rebuild west pier its whole length, 1,140 feet, seven courses, 
twelve feet wide. 

15,960 feet crib timber, 12 inches by 12, at 14 cents $2,234 46 

13,680 feet ties, do do 1,915 20 

4 J tons bolt iron, at $95 427 50 

16 kegs spikes, at $6 90 00 

386 cords stone, at $5 1,930 00 

11,400 feet 3-inch oak plank for deck, at $30 342 00 

Tearing up old work and clearing foundation w.....* 1,000 00 

Carpentry, smith work, and labor for the whole — 5,000 00 

1 crane-scow 750 00 

1 stone-scow 350 00 



14, 039 16 

PIER-HBAD. 

5. To build up pier-head Srom surface of water 9 feet, 40 feet square. 

3,500 feet crib timber, (including posts,) at 15 cents $525 00 

1 ton bolt iron • 95 00 

65 cords stone, at $5 325 00 

1,600 feet 3-inch oak for deck, at $30 48 00 

5 kegs spikefil, at $6 30 00 

Carpentry and labor 1,000 00 

2, 067 40 

RECAPITULATION — ^WEST PIER. 

1. Outer breach $1,018 57 

2. Middle breach 1,630 96 

3. Breach next the shore 496 32 

4. Superstructure 14,039 16 

5. Pier-head. 2,067 40 

Total for west pier 19,252 40 



H. Doc. 1. 141 

BAST PIEB. 

To complete the east pier, by reconstructing 210 feet of pier upon the 
old foundation, eight feet below the water, andconstnicting a pier-head. 

6,680 feet crib timber, at 14 cents $823 00 

4^72 feet ties, at 14 cents 682 08 

li ton bolt iron at $96 142 60 

170 cords stone, at $6 860 00 

10 kegs spikes, at $6 60 00 

2,100 feet d-inch oak plank, at $30 63 00 

Carpentry and labor 1,600 00 

4,2 61 40 

PIER-HEAD. 

40 feet square, in 16 feet water, to rise 9 feet above the surface. 

9,360 feet crib timber, at 16 cents $1,404 00 

209 cords stone, at $6 1,046 00 

2 tons bolt iron, at $96. 190 00 

1,600 feet 3-inch plank for deck, at $30 48 00 

1,480 feet 3-inch plank, for planking outside 44 40 

10 kegs spikes, at $6. 60 00 

Carpentry and labor 1,600 00 

4,291 40 



EAST PIER. 



Completion of east pier..., , , $4,261 40 

Pier-head.. ..,..,, ,,,,,.,,. 4,291 40 



8,662 80 



RECAPITULATION. 



West pier $19,262 40 

East pier 8,662 80 

27,806 20 
Contingencie99 IQ per ceAt, . . ^, ^ 2,780 62 

80,686 72 

The above.estimg.le embraces the whole expense of putting the piers 
in a complete state of repg^ir. The amount of the last light-house ap- 
propriations wiU, hpi^evej:, have to he deducted from it. 
Respectfully, , . 

HOWARD STAN8BURT, 
Cap. Top. Engineers, General Sttpcrintcndent* 
ClbtbuukP/ Qmo, Nov. 21, 1863» 



142 H. Doc. 1/ 

Estimate of funds required to r^air the piers at the harbor of VermiUiofL 

WEST PIER. 

1. Commencing at the outer or north end ; 120 feet to be built up from 
the surface of the water 6 feet high and 24 feet wide, 

1,800 feet oak timber, 12 inches by 12, at 12 cents $216 00 

2,112 feet lies, at 12 cents 253 44 

i ton f-inchbolt iron, at $90. 67 50 

75 cords stone, at $4.. 300 00 

3,000 feet 3-inch oak plank, at $30 90 00 

6kegs spikes, at $6^ 36 00 

Smithery 100 00 

Carpentry and labor 500 00 

Contingencies, lOper cent 156 29 

1,719 23 

2, To tear up and rebuild from the foundation at the water's edge 
1,000 feet of pier, fill with stone, and plank over, 24 feet wide and 5 
feet high. 

15,000 feet oak timber, at 12 cents $1,800 00 

17,568 feet ties, at 12 cents 2,108 16 

6 tons f-inch bolt iron, at $90 450 00 

30 kegs spikes, at $6 180 00 

568 cords stone, at $4 2,272 00 

23,000 feet 3-inch plank, at $30 690 00 

Smithery 500 00 

Carpentry and labor 4,000 00 

1 crane-scow 750 00 

1 stone scow 350 00* 

Tearing up old work • 1,500 00 

Contingencies, 10 per cent 1,460 02 

16,060 18 



EAST PIER. 

3. To bring up 90 feet 4 feet to the surface of the water, and to 
rebuild, fill with stone and plank, 270 feet of pier, 24 feet wide and 6 
feet high. 

6,940 feet oak timber, at 12 cents $832 80 

246 ties, 5,904 feet, at 12 cents 708 48 

3 tons S-inch bolt iron, at $90 180 00 

10 kegs spikes, at $6 60 00 

204 cords stone, at $4 816 00 

5,670 feet 3-inch plank, at $30 170 00 

Carpentry and labor 3,000 00 

Smithery 300 00 

Contingencies, 10 per cent 606 74 

6,674 12 



I 



H. Doc. 1. 143 



BBCAPITULATION. 



1. North end of west pier $1,719 23 

2. Rebuilding west pier above water 16,060 18 

3. East pier 6,674 12 

24,463 63 

The above estimate provides for the whole expense of both piers as 
far as they at present extend into the lake. Consequently, the hinds in 
the hands of the department for this purpose will have to be deducted 
from it* The original j)lan of the work contemplates, I believe, a fur- 
ther extension of both piers into the lake, but how far I have no means 
of knowing. The present estimate is simply for putting the work as it 
now stands in a complete state of repair, which it very much needs. 
HespectluUy, 

HOWARD STANSBURY, 
Captain Top. Engineert^ General Superintendent* 

EMimate (f funds required to complete the repairs of the harbor of Black river. 

BAST PIBR. 

1. To rebuild breach gone at the north end, 90 feet in length, water 
6 feet deep on old foundation, width 13 feet. 

2,160 feet crib timber, 12 mches by 12, at 12 cents $269 00 

2,000 feet ties, at 12 cents 240 00 

50 cords stone, at $6 260 00 

1,200 lbs. i-inch bolt iron, at 4i cents 64 00 

1,000 feet 3-inch oak plank, at $30 30 00 

Carpentry and labor 660 00 

1,483 00 

2. To rebuild breach 60 feet in length, water 6 feet deep on old 
foundation. 

1,080 feet crib timber, at 12 cents $129 60 

1,000 feet ties, at 12 cents 120 00 

30 cords stene, at $6 160 00 

540 lbs. bolt iron, at 4i cents 24 30 

700 feet plank, at $30 21 00 

Carpentiy andlab<^ ^ 600 00 

944 90 

3. To rebuild from the surfece of the water 872 feet of pier 13 feet 
wide. 

1,136 feet crib timber, at 12 cents $1,360 32 

1,000 feet ties, at 12 cents ^9^^ ^^ 

260 cord* stOD^, at $S. l^BttO ^^ 



144 H. Doc. 1. 

S tons bolt iron, at $96 $285 00 

10,000 feet plank, at $30 300 00 

Carpentry and labor 4,500 00 

9,145 32 

Total for east pier $11,673 42 

PISR-HEAD FOR EAST PIER. 

40 feet square, 16 feet water, to rise 9 feet above the surface. 

9,360 feet crib timber, at 16 cents ..^ $1,404 00 

209 cords stone, at $5 1,046 00 

2 tons bolt iron, at $96 190 00 

1,600 feet 3-inch oak plank, for deck, at $30 48 00 

1,480 feet 3-incli oak plank, for planking outside 44 40 

10 kegs spikes, at $6 60 00 

Carpentry and labor 1,600 00 

4,291 40 



EAST PIER. 



Completion of east pier ^ $11,672 42 

Pier-head 4,291 40 



16,863 82 



WEST PIER. 

1* To rebuild 120 feet gone on north end from sur&ce of water, 
width 16 feet. 

2,268 feet crib timber, al 12 cents $272 16 

1,660 feet ties, at 12 cents 198 00 

33 cords stone, at $6 166 00 

760 pounds iron, at 4} cents , ^ 83 76 

1,638 feet plank, at $30 49 14 

Carpentry and labor 600 00 

1,218 06 

2. To rebuild 374 feet firom sur&ce of water, width 11 feet. 

4,448 feet crib timber, at 12 cents $633 76 

3,676 feet ties, at 12 cents 427 80 

90 cords stone, at $6 460 00 

2i tons bolt iron, at $96 213 76 

3,600 feet of plank, at $30 • 106 00 

Carpentry and labor... 1,600 00 

3,230 00 



H. Doc. 1. 145 

RBCAPiTULATION 

East pier $11,673 42 

Pier-head 4,291 40 

West pier 4,448 36 

Contii^eocies, 10 per cent 2,031 32 

22,344 50 

The above estimate embraces the whole expense of putting the 
piers of this harbor in a complete state of repair. The amount of the 
kst appropriation will thereiore have to be deducted from it. 
Respectfully, 

HOWARD STANSBURY, 
Captain Tap. Engineers f General Supi. 
Cleveland, Ohio, November 21, 1863, 



APPENDIX H. 

Detroit, September 1, 1853. 

Sib: In obedience to your orders of the 13th April, 1863, 1 respect- 
fully submit the following views, plans and estimates, for opening a 
channel through the St. Clair flats. 

This improvement is one in which more interests are involved than 
a^ other on the lakes. Every cargo carried to the upper lakes is 
a£^ted by it. 

No vessel ever attempts to pass the flats in the night ; all must incur» 
at least, the delay of waitinff for daylight. The largest vessels (except 
when the water is very high) cannot pass frilly laden ; and besides 
these certain losses, they usually have to pay, on every passage, some- 
thing to the steam-tugs for lighterage, or towing, or hauling ofl*, when 
thev get aground. 

It is believed, on good authority, that the average expense or loss of 
passing the flats, to vessels such as those trading to Chicago and Mil- 
waukie, is equal to one hundred dollars per trip. This is an enormous 
tax, and one that would not be quietly submitted to but for the expec- 
tation that the difficulty will be soon removed. 

In regard to the point at which it is most advantageous to open the 
channel, the shortest and most direct (all other things being equal) is 
the west. 

Referring to the map of the mouth of the south channel, it is clear 
that a direct cut from the mouth of the river to the deep water of the 
lake, marked E F, would be best ; but as this cut would be about one 
mile and a quarter long, and would consequently involve a heavy ex- 
pense, and take a longer time to accomplish it, it may be better ta 
open the channel which is nearest to the mouth of the river, and which 
may be accomplished by much less labor and expense. 

The entrance here, marked A on the map^ la more than a mile tioui 
Fartiii—lO 



146 m. Ddc. 1. 

the channel, running directly out from the mouth of the river first re- 
ferred to. 

This i)oint, I think, possesses, some axivantages over the one lying 
west of it, and referr^ to in your letter of the 13th of April, 1853. 
The reasons why this seems preferable to the more western entrance, 
are, that it is nearer, by more thaa a mile, Xo the entrance of the river, 
and that it may be opened and completed at considerably less cost. 
The plans for either cut would be, I suppose, essentially the same. 

The middle cut, marked A on the map, being the shortest, would be 
least expensive. 

In the plan for opening the western channel, it is suggested in year 
letter, before referred to, to drive a row of piles (X) across the line of 
the channel A, with the view of forcing the currents into the western 
chaimel, (B.) 

If it is borne in mind that the place X is entirelv out in the open 
lake, more than a mile and a half from any thing like shore, the iact 
will be apparent that there can be scarcely any perceptible current at 
that place, not sufficient in any degree to affect the bottom. 

I have no doubt that the deep channel at the point X, and above and 
below it, has been cut, where a ridge of ice has been accidentally 
piled up on the flats, extending across the mouth of the river and 
stretching out to the westward on the outside of this channel. 

It is found, by the survey made last fall, that scarcely any change 
has taken place in the depth and form of this channel within the last 
ten years, when the first survey was made. This seems to show, con- 
clusively, that the current is not sufficient to affect the bottom. 

There is another objection to driving piles as suggested, which is, 
that it crosses the channel now used by all the second class vessels 
and steamers, it being much nearer than the route by the north chan- 
nel ; all vessels that can pass here do so. I am confident that more 
Aan one-half of all the vessels pass this way. They would, of course, 
find it a serious inconvenience to have this channel closed up, and I 
feel certain that it would do nothing towards effecting the end desired — 
namely, deepening the more western channel. 

By referring to the survey made last fall, (a copy of which is en- 
closed herewith,) it will be seen that there is no twelve-feet water 
above the points marked Y Z on the accompanying map. 

If it should be decided to open the western channel, the dredging 
will have to be continued out from D to Y Z, in order to obtain a depth 
of twelve feet throughout. 

The light-house for this channel should be placed at L, and the bea- 
con-light at M, and fix>m the light-house a line of stakes or piles should 
be driven, marking the channel to P, where the sheet-piling would 
commence ; and, from the upper end of the sheet-piling, the channel 
stakes to be extended to W, where the channel is shown by the rushes 
growing on each side. 

If the channel A is selected, the place for the light-house would be 
at R, and the beacon at S. 
V The sheet-piling would extend, on both sides of the cut, from the 
ueep water of^ the lake to the deep water connecting with the river. 



H- Doc, 1. 147 

Above the sheet-piling the side of the channel should be marked by 
channel stakes up to the point W, the moulli of the river. 

These channel stakes snould be spliced on to strong piles, and stand 
eighteen or twenty feet above the water, and be capped with a sheet- 
iron cone of about four feet diameter, which, showing above the hori- 
zon, could be seen from the deck of a vessel in the night 

These marks should be placed about three hundred feet apart, and 
be so firmly fixed as to stand through all seasons. With sucn marks 
the channel could be run at night without difiiculty or delay. 

In regard to the width of the channel to be opened at either place, 
I am of opinion that three hundred feet will fully answer all the 
requisite purposes, and such is the opinion of the most experienced 
steamboat captains. I say this with some difiidence, knowing that 
a greater width has been suggested ; but ailer a constant observation 
of the lake navigation for ten years past, I am convinced that three 
hundred feet would be found amply sufficient. 

Very few of the harbor entrances on the lakes are more than half 
this width, and I have never heard any complaint of their being too 
narrow, although the difficulty of entering the harbors is much in- 
crea.'^ed by the neavy sea to which they are exposed ; while on Lake 
St Clair the water is at all times comparatively smooth ; owing to the 
shallowness of the lake, a heavy sea can never be got u[) on it 

The largest steamers on the lakes are about 62 feet wide across the 
guards ; of course, a three hundred feet channel gives them room to 
pass each other with perfect freedom. 

A channel of three hundred feet wide can be cut through with the 
dredge, just finished for this work, at a much less rate per yard than 
if the channel were six hundred feet wide, because, for a three hun- 
dred feet channel, no mud-scows are required. 

The dredge, as it advances, cuts a channel fifty feet wide ; and it is 
found by experience that it is cheaper to remove one-third of the earth 
three times (as must be done to open a channel one hundred and fifty 
feet wide) than to use mud-scows, and boat it off. For a six hundred 
feet channel mud-scows must be used. 

As suggested in your letter, before referred to, it wiU be necessary 
to protect the sides of the cut by a sheet-piling. 

These piles should not be less than twelve inches in diameter at the 
small end, flattened on two sides, and driven close together along both 
sides of die cut. They will be permanent below the water, and 
will prevent the mud from being washed back into the channel. 

In regard to the structure for a light-house at this place, the soundings 
made at several places show from twelve to fifteen feet of " hard sand." 
This probably means soft sand^ for it is only in soft sand that a rod 
can be sunk by hand to the depth of twelve or fifteen feet. 

I have examined it in a number of places, and found it a mixture of 
very fine sand and black mud, or vegetable mould, so sofl that I think 
it would require piling to sustain a structure of masonry. 

I am, therefore, of the opinion that the tower for this place should 
have as little weight as possible ; and as the whole operation is, in 
some degree, an experiment, (it being possible that difficulties and uti- 



148 H. Doc. 1. 

foreseen objections may occur to this channel,) it may be best, in the 
first place, to construct a light^house and beacon-light, and keeper's 
house, of wood ; making them as far as possible fire-proof, by roofing 
and covering them with tin or with coppered iron. 

The entire cost of such a structure would not much exceed the an- 
nual interest on the sum required for a permanent structure of iron or 
etone. A large portion of the piles requu-ed for the buUdin^ must be 
driven to form a wood landing for supplying the steam-engme of the 
dredge* To cc»istruct this wood landing is the first thing to be done 
on the work. 

It is not important that the tower at this place should be very high 
nor the light very strong ; there being never a very high sea on this 
lake, there is never any danger of shipwreck. No vesselwas ever lost 
here ; and the lake being small, (only eighteen miles from the Detroit 
river to this place,) there is no difiSculty in making a light even of a 
very low order. 

The beacon-h'ght should be placed in firont of the main light so as to 
mark the direction of the entrance to the channel. The beacon may 
be placed about one hundred and sixty feet distant from the main light, 
and the two connected by a foot-bridge, so that both may be attended 
by the same keeper. 

Estimates for completing the work, in accordance with the foregoing 
views, are herewith submitted. I have made separate estimates for 
the three channels, and separate estimates for channels three hundred 
feet and six hundred feet m width. 

It is hardly necessary to say that there are, on the lakes, many light- 
house towers built of wood, in positions where it would be difficult an4 
expensive to sustain a heavy structure of masonry. 
I am, most respectfiilly, your obedient servant, 

A. CANFIELD, 
Captain Topographical Engineers. 

CoL J. J. Abert, 

Chief Corps Top. EngineerSj Washington^ D. C. 



Estimate for deepening eaMem channel^ South Passy St. Clair flats. 

Length of cut 6,600 feet = 2,200 yards. 
Width of cut 300 feet = 100 yards. 
Mean depth of cut 6 feet = 2 yards. 

Dredging 440,000 cubic yards, at 12J cents per cubic 

yard $66,000 00 

Sheet-piling both sides of cut, 13,200 feet long, at $3 per 

running loot 39,600 00 

94,600 00 



H. Doc. 1. 14d 

Same channel^ WO feet wide. 

Dredging 440,000 cubic yards, at 12 J cents per yard. . $66,000 00 

Do 440,000 do at 26 cents per yard. . . 110,000 00 

Sheet-piling both sides of cut, 13,200 feet, at $3 per run- 
ning foot 39,600 00 

204,600 00 

Estimate for the middle chawnel^ South PasSj St. Clair flats. 

Length of cut 4,060 feet = 1,360 yards. 
Mean depth of cut 2 J feet = iths of a yard. 
Width ol cut 300 feet = 100 yards. 

Dredging 112,466 cubic yards, at 12} cents per yard.. $14,066 87 jl 
Sheet-piling the two sides of the cut, 8,100 feet, at $3 per 

running foot • 24,300 00 

Channel-marks, 30 of them, at $24 60 each 736 00 



39,091 87} 



Same chanhelf 600 feet wide. 



Dredging 112,466 cubic yards, at 12} cents per cubic 
yard $14,066 87} 

Dredging 112,466 cubic yards, at 26 cents per cubic 
yard.. ^ 28,113 76 

Slieet-piling the two sides of the cut, 8,100 feet, at $3 per 
running foot 24,300 00 

Channel-marks, 30 of them, at $24 60 each 736 00 

67,206 62} 



Estimate for the western channeU South Pass^ St. Clair fljats. 

Length of cut 820 feet = 273i yards. 
Mean depth of cut 3-xV feet = liV yard. 
Width of cut 300 feet = 100 yards. 

Dredging 309,682 cubic yards, at 12} cents per cubic 

yard $38,710 26 

Sheet-piling 8,400 feet, at $3 per running foot 26,200 00 

Channel-marks, 26 of them, at $24 60 each 637 00 

64,647 25 



150 H. Doc. I. 

Same channel^ 600 feet wide. 

Dredging 309,682 cubic yards, at ISJ cents per cubic 

yard $38,710 25 

Dredging 309,682 cubic yards, at 25 cents per cubic 

yard 77,420 50 

Sheet-piling 8,400 feet, at $3 per running foot 25,200 00 

Channel-marks, 26 of them, at $24 50 each 637 00 

141,967 75 

Estimate for platform for sustaining the light-hovse keeper's house and 

beaconrlight. 

For the main platform, to be 50 by 100 feet, piles 5 feet 

apart, 231 piles, at $8 per pile $1,848 00 

Caps for piles, 600 running feet, 16 by 16 inches, at 20 

centsperfoot ^.. 120 00 

Foot-path to beacon-light, 60 feet long and 5 feet wide, 

24 piles, at $8 each 192 00 

Caps for piles, 100 running feet, at 20 cents .20 00 

Platform for beacon-light, 25 piles, at $10 per pile 250 00 

Caps for piles, 160 feet, at 20 cents per foot 32 00 

Plank, 6,300 superficial feet, 3 inches thick, at $40 per 

thousand 252 00 

Iron for bolts, 1,592 pounds, at 6 cents per pound 95 52 

Spikes, 1,600 pounds, at 10 cents per pound 160 00 

Carpentry, $600 600 00 

For constructing tower, keeper's house, cost of lanterns 
and all required fixtures, in addition to the $10,000 
ahready appropriated, $6,000 / 6,000 00 

Amount required 9,569 52 

Adding the $10,000 already appropriated 10,000 00 

Total cost of light-house, beacon-light, platform, and 
keeper's house 19,569 52 

A. CANFIELD, 

Captain Topographical Engineers* 



Detroit, September 30, 1853. 
Sir: I have the honor herewith to submit the following report of the 
duties on which I have been engaged during the year ending Septem- 
ber 1, 1853: 

After turning over to the Treasury Department the Wangosbance 
light-house, on the Ist day of July, 1852, 1 remained at this place wait- 
7/7^ orders until the 1st day of October, when I received your instruc* 
iJons to take charge of the improvement ol \he Sx» CVait mta* 



H. Doc. L 151r 

A survey was immediately made of the mouth of the south chamiel 
of the St. Clair river, the entrance to which it is proposed to deepen 
sufficiently to allow the passage of the largest vessels navigating the 
lakes. 

The result of this examination, on being compared with the survey 
made by Captain Macomb t«n years ago, shows that very little change 
has taken place in the depth of the water within that period. 

The result of the last survey has been communicated to the bureau 
in my two reports on this subject, and a plan submitted for the im- 
provement. 

On the 8th day of December, 1852, I received your order to take 
immediate measures for constructing a dredge for the purpose of open- 
ing or deepening the channel across the flats. I without delay made 
an arrangement with Mr. Abel Hawley, of Milwaukie, Wisconsin, for 
commencing the dredge. It was to be built at Detroit, and to be 
completed by the last of June, 1853. Soon after the dredge was 
commenced, on the 81st day of. March, 1853, 1 received your orders 
to take charge of the construction of the ship canal at the Sault Ste. 
Marie. 

My duties in connexion with the canal taking me away from De- 
troit, it became impossible any longer to superintend the construction 
of the steam-dredge for the St. Clair flat^. Hence I was compelled to 
make a contract for building and completing it. This was done, and 
the dredge was so far finished by the first of tne present month (Septem- 
ber) as to be put in operation, for the purpose ot testing the machmery, 
and proving that it was capable of doing all that was contracted for; 
that is, that it should excavate in sand or easy cutting at the rate of 
(me hundred (100) cubic yards per hour through the day. 

This, fix)m careful observation, I am convinced it will do ; it has been 
operating only in a very stiff clay, mixed with small bftulders. Its per- 
formances here have been such as to satisfy me that it will do all that 
has been promised. It has a forty-horse power engine ; it is a single 
scoop-dredge, with a crane swinging off forty feet, and is worked by 
me man^ besides the firemen and engine men — five (5) in all. 

The cost of the dredge will be seventeen thousand dollars, ($17,000.) 
This will leave of the appropriation for the St. Clair flats less than three 
thousand dollars, ($3,000.) 

As I have fully given my views in the plan submitted for the St. 
Clair improvement, I suppose you do not wish to be troubled with a 
repetition of them. 

On the 29th of August, 1853, 1 received your order to make a sur- 
vey of the mouth of Ulinton river, with a view to the inmrovement of 
that entrance. The map, with my report and estimate for that work, 
was forwarded to the Topographical bureau on the 20th of the pres- 
eat month, (September.) 

I am at this time employed for a few days at this place on the draw- 
ings and models of the locks for the Sault Ste. Marie canal. This work 
is being constructed by the State of Michigan from the proceeds of the 
sales of an appropriation of Congress of seven hundred and fifty tUou- 
sand (750,000) acres of land for that purpose. 

It is required by the law of Congress that annual reports sUaJX ^ 



159 B. Dod. X^ 

made to the Secretary of the Interior of the amount expended on the 
construction of the canal, and of the amount of the proceeds of the 
sales of the lands, A contract was formed for the construction of the 
canal. The work was begun on the 4th day of June, 1853, and 
is to be finished by the 5th day May, 1855, The work has not pro* 
gressed as rapidly during the summer as it should have done, in order 
to insure its completion within the hmited time. I think it still pos- 
sible that it may be done ; but I am not confident that it will be. 

As a summary of my work during the past year, I respectfully refer 
to my report on the Sault Ste. Marie canal, the two reports on the St. 
Clair improvement, the report on the improvement of the Ontonagon, 
and the report on the improvement of the mouth of Clinton river. 

I have tne honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. CANFIELD, 
Captain Topographical Engineen. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Chief Corps Top. Engineers^ Washington^ D. C. 



Detroit, September 22, 1853. 

Sir : I herewith forward an estimate for the improvement of the 
entrance to Clinton river, Michigan. 

The map is just finished, and will be forwarded to-day by the ex- 
press. 

I have estimated for a channel one hundred feet wide and nine feet 
deep. This width and depth will be suflBcient for all purposes, and 
(^uite satisfactory to all who are interested in the commerce of the 
rjver. 

I am of the opinion that the light-houso is in the right position, and 
that it is not advisable to move it further out or in. It is in a very 
dilapidated condition, and will probably fall down before the end of 
the year. The pier on which it is built is much of it carried away, 
as well as a large portion of the lower part of the wall of the keeper's 
house, on which the lantern is placed. It will fall down very soon. 

I have not estimated for the first cost of the dredge. 

I am, very respectfidly, your obedient servant, 

A. CANFIELD, 
Captain Topographical Engineers. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Chief Corps Top. Engineers^ Washington^ D. C. 



Estimate for the improvement of the entrance to Clinton rwer^ State ef 

Michigan. ^. 

It is proposed to deepen the entrance to nine feet. 

For a close-piling for the sides of the cut, where the 
dredging is three feet deep, 2,400 piles, 15 feet long, at 

7^ cents each $ 1 , 800 00 

-Onw/rj 5,4(?0 piles, at 20 cents eacb 4S0 00 



HL Bod. 1. 153 

Dredginfi; 21,d58 cubic yar(k, at IS cents per yard $8,684 96 

Cost of horse pile-driver 900 00 

5,814 96 
Add for contingencies, 6 per cent 290 74 

6,106 70 
Present appropriation. 5,000 00 

Bcquired 1,105 70 

A- CANFIELD, 

Captain Topographical Engineers. 



APPENDIX L 

Office of U, S. Public Works, 
Chicago^ Illinois i September 1, 1863, 

Colonel : I bare tbe bonor to submit a report in reference to tbe 
several works under my charge. 

!• Chicago harboTf Illinois, 

Nothing has been done in prosecution of this improvement during 
the past year. The sketch herewith submitted shows the present 
condition of the entrance. The bar is steadily increasing. With any 
considerable wind from the north or northeast, vessels drawing nine 
feet and over are compelled to avoid the direct channel, and, from the 
drfl5culty of getting around the south end of the bar, are often obliged 
to come to anchor to ** leeward" of the piers, with the risk of dragging 
their anchors and going ashore. Much damage has ensued during the 
past two months. I need hardly say that the most urgent necessity 
exists for some effort to correct the evil, 

I have heretofore so frequently given my views of "die case that I fear 
that any further remarks will be almost a trespass upon your patience. 
I will, however, venture to say that I have seen no reason to change 
my opinions. To my plan of an outer pier I have heard objections 
made. I have been willing and anxious to hear them ; for, if success 
in such a work is pleasant and creditable, on the other hand a failure 
would be most disagreeable. Such objections as I have heard I have 
been able to answer satisfactorily, at least to myself. 

The only method other than my own, which has been recently sug- 
gested, is that of extending the north pier in a northeastern direction, 
80 as to produce along it a counteracting current to that along shore. 
But that method has already been tried and found to be entirely 
inefficient, or worse. On the contrary, as the pier has been brought 
more nearly into coincidence with, instead of opposition to, the direc- 
tion of the drift, the deposit has been slower and further out m \^e 
lake ; and I believe that the shore current only needs the acceletaViDTi 
wbicb will be given it by tbe proposed outer wcMrk to carry aW. \ta s^i 



154 H. Doe. 1. 

pended matter well to leeward of the harbor, and also to displace the 
present bar. 

The estimate for the proposed work submitted in detail on the 15th 
of January, 1853, amounted to $20,117 90. From the r^ent rise in 
the prices of labor and materials, and from the probability, also, that 
if the method be adopted the scale of the work will be somewhat en^ 
larged, it would be aavisable to increase the amount to $25,000; which 
amount I beg leave to recommend to be asked for. 

For repairs of the north pier I have heretofore submitted estimates 
in detail to the amount of $5,318 31, which amount it will be highly 
desirable to expend for that purpose should the suit pending in regard 
to the "accretion" be decided in favor of the United States; otherwise 
I cannot recommend its expenditure, except, say $200 for repairs of the 
extreme outer portion of the pier. 

An amount equal to the above is needed for the repairs of the south 

Sier. There are, I believe, however, some important questions un- 
ecided as to the operations of the Illinois Central Railroad Comjpany 
ill the vicinity of tnis pier, previous to the settlement of which the 
method and extent of the repairs could not be precisely determined 
upon. The company are pushing forward their works, but I am not 
advised whether ihey still adhere to their plan of making an opening 
for a slip through the pier. But as these questions will probaoly be 
decided before the season of active operations next year, I submit the 
estimate. 

Estimate for continuing the improvement of the harbor at Chicago^ Illinois^ 

during the yiar 1854. 

For constructing an outer pier, 500 feet long $25,000 00 

For repairs to existing piers 10,000 00 

For dredging (30 days, at $100) 3,000 00 

38,000 00 
Add 10 per cent for contingencies 3,800 00 

41,800 00 
Deduct amount available of late appropriation 18,000 00 

23,800 00 

, 2. Chicago light-house. 

In reference to the suitableness of the pier-head put down for the 
foundation of this work, I had the honor to submit some remarks to the 
engineer committee of the Light-house board, who had the subject 
under consideration, on the 4th April last. I see no reason to doubt its 
entire sufficiency for the purpose ibr which it was designed. No work 
has been done upon it, and I am not advised of the determination of 
the board. The li^ht should be one of the first class for the lakes, and 
js very much needed, as the present one is very imperfect, and, in- 
deed, altogether insuBSicienU 



H. Doc. 1. ISS 

3. Waiikegan harbor ^ lUinaii. 

I have but little to add to the report of the agent in charge. The 
location of the breakwater, as decided upon, is, in my judgment, very 
judicious; and the results of its erection will be looked for with great 
interest. I am not without apprehension that if the space behind the 
breakwater should be occupied with bridge piers, these structures will 
cause so much obstruction to the shore currents as to create a trouble- 
some deposit of the sand with which these currents are plentifully 
charged. 

The amount required to complete the work to the length of 700 feet 
is estimated at $32,046 38 ; and I beg leave to express my concurrence 
in the opinion expressed by the agent, as to the desirableness of hav- 
ing the amount appropriated at the next session. The same principle 
appUes, with great truth, to all the works. It is of great advantage to 
know beforehand how much can be depended on to carry out the plan* 
It is greatly conducive both of economy and despatcli. 

4. Kmotlia harbor^ Wisconnin. 

The agent estimates the cost of completing this work at $31,353 70, 
which sum, judiciously expended, would seem to me to be suflBcient. 
The water appears to deepen very rapidly from the point to which it 
is proposed to extend the north pier, which is a very favorable circum- 
stance as to the eflBciency of the work in maintaining a good entrance 
to the harbor. 

It is not improbable, to my mind, that, as the work advances, rea- 
sons may appear for changing somewhat the direction of the north pier, 
in order to mtroduce the curved end, which has been found so useful. 
But as such change would not make any material difference in the cost 
of the work, it is not necessary to anticipate it now. The work of re- 
pairing the existing piers, and dredging the channel between them, is 
now going on. 

5. Racine harbor. 

The agent in charge of this work recommends adding 224 feet to the 
north, and 352 feet to the south pier, and to change the direction of the 
north pier, in a curve, towards the south. Of this change I approve ; 
both for the reasons given by the agent, and also for olhers, whicn have 
been briefly stated in the remarks on Chicago harbor.* 

The estimated amount required to complete the work is $17,454 79, 
which is certainly very moderate, and ought rather to be increased 
than diminished. The work done during the season has consisted of 
repairs of the existing pier and dredging the channel. 

* I baTe franklf to retract an opinion expressed in my report on the Racine harbor of 7th 
September, 1849, that the curred form is of no benefit. Experience has oonnnced me of ita 
great utility, although aJbnt it is not sufficient. 



156 H. Doc. 1. 

6. MUwavJde harbor^ Wisconsin. 

The agent in charge estimates the cost of its completion at 
$35,329 95, 

I do not, of course, concur in his reasonings as to the influence of 
the proposed direction of the piers in preventing deposits of sand on 
the north. 

The facility of entrance during a northeasterly storm is a much bet- 
ter argument; and is, indeed, a strong one in the opinion of many ju- 
dicious masters of vessels, I am also of opinion, that when the ''new 
cut" is made, it will be well to leave open the channel of the river 
below it, in order to test fully the effect I think it probable that no 
necessity would be shown of closing up that channel ; and if so, some 
perplexmg questions, as to legal rights, might be avoided. 

Upon a review of the location and dimensions of the piers for this 
woik, submitted by me on the 19th November last, I think them judi- 
cious and proper. If it be necessary to give the piers a more northerly 
direction, it should be done gradually, after carrying them out to the 
point then proposed. That estimate was made to conform to the 
amount of the appropriation, and the length proposed for the north pier 
was 650 feet It, as I apprehend will be the case, there should prove 
to be but little deposit on the north side of this pier, it might be turned 
more toyjards the north — ^if thought advisable — after completing 600 
or 650 feet ; as it will be necessary to carry it some 600 or 800 feet 
further before the harbor can be considered complete. 

Nothing has been done at this work beyond the depositing, by the 
contractors, of a quantity of stone upon the ground. It awaits the 
adoption of a plan, with orders to go on. 

7. Sheboygan harbor^ Wisconsin. 

I have not seen the plan and estimate of the agent, though I under- 
stood him to say he had forwarded one to the bureau. 

The work cannot be considered complete without the addition of 
700 feet to the piers put down by the county and town authorities. 
This extension would oe in an average depth of water of fifteen feet, 
and would cost, by my estimate, $26,936. 

I see no way of carrying on the work except, as intimated, of adding 
to the piers already existing. But I submit, that it will be proper for 
the county and town authorities to cede all their rights and jurisdiction 
over the present work to the United States, and I am inclined to think 
that they would make no objection to doing so. 

I think we are not yet in possession of data on which to decide how 
to apportion the additional 700 feet between the two piers. It does not 
seem quite certain which of the two can be said to he the windward 

8ier, or from which direction the more drift is to be expected* If there 
e any difference, it wiQ now soon appear, although it is certainly less 
marked than at most of the other ports on the lake. However this 
may turn out, not less than the amount indicated of pier-work will be 
^fecessary^ 



H. Doc* 1. U7 

Including an item for strengthening the existing piers, which will 
probably be found necessary, the estimate will stand thus : 
For 700 feet additional pier- work, 20 leet wide, in 16 feet 

water $26,986 00 

For strengthening the existing piers ^ 3,064 00 

80,000 00 
Deduct amount (supposed) available of late appropriation. 8,000 00 

Amount to be asked for 22,000 00 



8, Manitowoc harbor^ Wisconsin. 

On the 2d November, 1652, 1 submitted a plan for this improvement 
My several opportunities, during the past summer, of examining the 
locality, have confirmed my general views as then expressed. The 
estimate then submitted was made with a view to the greatest possible 
economy of expenditure of the small appropriation of $8,000. I would 
recommend, however, carrying on the work on a large scale. Since 
that time, also, prices have risen. As there is no local agent at that 
point, I have myself made up the estimate in detail, which, with a 
sketch of the locality, lowing the location and dimensions of the pier, 
is herewith submitted. 

No work has been executed at this harbor. A small quantity of 
^one and a few sticks of timber have been gotten upon the ground— 
the contractors having failed, as in other instances, to fulfil their con- 
tracts. 

9. Harbors at Michigan City^ Indiana, New Buffalo, Black Lake, and 
Grand Biver, Michigan. 

The full report of Mr. Bowes, the agent in charge of these works, 
supersedes the necessity of my enlarging upon them. His great expe- 
rience in works of this nature, and bis acquaintance with the localities 
of the works, entitle his views to great confidence. A careful personal 
inspection, during the past summer, of the several points, except Black 
lake, and full conference with Mr. B. in reference to them, enable me 
to express a well-considered concurrence with him in the views he has 
presented to the bureau. 

The breakwater at Michigan City, as adq)ted, seems to me to prom- 
ise better results than any heretofore proposed, so far as I am informed. 
It is certainly useless to attempt to make a harbor of the insignificant 
stream emptying into the lake at this point Even a small section of 
the breakwater may be of essential service in saving vessels from de- 
struction, and in enabling them to "hold on" during a storm, when, 
without it, they would be compelled to run for some other port, at a 
great loss of time, to say nothing of imminent danger of a worse result. 

In Mr. Bowes' remarks on New Buffalo I was glad to notice his re- 
cognition of the principle I deem so important, namely, thai o? so con- 
structing the works as to oppose as Utile obstruction as posaWAe to \)ci^ 



158 H. Doc. L 

shore current, so that the drift may, as much as possible, pass by in- 
stead of being deposited. I am quite sure that this is the true principle, 
and that all efforts in a contrary direction must faiL 

All which is respectfully submitted by your obedient servant, 

J, D. WEBSTER, 
Captain Topographical Engineen, 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Corps Topographical Engineers^ Washington^ D. C 



MANITOWOC HARBOR* 

Estimate for constructing 1,200 feet (600 feet on the norths and 600 feet on 
the south side) ofpier^ 16 feet wide^ averaging 10 feet high. 

Siding. — 24,000 feet oak and pine timber, 12 X 12, at 10 

cents per running foot $2,400 00 

Piles. — ^7,200 feet piles, (each 30 feet long,) at 10 cents. . . 720 00 
Clampv — 4,800 feet board measure, (oak 3 X 8,) at $10 per 

thousand 480 00 

Bpike. — 2,400 lbs. 9-inch wrought spike, at 8 cents 192 00 

Iron. — 13,400 lbs. inch square, for bolts, at 5^ cents 737 00 

Stone. — 1,150 cords stone, at $7 8,050 00 

Ties. — 18,000 feet ties, (round,) at 6 cents 1,080 00 

Workmanship, teams, &c 3,000 00 

16,659 00 



Estimate for 200 feet additional on the south pieTj 20 feet high and 20 feet 

* unde. 

Siding. — 8,000 feet siding, 12 X 12, oak and pine timber, at 

10 cents per running foot $800 00 

Piles. — 1,400 feet, (each 35 feet long,) at 10 cents 140 00 

Ties. — 8,000 feet of ties, (round,) at 6 cents 480 00 

Clamps. — 1,600 feet, board measure, at 10 cents 160 00 

Spike. — 800 pounds 9-inch spike, at 8 cents 64 00 

Iron. — 2,400 pounds inch-square iron, for bolts, at 5i cents. 132 00 

Stone. — 560 cords stone, at $7 3,920 00 

Workmanship, teams, &c 2,000 00 



7,696 00 



Machinery and miscellaneous expenses. 



1 movable platform pile-driver $250 00 

1 crane-scow 400 00 

1 deck-scow 400 06 

Tools, lines, &c 200 00 



H. Doc. I. 159 

400 feet sheet-piling, (200 feet on each side,) at $2 50 $1,000 00 

Dredging 14,814 yards, at 12J cents 1,851 75 

Superintendence 1,000 00 

5,101 75 



Recapitulalion. 

For 1,200 feet pier, 15 X 20 $16,569'00 

For 200 feet pier, 20 X 20 7,696 00 

For machinery, &c 5,101 75 

29,456 75 
Add 10 per cent, for contingencies 2,945 67 

32,402 42 
Subtract (supposed) amount unexpended of late appropri- 
ation 7,000 00 

Amount required to complete the harbor 25,402 42 

Note. — The amount of dredging may, and probably will, be dimin- 
ished by the active current caused by the spring freshets, 

J, D, WEBSTER, 
Captain Topographical Engineers. 



Office op Public Works, 

Kenmha^ August 11, 1853. 

Sir : Your letter of the 14th ultimo, requesting me to furnish the bu- 
reau with my views in reference to any extension of the works at this 
Eiace, with estimates of probable cost, was duly received, and would 
ave been answered sooner had I not been in the daily expectation of 
meeting Major Bache and Captain Webster, with whom I wished to 
consult in reference to this matter. 

I find, on a thorough examination of the government piers, that they 
are in good order, requiring but little repairs this season — say to the 
amount of $200, It will cost about $200 to remove the wreck of an 
old schooner which Ues about half-way between the north and south 
piers, and about feet from the outer end, 

I have made an estimate, which I send herewith, for probable cost of 
materials and labor to extend the north pier 218 feet, and the south 
pier 30 feet, further into the lake. In making this estimate I have kept 
m view the amount of government appropriation this season, and have 
confined myself to estimates for extending the piers, without reference 
to dredging. I tliink it very desirable that there should be some dredg- 
ing done this season, and would recommend that $1,000 or ttl,600 tc 



160 H. Doc. 1. 

expended in that way, aild as much less be expended m extending the 
piers. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

SAMUEL HALE, 

United Slates Agent. 
Coh J. J. Abert, 

Corps Topographical Engineers, 



Estimate of materials required for the repair and improvement of the harbor 

of Kenosha, (formerly Southport^J Wisconsin, during die season of 
1863, 

200 sticksr timber, 30 feet long, at 13 cents per foot ... $780 00 

160 do 32. . .do 13 do 535 60 

30 do 26... do 13 do 97 50 

644 ties 22. . .do 9 do 1,275 12 

92 do 18. ..do 8 do 122 48 

450 cords stone, at $7 50 per cord 3,375 00 

3,000 feet champing, at 14 cents per foot 42 00 

20 kegs spikes, at 8 cents per pound 160 00 

3,000 pounds iron, at 5 cents per pound 150 00 

6,547 70 

Add for labor 2,000 00 

Contingencies, 10 per cent 854 77 



9,402 47 



SAMUEL HALE, 

United States Agent. 



Office op Public Works, 
Michigan City, Ind., Sept. 19, 1853. 

Colonel: In conformity with your instructions, I have the honor 
hereby to submit an annual report of the several works under my 
charge, viz: Michigan City, Indiana; New Buffalo, St. Joseph, Black 
Lake, and Grand River, in the State of Michigan. 

Michigan City, Indiana. 

The importance of a judicious and complete investigation of the 
most advantageous method of improvement to be adopted for this 
harbor, required time and a careful examination of the elements it of- 
fered for consideration. 

The board of engineers determined, in July last, that the prqjet 

should consist of a crib breakwater structure; which plan was ap- 

proved byyourseK and the honorable Secretary of War. After mature 

deliberation, aided by the experience of alou^ieddence at this pointi 



H. Doc. I. 161 

and a professional examination of various plans of improvement, I feel 
fully convinced that the one which has been adopted is the only one 
which promises ultimate success, for the various reasons urged in 
former reports, and, when completed, will meet the urgent demands 
and requirements of the commerce of the lakes for a safe, accessible, 
and reliable harbor at this point. 

The absolute necessity of this harbor, as a •• harbor of refuge," has 
often been urged. In this opinion I am sustained by the experience of 
every individual acquainted with lake navigation, and which a refer- 
ence to its position on the map of Lake Alichigan will demonstrate. 
This is the strong recommendation which it has to the consideration of 
the general government for further appropriations. 

Its local importance is yearly increasing with the growth and im- 
provement of the country. The region immediately tributary is one of 
the most fertile and prolific in its agricultural productions in the west; 
which products, consisting of corn and wheat, are brought to this point 
for shipment to Buffalo and other eastern markets — this being the only 
accessible port of entry to the region of northern Indiana, embracing 
within its scope the counties of Laporte, Porter, Lake, Jasper, Starke, 
Pulaski, Marshall, and a portion of St. Joseph. 

The opening of railroad conr>muni cations with the interior has given 
points on the lake additional commercial importance. 

Michigan City is the lake terminus of the New Albany and Salem 
railroad, which has its other terminus at New Albany, on the Ohio 
river, below the falls. This road, built with a view to transport the 
products of the interior counties of this Stale, will greatly increase the 
exports from this point; for it will be the outlet to which the produce 
of a line of rich and fertile counties, extending directly north and south 
through the entire State, (and, by its connexions, reaching the other 
pcHtions of Indiana not on the immediate line,) will naturally be brought 
on its way to eastern markets; also, by the same route, will a large 
portion of Kentucky, all of Tennessee, and the States bordering on the 
lower Mississippi, fand this the nearest point to reach lake navigation — 
a communication which, the experience at other points has fully demon- 
strated, the agricultural products of the country invariably take.. 

An accompanying table will exhibit the exports from this point for 
the last two years, taken from the returns of the collector of the port. 

These points of consideration for the completion of a harbor at this 
point are based upon the fact that the increasing and growing com- 
merce of the lakes, which is required for the purpose of transporting 
the exports of the west, is continually exposed to great loss and destruc- 
tion of life and property from the want of sufficient and accessible 
harbors of refuge and protection. 

The active operations at this point commenced in the latter part of 
July, and have been confined principally to procuring machinery and 
materials. 

Owing to the advanced state of the season, it leaves but a small 
portion of work to be reported. During the month of August 200 
feet of bridge-pier was constructed, and limber sufficient for two cnb^ 
Part iii— 11 



1 



1^ a. Doc 1, 

ot the breakwater contracted, A temporary connexion has been formed 
with a private pier, in order to allow the completion of the outer portion 
of the bridge- pier. connexion to the line of the breakwater; thereby 
enabling and facilitating in sinking a crib of the breakwater during the 
next month, if the weather and season shall permit. October being 
generally a calm month, I anticipate no serious difficulty. 
, The breakwater will be located in 25 feet of water, which is exterior 
lakewards to all bars of sand. It will consist of cribs constructed with 
close ends, 30 feet long, 30 feet in width, and raised 12 feet above the 
surface of the lake, according to the plan adopted by the board of 
engineers. 

The line of direction will be N. 61^ E., very nearly parallel to the 
shore, and consequently affording no obstruction to the general drift of 
tbe lake; and, with a len&^th of 2,000 feet, affording an ample pro- 
tection against the heavy wmds, which are from the N. W., N., N. N. E. 

Accompanying this report are estimates in detail for this worL 
Assuming the entire lengtn of breakwater at 2,000 feet, the entire cost 
will be $321,000. The necessary expense of machinery and appliances 
will be incurred under the present appropriation, and this will oe neces- 
sarily an entire supply, from the fact that the old machinery was worn 
out and decayed, and consequently leaves but a balance of this appro- 
priation to be applied to the construction of the breakwater, which will 
not be the case in future appropriations. During the next season a 
liberal appropriation can be advantageously expended. 

A map exnibiting the present condition of tne harbor at this point, 
from soundings taken during the month of August, accompanies this 
report, with the line of breakwater defined. 

Estimate of the cast of constructing a crib dOJeet long^ SO feet base^ and 37 
feet altitude. Also, 2,000 feet of breakwater, composed of similar cribs, 
founded in 26 feet tccUer. 

136 sticks of timber, per face 13 X 13, 30 feet long, making 

4,080 feet, at 16 cents per foot $612 00 

111 ties, flatted, 8 X 10, 30 feet long, 3,330 feet, at 10 cents 

perfoot 333 00 

6 piles, 50 feet long, making 300 feet, at 12 J cents per foot 37 50 

194 J cords stone, at $10 per cord 1,945 00 

2,600 feet 4 X 6-in. plank, lor decking, at $12 per M. . , 31 20 

70 lbs. spikes, at 7^ cents per lb v 5 25 

7,000 lbs. l^inch bolt iron, at 4i cents per lb 297 50 

3,261 46 
Add labor 1,060 00 

4,311 45 
Add 10 per cent, contingency 431 14 

4,742 69 

Average cost per iboti $158. 



H. Doc. I. [163 

2,000 feet of breakwater, at $158 per foot $316^000 

Machinery, inclusive of bridge-pier 6,000 

321,000 
Deduct amount of present appropriation 20,000 

Amount required to complete work 301,000 

Exports from the port of Michigan City^ Indiana^ for two years^ from 
September 1, 1852, to September 1, 1853, inclndifig number of arrivals 
and tonnage of vessels. 

1851-'52: 

Wheat 307,766 bushels. 

Corn 200,000 do. 

Pork 2,000 barrels. 

Sundries 1,600 tons. 

1852-'63: 

Wheat 300,000 bushels. 

Com 320,000 do. 

Pork 1,000 barrels. 

Sundries ..•• 1,260 tons. 

Total amount of wheat 607,766 bushels. 

Total amount of com 620,000 do. 

1,127,765 do. 

Number of vessels arrived at same port in same period: 
Total number, 264, averaging 100 tons. 
Total tonnage 26,400 

Harbor of New Buffalo^ Michigan. 

The operations at this work for the past season have been confined 
to receivmg materials under a contract made by order of the honor- 
able Secretary of War. The expenditure, up to the present date, has 
amounted to S6,186 83; the appropriation made for this work was 
88,000; thereby leaving only the small balance of $2,813 17 to be ap- 
plied to its constmction. 

New Buffalo is situated at the mouth of the Galien river, which, at 
this point, enlarges into a bayou, or small lake, separated from Lake 
Michigan by a narrow sand spit of about 400 feet in width. The plan 
proposed for this improvement, for which estimates are hereby ap- 
pended, proposes first to cut through this sand spit a channel of 300 
leet in width, and secure its sides with sheet-piUng, and then extend 
(in connexion with it) two piers into the lake ofdifferent lengths. The 
northern, or weather pier, to be 1,600 feet in length, extending over 
all the bars, and termmating on clay bottom in 25 feet of water; the 
lee pier to be 700 feet in length, and terminating in ten feet o{ -walei. 
The drift of the lake at ibis point being from the northeast, tJbe dAieo 



]64 H. Doc. L 

tion of the piers to be southwest, to assimilate, as nearly as can be 
possible, with the drift, and thereby obstruct, to as limited an extent as 
possible, the floating sand. A large column of water, with consider- 
able current, passes out of the Galien river at its mouth, during its 
spring and fall freshets, which is deemed suflScient to move and carry 
with It all interior obstruction, as also the sand in the proposed cut 
required to be removed. Under these circumstances no estimate for 
dredging has been submitted ; but, should these anticipations not be 
reaUzed, the quantity required to be dredged will be so limited as not 
to materially add to the cost of the improvement. 

The subjoined estimates, marked A, of the ultimate cost of the 
work, have been predicated on an increased price of the cost of labor 
and materials which has taken place since the period of my report on 
this improvement of November 15, 1862, and has, therefore, as a conse- 
Quence, increased the present estimated cost; and, in addition to which, 
the present estimate contains one for the cost of securing the proposed 
cut not contained in the one accompanying that report. 

From the annexed estimate, the cost of completing this improve- 
ment will be $112,267 49, and after deducting the present appropriation, 
$104,267 49 ; by which it will be perceived that the cost of this im- 
provement will not materially differ jfrom that of similar works ; and, 
when completed, will, without doubt, make a good and capacious har- 
bor either for local or general commerce. The exports of this point 
have thus far been confined to lumber; but as a gocid quality of soil is 
in its vicinity, it will, without doubt, be more cultivated as soon as a 
harbor is provided capable of affording facilities for the shipment of 
produce. 

A. 

Estimate of the probable cost of improving the harbor of New Buffalo, Mich- 
igan, viz: by constructing two parallel piers of twenty-four Jeet bcue — the 
one (north) 1,600 feet in lengthy and terminating in twenty-five feet of 
loater ; the other (south) 700 feet in length, and terminating in ten 
feet of water ; ew also the expense of securing the sides of the proposed cut 
through a sand spit of 400 feet in length, viz: 

FOR SOUTH PIER, 700 FEET IN LENGTH. 

1,400 cords of stone, at SIO per cord $14,000 00 

7,000 lineal feet crib timber, 30' X 13'' X 13", at 12J 

cents per foot 875 00 

11,200 lineal feet levelling timber, 45' X 13" X 13", at 

15 cents per foot 1,680 00 

2,180 hneal feet cross-ties, 24' X 8" X 10", at 10 cents 

perfoot 2,180 00 

4,200 lineal feet piles, 30 feet long, at 10 cents per foot 420 00 

46,200 feet oak scantUng for deck, at $12 per M. 554 40 



H. Doc. 1. 165 

5,000 lbs. 1 J-inch bolt iron, at 4 J cents per lb $202 60 

500 lbs. 6-inch spikes, at 9 cents per lb 45 00 

Cost of materials for south pier 19,956 90 

NORTH PIER, 1,600 FEET IN LENGTH. 

3,942 cords of stone, at $10 per cord $39,420 00 

40,000 lineal feet of crib timber, at 12^ cents per foot. . 5,000 00 

25,600 do levelling limber, at 15 cts. per foot 8,840 00 

7,000 ... .do piles, at 10 cents per foot 700 00 

63,360 do cross-ties, at 10 cents per foot 6,336 00 

105,600 feet oak scantling for deck, at $12 per M 1,267 00 

11,000 lbs. li-inch bolt iron, at 4^ cents per lb 475 00 

1,100 lbs. 6-inch spikes, at 9 cents per lb 99 00 

Cost of materials for north pier 57,137 00 

Cost of materials for south pier $19,956 90 

Cost of materials for north pier 57,137 00 

Cost of materials for both piers 77,093 90 

Cost of labor 22,152 00 

99,245 90 

Add 10 per cent, for contingencies and machinery 9,924 59 

Cost of both piers 109,170 49 

COST OF SHEET-PILINOOF THE SIDES OF THE CUT, 400 FEET IN LENGTH, 
THROUGH THE SAND SPIT, VIZ : 

4,000 feet lineal of piles, at 10 cents per foot $400 00 

Driving 160 piles, at $1 50 each 240 00 

3,200 feet of square timber for caps, at 12^ cents . 400 00 

48,000 feet oak plank for piling, at $12 per M 576 00 

Driving 800 feet of sheet-piling, at $1 50 per foot 1,200 00 

2,816 00 

Add 10 per cent, for contingencies 281 00 

Cost of sheet-piling 3,097 00 

AGGREGATE COST OP THE IMPROVEMENT, VIZ I 

For extension of piers $109,170 49 

For sheet-piling cut 3,097 00 

Total cost 112,267 49 

Deduct appropriation made 8,000 00 

Amount required to finish the work ...... lO^yiGn \^ 



166 H. Doc. 1. 

Harbor of St. Josephj Michigan. 

The operations at this improvement, for the present season, have 
been directed exclusively to repairing its two piers ; the completion of 
which will nearly, if not entirely, exhaust the present appropriation. 
Their dilapidated condition, previous to their present repairs, was fully 
exhibited m my report to the Bureau of the Corps oi Topographical 
Engineers, under date of November 29, 1852. 

The south pier, for a distance of about 200 fcet from its exterior end, 
had portions of its base undermined on the interior side, by which it had 
lost Its vertical position and inclined to the interior. This pier not hav- 
ing had suflBicient ballast to produce a proper resistance to the severe 
action of the lake, to which it is greatly exposed, a portion of its top 
had become entirely detached and moved out of its position. From its 
condition, it became necessary to entirely rebuild the above portion to 
two feet below the water line — an operation extremely diflBicult — ^which, 
after an energetic effort, has been accomplished, and the top is securely 
attached to its base and properly ballasted. The repairs of this pier 
are now fully and substantially made, requiring only the putting on of 
its deck plank, which is in process of being done. 

In addition to the above repairs, a portion of the timber necessary for 
the cribs, to fill the breaks in the nortn pier, has been obtained! and in 

?roce3S of preparation, as also the stone necessary to fill the cribs, 
['he plan proposed, and being executed, for the repairs of the north pier, 
is to rebuild such portions as have been destroyed with a pier of twelve 
feet base, as being of sufficient capacity and strength to resist any ac- 
tion of the lake it may be subjected to, and also the most economical 
niode of repairing it. About fifty feet of this crib has been already 
sunk, and, if the weather should permit, it is anticipated that the whole 
requisite quantity will be sunk and levelled by the close of the season. 
After these repairs are finished, to perfect the improvement of this 
harbor a further extension of the south pier will be required. This 
pier is not of sufficient length to affect and control the current between 
the piers, which now passes around its exterior end, and giving an 
imperfect channel. By the extension of this pier the whole volume of 
water passing out will be directed between the two piers, thereby 
straightening the channel, and obviating a difficulty which exists at this 
harbor, of entering when a heavy current is running out of the river, 
as vessels coming in meet the current passing around the end of the 
south pier, and by it are fi-equently forced off fi-om their course and 
carriea back into the lake. This diflBiculty is severely felt by steam- 
boats, and instances are cited where it required two and three efforts 
before they could gain an entrance inside of the south pier. 
, This subject was brought to the notice of the bureau in my report of 
the 29th November, 1852, and I would urge its favorable consideration 
as important to perfect this harbor. I hereby append estimate (marked 
A) of the cost of extending this pier 600 feet as a minimum length of 
extension. I also submit a survey showing the present condition of 
this harbor. The water of the lake is now nearly three feet above that 
of 1842, when the last survey of this work was made ; and should a 
jeflux take place, as precedent and piesenl facts md\eale> (as there has 



H. Doc- 1- 16t 

been a fall of some four inches since the last spring,) it will require all 
the force of the current of this river to be directed in a line between the 
piers to sustain a good channel. The harbor of St. Joseph is prover- 
oial as possessing all the elements for one of the best harbors of the 
lakes, requiring only the above extension of the south pier to perfect it. 

A. 

Eaimate of the probahle cast of improving the harbor of St. Joseph ^ Michi* 
gaiiy viz: by extending the south pier HOO/eet^ average depth of water 18 
feci J and 24sfoct base^ viz : 

1,929 cords of stone, at $10 per cord $19,290 00 

15,600 lineal feet crib timber, 30 feet, 13 by 13 inches, at 

10 cents per foot 1,660 00 

9,600 Ibeal feet for face, 45 feet, 13 by 13 inches, at 12J 

cents per foot 1,200 00 

30,240 lineal cross-ties, at 10 cents 3,240 00 

3,600 piles, at 10 cents 360 00 

4,000 lbs. 1 J-inch bolt iron, at 4 J cents per lb 180 00 

39,600 feet 3-inch plank for deck, at $12 per thousand 475 20 

1,200 lbs. 6-inch spikes, at 9 cents 108 00 

26,413 20 
Add labor 6,790 00 

33,203 20 
Add 10 per cent for contingencies 3,320 32 

Total cost of the work 36,523 b2 



Harbor (f Black LaJce^ Michigan. 

The plan adopted for the improvement of this harbor was the one 
recommended in my report to the Bureau of the Corps of Topographi- 
cal Engineers, accompanying my survey of this lake, under date of 
December, 1849. 

This report recommended two distinct points as proper for the loca- 
tion of the improvement at this place, ana are marked on the map of 
that survey as the lines A B and C D. The line C D has been 
adopted; on it I have located the improvement. The limited amount 
of tne present appropriation of $8,000 made it difficult to suggest a 
judicious mode of expending it. After mature consideration it was 
thought best to apply it to the carrying out of the plan of the work by 
founding the southern or windward pier. To effect this, the usual 
mode of first sinking the cribs and driving the piles used in them was 
reversed ; the piles of the pier are first driven and capped, and a deck 
is then placed upon the piles in the usual mode of bridge-piers; after 
this is effected, the piers are wharfed up and made solid, simvlaT toXiie 
usual filers. The advantages of this mode of constructing pieia, m X^v^ 



168 H. Doc. 1. 

incipient stages of a work situated like Black lake, is that it afibrds an 
immediate facility of receiving the stone required for the work imme* 
diately upon it, and over the cribs, and saves the expense of scowing 
and handling it a second time, as, when wanted, the deck can be opened 
and the stone dropped into the crib below, its place of final deposit. 

This work is situated at the foot of Black Istke, and, being isolated, 
it required the necessary buildings for the men to be erected, which, 
together with the preparation of machinenr> consimied some time. 
Two hundred feet of the piling have been dnven and decked, and it is 
expected that, by the close of the season, a sufficient length will be 
constructed to allow the reception of stone. The work ol the present 
season may be considered as constructing an auxiliary work, and is 
also at the same time a portion of the general plan. 

The general plan embraces two parallel piers extending into Lake 
Michigan, as also a cut through a spit of sand which separates Black 
lake from Lake Michigan. A full exhibit of this plan is contained in 
my report on this work of December, 1849. The estimated cost of 
this work, as per detailed estimate accompanying that report, is, for its 
completion, $105,225 78; leaving, after deducting the present appro- 
priation, $97,225 78 as its final cost ; which sum, without some un- 
toward circumstance should attend its future prosecution, I think will 
be sufficient for its completion. 

Harbor of Grand River^ Michigan. 

The plan proposed for the protection of this harbor consists, first, in 
securing the base of the high-sliding sand bluffs, which constitute the 
southern bank of the river, extending from the town of Grand Haven 
to its mouth, from the action of the currents of the river, by which they 
are undermined, and the sand composing them carried by its force into 
the lake, fliciUtaling the formation of bars. For this security, it is pro- 
posed to drive at the base of the bluffs a line of strong sheet-piling of 
2,361 feet in length. This piling will also have another beneficial 
effect, of preventing the river forcing (by the action above mentioned) a 
passage through this bank, and thereby creating a new outlet into the 
lake, which, from the extent of the encroachments of the river on this 
bank since my survey of 1849, is apprehended. Should this take 
place, it would prove disastrous to the present entrance, and materially 
mjure this harbor, one of the best on the chain of lakes. In addition to 
the above, the plan proposes the extension of two piers into the lake, 
contingent on the effect of first securing the above-mentioned bluffs. 

The whole estimated cost of this improvement, as per the detailed 
estimate accompanying my report to tne Bureau ot Corps of Topo- 
graphical Enguieers, on the survey of this harbor, of December 16, 
1849, to which I respectfully refer, was, for securing the base of the 
bluffs, $21,950 ; for extending into the lake two piers, $140,173 ; 
whole cost of improvement, $162,126 ; for which $2,000 only has been 
appropriated — a sum inadequate to purchase the machinery necessary 
for the work. Under these circumstances the work has been delayed, 
and not yet commenced. 

The only mode suggested to make this present appropriation in any 



H. Doc. 1. 169 

way available would be by transferring the necessary machinery from 
some other work, and use it during late in the fall, when that work 
should be necessarily suspended. As the work to be done at Grand 
river is inside the harbor, it can be executed at seasons of the year, 
both late in the fall and early in the spring, when other works, sub- 
jected to the action of the lake, have to be suspended. 

All oi which is most respectfully submitted by your obedient servant, 

JOHN R. BOWES, 

United States Agent. 
Colonel J. J. Abert, 

Chief of Bureau of Corps Top. Engineers j Washington City. 



Racine, Wisconsin, September 2, 1863. 

Sir : In pursuance of your instructions of May 31, 1853, 1 have the 
honor to submit a report of my operations as agent of the harbor im- 
provement at Racine, Wisconsin, from the time I entered on the duties 
of said oflBice as said agent, to wit, on the 25th day of February, 
1S53, to the 1st day of September, 1863. On the 6th day of April I 
received from the bureau a copy of a contract with C. C. Parks, esq., 
for furnishing materials for said harbor improvement. 

On the 17th day of May I received from the bureau, of date of 
May 13, instructions to make an inspection of the piers, and report 
theu' condition, with an illustrative drawing and survey, and to submit 
my views as to the best mode of applying the means appropriated. 
In presence of said instructions, I made an inspection of the piers, 
together with a survey and an illustrative drawing of the harbor, and 
submitted the same to the bureau, together with my views as to the 
best mode of applying the means appropriated, on the 30lh day of May ; 
which report was, as I am informed, submitted to the board of engi- 
neers for western rivers and lake harbors, but their decision thereon 
has not been communicated to me. 

Mr. Parks, the contractor, having failed to deliver the material con- 
tracted for at the time specified in the contract, I applied to the depart- 
ment for directions as to whether I should receive said materials or 
not, and was informed that the honorable Secretary of War had de- 
cided that "contractors could deliver materials when wanted, and as 
required, for which they would be paid at contract i)rices." 

In conformity to said decision, 1 have received from C. C. Parks, 
esq., the following materials at contract prices, to wit : 

8,967 pounds of iron, at 6 cents per pound $538 02 

10,890 leet white-oak timber, 12 by 12, at 12 cents per foot 1,306 80 
120 cords of stone, at $7 26 per cord 840 00 

2,684 82 



170 H. Doc. 1. 

have received from the honorable Secretary of the United 

States Treasury two war warrants for $4,000 each $8,000 

And have made the following disbursements, to wit : 

To C. C. Parks, for maleriak $2,477 67 

Books and stationery 5 25 

Implements 2 57 

Labor for surveying and inspecting materials. 26 75 

2,611 



6,488 



On the 23d day of August I received directions from the bur« 
under date of August 18, to put the present piers in thorough repair 
hereby submit my estimate of the cost of said work : 

1,528 feet white-oak timber, 12 by 12, at 12 cents per lineal 

foot $183 

816 feet white-oak ties, at 6 J cents per foot 53 

400 pounds wrought spike, at 7i cents per pound 30 

400 pounds cut spike, at 5 J cents per poima 22 

15,000 feet 3-inch pine plank, at $12 per thousand 180 

1,800 pounds bolt iron, at 6 cents per pound 108 

120 cords of stone, at $7 25 per cord 870 

Labor in putting in work 325 

1,771 



The above estimate includes the building of a breakwater on t 
north pier for 160 feet inward from the lake shore, where the wav 
occasioned by a northeast wind, now break over and deposit large qui 
tities of sand between the piers. 

This work I propose to do by bolting timber longitudinally on 1 
top of the north side of said pier, and to be raised fix)m one to thi 
feet in height. 

In order to complete the work, I think it will be necessary to exte 
the north pier 224 feet, and the south pier 352 feet. I would reco 
mend that the piers be extended in the direction indicated on the acco 
panyrng chart. I would give as my reasons for said proposed extensit 
and the alteration of the direction of the north pier, as follows : In 1 
present situation of the piers, a sea caused by a north or northeast wi 
forms an eddy around the end of the north pier, and the waves roll ii 
the harbor, causing great inconvenience to vessels laying at the whan 
at such times. By the proposed extension and alteration, in i 
opinion, the heavy seas from the north and northeast would pass 1 
south pier, and thus prevent the heavy seas from entering the ini 
harbor, and that the deposit ot sand which is now formed across 1 
entrance to the harbor by said eddy would be carried past the end 
the south pier. 



H- Doc 1. 171 

The cost of completing said piers, according to said proposed plan, 
I estimate as iollows: 

27,648 feet timber, 12 by 12, at 14 cents per lineal foot. . . $3,870 72 

[Note. — ^I would recommend that one-third of said tim- 
ber be of pine, and two-thirds white oak, as it would be 
very difficult to float cribs, to where they are to be sunk, 
built entirely of oak ; and, in my opinion, it would be no 
detriment to the work to have that portion which is under 
water built at all times of pine.] 

40,884 feet white oak ties, at 7 cents per foot 2,866 98 

33,000 feet pine plank, 6 inches thick, $J2 per thousand. . 396 00 

1,000 cords stone, at |6 per cord 6,000 00 

22,000 lbs. bolt iron, at 6 cents per lb., IJ inch 1,320 00 

1,800 lbs. wrought spike, 6 incnes, H cents per lb 136 00 

Labor and mechanical work 2,800 00 

One crane-scow and apparatus for same 300 00 

Tools and implements 100 00 

For hire of scows 100 00 

17,878 70 
For contingencies, 10 per cent 1,787 87 

19,666 67 

For dredging 22,600 yards, at 16 cents per yard 3,600 00 

Compensation for agent for one year, at $120 per month. . 1,440 00 

Total estimate for completing the work 24,706 67 

Estimated amount of balance of appropriation, and value of 
materials remaining after repairing present piers and 
paying indebtedness 7,261 78 

Estimated amount of future appropriation necessary to 

complete the work 17,454 79 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. A. CARSWELL, 
United States Agent, Racine, fVi*con$in. 
J. J. Abert, 

Colonel Topographical Engineers. 



Office of Public Works, 
Milvxiukie Harbor, September 2, 1863, 

Sir : In obedience to instructions, I have the honor to submit the 
following report, accompanied by duplicate charts of the river and bay, 
with plan ot the harbor at North cut, and estimates for the construction 
of the sanrie. Since the date of wy appointment, 1st of June \a&V,\ 
have been engaged in rebuilding and putting the scows aud olVvet ^\3X>- 



J 



m H- Doc- 1- 

lie property in condition to commence more active operations, and in 
making an accurate survey of the site of the proposed new harbor, and 
of the adjacent river and bay. 

I submit the following report of my plans, and the reasons for tijem, 
with extreme diflBidence, and more as suggestions, in which I fear your 
larger experience will discover but little of practical value. The direc- 
tion given to the piers, N. 81° E., is recommended for these reasons: 

1. It presents equal facilities of access of vessels from both direc- 
tions. 

2. It diminishes the probability of the formation of a bar by the ac- 
tion of a reflected current around the end of the north pier ; for at the 
depth of 14 feet the direct current or action of the waves would not 
have the effect to form one at the point of rest. 

The first reason is apparent; the second may require some explana- 
tion. The strongest prevailing current, as near as can be gathered from 
all the data I have, is from N. 46° E., or thereabouts. This would 
make the angle of incidence of the current upon the north side of the 
pier about 35°, which would give the current a direction along the pier 
without presenting too much resistance to it, leaving it to expend itself 
in counteracting the force of the current to the north ; acting parallel 
with the shore, its deflected course would, it is true, be speedily over- 
come ; but that section, if I may so speak, of the current which is thus 
governed by the resisting surface of the pier, without being much 
checked in its course, is made a barrier against the tendency of a re- 
acting current from the shore around the head of the pier in a southerly 
direction. This last-mentioned current or action is the principal source 
of danger to the maintenance of a good channel once obtained. 

If I am right in my hypothesis, the result will be, that the point of 
equilibrium or rest, and of course of deposit, will be somewhere north 
of the pier, probably near the shore; and, where there is much drift, it 
will be manifested by the formation of a point projecting into the lake. 

On the other hand, the nearer at right angles the current meets the 
pier, the stronger will be the action of this off-shore current around the 
nead of the north pier, where it will make its deposit at the point of 
meeting the current of the river. 

A more northerly direction of the pier would only the more expose 
the harbor to the action of rough water from northeasters ; while it is 
thouj^ht that, with this direction, and piers extended to 14 feet water, 
but little inconvenience will be experienced inside of the shore line in 
the roughest weather. I would observe that this point is near the geo- 
graphical centre of the bay ; that the assumed direction is almost perpen- 
dicular to the general direction of the shore, and very nearly bisects the 
bearing of both the north and south points of the bay, and of course 
holds the same relative direction to the current surising from the south- 
easters as from the north; the effects of the former of which are much 
stronger at this point than at the present mouth of the river, as the 
geography of the bay and harbor will at once show. 

Although our heaviest winds are from the northeast, the influence of 

the southeast storms is hardly second to them. My own observation 

leads me to the conclusion, that the current from the latter direction is 

ute as prevalent, although not as powextuV as tcoTx\\!ci^fct\xv«c* Drifl- 



H. Doc. 1. 173 

wood is deposited in large quantities upon the shore of the bay imme- 
diately south of the north point; and 1 6nd that a very large proportion of 
the bog or marsh, which floats down from the Menomonie after every 
storm, is also deposited at about the same point. 

Another subject claiming attention preliminary to the commencement 
of the work, and one to which the attention of my predecessor, Captain 
Gunnison, topographical engineers, was called by bureau order of April 
5, 1853, is the probable necessity of extending the south pier of the 
new entrance across the present channel, in order to insure the passage 
of the river at that opening. I am not aware whether a report was 
made in accordance with that order or not, but presume, from Captain 
Gunnison's having been shortly after detailed upon other service, that 
it was not. 

The point of the greatest concavity of the river shore in the vicinity 
is very nearly at the proposed opening. The current impinges with 
some force from J to K, (see chart No. 1,) and still hugs the east shore 
closely to L, as is shown by the greater aepth of water and the forma- 
tion of the bayou, within the last three years, at B. The west side of 
the river having been docked and dredged to some distance below this 
site, the soundings on that side of course do not furnish data from which 
to judge of the tendency of the current on this side beyond the outlet to 
be furnished by the new opening. By far the greatest volume of water 
passes upon the eastern shore, and would naturally seek a free outlet 
to the east at any point, before a decidedly western direction is given 
to it by the concave shore, which last point would seem to be some- 
where about I. By removing the dock line back from the point A, 
about 100 feet to the north of E, and giving it the direction A B to B, 
where it takes a still more easterly bearing to the base of the lake pier, 
it is respectfully submitted, that the probability of the river current 
accommodating itself to the new opening, without the coercion of a dam, 
is so strong as to warrant the trial. It will doubtless be a great mis- 
fortune, both to the local and general commerce of the lakes, to lose the 
fine harbor facilities presented by the five-eighths of a mile of the river 
below this point ; ana although it may be dispensed with without serious 
inconvenience at the present time, yet should the rate of increase of 
commerce upon the lakes, and of the business of this city of the last ten 
or fifteen years, hold good for as many more, it would indeed be un- 
fortunate to place this portion of the river beyond the reach of unprove- 
ment. If this plan should prove feasible, the construction of the new 
opeping, so far from injuring the property for a short distance below 
the latter point, would at once lead to its improvement ; and if two or 
three thousand dollars, expended by our local authorities, will suflBce 
to keep the water good nearly or quite to the present mouth of the river, 
the value of the whole property in that direction will be rather increased 
than diminished, by the attraction of business to the vicinity of the new 
harbor. 

Some modification of this plan of the south pier, both in direction and 
extent, will probably be deemed better adapted to the purpose con- 
templated. 

With the opening constructed after such modifications as youT\>e\Xei: 
judgment may direct, I deem it so probable that die necesailj o? data- 



174 H. Doc. 1. 

ming the river may be obviated, as to warrant its being left out of the 
plan and calculation in reference to the new harbor improvement. 

The amount of drifting sand or alluvium in Milwaukie bay or river is 
extremely small. The exposed shore of the lake, for a long distance 
each way, is of clay formation, with a substratum of coarse gravel and 
stone. The inroads of the lake (which at the North cut has been about 
130 feet since 1S46) furnish apparently but little drift, and seem to 
have no other effect than to uniformly lessen the depth of the water to 
a certain distance in the lake, as will be seen by the increased distance 
to 14 feet water since 1836. This encroachment of the lake has been 
so great as to uproot all of the trees which, in 1836, and even until 
within five years, were found upon the peninsula between the North 
cut and the mouth of the river, except two, which now have a very 
uncertain foothold. 

In an ordinary northeaster the waves break entirely over tliis narrow 
beach into the river and the bayou, nearly down to the government 
buildings. The result of this must be, in a few years, the entire de- 
struction of the upper portions of this peninsula, and very much change 
the aspect of the lake and river at this point. The effect of the new 
piers as breakwaters, however, would, in some considerable degree, 
check these inroads of the lake in their vicinity. 

At the suggestion of Major Bache, corps of topographical engineers, 
I have indicated, by a dotted line upon cnart No. 2, the locality of the 
lake shore in 1846, the time of the city survey at that place. 

An element which will always influence the action of the ordinary 
currents of the river and lake to some extent, but of so irregular a char- 
acter as to furnish no data for judging of its effects, is the sudden and 
fi-equent rise and fall of water produced by atmospheric changes. The 
average of this rise I have not been able to ascertain with any accu- 
racy. It extends auite to the dam across the Milwaukie river, 3| miles 
fi-om its mouth, and to a considerable distance up the Menomonie. At 
a distance of two miles up the former it causes a very rapid upward 
current, continuing for a few minutes fully equal to if not greater than 
the ordinary natural current of the river, causing a rise in that time of 
from 12 to 20 inches, and sometimes even more. This phenomenon, 
common to other points as well as this, is probably more telt here from 
the peculiar formation of the bay. 

In bureau order to Captain Gunnison of April 6th, it is required that 
a report be made how (the North cut being made) any additional facil- 
ities to the commerce of the place are to be supplied. On the suppo- 
sition that the present channel must be closed by the extension ot the 
south pier, and from the fact that the southwesteen shore of the river, 
down to a point some distance beiow the proposed cut, and the eastern 
shore, nearly to the latter point, are already occupied with wharves, 
I can suggest no plan for aaditional facilities for the general commerce 
of the lakes. The following more particularly concerns the local com- 
merce or business of the city of Milwaukie : 

From the proposed cut to the mouth of the Menomonie river the 
distance is about 220 rods, or -Hths of a mile. This river appears to 
have the capacity of maintaining a channel 100 feet wide, and of suf- 

'eat deptn for vessels requiring eight ieetwax^t, fat ^iX^xiv^Tv^^-ei^hth 



H. Doc. 1. 175 

of a mfle, and of vessels requiring six to six and a half feet of water, 
for about three-eighths of a mile further, by a very sinuous channel. 
For about the first-nanaed distance it is already wharved and occu- 
pied : on the north by the warehouses of the Milwaukie and Mis- 
sissippi Railroad Company, and on the south at present as ship-yards, 
soon to be occupied by warehouses of the Milwaukie and Green Bay 
railroad. 

Above this it passes through an almost bottomless bog or marsh, cov- 
ered to a considerable extent with two or three feet water and of a 
width of Srom fifty to one hundred rods. These bogs I have already 
had occasion to mention in connexion with another subject. 

During the latter part of the summer thev break awav on every rise 
of the river, and pass into the lake, or are deposited in tne bayou of the 
Kinnekinic. 

For the local business of this place and for the general commerce of 
the lakes, so far as its situation would subserve the latter purpose, this 
river presents facilities for the construction of a harbor of considerable 
capacity. Should a plan for the same be acted upon at an early day, 
before private improvements had extended any further, its distance 
from the North cut would be about the same as that of the latter point 
from the present entrance by the course of the river. The subject, 
owing to the situation of the Menomonie, is perhaps of too local a char- 
acter to engage your attention with a view to its improvement as a 
national work ; and I take the liberty to call attention to it only as a 
resource capable of being made, in a great measure, to supply the loss 
of the lower portion of the river, should the latter become useless by 
the construction of the new harbor. All of which is most respectfully 
submitted. 

The surveys sent herewith sure : 

No. 1. Plan of the North cut, on scale of 100 feet to the inch. 

No. 2. Chart showing same, together with adjacent portions of river 
and bay, on scale of 200 feet to the inch, with soundings. 

No. 3. A chart of Milwaukie bay, on scale of 1,000 feet to the inch. 

In obedience to the further requirement of bureau order of May 31st, 
I have the honor to submit the following estimate in detail of the cost 
of the harbor improvement at the North cut : 

56,498 feet 12' X 12' white oak siding, at 15 cents $8,470 20 

1,037 white oakties, each 24 feet, at $1 25 each 1,296 25 

3,112 do do 20 feet, at $1 12 J each 3,501 00 

70,000 feet 3.inch white oak plank, at $14 per thousand . 980 00 

14,490 pounds inch-square bolt iron, at 4J cents 652 05 

17,500 pounds spikes, at 7 J cents 1,312 50 

1,600 cords stone, at $6 per cord 9,600 00 

Cost of labor on piers 5,395 00 

116,380 cubic yards dredging, and removing same, at 12^ 

cents 14,547 50 

46,754 50 
Add 10 per cent, for contingencies 4,&1& ^& 



176 H. Doc. 1. 

Cost of work per estimate $50,329 95 

Deduct amount of present appropriation 15,000 00 

Additional amount required 35,329 95 

The city of Milwaukie has with much zeal voted to raise the sum of 
$50,000 to be used in the construction of the harbor at the North cut, 
should it be so expended as to meet the approval of the general govern- 
ment. No additional appropriation would be required until it should 
become necessary to improve the work or extend it beyond the present 
plan. The sum of the above estimates judiciously expended, it is 
thought, will construct good substantial pier-works from twelve feet 
water in ihe river to fourteen feet water in the lake, and open a chan- 
nel 300 feet wide, with twelve feet water. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

H. W. GUNNISON, 

United States Agent. 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Corps Top. Engineers, U. S. -4., Washington, D. C. 



Waukegan, Illinois, September 1, 1S53. 

Captain : In obedience to a circular received from the Topographi- 
cal bureau, dated May 31, 1853, I respectfully submit the following 
report, with enclosed estimate and chart of Waukegan harbor, in du- 
phcate : 

On the 30th of March last I received orders to proceed to Wauke- 
gan, to take charge of the harbor improvement at that place, and await 
farther instructions. 

. During the month of April a survey and chart of the harbor was com- 
pleted and forwarded to the Topographical bureau ; also a report in 
relation to the location of the breakwater. 

During the months of May and June two decked scows and a pile- 
driver were built, and the necessary tools procured for the prosecution 
of the work. 

A contract for materials for this work was made at Washington, D. 
C, in the month of March, with Messrs Sweet, Ives & Hawley, of Mil- 
waukie, Wisconsin, to be delivered as follows, viz : 

One-third of the timber, plank and iron, on the 31st of March last ; 
one-third of the timber, plank and iron, on the 30th of April last ; one- 
third of the timber, plank and iron, on the 31st May last ; one-third of 
the stone on the i30th of A.pril last; one-third of the stone on the 31st 
of May last ; and one-third of the stone on the 30th of June last. 

The contractors totally failed to make any of the aforesaid deliveries; 
consequently, as soon as the machinery was built, the workmen were 
discharged and progress on the work ceased. 

On the 23d ultimo instructions were received to "go on with the 

work;" and by a late decision of the honorable Secretary of War, in 

reference to contract matters, viz : " The materials may be received of 

the eontractorSf at contract prices, if fiirniaVied mojvi^ja^Uea and at times 



H. Doc. 1. 177 

to meet the demands of the work ; in default of this they may be pur- 
ohased in open market." The contractors having failed to ** furnish 
materials to meet the demands of the work," the necessary materials 
are now being purchased (at much less than contract price) in open 
market to "go on with the work," in accordance with said instructions. 

Four cribs, from thirty to thirty-two feet each in length, will be 
framed, and the necessary materials in readiness as soon as possible, 
to be put in place, if the weather should permit, before the present 
working se.ason closes. 

The total amount of the present appropriation is $15,000; the 
amount expended is $3,899 82; leaving a balance on hand of 
$11,100 18. This amount will be expended by the 30ili of June next, 
the end of the present fiscal year. 

The amount of the estimate of the plan of the breakwater, 
700 feet in length, adopted and approved by the War 
Department, is $47,046 38 

Deduct present appropriation 16,000 00 

Probable amount required to be appropriated 32,046 38 

• — ■ — — 

It would be very desirable, both for economy and utility, to have 
this amount appropriated by Congress at its next session, in order that 
the breakwater may, as soon as possible, be made available as a har- 
bor of refuge for the vastly-increasing commerce on this lake. The 
use of it one season would undoubtedly be the means of saving more 
property from destruction than would pay for its construction. 

I would respectfully submit, to the consideration of the department, 
that pine square limber be used for side pieces below water surface, 
instead of oak. Pine timber has been used below water surface in the 
north pier at Chicago, and has been found to answer the purpose 
well. It can be procured in greater abundance, in lengths of 40 feet, 
than oak 30 feet in length ; the price per foot being the same ; is much 
easier handled; can be framed at nearly one-half the cost of oak, and 
below water surface has been found equally as durable. 

That round white-oak ties be used below the water surface, as 
formerly, (the space inside the cribs being filled with stone to water 
surface,) as they cost one-half less, and found to answer the purpose 
equally as well as square timber. 

That inch-square ragged iron bolts, as heretofore, be used to fasten 
the side pieces together, they having been found to suit the purpose 
remarkably well. 

I also enclose a statement of the imports and exports, &c., of the 
port of Waukegan for the year 1862, taken from the books of the for- 
warding merchants. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WM. GAMBLE, 
United States Agent. 

Captain J. D. Webster, 

Topographical Engs., General Supt., Chicago^ Illinois. 
Part iii— 12 



178 H. Doc. 1. 

Port of Waukegan^ lUinois — Population in 1S52, 4,560. 

IMPORTS FOR 1852. 

Merchandise, tons 2,145 

Salt, barrels 3,350 

Water, lime, barrels * 430 

Household furniture, (barrels bulk) 1,485 

Lumber, feet 3,248,338 

Apples, barrels 2,228 

Wagons 83 

EXPORTS FOR 1852. 

Wheat, bushels 235,879 

Oats, bushels 193,638 

Com, bushels 12,704 

Barley, bushels 29,153 

Flax-seed, bushels 3,028 

Timothy-seed, bushels ^ 750 

Flour, barrels 5,752 

Merchandise, furniture, &c., tons 170 

Pork, barrels 665 

Hams, casks • 195 

Lard, barrels 66 

Butter, tubs 1,1 14 

Eggs, barrels 225 

Wagons • 49 

Reapers 30 

Ship-knees, tons I 50 

Hides 530 

Empty barrels 1 ,220 

Wool, pounds 44,149 

Flax-tow, pounds 135,835 

Cord-woocf, cords 2,2 



Arrivals of steamboats and vessels, 1,247 ; and 32,600 tonnage bur- 
den employed. 

The above is taken from the published statistics of Lake county, 
Illinois, by Elijah M. Haines, attorney-at-law. 



Bureau of Topographical Engineers, 

Washington^ September 7, 1852. 
Sir : In the law for harbors and rivers there is an item in the follow- 
ing words : " For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Mil- 
waukie, Wisconsin, to be expended at a point on the Milwaukie river 
known as the " North cut," surveyed by Lieut. Center, $16,000." 



H. Doc. L 179 

1st. The United States has never improved or attempted lo improve 
this harbor by any openmg at the " North cut." It i?, therefore, no 
continuation of work at that place. 

The survey of Lieut. Center, referred to in the law, was made, and 
with the estimates for his plan were printed, in 1836. These were 
f; communicated to Congress under a resolution calling for the same. 
I But the bureau did not approve of the plan. Certain citizens of Mil- 
\ waukie were anxious that it (the plan of Lieut Center) should be 
[ adopted. In consequence of this difference of views no appropriation 
for the work at Milwaukie could be obtained before 1843, when an 
appropriation was made under the following restriction of law : 

" That before the money hereby appropriated for the construction of 
a harbor at or near Milwaukie shall be expended, the corps of topo- 
graphical engineers shall select from actual examination and survey 
the point of location of said harbor." 

Under this direction of the law, a board of engineers, consistinff of 
[ Lieutenant Colonel Kearney, Capt. Williams, and Capt. McCleUan, 
was ordered to assemble at Milwaukie and select the position for the 
i piers. • 

The report of the board is dated 28th May, 1843, and when received 
was, with other papers, adopted to illustrate the question (all of which 
are hereto annexed) submitted to the consideration of the War Depart- 
ment, by which it wels decided to place the piers where they now are — 
namely, about the point A of the annexed drawing — which will be 
found to be about five-eighths of a mile south of the position now desig- 
nated as the •' North cut." As reference is made to the law of the 
last session to Lieutenant Center's plan, it is the map of his survey 
which is hereto annexed, and the "North cut" is supposed to be the 
position B. 

The estimate submitted with this plan of Lieutenant Center amounts 
to $92,183. It is clear, in reference to this drawing, that, if the opening 
were to be made at B, it could not be kept open, and be of use, unless 
the river were to discharge itself througn it ; and it is equally clear 
that the river would not so discharge itself unless covered in that direc- 
tion by some structure in the form of a dam across the river fh)m about 
the tertnination of the probable locality of the southern pier of thk 
" cut." It is also well known that the western shore of the river at tins 
vicinity is a species of marsh extending in the direction C D about 
three-eighths of a mile before reaching the fast land. In ail risings of 
the river, or above its lake level, this marsh is proportionally overSov^m 
witli water. The necessary dam there, in addition to the cost of its 
construction, would require extensive precautionary and strong work 
to prevent the river in such circoKiataoces from forcing its way around 
the west end of the dam, and forming for itself a new channel in tbat 
direction. The dam and its accessory works are not only an essendal 
but a costly feature in any opening of the " North cat ;" but this feature 
does not appear to have been contemplated by Lieutenant Center, nor 
does any estimate of its probable cost accompany the plan. From the 
drawing of Lieutenant Center, the dam alone would not he less than 
one-eighth of a mile long, and with its accessory works woxAdix^V 
think, cost less than two-thirds of his estimate for the p\ei^ TV]i^ 



180 H. Doc. 1. 

would bring tho probable cost of ihe work for an opening at the 
" " North cut"* to about $162,000. 

The dam is not only an essential feature to an opening at the 
** North cut," but is a preliminary feature. At least the dam, if not 
constructed first, should be erected step by step with the work of open- 
ing at the '* North cut," as I am clear in the opinion that the " North cut," 
without the aid of the dam, would be closed on the first severe blow 
from the east, and would, in twenty-four hours of siich a blow, be made 
as firm land as it is now. 

I am justified in this opinion by the fact that an opening called the 
•* North c«t" was once made ; but as the river was not made to pass 
through it, it filled up as solidly as before the cut in one night. 

Among the evils ol the proposed "North cut " opening may be stated : 

1st. Its great cost. 

2d. That the wharves, being so near the opening, would feel so sen- 
sibly the sea wave in blows, that vessels would be with diflSculty held 
to their wharf moorings, and would cause a heavy expenditure of pier- 
work to cure thi^evil, as was the case at Chicago. 

3d. All the fine deep water and anchoring ground, which gives, or 
will give when the present work is completed, to this harbor so fine a 
character as a harbor of refuge to the commerce of the lake during 
storms, will be lost, as this part of the river will fill up. 

4th. All the land on this river having been sold, there exist numerous 
vested riparian rights between the proposed " North cut" and the 
present opening. Under these rights a road has been constructed over 
the marsh from the fast land to the river shore south of the " North 
cut," and warehouses built at the river termination of the road. These 
circumstances would constitute sound claims for heavy damages, 
which the United States would have to pay. 

6th. There has been already expended for the work erected al the 
opening adopted by the War Department $50,000, namely: 

Appropriation of 1843 $30,000 

Appropriation of 1844 .*20,000 

And the estimate of last November, approved by the War Depart- 

^ni^nt atid submitted with the general estimates to Congress, was for 

the extension and improvement of the works at the point A. 

' The question of a change of the position of the Milwaukie piers 

having been mooted before the committee of the House which prepared 

the river and harbor bill, the information now submitted was furnished 

to that committee through (and on application of) the Hon. Mr. 

Seymour, chairman of that committee, by whom I was informed that 

the committee would not entertain the proposition. The bill, therefore, 

went to the Senate without this or any reference to the '•North cut." 

This reference, or direction, was an amendment of the Senate*; but as 

the House adopted the amendment, and the bill has become a law, there 

seems to be no remedy under all its consequences but to execute the law. 

The appropriation, however, is for $16,000. While this would have 

been a very efficient sum to extend and improve the piers which have 

been begun, it constitutes a very inadequate item even for a judicioas 

beginning at the "North cut." 



H. Doc. I. 181 

^ It IS, therefore, respectfully recommended that work at the " North 
cut" should be suspended until Congress shall have an opportunity by 
ao additional appropriation to furnish adequate means for a judicious 
begimiing at the ** North cut." 

Respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

J. J. ABERT, 
Colonel Corps Tojpographical Engineers. 
Hon. C. M. Conrad, 

Secretary of War. 



Office of the Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ December 17, 1852. 

Sir : The second subject referred to the consideration of the board, 
by the instructions of the bureau of the 6th instant, is in the follow- 
ing words, to wit: "That the board investigate the matter of the posi- 
tion of the Milwaukie piers, and report thereon." On this reference the 
board have the honor to report, that without endorsing all the opinions 
contained in the various papers submitted with the inquiry — namely, 
the letter of the bureau to Captain T. J. Cram, dated March 13, 1843 ; 
that of T. J. Cram to the bureau in reply, dated April 3, 1843 ; the re- 
port of the special board on the subject, of which Lieut. Colonel Kear- 
ney was president, to the bureau, dated May 28, 1843 ; and, lastly, the 
letter of tte bureau to the Secretary of War, dated September 7, 1852 — 
they are of the opinion that the existing outlet of the Milwaukie river 
ought to be adhered to; and that all measures, whether in the form of 
works or otherwise, for the improvement of the entrance of that river, 
ought to be appUed to that point. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Colonel Topograjthical Engineers, President. 

CoL J- J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Bureau op Topographical Engineers, 

Washington, December 18, 1852. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit a report of the board of engineers 
upon ihelocaUty of the Milwaukie piers. 

If the views of the board should meet your approbation, before they 
can be carried out some modification of the legislation of last winter 
will be necessary, 

In order to meet a contingency of that kind, the report of the board, 
and the papers which accompanied it, are submitted in duphcate. 
Respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

J. J. ABERT, 
. Colonel Corps Topographical Etiginecrs. 
Hon. C. M. Conrad, 

Secretary of f Far. 



18i H. Doc. 1. 

Extract of a letter from Colonel J. J. Abert to Captain T. J. Cram, dated 

March 13, 1843. 

REMARKS UPON THE MILWAUKIE PLAN. 

The plan here proposed is considered bad : 

1. Because it contemplates to make an opening through the bank— 
a doubtful project when a good opening already exists so near. 

2. Because it would be very expensive ; as, in addition to the piers, 
a dam must be made at A D to force the river through the channel. 

3. Because it would thereby destroy the good harbor and anchor- 
age ground from the present mouth to the pencil line C D, which is 
now a harbor of refuge for craft not bound up, but merely seeking 
shelter from a storm. 

4. Because it would seriously injure the value of property near the 
present mouth of the river — this being a natural mouth, which has ex- 
isted as long as we have known the lake. The legal power to make 
so serious an alteration, without compensation for damages, is doubtful. 

6. Because works at the present outlet would be less costly and 
more certainly efficacious, and more easily made. 

6. The tendency of fluids, in impinging against the concave side of a 
curved shore, is to hug the curve and maintain its force against it, so 
as to form the best channel on that side. 

7. But when a fluid impinges against the convex side of a curved 
surface, its tendency is to fly off" from the surface against which it im- 
pinges in a direction tangential to that surface. 

8. The current of the lake is the result of the prevailing winds, and 
the formation at the outlet of Milwaukie river unequiirocally indicates 
a predominating littoral current from the north. 

9. The river maintains a current to a certain distance into the lake, 
but only to a small distance, as the examination of the survey shows 
a line under water not over 75 feet from the mouth of the river, paral- 
lel to the shore of the lake, and not more than nine feet deep. It also 
shows that the river depth of 12 feet is not maintained more than 
throughout what may be properly called the river mouth. 

10. The river current is, therefore, lost in this short distance, or over- 
powered by the littoral current from the north and the reaction of the 
lake. 

11. Our eflforts must, thereforie, be to obstruct this littoral current 
and lessen the reaction of the lake upon the outlet. 

12. We obstruct the littoral current by giving it a diflferent direction, 
and we lessen the reaction of the lake by a pier operating as a break- 
water. 

13. And from the foregoing facts we have also determinated upon 
which side of the entrance the greatest extension of pier- work should 
be to accomplish the views of 12. 

14. A pier in the shape of 1.2 will, therefore, probably cast off the 
littoral current from the north in the direction of ine tangent line 5.6, 
and will tend to cast the deposits in that line as a regular consequence; 
that 18, silt or littoral cement deposits. 

IS. TAen the short pier at the south, gmn^ vo^e\\N«t^MTt^\Aa 



H. Doc. 1. 183 

decided direction to the concave surface of the pier, and that current 
hugging that surface, as I believe it will, to the end of the pier, will 
maintain the best channel near it ; and on leaving the pier its tendency 
will be to make its deposifs also near the tangent line ; and the united 
tendency of this action with that from the converse surface before 
spoken of will, in all probability, be to throw to some distance any 
shoal that will form at the end of the pier, leaving a good entrance 
under the cover of this shoal at the south side. 

16. These reflections are submitted to your judgment of the pj:oba- 
bilities on the ground. 

17. A difierent direction having been (1 believe) already given to 
the northern pier at Chicago, of course that direction will now have to 
be preserved. 

18. Having the northern (Milwaukie) pier well out, experience will 
indicate the best extent for tne south pier. 



MiLWAUKiE, May 28, 1843. 

Sir: In obedience to your orders, we have assembled at this place 
for the purpose of determining the position of the piers for the improve- 
ment of Milwaukie harbor. 

We have examined the river very carefully from above its junction 
with the Menomonie to its mouth; and we have made such surveys as 
we have thought necessary, for the purpose of comparing its actual 
state with the maps we have received from the bureau, as well as for 
the purpose of collecting and verifying the facts ponnected with the 
question before us. 

We find the river, for the purposes of navigation, to diflfer materially 
from that represented on any of the maps in our possession. Below 
the bend, at which it has been proposed to open a new outlet — namely, 
the northernmost position proposed for the piers — the channel has a 
length of about three- fourths of a. mile at all times navigable for first- 
class vessels; and so far it agrees with the map of the survey of 1836. 
This map does not, however, accurately represent the bearings of all 
this portion of the river, inasmuch as for the length of rather less than 
one-fourth of a mile it bears more eastwardly than the map would lead 
us to suppose. From the position of the proposed new outlet to the 
mouth of the Menomonie, we find the depth of water and breadth of 
the channel much less than is indicated by the map of 1836, if from 
the soundings upon it we are to infer that there is a free naviga- 
tion thence to the Menomonie for the largest vessels at the lowest 
stage of the river. Our surveys lead us to the conclusion that they 
could not now ascend the river much beyond that position ; and further- 
more we believe that, at the lowest stage of the river, a vessel drawing 
8^ feet could not, without great difficulty, reach the wharves, the low- 
ermost of which is about half a mile above it ; for, besides the obstacle 
interposed by the shoalness of the channel, its want of breadth and 
the character of its hard gravelly bottom are sutficient impedvmetvX^ \.o 
the navigation. The total distance of the highest poiuV o£ v\ie ivvet 



184 H. Doc. 1. 

now under consideration above the present outlet, you will perceive, is 
about one and a fourth mile, following the windings of the channel. 

With these fads before us, and they are now, or the most material 
of them, as we believe, for the first time presented to the department, 
we cannot but deem it unnecessary to recapitulate the arguments set 
forth in the official reports referred to us favoring the opinion that the 

1)iers ought to be estaolished near the present outlet of the river. They 
ead, in our judgment, to the same result, and are of themselves so con- 
clusiw of the correctness of that opinion, that we purpose very briefly 
to examine the question under their guidance alone. 

Vessels of the largest class employed in the commerce of Lake Mich- 
igan, commanding a full freight as they nearly always do during the 
business season, load for the only obstruction upon the common route 
of communication with the ports of Lake Erie, namely, for the flats ol 
St. Clair, to a depth at this time of 9 to 9J feet — sometimes more. 
Now, assuming eighteen inches as the admissible depth of a bottom 
such as we find in Milwaukie river below the keel of a vessel under 
way, (and we think it may not safely be less in a narrow and winding 
channel,^ there would be required an uninterrupted depth of ten and a 
half to eleven feet for the channel of the river in order to accommodate 
the commerce of the lake. This depth is to be found below the most 
northern position proposed for the piers. We do not find that depth 
above that position. Now, viewing the harbor as designed " for the 
protection of the commerce of Lake Michigan," we could not, in our 
judgment, be justified in recommending any measure the effect of which 
would be ultimately to destroy the only anchorage within it; and this, 
in fact, we suppose would be the result of closing the present commu- 
nication of the river with the lake to the southward of the proposed 
opening. To show this, much argument is we think uncalled for, or, 
if it were necessary to insist upon it, a comparison of the present with 
the former condition of the bay and channel lying towards Kinnekinic 
(Boisgris) creek would be sufficient. 

In 1836 there was a deep channel some distance into that bay, as 
you will see by referring to the map of Lieutenants Center and 
Rose. By some means a sand bar has been thrown across the mouth 
of this channel ; and we have not now found behind it a depth of more 
than four or five feet, except in one detached hole. It has been filled 
up measurably by the silt carried into it from the low ground, and from 
the mud flats lying towards the Kinnekinic creek. 

It is not doubted that the closing of the present outlet would follow 
the opening of a channel for the egress of the river north of it, unless 
measures were taken to oppose the action of the waves setting along 
the beach under the impulse of the southeasterly winds, which often 
blow here with considerable force and duration. In this event, the 
sedimentary matter from the bay, which now escapes into the lake by 
the outlet of the river, would be deposited, as we oelieve, in the deep 
channel and anchorage immediately north of it, to the destruction of 
the berth for large vessels. 

In our opinion, the trade of Milwaukia, and the protection of the 

commerce of the lake, will ultimately require all the room and much 

ore than is now to be found for &rst-c\ass vea^eVs', «X!A\x\& ova duty. 



H. Doc. I. 185 

therefore, to report against any project calculated materially to reduce 
it. And moreover, if we may express an opinion on the subject, it is 
to the interest of the to\^n of Milwaukie to preserve the integrity of its 
harbor as a port of the first class. 

For these reasons, if for these only, independent of others aheady 
before the department from other sources, we are of opinion that the 
outlet ot the river ought to be maintained in nearly its present position; 
and that any excavations required for the passage of vessels into the 
harbor ou^ht to be made rather northward of it, in the removal of a 
small portion of the beach. 

To the selection of this position, 'in preference to the more northerly 
one, it is objected — 

First. That the situation of the north point of Milwaukie, with refer- 
ence to the northernmost position, is such as to afford protection to ves- 
sels approaching it when the wind is from the northeast, whilst near 
the present outlet they would be greatly exposed to such winds. To 
this objection is opposed the fact that the north point of the bay bears 
from the first position N. 23^ 30' E., or N. N. E. nearly, by compass ; and 
that, from the present outlet, it bears N. 18° 10' E., a difference of but 
5^ 20^, or less than half a point. But, in fact, neither of these posi- 
tions would have the protection of that point of the bay against winds 
from the northeast, and even between that point of the compass and 
the north-northeast the difference is imaginary. Against winds fi"om all 
other points of the compass, except those from the southeast, the pro- 
tection is equal. When the wind is from the southeast, the advantage 
on the score of protection would be on the side of the position of the 
present outlet. In truth, however, the piers proposed to be erected 
there, if they have the proper length and direction, will afford incom- 
parably more protection to vessels coming under their lee than can 
either point of the bay; nor can there, with such precaution, be any 
danger to them from the lee shore lying to the southward- 
It is likewise objected, as we have already intimated, that the posi- 
tion of the present outlet of the river is such as to increase the distance 
lor vessels bound to the business part of Milwaukie ; and that for part 
of the way they would be obliged to fetch through a channel leading 
in the direction of the prevaihng storms from the northeast, a course 
not elsewhere to be found below the town. Now, the distance upon 
this course is less than a quarter of a mile, and, as we ourselves have 
witnessed it, presents no serious obstacle to the progress of vessels 
under sail. It may be observed, however, that it would, if necessary, 
be easy to give to it a more acceptable direction. As to the rest of the 
river below the northernmost position proposed for the piers, it has the 
same general course as it has oetween that and the town; and the low- 
ermost wharf does not exceed a mile and a quarter from the outlet. 

During the progress of this investigation certain propositions were 
addressed to us by the corporate authorities of Milwaukie. The 
board considers itself not authorized to entertain these propositions ; but 
that, nevertheless, as they contain matter for the consideration of the 
bureau, they are herewith transmitted for its information. 

In conclusion, we take leave to recommend that, as soon as pxaeU- 4 
cable, a very minute and accurate survey may be made ot x)i\e iVvet 



186 H. Doc. 1. 

below the canal company's dam of the Menomonie, below the head of 
navigation, and of the shores and anchorage of Milwaukie bay. 
AU which is respectfully submitted. 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieutenant Colonel Topographical Engineen. 
W. G. WILLIAMS, 
Captain Topographical Engineers. 

J. McCLELLAN, 
Captain Topographical Engineers. 
Colonel J. J. Abert, 

Chief of tlie Corps of Topographical Engineers. 



Milwaukie, May 27, 1843. 

Gentlemen: The board of trustees for the town having taken into 
consideration the suggestion made to one of our number relative to 
deepening the channel of the river above the Menomonie, have decided 
to propose to furnish hands and fuel to work the dredging machine lo 
make the necessary excavation for that purpose, provided the harbor 
should be located near the site proposed by Lieutenants Center and 
Rose's survey, and have adopted a resolution to that effect, as here- 
unto annexed. 

We are prompted to do this fi>r the reason that it is apprehended 
that the want of sufficient depth, as the river now is, for first-class 
steamboats and vessels, may operate as an argument against the se- 
lection of that point by your board for the construction of the work ; 
and though we think there are good and sufficient reasons why that 
circumstance ought not so to operate, yet to remove any objection 
which might grow out of it we make the proposal contained in the res- 
olution. 

On the subject of location, as regards the great interests of com- 
merce, we could not hope by the expression of any opinion to influ- 
ence your minds ; but some facts exist which we presume we may, in 
all propriety, present for your consideration. 

Are the prevailing storm-winds generally fi:x)m the north or the south 
side of the bay ? This you have no doubt inquired into and carefully 
investigated — the result of which is, that the heavy storms most disas- 
trous to shipping are generally from northeast, and consequently pro- 
duce a heavy sea on the south shore, while a comparatively light one 
is found on the north shore — ^ihus rendering a passage into the piers 
easier the further north they are placed. Thus far we think the argu- 
ment is in favor of Mr. Center's location over the present mouth or out- 
let ot the river, as regards the general interests of commerce ; and we 
think we will be sustained by you in the remark, that the great and 
paramount interests of the commerce of the lakes, as connected with 
our harbor, is not so much involved in any other question connected 
with its location as the one here referred to — external to the harbor — 
the security of vessels in making a port in hard weather. 
But there are other considerations more local in their nature, but yet, 
^e trust, of su&cient magnitude tx> comxaaudL a f^^^ o1^o\a ^slmsglUoq. 



H. Doc. 1. 187 

It has been suggested by some, and perhaps dwelt on by your board, 
that as the water inside the bar at the mouth is some fourteen to sixteen 
feet deep, that vessels might more safely enter there, merely for pro- 
tection in a storm, than at the other site, where there is only eight or 
ten feet water. This argument would be entitled to consideration if it 
were admitted that the water would never be deepened in the upper 
section of the river ; but this cannot be admitted, except upon the sup- 
position that the present town of Milwaukie is to be abandoned ; for 
so long as the town remains where it is, so long as machinery is pro- 
pelled by the water-power of the canal, so long must vessels visit the 
town and water power, to do which a channel sufficient for that pur- 
pose will, by some process, be produced wherever the piers for the 
Iiarbor may be situated ; so that we are forced to the conclusion thai 
the present inadequacy of depth of water above the northern site can- 
not weigh heavily on your minds adverse to that location. 

If, however, the piers should be constructed at the northern site, the 
sand, of which the bottom of the river is there composed, would, in the 
operation of one or two freshets, be washed out to a sufficient depth, 
and ultimately to the present depth of the lower section of the river. If 
it be objected to this wash that it would deposit and form a bar within 
or at the end of the piers, it might be answered that the deposit to be 
made in a like manner at the mouth of the river, by the accumulations 
on the outer bar, would probably be equal in amount ; and further, 
that if this latter were to be removed by dredging, an equal expendi- 
ture would remove the former. On either ground, then, we suppose that 
in this respect neither site has much advantage over the other. 

The difficulty which always must attend the transaction of business 
between the town and lake, with the harbor at the mouth of the river, 
will account to you for the extreme soHcitude of our citizens on the 
subject, in which this board fully participates. The circuitous naviga- 
tion around the island requires a peculiar wind to bring it from the 
mouth of the river to the town, and will forever subject the navigation 
to manifold delays and damages. It is idle to suppose a rival town can 
be built up about the south end of the marsh which can in any manner 
transact the commercial business to be done here within a few years ; 
for the expense of filling up the marsh to the river for that purpose, on 
the one hand, or the expense of dredging the marsh to permit vessels to 
approach the dry bank, on the other hand, would, either of them, be too 
expensive to justify such an enterprise. But suppose that such a thing 
were possible as to build up a rival town about the south end and west 
side of the marsh, which would successfully prostrate the present town, 
would it be wise in a paternal government to sacrifice all the private 
and fixed interests of 3,000 or 4,000 people, unless imperiously de- 
manded by high and paramount considerations of public policy ? Such 
has not hitherto been the action of this government ; but, on the con- 
trary, private interests have always been considered sacred by her 
public functionaries, so far as they could be properly so considered 
without conflicting with the higher and more immediate interests of the 
public. 

Believing, as we do, that the northern site will afford the most s»ecv«^ 
entrance for vessels ia stormy weather ^ and that great and cockAtAXiX. 



188 H. Doc. 1. 

difficulties must arise in the navigation of the inner harbor in case of 
the piers being located at the mouth of the river, the town will freely 
incur all the expense of all the extra dredging which may be required to 
ffive the river its proper depth from the piers to the town,if they should 
be placed by your board at or near the site survt yed by Messrs. Center 
and Rose. 

A harbor within the bayou, between the island and lake, would be 
decidedly better for ihe interest of the town than the present mouth of 
the river, for the reason that the channel would be much more direct 
from that point, avoiding the circuit made by the west side of the island; 
and if there be any force in the suggestion that some advantage may 
be derived from the depth of water at the mouth, the same would apply 
here, as the water in ine bayou has been found by your soundings to 
be about the same as that in the rivei above the bar, and neau-ly as 
capacious for the reception of vessels, with a high and dry bank on either 
side of it, to which vessels may be temporarily moored. 

These suggestions are presented to you under a feeling of the highest 
consideration for the intelligence, integrity and spirit of fairness which 
we believe will govern your deliberations and final decision of this 
question ; and we cannot take leave of the subject without expressing 
the hope, nay, the confident trust, that when your deliberations are 
ended they will result favorably to the permanent interests of the town. 
We have, &c., L. WARD, President. 

To Col. J. Kearnbit, and Captains McClbllan and Williams. 



Resolved^ That the foregoing communication be adopted and signed 
by the president of this board, and transmitted to the gentlemen to 
whom it is directed. 

Resolved^ That the town authorities will furnish all the men and fuel 
necessary to do all the extra dredging in the river above the piers 
which may be required by the oflBcer in command, as necessary to 
make sufiicient water up to the town, provided said piers should be 
located above the island; and that Byron Kilbum and D. Wells, 
jr., be, and they are hereby, appointed a committee, and fuUy authorized 
to enter into contract, on behalf of the corporation, with the command- 
ing o85cer or superintendent of the harbor, to carry out the object of 
this resolution. 

I hereby certify that the above communication and resolution were 
this day unanimously adopted at a meeting of the board of trustees of 
the town of Mil;waukie. 

JAMES S. BAKER, 

May 27, 1843. Clerk of the Board. 



I 



Office of General Superintendency, 

Racine^ Wisconsin Territory^ AprU 3, 1843. 
Sir : Having at various times during the last three years reflected 
upon the contemplated harbor at Milwaukie with a view to be prepared 
to act in the event of being officially directed so \o do^ ^wdW^vckig again 



H. Doc. 1. 189 

inspected the sites since the receipt of your instructions of the 14th 
ulumo, I am as well prepared now as I probably should ever be to 
report the result of my observations and investigations of this problem. 
Therefore, and in obedience to your instructions, I have the honor to 
submit, with deference, the following ideas of the case : 

1. Obj^ of the harbor. — The title of the act being " for the protection 
of commerce on the west shore of Lake Michigan," the case is tobe 
considered primarily with reference to vessels navigating the lake gen- 
erally, and seeking shelter in times of storms, without the previous inten- 
tion of ascending the Milwaukie river; secondarily, with reference to 
vessels bound directly to or from Milwaukie. 

2. The locatvmj therefore, becomes of great importance to the gen- 
eral trade along the west shore, and such a site should be selected, if 
we are to respect the act of Congress, as will subserve the wants of 
this general navigation, rather than the particular wants of the town of. 
Milwaukie. If the demands of the coastwise trade generally, and of 
the vessels intending to pass through the whole length of the lake, be 
made secondary in the location of this work, the general government 
will be brought into the false position of building a harbor to subserve 
the particular interests of a village trade. 

The site recommended in the report of J. M. Berrien, civil engineer, 
on the surveys of Lieuts. Center and Rose, would not so well subserve 
the general trade on the lake as it would the particular trade of Mil- 
waukie. (See Sketch No. 1 , which is traced from the map of that re- 
port.) 

All other things being equal, therefore, the site at M should be adopted, 
for it will afford to all vessels the use of that part of the river tnree- 
quarters of a mile in extent below D; and, indeed, I cannot perceive 
why it will not also facilitate the trade directly to and from Milwaukie 
quite as well as the site B, since, in ascending from B, a vessel would 
ha^e to sail precisely upon the sime course as in ascending from M. 
(For comparison of ideas, see No. 3 of your remarks.) 

3. Natural channel of' the river. — The report seems to impl^ that the 
river formerly discharged itself through B. I can find no physical 
circumstances in the vicinity of B affording proof to my mind that 
the river's mouth was ever here ; on the contrary, proofs, such as the 
character of the grass, age of soil and trees, direction of currents, shape 
of the valley, do exist, showing that the natural mouth has beq^ gen- 
erally confined between the limits indicated by the red lines Mm and 
Mm, which are about 1,113 feet asunder. Between these hmits, I 
think, the river has always discharged itself, or, at leasU manifested a 
decided tendency so to do. It is true, a storm of unusual fury may 
have choked this area, and forced the river out of its wonted course, 
and compelled it to discharge itself at a point without these limits ; 
but, on an abatement of the storm, the river has sought its wonted 
course and found it between said limits again. At the present time, 
however, the river discharges itself nearer the northern limit than is 
represented on the sketch. It must be borne in mind that this map 
was made fix)m a survey in 1836, 



190 H. Doc. I. 

To locate the harbor at B would necessitate (in my own niind as it 
has done in yours) the construction of a dam at D, in order to force the 
river out of its natural course. It seems, however, that Berrien did not 
consider a dam necessary. There is no estimate for it in the report, 
nor is it alluded to. The dam would be more expensive than a mere 
inspection of the map has led you to suppose ; for the nature of the 
ground is such, on the west side of the river, that a sbeet-piling would 
probably have to be extended three-eighths of a mile to Walker's point, 
and possibly a similar sheet-piling would have to be adopted on the 
other side of the stream, in the event of the lake again rising to its level 
ot 1838 and 1839. To make sure of forcing the Milwaukie river 
through B at all times, and against a recurrence of the contingencies of 
the last four years, the dam should be of permanent character, or it 
would not be maintained without great expense for repairs. 

Again: where is the right to be found for turning a river out of its na- 
tural channel, or to construct a close dam across a navigable water 
channel? Common law forbids it, and without a statute law we could 
not ; nor with such a law could we construct such a dam without pay- 
ing all damages thereby accruing. 

If the United States siill owned all the land on the river, we should 
have the right, though I question even then the expediency of so doing. 
The land, however, is owned by individuals, whose rights must not 
only be respected, but in the present case it happens that these rights 
must be protected. The land is settled, it may be said, all the way 
from the present mouth around by Boisgris creek (Kinnekinic) to 
Walker's point. In this circuit there is quite a number of farmers who 
have rendered their lands valuable by improvements after purchasing 
the soil from the United States and paying the full value, not only of 
the mere numbers of acres specified in their patents, but also all the 
privileges, rights, and appurtenances naturally thereto belonging. Hon- 
esty and equity, if not law, would forbid the idea of infringing upon 
these without rendering fall compensation for damages. I have esti- 
mated, in my own mind, without consultation however with the o'wti- 
ers, that the aggregate damage to their property would be not less 
than $5,000,* which would positively accrue by stopping the river at 
D. There are other circumstances bearing upon this part of the dis- 
cussion. The greatest and most convenient depot of wood for steam- 
ers is at the mouth of Boisgris creek. Up this creek, also, there are 
limestone quarries, and the creek is navigable for flat-boats for some 
little distance ; and it appears to me that this very convenient and na- 
tural canal, of a mile or two in extent, would be found of growing im- 
portance were the harbor located in M. If the point B should be se- 
lected, these advantages in prospect would be destroyed without gain- 
ing an equivalent. 

(For a comparison of views, see your second and fourth remark.) 



* At the date of this report. 



H. Doc. 1. 101 

4. Co9t of construction. — Supposing all other circumstances bearing 
upon the two sides equal, it is evident the location should be such as to 
give the least cost of construction. On this point I purpose to compare 
the relative merits of the sites B and M, and I will argue the question 
upon the data furnished by the map and report of Mr. Berrien. 

Around each of the sites B and M you will perceive two red arcs of 
circles, having their respective centres at CC, which are points on the 
curves of 12 feet water inside the bars; equal radii of 1,113 feet carry 
us fh>ra these respective centres into only 13 feet lake water at B, and 
into 15 feet water at M, giving a decided advantage to M in any view 
of ihe case. At B, the distance from 12 feet river water to 12 feet lake 
water is 1,031 feet ; the corresponding distance at M is only 907 feet. 
These distances are in the ratio of 1.08S ; hence, in the single item of 
pier-work, supposing no dam required at B, the cost of piering from 12 
feet river to 12 feet lake water would be 12 per cent, less at M than at 
B. But in comparing costs the dam must be brought in. This would 
have to be 660 feet long, and firom good foundation 12 feet high at least ; 
and taking the sheet-piUng across the marsh and the necessary dredging 
for a foundation into the count, I think the dam would cost at least haU* 
as much per running foot as the pier proper. Hence the proportion 
cost of pier-work (dam inclusive) at B, cost of pier at M :: 1,031 feet 
X^^ feet, 907 feet, or as 1 to 0.7 nearly (A.) Tnis proportion, although 
a partial result, affords a strong argument m favor of the site M. 

Again: the report makes the amount of excavation above water at B 
tV of what would be required to be dredged from under water at the 
same site. Now, the amount necessary to be excavated above water, and 
dredged from under water, at M, is certainly not more than two- thirds 
of what would be required at B; hence the proportion : cost of excava- 
tion at B, cost of excavation at M, 1 X tV f » or :: 1.0.6 nearly ^B.^ 

To render the item of dredging homogeneous with the item of pienng, 
(for the purpose of comparison, as will be seen in the sequel,) we have 
to refer to the report, where we find the cost of all excavation at B 
estimated at $25,035 ; leaving $67,148 for the cost of 1,660 running feet 
of pier-work, which gives $40 45 per running foot. In our comparison 
we have taken 1,031 running feet of pier-work proper at B, (exclusive 
of the dam,) according to the estimate in the report; therefore — 

Cost of l,03f running feet pier proper at B, $40 45 $41,703 96 

Cost of excavation above and below water at B 25,035 26 

Cost of 660 running feet at dam at site B, at $20 22^ 13,348 50 

Cost of harbor at site B, (according to the estimate in the 
report,) and supposing only 1,031 feel pier-work proper, 80,087 71 

We also obtain the proportion — 

Cost of all excavation at B, cost of pier-work (dam in- 
clusive) at B:: 1 :2.73 

Very nearly (C.) For simplicity, let P (m) represent the 
cost of pier- work at the site.. M 

E (m) cost of excavation at site ^ 



192 H. Doc. 1. 

P {b) cost of pier and dam at site B 

E (6) cost of all excavation at site B 

We shall have, from the preceding proportions, by substituting this 
notation, the following proportions or equations : 
From (A) P (4): P (m) :: 1.07, or P (m) = P (b) X 0.7 (1) 

(B) E lb): E (m) :: 1.06, or E (w) = E (b) X 0.6 (2) 

(C) E (6) : P (6) :: 1.2.73, or P (6) = E (b) X 2.73 (3) 

Combinuig equations (1) and {S\ we get — 

P (m) = E {b) X 2.73 X 0.7. Tliis being added to equation (2,) and 
the reduction made, will give — 

P (m) + E {m\ = E (6) X 2.73 XO.7 + E (b) X 0.6 = E (b) X 2.611. 
Substituting in this value of E (6,) ($25,035 given in the report,) and 
we shall have (a) P (m) = $62,863 ; and, from the same report, we 
also have (6) P (6) + E (i) = $80,088. 

The first of these expresses the cost of a harbor having 12 feet water 
from inside to outside at the site M; and the second expresses the cost 
of a similar harbor (dam inclusive) at the site B, both oased upon ex- 
actly the same prices, and in accordance with the report; and whether 
the prices be too high or too low, is immaterial, so long as our present 
purpose in this discussion is merely to obtain the ratio of the cost at 
two sites. Whether the harbors would have cost, in 1836, or would 
cost, at the present time, these sums, or more or less, are questions 
which we are not now investigating. 

Converting equations (a) and (b) into a proportion, we have P (m) + 
E (m) : P (6) + E (6) :: $62,863 : $80,088, which being reduced gives- 
Cost of harbor at M, cost of harbor atB, 1.127; that is, tor construc- 
tion, exclusive of all damages to property ; and there will be no dama- 
ges to pay for site M. Hence tne conclusion : a harbor at B, on the 
smallest scale admissible, would cost 27 per cent, more than one on a 
similar scale at M. 

(For a comparison of ideas, see your remark No. 5.) 
5. Littoral currents. — The prevailing winds come from directions 
embraced in the northeast quadrant of the horizon, and the resultant of 
these winds constitute a single force, F, having a direction coming from 
due N. E. This is established by general observation, but more partic- 
ularly by a series of observations carried on for every day for one year, 
by means of a wind-gauge which I had erected, by iavor of the keeper 
of the light, about a mile north of B. The observations were taken at 
morning, noon, and night, and the record gave the resultant of the pre- 
vailing winds, as here stated, from N. E. 

This -resultant or force F impinges against the shore at an angle of 
62 degrees. Resolving F by the rules of mechanics into two compo- 
nents—one parallel and the other perpendicular to the shore — and we 
have for the former 0.47 F, and for the latter 0.88 F ; the perpendicu- 
lar component (^88 F is destroyed by the resistance of the shore, but 
the parallel component 0.47 F has its full effect in producing the littoral 
current; and although this component is a little less than half the di- 
rect force F, it is sufficient to produce a decided current parallel to the 
shore, and in a direction varying not much from north to south. The 
practical test of the truth of this is fbuiid m ^<& &ct, that one of the 



H. Doe. 1. 193 

ost experienced shipmasters on this coast ot the lake informs me that 
5 vessel, heading to the north under a pretty stiff south wind, on be- 
g anchored off the mouth of the river, generally turns completely 
ound, in virtue of this current, in spite of the south or southeast 
eeze, (See your remarks in No. 8.^ 

6. Shape of pier. — ^You will recollect, the survey upon which you 
uhd your remarks No. 9 was made in 1836. Since then the lake has 
tained a maximum height of some two and a half feet above its then 
vel, and it has since fallen. (For precise information on these points, 
*e my report to you of last October on the sketch pertaining to the 
arbor of St Joseph.) 

During this rise and fall, changes may have occurred at M to modify, 
1 some degree, the measures specified in your remarks No. 9, and which 
re drawn from the map of 1836. But in my recent inspection of the 
round, I could find no circumstances which can be regarded as mili- 
iting against the concluding paragraph of your remarks No. 9; the 
onclusions, therefore, of your remarks No. 10 stand unimpeached. A 
ery critical survey would perhaps throw more light upon these points, 
juti conceive more light unnecessary to the main features of the question. 

The application of the principles in 6th and 7th of your remarks may, 
rithout doubt, be rendered available, and to a good purpose, at the site M. 

In the last bend of the river, where it is unobstructed by the action of 
be lake, and may be said to be left to its own natural power, you will 
lerceive it maintains a depth, on the concave side, of fourteen feet. Here, 
y calculation, I find the radius of curvature to be 1,984 feet, and the 
ridth of the mean cross section about 260 feet. To apply these natu- 
al data with a view to carry out your idea, you will perceive I have 
Irawn a pier with this radius of curvature at the site M ; comparing 
ay red pier with your pencil sketch, which are on the same scale, one 
annot fail to observe a near approximation to an equality in their curva- 
jres. It also strikes me it would not only be well to take the natural 
adius of curvature for the pier, but also the breadth of the mean cross 
ection of the stream at the same place, (260 feet,) as a guide in fixing 
ipon the width between the piers. It should not be greater than this, 
nd perhaps it ought to be as small as 200 feet, hoping thereby to en- 
ble the river to maintain something like a depth of from twelve to 
ofurteen feet between the piers ; 260 feet is the maximum width in- 
ended by Mr. Berrien. 

From all that precedes, therefore, it may be safely inferred that the 
bjecls embraced in 10, 11, 12, and 13 of your remarks, will be best 
ccomplished by a pier like the one you have drawn in pencil on the 
oap you sent me. 

7. Direction of the pier. — ^In the analysis of this important part of 
he problem, for the present I shall take the direction which your pen- 
il drawing indicates, and which is very nearly the same as indicated by 
ay n5d pier on sketch No. 1. But to make the analysis clear, I make a 
brawing (No. 2) on a quadruple scale, but in other respects the same 
s exhibited on sketch No. 1, or on the map you sent me. 

The particles which will constitute the shoal, suggested in your te- 
Qarks 17, will be acted on or animated by the following syslem o\ 

Part Hi— 19 



194 H. Doc. 1. 

Ist. The littoral forces h b, &c., impinging on the convex side of the 
pier, decompose I /, &c., each into components p perpendicular and 
c tangential to ihe pier. The velocity due to the perpendicular com- 
ponents is destroyed by the resistance of the pier, and some of the par- 
ticles are precipitated ; the remaining particles, however, are carried 
away along tangentially to the pier at every point by the components 
c Cy &c. ; of these components, all found between the normal littoral force 
I and the outer extremity of the pier will tend to impel the particles to- 
wards that extremity, and all that are found between the normal and the 
shore will tend lo impel the particles towards the shore. The result- 
ant of the components c c, throwing the particles outward, is found to 
be represented in magnitude and direction (approximately) by r. 

2d. The force of the river's current hugging the concave side, and 
escaping in a tangent at the extremity of the pier, which is represented 
in magnitude and direction by R. 

3d. The force of the littoral current, which does not impinge on the 
pier, and therefore has its full effect ; this Ibrce is represented in mag- 
nitude and direction by I. 

4th The force of the prevailing wind represented in magnitude and 
direction by F. 

The four resultants (of four systems, which are active in forming the 
shoal) are : r, R 6' and F. The ratios of these four forces are expressed 
in the following equations : the direct force of the wind, F, being the 
unit or force of comparison r = (not more than J V) = 0.06 F X R = 
(at least — 0.8S F f = 0.47 E. 

[Remarks. — These ratios are approximates sufficiently near the truth 
for oiir purposes, and the errors are such as would go against our argu- 
ment; and therefore the results founded upon the ratios by the doctrine 
of probabilities, which we shall deduce, will be more near a mathemati- 
cal certainty in proportion as the errors in these ratios are corrected. 
If we err, then, in the result, it will be on the safe side.] 

Let the forces r, R V and F, be transported parallel to themselves 
and all applied to the same point, say near to the extremity of the pier 
(figure 2, m sketch 2.) 

Compound r and R, and we shall have their resultant, R', which is 
almost confounded with R, because, r is so small and so nearly paral- 
lel to R, as might have been anticipated. Compound F and l\ and we 
shall have their resultant, Q. Finally, compound Q and R, and we have 
the final resultant, S, whose line of direction will point out where, in 
all probability, the shoal will be formed. In proporuon as the errors 
aforesaid in the ratios of the forces are corrected, the line or resultant 
S will be found lo make a greater angle with the line of the shore, and 
consequently the shoal will aflbrd greater space for shelter on its south- 
east side. This is what I mean would be the result in my remarks above. 

Hence, so far as the general location of the deposit is concerned, it 
is certainly demonstrated that the views in your remarks 14 and 15 are 
correct ; and I think the probabilities are that the shoal will be so formed, 
provided we extend the pier into fifteen feet of water, as you have indi- 
cated, 80 as to leave ample room to enter the harbor on the south side 
of it. 
8. Ea:tent oj pier. — ^I have drawn my ivoi\k '^Xst mi tdS^ t^ W^> 



GL Doc 1. 105 

oat to twelve feet water ; short of this we cannot think of stopping ; 
and it ought to be extended as soon as possible to fifteen feet, as you 
have indicated. The reasons why it should be extended as fast as pos- 
able may be given at some time hence. 

By drawing tbt line of direction of prevailing winds through the ex- 
tremity of the north pier, (which line, at Milwaukie river mouth, makes, 
as before said, an angle of 62^ with the shore,) we get what I think 
should be the limit of the south pier. The line thus drawn, you will 
perceive, supposes the extremity of the north pier to be in twelve feet 
water ; this would limit the extremity of the south pier to six feet wa- 
ter, (as it was in 1836;^ and the south pier should oe made so much 
shorter than even this bmit as will answer the condition of giving, as 
you have remarked, a decided direction to the outlet of the river; also 
the condition of protecting the channel from the very slight counter Ut- 
loral current that may be found to set from the south, after having an- 
nihilated the natural littoral current firom the north, by interposition of 
the north pier. 

All of which, colonel, I most respectfully submit to your better judg- 
ment and longer experience, claiming no originality for myself in the 
matter, and no merit apart from what may be found in an honest at- 
tempt to do justice to the questions submitted according to the best of 
my ability. 

Very respectfully, &c., 

T. J. CRAM, 
Captain Topographical Engineers* 

CoL J. J. Abbrt, 

Corps of Topographical Engineers^ fVasIiington. 



APPENDIX K. 

Abstract of so much of the proceedings of the board of engiiteers of lake 
harbors and western rivers as show the considerations that influenced the 
board in naming the sums for the several works provided for in the estimate 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1866, made in compliance with the reg- 
ulations of the War Department of the 10th <f SepUmbert 1862, in re&- 
tion to river and harbor improvements. 

Major Bache, who had been making inspections of lake harbors by 
direction of the War Department, as communicated to him by the Bu- 
reau of Topographical Engineers, under date of the 30th of May last, 
and was engagea in duties connected with light-bouse services, returned 
to Washington at the call of the president of the board, and took his 
seat at it. Lieutenant Colonel Kearney also being present. 

The beard discussed various propositions connectea with its duties ; 
read over the reports which had not heretofore been submitted formal- 
ly, correcting the date of that relating to Racine harbor by inserting 
June 26th instead of July. 

The board took up the subject of the annual estimates, in compViatice 



199 n. Doc. I. 

•with the regulations of the War Department of 10th of SeptembeF, 
1852, in relation to river and harbor improvements ; for the reasons sta- 
ted in each case, it agreed upon the sums embraced in the following 
items : 

For military and geographical surveys west of the Mis- 
sissippi $26,000 00 

The estimate for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1864, 
called for $20,000, when there were $3,000 on hand. This 
balance is now expended, and as the board is of the opinion 
that the aggregate of this sum at the least should always 
be available, it inserts the amount, as in the margin* 

For continuing the survey of the northern and northwestern 
lakes, including Lake Superior 60,000 00 

The estimate of $50,000 called for last year is now re- 
moved, for the reason that the board beUeves no larger sum 
can be judiciously expended under the present organiza- 
tion and with the numbers engaged on the work. The es- 
timate does not include the cost of an additional steamer. 

For continuing the construction of a road from Point Doug- 
lass, on the Mississippi river, to the falls or rapids of the 
St Louis river of Lake Superior, by the most direct and 
convenient route between these points 20,000 00 

For continuing the construction of a road from Point Doug- 
lass to Fort Gaines, now Fort Ripley 10.000 00 

For continuing the construction of a road from the mouth 
of Swan river, or the most expedient point near it north 
or south of said river, to Winnebago agency, at Lpng 
Prairie 6,000 00 

For continuing the construction of a road from Wabashaw 
toMendota 16,000 00 

The four items above are adopted by the board on the 
recommendation of the officer m charge. Captain J. H. 
Simpson, topographical engineers. (See his annual report 
of September 17, 1863.) 

For continuing the improvement of the navigation of the 

Mississippi below the rapids 84,000 00 

This and the six following sums are called for by the 
estimate of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Long, as given in 
his annual report of September 1st, and they are adopted 
without change, as being, in the opinion of the board, 
entirely reliable. 

For continuing the improvement of the Des Moines rapids, 

in the Mississijppi river 18,000 00 

For continuing the improvement of the Rock River rapids, 
in the Mississippi I'lYGi 18,000 00 



H. Doc. 1. 197 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Dubuque 
in the Mississippi river $16,000 00 

For continuing the improvement of the navigation of the 
Illinois river 16,000 00 

For continuing the improvemeat c^ the navigation of the 
Missouri river iO,000 00 

For continuing the improvement of the navigation of the 
Ohioy including the repair of the dam at Cumberland 
island 90,000 00 

For continuing the improvement of the navigation of the 
Tennessee river 35,000 00 

Brevet Lieutenant Colonel McClellan, in his annual report 
on this river, dated September 1st, estimates the cost of 
improving the navigation from Knoxville to Kelly's ferry, 
as far as It depends on the removal of rocks, Ipgs, trees, 
&c.,at - $24,740 00 

And as far as it depends on the building and 
repairingof dams, &c • »..•• S9,296 26 

Amount 64,036 26 

To which he adds for contingencies 10 per cent. 6,403 62 

Total amount 70,439 87 

Unexpended balance of present appropriation 36,301 00 

Amount required 34,138 87 

Besides the cost of the improvement above described, 
Lieutenant Colonel McClellan estimates the cost of widen- 
ing the channel at the Suck 440 feet, at. . . $78,109 60 

To which he adds for contingencies 10 per cent. 7,810 96 

Amount B6,920 46 

And for widening the channel at the Suck 340 

feet, at 49,986 60 

To which he adds for contingencies 10 per cent 4,998 66 

Totalamount 64,986 16 

As the cost of either of these operations would increase 
the amount first stated to an extent the board believes 
would not be approval, either by the War Department or 
by Congress, it confines the sum to the accomplishment of 
the first-named object, and therefore asks only for the 
amount set down in the margin. 

For continuing the improvement of the navigation of the 
Arkansas river 40,OQQ Q^ 



108 H. Doc. 1. 

For the construction of two light-draught snag-boats, two 
machine-boats, one dredge-boat, and four discharging- 
scows, for the Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, and 
Arkansas rivers ; and fer repair of snag-boats, dredge- 
boats, discharging-scows, and machinery used on tne 
same rivers $70,000 

Lieutenant Colonel Long's estimate, in his annual report 
for the construction of the aoove snag-boats, &c., is $35,000. 
The board deems it proper to add $16,000 to it for repair 
of snag-boats, &c., that sum being 10 per cent, on the cost 
of those recently constructed. 

For continuing the construction of a levee across the moiith 
of the river San Diego, California, and for other works 
to turn it into the former channel. False Bay 20,000 

For the preservation of public property and contingencies 
of western river improvements, and for commutation of 
transportation of baggage and of quarters and fuel of 
officers, in cases no longer provided for by the Quarter- 
master's department, and allowances to meet extra expen- 
ses, under the special direction of the Secretary of War. 10,000 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Burling- 
ton, Vermont 18,000 

Brevet Colonel Turnbull, in his annual report of Burlington 
harbor, dated September 1st, recommends the extension 
of the breakwater 200 feet northward. His estimate to 
accomplish this, without the usual 10 per cent, for con- 
tingencies, is $20,006 26 

With this provision, which the board thinks 

should he added, equal to 2,000 62 

Amount 22,006 88 

But, on the other hand. Colonel Turnbull does not take 
into account the materials which he believed would remain 
on hand to this work. These materials consist of '^ about 
175 sticks of timber and 8,000 perches (or, say 15 cubic 
feet) of stone," besides "quite a large quantity on the pre- 
sent work that could be applied to filling new cribs. (See 
notes of inspection, by Major Bache.) 

Subtracting the cost of these 8,000 perches of 

stone, at 40 cents per foot $3,200 00 

175 sticks of timber, average length 42 feet, 
7,350 lineal feet, at 8 cents a foot 688 00 

Aiaount 3,788 00 

Contingencies, 10 per cent. 378 80 

Total amount 4,166 80 



H. Doc. 1. 199 

Will leave for appropriation, $17,840 08 ; or say, a« in the 
margin, $18,000. 

For current expenses of the steam-dredge on Lake Cham- 
plain $7,600 00 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Oswego, 
New York 21,000 00 

The plan of operations for the next season, recommended 
by Mr. Hatch, the agent, and endorsed by Brevet Colonel 
TumbuU, the general superintendent, being approved by 
the board, the estimate for carrying it into effect was 
adopted, as follows: 

For removing old work $1,840 00 

For rebuilding the same 4,143 00 

For rebuilding counter-forts 2,989 96 

For removing stone under water 1,950 00 

For rebuilding pier in breach 6,501 70 

For compensation of agent for one year 1,460 00 

Amount 18,884 66 

foe contingencies, 10 per cent 1,888 46 

20,772 11 



Or say, as m margin, $21,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Sodus 

fj Cayuga county. New York 14,600 00 



Brevet Colonel Tumbull, in his annual report, dated Sep- 
tember 17, says of this harlx)r : " The entrance to this bay 
was so materially changed, since the survey made in 1846, 
that it was useless to commence the work for its improve- 
ment on the plan oriffinally proposed for it. A survey was 
recommended, which being approved by the board of en- 
gineers, and ordered by the bureau, has been made, and 
the map transmitted to the bureau ; until a plan for the im- 
provement of the harbor is made, and the same revised by 
the board of engineers, an estimate cannot be submitted. 

The board is of opinion that all plans should originate 
with the local agent or the superintending engineer, and 
not with the board ; the duties of which, under the eeneral 
regulations of the War Department, dated September 10, 
1^2, are confined "to examine, approve, modify, or reject, 
every project or plan of civil improvement proposed by any 
officer or civil agent under instructions from the chief of 
the con)s." In the absence of a plan and estimate, it 
deems it proper however to suggest the sum set down in 
the margin, based upon the idea of covering the front of the 
bay on the lake sidle by a line of piling, and upon adding 
an amount sufficient to work up the materials obtained by 
contract, under the late appropriation^ of 110,000. Thus 



200 . H. Doc. 1. 

made, the estimate will stand, under the proper head, as 
follows : 

For close-piling in front of the bay $7,786 90 

Labor to work up the materials obtained under * 

the appropriation of $10,000 4,000 00 

Compensation of agents for one year 1,460 00 

13,246 90 
Contingencies, 10 per cent. 1,324 69 

Total amount 14,571 59 

Or say, as in the margin, $14,500. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Sodus 

bay, Wayne county. New York ..* $10,000 

The last appropriation for this harbor was $10,000, and 
a like sum was recommended in the table of estimates 
which last year emanated from the bureau. 

The superintending engineer. Brevet Colonel TumbuB, 
says in his annual report of this harbor, dated September 
17 : " The appropriation being so limited and inadequate to 
the repairs required, that I was very much at a loss where 
to becm and how to expend it with most advantage, " &c. ; 
and then, after stating that the breach and entire fastenings 
of the top timbers of the east channel pier had been re^ 
paired, concludes thus : " The whole of the east harbor pier 
requires to be rebuilt, and the west harbor pier also, at 
least so far inland to where it is covered by the accumu- 
lated beach ;" and then gives the estimate " to complete the 
work now in progress at this place," by which is under- 
stood the repau: of this work, and not the construction of 
any new works. This estimate the board deems a fair one 
to carry out the proposed measures, which it approves, and 
therefore inserts the amount in the margin. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor (Charlotte) 

at the mouth of Genesee river, New York 24,000 C 

The last appropriation for this harbor was $20,000, the 
whole of whicn, it is inferred from Brevet Cdonel Tum- 
bulPs report, will be absorbed by the repairs, amounting, 
for the most part, to rebuilding the west pier. The report 
concludes with the opinion that the east pier must be en- 
tirely rebuilt, and with this view presents an estimate. In 
this opinion the board concurs, and adopts the estimate, 
after adding the usual per centum for contingencies and 
unforeseen expenses. 

The estimate of Brevet Colonel TumbuU . . . $21,530 00 
Contingencies, 10 per cent 2,163 00 

Amoudt required 23,683 00 

Or sajTf as in the margin, $24,000. - 



H. Doc. 1. 201 

For coDtiDtun^the improvement of the harbor at the mouth 
of Oak Orchard creek, New York $14,600 00 

The last appropriatioD for this harbor was $10,500. The 
amiual report of ferevet Colonel TumbuU states that " this 
season two ttew c^ibs have been added to this west pier, 
which lengthens it 290 feet, and the old work rebuilt;'* 
and again, that ** the east pier requires to be rebuilt, and 
both piers extended into the lake to 18 feet (13 feet?) 
depth of water ;" and presents an estimate to efiect these 
objects, the principal footings of which are : 

For extending west pier 1,107 feet $32,866 68 

For extending east pier 1,151 feet 34,171 65 

Rebuilding east pier 20 ft. wide and 373 A. long 2,246 22 
Sebailding (east?) pier 10 feet wide and 420 

feetlong 1,495 43 

Amount 70,778 98 

Contingencies, 10 per cent 7,077 89 

Totalamount 77,856 87 



By a sketch of the harbor dated in 1845, the west pier is 
represented as not extending out into the lake as far as the 
east pier by about 215 feet. 

It is this pier that has been lengthened 290 feet during 
the present season, thus placing the head about 75 feet 
beyond the latter. The board, without expressing an 
opinion as to the propriety of the ultimate extension of both 
piers into the depth required by the lake navigation as 
provided for by Colonel TumbuU, entertains reasonable 
doubts whether the sum called (or at once to efiect this ob- 
ject would be sanctioned by the bureau, the department, 
or Congress. 

It therefore confines the anoount to the repair of the east 
pier, and to the extension of both piers to such length as 
will add to the usefulness of the harbor, and serve as a 
guide for future measures, namely, by 4 cribs of 30 feet 
each, or 120 feet, as fcdlows : 

For rebuilding east pier 20 feet wide for 378 feet $2,246 22 

For (east?) pier 10 feet wide for 420 feet 1,495 43 

For extending east pier 120 feet 3,443 92 

For extending west pier 120 feet 3,443 92 

For compensation ot agent one year 1,460 00 

Amount 13,089 49 

Contingencies, 10 per cent 1,308 94 

Amount required ...•« 14,498 4% 

Or say, as id margm, $14,600, 



:202 H. Doc. 1. 

For current expenses of the steam-dredge on Lake Ontario* $7,5( 

This Item was adopted last season on estimates pre- 
pared by the board, which sees no reason now to change it. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Buffalo, 
New York : 33,0C 

Brevet Colonel Turnbull says in his annual report of 
this harbor : " There is required 350 feet additional length 
of wall to connect it with the old wall, which stands entire, 
and which will answer as well as a more expensive wall, 
being well protected by the sand which has accumulated 
in front of it. The quay-wall or towing-path is in a very 
dilapidated and uneven condition; I would recommend 
that it should be taken up, faced, and filled in with con- 
crete, and the flagging relaid," The board coincides with 
Brevet Colonel Turnbull in these views, and adopts his 
estimate, with the single change of addmg compensation for 
an agent in the immediate charge of the work. 

For rebuilding sea-wall (350 feet) $1 2,166 23 

For raising 450 feet old wall 3 feet high, and 

coping 150 cubic yards, at $6 900 00 

For taking up and relaying tow-path 18,621 26 

For compensation of agent one year 1 ,460 00 

Amount required 33,146 48 

Or say, as in margin, $33,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Dunkirk, 

New York 30,00 

A preliminary report upon the project for the improve- 
ment of this harbor was aaopted by the board on the 6lh of 
April last, which closes as follows : '* It is recommended 
that a final decision of the whole subject of the harbor of 
Dunkirk be defined, till a personal inspection and exami- 
nation shall have been made by the board." No such per- 
sonal inspection and examination of the harbor has yet been 
made by the board* These, however, have been made by 
an individual member of it. Major Bache, from whose notes 
on the occasion the following is extracted : 

The proposed project " is not the action of the board, 
but will probably be adopted, though with some slight 
modification ; see no reason to change it, except that Brig- 
ham point beyond Battery point, and four miles distant from 
the town, not laid down on the map on which the design 
was made, may change it, by varying slightly the direction 
of the works." 

On the supposition that the general features of the pro- 
posed plan will be finally adopted by it, the board desires to 
provide suitable means for commencing the works. The 
suw of $30,000 recently appropriated foi \!ti\& \iax\^t^ and 



H. Doc. ]. 208 

now slightly reduced, by the cost of a rude day beacon 
placed on one of the ruined piers, and by incidentals, is, in 
the opinion of the board, wholly inadequate to do this with 
Qsefiil resuhs, and this can only be secured by such means 
as will construct some 1,200 or 1,600 feet of the break- 
water recommended ; to this end an additional appropria- 
tion is required equal to the sum placed in the margin. 

For continuing the iraproTcment of tlfe harbor of Erie, 
Pennsylvama $95,000 00 

The estimate of Brevet Colonel TumbuU for this harbor 
IS for- — 

Repairs to north channel pier $250 00 

Extending north channel 600 feet 11,200 00 

Extending south channel 600 feet 11,200 00 

Repairs to south channel 1,000 00 

Protection of west end of harbor 20,000 00 

Superintendent and clerk's salary 2,040 00 

Amount 45,690 00 

Contingencies, 10 per cent 4,569 00 

Total amount 50,259 00 



In his report. Colonel Tumbull says : " This fine harbor 
is very much exposed for the want of protection at the 
west end. The sea has made a breach in the low strip of 
land which connected the island on the north with the main 
land, and the travelling beach from the west is gradually 
filling the harbor, and the island itself is rapidly wearing 
away by the constant abrasion of the sea, and provides by 
an approximate estimate for the protection of the west end 
of thenarbor." 

This protection the board understands to be, " to stop 
the breach and check the abrasion of the islands" — mea- 
sures, in its opinion, proper at once to be entered upon for 
the safety of the harbor. It also approves of so much of 
Colonel Tumbull's estimate as provides for the repair of 
the two channel piers, but not of the extension of^ these 
piers, for the reason adduced by him, " that the bar which 
now exists beyond the piers would only be thrown further 
east in proportion to their extension." Omitting the items 
for this extension, the estimate will stand as follows : 

Repairs to north channel pier $250 00 

Repairs to south channel pier • 1,000 00 

Protection at west end of harbor (approximate) . 20,000 00 
Superintendent and clerk's salary 2,040 00 

Amount 25,619 00 

Or Bay, as in tb$ marffn, $26,600. 



£04 H. Doc. 1. 

A letter was addressed to the bureau by the board,' 
asking that certain surveys be made at Dunkirk, as neces- 
sary to the properly digesting a project of improvement of 
that harbor. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Conneaut, 

Ohio $11,600 Q( 

The last appropriation for this harbor was $10,000. 
During the past season the following repairs have been 
made : " Entirely rebuilding the outer angle of the west 
pier from the surface of the water ; a portion of the east 
pier for the distance of two hundred and seventy-five feet ; 
and the same pier has been extended (repaired) inland for 
the distance of two hundred and twen^ feet." See report 
of the local agent, Mr. J. A. Potter, aated September 20, 
from which it is inferred that these constitute all the repairs 
required to place the works of this harbor in good condition. 

For the next season the agent recommends the extension 
of the east pier 276 feel, and the west pier 326 feet, on 
parallel lines from the present pier» 160 feet apart, and at 
a cost of $19,856, exclusive of the compensation of an 
agent. This extension would bring the pi^s out into a 
depth of water which soon increases to more than twelve 
feet The board, in consideration of the cost of the pro- 
posed extension, and of the propriety of so pushing out the 
works into the lake only so fast as to be able to note their 
effect, and from this to modify them, is of the opinion that 
it would be better to limit the lengl h of the piers, for the 
present, to the inner line of the twelve feet water. With 
this restriction, the total length of the two piers would be 
800 feet; the cost of which, taken ipro rata from Mr. Pot- 
ter's estimate for 600 feet, as recommended by him, would 

be $9,927 60 

Add compensation of agent one year • 1,460 00 

11,487 60 

Or say, as in the margin, $11,600. 

Fen* continuing the improvement of the harbor of Ashtabula, 
Ohio 18,600 OC 

Mr. Potter, also the agent at this harbor, says in his re- 
port already referred to : '* That before we had reached this 
m our repairs, this whole angle (the outer plan of the east 
pier) was swept away, during a gale, to from three to six 
feet below the surface of the water. I also found a breach 
existing in the eastern pier, extending two hundred and 
£Ajr feet towards the shore— everything gone, to from five 
to sevea feet below the surface of the waiftt% * 



H. Doe. 1. 90A 

"The outer end of the west pier was also gone, from six 
to nine feet below the surface, lor the distance of one hun- 
dred feet. 

" If the weather continues favorable, this pier (the east) 
will be entirely completed this fall, and the outer end of 
the west pier secured." 

This comprises all the repairs that were required for the 
works 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Fairport, 
(Grand river,) Ohio $13,000 00 

The annual report of Mr. J. A. Potter, also agent for 
this harbor, says: " The west pier at this point, reported 
to be gone for the distance of twelve hundred feet, to from 
one to three feet below the surface of the water, upon a 
closer and more minute examination it was found in a 
much worse condition. The timbers of the old cribs were 
fimnd to be so much torn up and displaced, that it became 
necessary to remove the stones ana old work to a much 
greater depth. For the distance of two hundred and fifty 
teet no foundation could be obtained, until ^everything was 
removed to from seven to nine feet below the surface.'* 
"Up to the present time the expenditures have amounted 
to about five thousand dollars. Three hundred feet, en- 
tirely through the worst portion of the work, have been 
rebuilt as above; the outer angle of the west pier tho- 
roughly overhauled and repaired where necessary, and 
the outer end, refilled with stone, secured." 

The whole length represented on the map that accom- 
panies the report, as repaired, is, besides the head of the 
present pier, 475 feet in length. These constitute, it is 
presumed, the entire repairs necessary to put the works 
of the harbor in good condition ; and there still remains in 
the treasury $2,500 to meet contingencies and incidentals. 

Mr. Potter, in his report, further says : " I herewith sub- 
mit an estimate for the proposed extension of the piers on 
the plan suggested to me by Major Bache, of the corps." 
The proposed plan is not described, but drawn on the 
recent survey. It provides for the extension of the east 
pier 600 feet, in continuation of the present line of that pier ; 
and the extension of the west pier from a point of about 
160 feet from where that pier begins to flare, outward for 
400 feet, on a Une parallel to the east pier, and for pier- 
work to connect the head of these 400 leet with the head 
of the present west pier. The board is not willing, at the 
present time, to pass an opinion of the propriety of this 
extension and modification of the harbor, but confines itself 
to lengthening of the east pier — a part of the design in 
cjuestion, should it be adopted — for 320 feet, to bring it out 
into the lake as far as the west pier, adding, for recou- 



206 H. Doc 1. 

structing the pier on which the beacon is placed, say 60 
feet additional. 

The amount of pier-work called for by the plan recom- 
mended by Mr. Potter is — 

For extension of east pier 600 feet. 

For extension of west pier 400 do. 

To unite the head of west pier, as at present, 

and the proposed extension of that pier 260 do. 

Or, in all 1,160 do. 

At a cost, without compensation of an agent, of $35,277 88 

Confining the expenditures to extending the east 
pier out, as far as the west pier, will require 
a length of 820 feet. 

Adding to this, for rebuilding beacon pier 60 do. 

Gives of new pier-work 880 do. 

Which, at a pro rata cost of the 1,160 feet called 
for hj Mr. Potter's plan, at $36,277 88, will 
require ! $11,666 64 

To wnich add compensation for agent one year 1 ,460 00 

13,016 64 
Or say, as in the margin, $18,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Cleve- ^ 

land, Ohio 10,000 00 

The board, in the absence of any estimate from the super- 
intending engineer, and in consideration of the suspension, 
under its recommendation of the 9th of May last, of all 
operations at this harbor beyond a survey, fec.i until the 
question of ownership and jurisdiction of the present works 
erected by the United States be settled, and the consequent 
availabiUty of nearlv the entire of the last appropriation, 
$30,000, reinserts the sum which it asked for tne fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1866, as in the margin. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor at the mouth 
of Black river, Ohio 10,000 00 

The last appropriation for this harbor was $6,000. In 
the absence of any annual estimates from the local agent 
for this harbor, the board is induced, from an examination 
of the notes and recollections of a member of the board as 
to the state of the works at the date of his inspection, to 
increase the amount named last year from $6,000 to $10,000, 
as in the margin. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Huron, 
Ohio. ^ 18,600 00 



H. Doc 1. 2Vr 

The agent for this harbor, Mr. George S. Patterson, in 
his annual report of the 1st September, says that he has 
built up 540 ieet of the east pier from at least an average 
depth of 6} feet water, and tnat he proposes, ^* during the 
remainder of the season, or as long as the present appro- 
priation shall last, to build up the pier sunk to 4 or 4 J feet 
above the water, and still continue to sink, if circumstances 
shall warrant, but build up what is already sunk, and secure 
the same from destruction by the seas ; leaving it perfectly 
safe in this respect until further appropriations shall be 
made by Congress to finish it." 

The amount already expended on this 640 feet is 
t6,d01 61, leaving a balance of the appropriation of $10,000 
of $3,698 39 ; the whole of which, judging from the state- 
ment made in the following quotation from the report, it is 
supposed, will be consumed in building up the pier sunk 
to 4 or 4} feet above water. 

There is something over 300 feet of the east pier re- 
maining to be built up from 6^ to 7 feet below the surface 
of the water, which will require a further appropriation of, 
say $8,000. 

This amount the board considers excessive, and substi- 
tutes a sum proportional (less the machinery and boats) to 
the cost of the 640 feet in course oft execution — namely, 
$3,126 23. 

But this estimate does not include the repair of the west 
pier and pier-head. These objects are in part provided for 
m the Light-house bill, approved August 31, 1862, by the 
following clause: " For tne repair of the light-house pier 
and pier-head in the harbor of Huron, on which the light- 
house is built, six thousand dollars ;" which sum is in course 
of being applied, partly under the direction of the bureau, 
and partly under that of the Light-house board — 823,000 
being required for the repair of the pier-head and light- 
houae, leaving for the pier itself but $3,700. 

But, according to the estimates before the board, the re- 
pair of this pier will cost $13,900; leaving a balance of 
$10,200 to be provided, and raising the estimate to 
$13,326 23 ; or say, as ui the margin, $13,600. 

For continuing the improvements of the harbor of San- 
dusky city, Ohio $28,600 00 

The board has made an estimate for closing the breach 
through Peninsula point from data, as to distance, depth of 
water, and prices for materials and labor, taken from the 
records of the bureau and board, and from notes of its 
member, the aggregate amount of which is $28,400 84 ; 
which, agreeably to a rule adopted by the board of taking 
the nearest $600, is set down as in the margin. The board 
moreover desires to record that it names the entire amoMut 



20S H. Doc I. 

of the estimate to complete the work, for the reason that its 
character is such as not to admit of delay from one season 
to another, and that it is of the first importance if this harbor 
is to be preserved. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor (Monroe) at 

the mouth of the river Raisin, Michigan * $10,000 

The last appropriation for this harbor was $14,000 ; the 
whole, or nearly the whole, of which there is reason to be- 
lieve, from the statements made in the letters of Mr. Darrah, 
the local agent, and the fact that but $2,500 remained un- 
drawn from the treasury on the 12th of the month, will be 
consumed in repairing the piers, which, in the absence of 
appropriations, had become greatly dilapidated. No further 
appropriation it is presumed, therefore, is required to put 
them m proper conaition ; but as the board is of opinion that 
they should extend out to the maximum draught of lake navi- 
gation, namely, 12 feet, (their outer end being now in only 
about 10 feet water,) or for about 150 feet each, or in all, 
300 feet, it deems it proper to suggest an appropriation to 
effect this object. 

To make this extension will require 10 cribs 

of 30 feet, at $860 each $8,600 00 

Compensation of agent one year 1,460 00 

Amount 10,060 00 

Or say, as in the margin, $10,000. 
For current expenses of the steam-dredge on Lake Erie . . 7,500 

This item was adopted last season on estimates prepared 
by the board, which sees no reason now to change it 

For continuing the improvement of St Clair flats, Michi- 
gan 45,000 

Captain Canfield's estimate, appended to his annual re- 
port of September 1st of the present year, is made for three 
channels, for widths of 300 feet and 600 feet respectively. 

For deepening the eastern channel fh)m 

South pass for a width of 300 feet $94,600 00 

The same for a width of 600 feet . 204,600 00 

For deepening the middle channel fi-om South 

pa8sforawidthof300 feet 39,091 87 

The same for a width of 600 feet 67,206 62 

For deepening the western channel fix)m 

South pass tor a width of 300 feet 64,647 25 

&e.«axnei&ra width of 600 feot. ••••••••, 14:V^^1 76 



H. Doc. 1. 209 

The board, for the reasons adduced by Captain Canfield, 
is of the opinion that the middle channel should be adopted 
for improvement, and moreover that the lesser width, also 
recommended by him, be first opened; and that hereafter, 
should the operations prove successful, and the wants of 
trade call lor a greater width, that it then be increased to 
at least 600 feet. 

The cost of opening the middle channel for 300 
feet in width, according to Captain Can- 
field, is, as before stated $39,091 87 

Add to this 15 per centum not provided for by 
him, but adopted by the board, to cover inci- 
dentals and unforeseen expenses 5,863 78 

Total amount 44,955 65 



Captain Canfield estimates the whole quantity of exca- 
vation at 112,455 cubic yards, which, if divided by 800 — 
the number of yards a dredging machine of good working 
capacity may raise in a day — will give 135 as the number 
of days so employed; a number less, certainly, than the 
working days of a year, even in that estimate. It will thus 
appear that the work may be executed in a single season ; 
and so believing, the board deems it true economy, and for 
the interest of the lake trade, that the means should be on 
hand to accomplish the entire work in that time ; it adopts, 
therefore, the estimate of $4i,955 65 ; or say, as in the 
margin, $45,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor at the mouth 

of Clinton river, Michigan S5,000 00 

The plan tor this improvement is by Captain Canfield, 
topographical engineers, and is dated the 22d of Septem- 
ber last. It contemplates the deepening of the entrance to 
nine feet for a width of 100 feet, within a close -piling, for 
the sides of the cut, 140 feet apart; the whole length of 
the cut and piling being 2,400 leet. His estimate of the 
cost of carrying out this plan is : 
For 2,400 piles 15 feet long, at 75 cents each. $1,600 00 

Driving 2,400 piles, at 20 cents each 480 00 

Dredging 21,958 cubic yards, at 12 cents per 

yard 2,634 96 

Cost of horse pile-engine 900 00 

Amount 5,614 96 

Add for contingencies, 5 per cent 280 79 

Total amount 5,S95 75 

Present appropriation 5,000 00 

Required 896 75 

Fartm—14 



210 H. Doc. 1. 

This amottnt the board proposes to increase to the sum 
placed in the margin, for the reason that it believes it would 
be expedient to provide for the cost and driving of a suf- 
ficient number of piles for a close-piling lor the entire 
length of the sides of the cut, which, by measurement on 
the map of the survey, is 2,400 feet ; that it deems it proper 
to provide for the employment of a local agent to superin- 
tend the operations, and to add the usual 10 per centum * 
for contingencies, instead of five per centum ; and lastly, 
to submit only $4,700 as on hana from the present appro- 
priation, $300 having been drawn fi-om the treasury for the 
survey. It is presumed, with these corrections and altera- 
tions, the estimate will stand as follows : 

4,800 piles 16 feet long, at 76 cents each $3,200 00 

Driving 4,800 piles, at 20 cents each 960 00 

Dredging 21,958 cubic yards, at 12 cents per 

yard 2,634 96 

Cost of horse pile-engine 900 00 

Compensation of agent one year 1,460 00 

9,164 96 
Contingencies, 10 per cent 916 49 

10,070 45 
Balance of present appropriation 4,700 00 

6,370 46 
Or say, as in the margin, $6,600. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor (Grand Ha- 
ven) at the mouth of Grand river, Michigan $20,000 00 

The original plan for the improvement of this harbor is 
from J. R. Bowes, local agent, dated December 16, 1849. 
It provides for the protection of the south side of the river, 
from a point just below the tower of Grand Haten, 2,361 
feet towards the mouth, firom the action of the stream, 
which, by impinging upon the shore and undermining the 
sand-hills at that point, furnished materials for the forma- 
tion of the shoals or bars in the lake, and in so much ob- 
structs the entrance into the river. The annual report of 
the same agent, dated the 19th of September last, states, 
that besides this evil resulting from the impinging of the 
current on the shore, fears are entertained of "the river 
forcing a passage through this bank, and therebjr creating a 
new outlet into the lake," which, in his opinion, would 
prove disastrous to the present entrance, and materially in- 
jure this harbor, one of the best on the chain of lakes. 
The cost of giving this protection the agent estimates at 
$21,960. 

Besides this measure, the desi^ of 1849 contemplates 
the construction of two parallel piers at the mouth of the 



H. Doc. 1. 211 

river, at a cost of $140,173, but only in the event that the 
first measure should not prove successful in securing a 
proper draught of water into the river. The words of the 
agent are : '^After this bank is secured, and its effects on 
the centre bar fiilly tested, if found not to remedy the evil, 
I would propose two parallel solid piers into the lake," &c« 
The first measure, in the opinion of the agent, is one of 
primary and pressing necessity; and the second only re- 
quired in the contingency named. 

In the justness of these views the board fully concurs, 
and hence deems it necessary to recommend the providing 
the means required to carry out the first-named measure. 

The sum estimated by the agent for this pur- 
pose, as already stated, is $31,950 00 

Appropriated and still available 2,000 00 

Leaving 19,950 00 

Or say, as in the margin, $20,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Blfiu:k 
Lake, Michigan $20,500 00 

The original survey and design for a harbor at this place 
were made by J. R. Bowes, aeent. The latter is dated 
the 24th of October, 1849, and it was approved by the 
board of engineers on the 9th of Mav> 1853, in reporting 
on a letter of the same agent, dated the 30th of April pre- 
ceding; was adopted by the bureau. 

Its general features consist of a cut 275 feet wide and 10 
feet deep, through a strip of land which separates the lake 
fi-om Lake Michigan, and the carrying out of two parallel 
piers at the like distance of 275 feet apart, namely, fi-om 
the cut into the latter to a depth of 20 feet. 

Two sites for the cut ana piers were suggested by the 
agent, and, for reasons given m his report, the one aesig- 
nated by the letters C D on the map accompanying it, was 
preferred by the board. 
The cost of carrying out this plan he esti- 
mates at $105,225 78 

Made up as follows: 

For excavation $37,176 80 

For two solid parallel piers. 38,01& 00 

For sheet-piling (for each) 10,468 00 

For labor 10,000 00 

95,65d 68 
For contingencies, ten per centum 9,560 98 

Total amount 105,226 IS 



212 H. Doc. 1. 

It will be seen that the plan is raade up of two principal 
measures : first, the construction ol the piers, and second, 
the cut between the lakes. The board is of opinion that 
the former should take precedence, and with this view 
names a sum to carry out the proposition, so modified as 
-to limit the depth to which the piers should extend, or to 
ten feet, the depth of the cut. 

By the estimate of the agent, the cost of the two piers, 
carried to twenty feet water, with an aggregate length of 
2,360 feet, is : 

For materials $38,015 00 

For labor, taking a pro-rata sum 
of the $10,000 put down as the 
balance on the pier . $38,015 00 

And the sheet-piling of cut... 10,468 00 

Orinall 48,483 00 



7,586 88 

Amount 45,600 88 

Contingencies, ten per centum 4,585 58 

Total amount 60,186 46 



as the cost of 2,360 feet of piers, extending from the shore 
to the depth of 20 feet water, on an average depth of 10 feet. 

To carry out the piers to a depth of 10 feet 
would require a length of 670 feet, or an 
aggregate length of 1,340 feet, on an aver- 
age depth of five feet ; to construct which, 
taking the same rule of cost per lineal mea- 
sure, in view of the enhanced price of labor 
and materials, will require $28,640 00 

Subtract amount already appropriated 8,000 00 

Leaves to be appropriated 20,640 00 

Or say, as in margin, $20,500. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of St. Joseph, 

Michigan $18,000 00 

In the annual report on this harbor, dated September 19th 
of the present year, the agent says : '* The operations of 
this improvement for the present season have been directed 
exclusively to repairing its two piers, the completion of 
which will nearly, if not eritirely, exhaust the present ap- 
propriation." This appropriation is $10,000. 

A^ain, he says: "After these repairs are finished, 
perfect the improvement of tViis Viaibot a fviither ex- 



H. Doc. 1. 218 

tension of the south pier will be required," and he 
recommends " six hundred feet as a maximum length ; *' 
still leaving the north pier standing further out in the 
lake, by 276 feet ; anct as the windward pier, or the 
€me against which the drift at this point accumulates, 
it should have the greater length. In the above views 
of the agent the board concurs. His estimate for the 
extension is $36,523 52 ; but as it would call for the con- 
struction, putting in position, and finishing off, 20 cribs of 
30 feet in a single season, the board deems it advisable, 
particularly in view of the large amount of the estimate, 
to confine the appropriation at present to the extension of 
the pier for half that distance — namely, 300 feet — which, 
assuming the same rate for lineal measurement given in the 
estimate, would require an appropriation of $1S,262 ; 
or say, as in the margin, $18,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of New 

Buffalo, Michigan $16,000 00 

The design for the improvement of this harbor, as de- 
scribed in the annual report of the agent, Mr. J. R. Bowes, 
dated September 19th ot the present year, is to cut a chan- 
nel 300 teet in width through the sand spit separating the 
mouth of the Galien river, which at this point enlarges into 
a bayou or small lake from Lake Michigan, and to secure 
its sides with sheet-piling ; and then to extend in connexion 
with it two piers mto the lake of different lengths, the 
northern or weather pier to be 1,600 in length, extending 
over all bars, and terminating on a clay bottom in 25 feet 
water; the lee pier to be 700 feet in length, and terminating 
in 10 feet water. The board approves the main features 
of this plan ; but it sees no reason, with the facts at present 
before it, to adopt the very unequal lengths given to the 
two piers. 

A final opinion on this and other points it deems proper 
to reserve for further consideration. Conceiving, however, 
that the piers should extend out at least to 10 feet water, 
it approves of 700 feet each as the length of the piers — 
a length that would seem, by the report of the agent, to be 
necessary in order to reach that depth. Confining, then, 
the plan to two piers of 700 feeteacn, and leaving the cost 
of securing the sides of the cut until these are completed, 
the estimate will stand thus : 

North or weather pier, 700 feet $19,956 90 

South or lee pier, 700 feet 19,956 90 

Labor on the piers 11,468 70 

Amount 51,382 60 



214 H. Doc. 1. 

Contingencies, 1 per cent 6,138 25 

Total amount $56,620 75 

Amount already appropriated 8,000 00 

Leaving to be provided 48,620 75 

The period for the execution of this work the board con- 
siders it desirable to divide into three years, making for 
one year the amount to be appropriated, $16,173 68; or 
say, as in the margin, $16,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Michigan 
City, Indiana $19,000 00 

The plan of J. R. Bowes, the agent for this harbor, as 
described in his annual report of the 19th of September last, 
consists of a single line of breakwater in 26 teet of water, 
(960 feet beyond the 12-feet curve,) of 2,000 feet on a 
course N. 61° E., very nearly parallel with the shore, to 
be composed of cribs 30 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 37 
feet high, or 12 feet above the level of the lake. 

His estimate for such a crib is $4,742 59 

And for the whole structure 321,000 00 

Of which is already appropriated 20,000 00 

Leaving to be appropriated 301,000 00 

He says : " The board of engineers determined, in July 
last, that the profile should consist of a crib breakwater 
structure ;" and again, that " the breakwater will be lo- 
cated in 26 feet of water, which is exterior, lakewards, to 
all bars of sand. It will consist of cribs constructed with 
close ends, 30 feet long, 30 feet in width, and raised 12 
feet above the surface of the lake, according to the plan 
adopted by the board of engineers." These statements do 
not entirely agree with the record of the board, which, on 
the 24th of June, made a report on a plan and estimate for 
this harbor, dated the 28th of the preceding month. 

In this report the board emphatically expresses its dis- 
sent from the character of the mole or breakwater ** struc- 
ture, which was to be founded in twenty feet water, and 
to rise eight feet above the surface of the lake;" and con- 
cludes by the opinion, " that the recommendation of the 
agent in this structure should not be approved, but that he 
be required to carry out the plan adopted for this harbor by 
commencing at a central point with the usual crib- work, 
and continue it in either direction as far as the available 
means will justify." This plan, it will be seen, calls for a 
breakwater in twenty feet water and rising eight feet above 
the surface of the lale> and not tweuly-&ve fe^x^^x^x %xA 



H. Doc. 1. 215 

twelve feet above thai level, on which the agent pounds 
his present estimate. To the first-mentioned conditions the 
board still mainly adheres, and assumes for the present 
purpose a depth of nineteen feet, and for the cribs a height 
above the water of six feet, and a breadth of twenty feet. 
A breakwater in that depth, having about the same water 
in advance of it for 250 feet, and within 400 feet of the 
twelve-feet curve, with a length of 1,090 feet, will fill the 
arc occupied by the work designed for twenty-five feet 
water, and covering the present pile-piers or landings of the 
town. The length of the work would thus be reduced from 
2,000 feet to 1,090 feet, the height from thirty-seven feet to 
twenty-five feet, and the width from thirty feet to twenty feet. 
The cost of the agent, by a single crib 30 feet long, 30 
feet wide, and 37 feet high, is, as already stated, $4,742 59 ; 
and proportionally of the section for one of 30 feet long, 
20 feet wide, and 25 feet high, approximately, $2,136 30. 

And for 36i cribs, the number required for 
a length of 1,090 feet, being the cost of the 
breakwater as modified $77,619 90 

Deduct present appropriation 20,000 00 

Leaves a balance of. 57,619 90 

Which being divided into three years, there will be re- 

Juired for each year $19,206 63 ; or say, as in the margin, 
19,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Chi- 
cago, Illinois $24,000 00 

The estimate appended lo the annual report 
of Captain J. D. Webster, dated the 1st 
ultimo, is for constructing an outer pier 500 
feetlong $25,000 00 

Repairs to existing piers 10,000 00 

Dredging 30 days, at $100 3,000 00 

38,000 00 
Contingencies, 10 per cent 3,800 00 

Amount 41,800 00 

Available of late appropriation 18,000 00 

Required 23,800 00 

Or say, as in the margin, $24,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Wau- 

kegan, Illinois 16,000 00 

The breakwater proposed for this harbor is 700 feetlong, 
26 feef wide, 26 het high, founded in 20 feet water. 



I 



216 H. Doc. 1. 

The estimated cost by the local agent, W. W. 
Gamble, approved by the superintending en- 
gineer. Captain J. D. Webster, topographi- 
cal engineers, is $47,046 38 

Amount already appropriated 15,000 00 

Leaving to be appropriated 32,046 ^8 

The agent says, in his report, **it would be very desira- 
ble, both for economy and utility, to have this amount ap- 
propriated by Congress at its next session," &c. The 
board would hesitate to recommend, even if it were proba- 
ble Congress would sanction so large a sum, as it doubts 
whether it could, with the sum already appropriated, be 
properly applied in a single season. For this reason it 
recommends half the amount, which is, in its opinion, neces- 
sary to either of these objects, $16,023 ; or say, as in 
the margin, $15,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Keno- 
sha, (formerly Southport,) Wisconsin $15,500 0< 

The estimate of funds required to complete this 
harbor, as made by the local agent, Mr. 
Samuel Hale, and approved by the superin- 
tending engineer, is. $41,248 02 

Deduct value of materials and balance of 

present appropriation 9,894 32 

Leaves to be provided • 31,353 70 

The plan on which this estimate is founded contemplates 
the extension of the piers, in all 800 feet, and also, it is 
presumed, the repair of the present works, and the neces- 
sary dredgbg. The board agrees with the acent that the 
north pier, as the windward pier, should be the longest of 
the two ; but it is not prepared to say, " from two to three 
hundred feet." 

Their relative lengths will best be determined as the 
piers are extended into the lake ; and that this may not be 
done too rapidly, and in order to confine the amount within 
a profitable limit of expenditure for a single season, the 
board suggests for appropriation half the amount of the 
entire estimate, $15,676 85; or say, as in the margin, 
$15,500. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Racine, 

Wisconsin 11 ,000 

The last appropriation for this harbor was $10,000, of 

• which $9,079 is absorbed by the contract for materials, 

leaving a balance of but $921, which will work up, accord- 

mg to the approximate relations assumed by the board, 



H. Doc. 1. 217 

materials to the value of $2,302 50 ; leaving available then 
to the value of $6,676 50, which, taken from the estimate 
to complete the works, $17,454 79, will leave to be appro- 
priated $10,778 29; or say, as in the margin, $11,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Milwau- 

kie, Wisconsin $17,500 00 

The agent in charge of this harbor estimates the cost 
of its completion at $50,329 95; from which deduct, 
already appropriated, $15,000; leaving to be provided, 
$35,329 95. 

As the present appropriation is still available in either 
materials or funds, the board conceives half the balance 
above stated quite sufficient, with these, to apply judiciously 
in a single season. Half the balance above is $17,664 97; 
or say, as in the margin, $17,500. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Sheboy- 
gan, Wisconsin 11,000 00 

The superintending engineer, Captain J. D. Webster, 
topographical engineers, in his annual report of Septem- 
ber 1st, says of this harbor : ** The work cannot be con- 
sidered complete without the addition of 700 feet to' the 
pier, put down by the county and town authorities." The 
cost of this extension he estimates at $26,936; he also pro- 
vides, for strengthening the present pier, $3,064 ; from which 
he deducts $30,000. Amount (supposed) available of Jate 
appropriation, $8,000 ; leaving to oe provided, $22,000, 
which, for some of the considerations which have governed 
in other cases, the board recommends may be divided into 
two seasons,' by an appropriation of the amount asked for 
in the margin — namely, $11,000. 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Manito- 
woc, Wisconsin 12,500 00 

No works to form a harbor at this place have been com- 
menced. All that was done during the past season, under 
the late appropriation, which was the first, was, accord- 

Xto Captain Webster, topographical engineers, within 
se superintendency this harbor lies, to get on the ground 
" a small quantity of stones and a few sticks of timber, 
the contractors having failed, as in other instances, to ful- 
fil their contracts." For this harbor Captain Webster 
recommends two piers, of 600 feet on the north side, and 
800 feet on the south side, which, with machinery, &c., 
and contingencies at 10 per cent., he estimates to cost 
$32,402 42; subtract (supposed) amount unexpended of 
late appropriation, $7,000 ; amount required to complete 



218 H. Doc. L 

the harbor, $25,402, which, for the reasons adopted under 
the last head, the board proposes to divide into two equal 
parts, $12,701 21 ; or say, as in the margin, $12,500. 

For current expenses of the steam-dredge on Lake Michi- 
gan $7,500 00 

This item was adopted last season on estimates prepared 
by the board, which sees no reason now to change it* 

For repairs and preservation of public property, and con- 
tingencies of lake harbors; and for commutation of 
transportation of baggage, and of quarters and fuel of 
officers in cases no longer provided for by the Quarter- 
master's department ; and for allowances to meet extra 
expenses, under the special direction of the Secretary of 
War 20,000 00 

The board, perceiving no cause for change, proposes the 
sum asked for last year, as in the margin. 

For printing and distributing charts of lake surveys 1,500 00 

The board sees no reason to change the amount asked 
for last year, which was the same as that set down in the 
margin. 

For repair of instruments of the corps of topographical 

engineers 5,000 00 

The board, perceiving no cause for change, proposes the 
sum asked for last year, as in the margin. 

In the estimates for the next fiscal year, made from the foregoing 
notes, the board has complied with the instructions of the War De- 
partment of the 11th of December, 1852, which require that "the 
amount that can be advantageously expended on each work during the 
next fiscal year, exclusive of the balance remaining on hand of the 
appropriation already made for the same," shall be shown in a sepa- 
rate column. But the board has not given, in a separate column, " the 
Erobable amount necessary to complete each work,V as also required 
y the same instructions. 

The board, at the time it was engaged in the consideration of the 
items, had necessarily in view, in all cases, some general project or plan 
applicable to the wants of navigation. But such plan, from the very 
nature of the work, was not, and could not, always be treated as defi- 
nite. In some cases such projects are in a measure experimental, in 
an engineering point of view, and especially with reference to detail, 
which, from cause exhibited in the progress of the work, are likely 
to require revision. In others, more full and accurate information of 
the locality was wanted; and, finally, there were cases also where 
the board covid not but see that the final extent of the work must 



H. Doc. 1. 



219 



be dependent upon the progressive demands of commerce, as the re- 
sult of the development of the industrial resources of the country. As 
the board was, therefore, not able to fill that column in the precise 
manner indicated by the instructions of the department, it has to refer 
to the memorandum relating to each item of the estimate for the ulti- 
mate sum, if any, the board had in mind at the time the memorandum 
was drawn up. 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. CoL Top. Engs.i President of Board. 
Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ November^ 1863. 



Estimate of funds required for the prosecution of certain works under the 

charge of the Bureau of Topo^aphicaJ Engineers^ during the fiscal year 

ending June ^i}^ 1855y prepared under the direction of the board of engineers 

for laJce harbors and western rivers, in compliance with the regulations of 

the War Department dated September 10, 1852. 



Object of expenditure. 


Amount 
required. 


Reference to acts makmg impro- 
priations. 




Vol. 


Page. 


Sec. 


Date. 


8URVST8. 

For military and geographical lorreyi ifest of 
the MiuiiiiDDi 


135,000 
50,000 


10 
10 

Pam. 
Pam. 

Pam. 
Pam. 


706 
706 

30 

30 

30 
30 


1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

i 


March 3, 1845 

. . • • . . UO a • • . • 


For oontiniiuig the survey of the northern and 
northwestern lakes, mclading Lake Superior. 


Amount for snrvevs 


75,000 








ROADS. 

For continuing the construction of a road from 
Point Doriglass, on the Bfississippi river, to 
the &ll8 or rapids of the St. Louis river of 
Lake Superior, by the most direct and con- 
veoient route between these points ......... 


20,000 
10,000 

5,000 
15,000 


July 18, 1850 


For condnuing the construction of a road from 
Point Donbass to Fort Gaines, now Fort 
Ripley* 


For continuing the construction of a road from 
the mouth of Swan river, or the most expe- 
dient point near it, north or south of said 
river, to the . Wbnebago agency, at Lon^ 
Prairie %.7. 

For continuing the construction of a road tkm 
Wabashaw to Biendota 


• .■•■* flO • « • • • 
.•••••do....* 






Amount fior roads. ................... 


50,000 


• 




i 


t 




\ 



220 



H. Doc. 1. 

ESTIMATE— Continued. 



Object of expenditure. 



For continoiDg the improTement of the nari- 
gation of the Mississippi below the rapids . . 

For continuing the improTement of the Des 
Moines rapids, in the Mississippi river 

For continuing the improvement of the Rock 
River rapids, in the Mississippi river 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor 
of Dubuque, in the Mississippi river 

For continuing the improvement of the navig*- 
lion of the Illinois river 

For contioumg the improvement of thenang*- 
tionof the Missouri river 

For continuing the improvement of the navi^- 
tion of the Ohio, including the re|Mttr oi thi- 
dam at Cumberland island 

For contiouing the improvement <4"^ t)u m- 'K»«r 
tion of the Tennessee river.. . .... 

For continuing the improveroon( o; 'K uk .k^ar 
tion of the Arkansas rir^^r 

For the constructonof mv^ Ikk-^* *»**»^^ >«>*»*^ ! 
boats, two machine-KoAfN ^v *i».v*^<:-^a£^ j 
and four di8chaiiRimr-*«v>*'> *?^ ^»v >ijj»a»» ^ 
aippi, Missouri, llliiv%K , w.v»kau Ar4;uHM 
rivers, and for ivyvi**; a >m*»h -hmac^ ^irvd^o?- * 
boat*, di8charp»a-^v^*-*« 4ii»i ma^aun^ . 
used on the MMVf/ *^v^Jk -. ; 

For continuii^ <Hr ,vv».>4iucvu/a wf a Wree 
across th<» *w«»'» * ^»v r»\,-r Sob I>i**aro, \ 

Cal., ami fV»5 A'K-i **'**'* ^^ ^^^^ " "»^ liie 
former cKmuw uvv l*|uz5«f bajr j 

For the j>»y«mv»'^a^^*^^ ^ public property, lod . 
contiiMC^i^'"*^*' ^i *t>M:em river improve- 
men^*^ *<*^ *^" v>Hiimutation of tnuuporta- I 
tion %a )*»^.k»»#;«* ^^ ^f quarters and fuel of ' 
oflW>^r* a ^••-^ *> longer provided for bj 
Um» Vj'»*^v<cttMwa}r» department, and for 
alk'«aaw-«^ */ tueec extra expenses onder the 
,|^^ air^%i«« of tb« Hecretary of War... 



fcrrireri. 



RARBOmi. 

Lake Champlain. 

Fpt cQ^nming the improvement of the har- 
>wof Burlington, Vt 

For oirrvnt expenses of the steam-dredge on 
lAke Champlain 



Lake Ontario* 
ig Uw /inproTomont of the harbor i 

kr \ 



Amount 
required. 



Reference to acts making appro- 
priations. 



Vol. 



$84,000 
18,000 
18,000 
15,000 
16, 0«) 



Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 
Pm. 



Page. 



56 
57 
57 
60 
60 
56 

56 
60 
56 



Sec 



Date. 



70^000 



20,000 Pan.! 60 



1 



10,000 



456,000 



18,000 
7,500 



Pam. 



10 



60 



558 



^\,Wi\ \5^\ U^ 



Aug. 30, I^ 

.....do. .... 

......do..... 

do 

.•••..do....* 

>.*... QO ..... 

......do..... 

I .... . CM). . . . • 



.do. 



-•-.do. 



June 11, 1844 



\ \ 



H. Doc. 1. 

ESTIMATE— Continued. 



221 



Object of expenditure. 



Amount 
required. 



Reference to acts making appro- 
priations. 



Vol. 



Page. 



Sec 



Date. 



ntinning the improvement of the har- 

»f Sodus bay, Cajuga county, N. Y 

mtinuing the improvement of the har- 

of Sodus bay, Wayne county, N. Y 

ntinning the improvement of the har- 
(Charlotte) at the mouth of Genesee 
" N Y 

ntinning the improvement of the harbor 
le moudi of Oak Orchard creek, N. Y... 
irrenc ezpensea of the steam-dredge on 
e Ontario 



Lake Erie. 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 
ufialo, N. Y.. ...... ...... ...... ...... 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 

Nmkirk,N.Y 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 

irie, Pa. 

intinuing the improvement of the harbor 

onneaut, Ohio 

ntinning the improvement of the harbor 

ahtabula, Ohio 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 

airport, (Grand river,) Ohio 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 

leveland, Ohio j 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 

le mouth of Black river, Ohio 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 

[uron, Ohio 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 

andusky City, Ohio 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 
nroe) at the mouth of the river Raisin, 



irrent expenses of the steam-dredge on 
e Erie 



Lake Si. Clair, 

mtinuing the improvement of St. Clair 

, Mich.... 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 
le mouth of Clinton river, Mich 



Lake Mkkigan. 

ntinning the improvement of the harbor 
ind Haven) at the mouth of Grand river. 



ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 

lack Lake, Mich 

ntinuing the improvement of the harbor 
t. Joseph, Mich. ............ ••••..••• 



$14,500 
10,000 

24,000 

14,500 

7,500 

33,000 
30,000 
25,500 
11,500 
13,500 
13,000 
10,000 
10,000 
13,500 
28,500 

10,000 
7,500 

45,000 
5,000 



20,000 
20,500 
18,000 



Pam. 
10 

10 
10 



60 
552 

552 
552 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
9 
10 
10 

Pam. 



552 
552 
552 
552 
552 
552 
553 
839 
552 
553 

58 



Pam. 
Pam. 



Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 



58 
58 



58 
58 
58 



Aug. 30, 1852 
June 11, 1844 

>..... UO . . . a • 

.....do 



. . . . do . . . 

....do. .. 

....do... 

....do... 

....do... 
......do. .. 

do... 

July 7,1838 
June II, 1844 
do 



Aug. 30, 1852 



.do. 
.do. 



....do 

....do 



222 



H. Doc- 1. 

ESTIMAT E— Continued. 



Object of expeoditure. 



Amount 
required. 



Reference to act* making impro- 
priations. 



Vd. 



Page. 



Sec 



Date. 



For continuing the improvement of the harb^ir 
of New Buffalo, Mich 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor 
of Michigan City, Ind 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor 
of Chicago, SI 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor 
of Waukegan, ni 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor 
of Kenosha, (formerly Southport,) Wis 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor 
of Racine, Wis 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor 
of Milwaukie, Wis 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor 
of Sheboygan, Wis 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor 
of Manitowoc, Wis 

For current expenses of the steam-dredge on 
Lake Michigan • 

For repairs and preservation of public prop- 
erty and contingencies of lake harbors, and 
for commutation of transportation of bag- 
gage, and of quarters and fuel of officers in 
cases no longer provided for by the Quar- 
termaster's department, and for allowances 
to meet extra expenses, under the special 
direction of the ScKsretary of War 



Amount for harbors 

MISOKLLAHIOUS. 

For printing and distributing charts of lake 
surveys 

For repair of instruments of the corps of topo- 
graphical engmeers 



Amount for miscellaneous . 



$16,000 
19,000 
24,000 
16,000 
15,500 
11,000 
17,500 
11,000 
12,500 
7,500 



20,000 



601,500 



1,500 
5,000 



6,000 



Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 
Pam. 



Pam. 



56 
58 
60 
60 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 



Aug. 



90,1868 

do 

do...*. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.....do.... 



RECAPITULATION. 

For surveys $75,000 00 

For roads 50,000 00 

For rivers 456,000 00 

For harbors 601,500 00 

For miscellaneous 6,500 00 

Total amount 1,189,000 00 

JAMES KEARNEY, " 

LiaU. Col. Top. Engs., Prtsidemt ofBomri. 

OmcM Board of E^oiirxxRs or Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

WasKiRgloii, October 25, 1853. 



H. Dec 1. 32a 

Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

TVashingUm, December 16, 1852. 
Sir : An estimate of funds required for the prosecution of certain 
works under the charge of the Bureau of Topographical Engineers 
during the fiscal year ending the 30th June, 1854, prepared by this 
board in obedience to your orders, and in compliance with the instruc- 
tions of the Secretary of War of the 6th instant, is transmitted here- 
with. This estimate is based upon the one prepared by the bureau, 
and differs fi^om it in some particulars, a memorandum of the reasons 
fw which has been preserved, and will be communicated if desired. 
Very respectfiilly, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut, Colonel Topographical Engineen^ President. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

CiJonel Corps, Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ December 17, 1852. 

Sir : The board having under consideration the third subject referred 
by the instructions of the bureau of the 6th instant, " to investigate 
the matter of the alternative in the law in reference to the work at 
Michigan City, Indiana" — that alternative being '* the continuing the 
iiiq)rovement of that harbor or the laying down of a floating break- 
water and safety ancho|tige" — (act 30th August last) report, that in 
their opinion a floating breakwater ought not to bo recommended. 
The board defer an excnression of opinion on the best mode of continu- 
ing the improvement oi the harbor until they take into consideration 
the fourth subject of reference made by you in the same communica- 
tion, namely, " to investigate all the plans for lake harbors, report 
upon the same, and furnish estimates for the completion of the same, 
and for the wants of each fiscal year." 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
LietU. Colond Topographical Engineers, President. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau of Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and \ViESTERN Rivers, 

Washington, December 17, 1852. 

Sib: The second subject referred to the consideration of this board, 
by the instructions of tlie bureau of the 6th instant, is in the following 
wordsy lo wit : " That the board investigate the matter of the position 
of the Milwaukie piers, and report thereon." On this Tefeteivce \N\^ 
board have the honor to report, that without endorsing all the o^Vtaou^ 



224 II. Doc. 1. 

contained in the various papers submitted with the inquiry — namely, 
the letter of the bureau to Captain T. J. Cram, dated March 13, 1843 ; 
that of T. J. Cram to the bureau, in reply, dated April 3, 1843 ; the 
report of the special board on the subject, of which Lieutenant Colonel 
Kearney was president, to the bureau, dated May 28, 1843 ; and lastly, 
the letter of the bureau to the Secretary of War, dated September 7, 
1862 — ^they are of the opinion that the existing outlet of the Milwaukie 
ought to be adhered to, and that all measures, whether in the form of 
works or otherwise, for the improvement of the entrance of that river, 
ought to be applied to that point 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut, Colonel Topographical Engineers^ President. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau of Topographical Engineers, 

P. S. The papers in reference to the Milwaukie piers are herewith 
returned. J. K. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

fVashinglouy December 18, 1852. 

Sir : The annual estimates for the year ending the 30th of June, 
1854, called for by the instructions of the bureau of the 6th instant, 
under the first head, and transmitted on the 10th, did not provide means 
for continuing the improvement of the harbors of Michigan City, In- 
diana, and Milwaukie, Wisconsin, the questions in regard to those 
harbors being reserved until the board should report upon the refer- 
ences to them provided for by the second and third heads of the same 
instructions. The board having performed that duty, are now prepatred 
to report the sums to fill the blanks in question, namely : 
For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Milwaukie, 

Lake Michigan, Wisconsin $10,000 

For continuing the improvement of the harbor of Michigan 

City, Lake Michigan, Indiana 5,000 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut, Colonel Topographical Engineers, President. 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau of Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

February 14, 1853. 
Sir : The board has had under consideration the letter, plans, and 
estimates of the agent at Dunkirk of the 6th of February, the same 
having been reierred to it by the bureau. 



H. Doc. L 225 

The board having carefully examined all the suggestions of the 
mgent respecting the works at that place, their present condition, and 
the measures that ought to be adopted respecting them at this time, 
have instructed me very respectfully to inform you that the board is of 
opinion that neither the midale pier nor the west pier be reconstructed 
at present, except so far as may be necessary to preserve the head of 
the latter, on which the beacon-light stands, and to rebuild the eastern 
bead of the middle or detached pier, provided the agent shall be of 
opinion that this is the best mode of making the channel end of that 
work. The letter and estimates of the agent are herewith returned to 
the bureau. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respecthilly, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Colonel Topographical Engineers^ President. 

CoL J. J. Abert, 

Bureau of Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

WashingUmj February 23, 1863. 

The subject of improving the rapids of the upper Mississippi having 
been referred to the board of endneers of lake harbors ana western 
rivers by the Bureau of Topograpnical Engineers, and committed to me 
for an expression of my views in relation thereto, I take leave to sub- 
mit the following brief report on that subject : 

In 1817 I ascended the upper Mississippi, in a large skiff, to the falls 
of St. Anthony, &x:., and returned thence m the same craft, passing the 
Des Moines and Rock River rapids on both trips, without any consid- 
erable difficulty in either direction. The skiff was propelled, in the 
ascent of both rapids, occasionally by a small sail and a gentle wind, 
and occasionally by oars. In 1841 I again ascended the Rock River 
rapids in a skiff, half their length, and returned without any consid- 
erable difficulty occasioned by the rapidity of the current. 

Both rapids above mentioned were surveyed with care, under the 
direction of Lieutenant R. £. Lee, now Brevet Colonel Lee, of the 
corps of engineers, in 1837, and a method of sluice navigation was 
recommended by him as the best mode of improving the navigation of 
these rapids. 

Colonel Lee's report on the survey and improvement of both these 
rapids was dated at St. Louis on the 6th of December, 1837, and accom- 

Sanied by two charts, with sections: "No. 1, entitled map of the Des 
[oines rapids of the Mississippi," and *• No. 2, map of the Rock Island 
rapids of the Mississippi." 

The sections mentioned were no doubt exhibited on manuscript sheets, 
but have been omitted in the printed maps. The maps, however, in- 
dicate the positions of the reefs, rocky bars, and channels, and the 
soundings thereat in low water, with great clearness and apparent pre 
cision. 

Agreeably to the report, the extent o£ the Des Moiues lapid^, ^om 
Partiii-^IS 



226 H, Doc. 1. 

head to foot, is 11 miles, and the aggregate descent of the river in this 
distance is a little more than 24 feet ; giving for the average descent 
per mile about 2^ feet. 

By the same report, the length from head to foot of the Rock Island 
rapids is 14 miles ; the aggregate fall is 25.74 foot ; giving for the 
average descent \yer mile, 1.838 foot, or about If foot. 

The speed of current produced by the declivity above mentioned, in 
low-water stages of the river, varies from 2 to 3^ miles per hour, and 
probably does not exceed 3y miles per hour on any considerable por- 
tion of the rapids — a speed that can readily be overcome by ascending 
steamers of the lowest speed. 

The method of improvement recommended by Colonel Lee, in both 
cases, contemplates a sluice navigation, to be effected by pursuing the 
most favorable and direct natural channels, which are of frequent oc- 
currence in all parts of the river bed, but are nowhere continuous 
through the whole extent of either of the rapids. These channels, be- 
sides being totally intercepted in some places by rocky reefs, are in 
many places tortuous and narrow, and in several instances obstructed 
by protuberant ledges rising nearly to the surface of low water in the 
midst of the channels. 

Colonel Lee has proposed to open a continuous channel 200 feet 
wide, from the head to the foot of each of the rapids, by forming new 
channels in continuation of the most favorable natural channels; widen- 
ing the latter in cases when they have not the width above mentioned, 
namely, 200 feet; cutting away projecting points when the natural 
channel is too crooked, and removing prominent ledges from the chan- 
nels through which the improved channel is to pass ; the whole to be 
effected by blasting, at greater or less depths, below the surface of 
ordinary low water, and depositing the blasted fragments in deep pools 
which occur frequently in the river bed, and wfthin the channels to be 
improved. 

The width of the improved channel is to be at least 200 feet, and its 
low-water depth 5 feet. Its position on the map, especially at the 
points where the improvements are to be made, is indicated by parallel 
dotted lines on each of the maps. 

Agreeably to the best information that can be had, the volume of the 
Mississippi, at both these rapids, is amply sufficient, even in the lowest 
stage of the river, to supply a channel or sluice, of the width and depth 
above mentioned, even to overflowing. 

Doubts have been entertained as to the practicability of establishing 
permanent channel-marks along the sluices, as guides to safe naviga- 
tion. Such beacons must unavoidably be exposed to the ravages of ice 
and drift, on the breaking up of the river at the time of the spring 
freshets, and would be likely to be carried away on such occasions, 
however carefully or securely moored. 

In my opinion, the best method of designating the channel would 
consist in the application of floating buoys, of suitable construction, and 
at suitable intervals and positions, on both sides of the channel. These 
buoys should be anchored to the bottom of the channel by chains, the 
length of which respectively should be at least 12 feet, or long enough, 
ID every case, to allow the buoy to present itself at the surface of the 



H. iW. 1. 227 

water till the river shall have attnined an elevation sufficient to admit 
thepassage of boats over all parts of its bed. 
j The anchors to which the buoys are attached should be held to the 
bottom of the channel by their gravity only ; so that, in the event of the 
buoy being carried away by drift o/ any kind, the anchor may be 
dragged along with it, by means of which most if not all of the abducted 
buoys may be again recovered and returned to their proper positions. 

The method of improving the navigation of the rapids above con- 
sidered will have no tendency to interrupt or obstruct the natural nav- 
igation, but, on the contrary, will contribute greatly to its improvement; 
in fine, it should be regarded as an improvement of the natural naviga- 
tion, rather than a system of artificial navigation. 

Two other modes of improvement have been informally proposed, 
by persons interested in the improvement of the navigation at the rap- 
ids — one of which contemplates the construction of a lateral canal on 
one or the other side of the river, with a lift-lock at its lower extremi- 
ty ; and the other a slackwater navigation, to be effected by the erec- 
tion of a dam across the entire river at the foot of the Des Moines rap-, 
ids, and a single lift-lock in connexion with the dam for these rapids ; and 
a similar improvement at the Rock Island rapids, with tow-dams and 
a lock on each, viz: a lock and dam at the foot of these rapids, and an- 
other lock and dam about midway of the same. 

The method by lateral canal is objectionable on account of its 
great cost of construction, the expense of its management, the delays 
in passing through, and on various other accounts. The method by 
lock and dam is also objectionable on the same account, and is totally 
inadmissible by reason of the entire annihilation of the natural naviga- 
tion of the rapids occasioned thereby ; while the method by sluice navi- 
gation is completely exempt from any and all of the objections urged 
as above against the other two modes. 

The cost of improving the Des Moines rapids by the adoption of 
the method of sluice navigation, as estimated by Colonel Lee, is as 
follows, viz : 

Blasting and removing 94,811 cubic yards of rock, at $2 ... $196^622" 
I am inclined to think that the estimated quantity just stated is some- 
what short of the amount required for a sluice having a clear width oC 
200 feet, and would accordingly assume for the amount, in round num- 
bers — excavatioii required 100,000 cubic yards, which woiJd give* 
for the probable cost of the work of blasting, &c., at 1 2 per cubic- 

yard- S20^,000 

To which should be added, on account of hindrances and 
unavoidable interruptions, including buoys, chains, an- 
chors, &c., at least 25 per cent., viz 50,000 

250,000. 



The cost of improving the Rock Island rapids, by adopting a simi- 
lar method of improvement, has been estimated by Colonel Lee, and is 
as follows, viz : 

Blasting and rewoving 77,329 cubic yards of rock, at $2 . . . 1tl54:,^t>^ 



228 H. Doc. 1. 

For reasons similar to those stated in reference to the Des Moities 
rapids, and in consideration of the greater length of the Rock Island 
rapids, I would suggest that the cost of improvements in both cases 
be regarded as equal, and would accordingly substitute the following 
estimate, viz : 

100,000 cubic yards of rock, to be blasted and removed in the 
formation of a continuous channel 200 feet wide, and five 
feet in depth, below the surface of low water, at $2 $200,000 

Contingencies, &c., including buoys, chains, and anchors, at 

25 per cent 50,000 

250,000 



The foregoing estimates are presented with the belief that they will 
prove adequate to the exigencies of the works herein contemplated ; 
while, at the same time, I am aware that they are far too general and 
vague in their character and extent to be relied on, without minute 
surveys, especially in so far as relates to longitudinal profiles and trans- 
verse sections, of a character to exhibit the true features, as indicated 
on the plan, with due precision, on the maps referred to. 

Respectfully submitted. 

S. H. LONG, 
Member of the Board. 



Office of Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ February 24, 1853. 

Sir : I am directed by the board to call the attention 6f the bureau 
to the following statement : 

The act making appropriations for the improvement' of certain har- 
bors and rivers, approved August 30, 1852, provides "for the improve- 
ment of the Rock River rapids and the Des Moines rapids, in the Mis- 
sissippi river, at the lower chain and the English chain, one hundred 
thousand dollars ;" and that among the items in the estimate for har- 
bor and river improvement for the fiscal year ending the 30th of June, 
1854, which emanated from this board, there is an item for continuing 
the improvement in nearly the same words, to wit : "of ihe Rock River 
rapids and of the Des Moines rapids, at the lower chain and English 
chain, in the Mississippi river." Now, as the Des Moines rapids con- 
sist of four chains, as follows, taken in the order of ascending — ^the 
lower chain, English chain. La Malices chain, and upper chain — it 
will be seen that the appropriation in either case will oe confined to 
the Rock River rapids, ana only to so much of the Des Moines rapids 
as is included by the lower chain and English chain. It may be re- 
marked here that the first two of the above-mentioned chains are bare- 
ly tbree miles in length, whereas the last two are about seven miles. 
'J 'his restriction the board have supposed was neither the desire of the 
bureau nor of the War Department, and hence invite attention to the 
subject, with a view to such acUou aa x\ie \)\x£^^\]lix^^ ds^^oi advisable 



H. Doc. 1. 829 

in order to make the appropriation available on both rapids. Thus far 
the appropriation recommended for ihe coming fiscal year may be 
efiecled by the simple striking out the words *'at the lower chain and 
English chain," from the item in the estimate now before Congress. In 
regard to the appropriation already made, a declaratory clause ap- 
pended to the present bill will be necessair- 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectniUy, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. CoL Top. Engineers^ Preiident of Board. 
CoL J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board op Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ March, 1, 1853. 

Sir: I am instructed by the board to transmit to you the enclosed 
copy of report of Lieutenant Colonel Long, upon the subject of the 
improvement of the Rock River rapids and the Des Moines rapids, in 
the Mississippi river. The board liaving duly considered this matter, 
have decided that the surveys in their possession are not sufficient for 
the purposes of the board, and that further surveys should be instituted 
in order to obtain transverse sections of the river-bed, width and depth 
of the natural channels, &c., as often, at least, as twice in every mile 
through the entire length of both rapids; and also to determine the 
outline or profile of the bottom, and low-water surface of the river, 
along the channels proposed to be opened from the head to the foot of 
each rapid ; and in such other positions as may be deemed needful in 
order tD determine the best route for their improvement. These sur- 
veys to include observations for the velocities of the purrents, especially 
in the natural channel, and for the bottom as well as the superficial 
velocities taken when remarkable changes of declivity of the surface 
or bottom of the principal channels occur. Similar experiments for 
velocity to be made for the whole width of the river, at the position of 
some of the profiles already indicated, namely, at points at which the 
volume of water, carried foiivard by the whole stream, may be most 
accurately ascertained. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Col. Top. Engineers, President of Board. 

CoL J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board op Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington, April 27, 1863» 

Sir : I am instructed by the board to report that it Viaa WA wtv^^et 
considera/i?/i the several subjects specially referred to it by \ke "bMTeaxx, 



\ 



^30 H. Doc. 1. 

and that it has made the progress in the investigation oF each of them 
which is shown in the synopsis ot" proceedings and reports which ac- 
company this communication. At the points at which the board has 
arrived it finds itself under the clear conviction that it will be impossible 
to report finally and fully on these subjects, in a manner satisfactory to 
itself or to the bureau, until the members shall have visited the several 
.ocalities and works to which their attention has been called. The 
board accordingly ;^roposes doing so at as early a day as practicable, 
or as soon as the office work, on which it is engaged, can oe brought 
to- a state to justify its departure. 

The examinations or inspections now proposed are not only neces- 
sary, in the opinion of the board, bat they are also required by the 
regulation of September 10, 1852; thus — » 

" The board will, as often as they may deem necessary, detail from 
their number one or more members for the inspection of works under 
execution." 

Whenever the business of the board shall not require them to be in 
session, the members shall be employed in the inspections above pro- 
vided for, &c. 

But the board is without the requisite means of executing this duty, 
and it has therefore to request instructions as to the appropriations to 
which the expenses of such inspections should be charged, or upon 
which the board should make its requisitions for funds. The board 
have also h ad under consideration, for some time past, a system of in- 
structions to guide officers and others in making local surveys at and 
near the lake harbors and western rivers for purposes of hydraulic en- 
gineering, and in relation to the inspection of works under construction 
or repair, or concerning which questions may arise respecting their 
present or ultimate stability, as well as their efficiency. 

A considerable amount of materials have been collected for tMs pur- 
pose, and progress has been made in arranging them. With the per- 
mission of the bureau, they wUl be reported as soon as they can be put 
in proper form. 

In conclusion, it may be proper to remark, that the members of the 
board have been engaged, since its organization, not only on the duties 
appertaining to the board, under the "regulations in relation to river 
and harbor improvement," but on others with which the members had 
been previously connected, or which were afterwards referred to them 
severally. 

I have the honor to be, verv respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. CoL Top. Engineers, President of Board. 

Col. J. J. Abbrt, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



H. Doc. 1. 281 

Office Boabd of Enoinebrs 

Lakb Harbors and Western Rivers, 

April 27, 1863. 

BXTRACT FROM SYNOPSIS OF PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD. 

Erie harbor. 

In relation to the harbor of Erie, the board has very respectfully to 
report that the information in its possession — the most recent being that 
which it derives fix)m the annual report of 1846— is not such as to en- 
able it to form definite plans for its improvement by means of additional 
works, or by the extension of those already existing. Moreover, the 
board is not informed respectingtheactualconditionof the works which 
have been constructed, or the effects which time and the action of the 
sea may have had upon them. It can only recommend, therefore, in 
general terms, that measures be at once taken for the repair of the di- 
lapidated portions of the piers and other structures at this harbor ; and, 
it may be added, that the like recommendation will apply to all the 
other harbors where the timber-work has been extensively injured by 
decay or other causes, except in the case of such harbors as have been 
specially reported upon by the board. 

The "board of engineers for lake harbors and western rivers" was 
constituted by an order from the War Department, September 16, 
1862, appointing Lieut. Col. James Kearney, Brevet Lieut. Col. S. H. 
Long, and Major Hartman Bache, the members, in conformity with the 
** regulations in relation to river and harbor improvements," issued by 
the department September 10, 1862, and was convened by an order 
from the Bureau ot Topographical Engineers, December 10, 1862, by 
which Brevet Col. TumouU was placed temporarily on the board during 
the absence of Brevet Lieut. Col. S. H. Long, 

Immediately on organizing, the board entered upon the duties re* 
quired bv the instructions of the War Department, December 6, 1862, 
and on the 16th December transmitted to the bureau, in accordance 
therewith, the estimates of funds required for the prosecution of certain 
works under charge of the topographical engineers, during the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1864. 

On the 17 ih December the board submitted a report upon the second 
subject of investigation committed to them, viz : *' the matter of the 
position of the Milwaukie piers ;" also, upon the third subject, viz : 
** the alternative in the law in reference to the works at Michigan City ;'* 
and on the 18th submitted estimates for continuing the improvement 
at these two harbors. 

Having now completed the business required by the special instruc- 
tions of the War Department, the attention of the board was called, by 
a communication from the bureau, to the question of the improvement 
of the following harbors : 1st, Oswego ; 2d, Erie ; 3d, Dunkirk ; 4th, 
Cleveland ; 6th, Sandusky City ; and 6th, Waukegan. 

This question, in the case of each harbor, was clearly examined and 
studied, and while projecting and designing works for their improve- 
ment, with a view generally of increasing their capacity, audio X^^^wy- 
tection of the present works, various discussions arose u]pou l\ie eSec\a 



232 H. Doc. 1. 

of winds and currents, the travelling and deposition of sand, silt, and 
shingle ; showing clearly that before finally locating these breakwaters 
and piers, all the surrounding circumstances and conditions of winds, 
currents, shoals, and adjacent topography, should be carefully and ac- 
curately delineated. 

During the above examinations and discussions Lieut. Col. S. H. 
Long appeared and took his seat, January 17th, Col. TurnbuU having 
withdrawn, being thereby relieved, in accordance with instructions of 
the War Department, December 10, 1862. 

On the 14th February a report was made, and submitted to the bu- 
reau, on a matter referred to the board contained in a communication 
from the agent at Dunkirk harbor, setting forth the condition of works 
at that harbor, and submitting an estimate for repairing certain portions 
requiring immediate attention. In accordance with uistructions from 
the bureau, a report was submitted, March Ist, on the improvement of 
the Rock River and Des Moines rapids, in the Mississippi nver ; the at- 
tention of the bureau having been previously called to tne fact, that the 
wording of this item in the appropriation act confines the expenditures 
of the appropriation, so far as relates to the Des Moines rapids, to " the 
lower chain and English chain." Resuming the consideration of the im- 
provement of the several harbors referred to the board December 27, 
1852, the following preliminary reports were adopted: 

Oswego, Lake Ontario, New York. 

The design of the new harbor at Oswego calls for two works 
founded about 700 feet in advance of the line of the present piers, in a 
mean depth of thirty feet, and on a line parallel to a course drawn, say 
N. 56^ E. (true) from Four-mile point towards the east, on the one 
hand, to Eight-mile point towards the west, on the other; these points 
forming the arc of exposure, against which it is necessary to afibrd pro- 
tection firom the swells of the lake. The principal work is limited to- 
wards the west by a northwest line (true) drawn from the shore-angle 
of the present west pier, and towards the east by a line on the same 
course, drawn from the head of the present east pier, and is about 1,520 
feet in length. The smaller work by a north by west line (true) dra\vn 
from the head of the same pier, and by a north line (true) drawn fro xi 
the an^le of that pier, and is about 810 feet in lengtn. These condi- 
tions give three entrances to this harbor; one each, between the shore- 
ends of the two works, of 500 feet, measured to the 12- feet curve; and 
one entrance between the two works, of about 400 feet. 

The works, as now proposed, will not, probably, conform in all 
respects to the final design. Their precise position and extent can 
. only be determined by proper surveys, and by the experience acquired 
during the course of the operations. 

The object has been to plan them in such a manner, both in regard 
to position and length, that they shall, except under some extraordinary 
and unforeseen contingencies, form a part of the ultimate pryect. The 
question, for instance, as to the exact course of the line of the two 
works, is dependent on the result of the proposed survey; and as to 
the number, and position, and width of the entrances, on the experience 
obtained in the course of the construcUou. ShoMld it be found that the 



H. Doc. 1. 233 

entrance between the two works is not necessary to a free discharge 
of the river, particularly in freshets, through the opening between the 
iH«sent pier, then the entrance provided between the new works should 
be closed ; but if, on the other nand, this entrance be found necessary, 
then the works should be prolonged, westerly and easterly, towards 
the shore, to aiford that full protection which, as long as tlie question 
of a central entrance was undecided, it was necessary to restrict, in 
order to provide ingress and egress to and from the harbor. 

The two works, as described, have an aggregate length of 2,330 
feet. By closing the central gap, they would form a single work of 
2,730 feet in length. If, however, this gap is kept open, the principal 
work should be prolonged towards the west and the shore, until cut by 
a W. N. W. line (true) from the shore-angle of the present west pier — 
thus calling for an increased length of about 350 feet ; and the snorter 

Eier towards the east and shore, until cut by a N. half E. line (true) 
om the shore-end of the present east pier, and calling for an addi- 
tional length of about 360 feet; making the aggregate length of the 
two works 3,030 feet. 

The works thus designed, under the first condition, having the aggre- 
gate length of 2,330 feet, afford protection from the northwest winds 
for an area, without the present works, of about 34.6 acres; and includ- 
ing the area within the present works, 12.8 acres, gives as the aggre- 
gate capacity of the harbor, without the twelve-feet curve, 47.4 acres. 
Under the condition that the gap, or central entrance, is closed, the 
area protected becomes 63.2 acres; but if it be left open, and the 
works extended towards the shore, as before stated, the area becomes 
49.7 acres. 

The works, under all the above contingencies, possess not only the 
great advantage of vastly increasing the capacity of the harbor, but 
also protect the present works now requiring repairs, which will ever 
be a source of great expense as long as they are thus exposed. 

Dunkirk harbor. 

Is in a bay indenting the shore-line of Lake Erie to the depth of three- 
quarters of a mile, (nearly,) and having a breadth at its mouth of one 
and seven-eighths mile from cape to cape. The landings at the town 
are exposed to all winds and swells coming from points in the arc ex- 
tending from W. N. W. to N. E., nearly round by the north, and are 
sheltered from all winds coming from the land side between these two 
points. 

The design for the improvement of this harbor is made up of three 
breakwater structures : the principal and central one being on a line 
drawn from Light-house point to Battery point ; the one to the west 
on a line parallel to, but inward of, the main work ; the one to the east 
on a line bearing from Battery point S. 77^ W., and outward of this 
work. Commencing on the west, this work is parallel, as before de- 
scribed, but drawn through the point of intersection of a line bearing 
N. W. from the present east pier-head, and a line bearing N. 17"=^ 30' 
W. from the present west pier-head, limiting the structure lovjatda\!cve 
east, and towards the shore it extends to a point 160 feet feora a\flxe 



234 H. Doc. 1. 

joining the west pier-head and Light-house point; making the length 
of this portion ot the work about 1,000 feet. 

The principal or central work is limited, towards the west, by the 
condition of the opening between it and the portion of the work just 
described; measured upon its prolongation, shall be 600 feet, and ex- 
tends eastward about 2,890 feet. The easterly work is on a line bear- 
ing from Battery point S. 77° W., and is limited at the shore-end by a 
line drawn from tne middle of the town landings tangent to the nine- 
feet curve, (bearing about N. 17° E.) It has a length of about 765 
feet; being limited towards the west by the condition that the open- 
ing between it and the central work shall be 600 feet. 

By the design it will be seen that protection is afforded, not only to 
vessels lying in the inner harbor, but also to those entering or leaving 
this harbor by either of the two narrow channels through which they 
must pass ; and, beside, an outer harbor is made which will answer all 
the purposes of refuge, when provided with suitable moorings; for, it 
may be remarked, there is no nolding-ground between the old and the 
projected new works. 

In addition to the two entrances of 600 feet noticed above, there is 
one of about 260 feet between the shore-end of east pier and the nine- 
feet curve. The aggregate length of these works is 4,666 feet ; but 
should it be found that the shoal lying between this trace and the inner 
harbor answers in itself as a breakwater, then this entire length may 
be reduced by leaving a gap, in the line opposite that portion of the 
inner harbor already covered by the shoal, the extent of which is to be 
determined, during the progress of construction, by commencing the 
work at both ends and working towards the centre until the desired 
protection is given. 

But, on the other hand, if the westerly work should be found not to 
fill ihe condition of protecting the present west pier-head from the 
winds and swells, coming from points in the arc of exposure between 
Light- house point and the end of the work, it should be continued until 
the condition is fulfilled ; thus adding at the maximum 300 feet to the 
entire aggregate length of these worKs, being limited by a line drawn 
from the present west pier-head to Light-house point. 

This line of works is founded in depths of about 18 feet, with the 
exception of the contingent addition of 300 feet at the shore-end of the 
west pier, and protects (when completed) an area of 97 acres from the 
northwest winds, and having a depth of twelve feet and upwards. 
. It is recommended that a final decision of the whole subject of the 
harbor of Dunkirk be deferred till a personal inspection and examina- 
tion shall have been had by the board. 

Sandusky harbor. 

The information before the board, in relation to the condition and 
improvement of this harbor, is of a character not suflScienily definite to 
enable them to decide upon the method of improvement best adapted 
to the exigencies of commerce at this point. The existing navigable 
channel communicating with the harbor is represented as being ex- 
ceedingly toriuouSj affording a cVianneY de^iNi qS^ ^WsA. nine feet, and 



H. Doc. 1. 285 

in many places very narrow. Attempts have been made to straighten 
and deepen it by dredging, but with what success or to what extent 
this operation has been carried on, the board have not yet been ad- 
vised. In connexion with the improvement of the harbor, it has been 
proposed to close a breach that has been formed at the westerly end of 
ihe neck joining Peninsula point to the main land, where a shoal chan- 
nel about 1,300 feet wide has been formed ; also four other breaches 
across the neck, of very inferior magnitude, by depositing brushwood, 
stone, &c., in a manner to form rude dams closing the breaches. This 
work may no doubt be prosecuted effectually and to advantage without 
interfering injuriously with other works required for the improvement 
of the harbor, and may be undertaken forthwith. In this opinion the 
board is firmly convinced, from information recently furnished by the 
local agent at that place. 

Prior to any finau decision as to the maimer, position and extent of 
works required for the improvement of this harbor and the channel 
leading to it, the board deem it expedient that a personal examination 
be made by them with a view to a lull understanding of the whole 
subject. 

Cleveland harbor. 

With reference to the harbor of Cleveland, the board is of opinion 
that information is wanted to enable it to offer plans for its further im- 
provement or enlargement, and that until such mformation is procured 
the expenditures upon it should be hmited to the repairs of such parts 
of the wood- work as require them, to the extension of the west pier as 
contemplated by the annual report of the bureau of 1846, and to prep- 
arations for the masonry of the west pier. 

Breakwater at TVaukegan, • 

The board are not apprized of the object of this work, and are at a 
loss to know whether it is designed for the purpose of forming a com- 
mercial harbor or a harbor of protection ibr shipping in stress of 
weather. Presuming that the latter is the object, they recommend that 
a breakwater 1,200 leet long, parallel to the western shore, erected in 
the lake where the water has a minimum depth of fourteen feet, be 
adopted as the line of the work. This line will be at the distance of 
about 600 feet from the shore. The breakwater should be formed of 
crib-work, loaded with stone in the usual manner, the cribs of which 
should be about 20 by 30 feet at their base, and rise six teet above the 
surface of the lake. 

On the supposition that this work is designed for the protection of 
commercial harbors, the position of the breakwater should be as above 
stated, and in addition thereto the harbor must be enlarged and deep- 
ened by dredging to the depth of 14 feet ; and a bridge-pier should be 
extended from the shore some two or three himdred feej, for the pur- 
pose of connecting the shore with the harbor. 

A decision as to the proper extent, position, form and cYvaiacXet o\ 
the break wa/er, or of any other works connected therewith, aVvovjJA \i& - 



289 H. Doc. 1. 

^ deferred till a careful examination of the site, and its surrounding cir- 
cumstances, shall have been made by the board. 

Erie harbor. 

In relation to the harbor of Erie, the board has very respectfully to 
report, that the information in its possession, the most recent being 
that which it derives from the annual report of 1846, is not such as to 
enable it to form definite plans for its improvement by means of addi- 
tional works, or by the extension of those existing. Moreover, the 
board is not informed respecting the actual condition of the works 
which have been constructed, or die effect that time and the action of 
the sea may have had upon them. It can only recommend, therefore, 
in general terms, that measures be at once taken for the repair of the 
dilapidated portions of the piers and structures at this harbor ; and, it 
may be added, that the like recommendation will apply to all the other 
harbors where the timber-work has been extensively injured by decay 
or other causes, except in the case of such harbors as have been 
specially reported upon by the board. 

The board having under consideration the principles of construction 
to be employed in building the piers, jettees, and breakwaters on the 
lakes, are of opinion : 

1st. That these works ought to be founded on cribs of timber filled 
in with stones. 

2d. That the ordinary length of each crib should be 30 to 50 feet. 

3d. That the breadth of the piers, &c., ought not to be less than 
twenty feet, even in the shoalest water. 

4th. That their average width ought at least to equal their total 
height from the foundation to the platiorm. 

6th. That the platform or deck of the piers, &c., ought to rise 6 feet 
above high-^fcter level of the lake. 

6th. That the side exposed to the waves ought to be vertical fix)m 
top to bottom, and as much as possible free fix)m angular projections 
or breaks. 

7th. That the sheltered side ought to be vertical from the platform 
to five or six feet below the low-water level, and thence downward it 
ought to have a slope or batter in grades of one-third to the natiural 
foundation. 

8th. That the timbers used in the work should be all squared or 
sawed. 

9th. That the exposed face of the work ought to be covered with 
plank well fitted and bolted to the timbers, and to extend if possible 
from the top to the natural foundation. 

10th. That whenever it is dangerously exposed to floating ice, it 
should be defended by wrought- iron bars or straps well bolted to the 
timbers. 

11th. That the bottoms of the cribs ought to be of grillage, the 
openings in wjiich should be barely suflScient to allow the stone-fiUing 
of the cribs to setde to the ground. 

iJ^tb. Thai the rip-rapping, if any, around the bottom of the cribs, 



H. Doc 1. 237 

ought not to rise so high as to be exposed sensibly to the action of the 
waves. 

13th. That the piles, which are used sometimes in the inside of the 
cribs, have not the effect to keep them permanently in place or plumb. 

14th. That the cribs beneath the water surface should be of the 
same width as the piers or breakwaters, and may be of different 
lengths. Above water the crib-work should be constructed so as to 
preserve a break-joint connexion throughout the whole length of the 
work. 

16th. That due time having been allowed for the ultimate settlement 
of the structure, the upper part of it should be replaced by masonry, 
namely, from a point so low that the timber of the foundation may not 
be liable to come in contact with the atmosphere. 

The board reserves for a future report the question of the dimen- 
sions of the timbers, the method of framing, or the carpentry of the 
cribs, the filling in with stone, and the setting of the cribs into place. 
To enable the board to arrive at satisfactory opinions upon points now 
referred to, and enter into the details which ought to characterize such 
a report, it will be necessary for the members to examine for them- 
selves the works most worthy of notice, or those that are thought to be 
the most successful examples of crib- work on the lakes, as well as 
those that are defective. 

The board would thus be enabled to judge more satisfactorily as to 
the causes (arising either from inherent defects or accidents) that have 
led to their failure ; and, on the other hand, the causes that may have 
contributed to the eflSciency of those that have succeeded. 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. CoL Top. Engineers j President of Board. 



Office of Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rfvers, 
fVashington, May 4, 1853. 

Sir : I am instructed by the board to make the following report on 
the communication of J. A. Potter, esq., agent, dated the 28th ultimo, 
covering reports of inspection of the harbors of Conneaut, Ashtabula, 
and Grand River, on Lake Erie, presented for the action of the board 
by the bureau on the 2d instant : 

/ Harbor at Conneaut. 

The piers at this harbor are stated by the agent as in very good re- 
pair. The portions out of repair, and which he proposes to restore, 
are — 

1st. About three hundred feet of the west pier against the beach, to 
prevent the sand of the lake shore from driving into the river between 
the piers ; and, 

2d. About an equal length, judging from the sketch wYucYi accoixrea- 



288 H. Doe. 1. 

nies the report, of the inner part of the east pier, to prevent the fiver 
breaking through the beach into the lake east of that pier. 

To both these propositions the board very respectfully gives its ap- 
proval, and recommends that they be carried into effect. 

A third proposition, namely, to extend the west pier into the lake, is 
also made by the agent. It appears this extension was aiterapied 
some years since, but failed, and all that remains of the work is the 
bottom of two isolated cribs near the end of the pier. These two 

friers, with seven or eight feet water respectively over them, have a 
ength, as exhibited by the accompanying sketch, of about sixty feet. 
To make the extension now, the agent recommends, that as it will be 
difficult to secure the new work properly over the two ruined piers, to 
incline the work westward a few degrees, (and which* he thinKs may 
be done "with perfect propriety,") and thus avoid them. 

The board is not prepared to give its sanction to this proposition, for 
the reason that the direction given to the ru'ned piers, as shown by the 
same sketchy is already northwest, (the line of the present outer part of 
the pier for ninety feet being thirty degrees west of north,) an inclina- 
tion towards the west sufficient, in its opinion, to counteract the tendency 
of the shore sand to accumulate against the works under the influence 
of the prevailing winds — the sole object in giving the west pier an incli- 
nation in that direction. The board would, therefore, recommend that, 
if it be found impracticable to secure the new piers required in the ex- 
tension to the ruined piers, an effort be made to remove them entirely, 
or at least to such a depth as will admit the settling of the new piers 
on a proper basis. 

Harbor of Ashtabula. 

The east pier from the outer angle, or about sixty feet in length, 
is represented by the agent as very much out of repair above the 
water surface, many of the timbers being broken, and the planking 
torn up and stone washed out ; and thence, for a distance of two hun- 
dred and fifty feet, entirely gone to a depth of fi-om five to seven feet 
below the water ; the remaining timbers being broken and twisted out 
of place, so that every gale from the northeast throws out the stone and 
timber, and widens the breach. The first portion described the agent 
proposes to repair, by rebuilding it from the surface of the water ; the 
second, by securing the timber of the new work upon the old by means 
of six-feet iron bolts, at distances of every six feet in length. This 
mode, he says, was adopted in a similar case at Grand river, in 1837, 
with entire success. Both these suggestions the board approves, and 
recommends that they be carried into effect. 

The west pier is described as in good repair, with the exception of 
the line beyond the outer angle, seventy feet of the extremity of which 
has been carried away to a depth of from eight to ten feet below 
the surface of the water, the remainder being in a bad state, and re- 
quiring extensive repairs. The agent proposes to repair the first by 
means of two cribs, of suflBcient depth to bring the work up to the sur- 
/kce of the water; and thence, from this level, carry up the entire work 
/or the length described as dilapidated, by ?vTm\y couueeticvg the two by 
Jarge timbers Gram ibrty-five to sixty feel *m \etvgJa, c^x^lvx\\^>at^^Ji^^ 



H. Doc. 1. 239 

butts, and securely bolting with iron as before. This course of proceed- 
ings the board approves, and recommends that they be carried out. It 
would likewise suggest that the breach of two hundred and fifty feet in 
the same pier, through which the sand from the shore is washed into 
the channel between the piers, to which the agent calls attention at the 
close of his report, be also at the same time closed, provided the means 
available should warrant ihe expenditure. 

The board, in conclusion, desires to call attention to the note on the 
sketch of this harbor, staling that the sands continue to accumulate 
against the lake side oi the west pier; in view of which, it is of opinion 
that the further extension of that pier beyond the portion now about to 
be repaired should be deferred until the question of its proper direc- 
tion be finally settled. The present direction is north-northwest; 
whereas, in the harbors generally along the same line of lake shore, it 
has been deemed necessary to incline them further to the west, and 
thus cause the deflected waves, raised by the prevaihng winds, to coun- 
teract the accumulation of the sand against the pier which travels 
along the shore under ihe influence of those winds. 

Harbor at Grand River. 

The agent reports the east pier, rebuilt in 1844-'45, as in good order, 
and requiring no repairs, save the driving of a few piles for protection 
against damage by steamers, which, in the opinion of the board, should 
be done. On the other hand, the west pier is gone, for a length of 
twelve hundred feet, from one to three feet below the surface of fhe 
water. The agent proposes to rebuild this pier ; and as it appears to 
be properly placed, and its destruction due to decay of ihe timber — 
having been ouill in 1832 — the board approves of this course, and the 
adoption, as he fiirther suggests, of the mode of construction used in 
the rebuilding of the east pier, which, the agent reports, has proved so 
eminendy successful. 

The direction of the further prolongation of the west pier would seem, 
from the continued accretion of sand on the lake side of it, to be an open 
question in regard to this harbor also — the course northwest, (nearly,) 
given to the outer end of this pier, for a length of three hundred feet, 
not having produced the beneficial eflfects exhibited at other points 
along the lake shore, where it would seem the same causes are present. 
The board, therefore, recommends that no further extension of this pier 
be sanctioned until the points in question be settled by a personal ex- 
amination of the site. In conclusion, the board would remark, that 
it has confined itself strictly to the engineering questions suggested in 
the reports of the agent of the above harbors, and omitting any notice 
of the matter of the construction of a new scow-crane, of the materials 
and tools on hand, &c., &c., as more properly belonging to the admin- 
istrative duties of the bureau. The letter of the agent, with the reports 
of the harbors enclosed, are herewith returned to the bureau. 
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Col. Top. Engineers^ Presidtnt of Boari* 

Col. J. J. Abeht, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



288 H. Doe. 1. 

nies the report, of the inner part of the east pier, to prevent the ttver 
breaking through the beach into the lake east of that pier. 

To both these propositions the board very respectfully gives its ap- 
proval, and recommends that they be carried into effect. 

A third proposition, namely, to extend the west pier into the lake, is 
also made by the agent. It appears this extension was attempted 
some years since, but failed, and all that remains of the work is the 
bottom of two isolated cribs near the end of the pier. These two 

f)iers, with seven or eight feet water respectively over them, have a 
ength, as exhibited by the accompanying sketch, of about sixty feet. 
To make the extension now, the agent recommends, that as it will be 
difficult to secure the new work properly over the two ruined piers, to 
incline the work westward a few degrees, (and which' he thinks may 
be done "with perfect propriety,") and thus avoid them. 

The board is not prepared to give its sanction to this proposition, for 
the reason that the direction given to the ru-ned piers, as shown by the 
same sketchy is already northwest, (the line of the present outer part of 
the pier for ninety feet being thirtv degrees west of north,) an inclina- 
tion towards the west sufficient, in its opinion, to counteract the tendency 
of the shore sand to accumulate against the works under the influence 
of the prevailing winds — the sole object in giving the west pier an incli- 
nation in that direction. The board would, therefore, recommend that, 
if it be found impracticable to secure the new piers required in the ex- 
tension to the ruined piers, an effort be made to remove them entirely, 
or at least to such a depth as will admit the settling of the new piers 
on a proper basis. 

Harbor of Ashtabula, 

The east pier from the outer angle, or about sixty feet in length, 
is represented by the agent as very much out of repair above the 
water surface, many of the timbers being broken, and the planking 
torn up and stone washed out ; and thence, for a distance of two hun- 
dred and fifty feet, entirely gone to a depth of fi-om five to seven feet 
below the water ; the remaining timbers being broken and twisted out 
of place, so that every gale from the northeast throws out the stone and 
timber, and widens the breach. The first portion described the agent 
proposes to repair, by rebuilding it from the surface of the water ; the 
second, by securing the timber of the new work upon the old by means 
of six-feet iron bolts, at distances of every six feet in length. This 
mode, he says, was adopted in a similar case at Grand river, in 1837, 
with entire success. Both these suggestions the board approves, and 
recommends that they be carried into effect. 

The west pier is described as in good repair, with the exception of 
the line beyond the outer angle, seventy feet of the extremity of which 
has been carried away to a depth of from eight to ten feet below 
the surface of the water, the remainder being in a bad state, and re- 
quiring extensive repairs. The agent proposes to repair the first by 
means of two cribs, of suflBcient depth to bring the work up to the sur- 
face of the water; and thence, from this level, carry up the entire work 
Ibrtbelengih described as dilapidated, by firmly connecting the two by 
^arge timbers from forty-five to sixty feel m \exvgL\v^ c^xefiilly breaking 



H. Doc. 1. 239 

buttSy and securely bolting with iron as before. This course of proceed- 
ings the board approves, and recommends that they be carried out. It 
would likewise suggest that the breach of two hundred and fifty feet in 
the same pier, through which the sand from the shore is washed into 
the channel between the piers, to which the agent calls attention at the 
close of his report, be also at the same time closed, provided the means 
available should warrant the expenditure. 

The board, in conclusion, desires to call attention to the note on the 
sketch of this harbor, stating that the sands continue to accumulate 
against the lake side ot the west pier; in view of which, it is of opinion 
that the further extension of that pier beyond the portion now about to 
be repaired should be deferred until the question of its proper direc- 
tion be finally settled. The present direction is north-northwest ; 
whereas, in the harbors generally along the same line of lake shore, it 
has been deemed necessary to incline them further to the west, and 
thus cause the deflected waves, raised by the prevailing winds, to coun- 
teract the accumulation of the sand against the pier which travels 
along the shore under xhe influence of those winds. 

Harbor at Grand River. 

The a^ent reports the east pier, rebuilt in 1844-'45, as in good order, 
and requiring no repairs, save the driving of a few piles for protection 
against damage by steamers, which, in the opinion of the board, should 
be done. On the other hand, the west pier is gone, for a length of 
twelve hundred feet, from one to three feet below the surtace of (he 
water. The agent proposes to rebuild this pier ; and as it appears to 
be properly placed, ana its destruction due to decay of ihe timber — 
having been ouilt in 1832 — the board approves of this course, and the 
adoption, as he further suggests, of the mode of construction used in 
the rebuilding of the east pier, which, the agent reports, has proved so 
eminen^y successful. 

The direction of the further prolongation of the west pier would seem, 
from the continued accretion of sand on the lake side ot it, to be an open 
question in regard to this harbor also— the course northwest, (nearly,) 
given to the outer end of this pier, for a length of three hundred feet, 
not having produced the beneficial eflTects exhibited at other points 
along the lake shore, where it would seem the same causes are present. 
The board, therefore, recommends that no further extension of this pier 
be sanctioned until the points in question be settled by a personal ex- 
amination of the site. In conclusion, the board would remark, that 
it has confined itself strictly to the engineering questions suggested in 
the reports of the agent of the above harbors, and omitting any notice 
of the matter of the construction of a new scow-crane, of the materials 
and tools on hand, &c., &c., as more properly belonging to the admin- 
istrative duties of the bureau. The letter of the agent, with the reports 
of the harbors enclosed, are herewith returned to the bureau. 
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Col. Top. Engineersj President of Boards 

CoL J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



240 H. IXic. 1. 

Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ May 9, 1853. 

Sir : The board instructed me to make the following report on so 
much of the letter of J. R. Bowes, esq., agent, of the 30th ultimo, as 
relates to the contemplated improvement at Black lake. Lake Michi- 
gan, placed before the board by the bureau for that purpose on the 7th : 

Referring to his report of the 24th October, 1849, for the plan of this 
improvement, the agent recommends, as the best mode of expending 
the present small appropriation of $8,000, to commence the weather 
pier, by which is unaerstood the northern pier, and carry it out to a 
sufficient depth to allow vessels to land stone. Were it not that this re- 
striction-r-taking the general draught of the lake navigation at ten feet- 
will limit the work of the pier to rather less than 300 feet— or about 
half the length proposed finally to give it — the board would hesitate to 
approve the course suggested, considering the question of the direction 
of the outer part of the pier an open question, to be settled by investi- 
gation and further information as to the course of the winds, direction 
of the drift, &c., &c., prevailing on that side of the lake. That it should 
be so considered will be seen from the report of the agent already re- 
ferred to in the following extract : "This is the leeward shore at the 
seasons of the year most subject to heavy blows, viz : the spring and 
fall, when the prevailing winds are from the narthuoard and westward.^* 
" The position of these piers will be west 6® north, to prevent their ob- 
structing as little as possible the general drift of Lake Michigan, which 
is here from the south." But, under the restriction named, the board 
approves of ihe construction of the pier in question, and recommends 
that it be forthwith entered upon. 

It takes occasion to call the attention of the bureau to an error in the 
scale of the engraved map which accompanies the printed copies of the 
report on the improvement at Black lake, and also those accompanying 
the reports on the improvements at Lsike Muskegon and Grand River, 
all in Michigan — forming Senate Ex. Doc. No. 20, 31st Congress, 1 st 
session. The originals are on scales of 200 feet to 1 inch ; the en- 
gravings 133J feet to 1 inch, and so stated over the scales ; but the 
scales themselves are not so reduced, and remain as on the originals — 
that is, 200 feet to 1 inch. 

The letter of the agent is herewith returned. 

1 have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Col. Top. Engineers^ President of Board. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ May 10, 1853. 
Sir : The board has the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the 
letter of the ith instant, of Brevet Colouel Turnbull, in reference to 



H. Doc. 1. 241 

die recent changes at Little Sodus bay, Lake Ontario, and directs me 
to make the following report thereon : 

Colonel TumbuU says: "The aspect of the bay is entirely changed 
^nce the survey made in 1845, upon which the plan for improving the 
entrance was based. 

" The bay is entirely open to the lake, the narrow strip of sand 
which once separated them has been swept away by a succession ot 
violent storms, and is now submerged ;" and, in view of this state of 
things, recommends " a resurvey before commencing any work for its 
improvement, as a change of circumstances requires a revision of the 
plan.'* In this opinion the board fully concurs, and recommends that 
the survey in question be made at the earliest day possible, under in- 
structions from Colonel T., who, from his personal knowledge of the 
locality, is fully informed ot the necessities of the case. 

I am instructed, in conclusion, to say, that the desire of the board, 
made known some time since to the bureau, to visit the lake harbor im- 
provements generally, is much increased by a knowledge of a like 
anxiety, as far as Little Sodus bay is concerned, on the part of an oflBi- 
cer of the deservedly high reputation of the one in charge of that im- 
provement, as expressed in the following lan^age : " I think it essen- 
tial that the board of oflScers for lake harbor improvements should visit 
the bay before anything is done. I should be happy to have the aid 
of their advice." The board forbears to dwell on the subject further 
than to ask that the bureau will take the earliest fitting occasion to call 
the attention of the department to it. The letter of Colonel Tumbull 
is returned. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. CoL Top. Engineers, President of Board. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau of Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington, May 11, 1853. 

Sir: The bureau having laid before the board, for its examination 
and action, the letter of Brevet Colonel TurnbuU, dated the 9th instant, 
describing the present condition of the works at Big Sodus bay and at 
the mouth of Genesee river, both on Lake Ontario, and recommending 
certain measures in regard to them, I am instructed to make the follow- 
ing report thereon : 

Harbor at Big Sodus bay. 

The works at this harbor consist of two piers extending from the 
land on either side and separating the bay from the lake, and two chan- 
nel piers running out into the lake at right angles nearly from the outer 
extremity of the first. All the works are represented, in general terms, 
as in a most dilapidated condition ; and this state of ihmga \s fekSL-j cttt- 
roborated by the details as given in the report of tYie exaxDL\ii^3C\ou% 
Fart iii-^ie 



242 H. Doc. 1. 

The appropriation for this improvement is $10,000 — a, sum, in the 
opinion of Colonel TurnbuU, wholly inadequate to make the repairs of 
the entire works. It became a question, therefore, as to which one of 
these the means at disposal could be applied with the most profit. 
The conclusion arrived at was, that i-3 there is abundant shelter for 
vessels inside, it was most important to preserve the entrance by the 
repair of the cast channel pier, through which there is a breach extend- 
ing below the water level for eighty feet in length. In this opinion the 
board fully concurs, and recommends that the instructions of Colonel 
T. to the agent on the subject be confirmed. At the same time, it would 
further suggest, as the west channel pier is described as in tolerable 
order, witn the exception of the top timbers, which are somewhat de- 
cayed, that these, if the limited means at disposal will permit, be 
replaced at an early day, and thus, as is probable, save the cost of 
more extensive repairs. 

In regard to the delivery of timber, the arrangements for stone, ex- 
cept so far as the taking a supplj- for present use from the inner por- 
tion of the west pier — a measure the board thinks, with the inspecting 
officer, may be adopted without injury to that work — ^the purchase of a 
boat, tools, &c., and hire of scows, the board, considermg these as 
purely administrative matters, expresses no opinion. 

Harbor at the mouth of Genesee river. 

The letter of Colonel TurnbuU describes the piers at this harbor as 
nearly demolished. The west pier is breached m many places below 
water, and, for the remaining length, but one timber in height, and this 
decayed, shows in places above water, and at others the stone only is 
seen. The beacon-light at its extremity is thus completely isolated, 
the keeper of it being able to reach it only by means of a boat; and 
even with this, during rough weather, it is impossible to do so, as the 
sea breaks over and renders it inaccessible. The evil of this state of 
things is too unhappily shown by the fact that, no longer ago than the 
night of the 6th instant, a large schooner, with a vguuable cargo, in 
attempting, in the absence of the light, to enter the harbor, was 
wrecked. 

From the same cause, also, the steamer due at the port the same 
night was obliged to keep on to Lewiston. Under this pressing 
necessity, the inspecting officer recommends, as an immediate ex- 
pedient, the bridging of the breaches of this pier by trestle-work — a 
measure, in his opinion, involving only a moderate outlay; and thus, 
by rendering the beacon always accessible firom the shore, afibrd to 
navigation the presence of a light at all times. It occurs, however, to 
the board that the measure in question may properly belong to the 
Light-house board, for the reason that in the appropriation bill for that 
branch of the service, approved August 31, 1852, is contained an item, 
in reference to this harbor, in the following words, to wit: "For the 
repair of the pier at the mouth of the Genesee river, and the erection 
of a beacon-light on the same, twenty-six hundred dollars." However, 
that the expedient suggested by Colonel TurnbuU should at once be 
earned into effect^ the board does not entextaiii xke least doubt. The 



H. Doc. ]. 243 

ition as to the fund from which the cost should be drawn is not, in 
view of the board, in its province to determine; at the same time, it 
deemed it its duty to call the attention of the bureau to the subject, 
he immediate repair of the piers, which the board infers from the 
mmendation of Colonel TumbuU to give authority to the agent at 
jarbor to purchase the necessary quantity of timber, &c., as con- 
flated, is fiilly approved. It would suggest, at the same time, that 
he west pier has the beacon-light on it, and is exposed to the 
riest seas, the entire force — if this and the available means are in- 
cient to carry on the whole of the repairs simultaneously — be ap- 
i in the first instance to that pier. 

9 in the case of the harbor at Big Sodus bay, the questions as to 
iding the necessary timber and stone and a boat, the board pre- 
ss it is not the wish of the bureau to offer an opinion, further than 
ly that, in its judgment, the stone, at least a limited portion of it, 
' be taken from the shore-ends of the piers, now far within the 
;r line. The letter of Colonel Turnbull, with the enclosures, 
ely: A pencil sketch of Big Sodus bay; two letters from Jason 
er. United States agent at Charlotte, New York, to the bureau, 
d the 30th of April last ; one letter from the same to the same, of 
Hh instant; and a copy of a letter from the bureau to Jason Baker, 
It as above, dated the 4th instant. 

have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
LieuU Col. Top. Engineers^ President of Board. 
ol. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ May 16, 1853. 

r: The letter of Mr. William Gamble, agent at Waukegan, of the 
instant, referred by the bureau to the board, has been duly con- 
ed, and I am instructed to make the following report thereon : 
36 letter of Mr. Gamble contains but a single proposition, to wit: 
change "the position of the breakwater as located on the plan 
ved from the bureau," "marked in red," on a survey made the 
jnt season, transmitted therein, and crossing in very shoal water 
;outh and middle bridge-piers constructed by the forwarding mer- 
ts of this place, (Waukegan,) on which and the north bridge-pier 
le shipping business is now done, " to one on a clay bottom, in a 
1 of twenty feet water, about three hundred feet east of the middle 
je-pier, beyond the reach of the moving sand, which would leave 
)d anchorage for vessels taking shelter under its lee in a gale of 
•" Mr. Gamble submits the proposition to the consideration of the 
au at the request of "the most mtelligent and influential citizens 
B place, who are fearful that any permanent (solid) slruclute ^W-^^l 
e sand bottom, where the silt current is mpving along a\iOte, ^o 
obstruct navigation/' the least obstruction causing a depos^vt^ aa 



244 H. Doc. 1. 

will be seen by reference to the lines of soundings next to the bridge 
piers, when compared with the other lines. 

The general proposition here set forth, namely, to change the location 
of the contemplated breakwater from shoal to deep water, and at the 
same time to give it a position parallel with the shore, the board fully 
approves. But in sanctioning tnese changes, the board desires, as the 

Ehysical features of the locality make all positions equally eligible, to 
e understood as expressing no opinion as to the precise position of the 
work in reference to the town front. Were no further miprovements 
by private enterprise to be made, the problem would be one of easy 
solution; since, in that case, there could be no doubt the position in 
advance of the middle and south bridge piers, as giving most accom- 
modation to the community, would best subserve the public interests. 

But there is no reason to suppose these private enterprises will be 
confined to the three present bridge-piers ; but as soon as the wants of 
trade increase they will likely increase, until they cover the entire 
town front. 

The question then arises, how shall the private interests affected by 
the proposed breakwater be reconciled? This subject is referred to in 
a report on this harbor from Lieutenant (now Captain) J. D. Webster, 
topographical engineers, dated the 3d of January, 1850 ; and as the 
board coincides with the view of it there taken, it begs leave here to 
extract from the report, for the ready exsunination pf the bureau, the 
following portions: 

Captam Webster suggests " that the lots on shore to be covered by 
the breakwater should be purchased by the municipal authorities, and 
controlled by them, under the advice of the engineer of the works. 

** Whether this could well be effected. I do not know. I see no 
safety except in some such regulation. 

** Again: there seems to be no controlling reason, in the configuration 
of the shore, for placing the breakwater opposite any particular point 
in the front of the town. The lots that would be sheltered by it would 
become at once the most valuable property in the place. 

" The location of such a work becomes a very delicate duty. 

** In the absence of natural features indicating its proper position, how 
shall the engineer answer the complaints of individuals who may deem 
themselves slighted or aggrieved by his action ? 

" This seems to me another reason why the property to be thus pro- 
tected and enhanced should belong to the municipal authorities, as such, 
and so the action of the government in the case be for the benefit of the 
whole." 

The board, in case the recommendation of the agent to place the 
breakwater in front of the middle and south bridge-piers is approved, 
begs leave to call attention to the position given to it on the recent sur- 
vey of the harbor, enclosed in Mr. Gamble's letter. 

It is drawn in black, parallel to the shore, in from 18 to 20 feet water, 
and 360 feet beyond the outer extremity of the longer of the two bridge- 

Eiers ; its length (1,360 feet) being governed by N. E. and S. E. lines, 
ounding the arc round by the east of the most violent winds, drawn 
from points at the depth of ten feet, at the piers on either hand. 
It desires, likewise, to caU atteuUou to tW ^lo^t ^^xIyoxjl (j.hat in 



H. Doc. 1. 245 

red being erroneously put down) of the same work in shoal water, also 
drawn in black, transferred on the map from the original design in the 
bureau. 

The letter of Mr. Gamble, and the map of the harbor which accom- 
panied it, is herewith returned. 
I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. CoL Tap» Engineers^ President of Board. 
Colonel Abbrt, 

Bweau Topographical Engineers. 



WAUKBOAN HABBOR9 ILLINOIS. 

Estimate of the probable cost of constructing a breakwater of crib'Work filled 
with^Ume of the following dimensions: 1,366 feet long^ 26 feet widc^ 26 
feet high ; depth of water 20 feet. 

Sding: 69,500 feet white oak timber, 12 inches by 12 inches, by 30 and 35 feet, 

atfl5 $10,425 00 

Piles: 9,520 feet white oak timber, 12 inches by 12 inches, by a5 feet, at f 15 .. 1, 428 00 
Ties : 86,000 feet roond white oak ties, 25 feet long, to square 9 inches at small end, 

at 910 8,600 00 

Clamps: 16,000 feet, (board measure,) 3 inches by 8 inches, by 14 feet, white 

oak, at $14 224 00 

fitringers for deck or platform : 5,460 feet white oak timber, 6 inches by 12 inches, 

by 30 feet, at $10 546 00 

Decking or platform : 74,000 feet (board measure) pine plank, 3 inches by 6 

hiches,by 16feet, at$l2 888 00 

Plank for exposed face : 103,000 feet, (board measnre,) 3 inches by 12 inches, 

by 12 feet, at f 14 1,442 00 

Spike: 42,465 pounds 9-uich spike, at 7 cents 2,972 55 

. 2,600 pounds 6-inch spike, at 8 cents 208 00 

Iron: 38,900 pounds inch-square iron, for bolts, at 5 cents 1,945 00 

Stone, 4,900 cords good hard stone, for ballast, at $8 39,200 00 

Workmanship and superintendence 20,475 00 

Machinery and tools 2,500 00 

90,853 55 

Add for eontmgencies 10 per cent 9,085 35 

Total probable cost 99,938 90 

Deduct amount of present appropriation 15,000 00 

Probable amount required..... * 84,938 90 

I have estimated the cost of the above materials at the present market price. 

WM. GAliBLE, U. S. Agent, 
Waukkoav, III., May 27, 1853. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ May 18, 1853. 

81B : I am instructed by the board to make the foUovnng le^tX. 0x1 
the letter of Mr. C. F. Stamford, agent at Burlington, VexmouX.) daXe^ 



246 H. Doc. 1. 

the 10th instant, and referred to it by the bureau on the 14th, suggesting 
a change in the order of the operations for the present season at the 
harbor at that place. 

Mr. Staniford states, in his letter, that his predecessor was instructed 
by the bureau, on the 26th of January last, " to repair the piers before 
commencing the addition ;" but this course he does not consider the 
best, and suggests that any contemplated addition, this season, to the 
pier or breakwater, be added in the first instance. The reasons on 
which he grounds this opinion are stated, in his own words, thus: 
" I have examined the work, and believe it will not be impaired by 
delay, if done before moving ice next spring. It seems necessary to 
conmience the addition immediately after the receipt of the timber, in- 
asmuch as I shall be limited for room, and some\^ nat exposed to the 
action of wind and water, and believe it would be a "saving to the gov- 
ernment to go on with the pier until arrived at the water's edge, or 
until perfectly secure or completed — then repair the old." 

As the extension of the work involves the employment of new cribs, 
and as these require the most favorable weather to get in position and 
secure, the board coincides in opinion with the agent, in the order of 
proceeding recommended by him; at the same time, it would sug- 
gest that he be cautioned to confine the operations of the extension 
within such limits as shall leave a suflScient oalance of the current ap- 
propriation of the harbor to meet the cost of the repairs in question. 

The letter of Mr. Staniford is herewith returned. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieta. Colonel Top. Engineers^ President of Board. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers* 



\ 



OfficeJBoard of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ May 19, 1853. 

Sir : I am instructed to make the following report on the letter of 
Captain Howard Stansbury, topographical engineers, on the harbor 
improvements at Cleveland, Ohio, dated at that place on the 12th 
instant, and referred to the board by the bureau on tne 16th. The let- 
ter of Captain Stansbury informs the bureau :' 

1. That the public property, with the exception of two scows, an old 
pile-driver, and a small office, is almost useless. 

2. That the old oflSpe, in which the tools, boat, and other property 
had been stored, was burned, and the present building erected m its 
stead. 

3. That this office has been in the occupancy of a private firm for 
the past two years. 

4. That he has notified the occupants to vacate it, and that he is now 
putting it in order and furnishing it for use. 

S. That there is neither map, papei, book not drawings, ficc., show- 



H. Doc. 1. 247 

ing any trace of the agency of the goverament in the construction of 
the works. 

6. That the east pier has been taken possession of by the several 
companies whose railroads terminate at Cleveland from the east. 

7. That some 400 or 600 feet of this work from the former lake shore 
is converted into private wharves. 

8. That he has received significant hints that the government build- 
ing (the office) upon the east pier must be removed, for the accommo- 
dation of one of the railroad companies. 

9. That the east pier, with tne exception of about 600 feet, is occu- 
ped by this company. 

10. That beyond the office three coal wharves are established upon 
the pier, for which the railroad company receives an annual rent of 
$1,000. 

11. That the wharves and fronts and offices of this company are 
wholly upon the east pier, which they are making wider towards the 
east by wharfing. 

12. That in his opinion, if the railroad company has a right to remove 
the office from the point on which it now stands, it has an equal right 
to forbid its erection on any other part of the work ; and, for the same 
reason, the right to require the removal of the beacon-light erected 
thereon. 

13. That if the railroad company has an exclusive right to the occu- 
pancy of the pier, it may compel the government to pay rent for 
the office and light-house, or remove them. 

14. That he desires instructions as to his course in case the railroad 
company shall require the removal of the office. 

16. That a large portion of the parapet wall of the east pier, hav- 
ing become useless as protection a^gainst the lake, by the wiaening by 
1)rivate enterprise, as already mentioned, it may be reduced to the lower 
evel of the work, and the stone advantageously used on other portions 
of the harbor improvements. 

16. That application had been made to him to prevent this reduction, 
which he conceives he has no authority to grant. * 

17. That he proposes to repair and strengthen the east pier-head, 
which has been injured bv a steamboat running against it and displac- 
ing and breaking some of the stone. 

18. That a considerable portion of the stone coping of the inner line 
of the east pier is in a dilapidated state, which in nis opinion should be 
repaired by those using it., 

19. That that portion of the west pier which lies within the lake 
shore, as now formed, is occupied by the depot and buildings of the 
railroad from Norwalk and Toledo. 

20. That all that is required, in addition to the repair of the east pier- 
head, is the repair of the west pier from the lake shote outward, and 
its extension into the take for such distance as may be deemed expe- 
dient. 

21. That a large quantity of stone blocks for the coping of the west 
pier has fallen into the haroor, for the raising and piling of which upon 
the pier, he proposes, as a matter of economy, to pay a givetv^tvee ^t 
cora. 



248 H. Doc. 1. 

22. That he is engaged in hauling out and repairing the crane-scows 
and pile-driver, the condition of which he describes — the latter with 
the engine nearly worthless ; he asks authority to obtain a new en- 
gine in case the boat is worthy of repair. 

23. That he has contracted for a heavy yawl to carry stone and 
other materials ; and asks for authority to purchase one of Francis' 
galvanized iron boats for the use of the harbor. 

24. That he proposes to erect a water-gauge at the harbor to regis- 
ter the level of the lake, in connexion with observations on the force 
and direction of the wind ; and asks authority to construct a sufficient 
number of othiers for the different harbors within his superintendence. 

The board having maturely considered the various matters contained 
in Captain Stansbury's letter, and of which the foregobg is a condensed 
view, is of opinion that all operations, whether for the construction of 
new works or the repair of old ones, should be suspended until the 
question of ownership over them be definitely settled. With this view 
it respectfully recommends that the bureau call the attention of the 
War Department to the subject, in order that the proper legal officer 
may be directed to lake such action as a proper regard for the public 
interests would seem to dictate. The board would likewise recom- 
mend, that during the suspension of active operations caused by the 
carrying out of the above suggestion. Captain Stansbury be directed 
to make a detailed survey of the harbor and the adjacent waters, speci- 
fying on the map of the same, from the best sources within his reach, 
the claims of ownership set up and referred to in his letter ; and that 
in view of this service he be authorized to purchase the boat he asks 
for, and to cause to be constructed and established the water-gauge, &c., 
at the harbor ; and further, that he be authorized to have constructed 
and erected similar gauges at all the harbors under his general super- 
intendence. 

As Captain Stansbury has not, it appears, received from the late 
agent, or been able to find, any papers connected with the harbor im- 

Erovement — one of the many evils growing out of the employment and 
equenl change of civil agents, and the suspension of timely appro- 
priations — the board would advise that he be furnished with copies of 
all those on the files of the bureau that may be necessary to give hina 
a proper insight into the proceedings heretofore. In regard to his course, 
in case he should be called upon by the railroad company, whose works 
abut against the east pier, to remove the office, the board deems it best 
that he should take no further action than to report promptly the fact 
to the bureau, and await further instructions; and, finally, that it deems 
it unadvisable to allow the repair of any portion of the works to be 
made by private individuals or companies, as the authorization might 
be construed into an acknowledgment of the right of ownership in the 
parties so engaged. 

The letter of Capt. Stansbury is returned. » 
I hav^ the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Col. Top. Engineers^ President of Board. 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Tcpographical Engineers. 



H. Doc. I. 349 

Officb Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ June 21, 1863. 

Sir : I am instructed to make the following report on the letter of 
Mr. George S. Patterson, agent at Huron, to the bureau, dated the 16ih 
ultimo, giving the result of a recent examination of the west pier at 
that place. 

The only map of the harbor of Huron, before the board, is one 
Without date. On ihis map the west pier is represented as 1,400 feet 
in leneth, and the east pier as 1,687 feet in length. These lengths, 
from the position of the hght-beacon being given on the former, it is 
presumeci, are the true lengths of the works, and hence that the map is 
one of comparatively recent date. But the board is at a loss to recon- 
cile these dimensions, so far at least as the west pier is concerned, to 
the descriptior^of the condition of that pier as given by the agent. He 
says " that about seven hundred feet of said pier is entirely gone, or 
to an average of about six feet below the surface of the water ; the 
balance (about two hundred feet) is in a dilapidated condition, and needs 
a good deal of repairs ;" by which it would seem he puts down the 
entire length of the pier at only about nine hundred feet, and not four- 
teen hundred feet, as drawn on the map. The conclusion, however, 
came to is, that the agent, in using the word balance^ had iif mind that 
portion of the pier requiring repairs, and not the entire length of the 
pier. 

If this be the true explanation, then there still remain five hundred 
feet of these fourteen hundred feet that do not require any repairs. 
These five hundred feet the board does not hesitate to assume, from the 
greater depth of water, and the more recent construction, comprise the 
outer end of the pier, including, of course, the pier-head on which the 
light-beacon stands ; and, also, that ** the balance, (about two hundred 
feet,) in a dilapidated condition," comes next in order towards the 
shore. With this mode of reconciling the report of the agent and the 
map of the harbor, the board, believing the present ruinous condition 
of the pier to be mainly attributable to the small depth of water in 
which the cribs are founded, begs leave very respectfully to recom- 
mend, that until such time as a final revision be made of the plan, in- 
cluding the mode of construction of the works of the harbor, all 
repairs be confined to the first seven hundred feet of the pier, measured 
fi-om the pier-head, or until the depth of say ten feet is reached ; and 
that fi:-om this point to the shore a pathway be raised upon trestles, out 
of the reach of the sea, upon the ruins of the present work, to form a 
means of communication between the shore and light-beacon. The 
board would also recommend a like course in regard to the east pier, 
fi:'om the outer end, towards the shore, to about a depth of ten feet, in 
case that pier, within these limits, reouires repairs. 

The means available for this harbor are by the river and harbor 
bill act, approved August 30, 1862. 



250 H. Doc. 1. 

For repairing the piers at Huron River harbor, Ohio $10,000 

By the Light-house bill act, approved August 31, 1S62, "For 
the repairs of the light-house, pier, and pier-head, in the 
harbor of Huron, on which the light-house is built 6,000 

16,000 



The letter of Mr. Patterson is herewith returned. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your ob't servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Col. T(tp. Evgineersj President of Board. 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington, June 23, 1863. 

Sir : The board having had under consideration the letter of Mr. 
Lewis Darrah, agent of the harbor at Munroe, dated the 19th ultimo, 
giving an account of the present condition of the works at that place, 
and recommending a course for future operations, instructs me to re- 
port, as the opinion of the board : 

1. That the three breaches in the north pier, mentioned by the agent, 
be at once filled up with new work of the same width and height as 
the original work. 

2. Tnat the remainder of the same pier, described as decayed for 
eighteen inches below the present level of the lake, be renewed to the 
original height. 

3. That the question of the adoption of the plan " to crib anew four 
feet north of the present or old work, and tie across the whole, making 

' a 12- feet pier," as proposed by the agent, be postponed until the con- 
templated inspection of the harbor by a member ot the board be made 
and reported upon ; and 

4. That no measures be taken in reference to the south pier until the 
result of the above inspection is known ; and, also, it is seen that the 
repairs to the north pier, and the additional line of cribs proposed for 
that pier, if approvea, can be made with the present available means. 

The board desires me, in conclusion, to call the attention of the bu- 
reau to the sketch of the harbor, accompanying the letter of the agent, 
as deficient in soundings and meridians. 

The letter of Mr. Lewis Darrah, agent, is herewith returned. 
1 have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
LietU. Col. Top. Engineers^ President of Board. 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



H. Doc. 1. 251 

Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington, June 23, 1853. 

Sir : I am instructed by the board to report on the reference by the 
bureau of the letter of Captain Howard Stansbury, topographical en- 
gineers, dated at Cleveland, the 26th ultimo, that, in its opinion, the 
report of the board of the 19th of the same month on his letter of the 
12th, a copy of which was subsequently forwarded to him by the bu- 
reau, supersedes the necessity of any further report on the subject re- 
ferred to therein. The letter of Captain Stansbury of the 26th is here- 
with returned to the bureau. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. CoL Tap. Engineers^ President of Board. 

Col. J. J. Abbrt, 

Bureau To^graphical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington, June 23, 1853. 

Sir : The board instructs me to make the following report on the 
letter of Mr. John R. Bowes, agent at the harbor of Black Lake, Lake 
Michigan, dated May 20, 1853, in relation to the proposed improve- 
ment of that harbor. 

The agent, in acknowledging the receipt from the bureau of the 
views of the board of the 9th ultimo, in reference to the improvement 
of the harbor of Black Lake, says : ** The principal drift at this place is 
from the south, and the pier suggested by me to be 6rst constructed as 
the windward is the south pier, and not the north pier, as understood 
by the board of engineers." By reference to the report of the 9th, 
the bureau will see the board was in doubt as to the windward pier. 
This doubt, in the absence of any positive information upon the sub- 
ject, was hardly cleared up by the quotations made by the board from 
the report on this harbor, and as the impression existed amongst it« 
members that the drift proceeded from the north, the construction of 
the pier on that side was recommended. The board now, however, 
has tne highest authority, in the intelligent agent at the harbor, to know 
that the drift comes from the south ; and it is therefore only necessary 
for me to state to the bureau, in the name of the board, that all that 
was said in the report of the 9th in regard to the north pier of the de- 
sign, considered as the windward pier, applies properly to the south 
pier. 

The board concludes that, as the questions in regard to the contracts 



252 H. Doc. 1. 

for timber, &c., are purely axiministrative, the bureau desires h to con- 
fine itself to the single engineering points just disposed of. 
The leiter of Mr. Bowes is returned. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Col. Top. Engineers^ President of Board. 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rfvbrs, 

Washington, June 23, 1863. 

Sir : The board has had under consideration the report of Mr. J. A. 
Carswell in relation to the harbor of Racine, Wisconsin, and it has in- 
structed me to make the following report thereon : 

The a^ent states that the nortn pier is in good condition, except 
about six thousand feet of the plank (board measure) repaired by tne 
city authorities of Racine in 1861, but since then carried away. He 
states that, in the same year in which the repairs were made, the city 
of Racine added fifty-four feet to the length of the north pier. He re- 
ports the south pier £ls being somewhat damaged — the timbers on the 
outer end and some portions of the plank covering carried away — and 
he estimates the amount of timber and plank necessary for its repair. 
He recommends the further extension of the north pier and of the 
southern one in a direction indicated upon the map accompanying his 
report. 

The board is of opinion that the repair of the piers ought to be un- 
dertaken at once ; that under the circumstances of the case — namely, 
the shallow water in which it is necessary to build the cribs, in situa- 
tions exposed to the lake storms, and the much ^eater depth which 
they must ultimately occupy — ^the use of pine timber for the lower 
tiers should be allowed, and that the agent should avail himself of the 
consent of the contractor to " reduce the aggregate amount of my [his] 
contract for Racine, so that a suflScient amount of the appropriation 
will be left to put the work in." 

Concerning the proposed extension, I have very respectfully to refer 
you to the opinions of the board in connexion with the harbor of Erie, 
and to state, morever, that it will not be in the power of the board to 
decide as to the position of the prolongation of the piers seaward, until 
it has in its possession more information than it possesses at present, 
and until it is enabled to trace a meridian line upon the chart on which 
the works are drawn. 

The oriffinal papers received from the bureau are herewith returned. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieta. Colonel Top. Engineers^ President of Board. 

Col. J. J. Abbet, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers, 



H. Doc. 1. 253 

Offiob Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ June 24, 1863. 

Sir : The letter of Mr. John R. Bowes, agent at the harbor of Michi- 
gan City, dated the 28th uhimo, submitted by the bureau to the board, 
having been maturely considered, I am instructed to present the fol- 
lowing report thereon : 

The proposition of the agent on the present occasion is confined to 
the character of the profile, and not the plan of the work, which the 
board conceives definitely, or at least for the present, settled for this 
harbor. This profile, and the materials composing it, he describes as ** a 
mole or breakwater of rough stone, founded in twenty feet water^ which 
will be a clay bottom, to rise eight feet above the surface of the lake ; a 
cross section, exhibiting a triangle of which the exterior is one base to 
one perpendicular [1 on 11 on the natural batter of rip-rap slope ; the 
interior slope one to two, [2 on 1.] The whole base will oe Ibrty-two 
feet; the vertex to be coped (paved^ on both sides with heavy stone 
slabs, clamped together, nfteen feet long, extending under the water- 
line sufficiently to prevent the vertex being disturbed by the action of 
the lake or the ice during the winter ; this coping to be secured by 
two-inch iron bolts passing through each face, and also through anchor 
piles previously driven : tnese bolts to be keyed and cemented. To 
protect the exterior slope, a row of consecutive piles to be driven at 
Its heel and cut off below water, as at the Cleveland works." 

Of this profile the agent says : ** Its durability is evident in the na- 
ture of the materials used, and from the advantages a slope possesses 
over a vertical wall in modifying and resisting the direct and heavy 
action of the lake, which would be brought to bear upon its exterior 
slope.'* He is also of opinion that the mode of construction combines 
" simplicity, economy and durability ;" that it has " these advantages 
over a crib breakwater structure ;" as it requires no more mechanical 
skill than is necessary to drive the piles and secure the paving ; as the 
rough stone forming the base may oe discharged from vessels c^rectly 
into position ; as a saving is made in machinery, in mechanical and 
other labor, in the quantity of stone, and in loss of machinery and ma- 
terials in operations so distant from the shore. 

The board wholly dissents from the views of the agent in regard to the 
character of the profile. It does not admit the durability claimed far 
it in ** modifying and resisting the direct and heavy action of the lake." 
The board is of the opinion, indeed, that a vertical profile, or one 
nearlv conforming to it, is the proper one for works founded in even a 
less depth than twenty feet, exposed to no larger waves than the waves 
of the lakes, for the reason that their oscillatory motion is not cut off 
and changed to the inclined or horizontal motion of rollers and break- 
ers — a form under which alone works are subjected to their direct and 
heavy action. Neither is the board disposed to admit all that is claimed 
on the score of economy for works constructed on the profile recom- 
mended. So much of the stone only — namely, three-fourths — as forms 
the profile between the bottom and the draught of vesse\a de^o^\XYcv^ 
it, could be discharged directly Srom them. This bemg l\ie ea^ae, xcv^ 



254 H. Doc. 1. 

chinery would be required to deposit the remainder of the stone, and 
of course much of it would necessarily be handled twice, and involve 
the risk, in some measure at least, of the loss of machinery. The real 
advantage to be gained, among the many enumerated, is the reduction 
of the quantity of materials, supposing with the agent that the rip- 
rapping would stand upon his profile ; but this profile, it is seen, the 
board deems inadmissible. Exceptions might be taken to other fea- 
tures in the design, such as the expedient so often tried, but never 
with success, of paving a slope exposed to the severe batter of the 
waves, the impossibility of depositing stone in rip-rap on a slope of two 
on one, &c., &c. Sufficient, however, is already said to show that the 
recommendation of the agent in this instance should not be approved, 
but that he be required to carry out the plan adopted for this harbor, 
by commencing at a central point with the usual crib-work, and con- 
tinuing it in either direction as far as the available means will justify. 

The letter of Mr. Bowes is returned. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Colonel Top. Engineers j President of Board. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ June 25, 1863. 

Sir: I am instructed by the board to report in relation to the harbor 
of Black river, Ohio, that the agent represents the works of both piers 
at that place as being in a ruinous condition ; and he proposes to limit 
the expenditures at present to the repairs of the west pier, inasmuch 
as this, in the language of the agent, "is the one which at present (for 
the safety of shipping, and at the western extremity of wnich stands 
the ligRt-house) is in the worst condition;" and "because it is not pos- 
sible to do what should be done with the means to the west pier." 

The agent describes the condition of the west pier, saying that "from 
the light-nouse platform 124 feet is standing; the stones have disap- 
peared from the cribs, settled or washed out, so they are not full by 
an average of three feet ; planking partly gone. Then commences a 
break of 200 feet; cribs and stone gone to the average depth of eight 
feet. There remains 168 feet of the pier undermined and leaning 
three and a half feet into the harbor; stone gone out of the cribbing, 
averaging five feet. Then commences another break of 160 feet; tim- 
bers partially gone; plank and top ties all gone; stone gone four leeU 
From this last-mentioned break to the original shore of the lake, 424 
feet, planking mostly remaining; top ties rotten, and broken stone 
mostly remaining." 

The agent proposes filling the break next the light-house, "so it 

may be possible to get to the house in rough weather." And his plan 

IS to use cribs thirty feet long and fourteen feet wide under water, 

}pped above water, say six feet, and boiled loge\!tiei ^\\j£i Yrai\sQl\s^ to 



H. Doc. 1. 265 

be lied at the bottom as often as every three feet, and above as often 
as every six feet, and filled with slone well packed, and to use no 
piles, the experience there showing them to be of little use ; and he 
supports his opinion of the efficiency of these means of securing the 
worK, by stating that the best work at that place, and that which has 
stood well and is now in the best condition, is a part of the east pier, 
which was built after this method. 

The board, while approving of the plans recommended by the agent 
at Black river, would take occasion to remark that the length of the 
pier, as deduced from the several distances given in his account of the 
(Condition of the several portions of the pier, differs from the length 
given in the reports of the bureau, and also from that represented upon 
plans of the work which the board has consulted. The length of the 
west pier, as given by the agent, falls short of the length given in the 
printed reports of the bureau 303 feet, and it is 318 feet less than that 
represented upon the plans now referred to. The board has no means 
of reconciling these differences; and it is unable in this case, as it has 
been in others which have come under its notice, to understand, as 
clearly as it could wi?h, the description of the repairs proposed by the 
agent — and this is an inability which is owing, not so much to want of 
clearness on the part of the agent, a§ to the want of the drawings, 
which are often indispensable illustrations of written reports upon such 
subjects as these. The board is aware that the qualifications of a 
draughtsman or engineer are not always to be looked for in the local 
agents ; but it has very respectfully to suggest that the defect might, 
in some measure, be remedied through the agency of the general super- 
intendents, if they were required to report upon all plans of repair or 
construction emanating from the local agents, or if^ the local agents 
were required to report respecting them through the general superin- 
tendents ; for, under such a regulation, we might hope often to profit 
by the local and professional knowledge of the general superintendents, 
who are always, or ought to be, engineers. 

The letter of Mr. Holbrook is herewith returned to the bureau. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Colonel Top. Engineers, President of Board. 

Col. J. J. A BERT, 

Corps Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ July 13, 1853. 

Sir: The report of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel McClellan of the 7th 
instant, upon the improvement of the Tennessee river, is received, an(t 
will be laid before the board at its next meeting. As Colonel McClel- 
lan proposes departing from the plan of improvement of the navigation 
near Little River shoals proposed by Lieutenant Colonel L»ox\^, ^\\o 
had carefully studied this subject, I think the board must vi\a\i XoX^a.^^ 
bis reasons for so doing; and 1 would very respectfuUy suggest Xo xiaa 



256 H. Doc. 1. 

bureau that it would be acceptable to have them by the time the sub- 
ject is taken up for consideration. 

In conclusion, I may venture to say, that Colonel McClellan's inten- 
tion of blasting and removing the "rocks and hoff-backs" from the chan- 
nel cannot but be of advantage to the navigation, if he is careful not 
to remove any the absence of which might lead to too great a reduc- 
tion of the depth of water above. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obexiient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Colonel Top. Engineers j President of Board* 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

JVa^shingtoUf July 13, 1853. 

Sir: The letter of Mr. J. J. Lints, agent at Erie, dated the 23d of 
June, lias been received, and I have, in connexion therewith, very re- 
spectfully to refer you to the enclosed extracts from the proceedings of 
the board containing its opinions in relation to this harbor. The same 
opinions apply to Sheboygan, Wisconsin, reported upon by the agents 
Mr. D. New land, on the 30th of May. 

Extracts from these reports have been made for the use of the Lightr* 
house board, in relation to points falling within its sphere of duties. 
The originals are herewith relumed. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servanti 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. Colonel Top. Engineers j President of Board. 
Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board op Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ July 15, 1863. 
Sir: The letter of Captain H. Stansbury of the 11th instant, relating 
to the harbor of Cleveland, is received. There is in this letter matter 
of very grave importance not serming to fall within the province of the 
board, and which it would not be authorized to take into consideration. 
I will therefore confine myself to the one passage which seems to be 
within the limit of its duties, viz: the one relating to the request of the 
8ity council for permission to drive piles along the inside face of the 
east pier, for the protection of the guards of the larger class of steam- 
boats entering the harbor in a heavy sea. This subject of the provi- 
sion, which should be made for protecting the guards of the larger steam- 
boats, has been discussed by the board, and the conclusions to which 
it baa arrived do not seem to me lo coiAict V\\);\\iafex^Qfi^'8XQC the city 



H. Doc. 1. 267 

councils of Cleveland, or forbid Captain Stansbury's acceding to it as a 
lemporarj'^ measure, until the works themselves shall have been brought 
into a condition to afford such protection. 

The letter of Captain Stansbury is herewith returned. 
1 have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lieut. jCol. Top. Eng.^ President of Board. 
Colonel J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



Office Board of Engineers 

Lake Harbors and Western Rivers, 

Washington^ August 3, 1853. 

Sir: I have, very respectfully, to make the following report con- 
cerning the " levee across the mouth of the river San Diego, in the 
State of California, to turn it into its former channel into False bay," 
for which there was appropriated the sum of $30,000 by the act of 
August SO, 1852. 

Our only information, which is very meagre, on this subject, is de- 
rived from the official report and memoir, and the maps, plans, and es- 
timates of Lieutenant Derby, dated the 10th April, 1853, and from 
some facts informally received from Captain Hardcastle, who has a 
personal knowledge of the locality ; but there is not yet enough in our 
possession to enable us to deal with the subject much in detail. 

The Bay of San Diego, one of the best harbors, or perhaps the best, 
between Callao and Puget's sound, receives the river of the same 
name, after it has traversed a very sandy region of some forty miles in 
length. The river is occasionally very rapid, and carries with it, 
during freshets, great quantities of sand. At the time of the first set- 
tlement of the country, it is said to have discharged itself into Puerto 
Falso, or False bay, a slight indentation of the coast, separated from 
the Bay of San Diego by an extensive plane of sand. The course 
which the river followed at that time lay near the northern border of 
the plane, and so continued until the year 1811, when by the continued 
deposition of sand its bed was raised and its channel shifted consider- 
ably to the southwestward of the position it before occupied ; but the 
* river still flowed, as it necessarily must, through the plane, and dis- 
charged itself still into Puerto Falso, on the sea-side ; the hne which 
it then followed lying near the southwestern, as the older bed lay near 
the northern, border of the plane. By this new channel the river con- 
tinued to flow until the year 1825, when an extraordinary freshet oc- 
curring, it overflowed its banks, and, abandoning the channel we have 
been oescribing, it made for itself another lying near the eastern border 
of the plane, or that on which stands the old town of San Diego. 
From this time forward the river was. diverted from False bay, into 
which it had until then discharged itself, and which it had nearly filled 
with sand-shoals, and it flowed thenceforth into the Bay of Sau Dvfe%o, 
and so continues to the present day, carrying with it, durmo \\ve ^le^- 
Fart ni— 17 



) 



258 H. Doc. 1. 

ets, vast quantities of sand, which is yearly encroaching upon San 
Dieffo, as formerly it did upon False bay. 

The object of the proposed work is to intercept the communication 
between the river and bay, and to direct it into False bay, through the 
line of one of its ancient mouths, and Lieutenant Derby proposes to 
accomplish this by cutting, upon a straight course, a canal from some 

goint near the hill on which stand ihe ruins of the Old Presidio or- 
panish garrison, to a point in one of the sloughs in which the river 
formerly flowed. He proposes two lines of canal for consideration — 
both proceeding from tne same point, near the Presidio ; one of them 
on a course north, fifty-five degrees west, (true,) to be excavated on a 
length of 6,213 feet ; the other on a course south, eighty-five degrees 
west, (true,) to be excavated for a length of 6,326 feet. In either case 
the canal to have a width of twenty feet, with a depth of four feet of 
water. 

The first mentioned of these lines of canal, running along the north- 
ern side of the sandy plane already mentioned, would discharge itself 
by the oldest known mouth of the river. The second, followmg the 
more southwardly course indicated by Lieutenant Derby, would dis- 
charge itself by the same channel that the river occupiea between the 
years 1811 and 1825. Lieutenant D. gives the preference to the last 
of these lines, and for reasons which would be quite satisfactory if we 
were about to carry the river on a straight line between the Presidio 
and one of the points selected by him. He presents five diflfcrent 
plans for carrying into eflfect this idea of conveymg the river from the 
vicinity of the Presidio to the point which he has cnosen for discharg- 
ing it into the channel it occupied between the years 1811 and 1826 ; 
arid these plans are charactenzed mainly by the difference of length, 
and the greater or less costliness of the embankment intended to confine 
the river within its prescribed limits. In every case, however, he pro- 
poses to form the embankment nearly in contact with the border of the 
canal. 

Lieutenant Derby has judiciously selected for the new outlet of the 
river the position which it is known to have occupied during the period 
between 1811 and 1825 ; this position, as well as that of the most 
ancient of the known mouths of the stream, being still well defined 
upon the ground by bold, deep sloughs, into which the tides flow for 
some distance into the sandy plane we have spoken of. But we think , 
there are weighty objections to the idea of a canal formed upon a 
straight line of nearly one mile and a quarter in a loose, shifting sand, 
of considerable depth. The same debouch for the river that Lieutenant 
Derby proposes, we would prefer to follow, either exactly or very 
nearly the old course of the stream from the hill near the Presidio to 
its outlet into I'alse bay — a course which the river had at a former 
period already traced for itself, and which it maintained for many 
years, or from 1811 to 1825, and which it would have maintained for 
an indefinite period, if the sands carried into it by the stream had not 
been allowed to accumulate until the channel had no longer sufficient 
capacity for the discharge of unusual floods. This channel, which is 
said now to be half filled with sand, (along the greater part of its 
Icngtbf) ought to be re-opened to a w\dlYi and de^vci %>afficlent for the 



H. Doc. 1. 2ff9 

discharge of the greatest floods. Such a canal would probably suflSce 
for the discharge of the river into False bay in ordinary times, of 
freshets especially, if a dam were constructed across the present bed 
of the stream upon the line suggested by Lieutenant Derby, so as to 
turn it effectually into its proper course. A better plan, however, and 
a much more eflfectual one, would be to detach the dam altogether from 
the line of canal, and in its stead to construct a levee, or bulkhead, 
partly or nearly in the position of La Playa road and its prolongation, 
or upon the lines E F G, drawn on Lieutenant Derby's map: the 
levee to extend all the way across the sandy plane, and also across the 
river, and abut upon the fest land. This line would be very nearly, if 
not quite, the shortest upon which we could construct a levee for the 
purpose of intercepting the extraordinary floods in their passage towards 
the bay of San Diego, and forcing them to maintain their course in the 
directioix of Puerto Falso. The line would have the advantage, it is 
said, of proximity to good materials for the formation of a dam, and its 
remoteness from the probable line of the currents would be likely to 
insure its safely, inasmuch as, if such be the case, there would be a 
large body of dead or still water interpiosed between the dam and the 
action of the floods. Another advantage has been suggested with ref- 
erence to the position of the northeastern termination of the levee now 
proposed, and which should abut upon the fast land at or near the old 
town. It is said that the inhabitants depend upon the river alone for 
their supply of water, and that a bulkhead thrown across the rivjer 
above the town would cut off the supply. This would be undoubtedly 
a fatal objection to such a work ; but it is one which does not apply to 
the locality we are now proposing. 

The height of the proposed levee is projected, on Lieutenant Derby's 
authority, at about four feet above the level of the plane through which 
the river flows ; and if we assume as probable, that the crown of the 
levee is to be at least one foot above the highest freshets known here, 
we would have but three feet for the head of water, the pressure of 
which the dam should be calculated to resist, and this appears to be 
the probable maximum to be provided for, because it is apparent that 
the general flow of any waters overspreading the plane would be 
strongly in the direction of False bay before it could attain a height of 
three feet at the proposed bulkhead, (so that the bulkhead would be 
relieved from the pressure,) before it had attained an elevation suflScient 
to endanger the crown of the bank. 

An einbankment of the height now assumed, if it were built of clay 
and gravel, and retired from the influence of the current, would not 
require any unusual or expensive measures for its security, except at 
the crossing of the river near the town. The following profile of the 
embankment will suflBciently explain itself, with the remark, that to 
prepare the foundation for it, it will probably be enough to clear away 
the top soil to the depth of not more than two feet, in order to get to a 
tolerably firm footing. Moreover, it is not supposed that any other 
revetment or protection of the surfkce will be required than the oidxivarj 
vegetation of the vicinity. As to the slopes of the emibankmeTvl, t^se 
will be determined by observation, and the ratio of the base to tbe «\v\- 
lud^ w/H be increased, if it is found hereafter that the rams are XSiLeV^ 



260 H. Doc 1. 

to degrade the work ; if constructed according to the inch'nation given 
in the sketch at the passage of ihe river, of course the usual known pre- 
cautions should be employed for the strengthening and defending of 
the work, and especially for securing for it as firm a looting as possible, 
and for enabling it to withstand ihe probable efforts of the stream to 
undermine it, and these precautions should be redoubled whenever a 
firm foundation is to be found only at great depths. 

But it appears fi-om the report of Lieutenant Derby that the neces- 
sity for such unusual precaution is to be anticipated only on a very 
limited portion of the embankment. 

We have not the means of making a detailed plan and estimate of 
the work now proposed. We do n -t know what is the volume of 
water discharged in a given time during freshets. We have not the 
length, breadth, or depth, of the channels by which the river formerly 
discharged itself; nor have we suflBciently precise information on these 
points with respect to the present river below the Presidio, as it tra- 
verses the sandy plane that separates the two bays. We have nott 
therefore, the means of estimating for our own satisfaction, or for that 
of others, the cross-section that ought to be given to the channel into 
which we propose to turn the stream. Moreover, we have not the 
exact length nor the longitudinal profile of the levee proposed to be 
constructed near the Playa road, a profile for that portion of the levee 
which crosses the sandy plane, nor a profile for that portion that must 
be constructed across the river-bed. We want also the slope which 
the sides of the banks ought to have in order to resist the heavy and 
continued rains which occur in that vicinity, or the slope which is 
proper for vegetation, as one of the means of protecting the levee. 

Notwithstanding this deficiency of information, it is presumed that 
some approach to the probable cost of the work ought to be attempted 
in this repoit, and such an estimate we will now give. 

1st. We have the length of excavation of the old bed of tlie river, 
(1811 and 1825,^ following its sinuosities as given in Lieutenant Der- 
by's sketch of tne ground, about 3,300 yards, on a cross-section of 
about 9 yards. If we assume as sufficient the discussion given by 
Lieutenant Derby, these elements — namely, 3,300 yards x 9 — ^willgive 
for the sohd representing the amount of excavation 29,700 yards, only 
one half of which (14,850 cubic yards) should be carried into the esti- 
mate, because the ancient bed of the river is supposed to be but halt 
filled with sand. 

2d. For the proposed levee or embankment near or upon the Playa 
road, we have from Lieutenant Derby's map the approximate length 
of 1,090 yards to the edge of the present bed of the river, w^ith a cross- 
section of say 7 yards, cr 7,630 cubic yards. 

3d. We have for the probable excavation to a firm foundation for 
the embankment, a section of 2 X 1,090 yards = 2,180 cubic yards. 

4th. For the probable length of the portion of the levee, or bulkhead, 

which must be carried across the bed of the river, using Lieutenant 

D.'s map as our guide, we have 140 yards — ^a distance not given with 

any de^ee of confidence, because we can only determine upon the 

ground^ and after a very careful survey, \Vv^ ^int within or near the 

limits o£ the town of San Diego w\\eie \!tv& ^o^^sJiKcafctiV ^Vtfwld ter- 



H. Doc. 1. 261 

minate. It may here be remarked that probably a shorter, and in other 
respects an equally eligible line, may be found a little to the south of 
La Playa road. 

Taking these quantities in connexion with the prices given in Lieu- 
tenant D.'s estimates, we have for the cost of the work as follows: 

1st. For 14,860 cubic yards of excavation of channel, at 

$1 20 per yard $17,820 00 

2d. For 7,630 yards of embankment, at $1 20 per yard. 9,156 00 

3d. For 2,180 yards of excavation for founaation, at 

$1 20peryard 2,616 00 

4th. For 140 running yards of bulkhead, at $33 per yard. 4,620 00 

34,212 00 
6th. Add for unforeseen labor and materials, and for con- 
tingencies, 12 per cent 6,131 80 

39,343 60 



As it is very probable that there may be objections to the plans now 
proposed, on the score of safely, economy, or of public or private in- 
terests or convenience, which do not present themselves to us, it is 
advisable to refer the subject to Lieutenant Derby for his views. If it 
is not out of our province to do so, we would advise the securing to 
the United States of the title to the land to be occupied by these works 
before they are undertaken, and the securing of the junsdiction over 
the same, so as to protect the works against encroachments. 

In conclusion, I should state that this report has not been formally 
laid before the board, although the outline of the plan proposed in it 
has been submitted and discussed and approved by it, and a report 
ordered to be drawn up, in conformity with the general project. With 
this explanation, it may be received as the report of the Doard. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES KEARNEY, 
Lt. Col. Top. Eng.j President of the Board. 

Col. J. J. Abert, 

Bureau Topographical Engineers. 



262 



H. Doc. 1. 




H. Doc. 1. 26a 



REPORT OP THE COLONEL OP ORDNANCE. 



Ordnance Oppice, 
Wcuhingtatiy November 11, 1853. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the principal 
operations of the Ordnance department during the fiscal year ending 
dOth June, 1853. 

The arrangement of the subjects is the same as that usually fol- 
lowed in the annual document, having under each head explanatory 
remarks, and such suggestions for the future management of the depart- 
ment as seem likely to add to its efficiency and conduce to the public 
interest. 

PUNDS. 

Amount undrawn fi-om the treasury on the 1st July, 

1852 $576,892 06 

In hands of disbursing officers same date 97,019 54 

Amount of appropriations for the fiscal year 1853, in- 
cluding the fixed annual appropriation for arming and 
equipping the mililia 803,815 00 

Received for damages to arms in hands of troops, and 
chargeable to them, and from all other sources not 
before mentioned 101,110 10 

1,578,836 70 

Amount of expenditures during the year 1,007,587 09 

Amount carried, at the treasury, to the surplus fund . . . 53,094 10 

Remaining in hands of disbursing officers 255,078 25 

Remaining undrawn fi-om the treasury 263,077 26 

1,578,836 70 



The amounts expended from each appropriation are stated under 
their respective heads. 

The disbursing officers of the department have all rendered their 
accounts, as prescribed in the ordnance regulations, and these accounts 
have been transmitted to the auditing officers, after careful examina- 
tion in this office, and it affords me pleasure to say that no loss has 
been incurred by the government. 

The estimates for the next fiscal year have been carefully made, 
and contain nothing but what is thought necessary for the public in- 
terest. Your particular attention is asked for the arsenals proposed 
for Texas, New Mexico, California, and Oregon. Large araovinXa ol 
stores are being collected at the temporary ordnance deipb\a Ssi ^^ 



264 H. Doc. 1. 

States and Territories, where they are, from want of proper shelter and 
the means of repair, exposed to deterioration and to entire loss. The 
distance of these depots from the Atlantic arsenals and magazines 
might make such loss a great national misfortune. 

ARMAMENT OF FORTIFICATIOXS. 

Under this appropriation a number of guns of heavy calibre have 
been heretofore procured, and the number would have been much 
greater ; but, as it is contemplated to change the propoilions of the 
various caUbres in our coast fortifications, it was deemed advisable 
to defer the procurement of these guns for the time. The difficulty of 
procuring suitable timber for the carriages of heavy guns, and the time 
required for seasoning, renders the delay in procuring the guns less 
important. 

Contracts that were entered into for timber for 600 carriages for 
guns of the largest caUbre have not been complied with, and it is 
apprehended that other means will have to be resorted to before the 
necessary supply can be obtained. 

There has been expended under this appropriation during the year 
$20,968 96, and the principal results are the construction of — 

5 32-pounder barbette carriages and their chasses. 
30 24-pounder barbette carriages and their chasses. 

6 32-pounder casemate carriages and one chassis. 

13 24-pounder flank defence howitzer carriages, complete. 

1 8-inch columbiad carriage and chassis. 
25 garrison and casemate gms. 

ORDNANCE, ORDNANCE STORES, AND SUPPLIES. 

The operations under this head are principally in the purchase, 
fabrication, and supply of artillery for field, siege, and mountain bat- 
teries, with their carriages, forges, caissons, wagons, implements, 
harness, and ammunition ; pistols, swords, and accoutrements of all 
kinds. 

The expenditures under this head during the vear have amounted 
to $171,162 67, and the result has been chiefly the procurement of— 
7 12-pounder and 28 6-pounder bronze guns. 

7 32-pounder and 6 12-pounder bronze howitzers. 
30 12-pounder howitzers, mountain. 

15 24-pounder and 10 12-pounder siege guns. 

8 8-inch siege howitzers. 

2 32-pounder guns, and 1 42-pounder casemate carriage, (ex- 

perimental.) 

3 12-pounder mountain howitzer carriages. 

20 24-pounder and 10 18- pounder siege carriages. 
151 Sharp's carbines; 1 Colt's pistol. 
129 cannon balls of different calibres. 
150 shells of diflferent calibres. 
541 sphencal case-shot of different calibres. 
960 infantry cartridge-boxes. 



H. Doc. 1. 



265 



4,550 infantry cartridge-box belts. 
5,579 infantry waist-belts. 
5,228 bayonet-scabbards, with frogs. 
1,000 rifle waist-belts. 
1,865 cavalry sabre-bells. 
720 artillery sabre- bells. 
9,315 cap-pouches. 
1,896 sword-knots. 
500 carbine- slings and swivels. 
350 carbine cartridge-boxes. 
461 sword shoulder-belts. 
4,287 waist belt-plates. 
403,644 pounds of pig- lead. 

1,781 rounds of ammunition for field service. 
35,850 cartridges for small-arms. 

3,362 cartridges for siege and ganison guns. 
75,000 percussion-caps. 
376,620 Maynard's primers. 

Statement C, hereto annexed, exhibits the quantities and kinds of 
arms, ammunition, and other ordnance stores issued to the United 
States troops during the year. ^ 

NATIONAL ARMORIES. 

The exj^ditures at the national armories during the year have been 
as follow?: 



Harper's Ferry. 



For the manufiusture of arms, appendages, 
tools, &c., and purchase of materials for 
the same, including salaries and incidental 
expenses 

For repairs, improvements, and new ma- 
chinery, including lands, buildings, dams, 
&.C 



$133,248 63 
47,979 19 



181,228 02 



Springfield. 



$168,256 03 
28, 125 94 



196,381 97 



Total. 



$301,504 86 
76, 105 13 



377,609 99 



There were fabricated at Harper's Ferry armory, during the year, 
10,101 percussion muskets, and 2,762 percussion steel-barrel rifles, with 
43,859 appendages, and 25,794 extra cones for the same ; besides 49,830 
cones, hammers, &c., for flint-lock arms, to be altered to percussion. 
At Springfleld armory, 14,500 percussion muskets, 2,000 cadet mus- 
kets, and 500 musketoons, with 90,175 appendages, and 154,850 extra 
cones. The cost of the cadet muskets is charged to the appropriation 
for arming the militia, as they were made to meet calls from the 
States for arms of that description. 

The fabrication of machinery, and amount of building opeiaUoxYa^xA 
other permanent improve/ne/its which have been carried on durvw%\N\^ 
year at these arwories, will be found stated in detail in iVie leipotva o^ \Jcks\i 



260 H. Doc. 1. 

commanding officers, hereto annexed. The additions to buildings and 
machines have not been as great as in some former years. At Harper's 
Ferry the necessity for improvements was greatest, and the work there 
has latterly been urged forward with great despatch. At Springfield, 
the cause for renovation did not claim such immediate action ; there- 
fore, many desirable improvements, for which the means have been ap- 
propriated, have been very properly postponed till the plans can be 
well considered in all their possible prospects and relations, and the 
means for the accomplishment of such plans shall be sufficient, and 
render unnecessary the sacrifice of any part 

The contemplated improvements which have been delayed are prin- 
cipally in the erection of new shops, to replace those now m use, which, 
having been erected generally long before the practice of applying ma- 
chinery to the manufacture of small-arms had oecome so universal, are 
consequently neither in their separate plans nor relative localities calcu- 
lated to afibrd those advantages which, as a part of our important system 
of manufacture of small-arms, is required of them. 

If employed to their reasonable capacity, the two armories can pro- 
duce 35,000 or 40,000 muskets and 6,000 to 8,000 rifles annually. It 
is not deemed advisable, with the very considerable supply in our arse- 
nals, to manufacture so extensively, as it would in the course of a few 
years make it necessary to suspend entirely the manufacture, shut up 
the shops, and discharge a large class of citizens fi"om our employment, 
which yields a living to them and their families. It has been thought 
more advisable, after bringing our armories to a degree ^j^ perfection 
not exceeded (and hardly equalled) by any other establishments of the 
'kind in the world, and giving them a capacity to meet almost any emer- 
gency, to gradually diminish their products until they reach a 
prudent minimum. With this end in view, this department reduced 
the estimates for the years ending June 30, 1853, 1854, and 1855, for 
fabrication at the armories, from $360,000 to $250,000. This amount 
is sufficient to give beneficial motion to the machinery and constant 
employment to as many workmen as may be wanted, without making 
unnecessary discharges, and at the same time make a proper increase 
to our stock of arms in depot. 

ARMING AND EQUIPPING THE MILITIA. 

Agreeably to the act of 1808, arms have been apportioned, in accord- 
ance with the return last received, to all the States and Territories, 
except to the State of Iowa, to which, agreeably to act of Congress of 
March 3, 1853, arms were apportioned according to her representa- 
tion in Congress. 

If this mode of apportionment, or one founded upon the census, were 
adopted with regard to all the States and Territories, it would obviate 
many difficulties in the way of prompt apportionment to each of its 
proper quota. 

The expenditures during the j)ast year from this appropriation 
amount to $191,233 40 ; and the principal articles obtained on this ac- 
count bj purchase and fabrication, in addition to the cadet muskets 
made at SpringReld armory, have been as foUowa: 



H. Doc. I. 267 



4 6-pouiider bronze guns. 
1 6-pounder carriage. 
1 prairie carriage. 
4 caissons. 
6,^00 percussion rifles. 
1,500 carbines. 
2,998 pistols. 

910 cavalry sabres. 
3,132 infantry cartridge-boxes. 

700 cartridge-box belts. 
1,803 bayonet scabbards, with frogs. 
3,500 infantry waist-belts. 

200 gun-slings. 
1,210 sabre-belts. 
1,350 pairs of holsters. 
1,741 sword knots. 

780 pistol cartridge-boxes. 

700 carbine cartridge-boxes. 

400 carbine swivels. 

200 sword shoulder-belts. 

336 artillery sword-belts. 

The apportionment of arms and supplies furnished to the mih'tia 
during the year is shown by the annexed statements, marked A and B. 

ARSENALS AND DEPOTS. 

The expenditures under this head are for building and keeping in 
repair storehouses, workshops, quarters, magazines, walls, fences, 
wharves, and all other permanent improvements at these places; and 
the expenditures for the same during tne year have been $90,647 09. 

The whole number of arsenals and depots is twenty-six. Four of 
these, viz: Watervliet, N. Y., Allegheny, Pa., Washington, D. C, and 
Fort Monroe arsenal, Va., are arsenals of construction as well as de- 
posite, where are fabricated all ordnance supplies, except small-arms; 
and at one of the others fabrications and repairs have been carried on. 
At all the other arsenals, miUtary stores pertaining to the department 
are kept in dcposite. There are four depots where stores are deposited 
and shght repairs made, viz : one at Liberty, Missouri, one at San An- 
tonio, Texas, one at Fort Union, New Mexico, and one in Oregon. At 
the first of these only are there any buildings of a permanent character. 
The three others are much the most valuable as to location, and the 
means are included in my annual estimate for the year ending June 30, 
1855, for the erection of permanent buildings. The necessity of having 
these arsenals and depots in numerous places, and capable of afibrding 
facilities for easy distribution of supplies, is apparent. 

Notwithstanding the wear and tear of buildings and machinery, and 
the issue of stores to the fortifications, to the troops, and to the States 
and Territories for arming the militia, there is almost alwa^^ ^ ^ta^ 
annual increase remaining. 



268 



H. Doc. 1. 



The following table exhibits the money values renaaining at armories, 
arsenals, and depots, as shown by the annual inventories, on the 30ih 
June last and 30th June, 1852, and the increase lor the year : 





Lands, buildings, and other 
and fixed niactaioery. 


Artillery and small-arms of 
every deiicription, inclu- 
ding gun-carriages, im- 
plements, arcoutremets, 

lion. 


II 

pm 




June 30, 1853 

June 30, 1852 


$4,968,428 06 
4,740,264 64 


$13,618,062 00 
13,293,028 77 


$1,510,739 54 
1,452,667 24 


$20,097,229 60 
19,485,960 65 


Increase .......... 


228,163 42 


325,033 23 


58,072 30 


611,268 96 







The Quartermaster General has expressed the opinion that travelling 
forges for the army, and wagons for the transportation of ordnance 
stores, hitherto provided by his department, and embraced in his an- 
nual estimates, should be furnished by the Ordnance department; and 
I recommend that the regulations be so altered as to make it the duty 
of the Ordnance department to provide these articles. This will enable 
us to use, advantageously for the public interest, labor and machinery 
sometimes out of employment, ana to apply materials which are some- 
times useless for the objects for which they were ordered. 

For a more detailed account of the condition of and operations at the 
arsenals, reference is made to the reports from the inspector of arsenals 
and armories and from the commanding oflBcers of the principal of 
these establishments, hereto appended. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. K. CRAIG, 

Colonel of Ordnance. 
Hon. Jefferson Davis, 

Secretary of War. 



Washington, November 1, 1853. 

Sir : Commencing, under your orders, in February last, I have sub- 
sequently made inspections of the following arsenals and armories, de- 
signated in your letters of instructions — the arsenal at Augusta, Geor- 
gia, having been just previously inspected by me- 

The Fort Monroe arsenal, Virginia. 

The North Carolina arsenal, North Carolina. 

The Charleston arsenal. South CaroHna. 

The Appalachicoh, arsenal, Florida. 
The Mount Vernon arsenal, Alabama. 



-viz: 



H. Doc. 1. 269 

The Baton Rouge arsenal, Louisiana. 

The Little Rock arsenal, Arkansas. 

The Missouri depot, Liberty, Missouri. 

The St. Louis arsenal, Missouri. 

The Detroit arsenal, Michigan. 

The Allegheny arsenal, Pennsylvania. 

The Pikesville arsenal, Maryland. 

The Harper's Ferry armory, Virginia. 

The Washington arsenal, District of Columbia* 

The Watertown arsenal, Massachusetts. 

The Kennebeck arsenal, Maine. 

The Champlain arsenal, Vermont. 

The Rome arsenal, New York. 

The Watervliet arsenal. New York. 

The Springfield armory, Massachusetts. 

The New York arsenal. New York. 

The Frankford arsenal, Pennsylvania. 

From my detailed reports, which were forwarded to the department 
immediately after the completion of each inspection, the following re- 
marks are deduced, and they are intended to exhibit concisely the gene- 
ral means, operations, and condition of the several establishments, the 
particulars of which are represented in the individual inspection re- 
ports : 

Among the objects demanding particular examination, were the 
annual estimates of funds for permanent improvements at the several 
arsenals and armories. These estimates, from nineteen of them, 
amount to over one hundred and thirty-eight thousand dollars — the 
Springfield armory and the Washington arsenal making none; the 
former having sufficient unexpended lands, and the latter omitting its 
estimate in consequence, mainly, of having no suitable site upon which 
to erect buildings that are hi^ly necessary. 

The importance of this arsenal makes it quite desirable that the 
grounds and buildings of the District penitentiary shoulc^be procured, 
so that its limits might be extended farther north. It is now confined 
by this prison to its present limited boundaries. I have strongly recom- 
mended that measures should be taken, in connexion with the District 
authorities, to effect a removal of the penitentiary, or its transfer to the 
department, for the purpose of extending the arsenal grounds and 
adding buildings so urgently demanded by the public interests. 

In the exammation of the several estimates, I have endeavored to 
modify them, conformably with your instructions, so as to combuie 
economy with an efficient system of operations ; and, with these ob- 
jects in view, I have in several instances disapproved of proposed ex- 
penditures, and in others recommended such changes in the improve- 
ments as it appeared to me might render them more useful than as 
originally deigned. 

The employment of the enlisted and hired men, and their number — 
whether unnecessarily large for the performance of the duties in which 
they were engaged, and for the safety and preservation ot X\v^ ^xsXJCvi 

froperty — ^has likewise been a subject for examinaUon aud\ivc^\r3^aTi\ 
have invariably found eSciency in the performance o5 dutj ^ axv^^ 



270 H. Doc. 1. 

degree of industry which is the best evidence that the number em- 
ployed does not exceed that required to execute, by constant employ- 
ment, the business of the several arsenals and armories. Indeed, I 
have recommended at several arsenals, where property of great value 
is in store, an increase of the enlisted force, so as to furnish a more 
eflScient protection. 

The arrangement of the ordnance and ordnance stores at the arse- 
nals and armories conforms, as nearly as practicable, to the regula- 
tions ; and, with scarcely an exception, great care and attention have 
been bestowed upon the public property with a view to its preserva- 
tion and security. 

The condition of the powder magazines, and storehouses for small- 
arms, nitre, and other valuable property, the most liable to injury from 
exposure to dampness, has commanded my particular attention ; and, 
with the few exceptions stated in my inspection reports, all such prop- 
erty is safely and properly preserved. 

A particular examination of the books and papers required by regu- 
lations to be kept at the ordnance stations exhibits a very complete sys- 
tem of accountability for all the public property — ^at present amountuig 
to over $20,000,000 — fur the various mechanical operations, the expendi- 
ture and application of the public money, and the cost of the articles 
produced. This system is as nearly perfect as practicable, especially 
at the two national armories. 

The laws, orders, and regulations for the government of the arsenals 
and armories, have been, so far as my observation and inquiries could 
ascertain, fully and faithfully executed. 

At the armories and arsenals of construction, the working patterns 
and gauges were compared with the original forms and dimensions as 
determined by the ordnance board, and approved by the Secretary of 
War ; and such deviations, caused generally by wear or shrinkage, as 
were obsejrved, were noted for correction.* 

The uniformity produced by the present system, in the constructions 
at the several«rsenals and at the armories, has been productive of great 
convenience and economy, and of increased efficiency in service. 
These important advantages can be preserved only by a strict adherence 
to the requirements of the ninth article of the Ordnance Regulations. 

There remains at several arsenals a considerable number of old 
and obsolete iron cannon, of very doubtful quality. They are of di- 
mensions and model unsuited to the present pattern carriages, and, in 
every respect, are so inferior to the guns of the improved patterns of 
the present day, that they could never be used with any degree of con- 
fidence in their safety or efficiency. With some exceptions, I have in- 
cluded such guns in the lists of stores condemned, and recommended 
their sale, deeming it desirable to dispose of all property that is not 
available and reliable for the public service. 

To the general good condition of the armories and arspials there is 
scarcely an exception. The annual assignment to each of moderate 
amounts of funds for repairs and minor improvements, and the attention 
of the officers in charge to the preservation and improvement of the 
buildings, &c., by a judicious applicalvouof vVve me^ua furnished, serve 
'prevent decay or other deterioration. 



H. Doc. 1. 271 

The operations at the arsenals are necessarily limited — a consequence, 
in some degree, of the accumulation of materiel during the late war — 
although the return to the arsenals of large quantities of valuable prop- 
erty which had been prepared for, and much of it used in, Mexico, has 
caused considerable labor and expenditure in its repair and restoration. 

The capabilities of the arsenals of construction are, undoubtedly, 
quite sufficient, or would become so by the additions that have been 
recommended, for the most extended operation, which, under any cir- 
cumstences, could be required from the Ordnance department ; and the 
large BuppUes of timber, at all times on hand, and otner materials that 
are seciirely preserved in store, place them in a condition to comply 
with promptitude with large and even unexpected requisitions. 

The management of these arsenals and armories could not, in my 
opinion, be improved. Every necessary attention to the increase and 
improvement of their means of operation, to their police, preservation, 
good order and respectability, is evidently given by the officers placed 
in charge of, and those on duty at them, and the results of the system 
of superintendence and command fully justify these commendations, 
founded on observations during the inspections of the past year. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. L. BAKER, 
LietU. CoL of Ordnance^ 
Inspector (^Armories and Arsenals* 

CoL H. K. Craig, # 

Ordnance Department* ^ 



272 



H. DoQ* 1. 

A, 



Apportoinment of arms to the militia Jor the year 1862, under the act of 
1808,yar arming and equipping the whole body of the militia. 



Statei and Territories. 



For what 
year. 



Number of miMtia. 



Nnmber of armi 
apportioned in 
mcflkets. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Massachusettfl 

Vermont 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Louisiana. 

Mississippi 

Tennessee f . . 

Kentucky ,. . . 

Ohio 

Michigan f... 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Arkansas 

Texas 

California 

Minnesota Territory . 

Oregon do 

Utah do 

New Mexico.. do 

District of Columbia 



1852 

1852 

1843 

1851 

1851 

1852 

1852 

1847 

1827 

1838 

1851 

1845 

1848 

1850 

1845 

1851 

1851 

1838 

1840 

1852 

1845 

1850 

1832 

1851 

1848 
(No return.) 

1844 

1843 

1847 
(No return.) 

1851 
(No return.) 

1851 
(No return.) 

1852 



62,533 
31,446 

122,343 
23,915 
14,443 
51,619 

289,306 
81,984 

276,070 

9,229 

46,864 

125,128 
79, 448 
65,209 
78,699 
12,122 
76,662 
53,179 
45,385 
71,252 
88,979 

176,455 
63,938 
53,913 

170,359 
32,203 

61,000 
17,137 
19,766 

2,003 

2,575 

8,201 



2,303,389 



397 

199A 

776 

162 
92 

328 
1,836 

520 

1,752 

69 

297 

794 

604 

350 

499 
77 

486 

307 

288 

462 

565 
1,120 

406 

342 
1,061 

204 

387 
109 
126 

13 

16 

52 



14,615^, 



ORDifANCE OrncE, Wasldngton, November 11, 1853. 



H. K. CRAIG, Colonel of OrHwmu. 



^ 



H. Doc. 1. 273 

B. 

' SiaiemeiU of the ordnance and ordnance itores dutrUnUed to the militia under 

ike act cf April, 1808, from ihft Ut July^ 1852, to the 30th June, 1853. . 

» 28 6*pounder bronze guns. 

■ 1 12-pouDder bronze mountain howitzer. 

1 lO-inch siege mortar. 
25 carria£[es for field artillery, with implements and equipments. 
1 10-inch mortar bed, with implements and equipments. 
; IG caissons, with tools and spare parts. 

39 sets of artillery harness for two wheel-horses. 
37 sets of artillery harness for two lead-horses. 
52 cannon locks. 

4 worms and staves. 
30 watering buckets. 
33 tarpaulms. 
64 bricoles. 
12 drag-ropes. 
24 thumb-stalls. 
24 priming wires. 
4 gunners* gimlets. 
6 tangent scales. 
6 rammers and sponges* 
^ 8 tar buckets. 

I i 3,329 muskets and appendages. 

I I 1 ,190 cadets* muskets and appendages* 

I \ 2,005 rifles and appendages. 

I 32 carbines and appendages. 

^ 1,750 percussion pistols and appendages. 

\ 451 Colt's pistols and appenaages. 

i * 1,340 cavalry sabres. 

250 artillery sabres. 
1 830 artillery swords. 

264 swords for non-commissioned officers and musicians. 
6,220 sets of accoutrements for intantry, riflemen, and cavalry. 
6,190 cartridge-boxes for infantry, riflemen, and cavalry. 
3,770 infantry cartridge-box belts. 
3,850 waist-oelts for mlantry and riflemen. 
3,940 bayonet scabbards for infantry. 
1,450 gun-slings. 

1,000 infontry cartridge4K)X belt plates. 
2,500 brushes and picks. 

500 flask and pouch belts. 
1,150 sabre and sword belts for cavalry and artillery. 
7,440 cap pouches. 
180 bayonet scabbard belts. 
500 copper rifle flasks. 
125 pairs of holsters. 
300 appendages for rifles. 
1,000 hammers for muskets. 
Fart Hi— 18 



L 



ft74 H. Doc. 1. 

1,000 screw-drivers for muskets. 
1,000 tumblers and screws for muskets. 

61 bullet-moulds. 
2,000 cones. 
72,000 percussion caps. 
5,000 cannon percussion primers. 
4 ammunition chests. 

H. K. CRAIG, Colonel Ordnance. 

Orpnaxce Office, Waihington^ Nov. 11, 1863. 



\ 



C. 

Ordnance and ordnance stores issued to the army and to the several military 
posts/or the year ending June 30, 1863* 

10 6-pounder bronze guns. 
6 12-pounder bronze howitzers. 
8 ] 2-pounder mountain howitzers. 
1 24-pounder siege gun. 
1 10-mch siege mortar. 

1 42-pounder casemate carriage. 

2 24-pounder siege carriages. 

24 carriages for field artillery, with implements* 

8 caissons, with tools and spare parts. 

2 battery wagons, with tools and stores. 
2 travelling forges, with tools and stores. 

9 sling carls, with appendages. 

20 sets of artillery harness for four horses. 
694 cannon balls of different calibres. 
176 shells of different calibres. 
3,927 rounds of ammunition for field service. 

220 rounds of ammunition for siege and garrison guns. 
2,226 muskets and appendages. 
93 muskeloons and appendages. 
40 Hall's carbines and appendages. 
140 Sharp's carbines and appendages. 
60 rifles and appendages. 
78 percussion pistols and appendages. 
814 Colt's pistols and appenda£[es. 
180 sabres for cavalry and artillery. 
268 swords for non-commissioned officers and musiciansi. 
2,607 sets of infantry accoutrements. 
1,207 infantry cartridge-boxes. 
7,202 infantry cartridge-box belts. 
8,866 waist-belts. 
7,180 infantry bayonet scabbards. 

887 sword-bells for non-commissioned officers and musicians. 
3,588 sabre-behs for cavalry and arviiiex^. 



• H. Doc. !• 275 

2,700 sabre-knots. 
2,580 carbine slings and swivels. 
225 carbine cartridge-boxes. 
700 rifle waist-belts. 
656,430 cartridges for small-arms. 
332,000 percussion caps for smadl-arms* 
98,000 Maynard's primers. 

20,550 pounds gunpowder. ^ 

2,564 pounds paint. 
459 gallons of oil. 
10,000 pounds pig-lead. 

H. K. CRAIG, Colonel Ordnance. 

Ordnancb Office, WashingtOHf Nov. 11, 1853. 



Statement of the principal operaxiom at the armories and arsenals during 
the year ending on SOth June^ 1853. 

SPRINGFIELD ARMORY, COMBIANDED BY BREVET LIEUTENANT COLONEL 

J. W. RIPLEY. 

The principal operations at this armory during the year were a^ 
follows : 

Fabricate^. 

14,500 percussion muskets. 

2.000 percussion cadet muskets. 

500 percussion musketoons, artillery. 
154,850 cones, extra. 

4.1 20 hammers tor percussioning flint muskets. 
*83,355 components of musket. 

100 arm-chests. 
24 packing-boxes. 

Machines fahricated and in progress. 

2 milling machines, complete. 
2 stocking machines, complete. 
2 water-wheels, complete. 
9 tilt-hammers, in progress. 

1 machine for counter-boring and cutting off" barrels, in progress.. 
1 shaving-machine, (as last year,) in progress. 
1 water-wheel, in progress. 
The cleaning and oiling of the remainder of muskets in stcwe has 
been continued and completed during the year past. 

The painting of the public buildings has been continued and com.- 
pleted during the year past. 

The gradmg, terracing, and turfing of the armory grounds on \!ci^ 
west of the new arsenal, and north of the storehouse, Wve \>e^w 
finished* 



276 H. Doc 1. • 

That portion of the iron fence which extends along the line of State 
street, from Byers street to Franklin square, has been constructed, and 
the foundation for the same has been laid nearly the whole length of 
the western boundary line of the public grounds. A side-walk, ter- 
raced and paved with brick, has also been laid from Byers street to 
the main entrance to the grounds on State street. 



HABPEB'S FEBRT ARMOBT, COMMANDED BT BREVET CX)LOKEL BENJAMIN 

HUQEB. 

The principal operations at this armory during the year were as 
follows: 

M^fket factory.'^ArmB and appendages fabricated. 

10,101 percussion muskets, complete. 

23,026 cones, extra. 

38,794 components of musket. 

15,535 cones for percussioning flint-lock muskets. 

24,295 screw-drivers, hammers, and wipers for flint-lock muskets. 

Machineryjiibricaied and in progress. 

92 feet 10 inches counter-line of shafting, first floor boring-milL 
1 machine for milling and chambering barrels. 
1 machine for first-milling and boring bayonets. 
1 machine for milling rod-hole for upper band. 

1 tilt-hammer for bending barrel plate. 

2 cast-iron frames for large grindstones. 
2 portable furnaces. 

30 cast-iron forges, complete. 
1 set of stocks for 8 machines for cutting barrels. 
1 tilt-hammer for forging cones, screws, &c., in progress. 
1 drilling-machine, large, purchased. 
1 drilling-machine, 4 spindles, purchased. 
Extensive improvements have been made to many machines in 
current service, and heavv repairs have also been made to several 
main lines of shafting, incidental, for the most part, to their original 
defective construction. 

Buildings. 

New smith's and forging shop has been extensively repaired. The 
floor has been removed, and the interior filled up with earth, and 
paved with brick and flagging; new cast-iron forges, with sheet-iron 
stacks, put in; wind and water pipes laid complete, and new anvil 
blocks, placed on cast-iron chairs, set in stone foundations. A venti- 
lator has been put oa the whole length of the building, 216 feet; the 
roof altered and repaired; the foreman's ofl^ce removed fix)m centre 
of buUdingf and a new one made Va ^2de end* 



H. Doc. 1. 277 

New floors have been laid in the borinff-mill and in the bell-shop ; 
the excavation under the floors deepened some three feet, and the 
bottom graded and arranged to carry off* the water wasting from ma- 
chines« &c., into the race-ways. 

Two furnaces built, and six cast-iron forges and stacks put up in 
tempering-shop, with wind and water pipes laid complete. 

Floor paveci with brick, and 20 square yards of flagging covering 
wind and water pipes between this building and the forgins^-shop. 

In tilt-hammer shop, for foundations and fixtures for tilt-hammers, 
there has been laid 29 perches of stone masonry, 245 by 2 feet, face- 
stone dressed, and 167 yards flagging. 

A cistern has been built, capable of containing 26,000 gallons of 
water, for use of shops, &c. An ice-house has been built, 20 feet 
square by 13 feet hi^h. 

Many of the buildmgs, machines, &c., painted. 

Oroundi. 

The dam over the Potomac, which was much injured by the flood 
of 1852, has been repaired, 1,083 perches of stone wall laid: and 916 
cubic yards of filling. Stone forebay at bell-shop repaired, 1,134 
cubic feet of earth excavated, and paved, and grouted with cement. 
Culvert under bell-shop flagged over with 56 square yards of flagging, 
and cross-walls under floors to support joists, &c. 

A grouted stone wall built on tne northeast side of canal, near new 
rolling-mill, 248 feet long, 6 feet high by 4 feet thick; and on the op- 
posite side of the canal a dry wall, 255 feet long, 6 feet high, and 2^ 
feet thick, to sustain that bank of the canaL These walls are com- 
plete, except the coping. 

The sluice-way of canal (near old tilt-shop) has been repaired. 48 
perches j^outed stone-masonry, 50 perches dry wall, and 68 square 
yards of paving, 2 feet deep in this repair, together with a new sluice- 
gate with cast-iron gearing, complete, made and put in place. Extensive 
repairs and improvements have been made to the canal by cleaning out 
sand-bars and obstructions which have heretofore impeded the passage 
of water at low stages. 

To fill up the open spaces under the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, 
61 feet dry stone wall built — 19 feet high and 4 thick — 6,500 cubic 
yards of filling, making coal-bins and spaces under the trestle-work of 
the road. 

To carry off" water from foundations of new arsenal, the road above 
has been graded and drains constructed ; 419 feet stone wall built, 
averaging 7 feet high by 4 thick. 

The old tilt-hammer shop has been pulled down, and the wheels, 
&c., removed ; the wheel- pits, penstocks, and forebay s filled up ; and 
all made ready for building new rolling-mill on its foundations. 

About 1,300 feet of 8-inch cast-iron pipe, with 9 hyd^^ants attached, 
have been laid between the shops for conducting water (to extinguish 
fires) from the large force-pump to be attached to one of the w^\Kt- 
wheels. This improvement will be completed the ptesetvX. a>]LTwa\^t* 

The road5 in armory yard graded and inacadaui\zed\ gtaa^ ^^^ 



278 H. Doc. 1. 

filled up, graded, and sown with grass-seed ; six cast-iron lamp-posts 
put up and furnished with lamps complete. 

Bifie factory. — Arms and appendages fabricated. 

2,762 percussion rifles. 
7,863 components. 

Machinery fabricated and in progress. 

1 force-pump for supplying grindstones with water. 

1 drilling- machine— 3 spindles. 

2 cast-iron frames for large grindstones. 

1 set of stocks for 6 machines for cutting barrels. 
1 machine for cutting stocks to length, completed. 

1 drilling-machins— 4 spindles — ^purchased. 

2 hand turning-lathes, purchasea. 

Buildings. 

The new machine-shop, reported last year as "stone foundation 
completed, ready for the brick-work," has been finished. 

One turbine wheel placed in wheel-pit, of cut stone ; a new stone 
and cast-iron forebay put in ; culvert made to conduct water firom this 
wheel, and other culverts repaired ; storehouse repaired ; outside 
stairs removed and new stairs put up inside. 

Grounds. 

A dry stone wall has been built all along the basin on the opposite 
side of the canal, to the works, two sections on each side of the bridge, 
to raise the edge of the canal, and so grade the road as to draw off the 
water from the road and hill-side, which has heretofore washed laree 
deposites of earth into the basin : for this purpose 409 feet of dry wall, 
nearly 6 feet high by 3 wide, have been built ; 700 cubic y^ards filUng 
put in. 

A dry wall, 224 feet long, 6y feet high, and 3 feet thick, has been 
built along the southeast side of the canal, adjoining the finishing-shop 
and across the opening of old sluice-way, which has been filled up. 
This completes the walling-in of the whole basin. The accumulated 
deposites trom this basin were excavated and removed, amounting to 
near 2,000 cubic yards. 

About 300 feet of 8-inch cast-iron pipe, with 3 hydrants attached, 
have been laid in fi-ont of the shops for conveying water (in case of 
fire) from the large force-pump designed to be attached to water-wheel 
of machine-shop. This improvement will be completed during die 
present seasoi}. 

Two cast-iron lamp-posts put up, and furnished with lanterns com- 
plete. 



H. Doc 1. 279 

Experiments wiih new arms. 

Nine experimental rifles and appendages have been constructed, 
^ith various modifications of the twist of tne grooves, both regular and 
accelerating. 

About 3,000 rounds of ammunition prepared for target practice. 

Trials made with several different guns, and the " a la tige" bullet, 
(26 rounds — the lowest number from which an average was taken,) at 

distances firom target of. 200, 300, 400, 600, and 600 yards, 

resulted in a mean absolute va- 

nation of. 10, 19, 27, 32, and 45 inches 

from the centre of the target. 

The few experiments made with the Mini6 bullet were not satisfac- 
tory. - A modincation in its construction has been contrived here and 
tested at the short range of 200 yards: average of mean absolute vari- 
ation from centre of the target 11 inches. 

Further experiments with this bullet were suspended on account of 
the unfavorableness of the season, .but as soon as practicable will be 
again resumed at other and lonfi[er ranges. As soon as these experi- 
ments are completed, a detailed report will be made. 



WATERVUET ARSENAL, COMMANDED BY MAJOE JOHN SYMINGTON. 

The principal operations at this post during the year were as fol- 
lows: 

1. The required shelving, and forms for arranging accoutrements 
and components for small-arms, put up in brick arsenal, "A." 

2. New flag-staff* made and set up, with earthen terrace around it 
sufficiently large to accommodate a battery of four mounted field guns. 

3. Permanent bins, made with paved floors, for anthracite and bitu- 
minous coals. 

4. A cast-iron table, fitted with tinner's furnace for brazing and sold- 
ering, with necessary blasts, put up in tinner's shop, No. 6. 

6. 6,212 super6cial feet of stone flagging and 408 lineal feet of stone 
gutter laid round arsenal yard. 

6. The decayed wooden conduit and penstocks conveying water 
from the basin to the water-wheels of the smiths' and carriage shops 
taken up, and replaced with 176 lineal feet of 34-inch diameter iron 
pipe, and 66 feet of 24-inch diameter iron pipe ; also, new penstocks 
of^iron for each wheel, 12 feet long, 3 J feet wide, by 3i feet deep, 
with the requisite geared gates, for feeding. 

7. 330 yards of Tarm wire fencing, with necessary gates, put up. 

8. Old magazine, in rear of stone arsenal F, taken down, and the 
materials removed. 

9. 114,000 feet of gun-carriage timber received, and piled in order 
in timber storehouses. 

10. Repairs made to buildings, &c. 

Brick arsenal, "A." — Wood- work and interior waUa Tpa\xi\fc<i ^xA 
whitened. 



880 H. Doc. h 

Offices J "E" — A partition, with door, put up and painted; force- 
pump in lumber-yard repaired; basin at workshops cleaned outt and 
deposite removed across tne canal. 

Stone arsenalf "F." — Tower roof repaired and painted. 

North stone qtmrters^ **G.** — 399 J square yards of concrete laid ia 
basement floor; 347^ lineal yards of blind drain cut in the rock in the 
basement; the well in basement recurbed and covered with wire "ven- 
tilator; permanent shelving put. up, and rain-water spouts conducting 
to reservoir repaired. 

Barracks, "V." — Tin roof painted, and sewer to convey water from 
pump and sink renewed, and new cesspool made. 

Paint thop and harness shop, No. 3. — Tin roof of gallery painted; 6 
windows opened in basement cellar for the better ventilati(» ; mch 
portion of the floor found decayed removed, and a flight of stairs to 
Harness room fitted up. 

Carriage shop. No. 4. — 48^ squares of new slating put on roo^ and 
tin gutter repau-ed. 

Smithes shop. No. 6 — ^Partition made, and iron roof painted. 

Machine shop. No. 6. — ^New tin gutter made and put up, and aU other 
necessary repairs to buildings, machinery, tools, roads, &c., made. 

The principal stores fabricated, and work executed, consist of the 
following: 

Gfim carriages* 

4jcaissons, field. 

1 6-pounder gun carriage. 

3 3-pounder mountain howitzer carriages. 

1 prairie carriage. 
20 24-pounder siege carriages. 
10 18-pounder do. 

1 10-mch mortar platform. 

1 42-pounder casemate chassis. 

1 42-pounder casemate carriage. 

6 32-pounder casemate carriages. 
24 32-pounder casemate chasses. 

10 rampart gins, with blocks, falls, handspikes, &c., complete. 
3 sUng-carts, with chains, &c., complete. 

100 barbette pintles and wedges. 
26 ammunition chests, mountain howitzer. 
13 spare poles, field. 

1 battery waeon stock. 

6 spare wheels, field. 

ArtiUery impletnents and eqnipmemis. 

1 sponge-bucket, iron. 
1 tar-bucket, iron. 
132 water-buckets, leather. 

11 breech-sights for garrison guns. 

12 gunner's levels. 

18 taogent scales, 6-pounder. 



H. Doa L 281 

13 drag-ropes. 
60 ganner's haversacks* 
52 tube-pouches. 
52 tow-books. 

110 tarpaulins, 12 X 16 feet. 
10 do 10 X 6 do. 

9 do 6 X 6 do. 

8 tompions. 

70 lanyards, fi>r friction primers. 
22 lock covers. 
21 portfire cutters. 
26 sponge covers. 
26 vent covers. 

3 seats for 6-pounder pendulum hausses. 
72 blocks — ^whole» half, and quarter chocks — ^for mechanical manceu- 

vres. 
17 rollers, &c., with skids, for mechanical manoeuvres. 
32 drag washers. 

1 6-pounder worm and staff. 
10 trail handspikes. 

1 linstock. 
16 handspikes for mechanical manceuvres. 
40 belly-oands, for artillery harness. 
30 halters, do. 

160 trace-loops, do. 

112 leg-guaras, do. 

66 hame-straps, do. 

do. 



50 nose-bags. 
10 shot and shell gauges, difierent calibres. 
1 trace rope. 

Ammttnitum. 

216 rounds of ammunition for 6-pMer gun and mountain howitzer. 
356 cannon cartridges, various calibres. 
46 24-pounder cartridge bags. 
61 cannon-wads, 8-incn and 12-pounder. 
100 brass fiize-plugs. 
28 fuze receivers. 
2 fuze wrenches. 
100 paper fuzes. 
160 signal rockets. 
600 musket-ball cartridges. 
37,720 musket blank-cartridges. 
9,600 musketoon do. 



JMuceUaneam$» 



426 pounds olive paint. 
108 pounds black paiat 



282 H. Doc. 1. 

16 pic£axes. 
3 Doxes fuze composition* « 

1 bedsteaxl, iron, double. 

2 bedsteads, iron, single. 

200 canisters for proving-powder, 
7 com sacks. 

3 formers, laboratory. 
3 drift moulds. 

3 wad moulds. 

2* graduating machines. 
2 punches. 

4 rakes, garden. 
1 screw-driver. 
6 shovels. 

4 arm chests. 
219 packing boxes. 
124 links. 
4,418 cap pouches. 

58 sets namess altered from lead to wheeL 
1,000 muskets arranged for bayonet exercise. 
30 cadet muskets browned. 
458,000 musket cartridges, altered from flint to percussion. 



ALLEQHENT ARSENAL, COMMANDED BT MAJOB W. H. BELL. 
The principal operations at this post during the year were — 

Articles fabricated. 

112 leather watering-buckets. 
11 fuze-reamers. 
57 gunners' gimlets. 
88 gunners' haversacks. 
11 gunners' punches. 
11 cannon-look covers. 
40 nose-bags. 

11 friction-primer lanyards. 
11 priming wires. 

68 prolonges. 

18 sponge covers. 

69 tangent scales, assorted. 
158 thumbstalls. 

18 tow-hooks. 
39 fuze or tube pouches. 
462 infantry cartridge boxes. 
8,168 infantry belts. 
10,080 infantry plates. 
5,685 bayonet scabbards. 
200 gun-slinffs. 
SO musket bullet-moulds. 



H. Doc. 1. 283 

8,160 cap pouches and cone picks. 

1,252 cavaJry and artillery belts. 

1,367 non-commissioned officers' belt-plates. 

250 pairs of holsters. 
1,757 soft-leather caps and sabre knots. 
4,773 sabre and sword belts, slings, plates, and pouches. 
3,459 cannon cartridges, different calibres. 
3,513 cartridge bags, sabots, and wads. 
1 hose carriage, complete. 
6 ammunition and coal boxes. 
6 wheelbarrows. 
32 clamps, drifts, dies, and punches. 
17 moulders' flasks. 
15 cannon-cartridge gauges. 
64 tools, various. 

Miscellaneous work. 

2,299 pistols altered from flint to percussion. 
268,800 rifle cartridges altered from flint to percussion. 
1,910 accoutrement-plates repaired. 
9,250 muskets cleaned, oiled, and packed in boxes. 

609 loads of earth and gravel hauled and used in grading grounds 

and walks. 
142 sets harness cleaned, oiled, and repacked. 
150 iron cannon cleaned, oiled, and lackered. 

610 square yards paved guUers made. 
Lightning-conductors made and put up on new steam-engine house. 
The quarters, barracks, shops, stables, gas and water works, machi- 
nery, &c., kept in order. 

A new steam-engine received and fixed on a permanent stone foun- 
dation 16 feet long, 11 feet wide, and 8 feet deep. 

A well for supplying the engine with water, 36 feet deep and 5 feet 
diameter, dug, walled, and curbed. 

The walls, to the height of 11 J feet, and all the bottom of No. 2 
reservoir, which is 52 feet long and 15J feet wide, lined with brick, 
and plastered with hydraulic cement. 

924 square feet of flooring, ceiling, and partitions put in the clock- 
room in the arsenal tower. 

480 square feet of No. 4 limber-shed partitioned off*, and a double 
floor laid in it, for a coal-house. 

The old brass, brazier's and lead fiirnaces torn down and new ones 
built in their stead, and the brass foundry thoroughly repaired. 

The old accoutrement and tinner's shops repaired and fitted up for 
an armory, and the old armory changed into an accoutrement shop. 

250 lineal yards of board-fence taken down, renewed, and rebuilt. 

1,075 barrels of cannon-powder proved, &c. 

4 heavy cannon fired 5,391 times, in experimental firings to test their 
strength, and bursted. 



S84 H. Doc. 1. 

WASHINGTOlf ABSENAL, COMMANDED BY BREVET MAJOR A. MOSDECAI. 

No permanent improvements of any importance, nor any material 
additions or alterations in machinery, have been made at the arsenal 
during the last year. 

The principal articles fabricated in the work-shops durmg the year 
are as follows : 

81 32-pounder barbette gun carriages. 
30 24-pounder barbette chasses. 
8 casemate ^ns. 
8 garrison gms. 
8 field and siege gins. 
10 caissons. 
10 sling-carts, large. 
494 rounds of fixed ammunition for field service* 
369,620 Maynard percussion primers. 
900,000 percussion caps for small-arms. 
23,000 rifle-ball and olank cartridges. 
100 halters for artillery harness. 
50 nose-bags. 
60 fencing bayonets. 
726 cap pouches. 
64,120 muskets cleaned and placed in racks. 



FORT MONROE ARSENAL, CCOfMANDEDtBT BREVET MAJOR G. D. RAMSAY. 

Summary statement of principal operations at this arsenal during the 
year, viz : 

Gun-carriage shed, 76 by 27 feet, erected. 

1,410 superficial feet of wharf built. 

Cistern, to contain 4,663 gallons of water, constructed. 

Extensive repairs of public storehouses and quarters. 

800 yards of plank-road, for the transportation of heavy guns to ex- 
perimental battery, constructed. 

Three suspension fi-ames for heavy guns erected at experimental 
battery. 

12,087 rounds fired in experiments with test-guns. 

ExperimenU wUh Bottcher^sfuze. 

February 16, 1863. — 8-inch spherical case-sliot, with 3i lbs. of sul- 
phur and 2 ozs. bursting charge. Target of 3-inch plank, 20 by 14 
feet, at 1,420 yards. 



from Columbiadr— 



H. Doc. 1. 



285 



No. 


Charge. 


Eleratkm. 


FUM. 


Bemark*. 


1 
2 
3 


8 lbs. 
8 lbs. 
8 lbs. 


6° 

40 20" 
4020" 


6" 
6" 
6" 


Burst high over target 

Burst beyond target. 

Burst in front, putting 81 balls and fi-ag- 

ments into it; the balls, in most cases, 

passing through. 



From 8-inch 


li^e howitzer — 


- 


1 
2 


4 lbs. 
4 lbs. 


6° 
6° 


6" 
6" 


Burst at about 300 to 600 yards in front of 
target 

Burst at about the same distance. 

Of these 2 shells, 12 balls attained the 
target — 2 of the 12 penetrating to the 
depth off of an inch, J imbedded, the 
remainder merely impressions. 



Remarks. 

# 

No spherical case-shot burst in this day's firing. The fuzes burned 
with apparent uniformity. The balls picked up on the beach in front 
of the target, where they had struck m the water or on the sand, re- 
tained their sphericity entirely. 

These came from the 8-inch siege. The balls found behind the tar- 
^t, and which had probably passed over it, were flattened on one side, 
m a degree — probably the surface first impinging on the sand — ^which 
might be expected from their great velocity. 

April 26, 1863. 

From 84nch siege howitzer ^ Scinch spherical case-^ 



No. 


Chugo. 


EloraOoa. 


FOM. 


Bemarkt. 


1 
2 


4 lbs. 
4 lbs. 


6° 
6° 


6" 
6" 


Burst opposite a flag, about 1,000 yards, 

36 to 40 feet in the air. 
Burst at about 900 to 926 yards, close to 

water. 



I 



286 H. Doc. 1. 

8-tMcA rpherical case, from 8-t«cA seacoatt howitzer — target 1,600 yards: 



Date, 1853. 


No. 


Pri^eotilM. 


Charge. 


Fnxe. 


Eleva- 
tbn. 


Eange. 


Bemarks. 














YtmU. 




April 28 


1 


Empty shell 


8 lbs. 


5" 


29 


1,200 


Fired to obtain 
range. 


April 28 


2 


Spher'l case 


8 lbs. 


5" 

« 


Sfo 


1,490 


Carriage dis- 
mounted by 
recoiL 


April 29 


1 


Spher'l case 


6 lbs. 


6" 


4|o 


1,360 




April 29 


2 


Spher'l case 


6 lbs. 


6" 


4fo 


1,360 




April 29 


3 


Spher'l case 


6 lbs. 


6" 


41° 




Burst about 200 
yards in fivnt 
of gun. 


April 29 


4 


Spher'l case 


6 lbs. 


5" 


41° 


1,460 




April 29 


5 


Spher'l case 


6 lbs. 


6" 


41° 




Burst 270 yardi 
from target. 



Total hits from 2 days' firing, about from 126 to 160 ; the target of 
12 feet wide and 13 or 14 feet high, of 3-inch yellow pine. The depth 
of penetration varies from mere impressions to three-lourths of an inch«» 
The elevation of the cun above the target about 30 or 33 feet. 

Experiments have been made to test the adaptation of an elevating 
screw to the 10-mch seacoast mortar; the results, thus far very satis- 
factory, are not reported, as further trials are in progress. 

Experiments have also been made with a 24-pounder rifled gun; 
these, however, have been interrupted by more pressing duties, and it 
is therefore not deemed worth while to give partial results. 

The folloviang exhibits the principal m-door operations of the work- 
shops during the same period : 

Fahricafed. 

1 12-pounder truck carriage, for proving guns. 

14 24-pounder howitzer casemate carriages — ^flank defence. 
7 32-pounder barbette carriages. 

2 24-pounder barbette carriages. 
122 tube pouches. 

114 sets iron work for gun-carriages. 
6 penthouses. 

20 casemate carriages, supplied with elevating screws and eccen- 
tric rollers. 
13,000 rounds of ammunition. 

In addition to the foregoing, a great deal of heavy work has been 
done in transporUng guns— Columbians, ^^ ^h^l ^^r^^^inders — shot, 



H. Doc. 1. 287 

shells, &c., from the gun yard to and from the experimental battery on 
the beach, fully three-fourths of a mile ; as also re-arranging the tim- 
ber sheds. 

The ordnance grounds have been improved and embellished, and 
all things pertaining to the department kept in a high state of poUce. 

The average force employed at the arsenal has been about thirty 
mechanics and laborers and nine enlisted men. 



WATEBTOWN ARSENAL, COBfMANDED BT MAJOR EDWARD HARDINO. 

The principal operations at this arsenal, during the year, have been 
as follows : 

1. Permanent improvements. 

One brick coal-house, 46 by 23 feet, one story high, slate roof, erected. 
The old carpenters' shop partially taken down and converted into a 
new office, 65 by 22 feet, two stories high. 
Roof of north arsenal stripped and re-slated. 
Twobrifflc wells, 42 feet deep, made. 
1,572 feet of wooden fence put up. 
Officers' quarters, barracks, and shops repaired and kept in order. 

2. Articles fabricated. 

1 8-inch gun-carnHge, on traversing platform. 
1 8-inch gun-carriage (model, one-quarter size.) 
64 cannon cartridges. 
2,883 cartridge-bags, wads, tompions, and sabots. 
1,647 blank cartridges for small-arms. 
308 handspikes, for field-carriages. 

64 implements, various, for mechanical manoeuvres. 
675 pounds paint and putty. 

194 feet copper conductors. 

65 door and window-frames, with doors and sash for the same. 
Various articles forged, such as saddle-irons, dog-irons, hooks and 

staples, horse-shoes, nails, &c. 

3. Other v)ork done. 

6,027 muskets, rifles, and pistols, belonging to the navy, altered from 
flint to percussion. 
14.379 muskets, rifles, musketoons, and carbines, cleaned, oiled and 
put in racks. 
400 elevating screws, axle-arms, &c., for barbette carriages, cleaned 
and oiled. 
, 834 feet of fence and water pipe repaired. 
4,675 feet of trench, excavatea. 
. 41,350 ieetpme lumber moved and stored. 



\ 



288 H. Doc. 1. 

65,688 feet oak timber moved and piled la west storehouse* 
9,140 pieces carriage timber moved and piled in west storehouse. 
2,460 loads of top soil, stone, gravel, &c., hauled for grading and im- 
proving grounds. 
In addition to the foregoing, the gun-carriages at Forts Trumbull and 
Griswold have been painted; with other jobs, such as improvement of 
public grounds, police, &;c., and in receiving and issuing stores. 



ST. LOUIS ABSENAL, COMICANDED BY CAPTAIN R. H. K. WHTTELET. 

The principal operations at this arsenal during the year have been as 
follows : 

1. Permanent improvewienU* 

Since the last report, the following public works at this post have 
been nearly completed, up to the SOth June, 1863. 

Carpenters^ shop. — This buildii^ is forty-two feet front and rear, and 
seventy feet long ; two and a halfstories high; built of brick; roof cov- 
ered with iron, and iron window sash and shutters. • 

Timber-shed. — This building is thirty feet wide, one hundred and 
ninety-two and a half feet long, one stoiv high, end-wall built of brick; 
brick piers, fifteen inches square, on each side ; slat siding six inches 
wide, and placed three inches apart on each side of the timber built into 
the brick piers to receive same. 

Enchsing wall to powder magazine. — This wall is built of stone, one 
hundred and one by one hunmred and seventy-three feet, and nine feet 
high, with four comer-piers and one gateway of cut stone; 816 panels 
of fence, eight and a half feet high, ei^t feet wide, erected round and on 
maf'azine lot ; and six piers of cut stone built for gates, and three pair 
of double gates made and hung, complete. 

2,187 lineal feet of fencing, five feet high, erected round lot in rear 
of shops, garden, and soldiers' quarters, and whitewashed. 

2. fVork done. 

16,638 muskets, rifles and pistols, altered from flint to percussion. 
96,420 cartridges for small-arms, altered from flint to percussion. 
842 shot and shells fixed. 
23 field-carriages, caissons, &c., repaired. 
1,142 packing boxes fabricated and repaired. 
476 sets artillery harness cleaned ana oiled. 
12,694 muskets, rifles, carbines and pistols, cleaned, oiled and re-boxed* 
2,838 sabres and swords cleaned, oiled and re-boxed. 
84,420 6 and 12-pounder shot overhauled and gauged. 
1,767 barrels powder, 1,071 Hale's rockets, 72,979 fuzes, 1,329 boxes 
and 141 barrels powder ammunition, moved and stored in 
new magazine at Jefferson Barracks, and in magazine south of 
the arsenal. 



H. Doc. 1. 289 

52 squares of galvanized iron roof on artillery arsenal repaired. 
. 7 squares of slate roof on small magazine taken off anci repaired 
complete. 
Public buildings repaired and improved. 



FRANKFORD AESENAL, COMMANDED BY BREVET MAJOR P. V. HAGNER. 

The buildings in progress at the date of the last annual report were 
soon thereafter completed, and h.ive since been used as designed. 

All the nitre at the post, over 2,000,000 pounds, has been transferred 
to the nitre storehouse, the barrels and boxes thoroughly repaired and 
painted where necessary, and the whole neatly and securely piled. 
The sulphur hasf in like manner, been packed in good boxes and stored 
in the north and south arsenals — an arrangement affording many ad- 
vantages in the safe-keeping and preservation of these stores. The 
spare space thus obtained in the east and west arsenals is available for 
such other stores as may be required. 

The old smith's and armorer's shop, on the main square, has been 
re-floored, and lathed and plastered, and now forms very comfortable 
and appropriate rooms for hospital, matron's quarters, and guard-room. 

The new buildings for machine-shop and percussion laboratories, as 
soon as completed, were neatly painted in the interior, and supplied 
with the necessary furniture and fixtures for the work required. The 
steam-engine and machines purchased and transferred from other arse- 
nals have been in constant and satisfactory use, and give us the means 
to do well and promptly all that has been required to be made or re- 
paired at this arsenal ; and also to construct the machines necessary 
for new work. 

The manufacture of percussion caps and friction-tubes, especially 
assigned to this arsenal, has been commenced, and arrangements made 
and in operation for fabricating both as rapidly as may be found neces- 
sary to keep up the requisite supply. The new friction-tube adopted, 
and for the manufacture of which machines have been prepaied, has 
given in our trials here very satisfactory results as to its certainty and 
security, so that we may have every confidence in its ultimate success. 
The form and mode of construction secures a cheaper and better pro- 
tected tube than the old one. The composition used, and the mode of 
igniting it, seem to be perfectly secure ; but 1 have recently discovered 
that, by the gradual wearing of one of the tools, the friction-wire of 
those lately made was sometimes cramped by the edge of the small 
lube, so that it could not be moved without breaking. This defect did 
not exist in those first made, as the tools were then new, and it did not 
occur often enough in the trials made here from time to time to attract 
attention. Now that it has been discovered, it can be easily prevented 
in future, and I see no reason to fear any failures hereafter. 

The preparation of percussion powder for charging caps has been 
Part iii— 19 



290 H. Doc. 1. 

proceeded with without accident, and the process is now well under- 
stood by the workman. By careful attention to the subject, we have 
been able to lessen the liability to accident, and to relieve the workmen 
from the inconvenience and cfistress caused by the dust, (by complet- 
ing the workmg necessary for the thorough incorporation of the ingre- 
•dients before the composition becomes dry enough to emit dust:) this 
produces a powder better adapted for use in the machines, being chiefly 
m grain, and saves the re-working of the dust, which, as stated in my 
report of the inspection of foreign establishments, is there found neces- 
sary. 

The friction-powder for use in the tubes is made with perfect safety 
and great rapidity, by grinding the moist composition in an ordinary 
paint-mill, instead of usmg the marble slab and muller. 

The general appearance of the arsenal grounds is '•ery satisfactory, 
and by means of the saving from the farm fund it can be gradually fur- 
ther improved. 

By your directions, the machinery in operation at the Watertown 
arsenal, for the alteration of muskets to purcussion, was transferred to 
this arsenal in March last, in order that it might be used in altering the 
arms of the State of New Jersey, as requested by the authorities of that 
State. The machines were immediately put m operation and every 
preparation made for the work, but (except altering a few hundred of 
our own muskets, which required it) nothing further has been done, as 
the State arms have not been sent to us. I have been able to leave 
the machinery for the present in position, awaiting your further orders 
upon the subject. 



NEW YORK ARSENAL, COMMANDED BY BREVET MAJOR W. A. THORNTON. 

The principal operations at this post during the year were as follows : 
A building 40 by 26 feet, for an office and armory, has been erected. 
A cistern 10 by 12 feet, for the quarters, has been constructed. 
The bam has been enlarged by an addition at the triangular end, 10 
oy 26 feet. 

64 new shot-beds, 17 by 7J feet, have been constructed. 

Fabricated. 

63 packing-boxes. 
1,000 cartridges for Colt's pistols. 
1,822 flannel cartridge-bags and wads. 
50 cone-picks; 12 lanyards for cannon. 

2 double racks for arms in workshop. 
139 feet of copper gutter and conductors. 

1 large double iron gate. 
670 pounds of paint. 
A large quantity of tools for use of the post, and of parts for repair oi 
artillery carriages at forts, have been made in blacksmith's shop. 



H. Doc. 1. 291 

A great deal of other work has been done at the post and at forts in 
the neighborhood, among which was the following: 
1,100 buffbelts blackened for issue. 
2,197 belt-plates cleaned and re-dipped. 

2 10-inch mortar beds altered and strengthened. 
4 32-poundcr barbette carriages repaired. 
185 field and barbette carriages, gins, sling-carts, mortar-beds, &c., 
repaired and painted. 
30 sights, hausses, and locks, adjusted to field-guns. 
4-38 feet of joints in sea-wall cleaned and refilled with cement. 
109,022 shells and balls replied at the arsenal. 

463 iron guns, howitzers, &c., cleaned, oiled, and lackered. 

45 casemate upper carriciges lackered. 
902 square yaras of wall, 2SS doors, blinds, and shutters, 855 feet 
iron fence, and 1,207 feet of copper gutter and conductors, 
well painted. 
Flooring and timbers of bam taken up and relaid. 
18 feet of sewer to cistern built, and 86 square yards of brick 

pavement laid. 
88 cubic yards of stone broken and spread on roads. 
100 shade trees planted, and 1,278 square yards of sodding cut and 
laid. 
1,100 feet of stone cut and laid. 
668 loads of rough stone hauled. 
145,000 bricks, 200 cubic yards of sand, and 443 casks of lime hauled, 
and sand and lime made into mortar. 
2,516 cubic yards of excavation for foundations. 
1,799 boxes of stores received and issued. • 

8,625 muskets, rifles, and carbines, cleaned, oiled, and repacked. 
Besides the foregoing, a large quantity of infantry, cavalry, and rifle 
accoutrements, rifles, carbines, and pistols, and laboratory paper, have 
been inspected at the diflerent establishments furnishing them. 



NORTH CAKOLINA ABSENAL, COMMANDED BY CAPTAIN J* A. J. BRADFORD. 

The following comprises the principal operations at this arsenal 
during the year : 

1. Magazine for powder in hulk,, in progress at the date of the last 
report, has been completed. 

2. Northeast tower. — This building has likewise been completed, and 
is now occupied as the permanent office of the arsenal. 

3. Officers* quarters^ No. 2.— Operations on this building ha,ve been 
continued as Ibllows: 10,058 cubic feet of brick masonry in walls; 
1,980 superficial feet of stone cut and mostly set; door and window 
frames, joists of floors, and roof timbers, framed an^ placed; 59 squares 
of slating put on roof; 579 feet of copper gutter and conductors put up ; 
flooring and other lumber procured and kiln-dried.; piazza finished and 
painted; 1,308 square yards of lathing and plastering doue*, vj^?»^^V 
low-washed; cistern constructed , &c. 



292 H. Doc. 1. 

4. Soutlieast tower. — This building has been nearly completed. 

5. Connecting walls. — ^2,563 cubic feet of masonry, and 196 lineal feet 
of coping, have been built in this work ; iron gates hung; and the walls 
yellow-washed. 

6. Arsenal square. — 283 superficial feet of curb-stone cut, and 59 
lineal feet set; 143 feet of brick curb set; 2,871 feet of road and path- 
way constructed ; 6,000 square yards of grading done ; gravel and sand 
hauled and laid on roadways. 

7. Miscellaneous toork. — 30,000 bricks set in kiln, and a kiln of 
100,000 burnt; 46,036 feet of lumber received and piled; lightning- 
rods attached to officers' quarters No. 2, west line of shops, armorer's 
shop, &c. ; cistern constructed for garden use ; shade trees planted. 



BENICIA AE8ENAL, COMMANDED BY BREVET CAPTAIN C. P. STONE. 

During the past fiscal year, the force at this arsenal has been occu- 
pied in receiving and repairing the unserviceable ordnance stores in the 
Pacific division, and preparing and issuing such stores as have been, 
and are likely to be, required by the troops serving in California, 
Oregon, and Washington. 

There has been erected during the year one brick building thirty 
feet square, one a half story high, furnished with kitchens apart from 
the main building, serving as quarters for non-commissioned oflBcers 
and master-workmen. 

^ Fabricated during the year. 

1^736 cartridges for small-arms. 
009 cartridge-bags. 
84 rounds ammunition for mountain howitzers. 
400 pounds bullets for Colt's pistols ; and various tools and spare 

parts for the repair of carriages. 
The following stores were repaired: 
14 field carriages, caissons, forges, and battery wagons. 
362 percussion muskets. 
8 sets artillery harness. 
1,234 caruidge-boxes, cap-pouches, and bayonet- scabbards. 

Other work done. 

J,0S7 percussion muskets and 103 Colt's pistols cleaned, oiled, and re- 
packed. 
44 swords and musketoons and 8 sets artillery harness cleaned, 
oiled, and repacked. 
Flag-staff erected. 
4 plattbrms for shot laid. 
75 tons powder and ammunition removed fi-om San Francisco and 
stored in arsenal. 
New pattern accoutrements packed and issued to troops serving 
in CaLToiTiia. 



H. Doc. 1. 293 

DETROIT ARSENAL, COMMANDED BY CAPTAIN R. A. WAINWRIGHT. 

Daring the past fiscal year the 'following work has been performed: 
In addition to the usual fabrications and issues of ordnance stores to 
different posts, the extensive fences enclosing public grounds have been 
in part rebuilt ; partial repairs of public buildings, extensive painting 
of thfi same, and general grading and improvement of public grounds. 

H. K. CRAIG, 

Colonel of Ordnance. 
Ordnance Office, 

November 11, 1853. 



REPORT 



THf SECRETARY OF THE NAVY, 

DECEMBER 5, 1853. 



H. Doe. 1. 297 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. 



Navy Department, December 6, 1853. 

Sir : I have the honor to present the usual annual report from the 
Navy Department, exhibiting the condition of this branch of the public 
service, with a brief allusion to the operations of the several squadrons 
during the past year, I have ventured also to suggest for considera- 
tion certain views touching the increase of the naval force, the re- 
organization of the navy, and the modification of the laws and regula- 
tions for its government, from a conviction that many practical reforms 
may be introduced promotive of discipline and efficiency. 

SQUADRONS. 

The Home Squadron, Commodore Newton, consists of the flag-ship 
the frigate Columbia, Commander Pendergrast ; the sloops-of-war 
Albany, Commander Gerry, and Cyane, Commander Hollins; the 
steamers Fulton, Lieutenant Watson, and Vixen, lately commanded 
by Lieutenant Swartwout. This Jatter vessel was despatched in the 
month of May to Tampico, on special duty, and on her return to Pen- 
sacola was put out of commission, -on account of the appearance of 
yellow fever on board, which, in its fatal progress, deprivea the service 
of many excellent officers and faithful men. So soon as she shall be 
thoroughly disinfected, and pronounced in a safe condition, she will be 
again put in commission and continue attached to the Home Squadron. 

In January last the Fulton, under the temporary command of Lieut. 
Alexander Murray, was placed at the disposal of the late Hon. Wm. 
R. King, for the purpose of conveying him to Havana for the restora- 
tion of his health ; after performing which service, and after having 
her machinery repaired, she again joined the squadron. 

The steamer Saranac, Captain J. C. Long, detailed for duty in the 
Home Squadron, after having conveyed the Chevalier de Sodr^, late 
Brazilian charge d'affiiires, to the seat of his government, joined the 
squadron in February, and remained attached to it until July, when, 
requiring repairs, she was withdrawn and put out of commission. 

The vessels attached to this squadron have been cruising chiefly in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and among the West India islands. Disturbances 
at San Juan, or Greytown, threatening the property and rights of Amer- 
ican citizens, the Cyane, Commander Holhns, was ordered to visit that 
port. The presence of his ship had the desired effect. The conduct 
of Commander Hollins evinced a gallantry and judgment which enti- 
tled him to the commendation of the department. The Albany re- 
lieved the Cyane, and remained at San Juan until her services were 
deemed no longer necessary. 

The Brazil squadron, Commodore Salter, consists o? tVie ^a^-^Kv^ 
Savannab, Commander Mercer, which sailed from "Noifolk for Vvex d^^' 



298 H. Doc. 1. 

tination on the 14th of September, and the sloop-of-war Jamestown, 
Captain Downing. 

The brig Bainbridge, Lieutenant Charles G. Hunter, sailed from 
New York on the 4th November last, to join this squadron, and on her 
arrival out the Jamestown will return home, by which time she will 
have been absent from the United States nearly three years. 

The Germantown, Commander Lynch, also sailed from Boston on 
the 2d of December, to join this squadron. The store-ship Relief, 
Lieutenant Hitchcock, returned from Rio on the 15th of April last, en- 
tering the port of New York, and on the 25th July following was again 
sent out with stores for the squadron under the command oi Lieutenant 
A. B. Fairfax, and temporarily forms a part of it. 

The steamer Water W itch. Lieutenant Thomas J. Page, which left 
Norfolk on the 8th of FebruarVi though attached to this squadron, is 
not considered as one of the available vessels belonging to it, having, 
after a decree of the Provisional Director of the Argentme Confedera- 
tion throwing open to navigation the tributaries of the La Plata, been 
detailed for the survey of the rivers Uruguay and Parana. She ar- 
rived out at Buenos Ay res on the 25th May, but was detained from the 
execution of her immediate duties by the state of civil war existing, 
unhappily, between the different provinces of the Argentine Confede- 
ration, requiring her presence for the protection of the interests of 
American citizens engaged in commerce, or resident in that r^on. 
When last heard from, on the 30th of August, Lieutenant Page was 
expecting to set out immediately on the appointed expedition. 

Commodore McKeever was in command of the Brazil squadron the 
earher part of the year; and having completed a cruise of tnree years' 
active and eflScient service, he returned in his flag-ship, the Congress, 
Commander Pearson, to the United States on the 20th of July. The 
records of the Navy and State Departments furnish satisfactory evi- 
dence that a portion of this squadron did good service, in promoting 
the interests of the government and protecting the rights of American 
citizens. 

The African squadron. Commodore Mayo, consists of his flag-ship 
the Constitution, Commander Rudd ; the sloop Manon, Commander 
Purviance ; and the brig Perry, Lieutenant R. L. Page. The Dale, 
Commander Whittle, sailed from Boston, to join this squadron, on the 
37th October. 

Commodore Lavalette returned from the command of this squadron 
in his flag-ship, the sloop-of-war Germantown, Commander Nicholas, 
on the 30th of March. The John Adams, Commander Barron, and 
brig Bainbridge, Commander John Maiming, having been detached 
from this squadron, reached the United States — the former on the 23d 
of July, and the latter on the 26th August. 

Commander Lynch was temporarily attached, by my predecessor, 
to this squadron, for a reconnoissance of the west coast of Africa, for 
the purpose of ascertaining the localities affording the greatest facilities 
for penetrating the interior of the country. He returned to the United 
States in May lasL His communication to the department, detailing 
the results of his reconnoissance, accompanies this report. 
The opinioD has heretofore been iie(\ueii\\y ^-x^xe^-afe^^vW. there is 



H. Doc. 1. 299 ' 

MO necessity for a squadron of so many guns on the coast of Africa ; 
and that notice should be given to Great Britain, under the terms of 
the treaty in regard to the suppression of the slave trade, so as to be 
relieved from its obligations. The commerce on that coast has, of late 
years, increased so greatly, and American ships trading in that region 
nave multiplied so much, that I am satisfied that the squadron is needed, 
and is very effective in protecting our citizens, as well as suppressing 
the slave trade. 

The Mediterranean squadron, Commodore Stringham, consists of the 
flag-ship the frigate Cumberland, Commander Harwood ; the sloops- 
of-war St. Louis, Commander Ingraham, and Levant, Commanaer 
Turner, to which vessel he whs transferred from the Cumberland upon 
the return of Commander Goldsb()rough to the United States to take 
command of the Naval Academy. 

The steamer San Jacinto, Captain Crabbe, formed one of the squad- 
ron ; but, in consequence of the imperfection of her machinery — ^ren- 
dering her entirely useless as a steamer — she was ordered home, and ar- 
rived at Philadelphia on the 5th of July. Her engines have been con- 
demned, and new machinery is being constructed for her, with which 
it is confidently expected she will prove an eflScient cruising steamer. 

The steamer Saranac, Captain J. C. Long, left Norfolk on the 19th 
of November, conveying the Hon. Carroll Spence, our newly appointed 
minister resident at Constantinople, to his station. After having com- 
pleted this duty, she will join the Mediterranean squadron. 

The vessels of this squadron have been actively cooperating with 
our representatives in that region — more ^especially with the Hon. Mr. 
Marsh, in his efforts to exact justice from the government of Greece to 
the American missionary, Mr. King. In calling to your attention the 
movements of this squadron, I cannot omit an especial reference to the 
conduct of Commander Ingraham, while in command of the St. Louis, 
at Smyrna. An ocean of thousands of miles separated him fi-om his 
country ; and his small ship was alone in bearing his country's* flag.* 
Violence was committed on the personal liberty of a man entitled to 
the protection of that flag. The perpetrators of the offence outnum- 
bered him in vessels, guns, and men. It was a moment of peril, in- 
volving honor and life. With prudence and discretion, yet with 
Sromptness and spirit, and marked determination. Commander Ingra- 
am gave the protection, and the man is free. Such conduct, under 
such circumstances, surely entitles an officer to the most significant 
evidence of his government's approval. 

The East India squadron. Commodore Perry, consists of the steamer 
Mississippi, Commander H. A. Adams, his flag-ship; the steamers 
Powhatan, Captain McCluney, and Susquehanna, Uommander Bu- 
chanan; the sloops-of-war Macedonian, Captain Abbot, Plymouth, 
Commander Kelly, Saratoga, Commander Walker, and Vandalia, 
Commander Pope; the store-ships Supply, Lieutenant Arthur Sinclair, 
Southampton, Lieutenant Boyle, and Lexington, Lieutenant Glasson. 
Commodore Aulick, whom Commodore Perry succeeded in command 
of this squadron, returned to the United States early in the ^e^. 

The extraordinary revolutionary movements agitating X\ve rciSKwyaa c& 
China and tbreatenrng the overthrow of the present dy hb^V^ , ^scA ^ 



J 



300 H. Doc. 1. 

hope indulged of the dawning of a new era in the history of trade and 
commerce with that singular people, impart unusual importance and 
interest to the movements of this squadron. In addition to the ordinauy 
duties of the squadron, Commodore Perry was intrusted with the deli- 
cate task of endeavoring to open commercial intercourse with the Ja- 
panese government. After visiting several smaller islands and having 
favorable interviews with their inhabitants, he proceeded with the 
steamers Mississippi and Susquehanna, and the sloops-of-war Saratoga 
and Plymouth, to Yedo bay, in Japan, where he arrived on the 8th of 
July last. After much efibrt, he succeeded in having an interview with 
one of the ministers of state, delivered in person a communication 
from the President of the United States proposing to form commercial 
relations with Japan, gave notice of his intention to return in the en- 
suing spring for a reply to his proposition, and, after making consider- 
able surveys of the coast and harbor, he returned with his squadron to 
China, to give all needful protection to the interests of Americans. 

The Pacific squadron, Commodore Dulany, consists of his flag-ship 
the frigate St. Lawrence, Commander WiUiam W. Hunter, and the 
sloop-of-war Portsmouth, Commander Dornin. 

The sloop-of-war St. Mary's, Commander Bailey, left Philadelphia 
on the 15th of October, to join this squadron. 

In addition to these vessels, the receiving-ship Warren, Lieutenant 
Stanly, at San Francisco, and the stationary store-ship Fredonia, Lieu- 
tenant J. D. Johnston, at Valparaiso, are under the command of Com- 
modore Dulany. 

The Fredonia was despatched to California, under the command of 
Lieutenant Chatard, with troops ; after which she was sent down to 
Valparaiso, and Lieutenant Chatard was reUeved by Lieutenant John- 
ston, who had been ordered for this purpose, and returned to the United 
States. 

The sloop-of-war St. Mary's, Commander Magruder, which be- 
longed to this squadron at the dale of the last report, returned to the 
United States ; as has also the frigate Raritan, Commander McKean, in 
which Commodore McCauley, late commander of the squadron, came. 

The vessels of this squadron have been actively and usefully engaged 
in visiting the islands of the Pacific and looking after the interests of 
our countrymen. It is desirable to enlarge it when the department has 
the means. 

Besides the employment of the vessels of the navy in these squad- 
rons, the expedition for the survey and reconnoissance, for naval and 
commercial purposes, of parts of Behring's straits, of the north Pacific 
ocean, and of the China seas, authorized by the act of Congress of 
August 3, 1862, which was placed by my predecessor under the com- 
mand of Commander Ringgold, should be mentioned. It consists of 
the sloop-of-war Vincennes, Lieutenant Rolando, the brig Porpoise, 
Lieutenant A. B. Davis, the steamer John Hancock, Lieutenant John 
Rodgers, the store-ship John P. Kennedy, Lieutenant Collins, and the 
tender Fennimore Cooper, Master H. K. Stevens. This expedition 
left the United States in June, and when last heard fi^om had reached 
SiiDon^s bay, Cape of Good Hope, and was doing well. 
The brig Dolphin, Lieutenant O, H. Betrjinaxv, >aa& x^OTtly re- 



H. Doc. 1. 301 

turned to the United States, having been profitably engaged in special 
service, under the act of March 3, 1849, " in testing new routes and 

Eerfecting the discoveries made by Lieutenant Maury in the course of 
is investigations of the winds and currents of the ocean." Much 
credit is due to the officers employed in executing this law. The hy- 
drographer has, by their efforts, felt justified in materially altering his 
charts, and much time and distance have been saved to the navigator. 
- The world has been much enlightened as to the depths of the sea, the 
currents and temperature of the ocean. I am advised that "the deep- 
sea soundings, taken from on board the Dolphin, are the most valuable 
contributions that have been made to science, touching this interesting 
question." 

The steamer Michigan, Commander A. Bigelow, still continues em- 
ployed on the lakes upon our northern border. 

With a view to secure the observance of treaty stipulations and 
afford protection to our countrymen engaged in the fisheries on the 
coasts of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland, early in 
July a special squadron, by your direction, was sent thither under the 
command of Commodore Shubrick, consisting of the steamer Princeton, 
Commander Eagle, the Commodore's flag-ship, the sloops-of-war Cy- 
ane. Commander Hollins, and Decatur, Commander Whittle, and tne 
steamer Fulton, Lieutenant Watson. The three last named vessels 
were withdrawn temporarily from the Home Squadron for this purpose. 
The squadron returned to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, about the mid- 
dle of September, some one of the vessels having, visited every part of 
the regions firequented by our fishermen. No complaints were made 
to Commodore Shubrick, by any, of illegal or harsh proceedings on the 
part of the English squadron stationed in those waters, and but one 
case of seizure was reported to him. This vessel, however, was re- 
leased upon the payment of the expenses incurred in the admiralty 
court by the proceedings in the case, notwithstanding the admission by 
the master of an infi-action of the treaty. It is believed that every 
effort was made to assure our countrymen of protection in the enjoy- 
ment of their rights, and that the duties confided to the squadron were 
executed with fidelity and zeal 

After the return of the squadron, the Albany, Commander Gerry, 
belonging to the Home Squadron, was sent on a cruise to the fishing- 
grounds, and returned to New York on the 7th of November, having 
shown the American flag from the mouth of the St. Lawrence along 
the eastern coast of New Brunswick and Prince Edward's Island, and 
having passed over all the fishing grounds most firequented by our 
fishermen. 

In the fall of 1852, at the earnest request of Lady Franklin, Dr. 
Kane, an accomplished passed assistant surgeon in the navy, was 
permitted to engage in special service, to some extent connected with 
the search for Sir John Franklin and his companions. He sailed fi-om 
the United States during the past summer. While the oflScers hereto- 
fore engaged in this interestmg search acquired much reputation for 
themselves and their country, I cannot but express my regret \JaaX \xx 
certain charts uttered from the Enghsh Admiralty Ilydiogca^\\vc OS\K.e^ 
on the 14tb of October, 1833, an error has been commiUea, and cx^^V 



302 H. Doc. 1. 

given for certain new discoveries of lands to officers of the British 
navy, whereas, in truth, they had been made, and the lands given a 
name, by the American expedition under the command of Lieutenant 
De Haven, which passed the English vessels and led the way up 
Wellington channel m the fall of 1850. 

The Naval Observatory, under the superintendence of Lieutenant 
M. F. Maury, is doing much for science and navigation, much for the 
benefit of mankind and the honor of our country. For a few years 
past, a correspondence had been conducted between the United States 
and certain other governments on the importance of adopting ?orae 
plan to secure a more uniform mode of making observations at sea. 
Ascertaining that various governments designed being represented at 
Brussels, in pursuance of scientific suggestions with which Lieutenant 
Maury had oeen conspicuously connected, I felt it my duty to reUeve 
him temporarily from service at the observatory, w4ih a view to his 
visiting Brussels. The result of his labors, in conjunction with other 
eminent persons, will, I have no doubt, prove vastly beneficial to com- 
merce and navigation. 

The letters accompanying this report from Professor Espy respect- 
ing his theory of storms and his meteorological observations, fi-om 
Lieutenant Charles H. Davis in regard to the Nautical Almanac, and 
from Professor Alexander touching the scientific investigation and 
experiments upon the character of alimentary substances, are referred 
to for information as to the progress made in their respective works. 
No further appropriation for this latter object is considered necessary. 

Lieutenant James M. Gilliss is actively engaged in preparing for 
publication the result of his astronomical observations at Santiago, in 
Chili. The report of Lieutenant Herndon, presenting the results of his 
exploration of the river Amazon and its tributaries, is nearly ready for 
distribution. The report of Lieutenant Gibbon, who was of the same 

f)arty, but explored a different section of the country, and returned 
ater, is nearly completed. 

The indefatigable efforts of Lieutenant Dahlgren to give accuracy 
and greater effectiveness to gunnery, and to improve the ordnance of 
the navy, have succeeded well, and none can doubt the advantage the 
service will experience therefrom. 

A law was passed on the 4th of April, 1842, authorizing a contract 
to be made with Robert L. Stevens, of New York, for constructing an 
iron war steamer, to be shot and shell proof. Difficulties of various 
kinds occurred, which resulted in a suspension of the work. In 1S52 
an act was passed by which the Secretary of the Navy was " author- 
ized and required to have completed, with the least possible delay, 
the war steamer contracted for wiih Robert L. Stevens, in pursuance 
of an act of Congress approved April fourteenth, one thousand eight 
hundred and forty-two." Aware of the great changes which have 
been made in the power and destructiveness of guns used on board of 
ships of war since 1842, I expressed an unwillingness to proceed in 
execution of the contracts without an understanding that the proposed 
steamer should be shot and shell proof, not merely against those in use 
at the enactment of the law of 1842, but also against the improved 
ffuns in use at the period of the \aw o? 1%^^. liaNvci^ come to a 



H. Doc. 1. 803 

proper understanding in regard to the law, I shall proceed with the 
execution of the contract. 

NAVAL ACADEMY. 

This interesting institution is rapidly supplying the navy with num- 
bers of educated and accomplished young men, whose early training, 
discipline, and instruction, under the guidance of learned professors 
and experienced officers, pecuHarly fit them to adorn the service. The 
beneficial results already witnessed, demonstrate satisfactorily that it is 
now sustaining the same relations to the navy that West Peint Aca- 
d«ny bears to the army. 

It is well worthy of the fostering patronage of the government. 
There are, however, certain facilities not now in existence at the 
academy, which, in consideration of the fact that steam is being recog- 
nised as the powerful agent in naval warfare, 1 deem all-important to 
give completeness to the education of an oflBcer. The practice-ship 
attached to the academy should be a steamer, and there should un- 
questionably be a machine-shop of cheap and limited character on the 
premises. If practice in the sailing-vessel has been considered indis- 
pensable to improve the students in practical seamanship and naviga- 
tion, is it not manifestly important, now that steam is the mighty engme 
for propelling vessels of war, that the practice-ship should display to 
the inquiring youth, in familiar experiment, the practical working of the 
machinery, and the art of regulating and controlling it ? How much 
more secure will be the war steamer engaged in delicate and import- 
ant service, involving victory or defeat, if officered by a corps skilled 
in the science of engmeering, and trained to run and repair an engnie ; 
who can manage her destiny, if perchance disease, or accident, or 
timidity, or other causes, shall have deprived them of the engineer. 

I feel that I cannot too strongly invite attention to this subject, as in 
the progress and advancement of the age this early training of the 
young officer is peculiarly calculated to improve his fitness (or respon- 
sible service. Ihe communication of the last board of examiners on 
this subject is appended to this report. 

But in order to familiarize the young midshipman with all the minute. 
parts of the, machinery of the steamship, it is proposed that, on a cheap 
and small scale, a machine-shop be erected on the premises of the 
academy, embracing a complete collection of the various parts of en- 
gines and boilers, with a full set of tools to be used by the proper pro- 
fessor in imparting instruction in his department of mechanics. 

There are now at the institution 116 students. The first class under 
the regulations of 1850, will graduate in June next. Captain Stribhng 
was on the 1st of November last relieyed from his command as super- 
intendent, after a connexion with the academy for more than three 
years. I take pleasure in besuring testimony to the uniform diligence 
and marked ability with which Captain Stribling has discharged his 
arduous and responsible duties The prosperity of the institution and 
the records of this department at\est his fidelity. He is succeeAa^LVsTj 
Commander Goldsborough, an accomplished officer, V7\\o Ws i^c^wxi'^ 
returned frozH die Mediterranean squadron. 



304 H. Doc. 1. 

Your attention is invited to the report in reference to the academy 
from the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography ; the annual report of 
the board of examiners in relation to the discipUne and organization of 
the academy ; and also, the report of the commandant of midshipmen 
as to the late cruise of the practice-ship Preble. 

I concur in the opinion often Expressed in reports heretofore sub- 
mitted to the Executive, that it would be good poUcy to authorize the 
President to appoint annually ten midshipmen "at large." It is well 
known that this rule exists in regard to cadets at the West Point Mili- 
tary Academy. Its appUcation to the Naval Academy will extend the 
benefit of the institution to a class of youths who, under the present 
system of restriction to a residence in Congressional districts and to 
representative recommendation, are excluded. 

YARDS A^^) DOCKS. 

I have visited the navy yards at Kittery, Charlestown, New York, 
Philadelphia, Washington, and Portsmouth, Virginia. The public 
property at these several yards was generally in excellent condition 
under the careful supervision of those in command, and the business of 
the government conducted with discipline and system. 

The contractors for building the dock basin and railway at Pensa- 
cola having reported that they had executed the contract, arrangements 
were made for testing the work in accordance with the terms pf the 
agreement. The frigate Columbia, of the Home Squadron, was the 
ship appropriated for that purpose; and a board appointed to superin- 
tend the experiment. A full report was made by the board, unfavora- 
ble 16 the contractors, who were notified that the works could not, 
therelbre, be accepted. Deeming it of great importance to the sliips-of- 
war cruising in that vicinity, as well as to the commercial marine, that 
there should be a dock at Pensacola, and in consideration of the money 
expended, 1 was unwilUng hastily to abandon the works. 

It is due, perhaps, to the contractors to state, that notwithstanding 
the unanimous unfavorable report of the board, consisting of a naval 
constructor, civil engineer, and an officer of the army and of the navy, 
they contended that the board had not applied a fair test. 

I have consented to suspend taking action against the contractors 
until repairs are made, and another test applied, at their own expense 
and risk, which, it is understood, will be made at an early day. 

During the late session of Congress, an appropriation was made for 
erecting buildings at the navy yard at San Francisco, and "to complete 
and carry into execution the verbal con tract Tor a basin and railway in 
California, in connexion with the floating dock, as made by the late 
Secretary." Mare island was the site purchased and paid for on the 
2d of March last. 

The law provided expressly that the money fiir the erection of build- 
ings, &c., at the navy yard should not be expended until the Attorney 
General gave an opinion that the title was good and sufficient. The 

auestion was accordingly referred to him, and afi opinion given that 
le title of the United States was not sufficient. Under the circum- 
stances, the money thus appropriated was not expended. Effints are 



H. Doc. 1. 805 

being made, however, to perfect the title. A navy yard is very much 
needed iu California, and no time will be lost in accomplishing the work 
so soon as the legal impediments can be removed. 

The question of the necessity and usefulness to the public service of 
the construction of a basin and railway, in connexion with the section- 
al dock, in California, became a matter of investigation soon after I 
entered upon the duties of the department. Fourteen hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars was the amount originally agreed upon for the 
sectional floating dock in combination with the basin and railway. 
Subsequently the contract was suspended as to the basin and railway, 
and it was agreed that six hundred and ten thousand dollars should be 
paid for the dock. The construction of the basin and railway, sub- 
mitted to the discretion of the department by the act of the last Con- 
gress, involves an expenditure of eight hundred and forty thousand 
dollars. 

The question as to the necessity of the basin raises the inquiry whe- 
ther this species of dock is so formed that it would be uns/t/e to place a 
vessel on it for extensive repairs unless protected by that structure. 
The sectional floating dock is composed of ten separate and independ- 
ent sections. Unless it has the protection of a quiet harbor, it would 
necessarily be much affected by the undulating motion of the waves 
and be much at the mercy of the winds. 

When a vessel is placed on the dock and floated into a basin, it miy 
remain there for months' repairs without any danger from storms. My 
predilections are very deciaedly in favor of stone docks ; but Congress 
has decided that a sectional floating dock is preferable in California. I 
entertain the opinion that a basin is necessary to render it perfectly safe 
when a large ship is docked for repairs, which may expose it to months 
of dangerous weather. 

As to the usefulness to the public service, my opinion is, that as it is 
proposed to build but this one dock on the Pacific coast, it would be 
rendered doubly useful by having the basin and railway, by which 
many vessels can be accommodated at the same time. Although the 
railway would be useful to the public service, I am not of opinion that 
it is necr.ssary. 

The opinion having been given by the Attorney General that the title 
of the United States to the land purchased for a navy yard was not 
good, I have declined to make any contract for building the biisin and 
railway. On examination, I ascertained that the contractors had en- 
tered into a separate agreement with the government to erect a pier to 
secure the dock for three years only, and dock the vessels of the navy, 
provided they were allowed to charge for docking merchant ships for 
that space of time. It is expected that the difficulties as to the title 
will be removed at the approaching session of the legislature of Cali- 
fornia, when I shall proceed to execute a contract for the basin, unless 
Congress shall otherwise direct. 

Tfie sale of the portion of the land attached to . the navy yard at 
Brooklyn, directed oy the act of the last Congress, for reasons set forth 
in the letter from the Bureau of Yards and Docks, has been ^osX^w^^i.. 
The letter accompanies this report. 



306 H. Doc. 1. 

The suggestions made by those who have preceded me touching the 
policy of a naval establishment at New Orleans are commended to a 
favorable consideration ; provided, however, it is previously ascertained 
by proper surveys that the bar will admit of the approach of vessels of 
war. The resolutions of the Senate directing the Secretary of the 
Navy to report whether it will be advantageous to the government to 
establish naval depots at Newport, Rhode Island, and at or near Beau- 
fort, North Carolina, will be made the subject of a special communica- 
tion to the Senate so soon as sufficient information is received from par- 
ties now making surveys. 

Commander Blake of the navy was despatched to Key West, Flo- 
rida, in October last, for the purpose of making arrangements for car- 
rying into execution the act of July 21, 1852, for establishing a cail 
depot for naval purposes at that place. His accompanying letter ex- 
plains the progress made. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

Attention has been repeatedly invited b^ my predecessors to the im- 
portance of further legislation on the subject of rules and regulations 
for the government of the navy. 

The law for " the better government of the navy" was approved in 
April, 1800. This law, passed more than half a century ago, still 
exists for the government of the navy, having been but little altered, 
with the exception of that part of it relating to corporal punishment. 
Many amendments of that law, with a view to economy of time and 
money, have been rendered important and necessary on account of the 
great expansion of our country. It is not adapted to our present con- 
dition. When it was passed, our ships-otwar on the coasts of Florida, 
Texas, and California, were ''acting out of the United States," and its 

})rovisions as to courts- martial could be conveniently enforced ; but if a 
arge squadron should be at San Francisco, however important early 
action might be for convening or dissolving a court-martial, there must 
now be delay until the department at Washington can issue the neces- 
sary orders in each case. 

The "Rules and Regulations" were adopted in 1818, under the act 
of 1815. They need much modification. In December, 1852, a board 
was convened for that purpose, under an order from the Secretary of 
the Navy. They reported a system of rules, which were approved by 
the lale Executive in Februeuy, and a few copies were issued to ofli* 
cers. A question, however, has arisen as to the authority of the Execu- 
tive to adopt this system of orders and instructions without the sanction 
of Congress ; and the opinion of the Attorney General having been, that 
without the sanction of Congress they were illegal, by your direction 
an order was issued rescinding them. The regulations of 1818, there- 
fore, are still in force. 

Controversies between the sea and civil officers of the navy, in re- 
gard to rank, haye arisen, and will continue until adjusted by legisla- 
tion. 

I see no objection to the assignment of a proper rank to the civil offi- 
cers of the navy ; not merely as a gratification of pride, but to prevent 
discord. It eidsis in other navies aud Vu o\rc ^^av5. 



H. Doc. 1. 307 

IXCREA8E OP THE NAVY. 

The result of my investigation of this subject is a decided conviction 
that the maintenance of our proper and elevated rank among the great 
powers of the world; the just protection of our wide-spread and grow- 
ing commerce; the defence of our thousands of miles of coast along 
the Atlantic and PaciBc oceans, the lakes, and the Gulf of Mexico; the 
recent marked improvements in the art of naval architecture adopted 
by other nations — ^all unite in demonstrating the policy, the necessity, 
of an increase of the navy. It is true, indeed, our policy is peace. No 
lust of dominion, no spirit of aggression, marks out our course. Our 
national mission is, by the moral lorce of example, to illustrate the 
blessings of liberty and peace, civilization and religion. But the reason- 
able inquiry is, can peace be best maintained by the exhibition of com- 
parative weakness, or by a display of strength and a preparation which, 
while it invites not a conflict, at least defies assault ? What are the 
objects of a navy — ^what the considerations to guide us to a correct 
conclusion as to the size and character of the naval force of a republic 
situated, geographically and politically, as the United States ? Do not 
wisdom and prudence admonish the careful statesman in his calcula- 
tions for the Aiture, while he takes thought of the commerce, the rights, 
the coast to be protected by this right arm of defence, at the same time 
not to be unmindful of the comparative force, efficiency, and character 
of the navies of the great powers with whom, with all our cherished 
love of peace, we may have to contend? Is it the suggestion of a sound 
discretion to rely exclusively upoji the sudden preparation of a patriotic 
people when the perilous emergency starts up before them, and shut 
our eyes with quiet composure to our real condition ? Or is it wiser to 
make that preparation which a considerate glance at the true state of 
fects shall persuade us is essential to our security? 

I believe that it is only necessary to present the case as it truly ex- 
ists to the attention of those who have the power to produce the desired 
results. 

The American navy consists of about seventy vessels, embracing all 
from the ships-of-the-line to the smallest brig, schooner, and store-ship. 
Of these many ships-of-the-line, fi'igates, steamers, and sloops-of-war 
are not only unfit for service, but, I am advised by the Bureau of Con- 
struction, Equipment, and Repair, are not worth repairing. There 
are not now in the navy forty vessels which could be brought into ser- 
vicfe in ninety days, if needed. There is no steamer in the Pacific or 
AfHcan squadron, but one of two guns in the Brazil squadron, and we 
have no steamer of more than ten guns. The law only authorizes the 
enlistment of 7,600 men, which, with an allowance of a proper com- 
plement for each vessel, would not man a fleet of fifty vessels, with a 
fair proportion of large ships. On referring to authentic papers, it will 
be found that, in point of size at least, our navy is much less than one- 
fifth of that of several of the greater powers of Europe; and, whatever 
may be its relative superiority and etficiency, is not larger than that of 
certain other powers of Europe which are not of the first lati^ m ^^ 
scale of nations. 



308 H. Doc. 1. 

And however much we may desire to cultivate terms of amity, these 
are the powers with whom we are most likely to contend in future con- 
flicts, and the great deep is the theatre on which future contests may 
be decided. I am not unmindful of the mighty development of strength 
and force which the patriotism, the energy, the nautical skill, and mer- 
cantile marine, of a ^reat nation would soon rally to our assistance. 
Other nations, in addition to their large navies, have their immense mer- 
cantile marine, and their mail steamships also. But, again, what have 
we to defend and protect? We have an Atlantic coast of much more than 
two thousand miles, stretching from the Rio Grande to the St. Croix, 
studded with magnificent cities and thriving towns. We now have a 
Pacific coast extending for mbuy hundred miles, from the confines of 
Mexico to the far northwest; an inviting country, rapidly populating, 
totally unfortified, separated by mountains and deserts from the military 
power of the government. A new empire has, as by magic, sprung 
into existence. San Francisco promises, at no distant day, to become 
another New York, and our prosperous trade in the Pacific, amid the 
wonders of commerce, to bear the same relation to China and Japan 
which that of the Atlantic coast bears to the continent of Europe and 
Great Britain. We have over four millions of tonnage; American ves- 
sels, hreighted with the rich fruits of American industry, penetrating 
every sea; and thousands of our countrymen, whom busy enterprise 
has borne to distant lands, or whom misfortune has wrecked on some 
inhospitable shore, all look to their country's flag to protect them. Is 
our present navy sufiRcient for all these great purposes of defence and 
protection ? I am very far from intimalmg ^n opinion that we should 
steadily maintain a naval force as large as that of some of the powers 
meutioned. They have large colonial settlements on islands and con- 
tinents remote from their seat of government. Their jealousies, their 
Eroximiiy to each other, their peculiar form of government, all com- 
ine to require for their purposes a far larger naval force than we need. 
But while they are annually enlarging theirs, shall we allow the dis- 
parity annually to become g«*eater? The following warning admoni- 
tion on this pomt by Washington, in his eighth annual message, enforces 
this view : " To an active external commerce, the protection of a 
naval force is indispensable. This is manifest with regard to wars 
in which a State itself is a party. But, besides this, it is in our owu 
experience that the most smcere neutrality is not a sufficient guard 
against the depredations of nations at war. To secure respect to a neU" 
tralfiag reipiires a vavalforce^ organized and ready to vindicate it from rnr 
suit and aggression. This may prevent even the necessity of going to 
war, by discouraging belhgerent powers fi-om committing such viola- 
tions of the rights of the neutral party as may first or last leave no other 
option. These considerations invite the United States to look to means, 
and to set about the gradual increase of a navy. Will it not, then, be 
advisable to begui without delay to provide and lav up the materials 
for the building and equipping of ships-of-war, and to proceed in the 
work by degrees, in proportion as our resources shall render it practi- 
cable without inconvenience, so that a future war of Europe may not 
&nd our commerce in the same unfortunate state in which it was Kmnd 



H. Doc. 1. 809 

by the present?" I take it to be a fail proposition that our navy should, 
€Lt least, be large enough to command our own seas and coast. Otherwise, 
it would seem to be not only a useless appendage, but fall an easy prey 
to the enemy and add to his strength. And, in view of this point, it 
may be well to remember the positions overlooking our home commerce, 
the Bermudas and West Indies, well fortified and held by other nations. 
It may be said that we have strong fortifications, and that they can be 
relied upon for defence. But our fortifications, with their conceded im-. 
portance, without a navy, have well been compared to a shield without 
a sword. Perhaps it may be alleged that our navy was comparatively 
small in the war of 1812, when our gallant officers achieved brilliant 
victories, won for themselves imperishable renown, and broke the charm 
of the enemy's naval invincibility. Those were, indeed, great achieve- 
ments, and we still have proud spirits in the navy whom opportunity 
would call forth, and who would again accomplish all that valor and 
patriotism could accomplish. But without enlarging upon the circum- 
stances which helped to occasion success then, or dwelling upon the 
disasters that then befel our commerce, when we call to mind the formi- 
dable, growing, and, in numbers at least, the overwhelming strength of 
the navies of the many great nations with whom we claim equal rank, 
may it not be well to consider that it may even be possible to tax too 
severely the valor and skill of our small navy, however gallant? As, 
however, we have enjoyed a season of profound peace, with the excep- 
tion of the war with a nation without a navy, it is, perhaps, not lo be 
regretted that we have deferred enlarging ours thus long, as we can 
now advantageously avail ourselves of the vast improvements suggested 
by the tests of experience and the inventive genius of the architects of 
our own and other countries. 

Steam is unquestionably the great agent to be used on the ocean, as 
well for purposes of war as of commerce. The improved system of 
screw-propellers, instead of side-wheels, is one of the grand desiderata 
to render the use of steam effective in naval warfare — the one being 
exposed to the shot of the enemy, the other submerged and compara- 
tively secure. When the bayonet was added to the musket, the inven- 
tion was applauded, for placing in the hands of the soldier, at one time, 
two engines of destruction; and the introduction of the screw-propeller 
has been similarly appreciated, as combining, without confusion, two 
elements o{ progress — tne sail and the steam-engine. Side-wheel steamers 
are much impaired in their capacity for sailing, and consume too much 
coal for distant cruises. Those now on hand can be made to answer 
well for short cruises and as despatch vessels. The screw-propeller, 
being upon a principle not so much interfering with the sailing capacity, 
with the improved models of the present day, can be so constructed as 
to sail as well as the best clipper-ships, ancf reserve the use of steam 
for emergencies when greatest speed is required, or when, in a calm, a 
desirable position can be the more promptly and surely taken. The 
great necessary expense incident to the expedition to Japan could haye 
been materially, indeed one-half curtailed, had it been in the power of 
the department to have suppUed the squadron with screw-^ro^eVW^ 
instead of the side- wheel steamers, now costing so tmicVv ^covcv Oafc eoxi- 
sumptioo of coal* 



I 



310 H. Doc. 1. 

I recommend, therefore, that the department be authorized to have 
constructed at least six first-class steam-frigate propellers. The opin- 
ion is entertained that that number may be built in our several yards in 
addition to the work now going on, and the repairs usually needed on 
the return of vessels from long cruises. It is estimated tnat they will 
cost between four and five millions of dollars, and can be built in about 
twenty months. With the exception of some deficiency in the supply 
of white oak and yellow pine, which can be without much difficulty 
procured, we have on hand at the various yards ample material to ac- 
complish what is recommended. It will be perceived, on referring to 
the estimates of the Bureau of Construction, &c., that an estimate is 
made of the entire cost— of the cost without purchasing any material, 
and of the probable amount which would be expended durmg the fis- 
cal year without regard to great despatch. This was done in order 
that the subject might be understood properly, and that such action 
might be taken as appeared wisest. Ah it is deemed desirable to 
make this addition lo our naval forces as early as practicable, in con- 
sideration of the number of vessels which will soon be unfit for ser- 
vice and not worth repairing, and as it is important to retain on hand 
for emergency a reasonable supply of building material, I venture lo 
suggest the policy of making the appropriation at an early day, to ena- 
ble the department to build them with despatch, and purchase a supply 
of material so as not to diminish the amount on hand. 

There are two frigates — theSantee, at Kittery, and the Sabine, at New 
York — ^which have been on the stocks since 1819. They can be altered 
and made to conform to modem improvements, and be most useful sub- 
stitutes for two frigates of the same class withdrawn as worthless. I 
recommend that they be thus reconstructed and launched. Estimates of 
the cost will be furnished, should the suggestion be adopted. The old 
ship-oP-ihe-line, the Franklin, is being repaired at Kittery, and her model 
much chcmged, with a view of converting her into a first -class steam- 
frigate. 

Should these recommendations be adopted, our naval force will be 
materially strengthened by the addition of two first-class sailing fri- 
gates andt of seven first-class steam-frigates, capable of mounting fifty 
guns each — there being no steamer at present of more than ten guns. 
My opinion is, that it would be sound policy to dispose of such vessels 
as are deemed unfit for service as vessels of war. 

I cannot allow this occasion to pass without an allusion to the repeat- 
ed failures in our steamships of war to fulfil the public expectation. I 
deemed it my duty to order a searching investigation into the causes oi 
these deplorable disasters, and api)ointed a board of three engineers 
and one constructor to inquire and report to the department the causes 
of the failures, and the parties who were responsible. Their report is 
on file in the department, which may profit from the facts which it dis- 
closes. 

Although I have endeavored to throw around recent contracts safe- 
guards, by reserving the payment of one-half of the contract price 
until the work is completed and successfully tested, which I trust may 
insure good results, I unhesitatingly renew the recommendation hereto- 
/bre wade, of the importance of estab\kYi\i\gmacVim^A«s^% at several 



H. Doc. 1. 311 

navy yards on the Atlantic, and at San Francisco on the Pacific coast, 
for the construction and repair of machinery for steamships of war. 
Recent occurrences have raultipUed cogent arguments in favor of that 
policy. With the exception of limited arrangements in the Washing- 
ton navy yard, the government is entirely dependent upon private con- 
tracts. The yard at New York is regarded as large and useful, and 
well adapted, by its plans, for purposes of naval construction ; yet when 
the steamer Princeton returnea from her cruise on. the fishing grounds, 
to be repaired merely, she had to leave the navy yard for a private 
establishment. The government can avail itself, when necessary, of 
the skill of private establishments ; but it is submitted whether it is not 
wise to have a few machine-shops, in which the supervision and judg- 
ment of its own superintendents may be exercised as to material, work- 
manship and time. 

It is submitted, also, that it is important that the department be 
authorized, when expedient, to increase the enUstment of men from 
thepresent number of 7,500 to 10,000. 

The suggestions of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgerv on the pro- 
priety of increasing the number of the medical corps of the navy, are 
commended to a favorable consideration. 

The reconmiendations in the report from the commandant of the 
marine corps are entitled to consideration. For the preservation of 
discipline on ship-board and active service in emergency on shore, 
the importance of this corps cannot be too highly appreciated. The 
improvement of the barracks at the several stations specified in the 
report, the increase of the corps, the policy of adopting some plan for 
securing the services of officers educated and disciplined as the officers 
of the army and navy, are subjects deserving attention. 

This corps has ever been found faithful and useful. I am clearly of 
opinion that it should be enlarged ; for, in its present Umited condition, 
the active service of officers and men is frequendy demanded before 
it is possible to quahfy them properly with sufficient drilling. 

I have thus frankly presented my views of the policy and importance 
of enlarging our naval force. 

RBORGANIZATION OF THE NAVY. 

I cannot withhold the expression of my opinion that the present 
organization of the navy is not only essentially defective and unwise, 
but is, in its practical operation, working palpable and serious mischief 
lo the efficiency and character of that branch of the pubUc service. 

I am not insensible to the fact that proposals for radical reform, 
however much suggested by the results of experience, observation, or 
reflection, are often viewed with distrust and doubt, as rash innova- 
tions upon famiUar and long-established systems— clung to, sometimes, 
with tenacity, and abandoned, generally, with reluctance. From a 
sense of justice to the service and duty to the government, I venture 
to expose to view some of those defects, and briefly recommend reme- 
dies, by which it is hoped they may be, to some extent, remov^. 
This subject has long attracted the attention of ihoae -wYiose occw^^UotL 
or association has brought them in contact with t\ie nav^ \ zs^!^^ ^^ ^^ 



312 H. Doc. 1. 

has more recently won the consideration of Congress and the public, 
great solicitude is felt, great hope is entertained, that the much needed 
relief will be no longer delayecf. 

The great evil in our present system is, that neither merit, nor Fea- 
service, nor gallantry, nor capacity, but mire seniority of commimaii^ 
regulates promotion and ]ay. The' gallant, chivalrous men of the navy 
feel subdued, dispirited, discouraged; their ardor is chilled; the fire 
of their young ambition and pride is well nigh extinguished. Many 
are leaving the service to which they have so long fondly clung; many 
remain only because of the cherished expectation of reform. The 
officer who encounters all the perils of the cleep, wins the admiration 
of the world for his brilliant achievements, and makes his countrymen 
prouder than ever of their country, returns lo rest awhile from his 
toils, but to feel mortified in seeing the indolent, the imbecile, who 
have known no toils, and have never met the enemy, daily promoted 
over him. It is true that the Executive has power to some extent to 
interfere and exercise a discretion as lo promotion ; but so fixed and 
w^ell settled has been the almost uniform course, since the organization 
of the navy, of promoting according to seniority of commission, that 
the effort, by any Executive, to deviate fi-om it without the sanction of 
law, could only be made at the hazard of charges of favoritism and 
prejudice, productive of a discontent as injurious, probably, as the evil 
itself. It is true, also, that the Secretary of the Navy has the discre- 
tionary power to place officers on furlough, and thereby reduce their 
pay. It has frequently been done. I have exercised the power my- 
self. But in the absence of some uniform rule, sanctioned by law, 
the effort at discrimination, however sincere and disinterested, is so 
embarrassed with difficulties, by no means diminished by the interposing 
appeals of the friends of the parties, that this power, if not paralyzed, 
is divested almost entirely of its salutary and corrective virtue. 

To illustrate the unfairness of the present system, permit me to 
mention a few facts, not with the view of invidious comparison, but 
solely to elucidate the subject. There are officers who have been in 
the navy more than forty years, whose total sea-service is less than ten 
ycarsj who receive the same pay with those of their grade whose sea- 
service is fifteen^ eighteen^ and more than twenty years. These officers who 
are thus receiving pay prevent the promotion of those below them who 
have seen more than twice their service at sea, and have helped to 
give their country a name. There are inefficient officers, who have 
not done duly on sea or shore for twelve^ fifteen^ and twenty years. There 
are lieutenants who have seen double the service of some of a higher grade, 
and receive but half their pay. There are many passed midshipmen 
of more than ten years* sea-service^ whose pay on leave is six hundred 
dollars; and there are their superiors in rank, of less than ten years* 
sea-service, whose pay is twenty-five hundred dollars. 

The pride of rank and position is the animating element that imparts 
vigor to the arm, courage to the heart, buoyancy to the spirits of the 
faithiul officer, and there is a peculiar sensitiveness to the slightest 
neglect. But in a country like ours, so full of rich fields inviting the 
enterprising, presenting so many paths through which the aspiring may 
advance to tame and Ibrtune, what \a iVieie \ii\]l[ie ^bove outline of the 



H. Doc. 1. 313 

picture which our naval system exhibits to attract the accomplished 
young men of the day ? The timid and the laggard are promoted as 
rapidly as the brave and active. The officer who has borne himself 
well in twenty years' service, amidst the storms and dangers of the 
sea, beneath tropical suns and near unfriendly coasts, on obtaining his 
few months' leave of absence, finds himself only receiving the same pay 
with those of his own grade who have lingered amid the comforts of 
home and rarely ever touch the deck of a ship. But it may be said 
that pay should be increased with rank, and that the officer of the 
lower grade should be content until he attains a higher rank. This 
reasoning, however, is met by conceding the correctness of the princi- 

Ele, but protesting against the system which blocks up the path to rank 
y imbecility or incompetency, and thus deprives merit and hard ser- 
vice both of rank and pay. I am aware that it is an easier task to 
point out defects than to prescribe remedies. But the evils of our sys- 
tem can hardly be diminished by time, and no reform can be expected 
without efibrt. 

I entertain the opinion thaia retired listf an reduced pay ^ far the faithful 
tcho have Ucame infirm ; the discharge of the inefficient^ who have no claim on 
the bounty aj their government far services rendered; promotion regulated by 
capacity i merits and not by mere seniority of cammisstan ; pay to some extent 
controlled by sea-service^ are reforms not only demanded by the condition 
of the service, by considerations of justice, but absolutely necessary to 
the preservation of efficiency and usefulness. There are officers whom 
the infirmities of age or the ravages of disease incident to the expo- 
sures of a rough seafaring life have rendered unfit for duty. l'h«y 
have been faithful public servants, ever ready to obey orders, and, from 
their vocation, improvident for the future. On retiring such men, to 
secure the aid of the more vigorous and active, a grateful country may 
well deal generously, and thus at the same time administer kindness to 
age and fidelity — justice to the deserving. I believe this plan of a 
retired list can be so arranged as to protect the treasury from the heavy 
drains of an odious pension system. They are now all on pay. Re- 
duce the pay of the retired, stop the pay of the discharged, organize 
thus a corps of efficient officers, and, as a question of economy, 'this 
system, with proper guards and restrictions, may be one rather of re- 
trenchment than extravagance. To apply these principles and reduce 
them to practical operation, mav, at first, seem inconvenient and em- 
barrassing ; but in common witn many who have bestowed much con- 
sideration on this subject, I am persuaded that the difficulties are far 
fit>m beinff insurmountable. 

A board of officers of various grades, carefully selected by the Presi- 
dent, can be convened periodically, to report to him the names of those 
who, in their judgment, should be made subjects of the rules prescribed. 
Their report may be subject to the approval, or reversal, (y modifica- 
tion, of tne President. To enable them to act intelligently and impar- 
tially in this delicate task, the Secretary of the Navy can lay before 
them, not merely the Navy Register ana the records of the department, 
but may materiallv contribute to their enlightenment by inviuug^^ vcv xJoa 
least offensive ancf most delicate mode, the opinions oi the offivcex^ >\\^tii- 



f 



814 H. Doc. 1. 

selves, touching the fitness of those of their own grade and those below, 
whom association and opportunity have enabled them to know. 

But I forbear to enlarge upon the details necessary to give shape and 
eflfectiveness to the proposed reform. 

In the present system of pay, experience and observation convince 
me that there is a radical error. Although pay should not be, and is 
not, the chief incentive to activity, yet every consideration justifies the 
policy and propriety of, to some extent, regulating pay by service. 
The difference between leave of absence and duty pay is so very small, 
that it practically invites the oflScer to avoid sea-service, and really 
makes it more profitable to be idle than to labor. If sea'servke gave a 
certain per cent, increased pay, under proper limitations and restric- 
tions, the beneficial effects would be twofold. It would be but a just 
reward to diligence, and would stimulate officers to go to sea, so as to 
swell their income for themselves and families. I recommend, there- 
fore, a modification of our present pay system in accordance with these 
views, and I am satisfied it will promote a desire for sea-service, instead 
of a reluctant obedience to orders. The pay of the forward warrant 
officers also needs regulating. Tb^y are useful officers. 

The specifications, however, of the various changes which appear 
to me all-important in regard to rank, promotion, and pay, would un- 
necessarily extend this report ; and with the expression of a hearty 
willingness to co-operate with Congress in arranging the details of mea- 
sures to accomplish what may to it seem needful, I proceed to throw 
out a few suggestions touching the 
m 

MOt^IFICATION OP OUR SVSTBM IN REGARD TO SEAMEN, WITH A VIEW TO 
ENCOURAGE MORE PERMANENT ENLISTMENTS, TO IDENTIFY THEM 
MORE THOROUGHLY WITH THE NAVY, AND ELEVATE THEIR CHARACTER 
BY A PLAN OF REWARDS AS WELL AS PUNISHMENTS. 

While the vigor and reform incident to our happy American institu- 
tions have been successfully infused into almost every department of 
government, and penetrated almost every fibre of the body politic, the 
neglected sailor, it we except the generous munificence oi asylum and 
hospital, has too rarely felt the firiendly touch of the legislative hand, 
and has continued to toil on under a code of discipline and laws but 
little modified since the days when the press-gang dragged the un- 
willing victim from the hovel to the man-of-war. 

With a population approaching 30,000,000, full of enterprise and 
adventure, the difficulty of procuring sailors to man our ships-oP-war, 
more particularly the difficulty of enlisting the young men of our own 
country, is not only attracting the attention of the public, but seriously 
embarrassing the efforts of the department to maintain even the small 
naval force^ow allowed by law. Hundreds of merchant vessels are 
almost daily darting forth fi'om our busy marts readily filled with 
cheerful seamen, courting danger upon the element on which they love 
to live, while our ships-of-war are lingering in port until the recruiting 
officers, by hard effort, can manage, by the aid of the exacting land- 
Jord of the sailor-tavern and a small bounty, to procure tardy enlist- 
jnents. 



H. Doc. 1. 815 

Our cities, towns and villages are thronged with athletic young men, 
strugghng anxiously for employment in petty offices, and in every de- 
partment of labor ; and when disappointment and idleness beget dissipa- 
tion, and dissipation reduces to aegradation, and friends regard them 
as burdens to family and nuisances to society, then, and often not till 
then, do we hear the remark that they are now only fit to become 
sailors in the navy ! 

Why are the laboring young men of our country so reluctant to sail 
and serve under their country's flag ? Is it a dishonorable calling ? 
Why do our i||^rchant marine find comparatively so little difficulty in 
procuring seamen ? Is it because they care more for them — encourage 
them more — pay them better ? 

While I am mr, very far, from proposing to relax discipline, to toler- 
ate insubordination, to hesitate at administering punishment, sure pun- 
ishment to correct the offender and to deter the mnocent, I do propose 
some reform ol our system, so as to reward the meritorious, to elevate 
the character of our seamen, to give more respectability to their pur- 
suit, to cause them to become identified with, incorporated into, and a 
part of, the navy itself; to pay them better, to encourage them to love 
the flag under which they sail; and when they walk the deck of the 
man-of-war in a foreign port, and compare their condition with the 
sailors of other governments, to feel some pride in being American 
sailors, under American colors. 

There is much in the character of the sailor to excite our admiration, 
much to enlist our sympathy. He is brave, generous, self-sacrificing. 
And when, after a long cruise, far from home and friends, tempest- 
tossed and weather-beaten, he treads upon the soil of his country again, 
discharged from the service, improvident and wasteful, unfit for land 
service, the victitn of the more cunning, soon bereft of his hard earn- 
ings, surely it is but natural that this wanderer should look to his gov- 
ernment to care for him and invite him to return to a service for which 
alone he is fitted, and in which he is so much relied upon to protect the 
commerce, the rights, the honor of that government. Without well 
disciplined, contented and efficient seamen, to man our ships, we may 
have officers of gallant bearing, vessels of storm-defying strength and 
beautiful symmetry, but the vital spirit will be wantmg. 

It becomes, therefore, a matter of grave inquiry, how shall this 
branch of the public service be modified so as to secure the best sea- 
men and prevent expensive delays in despatching vessels whenever 
ready for commisdon? 

In the first place, I deem it indispensiible that some plan be adopted 
by which our seamen shall become more distinctly and permanently a 
part of the navy and attached to the service. Whenever a ship-of-war now 
returns firom her three years' cruise, the officers are aetached and 
granted a leave of absence for three months, with leave of abjencepay, 
but the seamen are peremptorily discharged — disconnected from the service. 
If they have been meritorious, I propose that on their return they be 
granted an •• honorable discharge," (to be considered a leave of absence 
on pay,) if within a certain time they choose to re-enlist in the service. 
This would possess a twofold virtue : of fair and genetovxa VteaVni«oX. ^aX 
parting — an invitation to continue a member of a famVVy cbxVxi^ fex ^^xn 



816 H. Doc. 1. 

during a temporary absence. They will soon regard the ship-otwar 
as their home ; they will feel that they are part of the navy of their 
country ; they will compare their condition with that of the seamen of 
the mercantile marine, appreciate their advantage, and cling to the 
service. 

It may be also worthy of consideration whether it would not be wise 
very gradually, and never beyond a reasonable liniit, to increase the 
pay of the seaman in proportion to the number of continuous cruises 
he makes, thereby creating an additional incentive to remain in the 
service. It is believed that by the oflScers in command, on returning 
from a cruise, filing in the department a certified list of^hose who are 
honorably discharged, there will be but little difficulty in simplifying 
and executing this plan, and so systematising k by registration as to 
produce the good results incident to making them a regular part of the 
ijpvy, and thus touch their pride as well as their hearts. Many inter- 
esting suggestions on this subject were commended to the consideration 
of Congress by my immediate predecessor. 

Another change, indispensable to the prompt securement of the 
services of first-class seamen, is to pay them at least as much as their 
skill, expirience^ and character will command in the merchant service. It is 
the effort of the department to regulate the pay of the hundreds of 
mechanics and laborers in the various navy yards, so as to correspond 
with the pay of similar employes in private establishments outside of 
the yards. Such, however, is not the case in regard to seamen. The 
appropriation will not permit it. It is true that necessity has recently 
driven the department to paying a bounty, which will be suspended so 
soon as the vessels indispensable to the service are manned. 

Busy enterprise is dotting every ocean, and sea, and river, with 
vessels. The demand for seamen is proportionally increased. The 
wages now range from fifteen to twenty dollars per month; whereas, 
in the navy, the best seamen are paid but twelve dollars. Can we 
expect, therefore, to command readUy any seamen, much less the best, 
under this state of things? My opinion is, therefore, that the pay 
should be increased. 

But perhaps the most practical and important reform to promote 
efficiency in the corps of mariners is the blending together a system of 
rewards and punishments — ^to encourage the meritorious^ and to subdue the 
disorderly. 

The abolition of punishment by fiogffing, without legalizing some 
substitute therefor, has already occupied the attention of Congress and 
the country, and severely tested the forbearance and ingenuity of 
officers, and the character of our seamen. This subject has engaged 
my earnest and anxious inquiry, and I have no hesitation in expressing 
an opinion against its restoration. Having recently visited many of 
the ships in commission, conversed with the veteran sailors, and 
listened to the narratives of officers who have had the command of 
large crews since the law of 1850, my decided conviction, concurred 
in, too, by many officers who originally opposed its abolition, is, that 
its restoration would create discontent and desertion, and prove posi- 
tively prejudicial to the efficiency of that branch of the public service. 



H. Doc. 1. 817 

But, at the same time, I cannot too seriously urge the policy of legal- 
izing some substitute therefor. 

It is said that the confinement of the disorderly and refractory 
seamen is but little punishment to Mem, but rather burdensome and 
oppressive to the faithful, whose increased labors make them the suf- 
ferers, and create a reluctance on the part of good sailors to remain in 
the service. This suggestion merits consideration. I propose a 
remedy, by which the punishment of the indolent and deserter will 
increase the pay of the faithful, and thereby tend to promote his con- 
tentment instead of murmurs. 

The sailor on shore is reckless and wasteful; afloat he is remarkably 
avaricious, and daily counts over the balances due him, and estimates 
his reckonings of pleasures at the end of his cruise by the amounts he 
hopes to realize. 

If the good sailor does the work of the indiflferent, punish the laggard 
by a forfeiture of pay — not to the gocemmcnt, but to uiejaithful sailor — 
and he will do the additional labor with additional good will, and 
without a murmur. 

If the deserter leaves his shipmates overtasked with increased burdens 
by his desertion, change the present regulation — ^let the deserter's pay 
be forfeited to the faithful portion of the crew, and not, as now, to the 
government. 

Instead of investing the commander of the ship with this responsi- 
bility, in cases involving either a forfeiture of pay or a discharge from 
the service, let a commission of a certain number of the officers of the 
ship be detailed apd constituted a court, whose decisions shall be sub- 
ject to the approving power of the commanding officer. This would be 
very simple — ^would break the force of captious cavilling at the single 
judgment of the commander, and would obviate the necessity, expense, 
delay, and demoralizing influence of frequent courts- martial for minor 
offences upon the arrival of every ship in port. In very aggravated 
cases, this minor court could recommend a more solemn court-martial, 
composed, as at present, of a higher class of officers. 

Let this minor court on every ship, with the approving, reversing, 
or mitigatmg power of the officer in command, have plenary power to 
confine offenders, with a reduction of rations, with or without pay. 
Empower the commander, upon the recommendation of this com- 
mission, to discharge offenders, with forfeiture of pay. Let the fund 
accruing from the forfeited pay of the imprisoned, the discharged, and 
the deserters, constitute a merit fund — not to be distributed until the 
termination of the cruise, and then to be distributed according to the 
judgment of this commission, based upon the conduct of the crew, to 
those who are f>y them adjudged on tne homeward-bound passage to 
have been meritorious, and faithful, and loyal to their flag. The fund 
thiw accruing from various sources, at the end of a long cruise would 
constitute a prize sufficient to stimulate the crew to win a share by 
. fidelity to the end. And the forfeiture of pay, with confinement and 
reduction of rations, would diminish offences. 

The establishment of this tribunal on each ship-of-war on a cruise 
would tend much to secure obedience fh)m the crew to \\\o^ife m c»Ta- 
mand, and thus, instead of Sagging and other degcadoxig^ -^xvxiv^xix^xx^^ 



» • 



818 H. Doc. 1. 

substitute close confinement, forfeiture of pay, reduction of rations, 
denial of liberty and shore privileges. These would punish the offend- 
ing. Let the " honorable discharge," temporary leave of absence pay, 
the distribution of the merit fund, liberty and shore privileges, be the 
reward of the meritorious and true. 

The estimates for the support of the navy and the ma- 
rine corps for the year ending June 30, 1855, and 
for all objects coming under the control of this de- 
partment, are, in the aggregate $1 1,730,515 19 

From which deduct special objects, including trans- 
portation of the mails in steamships 3,379,344 00 

Leaves for the support of the navy and marine corps. 8,351,171 19 

The total amount drawn from the treasury during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1853, as exhibited -by 
the statement of appropriations for the naval service, 
prepared by the Second Comptroller of the Treas- 
ury, was $12,091,120 87 

From which deduct repayments 1,111,454 79 

Gives as the total expenditure for all objects under the 

control of the Navy Department 10,979,666 08 

But of this amount there was expended for special 

objects the sum of. 4,039,942 37 

Leaving as the legitimate expenditures for the support 
of the navy and marine corps for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1853 6,939,723 71 

On the 30th June, 1853, the unexpended balance of all appropri- 
ations coming under the cognizance of the Navy Department, was 
$2,220,276 45. This amount will be required for the expenditures for 
the current fiscal year, in addition to the appropriations made for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1854. 

Attention is invited to the reports of the several bureaus, embracing 
suggestions and estimates bearing on the portion of the public service 
belonging to each respectively. Experience confirms me in the pro- 
priety of concurring in many of the important changes in the present 
contract system, particularly presented in the report from the Bureau 
of Provisions and Clothing. 

Under the existing system, contracts are taken too often by specula- 
tors, who, not being regular dealers in the article they propose to sup- 
ply, merely embark in the business for the purposes of either selling 
the contract, or only complying with its terms if the state of the mar- 
ket will admit of large profits being made. Suits are often brought on 
the bonds, but a successful recovery is far from being generally the 
result of the trial. I trust that the embarrassments which surround 
this subject may be relieved by salutary legislation. 

In the present organization of ihe ^a\^ De^«i\iaeQl^ there is a de- 



H. Doc. 1. 819 

gree of labor burdensome and embarrassing to the Secretary of the 
Navy, and severely^ distracting his attention from important business, 
which might, with great propriety and advantage, be otherwise distrib- 
uted. The establishment of a Bureau of Personnel would merely add 
to the expenses of the government the difference between the present 
pay of an oflScer, and what Congress might deem a proper salary for 
one discharging the dehcate duties of such a bureau. No additional 
clerks will be needed. It is hardl3r possible that a Secretary of the 
Navy can be suflSciently familiar with the character, fitness, and ser- 
vice of the officers of the several grades, to enable him to detail them 
satisfactorily for duty. If the head of such a bureau should bear the 
same relation to the Navy Department that the Adjutant General does 
lo the War, it would, in my opinion, contribute much to perfecting the 
organization of this department. 

1 have thus, sir, taken the liberty to present for consideration many 
changes, which, in my opinion, will promote organization, discipline 
and economy. There are practical reforms connected with this branch 
of the public service which need not be obtruded on your attention in 
this report, but which every effort will be made to effect. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

J. C. DOBBIN. 

To the Presidbnt of the United States. 



820 . H. Doc. 1 



List of papers accompanying ttie report of the Secretary of the A'ary, Z?c- 

cember 6, 1853. 

A. — List of deaths, resignations, and dismissions in the navy, since 

the last report. 
B.* — Report of Commander W. F. Lynch, in relation to his mission to 

the coast of Africa. 
C. — Professor Espy's letter, in relation to meteorological observations. 
D. — Report of Lieutenant Charles H. Davis, superintendent of Amer- 
ican Nautical Almanac, in relation to its progress. 
E. — ^Professor Alexander's report as to investigations and experiments 

upon the character of alimentary substances. 
F. — ^Recommendation of board of examiners of Naval Academy, that 
a vessel propelled in part by steam be used as the practice-sliip. 
G. — ^Report bf annual board of examiners, in relation to organization, 

condition, &c., of the Naval Academy. 
H. — ^Report by the commandant of midshipmen of the late cruise of 

the practice-ship. 
L — Letter from chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, recommend- 
ing that the sale of navy-yard lands at Brooklyn, authorized by 
act of March 3, 1853, be postponed. 
K. — Report of Commander Blake, as to arrangements for establishing 

a depot of coal for naval purposes at Key West. 
No. 1. — Detailed estimates of the office of the Secretary of the Navy, 
and detailed estimates of the superintendent of the Nautical 
Almanac. 
No. 2. — ^Report and detailed estimates of the chief of the Bureau of 
Ordnance and Hydrography, including Hydrographical OP* 
fice and Naval Observatory, and Navau Academy. 
No. 3. — Report and detailed estimates of the chief of the Bureau of 

Yards and Docks. 
No. 4. — ^Report and detailed estimates of the chief of the Bureau of 

Construction, Equipment, and Repair. 
No. 6. — Report and detailed estimates of the chief of the Bureau of" 

Provisions and Clothing. 
No. 6. — Report and detailed estimates of the chief of the Bureau of 

Medicine and Surgery. 
No. 7. — Report of the commandant of the marine corps, and detailed 
estimates from the paymaster and quartermaster of the corps. 
No. 8. — General estimate of office of the Secretary of the Navy, and 

the several bureaux of the department. 
No. 9. — General estimate for southwest executive building. 
No. 10. — Summary statement of the estimates for the navy. 
No. 11. — General estimate for the support of the navy. 
No. 12. — General estimate for the support of the marine corps. 
No. 13. — General estimate for special objects under the Navy Depart- 
ment. 



H. IV>c. 1. «21 

>. 14. — Abstract of expenditures under the head of contingent ex- 
penses, as settled and allowed at the office of the Fourth 
Auditor of the Treasury, from July 1, 1862, to June 80, 
1863, inclusive. 

X 16. — Statement of the appropriations for the Navy Department, 
viz : balances of appropriations on the 1st of July, 1862 ; 
appropriations for the fiscal year 1852-3 ; repayments and 
transfers in same time ; the amounts applicable to the ser- 
vice of the year 1862-'3 ; the amounts drawn by requisitions 
from the treasury in the same period ; and the balances on 
the 30th of June, 1853, with such sums specially designated 
as have been carried to the surplus fund. 



Part iii — ^21 



322 



H. Doc. 1. 

A. 



List of deaths in the navy, as ascertained at the department, since 1st 

December, 1852, 



Names and rank. 



Date. 



Place. 



Captains. 

Charles W. Morgan . . . 

Thomas T.Webb 

Edward R. McCall 

Commanders. 

John M. Dale 

A, G. Slaughter 



Lieutenants. 

Courtland Benham 

Charles Hey wood 

George W. Chapman. . 
Henry Moor 



Surgeons. 

Peter Christie . . . 
E. L. Du Barry.. 



Passed Assist. Surgeon. 

Daniel L. Bryan 

Pursers. 



Joseph H. Terry. 
D. Fauntleroy 



MaUer. . 

.John Stuart 

Passed Midshijjmen. 

E. D. Denny 

A. C. Jackson 

Walter V.Gilliss 

Richard J. D. Price. . . 
J'ohn J. .Hanson 



Jan. 5, 1853 
April 11, 1853 
July 31, 1853 



Dec. 15, 1852 
Sep. 8, 1853 



Oct. 30, 1852 
Jan. 16, 1853 
Feb. 20, 1853 
Mar. 21, 1853 



Mar. 5, 1853 
July 12, 1853 



Sep. 14, 1853 



Aug. 22, 1853 
Aug. 31, 1853 



Oct. 27,1853 



Feb. 2, 1853 
Mar. 31, 1853 
June 11, 1853 
June 20, 1853 
Aug. 25, 165a 



Navy yard, Washington. 
Norfolk, Va. 
Bordentown, N. J. 



Philadelphia. 

Warrenton, Fauquier coun- 
ty, Va. 



Frigate Raritan, at sea. 
Frigate Saranac, at sea. 
Philadelphia. 

Killed on Sacramento river, 
California. 



Buffalo, N. Y. 

At sea. East Indies. 



Naval hospital, Pensacola. 



New York. 

Navy yard, Pensacola. 



Detroit, Michigan. 



Sonora, California. 
Clifton Springs, New York. 
Louisville, Kentucky. 
Storeship Lexington, at sea. 
\ '5\aN^\vo^\i\\al^ Pensacola. 



H. Doc. 1. 

A — Continued. 



323 



Namefl and rank. 



Date. 



Midshipmen. 

William A. Little 

Charles D. Sparks 

Acting Midshipman. 

A. W. Brodhead 

Professor. 

Wm. B. Benedict 

Master^s Mate. 

James T. Power 

Gunner. 

William Burton 

Carpentei's. 



Francis Sagee. 
William Lee.. 



Sailmakers. 



Wm. R.Pecor 

Thomas J. Boyce 

Thomas Tatem 

2d Assist. Engineers. 

George F. Barton 

Washington H. Nones J 

3<i Assist. Engineers. 

William T. Gorton . . . 
George E. Shock 



Aug. 24, 1852 
April 12, 1853 



Jan. 23, 1853 
June 23, 1853 
Aug. 20, 1853 
May 31, 1853 



May 23, 1853 
July 31, 1853 



Jan. 30, 1853 
Mar. 25, 1853 
May 3, 1853 



Sep. 4, 1853 
Sep. 9, 1853 



Aug. 31, 1853 
Sep. 11, 1853 



Place. 



Sloop Plymouth, at sea. 
Sloop Vincennes, N. Y. 



Naval Academy, Annapolis. 



Leesburg, Va. 



Bloomingdalo asylum, N. Y. 



Chelsea hospital, Mass. 



Philadelphia. 

Navy yard, Pensacola. 



Sloop Levant, at Barcelona. 
Newark, N. J. 
Wilmington, Delaware. 



Naval hospital, Pensacola. 
Naval hospital, Pensacola. 



Naval hospital, Pensacola. 
East Pascagoula, Miss. 



Namet and rank. 


Dat«. 


Place. 


MARINE CORPS. 






Major Marines. 






Thomas A. Linton 


Feb. 17, 1853 


Portsmouth, Va. 


Captains Marines. 






Francis C. Hall 

0. D. Baker 


July 13, 1853 
Aug. 31, 1853 
Nov. 26, 1853 


Norfolk, Va. 

Navy yard, Pensacola. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 


r. L..C. Hardy 



ki^ 






List of resignations in the navy since December 1, 1852. 



Names and nmk. 



Commanders. 
William L. Howard December 18, 1852. 



Henry Bruce 



Lieutenants. 



Thomas A. Budd . . . 

Andrew Wier 

Joshua Humphreys . 
Carlisle P. Patterson 
Joseph P. San ford . . 
Wm. Taylor Smith . 



Pursers. 

Littleton Tazewell Waller. 
James C. Douglass 



Chaplains. 



Orville Dewey 

Tbftmas Coke Stanley 



Date of aeeeptanoe. 



November 28, 1853. 



April 29, 1853. 
June 8, 1853. 
June 27, 1853. 
September 2, 1863. 
October 8, 1853. 
October 17, 1853. 



January 12, 1853. 
February 24, 1853. 



February 9, 1863. 
^"^V^^mVye^ 26> 1863. 



\tLif- 



^'J 



V 



H. Doc. 1. 

A — Continued. 



325 



Namet and rank. 



Mcuter. 



Edmund R. CoUioun 



Paued Midshipmen. 



Edgar Brodhead. 
J. D. Langhorne. 



Midshipmen. 



Waiiam H. Ward . . . 
James D. Legar^ . . . 
Wm. Henry Smith. . 
Edward R. Sbubrick 
George Dallas Hand 
Marshall E. Palmer . 
Richard H. Gayle. . . 



Acting Midshipmen. 



William H. Smith . . 
Clarence L. Barrett , 
Wm. B. Emerson . , , 

J. M. Etting 

J. Carson Erwin 



Boatswains. 



Edward Cavendy 

Robert Powers, (acting). 

John Bancroft do 

John Stout do 

Thomas Burns do 

Richard FoUins. . .do 



Gunners. 



John D. Brandt 

S. M. Beckwith 

Wm. W. Fisher, (acting) . 



Engineer-in-Chief. 
Charles B. Stuart 



Date of acceptance. 



June 27, 1853. 



January 12, 1863. 
November 21, 1853. 



December 10, 1852. 
December J 5, 1852. 
April 20, 1853. 
April 26, 1853. 
April 28, 1853. 
May 13, 1853. 
June 27, 1853. 



December 16, 1852. 

Do do. 

February 25, 1853. 
March 23, 1853. 
October 3, 1853. 



October 8, 1853. 
December 16, 1852. 
January 26, 1853. 
March 26, 1853. 
October 1, 1853. 
November 15, 1853. 



January 12, 1853. 
September 30, 1853. 
November 14, 1853. 



July 1, 186a- 



326 



H. Doc. 1. 

A — Continued. 



Names and rank. 

^ 

Chief Engineer. 
William Sewell 

First AMistant Engineers. 

W m . K . HaU 

Thomas Kilpatrick 

Henry Mason 

Second AMstant Engineers. 

John W. Parks 

Thomas A. Stephens 

Third Assistant Engineers. 

George £• DeLuce 

Joseph M. Freeman 

Charles H. Manson 

MARINE CORPS. 

Second Lieutenant. 

George F. Lindsay, jr 

Chief of Bureau of Construction^ Sfi:. 
Samuel Hartt 

Navxj Agents. 

Francis Mallory 

Wm. Henry LeRoy 

Timber Agents. 

E. Sanford Sayre 

Zebulon P. Davis 



Date of acceptance. 



November 10, 1S53. 



February 15, 1853. 
August 22, 1853. 
November 14, 1853. 



May 21, 1?53. 
September 6, 1853. 



February 28, 1853. 
October 8, 1853. 
November 25, 1853. 



December 31, 1852. 



November 17, 1853. 



May 5, 1853. 
April 5, 1853. 



February 19, 1853. 
February 26, 1853. 



H. Doc. 1. 

A — Continued. 
List of dismisiiom in the nacy since Decctnber 1, 1852. 



827 



Names and raak. 



Date of dUmissioD. 



Lieutenant. 
William L. Blanton 

m 

Purser. 



Dudley Walker 

Midshipman. 
Henrj' McThorae 



Acting Midshipmen, 



J. McD. C. Jay.- . . 
George T. Kendall. 

E. B. Ragland 

George P. Tickner . 
J. G. Worthington . 

J. F. Brown 

Edward H. Burton. 

C. W. Crenshaw 

William Cameron . . 
James N. Douglass . 

Denton Dunn 

M. H. Gilchrist 

M.Hale 

S. H. Lamar 

A. P. McCrabb.... 



Boatstoains. 



Robert Simpson 

Charles Smith, (acting) . . 
Charles Mcintosh, (acting). 



Acting Gunner. 



John Wilkins , 



Third Assistant Engineer. 



Joseph R. Pomroy 



December 1, 1853. 



February 24, 1853. 



November 15, 1853. 



February 25, 1853. 
February 25, 1853. 
February 25, 1853. 
April 5, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 
June 21, 1853. 



September 12, 1853. 
August 6, 1853. 
July 30, 1851. 



February 23, 1853. 



Dec- 20, IftBa— Axo^^- 



828 



H. Doe. 1. 

A — Continued. 



Names and rank. 



Date of diBiniaaioa. 



Navy Agents. 

Charles H. Ladd 

William Sloanaker 

William Hindman 

Benjamin D. Wright 

E.O.Perrin 

J. H. Lathrop 

Naval Storekeepers, 

N. W. Coffin 

Hiram Fuller 

John F. Sale 

John G. Hatton 

John Rice 

Adam Diller 

Benjamin S. Hines 

Thomas Woodward , 

D. W. Whitehurst 

Timber Agents. 

T^B. Thorpe 

Wm. T.Purnell 

John Waterston 

Hardy Wilkins 

Nathaniel Davis 

Isaac Towsend 

D. G. McLean 

HAnp Agents. 

Thomas Smith 

Z.T. Woolfolk 



April 6, 1853. 
April 5, 1853. 
April 5, 1853. 
April 12, 1853. 
May 28, 1853. 
June 18, 1853. 



March 28, 1853. 
April 1, 1853. 
April 9, 1853. 
April 19, 1853. 
May 7, 1853. 
August 18, 1853. 
August 18, 1853. 
September 1, 1853. 
September 16, 1853. 



April 23, 1853. 
April 23, 1853. 
May 17, 1853. 
July 26, 1853. 
July 26, 1853. 
August 16, 1853. 
August 16, 1853. 



Feb'y 24, 1853— office 
discontinued. 



H. Doc. 1. 329 

B. 

U. S. Steamer Alleghany, 

Potomac River y October 17, 1863. 
Sir f Herewith I respectfully submit ray official report of a mission 
to Africa, with appendix, maps, and sketches. 

I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 

W. F. LYNCH, 

Commander. 
Hon. J. C. Dobbin, 

Secretary of the Navy, 



l^MiLADELPHiA, September 6, 1863. 

Sir: In obedience to an order of the department, dated October 
25, 1862, I left the United States on the 13th of November following, 
for the west coast of Africa. 

Touching at Teneriffe for information, I proceeded thence direct to 
the coast, in order to form some idea of the distance inland to, and the 
trending of, the nearest and most northern mountain range. 

Africa — represented as torrid, pestilential, savage, and mysterious, 
reserved and guarded by the most terrible and resistless influences of 
nature — ^has been truly described as nowhere letting into its bosom the 
waters of the ocean, and, in like manner, projecting into the sea no im- 
portant peninsulas. From the straits of Gibraltar to the Cameroons, 
the tame monotony of the coast is interrupted but by occasional isolated 
promontories, which can only be termed lofty by comparison. 

From Cape Cautin to the Great Desert the principal elevations are 
"Ghebel Hadid" and the "Heights of Idantenan," and from the north 
boundaiy of the desert to Cape Verde, "Los Matillos" and the "Hills 
of Cintra" alone break the uniformity of a low and sandy coast. 

On the 13th of January, of the present year, I saw Cape Verde, the 
westernmost point of Africa, (in north latitude 14° 45',) which was first 
discovered by the Portuguese navigator, Femandes, about the middle 
of the fifteenth century. In each direction, north and south, the coast 
stretched beyond the line of vision, in a narrow strip of sand, fringed 
with green; except the extremity of the cape which threw up two de-' 
tached hillocks, of inconsiderable elevation, resembling islets in the 
distance. On the hillocks were many of the baobab or monkey tree, 
{Adaruonia di^itata*) which gives to them that verdant appearance 
from whence the cape derives its name. This tree is liable to be at- 
tacked by a fungus, which vegetates without destroying life, and ren- 
ders the part attacked as soft as pith. 

The trunks of such trees are hollowed into chambers by the natives, 
in which they suspend the dead bodies of those to whom burial has 
been denied. There they become mummies, dried and well preserved, 
without being embalmed. This is somewhat analogous to tive cxslsXssoi 
of our Omaha Indians, who place the bodies of the dead Va xVie cxoXs^^ 
of trees. Like all other plants of the maZtxiccee order, \!ba XwJ^"^^ 



330 H. Doc. 1. 

emollient and mucilaginous, and Europeans sometimes use it as a 
febrifuge and tonic. The fruit is large, oblong, pulpy, full of seeds, 
and of an agreeable acid flavor; and its juice, when sweetened, is 
drunk as a specific in putrid and pestilential fevers. The mandingoes 
convey it to the southern and eastern districts of Africa, and through 
the Arabs it reaches Morocco and Egypt The ashes of the fruit, 
mixed with palm oil, serve for soap. The flowers are large, white, 
and handsome; and in their many petals and violet mass of stamens, 
bear some resemblance to the white poppy. Both flowers and fruit 
are pendant. The baobab attains the greatest age and is the largest 
tree known in the world, its trunk measuring, sometimes, ninety feet 
in circumference. At one year old its diameter is one, and its height 
five inches; at thirty years its diameter is two feet, and its height 
about twenty; at one thousand years its diameter is twelve or fourteen, 
and its height about sixty feet ; and at five thousand years its lateral 
has so far outstripped its perpendicular growth that the diameter will 
be thirty feet, while its height scarce exceeds seventy feet. The roots 
are of a most extraordinary length, and in a tree seventy-seven feet in 
circumference the top root measured one hundj-ed and ten feet. The 
foliage is very abundant, and the drooping bouglis, with their mass of 
green, almost hide the stem — presenting a hemispherical mass sixty to 
seventy feet high and four hundred feet in circumference. Rene Caille 
describes one he saw in the valley of the Niger, which, in size, must 
have surpassed the celebrated plain-tree of Lycia, in the hollow of 
which Licinius Mutianus feasted twenty-one guests. 

Above the Senegal, on the desert of Zahara, the Hne of sand is no 
longer bordered with green ; and from the powerful refraction there 
ensues a mirage, which so blends the water with the land as to present 
the appearance of an illimitable sea. On that coast perished the hap- 
less crew of the Medusa. 

It was a soft, golden morning when we made the land ; but the sun 
rose yellow and dim, enveloped in a bank of vapor. In the space of 
an hour we had bidden adieu to the fresh wind that prevails from 30° 
north latitude to this parallel, and exchanged the agitated but not angry 
waves which curled before it for hot and stifling airs and a scarce un- 
dulating sea, curtained with a mist formed of its own evaporation. 
The northeast trade- wind, so cool and invigorating, had given place to 
the dry and parching harmattan, which, under its other names of 
samiel, simoon, and sirocco, sweeps across the deserts of Arabia and 
Africa. During this wind, which, in its flaws of heat, resembles more 
the blast of a furnace than living air, the atmosphere is hot, dry, and 
rarified to an almost insufferable degree, and sometimes becomes suf- 
focating from the clouds of dust and sand driven before it. But we 
were not sensible of the strong aromatic odor wafted from the land, 
which regaled the senses of Hanno and his Carthagenian mariners in 
their voyage of discovery upwards of two thousand years ago. 

A few hours after passing Cape Verde I arrived at Goree, a volcanic 

island, formed of basalt and sand, which, with some settlements on the 

Senegal, three degrees to the north, the French have held since 1816. 

This island is about half a mile long and a quarter wide. It is strongly 

fortified; and, from its natural posiUon, \\ie fotUe^^ ow Vva summit 



H. Doc. 1. 831 

is almost impregnable — three sides being perpendicular and washed 
by the sea, and the fourth a precipitous ascent from the town. 
The population of the town and garrison is estimated at from six to 
eight thousand. Besides tJje fort on the summit of the hill, the place 
is strongly fortified, but could not long withstand a siege, as it is almost 
wholly dependent on the adjacent main for wood and water. It is the 
great entrepot of the French colonial possessions in West Africa, north 
of the equator. 

There were in port, when we arrived, seven or eight French, one 
American, and two English merchant vessels — besides a French squad- 
ron of six sail, mostly steamers. The latter were preparing for a hos- 
tile expedition against a tribe to the south. 

The river Senegal is supposed to rise in the mountains of Foota 
Jallon, and on the eastern slope of the same range it is surmised that 
the Niger has its source. In about 15° north latitude, the Senegal is 
joined by several tributaries, and, after passing Galam arid the fulls of 
Fdoo, makes a circuitous bend to the northwest along the borders of 
the desert, and, after a course of upwards of 900 miles, empties into 
the Atlantic at Fort St. Louis. In its lower course, it flows between 
the Great Desert on the one hand, and avast alluvial plain on the 
other, and becomes so swollen during the periodic rains, and sweeps 
with such a resistless cuirent into the sea, that the latter, which, in tne 
dry season, impregnates the river for upwards of a hundred miles from 
its mouth, is driven back with so fearful a recoil, that for a mile with- 
out the bar is one wide sheet of foam. At such times, entrance is im- 
possible; hence the selection of the anchorage of Goree, which is at 
all times accessible. 

Where it flows by Tuabo, the capital of Lower Galam, the Sene- 
gal, in the rainy season, presents a magnificent sight. It fills the plain, 
and rushes at the rate ot six knots an hour by the bases of the hills, 
which are clothed to their summits with the richest verdure, while the 
surface of the stream is dotted with uprooted trees, on which are seen 
standing large aigrettes, whose snow-white feathers reflect the rays of 
a brilliant sun, and form a pleasant contrast to the green reeds around 
them and the brown trunks of the trees whereon they stand. 

The principal articles of export from this region are the gutta-percha 
and the gum-senegal — the latter an exudation from a species of acacia, 
the bark of which is split by desiccation during the prevalence of the 
harmattan. Towards the close of the last century, this gum was dis- 
covered to be more mucilaginous and adhesive than that from Arabia, 
which, in the arts, it has almost wholly superseded. There are now 
upwards of two millions of pounds exported annually, mostly to France. 

The French have settlements far up the Senegal, and control the 
trade of which it is the outlet ; although they are not masters of the 
country — a country presenting a vast and interesting field for explora- 
tion. In its far interior, in the midst of barbarous nations, a semi- 
civilized tribe has been recently discovered, which has some religious no- 
tions analogous to the Christian, and possess an alphabet and a mode of 
writing, wfich, from their account, they derived trom a^\vAfe ^Vx^w^x 
who died among them, and whose memory is reveied as X^aaXoS. a^^^» 



332 H. Doc. 1. 

It was doubtless the traveller Compagnon, who, it is known, pene- 
trated as far as the wooded desert of Simboni. 

Except the island of Goree, and the hillocks crowned with foliage 
beyond it, which mark the peninsula of Cape Verde, there was pre- 
sented to the eye, in eveiy direction, inland and along the coast, a 
monotonous level of green, relieved here and there by the feathery tuft 
of a majestic palm. These were the only interruptions to the in-shore 
horizon. 

From Goree I proceeded down the coast, eighty miles, to the 
Gambia; the land throughout the entire distance being low and densely 
wooded, except in one place, where a range of sand-hills presented 
perpendicular faces washed by the sea. Lying at anchor in the Gambia 
was the United States ship John Adams, rendering assistance to an 
American merchant vessel in distress. I felt much relieved when I 
descried our ensign at her peak. Her presence relieved me from the 
necessity, for which I had prepared by the purchase of charts and in- 
struments, for making my reconnoissance in a small coasting vessel 
manned by Africans. It was with infinite satisfaction, therefore, that 
I grasped the hand of her manly and most excellent commander, and 
exchanged greetings with her intelligent oflBcers, and looked upon her 
snow-white decks, her splendid battery, and clean, cheerful, and well- 
disciplined crew. 

I presented to Commander BaiTon the order of the department, and 
he professed his readiness to carry out its views. I likewise informed 
him of the appUcation I made just prior to my departure, asking to be 
allowed to extend the reconnoissance to the river Gaboon, near the 
equator, and showed him the reply of the department granting ihe per- 
mission, if it could be done in time. With every disposition to facilitate 
my movements, Commaiider B. stated that he could take me along the 
entire coast of Liberia, stopping at every place I might deem it neces- 
sary to examine; or he could proceed with me direct to the Gaboon, 
and from thence return to Porto Praya; but that he had not on board a 
sufficient quantity of provisions for both services. 

As my orders were positive respecting Liberia, and only contingent 
as to the Gaboon, ana as I had an expectation, scarce short of cer- 
tainty, that in six weeks the sloop Marion or the steamer Vixen would 
be on the coast, I accepted his first proposition. 

Like the Senegal, tne Gambia has its source in the mountains of 
Footah Jallon, near that of the Falerne, one of the tributaries of the 
former. It is a powerful and rapid stream, and is navigable four hun- 
dred miles to the falls of Barriconda. Its whole course is about seven 
hundred miles, setting first to the northwest, and then to the west, and 
falls into the Atlantic at north latitude 13°. The Gambia is a mag- 
nificent water-road, which has never been thoroughly explored by 
Europeans; but there is a current belief that, by one of its tributaries, 
it is connected with the Senegal. 

During the dry season, from November until May, the influence of 

the tide is perceptible some distance up; but while the rains prevail, 

and for several weeks after, a mighty volume of water sweeps aown in 

ao almost resistless current, and after overflowing its lower banks it 

encounters the long and narrow island oi S\.,^^^^^>^\iviVi deflects it 



H. Doc. 1. 883 

a little to the north, when it spreads out and becomes lost in the sea. 
The island, but slightly elevated above the surface of the water, forms 
one side of the noble estuary, and lies lengthwise close adjacent to the 
southern shore. The two low, sandy shores are ten miles distant at 
the river's mouth, where an extensive shoal forms two separate channels. 
On the north extremity of the island of St. Mary's, which is only one 
foot above high-water mark, just at the elbow round which sweeps the 
river, is the town of Bathurst, an English commercial and military set- 
tlement. 

The soil of the island is sand and gravel, intermixed with a brown 
oxide of iron ; and, judging from the overgrown weeds in the outskirts 
of the town and the size of the vegetables within it, is more prolific than, 
from its appearance, one would suppose. Towards the main land, the 
soil is evidendy an alluvial deposite from above. 

Bathurst is a very handsome place, containing some twelve or four- 
teen fine houses built of stone, the residences of the merchants, besides 
the hospital, the government house, and the barracks for the accommo- 
dation of English officers and black soldiers — the non-commissioned 
oflScers and privates of British regiments serving m Africa being re- 
cruited from the negroes of the West Indies. 

There are three companies of a West India regiment, always short 
of their complement, which compose the garrison of the settlements, 
being distributed among the stations compnsing McCarthy's island, 175 
miles up the river; Fort Bullen, on the Barra shore, opposite to Bathurst; 
Cape tSt. Mary's, eight miles distant, in the kingdom of Combo ; and 
Bathurst, the seat of government. 

The government, as in that of all the British colonies in Africa, is 
administered by a governor and legislative council, whose acts are sent 
home for royal approval. The Europeans resident here number about 
forty, including officers, merchants, some Wesleyan missionaries, two or 
three ladies, and as many of that celestial band, the Sisters of Charity. 
The rest of the population number about 2,000; consisting of Africans, 
mostly JalofTs, Mandingoes, some Foulahs, and an occasional Moor who 
has strayed down from the interior. Amidst many discordant sounds, 
the ear of the stranger, as he walks through the market at Bathurst, 
will be struck occasionally by accents from female lips, which he will 
at once pronounce the softest and most melodious he ever heard. There 
is a plaintiveness in the tone, and a music in the flexure of the voice, 
which is indescribable. I could not learn of what tribe the speakers 
were, for it is more difficult to designate the country of the female than 
of the male. 

The Mandingo language is considered more 'melodious than that of 
the Foulahs, while the later is said to be more copious and to possess 
a structure which would indicate a former high condition of the race. 
Seen through the foliage of the trees in front, the buildings of the town 

E resent an imposing and beautiful appearance from the harbor. The 
abitations of the natives are huts made of cane, wattled around slender 
uprights and plastered, many of them inside and out, with mortar. 
Those of the poorer classes are plastered with mud. The hwt^ ^x^ 
usually in the form of a parallellogram, from 16 to 20 \ee\.\ow^*\il ^.^ 
to 14 wide, and the walls irom five to six feet ViigVv. T\i^ xooSsi ^x^ 

1 



334 H. Doc. 1. 

conical, formed of light poles meeting in the centre, and thatched with 
the long grass of the country. 

The huts are not built in regular rows, each one fronting on the street, 
one for each family; but are many of them in enclosures of wicker w^ork, 
containing two or three or more huts, according lo the number of wives 
of the proprietor. These huts very much attracted my attention, and I 
visited several of them, each usually containing one or two beds made 
of mats, spread on fixtures to the wall, a few chairs, and a table, on 
which was exhibited the household crockery. Excepting that they are 
better finished, these huts are, I am told, fair specimens of those in the 
neighboring country ; but the bed-fixtures, the chairs, the tables, and the 
crockery, are the results of close contact with civilization. The native 
inhabitants of the town are nearly all Mohammedans — some few are 
Pagans; but, so far as I could learn, there was not an adult Christian 
among them. Nearly all wear gree-grees or charms, consisting of a 
bit of camwood, a tooth of some wild animal, or a sentence from the 
Koran, cased in skin. Their dress is flowing and very graceful, con- 
sisting, with some slight variety, of a white cloth WTapped around the 
loins and extending to the knees, and another with an aperture for 
the head, resting upon the shoulders, like the bernoos of the Syrian 
horseman. 

The Jaloff* is the tallest race of men I have ever seen, and forcibly 
reminded me of the fabulous accounts of the Patagonians. They in- 
habit the vast district extending along the coast from the Gambia to the 
Senegal. Their frames are rather slight than muscular : they are coal- 
black in their complexions, and have the short, crisped hair peculiar to 
the negro race ; but have not the thick lips, flat nose, and low, rece- 
ding forehead which, in our ideas, are associated with the fetaures of 
the Afi-ican. On the contrary, with the Caucasian, they have promi- 
nent noses, and their foreheads are high but narrowing at the temples. 
Each one carries himself as stately as if he were a monarch — the wo- 
men as much so as the men, and with the same proportion as elsewhere, 
in the respective size of the sexes. I am not alone in the opinion that 
the females are, on an average, as tall as men are with us. It is a 
very interesting race. The Europeans here represent them as easily 
managed by gentle means, but exceedingly dangerous when provoked, 
and as being very expert in the use of fire-arms. In point of stature 
they correspond with the Bern, a tall race of men towards the other 
side of the continent. The Jaloffs arc high-toned and courteous ; and, 
in contradistinction to the other tribes, are called by foreigners the 
"gentlemen of Africa." 

The Mandingoes are from the banks of the Gambia, from Manding 
down to the coast. It is a numerous and powerful race, with more of 
the characteristic features of the negro than the Jaloffs. They are re- 
presented as lively in their dispositions, prone to traffic, and with some 
taste for literature — a literature confined to the Koran. It is said they 
read no other book, and are taught no other lessons in their schools but 
au unmeaning repetition of its laws and precepts. I question the cor- 
rectness of the assertion. The songs of the Jelli, or singing men, would 
bespeak a higher intellectual cultivation. Mr. Laing visited in 1S22 
the walled town of Kakundi, in the comhu^ of Melicouri^ and was there 



H Doc. 1. 335 

introduced to King Yaradee, ©ne of the chiefs of Suh'ma. On that oc- 
casion was recited the following song, which is almost as poetic and 
far more genuine than ihe fabled poems of Ossian. It commemorates an 
advantage gained by Yaradee over the Foulahs, at the time when ten 
thousand of them, headed by Ba Dembah, laid siege to Falata: 

" Shake off that drowsiness, brave Yaradee, thou lion of war ! 
Hang thy sword to thy side, and be thyself! Dost thou not behold the 
army of the Foulahs? Observe their lines of muskets and spears, 
vying in brightness with the rays of the departing sun ! They are 
strong and powerful ; yea, they are men ! ana they have sworn on the 
Al Koran that they will destroy the capital of the Sulima nation. So, 
shake off that drowsiness, brave Yaradee, thou lion of war ! The 
brave Talaheer, thy sire, held the Foulahs in contempt. Fear was a 
stranger to his bosom ! He set the firebrand to Timbo, that nest of the 
Islamites ; and, though worsted at Herico, he scorned to quit the field, 
but fell like a hero, cheering his war-men. If thou art worthy to be 
called the son of Talaheer, shake off that drowsiness, brave Yaradee, 
thou lion of war ! 

" Brave Yaradee stirred. He shook his garments of war, as the 
soaring eagle ruffles his pinions. Ten times he addressed his gree- 
grees, and swore to them that he would either return in triumph to 
the sound of the war-drum, or that the cries of the Jelli should bewail 
his fall. The war-men shouted with joy. 

" Behold ! he shakes from him that drowsiness, the lion of war! he 
hangs his sword by his side, and is now himself! 

"Follow me to the field! exclaimed the heroic Yaradee! Fear 
nothing ! for, let the spear be sharp, or the ball be swift, faith in your 
gree-grees will preserve you from danger. Follow me to the field ; 
lor I am roused, and have shook off* that drowsiness. I am brave Yar- 
adee, the lion of war! I have hung my sword by my side, and am 
myself. I have shook off that drowsiness. The war-drum sounds, and 
the sweet notes of the balla encourage warriors to deeds of arms. The 
valiant Yaradee mounts his steed ! His headmen follow! The north- 
ern gate of Falaba is thrown open, and they rush from it with the 
swiftness of leopards. Yaradee is a host in himself! Observe how he 
wields his sword ! They fall before him ! They stagger ! They reel ! 
Foulah men ! you will long remember this day ! for Yaradee has shook 
off his drowsiness, the lion of war ! He has hung his sword by his 
side, and is himself." 

By way of contrast of the turn of thought and mode of expression, 
I give the account of a Bornou man, related by himself: 

" My years were eighteen. There was war. At that time my 
mother died. My father died. I buried them. I had done. The 
Foulahs caught me. They sold me. The Housa people bought us. 
They brought us to Tomba. We got up. We came to the Popo coun- 
try. The Popoes took us. To a white man they sold us. The white 
man took us. We had no shirts. We had no trousers. We were 
naked. Into the midst of the water — into the midst of a ship they put 
us. Thirst killed somebody. Hunger killed somebody. By night we 
prayed. At sun-time we prayed. God heard us. 't\^Y*iv^\^ ^^^ 
good. God sent them. They came. They took us. Out \i\r[v%^x d^si^* 



H. Doc. L 

Our thirst died. Our chains went off from our feet. Shirts ihey gave 
us. Trousers ihey gave us. Hats they gave us. Every one was glad. 
We all praised the EngUsh. Whoever displeases the English, into hell 
let him go." 

The Mandingoes manufacture cotton cloths, and dye them with indigo 
and other vegetable dyes in colors so fixed as to resist, it is said, the 
action of acids, and Ught — a quality surpassing that of any other known 
dye-stuff in the world. The Mandingo indigo-plant, as it is here called, 
has a deep-green leaf, with a number of spear-shaped leaflets along 
the sides of a common leaf-stalk, opposite to each other and abruptly 
winged, and may therefore be classed among compound leaves. From 
thirty leaves of this plant, nearly an ounce of pure indigo has been ob- 
tained. The Mandingoes are skilled also in the tanning of hides, and 
the preparation of leather; and the specimens which I saw of their 
bridles, whips, pouches, sword and dagger sheaths, and powder-horns, 
far surpass all I had conceived of native manufacture. 

The Foulahs or Fellatas are rigid Mohammedans, and are very dis- 
tinct from the Jaloffs and Mandingoes. They sustain the remark that 
the inhabitants of an inland country are of lighter complexion than 
those who reside on the seacoast in the same parallel of latitude. 
They are lighter-colored, their noses are more prominent, and their 
general features partake more of the Nubian than of an African tribe 
bordering on the great desert. 

There is an ancient tradition cherished by them of their being de- 
scendants of a white race, and they have often assigned it as a reason 
why they should have no interests conflicting with those whose origin 
they regard as the same with their own. Those seen at Bathurst are 
from the countries north and south of the Gambia, above McCarthy's 
island. Although they have made a few settlements on the southern 
bank, they do hot, in general, evince a taste for agricultural pursuits. 
They are warlike shepherds, and are overrunning Western and Central 
Africa with as much zeal, and with equal success, as the Saracens did 
the northern shore of the continent in the seventh century. They are 
ever at war, and warring but to conquer ; with the sword and the 
Koran they exterminate paganism wherever they appear. 

At the close of the last century there was not a Mohammedan south 
of Cape Verde or west of Footah Torra. Now, of the two millions of 
inhabitants occupying that country, two-ihirds are Mohammedans. At 
present, a religious war is i*aging within two miles of Bathurst ; and 
the English officer, in his evening ride, can hear the report of fire-arms 
and the uproar of battle. Not long since the combatants approachcxl 
so near that their bullets struck the barrack-wall and the houses and 
fences of European residents. I have mentioned a French squadron 
fitting out in Goree for the purpose of attacking a tribe lower down the 
coast. The circumstance was related in the presence of the governor 
here ; and an officer of the garrison, who had just arrived upon the 
station, remarked, that in his opinion one small steamer and a hundred 
men would be sufficient for the purpose. " Far from it," replied the 
governor; " and you will think so, too, when you have been longer in 
Africa. There are, at this moment," he added, "people within fifteen 
miles of us whom we dare not altacW 



H. Doc. 1. 837 

• 

The Foulahs have warred against the T^uriyacks in the north, and 
the negroes of fiambara in the south. With the* Jalofis and Mandin- 
goes, they occupy much of the western coast ; and in the interior of 
the continent have subjugated Yoruba, Nyfee, and Housa. They now 
extend from the Atlantic to the Niger, and from the Senegal to within 
a few days' march of the Gulf of Guinea ; and within the present 
century have founded Soccatoo, the capital of their empire. Wherever 
they have settled, pagan idolatry is said to have disappeared, and 
human sacrifices are abolished. In one respect their success will check 
the traffic in slaves, and thus prove beneficial to humani^. By their 
civil code, derived from the Koran, it is forbidden to enslave any one 
born of free parents, and professing the religion of Mohammed ; and 
the slave of a kafir, by emoracing Islamism, becomes, ipso /actOf free. 

By the abolition of human sacrifices, and the substitution of the 
worship of the true God for that of senseless idols, the Foulahs are 
unquestionably ministers of gooil to Africa ; but it may be doubted 
whether, under the Mohammedan rule, that country will present less 
difficulties than at present to the advancement of Christianity within 
it. The theology of Islamism is unexceptionable. "Obedience leads 
the way to heaven; fasting and self-denial give it rapid progress; 
and alms-deeds open the door." 

But, unhappily, all kafirs — a term embracing Christians and in- 
fidels—are excluded from their charity. Intolerant in their bigotry, 
the very exercise of what they believe to be virtues begets a spirit 
of self-righteousness, which may prove the greatest obstacle to tneir 
conversion. 

The commerce of the Gambia, already great, is rapidly increasing. 
Bathurst is the port of entry for all the settlements on the river, ex- 
cept the French colony of Albreda. There are no discriminating 
tonnage duties; and, except sixpence per gallon on wines and spirits, 
and one farthing per pound on tobacco, the import duty on all goods, 
British and foreign, is four per cent. A comparison of the official 
returns of 1840 and that of 1851 (the last rendered) will convey an 
accurate idea of the advance of commerce. 

In 1840 the foreign tonnage entered was 6,922 tons, and that of 
1851 was 21,596 tons; while the difference between the aggregate 
imports and exports was $325,000. This difference is annually in- 
creasing, and the exports of 1851 exceeded those of the preceding 
year $120,000. In 1835 there were but 47 tons of ground-nuts 
raised on the Gambia. In 1845 the trade in that article commenced, 
amd it was exported to the amount of $995. In 1851, including 1,000 
tons from Albreda, there were upwards of 12,000 tons exported, 
amounting to $720,000, one-fifleenth of which found its way to the 
United Slates, and about the same proportion to Great Britain. Nearly 
five-sixths of the whole amount is exported to France, where an oil is 
expressed from it, which is used lor the table and for supplying lamps. 
It is much esteemed, and is said never to become rancia. 

It will be perceived that extra duties are levied on the principal ar- 
ticles imported from the United States. But it is not fair to \t\kx vW\. 
they are imposed in a spirit of illiberality. No man, v/Yio \a ^ tcvexv^Vo 
Part Hi— 22 



388 H. Doc 1. 

• 

his race, would regret, if the tax on New England mm and all intoxica- 
ting drinks amounted, everywhere, to a total prohibition. As lor 
tobacco, the Very light duty imposed aids the revenue, while it does 
not lessen the importation ; for it is an indispensable article in the Afri- 
can trade ; and whatever he sells, the native requires a part ot the pay- 
ment to be made in tobacco. Of this staple of our country, we last 
year imported into the Gambia one and a half million pounds. Our 
other imports for the same period included one thousand barrels of 
flour and two hundred and fifty thousand dollars' worth of cotton goods, 
besides salt provisions, hams, potatoes, furniture, shoes, hats, &c., to 
a large amount. Hides form a considerable portion of the exports, 
and are sent almost exclusively to our country ; and at least ooe-Knutb 
of the imports are from the United States, exclusive of the tobacco 
brought in vessels of other nations. 

Leaving the Gambia, we stretched a Uttle from the land, to pass 
outside the Isles de Los, and steered our course for Sierra Leone. 
The coast is low and thickly wooded, with occasional clumps of trees 
showing above the surface. These clumps, alone visible at times 
above the misty exhalations of the land, like thehillocksof Cape Verde, 
resemble islands in the distance. With these interruptions, the scene 
inland was as level and monotonous as that to seaward. On the one 
hand an unbroken mass of foliage, and on the other a slumbering sea, 
with a mist brooding over it, which narrowed the limits of the horizon. 

Our passage was a long and tedious one, and the weather was most 
relaxing. By day we had light and fitful airs, which scarce agitated 
the hazy atmosphere through which the rays of the sun penetrated with 
scorchinff heat, while the eye shrunk in pain fitxn the glare of light. 
During me night calms mostly prevailed, but the heated air kept evap- 
oration suspended, except when the wind shifted to the north, *and 
then the dew was copious. Notwithstanding the heat was most trying 
• to the system, the average temperature was only S3^. Our progress 
was as much accelerated by a southerly current as by wind and can- 
vass. In our course we passed the mouths of the Rio Grande, the 
Nunez, and the Pongo. The former is more a deep bay, with numer- 
ous islands, than an estuary ; the two latter are considerable rivers, 
which flow from the interior in many intricate channels, connecting 
with each other, which, while they increase the difliculties of naviga- 
tion to vessels of burden, extend to the inhabitants great facilities of 
intercommunication . 

A vessel drawing twelve feet water can ascend the Nunez sixty 
miles to Kakundy. The town of Tallabuncia, about four miles from 
its mouth, is described as being situated in a plain, and beautifully 
shaded with lofty palm-trees, and a great proAision of the lime, the 
orange, the plantain, and the banana. The men inhabiting it are stroqg 
and well formed, but of a savage appearance, having their breasts and 
arms tattooed, and are almost destitute of clothing. Large holes are 
pierced through their ears, in which are inserted bits of coarse grass. 
The appearance of the women is still less attractive. At the com- 
mencement of the rains the locust tree on the Nunez rii>ens its finite 
which hangs in clusters from its branches, and furnishes a great part 
of the food of the natives at thai aeasoii. 



H. Doc. 1. 339 

The coast from the Nunez nearly to Sierra Leone was, until the 
early part of this century, inhabited by the Soosoos, who drove from it 
the aboriginal tribe, only*leaving them a few settlements along the 
shore and on the island of Tamara, the largest of the Isles de Los. 

The Soosoos are patriotic and brave, determined enemies of Moham- 
medanism, and subject to no superstition which would not readily yield 
to the light of Christianity. Their notions of the Deity are extremely 
vague, and it can scarcely be said that they have any religion. They 
have some obscure idea of an omnipotent power, and pay respect and 
homage to departed souls — honoring, with solemn rites and offerings, 
the manes of their ancestors. They are accustomed to visit certain 
spots consecrated to the dead, and deposite some portion of their food 
and call over the names of their deceased friends. 

Hospitality is a viitue for which the Soosoos are distinguished ; and 
the stranger, it is said, never passes through one of their villages with- 
out being invited to take rest or refreshment. Should the reigning 
king, in the opinion of a majority of the chiefs, prove too weak for his 
trust, or should age unfit him for the discharge of his duties, by an act 
of peculiar significance he is called upon to retire. A messenger pre- 
sents to him a silver basin containing a piece of white paper. If the 
king places his royal turban in the basin, ne may descend, without dis- 
turbance or danger, to the walks of common life, and there enjoy the 
respect and affection of his countrymen ; but should he refuse to com- 
ply with this peaceful request, he retains his turban and manifests his 
resolution to defend it, by sending back in its stead a piece of scarlet 
cloth, with powder and ball. This is the signal for civil war. 

The Soosoos have been dispossessed of a great portion of their ter- 
ritory by the Mandingoes, who occupy the country between the recent 
conquests of the Foulahs and the sea. 

Somewhere in that territory are the Loubies — supposed to be de- 
scendants of the Lencothiopes of Ptolomy and Plinj\ They are repre- 
sented as a degenerate race — -poor and squalid in appearance — who 
neither cultivate the soil nor follow pastoral pursuits, out manufacture 
wooden bowls and other trifles, ana carry on a petty traflSc with the 
Mandingoes. 

The language of the Bulloms and that of the Timmanees, who oc- 
cupy the shores of the river Sierra Leone, are said to be harmonious to 
the ear, but surpassed in sweetness by the dialect of the Soosoos. The 
Mandingo language is more difficult than either to acquire ; and, in con- 
sequence of abounding in gutturals, is harsher in pronunciation. 

In consequence of light winds and calms we had a long passage to 
Sierra Leone. The river of Sierra Leone discovered by Pietro de 
Cintra, in 1462, and formerly called the Milomba, is formed by the 
junction of four streams — the Bunce, Rokelle, Porto Lago, and Ma- 
hara — and falls into the sea in north latitude 8° 30', and west lon- 
gitude 13° 43'. The name ** Sierra Leone" was given to the mount- 
ain range south of the river from the fancy that the loud reverberation 
of thunder in the valleys resembled the roaring of lions. 

The peninsula, which breaks down suddenly at the river's mouth, is 
very lofty compared with the opposite shore, and sltetcYvea \t^SLXvdL \g 
the 3outbea3t in a range which soon reaches an elevaUoiv o^ moie \N\^xi 



840 H. Doc. 1. 

2,000 feeL The range is not aDiform ; but presents on the north side 
detached bills, with valleys between, that iscrease in width as they de- 
scend and sweep down towards the river ; before reaching which they 
unite in a roUing and luxuriant plain, varying only in the character of 
their foliage. The valleys and hill-tops were clothed with luxuriant 
verdure when we saw them. As viewed from the sea, the scene was pic- 
turesque and imposing : on one side a low shore, stretching away to 
the north, which looked dark in its dull uniformity of green ; on the 
other the lofty mountain ranse, showing above the mist which rdled 
up from the valleys and gathered around its waist. The scenery is 
that of paradise ; but beneath its beauty, hke the serpent concealed 
amid flowers and fohage, lurks the deadly venom which is developed in 
the rainy season, when its earliest and its surest victim is the white maa 

Now, it is comparatively healthy ; and the Europeans of the place, as 
well as those of Bathurst, forget the alarms and fears of t^e past in the 
enjoyments of the present. The river Sierra Leone is, like the Gambia 
divided into two channels ; but the southern and principal one is Da^ 
row, owing to an extensive shoal along the northern shore. 

In approaching the harbor the scenery softens into the beautiful 
The breeze which daily sets in to temper the heat of the sun, wafts 
masses of clouds from seaward ; which, in passing over, cast their i 
shadows upon the swelling hills and outstretching valleys. 

At home, we sometimes behold the foliage of the trees wearing rich 
autumnal tints, while the grass beneath is green ; but here it is reversed: 
the grass is embrowned by the want of moisture at this season; while 
the trees, their roots striking deeper into the soil, retain their tropical 
verdure. And this tropical character is enhanced by the frequent palm- 
tree — the ancient and acknowledged symbol of fertility. 

Between the cape and the anchorage off the town, there are many 
ferruginous rocks scattered along the shore : but the rugged appearance 
is relieved by two placid little bays, into which empty some small 
streams, fringed with shrubbery ; among which we could not detect 
the fever-engendering mangrove. The ferruginous soil, the rounded 
summits of the mountain range, and the small pieces of lava brought 
up by the lead in sounding near the Banana islands, which lie abreast 
of it, all indicate a volcanic oridn. 

Here and there, on the hill-sides and throughout the rolling plain, are 
cultivated spots, with pretty cottages embowered in foliage, which be- 
come more and more frequent in approaching the town. Freetown is 
built on the northern declivity of the mountain, which towers 2,600 
feet behind it — a beautiful, but most insalubrious position ; for the high 
lands exclude the sea-breeze from the quarter whence it blows in the 
sickly season, and from the swampy shore on the other side is borne, 
by the land-breeze, the miasmata which is so deadly to the white man. 
One can scarcely realize that death can be shrouded in so much 
beauty. 

The soil in and around the town is formed of a brittle rock, consist- 
ing of sandstone and a combination of iron with oxygen, having a strong 
magnetic quality. 

In the centre of the town are the stores and dwellings of the Euro- 
pean residents and principal natwe tcveieWiAa^ ^MvVj^d ou one side 



H. Doc. h 341 

by Krootown, and on the other by populous villages of liberated 
Africans. 

The whole is well laid out, and the principal streets broad and rec- 
tangular. The houses in the centre town have generaUy a superstructure 
of frame, on a basement of stone. They are mostly surrounded by 
covered galleries, having trellis-work "in iront ; and are detached from 
each other, with many trees around them. The dwellings of the Kroo- 
men, who resort here in great numbers for employment, and those of 
the liberated Africans, are similar to the huts at Bathurst in their con- 
struction ; but, unlike them, they are built in lines with the streets, 
and not in detached courts. 

Some of the Africans reside in the centre town in well-finished 
houses, and own considerable property. One of the most extensive 
merchants of the place is a native of the interior. Many of the natives 
keep small retail shops ; but some of their stores are as attractive as 
those of Europeans ; and those who keep them imjwrt their goods from 
England, and export, in return, large cargoes of timber. The blacks 
are as eligible as whites to all civil and municipal offices — mayor^ 
alderman, sheriff, &c. Some years ago, the governor of the colony 
was a colored man ; and a very intelligent one, with whom I became 
acquainted, held the situation of colonial chaplain. 

Many of the negroes residing in the place are well clothed, present- 
ing quite a contrast to some of the natives of the surrounding country, 
each with a single garment girt about his loins. The MandingoeS) 
however, and the natives from Matakong, with the products of their 
manufacturing skill, twisted and stamped ffold rings, and pouches, 
bridles, and sword-cases of leather, Iook well in their long white or 
blue garments, thrown over the head and restmg upon the shoulders. 

The public buildings in the centre town are the church, the jail, the 
custom-house, and the commissariat, built of the ironstone of the coun- 
try, none of them imposing in appearance. Half-way up the elevation, 
immediately back of the town, is the governor's house, occupying the ^ 
site of a fort, and less imposing even than the public buildings below it. 

A short distance above and beyond the governor's is the hospital, a 

Elain building, in a bad position ; and crowning all are Tower Hill 
arracks, composed of three massive buildings, capable of accommo- 
dating 2,000 men. At present there are but 200 troops in the garrison, 
composed, as at the Gambia, of English officers and black soldiers. 

Tne view from the balcony of the officers' quarters is commanding 
and superb. The town is spread out in front and on each side. The 
native huts stretch far up the plain beyond the barracks, and look beau- 
tiful in their long lines ot streets, so perfectly shaded by orange, 
banana, and pawpaw trees, that, in places, the walls of huts are alone 
visible ; the brown roofs being concealed by the lofty branches. But 
there is a drawback to the view on the eastern side— the large and 
well-filled grave-yard at the head of the valley. In 1833, the popula- 
tion of Freetown was 7,000 : it is now 18,000 ; and that of the whole 
colony was, in 1861, 44,600. 

The population is a very mixed one, consisting of Euto\ie«LTi%, ^on^- 
Bcotians, hberated Africans and native Creoles, Weal Indivatva, kroexV 
cans, (colored,) Kroomen, and natives of the district. TVie ^SoetaXftA. 



842 H. Doc. 1. 

AfricaDS and native Creoles comprise ten-elevenths of the whole num- 
ber. The creeds are as various as the races : commencing with the 
largest number professing them, they are Wesleyan Methodists, Epis- 
copalians, Pagans, African Methodists, (seceders from the Wesleyan,) 
Lady Huntington's connexion, Mohammedans, Baptists, Catholics, 
Presbyterians, and Jews. 

The costumes of the mhabitants are as various as their creeds and 
complexions ; the latter ranging from the ruddy cheek of Caledonia to 
the sable brown of Egypt ; the former, from the superfluous carmeDts 
of civilization to the purU naturalibus of barbarism. Generally, the adulu 
are partly clad — ^the women more so than the men, although some of 
them have only a cloth around their loins. The young of both sexes 
under twelve years of age generally go naked ; but some have adopted 
the European dress. 

As a love of ornament is a characteristic of the African race, there 
is reason to hope that, as they lose their reverence for gree-grees, they 
will appropriate tlie money heretofore expended for them to the pur- 
chase of petticoats and trousers. In such a heterogeneous society, how 
ever, the reformation cannot be a rapid one. So lon^ as there were 
frequent accessions to the population from the slave-ships captured by 
English cruisers, there was but little progress made in the introduction 
of the manners and customs of the whites. Now, however, that the 
horrible slave trade is, or seems to be, extirpated from these latitudes, 
the present population will, day by day, yield their prejudices and pro- 
pensities to the influences of Christianity and civilization ; but, for the 
thorough reformation we must rely upon the missionary and the school- 
master acting upon the rising generation. Daily, hourly, that influence 
is now being exercised by humble but heroic men ; of whom, without 
exaggeration, it may be said that they dehberately perish, in order that 
others may live. 

There seems to be much activity evinced in clearing the land of 
its dense undergrowth in the vicinity of the settlements ; thus contribu- 
ting, at the same time, to beautify the face of the country and .promote 
the health of its inhabitants. The whole colony is intersected by ex- 
cellent roads, forming long, narrow vistas, overshadowed and beauti- 
fied by the palm and the banana — ^with hedges of the coflee plant, the 
leaves of the latter a rich and vivid green. These roads measure 
seventy miles in length, and are continually repaired by the liberated 
Africans. 

The Bullom tribe occupy the northern shore of the river, and give 
their name to the district they inhabit. The Timmanees were the origi- 
nal inhabitants of the peninsula of Sierra Leone, and they still reside 
in and around it. They are described as indolent and licentious. There 
is a tradition that they were preceded by the Aiguas, who worshipped 
the thunder-bolt. During thunder-storms they are represented as com- 
ing forth from their huts, and by shouts and songs welcoming their deity. 
On one occasion a pregnant woman was killed by lightning ; and far 
and near the worshippers came in, exulting that with one bolt two 
were killed. 

It 13 a custom among the Timmanees, «i& ^s.o o^uvmvy other tribes of 
Western Airica, to throw a small poruon ot ^V^vcn^xxXx^^ ^^v q;^ ^\?ajk 



H. Doc. 1. 843 

upon the ground, as an offering to the dead. The bodies of their kings 
are deposited in charnel-houses, which are never opened ; but there are 
small apertures through which cooked provisions and palm wine are in- 
troduced, the Timmanees believing that they are consumed by the dead. 
They have houses near their towns, in which are images, skulls, 
shells, &c., in which their divinities are believed to reside. 

I first saw here the cola or gorra-nut, so frequently mentioned by 
Park, Clapperton, and the Landers. It is the seed of the Sieradia acur 
mina/ay resembling the horse-chestnut in appearance and growing in 
pods, four or five together. It is exceedingly bitter, but is considered 
an excellent tonic by the natives. It has an unquestionable peculiarity. 
After chewing one, tepid and sliffhtly brackish water tastes sweet and 
refreshing. The locust tree of this country is very beautiful— covered 
w^hen in blossom with vermillion-colored flowers, which are followed 
by pods containing a iarinaceous substance, of which the natives are 
very fond. In the yard of one of the colonists I saw a bread-fruit 
tree, large and umbrageous, but without fruit, it being too early in 
the season. The British government might have transplanted the bread- 
fiuit tree from this vicinity, instead of sending to the South Pacific for 
it- Limes, oranges, plantains and bananas, with other tropical fruits, are 
abundant in the market. Of fish there was no scarcity ; and there seemed 
a sufficiency of indifferent beef and mutton to supply the limited de- 
mand. There was no great variety of vegetables, the cassada, yams, 
and sweet potatoes being the principal; and poultry was rarely seen. 

The movement which led to the first settlement of Sierra Leone ori- 
ginated with the Society of Friends, and the first colonists consisted 
mostly of London prostitutes and refugee slaves from the United Slates. 
The object was humane, but the means adopted most injudicious. For- 
tunately for the credit of the Christian name in a heathen land, nearly 
one-haff died or fled from the colony in a few months ; and in less 
than a year an African chief destroyed the settlement, and the whole 
were dispersed. Another colony was sent out and the town was rebuilt, 
but soon after destroyed by the French. A third time settled, it has> 
with occasional trying vicissitudes, gone on increasing, until it has be- 
come an important colony and the principal of the English settlements 
in West Africa. It was formerly under the charge of the African as- 
sociation, during which it suflTered much fi-om mal-administration of 
its affairs ; but since the government has assumed the control and exr 
erted itself strenuously and successfully in suppressing the slave trade, 
there is said to be a (fecided improvement in the character and habits 
of the blacks. Many of them are well clothed, and all of them are 
well behaved ; perfect order throughout the town is preserved by police- 
men appomted li-om among them, each one distinguished by his badge 
of autnority. I heard no quarrelling, and among them saw no intem- 
perance. 

The trade of Sierra Leone, like that of the Gambia, is fast increas- 
ing. From the official return to the British Parliament, the number 
of vessels reported inwards at the customs of this port for 1851 was 
nearly double that of the preceding year ; and the a^OMwV o^ Voxvwa^^ 
entered shows an increase of 60 per cent TVie ftu^it^ ^totcv ^^ 
Vnited States amounted, in 1861, to $83,000 ; in 1S52, \.o %^^>^^^- 



844 . * H. Doc. 1. 

But, in the words of the "official returns," "a very large proportioo 
of the exports are not reported ; it being a well-known fact that very 
many vessels load annually in the neighboring rivers with produce, for 
various parts of the world, and on account of the resident merchants of 
the colony, but which are, nevertheless, not cleared outwards at the 
custom-house ; and, consequently, no returns of their cargoes can be in- 
cluded in the return of exports, which only shows the exports of those 
vessels cleared by the customs." 

The exports for 1852 were : 

800,000 bushels ground-nuts, valued at $440,000 

(i^to France and tV to the United States.) 

400,000 feet timber— to England ; valued at 600,000 

600,000 hides — ^to the United States ; at $1 each 600,000 

300,000 gallons palm oil, at 33 J cents 100,000 

(i to the United States and j to England.) 

200 tons pepper, valued at 400,000 

(i to the United States and } to England.) 

600 tons ginger, valued at 600,000 

(i to the United States and } to England.) 
Beeswax not rendered — estimated at 90,000 

Total 2,630,000 



A letter received from Sierra Leone since my return here, reports a 
large proportionate increase for the first quarter of the present year ; 
but as it is not official, I withhold it. It will be seen that the reported 
exports very much exceed the imports ; and the inference is, that all of 
the latter, as well as the former, are not entered at the custom-house, 
but distributed in the neighboring rivers. 

Leaving Sierra Leone for Monrovia, with a fair wind, we passed 
Sherbro island and the Shebar and Gallinas rivers, and on the second 
day made Cape Mount. 

The country between Sierra Leone and the Sherbro is covered with 
timber, much of which is annually exported. With the exception oi about 
ten miles along the coast, the Shebar is now the northern boundary of the 
republic of Liberia. This river is properly an estuary of several rivers; 
and on the island between it and the sea, the first attempt was made 
to settle a colony of colored people from the United States. The Boom 
Kittam river, up which we nave a considerable trade, flows in here 
from the southeast. A short distance up the stream is the Mendi mis- 
sion, established by our countrymen. They complain that they have 
frequently been much incommoded, and that once or twice their prop- 
erty and their lives were endangered by the cupidity of the native chiets. 
They at one time considered that they owed their preservation to the 
timely interference of the commander of an English ship-of-war. This 
is not the only instance which has come to my knowle^e of the assist- 
ance rendered by officers of the royal navy to our citizens trading to or 
residing in Africa. 

In an isolated position, like that on the Boom Kittam, it seems to me 
ihat one of our cruisers should occaaionaW^ n\»x \\.\ fet ^\AK\i^>ax\K]6e, 



H. Doe. 1. 845 

as for many others connected with the supprfession of the slave trade 
and the protection of American lives and property, one or two steamers, 
of light draught of water, should be attacht?d to our squadron on the coast. 

The Mohammedan religion was introduced into this district of coun- 
try in the early part of this century, by missionaries from Coroango and 
Toubah. 

De Cintra, sailing down the coast from Sierra Leone, discovered the 
river Gallinas, to which he gave the name of Rio del Fumi, because he 
saw nothing but smoke along the shore. Until recently the mouth of 
this river was the most notorious slave mart on the western coast. The 
fiictories were destroyed in 1849 by Commander Denham, R. N. 

Through the joint liberaUty of two philanthropists — an Englishman 
and a citizen of the United States — ^the territory was subsequently pur- 
chased from the neighboring kings and annexed to the republic of Li- 
beria ; and in May, 1852, the Cassa territory, which adjoins Gallinas 
on the north, was also purchased, making the Shebar the northern 
boundary of the republic. 

From Gallinas to Cape Mount, along the coast, and extending about 
thirty miles inland, is the territory occupied by the Veys, a warlike 
tribe, numbering from ten to twelve thousand, heretofore actively en- 
gaged in the slave trade. They are said to be separatists from the 
Mandin^oes ; and some of them are Mohammedans, and possess a de- 
gree of mtelligence, and are more highly civilized than the Deys and 
other tribes to leeward. 

Their language has been reduced to writing by syllabic characters, 
and has a strong affinity to that of the Deys. 

Sharks hover about the mouths of rivers on the coast ; and, during 
the activity of the slave trade, were particularly numerous at Gallinas 
bar, on the watch for the frequent upsetting of the canoes which trans- 
ported slaves from the shore to the vessels in the offing. In 1849, a 
captain of a vessel lying off Gallinas, who had visited the shore, for a 
long time feared to launch his boat to return on board, in consequence 
of the great number of sharks he saw swimming about. When he had 
embarked, they pursued him so closely that he could strike them with 
his oar. 

As an instance of the rapacity of the shark, and the cruelty of one 
of our countrymen. Dr. Savage relates, that in 1837 a native boy be- 
longing to Tabou, about forty miles to leeward of Ca^ Palmas, was 
taken on board of an American brig, to act the pan of cabin-boy. 
Having offended the mate on one occasion, he received a severe chas- 
tisement, and rushed down into the cabin for protecti n from the cap- 
tain, who was busily engaged in writing; but the latter, provoked at 
such an abrupt intrusion, began also to beat him. The poor boy now 
retreated to the deck, pursued by the captain, and encountering the 
mate in a threatening attitude, he ran towards the bow of the ship. 
The captain followed him, pouring forth his oaths and imprecations. 
The little fugitive, finding no way of escape, sprang upon the bowsprit 
and leaped into the sea. Here, hanging to tlie cable, without daring 
to ascend, he began to entreat the compassion of his Christian emijloY^t^ 
who stood leaning over the bow, shaking his fist atvd Xhie^eivvc^^N^w- 
geance oa bia bead if be attempted to come ou boaxd a^g^iu* Ax. c 



846 H. Doc. 1. 

hardly be supposed that the captain intended to prevent his final ascent; 
but he did prevent it in the end. For while the boy was pleading for 
his mercy, two sharks were seen to approach, and, each grasping at a 
leg, rent his body asunder. The next moment the captain saw only 
the bloody wave swashfng against the bow of his ship. 

Of the horrors of the slave trade, few have a distinct conception. 
A single instance, which occurred in this locality, will giye an idea of 
the reckless barbarity which attends it. Prior to recent treaties, En- 
glish cruisers could not capture vessels of pther European nations along 
the coast, (and canitot now American,) unless there were actuaUy 
slaves on board. In 1830 his Britanic Majesty's ship "Medina" gave 
chase to a suspicious sail hovering oflF the mouth of this river. On 
board of the latter was a female slave, whose presence, as much as 
that of hundreds, would insure the capture and condemnation of the 
vessel As the most effectual means of removing the poor w^retch 
from sight — for even her dead body would bear damning testimony — 
she was flashed to the anchor, and with it cast overboard. The search 
was thus baffled, and the slaver allowed to pass unmolested. 

Cape Mount, in latitude 6° 44' N., is a bold and sudden elevation, 
densely wooded to the summit, which is 1,060 feet above the level of the 
sea ; and it towers over the surrounding country, except in the south- 
east direction, where a chain of hills stretch inland until they are lost 
in the distance. 

Cape Mount, as well as the Gallinas and Sierra Leone to the north, 
and Cape Mesurado to the south, were discovered by the same Portu- 
guese navigator, who saw here, as Hanno and his Carthaginians had 
seen before, many fires on shore, made by the natives, some of whom 
came off to the ship in canoes, two or three in each. They were all 
naked*, and armed with wooden darts and small knives, bows, and 
shields. They had rings in their ears; and, according to the narrative 
of Cada Mosta, in their nostrils also, and wore the teeth of slaughtered 
enemies suspended from their necks, as trophies. 

The eastern base of Cape Mount is washed by Fisherman's lake, ten 
or twelve miles long, formed by the outspreading of the irregular and 
sluggish river Pissou, which flows down from the interior, and only 
finds an outlet when its rising waters overflow a depression in the bar- 
rier of sand thrown up by the sea. The shores of the lake, and the 
banks of the riyer, are covered with luxuriant vegetation, except here 
and there a clearing occupied by villages and rice-fields. The huts re- 
semble so many bee-hives on a gigantic scale. 

It was here that Pedro Blanco had his extensive slave factories. 
Besides other goods, he imported, in 1841, 1,800 hogsheads of tobacco, 
and annually shipped from six to eight thousand slaves ; and considered 
it a good speculation, if one out of four of his vessels reached its des- 
tination unjnolested. 

Twenty miles from Cape Mount is Half-cape Mount river, which, in 
part, belies its name ; for it is a fine river, flowing through a level 
country, uninterrupted, as far as the eye can see, by the slightest ele- 
vation. 

From Cape Mount to Cape Mesurado is the Dey country, cut up in 
swalJ districts^ held by petty kings, wYio, vfYuYe ouVw^dX-^ ^Oij^^l^g>- 



H. Doc. 1. 847 

ing the jurisdiction of the republic, are continually holding palavers ; 
i. e., quarrelling among themselves. The word "palaver," with a 
•great many phases to its meaning, generally implies a discussion, to 
decide upon a right assumed, or a right disputed; or indemnity for a 
wrong; or the enforcement of a contract. In fact, it is the court of 
law of the tribes, and suits are brought before it. 

The Deys, more tractable but not more trustworthy than the Veys, 
are somewhat given to agriculture, and possess considerable mechanical 
skill in the weaving and dyeing of cotton cloths, and the manufacture 
of household articles and instruments of warfare. They are considered 
less numerous than the Veys, and are a more indolent and inoflFensive 
race, numbering from 6,000 to 8,000. The dialect of these two tribes 
has some affinity, but differs from other languages along the coast. 
Although very imperfect, the missionaries have succeeded in reducing 
it to significant characters, and translating into it a compilation of the 
gospels. 

At day-light, on the 31st of January, we made Cape Mesurado, dimly 
visible through a thin white mist which shrouded the horizon. The mist, 
hanging over the lowlands, but not rising above the tops of the trees, 
gave to the scene very much the appearance of a general inundation. 
We soon after heard the splashing of paddles in the water, and in a 
few moments a number of canoes came swiftly forth from the obscurity, 
and revealed two or three natives nearly naked, sitting upright in each, 
and handling their paddles with great dexterity. These canoes are dug 
out of the bombax ceiba, the puUam or wild cotton tree of the country, 
and being very light, narrow, and long, with a slight upward curve at 
each extremity, float buoyantly and gracefully upon the water. 

As we slowly sailed along, the mist in the meanwhile rising with 
the sun, the surrounding scenery, feature by feature, was unveiled, and 
by the time we cast our anchor in the bay the whole was distinctly 
revealed. 

Abreast of us was a lofty promontory ; a little beyond, and partly 
hidden by it, was the town of Monrovia; and to the east and north a 
densely wooded country, its sandy shore interrupted only in two 
places, where the rivers Mesurado and St. Paul's nnd outlets to the 
sea — those outlets marked by the foam of breakers flashing in the 
sunlight. 

The pitch of Cape Mesurado is gently rounded; but its face is 
abrupt, and would present a rugged appearance, were it not covered 
with a mantle of the richest green 1 have ever looked upon, re- 
sembling, if anything, the hue of lichens and mosses in some seques- 
tered ravine, from tne sides of which water imperceptibly trickles. 
Except a very narrow strip of beach, with a few outlying rocks at the 
very water's edge, all is one mass of fohage — tangled vines and shrub- 
bery beneath, but above a dense growth of trees, becoming more and 
more lofty, until those on the summit rear their heads above and half 
conceal the light-house, an indifferent frame building, stained and 
defaced by the weather; which, except in its greatet height, recalls to 
mind one of those narrow and neglected tobacco-houses so o^exv sfc^w 
in our southern States. 

In the dense thicket which crowns the^Cape was fotr£iet\^ ^^^* 



348 H. Doe- !• 

bouse, where the natives worshipped some hideous idol; and on the 
naked rocks, near the extremity of the Cape, was found, in September, 
1823, the carcass of a boa constrictor. It was extended nearly at 
length, and measured thirty-two feet. Its size, near down to the tail, 
was almost uniform, and, in its then collapsed and shrivelled state, 
varied little from eight inches in diameter. Its color, when aUve, 
seemed to have been dark brown, variegated with irregular patches of 
a darker hue. It had apparently perished from starvation. 

The anchora£[e is an open one ; out the winds rarely blow fresh upon 
the shore, and the only danger to shipping is a heavy sea which some- 
times comes tumbling in without the slightest premonition. The rid^e 
of highland, the rounded extremity of which forms the Cape, trends 
inland, in a diagonal line from the coast; and on a depression of that 
ridge, about half a mile from the light-house, the principal part of the 
town is built. But many houses are scattered about on the inland 
slope, at the foot of which are several stone warehouses, facing the broad 
sheet of water formed by the junction of Stockton creek coming down 
from the north, and the river Mesurado from the east. A stone's throw 
from the shore is Carey island, on which the settlement was first 
made ; where the colonists were obliged, with arms in their hands, to 
procure water for their daily use. Stockton creek separates Bushrod 
island, a densely wooded flat, from the main land ; and connects, at its 
northern extremity, with the river St. Paul's, one and a half mile from 
the mouth of the latter. 

Juft within the swell of the Cape, in a kind of bay, where, except 
in northerly winds, the sea breaks genily upon the snore, is the usual 
landing. Immediately back of the crest of the shelving shore, just 
beyond the reach of the heaviest breakers, is a small African village, 
inhabited mostly by males, who come from their native districts in 
search of occupation. Their huts are constructed of wattled cane, 
lined with mats, and arc smaller than those at Sierra Leone and the 
Gambia. They have no enclosures, and make no attempt to cultivate 
the soil ; but look only to the sea for their subsistence. They are called 
Kroomen, and their distinctive mark is an arrow tattooed on each 
temple, the point towards the eye. Their only dress was a piece of 
blue cloth, sometimes merely a handkerchief, worn around the loins. 

From the viQage we crossed the neck of the low peninsula which 
terminates in Cape Ashmun, at the river's mouth; ana, walking along 
an elevated foot-path, we saw a number of small catde, spotted black 
and white, in fine condition. These, with the exception of some goats, 
a dog, and a few lean and prowling swine, were the only quadrupeds 
we encountered. 

Instead of turning up to the town by a road which led to the right, 
we kept aloflg the base of the ridge, and soon came to the wharves, 
where two small vessels were building and one undergoing repair, 
and about the stores were a number of palm-oil casks and some large 
canoes, all indicating a degree of commercial activity; thence, ascend- 
ing the rough hillgside, we passed several houses, one of them a sub- 
stantial church, nearly finished, and in a few moments reached Broad- 
way, the central and principal street of the town. This street, and those 
Parallel to it, run nearly north and aoul\i) and a\.xe^si)^aI mtj^tvala are 



H. Doc. 1. 349 

intersected by others at right-angles, all broad and stralghtf but, ex- 
cepting a path in the centre of each, much overgrown with senna and 
wild indigo. 

Monrovia, which contains about 300 houses and 2,000 .inhabitants, is 
built, as I have said, on a depression of the ridge which sweeps inland 
from the cape. About midway the length of the principal street the 
land swells up like an earth-wave, and sinks immediately down the 
street, crossing the summit and following the declivity. On the sum- 
mit is Fort Hill, where, in December, 1822, in the infancy of the set- 
tlement, the heroic Ashmun, rising from his bed of sickness, with 
thirty-four brave colonists repulsed an assault made by eight hundred 
savages. 

The houses are detached, being built on lots of a quarter of an acre 
each. They are of good size, some two stories, but most of them one 
and a half, consisting of a single story of frame resting on a basement 
of stone, with a portico front and rear. Many of them were neatly, 
and two or three handsomely, furnished. There were twelve houses 
under construction, mostly of stone ; and there were, besides, a few 
which looked in good preservation ; but most of the frame dwellings 
presented an old and dilapidated appearance, owing to the humid 
climate during half the year, the scarcity of whitewash and paint, and 
the ravages of the beeg — a bug — a destructive species of termite. For 
the last reason, all the new houses not built in the native fashion — of 
wattles, mud, and grass — are constructed of stone, while the old frame 
ones are abandoned to decay. 

In almost every yard there were fruit trees — mostly the lime, the 
lemon, the banana, the pawpaw — and the coffee-tree ; sometimes the 
orange, and now and then the soursop and the tamarind. The oranges 
were good, but scarce ; and the lemons large and fine. The cocoa 

Sows abundantly, and the pomegranate, the fig, the vine, and a tree 
taring the cashew-nut, are to be seen, but not m abundance. 

The soil is thin and not productive, resting upon a ferruginous rock 
which occasionally crops out The gardens are enclosed by wooden 
palings, generally in a state of decay, or by stone walls without mor- 
tar. In them were only a few coUards and some cassada, sweet po- 
tatoes, and arrow- root. But it is not the proper season for vegetables, 
and a few months hence these gardens may, and doubtless will, pre- 
sent a more gratifying appearance. 

The suburbs, the river, and the inner harbor, are commanded by 
Fort Hill, as the outer anchorage is by that of Fort Norris at the cape. 

The view from Fort Hill is a very fine one. To the west and south- 
west it overlooks the houses and the trees far out upon the sea; on 
the north and east, Stockton creek and the two branches of the Mesu- 
rado flow gently through an alluvial plain; and to the southeast the 
eye foUows the direction of the ridge which stretches far into the in- 
terior. 

On Broadway, south of Fort Hill, is the government house — a large 
stone building, with arched windows and a bsdcony in front. The 
lower floor is used as a court-room and printing-office, and the upper as 
the hall of legislative council ; behind it is the ja\\', dkecxN.^ o\>^o^\V^"\^ 
the President's mansion — a double two-story biick-Viow^e^ vjSx\v ^V "' 



350 H. Doc. \. 

portico — its roof sustained by lofty columns. It is the most imposing 
building in the place. There are five churches, all well attended. 
Indeed, I never saw a more thoroughgoing church community, or heard 
a greater rustling of silk, on the dispersal of a congregation, than here; 
all were at least sufficiently attired ; and the dresses of the chUdrea 
were in better taste than those of their mothers. One of the most grat- 
ifying things I noticed was the great number of well-dressed and well- 
behaved children in the schools and about the streets. The schools 
are also numerous and well attended. I did not see sufficient to justify 
the expression of an opinion, except that, while I noticed the attendance 
was full in almost every one, it seemed to me that, in some instances, 
the acquirements of the teachers were surpassed by the capacities oi 
their scholars ; but for all the purposes of rudimental education the 
materials are ample. I feel a delicacy in alluding to this subject, and 
only say what has escaped me from a soUcitude that the generation 
now coming forward may sustain the institutions of the republic. 

The colonists were all decently clothed ; and of the natives moving 
about the streets, with very few exceptions, the most indifferently clad 
wore a long loose shirt, but their heads and legs were bare. One of 
the latter I saw reading apparently a book which he held before him 
as he walked. 

On the outskirts of the town is a large coffee grove, which did not 
seem to be in a thriving condition ; and altogether, in and around 
Monrovia, agriculture wore a languishing appearance. This is doubt- 
less owing, in part, to the poverty of the soil, and in part to the over- 
weening spirit of trade ; there being evidently a preponderance of petty 
retail shops. I must say, however, that the town presented a far more 
prosperous appearance than I had been led to anticipate. From its 
fine situation it must eventually be a salubrious one. The sea-breeze 
at all seasons blows directly over it, and in this respect it is far prefer- 
able to Sierra Leone. The bifurcation of the river St. Paul's to the 
north gives, through Stockton creek, its southern branch, a direct and 
easy access to that river at all times, without encountering the perils 
of either bar. On the southeast the east branch of the Mesurado is 
separated by a portage only five miles fi-om the head of Junk river, 
which flows into the sea thirty-five miles down the coast. Monrovia 
will therefore be the outlet of the products of an extent of country not 
less than 1,250 square miles. 

During the time of the Portuguese ascendency, the Mesurado was 
called Rio Duro, from the cruelty of the natives — a cruelty fostered, if 
not engendered, by the whites. 

It is but fair to state, that the land on the northeast Mesurado gives 
little promise of being soon brought info cultivation. The banks are so 
low as to be overflowed at every tide, and are covered, as far as the 
eye can reach, with an impenetrable growth of mangroves, while the 
sluggish stream is discolored by the black mud of the marshes, fi-om 
which, at low water, a most offensive odor is exhaled. 

At 13 miles from Monrovia, the east branch is too shallow for canoe 
navigation ; and a quarter of a mile above its source is an extensive 
morass, overgrown with long grass and mangrove bushes. The sceneiy 
is the same as that on the northeast branch, A. abort distance from the 



H. Doc. 1. 351 

morass is a native village ; the soil around it exhausted from repeated 
cultivation, and producing little else than cassada. 

From thence, across the portage, to the Red Junk river, the surface 
of the country is nearly level, with extensive fields, no longer under 
cultivation, skirted with open forests. The soil is h'ght loam, intermixed 
with sand, and producing only a long, coarse grass. In some places 
the plain is thickly studded with tumuh, formed by the Termite belli- 
cosi, (called by the natives bug-a-bug.) These mounds are from 8 to 
12 feet high, and 10 to 14 thick at the base: some having been aban- 
doned by the ants, were covered with grass embrowned by the sun, 
which gave them, at a distance, the appearance of native huts. 

While observing as well as I could the condition of things around 
me, I did not lose sight of the principal object of my mission, and soon 
after my arrival set out for the St. Paul's, in a boat manned by natives. 
For the first six miles our course was up Stockton creek, a wide and 
shallow stream, with a low mangrove swamp on each side, (Rhizophera 
mangle^) which, like the Ficus rdigioaa of India, propagates itself in 
a two-fold manner : by perpendicular shoots descending Irom its branches, 
and by dropping its long, slender, sharp-pointed seed-pods, which im- 
plant themselves in the soft mud beneatn, and then take root and grow 
up into trees, with almost as many stems as branches. On the edge of 
the banks, on each side, the mangroves throw down their long, fantastic 
shoots, and within them the tops of lofty trees arch overhead, their 
branches interlaced with parasitic creepers, while through the crevices 
of the foliage the flickering sunshine streams upon the sluggish water. 

From the growth of trees of which we occasionally caught a glimpse 
through the mangrove border, there was evidently a drier soil some dis- 
tance inland; but the shores of the creek, with the exception of two 
small clearings— one the site of a native village, the other the landing of 
New Georgia — were for nearly the whole distance one inexplicable net- 
work of tangled roots and twisted stems and branches. Through this 
net- work we occasionally caught sight of a monkey frisking about the 
tree-tops, and sometimes disturbed a crocodile (miscalled alligator) from 
his sleep, and saw him clumsily flounder away through the mud to fin- 
ish his slumber elsewhere. These, with some mud-snipes and curlews, 
were the only living things we saw. Such an effect nad the solitude 
and the scene upon me, that I almost wound myself up to the expecta- 
tion of beholding the huge iguanadon dragging himself through the fetid 
slime. 

There was not a sign of cultivation, nor of an attempt to reclaim the 
soil; and the stifling hot weather, the sluggish stream, and the tainted 
odor of putrescent vegetable matter, painfully depressed my spirits; but 
when w« passed the lower settlement of Caldwell and entered a bold, 
swifl-flowmg river, three-fourths of a mile in width, with banks 10 to 
30 feet high, dotted with farm-houses, few of them a quarter of a mile 
apart, it was like the shifting of a scene in a theatre, and I gazed with 
satisfaction upon the beautiful sight. 

Nothing had been told me to excite anticipation ; and the transition 
was therefore as unexpected as it was gratifying. The breeze, no 
longer intercepted, swept refreshingly up from the sea, YiuX. \v5i\S. ^ to^^ 



862 H. Doc 1. 

distant by the river ; and, turning our boat's head up stream, we joy* 
fully pursued our way. 

The banks are uneven — at some places high and steep ; at others 
coming down wiih a slope to the water's edge. On each side is a belt 
of cultivation, with a dense forest-growth behind it ; and the most con- 
spicuous objects of the scene were the light-green, broad-leaved foliage 
of the banana, clustering about every settlement, and the detached and 
distant palm-trees, which reared their dark, tufted heads above the sur- 
rounding mass of vegetation. 

The appearance of this tree is majestic, yet graceful. Its round, 
smooth trunk springs, shaft-like, into the air, from sixty to upwards of 
a hundred feet, and then expands its rich, fringe-like leaves into a 
canopy, twenty or thirty feet m diameter. 

The St. Paul's narrows very gradually in ascending it, and to the | 
head of navigation is nowhere less than one-fourth of a mile in'width. 
For the whole distance of fourteen miles from its mouth, there is a greater 
depth of water in the channel of the river than on the bars ; and, for 
its length, it is a magnificent stream, pouring down such a volume of 
water as to render it certain that, however soon its navigation may be 
interrupted, it has its sources far in the interior. 

The soil on both sides is a loamy clay, equal in fertility to the best 
sugar lands in Brazil. There are on the banks of the river four hun- 
dred farms and three thousand cultivators. Many of the houses are 
built of brick, two of them double-sized two-story ones, and there were 
seven brick-kilns. 

I landed at four or five places, and saw every indication of comfort 
and prosperity — far more so than in Monrovia. The houses were well 
furnished, and in one of them was a room, specially assigned for the 
purpose, which contained a small but good library. The principal arti- 
cles I saw in cultivation were sugar, coffee, cassada, arrow-root, yams, 
sweet potatoes, and a few ground-nuts. Among the fruits were the 
luscious pine-apple, oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, plantains, and 
the paw-paw ; the last, m cooking, an excellent substitute for the 
apple. A little cotton is raised for domestic use. The sugar-cane was 
growing finely ; and at one of the farms I witnessed the operation of 
grinding it. The apparatus, in part the invention of the owner, was 
an ingenious one, but very wasteful in its process ; yet the proprietor 
expected to make nine thousand pounds of sugar and several hundred 
gallons of molasses this year. I tasted the sirup, which, owing, I pre- 
sume, to the high temperature, was thinner than I have seen it during 
the grinding season in Louisiana. Some of the sugar of last year's 
crop was as light in color and as well granulated as the best Porto 
Rico I have seen. I scarce think, however, that sugar can to any 
extent be profitably cultivated, owing to the deficiency of capital and 
the consequent want of machinery. 

Coffee will, I think, become eventually the great staple of this sec- 
tion of country. The tree grows indigenous, can be transplanted with 
ease, and requires little care in its cultivation ; and, where it is not ex- 
tensively grown, its berry may be gathered as a pastime by women and 
children. I was shown one sample raised on the St. Paul's, and tried 
another gathered in Monrovia. The Yvxsl, wV^icVv 1 did uot see in the 



H. Doc. 1. 853 

berry, was excellent ; but I cannot sustain the assertion that it is better 
than the Mocha, The former was of a clear light color, and the grains 
were the largest I have ever seen ; I am not aware, however, that the 
large size of the grain is, per se, an indication of superior quality. 

From all that I could observe or learn from others, a taste for agri- 
culture is becoming prevalent; and I cannot give a better idea of the 
prosperity of the settlements on the St. Paul's, than by stating that 
cleared land fronting on the river sells at from $40 to $50 per acre. 
Some of the country seats looked beautiful from the river, and their 
Dames are characteristic of their owners ; some being unpretending, 
but expressive; some classic, and some scriptural — "Pleasant View," 
"Iconium," and " Mount Horeb." 

Opposite to Caldwell is the settlement of New Virginia; wher^ in . 
1847, the government of the United States built a receptacle for libe- 
rated Africans. Higher up are Kentucky, Heddington, and Millsburg. 
Heddington was fiercely attacked by the natives in 1841, and gallantly 
defended by a missionary and one of the colonists ; the leader of the 
assailants was killed and his party dispersed. These four are little 
more than a close contiguity of small farms ; but Millsburg, at the head 
of navigation, and the farthest inland settlement m Liberia, is a flour- 
ishing village and missionary school station ; and on the opposite side 
of the river is the mission of «* White Plains." 

From its situation, Millsburg must be comparatively healthy, and is 
certainly beautiful. The river, separated by an island into two chan- 
nels, there forces itself over a rocky ledge with the rushing sweep and 
hoarse sound of a rapid. The ledge is, however, a narrow one, and a 
channel through it might be blasted with gunpowder, or it could be 
flanked by a canal. Above the ledge the stream is unobstructed for 
about ten miles, and the country through which it flows is yet more 
rolling and beautiful than it is below the rapids. The soil is a rich 
mould, formed by the vegetable decay of centuries, resting on a sub- 
stratum of clay, and covered with a luxuriant forest. 

At the rapids are a number of islands, clothed with luxuriant vege- 
tation ; and, as was remarked by the lamented Dr. Randall, the islands 
diflfer from each other in their vtrdure, and from that of the main land. 
Each one seems to have caught, in the autumnal inundations, the seeds 
and roots of particular plants and shrubs brought down from the in- 
terior; for, wnile diflfering from those on tlie main, no two resemble 
each other in their pecuUar foliage. 

Above the islands the country is represented as most beautiful, 
bearing trees of immense size, clear of undergrowth, and having their 
branches interwoven with vines, and decorated with gaudy parasitic 
plants, forming a shade impervious to the sun, and imparting a coohiess 
to the atmosphere which is truly delightful. The stream, irregular in 
its width, sometimes forces its way through fissures in the rocks, and 
at others forms deep pools, where the water is so transparent that the 
bottom is distinctly visible. It seems as if the foot of man had never 
trodden these lovely solitudes, where the silence is only interrupted b^f 
the murmuring sound of water, the scream of the fesVv-YvavjV, ^lA \Ja& 
chattering of monkej5 pursuing their gambols among the Xte^^* 
Fart ni—J23 



354 H. Doc. 1. 

This must^ however, be taken cum grano talis; for, in the rainy 
season the river overflows its banks and inundates the country. 

The river St. Paul's has its source in the same range of hills firom 
which the Karamanka issues; and, bv bajometrical measurement, these 
hills are 1,400 feet in height, which is about the elevation of the bead- 
waters of the Mississippi. The scenery of the upper St. Paul's will, 
therefore, compare with that of the Karamanka, although more than 
two degrees intervene between their outlets. 

The late Major Laing thus describes the country bordering on the 
latter river: 

«* The valleys are picturesque and fertile, and are watered by nu- 
merous rivulets, which, running fh)m north to south, collect behind the 
lofty hill of Botato, and contribute in swelling the river Karamanka. 
I \ras frequently induced to stop to contemplate the lovely scene around 
me, consisting of extensive meadow^s clothed with verdure; fields, from 
which the springing rice was sending forth its vivid shoots, not inferior 
in beauty and health to the com-6elds of England in March, inter- 
spersed here and there with a patch of ground studded with palm- 
trees; while the neighboring hills, some clothed with rich foliage — 
some exhibiting a bald and weather-beaten appearance, formed a noble 
theatre around me. We left the town of Nijiniah, on the Karamanka^ 
and having walked an hour and three-quarters, gained the summit of 
one of the hills; and in one direction, on the opposite side, a scene 
quite panoramic broke upon the view: an extensive valley, partly 
cultivated and partly covered with a long,, natural grass, about five 
feet high, with Imes of stately palm-trees, as regular as if laid out by 
art, and here and there a cluster of camwood trees, their deep shade 
affording a relief to the lighter hue of the smaller herbage. 

"These, with a murmuring rivulet, meandering through the centre, 
exhibited the appearance of a well cultivated and tastefully arranged 
garden, rather than a tract amid the wilds of Africa; whilst, in the 
distance, mountain towered above mountain in all the grandeur and 
magnificence of nature." 

Without being so wide or so impetuous in its current, there is much 
in the St. Paul's (one feature excepted) to suggest what might have 
been the appearance of the Mississippi above La Fourche, and below 
Baton Rouge, before the less pretending houses of the Creole planters 
were displaced by the stately mansions of the present proprietors. 

The St. Paul's connects, it is said, with Half-cape Mount river by 
a branch that runs parallel with the coast, and both abound in fish and 
a small species of the ^* Hippojfofamus liberiensh^^^ thus named by the 
late Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia, from crania sent to him by Dr. 
Goheen. This animal is said to be extremely tenacious of life, and, 
except to gunpowder and ball, almost invulnerable. When injured he 
becomes dangerous; but if unmolested, never, the natives say, attacks 
any one. The flavor of the flesh is described as intermediate between 
that of veal and beef. 

About seventy miles from Millsburg, in a direction a little east oi 

north, is Boporah, a lar^e native town, formerly containing more than 

^ thousand houses, fortified with a strong barricade. The path to it 

^ds through a dense forest, in wYiich \!tiete «te ^\^^«siXa ^w4 ^ ^ceat 



H. Doc. 1. S5d 

many other wild animals. For the first fifty miles there are no villages, 
and the only natives met with are the elephant- hunters, who are nu- 
merous, and represented as friendly. The St. Paul's passes within 
twenty-five miles of the town, winding, in its course, among many 
islands. 

On both shores of Stockton creek, as well as on the Mesurado, are 
many alligators' nests. They are about four feet high, and five in 
diameter at die base, made of mud and grass, very much resembling 
haycocks. The female first deposites a layer of ecgs on a floor of a 
kind of mortar, and she and her male having covered this with mud 
and herbage, she lays another set of eggs, and so on to the top ; there 
being sometimes as many as two hundred eggs in a nest. All is plas- 
tered over with mud by the tail, and the grass around the nest is beat 
down with the same member, to prevent an unseen approach of ene- 
mies. The female then watches the nest until the young are hatched 
by the heat of the sun ; when she takes them under her care. 

In order not to lose time waiting for the steamer which had been 
promised me, I requested Commander Barron to convey me to the Junk 
river, about thirty miles down the coast. Leaving an order, therefore, 
for the Vixen to follow, we weighed anchor in the afternoon of a cleaTf 
warm day, and, sailing slowly southward, had the best view of Mon- 
rovia, spread out on the cleared portion of the ridge, where it is de- 
pressed within eighty feet of the sea. 

From Cape Mesurado to the Junk river, the coast runs in a south- 
east direction ; and presents, as heretofore, the same low line of sand, 
with a back-ground of forest for eight or ten miles, where a slightly 
elevated ridge is thrown up immediately upon the shore. About the 
same distance from it, but further inland, are the "Crown" and the 
" Cockscomb" — two isolated hillocks ; and beyond them, and thrice 
the distance inland from the coast, south of the Junk river, are two 
remarkable peaks with a depressed ridge between, called ** Saddle 
Hill," towermg above the sea of verdure, and measuring 1,070 feet in 
height. Beyond the Saddle Hill are two other peaks, dimly visible 
in the distance. With these interruptions, all else is a sandy beack, 
edged with a glittering line of light, where the surf breaks upon it,, 
backed by a vast forest stretching to the horizon. 

Anchoring off the mouth of the Junk river, I was compelled to le- 
main nearly two days inactive, in consequence of heavy breakers on 
the bar. It was the change of the moon ; and the colonists maintaia,. 
that at such times, from the increased swell, the passage of the bar ift 
impracticable. 

When the swell seemed to have suflSciently subsided, with the native 
crew which always accompanied me, I started for the shore. These 
men were of the Nifou tribe, whose territory is farther down the coasts 

Although muscular, active, and in the open sea fearless in the man- 
agement of their canoes, a circumstance occurred on our way to the 
shore, which satisfied me that they are not to be relied upon in danger* 
Trusting to the head man, who steered the boat and directed the crew^ 
ten in number, how to manage the oars, (for on their skvUul ix^axva^^r- 
ment almost everyjhinfi depends,) I felt no apprehension, awA. ^vceoXe^ 
my aiteDtJon to the snoret which we were rapidly ap^toac\\viv%. b 
BtartUng exclamation roused me; and looking back, 1 aaw aVyw^V^^ 



356 H. Doc. 1. 

cloud sweeping towards us, and driving a huge wave before it. We I a 
were almost on the bar ; and the terrified crew were divided in opin- jl! 
ion as to whether we could cross it before the gigantic roller overtook 
DS. To be caught by it before we were safely over would be certain 
destruction. At this trying lime the panic-stricken boatmen failed me; 
and in loud confusion they argued what should be done, w^hen every 
instant's inactivity increased the peril fourfold. But as soon as the ques- 
tion was settled tor them, and the steersman was directed to turn the 
boat's head towards the southern shore, they gave way with all their 
might, and, although borne down to the very edge of the outer break- 
ers, we gained the beach in safety. I am satisfied that, with a good 
pilot, it would be less dangerous to cross these difficult bars in a boat 
manned by white men. 

Wc landed just below Bassa Point, near Ae dweUing of a colonist 
It was recently built, in a clearing in the midst of a grove of palm- 
trees ; and I found him, with three or four natives in his employment, 
busied in extracting from the palm-nut the rich oil it yielas. After 
resting a short time under his thatched roof, with the assistance of his 
laborers, we dragged the boat up the high, shelving bank, and over a 
parrow strip of sand, and launched her in the South Junk, which, flow- 
ing nearly parallel with the coast, unites with the other branches just 
inside the bar. 

From thence we pulled over to the village of Marshall, on the north- 
ern bank, about half a mile from the river's mouth. This was the last 
settlement made by the parent Colonization Society in Liberia. It is 
elevated about forty feet above the river, and its situation is a fine one 
in appearance ; but the soil around it is poor, and the place far from 
flourishing. Originally laid out on an enlarged plan, it now contains 
but thirty or forty houses, built along the river-bank — a few of ihera 
frame buildings, but most of them plastered mud-walls, with thatched 
roofs — many presenting a dilapidated appearance. 

The only article of export 1 saw was a quantity of lime, made from 
the oyster-shell upon the shore; and I was assured that this place 
wholly suppUes Monrovia, and partly the other settlements, with* this 
invaluable building material. Oysters are plentiful here ; but they are 
only palatable when cooked ; and the river abounds with mullet 
There is some small traffic here with the natives in camwood, palm- 
oil, and a little ivory ; but it is much interfered with by dealers from 
^lonrovia. 

. It being Sunday when I arrived, after conversing with some of the 
citizens, I accepted an invitation to attend church, and there heard a 
sermon from a venerable colored preacher which I shall not soon forget. 
I have heard many stereotyped sermons, but never one to move me as 
much as this. The distant booming of the surf on one side, through 
which I had to pass to rejoin my companions, and the dark, teeming 
forest upon the other, tended, no doubt, to enhance the solemnity of the 
scene ; lor, seated upon a rush floor beneath a roof of thatch, as I lis- 
tened to the earnest tones of the feeble old man, I never felt more im- 
fressed with a sense of my own undeserving. I mention this, because 
conceive that I should withhold nothing which may convej' a correct 
idea of the impressions made on me m lift>et\aL% \xi ^ y^x^^ivblI ^nsci 



H. Doc. L 857 

these impressions are insignificant and wholly unworthy of recordi. 
Their only importance is derived from the scene which gave them birth, 
and from the inference to be drawn from it, that Christianity has its ex- 
emplars in benighted Africa, as well as in our ownT more favored land; 

About a mile above the setdement is the confluence of two streams — '" 
the Red Junk, flowing down from the north, and the Junk, or main 
stream, from the east. The Red Junk, near its source, is connected 
with the eastern branch of the Mesurado by a narrow portage. At 
the junction the banks of both streams are low and bordered with man* 
grove thickets. 

About two miles up the Red Junk there is a native village, and from 
thence the banks become more elevated and present a more attractive 
apf)earance. The palm-trees become more frequent, and, in the space 
of twenty miles, the scene is enlivened by a number of villages — the 
light- green leaves of the banana indicating their locality long before 
the brown roofs become visible. The course of the stream is windings 
and its width various; at times but 160 to 200 yards, with compara- 
tively high banks, and again spreading out to nearly a mile in widthj 
with low and sedgy shores. 

The vegetation is very luxuriant and much diversified in its charac- 
ter. The scenery of the river's banks is described as rich beyond con- 
ception. 

" Trees of singular form and foliage spring from the deep, rich soil, 
and rear their heads to an amazing height ; while their branches are 
covered with a beautiful drapery of vines, forming a dense shade, and 
hanging, in many places, to the surface of the water." 

Looking closely at these trees, a large black knot is occasionally seen 
swelling irregularly out of the branch to which it attaches. It would 
be set down as a fungus, but that a more scrutinizing glance detects 
the head of a snake projected above the coil, in an attitude of menacing 
vigilance. On the near approach of the boat every fold is shaken out, 
as by a single eflTort, and tne snake precipitates itself into the water and 
disappears. It is the well-known black snake, measuring from four to 
six feet in length and two to four inches in diameter, which frequents 
the banks of rivers, and is said, by the natives, to be amphibious. 

The fertility of the soil, combmed with the presence of moisture, 
gives a peculiar depth and vividness of green to the foliage; and the 
stream, as smooth as a polished mirror, reflects the variegated beauties 
which clothe its banks. Occasionally a light native canoe shoots down 
with the current, or paddles up stream, close along the shore; while 
among the trees, a short distance back, monkeys are seen springing 
from limb to limb, in pursuance of their gambols. As oikthe St. Paul's 
and the Mesurado, the stranger is little annoyed by m6squitoes and 
flies, and is struck with the scarcity of birds and flowers. 

In the rainy season the first deficiency may be more than satisfacto-- 
rily supplied, and the moist, gloomy shades of the forest are unfit nur- 
series for flowers, which thrive best in a light soil and where they caii » 
expand their petals to the sun. 

Of the birds to be seen in the recesses of the wood, vet^ fe^R ^x^ 
gifted with melodious notes; but by the compensaloxy lavi o^ tkaVvrc^V 
some of them are magniBcent ia their plumage • O? l\\eae, \X\e ^vxa- 



858 H. Doc. 1. 

bird, scarce larger than our smallest humming-bird, with its scarlet 
breast, tinged straw-color at the edges, its emerald throat and back, 
and dove-colored wings, and a tail longer than its body, is the most 
beautifully conspicuous. Others I saw wholly of one color — some of 
the deepest indigo- blue, and others a rich tinted orange. But they par- 
took of the spirit of the solitude in which they dwelt, and flitted silently 
from tree to tree before the footsteps of the intruder. 

Like the Red Junk, the Junk proper has low banks, bordered with 
mangroves ibr about three miles from the junction, where the ^hore 
rises on each side and the soil becomes fertile, occasionally presenting 
a slight elevation, on each of which is a settlement comprising three 
farms of colonists and two native villages. 

The river averages about 300 yards in width to King Kymocree*3 
village — a collection of twelve or fourteen low-pitched, mud-plastered 
huts, with projecting thatched roofs and uneven clay floors. In the 
centre of the floor is the Breplace — ^ihe only outlet for the smoke being 
the low and narrow door- way, near which the inmates are always, by 
preference, seated. The principal building, in front of which the king 
held his audience, was built of wattled cane ; but not plastered, being 
open all round. About six feet from the floor were cross-pieces ; on 
which, up to the roof, was piled rice in the sheaf, to be dried by the 
smoke of the council-fire. The king is short of stature, but with a 
muscular frame ; and his features altogether are more of the true negro 
type than I have thus far seen in Africa. He was cordial and commu- 
nicative ; and the colonists represented him as a staunch friend and 
ally, having in the late war borne arms gallantly in their behalf. He 
possesses a number of villages — their male inhabitants, like those of 
the one we were in, being nearly all absent some distance inland, clear- 
ing land preparatory to sowing rice. He presented us to three of his 
wives and six or eight children: declaring that the latter were so 
numerous, that he did not know them all by sight. His tribe is one of 
the many ramifications of the Bassas, of whom I will speak further on. 

Although scarce beyond middle age, this chief was quite gray ; and, 
in this respect, I have repeatedly noticed the difference between the 
African and Mexican Indian, whose hair never changes its color. 
There is also a perceptible difference in the texture of the hair 
of natives along the coast; for, as I have proceeded south, it has ap- 
peared lo me to be finer, more elastic, blacker, more shining and crisp, 
than in Goree and about the Gambia. 

Thus fcir 1 have not seen an instance of baldness among the natives; 
but their lips are. in general, as dark as their faces : therein differing 
from most of their descendants with us ; and the whites of their eyes 
are tinged with a yellow suffusion, which I know not whether to ascribe 
to the constant smoke in which the> are enveloped in their huts, or to 
some organic cause. I incline to the latter opinion ; for the eyes of the 
Kroomen, who had been serving two years on board of the John 
Adams, were as much discolored as those of the natives I saw on 
shore. 

Above the mangroves the land has the appearance of great fertility, 

and teems with every production of an intertropical forest. This stream 

is broader and bolder than the Red JuuVl^ \iu\.\5s\e &»x\a^^ oK \t& shores 



H. Doc. L 8A9 

are exactly the same. It is navijgable by boats for thirteen miles ; and 
twelve miles further there is a ridge of high land, east of which is an 
extensive lake, from whence the river issues. Twenty miles beyond 
the first ridge is a second and loftier one, from which the blue crest of 
a mountain is visible to the southward and eastward. 

The level land west of the ridges, and the valleys between them, is 
one dense, wide-spreading forest. These ridges are evidently the out- 
lying shoots of an interior mountain range. From all I could learn 
there is much camwood in the interior ; and the forest beyond the first 
ridffe of highlands abounds in elephants. The exports of camwood 
and ivory could therefore be very much increased ; while it needs only 
a fflance in any direction to see the numerous palm-trees, bearing aloft 
thick clusters of fruit, which only require the hand of industry to gather 
and express from them the valuable oil ; the demand for which, now 
that it can be deprived of its stearine, increases with every successive 
year. 

Marshall is injudiciously situated on a sandy soil, which is parched 
up during the dry season, and is therefore unfit for cultivation. Could 
the settlement be removed to a convenient point on the main stream, near 
the confluence, the colonists disposed to agriculture would find more 
fertile land, while those embarked in commerce could engross the 
river trade, which, as I have said, is so much interfered with by mer- 
cantile agents from Monrovia. Several of the colonists are making set- 
tlements a short distance up the river ; and I believe there would be a 
general naovement if the few enterprising men now in the place were 
not so hampered by a disproportionate number of helpless women. A 
settlement at or near the point of junction could raise enough for its 
subsistence ; and, by means of a direct intercourse with the interior ' 
up one stream, and with Monrovia by another, unaffected by the 
weather on the coast, would, doubtless, carry on a thriving business. 

From the Junk to the St. John's river the coast preserves its soul fa- 
east direction, with the same monotonous features, except some red^ 
and white cliffs which abut upon the shore below the former ; and 
inland, the range of Bassa hills and the isolated Mount St John, which 
become visible on approac hing the latter river. 

We anchored off* the mouth of the St. John's too late to enter it by 
daylight. On the following morning we started for the shore, and, 
passing a Liberian schooner, bound to Monrovia with a cargo of palm- 
oil, and an English cutter coming up from the southward, we steered 
for the opening in the line of beach, where, with a graceful curve and 
a rapid sweep, the river finds an outlet ; and, « lossing the bar on a 
heavy roller, we landed at Buchanan. 

Within the bar are concentrated the waters of three rivers : the 
Mechlin, flowing from the north ; the St. Johns, from the northeast ; and 
the Benson river, from the east. Thits great body of accumulated 
water is forced through a passage narrower than the principal stream ; 
and when the tide is ebb and the wind blows fresh upon the shore, 
there is drawn across it a line of terrific breakers. At this season, 
however, the winds are ordinarily light, and with a skilfiil ^ilol \Jafc 
bar can be passed in safety. 

On the sandy peninsula between the MccbEn and l\ie &ea.« '^wsXv^^^^s^^ 



I 



860 H. Doc. 1. 

the confluence, some thirty feet above the water, is the village of Edir 
na; the streets contiguous to and running parallel with the river. This 
settlement consists of a church and some twenty or thirty dwellings, of 
which the former and three -fourths of the latter are frame buildings; 
the rest are thatched huts. # 

This settlement presents an unthrifty appearance. The wide rec- 
tangular streets are overgrown with weeds; and although there arc 
several coffee groves, the trees are too thickly planted, and the ground 
between them is covered with rank grass and shrubbery. In the rainy 
season the path which winds through each street, like a trail through a 
prairie, must effectually conceal those who pnss to and fro, from those 
who remain stationary in their houses. If 1 had not known it before, 
the lean condition of some vagabond p^gs I saw would have satisfied 
me that there is nothing nutritious in senna and wild indigo. And yet 
there was nothing gaunt or slovenly in the appearance of the inhabit- 
ants ; and at the first threshold I approached I was greeted by an old 
colored lady, attired in a silk dress, with corresponding trimmings. 

The Benson river pours in its tribute opposite to Edina ; and on the 
west side of the junction is the flourishing town of Buchanan. This set- 
tlement was founded by the New York and Pennsylvania Colonization 
Societies, in 1835, and consists of the emigrants who escaped from the 
massacre at Fort Cresson, two miles further down the coast. In 1838 
the population of Buchanan was 200 : it now contains 600 inhabitants, 
and musters 100 fighting men. The last has become an essential item 
in the statistics of the place. 

This colony was first founded on the peace principle, but the massacre 
of its unarmed inhabitants conclusively proved the folly of such an 
, experiment, on such a field ; tor, in the space of one month, in the very 
year of its selection, 500 slaves had been embarked from the cove ; 
and it was known that the native chiefs regarded the settlement of col- 
onists in their vicinity as destructive of their traific with the slave shipsl 
^ On Benson river, adjoining the town, there was a steam saw-mill in 
operation ; and in the cove beyond it, one small vessel was hauled up 
for repairs, and two others were anchored in the stream. 

Between the Benson river and the confluent streams, before they 
mingle with the sea, Buchanan is built, on wide streets running parallel 
with the beach, and they are less encumbered with weeds than those 
of Edina. Unprotected by whitewash or paint, the houses all present 
a dingy, semi-dilapidated appearance, except the residence ol Judge 
Benson, on the south side of the cove ; which looks fresh and beautiful, 
embowered, as it is, in an extensive grove of coffee-trees. 

The St. .John's river is as wide as would be the united streams of 
the Mechlin and the Benson. It is half a mile wide at the tstuary ; 
and for a mile further up, is fringed with the mangrove. Thence it 
jgradually lessens in width, and at the distance of three miles is di- 
vided into two channels by Factoiy island, on which Mr. Ashmun con- 
templated forming a settlement. Above the island the river narrows 
more rapidly, and does not exceed 200 yards in width at Bexley, a 
missionary school station, and rather a farming settlement tlian a vil- 
lage, seven miles from the river's mouth. 

Opposite 10 the mission is the town of "Kmg^ Soldier" — a venerable 



H. Doc. 1. 86 1 

and friendly old man, upwards of one hundred years old. A little above 
is another island, half a mile beyond which is the head of navigation, 
where the immediate banks are about twelve feet high. 

The scenery is the same as that on the Junks, except that there are 
more frequent indications of agricultural improvement. After the man- 
grove ceases, the soil is a yellow clay ; and the principal growth on 
and near the water's edge is a medium-sized tree, from its peculiar 
properties called the soap-tree ; and the more lofty puUam or wild cot- 
ton tree, the sassy- wood tree, and the palm-tree. The qualities of the 
soap-tree are the same as those Herodotus mentions, of the shavings 
of which the Scythian women made a soft paste, wherewith they 
plastered their bodies, and stripped it off again when quite dry ; by 
'which means the skin was thoroughly cleansed. 

One of the farm-houses at which I stopped was finely situated on a 
rolling piece of ground, some eighty feet above and one hundred and 
fifty yards distant from the river. It was well furnished and contained 
two rooms and a kitchen below stairs, and a» attic sleeping-room above. 
It was the workmanship of the owner — an emigrant from Staunton, in 
Virginia ; and the neat, yet strong stairway of wattled cane, and the 
partitions made of rushes, attested his industry and skill; while a small, 
but good library, proved that he possessed yet other resources. Him- 
self, his wife and daughter, made the same declaration, which, with 
two exceptions (and those unprotected females,) I have heard from many 
others — that nothing could induce them again to take up their residence 
in the United States. 

On the banks of the river, between Buchanan and Bexley, are the 
farms of eight or ten colonists, with as many native settlements; and I 
think that I counted two brick-kilns ; but, as on the branches of the 
Junk and the St. Paul's, the settlements extend only a short distance 
back I'rom the river. Including Bexley, there are 250 colonists on the 
St- John's above Buchanan. 

The mission -house, just below the settlement of Bexley, is a fine two- 
story frame building, occupied at the time of my visit by two male 
and three female missionaries. They had arrived a month previous, 
and were still in the enjoyment of excellent health. Although unprovi- 
ded with a physician, they spoke cheerfully of their prospects, and ex- 
pressed gratification at finding things so much be<ter than they had an- 
ticipated. 

I felt a glow of pride, tempered with sympathy, as I looked upon my 
countrymen and countrywomen perihng all earthly hopes in such a 
noble cause. This is true heroism — the chivalry of the gospel! For 
warlike achievements, men are almost deified; while the self-sacrificing 
missionary, who foregoes all the comforts of life, and, with the cross for 
his banner, boldly penetrates the cloud which overshadows this conti- 
nent, and encounters ceitain sickness and death, more or less premature, 
for the benefit of a benighted race, — ^the missionary is rarely named, 
except with the final enunciation, ^^Mortuus estJ^ 

There is a considerable tract of land under cultivation at Bexley. 
I could not ascertJiin how much its produce has increased; but soma 
years ago it yielded 600 lbs. of coffee; nearly 3,000 \ba. o? gMvg^^t\ \^\^^ 
baskets of sweet potatoes; 1,200 lbs. of arrow-ioof, aud ^^^>o\v^^ 

1 



362 H. Doc. 1. 

of cassada. There were raised, besides, a great many foi^ls, and some 
sheep, goats, and cattle. 

Beyond the rapids, the St. John'.8 is navigable by canoes six miles 
further; from whence it is about ten miles to the base of Mount St 
John ; beyond which is a broad valley, bounded on the east by ele- 
vated ridges. 

The principal forest growth beyond the head of navigjation is cam- 
wood, bastara mahogany, African hickory, two kinds of wisniore — ^both 
admirably adapted for articles of furniture — and the oak, differing essen- 
tially from the species found from the tropics nearly to the polar circles, 
which is, throughout those regions, a cosmopolite of vegetation, being 
alike in its fruit, although much diversified in growth and