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PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 



PRINTED BY ORDER CF 



THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATI 



FIRST SESSION OP THE TWENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS, 



BEGUN AND BELD 



AT THE CITY OF WASHINGTON, 



SEPTfeMfiA 4, 1837, 



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PRINTED BT BLAIH AND BIVES. 

1837. 



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INDEX TO DOCUMENTS 



PRINTID BT ORDER OP 



THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES, 

t 

DrRIICG 7HC 

FIRST SESSION TWENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS— 1837. 



A. 



Alabama, for the incorporation of a national bank. Memorial of 
citizens of Mobile - - - - - - 22 

Appropriations. From the Secretary of the Treasury, relative 
to the difficulties of paying the - - - - 2 

Appropriations to prosecute the war in Florida. Letter from the 
Secretary of War, relative to the necessity of further - 18 

Appropriations made dnrin^r the first session twenty-fiftJi Con- 
gress. Report of the Secretary of the Senate of the amount of 37 

B. 



No. Pa;rd. 



Baltimore, for the incorporation of a national bank, or the sub- 
stitution of the United States Bank of Pennsylvania. Memo- 
rial of a number of merchants, and others, of 

Bankins:, from Slate affairs. Memorial of a number of manu- 
facturers, tradesmen, and other citizens of Brooklyn, New 
York, against the present system of finance, and in favor of 
aseparalwji of ihf trade of - - . - - 

Banking capital. From the President, relative to the increase of 

Bank notes in 1789. Circular from the Treasury Department, 
relative to the transmission, by naoil, of - - 

Banks and paper money. Memorials of citizens of Columbiana 
county, Ohio, for an increase of the circulation of gold and 
silver, and against the creation of - - - 

Banks, (deposite.) From the President, relative to the employ- 
ment of ------ - 

Banks, (deposite.) From the Secretary of the Treasury, relative 
to a settlenaent with the - - - - - 

Banks, (deposite.) Circular to, from the Treasury Department, 
on suspension of specie payments - . - - 

Banks, (depasite) discontinued. IJst of - - 



24 



1 

7 
1 
1 



36 


1 


1 ^^ 


2 50 


10 1 


2S 1 


f 3 




6 


1 i 9 




lU 




14 


2 15 


2 52 


2 m 




1 



No. 

2 


F»ge. 

55 


2 


61 


2 


62 


2 


68 


2 
1 


84 



iv INDEX. 

Banks, (depositc.) List of the 

Banks, (deposite.) Comparative statement of the condition of 

the, in November, 1836, and August, 1837 - 
Banks, (deposite) with the Treasurer United States. Statement 

of the accounts of the former and present - - . 

Banks, (deposite.) Statement of the condition of the, on the 

15lh August, 1837 .---.- 
Banks, (deposite.) Circular to, on the subject of resuming specie 

payments .--.--. 

Bank, (national.) From the President, relative to the establish- 
ment ofa- 

Bank, (national.) Memorial of Littleton Dennis Teackle, present- 
ing a plan of a - - - - - - -6 

Bank, (national.) Memorial of the New Orleans Chamber of 
Commerce for the establishment of a - - - - 7 

Bank, (national.) Memorial of the Chamber of Commerce of 
St. Louis, Missouri, for the creation of a - - - 9 

Bank, (national.) Memorial of a number of citizens of Carroll 
county, Mississippi, praying the creation of a - - 11 

Bank, (national.) Memorial of a number of citizens of Claiborne 
county, Mississippi, for the incorporation of a - - 20 

Bank, (national.) Memorial of a number of citizens of Mpbile, 
Alabama, for the incorporation of a - - - - 22 

Bank, (national.) Memorial of citizens of Schuyler county, Il- 
linois, for the creation of a * - - - - 23 

Bank, (national) or the substitution of the United States Bank of 
Pennsylvania. Memorial of a number of merchants, and 
others, of Baltimore, for the incorporation of a - - 24 

Bank, (national.) Memorial of a number of citizens of Wheel- 
ing, Virginia, for the incorporation of a - - 25 

Bank, (national.) Memorial of a number of citizens of Rahway, 
New Jersey, praying the incorporation of a - - - 35 

Bank, (national.) Resolutions of the Legislature of New Hamp- 
shire, against the incorporation of a - - - - 19 

Bank of Pennsylvania. Memorial of a number of merchants, and 
others, of Baltimore, for the incorporation of a national bank, 
or the substitution of the United States - - - 24 

Banlcrupt law. From the President, relative to the passage of a 1 18 

Black Rock. Message from the President of the United States, 
in relation to the works at - - - - - 21 

Bonds for duties. From the President, relative to an extension ? i J ^ 
of the time of payment of - - - - -) ^18 

Bonds for duties. From the Secretary of the Treasury, relative 
t© the postponement of the payment of - - - 2 3 

Bonds for duties. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to 
the Collector at New York, relative to the postponement of - 2 31 

Bonds for duties. Instructions from the Solicitor of the Treasury 

on the same subject - - - - - - 2 34 

Bonds for duties. Memorial of a number of merchants of New 
York, to the President of the United States, for a postpone- 
ment of the payment of - - - - - 2 36 

Bonds for duties. Memorial of the Chamber of Commerce of 



INDEX. y 

No. Pa^c 

Boston, to the Secretary of the Treasury, for a postponement 

of the payment of - - - - - - 2 38 

Bonds for duties. Memorial of the Chamber of Commerce of 
New Orleans, to the Secretary of the Treasury, for a postpone- 
ment of the payment of - - - - - 2 39 

Bonds for duties. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to 
the Chamber of Conmierce, of Boston, relative to a postpone- 
ment of - - - - - - - 2 40 

Bonds for duties. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to 
the Collector at New York, relative to the receipt of baiilc 
notes for - - . - - - 2 44 

Bonds for duties. Memorial of the Chamber of Commerce of 
New York, to the Secretary of the Treasury, for the extension 
of a year on the payment of - - - - - 2 46 

Bonds for duties. Memorial of a number of importing mer- 
chants of New York, for an extension of the time of payment of 13 1 

Boston, for a postponement of the payment of duty bonds. Me- 
morial to the Secretary of Treasury from the Chamber of 
Commerce of - - - -• -238 

Boston. Reply of the Secretary of the Treasury to the above - 2 40 

Brent, for a more general distribution of the printed documents 

and laws of the United States. Petition of William - - 30 1 

Brent, praying Congress to adopt a plan suggested by him for 
the rehef of the country. Petition of William - - 31 1 

Brooklyn, New York, against the present system of finance, and 
in favor of a separation of the trade of banking from affairs 
of State. Memorial of the manufacturers, tradesmen, and 
other citizens of - - - - - - 36 1 

^' 

Cannon at Major Clarke's foundry, in July, 1833, and August, 
1834. Report from the Secretary of War, on the subject of 
the bursting of- - - - - -161 

Coinage. Prom the President, relative to the condition and pro- 
gress of the - - - - - - - 1 16 

Coinage. Memorial of Lewis Feuchtwanger, praying Congress 
to substitute his invention, called "German silver," in place of 
the copper coinage of the United States - - - 12 1 

Coinage during the year 1837. Statements of the - - 17 1 

Collection Law. Extract from the report of the Secretary of 
the Treasury, of April 22, 1790, relative to - 

Collectors of the Customs. Circular to, relative to their depos- } 
ites in non-specie paying banks - - - - ^ 

Collectors of the Customs. Circular to, directing them to accept 

Treasury drafts - - - - - - 2 66 

Committees of the Senate for the first session twenty-fifth Con- 
gress. List of the - - - - - - 8 1 

Copper coinage of the United States. Memorial of Lewis 
Feuchtwanger, praying Congress to substitute his invention, 
called "German silver," in place of the - - - 12 1 

Currency of the Constitution for the Federal Government. A 
bill to re-establish the - - - - - 14 I 




vi INDEX. 

No. Page. 



D. 



4 
6 



J3ebt. From the President, relative to the causes of the foreign > I 

Deposites with the Stntes. From the President, relative to a re- ? , ^ 3 
payment of the - - - - - - y ^ 

Deposites to the States: From the Secretary of the Treasury, 
relative to transferring the last instalment of the - - 2 6 

Deposites with the States. Letter from the Secretary of the 
Treasury, accompanying the transfer drafts of - - 2 48 

Depositories of the public money. From the President, relative 
to the employment of banks as - - - - 1 9 

Depositories of the public money. From the Pre^dent, relative 

to the employment of Treasury oflicers as - - - 1 13 

Depositories of the public money. From tiie Secretary of the 

Treasury, relative to employment of Treasury officers as - 2 9 

Disbursing officers. Circular to, reliitive to their deposites in 
non-specie paying banks - - - - - 2 66 

Documents and laws of the United States. Petition of William 
Brent, jr., for a more general distribution of the - - 30 1 

Duty bonds. From the President, relative to an extension of > * ^ 3 
the time of payment of- - - - -^M® 

Duty bonds. From the Secretary of the Treasury, relative to the 
postponement of the payment of - - - - 2 3 

Duty bonds. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the 

Collector at New York, relative to a ]X)stponement of - 2 31 

Duty bonds. Instructions from the Solicitor of the Treasury 
on the same subject - - - - - - 2 34 

Duty bonds. Memorial of a number of merchants of New 
York to the President of the United States, for a postpone- 
ment of payment of - - - - - - 2 36 

Duty bonds. Memorial from the Chamber of Commerce of 
Boston, to the Secretary of the Treasury, for a postponement 
of the payment of - - - - - - 2 38 

Duty bonds. Memorial of the Chamber of Commerce of New 
Orleans, to the Secretary of the Treasury, for a postponement 
of the payment of - - - . - . . 2 39 

Duty bonds. Reply of the Secretary of tfie Treasury to the 
Chauaber of Commerce of Boston, relative to - - 2 40 

Duty bonds. Letter fi-om the Secretary of the Treasury to the 
Collector at New York, relative to the receipt of bank notes 
for 2 44 

Duty bonds. Memorial of the Chamber of Commerce of New 
York, to the Secretary of the Treasury, for an extension of one 
year on the payment of - - - - - 2 46 

Duty bonds. Memorial of a number of importing merchants of 
New York, for an extension of the time of payment of v 13 1 

K. 

Exchanges, (domestic.) From the President, relative to the con- 
dition of - - - - - - - I 7 

Expenditures and receipts for 1837. From the President, relative 
to the - - - - - - - 1 19 




liSDBB; vU 

Expenditures and receipts for 1837. From the Sqccetary of the 

Treasury, relative to the - - • - .22 

Exports and imports ofspecie during the rear 1837. Slatein6iils M7 1 
of tte coinage and - - - ' - - - y 32 1 

F- 

Peuchtwanger, praying Congress to substitnte his invention, ♦ 
called " German silver," in place of the copper coin?ige of the 
United States. Memorial of Lewis - - - - 12 1 

Finances. Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, on the 
state of the - - - - - - - 2 1 

Finance, and in favor of a separation of the trade of banking 
from affairs of State. Memorial of the manufacturers, trades- 
men, and other citizens of Brooklyn, New York, against the 
present system of - 

Fire-arms, made by Hall, Cochran, Colt, and the Baron Hackett. ^ , g I 
Heport from the Secretary of War, relative to the improve- > og i 
mentsin ...... ^ 

Florida. Letter from the Secretary of War, relative to thq ne- 
cessity of further appropriations to prosecute the war in - 18 I 

Foreign debt. From the President, relative to the causes o{) ^ ^ 4 
the . - - . - - - ,^ * ^5 

Franking privilege. Resolutions of the Legislature of Missis- 
sippi, on the subject of extending the - - - 5 1 

Funds of the Government. From the President, relative to the ? . ( 6 
safe-keeping, transfer, and disbursement of the - ) r ^^ 

Funds to be received and paid by the Government. From the / ^ ^ 6 
President, relative to the - - - - ^ c ^5 

Funds to be received and paid by the Government. From the 
Secretary of the Treasury, relative to the - - - 2 19 

G. 

German silver, in place of the copper coinage of the United 
States. Memorial of Lewis Feuchtwang^, praying Congress 
to substitute his iHiEttaiaon, called the - - • 12 1 

Hamilton and others, citizens of McUonough county, Illinois, 
to be allowed the benefit of the pre-eqiption laws. Memorial 
of Levi . - - - - - . 87 1 



Illinois, for the creation of a national bank. Memorial of citi- 
zens of Schuyler county - - - - - 23 

Illinois, to be allowed the benefit of the pre-emption laws. Me- 
morial of Levi Hamilton, and others, citizens of McDonough 
county - - - - - ' - - 27 

Illinois, praying donations of land, in aid of the internal im- 
provements in that State. Resolutions of the Board of PubUc 
Works of ?' 



viii INDEX. 

No. Page. 

Imports and exports of specie, during the year 1837. State- ^17 I 

ments of the coinage, and -- . - -^32 1 

Internal improvements. Resolutions of the Board of Public 

Works of the State of Illinois, requesting donations in aid of 34 I 

L. 

Land, for the encouragement of the growth of tropical plants. 
Petition of Henry Perrine, for a grant of - - - 26 1 

Land, in aid of the internal improvements in that State. Reso- 
lutions of the Board of Public Works of the State of Illinois, 
requesting donations of - - - - - 34 1 

M. 

Mississippi, for the establishment of a number of post routes. 

Memorial of the Leg^lature of - - - - 3 1 

Mississippi, on the subject of extending the franking privilege. 

Resolutions of the Legislature of - - - - 5 1 

Mississippi, for the creation of a national bank. Memorial of 

citizens of Carroll county - - - - - 1 1 I 

Mississippi, for the incorporation of a national bank. Memorial 

of citizens of Claiborne county - - - - 20 I 

Mobile, for the incorporation of a national bank. Memorial of 

citizens of - - - - - - - 22 

N. 

National bank. From the President, relative to the establishment ) . 
of a - - - " - - - \ ^ 

National bank. Memorial of Littleton Dennis Teackle, pre- 
senting a plan for a - - - - - - 6 ] 

National bank. Memorial of the New Orleans Chamber of Com- 
merce, for the establishment of a - - --71 

National bank. Memorial of the Chamber of ComBaexec of St. 
Louis, Missouri, for the creation of a - - - 9 1 

National bank. Memorial of a number of citizens of Carroll 
county, Mississippi, praying the creation of a - - 11 1 

National bank. Memorial ofcitizens of Claiborne county, Mis- 
sissippi, for the incorporation of a - - - - 20 1 

National bank. Memorial of citizens of Mobile, Alabama, for 
the incorporation of a - - - - - 22 1 

National bank. Memorial of a number of citizens of Schuyler 
county, Illinois, for the creation of a - - - - 23 1 

National bank, or the substitution of the United States Bank of 
Pennsylvania. Memorial of merchants, and others, of Balti- 
more, for the incorporation of a - - - - 24 

National bank. Memorial of a number ofcitizens of Wheeling, 

Virginia, for the incorporation of a - - - - 25 1 

National bank. Memorial of a number of citizens of Rah way. 
New Jersey, praying the incorporation of a - - - 35 1 





INDEX. ix 

No. Pace. 

National bank, and for an increase of the circulation of gold and 
silver. Memorials of citizens of (Columbiana county, Ohio, 
figainst the incorporation of a - - - 

National bank. Resolutions of the Legislature of New Hamp- 
shire, against the incorporation of a - - - 19 

New Hampdiire, against the incorporation of a national bank. 
Resolutions of the Legislature of - - - - 19 

New Jersey, for the incorporation of a national bank. Memo- 
rial of a number of citizens of Rahway - - - 35 

New Orleems, for a postponement of the payment of duty bond^. 
Memorial to the Secretary of the Treasury, from the Cham- 
ber of Commerce of - - - - - - 2 39 

New Orleans, Chamber of Commerce, for the establishment of a 
national bank. Memorial of the - - - - 7 1 

New York, for a postponement of the payment of duty bonds. 

Memorial to the President United States, from the merchants of 2 36 

New York, relative to the receipt of bank notes. Iietter from the 

Secretary of the Treasury to the Collector of - - 2 44 

New York, for the extension of a year on the payment of duties. 
Memorial to the Secretary of the Treasury, from the Chamber 
of Commerce of - - - - - - 2 46 

New York, for an extension of the time for payment of duty 

bonds. Memorial of a number of importing merchants of - 13 1 

New York, against the ptesent system of finance, and in favor 
of a separation of the trade of banking from affairs cff State. 
Memorial of the manufacturers, tradesmen, and other citizens 
of Brooklyn - - - - - - - 36 1 

O. 

Offices created, and salaries thereof, by acts of the first ses- 
sion twenty-fifth Congress. Report from the Secretary of the 
Senate, with statements of the - - - 37 1 

Officers of the Treasury as depositories of the public money. 

From the President, relative to the employment of - - 1 13 

Officers of the Treasury as depositories of the public money. 
From the Secretary of the Ti:ensury, relative to the employ- 
ment of - - - .- .:• • ., - , ^ 2 9 

Officers of the Treasury as depositories of the public money. 
Extract from the Treasury report of 1790, relative to the em- 
ployment of- - - - - - -2 57 

Ohio, for an increase of the circulation of gold and silver, and 
opposed to the creation of banks and paper money. Memorials 
of citizens of Columbiana county - - 

Ohio, approving the measures proposed by the Executive, &c. 
Resolutions of a number of democratic citizens of Hamilton 
county - - - - - - -33 

P. 

Paper money. Memorial of citizens of Columbiana county, 
Ohio, for an increase of the circulation of gold and silver, and 
against the creation of banks and - - - - 10 




No. P*ge. 

Pennsyki^nin, for the construction of a MfM^dami^edroad from 
, the national road to Eri^ Memorial of a oQQveqtioa af citir 

zens of - - - - . - - 4 1 

Perrine, foragnut of land fo£ the encQuragemeoiioCthB growth 

of tropical plants. Petitilpn of Heary . ^ ^ 2ft 1 

Postmaster General, accomiiansriiig the Piesident's: message, at 

the commencement of the session. Report of the - - 1 23 

Post routes. Memorial of the Le^Iature of Mississippi, for the 

establishment of a number of - - - - 3. I 

Pre-emption laws. Memorial of Levi Hamilton, and others, citi- 
zens of McDonough county, Illinois, to be allow^ the benefit 

of the . - . - - - - 27 1 

President of the United States at the commeo^ement of the ses* 

sion, with the accompanying document& Message ftonx tbe 1 1 
President of the United' States, in relation to the worte a( Black 

Roct Message from the - - - - 21 1 

Public money. From th^ Secretary of the Treasury, lelaiiTe to 

the fiiture safe-keeping of the - - - - 2 9 

Public money. Extract froa? the Treasury import of 1790, a^ to 

a new class of officers to keq) and trans^r th^ - - - 2 57 



Receipts and expenditures for 1837. From the President, rela- 
tive to the -.. - - - - -119 

Receipts and expendituires for 1837. From the Secretary of the 

Treasury, relative to the - - - - - 2 2 

Receivers of public money. Circular to, relative to deposites in P q ^ ^^ 
non-specie paying banks - - - - - ^ ^ 56 

Receivers of public money. Circular to, directing them to accept 

Treasury drafts - - - - - - 2 6& 

Road, from national road to Erie. Memorial of a coQvention of 
citizeiis of Pennsylvania, praying Congress to construct a 
Macadamized - -- - - -4 1 

St. Louis, Missoiui, for the-creatiofi of a national bank. Me- 
morial of the Chamber of Commerce of - - - 9 1 

Solicitor of the Treasury, relative to the postponement of duty 

bonds. Instructions from the - - - 2 34 

Specie payment. From the President^ relative to the suspensi0a 
of 13 

Specie payment. Circular to the deposrte banks on tbe subject 
of resuming ------- 

Specie. From the President, relative to the quantity of 

Specie. Memorials of the citizens of Columbiana county, Ohio, 
for an increase of the circulation of gold and silver, and oppo- 
sed to the creation of banks and paper money 

Specie. Statements of the coinage and imports and exports of, 
during the year 1837 - - - - . 

State ntfeirs. Memorial of the manufacturers, tradesmen, and 
other citizens of Brooklyn, New York, against the present 



2 


84 


1 


17 


10 


1 


28 


1 


17 


1 


32 


1 



INDEX. xi 

4 No. Pagt. 

system of finance, and in favor of a separation of the trade 

of banking from - - - - - 36 1 

T. 

I'eackle, presenting a plan for a national bank. Memorial of 

Littleton Dennis - - - - - - 6 1 

Treasury, on the Slate of the finances. Report of the Secretary 

of the - - - - - - -21 

Treasury noteg. From the President, relative to the issuing of - 1 19 
Treasury notes. From the Secretary of the Treasury, relative 

to the issuing of- - - - - -27 

Treasury ofiicers as depositories of the public money. From 

the President, relative to the employment of - - - 1 13 

Treasury oflScers as depositories of the public money. From 

the Secretary of the Treasury, relative to the employment of - 2 9 
Treasury warrants, payable in each State in 1834. Statement of 2 5b 
Tropical plants. Petition of Henry Perrine for a grant of land 

for the encouragement of the growth of - - - 26 I 

Virginia, for the incorporation of a national bank. Memorial of 
a number of the citizens of Wheeling - - - 25 1 

W. 

War, transmitting the report of a board of officers, appointed to 
examine the improvements in fire-arms, made by Hall, Coch- 
ran, Colt, and the Baron Hackett. Report from the Secretary of 

War, on the subject of the bursting of cannon at Major Clarke's 
foundry, in July, 1833, and August, 1834. Report from the 
Secretary of - - - - : - - 16 

War, relative to the necessity of further appropriations to prose- 
cute the war in Florida. Letter from the Secretary of • 18 

Wheeling, Virginia, for the incorporation of a national bank. 
Memorial of a number of citiasens of - - - - 25 




TABLE OF DOCUMENTS 



PaiNTED BY ORD£R OP 



THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES, 

FIRST SESSION TWENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS-I837. 



i<p»*^— t— 1— J»jU- Aji^^i.^— ^ III t» 



No. 


Pigf. 


1 


I 


21 


I 



MESSAGES FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 

STATES. 



At the commencement of the session - - - - 

In relation to the works at Black Rock - 

REPORT FROM THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY. 

On the State of the finances - - - - - 2 1 

REPORTS FROM THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

Transmitting the report of a board of officers appointed to exam- ) ,^ . 

ine the improvenients in fire-arms, made by Hall, Cochran, V og I 

Colt, and the Baron Hackett - - . )^ ^ 

On the subject of the bursting of cannon at Major Clarke's foun- 
dry, in July, 1833, and August, 1834 - - - 16 ' 1 

Relative to the necessity of making further appropriations to 

prosecute- die wai; in Florida - - - - 18 1 



REPORT FROM THE PQ3TMASTEE GENERAL. 



With the President's message at the commencement of the ses- 
sion - - - - - - * 1, 23 

REPORT FROM THE SECRETARY OF THE SENATE. 

Appropriations made during the first session of the twenty-fifth 
Congress, and of the offices created, and the salaries thereof. 
With statements of the - - - - - 37 1 

4 

MEMORIALS AND PETITIONS. 

Pennsylvania, praying Congress to construct a Macadamized 
road, fron^ the national road to Erie. Of a convention of 
citizens of - ... . - - 4 



( 




xiv INDEX. 

No. Pa^. 

Teackle, presenting a plan of a national bank, and praying that 
its principles and details may be considered and acted on by 
Congress. Memorial of Littleton Dennis - - - 6 

New Orleans Chamber of Commerce, for tlie establishment of a 
national bank. Memorial of the - - - - 7 

Chamber of Commerce of St. Louie, Misaeuri, for the creation of 
a national bank. Memorial of the - - - - 9 

Ohio, for an increase of the circulation of gold and silver, and 
oppiosed to the crwition of banks end paper money. Memo- 
rials of a number of citizens of Columbiana county - 

Mississippi, for the creation of a national bank. Memorial of a 
number of citizens of Carroll county - - - 1 1 

Feuchtwanger, praying Congress to substitute his invention, 
called " German silver," in plaee^f the eopper coinage of the 
United States. Memorial or Lewis - - - - 12 

New York, for an extension of the time of payment of duty bonds. 
Memorial of a number of importing merchants of - - 13 

Mississippi, praying the incor[X)ration of a mitional bank. Me- 
morial of citizens of Claiborne county - - - 20 

Mobile, Alabama, for the incorporation of a national bank. Me- 
morial of a number of citizens of - - - - 22 

Illinois, for the creation of a national bank. Memorial of a num- 
ber of citizens of Schuyler county - - - - 23 

Baltimore, for the creation of a national bank, or the siibstitu- 
tion of the United States Bank of Pennsylvania. Memorial 
of merchants of - - - - - - 24 

Wheeling, Virginia, for the incorporation of a national bank. 
Memorial of a number of citizens of - - - - 25 

Perrine, for affrant of land for the encouragement of the growth 
of ti?o{>ical plants. Pierition of Henry - - - 26 

Haraiiton and others, citizens of McDonough county, Illinois, to 
be allowed the benefit of the pre-emption laws. \Menaorial of 
Levi . . - . - - - 27 

Brent, of Virginia, for a more general distribution of the printed 
documents and laws of the United States. Petition of William 30 

Brent, of Virginia, praying Congress to adopt a plan strggedted 
by him for the relief of the country. Petition of William - 31 

Ohio, approving the measfirfeyprdposed by the Executive, &c. 
Resolutions of a number of democratic citizens of Hamilton 
county - - - - - - - 33 

Rahway, New Jersey, for the incorporation of a national bank. 
Memorial of a number of citizens of - - - - 35 

Brooklyn, New York, agamst the present system of finance, and 
in favor of a separation of the trade of banking from affairs of 
State. Memorial of manufacturers, tradesmen, and other 
citizens - - - - - - - 36 

RESOLUTIONS, MEMORIALS, &C., FROM STATES. 

Mississippi, for the establishment of a number of post routes. 

Of the Lagistature of - - - - - 3 

Mississippi, on tbe^ubject of extending (the franking privily. 

Resolutionsof the Legislature of - - - - 5 



INDEX. XV 

No. Page. 

New Hampshire, against the incorporation of a national bank. 
Resolutions of the Legislature of - - - - 19 1 

Illinois, requesting^donatioDS of land in aid ot the public works 
in that State. Kesolutions of the Board of Public Works of 
theStateof - - - - - - - 34 1 

' ' MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS. 

Committees of the Senate. List of the - - -81 

Currency of the Constitution of the Federal Government A 

bill to re-establish the . - - - - 14 I 

Coinage, and imports and eiq)orts of specie during the year 1837. M7 1 

Statements showing the - . « • - ^ 32 I 



25th Congress, F 1 1 

1^/ Session, -■ 



message: 



FROM 



THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 



TO 



THE TWO HOUSES OF CONGRESS, 



AT TBB 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE FIRST SESSION 



OP 



THE TWENTY-FIPTH CX)NGBESS. 



September 6, 1837. 

PriQted by oider of the Senate of (be United States. 



WASHINGTON : 

BLAIR AND RIVES, PRINTERS. 

1837. 



[1] 



MESSAGE. 



FeUoto-ciiizens of the Senate^ 

and House of RepreserUcUives: 

The act of the 23d of June, 1836, regulating the deposites of the public 
money, and directing the employment of State, District, and Territorial 
banks iTor that purpose, made it the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury 
to discontinue the use of such of them as should, at any time, refuse to 
redeem their notes in specie, and to substitute other banks, provided a suf* 
ficient number could be obtained to receive the public deposites, upon the 
terms and conditions therein prescribed. The general and almost simul- 
taneous suspension of specie payments by the banks, in May last, rendered 
the performance of this duty imperative, in respect to those which had 
been selected under the act, and made it, at the same time, impracticable to 
employ the requisite number of others, upon the prescribed conditions. 
The specific regulations established by Congress, for the deposite aqd safe- 
keeping of the public moneys, having thu^ unexpectedly become inopera- 
tive, I felt it to be my duty to afford you an early opportunity for the 
exercise of your supervisory powers over the subject. 

I was also led to apprehend that the svispension of specie payments, in- 
creasing the embarrassments before existing in the pecuniary anaire of the 
country, would so far diminish the public revenue, that the accruing re- 
ceipts into the Treasury would not, with the reserved five millions, be 
sufficient to detiay the unavoidable expenses of the Government, until the 
usual period for the meeting of Congress ; whilst the authority to call upon 
the States for a portion of the sums "deposited with them, was too restricted 
to enable the De} artment to realize a sufficient amount from that source. 
These apprehensions have been justified by subsequent results, which 
render it certain that this deficiency will occur, if additional means be not 
provided by Congress. 
. The difficulties experienced by the mercantile interest in meeting their 
^gagemeiit^ induced them to apply to me, previously to the actual su^ 
pension of specie payments, fer indulgence upon their bonds for duties; and 
all the relief authorized by law was piwnptiy and cheerAilly granted. 
The dependence of the Treasury upon the avails of tbes^ bonds, to enable 
it to make the deposites with the Smtes required by law, led me, in the 
outset, to limit this indulgence to the 1st of September; but it has since 
been extended to the 1st of October, that the matter might be submitted to 
your further direction. 

duestions were also expected to arise, in the recess, in respect to the Oc- 
tober instalment of those deposites, requiring the interposition of Congress, 

A provision of another act, passed about the same time, and intended to 
secure a faithful compliance with the obligation of the United States to 
satisfy all demands upon them, in specie or its equivalent, prohibited the 
offer of any bank note, not convertible on the spot into gold or silver at the 
will of the holder; and the ability of the Government, with millions on de- 
posite, to meet its engagements in the manner thus required by law, was 
rendered very doubtful by the event to which I have referred. 



[1] * 

Sensible that adequate provisions for these unexpected exigencies could 
only be made by Congress ; convinced that some of them would be indis- 
pensably necessary to the pubUc service, before the regular period of your 
meeting ; and desirous, also, to enable you to exercise, at the earliest mo- 
ment, your full constitutional powers for the relief of the country, I could 
not, with propriety, avoid subjecting you to the inconvenience of assemr 
bling at as early a day as the state of the popular representation would per- 
mit. I am sure that I have done but justice to your feelings, in believing 
that this inconvenience will be cheerfully encountered, in the hope of ren- 
dering your meeting conducive to the good of the country. 

During the earlier stages of the revulsion through which we have just 
passed, much acrimonious discussion arose, and ^at diversity of opinion 
existed, as to its real caused. This was not surprising. The operations of 
credit are so diversified, and the influences which affect them so numerous, 
and often so subtle, that even impartial and well-informed persons are sel- 
dom found to agree in respect to them. To inherent difficulties were alsa 
added other tendencies, which were by no means favorable to the dis- 
covery of truth. It was hardly to be expected that those who disap* 
proved the policy of the Government in relation to the currency, would, in 
the excited state of public feeling produced by the occasion, &il to attribute 
to that policy any extensive embeurrassment in the monetary affairs of the 
-country. The matter thus became connected with the passions and con- 
flicts of party ; opinions were more or less affected by political considera- 
^ons ; and differences were prolonged, which might otherwise have been 
determined by an appeal to facts, by the exercise of reason, or by mutual 
concession. It is, however, a cheering reflection, that circumstances of 
this nature cannot prevent a community so intelligent as cur's, from ulti- 
mately arriving at correct conclusions. Encouraged by the firm belief of 
this truth, 1 proceed to state my views, so far as may be necessary to a clear 
understanding of the remedies I feel it my duty to propose, and of the rea- 
sons by which I have been led to recommend them. 

The history of trade in the United States, for the last three or four 
years, affords the most convincing evidence that our present condition is 
-chiefly to be attributed to overaction in all the departments of business ; 
.^an overaction deriving, perhaps, its first impulses from antecedent causes, 
3)ut stimulated to its destructive consequences by excessive issues of bank 
paper, and by other facilities for the acquisition- and enlargement of credit • 
^t the commencement of the yewr 1834, tlie banking capital of the United 
States, including that ofthe national bank then existing, amounted to about 
two hundred millions of dollars ; tb« bank notes then in circulation, to- 
about ninety-five millions ; and the loans and discounts of the banks, to 
three hundred and twenty-four millions. Between that time and the 1st of 
January, 1836, being the latest period to which accurate accounts have 
been received, our banking capital was increased to more than two hundred 
and fifty-one millions; our paper circulation, to m<5re than one hundred 
4iuSi forty millions ; and the loans and discounts, to more than four hundred 
.-and fifty-seven millions. To this vast increase are to be added the many 
miillions of credit, acquired by means of foreign loans contracted by the 
oStates and State institutions, and, above all, by the lavish accommodations, 
extended by foreign dealers to our merchants. 

The consequences of this redundancy of credit, and ofthe spirit of reck- 
less speculation engendered by it, were, a foreign debt contracted by 0U|. 



5 [IJ 

'citizsens, estimated, in March last, at more than thirty millions of dollars ; 
the extension to traders in the interior of our country of credits for supplies 
greatly beyond the wants of the people ; the investment of thirty-nine and 
a half millions of dollars in unproductive public lands, in the years 1835 
and 1836, whilst, in the preceding year, the sales amounted to only four 
and a half millions ; the creation of debts, to an almost countless amount, 
for real estate in existing or anticipated cities and villages, equally unpro- 
ductive, and at prices now seen tp have been greatly disproportionate to 
their real value; the expenditure of immense sums in improvements, which, 
in many cases, have been found to be ruinously improvident; the diversion 
to other pursuits of much of the labor that should have been applied to 
agriculture, thereby contributing to the expenditure of large sums in the 
importation of grain from Europe — an expenditure which, amounting in 
1834 to about two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, was, in the first two 
quarters of the present year, increased to more than two millions of dollars; 
and, finally, without enumerating other injurious results, the rapid growth 
among all clashes, and especially in our great commercial towns, of luxurious 
habits, founded too often on merely fancied wealth, and detrimental alike to 
the industry, the resources, and the morals of our people. 

It was so impossible that such a state of things could long continue, 
that the prospect of revulsion was present to the minds of considerate 
men before it actually came. None, however, had correctly antici- 
pated its severity. A concurrence of circumstances, inadequate of them- 
selves to produce such wide-spread and calamitous embarrassments, tended 
so greatly to aggravate them^ that they cannot be overlooked in consider- 
ing their history. Among these may be mentioned, as most prominent,, 
the great Joss of capital sustained by our commercial emporium in the fire 
of December, 1835 — a loss, the effects of which were underrated at the 
time, because postponed for a season by the great facilities of credit then 
existing; the disturbing effects in our commercial cities of the transfers of 
the public moneys required by the deposite law of June, 1836; and the 
measures adopted by the forei^fn creditors of our merchants to reduce their 
debts, and to withdraw from the United Slates a large portion of our 
specie. 

However, unwilling any of our citizens rhay heretofore have been to 
.issign to these Cdtises the chief instrumentality in producing the present 
state of things, the developments subsequently made, and the actual con- 
dition of other commercial countries, must, as it seems te*me, dispel all 
remaining doubts upon the subject. It has since* appeared that evils, 
similar to those suffered by ourselves, have been experienced in Great 
Britain, on the Continent, and, indeed, throughout the commercial world ; 
and that in other countries, as well as in our own, they have been uniformly 
preceded by an undue enlargement of the boundaries of trade, prompted, 
as with us, by unprecedented expansions of the systems of credit. A 
reference to the amount of banking capital, and the issues of paper credits 
put in circulation in Great Britain, by banks and in other ways, during 
the years 1834, 1835, and 18S8, will show an augmentation of the paper 
currency there, as much disproportion ed to the real wants of trade as in 
the United States. With this redundancy of the paper currency, there 
arose in that country also a spirit of adventurous speculation, embracing 
the whole range of human enterprise. Aid was profusely given to pro- 
jected improvements; large investments were made in foreign stocks and 



in « 

loans; credits for goods were granted, with unbounded liberality, to mer- 
chants in foreign countries ; and all the means of acquiring and employ- 
ing credit were put in active operation, and extended, in their eflkcts, to 
every department of business, and to every quarter of the globe. The 
reaction was proportioned in its violence to the extraordinary character 
of the events which preceded it. The commercial community of Great 
Britain were subjected to the greatest difficulties, and their debtors in 
this country were not only suddenly deprived of accustomed and expected 
credits, but called upon for payments, which, in the actual posture of 
things here, could only be made through a general pressure, and at the most 
ruinous sacril&ces. 

In view of these facts, it would seem impossible for sincere inquirers 
after truth to resist the conviction, that the causes of the revulsion in both 
countries have been substantially the same. Two nations the most com- 
mercial in the world, enjoying but recently the highest degree of apparent 
prosperity, and maintaining with each other the closest relations, are sud- 
denly, in a time of profound peace, and without any great national disaster, 
arrested in their career, and plunged into a state of embarrassment and dis- 
tress. In both countries we have witnessed the same redundancy of paper 
money, and other facilities of credit ; the same spirit of speculation ; the 
same partial successes ; the same difficulties and reverses ; and, at length, 
nearly the same overwhelming catastrophe : the most material difference 
between the results in the two countries has only been, that, with us, there 
has also occurred an extensive derangement in the fiscal affairs of the 
Federal and Slate Governments, occasioned by the suspension of specie- 
payments by the banks. 

The historv of these causes and effects in Great Britain and the United 
States, is substantially the history of the revulsion in all other commercial 
countries. 

The present and visible effects of these circumstances on the operations 
of the Government, and on the industry of the people, point out the objects 
which call for your immediate attention. 

They are : to regulate by law the safekeeping, transfer, and disburse- 
ment of the public moneys ; to designate the funds to be received and paid 
by the Government; to enable the Treasury to meet promptly every de- 
mand upon it ; to prescribe the terras of indulgence, «fc»d the mode of set- 
tlement to be adopted, as well in collecting from individuals the revenue 
that has accrued, as in withdrawing it from former depositories ; and to 
devise and adopt such further measures, within the constitutional compe- 
tency of Congress, as will be best calculated to revive the enterprise, and to 
promote the prosperity of the country. 

For the deposite, transfer, and disbursement of the revenue, national and 
State banks have always, with temporary and limited exceptions, been 
heretofore employed : but, although advocates of each system are still to be 
found, it is apparent that the events of the last few months have gieatly 
augmented the desire, long existing among the people of the United Stales, 
to separate the fiscal operations of the Govern men t from those of indi- 
viduals or corporations. 

Again to create a national hank, as a fiscal agent, would be to disregard 
the popular will twice solemnly and uneqaivocally expressed. On no 
question of domestic policy is there stronger evidence that the sentiments 
of a large majority are deliberately fixed ; and I cannot concur with those 



who think they aee, in recent events, a proof that these sentiments are, or a 
reason that they should be, changed. 

Events similar in their origin and character have heretofore frequently 
occurred, without producing any such change ; and the lesscms of expen* 
enoe must be forgotten, if we suppose that the present overthrow of credit 
would have been prevented by the existence of a national bank. ProneneM 
to excessive issues has ever been4he vice of the banking system-^-a vioe 
as promiuent in national as in State institutions. This propensitj^ is as 
subservient to the advancement of private interests in the one as in the 
other; and those who direct them both, beiu^ principally guided by tha 
same views and influenced by the same motives, will be equally ready to 
stimulate extravagance of enterprise, by improvidence of credit How 
strikingly is this conclusion sustained by experience ! The Bank of the 
United States, with the vast powers conferred on it by Congress, did not, oi 
could not, prevent former and similar embarrassments ; nor has the stiU 
^eater strength it has been said to possess under its present charter enabled 
It, in the existing emergency, to clieck other institutions, or even to save 
itseli. In Great Britain, where, it has been seen, the same causes have 
been attended with the same effects, a national bank, possessing powers fas 
greater than are asked for by the warmest advocates of such an institution 
here, has also proved unable to prevent an undue expansion of credit, and 
the evils that flow from it. 

Nor can I find any tenable ground for th^ re-establishment of a national 
bank in tlie dorang^metit alleged at present to t^Ut in the domestic ex-r 
changes of the country, or in Uit facilities it may be capable of aflTordiufi 
them. Although advantages of this sort were anticipated when the first 
Bank of the United States was created, they were regarded as an incidental 
accommodation ; not one which the Federal Government was bound, or 
could be called upon, to furnish. This accommodation is now, indeed^ 
after the lapse of not many years, demanded from it, as among its first 
duties ; and an omission to aid and regulate commercial exchange is treated 
as a ground of loud and serious complaint. Such results only serve to 
exemplify the constant desire, among some of our citizens, to enlarge the 
powers of the Government, and extend its control to subjects with which it 
should not interfere. They can never justify the creation of an institution 
to promote such ^b^cts^. On the contrary, they justly excite amoi^ tb^ 
community a more diligeni^inquiry into the character of those operations 
of trade, towards which it is desirML-to extend, such pecuUai^'&VQrs. 

The various transactions which bear the name of domestic exchanges^ 
differ essentially in their nature, operation, and utility. One class of them 
consists of bills of exchange, drawn for the purpose of transferring actual 
capital from one part of the country to another, or to anticipate me pro- 
ceeds of property actually transmitted. Bills of this description are highly 
useful in the movements of trade, and well deserve all the encouragement 
which can rightfully be given to them. Another class is made up of bills 
of exchange, not drawn to transfer actual capital, nor on the credit of pror 
perty transmitted, but to create fictitious capital, partaking at once of tb^ 
character of notes discounted in bank, and of bank notes in circulation, 
and swelling the moss of paper credits to a vast extent in the most objec- 
tionable manner. These bills have formed, for the last few years, a largj^ 
proportion of what are termed the domestic exchanges of the country^ 
^^erving as the means of usurious profit, and constituting the most unsafe and 



in 



a 



precarious paper in circulation. This species of traffic, instead of being 
upheld, ouffht to be discountenanced by the Government and the people. 

In transferring its funds from place to place, the Government is on the 
same footing with the private citizen, and may resort to the same legal 
means. It may do so through the medium of bills drawn by itself or pur- 
chased from others; and, in these operations, it may, in a manner undoubt- 
edly constitutional and legitimate, facilitate and assist exchanges of indivi* 
duals founded on real transactions of trade. The extent to which this may 
be done, and the best means of effecting it, are entitled to the fullest con- 
sdderation. This has been bestowed by the Secretary of the Treasury, and 
his views will be submitted to you in his report. 

But it was not designed by the constitution that the Government should 
assume the management of domestic or foreign exchange. It is indeed au- 
thorized to regulate by law the commerce between the States, and to pro- 
vide a general standani of vtAne or medium of exchange in gold and silver ; 
but it is not its province to aid individuals in the transfei of their funds, 
otherwise than through the facilities afforded by the Post Office Depart- 
ment. As justly might it be called on to provide for the transportation 
af their merchandise. These are operations of trade. They ought to be 
conducted by those who are interested in them, in the same manner that 
the incidental difficulties of other pursuits are enconiatored by other claftses 
of citizens. Such aid has not be^n deemed necessary in other countries. 
Throughout Europe, the dnmeotic as well as the foreign exchanges are 
carried on by privs^*© Houses, often, if not j^nerally, -nriihout the assistance 
of banks. let they extend throuarli<^»< distinct sovereignties, and far ex- 
ceed in amount the real exchanges of the United States. There is no rea- 
son why our own may not be conducted in the same manner, with equal 
<?heapness and safety. Certainly this might be accomplished, if it werefavorrf 
by those most deeply interested ; and few can doubt that their own interest, 
as well as the general welfare of the country, would be promoted by leav- 
ing such a subject in the hands of those to whom it properly belongs. A 
system founded on private interest, enterprise, and competition, without the 
aid of legislative grants or regulations by law, would rapidly prosper ; it 
would be free from the influence of political agitation, and extend the same 
exemption to trade itself; and it would put an end to those complaints of 
negflect, partiality, injustice, and oppression, which-are -theuffa voidable re- 
sults of interference by the Government in tli« proper concerns of indivi- 
duals. All fottfter-attempts oil the pjC!t cf the Government to carry its legis- 
lation, in this respect, further than was designed by the constitution, have 
in the end proved injurious, and have served only to convince the great 
body of the people, more and more, of the certain dangers of blending pri- 
vate interests with the operations of public business : and there is no reason 
to suppose that a repetition of them now would be more successful. 

It cannot be concealed that there exist, in our community, opinions and 
feelings on this subject in direct opposition to each other. A large portion 
of them, combining ^reat intelligence, activity, and influence, are no 
doubt sincere in their belief that the operations of trade ought to be 
assisted by such a connection : they regard a national bank as neces- 
sary for this purpose, and they are disinclined to every measure that does 
not tend, sooner or later, to the esta,blishment of such an institution. On 
the other hand, a majority of the people are believed to be irreconcilably 
imposed to that measure : they consider such a concentration of power 



9 t 1 J 

dnngerous to their liberties : and many of them regard it as a violation of 
the constitution. This collision erf opinion has doubtless caused much of 
the embarrassment to which the commercial transactions of the countrv 
have lately been exposed. Banking has become a political topic of the 
highest interest, and trade has suffered in the conflict of parties. A speedy" 
termination of this state of thincrs, however desirable, is scarcely to be ex- 
pected. We^ have seen, for nearly half a century, that those who advocate 
a national bank, by whatever motive they may be influenced, constitute a 
portion of our community too numerous to allow us to hope for an early 
abandonment of their favorite plan. On the other hand, they must indeed 
form an erroneous estimate of the intelligence and temper of the American 
people, who suppose that they have continued, on slight or insufficient 
grounis, their persevering opposition to such an institution ; or that they 
can be induced by pecuniary pressure, or by any other combination of 
circumstances, to surrender principles they have so long and so inflexibly 
maintained. 

My own views of the subject are unchanged. They have been repeat- 
edly and unreservedly announced to my fellow-citizens, who, with full 
knowledge of them, conferred upon me the two highest offices of the Gov- 
ernment. On the last of these occiisions, I felt it due to the people to ap- 
prize them, distinctly, that, in the event of my election, I would not be able 
to co-operate in the re-establishment of a national bank. To these sentiments 
I hare now only to add the expression of an increased conviction, that the 
re-establishment of such a bank, in any form, whilst it would not accom- 
plish the beneficial purpose promised by its advocates, would impair the 
rightful supremacy of the popular will ; injure the character and diminish 
the influence of our political system ; and bring once more into existence a 
concentrated moneyed power, hostile to the spirit, and threatening the per- 
manency, of onr republican institutions. 

Local banks have hAAn employed for the deposite and distribution of the 
revenue, ttt oU times partially, and, on three different occasions, exclusively : 
first, anterior to the establUhment oi luo iia** o^nu of the United States • 
secondly, in the interval between the termination of thiiirTTiotu«±Lo« etnd the 
charter of ils successor ; and, thirdly, during ihe limited period which has 
now so abruptly closed. The connection, thus repeatedly attempted, proved 
unsatisfactory*^ on -eaeh successive occasion, notwithstanding the various 
measures which were adopted* to facilitate or insure its success. On the 
last occasion, in the year 1833, ther'^ffi{)ldynf]feBt of the 6fate» banks was 
guarded especially, in every way which experience and caution could 
suggest. Personal security was required for the safe-keeping and prompt 
payment of the moneys to be received • and full returns of their condition 
were, from time to time, to be made by the depositories. In the first stages, 
the measure was eminently successful, notwithstanding the violent opposi- 
tion of the Bank of the United States, and the unceasing efforts made to 
overthrow it. The selected banks performed with fidelity, and without 
any embarrassment to themselves or to the community, their engagements 
to the Government ; and the system promised to be permanently useful. 
But, when it became necessary, under the act of June, 1836, to withdraw 
from them the public money, for the purpose of placing it in additional 
institutions, or of transferring it to the States, they found it, in many cases, 
inconvenient to comply with the demands df the Treasury, and numerous 
and pressing applications were made for indulgence or relief As the in- 



stalments under the deposite law became payable, tbeir own embiurpass- 
ments, and the necessity under which they lay of curtailing tbeir discounts 
and calling in their debti^ increased the ^weral distress, and contributed, 
with other causes, to hasten the revulsion in which, at length, tbey, in 
common with the other bauks, were fatally involved. 

Under these circumstances, it becomes our solemn duty to inquire whe- 
ther there are not, in any connection between the Government and banks 
of issue, evils of great magnitude, inherent in its very nature, and *against 
which no precautions can effectually guard. 

Unforeseen in the organization of the Government, and. forced on the 
Treasury by early necessities, the practice of employing banks was, in 
truth, from the beginning, more a measure of emergency than of sound 
policy. When we started mto existence as a nation, in addition to the 
burdens of the new Government, we assumed all the large but honorable 
load of debt which was the price of our liberty ; but we hesitated to weigh 
down the infant industry of the country by resorting to adequate taxation 
for the necessary revenue. The facilities of banks, m return for the privi- 
leges they acquired, were promptly offered, and, perhaps, too readily re- 
ceived, by an embarrassed Treasury. During the long continuance of a 
il^ational 4ebt, and the intervening difficulties of a forei^ war, the connection 
was continued, from motives of convenience. But these causes have long 
since passed away. We have no emergencies that make banks necessary 
to aid the wants of the Treasury ; we have no load of national debt to pro- 
vide for ; and we have on actual deposite a large surplus. No public in- 
terest, therefore, now requires the renewal of a connection that circumstances 
have dissolved. The complete organization of our Government; the 
abundance of our resources ; the general harmony which prevails between 
the different States, and with foreign powers — all enable us now to select the 
system most consistent with the constitution, and most conducive to the 
public welfare. Should we, then, connect the Treasury, for a fourth time, 
with the local banks, it can only be under a conviction that paM iWlures 
have arisen from accide^itnir— *^ "'^"^^^^ defects. 

A danger dif^^"^* if not impossible to be avoided in such an ariangement^ 
is mode strikingly evident in the very event by which it has now been 
defeated. A sudden act of the banks intrusted with the funds of the, peo- 
ple, deprives the Treasury, without fault or agency of. ibe^^GoVeroment, of 
the ability to pay its creditors in the currency they have by law a right to 
demand. This-<;ircumstanee, no flH^tnation of commerce could have pro- 
duced, if the public revenue had been collected in the legal currency, and 
kept in that form by the officers of the Treasury. The citizen whose 
money was in bank, receives it back, since the suspension, at a sacrifice in 
its amount; whilst he who kept it in the legal currency of the country, and 
in his own possession, pursues without loss the current of his business. 
The Government, placed in the situation of the former, is involved in em- 
barrassments it could not have suffered, had it pursued the course of the 
latter. These embarrassments are moreover augmented by those salutary 
and just laws which forbid it to use a depreciated currency, and, by sa 
doing, take from the Government the ability which individuals have of ac- 
commodating their transactions to such a catastrophe. 

A system which can, in a time of profound peace, when there is a large 
revenue laid by, thus suddenly prevent the application and the use of the 
money of the people in the manner and for the objects tbey have directed^ 



11 [11 

cannot be wise ; but who can think, without painful reflection, that, undei; 
it, the same unfoieseen events might have befkllen us in the midst of a 
war, and taken from us, at the moment when most wanted, the use of those 
very means which were treasured up to.promote the national welfare, and 
guard our national rights ! To such embarrassfbents and to such dangers 
will this Government be always exposed, whilst it takes the moneys raised 
for, and necessary to, the public service, out of the hands of its own oifieers, 
and converts them into a mere right of action against corporations intrusted 
with the possession of them. Nor can such results be efiectually guarded 
against in such a system, without investing the Executive with a control 
over the banks themselves, whether State or national, that might with rea- 
son be objected to. Ours is, probably, the only Government in the world that 
is liable, in the manag^tnent of its fiscal concerns, to occurrences like these. 

But this imminent risk is not the only danger attendant on the surrender 
of the public money to the custody and control of local corporations. * 
Though the object is aid to the Treasury^ its efl'ect may be to introduce 
into the operations of the Government influences the most subtle, founded 
oil interests the most selfish. 

The use by the banks, for their own benefit, of the money deposited with 
them, has received the sanction of the Government from the commencement 
of this connection. The money received from the people, instead of beings 
kept till it is needed for their use, is, in consequence of this authority, a funcl 
on which discounts are made for the profit of those who happen to be 
owners of siock in the banks selected as depositories. The supposed, and 
often exaggerated, advantages of such a boon will always cause it to be 
sought for with avidity. I will not stop to consider on whom the patronage 
incidont to it' is to be conferred; whether the selection and control be 
trusted to Congress or to the Executive, either will be subjected to appeals 
made in every form which the sagacity of interest can suggest. The banks^ 
under such a system, are stimulated to make ihe most of their fortunate 
acquisition ; the deposites are treated as an increase of capital ; loans an(t 
circulation are rashly augmented ; and, when the public exigencies require a 
return, it is attended with embarrassments not pj«<rvlded for nor foreseen. 
Thus, banks that thought themselves most fo^uriate when the public funds 
were received, find themselves most embarrassed when the season of pay- 
ment suddenly arrives: '^ ,. . , , 

Unfortunately, too, the evils of the system are not limited to the banks. 
It stimulates a general rashn«« of enierprtse, and aggraval^ the- fluctua- 
tions of commerce and the currency. This result was strikingly exhibited 
during the operations of the late deposite system, and especially in the pur- 
chases of public lands. The order which ultimately directed the payment 
of gold and silver in such purchases, greatly checked, but could not alto- 
gether prevent, the evil. Specie was, indeed, more difficult to be procured 
than the notes which the banks could themselves create at pleasure ; but 
still, being obtained from them as a loan, and returned as a deposite, which 
they were again at liberty to use, it only passed round the circle with di- 
minished speed. This operation could not have been performed, had the 
funds of the Government gone into the Treasury to be regularly disbursed, 
and not into banks to be loaned out for their own profit, while they were 
permitted to substitute for it a credit in account. 

In expressing these sentiments, I desire not to undervalue the benefits* 
of a salutary credit to any branch of enterprise. The credit bestowed on 



CI] 12 

probity and industry is the just reward of merit, and an honorable incentive 
to further acquisition. None oppose it who love their country and under- 
stand its welfa^. But, when it is unduly encouraged ; when it is made to 
inflame the public mind with the temptations of sudden and unsubstantial 
wealth ; when it turns industry into paths that lead, sooner or later, to dis- 
appointment and distress, it becomes liable to censure, and needs correction. 
Far from helping probity and industry, the ruin to which it leads falls most 
severely on the great laboring classes, who are thrown suddenly out of em- 
ployment, and, by the failure of magnificent schemes never intended to en- 
rich them, are deprived, in a moment, of their only resoiurce. Abuses of 
credit aiKl excesses in speculation will happen, in despite of the most salu- 
tary laws; no Government, perhaps, can altogether prevent them; but 
:surely every Grovernment can refrain from contributing the stimulus that 
<^ls them into life. 

Since, therefore, experience has shown that to lend the public money to 
the local banks is hazardous to the operations of the Government, at least 
of doubtful benefit to, the institutions themselves, and productive of disas- 
trous derangement in the business and currency of the country, is it the 
part of wisdom again to renew the connection ? 

It is true that such an agency is, in many respects, convenient to the 
T^reasury, but it is not indispensable. A Umitation of the expenses of the 
Government to its actual wants, and of the revenue to those expenses, with 
convenient means for its prompt application to the purposes for which it 
was raised, are the objects which we should seek to accomplish. The 
collection, safe-keeping, transfer, and disbursement of the public money, 
can, it is believed, be well managed by officers of the Government. Its 
collection, and, to a great extent, its disbursement also, have indeed been 
hUherto conducted solely by them ; neither national nor State banks, when 
employed, being required to do more than keep it safely while in their 
•custody, and transfer and pay it in such portions, and at such times, as the 
Treasury shall direct. 

Surely bank» jije not more able than the Government to secure the money 
in their possession aeaUi.st accident, violence, or fraud. The assertion that 
they are so, must assume thi»t a vault in a bank is stronger than a vault in 
the Treasury: and that directors, cashiers, and clerks, not selected byihe 
Government, nor under its control, are more worthy of confidence than 
officers selected from the people and respcvoffibl^ to tho Government- officers 
abound, by officiai .oaths and beads fof 'arfaithftklperformance of their duties 
and constantly subject to the supervision of Congress. 

The difficulties of transfer, and the aid heretofore rendered by banks 
have been less than is usually supposed- The actual accounts show that 
by far the larger portion of payments is made within short or convenient 
distances from the places of collection; and the whole number of warramns 
issued at the Treasury in the year 1834 — a year, the result of which will, it 
is believed, afford a safe test for the future — fell short of five thousand, or an 
average of less than one daily for each State; in the city of New York, they 
did not average more than two a day; and at the city of Washington, only 
four. 

Tiie difficulties heretofore existing are moreover daily lessened by an in- 
-crease in the cheapness and facility of communication ; and it may be as- 
serted, with confidence, that the necessary transfers, as well as the safe- 
keeping and disbursements of the public moneys, can be with safety and 



13 [1} 



convenience accomjdished through the agencies of Treasury officers. This 
opinion has been in some degree con&rn^ by actnial experience since the 
discontinuance of the banks as fiscal agents, in May last; a period which, 
from the embarrassments in commercial intercourse, presented obstacles as 
great as any that may be hereafter apprehended. 

The manner of keeping the public money, since that period, is fully stated 
in the report of the Secretary of the Treasury. That officer also suggests 
the propriety of assiming by law certain additional duties to existing es- 
tablishments and omcers, which, with the modifications and safeguards 
referred to by him, will, he thinks, enable the Department to continue to 
perform this branch of the public service, without any material addition^ 
either to their number gr to the present expense. The extent of the busi- 
ness to be transacted has already been stated ; and, in respect to the amount? 
oi* money with which the officers employed would be intrusted at anyone 
time, it appears that, assuming a balance of five millions to be at all times 
kept in the Treasury, and the whole of it left in the hands of the collectors 
and receivers, the proportion of each would not exceed an average of thirty 
thousahd dollars ; but that deducting one million for the use of the Mint, and 
assuming the remaining four millions to be in the hands of one-half of the 
present number of officers — a supposition deemed more likely to correspond 
with the fact — thesum in die hands of each would still be less than the amount 
of most of the bonds now taken firom the receivers of public money. Every 
apprehension^ however, on the subject, either in respect to the safety of the 
money, or the faithful discharge of these fiscal transactions, may, it appears 
to me, be effectually removed, by adding to the present means of the Trea- 
sury, the establishment by law, at a few important points, of offices for the 
deposite and disbursement of such pi(»lionsof the public revenue as cminot, 
with obvious safety and convenience, be left in the possession of ibe col- 
lecting officers until paid over by them to the public creditors. Neither the 
amounts retained in their hands^ nor those d^^osited in the offices, would,, 
in an ordinary condition of the revenue, be larger, in most cases, than those 
often under the control of disbursing officers of the army and navy, and 
might be made entirely safe, by requiring such securities and exercising 
such controlling supervision as Congress may by law prescribe. The prin-^ 
cipal officers, igmose appointments would become necessary under this plan,, 
lakin? the 'largest number suggested by the Secretary of the Treasury,, 
would not exceed ten; northe additional expenses, at the same estimate,, 
sixty thousand dollars a year. 

There can be no doubt of the obligation of ^ those w^o are intnislHk 
with the affairs of Grovemment to conduct them with as little cost to tfie^ 
nation as is consistent with the public interest ; and it is for Congress, and 
ultimately for the people, to deckle whether the boiefits to be derived 
from keeping our fiscal concerns apart, and severing the connection whicb 
has hitherto existed between the Government and banks, offer sufficient 
advantages to justify the necessary expenses. If the object to be accom- 
plished is deemed important to the future welfare of the country, I cannot 
allow myself to believe that the addition to the public expenditure, of rotn- 
paratively so small an amount as will be necessary to efi^t it, will be ob- 
jected to by the people. 

It will be seen by the report of the Postmaster General, herewith con^ 
municated, that the fiscal affairs of that Department have been successfiilly 
conducted since May last, upon the principle of dealing only in the lejai 



in 



H 



practice, continued to dispense with Uie currency required by the act of 
1789, and took the notes of beoiks, in full confidence of their being paid in 
specie on demand; and Congress, to guai;d against the slightest violation 
of this principle, have declared, by law, th^t, if notes are paid in the trans- 
actions of. the Government, it must be under such circumstances as to 
enable the holder to convert them into specie without depreciation or delay. 

Of my own duties, ui^der the existing laws, when the banks suspended 
specie payments, I could not doubt. Directions were immediately given 
to prevent the reception into the Treasury of any thing but gold and silver n 
or its equivalent; and every practicable arrangement was made to preserve 
the public faith, by similar or equivalent payments to the public creditors. 
The revenue from lands had been for some time substantially so collected, 
under the order issued by directions of piy predecessor. The effects of that 
order had been so salutary, and its forecast in regard to the increasing ia> 
security of bank paper had become so apparent, that, even before 'the ca- 
tastrophe, I had resolved not to interfere with its operation. Coiigress is 
now to decide whether the revenue shall continue to be so collected or not* 

The receipt into the Treasury of banj^ notes not redeemed in specie on 
demand, will not, I presume, be sanctionei^. It would destroy, without the 
excuse of war or public distress, that equality of imposts and identity of cona- 
meicial regulation which lie at the foundation of our confederacy, and 
would offer to each State a direct i^niptation to increase its foreign trade^ 
by depreciating the currency received for duties in its ports. Such a pro> 
ceeding would also, in a great degree, frustrate the policy, so highly cherish- 
ed, of infusing into our circulation a larger proportion of the precious 
metals ; a policy, the wisdom of which none can doubt, tiiough there may 
be different opinions as to the extent to which it should be carried. Its 
results have been already too auspicious, and its success is too closely 
interwoven with the future prosperity of the country, to permit us for a 
moment to contemplate its abandonment. We have seen, under its influence, 
our specie augmented beyond eighty millions ; our coinage increased so as 
to make that of sold amount, between August, 1S34, anaDecember, 1836> 
to ten millions of dollars, — exceeding the whole coinage at the Mint during 
the thirty-one previous years. 

The prospect of further improvement continued without abatement until 
the moment of the suspension of specie payments. This policy has uaw« 
indeed, been suddenly checked, but is still fiur from being overthrown.. 
Amidst all conflictins^ theories,. ^ne position is undeniable: the precious 
metals will invariably disappear when there ceases to be a necessity for 
their use as a circulating medium. It was in strict accordance with this 
truth, that whilst, in the month of May last, they were everywhere seen, 
and were current for all ordinary purposes, they oisappeared from circula- 
tion the moment the payment of specie was renised by the banks, and the 
community tacitly agreed to dispense with its employment. Their place 
was supplied by a currency exclusively of paper, ^nd, in many cases, of 
the worst description. Already are the bank notes now in circulation 
greatly depreciated, and they fluctuate in value between one place and an- 
other ; thus diminishing and making uncertain the worth of property and 
the price of labor, and failing to su&erve, except at a heavy loss, the pur- 
poses of business. With each succeeding day, the metallic currency de- 
creases ; by some it is hoarded, in the natural iear that, once parted with,, 



'7 C 1 J 

itcan not be replaced; wh iie, by others, it is diverted from its more legitimate 
uses for the sake of guiu. Should Congress sanction this condition of 
thins:s, by making irredeemable paper money receivable in payment at 
public dues, a temporary check to a wise and salutary policy will^ in aH 
probability, be converted into its absolute destruction. 

It is true that bank notes, actually convertible into specie, may be receiv- 
ed in payment of the revenue, without being liable to all these objections ; 
and that such a course may, to someextent, promote individual convenience — 
an object always to be considered where it does not conflict with the prinds 
pies of our Government, or the general welfare of the country. If such 
notes only were received, and always under circumstances allowing their 
early presentation for payment ; and if, at short and fixed periods, they 
were converted into specie, to be kept by the officers of the Treasury, some 
of the most serious obstacles to their reception would, perhaps, be removed. 
To retain the notes in the Treasury, would be to renew, under another 
form, the loans of public money to the banks, and the evils consequent 
thereon. 

It is, however, a mistaken impression, that any laioe amount of specie is 
required for public payments. Of the seventv or ei^ty millions now est!*- 
mated to be in the country, ten millions woula be abundantly sufficient for 
that purpose, provided an accumulation of a large amount of revenue, be* 
yond the necessary wants of the Government, he hereafter prevented. If 
to these considerations be added the facilities which will arise firom enabling 
the Treasury to satisfy the public creditors, by its draAs or notes receivable 
an payment for the public dues, it may be safely assumed that no motive ci 
convenience to the citizen requires the reception of bank paper. 

To say that the refusal of paper money by the Government hitroduce^ 
an unjust discrimination between the currency received by it, and that used 
by individuals in their ordinary affiiirs, is, in my jud^nent, to view it 
in a very erroneous liffht. The constitution prohibits the States Trbm mak* 
ing any thing but gold and silver a tender in the payment of debts ; and 
thus secures to every citizen a right to demand payment in the lqg[al cur- 
rency. To provide by law that me Government will only receive its dues 
in gold and silver, is not to confer on it any peculiar privilege, but merely 
to place it on an equality with the citizen, bv reserving to it a right se- 
cured to hm by the constitution. It is doubtless for this reason that the 
principle has been sanctiofltd by successive laws, from the time of the first 
Congress under the constitution, down to the la^. Such precedents, never 
objected to, and proceeding from such sources, affcxd a decisive answer to 
the imputation of inequality or injusfice. 

But, in iact, the uieasufe is one of restriction, not of favor. To fovbid 
the public agent to receive in payment any other than a oertuh kind of 
money, is to refuse him a discretion possessed by eveiy citizen, ft may be 
left to those who have the management of their own tansaetions to mAke 
their own terms; but no SQth diseredpn should be given to him 'who aetfe 
merely as an agent ef the people ; who is to collect what the Uw^reqbin^ 
and to pay the apprdi»iations it makes; When bank notes are redeemed 
on demand, there is then Ho disctimination in reality, for the individtifll 
who receives them Boay) itt his option, substitute the specie for them ; h^ 
takes them from convenience or choice. When they are not so teimaMf 
it will scarcely be conl^Kied that tfieir veoeipd liud pa3Fmen^: by a pttUit 
officer, sho^d be pqrmitted, though none deny that liglit to an individiial ; 

2 



[1] 18 

if it were, the effect would be most injurious to the public, since their 
officer could make none of those arrangements to meet or guard against 
the depreciation, which an individual is at hberty to do. Nor can incon- 
venience to the community be alleged as an objection to such a regulation. 
Its object and motive are their convenience and welfare. 

If, at a moment of simultaneous and unexpected suspension by the banks, 
it adds something to the many embarrassments of that proceeding, yet these 
are far overbalanced by its direct tendency to produce a wider circulation 
of gold and silver, to increase the safety of bank paper, to improve the gen- 
eral currency, and thus to prevent altogether such occurrences, and the 
other and far greater evils that attend them. 

It may, indeed, be questioned, whether it is not for the interest of the 
banks themselves that the Government should not receive their paper. 
They would be conducted with more caution, and on sounder principles. 
By using specie only in its transactions, the Government would create a 
demand for it, which would, to a great extent, prevent its exportation, and, 
by keeping it in circulation, maintain a broader and safer basis for the paper 
currency. That the banks would thus be rendered more sound, and the 
community more safe, canno^ admit of a doubt. 

The foregoing views, it seems to me, do but fairly carry out the provi- 
sions of the federal constitution in relation to the currency, as far as relates 
to the public revenue. At the time that instrument was framed, there were 
but three or four banks in the United States ; and had the extension of the 
banking system, and the evils growing out of it, been foreseen, they would 

I probably have been specially guarded against. The same policy which 
ed to the prohibition of bills of credit by the States, would, doubtless, in 
that event, have also interdicted their issue as a currency in any other form. 
The constitution, however, contains no such prohibition ; and since the 
States have exercised, for nearly half a century, the power to regulate the 
business of banking, it is not to be expected that it will be abandoned. The 
whole matter is now under discussion before the proper tribunal — the peo- 
ple of the States. Never before has the public mind been so thoroughly 
awakened to a proper sense of its importance ; never has the subject, in all 
its bearings, been submitted to so searching an inquiry. ' It would be dis- 
trusting the intelligence and virtue of the people to doubt the speedy and 
efficient adoption of such measures of reform as the public good demands. 
All that can rightfully be done by the Federal Government, to promote the 
accomplishment of that important object, will, without doubt, be performed. 

In the mean time, it is our duty to provide all the remedies against a 
depreciated paper currency which the constitution enables us to afford. 
The Treasury Department, on several former occasions, has suggested the 
propriety and importance of a uniform law concerning bankruptcies of 
corporations and other bankers. Through the instrumentality of such 
a law, a salutary check may doubtless be imposed on the issues of paper 
money, and an effectual remedy given to the citizen, in a way at once 
equal in all parts of the Union, and fully authori^ by the constitution. 

The indulgence granted by executive authority, in the payment of bonds 
for duties, has been already mentioned. Seeing that the inmiediate en- 
forcement of these obligations would subject a large and highly respecta- 
ble portion of our citizens to great sacrifices, and believing that a tempo- 
rary postponement could be made without detriment to other interests, 
and with incsreased certainty of ultimate payment, I did not hesitate to 



10 £1] 

comply with the request that was made of me. The terms allowed are, 
to the full extent, as liberal as ai)y that are to be found in the practice of 
the Executive Depsirtment. It remains for Congress to decide whether 
a further postponement may not, with propriety, be allowed ; and, if so, 
their legislation upon the subject is respectfully invited. 

The report of the Secretary of the Treasury will exhibit the condition 
of these debts; the extent and effect of the present indulgence; the proba- 
ble result of its further extension on the state of the Treasury; and every 
other fact necessary to a full consideration of the subject. Similar infor- 
mation is communicated in regard to such depositories of the public 
moneys as are indebted to the Government, in order that Congress may 
also adopt the proper measures in regard to them. 

The receipts and expenditures for the first half of the year, and an 
estimate of those for the residue, will be laid before you by the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury. In his report of December last, it was estimated that 
the current receipts would fall short of the expenditures by about three 
millions of dollars. It will be seen that the difference will be much greater. 
This is to be attributed not only to the occurrence of greater pecuniary 
embarrassments in the business of the country than those which were then 
predicted, and, consequently, a greater diminution in the revenue, but blIsp 
to the fact that the appropriations exceeded, by nearly six millions, the 
amount which was asked for in the estimates then submitted. The sum 
necessary for the service of the year, beyond the probable receipts and the 
amount which it was intended should be reserved in the Treasury at the 
commencement of the year, will be about six millions. If the whole of the 
reserved balance be not at once applied to the current expenditures, but 
four millions be still kept in the Treasury, as seems most expedient, for the 
uses of the Mint, and to meet contingencies, the sum needed will be ten 
millions. 

In making this estimate, the receipts are calculated on the supposition of 
some further extension of the indulgence granted in the payment of bonds 
for duties, which will affect the amount of the revenue for the present year 
to the extent of two and a half millions. 

It is not proposed to procure the required amount by loans or increased 
taxation. There are now in the Treasury nine millions three hundred 
and sixty-seven thousand two hundred and fourteen dollars, directed by the 
act of the 23d of June, 1836, to be deposited with the States in October 
next. This sum, if so deposited, will be subject, under the.Jaw, to be re- 
called, if ne^ed, to defray existing appropriations; an(}, as it is now evident 
that the whole, or the principal part of it, will be wanted for that purpose, 
it appears most proper that the deposite should be withheld. Until the amount 
can be collected from the banks. Treasury notes may be temporarily issued, 
to be gradually redeemed as it is received. 

I am aware that this course may he productive of inconvenience to many 
of the States. Relying: upon the acts of Congress which held out to them 
the strong probability, if not the certainty, of receiving this instalment, they 
have in some instances adopted measures with which its retention nuty se- 
riously interfere. That such a condition of things should have occurred, 
is much to be rq^tted. It is not the least among the unfortunate results 
of tl^ disasters m the times ; and it is for Congress to devise a fit remedy, 
if there be one. The money being indispensable to the wants of the Tjrea- 
8ury, it is difiicult to conceive upon what principle of justice or eiqpediency 



[ 1 ] 20 

its application to that object can be avoided. To recall any portion of the 
Slims already deposited with the States, would be more inconvenient and 
less efficient ; to burden the country with increased taxation, when there 
is in fact a large surplus revenue, would be unjust and unwise ; to raise 
moneys by loans under such circumstances, and thus to commence a new 
national debt, would scarcely be sanctioned by the American people. 

The plan proposed will be adequate to all our fiscal operations, during 
the remainder of the year. Should it be adopted, the Treasury, aided by 
the ample resources of the country, will be able to discharge, punctually, 
ev^rjr pecuniary obligation. For the future, all that is needed will be, that 
caution and forbearance in appropriations which the diminution of the 
revenue requires, and which the complete accomplishment or great for- 
wardness of many expensive national undertakings, renders equally consist- 
ent with pnidence and patriotic liberality. 

The preceding suggestions and recommendations are submitted, in the 
belief that their adoption by Congress will enable the Executive Depart- 
metit to conduct our fiscal concerns with success, so far as their manage- 
ment has been committed to it. Whilst the objects, and the means proposed 
to attain them, are within its constitutional powers and appropriate duties, 
4faey will, at the same time, it is hoped, by their necessary operation, afford 
essential aid in the transaction of individual concerns, and thus yield relief 
to the people at large, in a form adapted to the nature of our Government. 
Those who look to the action of this Qovernment for spedfic aid to the 
cititsen, to relieve embarrassments arising from losses by revulsions in com- 
merce and credit, lose sight of the ends for which it was created, and the 
powers with which it is clothed. It was established to give security to us 
all, in bur lawful and honorable pursuits, under the lasting safeguard of 
republican insiitutions. It was not intended to confer special favors on 
individuals, or on any classes of them ; to create systems of agriculture, 
manufactures, or trade ; or to engage in them, either separately or in con- 
nection with individual citizens or organized associations. If its operations 
were to be directed for the benefit of any one class, equivalent favors must, 
in justice, be extended to the rest ; and the attempt to bestow such favors 
with an equal hand, or even to select those who should most deserve them, 
wbtild never be successful. 

All communities are apt to look to Gdvernment for too much. Even in 
our own country, where its powers and duties are so strictly limited, weafe 
prbne to do so, especially atnerieds of sddden embarrassment and distress. 
B«rt this ought not to bd. The framers of our excellent constitution, arid 
the people who approved it with calm and sagacious deliberation, acted nt 
the time on a sounder principle. They wisely judged that the less Goverti- 
ihent interferes with private pursuits, the better for the general prosperity. 
It is not its legitimate object to make men rich, or to repair, by direct gtants 
of money or legislation In favor of particular pntsuits, losses not iticurred 
in the public service. This would be, substantially, to use the property 6f 
some for the benefit of others. But its real duty, that duty the performance 
of Which makes a g6od Oovcrttment the most precious oi human blessings, 
is to etiAcI and enforce t system of general laws (Commensurate ivith, but 
iiot exceediUg, the cbyettB of its establiiihtn^nt ; and to leave etety eitissen 
^d every intetest to reap^ uuder its benign jlitf^tidn, tb^rtiward^ of vit- 
tU^ ifidustry^ tihd pnidence. 

I eannot douU that on this, ai^ oh all similar decasions^ the Fed^t^ 



21 [1] 

Government will find its agency most conducive to the security and hap- 
piness of the people, when limited to the exercise of its conceded powers. 
In never assuming, even for a well meant object, such powers as were not 
deaigned to be conferred upon it, we shall, in reality, do most for the gen- 
eral welfare. To avoid every unnecessary interference with the pursuits 
of the citizen, will result in more benefit than to adopt measures which 
could only assist limited interests, and are eagerly, but perhaps naturally, 
sought for, under the pressure of temporary circumstances. If, therefore, 
I refrtiin from suggesting to Congress any specific plan for regulating the 
exchanges of the country, relieving mercantile embarrassments, or inter- 
fering with the ordinary operations of foreign or domestic commerce, it is 
from a conviction that such measures are not within the constitutional pro- 
vince of the General Government, and that their adoption would not pro- 
mote the real and permanent welfare of those they might be designed to aid. 

The difficulties and distresses of the times, though unquestionably great, 
are limited in their extent, and cannot be regarded as affecting the perma- 
nent prosperity of the nation. Arising, in a great degree, from the transac- 
tions of foreign and domestic commerce, it is upon theni that they have 
chiefly fallen. The great agricultural interest has, in many parts of the 
country, suffered comparatively little ; and, as if Providence intended to 
display the munificence of its goodness at the moment of our greatest need, 
and in direct contrast to the evils occasioned by the waywardness of man, 
we have been blessed, throughout our extended territory, with a season of 
general health and of uncommon fruitfulness. The proceeds of our great 
staples will soon furnish the means of liquidating debts at home and abroad, 
anu contribute equally to the revival of commercial activity and the restor- 
ation of commercial credit. The banks, established avowedly for its sup- 
port, deriving their profits from it, and resting under obligations to it which 
cannot be overlooked, will feel at once the necessity and justice of uniting 
their energies with those of the mercantile interest. The suspension of 
specie payments, at such a time, and under such circumstances as we have 
lately witnessed, could not be other than a temporary measure; and we can 
scarcely err in believing that the period must soon arrive when all that are 
solvent will redeem their issues in gold and silver. Dealings abroad natu- 
rally depend on resources and prosperity at home. If the debt of our mer- 
chants has accumulated, or their credit is impaired, these are fluctuations 
always incident to extensive or extravagant mercantile transactions. But 
the ultimate security of such obligations does not admit ofauontioru They 
are guarantied by the resources of a country, the fruits oi whose industry 
afford abundant means of ample liquidation, and by the evident interest of 
every merchant to sustain a credit, hitherto high, by promptly applying 
these means for its preservation. 

1 deeply regret that events have occurred which require me to ask your 
consideration of such serious topics. I could have irished that, in making 
my first communication to the assembled representatives of my country, I 
had nothing to dwell upon but the history of her unalloyed prosperity. 
Since it is otherwise, we can only feel more deeply the responsibility of the 
respective trusts that have been confided to us, and, under the pressure ef 
diflliculties, unite in invoking the guidance and aid of the Supreme Ruler 
of Nations, and in laboring with zealous resolution to overcome the difficul- 
ties by which we are environed. 

It is, under such circumstances, a high gratification to know, by long 



[ 1 ] 22 

experience, that we act for a people to whom the truth, however unpromis- 
ing, can always be spoken with safety ; for the trial of whose patriotismi no 
emergency is too severe, and who are sure never to desert a public function- 
ary honestly laboring for the public good. It seems just that they should 
receive, without delay, any aid in their embarrassments which your delib- 
erations can afford. Coming directly from the midst of tlietn, and knowing 
the course of events in every section of our country, from you may best be 
learnt as well the extent and nature of these embarrassments, as the most 
desirable measures of relief. 

I am aware, however, that it is not proper to detain you, at present, 
longer than may be demanded by the special objects for which you are con- 
vened. To them, therefore, I have confined my communication ; and, be- 
lieving it will not be your own wish now to extend your deliberations be- 
yond them, I reserve, till the usual period of your annual meeting, that 
general information on the state of the Union which the constitution re- 
quires me to give. 

M. VAN BUREN. 

Washington, September ith, 1837. 



•23 I 1 3 



DOCUMENTS 



ACCOMPANTING THE MESSAGE OP THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE TVFO HOUSES OF 

CONGRESS, AT THE COMMENCEMENT OP TTIE FIIiST SES;;iON OP 
THE TWENTY-FIFTH CGNCRESS. 



REPORT 



OP 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL. 



Post Office Department, 

September 4, 1837. 

Sir : Immediately after the suspension of specie payments by the banks 
in New York, in May last, a circular was sent out, directing all postmasters 
who liad been instructed to deposite the proceeds of their officesin banks,, 
to retain them in specie, to meet the drafts of the department. 

To those who had been instructed to pay directly to contractors, anothe 
circular was ssnt, reminding them of their duties and liabilities in referenc 
to the moneys to be received and paid by them under existing laws. 

Instructions have recently been prepared, directing the manner in which 
returns of cash on hand are hereafter to be made to the department,, and 
forbidding the loaning or use of the moneys belonging to the public, for 
any purpose whatsoever. Copies of these papers are annexed, marked 
A, B, and C. 

In relation to upwards often thousand of the post offices, these regulations 
make no change. The only change effected by them is, that about eleven 
hundred postmasters, who formerly deposited their income in banks, weekly, 
monthly, or quarterly, according to its amount, now retain the money in 
their own hands till drawn for by the department. To about nine-tenths 
of these, the new system is more convenient than the old, as it saves 
lliem the trouble of going or sending to the banks and piocnring certificates 
of deposite ; it is equally safe, as their entire balances will be drawn for as 
often as they deposited ; and it is more efficient, because some postmas- 
ters, who might neglect to deposite, will not venture to dishonor a draft. 

The postmasters who will not close their accounts quarterly, will not, 
probably, exceed one hundred ; and the balances in their hands, from 
quarter to quarter, are not likely, under a proper administration of the de- 
partment, to exceed, in ordinary times, one or two hundred thousand dollars. 
As they are required to have their balances always ready in gold and silver, 
the department will always have the means of meeting its engagements ; 
and if a default in an individual case should occasionally happen, nothing 
like a general refusal to pay, as in the case of the late deposite banks, is 
ever to be apprehended. 

It will ever be the true policy of the department not to have a large sur- 



en 24 

plus, and, consequently, there will be little to intrust to the custody oi 
postmasters or others. Moreover, the number of post offices now instructed 
to retam their funds, will be largely reduced upon an adjustment of the 
collection system to the mail service, as arranged within the last twelve 
months. 

Though in some places convenient, banks are not necessary to the col- 
lection and disbursement of the funds of this department. In reference ta 
more than ten thousand pest offices, the collections and disbursements are 
effected more expeditiously and more conveniently without the interposition 
of banks, than they could be with it. The contractors who are creditors 
of the department, are its collectors from postmasters, and the collection and 
disbursement are but ane operation. It is generally effected in a few days 
after the close of^ach quarter. The operation is the same where the post- 
masters pay to contractors upon the drafts of the department, though it is 
more tardy. The few offices, in reference to which banks are a conveni- 
ence, are those whose receipts are large, and are not likely to be absorbed 
from quarter to quarter by the drafts of the department. They have gen- 
erally iron chests or safes where the specie is keptf and, with a strict super- 
vision and careful attention to their bonds, they will seldom, if ever, be found 
in default. 

The necessary transfers of funds are effected by the department without 
inconvenience or loss. On the interior mail routes, the expenditure is gen- 
erally greater than the income ; so that after the contractors have received 
the entire revenue of the offices supplied by them, balances are still due. 
These balances are as readily paid off by drafls on the postmasters in the 
cities where the surplus arises, as they could be by checks on banks in the 
same places. The process is rendered the more easy, from the fact, that the 
heaviest surplus accrues at those points where funds are the most valuable, 
particularly at New York ; so that the drafts of the department to pay bal- 
ances in the most distant parts of the Union are generally better than cash, 
being available for mercantile remittances. Thus, the necessary transfers 
of the department are readily effected ; and as this state of things is not 
likely to change, it would seldom, if ever, become necessary for the depart- 
ment to transport specie from one point to another, if there was not a bank 
in existence. 

Upon the suspension of the banks, efforts were made in some quarters ta 
compel the department to receive irredeemable and depreciated paper for 
postages. LftWy justice, and public policy required an inflexible resistance 
of these efforts. Gold and silver are the only constitutional and legal cur- 
rency of the United States, and nothing but that currency, or its equivalent, 
can be legally offered to the public creditors in payment. All taxes and 
postages are imposed in this currency, and all contracts are made upon its 
basis. The public faith could be kept, and the public business successfully 
carried on, only by a strict adherence to the plain letter as well as obvious 
spirit of the law. 

The undersigned is happy to state, that all attempts to force the depart- 
ment to receive depreciated paper were soon abandoned; that little diffi- 
culty has been experienced in collecting postages in specie, and none where 
the circulation of change tickets has been successfully resisted ; and that 
the credit of the department has been preserved unimpaired. Nor is any 
difficulty apprehended, so long as postages are collected in the constitution- 
al currency of the United Stales. But, should the department be compelled 



25 [ I ] 

to receive, and oflfer to its creditors, the depreciated notes issued by hun- 
dreds of embarrassed, faithless^ or bankrupt corporations or individuals, 
no sure calculation can be made as to the future ; and there is reason to 
apprehend general discontent, extensive faihires, and deplorable disorgan- 
ization throughout tha mail serviee. With what face could the department 
insist on, and compel, a strict performance of contract obligations by con- 
tractors, when stripped of f he power to perform tl^e most vital part of the 
contracts (so far as the interest of the contractor is concerned) on its own 
part? Justice and sound policy alike demand a firm adherence, in the 
mail service, to the standard of value, and the basis of contracts, prescribed 
by the constitution, and hitherto strictly maintained, (except for a short 
period;) amidst the calamities of war. 

On the whole, no legislation is necessary to maintain the credit of this 
department, or enable it to manage its fiscal concerns : the existing laws 
being deemed ample for those purposes. 

I have the honor to be, 

Your obedient servant, 

AMOS KENDALL. 

To the Pr£8J]>£nt of the United States. 



A. 

Post Office Depaktmekt, 



18S7. 



Sir : You will, until further orders, retain the proceeds of your office in 
your hands, in specie^ to meet the drafts of this department, 

I am, respectfully. 

Your obedient servant. 
Postmaster at 



B. 

Post Office Department, 
Apjxnntmtnt Office^ Washington^ May 16, 1837. 

Sir : I am instructed by the Postmaster General to call vour particular 
attention to the fact, that the rates of postage, as established by law, are 
based upon the legal currency qf the United States, The following ex- 
tracts from the prmted regulations and the law, will clearly show what are 
your duties and responsibilities in relation to the kind of currency to be 
received for postage, viz : 

" You will receive nothing but specie, or its equivalent, for postage." — 
Instructions to Postmasters^ chapter 5, section 62. 

"All payments to the department, whether upon its drafts, or by deposite 
in bank, must be in specie, or its equivalent. No allowance can be made 



[ 1 ] 26 

to postmasters for the depreciation of money received for postage, nor for 
losses by fire, robbery, or theft." — Chapter 28, section 245. 

Extract from an act of Congress^ approved on the iith of April, 1836. 

" Section 2. And be it further enacted, That, hereafter, no bank notes 
of less denomination than ten dollars, and that from and after the 3d day 
of Mai*ch, anno Domini 1837, no bank note of less denomination than 
twentjr dollars, shall be offered in payment, in any case whatsoever in which 
money is to be paid by the United States, or by the Post Office Department; 
nor shall any bank note, of any denomination, be so offered, unless the 
same shall be payable, and paid on demand,' in gold or silver coin at the 
place where issued, and which shall not be equivalent to specie at the place 
where offered, and convertible into gold or silver upon the spot, at the will 
of the holder, and without delay or loss to him : Provided, That nothing 
herein contained shall be construed to make any thing but gold or silver a 
legal tender by any individual, or by the United States." 

Hence, you will perceive that, whatever you may receive for postage, 
you are responsible for gold or silver ; and that it is unlawful for you to 
offer in payment to contractors, or others, any note of any bank which does 
not pay its notes in specie. As the Postmaster General has no power to 
release you from your responsibilities under the laws, and as, on the con- 
trary, it is his duty to see them faithfully executed, he has deemed it ex- 
pedient to give you this notice, that you may guard yourself against loss in 
the collection of your postages. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

^ ROBERT JOHNSTON, 
Second Assistant Postmaster General. 



a 

Postmasters, who may be under instructions to retain the proceeds of 
their offices until drawn for by the department, will observe the following 
regulations, viz: 

Those whose nett proceeds are five hundred dollars or more per week, 
will report the amount weekly to the department. Fractions of weeks at 
the beginning and end of quarters need not be reported separately. 

Those whose nett proceeds are not five hundred dollars per week, but 
amount to that sum or more per month, will report them monthly. The 
last month of each quarter nc«d not be reported separately. 

At the end of each quarter, all postmasters at draft offices will imme- 
diately ascertain the amount of nett revenue accruing at their respective 
offices during the quarter, and report it forthwith to the department, settin 
down the sums, if any, which may have been reported weekly or monthly 
and deducting them, thus exhibiting the balance not reported. 

All these reports must be bp letter, addressed to the Postmaster General^ 
which must be sent separately, and not enclosed with the quarterly ac- 
counts, or tied to them, or to any other letter or packet on other business* 



S 



27 [ 1 ] 

Nor must it be delayed until the accounts are forwarded, if it can be sent 
sooner. 

Postmasters will not be permitted to use or loan out any of the moneys 
belonging to the department, but will keep them always on hand to meet 
its drafts. A violation of this regulation will be considered good cause for 
instant removal and prosecution. Every draft must be paid on pre- 
sentation. 

The travelling agents of the department will be instructed to call occa- 
sionally on the draft offices, without notice, for the purpose of counting 
and reporting the cash on hand, and reporting also the manner in which 
it is kept. 



* k 



25th Congress, £ ^ ] 

1^ Session. 



REPORT 



FROM 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, 

On the Fmanee»^ 



September 6, 1837. 

Read, and ordered to be printed. 



Treasury Department, 

September 5, 1837. 

In pursuance of the duty of this department to submit to Congress, at 
^ach session, the state 6f the finances ; and in conformity with the request 
of the President, that such other fiscal matters should, on this occasion, be 
presented, as appear to require early l^^Iation, the undersigned has the 
honor to offer the following report. 

L CONDITION OF THE TREASURY. 

It is not proposed to give all the particulars, relating to the receipts and 
expenditures, which usually accompany an annual statement But an ex- 
position of them, under the customary general heads, so far as they have been 
ascertained, for the first half of the year, is subjoined. 

Brief estimates for the other half are noade, and such explanations added, 
as seem necessary to show with clearness not only the condition of the 
Treasury at this iimei^but its probable state for the residue of the year. 

According to the Treaswper's running account, the whole amount of 
avaiUble money in the Treasury on the* lit «f January, 1837, applicaj)le 
to public purposes, was $42,468,859 97. Prom that^um, there were on ihat 
day reserved $5,000,000; and the balance, being $37,468,859 97, was, 
under the provisions of the act of 3une 23, 1836, to be placed in deposite 
with the States. It is ascertained that $27,063,430 80 of it have since been , 
actually received by them. 

l%eanMmnt of thatportion of the first three instalments, the payment of 
which has not yet been acknowledged, though transfers were seasonably 
i^rued for it, is $1,165^76 18. The remainder is $9,367,214 98, and is 
the sum which was designed for the fourth in;stalment of deposites with the 
States on the Isl of October next. The amount reserved in the Treasury 
on the 1st of January has &nnoe been increased, by returns subsequently re- 
ceived from banks, to the sum of $6,670,137 52; and which, of course, 
could not the n be a scertained or taken into computation. 

Blair A Bihres, pri&tersl 



[2] 2 

RECEIPTS. 

The receipts in the first half of the year, deposited in the banks, and paid 
on drafts by collectors and receivers, so far as ascertained, have been : 
From customs - - - . - - - $7,234,451 

From lands .-.--- 5,303,731 

And from miscellaneo^s sources - - . - 512,263 

To these may be added about $600,000 which remained is the hands of 
receivers, and $50,000 in those of collectors, subject to draft. All these 
make the aggregate for that half of the year $13,187,182. If no further 
postponement be granted on duty bonds, it is estimated that the whole re- 
ceipts for the last half of the year, from all sources, will be about $9,500,000 ; 
which would make them, as ascertained and estimated for the whole year, 
$22,687,182. But if the brief extension of the present postponement, 
brought into view hereafter, and favorably regarded, be directed by Con- 
gress, the receipts will probably be about $7,000,000 ; while, by a postpone- 
ment of the whole to another year, they will not be likely to exceed 
$4,500,000. 

Looking at our whole revenue, therefore, from all quarters, it appears 
that the balance of money reserved at the commencement of the year, as 
finally ascertained to be $6,670,137, with the actual receipts for the first 
half at $13,187,182, and those now anticipated for the last half of it 
at $7,000,000, will constitute an aggregate of $26,857,319. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The expenditures during the first half of the yeat were, for 
Civil, miscellaneous, and loreign intercourse - - $2,812,540 40 
Military, including pensions .... 10,603,361 49 
^aval - - . - * - . 3,297,149 69 
Public debt - - 20,832 76 

Making an aggregate of • - - . $16,73^,884 3S 

.- » ■ • 

The expenditures required to meet existing appropriations^ dnriag flie 
last half of the year, will, as computed, equa^tbe sum of $16,000,000; 
making for the whole year $32»733|884. 

Whatever expenditure shall arise within the year, upon new appropria- 
tions which Congress may think proper to make, will require a corres- 
ponding addition to this amount. But,, without themi it will constitute an 
excess of $5,876,565 of expenditures, over both the receipts and the balance 
at the commencement of the year ; besides not leaving, at the close of it, 
any thing in the Mint or the Treasury f^r future uses, or to meet contin- 
gencies. 

In order, therefore, to discharge that excess, and retain, of the money 
reserve on the Jst <4 January, one million, which is the smallest sum 
di3emed proper, under the acts of Congress, for the efficient operations of 
the Mint, and at least three or four miUions moie, to answer sudden and 
continent calls, there will probably be a necessity to resort to the deposites 
now with the States, and to the, instalment destined for them in October, 
or to some other resource, for a sum e^ual to $10,000,000. By a report 



3 [21 

of the Treasurer of the 30th ultimo, it appears that the balance in the 
Treasury, including what was in the custody of banks, the Mint, and 
collecting officers, was then $14,596,311 ; that the amount of this, subject 
to immediate draft, was only $8,928,072 ; but the whole balance in the 
Treasury, including all which had been deposited with the States, and order- 
ed to be, though only a small part of the amount is subject to immediate draft, 
was $41,532,381. Deduct all which has been, and was designed to be, 
deposited with the States, and there would be no balance Icdl on hand 
subject to draft, though including every thing in the Mint, and in the 
possession of receivers aiid collectors, which is applicable to getieral pur- 
poses. 

Hence it is probable, that, besides the deficiency for the expenditures of 
the year, no sufficient means of any kind will exist on the 1st of October 
next, after defraying the intervening expenses, to complete the instalment of 
deposites then payable, unless a large part of the bonds for duties postponed 
to that day, and amounting to near $4,000,000, and the million and a half 
then due on the first bond from the United States Bank, shall be punctu- 
ally paid, or, in the meau time, some provision on this subject made by 
Congress. 

The money standing to the special credit of the Post Office Department 
and the Patent Office, as well as various trusts, is not included in the above 
exhibit, for reasons explained in the last annual report Outstanding and 
unexpended appropriations at the end of the year will, in this view of our 
financial condition, be still left charged on the Treasury, amounting to 
about $16,000,000. 

This does not differ much from their amount at the close of the last year. 
Whether the appropriations unexpended on the 1st of January, 1838, 
prove, therefore, to be one or two millions larger or smaller than is now an- 
ticipated, it must be manifest, from all the above data, that some new legis- 
lation is indispensable to complete satisfactorily the service of the year, and 
leave a suitable amount in the Mint and the Treasury. 

Indeed, before submitting the last annual report, the indications of a de- 
crease in the receipts, and of an approaching revulsion in our commercial 
prosperity, appeared so strong to the undersigned, that he felt compelled, with ' 
reluctance and regret, because differing so much firom the views of many ' 
othel^, to estimate the accruing receipts for the year at only $24,000,000. 

As the appropriations asked for were about $27,000,000, it was then sugr' 
gested that the occurrence of a deficiency Wna probable. When those an- 
propriations became in fact enlarged by Congress to more than $32,000,00i^' 
It rendered a deficiency inevitable, to the extent now anticipated, unlesp 
the receipts should happen greatly to exceed the estimates. 

II. ON THE POSTPONEMENT OF THE PAYMENT OF BONDS 

FOR DUTIES. 

The first suggestions whicb will be submitted concerning such special' 
legislation as appears proper in cojasoquenoe of the recent embarrassments 
of the country, relate to the postponement of; the. jiaynlent of bonds £)r 
duties. ^ 

Early in Mav last, the collection of the revenue fiom. customs became 
much obstructed through the severe pecuniary difiBculties of the mercantile^ 
interest The Treasury Department felt an anxiety not only to take steps 



[2] 4 

which might increase the sec\irity of the Governmeut for eventual pay- 
ment, but, in an emergency so great, and to many so unexpected, to furnish 
all the relief from sacrifices which could judiciously be extended under its 
limited powers, and in anticipation of what would probably be its straitened 
condition in a few months. 

A postponement of the payment of the bonds falling due was, therefore, 
and in accordance with the views of the Executive, authorized for periods of 
from thirty to ninety days, on interest and additional security, and in a man- 
ner more liberal than usual, by permitting it before as well as after suit, in 
all cases of embarrassment, great hardship, or insolvency. 

The particular terms, and the reasons for such postponement, are more 
fully set forth in the documents annexed. (A. Letter from the Secretary of 
the Treasury to the collector at New YorK. B. Instructions of the Soli- 
citor of the Treasury.) 

*When the difficulties in discharging bonds in a legal currency became 
increased by the suspension of specie payments in some of the principal 
cities, and the President decided to call a special session of Congress, the 
postponement was allowed to be extended till after the commencement of 
the session, in order that an opportunity might be aiSbrded to obtain further 
relief by new legislation. Urgent requests were made for an indiscrimi- 
nate delay of payment on all bonds to the 1st of January next, and for the 
receipt, in discharge of them, of notes issued by banks not paying specie. 
(See memorials from New York, Boston, and New Orleans, and copies of a 
reply to one of them, and letter to collector of New York. C, D, E, and 
PI and 2.) 

It was not deemed proper to comply with these requests. But as long a 
delay as our fiscal situation justified, and every relief as to the currency 
which seemed legal, by the receipt of debenture certificates and Treasury 
drafts, for duties, were permitted in mitigation of the existing embarrass- 
pients. 

Having, in this, done all that a sound and liberal exercise of the discre- 
tion of the department appeared either to justify or require, no intention 
exists, nor would it be proper in the present state of the Treasury, to grant 
any indulgences beyond those already authorized, without the express di- 
rection of Congress. 

Some further facts which may be useful to aid its m§jii^rs in csMaiog to 
4 correct conclusion on this subject, are, that tlie aihount of bonds which 
have already be^n postponed to the 1st of October is about $3,500,000, and 
tqf that date will, it is preaufaed, be increased to $4,000,000. 

If Congress permit no longer postponement, the receipts for the year will 
ptobably Be increased by the indull'ences already ffranted, as they have 
been allowed, generally, on additional security, and fUways on interest. 

But as suits and delays in collection will still oceiir, though to a lees ex- 
tent than in the first stages of the pressure, it is expected that not orer two- 
thu-ds of the amount postponed before the close of this month can be col- 
lected during the current year. 

The bonds already put in suit since the middle of May amount to nearly 
$1,000,000. But if Congress extend the postponement till next January, 
as was originally request^ by some of the parties, or for one year^ as recently 
requested by the chamber of commerce of New York, (F 3,) the receipts 
for the present year will probably be thereby lessened from four to five 

milUons. 



6 C«] 

Should Congress, however, adopt an intermediate coqtsc, as an act not 
6{ mere benevolence, but of additional relief, which appears reasonable, 
under the extraordinary mercantile distresses of the times, and more safe to 
the Government, in respect to eventual collections, it mi^ht sanction a dela^ 
not to exceed, altogether, six months beyond the original period of pay- 
ment, in any particular case. It is computed that this would diminish the 
receipts, during the present year, about two and a half millions of dollars; 
but if granted on the usual terms, would increase the receipts, next year, 
in a greater proportion, by the interest accruing, as well as by the fuller 
collections which would probably be made in a greater number of cases. 

The opinion of the department on these various propositions is, that, 
considering merely our present financial necessities, no further postpone- 
ment can be regarded as expedient, though in some other respects, as fully 
detailed in the recent letter from the chamber of commerce, (F 3,) the last 
delay mentioned might be found justifiable, and more beneficial. But if a 
law be passed extending credit on the bonds, it is supposed that, in any cor- 
rect view of the subject, its provisions, need not be continued in force 
beyond the period when the worst effects of the pressure will be likely to 
have ceased, and when all imports could, by a further extension of the ware- 
bouse system, be advantageously made payable in cash, at the time the 
goods are wanted for imm^iate consumption. 

The extension of that system is, therefore, respectfully recommended to 
the consideration of Congress, in connexion with the present subject, as it 
might introduce as great an improvement in the collection of imposts, as 
the substitution of cash for credit did in the collection o{ revenue irom the 
sales of public lands. It would certainly increase the security, ease, and 
promptitude of the operation ; would dispense entirely with the trouble and 
risk in the payment of debentures; work favorably to the manufacturing 
interests ; and, at the same time, facilitate our trade in foreign articles, as well 
as exonerate the merchant from many embarrassments in regard to sure- 
ties aud guaranties. 

III. OBSTACLES IN THE WAY OF TRANSFERRING THE 
. LAST INSTALMENT OF DEPOSITES TO THE STATES. 

Early legis!)Bftion hhs'likewise become necessary, either to withhold or 
postpone, for a reasonable period, the fourth instalment of deposites with 
the States, or to furnish such aid as niay be necessary tp complete them in 
a satisfactory manner. 

By the general suspension of specie payments, and the consequent ne- 
cessity, under the deposite ^ct, to discontinue most of the public deposito- 
ries, the transfers from the banks in the west and southwest to the sea- 
board, which were necessary to i)lace much of the money in a position to 
be conveniently lodged with the States in October, have, in several in- 
stances, been defeated. They had, as in case of the former instalments, 
been ordered seasonably, though, as a general rule, only where rendered . 
proper, in consequence of great accumulation of public funds in an unfa- 
vorable situation, on account of the course of trade and exchanges, to 
be paid directly to the respective States. But, in the troubled condition 
of the mbney market, they had not been injuriously hastened as to this 
time of payment, and, consequently, falling due in the course of the sum- 
mer and early in autumn, near two-thirds of the whole amount of these 



C«] 6 

funds stilLon hand have been detained in the west and southwest, where 
they had so unusually augmented from the large sales of public lands. 
Hence, if the last deposite with the States was, in this position of the mo- 
ney, to be attempted, the orders directing it must^ iji many cases, be made 
on places remote, and very inconvenient to some of the receiving States, 
on account of the unfavorable balance of trade, or the rates of exchange ; 
and must be met, if at all, in a currency unacceptable and greatly depreci- 
ated. Transfers of portions of the July instalment could not, from the same 
cause, be effected in the precise mode intended, nor from the banks most de- 
sirable, though much of it had reached the appropriate points, to reader 
the operation easy, before the suspension of specie payments. In all cases 
in which they were not offered to be paid in a currency satisfactory to the 
States, their agents were requested to return the orders of transfer till Con- 
gress could make new and suitable provisions qn the subject. (See fonn 
of letter and postscript to States, G.) 

But this request has not always been complied with. About $l,l65,5i76 of 
that instalment has not yet been receipted for by the States to the Treasury, 
nor the orders returned. On the contrary, the United States Bank chartered 
by the State of Pennsylvania has lately become the purchaser of several 
01 these orders, though not given for any debt, but merely directing a 
transfer from one public depository to another. This institution has de- 
manded of the banks on which they are drawn that payment should be 
made to her in speciie ; and, on their failing to do so, has caused the orders 
to be protested. Under these circumstances, and, as the deposites with the 
States were to be made of what was in the Treasury, and consequently 
in the banks, on the ist of January last, it is for Congress to decide whether 
payment shall be made of any of those orders in a mode and currency 
different from the rest of the third instahnent of deposites with the States. 

Another reason for withholding or postponing the October deposites, or 
for some legal provision to aid in completing them, is, that a sum equal to 
the revenue probably accruing, and a large portion of these deposites, had, 
before they were payable, been expressly appropriated by Congress to other 
objects. When looking to the rapid decrease in our receipts, to the expect- 
ed deficiency in the course of the year, and the great amount of outstanding 
appropriations which, at the close of it,' will te left unpaid, much of that 
whole instalment seems likely to be needed at an early day. Bf either of the 
first two measures, the money could, according to its original destination, be 
^plied to the necessary wants of the General Government, as soon as it can 
be drawn from the banks in legal funds. In that way, so desirable an object 
would also be accomplished, without the expense and ^elay of the money 
bein^ first paid over to the States, and then subjected to an early recall. 
On the other hand, several of the States might, in the present posture of their 
affiiirs, experience considerable inconvenience, either by not receiving it, or 
by soon refunding a large portion of its amount ; and many of the banks 
which hold it might be able more satisfactorily to pay it to the States than 
to the Treasury. But, though the subject is one of much delicacy and dif- 
ficulty, and peculiarly proper for the final action of Congress, it may be ex- 
pected that this department should express some opinion as to which 
course appears most eligible in the present condition of the finances. It is, 
therefore, with deference suggested, that when regarding their condition 
and the importance of meeting with efficiency and good faith all the obli- 
gations of the Government to the public creditors, it would be most judi- 



ctons to apply the whde toslalment, as fast as it is wanted and can be col- 
lected, to the prompt discharge of these obligations; and that the lost 
deposite with the States, not bein^a; a debt, but a mere temporary disposal of a 
surplus, shonJd be postponed until Congress, in some different state of the 
finances, when such an available surplus may exist, shall see a manifest pro- 
priety and ability in completing the deposite, and shall give directions to that 
effect. Consequently, no fimher steps will be taken as to the deposite of 
any part of that instedment till Congress has had an o]^xnrtunity to act upon 
the subject in such itiaaner as, in the present posture of atfairs,its superior 
wisdom may consider preferable. 

IV. DIFFICULTY IN PAYING THE APPROPRIATIONS, AND 
ON THE ISSUE OF TREASURY NOTES. 

Some further obstacles exist in the way of dischargitig satisfactorily all 
the appropriations which have been made by Congress. 

The effects which may be produced upon the accruing revenue, by 
granting or withholding further delays on bonds for duties, have already 
been explained. 

In addition to thede, there is a likelihood, in the present pressure, that the 
payment of cash duties, to the extent of one million of aollars more than 
usual, will be unavoidabl^r deferred to another year, as the importers under 
the existing laws are entitled to certain delays, by keeping in store the 
woollen goods which pay such duties. 

This circumstance, in connexion with the diffionlty of collecting the 
bonds, whether longer postponed or not, will sensibly increase the lembar- 
rassments which have been specially pointed ont, and otherwise exist in 
paying with promptitude, and in a legal manner, the large appropriations 
chargeable upon the residue of the current year. 

Hence, after a considerable deficiency in the available means became 
highly probable, it was deemed expedient to adopt any judicious and 
lawful measure tp remedy it, which was within the power of the depart- 
ment Accordingly, though lai^ quantities of public lands were still in 
market unsold, and though the receipts froih this source during the year 
would be higher dian anticipated, in consequence, among other things, of 
a constructiOB'^Hiilrtv^ the pre-emption laws, admitting a large class of 
settlers to entries, it was siip^oied that some further tracts, in places much 
desired by the new States, might^pnidentlyte offered. Afovrsuch have 
been advertised ; but sufficient time, after due notice, has not yet elapsed 
to realize anything from them. 

If the fourth instalment of the deposites with the States be deferred, and 
the difficulty in seasonably transferring it be thus removed, yet, being 
chiefly in the custody of banks not paying specie, it is manifest that it 
cannot be immediately realized in iiinds suitable to meet existing appro- 
priations. If it be not deferred, some further provision will be still more 
indispensable to enable the Treasury not only to place it with the States, 
but to pay all the public creditors and officers in a satisfactory manner, 
imtil the duties now due from the merchants, and the funds now in the 
discontinued deposite banks, can be collected. It is true, that a resort to 
the States for refunding portions of the large sums already deposited with 
them wouki also remain by law ; but tinder the limitations of the act of 
June, 1836, it would be very slow in its operation, and, if complied with, 



[2] 8 

would prove entirely insuffidedt to answer each foi urgent oeoasioti as 
the present. During the ensuing quarter, the whole amount that could be 
legally recalled would not exceed six hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
Henc^ it seems expedient, either in aid or exclusion of a requisition on 
the States, as may be deemed most suitable by Congress, to provide some 
temporary resource until enough of the fourth instalment, or other means 
in the Treasury, can be rendered available to discharge all the public 
engagements. It need not be a loan, or an increase of taxes of any kind f 
as the General Government, in respect to its finances, whatever temporary 
embarrassment the recent convulsions in commerce and banking may 
have created, is far from having any just cause for despondency. It is 
neither overwhelmed with a national debt, nor destitute of large pecuniary 
resources on hand ; but, entirely free from the former, it is so amply sup- 

Slied with the latter as to have in the Treasury over forty millions of 
oUars, and eight or ten millions nK)re in bonds, which will soon become 
payable. But a large portion being in deposite with the States, asd the 
residue chiefly in banks and the hands of merchants, under the difficul- 
ties before named, in procuring promptly, and in a \esol currency, the 
amounts of money which are needed, some collateral aid lor a short period* 
till a sufficiency can be collected, appears to be judicious, if not indis- 
pensable. 

It is fortunate that the energies of the country, generally, are not para- 
lyzed, nor its prospects clouded by any great physical calamities ; and hence 
its immediate wants can, without doubt, be provided for in various wajrs. 

One mode would be, to authorize the issue of Treasury notes, receivable 
for all public dues, but without interest. These would differ from the drafts 
or checks now in use, only as the latter are given for immediate payment, 
and drawn on persons and banks having pnolic money sufficient to meet 
them ; and, consequently, the holders must be exposed to the trouble and ex* 
pense of presenting them at the places where payable. Still they are nearly 
on a par with specie. In the present deranged state of bank paper and ex- 
changes, and in the favorable condition of the General Government, by its 
ample resources and exemption from pecuniary liabilities, to inipart the 
greatest confidence in respect'to the redemption of such notes, it is probaUe 
ihat they would readily be taken at par by most of the publia creditors. 
Especially would this be likely to happen, provided dnyivereissued in de- 
nominations as low as twenty, fifty, and one iiundred dollars ; and not in 
too large -qmcntities^ but used only ifi 'Mtfcipation of the accruing revenue 
on occasional emergencies and to a limited amount 

Contrary to expectation, should the department, durinsr the present de- 
linquency of many of the public debtors, be exposed to such very large calls, 
and collect so little revenue, as not to be able, by both the above notes and 
drafts, to meet all its engagements in a satisfactory manner, it would be de- 
sirable that the President should possess a contingent authority to cause 
Treasury notes to be issued, bearing an interest not to exceed six per cent. 

Specie could alwap be raised on these for the public creditor, when be 
preferred it. But as notes bearing much interest would soon cease to be 
used in circulation, (and if they should not, would, as a currency, be troa* 
blesome in the computation of interest, and too strongly tend to exclude 
specie from the country,) it might be advisable not to make them receivable, 
at first, for any public dues, but only to resort to that measure afterwards, 
when it should be found convenient for redeeming thein. 



9 [2] 

In connexion with the issne of any Treasuty notes, it is believed to be 
wise %o mafee ample provision for their early and final redemption. This 
could be acoomjfdished by enacting, that when the money on hand in the 
Treasury and the Mint, available for public purposes, may exceed a given 
amount of four or five millions, it shall be the duty of the Secretary of 
the Treasury to cause these notes (securing priority to any on interest) to 
be redeemed to such an extent as the surplus may exceed that sum, and 
what will probably be needed to defray current expenses, it being believed 
that a reduction of the tarilT, and suitable regulations concerning the sales 
of public land, ought at a prbper time to be put in force, so as to prevent any 
liarge and regular accumulation in the Treasury, the department would re* 
spectfuUy propose, that, in case of any unexpected excess beyond the sums 
above specified, it should merely be invest^ in a temporary manner, in 
safe, State stocks, at their market rate, subject to be sold again whenever 
the proceeds shall be wanted to discharge existuig appropriations. 

All additional consideration in favor of these measures is, that since the 
payment of t.he public debt, which absorbed any occasional surplus of re- 
ceipts, it is impossible, according to the views expressed in some previous 
leplorts from the undersigned, that, with sources of revenue so fluctuating as 
ours, and so dependant on commercial prosperity, any fiscal operations 
should be long continued with ease, vigor, and uniformity, without some 
such regulator as a power to issue and redeem Treasury notes, or to invest 
and sell the investment of surpluses. By any other course we shall con- 
stantly be exposed to great deficiencies, or excesses, with all their attendant 
embarrassments. If depositing the excesses with the States, subject to tit 
recalled to supply deficiencies, the pecuniary profit to the whole Union will 
be lio greater, while such a course may involve us in a series of vexatious 
demands on them, accompanied by various dan^rs both to them and the 
Qen^ra} Grovernment ; and, in the mean time, it is feared will, in many 
instances, tend to excite ex<;esses and evils similar to some of those under 
which die country is now suffering. 

V. ON THE SAFE-KEEnNG OF THE PUBLIC MONEY HERE- 
AFTER. 



f '■'■,. 



The arrangements for keepfllg the public money, which had been in suc- 
cessful operation for a few years piwMlks to the passage 6t the tliposite aet 
6f 1H36, became partially embarrassed by carrying into effect some of its 
provisions. But the enforcement of them all, where not entirely perfected, 
was in seasonable progress in May last, when the department was compel- 
led by the act to give notice to such of the selected banks as had suspended 
specie payments that they could no longer be considered as general depos- 
itories of the public moneys. (See circular, I.) 

A list is annexed of all befere employed in that capacity, which have 
been discontinued. (K.) 

After due inquiries to procure other depositories, in conformity to the act, 
the department has completed the appointment of only one. This, and 
feur more that have not suq)ended, with one that has resumed specie payr 
ments, (making six in all,) constitute the present bank depositories for gen- 
eral purposes. A schedule of them is added. (L.) 

Duriug the inability to <rf)tain specie-paying banks at other points, the 



[ 2 ] 10 

Treasurer, being required by the closing pari of the 8di section of the act, 
to keep and disburse the public money according to the laws before in force» 
has done it in conformity to the very wide discretion which existed when 
no rules were in force, that had been prescribed by Congress, except to 
<<keep" and^< disburse the same" under the general superintendence of the 
Secretary of the Treasury. A part of it has, therefore, been kept in special 
deposite in this city, a portion of it in the Mint, and the residue with the 
officers collecting it, until it was wanted for public purposes, or until it ac- 
cumulated in such sums at any point as not to be, probably, wanted there 
for such use, (See two circulars, M and N.) In the first case, it has, from 
time to time, been applied to the payment of creditors, by drafts on the re- 
ceivers or collectors ; and in the last, the excess has been directed to be 
temjx>rarily placed with banks not remotely situated, and in ^)ecial depoa- 
ite for safety, until wanted for expenditure elsewhere, or until some new 
legislation shall take place in relation to it. 

Under these circumstances, the department would respectfully suggest 
some provisions which may be more specific, and may be required for the 
safe-keeping and disbursing of the public moneys. 

In the present condition of the Government and the country, two systems 
are proposed, either of which, it is believed, may be practicable and adequate 
to the exigencies of the crisis. One is, an enlar^ment and adaptation 
of the system partially employed since the suspension of specie payments, 
so as to make it answer all necessary purposes. This could be effected 
merely by assigning to our existing officers and establishments some addi- 
tional duties. 

The Treasurer, at the seat of Government ; the Mint, with its branch at 
New Orleans, and another which has been contemplated, and is much need- 
ed at New York, for other purposes ; collectors of the customs, and receivers 
of money for the sales of land, as well as postmasters, might all be directed 
to keep in safety, not only the public money collected by them, but all ac- 
tually placed in their possession, by transfer or otherwise. As fiscal agents, 
they might, also, be required to pay over and transfer it for such public 
purposes as may be authorized by Congress, and under such regulations as 
the Treasury Department from time to time may prescribe. Indeed, the 
third section of the post office law of 1825, with the bond taken under it as 
to the agency of the postmasters, is, perhaps, alr^ad^siifficiently broad for 
that class of officers. At points like New Ywk, and a few others, where a 
likelihood exkjted that tl>e sums would permanently be large, but which, 
under a reduced revenue and expenditure, would seldom occur, authority 
might be given to appoint the clerks now acting as cashiers or tellers 
under the collectors and receivers, or other more suitable persons, to 
act as keepers and pay^masters of the public money. But they should be 
made independent of"^ the collectors and receivers, and placed under the 
like tenure of office, and under suitable bonds. Additional means of safety, 
and such additional but limited compensation to any of the above officers, 
might be provided as the increased risk and labor might render just ; but in 
only a few cases would these last be much augmented at any place. 

Taking the year 1834 as furnishing a specimen sufficiently large of the 
probable business in future connected with the general operations of the 
Treasury Department, but, of course, not including the separate establish- 
ment of the post office, the whole number of warrants issued in that year 
was a little under five thousand; and, though differing much in actual 



11 C^] 

tunonnt, averaging about $6,000 each. This would be less than twenty 
warrants a day, and hence would requii^e less than one per day to be paid 
in each of the twenty-six States. They differed, in fact, from four per day 
in this District, and two per day in New York, which were the highest 
numbers, to only one per week in several of the States. (See table P.) The 
business at each office daily, or even weekly, in making payments of the 
drads, would, therefore, be very little. If more than one araft issued on a 
warrant, the business would be increased in that proportion, unless the 
whole payments were reduced, as is probable, hereafter, to sixteen or seven- 
teen millions yearly. 

In regard to the risk, five n!^ilIions in the Treasury at any one time, if 
all placed in the hands of collectors, and receivers, would not, on an average, 
exceed $30,000 with each of the present number. 

But if the amount, besides one million in the Mint, was chiefly in the 
hands of half the present number, which would approach nearer to the 
probable result, the sum with each would still be less than most of the ex- 
isting bonds of receivers ; and when exceeding theirs, or those of the prin- 
cipal colleotors, the excess, in most cases, oould be readily prevented, or 
reduced, by being drawn out to pay creditors, or be conveniently transferred 
to the Treasurer of the United States, at the seat of Qovernment, or to the 
Mint and its branches. Until one of the latter is authorized at New Yorl^ 
the substitute before mentioned, of one of the present officers in the cus- 
toms there as an independent keeper and paymaster of the public money, 
could be adopted, and, if deemed prudent, be extended to any other similar 
place. 

In this mode, the present number of officers connected with the collec- 
tion and disbursement of the revenue throughout the United States need 
not be at all increased. Nor will it become necessary, except in a few cases, 
to augment their compensation. Twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year 
would probably cover the whole additional expense of every kind. 

The other system to which the attention and consideration of Congress 
are respectfully invited, is, a new or^nizatioh, by means of commissioners 
or receivers general, to gather the collections to more central points, and keep 
and disburse there a large portion of the public money, or such as could not 
be kept safely and expended conveniently in the hands of the collecting offi- 
cers. Such aJth^ o«|;ain9atipn might be at only three or four of the most im- 
portant points ; or it might be mi^ more extensive, and the number enlarged 
to eight or ten. This could be arrang^pdi/Mi atiUMential particufhosf substan- 
tially, in the manner which is now in very successful pnustice in some of the 
most enlightened and opulent Governments of Europe, and as was urgendy 
recommended by this department as early as 1790. (See extract O.) The 
only material difference need be, to pay out more of thei money near the 
places where it is collected, rather than first to transmit most of it to the seat 
of Government. This organization of fiscal agents would be advantageous 
as a separate establishment for this business alone, and as an independent 
check on most of those collecting the revenue. But it would require some 
addition to the present number of officers, and in the first instance would 
more increase the public expenses^ 

But the whole addition of principal officers need not exceed ten. 
Nor would the increased annual expense to the Government probably 
amount to over fifty or sixty thousand dollars, as the system would 
enable both the War and Navy Departments to dispense with several of 



[ft] 12 

their agents for making local disbursements. The danrfferof any losses will 
be nearly the same under both plans. It is impossible to conduct the af- 
fairs of Government, or the ordinary transactions of society, without trust 
and risk of some kind. But one great object, wherever pecuniary confi- 
dence is reposed, should always be to require the best ssifeguards wliich 
appear reasonable ; and in either of these sjrstems, as hereafter escplainecL 
the amount trusted can be more easily kept from becoming excessive, ana 
the hazard of losses, affecting the deposite agent by his lending or trading, 
be fully obviated, by the strict prohibition of both the latter, under severe 
penalties. 

Our direct losses from either collecting or deposite agents have always 
be^n comparatively small. Those by the former, it is believed, have not 
equalled those by the latter, though the latter, being banks, have usually in 
the end paid most of their deposites. The losses by the former are also sup- 
posed not to have exceeded one-fifth of those on th6 bonds of merchants for 
duties, and proKibly not one-eighth of those from the purchasers of public 
lands, under the credit system. 

Occasional and strict examinations of the money on hand, where large 
in amount, would furnish a strong safeguard beyond the character of the 
officer, and the property of himself and sureties, and which it might be 
provided should be made by a committee of Congress, or in any other 
mode deemed most eligible to constitute an effectual check. 

The plans which have been explained as to fiscal agents, are^suggested 
for consideration, under a belief that either is appropriate in the present 
posture of afiiiirs ; that they require but slight changes in our existing 
laws or usages; and, whatever objections can be adduced against them, wilJ, 
at the same time, be found to possess many signal advantages. 

They will not, so much as some other modes of keeping the public 
money, expose the Treasury to disappointments and delays, through a 
dangerous partnership of interest, or the use of that money for private or 
coryjorate purposes. As the vicissitudes of trade or speculation affect the 
persons who borrow from the public banking-depositories, the evil conlse- 
queiices must sometimes inevitably reach and embarrass the Treasury 
itself. Nor, on the other hand, will these modes, like our former one, 
cause frequent injury to those who, trading on thfe revenue of the Govern- 
ment, are subject to be most pressed to refund k;-#h<!R 4ettst able. It is 
believed, likewise, that the funds of (he^T^asury can be always more 
readily comttianded in a l€g&l cuf¥bif(eff, and the hopes of its creditors not 
defeated, nor its ftfth violated so often, if the money is not loaned out, 
either in full or in part, but, as in other countries, is retained in specie or 
its equivalent, and in the actual custody of officers exclusively fiscal. In 
other countries, the public money is believed to be seldom, if ever, charge- 
Able to the Treasurer, till it is either paid over on some draft, so that he 
can get credit for the payment^ (and which mode is practised somewhat in 
England, as well as here, and extensively in Prance,) or lodged, not 
in deposite in any bank, but in his own possession at the seat of Govern- 
ment. In the former mode, the systems now proposed, and especially the 
first one, would operate so as to aisburse at each point most of the public 
money collected near, and would thus enable the Treasury to command 
its resources with less delay; the money not being previously paid 
over at some distance, and to a separate set of agents, as has usuallv 
been the practice here in the use of banks ; nor much of it transportea 



13 [ti] 

inconveniently to the capital, as has usually been the practice elsewhere. 
This mode would thus possess one of the greatest excellenoes in any fiscal 
system; which is, to pay over quickest to the public creditor, and with the 
least official complexity, whatever is collected from the public debtor. 

Besides these advantages, others would be, that the money in the Treas- 
ury, under both of the plans submitted, can always be more easily kept 
down to moderate dimensions by reductions in the revenue, and by tempo- 
rary investments of an occasional surplus, as there will be no antagonist 
interest connected with it, wishins^ for loans and the usq of surpluses, and 
thus co-operating to prevent a reduction. 

The existing establishments and officers, whenever convenient, would be 
employed without a doable machinery or the organization of a new system 
of agents. Executive control would be diminished rather than increased 
by tnem, because any additional officers will be selected, not by the Presi- 
dent alone, nor the Treasury Department, as the banks now are, biit virtu- 
ally be designated by Congress, and the principal incumbents appointed by 
the consent of the Senate. They would also remove all ground for the 
objection sometimes urged against the former system, that the Executive 
alone exercises an extensive patronage and great moneyed influence through 
a host of bank presidents, directors, and stockholders, scattered through 
every section of the country, and selected without the assent or check of 
either House of Congress in any particular case, and making loans of the 
public money from considerations merely political or official. A very wide 
discretion will be thus restricted, and a prolific source of suspicion and im- 
putation of favoritism and partiality be entirely stopped. 

The officers, under the plans proposed, will likewise be amenable exclu- 
sively to the Geneiftl Government, and not be embarrassed, like the officers 
of the banks, by conflicting duties and interests in respect to the 
States; nor involved in those collisions, jealousies, and recriminations, ofleu 
attendant on that position. 

The independent and harmonious action of each Government in its ap- 
propriate sphere will thus be more fully secured. The local institutions, 
as a general principle, will be left to the care and uses of the several States 
which established them, without interference on th^ part of the General 
Government, and to b^ , regulated or discontinued, as deemed most useful, 
under tbetr o^n/^.t^ policies, and most conducive to the original 
purposes of their creation. Ho^ would any general moneyed corpora- 
tion, aside from the grave doubts wtii^A jM^jpt asti^ both its cpnttiUiliQnality. 
and general expediency, have been likely in such a crisis^as that of the war of 
181^, or perhaps that of the last spring, to have proved a much safer public 
depository than those local institutions. Though more convenient in form 
for fiscal purposes than they, and firee from some objections as to want of sym- 
metry and accountability which obtain against them, yet, if chartered on 
usnal principles, and judging fron% experience here as well as abroad, it 
must have failed, in a trial Uke those, to have sustained either our pecu- 
niary operations, or its o]wn, in strict good fiuth and in c|ue vigor. 

Without entering into details to illustrate this position^ it is necessary to 
notice only the single cireumslanoe, that the Bank of iEJngland, during 
a severe war, suspended specie pajrmratB near a quarter of a century, 
and that neither of the two United States Bank^ existed so as to be 
obliged to encounter su^ a per^. But sinee the last spring, the notes of the 
second one, to the wpQom^ci several millions, have been allowed to sink 



[23 



14 



into the mass of irredeemable and depreciated pap^r, though issued under 
all the high securities and sanctions of a charter from the Ueneral Govern- 
ment, and with very large fiinds, still under the control of officers and trus- 
tees deemed by the stockholders exceedingly skilful, and bound by both 
law and contract to redeem those notes in specie, and on demand. 

The systems which have been proposed in this report, if adopted, could 
not be expected to continue entirely exempt from losses by that unfaithful- 
ness or casualty to which all trusts in human affairs are exposed. But they 
may be surrounded with strong safeguards, and would very probably soon 
be enabled to answer in a satisfactory manner every purpose of the Gov- 
ernment, in its condition so different in many respects irom that which for- 
merly existed, and which was the paramount cause urged for the incorpo- 
ration of our two former United States Banks. Its finances are not now 
burdened with a national debt of from seventy to one hundred and thirty 
millions, and, besides our ordinary expenses, with the annual payment, on 
account of principal and interest, of from ten to sixteen millions, to be first 
widely collected, and then transferred and disbursed at only a few points on 
the seaboard. It is now with a yearly revenue, reduced from thirty and 
forty millions to near twenty, and probably soon to be only sixteen or sev- 
enteen, and with a course of expenditure which can readily be diminished 
so as not much, if any, to exceed the revenue in a natural state of business. 
In large sections of our country, and in such a state of business, this expen- 
diture happens nearly and very conveniently to correspond in amount with 
the receipts in the same sections. 

We are, likewise, reposing in peace, with very superior means of com- 
munication, whether by mail or personal intercourse, and with a greatly 
increased and increasing portion of gold in the currency, to render distant 
transfers and payments more easy. It is manifest, therefore, that our fiscal 
concerns will be greatly lessened in amount as well as dilfficulty, unless we 
shall be visited by wars or other scourges involving us in debts and em- 
barrassments of an aggravated character, and which, fortunately, no sufll- 
cient reason appears for anticipating at an early day. 

Under the proposed arrangements, the transfers from certain points could 
be o(\en effected, when required by the department for public purposes, not 
only with easjB, but so as greatly to facilitate the domestic exchanges^ in 
the mode of employing drafts suggested in a subseqaent portion of thid 
report. In a more natural and ordinary jUBfle of receipts and expenditures, 
like thtftt in 1834, the trailers f ^ ^MM i ed to a great distance would not ex- 
ceed two or three millions during the year ; and almost the whole of them 
were, at that time, in such a direction as to yield a profit, rather than be 
expensive to the banks which made them. 

If the Treasurer were required to receive payment in advance, at certain 
convenient points, for all lands sold, as has once been the construction of 
the iBict of 1820, the probability is, that very soon all the nn&vorable trans- 
feirs rendered necessary would become quite unimportant in amount, and 
less expensive than the transportation of specie and paper has been heretofore, 
firom the distant land offices to the nearest deposite banks, before much of it 
was paid to the public creditors. It will be seen that, by these modes of 
keeping the public money, it would not be indispensable to employ any 
banks as a prescribed part of the system, although it might sometimes be 
convenient to use them as individuals do, and as subordinate fiscal officer? 
often do, in other countries, for the deposite and transfer of large sums, and 



15 [2] 

particularly for special deposites, when looking merely to safety and an early 
occasion to use the money. 

No act of Congress, until the charter of the last Bank of the United 
States in 1816, required the public money in the Treasury to be kept on 
deposite in any bank whatever. The whole subject was left to the discre- 
tion of this department. Even that charter permitted the Secretary of the 
Treasury to remove the deposites from the Bank of the United States, when 
hp thought proper. 

In the supplemental report from this department, in 1834, on the keeping 
and disbursing of the public money, a state of things Uke the present y^as 
adverted to and considered. It was observed, in regard to such an occur- 
rence, that it will then '< become necessary to devolve these duties on some 
receiver or collector already in office, or on some safe agent not now in 
office, as has been the practice for years in this country in paying pensions 
at convenient places, near which there was no State bank or branch of the 
United States Bank, and as has long been the usage in sbme countries of 
Europe, by having the revenue in certain districts chiefly received, kept, 
iind transmitted through private agents and brokers,*^ 

But it was added, that '< though the fiscal operations of the Government 
could, undoDbtedly, still proceed through the personal a^ncies before men- 
tioned," and without any banks. State or national ; yet '< it would be at some 
inconvenience and increase of expense, unless remedied in a manner that 
may hereafter be developed, and would not, in the opinion of this depart- 
mei^t, and in the present condition of things, be so eligible a system as the 
present one ; becausis banks, though expo^ to some dangers and evils, 
and though not believ^ to be necessary for the fiscal purposes of any Grov- 
emment, and much less of one in the present happy financial situation ot 
ours, are frankly acknowledged to be, in many respects, a class of agents 
economical, convenient, and useful." 

The use of State banks had then been adopted, and was proceeding sat- 
isfactorily. For more than two years after, it continued to he in successful 
operation, so far as regarded both convenience and safety. But now, most ot 
the State banks have ceased to pay specie even for their own notes, and 
many have paid out, if not issued, small bills, so as not to be in a situation 
either to be retained or to become fiscal agents, in conformity to the requi- 
siffohs of th^ deposite act. A few others, who are in a legal situation to be 
selected, decline to receive tkd public money under some of the conditions 
prescribed by the act. 

Nor is any national bank in existence, or, independent of its inexpe- 
diency in a political view, supposed to be capable of being established 
constitutionally. Hence it is respectfully submitted to Congress, under all 
the above considerations, whether the early adoption of one of the plans 
proposed is not proper, and would not h6 highly conducive to the public 
interests; 

VI. SETTLEMENT WITH THE FORMER DEPOSITE BANKS. 

Another subject that appears to require the early action of Ck>ngress is, 
the further indulgence wnich it may be proper to extend to such of the 
former deposite banks as are still indebted to the United States. 

The &cts which are supposed to be necessary to aid ^Conrress in forming a 
correct decision on this subject will be iiilly submitted^ The perils to whu^h 



[ a ) 16 

those banks were exposed bad caused to tbe department muoh solicitude ibr 
several months before the suspension of specie paymentSi and led to some 
precautionary suggestions which it felt bound, to make to them, so far. as 
appeared consistent with the usual principles of banking in this country, 
and not calculated, by creating sudden alarm, to hasten the catastrophe 
hat has since happened. 

Besides the general cautions with respect to the excesses of bank issues, 
and the dangerous consequences Ukely to ensue, which were detailed in 
the last annual Treasury report, several instances occurred where the 
course of the business of some of the depositories appearing from their re- 
turns to be injudicious, special letters of advice were deemed proper, and 
were written. A rigid system in requiring additional specie was also pur- 
sued in all cases oi* unusual deficiency. In reeurd to the effect of these 
steps on the banks, it affords the undersign^ pleasure to^add, that, from 
the completion of their selection after the deposite act passed, to the 
last returns before their suspension, a great reduction in the circulation, 
as well as discounts of many of them, had taken place, and, in several cases, 
a much larger proportion of specie was kept on hand. Indeed, consider- 
ing the extraordinary amount of public money paid out by them between 
last November and May, amounting to near twenty millions more than their 
receipts during the same period, it is a fact highly creditable to their pru- 
dence and abiUty, that the specie of all was reduced only from about 
fifteen to thirteen miUions, and their circulation, instead of increasing, 
fell from near forty-one to thirty-seven millions. 

As a whole, their specie, compared with their circulation, continued to be 
almost as large in May as in November. It averaged more than one to 
three, or much more than has been customary with the banks in this 
country, and was over double the relative quantity held by all the banks 
in England at the same period, and was in a proportion one-fourth larger 
than that in the Bank of England itself. Their immediate means, com- 
pared with their immediate liabilities, were somewhat stron^r in Novemr 
l)er than in May, but were at both periods nearly 1 to 2 J, or greater than 
the usual ratio, in the best times, of most banks which have a large amount 
of deposites in possession. i(See table Q.) 

In this condition of things, the suspension of specie payment by the 
deposite banks was an event not generally anticipated. - v 

The policy since pursued by most of tbena has been favorable to an 
early discharge of their engageiODnts to the Treasury, and to a resumption 
of spt»cie payments. Many have gradually reduced their discounts and cir- 
culation, as well as paid over much of the public deposites. This may be 
more fully seen in the tables annexed. (Statement of a few heads of con- 
dition in November, March, July, May, and August— see €1.) Since the Ist 
of May, their discounts, as a whole, have been reduced about $20,388,776, 
their circulation $4,991,791, and their public deposites $16,607,316; xAiile 
their specie has diminished less than $3,000,000. Of the number of eighty- 
six banks emplo]red at the time of the su^spension, ten or eleven are sup- 
posed to have paid over all the public money which was then in their pos- 
session, to the credit of the Treasurer. In the custody of more than bdf the 
others, an aggregate of less than $700,000 remains unadjusted. Several of 
the rest still possess large sums ; but many of them have continued promptly 
to furnish such payments from time to time, for meeting the public necessi- 
ties thi4, accord^g to the last weekly stalement, the whole balance to * * 



17 [3] 

credit remaining unpaid in all of them, was only $12,418,041. The 
amount thus retained by each, may be seen in the schedule annexed. (R.) 

The course adopted in respect to the deposites of disbursing officers, after 
the suspension of speciejpayments, and with a view to safety, as well as to 
encourage the early resumption of such payments, may be seen more fully 
in the document annexed. (See circular, S.) 

It was considered proper to proceed, and attempt to withdraw all the pub- 
lic money from the discontinued agents, as fast as it was wanted for public 
purposes, and as new and suitable depositories could be procured to receive 
any thing obtainable beyond such amount. But while the former agents 
appeared to be secure, and to be making proper efforts to meet such calls, it 
seemed more conducive to the eventual safety of the money, and more con- 
sistent with true wisdom, as well as the convenience of the Treasury, to 
refrain from unnecessary prosecutions and costs till the early session of 
Congress, which had been called, in part, for the consideration of this sub- 
ject. On the contrary, when any of the banks persisted in neglectins: ^o Ptir- 
sne the prudent coursie of curtailment, and in making no reasonable efforts 
to discharge the drafts on them in an acceptable manner, the depanment 
considered it a duty, however unpleasant, to deliver their agreements and 
bonds to the Solicitor of the Treasury for suit. This has already been done 
in nine cases ; in some as a matter of precaution, to obtain additional security 
beyond what had been given ; and in others, to take the preliminary steps 
for an action against the sureties as well as the principals. 

Some of the additional banks, rendered necessary to carry into effect one 
of the provisions of the late deposite act, have, on this occasion, proved the 
least protnpt and efficient in meeting their obligations. But though the losses 
of a few may be severe, and considerable delay may arise in discharging 
their engagements; and though it has been proper, and has evinced a com- 
mendable state of moral feeling in many of them, to strike at the root of the 
present excesses in paper, by curtailing largely both their issues and dis- 
counts, and thereby to make serious sacrifices ; yet the condition of them all 
appears to be such as will, with the collateral security taken in most cases, 
render the United States probably safe against any ultimate loss. Con- 
sidering the wide-spread pressure of the times, #hich had involved some of 
the banks, as well as their debtors, in extraordinary embarrassments; and 
thattb^ pQblie money, as a general rule, had previously been called from 
them only in moderate sumsfas needed for expenditure and transfer, it was 
not to be expected that several of 'them ^jroura'be able to pay-Over at once, 
and in specie, the whole of the large amount then in theii' possession. 

More especially was this not to he expected, when, from the great accu- 
mulation of deposites, the specie of all of them at the time of the sus^ 
pension, as well as for many months before, though larger than the propor- 
tion held by most other banks, did not equal, and could not, without making 
a sudden and great change in the practice under our whole banking sys- 
tem, equal one-half of their indebtedness to the Government alone. It is 
presumed that a considerable portion of the money since, as wdl as for- 
merly, paid by the banks on transfers and drafts, has not been demanded 
nor paid in specie. 

But no persons hav^ been required to accept any thing' else, nor, accord^ 
ing to the views of the undA^igned, could they be, without a violation of 
biw and sound policy. 

2 



C^3 i« 

The drafts oi the Treasurer for debts, when drawn on banks and not dis- 
charged on presentment, have, under instructions from this department, been 
often taken up in its behalf by the collectors and receivers, in onler as much as 
possible to relieve the public creditor from delay and loss. (See F, and cir- 
cular instructions, T.) New drafts, when the first ones were not pjaid in 
an acceptable manner, have also in some cases been given on other depos- 
itories, and have helped to promote satisfactory adjustments. 

Since the discontinuance of most of the banks as depositories, this de- 
partment has also found the use of drafts made directly on receivers and 
collectors very acceptable to the public creditors; and by the specie for- 
tunately then on hand, and since collected by the receivers, with a part of 
what was before in the Mint, and some occasionally supplied by a few of 
the banks and collectors, a large amount of claims has been paid, and 
the Treasury is ready to pay others, so far as practicable, at points and in a 
manner convenient to many. But, till the indebted banks resume specie 
payments, or increased collections can be made in specie of what is due from 
tliem and from the merchants, it must be obvious that the department, 
however anxious to pay all the public creditors and officers ]n specici 
when demanded, is unable to accomphsh so. desirable an object 

This is one of the evils incident to the existing state of the moneyed con- 
cerns of the country, and which cannot be remedied unless Congress 
furnish additional means, until specie payments are generally resumed. 
Some intermediate losses, by a depreciation of bank notes, must, therefore, 
£)il on those, whether creditors or officers of the Government, who consent 
tc* take them rather than submit to delays in payment. 

Hence it seems highly reasonable that the GQvernment should hasten, as 
^ist as possible, the restoration of specie payments, at least by its former 
nscal agents who wre still in its debt. 

This would put an end to such losses. It also seems proper that those 
deposite banks, which have not generally answered the demands on them, , 
but have continued to receive full interest on the deposites they had loaned 
out, should be required to pay it on the sums still retained, and from the 
periods when they failed to fulfil their obligations to the Treasury. It is 
ipanifest that; the members 4»f Congress, coming from every section of the 
eountry, would be the best judges of what further lenity or severity might 
properly be exercised towards them, and, knowing more, iutimat^ly tb&catisei^ 
ana consequences of the suspension of specie payments t)y the banks in 
their respect,ive neighborhopdpr Ca^ deci^ with greater accuracy whether 
any indulgence c'9uldT hferreafter be extended to them appropriately, except 
01^ the jcondition of an early resumption of specie payments, and an allow- 
ance of interest during any delay in meeting their fiscal engagements. 
With the me^s of information possessed bv the undersigned, he does not 
hesitate to express an opinion, that it should not be done without a compli"* 
ance with sqch conditions. As further evidence of the ability of most of 
them on this subject, it will be neces^ry only to advert to the abstract of 
their la^t retui^s, w^icb has bec^ previously annexed. 

From th^ naode of 4oing business in the southwest, by m^ng much of 
their circulation not redeemable at home, but at distant points, and provid- 
ing for it th^re by biUs qi oxchang^, (sp^any of wbiot^ during the past 
fl^asop), have failed to be paid,) t^e sHu^tion o^several of the \x\nks there i^ 
least eligible not only for an early resumption of specie paynoents, but fof ^ 
spoody and satis&ctory adjustment of their debts to ^e Government. But 



19 t ^ i 

in the western, and probably in the eastern and middle States, if not else- 
where, the ability to sustain such payments appears, by their returnsji 
much greater than has been customary in this country. Their specie, com: 
pared with their circulation, is as one to two, and one to three; and their ini- 
mediate means, compared with their immediate h'abilities, are over one to 
three. Hence it has been hoped that the efforts which the banks were boun4 
to make would lead, in most places, to the desirable events above mentioned, 
without very long delay.— (See circular, V.) The objection usually urged 
against an early resumption, that the unfavorable balance of trade against this 
country would, in that event, cause some of the specie in the banks to be 
drawn out and shipped, will, however true in point of fact, possess much 
less force when it is considered that the delay hitherto has not preventecl 
the export of specie. On the contrary, considerable sums, which were in 
ordinary circulation, have, since the suspension, been withdrawn, and a 
portion of them sent abroad, while their place is badly supplied with depre- 
ciated paper. So happily adjusted, however, are the laws of trade, even in 
their influence on the precious metals, that while our custom-house books 
show an export since the 15th of May last, chiefly to England and France^ 
of $3,708,320 of specie, they show during (he same time imports, chiefly 
from other quarters, of $3,140,020. Though the actual imports and ex* 
ports have both doubtless exceeded those amounts since that period, and the 
ratio of diflerence has been somewhat greater, yet the total drain has been 
much less than many have imagined, and produced less effect on the gen- 
eral ability of the country and the banks to have specie payments resumed 
and successfully sustained. Congress having power to pass a bankrupt 
iaw, it would be worthy of consideration, if the power be ever exercised, 
whether all banks, and in any event, as recommended by Mr. Dallas and 
Mr. Crawford, all employed by the Treasury, should not be subjected to its 
provisions, and, on any important and deUbera^e failure in their pecuniary 
duties, be compelled at once to close their concerns. 

In respect to the banks in the District o{ Columbia, as well as others con- ' 
nected with the General Government, it seems desirable that the measures ^ 
adopted in relation to them, by Cong^ress, should have a strong tendency td ' 
encourage the earliest resumption of specie payments which is practicable 
and safe. For this purpose, littl^doubt can exist, that while those measures 
*willW'lhe most Military whicl? shall evince a due liberality and forbear- 
ance to the extent really reqirired by the crisis, they should, beyond that 
be rigorous in exacting tAe adoption of such steps as are sanctionea 
by the sound principles of currency and the public faith. They wiU 
then help, at an early day, to relieve the community, as well as the Treasu- 
ry, from a condition of the circulating medium, which, so far as it consist^ 
of bank paper irredeemable in specie, is one of the worst scourges which 
can be inflicted On society. It is no less hostile to the best m^ms of por 
litical economy, thail usually subversive of every just sense of both' moral • 
and legat obligation. 

« 

VHi ON THE MONEY RECEIVABLE FOR PUBLIC DtJES. 

The kind cft vaxm^y or currency receivable for public dues, is aitothej 
eDol»rra«iiienr,c0nceniing Which legMcrtioh h^ been deemed i^kx>^r b^ 
manyt Aicimig^ W' itM e^Etttidg^ prftdiee hao bten re(|iiMt^ % oiheri^ 



[23 so 

tfithout l^'slation. But, since the suspension of ^cie payn^nts by the 
t^nks, no change, which should sanction the receipt of bank paper not re- 
deemable in specie, has been thought either prudent or permissible by 
this department. Nor will such an one be adopted without jthe express direc-, 
tion of Congress. (See F 1 and 2,) 

Believing that specie is the best standard, and the only one contem- 
plated by the constitution, for the public revenue and expenditures, as 
well as for the value of contracts and property, every departure from it for 
Uiose purposes is deemed by the undersigned pernicious, if not unconstitu- 
tional. The question as to the expediency of using any other medium for 
a currency, is of a different character, and more complicated. But the 
ruinous consequences of a resort to continental money, bills of credit, or 
any species of paper not redeemable in specie, and which had been de- 
veloped in our own experience, as well as in the soundest theories of 
political economy, were undoubtedly a principal cause for those rigid pro- 
visions in the constitution connected with the currency. They restrict any 
State from issuing mere '< bills of credit,^ from making any thin^ a tender 
"except gold and silver," or passing jiny law "impairing the obligation of 
coinlracts," as well as confine to Congress, alone, the power " to coin money'' 
and " regulate the value thereof." The exercise of this last power, mani- 
festly relating only to metallic money, appears to require merely the coinage 
of a sufficient supply at the Mint, and in convenient denominations for all 
necessary purposes, and of such an intrinsic value, as, while preventing it 
from bein^ depreciated on the one hand, should, on the other, not be so 
underrated as to cause it to be too readily exported, or melted down for 
use in manufactures. 

The whole amount necessary for public payments has been much mis- 
apprehended. Without a surplus in the Treasury, it would seldom exceed 
eight or ten millions of dollars, even if no evidences of debt, or any kind of 
paper money, were receivabK Like a running stream, the coin which 
flows in as constantly flows <)ut, without much accumulation ; one 
dollar helping to perform, in a sinrie year, the service of payment and re- 
payment numerous times. Indeed, ^e people of the whole United States 
do not, in a sound state of business aqd prices, need over one hundr^ 
and ten millions of an active circulating medium for all their currency. 
This would be a larger proportion of cuxrency to our present pojMiIatlwi, 
than the average has been from the adopti^ of the constitution ; and, if 
an exclusive metallic currency 4»uld be decided desirable, would require 
CWiy about thirty millions more than the specie which is supposed now, to 
exist in the country. But the present quantity of specie being divided 
pretty equally between the banks and individuals, no^t half of it is in active 
circulation ; and, unless it becomes increased, and mtich more equally dif- 
fiised, sortie paper is, of course, necessary to prevent a sudden revulsion in 
prices and values, and to supply a sufficient circulating medium for the 
legitimate purposes of the States and the people. Some paper will, probably* 
always be found convenient for commercial operations. It would, therefore' 
be invidious, .if not unauthorized, for the General Government to deprive' 
the States of any supposed advantage in the use of it, so far and so long as 
they may deem proper, or otherwise to interfere with their course, in rela- 
tion to it| except to enforce the present constitutional prohibition against 
issuing any bills of credit^ or making any thin^ a tender except g^d and 
nlver. Care, however, must be em^oyedi incidentally, to avert, as far as 



21 [21 

possible, any evil iufluences which might otherwise be exercised over our 
own fiscal operations by the different local policies pursuei on a subject of 
so much delicacy, hazard, and difficulty. 

The power which Congress may possess to legislate, with a view of fur- 
nishing a paper currency of any kind for the ordinary uses of the commu- 
nity, or of regulating, in any way, domestic exchanges, is not entirely clear, 
nor well defined. Whatever may be its just extent, it seems seldom, if ever, 
necessary to be used, while the States retain such a wide and undisputed 
authority over banking; and while the local institutions, as well as private 
bankers, here no less than abroad, are sfenerally so competent to effect ex- 
changes. Such a power is not expressly conferred in the constitution, nor 
does It seem to be implied, unless, in the execution pf some plain grants, it 
may become proper to be exerted on any emergency, and without using 
means otherwise forbidden, unwarrantable, or inexpedient. 

In regard to exchanges, it is believed that seldom, if ever, has any Gov- 
ernment, however unlimited its authority, considered it wise to prescribe 
special regulations for effecting them. Such a Government might well feel 
empowered " to regulate commerce with foreign nations," or between its 
own States, if it had any; but to regulate exchanges between individuals, 
would, in most castis, be justly deemed arbitrary. On the contrary, the 
sound principles of trade seem to require as little interference as possible 
with fixing the price of commodities, or tlie mode and medium through 
which they shall be interchanged. Those principles would only yield 
adequate protection or security, ftirnish facilities appropriate and author- 
ized, and establish a good standard of value. Indeed, the balances of in- 
debtedness between different sections of the country, if left to work out their 
natural consequences on the rate of exchanges, w;ill usually, as they are 
now doing, correct excesses in business in any quarter, and be self-regu- 
lators, far superior to any officious and minute legislation. The rate merely 
for exchanges can seldom exceed the expense of tran^orting specie be- 
tween any two places ; and, if surpassing that, the excess must arise from 
what government has little power to cure — that is, from the difficulty 
in obtaining money where indebtedness, is great, interest high, and credit 
impaired. 

^ lu. regard to the currency which is most suitable for public purposes, 
whatever may be the authority of the General Government to make or 
adopt a paper one in full or in part, it is d,ifficult to perceive why, after 
having established specie as a standard, having ibxbidden any thing eim 
to be made a tender, and having succeeded in encouraging the introduce 
lion of a supply of k into the country, very ample for all fiscal purposeSy 
it should expressly dispense with its employment as the most usual medium 
for those purposes. The fundamental acts of Congress as to the payments 
for duties and lands have not made any exceptions in its use, or provided 
any substitutes, except the "evidences of the public debt" Any excep- 
tions allowed ought certainly never to permit any thing, except specie, to 
be paid out as a rightful tenoer by the United States ; and this principle has 
been always strictly observed. But by constructions adopted early in this 
department, and, subsequently, by the charters to the two Unitai States 
Banks, as well as by an apparent sanction in the joint resolution of 181(ii, 
different substitutes of notes issued by those and State banks have, at differ- 
ent times and under different modifications, been permitted to be received in 
payment These, however, have been allowed only when regarded as a dear 



([ a ] 29 

equivalent to specie, by being readily conrertible into it, and by bein^ m- 
commended by some superior convenience or utility, as well as by great 
security. As specie likewise combines safety, uniformity, general tise^ 
sound theory, and almost universal experience in favor of its common em- 
bloyment, the framers of the constitution doubtless believed, as has been 
the uniform practice since, that all substitutes of paper, as they have less 
intrinsic value, though they often, by smaller weight or bulk, possess some 
qualities of greater convenience for certain uses, should never be permitted 
^o be forced on either the Government or the community without their ex- 
press consent. As they depend also on credit for their worth, it must be 
bad policy to countenance them for either public or private use, where their 
credit does not rest on undoubted security, or to encourage such small de- 
nominations of them as would be employed by those classes in society 
whose bosincss is of a kind which cannot be essentially piomoled by the 
substitutes ; whose profit is little or nothing derived from them ; and whose 
losses, where depreciations ocevr, cannot be borne without distress. 

Another general objection to every substitute not resting on an equal 
amount of specie in pledge to redeem it, which was the original idea of a 
bank of issue, is, that it tends to dispense with the necessity of specie, in 
connexion with the currency, and thus, by converting more of it into an 
article of trade, expel it from the country } while a circulating medium is 
introduced instead of it, which is usually less safe, and often tempts to 
niinous expansions in issues as well as business, so as to cause great fluc- 
tuations in prices^ unsettle the value of property and comtracts^ and some- 
times strip from honest industry, in a moment, the hard earnings of years. 

i3esides these, a special difficulty, in the use of any other substitute for 
public purposes, is the procrastination, disappointment, and embarrassment 
which, in ease of its depreciation, are sometimes occasioned by it to great 
national measures, as well as the discredit thus cast upon the wisdom of 
the Government, for regulating its fiscal afiairs in such a manner as to be 
unable to discharge punctually its engagements, aud for the exhibition of 
an example so mischievous to both individuals and nations. Another dif- 
ficulty in this country is the want of equal value, at different places, in any 
other, when compared with the standard of specie, and the virtaai viola- 
tion which its receipt for duties may thus cause of the spirit of that part of 
the constitution requirmg all imposts to be " uniform.'' Nor can these twt> 
last difiiculties be always entirely overcome by the use of siich paper, or any 
other, though redeemed in specie, and on demand, if it be taken at a distance 
'from the place of its ledemption. But, in the administration of our fiscal 
concerns, it has always been very desirable to avoid the want of uniformilyy 
and the delay or expense, and sometimes the loss incident to the receipt for 
lands or duties of such notes if redeemable at a distance, and which then 
would sometimes occur before they could be converted into specie, or such 
money as the public creditor was bound or willing to accept. In order, 
therefore, to prevent those injurious consequences, one mode has been to 
accept no State bank notes whatever for public dues, as is now, and some- 
times heretofore was, the practice in respect to lands. Another has been, 
to permit none to be taken except snch as, under permission of the Trea- 
sury Department, the collecting olHcers or the public depositories were 
willing at once to credit as specie. 

In our early operations, for purposes of facilitating remittances to the 



u ti3 

Treasury, c|uite as nHtch as fof accommodation to others, collectors 
l^ere instructed to teceive certain State bank notes, payable near the 
seat of Government, and which were to be credited as cash when for- 
warded by mail, or otherwise, to the Treasurer. (See circular, 1789, H.) 
The justification offered for this course may be seen in a report from this 
d|fepartment in April, 1790, (H 2.) The situation of the country, however, 
as to ease in communication, facility in exchanges, and the nearer location 
of many points of collection to those of expenditures, has [Since undergone 
such great improvements, as for a long time to have rendered the receipt 
of notes to aid in public transfers seldom necessary, and almost entirely 
disused. Another mode adopted by Congress has been, to render the re- 
oeipts of the notes of State banks, for any purpose less material, by pro- 
viding thos6 of a bank chartered by the General Government, and making 
these last, by law, receivable for all public dues. But this mode has 
ceased ; and the legality as well as sound policy of the practice to receive 
the notes of State banks for any public daes, whether done with a view 
to fiscal or general convenience, and though under all the strict limitations 
before mentioned, has been questioned by some. Others have considered 
any limitation whatever, by either the Executive or this department, as not 
justifiable since the joint resolution of 1816. It is, therefore, respectfully 
sug^sted, that a strong propriety exists for Congress to legislate niore ex- 
plicitly on the wh<4e subject. 

It may be proper and useful to add, that, as most of the duties on 
imposts have been discharged in checks on the bank where the bonds 
were deposited for collection, or in its own notes, and seldom in those 
of banks at any distance, little embarrassment has ever arisen concern- 
ing the pajrments for duties in bank notes. But, in taking them for 
lands, the remote situation of the purchasers, the receivers, ana the banks, 
has generally been such that frequent difficulties and changes in practice 
have occurred during the period while the United States Bank and its 
branches, as well as the State banks, were employed as depositories. In 
our mixed system of a currency, and one so long and so deeply interwoven 
with the business of the country, it was very inconvenient entirely to avoid, 
and at the same time occasionally dangerous to pernnit, taking the bills of 
any State bank' for lands; and the receipt of such notes was obliged to be 
Wlmf'9& teHmcted as to prove of little convenience to the community, or a 
risk was incurred of many partial arrangements being made, and some ulti- 
mate injuries sustained by the Treasury: ' 

Under all these circumstances, the course lea^iisUe to strong objections 
appears to be for Congress to prescribe some specific regulations on the 
whole subject. 

This could be effected by directing what alone appears safe, and what is 
understood to be the practice in both England and France. It is, that 
the bills of no local banks be taken, which shall not, from the near location 
of the bank, be equivalent to specie ; be able to be converted into specie at 
very short periods by the receivers and collectors, so as to pay the public 
creditors legally, if demanding specie ; and be thus accounted for at par, 
and without expense to the Government. Another advantage from this 
course would be, its salutary check on over-issues by the neighboring 
banks. 

The occasional convenience of a sound paper currency for various 
purposes, whether national or individual, such as large payments, distant 



[ 2 ] S4 

remittances, exchanges, or trayelling, is highly valued by some, and, whete 
sold does not circulate, is often very considerable. But the difficulties in 
keeping it sound, the hazards and looses incident to its use, apd which 
have already been explained, are troublesoma Should Confess, deter- 
mine that it is proper to furnish by its own authority, and for tne purposes 
before mentioned, some paper medium, of higher character and other than 
what now exists, in private bills of exchange or notes of State banks, no 
doubt exists that any beqefits which may occasionally be derived from its 
employment can be readily secured, without treading on the debatable 
ground of either the power or the policy of chartering a national bank. 

Certificates, not on interest, but payable in specie to bearer or order, as 
well as being receivable for all public aues, could be authorized to be efiven 
in payment to the public creditor, whenever preferred by him, and sufficient 
specie existed in the Treasury. This kind of paper would be very con- 
venient in form, and would differ little from the drafts now in use on 
banks, except beins drawn on a known specie fund, and expressing on its 
face not only this, but its beip§^ receivable in the first instance for all public 
dues. It would possess the highest credit attainable in society. 

As a practical illustration of their probable utility and convenience, evcQ 
the drafts, though exposed to several disadvantages which would not exist 
with the certificates, are near the par of specie, and furnish such facilities 
for large payments and distant remittances thajt the amount of them, on 
botli b^ks and collecting officers, kept out unreturned, has increased with- 
in a few months from the usual aggregate of about two millions to nearly 
four and a half millions. 

If the demand for such paper increased, public and private convenience 
might be promoted, and an equal quantity of specie at the same time pre- 
served in the country, by reserving for this purpose, from any accumula- 
tion in the Treasury, a sufficient sum, and by placing it at a few important 
and convenient points, to render a greater number of certificates r^eemable 
there with the very coin, whose representative they are intended, and hon- 
estly ought to be. 

All the advantages of these certificates could thus be furnished, by merely 
faying them out to the puolic creditor, when more desirable to him than 
specie. But no loans of them appear advisable, nor any bank incorpora- 
tion, bank officers, or bank machinery whatever, in conne;^i<m with Hk^ 
subject. They would combine the most important requisites appertaining to 
any paper currency — such as the greatest security, an entire specie basis, and 
tbe unity of all issuea ia one &dy ; while the control over these last, 
which it is so very desirable to preserve independent, would be placed and 
regulated by law, so as to prevent any interested or injurious excesses. The 
whole risk would be the loss by casualty or unfaithfulness of any of the 
specie that was held to redeem the paper, and which, as well as the ex- 
penses, would probably be in part remunerated by the loss of certificates 
^before they are returned. If the residue of the expense should constitute 
any considerable objection to the system, it could bo fully obviated by a 
moderate and fixed premium for the certificates, either when issued or 
redeemed. 

The conmion drafts of this department, in their present coavenient form, 
possess another advantage, which would sometimes be imparted to the cer- 
tificates. When used at places against which the balance of trade exists, 
but drawn on places in whose favor it is, the former do now, and may 



w [a] 

hereafter, not only facSitate essentially the domestic exchanges, but, at the 
same time, supersede numerous bank transfers, and the more expensive 
transportation of specie itself. 

The Mint certificates, heretofore given on the deposito of bullion and 
specie, for coinase mi^ht easily he made running to bearer or order, and 
receivable for all public dues ; and, in that way, would contribute to the 
same desirable ends. 

The present branches of the Mint, if not numerous enough, nor situated 
at convenient places for the receipt of specie and bullion for this purpose, 
might be aided by two or three agencies, instead of more expensive new 
branches, at points favorable to the interests of the Mint and of the com- 
munity. 

It must be obvious that the paper of any bank will be less safe and use- 
ful in being received for pu|;>lic dues, in proportion as it may want such 
solid securities and foundations as the certificates before described. But if 
the notes of State banks are made receivable for such dues, under certain 
limitations like those which have been explained, the other most desirable 
guaranties for their safety, whether looking to any use of them by the Gen- 
eral Qovemment, or to the durable interests of the States themselves, seem 
tb be for the latter, first, to impose on the existing banks, so far as lawful, 
the checks mentioned in a subsequent part of this communication. They 
could next authorize very few banks hereafter, except those of mere dis- 
count and deposite; and where the power of making paper issues to pass 
as money is added — a power so sovereign in its character, and so indis- 
pensable to be vigilantly guarded, could require a large proportion of 
specie to the circulation and deposites to be kept on hand, and, in addition, 
have the faith and security of the State pleclged to indemnify the com- 
munity, as, in the case of the above named certificates, would be pledged 
tliose of the General Government. This would greatly increase the cau- 
tion and watchfulness of all concerned, and could be done by special laws 
for that purpose, or by allowing no new banks hereafter, except State banks 
so organized, or by requiring State stocks to be owned by all the banks, 
and lodged in trust to the extent necessary, with the specie on hand, to se- 
cure the immediate redemption of all the bills issued, and all the deposites 
payable on demand. Another kind of security beyond what now sfenerally 
exkrta, WDulA^, never to permit deposites to be received, payaUe on de- 
mand in specie, (a practice «o very dangerous to the bill-holders,) except 
in the case of special deposites kept for a nKiderate compensation. The 
only other description of security which is likely to prove in any degre^ 
efficient, seems to be of a penal character, either by extending the provi- 
sions of a bankrupt law to all banks as before suggested in respect to such 
as may be fiscal agents, or by allowing all depositors, public or private, and 
all bill-holders, not only a large interest, but severe prosecutions against 
the directors after any deliberate omission by banks to discharge their du- 
ties in the manner provided in their charters and contracts. The para- 
mount object in all such provisions should, of course, be to guard against 
abuses, and reform existing evils, though, in some instances, the case may 
have become so desperate as to require even amputation to save life. 
Every thing else concerning bank paper is supposed to belong to the wis- 
dom and sound discretion of the several States, as they may prefer, from 
time to time, to create and employ it Within the constitutional limita- 
tions, and as soon as deen^ expedient by any of tbem, specie alone, or paper, 



t«3 



SM 



or a mixed medinm of both, as conskiared prefei^ble by each for its own 
purposes, can be, if it be not now, established. At the same time, it is 
hoped and believed that no wish exists in any quarter to prevent, but 
rather a deep and general anxiety, like that evinced by Congress, the Exe- 
cutive, and this department, for some years past, to encoun^ the same 
sound currency for the uses of the people and the States as for the fiscal 
operations of the General Government. 

MUl. SOME GENERAL CAUSES AND REMEDIES OP THE PRE- 

SENT EMBARRASSMENTS. 

In conclusion, it is the intention of the undersigned not to advert to the 
chief causes of the recent calamities, except so far as they are connected 
with our financial condition, and as appears necessary to indicate, briefly, a 
a few remedies by means of general legislation. 

Without doubt, one of those causes was the over-prodnctioti of cotton, 
coupled with the large and sudden depreciation in its price. 

The whole product, though before so great, had, within three years, been 
increased probably more than one hundred millions of pounds, so as to ex- 
ceed in a single year the enormous quantity of five hundred and forty mil- 
lions of pounds. The fall of price was such, as on that quantity would 
make a difference in its value of near forty millions of dollars. The 
occurrence of this fall, however, was at such a period of the year as not 
much to affect over half the last crop; but the violence of the shock, though 
thus lessened, still occasioned a loss to an appalling amount. The &11 was 
chiefly consequent from the over-production, and the abrupt withdrawal of 
foreign credit, combined with some other circumstances which need not now 
be particularized. The over-production originated partly, like most other ex- 
cesses here, firom an extraordinary extension of credits and of bank issues, 
and partly from keeping open thd sales of public lands to all persons, and 
at the former low prices, after other articles, including cotton and lands, had 
suddenly risen much in their nominal value. Under this tempting state of 
things, those sales were exorbitantly enlarged, till they amounted to over 
twenty millions of acres in a year, when not more than three or four mil- 
lions were probably necessary ; and not so much had before been requisite, 
annually, to meet the natural demands for new publicJands fot nasi npf cot- 
ton, and for all other kinds of agricultural employment. But this excess in 
sales, so unexpected and ruif^us^ can, it^ is believed, be averted hereafter, 
Whenever they are likely to go beyond a desirable amount, by passing laws 
which shall confine them to^ctued settlers, or increase the price to others. 
The same measures, with, other remedies hereafter suggested for some 
other existing evils, will help to correct future excesses in the production 
of the great domestic staf^ of the Union. 

Another of the causes of the present embarrassments was the unprece- 
dented quantity of foreign goods imported. By stimulants to over-trading, 
such as very extended and often renewed credits abroad, as well as at home, 
so treacherous in appearances of prosperity, those importations were dan- 
gerously swollen to the amount of alnaost two hundred milliois of dollars 
a year, and thus constituted an excess over our exports of about sixty mil- 
lions, and involved the country in a foreign debt, merriy commercial, whose 
balance against us, after all proper deductions for frei^ts, profits, and simi'> 
larconsideratioBS, probably exceeded the aggregate of thirty millions of dol- 
lars. 



47 £ 2 ] 

That excess, so little anticipated and so indiscreet, the sfstem of credit 
formerly in use, and better regulated, would have seasonably prevented, by 
requiring an early adjustment of balances, and, thus turning the foreign 
exchanges against us, would have stopped many extravagances both in 
trade and bank issues. 

But, stimulated and unrestrained, as before described, it increased the du- 
ties some millions beyond what a prudent though prosperous state of trade 
was likely to produce, and, combined with some other causes, has over- 
whelmed the mercantile interest with many of those disasters under which 
it has suffered so severely the past season. From many of these, no just 
legislation can notv afford much relief Nor could any legislation heretofore 
have prevented severe revulsions from this source, except by imposing checks 
on inordinate credit and banking, as well as on sudaen and large expan- 
sions and contractions in bank issues, and by that further reduction of the 
tariff, which has been so strenuously urged for two years past to be adopt- 
^, whenever our fiscal condition evinced that the whole of the accruing 
duties were not needed for public purposes. Because the ^reat surplus, 
forced into the Treasury by the excesses in the sales of land, and in 
duties on imports, not being seasonably withdrawn, either by equivalent ap- 
propriations or further reductions in the current receipts through new laws or 
by investments, has undoubtedly contributed, through the loan of it while in 
deposite, to sustain, in some degree, if not produce, the spirit of overtrading. 
That surplus was often deprecated ; and the only sound legal preventives 
still appear to this department to be, the measures before enumerated for 
preventing its accumulation. And after it had undesignedly happened, the 
wisest disposal of it was supposed to be, to expend it, as fast as useftil, 
on propel^ objects of a pubhc character; and, in the mean time, not to 
leave it in the deposite banks, but to invest it in State stocks, as a provi- 
dent fund, to remain both safely and profitably till wanted to aid in meeting 
current expenditures or extraordinary contingencies. 

The unaersigned regrets that he was not so fortunate in sustaining his 
opinions concerning the transient and fluctuating character of the excesses 
in our revenue, as to have received the concurrence of Congress in relation 
to tiiose cautionary provisions formerly recomijaended by him for meeting 
the revulsions, deficiencies, and contingencieswhich he supposed incident to 
them^AS well as to pur financial system generally. He is, at the same time, 
aware that the deposite act^ so far as it placed a part of the public money 
with the States for safe keepings and the Treasury circular issued by the 
direction of the Executive, as to the kind of money repeivaUe for pubUe 
lands, were intended, among other things, to obviate a portion of the evils 
connected with those excesses. Nor does he entertain any doubt that they 
both contributed, at first, to awaken caution among the more considerate, and 
to excite strong suspicions, if not convictions, in prudent minds, as to the 
great extravagancies of credit into which the community hadrashlyplunged. 
But after those measures had accomplished these and similar benefits with 
a portion of the community, though oihers still felt justified in anticipating 
a continuance of surpluses and distributions, the subsequent influence of 
either the act, or the circpular, in checking the threatened mischiefs, is be- 
lieved, in most cases, to have been overrated. The operations of the de- 
posite act, in supplying deficiencies of revenue, by a recall from the States, 
nowever well intended, will probably prove very deficient. In some other 
respects they have, by first requiring to be speedily collected and subdivided 



[ 2 ] 28 

among more numerous banks from ten to fifteen millions of dollars, and 
then compelling, within the short period of nine months from the 1st of 
January last, another collection and transfer of nearly forty millions more, 
and much of it from the merchants, and to places not situated in the usual 
channels of trade or of large fiscal operations, unquestiojjably aggravated 
many of the distresses which had their principal origin in other causes. 
Those operations necessarily aided to produce the derangement that occur- 
red in the domestic exchanges, and imposed a task on the banks, unprece- 
dented for its amount and difficulty. By converting suddenly into demands 
for specie very large sums, most of which were before mere credits, they 
also hastened, if not increased, the loss of confidence in banks that has since 
so widely impaired their character and usefulness. ' 

Another, and the last general cause of the present embarrassments which 
will be noticed, as having much connexion with our financial ajBfairs, has 
been an unnecessary and injudicious increase of bank capital, discounts, 
and issues. A similar increase, however this ihay have been influenced 
by the large temporary deposites of public money made with banks 
and States, and by the causes before alluded to, has happened in some 
foreign countries, as well as here, during the same period, from other great 
commercial and monetary impulses, that are permanently connected with 
all paper sjrstems not founded entirely upon specie. These impulses have 
operated in some measure independently of several transient and local 
causes, whose efiects have, by many, been much exaggerated. It is proba- 
ble that they never can be properly controlled under such a system of 
expansive credit, while the individual directors of much of that credit have 
so little separate legislative restraint placed over their conduct, and have 
private interests at stake, which, in the pursuit of immediate and large 
profits, must usually possess a strength so superior to that of any sense 
of general duty to consult the public security. 

The amount of circulation, which existed in the early part of the last year, 
had increased $30,000,000 or $40,000,000 in only three years. It con- 
tinued to expand for some months afterwards, and in the last annual re- 
port was considered hkely to prove ruinous to steady prices ; to surround 
with danger every species of sound trade ; and not to be susceptible of that 
reduction to proper dimensions, which was necessary, and soon inevitable, 
without probably producing some of the wide-spread sufferings which have 
since happened. The constitutional power of the General Government 
to check such evils, except as before indicated, and except incidentally, 
through the kind of money it can and should permit to be employed in 
its revenues and expenditures, is apprehended to be limited. Through the 
latter, it may usefully discourage, as of late years has been attempted by 
Congress as well as the Executive, the dangerous issues of small bills, and, 
indeed, paper emissions of any kind, which are not "paid on demand in 
gold or silver coin at the place where issued, and shall not be equivalent 
to specie at the place where offered, and convertible into gold or silver upon 
the spot, at the will of the holder, and without delay or loss to him." For 
the like purpose, it may Hkewise continue inflexibly to countenance for 
smaller payments, and in the business of society not particularly commer- 
cial, a metallic currency; which is not liable like bank paper to sudden fluc- 
tuations and great losses. A further wise step would doubtless be, to refrain 
to make, by its own acts, any addition to the amount of bank capital, already 
too great; and to rely on bank paper as little as practicable, when author- 
ized in the improvident joSanner wbich has often prevailed, and exhibited 



29 



[21 



SO much feebleness and iusecurity, as well as produced so many inconve- 
niences and losses. 

It appears to the undersigned that, all beyond this, which can be bene- 
ficially accomplished, in connexion with the last cause of the present 
embarrassments, and without an alteration in the constitution conferring 
on the G^eral Government direct authority over every kind of banking, 
must be effected through the State Legislatures, and the commercial habits 
of the community. l\iucb improvement can, doubtless, be introduced, if 
the Ijegislatures will impose those additional regulations, restraints, and 
securities, which have been before enumerated. Much more will also 
follow, and substantial relief be afforded to the people at large, if, in addition 
to the other measures recommended, individuals will exercise the wisdom 
to place a greater reliance en real capital, active industry, frugality, and 
well-grounded credit, than on that inflated sjrstem which of late has 
cotemporaneously prevailed to such a ruinous extent, both in this and soma 
other countries. — A system, which has been encouraged by some persons, 
under the delusive idea that there was no overtrading of any kind, till a 
revulsion has occurred almost without a parallel, and has given to com- 
merce and credit a blow, whose destructive effects it may require years 
iiilly to repair. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 



To the Hon. B. M. Johnson, 

President of the Senate, 



LEVI WOODBURY, 
Secretary of the Treasury 



•• - • • « r> • • 



[ a ] 30 



LIST OP DOCUBIENTS 



/ 



AnneTed to the report of the JSeen^art/ of the 7)reasurtf. 

A. Letter to the collector at New York, by the Secretary of the Treasury, 

concerning the postponement of bonds for duties. 

B. Instructions from the Solicitor of the Treasury, on the same subject 

C. Memorial from merchants of New York to the President 

D. Memorial from chamber of commerce of Boston to the Secretary of the 

Treasury. 

E. Memorial from the chamber of commerce of New Orleans. 

P 1. Reply from Secretary of the Treasury to the chamber of commerce 

of Boston. . 

P 2. Letter to collector of New York as to receipt of bank notes. 
P 3. Letter from committee of chamber of commerce of New York, re- 
questing extension of a year on payments of duties. 
G. Letter accompanying the transfer drafts to the States, with the postscript 

as to the return of the transfers in case of non-pay n)ent by the banks. 
H 1. Circular letter from Treasury Department as to the receipt and 

transmission, by mail, of bank notes in 1789. 
H 2. Extract from report of April 22, 1790, upon the collection law. 
I. First circular to the deposite banks, discontinuing those which had 

ceased to pay specie for their notes. 
K. List of those thus discontinued. 
L. List of present deposite banks under the deposite act. 
M 1. First circular to collectors, directing them not to place money in 

general deposite in banks which have stopped specie payment 
M 2. Circular to receivers of public money on the same subject 
N. Second circular directing them to deposite specially, when they have on 

hand above a certain amount. 
O. Extract from Treasury report in 1790, as to a new class of officers to 

keep and transfer the public money. 
P. Table of Treasury warrants payable in each State in 1834^: 
a. Comparative condition of deposite banks in certain particulars in 

November, 1836, and in March, May, July, and Augpst, 1837. 
R. State of the accounts of the former and present deposite banks with the 

Treasurer of the United States. 
S. Circular as to deposites by disbursing officers, by order of the President. 
T. Circular instructions to collector^ and receivers, to accept Treasury 

drafts in certain cases. 
U. Condition of each of the former and present deposite banks by their 

last returns. 
y. Last circular to banks, on the subject of resuming q)ecie payments. 



SI [ a 1 



A- 

Treasiirt Dbpartment, 

Mays, 1837. 

Sir ; I have been directed by the Presideiit of the United States to com- 
municate to you the views of this department in relation to the request re- 
cenUy made to him by a committee appointed at a respectable meeting hetd 
in the cityof N^ir York. The request was, thai ^instructions may be 
given to prevent the commencing of suits in any of the collection dis^ 
tricts upon unpaid bonds, until aSer the 1st day of January next." 

With every disposition on the part of the President and this department 
to sratify any wishes of the mercantile portion of the community, and^ 
wim a deep solicitude to alleviate, as far as possible, the pressure which 
exfsts in their pecuniary affairs, it is to be regretted that instructions can- 
pdt be given for so {Mrotracted a delay, and in so general a manner, without 
a departure from long established usage, and great inconvenience to both 
the merchants cmd the Treasury. 

By the act of Congress of the 2d March, 1799, it is provided that " where 
axiy bond for the payment of duties shall not be satisfied on the day it may 
beconne due, the collector shall forthwith, and without delay, cause a pros- 
eeutiou to be commenced fur the recovery of the money thereon, by action 
or suit at law." 

No authority ox discretionary power is intnisted expressly to the Presi* 
dent or this department to dispense with this imperative direction, given 
by Cof^greaa to the collectors of the customs. The general practice has 
been opposed to the existence or exercise of any legal authority, except in 
Congress, to grant delay in the payment of such bonds, until after an ac- 
tion is instituted or judgmait is confosaed. After a suit has been brought, 
the collector's duty has been considered as flilfilled ; and this department, 
through its. proper agents, has in such cases, and in that stage of the pro- 
ceedings, deemed it lawful to direct some delay to be granted by the dis^ 
trict attorney on certain terms. 

Net statHHl forbids such a course, and if a payment in part is then made, 
or additional security fiumished in cases where great hardship, embarrass- 
ment, or insolvency is shown ta^xist, and rtia application is made in conse- 
quence of some of those circumstances, indiilgenee has fteqUently be^ 
given. 

But the power of permitting some indulgence before an action is com- 
menced is supposed by the Attoiuey General and the Solicitor of the Treas- 
iiry to Moag to tb& latter officer, under the act of Congress of 29th May^ 
1830 *, iG^nd in times and caaos like the nreaent, when the most &vorable con- 
struction which is legal should be followed, this department is disposed, in^ 
cpnfoimily with the advice and opimoB of these la w offioen^ to sanction a de» 
lay by htm under like circumstances, and to a like extent, before suit as e^ 
terwaiPdsi Upon the oecarrettee, therefore, of cases of the character pre* 
viously described^ whether beiwe suit or after^ and whether at your port or 
ctowhei^ similar ioduhpsnefla eo sindav terass could^ and undoubfedly* 
wQuldrte all0we<i with pmnr^ onaeaadnable apphcatiiNi ineach case, an^ 
the extent of the delay being regulated by the utcts of each oase^ imd the 
^existing aad prohJtde wants (^ the Treasury at the time it shall be pfesented. 



[2] 33 

But should applications of this kind become unmerous, and extend to 
several bonds very large in amount, difficulties, unfortunately, would arise, 
under the existing laws and present state of the Treasury, not only to the 
parties, but to the public, in postponing payment for any considerable period. 
In the first place, all parties and sureties upon bonds unpaid after due are 
expressly disabled by the 62d section of the act before referred to from having 
credit upon any other dgty bonds. The language is, "No person whose bond 
has been received,either asprincipal or surety,forthepayinentof duties, or for 
whom any bond has been given by an agent, factor, or other person, in pur- 
suance of the provisions herein contained, and which bona may be due 
and unsatisfied, shall be allowed a future credit for duties until such bond 
be fully paid or discharged." In the next place, the condition of the Treas- 
ury during the remainder of the year will probably be such, whether look- 
ing to the estimates submitted by this department to Congnress at the com- 
mencement of its session in December last, or to the actual state of things 
at this time, as to create serious incoavenience and embarrassment to the 
public interests in meeting the public en^gements, should the payment of 
all the duty bonds outstanding in the Unit^ States, and amounting to set- 
era! niillions of dollars, be postponed in their collection, either before or 
after suit, until the time requested by the committee. 

This will be very manifest from the following data : The aggregate re- 
ceipts into the Treasury during the year 1837 having been estiniated in 
the last annual report at $24,C^,000, and the appropriations asked for by 
ifie respective departments, with the usual anticipated contingent, having 
amounted to about $27,000,000, it was then suggested that this would re- 
quire the expenditure not only of all the estimated accruing receipts, but 
near three millions of the five reserved on the 1st of January, 1837, for 
distribution among the States. Ck>ngress, however, in the course of the 
session, appropriated not only those three millions of excess, but over five 
millions in addition ; making an aggregate of more than thirty-two millions : 
and by this means a charge was imposed on the Treasury to the extent of 
eight or nine millions beyond the estimated receipts during the year. 

The expectation of a recurrence of an extraordinary excess of revenue 
during the present year, which may have been contemplated by some, and 
have formed the ground on which so large appropriations were made, was 
never entertained by this department; nor does any such expectntkHi, jcK^- 
ing from the receipts of the first quarter, and tbe^rlt month of the second 
quarter of the present year, seem likely to be verified. On the contrary, as- 
auming the hypothesis Ihat a similar amount of unexpended appropriations 
will remain at the close of the present year as did at the close of the last, 
(though in ordinary times they are generally reduced eight millions lower, 
and, should they become so, would increase the deficiency to that extent,) the 
postponement of the payment of any considerable anoount o{ bonds to the 
Ist of January next would make a aeGcieacy in the means of the Treasury 
highly probable. To postpone the paymmt of the many millions Ming 
due at all the ports in the United States, would render this deficiency 
inevitable. 

Comparing the present condition of the country with a former period of 
similar revubion in trade, when, in 1819, fifom causes somewhat analogous, 
the mercantile interests were exposed to a prosure so very general and 
severe, the likelihood seems equally stiong in fiivor of a rapid reductioik 
intfaerey^ue. 



33 t^l 

The foreofoing remarks will explain some of the practical difficulties to be 
encountered in meeting the wishes expressed by the committee for the long 
postponement of the payment of duty bonds, whether granted before or 
after suit, and whether in view of the consequences to the merchants or to 
the Treasury and the public. But indulgence for thirty, sixty, and ninety 
days, not extending beyond the 1st of September, or about the time for ar- 
rane^inof the payment of the last instalment of deposite with the States, 
could doubtless be granted in special cases, under the customary terms and 
circumstances as before explained, should any parties desire it. But what 
forbearance the situation of the Treasury may justify in this respect, at any 
future day, cannot now be foreseen with much accuracy. The payment, 
within so short a period as nine months, of such a vast amount to the States 
as near thirty-eiffht milUons, and which is mostly to be collected through 
the deposite banks from the mercantile )3ortion of the country, increases the 
pressure from other causes on both the banks and the community, and cre- 
ates a prospect that the revenue accruing for the rest of the year will much 
decline, and will generally be, as has been the case in April, less than the 
current expenditures. 

# Hence the amount in the Treasury at this time being only about six mil- 
lions more than, is required to be paid to the States, the progress of events 
may compel a recourse to such other measures as the existing laws author- 
ize for meeting one of those great crises or fluctuations in trade, by which^ 
B9 well as by other contingencies, our present sources of revenue, from their 
intimate dependance upon them, are so suddenly and so largely influenced, 
and for which it has been the anxious wish of this department lor two years 
past that Congress would efiectually provide. 

How far the powers of the department, under the deposite and other acts, 
are now adequate to this end, need not be considered until a necessity to 
resort to them shall become imperative. But, at all events, it is manifest that 
the present, as well as probably the future cpndition of the Treasury, must 
be so doubtful, if not straitened, as to prevent it fromaflbrdingso much inci- 
dental or direct aid to the mercantile interest, either individually or through 
the deposite banks, as it would be highly cjatifying to this department to 
be able to extend. More especially would it be gratified to do this, while 
their interests are suffering under the present severe pressure — a pressure 
rogratted bf^me as deeply as by any one, and the near and probable ap* 
proach, as well as principal causes of which, according to my views of the 
subject, I felt compelled, from a sense of puUic duty, however disagreeable 
the task, to point out in detail in the last annual report, so fully as to render 
a repetition of them on this occasion unnecessary as well as paiiiful. 

This department cannot close the present communication without re- 
questing you to assure the individuals connected with the gt^t commerce 
of your port of the deep sympathy felt here on account of its embarrass- 
ments ; of the willingness cherished at this time, as on ibrmer occasions, to 
extend to it every species of relief and indulgence in the power of the 
Treasury, consistent with the laws and the public duties intrusted to its 
charge ; and of the entire conviction entertained, t|mt the high moral charac- 
ter and honorable feelings of the merchants will not only carry them through 
the trials of adverse fortune with their usual scrupiUous reepeet for the 
laws and the constituted authorities of their country, but, by the aid of their 
aoeustomed energy, enterprise, and indeiatigable industry, will ere long re« 



13J 34 

lieve them from most of the sufferings occasioned by those disasters which 
have occurred so unexpectedly to some and so injuriously to many. 

Respectfully, yours, &c. 

LEVI WOODBURY, 

Secretary of the Treasury . 
Samuel Swart woxjt, Esq., 

Collector of New York, 

P. S. You are requested to give immediate publicity to the above coiH' 
muDication. 



B. 

[circular.] 
From the Solicitor of the Ti^easury to the United States attorneys. 

Ofpicb op the Solicitor op the Treasury, 

May 15, 1837. 

Sir : You will perceive by the letter of the Secretary of the Treasury 
to the collector of the port of New York, under date of the 8th instant, that 
the Treasury Department, desiring,Un concurrence with the views of the 
President, to give all the relief to the mercantile community, under its pre- 
sent state of general embarrassment, which is authorized by law^ and per- 
mitted by official obligation, has determined, in certain cases, to suspend 
for a short time the collection of duty bonds. 

The 5lh section of the act of May 29, 1830, entitled " An act to provide 
for the appointment of a Solicitor of the Treasury," gives power to that 
officer "to instruct district attorneys in all matters and proceedings apper- 
taining to suits in which the United States is a party or interested"" This 
power has often, on application to this office, in cases of great hardship, 
embarrassment, or insolvency, been exercised, to give time for payment, 
after the institution of suit, on condition of further security being furnished 
to the satisfaction of the district attorney. A temporary indulgence on this, 
or other conditions, has frequently made ultimate payment secure, when a 
rigorous enforcement of the law would have resulted in the ruin of the 
debtor and loss of the debt. But indulgence has never heretofdte, (except 
on occasion of the great fire in New York, when Congress was in session, 
and had tbe subject of relief under consideration,) been extended before suit 
comrnenced; but, und^ the opinion of this office, with the sanction of the 
Attorney General, the collector of New York has been informed by the 
Secretary of the Treasury that the power exists to grant delay before ^uit, 
and will now be extended in appropriate cases. 

The present general embarrassment of the money concerns of the com- 
mercial cities has also been deemed by the President and Secretary of the 
Treasury a suitable occasion for an extraordinary exercise of the power of 
instruction to district attorneys, vested in this office by the act of Congress 
above mentioned, by giving it beforehand, and leaving to them its special 
application on the general terms and principles laid down by this office. I 
have, therefore, as the applications for relief will' probably be numerous, 
thought proper to point out for ytsur government the terms and conditions 
on wliich, in the exercise of a sound (^iscretipn, after obtaining in each case 
all the information in your power, you may postpone the institution of suit. 



^5 t ^ ] 

1st. Tan will require ihat tlie assent of srureties, in writing, to the in- 
dulpfetoce desired, be filed rn your officii • 

2dly. The 65th Section of 'the general collection law of March ^ 1799, 
entitled " An act to regulate the collection of duties on imports and ton- 
nage," provides that " on all iwnds, upon which "suits shall be commenced, 
«fi interest shall be allowed, at the rate of six per cent, per annum, from 
the time when said bonds become due until the payment thereof.'' You will 
require, therefiN^e, the agreement of all the parties to bonds on which suits 
shall be postponed, to pay the same interest as if suit were instituted. 

Sdly. You will in no case, without further orders, grant a suspension of 
suitteyond the istday of October next; before which period Congress will 
have an opportunity of making such provisions as they may think proper. 

4thly. Yott will, in all cases, request additional security. If this cannot 
he given, you witl require a judgment by confession, as a condition of such 
stay of execution, as you may deem expedient and proper, not to extend 
beyond the time above allowed for the suspension of suit, 

^hly. It must be a condition, in all cases, that a forfeiture of all th« 
benefits of the indulgence granted shall be incurred, whenever any one of 
the terms of that indulgence shall not have been complied with* 

It is not intended by the third regulation that the postponement of suit 
sho^ild, in all cases, be made until the 1st October next. On the contrary, 
you will take care that, in the exercise of the discretion respecting post*- 
ponement of payment and suit, conferred on you by this letter, that no in- 
dulgence be granted, where the parties, in your judlgment, are able to pay 
without serious sacrifices. It is, moreover, highly desirable, where the 
parties have it in their power to make it, to obtam payment in part, and to. 
stipulate for the residue iu instalments o{ thirty, sixty, or ninety days ; or, 
if no part can be obtained iu cash, then the whole amount to be paid in in- 
stalments of thirty, sixty, and ninety days. More especially shoukl this bo^ 
required where xio additional security is given. 

It is desirable, for the convenience of parties applying for indulgence, 
that they should, in proper cases, obtain it without the delay,- trouble, and 
expense of ^plying to this office. It is, moreover, obvious that the Soli- 
citor of the Treasury, acting through the district attorneys, who reside in 
the same place with the applicants, and have a personal acquaintance with 
them, and a knowledge of their character and circumstances, may exercise, 
the power for their icliei^ incident to his otfice, more judiciously than in 
person at Washington. The requisite authority, and the general regular 
tions for its exercise, are, therefore, given you by this letter of instructiousi 
But, although it is highly desirable andexpedientthatcnsespf relief should . 
be acted on and decided at once in the places where they originate; yet, 
important cases, not coming within those regulations, or the circumstances 
of which, from their peculiarity, shall, in your judgment, require it, may 
be referred to this office, with a detailed report of all the facts imd informar 
tion affecting them, possessed by you, or which you can collect. 

You will, as heretofore, make your regular report of bonds, transmitted 
to you by the collector of the customs for suit, as prescribed in the first 
regulation for the observance of district attorneys, in my circular of the 
27th July, 1630 ; and under the head of <' remarks," if a suspension of suit be 
granted, you will state the circumstances and conditions of the suspension, 
and the nature and amount of the security given, the evidences of which 
you wU retain in your possession. 



[ 2 J 39 

In case of application for indulgence beings made before the bonds be- 
come due, you may make use of the same forms of retur;n as in case of suit, 
leaving such heads blank as are not applicable, and making the Deport im- 
mediately after the suspension of suit is granted. Should any of the condi- 
tions on which indul£:ence has been granted not be fulfilled, you will imme- 
diately, witI)out further instructions, institute such legal proceedings a» the 
Qase may call for, and make report thereof to this office. 

I am, very respectfully, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 
• ' V. MAXCY, 

tSMidior of the Trea^uiy. ' 
To , Esq. 

United States attorney for the district of * 



C. 

To Martin Vak Bvren, 

President of the United States : 

' Sir : We have the honor of informing you that a very nimfjerous meet- 
ing of the merchants of New York was held on the 25ih of April, for the 
fmrpose of considering the present distressed condition of the city, and de- 
iberating upon the means of relief. It was called by more than three hun- 
dred firms,' and was attended by a large proportion of those merchants who 
are connected with the internal trade of the country, and who have an 
otpecial and direct interest in the state of domestic exchanges. 

A committee was appointed to repair to Washington, and remonstrate 
with the Executive against the continuance of the specie circular, and to 
urge itsimmediate repeal ; also, toask that instructions maybe given t© prevent 
the commencing of suits, in any of the collection districts, upon unpaid 
bonds, until after the 1st day of January next, and to urge upon the Ex 
ecutive the propriety of calling an extra session of Congress at as early a 
day as possible. 

In obedience, sir, to these instructions, we present ourselves before you, 
and ask your deep and solemn attention to the unhappy conditioti of that 
city which has hitherto been the promoter and the index of our national 
prosperity, and whose fall will incttide the rain of thousands in every region 
of our territory. We do not tell a fictitious tale of wo, we have no selfish 
or partisan views to sustain, when we assure you that the noble city which 
we represent lies prostrate in despair, its credit blighted, its industry para- 
lyzed, and without a hope beaming through the darkness of the future, un- 
less the Government of our country can fis induced to relinquish the mea- 
sures to which we attribute our distress. We fully appreciate the respect 
which is due to our Chief Magistrate, and disclaim every intention incon- 
sistent with that feeling; but we speak in behalf of a community wfiich 
trembles upon the brink of ruin, which deems itself an adequate judge of 
all questions connected with the trade and currency of the country, and 
believes that the policy adopted by the recent administration, and sustained 
by the present, is founded m error, and threatens the destruction of every 
department of industry. 



31 li] 

T)ar merchants, tnanufactiirefs, and mechanics have repeatedly predicted 
the fatal issue of that pohcy. " What was prophecy, has now become his- 
tory ;" and the reality far exceeds our most gloomy anticipations. Under a 
deep irapressfon of the propriety of confining our declarations within mode- 
rate limits, we affirm that the value of our real estate has, within the last 
six months, depreciated more than forty millions ; that, within the last two 
months, there have been more than two hundred and fifty failures of houses 
•engaged in extensive business ; that, within the same period, a decline of 
twenty millions of dollars has occurred in our local stocks, including those 
rail-road and canal incorporations which, though chartered in other States, 
depend upon New York fur the sale ; that the immense amount of mer- 
chandise in our warehouses has, within the same period, &Ilen in value at 
least thirty per cent.; that, within a few weeks, not less than twenty thou- 
sand individuals, depending upon their daily labor for their daily bread, 
have been discharged by their employers, because the means of retaining 
them Tvcre exhausted ; and that a complete blight has fallen upon a com- 
munity heretofore so active^ enterprising, and prosperous. The error of 
our rulers has produced a wider desolation than the pestilence which de- 
populated our streets, or the conflagration which laid them in ashes. 

We believe that it is unjust to attribute these evils to any excessive d^ 
velopment of mercantile enterprise, and that they really flow from that un- 
wise system which aimed at the substitution ot* a metallic for a paper cur* 
rency — the system which gave the first shock to the fabric of our commer- 
cial prosperity, by removing the public deposites from the United States 
Bank, which weakened every part of the edifice by the destmction of 
that useful and eflicient institution, and now threatens to crumble it into a 
mass of ruins, under the operations of the specie circular, which withdrew 
the goM and silver of the country from the channels in which it could be 
profitably employed. We assert that the experiment has had a fair, a liberal 
trial, and that disappointment and mischief are visible in all its results; that 
the promise of a regulated currency and equalized exchanges has been 
lnx)ken, the currency totally disordered, and internal exchanges almost en- 
tirely discontinued. We therefore make our earnest appeal to the Execu- 
tive, atid ask whether it is not time to interpose the paternal authority of 
the Government, and abandon the policy which is beggaring the people. 

Amid all the distress of our condition, we have been gratified by a view 
of the generous and forbearing spirit which has almost Invariably marked 
the conduct of the creditor towards the debtor. A general disposition has 
been manifested to indulge the debtor with ample time for the arrangement 
of his business and collection of his debts ; and we would respectAilly sug- 
gest Ae example for the imitation of the Government. The embarrassment 
and distress of the merchants would be more readily reheved by the sus- 
pending of suits upon unpaid bonds until a future day, when the wisdonfi 
of Congress may grant some nieasure of relief. 

Feeling, as we do, that we have reached a crisis which requires the exer- 
cise 6f all the wi^om and energy of the country to heal the wounds which 
have been inflicted upo« its commerce and productive industry, we would re- 
spectfully and earnestly urge upon the Executive the propriety of calling art 
extra session of Congress, to deliberate upon the unprecedented and alarm- 
ing efmbarrassilneftts in which we are involved. The members, coming 
directly firom their constituents, will have had the opportunity of knowing 
and appreeiating the extent of the distress which exists^ and we are convinced 



[2] 5S 

that thdr collected opinions will fuUy sustain those which ^e have ex- 
pressed, and their testimony indicate an amount of suffering of which we 
cannot believe that you, sir, have heretofore been aware. 

We persuade ottfselves that the representations wliich we have given of 
the actual condition of our affairs will induce you to doubt the ejq)ediency 
of the policy which has been recently pursued ; and we trust to your intel- 
ligence for such a change of measures as will revive the hopes aud stimu- 
late the energies o( the merchants of New York. 

ISAAC S. HONE, 
JAMES W. BRYAN, 
BENJAMIN LODER, 
ALEX. B. McALPlN, 
JOHN A. UNDERWOOD^ 
THOMAS TILESTON, 
MEIGS D. BENJAMIN^ 
ELISHA LEWIS, 
SIMEON DRAPER, Jr. 
Washikcton, Mojf 3, 1837. 



D. 

The subseriberSy under the direction of a meeting of the Bioston chan>ber 
of commerce, respectfully represent to the Hon^ Secreti\ry of the Treasury 
that much difficulty will arise here from the requisition^ which they under^- 
stand has been mi^de, that all dues to the Treasury shalt be paid ia specie. 

The suspension of specie paymeni is now universal in this cky, and it 
IS impossible to procure the amount necessary for the payment of custom** 
house bonds. . If the requisition be made, there is no course left to the mer- 
chants but to submit to a suit^-and its unpleasant consequences. 

It is evident that spec^ for the large amounts daily falling due on cu»> 
tomhouse bonds^ throughout the country, cannot be procured on any terntis. 
The refusal of specie for bonds is not, therefore, in the least, a matter of 
choice ; the payment is utterly impossible. 

If, then, no cilteration be made in present instructioDs, the suits now just 
commencing will eventually extend to the conoHiercial community through* 
out the country ; incapacitating them from further entries or importations^ 
and seriously embarrassing the financial operations of the Government If 
this be so, it is merely a matter of time, with regard to the required altera- 
tions ; sooner or later, they will become indispensable ; if made now, much 
distress will be prevented. 

Even were it otherwise, there are, it appears to the chamber, sufficient 
reasons why specie payments should not now be required by the Goveriv- 
ment. It is matter of notoriety that specie payment of the indemnity lately 
received by the Government has been refused to the claimants by the 
agents of Government ; and further, that specie payment of debenture certi- 
ficates is now refused at the customhouse, at the very moment when specie 
payment is demanded for bonds. The extreme hardship and injustice of 
the demand and the refusal, at the same moment, cannot require comment 

Under these circumstances, they cheerfully request such a modlfcation of 
he requisitions of the Government as may consist, with justice and the 



39 [ 2 ] 

ability of the community. To this purpose, a withdrawal of the specie ii|- 
structions recently issued to the collector of this port, leaving him and the 
merchants to devise, in good faith, the means of adjusting the claims of the 
Government with the mercantile community, would, perhaps, be entirely 
sufficient. A course like this has been adopted on a former occasion, and 
seems to be the onl v one now practicable. 

WM. STURGIS, 
President Boston Chamber of Commerce. 

Th09. W. WaLGS, / rr- D-. 'J s 

RoB'T G. SftAW. i ^"^ PrtBident*. 
G. M. Thatcher, Secretary. 



E. 

New OaLBANs Chamber of Commerce, 

New Orleans, May 26, 1837. 

Sir : I have the honor to transmit to you, enclosed, a copy of the pro- 
ceedings of the chamber of commerce of New Orleans, in relation to the 
deran^d condition of the currency, and the impracticability resulting there- 
from to conform strictly with the requisitions of the law and orders ema- 
nating from your department. 

I beg leave most respectfully to call your attention to said proceedings, 
with the hope that some measures may be devised to obviate existing diffi- 
culties. 

. I have the honor to be, sir. 

With great consideration and respect, 

Your obedient servant, 
SAM. J. PETERS, 
' Presidmt. 

To the Hon. the Secretary op the Treasury 

Of the United States, Washington City. 



New Orleans Chambrr op Commerce, 

Saturday, MayHd, 1837, 

At a special meeting of the chamber held this day, the following pream- 
ble and resolutions were adopted, with only one dissenting voice: ^ 

Whereas, the collector of the custom-house of this district, in virtue or 
instructions from Washington, requires specie, or notes of specie-paying 
banks which are at par, in payment of all duty bonds : and whereas, it is 
well known that nearly all the banks of this city, including the deposite 
banks, have lately suspended specie payments ; and that the notes of the 
few banks which have continued to redeem their circulation in specie are 
not re-issued, and therefore cannot be* obtained, whilst the same batiks re- 
fuse to pay their deposites in specie : 

In consequence of which, it is impossible that the requisition of the col- 
lector can be complied with. Therefore, be it resolved — 

1st. Thatj in the opinion of this chamber, the existing revenue laws, 
which it is now attempted strictly to enforce, were passed hy Congress un- 



[21 40 

r T 

d^r circumstances very essentially differing from those which at present 
prevail ; and that a revision of the same by Congress has becotoe indispen- 
sable. 

2d. That, in the opinion of this chamber, it is highly expedient that Con- 
gress should be called at as early a period as may be practicable, with a 
view to take into consideration the currency of the country, and the revi- 
sion of the revenue laws, so as to reconcile them with the present state of 
thinfi[s, and to render them susceptible of bein^ executed. 

3a. That the payment of duty bonds in gold and silver, under existing 
circumstances, is utterly impracticable ; ftnd if the collector cannot receive 
in payment thereof the notes of our local banks, said bonds must necessa- 
rily remain unpaid until the action of Congress with regard to the same 
be ascertained. 

4th. That any attempt on the part of Government to enforce the collec- 
tion of custom-house bonds in gold and silver, will be attended with serious 
suffering and distress : inasmuch as the sale of property by the marshal 
of the United States cannot be effected, for specie, without the most cruel 
and unnecessary sacrifices. 

6th. That if the Government persists in the collection of duty bonds in 
gold and silver, when the same is not to be procured ; and in the event of its 
finding attorneys and jurors willing to assist in rigorous prosecutions, it is 
the opinion of this chamber that these measures may gradually lead the 
country into scenes of disorder, violence, and resistance to the laws, which 
are seriously to be deprecated, and which the Government ought to avoid. 

6th. That the president of this chamber be requested to transmit a copy 
of these resolutions to the President of the United States and the Secretary 
of the Treasury. 

r^_._ 1 A true copy from the minutes: as witness my hand and seal 
IsEAL.j ^f jjj^ chamber, this 24th day of May, 1837. 

GEO. W. WHITE, Secretary. 



F 1. 



Treasurit Department, 

May 21, 1837. 

Gesitlshen : Your communication, in behalf of thechamberof commerce 
in Boston, concerning the payment of duties, was received at this department 
today. Though without date, it is presumed to have been written before 
the receipt in your city of the proclamation of the President calling a special 
and early session of Congress, and of the circulars, letters, and notices of this 
department, recently published, concerning customhouse bonds. Copies 
of these are, therefore, annexed, (numbered 1 to 7,) and to which I beg leave 
to refer for several explanations on some of the topics contained in vour 
memorial. 

In addition to those explanations, but a few other remarks are supposed 
to be necessary to put the chamber of commerce in full possession of the 
views of the undersigned, in respect to your request, and, it is hoped, to sat- 
isfy you that every thing has beisn done, and will continue to be done here, 
for relief to the merchants in the present distressing emergency, which the 
laws sanction and my limited authority permits. 



4* C«J 

One of the earliest acts piEissed by the first Cboffress convened under 
the present constitutiori of the United States, was that of July 31st, 1789, 
expressly requiring all duties to be ^< received in gold and silver only," and 
which provision luis been virtually continued in subsequent law9. The 
circular of this department, from whose operation you ask to be exempted, 
is only a repetition or an affirmance of that act, except it contains a mitiga- 
tion, justified by a long and liberal construction, which authorizes an equiva- 
lent for specie to be also received. 

Under that construction, anxious as the departmepC has beeu, and still is, 
to extend every indulgence to those connected with it, which is not incon* 
sistent with law and public duty, it sanctioned the receipt of the notes of 
speciepaying banks instead of specie for customs, and all the drafts or 
checks of the Treasury, not paid to the satisiiEtction of the holders, by the 
banks on which they are dr^wn. Debenture bonds are likewise receivable 
in payment of duties ; and, whenever doubt has arisen on that point, express 
instructions have been ^iven to take them. 

Beyond these alleviations, the department has yet been unable to discover 
any legal authority which it possesses, or is able to delegate to others, to re« 
ceive substitutes for the specie, which is imperatively required by law in pay* 
ment of duties. On the contrary, by a reieience to the various acts of Ckm? 

Sress bearing on this subject, it will be manifest that if the department, UQ- 
er the influence of sympathy, rather than of official obligations, should 
allow any thing not equivalent to specie to be received for duties, it would 
violate the letter of the original law on this subject, and the invariable prac* 
tice under it, with one brief and occasional exception, which existed only 
in certain sections of the country, about twenty years since, and commenced 
during invasion and war. It would also act in conflict with both the letter 
and spirit of the joint resolution of Congress, afterwards passed in April, 
1815, for the avowed purpose of preventing any longer or future deviation 
from the act of 1789. 

If, in a period of profound peace, and in many respects of great prosperity, 
the President and the undersigned, as mere executive officers, jealously re- 
stricted by the constitution and by statutes, should proceed to dispense with 
these laws, without previous permission from Congress, it might certainly be 
considered one of those unwarranted usurpations of power, so boldly and co- 
gently denonnced by our forefathers ; and, without doubt, we should next, and 
on similar grounds, be requested to extend a like indulgence to all debtors of 
the GQverument, whether individuals or banks, and to all the purc.hasers of 
the public lands, though these last are likewise required by statute to be paid 
for in " specie, or in evidences of the public debt of the United States." 
Any such disregard of those imperative requisitions would lead to other 
consequences almost equally alarming and deplorable, as it would amount 
to the receipt for duties of what was less valuable to the community and to 
the Government than what the acts of Congress expressly direct. 

In this way, without legal authority, the interests of the United States 
would further be injuriously relinquished and compromised, by virtually al- 
lowing a diminution of the whole tariff of duties, and all the incidental 
benefits anticipated from it, to any of the great braiiiches of industy in the 
country, quite to the extent of the difference in value between specie and 
the notes of the banks not pajring specie. The many millions of unavailable 
paper, which would probably m thus placed in the Treasury for duties 
and other debts, it would be difficult to compute ; as, besides the twentynsix 



[ 3 ] 42 

or seven millions now due from individuals and bankS; most, if not all of 
the future revenue accruing from customs, or the increased sales of public 
land in consequence of such a system, would be paid to the United States in 
notes of the same depreciated character. It deserves consideration, likewise, 
what could legally be done with such funds when collected ; as, by the se- 
cond section of the act of April 14th, 1836, the Treasury is expressly for- 
bidden to offer, in payment of any claim whatever against the United States, 
"any banknote of any denomination, unless the same shall be payable, and 
paid on demand, in gold or silver coin, at the place where issued, and which 
shall not be equivalent to specie at the place where offered, and convertible 
into gold or silver upon the spot, at the will of the holder, and without de- 
lay or loss to him." 

How great would be the loss on such irredeemable funds, and who ought 
to bear it when they are received <^utrary to law, and how destructive such 
measures would prove to the preservation of a sound constitutional currency, 
by indirectly sanctioning^, as they would, the disuse of specie for it here, and 
the consequent export of it in large quantities to forei^ countries, as an ar- 
ticle of trade, need not be dwelt on at this time. It is moreover manifest, 
that all such collections would further disable the Treasury from paying 
immediately, in the manner it is bound by law and good faith to do, the 
various public creditors ; some of whom are stated, as a matter of com- 

Slaint, in your memorial, not to be able now to obtain specie for their claims, 
lut if the indemnity certificates and debenturesr to which you refer have 
not all been paid in specie or its equivalent to the merchants or other hold- 
ers, you may rest assured that the failure to do it has not arisen from any 
direction to that effect by the Treasury ; but, on the contrary, that express 
orders have been given to meet both with specie when demanded ; and, if not 
done, the failure has occurred, and will continue, only in consequence of 
the regretted omission of the merchants themselves promptly to dischan 
their bonds in specie, and of a like omission on the part of the ban] 
(through the misfortunes or advice of many of their customers] not to 
continue to discharge their obligations in the manner provided by law and 
their agreements with the Treasury. One great and paramount object, 
therefore, in requiring that the public dues should continue to be paid to 
the United States in a legal manner, is, to enable the department, in this 
emergency, faithfully and promptly to pay others in that manner, and, as 
soon as practicable, to overcome any embarrassments or delays to its own 
creditors, which may have happened in consequence of the course pursued 
by those on whom Ihe Government is immediately dependant for its avail- 
able means. You justly intimate that the public payments ought to be 
made in this way ; and you may rest assured that, in all cases where 
creditors are not otherwise satisfied, it will cheerfully be done the moment 
the Treasury is enabled to accomplish it by a compliance with their en- 
gagements on the part of those indebted to the United States. 

If, from the accidents and misfortunes of others, in any instance, such 
an inability as you describe has occurred with any of our fiscal deposito- 
ries or custom-house officers, and any reproach should inconsiderately be 
cast on the Government for this inability, which has been caused by others, 
(though, without doubt, unintentionally,) you may rest satisfied that no 
proper effort will be spared here to avoid deserving the censure of " ex- 
treme hardship or injustice" on this account, and (by strenuously endeav- 
oring to do to others all which it asks of them) to discharge every claim 



43 t 2 ] 

against the Oovemment, in specie or its equivalent, at the earliest day 
practicable. 

In connexion with this, and merely in justification of the Treasury^ it 
may be proper to notice further, that, besides near thirty millions elsewhere, 
something lilce thiee<|uarters of a million of dollars were due in your city 
alone, from merchants, and institutions of which many of them are mem- 
bers, and payable to the United States in specie and on demand, at the time 
your memorial was forwarded, setting forth the omission of our fiscal 
agents to {my in that currency some small demands held by a portion of 
the mercantile community. 

This department is aware that, even after all its forbearances and miti- 
gations, some embarrassments must still be undergone, in certain cases, bv 
means of incidental difficulties, and the strictness of the laws as to casli 
duties, which were introduced wholly for the benefit of manufacturers, 
rather than of the finances. But it cannot concur iu the ofHnion that 
during the present favorable condition of the country, in respect to its large 
amount of specie, it will be impossible to obtain sufficient for this purpose ; 
and, considering that all which is paid must immediately return again into 
active circulation, it trusts that the merchants will find themselves fully 
indemnified for the inconvenience and limited sacrifices to which they may 
be exposed in obtaining the small sums necessary for their object by and 
after the liberal indulgences authorized on their duty bonds. 

Thus, by instructions published at Boston since your letter was probably 
written, the disagreeable result you anticipate, to wit : <* that there is no 
course left to the merchants but to submit to a suit and its unpleasant con* 
sequences," need rarely, if ever, occur in cases of real solvency ; as liberal 
extensions of credit have been permitted, under proper circumstances, 
before as well as afieT suit, till the meeting of Congress ; and, in addition 
to these, an extraordinary session of that body has been called by the Pre- 
sident al the earliest convenient day, with a view, among other things, to 
afford an opportunity for new legislation to yield further relief in the 
present embarrassing posture of affairs. 

With these explanations, and such others as appear in the documents be- 
fore referred to, and which, ere this, have probably reached your city, the de- 
partment ciierishes a hope that your chamber of commerce will be satisfied 
that every thing of aa alleviating character has already been done, in respect 
to duty bonds, which the laws sanction, and the public interests justify ; 
that all proper exertions have been made, and are making by it, to preserve 
the same good and legal fiddity in its obligations to others which it requests 
of them; that if not successful, the failure will arise from the misfortunes 
or neglect of others; and that, by a firm perseverance in the path of duty 
on this subject, reciprocal aid will be conferred, both by the merchants and 
the Treasury, to preserve a sound state of the currency for all the public 
purposes, and gradually, if not speedily, restore one for all the ordinary 
transactions of life. 

This department confides so much in the intelligence, correct principles, 
and patriotism of those who, through you, have addressed it, that it^^m- 
not doubt they will be solicitous to prevent, even in times of the greatest 
embarrassment, any discredit being cast on the character and practical 
workings of our free institutions. 

It feels satisfied that the chamber of commerce, as well as the whole 
community, must, after reflecting on such considerations, become quite as 



C 2 ] 44 

desirous as th^ undersigned for a mutual and vigorous co-operation to up- 
hold the habitual opinions and practices in favor of the inviolability of the 
constitution and laws, which are fortunately so characteristic of the great 
mass of the population in every quarter of the Union. 

It is in this manner only that the department can be enabled to carry on 
the fiscal operations of the Treasury, so as to maintain the public faith 
unimpaired at home and abroad, and sustain, as fer as relates to the cur- 
rency, a sound standard of value, in the true spirit of the constitution, and 
according to the best established principles of political economy. 

Respectfully, yours, 

LEVI WOODBURY, 

Secretory of the lYeasftry, 
To William Sturgis, President j 

G. M. Thatcher, Secretary of the Boston Chamber of Commerce, 



F 2. 



Treasury Dbpartmext, 

May 19, 1837. 

Sir: This department has, with much surprise, seen several representa- 
tions in the daily press concerning^ certain declarations made by you at a re- 
cent public meeting in New York city, as to the course you intended to 
pursue in future in collecting the pubUc revenue. 

The importance of the subject, and the nature of these representatiods, 
render it my unpleasant duty to call your immediate attention to them. 

Some of the accounts^ of what took place represent you as saying, in sub- 
stance, that, as the m'ders of the Treasury coukl not be complied with, you, 
on your own responsibility, would dispense with them; while others state 
that you understood a discretion had been left to you by the Executive on 
this subject; and that, in the exercise of such discretion, you should not«eon- 
form to the instructions of the department either by collecting the money 
yourself, which fell due for duties, or by collecting it in- such kind of money 
as the laws require. Other Tepresentations oonvey the idea, that, if you 
pursued such a course, the Government would make no objection to it. 

Under a beUef that in these reports, as to your remarks and determination 
on this subject, some unfortunate errors must have occurred, or that you 
must have imbibed very incorrect opinions concerning the views entertain- 
ed by the department, it becomes proper on the present occasion to repeat, 
in explicit terms, the real character and extent of those views. 

1. The order as to the mode of collecting bonds by yourself, rather than 
through the banks, and in specie or its equivalent, was, in the last respect, 
in accordance with the course which you reported to this department for 
its Approval on the suspension of payment by the banks. The order was 
the same in substance, in all respects, at your port, as that adopted at all 
other ports in the United States, where no banks paid specie on demand for 
their notes, and where, in that event, the express language of the deposite 
act of June, 1836, imperativdy^ required thdr discontinuance as public de- 
positories; and other laws vutually forbid the receipt of their notes for 
duties. 



45 [2] 

2. But, in the wide-spread calamity which had recently fallen on the com- 
mercial world, and, through it, upon those banking institutions, in common 
with others which were depositories of the public money, it was evident 
that our finances must become embarrassed through the previous embarrass- 
ments of others, and that great care and efforts must be exercised to meet 
faithfully the current public eoffagements. At the same time, it was desi- 
rable that every indulgence and forbearance should be exercised, and were 
intended by the President and this department to be liberally exercised, to- 
wards the public debtors^ which those engagements would permit. 

3. Accordingly, in order to mitigate the evils which pressed so heavily on 
the merchants, this department, with the sanction of the President, at once 
authorized n postponement to be granted, in all suitable cases, of the pay- 
ment of duty bonds, as well before as aflersuit; and subsequently, as new 
events justified, permitted it to be extended till after the commencement of 
the next session of Congress. 

The department likewise empowered the collectors to receive for duties 
the drafts of the Treasurer, in favor of the public creditors which might 
not be paid in specie to the holders by the banks on which they were drawn. 

Outstanding debenture bonds are also receivable in the same way; and, 
to afford the opportunity to procure still further aid and relief, if it shall be 
deemed proper by Congress, that body has been specially convened by the 
President at the earliest convenient day. 

After ail these mitigating measures, neither the President nor this depart- 
ment saw any fuithei indulgence which could be given consistent witli the 
acts of Congress, and which it was within our powers to bestow, limited 
and regulated as those powers are by various express laws. 

It was, and still is, hoped that the merchants would, till Congress ossem- 
U^, cheerfully incur the diminished sacrifices, in respect to tje payment 
of some of the duties, which their liabiUties and business might render ne- 
cessary*, and that the officers connected with the customs would feel a pride, 
as well as zeal, in encouraging them to uphold the laws faithfully, and nei- 
ther countenance nor permit any departures from them. 

The Executive possesses no authority to delegate tp you, nor has it in- 
tended to delegate, any discretion to disregard those laws in any particular, 
or to act contrary to the instructions of the department, which had been is- 
sued in conformity to them; nor can it sanction the exercise of any such 
discretion on the part of any of the officers of the customs. 

It would seem better that the duties, whether due on bonds or in casi), 
when the goods are entered, and which the merchants may be unable, if 
not postponed, to pay in any of the legal modes before pointed out, till the 
early day on which Congress convenes, should go entirely unpaid from in- 
ability to meet them legmly, than be collected or discharged in a manner 
that is not sanctioned either by ttie acts of Congress or our duty to the Gov- 
ernment. 

The department is willing to make liberal allowances for acts growing 
out of the sympathy naturaUy felt for the embarrassments of the commercial 
community, and the strong desire to contribute to their relief; but you must 
be sensible that the newspaper accounts which have already appeared are 
calculated to convey the idea that the President and this department are dis- 
posed to overlook, or even to approve, the unauthoriaed course which it is 
said you propose to adopts and it is possible that, from your full knowledge 
of the sincerity aqd extent of tlie anxious desire of the President and of this 



[ a ] 4« 

department to afford relief, you may have entertained the impression that 
such would be the case. 

It therefore becomes my duty instantly to inform vou that all such im- 
pressions are erroneous, and it is hoped that many of the considerations be- 
fore stated will have occurred to you; and that, under iheir influence, you 
will continue to discharge your duties in the manner pointed out in the acts 
of Congress and the instructions of this department. 

1 am, sir, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

LEVI WOODBURY, 
Secretary of the Treasttry. 
Samuel Swartwout, Esq. 

Collector J New York. 



F3. 

New York, Auffvst 28, 1837. 

Sir : The undersigned have been appointed a committee of the cham- 
ber of commerce of the city of New York, for the purpose of addressing to 
you (he following representations upon the subject of the payment of cus- 
tom-house bonds becoming due, and of duties upon wool and woollen goods 
now lying in the public stores in this city. 

It appears that there were custom-house bonds in the hands of the dis- 
trict attorney, payable previously to the first of this month, (August,) 
for - - - - - . . . $2,200,()0U 

And at custom-house, payable in August - / ► - 706,600 

Ditto do. September - - 1,004,727 

Ditto do. October - > . 536,093 

Ditto do. November - - 360,646 

Ditto do. December - - 318,246 



6,115,211 



And duties on merchtodise not entered, now in public store, 
estimated at - - - - - - 2,000,000 

Total - - $7,115,811 

This port being the recipient of merchandise destined for the consump- 
tion of a large portion of the Union, the importing merchants here assume, 
in the first instance, the responsibility of paying the duties to Govjmment; 
and the history of the past n:ay well attest xHe fidelity with which that 
responsibility has been discharge!, until the present time, when the general 
condition of affairs has been so essentially changed. 

After the banks of the Union had suspended specie payments, the diffi- 
culty of paying the dues to Oovemment, in legal currency, became in- 
surmountable, a:1d, at the instance of this committer?, the period of pay- 
ment of custom-house bonds was postponed by your department until the 
1st of October next, in order that Congress, which would then be assem- 
bled, might make the neeidfiil laws upon this new shape of things. 

The mercantile and trading interests of the whole country have since 
been laboring under unparalleled difficulties, so that reliance can no longer 
be placed upon receipts^ which mainly govern the r^larity of payments^ 
by all connected with commerce* 



47 [ 2 ] 

Owing to the entire derangement of the internal exchanges, and to the 
absence of a specie standard, funds, even when collected at various points 
of the Union, are generally unavailable as the means of payment here. 

The banks of the city, with a laudable desire to resume specie payments 
at the earliest day, must adopt a system of restriction, and therefore with- 
hold facilities, now more needed than ever by their dealers, whose collec- 
tions in bank chiefly consist of payments of a part onl^ of the amount due, 
with renewals for the remaincfer for two, three, and four months; and at 
the end of those periods, similar renewals are repeated. 

This total derangement 6f all the means of carrying on the business of 
the country, throughout its various sections, has rendered the collection of 
debts impossible ; and, accordingly, the vast amount due for goods alreadv 
sold in this city, on which a lai^ portion of existing duties were leviedi 
remains unpaid, and without any immediate prospect of liquidation. Nor 
can sales now be made of foreign merchandise on hand ; and it is imprac- 
ticable to convert goods into money, as well from the inability to pay on the 
part of buyers, as from the unwillingness to sell on credit on the part of 
the holders ; and sales by auction can only be made at ruinous sacrifices. 

A. general extension, to a large portion of their debtors, has also been 
frranted, for a period of twelve months and upwards, by the importing mer- 
chants of this city; and there is now due from other places, to those en- 
gaged here in the importation and sale of foreign merchandise, a much 
larger amount than would pay off all debts from this city to the Govern- 
ment and to foreign countries. 

A very large proportion of the means of the importing merchants is 
thas virtually withdrawn from their control, and scattered throughout the 
Unon ; whence it cannot bo collected, in any available manner, in the 
present state of suspended payments by banks and individuals, of derange- 
ment in the domestic exchanges, and of interruption to business, through- 
out the whole country. 

Undei these circumstances, the importing merchants have no alternative 
left, but to ask the Government to apply to them the same measure of 
relief which they have granted to their debtors, by extending for a year 
the period of payment of bonds, and of other dues at the custom-house ; 
at which timis, it is fully believed there will remain no obstacle to a punc- 
tual discharge of all such indebtedness. 

The like remtrks apply to the inability of the importers of wool and 
woollen goods, now in public store, to pay duties ; which will amount, 
according to the above estimate, to two millions of dollars. The Govern- 
ment holos these goods in its own keeping ; therefore, the revenue is se- 
cure : and the extension of one year beyona the time required by law may, 
with entire safety, be gtantcd to the importers for entering and paying the 
duties on these goods. 

The undersigned, therefore, respectfully represent the necessity which, 
under the circumstances let forth herein, renders it expedient that Con- 
gress should interfere, at a d%y previous to the 1st of October next, by the 
passage of a law providing fox the postponement of the collection of such 
bonds at the custom-house as may fiill due prior to the 1st of January next, 
with assent of sureties, and upoa interest ; allowing, however, the option 
of earlier payment, and thus stopping interest : and, also, to extend, for one 
year, the respective periods within which goods subject, upon entry, to the 
payment of duties in cash, may bo retained in the public stores. 



£2] 4a 

In the hope that these suggestions may meet your approval, and, in that 
case, that you will see fit to recommend the passage of such a law, at the 
opening of the ensuing Congress, and, in the mean time, that you would 
favor us with a reply. 

We have the honor to remain, sir, respectfully, 

Your obedient servants, 
J. BOOKMAN, 
JAMES D. P. OGDEN, 
CHARLES H. RUSSELL, 
JAMES BROWN, 
JAMES LEB, 
JAMES G. KING, 
GEORGE GRISWOLD, 
JOHN B. STEVENS, 
CammiUee of the Chamber of Commerce 

of the city of New York. 
To the Hon, Levi Woodbury, 

Secretary of the Trtasftry, Washington. 



G. 

Treasury Department, 

1837. 

Sir : Having been furnished with a copy of the law passed by the 
Legislature of the State of , it appears that you are author 

ized to receive, in behalf of that State, the amount to be deposited there- 
with, by the provisions of the act of Cjongress " to regulate the depostes 
of the public money," approved 23d June, 1836. 

That amount has been ascertained to be djUars, 

the quarterly payment of which will be made at the respective 

banks to which the enclosed transfer drafts, amounting in all to $ , 

are directed, upon your executing a receipt agreeably to the enclosed form, 
to each of them, for the sums received therefrom. 

I am, sir, very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant. 

Secretary of the Treasury, 

P 8. — U may be useful, in the present embarrassed condition of the 
pecuniary concerns of ttie country and of the banks, to suggest, that, for 
reasons growing out of the deposite act, as well as rfie existing liabilities 
of the banks, and the obligations required from the States to the Treasury, 
no one of the latter is requested to accept, on tAe witJjin transfers, any 
kind of money which is not available and at par, and which it is not 
ready to account for in the same way when required. 

Should any of the banks, therefore, on which the tratwsfers are drawn, 
fail to deposite with you such money, th^ may be returned to this de- 
partment, with a statement of the fact, in drder that the case may be sub- 
mitted to'Congress at its approaching session. 

Form of a receipt by a Staie. 

Whereas, by the 13th section of an act of the Congress of the United 
States, entitled « Au act to regulate the deposites of the public money," ap- 



49 [ 2 ] 

proved die 23d or June, 1836, it was enacted << that the money which st^all 
be in^ the Treasury of the United States on the 1st dav of January, 183^^, 
reserving; the sum of five millions of dollars, shall be aeposited with such 
of the several States, in proportion to their respective representation in the 
Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, as shall by law 
anthorize their treasurer, or the competent authorities, to receive the same, 
on ttve tenns hereafter specified ; and the Secretary of the Treasury shall 
deliver the same to such treasurer, or other competent authorities, on re- 
ceiving certificates of deposite therefor, signed by such competent author- 
ities, in such form as may be prescribed by the Secretary aforesaid :" 

And whereas the State of has, by an act of its heg^ 

lature passed on the day of , one thousand e^t 

hundred and thirty , authorized and directed the 

of t^ said State to receive its proportional share of the said surplus moneji^ 
of the United States on deposite with the said State, upon the ^rms speci- 
fied in the said act of Congress : 

And whereas the Secretary of the Treasury, in pursuance of tlie pro- 
visions of the said act of Congress, and in conformilv with the provisions 
of the said act of the Legislature of the State of ' , has de- 

livered to the thereof the sum of dollars and 

cents, the same being the first instalment, or one-fourth pajf, 
of the ratable proportion of the said State in the surplus money in the 
Treasury on the 1st day of January, 1837 : 

Now, therefore, be it known, that I, do hereby 

certify that the said sum of dollars and cento 

has been deposited by the Secretary of the Treasury with the State of 

, and that for the sate-keeping and repayment of the same 
to the United States, in conformity to said act of Congress, the State of 

is lepJly bound, and its faith is solemnly pledged. And^n 
IHirsuanee of the authority of the act of the^I-egislature aforesaid, for and 
in behalf of the said State, I hereby affix my signature and seal in testi* 
mony of the premises, and of th« Mth of the said State to pay the said 
money so deposited, and every i>art rhereof, from time to time, whenever 
the same shall be required hy the Secretary of the Treasury, for the pur- 
poses and in the manner ^ proportions set forth and described in the 
said recited 13th section pi the act of Congress aforesaid, and by a requl- 
silioa or notice simikr/'n ibrm to that h^eto annexed, addressed to the care 
of the Governor of said Slate. 

Signed and sealed^fnis day of ,^ one thoiisan^ 

«ight hundred »nd thirty 

Attest : 

THH /hrm of a requisition or noiicefor repayment wUlbi a%ib$twUidlly 

as follows: 

183,. 
T^ THB 3tav« or 

Under the proviwnsof an acjt of Congress entitled « An act to regelate 
the deposites of the public money,^ passed June 23d, 1836, and an act ^ 
ttii S^Mil^pas^ed , certain smosoi money iwlo^ging 

Co ^o United, StM^ h^ing been d^]posited witb the State aforafsuiid for s^ 
keeping.and^paymeBi^ |n confium^ miji tb^ piovi^ion^'Of said a«t, ^i^ 
4 



r 2 ] 50 

State is ' hereby notified that a portion of said money, viz : the sum of 
9 ) is required to be repaid to the United States by the State 

aforesaid, for the purposes named in said act, and in conformity with its 
provisions. 

Secretary of the TYeamry. 
Care of his Excellency 

Govemoit of said State. 

PThe repayment of the said sum to the Treasurer of the United States 
will be in one of the following modes^ which this department may in any 
particulix case prefer and direct, viz : 

1. Bv t request annexed to the above requisition to place the same to 
the credit of said Treasurer in the Bank of , at , 
on or before the day of next, and to take duplicate 
receipts therefor ; one of which receipts sent to the said Treasurer will be 
a sufficient voucher for the amount of said repayment on the part of said 
State. 

2. Or, by a request written by said Secretary on the back of a common 
Treasury warrant, directed to the State for payment by said Treasurer, 
that said State would pay the same ; and which warrant, with a receipt of 
.payment thereon, will be a sufficient voucher as aforesaid.] 



H 1. 

Circular from the Secretary of the Treasury with regard to the receipt^ 

and transmvimn by maU^ of bank notes. 

Treasury Department, 

September 22, 1789. 

Sir : In consequence of arrangements lattlv taken with the Bank of 
North America and the Bank of New York, for^je- accommodation of the 
Government, I am to inform you that it is my desh^ that the notes of those 
banks, payable either on demand, or at no longer period than thirty days 
after their retqpective dates, should be received m payment of the duties, as 
equivalent togold and silver ; and that they will be recei^d from you as 
such by the Treasurer of the United States. * 

This measure, besides the immediate accommodation to whi^i it has re- 
ference, will facilitate remittances £rom the several States, wi^obt drawing 
away their specie ; an advantage, in every view, important. 

I shall cause you shortly to be furnished with indications of the genuine 
notes as will serve to guard you against counterfeits, and shall direct the 
manner of remitting them. In the niean time, and until further orders, you 
will please to receive them, transmitting to me a weekly account of your 
receipts. 

The Treasurer of the United States will probably have occasion to draw 
upon you for part of the compensation of the memb^ of Congress from 
your State. These drafte you will also receive in payment of the duties, or 



51 [2] 

in 'exchange for any specie arising from ihem which shall have come to 
your hands. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

ALEXANDER HAMILTON, 

Secretary of the Treaaury. 
Otho H. Williams, 

Collector of the Customs for Baltimore, Maryland. 



H 2. 



Extract from a report of the Secretary of the 7Veasury,of April22, 1790, 

with regard to the collection law. 

Section 30. — This section provides for the receipt ef the duties in gold 
and silver coin only. The Secretary has considcted this provision as 
having for object the exclusion of payments in the paper emissions of the 
particular States, and the securing the immediate or ultimate collection of 
the duties in specie, as intended to prohibit to individuals the right of pajring 
in any thine except gold or silver coin, but not^ hinder the Treasury from 
making such arrangements as its exigencies^ the speedy command 'of tb^ 
public resources, and the convenience of <he community, might dictate ; 
those arraueements being compatible wi^A the eventual receipt of the duties 
in specie, r or instance : the Secretaiy did not imagine that the provision 
QUgnt to be so understood as to prevent if necessary, an anticipation of the 
duties bv Treasury drafts receivable at the several custom-houses. And, 
if it ought not to be understood in this sense, it appeared to him that the 
principle of a different constructi^tt would extend to the permitting the re- 
ceipt of the notes of public banl^s issued on a specie fund. Unless it can be 
supposed that the exchanging of specie, after it has been received for bank 
notes, to be remitted to the Treasury, is also interdicted, it seems difficult 
to conclude that the receipt of them, in the first instance, is forbidden. 

Such were the refiectidns of the Secretary with regard to the authority to 
permit bank notes to be taken in payment of the duties. The expediency 
of doing it appeared to him to be still less questionable. The extension of 
their circulation by the measure is calculated to increase both the ability 
and the incb'nation of the banks to aid the Government. It also accelerates 
the command of the product of the revenues for the public service, and it 
facilitates the payment of the duties. It has the first effect, because the 
course of business occasions the notes to be sent beforehand to distant 
places, and, being ready on the spot, either for payment or exchange, the 
first post after the duties become payable, or are received, convejrs them to 
Che Treasury. The substitution of Treasury drafls, anticipating the duties 
•ould hardly be made without some sacrifice on the part of the public, as 
they wotild be drawn upon time ; and upon the expectation of funds to' be 
collected, and, of course, contingent, it is not probable that they would ob- 
tain a ready sale, but at a discount, or upon long credit. As they would, 
also, be more or less liable to accident, from the failure of expected pay- 
ments, there would be continually a degree of hazard to public credit. 
And, to other considerations, it may be added, that the practice of antici^ 
pations of this kind is, in its nature, so capable of abuse, as to render it an 



[2] 62 

indtigible instrament of adauDisliatioQ in ordinary cases, and fit opiy for 
times of necessity. 

If the idea of anticipation should be excluded, then the relying wholly 
upon Treasury draAs would be productive of considerable delay. The 
knowledge that funds were in hand, must precede the issuing of them ; here 
would, 0? course, be some loss of time. And as the moment of demmid, 
created by the course of business, would frequently elapse, there would as 
frequently be a further loss of time in waiting for a new demand. In such 
intervals the public service would suffer, the specie would be locked up, 
and circulation checked. Bank notes being a convenient species of money, 
whatever increases their circulation increases the quantity of current money. 
Hence, the payment of duties is doubly promoted by their aid; they at once 
add to the quantity of medium, and serve to prevent the stagnation of specie. 

The tendency of the measure to lessen the necessity of drawing specie 
from distant places to the seat of Government results from the foregoing 
considerations. 1? he slow operation of Treasury drafte would frequently 
involve a necessity oC bringing on specie to answer the exigencies of Gov- 
ernment; the avoiding of which as much as possiblCi in the particular situa- 
tion of this country, ne«d not be insisted upon. 



I. 

Treasury Department, 

May — , 1837. 

Sir: As the painful information Ijas reached this department, through 
the public press^ that your bank has ^spended specie payments, the object 
of this leUer is to learn, oflicially, if that fact has nappened; and to receive 
such explanations concerning the reasoi^ for it, and the future course of 
your business, as it will be apparent are so ynportant for this department 
to know, under the existing liabilities and r«ations between you and the 
Government "^ 

While, on the one hand, it is deemed prop^that such indulgences 
should be granted by this department to its former fiscal agents as they 
may request, consistently with the laws and with l^ present state of tlie 
Treasury; it mus|. be apparent, on the other hand, that nothing can be 
granted which is likeljr to endangeir the safety of the public fiinds, and 
other important public interests. 

The imperative provisions of the act of June, 1836, make it the duty of 
this department to discontinue ordering any further sums of public money 
to' be placed with the deposite banks, after suspending specie paymentif. 
And hence you are notified, that no more can be thus deposited in your 
institution, provided such a failure to redeem your notes has actually 
occurred. 

It is also made my duty as soon as practicable to select other deposito- 
rijRS, and place with them the money of the United States in your posses- 
sion, as well as the accruing revenue ; but the department will endeavor to 
draw out the fimds in your hands by warrants and transfers, reasonable in 
their anH)Unt and in the periods of their payment. Such warrants and 
transfers, it is trusted, you will at all times be anxious and iable to meet, in a 
manner satu^actcury to all concerned ; not only with a view to fulfil faith* 



53 [ 2 ] 

fully your contract, and relieve the TMumry and ils creditors from embar- 
rassment and losses, but to exonerate yourselves and sureties from con- 
sequences equally injurious, inevitable, and unpleasant 

I trust, further, that you will continue to regard it your duCv, while a&y 
public money remains in your possession, to forward, regularly, all the 
returns and statements which are required by fowr agrdemeot— the mntual 
advantages from doing which, cannot fail to be obvious. 

The department wul also feel much obli^ if you will fbraish, as early 
as practicable, replies to the two following mquiries, in order that it may be 
in possession of such intelligence from you, in an authentic form, as will be 
useful to the community and the States, and very material for r^ulating 
properlythe future measures of the Treasury. Those inquiries are — 

1st. Whether you expect to resume specie payments soon, and what 
mode you propose to take fully and seasonably to indemnify, secure, and 
satisfy the Government and the public creditors for any breach of your 
agreement and bond ? 

2d. Whether, if you do not expect to resume specie piiyments soon, ^y 
particular time for it hereafter has been yet decided on, and what spe<^ial 
efforts or arrangements you intend to make for that very important object? 

I am, very re^iectfuUy, 

Tour obedient servant, 

LEVI WOODBUEY, 
Secretary of the JVeaeury. 

To the Cashier of the Bank. 



List of deposite banks discontinued under the deposile act of June^ 1886. 

Mercantile Bank, Bangor, Maine. 

Maine Bank, Portland, Maine. 

Cumberland Bank, Portland, Maine. 

Granite Bank, Augusta, Miune. 

York Bank, Saco, Maine. 

New Hampshire Bank, Portsmouth, New Hampshhts. 

Commercial Bank, Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 

Portsta&dtith Bank, Portsmouth, New Han^hire. 

Piscataqua Bank, Portsmoutii, New Hampshire. 

Merrimack County Bank, Concord, New Hampshire. 

Mechanics' Bank, Concord, New Hampshire. 

Merchants' Bank, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Commonwealth Bank, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Franklin Bank, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Fulton Bank, Boston, Masteiebusetts. 

Hancock Bank, Boston^ Massachusetts. 

Phosnix BflUik, Charlestown, Massachusetts. 

Bank of Burlington, Vermont. 

Bank of Windsor. Windsor, Vermont • 

duinebaug Bank, Norwich, Connecticut 

Farmers and Mechanics' Bank, Hartford, Connectidtit 

Mechanics' Bank, New Haven, Connecticut 

An»ule Bank, Providence, Rhode Island. 



[21 54 

Rhode Island Union Bonk, Newport, Rhode Idmid. 
Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, Albany, New York. 1^ 

Manhattan Company, New York, N. Y. 
Bank of America, New York, N. Y. 

Mechanics^ Bank, New York, N. Y. '-'J 

Seventh Ward Bank, New York, N. Y. 
Lafayette Bank, New York, N. Y. 
Phcenix Bank, New York, N. Y. 
Leather Manufacturers' Bank, New York, N. Y. 
Tradesmen's Bank, New York, N. Y. 

Dry Dock Company, New York, N. Y. -i 

Merchants' Bank, New York, N. Y. 
Union Bank, New York, N. Y. 
National Bank, New York, N. Y. 
Merchants' Exchemge Bank, New York, N. Y. 
Brooklyn Bank, Brooklyn, New York. 
Conmiercial Bank, Buffalo, New York. 
Troy Bank, Troy, New York. 
Trenton Banking Company, New Jersey. 

State Bank, Newark, New Jersey. ^ 

State Bank, Elizabeth, New Jersey. 
Girard Bank, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Moyamensing Bank, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Merchants and Manufacturers' Bank, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 
Bank of Wilmington and Brandywine, Wilmington, Delaware* 
Bank of Delaware, Wilmington, Delaware. 
Union Bank of Maryland, mltimore, Maryland. 
Franklin Bank, Baltimore, Maryland. 
Bank of the Metropolis, District of Columbia. 
Bank of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia 

Farmers' Bimk of Virginia, at Richmond, Virginia. > 

Bank of the State of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina. 
Planters and Mechanics' Bank, Charleston, South Carolina. 
Bank of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina. 
Bank of Augusta, Georgia. 
Branch Bank of Alabama, Mobile, Alabama. 
Union Bank of Louisiana, and branches. New Orleans, liOuisialuu 
Commercial Bank, New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Planters' Bank of Mississippi, and branches, Natchez, Mississippi. 
Agricultural Bank and branches, Natchez, Mississippi. 
Union Bank of Tennessee, Nashville, Tennessee. 
Planters' Bank and branches, Nashville, Tennessee. 
Bank of Kentucky and branches, Louisville, Kentucky. 
Northern Bank of Kentucky, at Lexington, and branch at Louisville, 
Kentucky. 
Clinton Bank of Columbus, Ohio. 
Franklin Bank of Columbus, Ohio. 
Bank of Chillicothe, Ohio. 
Franklin Bank, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Commercial Bank, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Agency of Commercial Bank at St. Louis, Missoim. 
Bank of Zanesville, Ohio. 



55 [ 2 ] 



Bank of Wooster, Ohio. 

Commercial Bank of Lake Erie at Cleaveland, Ohio, 
fiaak of deaveland at Cleavel^nd, Ohio. 
State Bank of Indiana, Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Illinois Bank, at Shawneetown, Illinois. 
Bank of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan. • 
Fanners and Mechanics' Bank of Detroit, Michigan. 
*Bank of JRiver Raisin, Mich4[an. 






■» « 



.L. 

List of present depasite bcmks under the act of June, 1836. 

People's Bank, Bangor, Maine. 
tBrooklyn Bank, Brooklyn, New York. 
Planters' Bank of Georgia, Savannah, Georgia. 
Insurance Bank of Columbus, Georgia. 
Louisville Savings Institution, Kentucky. 
Bank of the Stale of M^souri, St Louis. 



Ml. 

To Collectors of the Customs. 

Treasury Department, 

May 12, 1S37. 

If the bank where you deposite should suspend specie payments, you 
will vourself collect, and keep safely in your own hands, the public money 
for all duties at your port, until further directions are given to you by this 
department how to deposite, transfer, or pay it You must, of course, 
continue to adhere to the existing laws of Congress, and the former instruc* 
tions of the Treasury, in respect to the kind of money receivable for cus- 
toms ; and by which it is understood to be your duty to require payments 
to be made in specie, or the notes of specie-paying banks that are at par. 

LEVI WOODBURY, 
Secretary of the TYeastay. 



M 2. 

drcidar to receivers of public moneys. 

Treasury Department, 

May 12, 1837. 

If the bank where you deposite should suspend specie payments, you 
will keep in your own hancb, safely, the public money you have in posses- 
sion, or may hereafter receive, till further directions are given to you by 
this department how to deposite, transfer, or pay it, or any portion of it 
You win report to this department weekly, the anx>unt on hand. 

LEVI WOODBURY, 
Secretary of the Treasury* 

•Discontinaed by its reqaest, before the suspension of specie payments, 
t Reappointed when resumed specie payments. 



( 3 ] &e 

Circular insirttctians t9 coUeciors ef the euHoms^ and reeewers tf pvUie 

June9,l8BJ. 

Sir : Should all the banks in vonr vicinily, selected as depositoHes of 
the public money, have suspendea specie payments at any time so that yon 
can no longer legally deposite in tbem, as usual, to the credit of the Trea- 
surer, all public moneys received by you, except such sums as may be re- 
quired to meet the current expenses of your office, the payment of debea- 
ture certificates by collectors, &c. ; in other words, the sums yon would 
formerly have placed in bank to the credit of the Treasurer of the United 
States, will, under the present arrangements, be placed to his credit, in a 
separate account, on the books of your office. They will be drawn for^ by 
him, in the following manner, and no other : 

1st. By the Treasurer's draft on the officer having fundi to his credit, 
directing the payment ; which draft will be recorded by the R^fister 6S the 
Treasury, who will authenticate the record by bis s^^nature. A private 
letter of advice will be transmitted by the Treasurer in each case. 

2d. By a transfer draft signed as above, and approved hj the signature 
of the Secretary of the Treasury, for the purpose of transferring rands to 
some other point where they may be required for the service of the Crov- 
^nment. 

No deduction whatever is to he made from the moneys placed by you to 
the credit of the Treasurer, except in one of these two modes, nntu they 
can be lodged by you with some legal depository. 

On payment of any draft, the party to whom it is paid will receipt it- 
You will note on it the day of payment, will chai^ it on the same day to 
the Treasurer, and will transmit it to him with the return of his account 
in which it is charged. In charging these paym^ts, it will be proper to 
enter each draft separately, and to state the numb^ and kmd of draft, 
whether transfer, or on Treasury, War, or Navy warrants, and the 
amount. 

It is also necessary that the Treasurer's account be closed weekly with 
the conclusion of Saturdays' business, aud transcripts thereof forwarded inr 
duplicate— one copy to the Secretary of the Treasury, and one to the Trea- 
surer. When the quarter of the year terminates on any other day of the 
week, the account should be closed on the last day of the quarter — leaving 
for an additional return the transaction^ from that time to the close of the 
week : so that neither the receipts nor payments of different quarters be in- 
duded in one return. Punctuality in transmitting the returns is indispen- 
aiMe. 

To produce uniformity in the manner of making the returns of the Tree- 
carer's account, a form is herewith transmitted. For the purpose of bind- 
ing, it is requested that they be made on paper of nearly the same size. 
Your monthly returns must be rendered to the department as beretc^ore. 

When the pnUic money shall have accumulated in your hands to an 
amouDt exceeding dollars, you can make a special deposite o( the 

same, in your name, for safekeeping in the nearest bank in which you have 
heretofore deposited the public money, and which will receive the same, lo^ 



57 [ 2 ] 

be held bjr it, specially subject to the payment of checks or drafts drawn by 
the Treasurer of the United States on the officer by whom the same has 
been deposited. 

LfiYI WOODBURY, 
Secretary of the Treasury. 



O. 

Extract Jrtnn Treasury Report, April 22el, 1790, to the House of 

Representatives. 

<< As connected with the difficulties that have occurred in the execution 
of the laws, which is the subject of this report, the Secretary begs leare, in 
the last place, to mention the want of an officer in each State, or other con- 
siderable sub-division of the United States, having the general superin- 
tendence of all the officers of the revenue within such State or such diti^ 
sion. 

^ Among the inconveniences attending it, is a great difficulty in drawing 
from the more remote ports the moneys which are there collected. As the 
course of business creates little or no demand at the seat of Government, 
or in its vicinity, for drafts upon such places, negotiations, in this way, are 
either very dilatory or impracticable ; neither does the circulation of bank 

Cper, from the same cause, extend to them. This embarrassment would 
remedied by having one person in each State, or in a district of the 
United States, of convenient extent, chai]ged with the receipt of all the 
moneys arising within it, and placed, in pomt of residence, where there was 
the ^eatest intercourse with the seat of Grovemment. This would neatly 
facilitate negotiations between the Treasury and distant parts of the Union, 
and would contribute to lessening the necessity of the transportation of 
spede." 



12] 



58 

P. 



STATEMENT of the number and amount of warrants drawn on the 
United States Bank and Branches^ and the other banks which were 
depositories of the public moneys^ during the year ending December 
31,1834 



EASTERN STATES. 



' 


Place. 




No.QfwarTanls. 


Amount. 


Portland 


■> «• » 


. 


76 


- 

$142,020 00 


Portsmouth 


•• » ^ 


- 


48 


145,762 00 


Boston - 


- - - 


• 


296 


2,610,636 00 


Salem - 


- 


.■k 


16 


56,960 00 


Providence 


" » • 


- 


30 


86,635 00 


Newport 


- 


• 


16 


16,724 00 


Bristol, Rhode Island - 


- 


14 


43,372 00 


Hartford 


- 


• 


14 


129,499 00 


Middletown, Connecticut 


- 


10 


2,215 00 


New UaveH 


- . . 


. 


43 


64,328 00 


Burlington 






41 


78,886 00 




603 


3,377,026 00 


New London 


B • a 


. 


.. 




Bath - 


* • , • 


- 




■ 



MIDDLE STATES. 



New York 

Utica - 

Bufialo 

Philadelphia 

Harrisburg 

Pittsburg 

Baltimore 

Washington 

Georgetown 

Alexandria 



Albany - 
Newciistle 



874 


6,275,628 00 


13 


8,278 00 


21 


9,490 00 


438 


6,166,461 00 


1 


800 


76 


88,978 00 


237 


689,328 00 


1,468 


4,163,631 00 


1 


60,000 00 


10 


2,041 00 


3,129 


16,463,843 00 


- 


— 



STATEMENT P— OoBtimied. 



[a] 



SOUTHERN STATES. 



Place. 


No. of warrants. 


AmoonL 


Richmond .... 
Norfolk- - - - 
Petersbuiv . • . . 
Faj^etteville, North Carolina 

Charleston, Son th Carolina 

Savannah .... 

Augosta .... 


76 

111 

4 

44 
162 

63 

10 


$196,368 00 

696,744 00 

11,104 00 

71,756 00 

344,278 00 

164,370 00 

4,182 00 


Fredericksbuig .... 
Lynchburg .... 


469 


1,488,792 00 



SOUTHWESTERN STATES. 



Mobile - - - . . 
New Orleans .... 
Natchez 
Nashville 


• 

128 

192 

62 

63 


640,174 00 
988,561 00 
161,633 00 
115,931 00 


Columbus, Mississippi - 


426 


1,796,289 00 



WESTERN STATEa 



St. Louis 
Louisville 
Lexington 
Cincinnati 
Detroit - 




642,291 00 
211,248 00 
84,413 00 
632,971 00 
621,409 00 

1,892,332 00 



. A 



[2] 



STATOraSNT P— OMtinaed. 



SUfiOlART. 





No. cf warrants. 


Amonnt 


Eastern States .... 

Middle States .... 

Southern iStates 

Southwestern States 

Western States .... 


603 
3,129 
459 
426 
383 


$3,377,026 00 

16,463,843 00 

1,488,792 00 

1,7%,289 00 

1,892,332 00 


( 


4,999 


26,008,282 09 



Average about $6,000 for each warrant. 

Not 1 per each day in each State. 

Not 1 per each week in some States. 

About 4 each day in Washington city. 

About 2 each day in New York. 

Not over 1 each day elsewhere in any case. 



t«] 



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ll:3S 


j 

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ii 


tnmn 1 




i^slSI 1 




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i 


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siiiis E 


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p.issg 1 


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S8§ilS g 


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P°--"- ?■ 


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is 



1.1 



illi 


»I8,606 75 
8,609 15 
12,637 97 

28,757 81 

12,429 £0 
16,632 00 
12,675 00 

6,684 01 
16,800 00 

3,168 08 

140,541 62 

4,394 11 

3,916 07 


:i 


$36,639 68 
16,260 00 
8,000 00 
82 42 
7,848 54 
20 00 
8,814 60 
10,148 96 
8,200 00 
9,700 00 
21,920 76 
18,236 97 

17,736 67 

86 49 

503 15 

16,160 OO 

8,i90 00 
14,930 00 


1 

F 

5 


$34,246 33 

23,869 16 

20,637 97 

82 42 

7,848 64 

28,777 81 

8,814 60 

22,678 46 

23,732 00 

22JS75 00 

21,820 76 

24,920 98 

16,800 00 

17,736 67 

85 49 

603 15 

18,318 08 

140,541 62 

12,784 11 

18,845 07 


i 
1 

1 

it 
■si 


Maine Bank, Portland, Maine - 
CnmteTland Bank, Portland, Maine 
People's Bank, Banjjor, iMnine - - - .1 
York Bank, Saco, Maine - - . .\ 
New Hampshire Bank, Porlsmonth, New Hampshire - 
Commercial Bank, Portsmouth, New Hampshire 
Porlsmonth Bank, Porlsmonth, New Hampshire 
Piscataqua Bank, Portsmouth, New Hampshire - 
Merrimack ronnty Bank, Concord, New Ham[>shire 
Mechanics' Bank, Concord, New Hampshire 
iVlerchanls' B;uik, Boston, Massachnselta 
Commonwealth Bank, Boston, Massachusells - 
Franklin Bank, Boston, Massachusetts - 
Fulton Bank, Boston, Massachusells - 
Bank of Burlington, Tennom . - - . 
Bank of Windsor, Windsor, Vermont - 
Mercantile Bank, Bangor, Maine 

Metropolis (special) 

Quinebaug Bank, Norwich, Connecticut 
Mflchanios* Bank, New Raven, Connecticut 


oa>o>a»0)«ei^Ma,a)a,aoo>. AiooiCDO),-* 
1 -J " '°^ 



3 §i 






BS S"?" 



[2] 

too Oi U3 O IS o 



gssssssssssssssss 






Mm — t-" 






DO OO-^C 

lO« W-'S'^piSlS- 












■1^^ 





















5-1 



-lis 
fJIs 



iSir. 






S 1.S 




[*] 



II, 


s 


u 


^ssss 


s 


ssss 


s 


sgsu 


zs 


1 


1 


6,923 
1,070 
9,778 
7,692 
6,470 
8,987 


8,171 
1,960 
8,713 
6,231 


s 


siii 


ll 






ss> 


.^^IS 




'g'-S 







Pi I S2SSSS2SSgSS3S§ gCfegSfeSS 









o C13 oi to nn 9 K -^ a>$ic tt IS oob'«os^SS 



(Off. o — ocDOaieooaSio — ^ftj-ef^iDBi-ioiroCT 






Sis" 



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i , 



si 



l§ 



«l*^|' 



51 •"iitiiiitasii 



J 52 
5TS = "C t,e ji^ 



= c = c = a-i 6 3T-S g'3 3 C^ C Se S £ S c 



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till 



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SSgSSgggSSS 


2 


o 




"* 


sSl^c^S^s^Sc^^ 


s 


s-'mm^m 


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(S 






Sg s ssss 


o> 


,211 
630 

634 

870 
,635 
,710 
,000 


s 


"» 


S gg*i 


1 


SSSfeSSSSSSgS 


s 


60,688 
20,097 
11,767 
139,376 
249,202 
322,793 
20,000 
39,796 
621,993 
376,067 
835,675 


to 


i 




' . ■ « . r o ■ ' ' ' ■ 




§ a § § n 




1 mil 1 






o ' -£ >; ti"^ '^ 




f Mill ! 






»icial Bank of Ufe 

of Cleayeland, Clea 
h of Stale Bank of 
h of Stale Bank of 
hof Stale Bank of I 
hof State Bankof In. 
hof Slate Bankof] 
s Bank at Shawnee 
of Michigan, Delro 
?r9 and Mechanics' 
to procdre metal foi 






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5 








is. 
is 

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ll 

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lis 

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fill 

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[2] 60 

S. 

Treasury Department, 

May 24, 1837. 

To the President op the United States. 

Sir : In consequence of the recent suspension of specie payments by 
most of the banks in which tb^ disbursing officers of the Government made 
their deposites of pubhc money, the undersigned has deemed it proper to 
take the opinion of the Attorney General on the effect of that measure upon 
those deposites ; and, in conseq[ueno(5 thereof, submits the following recom- 
mendations to the President : 

1st. That all those officers be instruc;ted, by the several departments to 
which they belong, to make their subsequent deposites in those banks only 
which pay specie, if such can conveniently be resorted to for that purpose. 

2d. That, in the event of there being none such, they are to be instructed 
to deposite in those banks which are willing to give, and do give, such 
written oWigation as the nearest district at^rney of the United States may 
deem sufficient and safe to secure the return of the deposites punctually, 
when wanted, in such kind of money as was pViced in said banks ; and 

3d. That the existing deposites of those officers, whenever not now in 
such banks, and not soon expended, be withdrawn,and placed within them 
as far as practicable. • 

KespectfuUy, yours, 

LEVI WOODBURY, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 

Approved : M. Van Buren, President, 

Let a copy of the above be sent to each department. 

M. VAN BUREN, Presideni. 



T. 

Circtdar to collectors of the customs and receivers of public mmieys. 

Treasury Department, 

ifay 17, 1837. 

Sir : You will receive, enclosed, the blank form in which the Treasurer 
of the United States will, hereafter, issue his drafts in convenient sums for 
payments to the creditors of the Government, and for advances made, in 
pursuance of law, to disbursinjg officers, with the signatures of the Treasu- 
rer and Register written on its face, for information as to their band- 
writing. 

The warrants on which these drafls may be issued will be retained in 
the possession of the Treasurer ; and the drafts will be directed for jmyment, 
•ither to a cashier of a bank, a collector of the customs, or a receiver of 
public moneys, as the convenience of the service niay require. For greater 
flafety, DOtice will be given by the Treasurer to the bank, collector, or 
noeiver, on whom they shall be drawn, statin? the date, number, and 
MQcmnt of each draft drawn on them respectiyefy, and also the name of 
ibe person or persons in wbxse favor they issue. 



«7 [ 4 3 

If the drafts on the banks be not seasonably discharged on presentment^ 
the collectors and receivers are requested to redeem them by receiving them 
in payment for duties or public lands, provided that before they shall be 
received by any such collector or receiver, a certificate that they have 
been properly presented to the bank^ and not paid, shall be famished. 
This certificate will be given on the back of them by the cashier of the 
bank on which they are drawn ; or, on his failure to give such cer- 
tificate, or his signature not bdng known or verified to the collector and 
the receiver, the Treasurer of the United States, on a return of the checks 
to him, and his being convinced, by any evidence, that the bank declines 
to pay them in a manner satisfactory to the holder, will himself make a 
certificate thereon, which will justify the abovenamed officers in taking 
them up in the manner before described. 

The drafts so received by you will immediately be cancelled by a cross 
with ink, on their face, ancl a hole cut through the centre of them. Re- 
taining a schedule of the numbers and amount of each, you will then 
transmit .them, weekly, to the Treasurer of the United States ; and the 
officers by whom they were taken up will, on their receipt by the Treasu- 
rer, obtain credits in their accounts with the United States for the amount 
of such as are correct. You will also return to him, weekly, a statement 
of the gross amount of checks taken up, and of the gross amount of money 
on hand. 

The banks on which these checks are drawn, if paying them, will be 
oxpected to act in a similar manner as to cancelling and returning them 
weekly to the Treasurer. 

LEVI WOODBURY, 

Secretary of the Treamry. 



[21 



68 



V 

ST A TEMENT of the condition of the several deposite banks, according 

Auffustj 



STATES. 



MAINE 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



VERMONt 
MASSACHUSETTS 



CONNECTICUT - 

RHODE ISLAND - 
NEW YORK 



NEW JERSEY 



PENNSYLVANIA 



DELAWARE 
MARYLAND 

DISTR'T OP COLUMBIA 
VIRGINIA - 



NORTH CAROLINA 



Names and location of banks. 



Maine Bank, at Portland - - - 

Bank of Cumberland) Portland - 

Granite Bank, Augusta - - - 

People's Bank, Bangor - - - 

York Bank, Saco - 

Mercantile Bank, Bangor - • - 

Commercial Bank, Portsmouth 

Merrimack County Bank, Concord 

Portsmouth Bank, Portsmouth 

New Hampshire bank, Portsmouth 

Piscata^ua Bank, Portsmouth 

Mechanics' Bank, Concord 

Bank of Burlington ... 

Bank of Windsor - - - . 

Merchants' Bank, Boston ... 

Hancock Bank, Boston ... 

Fulton Bank, Boston ... 

Franklin Bank, Boston ... 

Commonwealth Bank, Boston 

Phoenix Bank, Charlestown 

Mechanics' Bank, New Haven 

Farmers and Mechanics' Bank, Hartford 

Gluinebaug Bank, Norwich 

Arcade Bank, Providence - - - 

Rhode Island Union Bank. Newport 

Lafayette Bank, New YorK 

Seventh Ward Bank, New York - 

Manhattan Company, New York - 

Bank of America, New York 

Leather Manufacturers' Bank, New York 

Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, Albany - 

Mechanics' Bank, New York 

Phoenix Bank, New York - - - 

Merchants' Bank, New York 

Tradesmen's Bank, New York 

Union Bank. New Yofk ... 

Brookljm Bank, Br6oklyn ... 

Bank of Troy, Troy 

Merchants' Exchange Bank, New York - 

National Bank, New York 

Trenton Banking Company, Trenton 

State Bank, at Newark ... 

State Bank, &t Elizabethtown 

Girard Bank, at Philadelphia 

Moyamensing Bank, Philadelphia 

Merchants and Manufacturers' Bank, Pittsburg 

Bank of Delaware, Wilmington - 

Franklin Bank of Baltimore 

Union Bank of Maryland, Baltimore 

Bank of the Metropolis, Washington 

Bank of Virginia and branches - 

Farmers' Bank of Virginia, Richmond - 

Branch of ditto, at Winchester 

Bank of the State, at Raleigh 



Date of 
return. 



Aug. 12 

14 

July 15 

Aug. 15 

13 

15 

14 

15 

12 

19 

14 

15 

17 

1 

15 

July 15 

May 1 

June 15 

Aug. 16 

July 31 

Aug. 14 

20 

15 

15 

13 

8 

- July 34 
Aug. IG 
14 
July 31 
Aug. 15 
15 
16 
II 
July 31 
Aug. 19 
15 
15 
1 
16 
15 
17 
July 31 
29 
Aug. 9 
9 
July 1 
Aug. 14 
81 



- 



15 

15 

17 

July 15 



I 



99 



t «] 



U, 

49 returns received at the Trecuury Department, on or near the I6th day of 
1837. 



Loans and discounts. 



$318,100 31 
353,064.69 
94,^1 55 
85,894 88 
136,822 66 
108,802 54 
257,275 26 
134,396 83 
114,051 50 
163,984 47 
494,992 93 
115,094 73 
138,323 67 
126,795 33 

1,439,586 01 
953,008 09 
762,851 87 
289,606 13 

1,002,788 04 
443,946 51 
256,079 60 
378,307 27 
486,432 11 
364,811 39 
140,256 63 
866,591 47 
842,186 49 

3,820,523 05 

3,755,922 75 

1,185,104 63 
733,408 56 

3,666,808 89 

2,234,180 97 

3,409,596 00 
807,114 55 

^,296,696 85 
287,597 45 
939,660 64 

1,576,541 07 

1,246,270 02 
441 ,952 00 
397,852 66 
272,603 27 

6,628,950 28 
452,854 86 

1,247,524 99 
301,910 34 
954,066 31 

3,254,194 76 
1,126,577 65 

^,689,162 26 

1,804,455 34 

253,505 03 

12,381,339 53 



Bills of exchange. 



$108,931 00 
74,309 70 
41 ,076 67 
36,017 92 

187858 30 
7,766 89 

77699 63 

2,853 47 

181,178 39 

937885 33 

4,200 00 

783,825 34 

32,754 62 

110,320 81 

14,800 00 
15,308 96 
87,600 15 
159,205 33 
57,133 91 
86,700 15 
23,735 49 



212,315 48 
196,500 00 

204,260 22 



22,650 00 
481,^89 

3787321 13 

1327754 33 
407,864 78 
197,895 15 
872,940 67 
360,749 77 

31l7405 80 



Suspended debt 



96,831 31 
653 25 



570 41 

9,488 81 
22,599 16 
16,985 00 

8,971 56 



11,813 00 



12,000 00 



39,030 00 

32,600 04 

11,100 00 

2,139 31 



110,789 26 



1,207,190 37 

121,182 00 

8,975 36 

51,611 62 

110,483 64 



791 

35,571 

9,839 

24,308 

722 

108,328 

1,151 

5,352 

6,385 

9,6*4 

162,3(5 

12,383 

1,202,865 

63,097 

135,500 

309,499 



86 
27 
00 
97 
70 
99 
26 
04 
98 
04 
56 
03 
84 
58 
00 

n 



Stocks. 



$8,919 47 
4,200 00 



210,000 00 
37,700 00 
26,190 00 

15,000 00 



54,544 41 



^,620 00 
140 00 

534,210 36 

dl,336 17 
198,991 43 
750,4W«3 

16,8d0 00 

368,181 66 

4,900 00 



C«l 



70 



STATEMENT U 



8TAT£S. 



MAINE 



JSTEW HAMPSHIRE 



VERMONT 
MASSACHUSETTS 



CONNECTICUT - 

RHODE ISLAND - 
-NEW YORK 



NEW JERSEY 



PENNSYLVANIA 



DELAWARE 
MARYLAND 

DISTR'T OP COLUMBIA 
VIRGINIA - 



NORTH CAROLINA 



Names and location of banks. 



Maine Bank, at Portland ... 

Bank of Cumberland, Portland 

Granite Bank, Augusta 

People's Bank, Bangor - - . 

York Bank, Saco - - - . - 

Mercantile Bank. Bangor - - - , 

Commercial Bank,, Porusmouth - 

Merrimack County Bank, Concord 

Portsmouth Bank, Portsmouth 

New Hampshire Bankr Portsmouth 

Piscataqua Bank, Portsmouth 

Mechanics' Bank, Concord 

Bank of Burlington , - 

Bank of Windsor - - - - 

Merchants' Bank, Boston ... 

Hancock Bank, Boston ... 

Fulton Bank, Boston - 

Franklin Bank, Boston ... 

Commonwealth Bank, Boston 

Phoeniz Bank, Charlestown 

Mechanics' Bank, New Haven 

Farmers and Mechanics' Bank, Hartford 

Gtuinebaug Btmk, Norwich 

Arcade Bank^ Providence 

Rhode Island Union Bank, Newport - , 

Lafayette Bank, New York 

Seventh Ward Bank, New York - 

Manhattan Companv, New York - 

Bank of America, New York 

Leather Manufacturers' Bank, New York 

Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, Albany - 

Mechanics' Bank, New York 

Phoenix Bank, New York ... 

Merchants' Bank, New York 

Tradesmen's Bank, New York 

Union Bank, New York - 

Brooklyn Bank, Brooklyn ... 

Bank of Troy, Troy 

Merchants' Exchange Bank, New Yoric - 

National Bank, New York - - . 

Trenton Banking Company, Trenton 

State Bank, at Newark ... 

State Bank, at Elizabethtown 

Girard Bank, at Philadelphia 

Moyamensing Bank, Philadelphia 

Merchants and Manufacturers' Bank, Pittsburg 

Bank of Delaware^ Wilmington - 

Franklin Bank of Baltimore 

Union Bank of Maryland, Baltimore 

Bank of the Metropolis, Washington 

Bank of Virginia and branches - 

Farmers' Bank of Virginia, Richmond - 

Branchof ditto, at Winchester 

Bank of the State, at Raleigh 



Date of 


return. 


Aug. 


12 




14 


July 


15 


Aug. 


15 




13 




15 




14 




15 




12 




19 




14 




15 




17 




I 




15 


July 


15 


May 


1 


June 


15 


Aug. 


16 


July 


31 


Aug. 


14 




20 




15 




15 




12 




8 


July 


34 


Aug. 


16 




14 


July 


31 


Aug. 


15 




15 




16 




11 


July 


31 


Au» 


19 




15 




15 




1 




15 




15 




17 


July. 


31 




'29 


Aug. 


9 




9 


July 


1 


Aug. 


14 




21 




15 




15 




17 


July 


15 




22 



71 



[^] 



-^Continued. 



Real estate. 



Other 
investments. 







. 


«, 


S5,8i32 25 


- 


4,427 62 


8147 48 


12,000 00 


- 


4,671 65 


I 


5,616 93 


_ 


8,979 12 


- 


1,465 98 


'lO 56 


500 00 


^ 


4,000 00 


«, 


110,000 00 


- 


23,873 86 


- 


5,000 00 


^ 


8, €25 17 


47,578 21 


14,769 41 


13,959 84 


12,937 17 


3,107 47 


18,798 66 


I 


8,700 00 


5,416 67 


6,105 00 


18,227 10 


390,534 48 


417,270 46 


113,467 19 


2,696,185 71 




16,961 r>4 


20,000 00 


303,709 13 


71,569 90 


54,727 54 


63,542 45 


84,340 08 


44,207 00 


35,479 00 


24>000 00 


11,000 00 


32,106 10 


29,347 22 


11,265 10 


4,175 00 


12,000 00 


13,200 00 


20,376 18 


19,941 78 


29,637 67 


20,634 06 


5,141 00 


,. 


10,075 67 


. 


14,776 00 


_ 


^ 


676,654 79 


16,172 00 


- 


27,723 64 




42,874 93 


6,665 42 


152,366 95 


27,850 12 


27,028 84 


3,170 17, 


303,565 25 


399,710 69 


91,330 81 


236,449 82 


22,490 18 


. 


35,311 13 


- 



Expenses. 



$918 32 
945 28 

597 56 
255 35 
585 08 
3,530 91 
866 15 

"37 66 

415 33 

30 50 

1,005 83 

5,091 91 

2,075 

3,593 

89 32 
9,273 00 
2,425 83 

1,920 94 

805 98 

188 06 

4 64 

2,79.0 27 

6,625 75 

4,544 91 

622 85 

24,422 28 

6,149 06 

5,226 00 

497 07 
6,081 78 
5,570 74 

300 15 
1,428 02 
5,456 35 

1,^ 01 
1,494 23 
7,425 36 
3,131 82 
4,708 72 

351 00 
7,281 60 
2,856 49 

659 05 
9,780 85 
1,520 07 

3,951 78 



Balance.s due from 
banks. 



$33 

4 

28 

5 

31 

46 

101 

55 

38 

14 

38 

37 

48 

17 

506 

54 

39 

42 

238 

21 

15 

43 

25 

50 

23 

65 

170 

975 

1,264 

447 

161 

952 

1,845 

2,699 

97 

508 

45 

378 

077 

32 

60 

24 

1,138 

50 

565 

27 

114 

400 

179 

687 

26 

63 

308 



807 69 
129 26 
094 53 

698 69 
118 03 
244 41 
690 68 
087 61 
749 85 
413 66 
903 96 
802 76 
975 20 
765 12 
653 46 
289 65 
649 41 
570 64 
000 00 
145 36 
903 59 
987 09 
969 04 
156 29 
907 48 
416 62 
622 31 
836 45 
143 19 
445 84 
309 63 
613 00 
521 14 
870 00 
434 80 
337 31 

143 86 
202 12 
034 22 
221 00 
493 05 
543 99 
620 48 
251 16 
615 61 
606 88 
225 40 

699 05 
599 00 
898 70 
206 46 
503 15 
770 48 



Notes of other 
banks on hand. 



$8,889 00 

24,488 35 

36,669 00 

2,063 00 

85 00 

1,790 00 

16,618 45 

4,911 00 

2,705 23 

6,835 00 

5,303 39 

3,357 00 

5,353 98 

5,020 00 

256,589 00 

200,491 00 

172,726 00 

2,250 88 

280,090 23 

10,387 00 

8,383 00 

16,780 00 

4,281 11 

91,470 00 

1,718 00 

35,735 41 

38,910 84 

438,843 17 

343,532 89 

271,296 19 

51,798 00 

342,063 00 

370,700 25 

846,179 00 

39,580 50 

399,769 75 

21 ,452 70 

47,572 30 

454,520 35 

169,938 68 

31,918 00 

57,491 32 

6,220 00 

264,914 14 

39,085 00 

192,124 00 

7,326 19 

160,636 96 

281,398 89 

172,569 67 

134,020 06 

99,486 73 

15,733 15 

78,607 00 



[23 



72 



STATEMENT U 




STATES. 



MAINE 



KEW HAMPSHIRE 



VERMONT 
MASSACHUSETTS 



CONNECTICUT - 

RHODE ISLAND - 
NEW YORK 



NEW JERSET 



PENNSYLVANIA 



DELAWARE 
MARYLAND 

DISTRT OP COLUMBIA 
VIRGINIA - 



NORTH CAROLINA 



Maine Bank, at Portland . . - 

Bank of Cumberland, Portland - 

Granite Bank, Augusta 

People's Bank, Bangor - - - 

YorK Bank, Saco - - - - 

Mercantile Bank. Bangor - . - 

Commercial Bank, Portsmouth - 

Merrimack County Bank, Concord 

Portsmouth Bank, Portsmouth 

New Hampshire Bank, Portsmouth 

Piscataq[ua Bank, Portsmouth 

Mechanics' Bank, Concord 

Bank of Burlington ... 

Bank of Windsor . - - - 

Merchants'^ Bank, Boston ... 

Hancock Bank, Boston . . - 

Fulton Bank, Boston ... 

Franklin Bank, Boston ... 

Commonwealth Bank, Boston 

Phoenix Bank, Charlestown 

Mechanics' Bank, New Ha7en 

Farmers and Mechanics' Bank, Hartford 

Glainebaag Bemk, Norwich 

Arcade Bank, Providence^ 

Rhode Island Union Bank, Newport 

Lafayette Bank, New York 

Seventh Ward Bank, New York - 

Manhattan Company, New York - 

Bank of America, New York 

Leather Manufacturers' Bank. New York 

Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, Albany • 

Mechanics' Bank, New York 

Phoenix Bank, New York - . - 

Merchants'^ Bank, New York 

Tradesmen's Bank, New York 

Union Bank, New York - - - 

Brookljm Bank, Brooklyn - - - 

Bank of Troy, Troy - - - 

Merchants' Exchange Bank, New YcM'k - 

National Bank, New York 

Trenton Banking Company, Trenton 

State Bank, at Newark - - - 

State Bank, at Elizabethtown 

Girard Bank, at Philadelphia 

Moyamensing Bank, Philadelphia 

Merchants and Manufaeturers' Bonk, Pittsburg 

Bank of Delaware, Wilmington - 

Franklin Bank of Baltimore 

Union Bank of Maryland, Baltimbre 

Bank of the Metropolis, Washington 

Bank of Virginia and branches 

Farmers' Bank of Virginia, Richmond - 

Branch of ditto, at Winchester 

Bank of the State, at Raleigh 



Date of 


return. 


Aug. 


12 




14 


July 


15 


Aug. 


15 




13 




15 




14 




15 




12 




19 




14 




15 




17 




1 




15 


July 


15 


May 


1 


June 


15 


Aug. 


16 


July 


31 


Aug. 


14 




ao 




15 




15 




13 




8 


July 


34 


Aug. 


16 




14 


July 


31 


Aug. 


15 




15 




16 




11 


July 


31 


Aug. 


19 




15 




15 




1 




15 




15 




17 


July 


31 




29 


Aug. 


9 
9 
1 


July 


Aug. 


14 




31 




15 




15 




17 


July 


15 




28 



73 



[21 



-^Continued. 





Circulation. 


• 


DEP08ITB8. 




specie on hand. 

* 












Treasnrer of the 


Public officers. 


All other 






United States. 




depositors. 


$18,476 31 


$28,417 00 


$54,366 16 


$17,163 96 


$60,168 4^ 


30,688 33 


107,680 00 


29,949 15 


^ 


53,279 33 


16,091 65 


47,600 00 


3,420 00 


_ 


69,532 33 


1^,516 36 


11,418 00 


90,537 97 


ak 


4,216 11 


12,907 12 


44,076 00 


82 49 


^^ 


35,548 13 


12,625 29 


54,520 00 


18,318 08 


15,168 68 


4,902 42 


12,773 48 


80,738 00 


98,797 81 


45,849 73 


50,608 29 


8,443 26 


19,459 00 


93,732 00 


47,681 63 


4,143 34 


7,697 97 


35,438 00 


8,814 50 


^ 


28,299 85 


8,012 07 


40,658 00 


7,848 54 


^ 


26,821 78 


32,521 61 


118,984 00 


92,578 46 


^^ 


28,779 28 


7,850 82 


49,948 00 


a2,275 00 


^ 


9,916 96 


22,291 95 


92,225 00 


85 49 


36,760 16 


91,597 69 


12,970 09 


46,773 00 


503 15 


98,606 13 


1,558 09 


163,078 11 


211,272 00 


96,890 75 


45,857 45 


162,434 16 


14,362 50 


131,752 00 


4,884 49 


71,090 65 


362,126 81 


60,052 25 


118,489 00 


173,155 68 


^ 


923,730 80 


38,053 76 


102,871 50 


54,000 00 


^ 


71,652 96 


40,172 98 


203,965 00 


94,920 98 


100,985 65 


483,053 50 


8,099 62 


83,164 00 


«, 


11,619 93 


93,199 13 


35,170 40 


62,345 00 


91,855 07 


3,444 00 


58,652 38 


29,450 87 


42,802 00 


. 


108,895 18 


58,293 97 


8,003 68 


55,570 00 


19,784 11 


^ 


43,679 55 


40,295 71 


42,980 00 


1,616 95 


43,942 41 


43,858 75 


13,227 82 


24,144 00 


3,816 81 


^ 


20,571 14 


42,919 44 


109,480 00 


49,000 00 


40,000 00 


142,999 37 


77,569 23 


66,765 00 


35,508 05 


^ 


935,504 56 


909,370 71 


426,665 92 


939,127 39 


131,011 84 


9,409,511 73 


613,931 68 


425,419 00 


461,377 16 


940,434 02 


1,203,545 88 


78,628 07 


139,965 00 


72,089 29 


_ 


560,639 34 


70,979 07 


164,683 00 


91 ,310 28 


34,871 84 


994,559 69 


43,309 00 


417,177 00 


314,861 ^ 


^ 


1,796,938 33 


151,890 20 


382,537 23 


8,438 08 


^ 


828,949 10 


42,616 00 


753,987 00 


64,566 00 


1,773 00 


1,361,276 00 


33,214 58 


40,388 00 


36,987 05 


,» 


302,745 04 


134,705 80 


443,052 38 


52,750 93 


^ 


880,705 32 


4,920 10 


22,256 00 


94,616 35 


3,003 18 


84,742 16 


18,264 20 


87,184 11 


40 00 


33,775 51 


85,306 88 


54,612 73 


171,558 00 


98,538 91 


^ 


487,571 44 


76,933 37 


285,555 00 


92,734 12 


6,000 00 


775,136 M 
49,050 00 


37,910 00 


124,355 00 


99,756 00 


41,761 00 


44,854 79 


38,595 00 


55,750 49 


7,745 94 


50,822 78 


18,651 40 


36,566 00 


95,000 00 


^ 


42,970 28 


830,714 36 


777,474 69 


319,183 75 


659,841 89 


441,038 87 


59,622 91 


92,930 00 


5,591 57 


80,712 56 


105,191 94 


177,564 90 


477,400 00 


_ 


145,708 25 


433,743 93 


26,111 88 


141,736 50 


34,815 50 


^ 


92,492 98 


63,428 20 


350,947 00 


97,099 03 


99,597 65 


320,617 90 


75,708 75 


237,640 00 


919,283 06 


79,961 23 


1,941,035 70 


44,418 49 


364,920 36 


9,139 96 


481,599 98 


152,062 64 


426,429 76 


2,812,088 31 


395,066 64 


169,246 82 


1,393,541 06 


155,198 45 


516,711 00 


148,467 35 


^ 


433,628 85 


15,157 16 


925,270 00 


7,386 88 


6,918 00 


13,181 04 


509,477 63 


1,391,550 00 


168,548 19 


25,316 82 


585,910 53 



[2 3 



74 



STATEMENT U 



STATES. 



MAINE 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



VERMONT 
MASSACHUSETTS 



CONNECTICUT 

RHODE ISLAND 
NEW YORK 




NEW JERSEY 



PENNSYLVANIA 



DELAWARE 
MARYX-AND 

DIST'RT OF COLUMBIA 
VIRGINIA - 



NORTH CAROLINA 



Maine Bank, at Portland - - - 

Bank of Cumberland, Ponland - 

Granite Bank, Augusta ... 

People's Bank, Bangor - - - \ 

York Bank, Saco - - - - . 

Mercantile Bank. Bangor ... 

Commercial Bank, Portsmouth 

Merrimack County Bank, Concord 

Portsmouth Bank, Portsmouth 

New Hampshire Bank, Portsmouth 

Piscataqua Bank, Portsmouth 

Mechanics' Bank, Concord 

Bank of Burlington ... 

Bank of Windsor - - • - 

Merchants' Bank, Boston ... 

Hancock Bank, Boston 

Fulton Bank, Boston 

Franklin Bank, Boston ... 

Commonwealth Bank, Boston 

Phoenix Bank, Charlestown > 

Mechanics' Bank, New Haven 

Farmers and Mechanics' Bank, Hartford 

Gluinebaug Bank, Norwich 

Arcade Bank, Providence . - - 

Rhode Island Union Bank, Newport 

Lafayette Bank, New York 

Seventh Ward Bank, New York - 

Manhattan Company, New York - 

Bank of America, New York 

Leather Manufacturers' Bank, New York 

Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, Albany - 

Mechanics' Bank, New York 

Phoenix 3ank, New York - . - 

Merchants' Bank, New York 

Tradesmen's Bank, New York 

Union Bank, New York ... 

Brooklyn Bank, Brooklyn ... 

Bank of Troy, Troy 

Merchants' Exchange Bank, New York - 

'National Bank, New York 

Trenton Banking Company, Trenton 

State Bank, at Newark ... 

State Bank, at Elizabethtown 

Girard Bank, at Philadelphia 

Moyamensing Bank, Philadelphia 

Merchants and Manufacturers' Bank, Pittsburg 

Bankof Delaware, Wilmington - 

Franklin Bank of Baltimore 

Union Bank of Maryland, Baltimore 

Bank of the Metropolis, Washington 

Bank of Virginia and branches - 

Farmers' Bank of Virginia 

Branch of ditto, at Winchester 

Bank of the State, at Raleigh 



Date of 


return.^ 


Awg. 


12 




14 


July 


15 


Aug. 


15 




V2 




15 




14 




15 




12 




19 




14 




15 




17 




I 




15 


July 


15 


May 


1 


June 


15 


Aug. 


16 


July 


31 


Aug. 


14 




20 




15 




15 


* 


12 




U 


July 


24 


Aug. 


16 




14 


July 


31 


Aug. 


15 




15 




16 




11 


July 


31 


Aug. 


19 




15 




15 




I 




15 




15 




17 


July 


31 




29 


Aug. 


9 




9 


July 


1 


Aug. 


14 




21 




15 




15 




17 


Julv 


15 



22 



75 



[3] 



— Continuecl. 










1 

Balances due to 


Other 


Capital stock. 


CoBtiogent 
fund. 


Profit and loss. 


banks. 


liabilities* 




• discount and 










interest. 


87,722 75 




$305,000 00 




S16,284 30 


2,506 00 


$35,653 62 


250,000 00 


„ 


8,557 51 


6 37 


, 


100,000 00 


_ 


1,476 95 


• 


87979 56 


100,000 00 


_ 


4,468 08 


■ 


_ 


100,000 00 


_ 


6,709 96 


57446 11 


^ 


100,000 00 


_ 


2,550 33 


119 96 


9,620 00 


150,000 00 


$20,000 00 


13,928 88 




^ 


100,000 00 


_ 


13,930 94 


_ 


^^ 


100,000 00 


3,056 84 


911 92 


^ 


^ 


147,500 OO 




695 41 


8,371 67 


270,165 84 


300,000 00 


25,214 93 


6,019 89 


^ 


^ 


100,000 00 




458 09 


_ 


_ 


150,000 00 


6,000 00 


12,538 55 




_ 


80,000 00 




13,310 17 


1,1027918 93 


^ 


1,500,000 00 


151,028 25 


64,492 29 


168,413 10 


^ 


500,000 00 


14,500 00 


16,026 81 


131,054 86 


^ 


500,000 00 


1,385 71 


2,378 17 


17,252 87 


^^ 


150,000 00 


367 20 


302 06 


265,000 00 


^ 


500,000 00 


10,270 83 


8,928 29 




^ 


300,000 00 


^ 


18,337 22 


347167 83 


^ 


473,050 00 


13,554 35 


2,271 49 


4,428 16 


^ 


465,100 00 


5,625 00 


12,266 44 


12,758 28 


35,000 00 


500,000 00 


^ 


9,178 57 


23,131 42 


^ 


400,000 00 


^ 


7,192 77 


806 31 


_ 


200,000 00 


_ 


639 77 


66,039 01 


737750 00 


500,000 00 


_ 


46,310 50 


133,671 64 


67,372 02 


500,000 00 


^ 


121,425 45 


670,554 11 


520,979 05 


2,050,000 00 


^ 


16,843 77 


969,563 15 


2,398,87e 10 


3,001,200 00 


^^ 


413,602 29 


440,588 75 


90,311 10 


600,000 00 


- „, 


96,542 79 


288,390 70 


179,576 18 


442,000 00 


^ 


190,695 77 


1,139,451 00 


13,629 69 


2,000,000 00 


r 


681,246 54 


1,564,759 29 , 


144,932 72 


1,500,000 00 


293,960 35 


33,447 38 


3,013,623 00 ' 


103,125 00 


1,490,000 00 


375,399 00 


40,606 00 


110,315 53 


^ 


400,000 00 


^ 


131,381 84 


775,254 16 


75,000 00 


1,000,000 00 


^ 


221,893 64 


8,687 40 


254 57 


200,000 00 


^ 


31,905 07 


210,557 34 


160,000 00 


44a,000 00 


^ 


113,821 72 


894,232 31 


41,423 09 


750,000 00 


_ 


133,101 06 


170,759 24 


100,000 00 


750,000 00 


^ 


141,290 69 


30,716 00 


^^ 


210,000 00 


^ 


!)9,164(Jtf 


23,236 58 


^ 


400,000 00 


^ 


20,319 75 


20,200 88 


^ 


200,000 00 


^ 


86,924 43 


1,617,174 21 


859,022 62 


5,000,000 00 


189,504 96 


207,785 65 


71,343 41 


627 72 


250,000 00 


_ 


16,012 51 


304,227 10 


502,263 13 


600,000 00 


^ 


107,869 02 


7,869 23 


588 90 


110,000 00 


^ 


91,247 97 


331 , 168 46 


^ 


624,550 00 


17,472 95 


19,173 33 


601,273 93 


1,845 00 


1,845,562 50 


50,000 00 


248,826 65 


187,269 00 


^ 


500,000 00 




82,046 81 


393,308 77 


1,042,220 17 


3,240,000 00 


590,fe7 40 


65,696 47 


127,861 60 


756,358 17 


475,000 00 


369,771 79 


15,596 27 


14,656 80 


^_ 


237,500 00 


^ 


975 95 


158,362 99 


- 


1,500,000 00 


. 


209,274 06 



C«] 



76 



STATEMENT U 







Date of 


8TATE8. 


Names and location of banks. 


return. 


SOUTH CAROLINA - 


Planters andMechanics* Bank of S. C, Charleston 


Aug. 11 




Bank of Charleston, Charleston - - 


15 


GEORGIA . 


Bankof Augasta ..... 


8 




Planters' Bank of the State, Savannah 


8 


ALABAMA 


Branch of the Bank of the State, Mobile - 


7 


MISSISSIPPI 


Planters' Bank of the State, Natchez 


3 




A^cultoral Bank of the State, Natchez • 


July 31 


LOUISIANA . 


Commercial Bank of, New Orleans 


29 




Union Bank of Louisiana - . . . 


31 


TENNESSEE 


Union Bank of the State and branches 


Aug. 5 




Planters' Bank of the State and branches 


16 


KENTUCKY 


Bank of Kentucky, Lomsville . - . 


15 


* 


Savings Institution, Louisville ... 


16 




Northern Bank of Kentucky, Lexington - 


7 




Branch of ditto, Louisville .... 


14 




Branch of ditto, Paris 


17 


\ 


Branch of ditto, Richmond ... 


7 




Branch of ditto, Covington ... 


7 


OHIO 


Franklin Bank of Columbus ... 


9 




Clinton Bank of Columbus ... 


19 




Franklin Bank of Cincinnati . . . 


19 




Commercial Bank of Cincinnati - . . 


16 




Agency of ditto, at St. Louis . . - 


July 31 




Commercial Bank of T«ake Erie, Cleaveland 


Aug. 15 




BankofChillicothe . . . . 


14 




Bank of Cleaveland . . . . 


16 




BankofWooster . . . . . 


15 


INDIANA . 


State Bank of Indiana - - - - 


July 22 


ILLINOIS . 


Bank of the State, at Shawneetoum 


Aug. 5 


MICHIGAN 


Bank of the State, at Detroit 


18 




Farmers and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan 


15 


NEW YORK 


Dry Dock Company, New York . . - 


May 1 
June 15 


DELAWARE 


Bank of Wilmington & Brandywine, Wilmington 


GEORGIA - 


Insurance Bank of Columbus . . . 


Aug. 17 


BiiSSOURI - 


♦Bank of the State of Missouri - 

i» -^ ' . 


July 7 



• New selection. 



77 



[2] 



— Continued. 



Loons and discounts. 


Bills of exchange. 


Suspended debc. 


Stocks. 


SI ,844,461 61 


tl4,901 31 


$172,482 86 


9282,350 45 


2,680,569 39 


666,612 59 


343,798 37 


2,500 00 


1,049,841 88 


172,174 88 


255,768 29 


87,960 00 


783,845 41 


88,496 02 


135,284 92 




2,994,434 16 


517,967 28 


1,387,313 63 




5,165,435 39 


1,086,896 41 


2,672,343 14 


125,900 00 


4,000,776 86 


934,417 74 


682,700 90 




3,636,746 5a 


406,876 53 


443,599 45 


68,300 00 


7,643,349 33 


905,268 92 


1,068,205 29 




3,489,644 53 


1,083,679 70 


604,010 59 




3,346,083 59 


1,245,062 69 


20,008 90 




2,113,585 53 


694,871 21 


28,223 87 


1,120,000 00 


172,531 72 


13,385 73 


17,150 00 




1,078,097 07 


157,576 45 


13,525 00 


446,000 00 


501,688 68 


98,385 19 


114,850 r2 


345,000 00 


378,584 76 


4,211 16 


4,900 00 


90,000 00 


150,934 58 


1,357 37 


^ 


50,000 00 


267,002 90 


47,315 04 


„ 


75,000 00 


634,416 68 








370,667 03 








1,086,222 47 


560,410 56 


22,035 27 


47,000 00 


929,315 29 


966,048 74 


28,477 69 




23,443 37 


335,661 48 


47,293 87 




659,632 54 


116,577 73 


15,281 82 




4,278 36 


331,531 46 


112,146 00 


191,082 74 


435,144 99 


52,750 59 


6,775 00 




264,941 00 


91,349 46 


44,725 65 




2,844,369 57 


794,637 06 


125,606 50 




243,318 31 


15,444 76 






942,273 12 


435,565 96 


16,946 20 




535,722 66 


283,715 65 






1,256,880 61 


^ 


10,588 90 




186,802 17 


^ 


_ 


47,359 86 


249,172 40 


15,500 00 


117,200 41 




112,902,662 67 


17,694,530 28 


12,383,046 65 


5,324,868 15 


535,874 14 


14482 68 




< 



[2] 



78 



STATEMENT U 



STATES. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

GEORGIA - 

ALABAMA 
MISSISSIPPI 

LOUISIANA 

TENNESSEE 

KENTUCKY 



OHIO 



INDIANA - 
ILLINOIS - 
MICHIGAN 

NEW YORK 
DELAWARE 
GEORGIA - 



MISSOURI - 



Names and location of banks. 



Planters and Mechanics' Bank of S. C, Charleston 

Bank of Charleston, Charleston ... 

Bank ol Augusta ..... 

Planters' Bank of the State, Savannah - 

Branch of the Bank of the State, Mobile - 

Planters' Bank of the Stale, Natchez ' . 

Agricultural Bank of the State, Natchez . 

Commercial Bank of. New Orleans 

Union Bank of Louisiana - - - 

Union Bank of the State and branches - 

Planters' Bank of the State and branches 

Bank of Kentucky, Louisville - - - 

Savings Institution, Louisville ... 

Northern Bank of Kentucky, Lexington - 

Branch of ditto, Louisville ... 

Branch of ditto, Paris - - . . 

Branch of ditto, Richmond 

Branch of ditto, Covington 

Franklin Bank of Columbus 

Clinton Bank of Columbus 

Franklin Bank of Cincinnati 

Commercial Bank of Cincinnati - 

Agency of ditto, at St. Louis 

Commercial Bank of Lake Erie, Cleaveland 

Bank of Chillicothe 

Bank of Cleaveland ... 

Bank of Wooster - - . - 

State Bank of Indiana • 

Bank of the State, at ShawneetowD 

Bank of the State, at Detroit 

Farmers and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan 

Dry Dock Company, New York - 

Bank of Wilmington ^ Brandyn^ine, Wilmington 

Insurance Bank of Columbus 



Date of 
retam. 



Aug. 



July 



Aug. 



; 



July 
Aug. 



♦Bank of the State of Missonri 



11 
15 

8 
8 
7 
3 
31 
29 
31 
6 
16 
16 
16 
t 
14 
17 
7 
7 
9 
19 
19 
16 
31 
15 
14 
16 





July 


19 

22 


. 


Aug. 


5 


- 




18 


- 




15 


. 


May 


1 


fton 


June 


15 




Aug. 


17 


■ - 


July 


7 



^ New selection. 



79 



f «] 



— Continued. 



Heal estate. 

1 


Other 
investments. 


Expenses. 


Balances due from 
banks. 


Noies of other 
banks on hand. 


S20,000 00 
30,000 00 
38,000 00 
11,000 00 
80,089 25 

195,038 14 
37,493 00 

150,689 16 

148,845 08 
42,839 88 
26,223 20 
28,341 77 
10,000 00 
50,000 00 
16,500 55 
2,395 02 

5,000 00 
11,786 91 

8,189 25 
37,000 00 
34,426 80 

3,928 42 
13,874 76 

984 84 

72,821 87 
975 00 
20,841 25 
14,263 20 
246,026 09 
11,620 00 
13,500 00 


^,205 65 

73,608 23 

32,330 37 

58,268 44 

2,790,626 94 

12,948 85 

16,659 01 

700,121 15 

2,108,878 52 

2,203,739 22 

369,470 41 

3,920 98 
95 59 

1,542 84 
360 37 

75,800 00 

406,954 87 

2,335 99 

"53 21 
395,361 29 

3,896 90 
2,399 16 

2,907 93 


^,056 75 

1,674 75 

4,583 57 

2,692 07 

41,013 26 

9,205 61 

2,273 85 

7,591 93 

26,669 04 

2,340 22 

4,812 48 

1,876 16 

342 83 

1,948 68 

1,266 44 

307 62 

328 33 

459 61 

1,488 07 

527 99 

732 53 

483 92 

8,490 37 

2,218 6f^ 

276 95 

61 50 

71 49 

5,4'U) 55 

'i9 25 

635 43 
6,261 83 
1,04^67 
3,582 63 


8118,584 25 
472,492 46 
168,745 81 
182,831 61 
407,599 25 

23,613 17 

71 , 101 63 
379,310 72 
781,454 92 
422,338 06 
639,619 64 
852,396 65 

44,879 32 
266,165 03 
166,297 57 

23,668 59 
1,244 75 

12,290 56 
121,772 23 

11.726 30 
40,465 19 

913,058 93 

284,930 85 

165,355 22 

215,777 53 

57,693 11 

13,749 14 

1,156,388 24 

41.727 93 
292,937 85 
345,636 29 
127,631 6:^ 

7,743 54 
344,070 34 


868,763 00 

57,483 00 

214,125 50 

136,820 00 

62,777 96 

300,856 35 

65,424 56 

136,553 34 

246,217 00 

171,550 25 

184,065 00 

232,443 32 

47,560 00 

139,780 00 

59,580 00 

18,680 00 

8,09()00 

5,818 00 

32,845 23 

47,075 43 

47,046 00 

97,913 00 

10,500 00 

41,653 00 

71,396 61 

23,246 00 

26,091 00 

329,095 8G 

45.450 00 

9,845 00 

7,356 35 

81,661 01 

3,849 00 

159,909 00 


3,214,726 48 


14,436,405 78 


290,628 38 


24,683,001 37 


9,545,429 33 


1,300 00 


18,224 0» 


2,507 83 


4,183 38 


408,510 O) 



£21 



SO 



STATEMENT U 



STATES. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

GEORGIA - . 

ALABAMA 
MISSISSIPPI 

LOUISIANA 

TENNESSEE 

KENTUCKY 



OHIO 



INDIANA - 
ILLINOIS - 
MICHIGAN 

•PTEW YORK 
DELAWARE 
GEORGIA - 



MISSOURI - 



Names and locaiion of banio. 



Planters and Mechanics' Bank of S. C, Charleston 
Bank of Charleston, Charleston - 
Bank of Augosta • - - . . 

Planters' Bank of the Slate, Savannah - 
Branch of the Bank of the State, MobUe - 
Planters' Bank of the State, Natchez 
Agricultural Bank of the State, Natchez - 
Commercial Bank of. New Orleans 
Union Bank of Louisiana - . . . 

Union Bank of the State and branches - 
Planters' Bank of the State and branches 
Bank of Kentucky, Louisville 
Savings Institution, Louisville . . . 

Northern Bank of Kentucky, Lexington - 
Branch of ditto, Louisville ... 

Branch of ditto, Paris - « - 
Branch of ditto, Richmond ... 

Branch of ditto, Covington .... 

Franklin Bank of Columbus ... 
Clinton Bank of Cohimbus ... 

Franklin Bank of Cincinnati ... 
Commercial liank of Cincinnati ... 
Agency of ditto, at St. Louis ... 
Commero«al Bank of Lake Erie, Cleaveland 
Bank of Chillicothe .... 

Bank of Cleaveian4 .... 

Bank of Woosrer - - - . . 

State Bank of Indiana .... 
Bank of the S;ate, at Shawneetown 
Bank of the State, at Detroit ... 
Farmers and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan 
Dry Dock Company . - . . 

Bank of Wilmington & Brandywine, Wilmington 
Insurance Bank of Columbus . . . 



Date of 
return. 



Aug. 



July 
Aug. 



July 
Aug. 



July 
Aug. 



May 
June 
Aug. 



♦Bank of the State of MissocEri 



11 
15 
8 
8 
7 
3 
31 
29 
31 
5 
16 
15 
16 
7 
14 
17 
7 
7 
9 
19 

19 
16 

31 

15 

14 

16 

15 

23 
5 

18 

15 
1 

15 

17 



July 7 



•New selection. 



81 



[ * J 



— ^Oontinued. 





Circulation. 


DEPOtlTES. 


Specie on hand. 


• 








* 


Treasurer of the 
United States. 


Public officers. 


AUother 
depositors. 


9344,637 21 


$731,325 00 


850,404 74 


S138,576 59 


$306,693 61 


241,045 73 


1,112,485 00 


60,943 23 


2,931 50 


722,544 79 


901,281 08 


604,138 96 


37,169 52 


20,696 83 


138,199 08 


293,550 59 


260,142 00 


66,565 17 


134,224 90 


202,726 59 


138,610 55 


1,855,230 00 


950,956 26 


174,944 45 


1,560,826 67 


303,228 46 


1,521,761 88 


895,308 67 


28,235 71 


535,564 56 


68,499 96 


1,009,816 00 


853,075 04 


. 


375,426 95 


118,305 06 


402,339 81 


863,956 98 


242,176 61 


462,974 39 


80,577 40 


1,305,470 00 


593,841 05 


223,590 29 


1,067,707 02 


199,104 39 


1,307,481 48 


242,997 61 


86,937 15 


997,417 00 


224,125 31 


1,323,685 33 


136,320 87 


889,952 45 


1,202,022 06 


298,578 67 


694,735 00 


601,112 17 


^, 


270,400 32 


56,488 36 


none. 


85,463 34 


10,132 60 


129,324 06 


292,500 73 


616,500 00 


51,439 82 


39,893 52 


273,674 22 


303,944 12 


220,840 00 


105,231 45 


. 


33,138 73 


122,707 91 


153,470 00 


« 


^ 


28,163 67 


96,167 76 


100,795 00 


_ 


. 


9,104 31 


94,622 79 


135,730 00 


„ 


. 


19,416 66 


255,379 16 


291,029 81 


52,631 83 


58,985 27 


112,709 39 


100,181 44 


119,895 00 


419 73 


• 


75,933 63 


180,494 11 


276,751 00 


403,103 18 


20,610 21 


169,481 48 


564,553 04 


969,378 00 


347,961 54 


60,480 60 


261,412 99 


7,151 24 


none. 


589,510 31 


20,136 61 




100,790 57 


328,017 00 


60,6ifii 75 


.. 


149,276 73 


148,894 42 


293,^200 08 


198,902 00 


.. 


54,672 77 


60,568 98 


244,719 00 


21 , 103 42 


23,257 45 


76,153 19 


53,874 02 


170,442 00 


44,471 05 


. 


70,746 00 


999,894 34 


2,476,076 00 


901,531 75 


8,916 64 


530,411 54 


158,610 34 


64,846 00 


39,795 90 


as 


121,238 80 


84,847 07 


330,463 00 


621 ,993 22 


35,579 41 


205,052 01 


82,672 42 


169,911 00 


376,057 62 


64,361 49 


137,598 39 


29,586 06 


268,699 80 


80,000 00 


.. 


409,221 75 


29,999 71 


62,273 50 


36,000 00 


626 U 


43,303 49 


166,185 71 


70,513 00 


5,035 00 


— 


53,233 59 


10,580,413 95 


32,626,004 55 


12,944,666 70 


4,574,076 98 


29,492,113 85 


293,306 72 


- 


■ 


366 36 


411,269 87 



[2J 



82 



STATEMETNT U 



HT AT FJ§. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

GEORGIA - 

ALABAMA 
MISSISSIPPI 

LOUISIANA 

TENNESSEE 

KENTUCKY 



OHIO 



INDIANA - 
ILLINOIS - 
MICHIGAN 

NEW YD UK 
DELAWARE 
GEORGIA - 



MISSOURI - 



Names and location of banks. 



Planters and Mechanics' Bank of S. C, Charleston 

Bank ol Charleston, Charleston - - - 

Bank of Aua^usta - - - - - 

Planters' Bank of the Stale, Savannah 

Branch of the Bank of the Stale, Mobile - 

Planters' Bank of the State, Natchez 

Agricultural Bank of the Slate, Natchez - 

Commercial Bank of. New Orleans 

Union Bank of Louisiana - 

Union Bank of the Stale, and branches - 

Planters' Bank of the State, and branches 

Bank of Kentucky, Louisville 

Savings Institution, Louisville 

Northern Bank of Kentucky, Lexington - 

Branch of ditto, Louisville - - 

Branch of ditto, Parii . - . . 

Branch of ditto, Richmond - - - 

Branch of ditto, Covington - - - 

Franklin Bank of Columbus 

Clinton Bank of Columbus 

Frankhn Bank of Cincinnati - - . 

Commercial Bank of Cincinnati - - - 

Agency of ditto, at Sf Louis 

Comraercial Bank of Lake Erie, Cleaveland 

Banker Chillicuthe . - - - 

Bank of Cleaveland - 

Ba^ik of Wo(j.<tor - - - - - 

S:atc Bank of Indiana - - -' . - 

Bank of the State, at Shav.-^icctown ' - 

Bank of the Stale, at Dclr(»it - . . 

F'armcrs and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan 

Dr\' Doc]: Company - 

Buiik of Wilmln;;a)n & Brandy wine, Wilmington 

Insurance Bank of Columbu-^j' - - . - 



Dale of 
reiurn. 



Aug. 11 

15 

8 

B 

/ 

3 

July 31 

29 

31 

Aug. 5 

16 

15 

16 

7 

- 1 14 

17 

7 

7 

9 

19 

19 

16 

July 31 

Aug. 15 

14 

16 

15 

July 22 

Aug. 5 

18 

15 

May 1 

June 15 

Aug. 17 



•Bank of the Sauc of Mis-rin i 



July 



I 



♦ New t-eleclion. 



— Continued. 



83 



[2 J 



Balances due to 


Other 


Capital slock. 


Continent 


Profit and loss, 


batiks. 


liabilities. 




lUlK^. 


discount and 






• 




interest. 


$34\,&22i] 




^1,000,000 00 


$203,509 49 


S19,lll 31 


407,463 55 


S927689 83 


2,000,000 00 


127,899 36 


44,827 26. 


157,552 95 


^,906 66 


1,200,000 00 


. 


46.147 44 


357,005 25 


_ 


535,400 00 


115.794 09 


•JO, 931 06 


587, 146 66 


33,494 43 


2,300,0(K) 00 


577,944 00 


379,889 81 


619,406 05 


898,110 92 


4,205,140 00 


^ 


1,091,937 7S 


830,749 03 


380, 134 01 


2,000,000 00 


^^ 


430,144 48^ 


659,225 40 


7,6-24 00 


3,000,COO 00 


^ 


409,796 4a 


913,868 67 


7,930 98 


7,000,000 00 


820,000 00 


1,077,067 49- 


:ki5.i8i 71 


18,634 36 


3,547,739 00 


124,894 08 


264,235 2ti 


107.876 58 


59,574 41 


2,000,000 oq 


393,127 40 


77,441 63 


S78,638 76 


1,004,174 44 


4,586,070 76 


80,416 60 


52,508 35 


12,673 71 


^ 


104,188 00 


15,628 00 


4,9-28 25 


154,376 06 


553,142 69 ' 


1,035,585 00 


51.000 00 


39,452 06 


4i72,595 18 


^ 


675,000 00 


_ 


. 4,628 90 


625 10 


60, 2M 31 


400,000 00 


^ 


3,037 57 


56 50 


16,986 96 


180,000 00 




1,179 96 


3,932 17 


73,365 72 


275,000 00 


^ 


1,606 99 


24,905 29 


^^ 


481,560 00 


«• 


86,227 06 


9,598 45 


^ 


300,000 00 


27,825 28 


4,695 25 


76,027 49 


9,138 10 


1,000,000 00 


125,225 93 


16,868 74 


T52,168 96 


286,044 78 


1,000,000 00 


10,000 00 


263,785 41 


96,052 20 


„ 


none. 


^. 


14,108 05 


9,144 12 


^ 


500,000 00 


.. 


58,317 36 


6,482 30 


., 


500,000 00 


8,537 69 


67,463 99 


9,367 ]6 


a. 


237,545 00 


1.913 68 


33,266 11 


2,226 95 


— • 


195,8<;4 00 


7,841 00 


3,763 97 


640,270 99 


_ 


1,845,000 00 


250,066 54 


72,782 83 


12,580 29 


_ 


257,550 00 


_ 


9,544 60 


58,014 99 


50.000 00 


450,000 00 


13,155 87 


38,997 95 


49,000 71 


^ 


400,000 00 


10,000 00 


6,969 69 


511,922 97 


« 


420,000 00 


. 


70,190 79 


10,219 91 


„, ■ 


190,000 00 


9,355 72 


6,1M 81 


316,610 10 


3,567 43 


600,000 00 


- 


34,069 31 


135,083,891 46 


11,066,348 27 


81,628,104 26 


5,117,734 33 


8,5i?3,763 24 


940,25199 


343,349 39 


380,363 63 




4,110 80 



[2] 84 

V. 

Treasury Department, 

My 3, 1837. 

Sir : Replies having in vaosX cases been received to my circular, ad- 
dressed in May last to the cashiers of those deposite banks which had sus- 
pended specie payments, I now propose to submit a few remarks to your 
consideration, sprowing out of those replies, and out of events which have 
since transpired in connexion with your relations to the Treasury Depart- 
ment. 

1. It affords me much gratification to find, so far as regards the inquiry 
concerning payment and security, a great willingness expressed to make 
the United States amply safe for the eventual payment of all that is due, 
and a strong conviction entertained by the banks that no loss will be ulti- 
mately sustained by the Government. But, whenever reasonable doubts on 
this subject have arisen with the department, steps have been taken to pro- 
cure additional security, or to withdraw the public funds more rapidly, if 
possible, than was otherwise intended. And a part of the object of this 
communication is to apprize you that such will be the course which a sense 
of duty must require me to continue to pursue, in regard to any bank whose 
condition may appear doubtful, while the relation of debtor and creditor 
exists between it and the Treasury. 

2. Another portion of that circular communicated information concern- 
ing the lenient mode which, under the severe losses experienced by many 
of the banks firom mercantile failures, and under the embarrassments to 
others, caused by panic and want of confidence, was contemplated to be 
adopted in recalling the public funds. That mode was by such moderate 
drafts and transfers as the public necessities should from time to time de- 
mand ; and an earnest request having been made for a satisfactory compU- 
fece with it on the part of the banks, assurances have generally been given 
of a readiness to answer those calls with promptitude, and in an acceptable 
manner. But though it is gratifying to add, that in most cases these assu- 
ranees have since been fulfilled, and something like three millions of dollars 
of public money have been paid over by the discontinued banks since the 
12th of May last, and, in a few instances, all which was on hand; and 
though about nine millions more are expected to be paid early in July, yet^ 
in some cases, proper efforts and sacrifices do not appear to have been made 
to discharge their important obligations to the Treasury. In such cases,^ 
afid especially where the neglect produced serious inconvenience to our 
fiscal operations, or injury to the public credit, the department has felt 
compelled, by its responsibility to the Government, to take preparatory mea- 
sures suitable to obtain indemnity for the past, and enforce those obligations 
in future. It will feel obliged to adopt such measures hereafter in all simi- 
lar instances ; and though its moderation and lenity have been, and wilt 
be, as great as is supposed to be justifiable, they must not be misconstrued 
into indifierence or forgetfulness of what is due as well from the banks 
as to the public creditors and the United States. 

The location of several of the banks, and the small amount of public mo- 
ney in their possession, will exempt them from many calls at present, and 
enable them easily to meet such as are made. But the situation of others 
will, under all just forbearance, render the calls upon them more frequent 
and imperative, and will require, as it is hoped they will receive, a corres- 



85 [21 

pondent ^Dertion to answer them. Such exertion, it is believed, will in the 
end be £ur better fhr all concerned, though accoinpaiiied by some temporary 
sacrifices, than to suffer loss of character, by incurring the imputation of a 
continued violation of essential duties, ana by exposing the Treasury to 
embarrassment, and the public creditors and officers to severe injury. 

The department cannot recognise the rijriit of any former depository to 
be exemptedirom paying specie to the public creditor, if insisted on by 
him; it being due, in both honor and good faith, as well to him as to the 
Treasury. It is true, that the difficulty of procuring it when wanted has 
been somewhat enhanced, and this, at the time when demands for it are in- 
creased, and the ability of some of the banks is weakened by the fidhires of 
some of their customers. But these are obstacles which are by no means 
insuperable, and which, when occurring, it is the duty, and it is hoped will 
be the desire, of eviery bank to make efforts to remove, at any reasonable 
expense and trouble. 

3. The returns of the condition of the selected banks, which were re- 
quested to be continued, have generally been made with promptitude and 
regularity. But while it is very satis&ctory to see, in most cams, a reduc- 
tion in discounts and circulation, and which course is the most efficient to 
cure one of the existing evils in banking, and to enable the institutions 
which have suspended specie pajrments to resume them at an early di^, 
and with much greater safety, it is regretted that, in a few instances, this 
course has not b^n adopted. But whenever departed from in such a crisis, 
the error has tended, and must tend hereafter, to impair the confidence of 
the department in the sound management of the institution, and to justiiy 
such steps as may lead to a more ^eedy withdrawal of the pubUc money, 
or to the procurement of increased security. 

4. Such a departure, also, is likely to delay the resumption of spede pay- 
ments, concerning which the views of the former depoeite banks were re- 
quested in that circular, and have generally been since presented. Without 
claiming the right to interfere on this subject beyond the deep solicitude 
and interest felt by the Treasury Department concerning the ccmditiim and 
conduct of all its debtors, and beyond its duty vigitandy to examine into 
those points when indulgences are sought or granted, the inquiries before' 
mentioned were made on these accounts alone. It has been a matter of 
reeret to find, in most of the explanations on the subject of suspendiw as 
well as resuming specie payments, that the action of one bank has been 
made to depend iso exdusivdy on that of others. The location, losses, lia- 
bilities, and meahs of the banks^ were, and still are, very differeat among 
themselves, as well as in different quarters of the country. In iUustration 
of this remark, it may be mentioned, that several of them, as in the eastern 
States in 1814, have actually continued to pay specie, and many others ap- 
pear to have had ample ability to do it, if more courage, ener^, and inde- 
pendence had fortunately been united with their great available means. 
Since the panic has in some degree subsided, and the opportunity has been 
enjoyed for lessening balances, discounts, and circulation, and when so 
much more can be done, in this respect, without causing distress, in conse- 
quence of the diminished business of the community, and the smaller de- 
mand for money, it is to be lamented that a more general effort has not 
been made to resume specie payments at the earliest day practicable and 
safe. It is true, that a few banks very commendably have already resumed, 
and are in the successful discharge of their plain legal obligations, though 



[2] 86 

on a reduced £cale in business and profits ; and that others are efficiently 
attempting to place themselves in a similar position. But, from the replies 
to my inquiri^) the inclination seems to be too prevalent for the banks in 
one city, county, State, or large region of country, to postpone the measure 
till all others in the Union are reaay and willing to unite. Their positions, 
in various respects, are essentially unlike, though in general very strong. 
The condition of the former deposite banks, as a whole, is believed to be 
stronger now as to specie compared with circulation, or immediate means 
to m^t immediate liabilities, so as readily to sustain specie payments under 
ordinary circumstances, than has been the condition of all the banks in the 
United States at any former period for the last quarter of a century. Their 
specie, on an average, is about one to three of their circulation, and their 
immediate means nearly one to two and a half of their immediate liabilities. 
But, in some large sections of country, the specie is in q, ratio quite 30 per 
cent, greater, while in others it is less. The want of confidence in some 
places, and the effects of losses in others, and which constitute the only 
other principal difierences in the ability, at different periods, to sustain such 
payments, have not extended in the same degree to all places, and have al- 
ready diminished much more in some of them than in others. 

It is therefore earnestly hoped that, by prudent and persevering eflforts, a 
resumption of specie payments can be effected at no very remote day, and 
successfully maintained by many of those institutions indebted to the Trea- 
sury. So far as this department has power to encourage such efforts, it 
has done, and cheerfully will do it, while the existing laws remain unre^ 
pealed, by giving a decided preference for holding all kinds of public de- 
posites to such banks as pay specie. But, beyond that, Congress and the 
States alone can lawfully extend other assistance. 

You will more readily excuse my anxiety on this topic, when, besides 
the reasons before stated, you are assured of the strong conviction entertain- 
ed by this department ttiat the resumption of specie payments, as soon as ii 
can be accomplished by any reasonable exertions or sacrifices, would not 
only increase the facilities of our fiscal operations, and much promote the 
convenience of the public creditors, but tend to remove many reproaches 
from the banking institutions themselves, and to preserve a strong sense of 
moral obligation to discharge faithfully, so far as able, every duty imposed 
by law. 

Respectfully, yours, 

LEVI WOODBURY, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 

To the Gashibr ^ 



25lli Congress, T 3 1 



1^^ Session, 



MEMORIAL 



or 



THE LEGISLATURE OF MISSISSIPPI, 



PRAYING 



The establishment of a number of post routes. 



September 7, 1837. 

Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of ] 

America in Congress assembled: 

The memoiial of the IjCgislature of the State of Mississippi 

Respectfully showeth: 

That, by a late organization into counties of that portion of our State 
lately ceded by the Chickasaw tribe of Indians to the United States, and 
a rapid settlement of those counties, the want of mail facilities has produced 
great and insufferable inconveniences to the citizens, which will be par- 
tially obviated by the laws passed at the last session of Congress ; but the 
•counties have, since that time, been created, and seats of justice permanently 
located in most of them. Some attention to the laws providing for mail 
routes appears to your memorialists to be obvious. Your memorialists 
would, therefore, respectfully recommend the estabUshment by law of the 
following routes, viz : To provide for the mail to be carried twice a week from 
Jackson, Mississippi, to Memphis, Tennessee, via Canton, Boles' Ferry on \ 
the Big Black river, Franklin, Lexington, Carrolton, Grenada, Belmont, 
and Jefferson, to Memphis ; from Carrolton, via Grenada, Coffeeville, Ox- 
ford, Wyatt, Chulahoma, and Holly Springs, to La Grange, Tennessee; 
from Jackson, Mississippi, via Madison ville. Doak's Old Stand, Kosciusko, 
Greensborough, Houston, Pontitoc, and Ripley, to Bolivar, Tennessee ; a 
•cress mail from Fulton, in Itawamba county, via Pontitoc, Ponola, or Bel- 
mont, to Tunica court-house, on the bank of the Mississippi river. The 
above routes would open, through different parts of the State, direct mail 
routes from Jackson, the seat of Government of said State, to important 
points in the State of Tennessee. Those, tos:ether with the cross mail 
routes propos^ wouhl afford ample mail facilities to the coimtry lately 
<;eded in the Chickasaw purcluise, as well as many other parts of our S^te. 

Your memorialists would recommend the adoption of the routes herein 

Blair & Rives, printers. 



[31 2 

described, and the timely repeal of all laws, and discontinuance of all routes 
that conflict therewith. 

Resolved by the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, That our 
Senators in Congress be instructed, and Representatives be requested, to use 
their best exertions to effect the object of the foregoing memorial. 

Resolved^ That the Governor be, and he is hereby, requested to forward 
a copy of the above memorial and resolution to each of our Senators and 
Representatives in Congress. 

WM. VANNERSON, 
Sjuaker of the House of Representatives. 

A. G. McNUTT. 

Presideni of the Senaie^ 

Approved May 12th, 1837: 

CHARLES LYNCH. 

I do hereby certify that this memorial is a true copy of the origiHal me- 
morial as is now on file in my office. 

[ L. s. ] Given under my hand and the great seal of state, at Jackson,, 
the 9th day of August, 1837. 

BARRY W. BENSON, 

Secvitary of fSUcUe. 



'4 



25th Congress, C ^ } 

\8t Session. 



MEMORIAL 

\ r 

CONTENTION OP A NUMBER OF CITIZENS OF 

PENNSYI.TANU, 

Praifing Qmgresa iocanatruei a Maciukumzed road from the NainrnU 

road to Erie. 



September 7, 183T. 

Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 

To the honarabfe the Senate and Houh of Representatives of the United 

States m Congress aseembUd : 

The undersigned, officers of a convention assemUed at Brie, in Penn- 
sylTania, would, in behalf of the convention, respectfully memorialiae your 
honorable bodies. 

They represent the counties of Allesfany, Butler, Mercer, Warren, 
Crawford, and Erie ; tod have conrened for the purpose of petitionm^^ 
Congress to construct a Macadamized road from some suitable point upon 
the National road to the harbor at Erie. 

The subject to which the convention would honestly direct your atten- 
tion, is one that for a long time has been agitated in Northwestern Penn- 
sylvania. 

Nor is it new in Congress, l^he importance, if not the absolute neces- 
sity, of such a road, terminating at some point upon the great chain of our 
northern lakes, long since arreted the attention of the nation* 

Local interests and sectional jealousies have thus iar succeeded in dday* 
ing the definitive action of Congress upon the subject. 

Y our memorialists trust that your honorable bodies, at the prannt ses^ 
aion, vidll take the matter into consideration, and make a prompt smA en- 
lightened decision upon it. 

It is a m*eat work, and, in all respects, worthy of tkis natfcm. 

It will lead from the National road to a northern seaport, a distance c^f 
about one hundred and sixty miles, through a country much of- the vlby 
abounding in proper materials, and of M^ grade. 

In peace, it is said, we should pnqpare m war. Thtn, at least, a liatiim 
Aould put herself in the proper attitude foi? defence. 

Upon this ground your memorialists wouUi uigQ upon you the early 
construction of the above designated road. 

This country, upon the north, is divided jGoom a foreign Government by 
thegieat chain of tiakes Ontaxilo, Etie, HoDOOrand Superior. 

Tnese inland seas are not the.exclusiviD property of our Union ; they 
have been, and agGon maybe, the scene of naml engagements ; upon them 
vessels of almost aqy tonnage cattsaS ; andlqr thwi every fiu^ty is given in 
war to harass o.ur commesoe and dettroy our pnqperty. 

That this natiop, in time of need, ttiay [be enabled to concentrate any 
force, properly provided and armed, mgsitk ittnoMhem fTontier,^a road, racli 
as your memorialists ask, is required. 

Blair fr Bhres, jvinteis. ^ 



[ 4 ] 2 

Neither a canal nor rail-way will answer^ : for commerce and general in- 
tercourse they are well adapted, for these can be made to accommodate 
themselves to the seasons ; but to meet the e:pgencies of war, we must have 
a road always ready. 

In this point of view, your memorialists would strongly urge the im- 
mediate action of Congress. 

The road prayed S)r is also needed for commerce, for travel, and to 
induce the settlement and cultivation of the country. 

These, in the opinion of your memorialists, are subjects worthy of your 
best consideration. 

This notion, so wisely and happily united by its Government, by means 
of our national roads, our State canal and rail- ways, must be perpetual. 

The jealousies of the south and north, by intercourse thus afforded, can 
be converted into an enlightened regard for each, and a unity of feeling 
and sentiment. 

To act in concert,' which, as a nation, we are politically bound to do, 
we must know each other ; of this, your memorialists are ambitious. 

As Reasons for the selection of the route pi^ayed for by your petitioners, 
they would state that it will pass through Httsbuig, at which place a 
national arsenal is established ; by the State arsenal at Meadville, in Crawford 
county; and terminating at the harbor of Erie, unequalled for its size, its 
safety, and ease of access, by any other upon the southern shore of our 
northern lakes. 

Your memorialists would fmrther represent that the Erie harbor is form- 
ed, as is well known to many of you, by a peninsula ; is four miles in 
length, and of an average width of about one mile and three quarters. There 
is a depth of water sufficient for any vessel upon the lakes. For support of 
this, you are referred to the report of T. S. Brown, civil engineer, which will 
be found upon the journals of Congress of a late session. 

At this harbor Perry's fleet was built, because here only could it be con* 
structed, launched, and prepared for sea with safety. 

These are considerations of ^eat weight in the question upon which 
your memorialists address you : Tor all must admit that such a road should 
terminate where vessels will be always safe, not only from the storms, 
but an assailing foe. 

In this respect, the Erie harbor challenges a comparison with any other 
upon the lakes. 

Your memorialists, theiefore, urge your honorable bodies to fake the 
subject of their petition into considieration, at the present session, and noake 
sueh decision as in your wisdom may be deemed best. 

Erie, Erie county, PENNslTLVANiii, { 

August 16, 1837. i 

JOSEPH MORRISON, PreMenl. 
T. S. CUNNINGHAM, 
RUFUS S. REED, 
WM. fl. POSTER, 
JOHN DICK, 
JAMBS POTTS, 
- 1 ALFRED GILMORE, I ^,^,,,^, 

WM. M, WATTS, ^ Stcreianes. 

* ' > W. M. STEPHENSON, 



Vice Presidents. 



25th Congress, [ 5 1 

\st Session. 



RESOLUTIONS 

OP 

THE LEGISLATURE OF MISSISSIPPI, 

ON THE 

Subject of extending the franking privilege. 



September 7, 1837. 

Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



RESOLUTIONS. 

Resolved by the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, That so mucK 
of the resolutions of the Greneral Assembly of Maryland as recommend 
the extension of the firanking privilege to the Governors of the several 
States be concurred in. 

Resolved, That the extension of the franking privilege to members of 
the Legislatures is unnecessary, and that so much of said resolutions as 
recommend such extension be not concurred in. 

Resolved, That his excellency the Governor be respectfully requested 
to transmit a copy of these resolutions to the Governors of the several 
States, and also to our Senators and Representatives in Congress. 

A. G. BROWN, 
Speaker of the Honse of Representatives pro tem. 

A. G. McNUTT, 

President of the Senate. 
Approved May 13th, 1837 : 

CHARLES LYNCH. 



•A 



Blair & Rives, printers. 



r 



25th GoMOKBSs, r 6 1 

IttSession. *" ^ 



-T 



MEMORIAJL 



or 



LITTLETON DENNIS TEACKLE, 



nsWNTINO 



A plan of a National Bank^nind praying that its principles and dtfoMs 

may be considered and acted upon by Congress. 



SsPT£9f BBE 8, 1837. 
Aifecred to the Ooonmittec oq Pioaaoe, and ordered to be ininted. 



1h the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States m 

Congress assembled : 

The undersigned, a native citizen of the United States, res^dii^ in Che 
Slate of S/taTylaild, in the exercise of a constitutional privile^i with defer- 
ence approaches your honorable bodies, to present a prpposttion designed 
to remove the qsibarniaski^ and vexatious circumstance which have arisea 
fRHn derangements in monetary affairs, and to avoid che recurrence of sirni* 
lar evils, by the interpoeition of an adequate and a^pie circulating mediuix^ 
in connexion with the collection, custody, and d/stribution of the reveaqe. 

ki the construction of a code for these essentiai purposes, the undersignQdl 
b«B acted in obedience to the following eonsif^^rations, viz : 

1. T^t the system of this republic embittces not only the constitutipi^ 
and laws of the confederation, but the institutions of its component States ; 
.aiid' that the peofjle are paramount to aU. 

% That the mere keeping of the public treasures imparts a beneficial 




8. That the creditDf its circMbtion is a virtual cnpital of great value. 

4. That the benefits of each and every other prero^tive, wb^her positivo 
or incidental, properly belong to all the people : and thfit they cannot Jb^ 
c^ed to a part, without dferogatin^ from the rights of the whole. 

'Economists admit Ihet money is the blood of a nation, the spring of ilr 
i^uscry, <be generator oi its enterprise ; and its regulation in this empire 
of free States having been exclusively vested in your honorable bodies, the 
exercise of that power, to the end that its functions may be equally exerted 
fbsr the general goo^ is especially devolved in the pending crisis. 

The plan proposed is believed to be founded t^pon principles svbstantial 
4n their nature, jmd entiVely consistent with the genius of qjur Government^ 
as it^propaBes to difihie thebenefittjof a high and valuable prerogative to 
the whole people, and not for the profit of a favored few or privileged, 
order. It is, in fact, substantially, a national bank of deposite and exchange^ 
without the fa culty of discounting or circulation, in connexion with a svs^ 
SUir and Rives, priaters. 



1«] 2 

i 

tern of State institutions for the keeping and distribution of the federal 
xeveuue, under guards and guaranties commensurate with the wealth and 
credit of the several States respectively; to each of which States it would 
impart extensive aids, and afford facihties for general accommodation and 
amelioration. And while such a system would essentially enlarge the 
specie basis, and adapt the operalions of the public institutions to the minor 
concerns of the country, the national currency would supply the inter- 
changes of commerce, in large transactions, otk terms convenient and eco- 
nomical ; and although the making of paper a legal tender in private con- 
tracts may be interdicted by the constitution, the allowance of such a cur- 
rency, in all payments to the national Treasury, has been sanctioned by 
law and usage, in the adoption of a species of currency mainly analogous 
to the emission proposed, viz : the Treasury notes. 

' The details and illustrations of the proposition are extended in the an- 
nexed paper, (marked A,) which the undersigned submits as a part of this 
memoir, and prays that it may be so considered. 

Apprehensions have been entertained, as the undersigned is aware, that 
the States could not surmount the opposition of private corporations engaged 
in banking ; and that an attempt to carry into effect a general system, 
as proposed, would, consequently, be found impracticable. But is not 
such an apprehension of itself enough to invite the encounter, in order that 
it may be ascertained whether the sovereignty dwells in the creator, or in 
the creature corporators ? 

It will be seen, by the plan, that the assent of any fiye of the States will 
suffice to commence the system, and it scarcely can be dpubted that a larger 
number, already provided with well-adapted institutions, would promptly 
accede; and that the action of less favorable regulations^ necessarily pre- 
existing, would conduc.e to the successive accession of others, until the 
-entire Union should be tmbraced by the equitable measures in contenipla- 
A)n. 

The predominating principles of policy and interest are enough to war- 
rant this conclusion ; as the ^oon presented in the liberal distribution of 
the national currency, and the l^iefits of the collection and disbursement 
of the public moneys, operating ^ inducements on the one hand, whilst 
-Hie justifiabje withholding of that ^oo» and those beneJUs^as well as the 
43jrains of abstractions by drafts to the public creditors, on those continuing 
under the control of private corporations, acting adversely on the other 
hand, would conduce to the establishme^it of a fiscal confederation, in 
harmonious accord with the spirit of our poli^cal system, and the just rights 
cff all interests and classes of community. 

Actuated by the inducements presented, and tins incidental advs^tages 
«iticipated to flow from the plan proposed, it is humbly conceived that the 
JStates would severally piovide the needful " coin," and conform, in good 
iaith, to the organic law of your honorable bodies, in all its provisions and 
i^uisitions. 

Theimdersigned, therefore, in all humility, submits respectfully bis pro^^ 
position, and prays that its principles and details may be duly considered^ 
joid acted upon as in your wisdom may seem meet. • 

LITTLETON DENNIS TEACKLE, of MmrphwL 



» [6] 

A. 

The proposition is intended to establish the monetary system, and to 
regulate the currency of the United States according to the following bases 
and principles, to wit :> 

1. Five commissioners, to be appointed by the President and Senate, to 
act, in conjunction with*other commissioners to be appointed by the States, 
in a board, to sit at the seat of the General Government. 

2. The board to devise and prepare a national currency, in convenient 
denominations, from twenty to one thousand dollars, to be apportioned 
amon^ the l^tates in the ratio of their electoral votes, not exceeding one 
hundi'ed thousand dollars for every Senator and Representative in Ck>n- 
gross., 

3. Each of the States assenting ^o the system to receive its contingent , 
of the currency upon the payment of one per centum on the amount re- 
quired, and contracting to pay in like manner annually thereafter, and 
provicting not less than one-fourth of that amount in the legal coin of the 
United States as a basis of its operations. 

4. Each of the assenting States to appoint one commissioner to the board, 
and one in addition for every ten of its electoral votes ; deducting the num- 
ber which umy have been appointed from such State by the President and 
Senate. 

5. The principal institution of each of the States to have the custody, ,' 
and provide for the transmission and disbursement of the public moneyS| 
and for exchanges between the States, under such conditions and regula* 
lions as the Congress may prescribe. 

6. The national currency to be made receivable in all payments to the 
United States, at each and every of the institutions, and at all their branches 
or departments, without regard to its place of emission or redemption. 

f . a'he board to have and exercise a visitorial and supervisory control 
over the institutions of the States in all their ramifications ; each to be 
vkited and inspected, by deputation, once in every six months at the least 

8. The assenting States to be severally and distinctly responsible for their 
contingents of the currency, nnd for their respective institutions. * 

9) The conmiissioners to receive an adequate compensation for their ser- 
vices, and fair allowances for itinerant duurges; to appoint and pay their 
ajcretary, and other necessary officers and servants ; to take security for 
lEcir good*conduet and the due discharge of their proper duties. 

10. The secretary to receive the per centage to be paid by the'States^ to ; 
make all needful disbursements, under the direction of the board ; and ^ 
sDcoutit t6 Cbngpre^ for any balance which may remain. 

11. The proceedings 6f the board to be open to the iR^)eetibn of Ck)D« 
^ess, or to any committee thereof^; ahd the right tc^tnawyor nepeal w 

Bet to be reserved, subject to the fulfilment of existing etigamments^' /tmn j ,. 

12; The board to consider all subjects connected with ttie currency, « 
telation to the interests of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce^ charged 
upon it, and report thereon to Congress from time to time. ^ * i ^.. , 



.. ■'•f •■' 



C6] 



ILLUSTRATION. 



States. 



Proportion of national 
currency. 



•^ 



Q(t^ 



9 ' I 1 > ■ ■ ■ ■ I ' * > " 

176,OOP 
360,000 
100,000 
200,000 

17%QW 



Maine 
|<^i^ EMRpshire - 
' lusetts 
RilVPt^e }»\^ - 
Connecticut 

Meixr Yock - 

H(f>w J«wy - 

Delaware - 

IM^aryll^id -, 

Virginia: 

P^orth Caiolin<i • 

South Carolina - 

Geojigi* 

KfUitujcky - 



Ohio - 
Lpuisiftna - 
Indiana 
Mississ;!^ • 
Illinois 

Alabama 
Mji^uri 
Afichigan • 
Arkansas • 



- 



$1,000,000 

700,000 

1„40(1,Q00 

400,000 

800,000 

700,000 

4,?00,00() 

«)0,000 

3,000,000 

300,000 

1,000,000 

2,300,000 

1^00,000 

1,100,000 

1,100,000 

1,500,000 

1,500,000 

2,100,000 

500,000 

900,000 

400,000 

500,000 

700,000 

400,000 

300,000 

300,000 



29,400,000 




200,009 

76,<100 
250,000 
576,000 
375j000 
275,000 
•276,000 
37P,000 
S75,0PQ 
625,p00 
125.000 
225,000 
100,000 
125,00(t- 
175,000 
100,000 
7^,000 
75,000 



7.360,000 



To further el^^^te the natter, the un4er»gned, with defiwenoe, w^- 
sabQul Mine brief nanivin, in numerical order, with nafer^ce to the 
nreial points of li^e. proppsitim : 

1. The conunissioiierp, ^a cppte^plated, would constitute a financial con- 
gress of infinite viiUie ; Qiwan«tiag chiefiy from the Statei^ they could not 
be wielded by, any depwtotent of the C}overnnw)nt to advance the vifiws (^. 
any party. From such an influence they would, indeed, be free, by^ the 
tenureW their oiffice, thjB natu^ of their operatiops, their guarded powers,, 
and prwcribed duties^ as provided in the organic law to be presented lier«- 
afler. 

2. It is to be understood that the national currency is not intended for 
the common purposes of money, but as an auxiliary to'the specie basis, and 
mainly to supply the facilities of commerce, and interchanses in large trans- 
nctions, in aid of the issues of the public institntions of the several States. 
And, although the limit for the entire Union is apparently too much con- 



5 [61 

traded, the amount authorized to be issued is greater than the gravest cir- 
culation of the late Bank of the United States; and if it should be found 
insufficient, the demand might be supplied by a further emission of theeui- 
rency for general circulation. 

3. The required payment of one per centum by the States is intended 
only to cover charges ; as the currency, being merely a measure of value, 
could not juslly be made a subject of federal revenue. With equal justice 
might the States be taxed for scales and weights, or quarts and gallons, or 
other measures of length or capacity. And even that per centage might be 
reduced, by one-half, after the first year. The requisition of one-fourth in 
coin is esteemed sufficient ; but, being the minimum, if found insufficient, 
the States would, necessarily, increase it to sustain their respective msti- 
tutions. 

4. The smallest State would be entitled to a representative, and the 
largest to five, subject to the restrictions of the law. And, although the 
b«ard might appear too numerous, that objection would disappear when it 
should be considered that a large portion of its members would be employ- 
ed in visiting and inspecting the institutions, whilst others would be engaged 
in considering the subjects referred to them by either branch of Congress, 
besides their regular or ordinary duties. 

5. The custody of the federal treasures could not certainly be mofe safely 
placed than under the guaranties of the States in their appropriate institii- 
tions. And the benefits to arise from the deposites could not be more justly 
disposed of than by such distribution to the whole people. The transmis- 
sions and disbursements could be surely effected, under the direction of the 
board of currency, by the public institutions of the States, as well as by 
j)rivate corporations or individual officers. The practicability of the oper- 
ation is proved, in advance, by the ease and safety of our revenue system, 
in contrast with the frequent embarrassments of such corporations. 

6. The national currency would be receivable in all the States, as were 
the notes of the late Bank of the United States, 

7. The mode of exercising a visitorial and supervisory control over tlie 
institutions of the States, and their respective branches or departments — so 
eminently calculated to inspire confidence, and insure a compliance with 
the required conditions, uniformity of proceeding, and the most beneficial 
action — is fully and distinctly detailed in the bill. 

8. Besides their responsibility for the custody, transmission, and disburse- 
ment of the public moneys, the States are required to respond, in their aove- 
reign characters, for the currency, and lor its redemption, on demand, in 
gold or silver, under conventional arrangements and sufficient guaranties. 

9. The expenses of the board would be, in truth, but a small advance 
for a great benefit, and might juslly be regarded in the light of seed sown 
for a rich harvest. The commissioners would properly appoint their neces- 
sary officers, and take sufficient security for their good conduct. 

10. The secretary would receive the contributions, and, after defraying 
the expenses, under the direction of the board, would account to Congress 
for any surplus, which would be considered in the subsequent graduations 
of the necessary per centage. 

11. The board, being entirely a public department, would be open 
to the inspection of any committee or officer of Congress, and subject to 
any alteration or modification which experience might suggest. 

12. Over and above the regular duties of the board, in the character of a 



[6] 6 

financial congress, it would be peculiarly adapted to investi^te the great 
interests of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, in their various re- 
lations, as connected with the main object of its constitution ; and to report 
thereon, from time to time, as might be required by either branch of the 
National Legislature. 

The project of a law is presented, as the organic code of currency, col- 
lection, and distribution, in the words following, to wit : 

A BILL to create a natiofial currency, and to provide for the custody, transmission, and dis- 

hursemeni of the moneys of the United States. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Rtpresmtatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assetnbledy That whenever any 
five of the several States, by legislative enactments, shall have as- 
sented to the provisions hereinafter contained, and certified their as- 
sumption of the obligations therein enjoined upon them to the Presi- 
dent of the United States, it shall be the duty of the President to nomi- 
nate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate to ap- 
point, five persons to act as commissioners, in conjunction with other 
commissioners to be appointed by the States, as hereinafter provided| 
to constitute a board of currency, to sit at the seat of the General Govern- 
ment, and to serve for five years : the seat of the first named of the said 
persons to be vacated at the end of the first year ; of the second, at the 
end of the second year ; of the third, at the end of the third year; of the 
fourth, at the end of the fourth year ; and of the fifth, at the end of the 
fifth year; so that one of the said commissioners shall be appointed in 
every year : Provided, That any of the said persons may be re-nominated 
and reappointed for five years as aforesaid ; and, if vacancies happen by 
resignation, or otherwise, or if the assent of any five of the States shall be 
received during the recess of the Senate, the President shall have 
power to fill the same, or to appoint the commissioners, (as the case may 
be,) by granting commissions to expire at the end of the next session ; 
and the said persons shall be severally subject to suspension by the board, 
and to removal by the President, for misconduct in oflSce, or neglect of 
duty, upon the concurrent vote of both Houses of Congress, and not other- 
wise. 

Sec. 2. That each of the States, having assented and certified as afore- 
said, shall be entitled to appoint one person as a commissioner to the board 
of currency, and one in addition for every ten of its electoral votes, deduct- 
ing the number which may have been appointed from such State on behalf 
of the United States, to serve for five years as aforesaid: the seat of the first 
named of the said persons, as they shall have been received from the States, 
to be vacated at the end of the first year ; of the second, at the end of the 
second year ; and so in succession, that the board may be divided into 
classes so that one-fifth, as near as may be, shall be appointed every year ; 
and the said persons shall be subject to suspension, as aforesoid, and removal 
by the States, respectively, for misconduct or neglect of duty as aforesaid. 

Sec. 3. That the said commissioners shall have power to elect a presi- 
dent for one year, and annually thereafter to appoint, pay, and remove their 
secretary, and other necessary officers or servants, and to take security for 
their good conduct, and the due discharge of their proper duties. 

Sec. 4. That each of tlie commissioners, and the president, secretary, 
and other officers and servants, before entering upon the exercise of their 
respective functions, shall severally take and siibscribe an oath, before some 



7 [61 

i 

person competent to administer the same, for the honest and punctual per- 
formance of their several and respective duties under the provisions of this 
act. 

Sec. 5. That it shall be the duty of the said commissioners to devise and 
prepare a national currency, to be printed on both sides, in convenient de- 
nominations for interchanges or remittances, not being less than twenty 
dollars, nor exceed in the whole twenty-nine millions and four hundred- 
thousand dollars; and to register and distribute the same, upon application 
as hereinafter provided, to tlie several States, in the ratio of one hundred 
thousand dollars for each and every vote to which the States so applying^ 
respectively, may be entitled to in the election of a President and Vice 
President of the United ^States, to be disposed of by the said States under 
such regulations as they'may exact, not inconsistent with this act, nor the 
rules and ordinances of the board of currency to be constituted in virtue 
thereof. 

Sec. 6. That the said currency shall be redeemed, upon demand, at such, 
places, respectively, a;^ may be expressed on the face thereof 

Sec. 7. That the said currency shall be signed, in'behalf of the United 
States, by the president and secretary of the board of commissioners to be 
appointed in virtue of this act, and countersigned by two of the principal 
4>fficers of the financial institutions of the several States, respectively, in 
which the same shall be distributed and made redeemable. 

Sec. 8. That the currency shall be transferable by delivery and endorse- 
ment of the Treasurer, or principal Treasury officer of the State to which 
the same shall be apportioned, and made receivable from any person who 
may be entitled to pay the same ; and the said currency, wherever made 
redeemable, shall be everywhere received in payments to the United Slates. 

Sec. 9. That if any person shall falsely make, forge, or counterfeit, or 
cause or procure to be falsely made, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly 
aid or assist in falsely making, forging, or counterfeiting, any note, writing^ 
or engraving, in imitation, or purporting to be a part of the currency to be 
created in virtue of this act, or shall mlsely alter, or cause or procure to 
be falsely altered, or willingly aid or assist in falsely altering any part of 
the said currency, or shall pass, alter, or publish, as true, any false, forged, 
or counterfeit note, purporting to be a part thereof, knowing the same to be 
falsely forged or counterfeited, or shall pass, alter, or publisli, or attempt to 
pass, alter, or publish, as true, any falsely altered note or currency as afore- 
.said, knowing the same to be falsely altered, every such person shall he 
deemed and adjudged guilty of felony ; and, being convicted by due course 
of law, shall be sentenced to imprisonment, and kept at hard labor for a 
period of not less than three nor more than ten years, and be fined not ex- 
ceeding five thousand dollars. 

Sec. 10. That twenty thousand dollars, to be paid out of any money in 
the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, be, and the same is hereby, ap- 
propriated for defraying the expenses of preparing, engraving, printing, 
signing, and otherwise incident to the currency authorized by this act. 

Sec. 11. That each of the States, havinsf assented and certified as afore- 
said, shall be entitled to receive a portion of the currency hereby authorized 
to be created, not exceeding the limitation prescribed herem, upon the re- 
quisition of its Executive, and the payment of one par centum on the amount 
reriiiired, with a contract duly executed by the Treasurer, or principal 



16] 8 

Treasury officer of the said State, to pay in like manner, annually thereaf- 
ter, unless the same shall be reduced by Congress, and then to pay the per 
centage as so reduced ; and to provide a specie capital of not less than a 
fourth of the said portion of currency in the coin of the United States, or 
such foreign coins as may be authorized by law, as a basis of its operations, 
and a security for the public moneys which may be committed to the insti- 
tutions of the said States, respectively, under the provisions of this act. 

Sec. 12. That the currency, to be created in virtue of this act, shall be 
leceivable in all payments at each and every of the institutions of the several 
States in contemplation of this act, and at all their branches or departments, 
without regard to the place of its creation or redemption ; for which purpose, 
it shall be the duty of the said States to make provisions accordingly. 

Sec. 13. That the fiscal institutions of the said States, to be established 
with a view to the purposes of this act, shall have the custody and provide 
for the transmission and disbursement of the moneys of the United States, 
and for exchanges between the States, under such conditions and regulations 
as the Congress may prescribe ; and the said States shall be severally, dis- 
tinctly, and irrevocably responsible to the United States for their respective 
portions of the currency, which shall be made payable by their enactments 
in the proper revenues of, and in all payments to, the said States, and con- 
vertible on demand, at their respective institutions, into coin as aforesaid. 
And in case the payment or conversion into coin, as aforesaid, shall be re- 
Aised at any of the said institutions, the bearer shall be entitled to recover 
the amount demanded from such institution in any court having jurisdiction 
thereof, with interest thereon at the rate of ten per centum per annum from 
the date of such demand, until paid and satisfied ; and in case the person 
having the right to such demand shall fail to recover, in due course of law, 
the amount thereof from such institution, or any part thereof, it shall be 
lawful for such person to receive therefor, or for any deficiency or unsatis- 
fied part of such demand, a certificate or certificates of fiinded stock bear- 
ing interest at five per centum from the first of the calendar month next 
ensuing that on which the said claim shall have been presented. And the 
stock thus to be issued shall be transferable in the same manner as the late 
or former funded debt of the United States ; the interest on the same, and 
its reimbursement, shall be effected out of such fund as shall be established 
by law for that purpose. And the faith of the United States is hereby 
pledged to establish sufficient revenues, and to appropriate them, for effect- 
ing the purposes aforesaid : Provided, That it shall be lawful for the United 
^States to reimburse the stock thus created 4it any time after two years from 
the issuing thereof. ^ 

Sec. 14. That each of the institutions of the assenting States as afore- 
said, before they shall be employed as depositories of the public mone3rs, 
shall agree to receive them upon the following conditions, viz: First To 
pass, as specie, all sums deposited therein to the credit of the Treasurer of 
Ae United States, and to pay all checks, warrants, or draft?, drawn on such 
depository, in specie, if required by the holder thereof. Secondly, To 
give, whenever required by the Treasury, the necessary facilities for tmns^ 
terring the public funds from place to place within the United States and 
territories thereof, and for distributing the same iti payments to the public 
creditors, without charging any commission or claiming any allowance on 
account of difference of exchange or otherwise. Thirdly, To furnish to 
the Secretary of the Treasury, from time to time, as often as he may re- 



• [6 J 

quire, not exceeding once a we^, statemeats of its coBdHion aiHl business, 
setting forth tlie amount of capital paid in and the debts due to the same, 
of the moneys deposited therein, of the notes in circulation, aind of the 
specie on hand, with such other informatiou or details as may be required 
by the said Secretary ; and shall also furnish to the Treasurer of the Uni- 
ted States a weekly statement of his account upon the books of the insti- 
tution. 

Sec. 15. That in case the said institutions, or any one of them employed 
as a depository of the public moneys under the provisions of this act, i^all 
fail to comply with any of the duties enjoined upon them, or assuiBed by the 
State to which the same shall appertain ; or, if it shall appear from the pevi- 
odical statements of any of the said institutions, or from personal inspedlicoi 
of its affairs, that such institution is an unsafe depository of the pubUc 
moneys, the board shall proceed to state the jiacts to the Secretary of the 
Treasury, whose duty it shall be, with the approbation of Congress previ- 
ously obtained, if in session, and, if Congress be not in session, to discon- 
tinue such institution. And in case of the discontinuance of any of the 
said institutions in the recess of Congress, it shall be the duty of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury to report to Congress the facts and reasons which in- 
duced such discontinuance. 

Sec. 16, That the board of currency, by any one or more of its com- 
missioners, shall have and exercise a visitorial and supervisory control over 
the institutions of the several States in the contemplation of this act, and 
alt their branches and ramifications. And it shall be the duty of the said 
board, by dq>utation as aforesaid, to visit each and every of the said institu- 
tions once in every six mouths at the least, and thoroug'hly to inspect, the af- 
fairs of said institutions ; to examine all the books, paperSj notes, bonds, and 
other evidences of debt of the said institutions ;, to compare their funds and 
property with the statements to be made by them, according to the provi- 
sions oi this act; and, generally, to make such inquiries and examinations 
as may be necessary to ascertain the actual condition of said institutions, 
and their ability to fulfil all engagements made by them. 

Sec. 17. That the said commissioners, or either of them, shall have 
power to examine, upon oath, all the officers, agents, or servants of the said 
institutions, or any of them, or any other person, in relation to the affairs 
and condition of said institutions ; which oath the said commissioners, or 
either of them, are personally authorized to administer. 

Sec. 18. That in case the said commissioners shall ascertain, from such 
inspection and examination, or in any other manner, that any of the said 
institutions have violated the provisions of this act, the said conmiissioners 
shall immediately report the facts ascertained from such inspection and ex- 
amination, or otherwise, to the Secretary of the Treasury, who shall proceed 
forthwith, as he shall deem expedient, to protect the public from loss or 
damage, according to the provisions of this act, or the existing laws of the 
United States. 

Sec. 19. That it shall be the duty of the said commissioners, in the 
^onth of December, in every year, to report to Congress the manner in 
which they shall have discharged the duties imposed upon them by this 
act, and to accompiany their report, so to be made by them, with such other 
statements and abstracts as they may deem useful to the public interest 

Sec. 20. That the said commissioners shall not disclose the names of 
the debtors of any of the said institutions which may be ^amined by thenv 



£6] 10 

nor any information obtained in the course of such examinations, unless 
required in a court of justice, or in some proceeding authorized by this act. 

Sec. 21. That every officer, agent, or cferk of the said institutions, who 
shall make false statements, or false entries, in the books of such institu- 
tions, or shall exhibit false papers, with intent to deceive the said commis- 
sioners as to the condition of such institution, shall be deemed and ad- 
judged to be guilty of felony, and, upon conviction thereof in due course 
of law, shall be sentenced to imprisonment, and kept at hard labor for a 
term not less than three nor more than ten years. 

Sec. 22. That it shall be the duty of the board of currency to devise and 
ordain all necessary rules and ordinances for the convenient transaction 
and good government of their operations, and to secure the observance of 
this act and all its provisions by the several States thereunto assenting, 
and for the faithful performance of their several duties and obligations ; and 
to require such statements, from time to time:; as may be deemed essential 
to the due protection of the public interest ; for which purpose the said com- 
missioners shall have power and full authority, by and in virtue of this act 

Sec. 23. That the Secretary shall receive the per centage to be paid by 
the States, make all needful disbursements thereof, under the direction of 
the board, and account to Congress for any balance which may rctnain. 

Sec. 24. That each of the members of the board of currency shall be 
entitled to receive dollars per diem for the time necessarily em- 
ployed therein, and dollars for every twenty miles of necessary trav- 
elling on the business of the board. 

Sec. 25. That the District of Columbia, and each of the Territories of 
the United States, shall be entitled to a contingent of the currency to be 
^created by this act, under such conditions and limitations a§ may be enact- 
•ed for such purposes ; and whenever any of the said Territories shall be ad- 
mitted into the Union, the same shall be entitled, as a State, to all the ben- 
efits and immunities of this act ; and the amount of the currency shall be 
^ommensurately increased for that purpose. 

Sec. .26. That it shall be the duty of the board of currency to keep 
fair records of all their proceedings, and the same shall be open to the in- 
spection of either House of Congress, or any conunittee thereof; and the 
right to modify or repeal this act, or any of its provisions, shall be reserved 
^subject to the just fulfilment of all existing unsatisfied engagements. 

Sec. 27. That it shall be the duty of the board to consider all subjects 
connected with the currency in relation to the interests of agriculture, ma- 
nufactures, or commerce, which may be charged upon it by either branch 
of Congress, and report thereon from time to time. 

Sec. 28. That a majority of the commissioners shall l^e necessary to 
constitute a quorum for transacting the general business of the board ; but 
any six of the members, with their president, may transact the ordinary 
business, in conformity to the rules and ordinances. 

Sec. 29. That in case of sickness, or necessary absence of the President, 
he shall designate a member of the board to act as president j)ro tempore 
for ordinary business ; and, in default of such designation, the board (any 
seven members being present) may elect a president pro tempore. 

From the aforegoing it will be seen that a connexion of institutions be- 
longiiig to the States excUisively^ or to suck as they would be responsible 
for^ is contemplated ; and it is not to be supposed that such responsibility 



11 i^J 

wiHitdbe assumed without an entire or principal interest in the capital, 
and an (Uiual control in the management. 

It appears that the highly beneficial principle of assuming the sovereign 
right of banking, has been adopted and improved in several of the States, 
and. with the progressive developments of its benefits, the more has it 
gained upon the public favor ; its most potent enemy is that which has 
grown out oi an excess of srants to private corporations for such purposes. 
But if the regulation of the currency is to be regarded as a public 
BIGHT ; if the good of the whole is to be preferred to the special interests 
ef a/ctvoredfew ; and if there be enough of intelligence amone the peo- 
ple to understand the proposition, and to appreciate its merits, (which can- 
not be doubted,) we may well anticipate the eventual establishment of a na- 
tional currency, under the agency of a connected system of instittitions 
belonging solely to the States. 

The doctrine of the great father of democracy is peculiarly apposite and 
interesting at the present crisis, as it presents a practicable succedaneum^ 
through tne medium of a measure of value, which, by " its solidity^ uni- 
verstuity of circulationj and receivabiiUy in all public payments, would 
make its way, and supplant the paper of private banks or corporations of 
individuals." These are the views of Jefferson; and although the Con- 
gress may not be authorized ta establish a paper currency as an absolute 
tender in private contracts, yet the influence they may exercise in securing 
its soundness, through the collections of the revenue, has been admitted by 
the purest patriots and most enlightened statesmen of this republic in vari- 
ous departments of the Government. 

In the early annals of the constitution, the power was affirmed by Gen. 
Hamilton, in his public character, '<to designate or appoint the money or 
thing in which the taxes are to be paid," as being " not only a proper, but 
a necessary exercise of the power of collecting them ; accordingly, Con- 
gress, in the law concerning the collection of the duties on imposts and ton- 
nage, have provided that they ^all be payable in silver or gold. But while 
it was an indispensable part of the work to say in^hat they should be paid, 
the choice of the specific thing was a mere matter of discretion. The pay- 
ment might have been required in the commodities themselves; taxes in 
kind are not without precedent, even in the United States ; or they might 
have been in the paper money of the sever{d States, or of the bills of the 
Banks of North America, New York, or Massachusetts, all or each of them ; 
or it might have been in bills issued under the authority of tub 
United States. No part of this, it is presumed^ can be disputed. The 
appointment of the money or thing in which the taxes are to be paid, is an 
incident to the power of collection ; and, among the expedients whicli may 
be adopted, is that of bills issued under the authority of the United States." 
These are the views of Hamilton ; and this contemporaneous commentary 
has received the sanction of succeeding sages, in the practical employment 
of the Treasury notes as a medium of exchange and circulation. 

It therefore appears that a paper currency is not inhibited by the constitu- 
tion ; and that such a currency may be created by the General Government, 
and distributed among the States, under- proper guards and regulations to 
insure its credit and convertibility into ffold or sflver, and to promote, in- 
calculably, the common welfare, is equaUy evident ; as the productive prin- 
ciples of a high and Vcduable prerogative would thereby be dilTused, by ita 



[6 ] 12 

operations^ ^ the whole people, and not confined to thd benefit or pn^C of 
a special few or privileged order.. The plan, indeed^ dseste^mri sufficiiem 
for all the beneficial piirpoees in eontemphelion, \^itho«it the evils of a ioui- 
U&s comkincUwn of c€rpiir€U4irs ; it is, in effsot, a nAtionax bank ot BXh 
CHANGE AND BEPosiTK, without the privileg(8s of ksaing notte or loaning 
money as regards the General Government, in connexion with an equitable 
and secure system for the receipt anddistribntioii of the federal revenue — 
commensurate, in fact, with the wealth and crMit ofthe toveral States, eai- 
bracing the entire property and populatimt of the whole Union, To eadi 
and every of the States it Would impart a rieh resdurce in public income, 
and diffuse the means of propelling industry and^ enterprise, and^ by accd- 
crating improvements throughout the country, promote the amelioration of 
every interest and class of society ; and while such a system would essen- 
tially enlarge the specie basis, and adapt the local drctilatioci tb the common 
uses and demands of ordinary business, the national currency would supply 
the facilities of interchanges in large transactions, on terms convenient and 
economical. 
In reference to the pending question, the great object of desire is a me- 

jyiVU OP UNIFORM AND EaHAL VaLVE THROUGHOUT THE UnION ; tO Bf^ 

con^Iish which, it is proposed that a currency shall be created bt 
THE United States upon the patth and credit op the whole na- 
tion, GUARANTIED BY THE StATES, RECEIVABLE EVERYWHERE IN ALL 
PUBLIC PAYMENTS, AND CONVERTIBLE INTO SILVER OR GOLD On preSeUt^- 

ation at each and every of the institutions of the States. If a better me^ 
dinm can be devised, it remains to be demonstrated. 

For the more ample illustration and better understanding of the matter, 
some additional views in relation to the expediency and justice of th^ 
proposition, and in support of the practical effects anticipated to flow from 
the operations of the interesting measures in contemplation, will be sub- 
mitted. 

By the federal compact, the entire revenue from duties on imports is 
ceded to the General Government exclusively ; and the States are conse- 
quently reduced to the necessity of resorting to direct taxation, or to inci* 
dental sources, for defraying the expenses of their aditiinistrations. The 
receipt of income to the national Treasury from the mere circulating me- 
dium, does not appear to have entered into the consideration of the framers 
of that compact; and Ae benefits derivable from the redouroe in question 
may be justly regarded as a reservation of the whole people^ to be enjoyed 
in their respective States. . . 

From documentary information, and estimates entitled to credit, it may 
be fairly inferred that the amount of contributions c:F^orf^d/rom the people 
for the use of a public right, and eventually drawn from the la7id and 
labor of the country, has exceeded annually the average avails of the du- 
ties on imports for the last three fiscal years* 

In a critical examination of this topic, it would seem that, if such a 
course of contribution is to be tolerated, the resulting revenue ought to 
enure to the common benefit, and not to etirich a favored few, or privileged 
order of corporators ; and the more especially, as the resources of the 
States, with the aid of the national currency and the capital imparted by 
the public deposites, would abundantly sustain the proposed system, under 
judicious regulations properly administered. 



13 t«] 

It is not to be presumed, nor even supposed, that the plan presented could 
be carried immediately into full effect throughout the Union, as the exist- 
ence of charters conferring vested rights might operate to impede, or viftn- 
ally preclude, its useful action in some of the States for years to come. But 
many members of the confederation are uniDCumbered by such grants, and 
cdl, in time, might be relieved, by their expiration, or otherwise. 

The Aill enjo3rment of this prerogative being susceptible of producing 
avails of vast extent, would not only enable the severcu States to perfect 
Iheir lines of intercommunication already in progress or in prospect, as weU 
as to promote improvements in literature, and other desirable ameliorations, 
but tend incalculably to increase productions in every interest, and, by aug^ 
menting exportable commodities, to supply and nourish exterior conunerc^ 
and essentially enhance the means of comfort among the people. 

With reference to the private corporations in which the public moneys have 
boen deposited, they are not calculated, by the nature of their organusation, 
nor the course of their administration, to inspire confidence as depositories 
of the national treasures. Neither are they to be viewed as the roost eligible 
vehicles of distribation, nor as the most competent regulators of monetary 
interchanges in remote regions, having, as they have, different interests and 
variant points of policy. Among the many objections to which those cor- 
porations are obnoxious in the public estimation, some are similar to such 
as existed in the late Bank of the United States. And, although less emi- 
nently calculated to attract rival investments, and to generate foreign influ- 
ences, or to combine a concentration of power in the possession of a few, 
or a single individual, dangerous to the peace and prosperity of the country, 
or to the vital principles of the Government, yet, composing, as they do. ^ 
distinct community, with inordinate power to act in private, and having 
privtteges superior to the common mass of our population — constituting, 
in fact, an order which consumes the fruits of the common labor, without 
contributing to its production in due degree — ^they may well be viewed as 
hostile to the spirit of a free republic ; and the paper of such, (emitted by 
irresponsible corporations, acting in conclave, with a sole regard to private 
benefits,) from apprehensions of its solidity arising from the frequency of 
Cheir failures, or depreciation, could not maintain that uniform and equal 
value which would sustain the issues of a board based upon thb 

WEALTH AND CREDIT OF THE WHOLE NATION, GUARANTIED BT THE 

States, receivable in all public payments, and immediately con- 
vertible INTO €K>LD OR SILVER. 

Respectfully submitted : 

LITTLETON DENNIS TEACKLB, of Marylund. 



26th Congress, [ 7 T 

1st Session. < 



MEMORIAL 

OP 

THE NEW ORLEANS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 

PRATING 

The establishment qf a National Bank. 



September 8, 1837. 

Referred to the Committee on Finance, and ordered to be priated. 



"Th the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 

America in Congress assembled : 

The memorial of the New Orleans chamber of commerce 
Respectfully represents : 

That thQ d^lorable condition of the currency, and the consequent d^- 
psessed state of the commercial and other ^at interests of the country^ 
have induced your memorialists to inquire into th^ causes w-bic^h have \eA 
-io this result, with the view of ascertaining such remedial measures as i€ 
may be ki the power of Congress to apply; with a firm reliance that the 
wisdclm and patriotism of the representatives of the nation will insure that 
msture cbnsiderfttion of this important subject, and Will induce such actioa 
as wiU relieve our country from the unprecedented Embarrassment under 
which it now suflfers. 

^ki siibttiitlsi^g^ the views of the ehamb^r of commerce of New Orleans on 
ihe subject it is deeilied proper to take a retrospective view of the conditioii 
cf this country during the existence of the late national bank, and also of 
Its condition since the extinction of said bank under the Stale bank system. 

• DuTing the ibrmerperiod, the prndential course of policy pursued by that 
institution prieserved the great interei^ of the country generally in a sound 
«xld btelthnil state; property had a gradual and natural upward tendency; 
agriciilture, manufactures, and commerce, were in a flourishing condition ;- 
extravagant speculations were rarely entered into, or, if enteted into, were 
qteedUy checked by the wholesome restricffve power judiciously exercised 
by the bank; the sales of the public lands were proportionate with the 
TU^tural demand consequent on the increase of population and wealth; the 
national revenues, increasing from the same causes, were collected and dis* 
buTsed throughout our extended territory, without expense and without 
loss. 

Among other advantages that experience has proven were derived tMk 
4hi8 institution, the following may be adduced : 

Ist Its circulation had such universal con fidencie, that it could be, and 
was, rendered practically useful for all commercial and domestic purposes, 
from one extreme of the Union to the other, at its nominal value, without 
«Dy diecoimt whatever. 

Blair dt RiTes, priaten. 



[7] a 

} 

f 2d. It regulated, on safe and equitable principles, the course of domestic- 
and foreign exchanges : by the former, the people were enabled to transmit 
funds from one distant place to another, at a reasonable charge ; and by the 
latter, it checked the export of the precious metals when the rate of preniiunv 
owing to large importations of foreign inerchandise, or other causes, was 
advancing so as to tempt their exportation. 

3d. Its discounts of local business paper were ^neraUy fully adequate to 
the legitimate wants of the community; and its aid in thi^ resjieet "Vfs often 
interposed when the then comparatively few State tanks were unable to 
give the needful assistance. 

4th. Its vast means, in consequence of the universal confidence in it» 
emissions, enabled it to expand, during those periods of commercial pressure 
that are unavoidable, and that cause a rapid contraction of the means oC 
local banks, at the time their aid is most required by the community. 
* 5th. It exeircised a wholesome check on tne emissions of the Slate banks,, 
whenever these emissions were excessive, and were tending to introduce # 
spirit of dan^rous speculation. 

' 6thv Pendintf the existence of the aatii^nal bank^ mannfa6tuiM of all 
kinds, raw produce, &c«, generally boie a value about^ commensurate with 
the proportion of supply and consumptioti ; co]Qseqi;iently, investmentf made 
therein were comparatively safe to the parties concerned, and therefore to 
the public at large. 

(9 th^ year IwO, the opinion generally obtained thai the eimtttt of tbe 
Bai^k of the Uqited Stales would not be renewedy«od in 18^ the veto of 
tbiie Presidept confirmed that opinion ; measures weire then taken 'by Oovem^ 
ni9n$ to iQcreffse the meti^lie circulati(»), by augmenting the valiie of gokl 
beyond the standard adopted by other nations: in commmeoi^ of Aeoe 
stf^pp, tb(e public mind was directed with intense intere^ tortbe cottne whbsk 
it,woi4d be proper to pursue in (M^r to supply the dicnm«Aied fiBciUtieo 
thfkt! wpuld iQSuU fr0m thje eixtjnction of the national bank^ A new inpeto 
was given to the creation of the State banks, until their niunbei; was. ii^ 
ciKcmd from t/^tm jhundfed and tweoty;niue, m. 1830, to eight bundibi mA 
twWtHbr^Orin 1837, making an additional number of tobrhundmld and 
npety-jfour; while from 1816 to 1830, a period of fourteen* years, the ito- 
crefise had been only ei^hty^hree. 

;Tipe State be^nks, relieved from the restraining power so judiciDueiy ek- 
eipiapd by.tthe national bank, accorded unreasonable and indtacnuaiiato 
ciedits, and increased the paper circulation of the country one htihdredidild 
twQpty fi^e millions of dollars; a feverish impulse was given to all classes 
oi^ society; anunqattiraLrise occurred in all species of property ; the« sales 
of public lapds wQre iucrjsased from two million three hutidredithoiisbiid 
dollars, m I830» to twenty-four million five hundred thousaend. dollars, in 
1$36; fin entire derangem^t of the currency, as well as of tbacodrtesof 
fore%ii oqd domestic exchanges, ensued ; until finally, at the close of 1836^ 
a]|4 eiirly ijn 1837, the banks of Gurop<^, finding a great dimiijiution of the 
precious metals in tneir vaults, principally caused by the influence of the 
"g^biU" and the ^'Treasury circular," began to direct restrictive n^easmf^ 
against those who were either directly or indirectly concerned ia the cam^ ' 
mfrc^ of tlis country- When this restrictive policy was nsida knotvoi^ 
th^ Unitf^ Stute^, uneasiness, and alarm exercised their influence on the ^' 
mipdsofthecomD^unity; and as aji subsequent intelligmice from Europe 
4dnly tended to increase this alarm, the State banks throughout thecouifctry^ 



3* l\r.^ 

became panic-stnicl^) and comxxienceA a course of curt^^IEQe^L 4here)^ 
rapidly nsducing the v^ue of property of all descriptions, and depriving 
their debtors of tne means of meeting pp)mptly their enffsigeiiients — engage- 
ments which had been ipdi^ed by the indiscreet prp<£j{al|ty of these very 
banks theniselves, and who were finally, with a lewr isplared exfeptions^ 
compelled to suspend specie payments. 

Tour memorifiilists, m illustratiQU of their views, respectfully submit ai 
statexnei^ of the n^es o^ domestic apd foreigq^ ^i^cbapges §t Ne^ Orieana, 
dmii^ tbi&tiaa year^ preceding the ej^pif-i^tioti pf theqbartiBr of the B^cqik of 
the Imited States, and those which rule at the px^nt time; and a sti^^ 
roent of the rajtes of discount! on State ^k pftper, other tb^tn that of L<m|- 
isiana^ with the rates of premiuni on United States Qank notes ^ they hav^^ 
also,. added a comparative view of the rise in tjbbe va^fi of prppcfty^ d\)n>f^ 
the e^tistenqe pf t^ 9atiapaJi han)c, a|ul sii^^e its ^^n<^t^O: t 



DeaerqptioK of phipeity. 



Daring the exist- 
ence of (h^ United 

f SUkite Bank^llro^ 
lS27toia^ 



Frbm the expira- 
tion of the char- 
Mr oit the WtM 
StiUes j3i|Hk tQ 
May i3^mX iif 
cnrSency. 



r 



Prom |«t July to t^, 
IstofAiiigiiist, 1^/ 
iiii enr^eo^jr. 



•' { 



Average late on domestic bills - 
Aren$e rate on foneign bilk - 
Bank sight checks 
Specie - - • - 

Bank of the United States notes 
State bank notes oat of the State 

whence issaed 
Real estate—rise in ralne 



1 . t ■ i 

i to 1 discount - 
7 lo 9 pmniam • 

par to I premiam 

• • • 

par to 1 premiam 

rr to 5 discount 
to 10 annually 
on good produc- 
tive property; lit- 
tle demand for 
any other. 



i 

1 to 4 discount - 
9 to 13 premiam 

3 to 4 premium - 
8 to 3j>remium- 
par to 3 premium 

4 to 10 discoimt - 
95 to SOO in about 

eighteen months ; 
property, of little 
or no mtrinsic 
value, the sub- 
ject of enormous 
speculation at 
most extravagant 
prices. 



3 to 15 discount. 
94 to 96 premium. 

6 to 10 premium. 
19 to 90 premium. 

8 to 10 premium. 

10 to 95 discoont. 
Value almost no- 
minal. 



The forgoing facts seem to your memorialists to demonstrate clearly — 

1st. That the State banks, without die control of a national bank, are in* 
capable of sustaining a well-regulated currency, and of furnishing a medium 
of negotiating the K>reign and domestic exchanges of the country; and ex- 
perience has besides shown their utter inability to perform the duties of 
fiscal agents for the collection and disbursements of the Government re- 
venues. 

2d. That the want of a national and uniform currency is most severely 
felt by all classes of the community, and bears with peculiar hardship on 
the poor, bv increasing the cost of all the necessaries of life; while the loss 
attending the transmission of funds from one part of the Union to another 
is most oppressive on the internal commerce and manufactures of the 
country. 

3d. That an uncontrolled system of banking, by giving an unnatural and 
most artificial value to property, produce, and manufactures, operates most 
unfavorably on the happiness ana prosperity of the people. 



[7] 4^ 

Your memoriftlists, after the tnost mature consideration ^ and guided in 
forming their opinion by long experience, beg leave most respectfully to call 
the attention of Congress to the importance of establishing, without delay, 
a national bank with branches, in the basis of the charter of the late Bank 
of the United States, with such modifications and restrictions as the wisdom 
and experience of the enlightened representatives of the nation may suggest. 
The early action of Congress being the more important, in order that the 
banks throtighout the Union may speedily be enabled to resume specie pay- 
metits, which, in the opinion of your memorialists, cannot be effected until 
a national bank is established. 

In submitting this memorial, and its important object, to the consideration 
<^ Congress, your memorialists beg leate further to state, that they have been 
inlpelled to address you in consequence of the intimate and important con< 
nexion between the conmiercial interests of New Orleans and the agricul- 
tural interests of more than half the States of the Union ; a moiety of the 
whole exports of the domestic produce of the United States being shipped 
from this city. 

The deep interest they, therefore, feel in the adoption of a measure by 
which the exchanges of the country may, at all times, be negotiated on 
terms favorable to the agricultural interests, on the prosperity of which our 
citv is so dependant, induces them to believe that daeir prayer will be favor- 
ably received ; and they, as in duty bound, will ever pray, &c., &c. 

SAM'L J. PETERS, President, 



25ih Congress, 
1*/ tSessioTL 



£8] 



LIST OF COMMITT£i:S 



OP THE 



SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES, 



FOR THE 



FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS, 1837. 



September 8, 1837. 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 



On Foreign Relations. 
Mr. Buchanan, Chairman, 
Talhnadge, 
King, of Georgia, 
Clay, of Kentucky, 
Rives. 

On Finance. 
Mr. Wright, Chairman, 
Webster, 
Nicholas, 
Benton, 
Hubbard. 

On Commerce, 
Mr. King, of Alabama, Chairman. 
Davis, 
Brown, 
Ruggles, 
Norvell. 

On Manufactures. 
Mr. Niles, Chairman, 

Buchanan, 

Preston, 

Strange, 
Rerce. 

Blair & Rives, printers. p. 



On Agricnlture, 
Mr. Smith, of Connecticut, Chairman. 
Spence, 
Linn, 
McKean, 
Black. 

On Military Affairs, 
Mr. Benton, Chairman, 
Preston, 
Tipton, 
Wall, 
Allen. 

On the Militia. 
Mr. Wall, Chairman, 

Swift, \\ 

Clay, of Alabama, 

Mouton, 

Smith, of Indiftna. 

On Naval A fairs. 
Mr. Rives, Chairman, 
Southard, 
Tallmadge, 
Cnthbert, 
Williams. 



[8] 



On Public Landsi, 
Mr. Walker, Chairman, 
Fulton, 

Clay, of Alabama, 
Roane, 
Prentiss. 

0?i Private Land Claims. 
Mr. Linn, Chairman, 
Sevier, 
Bayard, 
Mouton, 
Lyon. 

On Indian Affairs. 
Mr. White, Chairman, 
Sevier, 
Tipton, 
Linn, 
Swift. 

On Claims, 
Mr. Hubbard, Chairman, 
Tipton, 
Crittenden, 
Strange, 
Young. 

On Revolution ar J/ Claims. 
Mr. Brown, Chairman, 
White, 
Crittenden, 
Norvell, 
Smith, of Connecticut. 

On the Judiciary, 
Mr. Grundy, Chairman, 
Morris, 

King, of Georgia, 
Wall, 
Clayton. 

On ike Post OMce and Post HQads. On Enrolled Bills, 

Mr. Robinson,Xhs^irman, Mr. Smith, of Connecticuty 

Gnmdy, Lvon, 

Knight, Allen. 

Brown, 

Niles. 



On Roads oTid Canals. 
Mr. Tipton, Chairman, 
McKean, 
Nicholas, 
Young, 
Williams. 

On Pensions. 
Mr. Morris, Chairman, 
Sevier, 
Prentiss, 
Pierce, 
Roane. 

I 
On the District of Columbia 
Mr. Kent, Chairman, 
King, of Alabama, 
Nicholas, 
Roane, 
Allen. 

Oji Patents and the Patent OJ 
Mr. Ruggles, Chairman, 
Strange, 
Bayara, 
Prentiss, 
Robinson. 

i 

i 

To audit and control the conling-^it 

expenses of the Senate. 
Mr. McKean, 

Fulton, 

Black. 



On Engrossed BUls. 
Mr. Clay, of Ambama, 
Stiiitb, of Indiana, 
Norvell. 




[» J 



MEMORIAL 



CHAMBER OP COMMERCE OP ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, 



TTte creation of a National Bank. 



Septembbb 11, 1837. 

Referred to Ibe Commtllee on Finance, and ordered to be printtd 



Ta the honorable the Senate and House of. Repreaentativts of the United 
Stales in Congress aaaembled : 

The memorial ot the chamber nf commerce of the city ol St. lionia, in the 
f State of Missouri, 

fEflPKCTFl I.I.V UEPRESENTS : 
Thaiiii tilt' midst of profound peace, embarrasGed by iio great pohtical 
rnirsi'u-i, siiirDunded by all the elemcnls of prosperity, we find our coun- 
try itivolvcil 111 financial ruin ; tiie hnnd of industry aTrested ; all concert 
and Imniiony in our monelary operations destroyed; all interchani^s of 
..property im|ieJed ; all internal exchanges embarrassed; the confidence 
^.iwliich hitht:rlo existed between man and man, in our comtnercial relations, 
j^jiroslrntnd, i];iy, almost wholly destroyed ; and the whole nation forced to 
'^tho liosperati! resort of a suspension of specie payments, the only ocknowl- 
■" jedgwl hasif ol";i sound rEoiielary system. Thus are contracts rendered in- 
• -secure, public ;uid private faith violated, the value of property unsettled, 
and the peopli- exposed to the imposition of uncontrolled issues of irredeem- 
able liank uotr'-'. Capital is rapidly disappearing from those channels in 
which ii. h;i-i I' i-yA most beneficial, to be hoarded where it lies idle and use- 
less ht t'le C(i:iiLnnnily ; productive establishments, furnishing profitable 
(■n!f)l"yiiicnt In the laborer, the mechanic, and the farmer, are suspended ; 
cLipii,\i nil'! I.ih IF are, in fact, divorced to the ruin of the industrious man, 
wiio 1 ::i 'i 1 l-rend by the sweat of his brow, and to the iiyury of the 
capiitl: ■ are evils engendered by the destruction of general 

con;-! ( great stimulant to agricultural, mechanical, and comincr- 

cii\! ; Your memorialists confidently avow the belief, that the 

only . ; 1 these accumulated evils is within the jurisdiction of your 

hull' i ! •:: [li;a it exist.s in the creation of a specie-paying national 

fjaiiiiML -.'. ! Jii, cbli.saled to per for nj snch fi-^cal duties as maybe re- 

(IUiilJ in (. \ rnnieni, and whose energies and resources shall be directed 
TO as to elfect the equalizattcu of excbangus throughout the country. Sucb 

Blair & Rives, j-,rinlers. 



C»l * 

ao iDstitudon, by eitendiog its prosperous influences lo tbe threshoic 
every citizen, would, your memorialists believe, prove a national blessi 
In the creation of such an institution, two great objects, intimately c 
nected with the well-being of the nation, would, in the judgment of v< 
roemoiialists, be attained : 

1. A resumption of specie payments, without which no safe staiidnn 
value can exist. 

2. An equalization, so &r as is pnusticable, of the exchanges of 
United States. 

As to the power of the Government to orj^anize such an iostituiionj 
doubt, it is presumed, can now be entertained. It was exercised dur 
the administration of Washin^n, and has received in some form, tnuri£ 
less direct, the sanction of all his successors; has been thrice sunctioned 
by the National Lc^lature, and by the highest court of judicaturi' in our 
country. 

Your memorialists accordingly request that Congress will create surl 
an institulion as is herein before suggested, by which great advaiilaL:<'s vni 
be conferred on the country, while the rights of the General and .Si.iU' 
GovernmentB may, at the same time, be scrupulously protected livmi iii- 
croachment and injury. 

And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 
• EDW. TEIACY, PtesuU-,,/- 

AUest: 

John Ford, Secretary. 



f 



' l|f Sessimi. 



MEMORIAL 



niMBER OF CITIZENS OF COLUMBIANA COUNTY, OHIO, 

For BK iiicreose of the drcalation of gold and silver, and opposed 
lo the creation of banks and paper money. 



Septembeb 11, 1837. 

■i\ 10 Ihe Commiilce on Financr, and ordered lo be printed. 



Totht hoiinrable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States in Congress assembled : 

Tlie undiMsi','iied petitioners, citizens of Columbiana county, Ohio, 
RBsi'Ki'TFin.i.v i:epresl:nt: 

Tiiiit it is'\i-ith regret we have learned that another attempt will be made, 
at your cxtni Mssion, to procure an act of incorporation for a national 
baiiK, oitlKT '.y renewing the charter of the present " Bank of the United 
State?," or by ttrnnting bankin? powers to another company, similar in their 
nature to liic lato charter of that institution. We deem it unnecessary to 
ppasfiu iirpniiii-Mis to enlighteri the minds of your Honorable body upon the 
dangers to lie iipprehertfed from panting such an act of incorporation. 
Ttlf history nl' ihfe 'last (ev,- years is too vivid in your recollection to need, 
"■" a recapilulation of the gross abuse of the powers conferred by Con- 
oii such an institution. We have witnessed, as well as felt, the effects 
le disastrous convulsions which the business of the country has at 
!s been subjcrt lo, in consequence of the unceasing struggle of the Bank 
«f tlic United t^lates lo force a renewal of its nutional existence. We be- 
lievr that llie constitution dees not confer upon Congress the power to es- 
rtibliph such 11 iiionej-ed corporation ; and even if such a power were con- 
"ferred, we sh(juld deem it inexpedient to exercise it: believing, as we do, 
tbat it would be creating an irresponsible power, greater than the Govern- 
naent uself, IJiruugh ihc omnipotence to be obtained over the currency of 
the country. 

" That, in iIk' midst of profound peace, embarrass : d by no great political 
stniggles, surrounded by all the elements of prosperity, we find our country 
involved in fiiimicinl luin. ' not from a want of banking and paper money. 
mainly from a svperabvndance of them, and the faithless manner in 
h their obligations to the public have been executed. 
our pelilinners, therefore, request Ihnt, instead of creating mope banking 
nl, and thereby the issue ot nioie paper moiicy. you will take all con- 



£10] 3 

stitutional measures to increase the circulation of the constitutional cuneQcy 
of gold and silver, and to cause a proportionate decrease in the circulation 
of their unworthy representatives, paper money. And we believe the first 
and most effectual measure for accomplishing this much-desired object 
should be the total separation of the fiscal concerns of the GovernmeDt of 
the United States from the concerns of banking institutions, and the le- 
ceiving and disbursing by the Oovernment of none other than the legal 
and constitutional currency of the country. 



'(ii;t 



t 



I .1 1 



liSth C0NOU8S, [ SENATE. ] t H ] 

IstSettum. 



MEMORIAL 

OP A 

TIUMBER OP CITIZENS OP CARROLL COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI, 

Praying the creation of a National Bank, 



September II, 1837. 

Referred to the Committee on Finance, and ordered to be printed. 



To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled : 

The undersigned citizens of Carrollton, and of Carroll county, in the State 

of Mississippi, 

Respectfully represent: 

That within the last few years they have witnessed with astonishment 
a rash and unfortunate experiment made by the national administration 
upon the currency and prosperity of the country, in dispensing with anational 
bank, die only efficient check which has ever been devised for controlling 
the issues of the State banks. Your memorialists give their testimony, that 
the predictions then made by the most experienced statesmen in Congress, 
in regard to the probable effects of that experiment, have been verified to 
tfie letter. Prom having been possessed of a currency, during the existence 
of the United States Bank, as sound as any which any country has ever 
enjoyed, and which was of equal value with gold and silver in every State 
in the Union, this experiment has brous^ht about a condition of the country 
in which the notes of the State banks (me only kind of currency which we 
have) have depreciated in the State generally to from ten to fifteen per cent, 
below par ; and in some places on the Mississippi river, your memoriahsts 
are credibly informed that the produce traders from the upper country make 
a difference of fifty per cent, between our State bank paper and specie. Your 
memorialists believe that if an estimate could be made of the entire loss thus 
sustained, in all transactions between citizens of this and those of other 
States, including the enormous premium which our merchants must pay 
for eastern funds, it would be found that this wretched experiment has tax- 
ed this State alone to the amount of several hundred thousand dollars. But 
what renders it most vexatious is the fact that it was made in total disre- 
gard of the voice of experience, inasmuch as two experiments to dispense 
with a national bank had been made before, both of which alike failed. 
As connected with this subject, your memorialists would notice the 
fact, that notwithstanding this thrice demonstrated necessity for a na- 

Blair & Hives, printerb. 



[11] .2 

tional bank, as a regulator of the currency and exchanges of the country, 
a class of men who make politics a trade, perfect novices in legal leani- 
ing, are now, at this late day, endeavoring to raise a question as to the 
constitutionality of such an institution, when it is known that Wash- 
ington, " the nrst in peace and the first in war," the president of the con- 
vention which had then just formed the constitution, signed the first 
bank charter ; Mr. Madison, the soundest constitutional lawyer of his day, 
signed the charter of the late bank, and the Supreme Court of the United 
States has solemnly decided that Congress has the power to charter such a 
bank. After having these sanctions, and after forty years^ experience of 
the benefits of such an institution, your memorialists cannot but think that 
the constitutional question should be regarded as settled, if we are to have 
any thin^ like uniformity in construing^ the fundamental law. As the only 
remedy tor the present deranged and depreciated state of the currency, and 
for the total destruction of commercial exchanges, your memoriaJists psay 
that a national bank may be chartered, having as little connexion with the 
national administration as the late Bank of the United States;. 
And your memorialists -will ever pray, &c. 



2Sth C0110SB88, [ SENATE. 1 Tim 

IstSeasitn, *- -'^ 



MEMORIAL 



OP 



LEWIS FEUCHTWANGER, 



PEATINO 



Congress to substitute his invention^ called '^ Oerman silver/^ in place of 

the copper coinage of the United States. 



September 13, 1837. 

Referred to the Committee on Finance, and ordered to be printed. 



To the Jwnor able the Senate and House of Representatives. 

The memorial of Lewis Feuchtwanger, of the city of New York, 
Respectfully showeth: 

That your memorialist, after repeated labors, has succeeded in making 
and perfecting a metalHc composition, known as German silver, of clean, 
white, and durable materials, of specific value, from which coins and all 
articles can be advantageously manu&ctured, as are now wrought out of ' 
pure silver. 

Your memorialist proposes to your hononorable body to substitute this 
composition for the copper currency of the country, by striking ofi* pieces 
of the size of a dime and of the value of one cent, specimens of which he 
has prepared for inspection. 

Your memoriaUst proposes to furnish this substitute for copper as cheaply 
as copper is now furnished to the mint, and is confident that the " silver 
cent," ^us proposed as a substitute for the cent pieces, will be more accept- 
able, more portable, and would be more generally used in making up the . 
fractional parts of a dollar. 

Your memorialist prajrs your honorable body to take the subject under 
your consideration, and as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

LEWIS FEUCHTWANGER. 



Blair & Rives, printers. 



26th CoNOBKSs, [ SENATE. ] T J3 "I 



1^/ Sessi4m, 



MEMOBJAL 

OP 

A NUMBER OF IMPORTING MERCHANTS OF NEW YORK, 

PRATINa 

An extension of the time for payment of duty bonds. 



3ept£mber 18, 1^37. 

I^id on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



To the honorable the Smote and House of RepresenMives of the Uniie 

States in Congre^ assembled. 

The undersigned, merchants, importers, an*d others, connected with the 
commerce of the city of New York, 

Respectfully reprss^nt : 

That, owing to embarrassments existing in every branch of commerce 
and trade, many of your memorialists were compelled to apply to the Ex- 
ecutive Department of the Government in May last, for relief in the pay- 
ment of bonds given for duties on merchandise imported by them into the 
cityof New York : 

That, on these applications, instructions to the Attorney of this district 
were ^ven by the Treasury Department, to extend the terms of payment 
of such bonds, then over due, or falling due before the first of Octobefr next, 
until that day : That, prior to the assembling of Congress, the Chumber of 
Commerce of this city addressed the Secretary of the Treasury oil the 
same subject, urging that he should suggest, in his report to your hdn^R^i 
body, the necessity and advantage bom to your memorialists afid't6 tM 
United States of a fhrther prolon^tion of the times of ^ymmipttnyrit^ 
for one year fi'om the period th^ said'^nds should fall due ; y^ich^ii^pre^ 
sentation is referred to in the report of the flfecretary to Congress. 

As in this report the honorable Secretary sets'fordi, that ^ Allien the diffi^ 
culties in discharging bonds in legal currency became indeased by the 
suspension of specie payments in some of the principal citins, th^ the 
President decided to call a special sesssion of Congress," and fiirtber, that 
** the postponement was allowed to be extended till after the commencement 
of the session, in order that an opportunity might be afforded to;<i6tain 
further relief by new legislation," the undersigned hesitate not to press* 
upon your honorable body their own convictions of the importance oi th^ 
subject, and their solicitations that it may be speedily coniider^. 

JSlair 4 Rives, printers. 



[ 13 ] 2 

The amount of duty bonds, which are or will be due by the first of Octo- 
ber, in this port, is believed to be nearly four millions ot dollars ; of those 
faJling^ due thereafter, before the first of January next, one million more ; 
and me amount of duties on merchandise not entered, now lying in jniblic 
store and which will be payable this year also, is estimated at two millioos 
more ; in all, exceeding seven millions of dollars of indebtedness for duties 
to be discharged in this port alone, under existing laws, in the next three 
months, not including' duties accruing on goods, subject to cash duties, 
arriving during that tune. This amount, large as it is, would have been 
discharged by the merchants of New York in ordinary circumstances, with 
their accustomed and acknowledged punctuality; but, in the cxistiDg 
unparalleled derangements of commerce and of the currency, your memo- 
rialists affirm, that its payment is impossible, without a longer prolongation 
than that which appears to be contemplated, to wit : " a delay altogether not 
to exceed six months beyond the original period of payment in any par- 
ticular case ;" or in other words, a payment of over four millions of dollars 
by February, and of the residue, three millions, not including duties on 
importations subsequent to October, on or before the 15th April. 

Your memorialists respectfully beg leave to difier from the views ex- 
pressed by the honorable the Secretary of the Treasury, and their reasons 
are derived from a mournful consideration of the present situation and 
immediate prospects of the commerce of the city. Under a system of 
credit, over extended perhaps, but heretofore beneficial to themselves and 
advantageous to the Government, the undersized had, up to the period of 
the commercial explosions throughout the Union, sold the goods on which 
these duties have mainly accrued, or expected to sell them, to an interme- 
diate class of dealers between the importers aqd the omsumers, known under 
the name of jobbers, for notes at six to twelve months' credit, relying upon 
having such paper discounted if necessary, or at least of realizing it punctu- 
ally at maturity, and thus of haviag the ability to discharge their indebt- 
edness for duties. The jobbers in turn had been accustomed to distribute 
the goods thus purchased amongst their customers, to the remotest quarter 
of the Union, on a credit of at least equal extent, and payable at various 
distant places, counting upon their ability to avail of such payments in 
discharge of their own engagements. This reliance, upon which the 
business, in this extensive department of trade, has heretofore securely 
rested, has this year entirely failed, owing to causes which it is not the in- 
.4eiition of your memorialists even to advert to : the distant buyer is no 
Jong^rtaUeio pay the jobber, but asks time till the planter or farmer can 
pi^y him out of hi& next crop, whether of cotton or tobacco, or wheat ; the 
jot)ber, almost withoRH^' *eM6|3li^ cannot therefore at presept pay your 
memorialis-s; and your memorialists, are driven by these causes, over 
xWhich they have no control and ag^nst which no human foresight could 
guard, to ask the same accommodation at your hands. Under these 
' unparalleled circumstances, a deplorable st^te of things never before known 
vhts arisen, viz: a voluntary and almost universal extension on the part of 
ereditors, to a most important and intermediate class of dealers, of twelve, 
eighteen, and twenty -fcur months, in which to pay dtibts existing when 
these disasters overtook the country : a time which, almost by universal 
consent, is thought requisite to arrange and liquidate the deranged business 
of the country. As your memorialists have, with others given so yery 
generally this indulgence, it must appear evident to your honorable 4)ody,- 



3 [13} 

that they ask nothing unreasonable m requesting relief; and this not as an 
act of mere benevolence from the Government, out as one dictated by i^ 
wise care of its own interests. 

The situation of your memorialists, and of the Executive branch of the 
Grovemment, in relation to distant funds, is identical, and from the same 
causes ; and if, with a large surplus in the Treasury, a necessity exists for 
a loan, or other aid from Congress ,to carry on the ordinary operations of 
Government, it is evident, that, with additional causes of pressure, the mer- 
cantile interest of the country needs it for a greater degree and for a longer 
time. 

Your memorialists need not point out to Congress, that, from the post- 
ponement of the large debts aue from different sections of the United 
States to this city, tli^ir own capitals and present ability are greatly im- 
paired. Moreover, it is important to remark, that the city of New York, 
where are collected two-fifUis of the whole duties of the United States, by 
the present embarrassment in trade, is actually alreadv in advance to the 
Government of a large amount of duties not yet repaid by the consumers. 
The average time at which duties are payable, is four and a half months 
from the arrival of the goods, excepting on wool and woollens, which pay 
cash. When the difficulties in trade tegan, there was a large amount of 
duty bonds in existence, which have been since discharged, on goods not 
yet paid for by the consumers. And as for woollens, the greatest portion 
of tne value of the whole, now in the country, has been here more than 
twelve months, the duties on a large share of which were paid in cash at 
the periods of arrival, and the importers from those periods have been in 
advance for them. The operation of cash duties is to compel the importers 
to pay the duties on these articles to Government twelve to eighteen 
months in advance of their consumption. In addition to this drain upon 
the resources of this city, an amount has been transferred, by the distribu- 
tion among the States of the surplus revenue, in a little more than a year, 
from the banks of the city of New York, of nearly, if not quite, thirteen 
millions of dollars ; greaUy diminishing their means of present aid to your 
memorialists and to the commerce of the city, so recently before called 
upon to sustain an unexampled destruction of property by fire. If, there- 
fore, your memorialists, instead of turning to the Government for relief, 
should seek aid of the banks, in order that the Government naay be prompt- 
ly paid, they would be found crippled by these transfers'of the public 
moneys, by their suspended debts with ether institutions out of the State, 
and with their ordinary customers, and with public policy and private 
interests ; and, we doubt not, an imperative sense of their own obligations 
pressing upon them to make all reasonable efforts to resume specie pay- 
ments. 

Now, therefore, your memorialists would respectfully declare, that this 
large amount of indebtedness cannot be liquidated in less time than in one 
year by so depressed and suffering a community, having an immense sus- 
pended debt at distant points, with no legal currency, with disabled banks 
struggling to resume cash-payments, and a general paralysis over all the 
business and exchanges of tne country. 

Your memorialists, therefore, respectfully ask the enactment, by your 
honorable body, of laws to authorize, 

1st. An extension of all bonds given prior to the 1st of September, 1837,. 
for an average of twelve months from the times of their maturity, with 
interest to be added. 



[13} 



?di The like extension of the time for payment of duties on all goods, 
Othet" than w6olfens, in public store on the said 1st of September. 

3d. An extension of the time for which woollen goods may remain in 
public store, without being liable to be sold for the payment of duties, to ik 
period of twelve months from the said 1st of September. 
New York, September 14, 1837. 



McCurdy*& Aldrich. 

S.&F.'Dorr ifc'Co. 

J. P. Hamilton. 

I^oman Watson. 

Stone, S Wan & Co. 

Edwin Lorf <fc Co. 

N. J. Elliott (k Co. 

Rufus L. Lord. 

Shelling, Strong & Co. 

I'hos. Lord & Co. 

Hunt <fc Brooks. 

Dan'l Low. 

Crocker & Bill. 

Satterlee, Masters <fc Beebee. 

Bird (fc Gillilan. 

Alex. B. McAlpin. 

Alfred Waller. 

Day, Napier <k Co. 

Abraham Becker. 

R. N. Cheseburg. 

Crafts, Stevens <fc Tucker. 

Tucker, Dorr <fc Co. 

Parsons, Hughes & Co. 

Joseph Lowe. 

Gibson, Sons <k Co. 

Henschen & Unkart. 

Th. Jung. 

B. F. Lee (k Co. 

F. S. Schlesinger. 

Sands, TurneF & Fox. 

Amory, Leeds <fc Co. 

Wm. C. Langley. 

Crumby & Draper. 

Lorenzo Draper. 

A. Post. 

Carv & Co. 

Cochran fie Phillips. 

Seaman <fc Brothers. 

James A. Spillett. 

Jno. Alexander. 

M. Attwater & Co. 

William Coffin. 

Clark <fc Hunt. 

Theod. Victor <fc Duckwit. 

Thomas W. Jones. 

H. Butler. 



Benjamin Blossom. 

John Wright, jr. (fc Co. 

H. <k D. Cotheal & Co. 

Edward H. NicoU. 

George D. Lamson. 

John Correjo. 

George W. Phule. 

Doremus, Suydams & Nixon. 

David N. Lord. 

Jno. B. Willis. 

Charles Cartlidge. 

C. A. (fc G. F. Everson. 

J. C. Buchanan. 

J. Hinick. 

N. B. Mountfort. 

B. H. Downine. 

Charles Tavlor. 

Webb (fc Tinson. 

Churchill, Southmayd (fc Co. 

Matthew Armstrong. 

Phelps^ Dodge & Co. 

Richard Lawrence. 

Edw. J. C. Atterbury. 

Mulwright (fc Atterbury. 

E. C. G. Fehr (fc Co. 

Jno. C, Townsend. 

E. (fc C. Robbins & Co. 

Hart (fc Merritt. 

M^Curdy & Aldrich. 

S. (fc F. Dorr (fc Co. 

J. P. Hamilton. 

Roman Watson. 

E. Baker (fc Co. 

R. Withers. 

Saml. Ingoldsby & Co. 

Leggitt, Wooster (fc France. 

Edward Butler. 

Reyburn, A udariese & Co. 

Charles F. Codwise. 

Bowne St Co. 

Peter T. Gilbert. 

P. (fc J. S. Crary. 

R. Bartlet. 

Moon (fc Jackson. 

Porter DeuLy, sen. 

Edw. W. Gtrr. 



[13 1 



Wm. W. Todd. 

Lewis Strasser. 

James J. Roosevelt &, Son. 

Catwell 60 Muidock. 

Paton 60 Stewart. 

Lewis & Renj. Curtis. 

Robert Hysloff &, Son. 

W. 4c J. Stuart. 

W. W. D. Forest & Co. 

A. <fc H. S. Thorp. 

Amos Butler. 

Geo. Chanee 60 Garrett. 

William Redmond. 

Foote, Sterling & Co. 

Lersavage 60 Co. 

W. H. Thorn. 

Wolf <k Hinricks. 

Robt. C. Blackburne. 

Powden <k Kissam. 

Thomas Wells. 

Joseph Weekes. 

Edward N. Collins. 

William Binns. 

Leverett & Thomas. 

Delano 6c Langdon. 

S. J. Tobias. 

Fred. A. Sterling. 

J. J. Shedel. 

John Correjo. 

Stone, Swan & Co. 

Edwin Lord 6c Co. 

Rufus L. Lord. 

N. J. Elliott 6c Co. 

Snelling, Strong 6c Co. 

Thos. Lord 6c Co. 

Hunt 6c Brooks. 

Daniel Low. 

Crocker 6c Bill. 

Satterlee, Masters 6c Beebee. 

Bird 6c Gillilan. 

Alex. B. McAlpin. 

Alfred WaUer. 

Day, Napier 6c Co. 

Abraham Becker. 

R. W. Cheseburff. 

Crafts, Stevens Sc Tucker. 

Tucker, Dorr 6c Co. 



Parsons, Hughes 6c Co. 

Joseph Lowe. 

Gibson, Sons 6c Co. 

Henschin 6c Unkart. 

Th. Jung. 

B. F. Lee 6c Co. 

Littlefield 6c Man. 

F. S. Schlesinger. 

Sands, Turner, Fox 6c Co. 

Ajnory, Leeds 6c Co. 

Wm. C. Langley. 

Crumby 6c Draper. 

Lorenzo Draper. 

James Lee. 

Underwood, Teterel 6c Blain* 

Fellows, Wadsworth 6c Co. 

McNulty 6c Chapman. 

Roberts, Brothers 6c Co. 

Sprague, Robinson 6c Co. 

J. 6c 3, Stuart 6c Co. 

R. 6c D. S. Dyson, 

W. T. Crook 6c Co. 

Hubbard 6c Casey. 

O. C. Osborne. 

J. W. Westervelt 

Decasse, Miege 6c Co. 

Alex. Thompson 6c Son. 

WiUiam Wa^tafT. 

Wm. E. Matnews. 

Horatio Gillet. 

E. Riggs. 

Riggs, Taylor 6c Co. 

Smith 6c Kuthven. 

W. Surell. 

Wolfe, Bishop 6c Co. 

Boorman, Johnston 6c Co. 

Heikschers, Coster &, Malpley. 

Gurdon, Buck 6c Sons. 

Gracie 6c Sargent. 

Booth, Tomlinson 6c Booth. 

F. M. Shapter. 
Thos. N. Butler. 
White 6c Richard, 
Eklw. Cook 6c Co. 
John Wheelwright. 
B. C. Rainy. 
Holt 6c Owen. 



I • 



ilfelh C0NORE881 [ SENATE. } [ 14 ] 

lat Session. 



IN SENATE OP THE UNITED STATES. 

Sbftebiber 18, 1837. 



The following bill, introduced by Ifr. Benton, on leave, the 10th June, 
1836, was ordered to be printed. 

A Bill to re-tstabliah the currencjf of the ConatUution for the Federal 

Oovenuneni* 

Be U enacted by the Senate and House of Representaiioes of the United 
Stales of America in Congress assembled^ That bank notes and paper 
currency of every description shall cease to be received, or offered in pay- 
ment, on account of the United States, or of the Post Office, or in fees in 
the courts of the United States, as follows: of less denomination than 
twenty-dollars, none after the third day of March, eighteen hundred and 
thirty-seven ; of less denomination than fifty dollars, none after the third 
day of March, eighteen hundred and thirty-eight: of less denomination 
than one hundred dollars, none after the third day of March, e^hteen 
hundred and thirty-nine; of less denomination than five hundred cellars, 
none after the thifd day of March, eighteen hundred and forty ; of less de- 
nomination than one tnousand dollars, none after the third day of March, 
eiriiteen hundred and forty-one ; and none of any denomination firom and 
after the third day of March, eighteen hundred and forty-two. 

Sec. 2. And be U further enacted^ That any person nolding an appoint- 
ment under the laws of the United States, and any bank employed to keep 
public moneys, which person or bank shall neglect, evade, violate, contra- 
vene, or in any way elude, or attempt to elude, the provisions of this act, 
•hall be suilty of an offence against the laws; and the person so offending 
rfiall be liable to be dismissed from the service, and the bank so offending 
shall, on satisfiictory information^ be discontinued as a depositmy of public 
moneys. 

Uair & Rires, priateisl 



' 



23th Congress, [ SENATE. ] [15] 

1st Session. 



REPORT 



PROM 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 



TRANSMITTING 



7%e report of a board of officers appointed to examine the improvements 
in Jire-arnis, made by Hall, Cochran^ Colt, and the Baron Hackett ; 
in compliance with a resolution of the Senate of the 2Tlh January^ 1837. 



September 19, 1837. 

Read, and ordered to be printed. 



War Department, 

September 19, 1837. 

Sir : I have the honor to transmit the report of a board of officers, ap- 
pointed in conformitj'^ with a resolution of the Senate of the 21st of Janu- 
ary, 1837, requiring "an examination to be made by a board of , officers 
into the improvements in fire-arms made by Hall, Cochran, Colt, and the 
Baron Hackelt," etc. 

Very respectfully. 

Your most obedient servant, 

J. R. POINSETT. 
Hon. R. M. Johnson, 

President of the Senate. 



Report of the board of officers appointed to examine the improvements in 

fire-arms made by Hail and others. 

The board of officers, appointed by the following "orders," in conformity 
with a resolution of the Senate, to inquire into and report upon the im- 
provements in firc'-arms made by Hall, Cochran, Colt, and the Baron Hack- 
ett, and to show the advantages of each in all important military points of 
view, have the honor to report thW the results of the various experiments 
to which the board has subjected the arms named in the resolution, and 
which have not failed to establish a decided opinion with regard to their 
merits and demerits as weapons to be applied to the armament of troops 
for service in the field, are herewith presented in tabular form, as required 
by the aforesaid resolution. 

Blair & Rives, printers. 



[15] 5 

From these tables the following results have been obtained, being the 
most favorable view in either case. 

In preparing this report, the board has felt constrained to follow the 
order prescribed in the resolution, which has, of necessity, involved some 
repetitions. 

General Orders. ) Adjutant General's Office, 

No. 2. ' \ Washington, February 3, 1837. 

I. The Secretary of War, ad inieriniy has received the following resolu- 
tion from the Senate of the United States : 

" Resolved, That the Secretary of War be requested to cause an exami- 
nation to be made, by a board of officers, into the improvements in fire- 
arms made by Hall, Cochran, Colt, and the Baron Hackett ; and that the 
general results be presented to the Senate, in tabular statements, showing 
the advantages of each, in all military points of view, aud especially as to, 

1. The celerity of fire. 

2. The extent of the recoil. 

3. The efiiciency of the fire. 

4. The inconvenience of heated barrel in rapid firing. 

5. The capacity of beincr used as a rifle. ' 

6. The simplicity and cheapness of construction. 

7. Durability. 

8. Saving of ammunition and appendages. 

9. The number of charges which may be carried by an infantry soldier. 

10. The advantages when used against a charge of cavalry. 

II. The advantages when used by cavalry. 

11. In conformity with the provisions of the foregoing resolution, the 
Secretary directs that a board, to be composed of the following ofiiicers, 

Brevet Brigadier General J. R. Fenwick, Colonel 4th artillery, 

Brevet Brigadier General N. Towson, Paymaster General, 

Colonel G. Croghan, Inspector General, 

Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Worth, Ordnance, 

Lieutenant Colonel Wainwright, Marines, 

Lieutenant Colonel Talcott, Ordance, 

Captain B. Huger, Ordnance, 
be assembled at the Washington Arsenal, on Monday the 20th February 
inst., at 11 o'clock, for the purpose of making a thorough examination of 
the improvements in fire-arms made by Hall, Colt, Cochran, and the Baron 
Hackett, in the manner and mode specified in the resolution. 

HI. The board will report the general results for the information of the 
Secretary of War, in tabular form, showing the utility of each fire*armin all 
important military points of view, as required by the reaolution, and will 
also report such further information on the subject as they may be able to 
comnriunicate, with their opinion on the relative advcpit^es of the sev^ml 
improvements submitted to their examination. 

First Lieutenant J. N. Macomb, of tl^ei artillery, and aid-decninp, will 
recoi'd. the proceedings of the bo^rd. 

By order: 

R. JOHiES, Adjutant General. 



Special Order, 

No. 10. 



3 [ 15 ] 

Adjutant General's Office. 

Washing-ton. Pcbniart/^ 20, 1837. 



The (Secretary of War dii^cts that First Lieutenant R. Anderson, . 
Instiucter of Artillery at the Military Academy, be detailed toservieasa 
member of the board ordered to convenef at Washington Arsenal for the 
purpo^of testi% the \ralne of the; imprdvem^nts of certain ^rearais, in ' 
corjformity with Genera) Order,; Nd)i 2, of February! 3. It ia not in- 
tended that this aasignsienC shall imerfere with his duties at the academy^ ! 
whenever bii^ services niay be required there. 

By order: 

R. JONES, Adjutant General. 



Special Ordeji, 
No. 35. 



Adjutant General's Office, 

Washington, May 15, 1837. 

(Extract.) 



II. Lieutenant Colonel Talcott, of the ordnance; is relieved fromaerving 
as a member of the board of which Brigadier General Fenwickis Presii^* 
dent, and directed to convene; by General Order, No. 2, for the exaroinalion ^ 
of certain fire-arms; and Brevet Major Baker is detailed as a meniber of 
said board, and will accordingly repair to West Point on the 15th of JuHe 
next, and report to the President. 

By order: 

R. JONES, Adjutant General 



L THE CELERITY OF FIRE. 

The tables give the following results in loading and firing: 

1. With the Miksfcet. 



Nd. 1 Hacketl's 

2 Hairs ^ 

3 Colt's - 

4 Cochran's 

5 United States standard 



2. With Rifles, 



No. 1 Colt's - 

2 Hall's . 

3 Colt's (mujiket calibre) 

4 Cochran's 

5 Leavitt - 



5 times a nf^inltte. 

5' 

3.1 

3 

3 



4 times a minute. 

3.4 

3.3 

3.2 

1.22 



Hackettfs and Hall's muskets load at the breech with single charges, but 
are constructed upon different principles. 

The United States standard musket loads at the muzzle. 

Colt's and Cochran's load at the breech with many chambered shifting 
receivers. 



[15] 4 

The fire with Hackett^s, Hall's, and the United States standard, was con- 
tinuous and at equal intervals. 

Colt's and Cochran's require from 2' to 2' 10" to load one receiver, (with 
the adyantage too of convenient ^ound,) and from 25" to 30" to discharge it. 

In the experiment to determme comparitive celerity, the parties having- 
been placed upon the ground, with each a target, were required to deliver 
the greatest practicable number of fires in a given time, combining cderity 
and accuracy; Hacketfs, Hall's, and the United States musket being sup* 

f)Iied with cartridges, Colt's and Cochran^ with loose ammunition, all nn- 
oaded, and were required to commence loading at the word <^fir€." 

The board adopted this mode in order to place the respective weapons 
upon an equality, and in such circumstances as would ordinarily occur, in 
regard to fire, in actual service. 

H. THE EXTENT OF RECOIL. 

As the arms of Hall, Hackeit, Colt, and Cochran, are all loaded at the 
breech, they allow the use of a ball of greater diameter ihaxi the chase of 
the barrel, which causes it to slug or fit perfectly tight, thus destroying all 
windage or escape of the explosive force, and consequently requiring a 
diminished charge of powder to produce results equal to those acquired 
with increased charges in the gun of the ordinary kind; consequently, the 
recoil is less than that of a gun of the same calibre loaded at the muzsde, 
in which an allowance of windage is indispensable to the introduction of 
its charge. The recoil is not sufilcient in any of them to produce any 
great inconvenience in service, and may be assumed as being about equal 
in either kind of arms that load at the breech. 

HI. THE EFFICIENCY OF FIRE. 

From the experiments made, it appears that, for guns of the large cali- 
bre, the penetration (in the same target) of those arms loading at the breech, 
provided they have the correct charge of powder, is greater than those 
loading at the muzzle. This efifect results from the fact stated in the pre- 
ceding number, viz. the ball fitting: exactly, there remains no windage } 
consequently, the whole force of the charge acts on the ball, and producer 
a greater penetration. 

The following statement shows these results : 



6 [15] 

Experiments made at Wesl Point, on the 19/A of June, 1837. Target 

of well reasoned white oak. 



Musket, 


Charge 


Distance 


Penetra- 


Penetration into a package of 1000 sheets ol 




of pow- 


from 


tion. 


cartridge paper. 




der. 


target 








Grains. 


Feet. 


Inches. 




United Stales 


134 


10 


2.3 


770 sheeu No. 2, and 653 sheets No. 1. 


Hall's 


110 


10 


•2. 175 


38G sheets No. 2, 80 grains charge. 


Colt's 


134 


10 


2.640 


4til No. 2, 80 grains J 717 No. 1, 100 grains. 


Coil's 


no 


iO 


•2.750 




Colt's 


100 


10 


3 




Cochran's - 


80 


10 


1.G50 





The chambers of Cochran's musket were not capable of conlaiaing over 
80 (Trains of powder each. 

Note. — It will be observed, in the case of Colt's weapon, that a charge of 
134 grains gave 2.64 inches penetration ; 
110 grains gave 2.75 inches penetration ; 
100 grains gave 3 inches penetration ; 
which is accounted for by the admittea fact that over charges give dimin- 
ished velocities. 

IV. INCONVENIENCE FROM HEATED BARRELS. 

Guns that receive their charges at tlie breech have been found to ac- 
<|uire a less degree of heat from a continuous course of discharges than the 
common arm, from the circumstance of their admitting, during the loading 
process, a free circulation of air through the barrels. 

The temperature of the interior of the several barrels was determined 
by the introduction of a thermometer, that indicated a very uniform de- 
gree immediately after firing for a given period. In the experiment alluded 
to the time was 10'. 

V. CAPACITY OF BEING USED AS A RIFLE. 

In constrained positions, such as are not uncommon to light troops, the 
experiments with Hall's rifles, at Fort Monroe, in 1826, when in-the "hands 
of troops, fully prove that this arm is admirably adapted to this service 
and that of mounted corps, in consequence of the convenience in loading 
and facility of discharging when on horseback. 

The many-chambered arras, on tlie contrary, requiring a variety of ap- 
pendages to aid in charging them, and the application of considerable 
manual force in placing the charge in the cylinders, cannot be loaded, 
either in constrained positions or on horseback, without inconvenience ; 
and it is consequently believed that Hall's rifle and Hackett's gun are the 
only descriptions of arms loading at the breech that can be considered as 
suitable for the service of light troops, either on foot or mounted. These 
• remarlvs might not be applicable to the many-chambered guns, could it bo 
supposed that they would at all times be supplied with a number of loaded 



,[15.J 6 

cylinders,, [receivers ;] but this is not to be admitted as being practicable at 
all times and in all situations. 

Vh THE SIMPLICITY AND CHEAPNESS OF CONSTRUCTION. 

The attainment of simplicity in the construction of fire-arms is unques- 
tionably of the first importance, in order that those who are to use them 
raay readily comprehend their principles and utility. In the examination 
of Hall's guns nothing appears complicated ; on the contrary, one of their 
greatest merits consists in the simplicity of their component parts, and the 
absence of the various appendages [eqinpments] which are attendant upon, 
and indispensable to, the use and service of the arms of Colt and Cochran. 

The same may be said of the gun of Baron Hackett, which, in general, 
possesses many of the features of utility which characterize the arms ol 
Hall, and which is one of the most important conditions that has governed 
the construction and decided the character of this description of arms. In 
this character its utility for military purposes mainly and essentially con- 
sists. An arm which is complicated in its mechanism and arrangement 
deranges and perplexes the soldier in its management, lequires more than 
common attention to its care and preservation, and if, perchance, it fail in 
its operation, which its complexity of construction would necessarily oc- 
casion, he loses all confidence in its powers of execution. 

The gims of Hall, and apparently of Hackett, presenting in their con- 
struction this desired simplicity, are more easily managed, present less ac- 
countability to the soldier, are less liable to get out of order, and when 
they are so are more easily repaired. 

The reports of the master armorers, who have been instructed to pre- 
jpare careful estimates of the cost of each description of arms, are append- 
ed to this general report. 

See report of Mr. Ha,ll [marked A.] 

VII. DURABILITY. 

The means of testing the durability of the several descriptions of arms 
is not within the control of the board. It can only be determined by re- 
quiring the inventors to undertake a fatiguing course of firings, greater than 
some of them could endure, or by placing the arms in the hands of troops 
and having them exposed to all the incidents and trials of active service. 

The experiments with Hall's guji, in 1826, gave result? satisfactory with 
regard td ite character for resisting the effects of long firings, and there can 
be no doubt that the durability of all descriptions of arms will depend 
greatly upon simplicity and consequent strength of construction. 

Vlll. SAVING OF AMMUNITION AND APPENDAGES. 

A reference to the tabular statements will show that all guns that load 
at the breech require less powder to produce the same results thaii guns 
loading in the ordinary manner. 

This peculiarity is accounted for under No. 2, " efficiency of fire,'' and 
need not be repeated here. 

In the common musket 141 grains of powder constitute the charge for 
service inclusive of about ten grains used as priming. 



7 [15 J 

Colt's musket, fired with a charge of 100 grains, (being primed with a 
percussion cap,) gave proof of equal and even superior power of penetra- 
tion, whence it was determined that that quantity of powder was fully 
sufficient for the charge of his muskets for service. 

The construction of Cochran's musket limited its charge to 80 grains of 
powder, wliich was insufficient to impart to his arm a power equal to that 
possessed* by the United States mnsket with its service charge, or by Colt's 
musket with a charsfe of 100 grains ; but the reduction of the chArge of 
the latter down to the maximum of Cochran's gave evidence of the posses- 
sion of equal power by either arm. 

These experiments being directed to the attainment of facts in regard to 
the proper charges to bo used in the new description of arms, and likewise 
with a view to test their relative powers, were conclusive in their results, 
and prove that in muskets of the same calibre the saving of powder would 
be, in favor of those that load at the breech, as 100 is to 1 14 ; in the one 
case percussion caps are used and in the other flints, the expense being 
probably in favor of the use of the latter ; and secondly, that (the same 
principle operating in the diflferent arms of Hall, Hackett, Colt, and Coch- 
ran) the same charge would produce the same degnie of velocity or pene- 
tration. 

The inventors of Colt's and Cochran's muskets propose that each sol- 
dier should at ail times have about his person Jive receivers. Supposing 
one of these receivers constantly attached to, forming part of, and entering 
into the weight of the gnu, there remain four, weighing, 
Colt's each 3 pounds, or the four , - - . 12/&. 

To which add their charges ... - \lb, l4oz. 



Total -....- 13/6. Uoz. 
Cochran's (when increased to hold 100 grains) each 3 pounds 

12 ounces, or the four - - - - 15/&. 

Charges as above --.--- 1/J. Hoz. 



Total - - . - . . 16/6. Uoz. 

to supply 35 rounds of ammunition. The same number of rounds of am- 
munition as five receivers would contain, carried in the ordinary manner, 
weigh 2 pounds 12 ounces. The increase in the one casebeins: 11 pounds 
2 ounces, and in the otiier 14 pounds 2 ounces, of a substance inconven- 
ient in form and disposition, to the burden of the soldier, ever of necessity 
too great. 

To load the many-chambered guns several implements of a novel and 
inconvenient form are required, the use and accountability of which tvould 
be extremely difficult and oppressive, besides adding still more to the great 
weight of the appendages already noticed. 

In the common mnsket, and in Hill's and Hackett's, these equipments 
are not requireid. 

IX. THE NUMBER OF CHARGES WHICH MAY BE CARRIED 

BY AN INFANTRRY SOLDIER. 

A reference to the remarks under No. 8, will exliibit the relative weight 
of .35 rounds of ammunition for the standard musket and Colt's and 
Cochran's muskets, by which it will be seen that it would be utterly im- 
practicable for a soldier to carry the very great weight of metal required to 
contain only a limited number of cartridges. 



[15] 8 

This is one of tho iiDportaut objections which render the^many-chambcred 
arms, in the opinion of the board, altogether unsuited to the wants and 
exijfencies of the service. 

The arms of Hall and Hackett, on the contrar^^ can carry a nnmber of 
charges always equal to, and rather exceeding, that carried by infantry 
soldiers in the established cartridge boxes. 

X. THE ADVANTAGES WHEN USED AGAI^ST A CHARGE 

OF CAVALRY. 

In sustaining an attack from cavalry, arms have an advantage in pro- 
portion to their ctipabilily of keeping up a continuous fire, preserving at the 
same lime their position of defence with the bayonet ; the muskets of Hall 
and Hackett possess this advantage in an eminent degree, being, even 
during the process of loading, in readiness for personal defence. 

This is not the case with the many-chambered guns, in consequence of 
the necessity that exists for disconneciing their parts for the purpose of 
charging them. 

XL THE ADVANTAGES WHEN USED BY. CAVALRY. 

The advantage is believed to be altogether in favor of arms that load at 
the breech, and with receivers that contain only one chfcirge ; such arms 
being conveniently handled and loaded on norseback, are peculiarly 
adapted to the cavalry service ; and the ball, being larger than the diameter 
of the barrel, it is not changed from its position in the receiver by the 
movement of the horse. 

The many-chambered arms, for reasons stated under the 5th head of this 
report, are deemed inapplicable to the service of cavalry. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

The various arms under consideration, which have been submitted to 
the examination and experiments of the board, consiiiute two classes, viz: 

The first class comprises the guns of Hull and Hackett ; being arms that 
Ipad at the breech with single charges. 

The second class are ** many chambered" or repeating guns of Colt and 
Cochran, the breech of which is formed of cylindrical receivers that revolve 
upon a pivot, and in which are chambers to contain a number of charges 
which are brought successively in a line with the same barrel. 

The first class may be divided into two varieties : 

1st. Hackett's gun, the breech of which opening, uncovers the bottom of 
the bore, into which the charge is inserted in the form of a cartridge ; the 
powder remaining in its paper envelope. 

2d. Hall's gun, the receiver of which being raised by means of a spring, 
receives its cliarge in its upper end. and may be loaded either by means of 
a flask, or with a prepared cartridge. 

^ The second class also embraces two varieties : the receiver, which con- 
tains the chambers for the charges in Cochran's, revolves horizontally on 
an arbre perpendicular to the axis of the bore ; while Colt's receiver, having 
its chimibers in the opposite direction to Cochran's, revolves upon an arbre 
parallel to this axis. 

As all these arms load at the breech, the advantages of tliis method are. 



9 [15^ 

of course, common to all, viz : that the ball used may be of a diameter so 
great as to destroy all windage, and thus cause a greater range, more ex- 
actness of fire, and, in consequence of less powder being required by the 
absence of windage, diminished recoil. 

In the first class we may add, to the advantages common to all, that 
they can be loaded with great facility ; and that, for the use of light troops 
or skirmishers, this property might be frequently useful and important. 

In ihe first variety (Hackett's) the charge is inserted in a cartridge, the 
powder remaining in its envelope, the remains of which, with the residue 
of the burnt powder, adhere, after several fires, to the chamber, rendering 
it difficult to insert the cartridges, and highly probable that the retention 
of fire, by this mass of the burnt envelopes, might cause explosions on the 
introduction of a new charge. 

In the second variety (Hall's) this inconvenience does not exist, as the 
powder may be first inserted and surmounted by the ball. 

Another inconvenience, common to guns loading at the breech, is, that 
the deposite of burnt matter which escapes through the joints renders 
them stiff and difficult to manage. 

The gims of the second class have the same disadvantages as to wear 
and escape of gas, greatly increased by their complication and the danger 
of explosion of more than one charge at the same time. 

Of all the arms submitted to the board, that of Cochran is deemed the 
most unsafe for military purposes, when subjected to rapid discharges with 
cylinders [receivers] fully loaded. 

The slightest defect in the metal of the receiver would render it highly 
dangerous both to the bearer and to others in contiguous positions ; and 
that such defects would frequently exist will not be doubted by mechanics 
whose experience every day convinces them of the many circumstances 
that serve to prevent a perfect union of parts in similar constructions ; and 
even admitting original perfection in this important limb, it is nevertheless 
liable, from the effects of constant and severe service, to receive fractures or 
other injuries sufficient to destroy its character for safetVi «nd render it 
more dangerous to the ranks it is intended to support and defend than to 
those of the enemy. 

One accident of the kind that occurred in our practice of the 19th of 
Jime (vide tabular statements) would alone not only impair the confidence 
of the troops in the ability and power of their arms ; but what might be 
fatal to the reputation of those armed with them, would infuse into their 
minds such a degree of dread and apprehension of their dangerous quali- 
ties, as to render them an unpopular, and consequently almost powerless, 
weapon of war. 

This objection, founded ufwn an occurrence which our experiments 
elicited, is deemed conclusive as regards the inaptitude of this arm to the 
public service ; and it is believed that the possession of one quality that 
detracts from the general merits of an arm, so as to impair the confidence 
of the soldier in its safety and power, would be fatal to its reputation and 
consequent utility. 

However ingenious in design, therefore, and creditable to the mechanical 

skill of the inventor, this arm may be, the board is of opinion that it is an 

imsafe weapon, and unsuited to the use of bodies of men acting in line 

or in masses. 

It is tlie opinion of the board that the arm of Colt, involving all the 



tl5] 



10 



merits, and free from some of the objections to the former, may be very 
usefully applied in special cases ; as, in fixed positions in dt^fence of a 
breach; to cover boarders; in tops of ships; or for personal attack or 
defence; in a word, under any circumstances where the operation is of a 
special and brief character, and it be desirable to throw a mass of fire upoa 
a particular point for a limited time. In such or similar situ.itions the 
entire strength of this arm might be so controlled and mana^^d, as to 
render it fully available and highly efficient; while its cumbersome and yet 
necessary appendages, and the massive burden of its parts, would conderan 
it as wholly unsuited to the wants and exigencies of the service in (he field. 

The board is of the unanimous opinion, that from its complicated 
character, its liability to accidents (one having occurred in practice on the 
2lst June) in the hands of soldiers, and other reasons which Miay be found 
in this report, that this arm is entirely unsuited to the general purposes of the 
service. 

That the arm of Hackett is one of great merit, possessing in greneral the 
qualities of the standard musket, over which it has the advantai^re of sim- 
plicity in construction and manoeuvre, and rapidity and certainty of fire, is 
fully admitted by the board : but it is exposed to the serious objection of a 
dangerous and doubtful arrangement of its ammunition, in respect to lis 
packing and transportaliDU, and in not admitting of being loaded with loose 
powder and ball, the ne^essUy of which often results fr) n the cosualties of 
service; and in using only a charge of a peculiar make, to which is 
attached a percussion primer, dangerous when in connexion with large 
quantities of ammunition. 

As it is highly probable that the objections to this arm may be overcome, 
and as the weapon has attracted the serious attention and consideration of 
other and highly military nations, with a view to possess ourselves of the 
knowledge and use of a weapon which it may hereafter be necessary to 
oppose to those who shall adopt it, the board is uniuiimously of opmion 
ihat a number, say 100 stands, should be procured of the inventor and 
proprietor, and placed in the hands of a selected company or corps, by the 
direction of ths Secretary of War, in order to a thorough course of experi- 
ments, to embrace all the incidents of campaign service both in respect to 
the weapon and its ammunition. 

From the report of the master armorers, it appears that the standard 
musket is not susceptible of alteration so as to apply to it the principles of 
Hackett's gun ; and such is the opinion of the board. 
. The arms now in use in the United States service, it is assumed, possess 
the power of being used, in skilful hands, with all requisite celerity and 
effect. 

The experiments just finished, teach, conclusivel)-, that up to 40 rounds 
of fire, in reference to the usual characters and incidents of service, they 
have the advantage in several respects, and equality in others, to those with 
many chambers. 

It is seriously doubted, by experienced soldiers, whether the celerity 
attainable with our own arms, or with a weapon, which in being loaded 
requires to be removed from its firing position, is not carried as far as is 
consistent with steadiness, coolness, and that self possession so very neces- 
sary and so difficult of inculcation. It is the opinion of the board that a 
larger proportion of fire from rapidly repeating guns would be thrown away, 
than from those that receive but one charge at a time. 



11 [15] 

In the instances of the arms uiKler consideration, it is believed that even 
if there be any thing gained by their pecuharities, over the common musket 
and Hall's guns in point of celerity of discharging, such advantage has 
been acquired at too great a sacrifice of important and indispensable princi- 
ples; that in the desire to reach perfection in the construction of the arms, the 
convenience, physical power, and safelyof those who are to use them, has been 
wholly overlooked ; and that their hability to be found out of a state ofprepa- 
ratloniox defence, would detract greatly from iheir character for efficiency 

The board is confirmed in the opinion, that the arm of Hall is entitled lo 
all the favorable consideration which has heretofore been bestowed upon 
it by previously constituted boards and commissions. 

That the arm requires some modification in its construction, and espe- 
cially in its equipments, the board is fully convinced; and, with such im- 
provements as are doubtless attainable, the bo/ird is of opinion that as an arm 
for military purposes, it possesses a decided superiority over every other 
constructed upon the principle of loading at the breech. 

The g:un of Hackett, with many admirable quahties, is as yet a com- 
paratively untried improvement, but HaiPs gun, having successfully under- 
gone the trials of service and the examination and thorough inspection of 
several competent commissions, has again exhibited to this board powers 
and excellencies (capable, doubtless, of augmentation) far superior, in the 
opinion of the board, to those possessed by any other arm which has been 
subjected to its examination. 

The application of the percussion primer to arms for the use of troops 
has not yet been made with success. They may, with improved means of 
attaching them to the nipple or cone, be used by light troops in extended 
order, but the difficulty oi placing an object sq small as the cai), during the 
excitement of action, in excessively cold weather, and in dark nights, has 
prevented this improvement in fire-arms (for sporting purposes) from being 
generally adopted in any service. 

These many-chambered gims use the percussion cap. From 7 to 9 
would have to be placed upon each receiver. The liability of these caps, 
on explosion, to annoy and maim the contiguous men was fully illustrated 
by the experiments. 

Finally, it is the unanimous opinion of the undersigned that the standard 
arms now in use in the service of the United States, regular and militia, 
viz: United States musket and rifle, and Hall's musket, rifle, and carbine, 
with' such improvement in construction as the latter are susceptible of, com- 
bine, in a higher degree, all the requistes of convenience, durablity, simpli- 
city, and eflfect, than any that have been suggested for the general arma- 
ment. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

JOHN R. FExNWICK, Brig, Gen,, 

Prtsident of the Board, 
N. TOWSOX, BHg. Gen. 
W. J. WORTH, Lt, Col. 
R. D. WAINWRIGHT, Lt. Col M, Cai'ps. 
R. S. BAKER, Maj, U, S. Army* 
BENJ. HUGER, Capt, Ordnance. 
ROBERT ANDERSON, 1^^ Lt. 3d Art'y. 

J. N. Macomb, \st Li. i(h ArCy. 

Secretary of the Board. 



£15] 



13 



UNITED STATES STANDARD MUSKET. 





Charge. 








Cekriiy 
fire. 


of 


Efficiency of 
fire. 


•-< 












^ 


-;. 


Mean pene- 




9 




















• 

3 


be 

a 
•-* 


tration. 










• . *^ 




Dale. 


. . 



















a. 








Remarks. 




o 


- 


• 


-s 


60 























ttf) 

5 


• 

o 

(A 

. M 


o 
o 

"3 

S 

H 


0) 



§ 

1 


u 

a 


•g 
"3 

s 

H 


tn 

.S 
u 



1 


Si 

< 


In seasoned v 
oak. 


In musk 
indge 
sheets 


P 


ed 


• 






• • 

1-1 <N 

• • 




1837. 




















Sheets. 










Feb. 27 


134 


1 


^ 


50 


10 




^ 


^ 


1.43 












Mar. 1 


134 


1 


_ 


100 


10 




•• 


^ 


1.00 












2 


134 


1 


_ 


150 


10 






^ 


0.C6 












3 


134 


I 


_ 


200 


10 






^ 


0.55 












6 


134 


1 


^ 


9 


2 






^^ 


1.60 












6 


134 


1 


^^ 


300 


10 






M* 


0.00 




^^ 


aw 


_ 


1 ball imbedded. 


7 


134 


1 


^^ 


56 


48 


19' 


"2.. 53 


^^ 


_ 




40 


10 


1 




8 


134 


1 


.33020' 


- 


8 


3' 


2.66 




4 










In a rain; the time 
counted from 
commencing to 
load. 


10 


134 


1 3 


— 


9 


1 




— 


2.50 


1.15 


of ball 


— 


•" 


— 


♦ Mean penrtra- 
lion of buck shot 
0.41. 


10 


134 


1 3 


- 


80 


9 


3' 


3.0 




- 


of ball 


8 


1 


1 


16 buck shot out 
of 97 hit target. 


10 


134 


1 


- 


400 


8 




- . 


— 


- 


of ball 


1 


— 


— 


Splintered edg^e of 

target. 


14 


134 


1 


^^ 


400 


10 


4' 


2.50 


^^ 




of ball 


_ 


2 




^ 


June H) 


134 


1 


- 


3J 


9 




- 


- 


2.00 


ofbfril 


- 


- 


~ 


At West Point, 
New York. 


19 


134 


1 


^ 


13i 


3 






_ 


_ 


770 










21 


134 


1 


- 


100 


21 


10' 


"2.1 


- 


- 




V.) 


C 


- 


Temperattire ?2G 
Fahrenheit. 


dl 


134 


1 


.^ 


180 


23 


10' 


2.3 


M* 


_ 




5 








21 


134 


1 


^ 


I3i 


1 




„ 


^ 


^, 


653 " 










21 


134 


1 


^^ 


3* 


1 




^ 


,. 


2.30 












21 


125 


1 


mm 


31 


1 




^ 


^ 


1.60 












21 


90 


1 


- 


3i 


1 




- 


- 


1.60 













UNITED STATES RIFLE, HARPER'S FERRY. 



Feb. 27 
27 

Mar. 1 
2 
2 
6 
6 



June 19 
21 
21 



92 1 

92 1 

92 1 

92 1 

92 1 

92 1 

92 1 



92 1 
92 1 
92 1 



50 8 

100 10 

50 8 

150 10 

200 10 

9 2 

300 10 



31 10 

31 1 

13* 1 



1.43 
0.94 
1.43 
0.65 
0.29 
1.80 



2.10 
2.55 



500 



Balls rebounded; 
mean indenta- 
tion 0.200. 



13 



[15] 









HALL'S MUSKET, (PERCUSSION LOCK.) 








Charg 


e. 








Celerity of 
fire. 


Efficiency of 
fire. 



3 




















M^an pene- 












- 






t 


■ 

hn 


tration. 




O 




Dale. 


o 

G 




• 

'5 






3 

c 

g. 
to * 


£3 

.ia 

o 

0) 


4> 


0) P. O 

3 bo 03 


• 
CO 






Remarks. 




bwder, gra 
all. 


• 


O 

a 


.9 

o 




•5 -c 


1 

> 


I scasone 
oak 


Inm 
trid 
she 


o 

B 

a 




d 

^ 

3 






• • 

^ CM 


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t 


Ok OQ 


PQ 


U 


Q 


^ 


H 05 


<J 




^ ^ 


Z, 


c» 


i:=4 




1837. 
















Sheets. 






Feb. 27 


86 1 




^ 


50 


10 






0.83 










' 


Mar. 1 1 8G 1 




<iM 


100 


10 




_ 


0.34 












2 


83 1 






150 


10 


_ 


_ 


0.07 












3 


83 1 




^ 


300 


10 


_ 


_ 


0.00 




3 


_ 


_ 


1 bail imbedded. 


6 


83 1 




_ 


9 


3 


_ 


_ 


0.85 












June 19 


110 1 




- 


3i 


4 


- 


- 


1.80 




- 


- 


- 


Fired without 
patche^^ 
Fired wi:h pa:ch- 


19 


110 1 




- 


3i 


o 


— 


- 


3.17 


- 


- 


— 


- 


19 


80 1 




_ 


131 


3 


^ 


. 


. 


386 








es. 














I 


1 











HALL'S MUSKET, (FLINT.) 



June 19 


100 


1 




3i 10 






1.07 






6 






19 


jlOO 


1 




iOO 30 


lO' 


3.0 


3.5 


_ 


_ 


17 






i 


23 


100 


1 


- 


10 


2' 


5.0 

















HALL'S RIFLE. 



Feb. 37 


70 


1 


Mar. 1 


70 


1 


3 


70 


1 


2 


70 


I 


6 


70 


I 


6 


70 


1 


8 


70 


1 


9 


70 


1 


June 19 


70 


1 


31 


70 


1 





50 8 


_ 


100 10 


_ 


150 10 


^ 


300 10 




9 2 




300 10 


90 IT 


8 




100 50 


. ^^ 


3| 10 


— 


18U 34 



4'30" 

3K5" 3.37 
10' " 3.40 



0.63 
0.93 
0.40 
0.00 
1.70 



3.56 



1.13 



7 
3 

1 



43 



3 balls imbedded. 

Slight indentat'n. 

The recruit did 
not u^crsUod 
vKe ose of flask. 

West Point. 
Temperature 152^ 
Fahrenheit, 



COCHRAN'S SMALL RIFLE. 



Feb. 27 


36 1 




50 10 






0.56 












Mar. 1 


36 1 


— 


100 10 


^ 


^ 


0.51 












2 


35 1 


^ 


150 8 


^ 


^ 


0.20 


^ 


^ 


5 






2 


35 1 


wm 


200 10 


^^ 


3.(^3^0.14 












6 


35 1 





9 2 


^ 


^ 


1.13 












8 


35 1 


20 50" 


8 


2' 30" 3.20 
















9 


35 1 


^ 


too 50 


17'35" 2.85 


. 


. 


.. 


37 


_ 


. 


Cylinder emply at 






















the commence- 


















_ 


_ 


ment (i/ the time. 



r. 15] 



14 











COCHRAN'S CARBINE. 












Charge. 






Celerity of 
fire. 


Efficiency of 
fire. 


o 
Ik 














Mean pene- 














w 


• 

B 

.5 

e 


bfi 

a 

•c 


tration. 




O 




Dale. 










Remarks. 




Powder, grains < 
Ball. 




•t-« 


•T3 to 


9i 

^ bo 

.9 a 


o 
















o. 
.a 


O 

s 


Distance in 
Number of 


Time of fur- 
Rate of firi] 


g 

if 

>-• 

> 


In seasone 
oak 


In m 
trid 
she 


o 
B 

9 


i 

a 
09 


1 










1837. 












Sheets. 




Feb. 27 


38 1 




^ 


50 10 


^ 


^ 


0.61 


_ 




^ 


^ 


Rifld powder. 


Mar, 1 


38 1 




_ 


100 10 


_ 


^ 


0.27 












2 


45 1 







150 10 





,„ 


0.19 


_ 


6 








2 


45 1 




^ 


2(K) 10 


_ 


_ 


0.02 


_ 


4 








6 


45 1 




^, 


9 2 




2.66 


0.90 












7 


45 1 







100 100 


30'6" 3.3 


^ 


_ 


_ 


95 








14 


45 1 




■• 


400 9 


3'50" 2.03 


^ 


~ 


tf 




** 


^ 


50" to firejS'lo 
load cylinder. 



COCHRAN'S MUSKET. 



June 19 



19 
19 
19 
19 
21 



72 1 



72 1 

80 1 

80 1 

80 1 

80 1 



3* 4 



100 16 

13i 3 

13i 3 

3* 4 

180 30 



10' 1.6 



10' 3.0 



1.76 



2.301 - 
1.65 



454 
154 



10 



7 2 



13 fragments of 
caps and lead in 
the blindages. 

1 lateral disMargt. 

Without patches. 

With patches. 

1220 Pah. tempe- 
ratare of barrel 
after firing. 



S 









COLT'S SMALL RIFLE. 










Mar. 1 


30 1 




50 8 






0.60 


» 








Rifle powder. 


1 


30 1 


^ 


100 10 


_ 




36 










• 


2 


36 1 


^ 


150 7 


^ 




0.3 




5 








2 


36 1 


^. 


200 7 


„, 


^ 


0.0 


^ 




^^ 


_ 


1 ban imbedded. 


^ -6 


36 1 


^^ 


9 2 


_ 


^ 


0.97 












7 


36' 1 "^ 




56 109 


39' 2.79 


3.29 


" 




104 


4 




Commenced with 
cylinders empty 
to coQDt the 
time. 


8 


36 1 


50 30' 


8 


3' 20" 2.4 


- 


^ 


^^ 





3 






9 


36- 1 


^^ 


100 50 


12^' 4.0 


_ 


_ 


^ 


^ 


2 






14 


38 1 


^^ 


8 


8' 4.0 


^ 


^ 


^ 


.^ 




,^ 


30" to fire 8 times, 




















1 


V 30^' to load. 



COLTS MUSKET. 



June 19 
19 
19 
21 
21 
21 
21 



134 
110 

80 1 
100 1 
100 

80 
100 



1 
1 



1 
1 
1 



3i 6 

3i 4 

131 3 

100 31 

13* "1 

180 26 

3f--2l 



10' 3.1 



i<r 



3.6 



3.64 
2.75 

2.85 I 



. |S;0 



481 



717 



22 
9 



Temp. 1S0<» Fah. 



15 



C 15 ] 



COLT'S RIFLE, (MUSKET CALIBRE.) 





Charge. 








Celerity 
fire. 


of 


Efficiency of 
fire. 


1 

"a 


1 
1 
















Mean pene- 




3 
3 






















tration. 




Q 


















«> 












Date. 














p 
a 

•^4 


Q 












Remarks^ 




Powder, grains of 
Ball. 


• 

o 

'A 


• 

o 
u 

o 

a 

«>' 

H 


1 

a 

en 


o 

B 

s 


to 

.9 

Urn 

(a 
•3 

S 
•-< 

H 


Rate of firing a m 


Average rate offi 


lu seasoned wb 
oak. 


In musket < 
tridge pa 
sheeis of. 


(.-1 

o 

bi 

a> 

x> 

S 


1 








o o 




1837. 














Sheets. 




Jane 21 


100 1 




^ 


180 


28 


lO' 


2.8 


•• 


"" 


"" 


8 


2 


— 


Tvao discharges at 
a Um^ in each 

volley \ 


21 


100 1 




. 


31 


1 




. 


2.8 


1.6 




























1 




1 





COLT'S CARBINE, (MCTSKET CALIBRE.) 



Jane 21 


100 1 




100 33 


10" 3.3 








30 








21 


80 1 


^ 


13i 1 


^ 


3.3 


^^ 


673 










21 


72 1 




3* 1 


- 


- 


1.57 













BARON HACKETT'S GUN, (MtJSKET CALIBRE.) 



Feb. 27 


73 1 




50 


8 




0.81 












Mar. 1 


73 1 


^ 


100 


10 


^, 


^ 


46 












2 


73 1 


_ 


150 


10 


„ 


wm 


0.32 












2 


73 1 


^ ^ 


200 


10 


^ 


^ 


0.10 












6 


73 1 


^ 


9 


2 


^ 


^ 


0.82 












6 


73 1 


- 


300 


10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


M* 


- 


An indentation of 
0.300 inches. 


7 


73 1 




56 


99 


39'30" 2.5 








8-2 


u 




59 disch'ges were 
made in 15'. Car- 
tridge inserted 
too far 13 limes 
during the firing. 


8 


73 1 


90 15' 




8 


1'50" 4.37 


^ 


^ 


_ 


^ 


«B 


. 


Fired in a rain. 


9 


73 1 


.. 


100 


50 


14'50" 3.5 


.. 


^^ 


. 


21 


3 






10 


144 1 3 


m. 


9 


1 


. 


3.96 


1.35 


a. 


_ 


M 


^ 


Buckshot; mean 


10 


85 1 




200 


5 










1 






peneirav'a O.T%(k 
Balh rebounded. 


10 


73 1 


m. 


:m)6 


5 


.. . 


> — 


_ 


^ 


1 




t 


Indentation 0.20a 


10 


144 1 


^ 


400 


1 


„ 


,„ 


0.30 


^^ 


1 








10 


73 1 3 


- 


80 


8 


2' 15'' 3.60 


- 


- 


- 


6 


2 


' 


10 buckshot of 18 
struck the t^get. 


U 


73 1 


^ 400 


10 


3' 5.0 














14 


73 1 


- 300 


10 2' 5" 48 1 


- 


- 


- 21 







LEAVATT'S CARBINE. 



Mar. 1 
1 
2 
2 



50 1 

50 1 

5(» 1 

50 1 





50 


5 


^ 


100 


5 


_ 


1.50 


5 


^ 


200 


5 



0.35 
0.49 
0.30 

0112 



FISHER'S GUN. 



Mar. 8 



50 1 



8 



«'30" 1.22 



1.22 



In the rain. 



[ 16 ] 16 

A. 

West Point, June 24, 1837. 

Sir: Having attended as carefully as is practicable to the duties en- 
joined upon me in the order of the board over which you preside, dated 
19th of the present month, I, with due deference, submit the following 
statements. 

Very respectfully, I am, sir, 

Your cbedient servant, 

JOHN H. HALL. 
Gen. J. R. Fenwick. 



In estimating the cost of construction of the different arm8 presented to 
us, it is necessary to consider the number to be made aiinually, and the 
extent of the works for manufacturing them in ; because the expense of 
fabrication will be much affected by each of these circumstances. It would 
be less when many arms are made in the same period of time than wheu 
but few ; a workman can do more, in the same time, when continuius; upon 
the same kind of job, tlian when obliged to change often from one kind of 
work to anotlier, as would be the case when making but few arms in a year. 

There is a class of expenses incurred in a manu&ctory, the amount of 
which is greatly influenced by the extent of manufacturing to which it is 
adapted; which expenses will be nearly similar, and to the same amount, 
whether much work is performed and many arms are made in each year, 
or but few. Such are the expenses arising from the decay of the buildings; 
of the fofebays and the water-wheels, &c.; the expenses of direction or 
superintendence ; clerks' duties ; watchmen ; laborers to keep the shops in 
good order; to supply the stoves with fuel in cold weather, &c. My estj- 
mates have been made on the supposition of manufacturing three thousand 
arms of the same kind in each year. 

The effect on the cost of the different kinds of the arms, which would be 
produced by making a smoUer number of them in such an establishment, is 
exhibited in the paper numbered 4, by adding to the direct expenses on 
different parcels of them, viz: 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 per year, the amount 
of the incidental ones annually incurred. From which it appears that Mr. 
Colt's musketSj without a bayonet, might be made in any quantities at the 
rate of 3,000 per year, at $19 03 each ; 

The fhsil Robert, with a bayonet, at the rate of $14 36 each ; 

Mr. Cochran's musket at $19 10 each, without a bayonet. 



EXHIBIT of incidental expenditures f such as would be incurred in an 
establishment for making three thousand arms per year, and their effect 
on the cost of the arms when made in different parcels annually, viz : 
1,000 per year, 2,000 per year, and 3,000 per year. 

Superintendence or direction .... $1,60000 

Inspection -----.. 1^400 00 

Clerk's services • - - - - - 800 00 

Ajssistant - - - - - - 400 00 

Stationery - - - - - - - 60 00 



17 



[15 J 



Watchmen - . - 

Laborers ------- 

Fuel 

Oil and tallow for lubricating water-wheel journals, and those 
of machines 

Repairs of buildings, and forebays, and water-wheels, includ- 
ing deterioration of property . - - - 

Estimated cost of direct expenses in making 1,000 of Mr. 
Colt's muskets in one year . . - - 

Incidental expenses of one year 

Total cost of 1,000 of Mr. Colt's muskets - 
Which is equal to $23 62 for each. 

Cost of 2,000 of them, direct expenses 

Incidental, expenses •----. 

Total cost of 2,000 ------ 

Which is for 1,000 --.--- 
Equal to $20 02 for each. 

Estimated cost of direct expenses for 3,000 of Mr. Colt's mus- 
kets - - 
Incidental expenses - - 

Total for making 3,000 in one year - - 

Which is for 1,000 - - - - - 

Or, $18 85^^ each. 

Direct expenses for fusil Robert for 1,000 in one year 
Incidental expenses - . • - 

Total for making 1,000 in one year - - - - 

Or, $19 03 for each. 

Direct expenses for fusil Rob ert, made at the rate of 2,000 in 
one year -----.. 
Incidental expenses - - - - 

Total for 2,000 of the arms - - 

Which is for 1,000 of them 

Or, $15 53 for each. 

Direct expenses for fusil Robert made at the rate of 3,000 per 

year - - - 

Incidental expenses ----.. 



$600 00 

600 00 
600 00 

100 00 

950 00 
$7, 000 00 

$16,620 00 
7,000 00 

$23,520 00 

#33,040 00 
7,000 00 

$40,040 00 

20,020 00 



$49,660 00 
7,000 00 



$66,660 00 
18,853 00 

$12,030 00 
7,000 00 

$19,030 00 



$24,060 00 
7,000 00 

$31,060 00 

15,530 00 



$36,090 00 
7,000 00 



Total for 3,000 

Which for 1,000 is - 
Or, $14 361 for each. 
2 



• $43,090 00 

• 14,303 00 



Direct expenses for 1,000 of Mr. Cochran's muskets, in one 

year f 16,770 00 

Incidental expenses ------ 7,000 00 

Total expenses for 1,000 in one year - - $23,770 00 
Or, $23 77 for each 

Estimated cost of direct expenses for 2,000 of Mr. Cochran's 

mudcets, made at that rate per year - - - $33,540 00 

Incidental expenses - - - - - - 7,000 00 

Total for 2,000 $40,540 00 

Which is for 1,000 - - - . - - 20,270 00 
Or, $20 27 for each. 

Direct expenses for 3,000 of Mr. CJochran's muskets m«de in 

one year - - $50,310 00 

Incidental expenses .----- 7,000 00 

' ' ' ' _ 

Totalfor 3,000 of the'arms - - - ^ - - $57,310 00 

Which for 1,000 is - 19,103^00 

Or, $19 lOJ each. 



West Point, June 24, 1837. 

Sir: Subjoined is a list of the appendag^es of Mr. Cochran^s musket, and 
an estimate of the cost of making each of their component parts. 

Also, a list of the appendages to Mr. Coifs musket, and an estimate of 
expense of making each of their component parts, so fkr as I could exam- 
ine them separately. Those of the ammunition flask could ndf be separated; 
they haiire, therefore, neither been separately mentioned nor separately esti- 



Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN H. HALL. 
Gen. J. R. Fenwick. 



Appendages to Mr. Cochran's musket 



1 Powder-flask 
1 Leather pouch 
1 lieatherbelt 
3 Leather strap 
a Small mallets 
1 Bi^-mould 



$1 60 


1 10 


40 


2^ 


26 


40 


^90 



19 [ l^ I 

Appendages to Mr. Colics musket. ' 



1 felt 
^ Hooks 

2 S«p|)orts 

6 Rivet plates • 
1 Buckle ^ 
Uniting the whole 



1 Cartridge-bojL 
1 Ammunition-flask 



Leverf consisting of the following parts: 



1 Fulcrum 

1 Screw-driver - 

1 Screw-driver for cones 

1 Pick - 

1 Cap, (brass) - 



Primer^ consisting of the following parts 



1 Box - 

2 Covers 
2 Springs 

2 Spring-screws 

2 Circular plates or buttons 

2 Cap-pushers - 

2 Coiled springs 

1 Mainaxis-screw 

2 Axis or hin^-rivets - 
2 Palls or spring-catches 
2 Pall-screws 

2 Pivot-lid-catches 



Uniting all the parts - 



Total 



Recapitulation of appendages to Mr. CoWs musket. 



Belt - 
Cartridge-box 



$;0 75 
60 


60 


50 


10 


6b 


$2 85 


9l2 00 


$3 00 


$0 6 
8 


1| 


8 


$0 4g 


$0 50 
20 


12 


3 


20 


14 


20 


3 


4 


12 


3 


6 


$1 67 
30 


$197 


$2 85 
2 00 



[15] 20 

Flask - - - - - - - $3 00 

Lever - - ----- 42 

Primer - - -. - - - -197 

$10 24 



West Point, June 24, 1837. 

Sir: Subjoined I present a list of the appendages to the Hall's musket, 
and the cost of each. 

Very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN H. HALL. 
Gen. J. R. Fenwick. 



Appendages to Mr. HalVs musket 

1 Cartridge-box, for containing either ball or buck-shot cartridges, 

or both - - - - - - - $1 60 

1 Screw-driver and picker - - . - . 9 

1 Primer - 2 25 

1 Wiper ------- 20 

$4 04 



31 



[15] 



ESTIMATE 



or 



THE COST OP THE DIFFERENT SMALL ARMS, 



SUBSOTTGO 



TO THE BOARD FOR THEIR EXAMINATION. 



Estimale of the cost, ^•c, of the fusil Robert, or Baron HacketCs gun. 



No. of 
parts. 



Component parts. 



Dolls. Cts. Mills. 



2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
2 
1 



Barrel, with the bayonet, rear, and igniling-stud and 
screws ---..- 
Trunnion-plates . - - - - 

Truuuion-plaie screws 

Trunnion-screws - - - - - 

Washers for trunnion -screws, (copper) 
Stock-bar for friction roller . - - 

Friction roller, and axis-pin for stock 
Lever with copper plug . - . - 

Guide or rear sight for lever 
Screws for guide - - - 

Catch for levv^r with stock-pin 
Ctitch-spring ----- 

Screw for catch or axis - - - - 

Hammer or spring for igniting - . . 

Screw for hammer .. . - - 

Guard-plate . - , - . 

Guard-bow, (brass) - - - - 

Screw for guard-bow and trigger - - - 

Guard-screws for screwing to the barrel 
Guard-scrow, (wood) - - - 

Tri\r<rer, (acts, also, as sear and spring) 
Breech-plate . . . . - 

Breech -plate-screws - - - - 

Top-band, (brass) - - . - 

Sight for top band, with screws 
Screw-driver for top-band - - - - 

Screw for screw-driver - 

Middle band, (brass) . - . - 

Lower band, (brass) 
Swivels, (2,) and rivetting wires, (2) 
Side -plate, (brass) - - . - . 

Side-screw - - - - - j 



77 


6.5 


65 


6.2 


2 


7.5 


6 


6.8 


1 


2.6 


16 


0.8 


1 


3.7 


49 


1.6 


12 


7.6 


3 


8.1 


31 


1.6 


7 


5.7 


1 


9 


25 


6.9 


1 


8.8 


63 


4.3 


44 


4.1 


2 


8.6 


6 


7.2 


1 


6.8 


25 


2 


24 


7 


4 


2.6 


16 


2.5 


1 


9.2 


8 


8.5 


2 


7.3 


13 


2.7 


8 


9.7 


12 


9.9 


3 


8.1 


2 


2.6 



[15] 



2^ 



ESTIMATE— Continued. 



No. of 
parts. 


Component parts. 


Dolls. 


CIS. 


Mill'. 


3 
1 
11 
1 
1 

1 


Band-springs, (steel) 

Safety-plate, (brass) 

Screws for safety-plate, (for wood) - 

Bayonet - - - - 

Stock 

-hardening, polishing, and finishing - 
of officers, clerks, inspectors, machinist, 


jobbers, A:c. - 


1 
1 


13 
39 
9 
IS 
22 


9.4 
1.3 
73 
1.4 

&4 


68 

Case 
Pay 


11 
1 


52 

66 
60 


35 

45 
6 




13 


69 


3.4 



Cost of one gun if 5,000 are manufactured 

10,000 are manufactured 
20,000 are manufactured 
40,000 are manufactured 
50,000 are manufactured 

Dimensions and weight. 

Length of musket without bayonet 

Length of musket from breech to point of bayonet 

Length of stock - - - - - 

liength of barrel - - . - - 

Diameiler of caliber at muzzle 

Diameter of chamber at breech . - 

Length of the chamber about - - _ 

Whole length of the bayonet 



Weight of musket, with bayonet - 
Weight of barrel, with stud 
Weight of bayonet, with half-socket 



13 
12 
12 
12 
12 



69 

88 
47 
27 
23 



3.4 
5.5 
6.8 
2.4 
1.5 



Feet Inches. 

4 104 

5 6S 
4 7i 

AQ 37 

«« tO-*-*» 
Too *"tol^ 

to 



T5 

19i 






Pounds. Oonccs. 

10 12 
4 II 



REMARKS. 

In Baron Hatkett's ffun there is no rod. It is thought that though the 
rod is unnecessary in loading, it is indispensable in waishinff or cleaning 
the barrel. No estimate has been made for it. If it should be thought 
necessary to add the rod, its cost is about that of the common musket; 
also, if the rod should be added, there would be some additional expense 
in stocking, and some in altering the top-band. 

The whole number of parts will be found in the column of parts. 



i3 



[15] 



Esiimaie of the cost, ^c. of Samuel CoUsmwket^ withi 


7Ut 


bayonet or rod. 


No, of 


Component parts. 






Dolls. 


Cts. Mills. 


parts. 


• 










3 


Barrels, with ha.se, guide, and front sight 


» 


m. 


5 


50 1.2 




Belt-hook - - • . 


m 


. 




1 9.8 




Stud for lever-axis - . - 


. 


. 




1 9.2 




Receiver with six chambers 


- 


. 


3 


60 3.1 




Cones or vents for receiver - 


- 


. 




50 7.6 




Axis with shield-head 


. • 


. 


2 


09 6.7 




Index or rutchet .. - - 


. 


. 


• 


31 9.7 




Index stay - - - . 


. 


• 




6 O.l 




Index stay-screw - 


. 


. 




2 0.9 




Hand for index - - - 


. 


. 




9 3.ti 




Key for connecting barrel with axis 


. 


- 




6 7.9 




Key-screw or stop for key - 


- 


- 


. 


1 2 




Tang - - - . 


• 


. 




27 6 




Tang-screw for iron 


«> 


- 




6 1.4 




Tang-screw for wood 


. 


. 




2 0.1 




Lock-plate .... 


. 


•• 


2 


36 3.1 




Lock-plate screws - - - 


. 


. 




3 71 




Bolt for stop to receiver 


. 


•i 




7 8.2 




Bolt-spring . . - 


. 


* 




6 0.2 




Bolt-spring-screw - - - 


* 


•* 




1 7.6 




Lever for cocking - 


. 


. 




25 0.9 




Screw for lever 


1 

m 


. 




1 2.3 




Spring for lever . . • 


m 


- 




8 7.2 




Screw for lever-spring 


- 


. 




1 4.7 




Hand^spring 


- 


- 




6 2.9 




Hand-fspring-screw - 


- 


- 


' 


1 6.2 




Hammer .... 


* 


. 




35 6.3 




Hammer-ecrew-axis 


. 


. 




2 1.4 


^ 


Hammer-link 


• 


. 




6 1.9 




Uammer-iinkrsarew 


• 


. 


' 


1 9.4 


1 


Hammer-spring' ... 


- 


. 




18 6 




Hammer-spriiig-screw 


• 


. 




1 9.6 




Trigger 


- 


• 




8 8.5 




Trigg^-sorew-axis - 


- 


• 




2 L4 




Tf igger-spring . 


- 




\ ' 


4 2.4 


J^ 1 


Trigger-spct^g^serew 


m 


* 




1 3 




Gu^ for trigger - 


«h 


• 




32 




> Guard-screws for iron 


. 


. 


% 


a 7 




Rivets - 


. 


. 




1.2 


li 


Breech-plate ... 


• 


• 




24 8 


2 


Breech-plate-screws. 


- 


. 




4 8.1 


1 


Stock * . . . 


. 


. 




92 6.7 


55 


lY 


"93 2.6 


Case hardening! polisbingfaxid^ishiuig - 


« 


* 




79 53 


Pay of officers, cUrks, inspaelkMr^i nu^ljiini^^ jobl 


y^ts, doc. 




1 


60 6 




I 80 


23 3.9 



[15] 



34 
ESTIMATE— Continued. 



Cost of one gun if 5,000 are manufactured 

10,000 are manufactured 
20,000 are manufactured 
40,000 are manufactured 
50,000 are manufactured 

D'unetmons and weight. 

Length ot the musket - - - 

Length of the stock 

Length of the barrel . . - 

Diameter of caUber at muzzle and breech 

Length of receiver with seven chambers - 

Diameter of chambers 

Depth of chambers - . 

Greatest exterior diameter of receiver 



Weight of musket 

Weight of barrel - - - 

Weight of receiver with seven chambers 





Dolls. Cts. Mills. 


s 


20 23 3.9 


m 


19 13 2.1 


. 


18 66 1.7 


«» 


18 42 6.5 


- 


18 37 9i 


« 


Feet. Inches* 


_^ 


5 i 




\H 


- 


42 


- 


T'^to^VV 


- 


«4 

3 


- 


3i 




Pounds. Ounces. 


• 


16 6 


^ 


5 11 


• 


4 



REMARKS. 

As it appeared to be the opinion of the board that a receiver with six 
chambers would be preferable to one with seven, in order to reduce the 
weight of the musket ; and preferable, also, to reduce the length of the 
chambers so as to contain a charge of 100 grains of powder, with ball, 
(fcc; and to reduce the length of the barrel so as to make its length corres- 
pond with the length of the present musket barrel, viz. 42 inches ; the 
foregoing estimate has been predicated on these modifications, all of which 
would reduce the weight of the musket from 151b. 5oz. to 131b. 9oz. 

These modifications would also tend to reduce the cost of the musket, 
if the receiver were made of iron. But as it appeared to be the general 
opini6n (which opinion is concurred in) that a receiver made of cast steel 
would be preferable to one made of iron, in consequence of iron being 
more liable to have flaws and seams than cast steel, and these flaws ana 
seams having a tendency to render the charges liable to ignite each other 
from the interior of the caliber, (an instance of which is thought to have 
occurred in the examination at West Point,) it is proper to remark that the 
cost of the cast steel will probably rather more than counterbalance the re- 
duction of cost by the above named modifications, though it will not ma- 
terially add to the cost of the gun. 

In the foregoing estimate, wrought iron has been substituted for mallea- 
ble iron in all the components made of malleable iron in Colt's musket, 
which will make an additional item in the cost of the manufacture. 

Colt's gun has neither bayonet nor rod. It is thought that though the 



Si 



iml 



rod is unnecessary in igfiJmg, it isjipjlinxnwil^e in washing or cleftnin^ 
the barrel. No estimate has been made for these parts. If it should M 
thought neceesery to add them, their cost will be about the same aS' that of 
^ bsyoBet «nd rod of the musket. 

In consequence of Mr. Colt's statement that, although the guide, or Mar 

■ighlnn rha giin prpjiPinfpd fnr ATHminiitinn VaSmadfiOf tbree^pArlS, it.mS 

pot iintended so for the ordinary manufacture of the musket, as it wpuld be 
foore expensive than ^t of tnu ordinary kind, in this e0tiii)4teih9 guide 
lias been called but one part, and conesponda vMi idta^oneieffnehviibs on 
fte rifle and .carbine he Had with him. 

I'he lock'phte, i^lso, was cslled but one part, ajtilHHifh-tlMj^nle on the 
gun presented for flxamination esntAsled' o^tworpaftB — HMM^aing a sort 
of scroll on the tan^. This was mere Ktney, and nM bitaoded as a model 
^r ordinary , manufacture of the musket. 
1^ form |Of the present mnsket breech-ptate was snbstftuHd't^ ithe one 
' jpresented for examination, on account of its hein^' less expeaalfe ill the 
' maaiifacture ; and, consequently, two screws wdte «|liswMt ihstebd ot 

^s it seet«ed to be the opinion tliat n recdtverjwillvaiK^bBaibers vould 
'%e preferably Id one with seven, as noliead vifnve, {^y six «onei> w«rc esti- 
fnassd for. ' 

I^ wrouffbt iron were substituted lor malleable imn, 4t -ooi U t be found 
economical lo make the guard of two pieces ; in this otinMe it h^ been 
coMidered ^a one part; but two rivets have fceMiaddpl-t^abaoupaber of 
j)ieees. 

'Fbe number of parts in the gun presented'fog'Tiinrinatiwi.^HB 68 

Xhe numtier of jxirts inteudra to be examined • - - 55 

The nunfber of parts actually estimated, by ^ispqnniigf ':«fith 
one cone and one bieech-plate-sciew, and'by addii^-tiirb^iviittB, 
amount to - - - - - - - 66 

Although the guide hus been estin3R^)iits«piuM«Kd4o-be,of' vo^nlore 
nse to Colt's, gun than it would be to the common muskety but .radier an 
4nceavenienpe in the manuol exercise. 



, ^t^mate qf\tlte coat, 4*e., of Mr. Cochran's navife^.mt/mtfifiltm'^ *" '*'• 



parrel, with' front sight 
^eeeii^'er - - - - 

Geaes .... 
A^ for receiver - 
liock or guard-plate 
Lo«k ror guard -plate- ecrew - 
S|rpp for capping over [ci;e)j^ei,.Qlld lU^is 
S^pp:«yis, OT p^ - 
j;3 



96 7.6 
26 4.6 



79 8.3 

2 4.1 

36 9.1 

1 6.7 



[IS] 



%6 



ESTIMATE— CoDtinued. 



No.ofl 
parts 



1 
1 
1 
1 



Component parts. 



2 
1 



48 



DqUs. CIS. Milk 



Stop-bolt ------ 

Stop-bolt-axis, or pin - . . . 

Stop-bolt-spring - - - 

Stop-bolt spriog-screw - . . - 

Thumb-pieoe. (This was made of lectrum^ but is 

estimated as if made of iroo, and in one piece 

with the bolt.) 
Hammer - - - . . 

Hammer-screw - - - . . 

Hammer-spring . - . . . 

Hammer-spring-screw . . . . 

Hammer-lifting-spring - - - - 

Hammer-lifting'^pring'Screw - - - 

Sear, (acts as a trigger) . . . - 

Sear-axis-pin --•... 

Sear-spriii^ • . 

Sear-4>ring screw - • - 

Tang-screw - 

Socket for tang-screw - . . . 

Socket-pin - • - 

Separater, (brass) - - . . . 

Si^^rataiHiQrews 

Separater-washer, (copper) - . - 
Separater-washer-pms, (wires) . . . 

Pence - - - 

Fence-screws, (for wood) - - . . 

Supporter, (brass) - 

Su[q)orter-screw — catch for strap - . . 

Supporter-screw, (for wood) . . . 

Breech-plate - - . - . 

Breech-plate-screws - - 

Stock ...... 






Case-hardening, polishing, and finishing - 

Pay of officers, inspectors, clerks, machinist, jobbers, &c. 



Cost of one gan if 



5,000 are manufactured 
10,000 are manuftctured 
20,000 are manufactured 
40,000 are manufactured 
50,000 are manufactured 



3 
1 



24 
2 

13 
1 
4 
1 

18 
1 
2 
1 
I 
3 



23 

I 

6 

9.6 



4.6 
0.7 
9.2 
9.7 
0.7 

ai 

2.1 
3.4 
4.4 
9.7 
3.6 
2.9 





17 


0.5 




3 


IJi 




4 


2.9 
7.6 




15 


0.7 




3 


3.6 




24 


2.1 




3 


4.4 




1 


9.3 




24 


8 




4 


3.1 




87 


1.9 


10 


87 


7J8 




67 


7. 


1 


60 


6 


13 


06 


0.8 


13 


06 


0.8 


IS 


26 


2.6 


11 


86 


3.7 


11 


66 


4.3 


11 


62 


4.6 



27 



[15] 



ESTIMATE— Continued. 



Dimensions and weight. 

Length of the musket . . . - 

hehgth of the stock .... 
Length of the barrel .... 
Diameter of caliber at muzzle ... 
Exterior diameter of the receiver with seven chambers 
Thickness of receiver, about ... 
Diameter of receiver about edge 
Diameter of receiver at bottom ... 



Weight of musket 
Weight of barrel 
Weight of receiver 



Feet. Inches. 




4 



• 7 to ••^ 






Pounds. Ounces. 

11 14 
3 3 



tlEMARKS. 

In this estimate, wrought iron has been substituted for malleable iron in 
all of those components made of malleable iron in Cochran's musket, 
which will tend rather to increase the cost of the gun. 

The form of the common musket breech* plate was substituted for the 
one presented for examination, on account of its being less expensive to 
manufacture; and consequently two screws were estimated instead of 
three. 

The stop-bolt consisted of two parts, in consequence of the thumb-piece 
being made of lectrum ; but as this might be more economically made of 
iron, in one piece with the bolt, they have been estimated as one part. 

Cochran's musket, also, has neither bayonet nor rod. It is thought that 
though the rod is unnecessary in loading, it is indispensable in washing or 
cleaning the barrel. No estimate has been made for these parts. If it is 
thought necessary to add them, their cost will be about the same as that of 
the ^youet and rod of the common musket. 

The number of parts in Cochran's musket was - - - 50 

The number of parts estimated, by dispensing with the thumb- 
piece and breech-plate-screw, amounts to - - - 48 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

As there might, at first sight, appear too great a discrepancy in the cost 
of some of the screws of nearly the same size, it is thought proper to re- 
mark, that, when the same tools would answer for various classes of screws, 
the cost of these tools has been thrown wholly or in part upon the first of 
these classes of screws estimated. 

If arms were manufactured of the foregoing pattern, there might be an 
improvement made in the uniformity of the screws, which wou& tend to 
cheapen, as well as equalize, the cost of fabrication. 

BENJAMIN MOOR. 

Harper's Ferry, Julff 22, 1S37. 



25 th Congress, [ SENATE. ] T 16 1 

1 */ aVfAttASyk** ■- J 



1^/ Session. 



REPORT 



FROM 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 

In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of the I7th February^ 
1837, on the subject of the bursti)^ of cannon Hi Major darkens found- 
njj in Jnlf/j 1833, and Avgnst, 1834. 



Skptembkr 19, 1837. 

Read, and ordered to be ^^ririled. 



War Department, 

September 19, 1837. 

Sir: I have tlie honor to transmir, herewith, a report of the Colonel 
of Ordnance in answer to a resohuion o( the Senate of the 17th of Feb- 
ruary, 1837, on the subject of tfie bursting of cannon at Major Clarke's 
foundry, in July, 1833, and August, 1834. 

Very respectfully. 

Your most obedient servant, 

J. R. POINSETT. 
Hon. R. M. JonN.soN, 

President of the Senate, 



Ordnance Office, 
Washington, My 13, 1837. 

Sir : In obedience to your orders, and in conformity to the resolution of 
the Senate of the 17th of February, 1837, directing that the fadts concern- 
ing the bursting of 16 cannon at Major Clarke's foundry, in July, 1833, and 
August, 1834, be reported, 1 have the honor to report : 

First. The facts, concerning the bursting of the 7 guns on the 18th 
July, 1833, as follows : 

Agreeably to orders from the Ordnance Department, the inspectors of 
cannon (Lt. Col W. J. Worth and his Assistant, Lt. John Childe) being at 
the Beliona foundry on the 18th July, 1833, in presence of Major Clarke, 
fully explained to him the regulations for proving cannon, informing him 
At the same time that if he had any objections to them, or to the manner 
of administering them, the inspectors would delay operations until fur- 
ther orders from the department could be received. The inspectors were 



[16] 



t^ 



permitted to proceed, and^ Major Clarke was requested to be present, and 
was present, at the proving of the powder, the weighing of the charges, 
and at the loading and discharging of the guns. 

It should here be premised, that, previous to this inspection of the ISih 
July, 1833, Col. Worth and his assistant had mad^ two inspections at the 
West Point foundry, two at the Pittsburg foundry, and one at the Colum- 
bian foundry in Georgetown, in wliich they had examined 118 guns, 9 of 
which burst in provmg at the Pittsburg foundry. The metal of these 
bursted euns was afterwards admitted by the founders to be objectionable, 
though they evidently were not aware of it until after the proof. (For the 
remarks of the founders on this subject see letter of Messrs. McClurgj 
Wade & Co.) 

The guns (32-pounders) of the inspection of July, 1833, were charged 
with powder and ball according to the following tabular statement, the de- 
tails of which are in conforniily with the regiuations of the 29th Novem- 
ber, 1832, which governed at that time. 



e» 



I 






o 



bc.o 



^•s^ 






If 



I • 



Yaf4s. 



257 


268 


258 


268 


259 


267 


260 


266 


261 


238 


262 


268 


263 


238 


264 


266 


265 


252 


266 


266 


267 


266 


268 


238 


269 


268 


270 


238 


271 


266 


272 


248 


27a 


268 


274 


248 


575 


268 


276 


254 


277 


268 


278 


261 


279 


268 


280 


268 


281 


268 


282 


265 


289 


266f 


284 


548 


28$ 


264 


28C 


258 


287 


261 


28ft 


261 


289 


248 


290 


264 


291 


237 


292 


264 






Ibe. oz. 



18 
18 
18 
18 
20 
18 
20 
18 



18 
20 

18 
20 
18 



18 
18 
18 



3 
3 
5 
6 
6 
3 
6 
6 



19 14 

18 6 



6 
6 
3 
6 
6 



19 11 

18 3 

19 11 

18 3 

19 I 
18 3 
18 15 
18 3 



3 
3 
3 



18 8 

19 11 

18 9 

19 4 
18 13 

18 13 

19 11 
18 9 

20 7 
18 9 



P . 
9 ^ rt 



1 



Yards. 



bo 

H 

CO 



lbs. oz. 



269 


13 


10 


269 


13 


10 


269 


13 


10 


349 


14 


11 


255 


14 


6 


269 


13 


10 


249 


14 


11 


249 


14 


11 


269 


13 


10 


249 


14 


11 


249 


14 


11 


261 


14 


2 


249 


14 


11 


269 


13 


10 


268 


13 


10 


257 


14 


5 


269 


13 


10 


269 


13 


10 


269 


13 


10 


257 


14 


5 


269 


13 


10 


257 


14 


5 


257 


14 


5 


269 


13 


10 


269 


13 


10 


257 


14 


5 


^7 


14 


"5 


283 


14 


~ 


263 


14 




262 


14 




262 


14 




263 


14 




360 


U 


3 


269 


13 


10 



Number 
burst. 



Isl fire. 



2d fire. 



1 
1 



Remarks. 



Extract frum tke^rcpert 
of the inspectors of July, 
1833, marked "^.** 

" These guns were prov- 
ed with Dupont powder ; 
ihe charges regulated in 
strict conformity with ta- 
bles furnished by the Ord- 
nance Department. 20 
barrels of proving pow- 
der were recently for- 
warded to Bellona from 
Frankford arsenal, where 
it had been carefully prov- 
ed by the standard eproa- 
vette. The reniamder, 
about 7 barrels, was drawn 
from the magazine at Bel- 
lona, and carcAiUy re- 
proved immediately be- 
fore use. It will \!e per- 
ceived that, generally, the 
^ns conform in measure- 
ment very closely to the 
established pattems. Serv- 
en guns burst in proof, 
six at the first, and one at' 
the second, discharge. In 
several insttmcca, tie evi- 
dence . was very conclu- 
sive that the breaking^had 
been caused uf accelera- 
ted by the breaking and 
wedging ef the 5hot. Two 
shot ana two wads were 



[16 1 







is ^ 


oS 


t 






1 


* u «* 

^m TT A) 


a ** . 
«• »- iR 


0»0 


Number 




o 


^^ flj V 






burst. 


Remarks. 




S ^ «< 


2 s. 

&4 


iy 








Yards, 


lbs. ^oz. 


Yanis, 


lbs. oz. 


1st fire. 


2d fire. 


( 


2D3 

294 


337 
236 


20 7 

20 8 


260 
264 


14 3 
13 15 






tised at both dbchttrge^ 


295 


265 


18 8 


260 


14 3 






Kgreeabltf to i^idBtiofis. 
W. J. WORTH, 


296 


248 


20 1 


259 


14 4 






297 

298 


265 

265 


18 8 

18 8 


260 
26*2 


14 3 
14 1 






m, u. Cot., 

Maj. of Ord., and fntipu'r. 


299 


257 


20 7 


262 


mm A 

14 I 




1 


JNO. OHIf.DB, 


300 


260 


18 15 


259 


14 4 






I/. aiu< As5'^ inspector. 


301 


236 


20 8 


262 


14 1 








302 


236 


20 8 






1 






303 


236 


20 8 






1 






3di 


264 


18 9 


3i7 


14 'l3 








305 


237 


20 7 


259 


14 4 


* 






306 


264 


18 9 


260 


14 3 








307 


237 


20 7 


259 


14 4 


- 






308 


247 


19 12 


^ 


_ 


I 






309 


240 


20 3 


285 


12 'l5 








310 


245 


19 13 


259 


14 4 








311 


246 


19 13 


259 


14 4 








312 


245 


19 13 


^ 




1 






313 


271 


17 15 


258 


14 5 








314 


247 


19 12 


285 


12 15 








315 


245 


Id 13 


252 


14 9 








S16 


247 


Id 12 


285 


12 15 








317 


271 


17 15 


259 


14 4 








318 


240 


20 3 


285 


12 15 






319 


258 


19 1 


252 


14 9 1 




320 


240 


20 3 


285 


12 15 


^ 


1 




321 


258 


19 1 


271 


13 18 








322 


271 


17 15 


285 


12 15 






■ 


3-23 


258 


Id 1 


:i58 


14 5 








324 


258 


19 1 


247 


14 13 








325 


940 


20 3 


258 


14 5 








326 


271 


17 15 


252 


14 9 








3-27 


245 


19 13 


252 


14 9 








3-28 


252 


19 7 


£52 


14 9 






^ 



S^tond. The facts concerning the bursting of the nine guns on the 7th 
Aufiftist, 18S4, as follows : 

The two inspecting officers (L(. Col. Worth and Lt. Maynadiar) being at 
Major Clarke's foundry on the above date^ in obedience to orders from the 
Ordnance Office, fifty-^ight 32-pounder guns were presented for inspection. 
Forty-two, however, were only proted, the proot being discontinued at 
the instance of the founder. The powder used in proving these guns was 
most carefully proved on 4he /iftoiMd by the inspectors, and the charges 
weighed by them in presence of the founder. The powde? was of JDu- 
pont's manufacture, except that used in eight charges for the second fire, 
and was selected from the lowest rat^ge on htoid at the Frankford arsdiaJ; 

As stated in the facts cohcerhing the former bursting, (of Jnly, 1833^ 
the regulations were &iily explained to the founder ; he was also iiiformed 
that if he had any objections to the re^ulaliona, or to the manner of adrndnis- 
tering tbemi the inspectors would await the further ordeis of the departaeiii 



fl6] 4 

The founder was also requested by the inspectors to be present^ and was 
actually present, and assisted in proving the powder, weighing the charges, 
and in loading and discharging the guns. Of the 42 guns proved, 9 burst, 
eight at the first and one at the second fire. 

As Major Clarke had been unfortunate in the inspection of July. 1833, 
and as he was prejudiced against the method of ascertaininc^ the strength 
of powder, (by the use of the established eprouvette,) no means were left 
untried to arrive at the greatest practicable accuracy. Major Clarke for- 
merly made great objections to the use of two round shot in proving his 
guns, to the breaking and wedging of which he attributed the bursting of 
his guns. On this occasion^ at his request, cylindrical shot were used, ex- 
cept (at his suggestion) in the last three guns tried, two of which broke ia 
like manner with the preceding. The eprouvette used in proving the 
powder was perfectly new, and, from less use, doubtless gave CTeater ranges 
(and consequently greater reductions in quantity by the tables) than tnat 
of the same series in use at the Frankford arsenal. 

The guns (32-pounders) of the inspection of August, 1S34, were charged 
with powder and ball according to the following tabular statement, the de- 
tails of which are in conformity witli the regulations of Nov, 29, 1832, 
which governed at that time. 



• 


1st proof. 




2d 


proof. 


Burst. 


<« 


• 




<*4 




<M 




o 

V 


(..« 
















o 


^ 


c 

J3 


o 


C 0) 


o 

.£3 


• 


c 
Xi o 


A ■ 


• 


Reuiarks. 


o 

• 


18. 




'5 JA 


S^ 


bOe« 


•r^ 


km 






1 




^ 


>j 


^ 


oz. 




lbs. 


>m/ 


^ 


12 


s 






Yards. 


lbs. 


oz. 


lbs. 


Yards. 


OZ. 


lbs. oz. 




329 


273 


17 


131 


m 


3 


276 


13 


5 


65 12 


Extract frifm tie 
report of the in- 


330 


225 


21 


5 


66 


7 


276 


13 


5 


66 2 






331 


273 


17 


131 


66 


4 


276 


13 


5 


65 9 






spectors of Aug. 
7,1834. 


332 


275 


17 


131 


^ 




276 


13 


5 


66 7 






333 


273 


17 


13} 


66 


7 


276 


]3 


5 


65 14 








334 


225 


21 




66 


6 


273 


13 


6i 


ee 4 






"The founder 


335 


276 


17 




66 


2 


269 


13 


10 


GG 2 






ascribes the fail- 


336 


273 


17 


131 


m 


3 


^^ 




^ 


^ 


I 




ure of his guns to 


337 


225 


21 




%^ 


6 


276 


13 


5 


65 6 






excessire proof- 
charges. The in- 


338 


225 


21 




66 


5 


269 


13 


10 


66 




339 


255 


19 




66 


14 


269 


13 


10 


65 10 






spectors entertain 


340 


255 


19 




66 


4 


269 


13 


10 


66 4 






a different opin- 


341 


242 


20 




66 


10 


276 


13 


5 


66 






ion, and ascribe 


342 


242 


20 




65 


1 


269 


13 


10 


66 1 






the restilt to de- 


343 


955 


19 




66 


4 


269 


13 


10 


66 






fect, either in the 


344 


256 


19 




65 


1 


226 


15 


15" 


66 4 






metal, or in the 


345 


226 


21 




65 


I 


276 


13 


5 


66 1 






manner of work- 


346 


226 


21 




^ 


13 


269 


13 


10 


66 12 






ing it, in which 


347 


256 


19 




66 




279 


)3 


3i 


66 






thevwere sustain- 
ed by the nature 
of tne fractures. 


348 


276 


17 


11 


66 




276 


13 


5 


66 4 






349 


242 


20 




66 




279 


13 


31 


66 7 






350 


242 


20 




66 




276 


13 


5 


65 12. 






Specimens were 


351 


276 


17 


11 


66 


11 


279 


13 


3i 


66 4 






preserved, and 
hare been since 


352 


226 


21 




66 




276 


13 


5 


66 6 






353 


226 


21 




ei& 


6 


279 


13 


3f 


66 4 1 




submitted to ex- 


354 


279 


17 


9 


66 




• 






- 


1| 




perienced found- 



C 16] 





Isi proof. 


2d proof. 


Burst. 




• 

p 

o 

6 


"3 

&4 




o 
■pi *^ 


o 
8^ 

&4 


o . 


o 


— < 


t 
(a 

1 


Remarks. 




Yards. 


lbs. oz. 


lbs. oz. 


Yards. 


lbs. oz. 


lbs. oz. 

66 
66 

6)6 ~ 

66 " 

66 

i^ 4 

66 

66 *" 

66 4 

67 6 


1 
1 

I 

1 

1 
1 


1 


355 
356 
357 
35ft 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
364 
365 
366 
367 
368 
369 
370 


284 
281 
284 
281 
284 
281 
281 
281 
281 
279 
226 
2^ 
284 
277 
277 
277 


17 5 
17 7 
17 5 
17 7 
17 5 
17 7 
17 7 
17 7 
17 7 
17 9 
21 4 
17 5 
17 5 
17 10 
17 10 
17 10 


65 11 

66 2 

66 9 

66 

6fQ 6 

6& 

6'^ 

65 10 

65 12 

66 4 
66 12 

66 10 

67 6 
67 6 
67 6 


261 
245 

261 

261 
261 
261 
245 

261 

245 
277 


14 2 
14 14 

14 " 2 

14 ' 2 
14 2 
14 2 
14 14 

14 " 2 
14 14 
13 4 


ers, who, with- 
out knowing any 
thing of the cir- 
cumstances, or 
whence they 
came, at once de- 
cided that the 
metal was good, 
but had been in- 
jured and render- 
ed unfit for gun 
metal in meltiag 
and casting: thai 
the result arises 
from this cause 
cannot be doubt- 
ed, when it is re- 



membered, that the cannon at other foundries are subjected to the like proof, and, for the 
past year, without failure. The three last ^ns were charged with two round shot and the 
others with one cylindrical shot, for the weight of which see face of the report. 

W. J. WORTH, Bt. U. Col. 

Major Ordnance Inspector. 
WM. MAYNADIER. Lt. 

Assistant Inspector of Ordnance. 

Tho following is a letter from Messrs. McClurg, Wade & Co. on this 
subject. 

Washington, May 27, 1836. ' 

• Sir : In compliance with the request contained in your letter of yester- 
day, we have to state, that Col. Worth inspected cannon at our works, first 
in December, 1833, also in June and October, 1834, making six inspec- 
tions in all. 

In our opinion, these inspections were always conducted with the greal- 
est care, attention, and accuracy, by the inspecting officer. He always in- 
vited our personal attention to all the proceedings, and desired us to point 
out any thin;? whir.h we might consider objectionable, or as not being in 
accordance with the regulations. We have not, however, on any occasion, 
made any objection to the proceadinrs of the inspectors, nor to any part 
of them; beina: always fully satisfied that they were in strict conformity 
with the established regulations. 

At the inspection made in 1832, the first conducted by Colonel Worth, 
several of our cannon failed to stand the required proof, and nine burst. 
All the cannon cast since that inspection, amounting to one hundred and 
forty-seven in all, have stood the proofj not a single failure having occurred 
in guns since that time. 



C16} 6 

We have never attributed the failure of some of the guns cast in 1832. 
and the undeviating success of all cast since, to any difference in the mode 
or the accuracy oi proving the several parcels, but to a difference in the 
quality of the material used. When the failure occurred, we attributed it 
to the quality of the iron ; and, gince that time, we have taken very good 
care not to use any iron, the strength of which was, in the least degree, 
doubtful. This difference in results, we have always attributed to our 
own care and attention in selecting materials, and not to any want of 
either on the part of the inspecting officers. 
• fiespectfully. 

Your obedient servants, 

McCLURG, WADE & CO. 

Col. G. Bomford, 

Ordnance Office, 

The following are the answers of G. Kemble, Esq., of the West Point 
foundry, in his letter of the 20lh June, 1836. to the queries propounded to 
him by this office : 

1st query : Please state the number of inspections made by Colonel 
Worth at your establishment, and its periods. 

2d query : Your opinion as to the care, accuracy, and attention with 
which those inspections were conducted. 

In answer to the first query : Colonel Worth acted as inspector of ord- 
nance in the years 1833 and 1834 ; during which time he made four in- 
;spections of guns and shot at the West Point foundry, viz : 

On the 13th May, 1S33. 

On the 1st July, 1833. 

On the 24th May, 1834. 

On the 2d July, 1834. 

In answer to the second query, it becomes me to state, that no officer 
could be more accurate in his examinations, or more attentive to every 
point relating to the proof, than wa3 Colonel Worth throughout the whole 
of these inspections. 

Such are the facts of these two cases of bursting. They have been col- 
lected with great care from original reports of inspectors, letters, &c., 
niarked A, B, C, D, E, and K, accompanied herewith. 

Before proceeding to examine the facts of these cases, it should be stated 
that the 16 guns which bufst out of 114 examined, must have failed either 
in consequence of a defective regulation-proof, or of incapacity or culpa- 
bility in the inspectors ; in either of which suppositions, Major Clarke 
would be fairly entitled to remuneration from the Government — that is to 
say : 

First The reguldtion-charges, under which they failed, may have 
been excessive, and, though accurately measured and determined in prac- 
tice by the inspectors, they may have been so powerful as to destroy guns 
iequal in strength to those which the United States were then receiving 
from other founders. In this case, the regulation would be objectionable', 
and Major Clarke fairly entitled to compensation. 

Second. On the other hand, the regulation-charges may have been 
good and unobjectionable ; but, by the neglect of the inspectors, they may 
liot have been used in practice ; and in this case the fault would be witU 



7 [16] 

the inspectors, and Major Clarke be, in consequence, clearly entitled to' 
compensation. 

It is obvious that under no other than one of these two cases could Major 
^ Clarke be entitled to any remuneration. 

Lei us now proceed to examine the first of these suppositions, that we 
may determine if the regulation-charges were really excessive. 

To do this, it will be necessary to look into the composition and strength 
of the proof-charges, and the recorded statements of their effects, or general 
results, at the various foundries where they have been used during the 
whole period of their adoption by the Government. 

Were ike proof-charges excessive ? 

Proof charges. — The first guns, under the new system of sea-coast ar- 
tillery, were cast in 1826, and w€re proved, each, with two regulation 
proof charges, as follows : 

1st charge. — Two thirds weisfht of shot in powder, 2 junk-wads, and 2 shot. 

2d charge. — One-half weight of shot in powder, 2 junk-wads, and 2 shot ; 
the proof of powder being never less than 200 yards by the eprouvette then 
in use. 

This regulation continued in operation until that of the 29th of Novem- 
ber, 1332, (accompanied herewith,) which was as follows: 1st and 2d 
charges, same as above. The proof of powder being not less than 190, 
nor more than 290 yards by the new eprouvette, the standard being 225 
yards. 

This latter regulation continued in force until rescinded by the regula- 
tions existing at the present time, adopted Jiy the Board of Ordnance, and 
under date of the 1st May, 1834. This last went into operation at the 
foundries on the 1st July, 1835, after the bursting of the sixteen guns, and 
was as follows : 

1st and 2d charges, same as above ; but the proof of powder increased 
so as not to exceed 300 yards, nor be less than 200 yards ; the standard 
being 250 yards. 

Powder^ proof charges. — The above reprulation of the 29th November, 
1832, under which the sixteen guns burst, was not intended to increase, 
nor did it increase, the changes, but rather tlie contrary, as will be seen. 
It was intended. 

First. To re -state* the proof ranges of the powder intended for the prov- 
ing of cannon which had been changed by the then recent adjustment of the 
eprou vcttes. that had been effected with great care. By this adjustment, the 
powder, which was 200 yards by the old eprouvette, became 225, without 
any increase of strength by the new eprouvette ; and as none could be 
used in the proof of cannon less than 200 yards before the adjustment, so 
it would have appeared reasonable that none should have been used after . 
it of a strength less than 225 yards ; yet so favorable was the regulation to 
the founders, that it admitted, powder sojow as 190 yards, and so high as 
290 ; 225 yards being the standard proof. But as the new eprouvette gave 
proof ranges for the same powder 12^ per c^nt. greater than those of the 
old, it is hence perceived that the above minimum proof range of 190 
yards, (new eprouvette,) is equal to 166J^ yards of the old eprouvette ; and 
{hus it is seen that the minimum powder authorized under the new regu- 



[16] 



8 



lations, was really about 35 yards less in strength than the ininiuium pow- 
der of the old regulations, which was 200 yards. 

Second. It was intended to remedy some inconveniencies which had 
arisen in practice since 1826. The inspectors could not always command 
powder of a proof exactly 200 yards, and were, in consequence, often 
obliged to use powder ranging between that prcof and the proof of 250 
yar& and higher ; and thus, for this increase of strength, a proportional 
reduction in quantity became necessary. It was the object of the regula- 
tions of 1832, to point out, in a scientific way, and with great precision, 
the amount of this reduction, in every possible case of increased strength ; 
and it was, therefore, a measure calculated to favor the founders, as well as 
to assure the Government, -since it would prevent the mistake of using too 
great a quantity of very strong powder, or too small a quantity of very weak 
powder, in the proof ot cannon. The regulation Was drawn up on scien- 
tific principles, with great care, and in conformity with the niost exact ex- 
perimental results, ft accompanies this paper, marked M. 

Thus, then, while the three regulations provide the same weight of 
standard powder^ the same weight of metal, and the same wads, they ex- 
hibit the maximum, minimum, and standard powder as follows, by the new 
eprouvette now in use : 



Dale of regulation. 


Maximum proof 
ran^e. 


Standard proof 
lange. 


Minimum proof 
i-an^e. 


Regulation of 1S26 - 
Regulation of 1832 - 
R^ulationof 1834 - 


300. yards 
300 yards 
300 yards 


225 yards 
225 yards 
250 yards 


226 yards 
190 yards 
200 yards 



As, therefore, the maximum proof ranees are equal as well as all the other 
elements of the proof-charges, except ine standard and nn7iwivm proof 
ranges, the force of the charges under the three regulations must vary as 
these latter. But the standard proof ranges of the regulations of 1826 and 
1832 being equal, the for.e of the proof'charges, under those regulations, 
will be as the minimum proof ranges, which, in the regulation of 1832, 
being: 35 yards less than those of 1826, the proof-charges of the former re- 

Slaiion should be less than those of the regulation of 1826, while those of 
3 regulation of 1834, now in force, are probably the strongest of all. 
Hence, it is very clear that the proof-charges used under the regulation of 
1832, with which the 16 guns were burst, were really of powder weaker 
than those which either preceded or followed them. 

So much for the powder-proof of proof-charges. 

We next consider their effects or general results at the foundries. They 
divide themselves into three parts, viz: 

Those under the regulation of 1826, 

Those under the regulation of 183:^, and 

Those under the regulation of 1S34 ; and are exIiiLitcd in the follow- 
ing tabular statement. 



9 



[16] 



At what foundry. 


By what officer 
inspected. 


Number and description 
of cannon pre^cnied. 


Number 
rejected. 


Nnmber 
burst. 


nnmber 
eived. 




24pdrs. 


32.ptlrs. 


42-pdrs. 


^ 


Under the nsfulaiion 0/ 
18-26. 












• 


\ 


Greorgetown, D. C. - 

Bellona foundry 

West Point foundry - 
Pittsburg foundry 


Col. Bankhead 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 


248 
145 

2GU 


216 

256 

217 
13 


2 


5 

* 


I 32-pdr. 

1 32 and 

2 21-pdrs. 


465 
1 398 

486 
13 


Under the re^ulati0n of 
1832. 
















G^or^town, D. C. - 
Bellona foundry 
Wesi Point foundry - 
Pittsburg foundry 


Col. Worth 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


. - 


91 
lU 

90 
IGO 


- 


432-pdrs. 


IG 32-pdrs. 
9 33-pdrs. 


91 

98 

90 

147 


Ui^r the re^tUaliQn of 
1834. 








• 


. 






Gcoi^etown^ D. C. - 
Bellona foundry 
West Point fouadr)' - 
Pittsburg foundry, Pa. 


Capt. Ripley 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


37 
4 

52 
97 


5 
76 

11 


£2 
49 


324-pdrs. 
224-pilrs. 


1 24 pdr. 
1 24-pdr. 


64 

76 

100 

106 



RECAPITULATION. 



Under the regulation of 


Number of guns 
presented for in- 
spection & proof. 


Nnmber 
burst. 


Nnmber 
rejected. 


Number 
burst and re- 
jected. 


Number re- 
ceived. 


18-26 - 
Noi'cmbcr 29, 1833 - 
May 1, 1834 - 


1,366 
455 
353 


4 

25 

2 


"4 
5 


4 

29 
7 


1,362 
4*26 
346 


' 


2,174 


31 


9 


40 


2,134 



Total received 

Total burst and rejected 

Total presented for inspection 



- 2,134 

40 

- 2,174 



In examining this table with a view to the proof-charges, several forcible 
views are presented : 

jRirsL It is seen above that thp 16 guns were burst under the regulation 
of 1832, and that the powder, used under the preceding or following regula- 
tions, was clearly stronger than that used under the regulation of 1832. It 
is hence obvious that* the 2,174 guns submitted for proof during the last 
eleven years, were proved with charges either fTjP e^fual to, or greater ,=^ 
than those with which the 16 guns were burst. And it is remarkable tha 



[16] 10 

dnrinff this long period, out of so great a number presented for proof, only 
31 should have burst ; and that, out of these 31, 

9 should be admitted by the Pittsburg founders tobe of defective metal: 
2 should never be complained of by the West Point and Geergetown 

founders ; 
4 sliould never be complained of by Major Clarke; and that only 
16 should have the proof contested by Major Clarke. 

Total 31 burst. 

Thus, out of the 2,174 guns submited for proof, sixteen only have been 
contested : that is to say, one gun out of every 136, 

There can be no doubt as to the truth of this remarkable fuct. Can it 
prove that the charges are excessive, and ought in consequence to be re- 
duced ? 

Is it not much more reasonable to infer that the sixteen guns were too weak, 
than that charges, which burst only one gun of one hundred and thirty-six, 
are too strong? Are we to say "the charges are too strong because the 
gim breaks ? " or shall we not rather say the gun is too weak, because the 
charges have been sanctioned and tested by an experience so uniform 
and ample? Are we to measure the gim by the charges, or the charges by 
the gun. in a case like this ? In reality, this fact can never be a reason for 
reducing the proof-charges, though it may be in favor of their increase. 

Second, But let us compare the effects of the proof-charges at the several 
foundries one with another. They were made up from the same elements, 
and fired by the same inspectors, under circumstances, in all respects, as ex- 
actly the same as it was possible. These effects ought, therefore, to be a cor- 
rect measure of the force of the proof-charges, as well as of the relative skill 
of the founders ; and perhaps this is the best view that could be taken of 
the subject. 

The tables show that, since the adoption of the new sea-coast artillery, 
there have burst at the Bellona foundry, where the sixteen guns burst, 20 
guns out of 595: thot is, 1 out of everv 29. 

At the Pittsburg foundry, employed only during the last five years, 9 
guns out of 2S1: that is, 1 out of every 31. 

At the Georgetown foundry, I gun out of 621 : that is, 1 out of 621. 

At the West^ Point foundry, 1 gun out of 677 : that is, 1 out of 677. 

Thus, with the same proof-charges and the same inspectors, the ffnns at 
Bellona foundry (one of the oldest employed) have suffered greater failures 
than at any one of the other three foundries ; and very much greater than 
either of the other old foundries of West Point or Georgetown. What can 
be the reason of this evident difference in the strength of the guns made 
at the different foundries? Does it not prove the existence, in the mami- 
f-icture or in the material, of causes of weakness at the Bellona foundry 
which do not exist at the others? The guns made at that foundry, which 
sustain the proof, are no doubt good and sufficient for all the pnrposcs of 
war; but these facts certainly show them to be inferior in strength to those 
made at the other foundries. If the proof-charges be excessive at the 
Bellona foundry, why are they not so at the others? Why, indeed, do the 
other founders make no complaint? Why are they peffectly satisfied with 
the charges? Is this great difference in the resistance of the guns attributa- 
ble to the fault of the founder, or to exc3ssive proof charges ?^ If it be to the 



11 [16] 

latter, why have not the same fuihires appeared at the other foundries 
where the same charges have been used ? 

Notwithstandinor these striking facts, the subject of reducing the proof- 
charges is agitated by the founder contesting the proof of the sixteen guns. 
Let us see what would be the ultimate effects or consequences of such a 
reduction. 

The manufacture of cannon, in consequence of the great difiiculties 
of the operation, is become, in Europe as well as in this country, 
a profession to which men devote their lives ; and which requires 
extenlive aids from chemistry, natural philosophy, and the mathe- 
matics. These difficulties arise from tlie great stress which, by means of 
gim-powder, is necessarily applied to iron, and to which the stren^h of 
tne iron must be constantly proportional. But the prodigious increase in the 
strength of gun-powder during the last twenty years, has increased pro- 
portionally this stress upon the iron used in cannon; and has thus rendered 
the strength required in that material proportionally greater, and the pro- 
fession of a founder much more fiifBcult than formerly. These difficulties 
are considered so great in the United States, and the procuring good guns 
for the national defences has been deemed a subject of so much importance, 
that the Government has found it advisable to employ only four founders 
out of the great number now in the United States ; this being done in order 
that these founders might employ all their time and talents upon a subject 
of so much difficulty. 

So soon, therefore, as we reduce the proof-charges for cannon, the found- 
ers will not have the same difficulties to surmount with the new as witli 
the old proof charges ; and, as a matter of course, will reduce their expend- 
itures proportionally. For assuredly they will curtail the expenditures 
corresponaing to the difficulties to be surmounted in the heavier proof- 
charges, and make only the lighter expenditures corresponding to the lesser 
difficulties of the lighter proof-charges. Thus the gims will be inevitably 
weakened, while the Government yet pay the same prices for their cannon. 

This is a consequence of reduction which can, in no way, be avoided. 
Does the Government want weaker cannon at the same prices? Would 
it not be preferable to pay higher prices, if a change be at all necessary, and 
continue the guns of the same unexceptionable strength as at present ? In 
tiiis mnnner the unskilful founder might devote greater expenditures, to 
overcome, without loss, the difficulties of the manufacture. 

Finally, seeing that a change in the proof charges yrould necessarily 
produce a change in the manufiictures at the foundries ; that it would un- 
settle the existing Slate of their operations, which are admitted to be accom- 
panied by the most successful results in the manufacture of cannon ; see- 
ing that, by the use of these proof-charges for a long series of years, they 
have given us a system of sea coast artillery of unexampled strength and 
beauty of construction; that under this system of proof we have received 
upwards of 2,000 cannon, and expended nearly a million of dollars ; shall 
we, at this late date, abandon what has proved to be good and unexcep- 
tionable, and commit ourselves to uncertainty and the hazard:- of new rules, 
which, whether they be those of France or England (different the one froni 
the other) will, as they are different from our own, unavoidably produce a 
change in our manufactures; and which, while they cannot produce better 
guns, may, and xv.oi>i probably will, produce those which are worse : for it 
must not be forgotten tliat ilie English and French proofs agree only in the 



[ 16 ] 12 

use of one shot. They differ in the important points of quantily of vm- 
(lei\ and in the nuwhtr of discharges, while those of England and the 
• United States differ in the quantity of metal and in the quantity of pow- 
der, but agree in the number of discharges; and it is as difficult to com- 
pare) those of France and Great Britain, and to say which is the greater, as 
it is to compare thos(5 of Great Britain and the United Slates. It is known 
too, that, corresponding to these different pruof-cliarges, there is a marked 
difference in the metal of the three nations ; the Swedish metal used in 
France being better than the English, and the English metal manifestly 
different from our own. Long experience of these several states in their 
differenf proof-charges show them to be good, and severally applicable to 
their different metal, and they therefore have made no changes. Why then 
shall we displace our own, and take the English or French proof? They 
liave, indeed, been found good for metal different from our own ; but, upon 
our metal, they must necessarily produce different results, which we can- 
not predict to be good or evil, as we only know that by this change we lay 
aside that which is certainly good, to take up with that which is not only 
uncertain, but from which there would be high probability of error and 
consequent disiuster to the country. Besides, if we adopt the English or 
French proof charges, why may we not also ^o on and adopt the entire 
system of the French or English sea-coast artillery, with all its different 
dimensions and different apparatus? They are equally applicable to our 
system of fortifications; and if their proof-charges be good for our artille- 
ry, (so different in size from theirs,) they would be still l)etter for their artil- 
lery adopted by us. 

But it is urged, with great earnestness, that the American proof-charges 
are much more powerful than those of Great Britain ; and it is hence pre- 
tended to be inferred that they are unfit to be used in the proof of cannon. 
Now, although it has been clearly shown, by unquestionable recorded results, 
43xtending through a series of years. Obtained at various foundries, while 
controlled by different superintendents, and without complaint from the 
latter, that these charges have been adequate to all the purposes of Govern- 
ment, and are in wo way objectionable ; yet, for your satisfaction, it maybe 
proper to exhibit them by the side of those of Great Britain. They are 
so exhibited below: 



13 



British proof -charges for heavy cannon. 



ri6] 





Weight. 


Average 


Firsi ( 


charge. 


Second 


charge. 


Calibers. 


• 


c-5 


i . 


S-2 




PouQd.s. 


weiglil. 


-^ « 

•M 


C 9E S 


c 










b. s 


•5-5-= 


if z 


lij 


, 






* 1 


(2 = = 


^1 

25 


<2 = = 


• 

42-poiinder 


7,308 


7,308 


25 


.595 


.595 


32 do. 


6,240 I 
5,344 S 


5;792 


21 8 


.671 


21 8 


.671 


32 do. 


21 8 


.671 


21 8 


.671 


24 do. 


6,616 1 




18 


.750 


IS 


.750 


24 do. 


5,328 I 
4,872 f 


5.076 

* 


18 


.750 


IS 


.750 


24 do. 


18 


.750 


18 


.750 


24 do. 


4,488 




18 


.750 


18 


.750 


18 do. 


4,716 ; 
4 212$ 


4,464 


15 


.833 


15 


.833 


18 do. 


\ 


15 


.833 


15 


.833 



Remarks. — For each charge of each gim, one shot and two high jimk wads. 

American proof-charges for heavy cannon^ vsed in the proof of Major 

Clarke's guns. 





Weight. 
Pounds. 


Average 
weight. 


First charge. 


Second charge. 


Calibers. 


i. ■ 

I' 3 
^ ° 

s,^ • 

28 
21 4 
16 


«; %> o 


J6 . 

u a 

a." 

21 
16 
12 




42-pounder 
32 do. 
24 do. 


8,704 
7,584 
5,595 




.666 
.666 
.666 


.500 
.500 
.500 



Remarks. — For each charge of each gun, two shot and two junk wads. 

In examining thesfe tables, we at once see a remarkable difference, in the 
great weapon of the two nations, to consist in the 

Weights of the different calibers. 

i2 pounders. — That of the American 42-pounder is 1,396 lbs. heavier 
than that of. the English, or heavier by about one-fifth of the English gun. 

^'pounders. — In the 32-pounders the differences are still greater. The 
American 32-pouader is heavier than the heaviest English ^ponnder by 



[16] 14 

1,344 lbs. ; that is, heavier by one-fourth or one-fifth of the heaviest Eng- 
lish 32ponnder. And the same American gun is heavier than the lightest 
English 32 pounder by the enormous difference of 2.240 lbs. ; thus mak- 
ing the American 32-pounder about one-half or one-third heavier than the 
lightest English 32-pounder, (and this, it may be remarked, is the caliber 
that burst at Major Clarke's foundry.) 

2i'poundirs. — The English have as many as four different calibers of 
24-pounders ; the heaviest being about equal in weight to that of the 
United States, and the lightest 1,147 lbs. ligfhter than the American gun, 
which is thus about one-fourth of the English gun heavier, and about 500 
lbs. heavier than the average weiojht of the four English 24-pounders. A 
further view of calibers, in English sea-coast artillery, is not taken, as we 
have not as yet cast any 18-pounders. 

Thus while the average weight of the three English calibers is but 5,392 
lbs., that of the same three American calibers is 7,294 lbs. And, as the 
principal of these calibers have near about the same length with the Amer- 
ican gims, they must consequently .have a thickness of metal considerably 
less: and hence, (supposing the material and workmanship equal,) the 
American gun, having a greater thickness of metal, would require, and 
should sustain, proof-charges proportionally greater than those for the 
Enc^lish guns. 

The Government of the United States, therefore, having, upon principle, 
and after due consideration, adopted a system of sea-coast artillery of a 
weight and thickness of metal considerably greater than those in use in 
Great Britain for the same calibers, there would hence appear very power- 
ful reasons why the American proof-charges should be greater than those 
in use lor like calibers in the British empire. Yet, on examination, it is a 
matter of doubt which proof-charges are upon the wbole the greater — those 
of Great Britain, or of the United States. 

It is perceived, on examining these tables, that the English use two 
charges to each gun, with one shot and two high junk wads to each charge; 
that the Americans, in like manner, use two charges and two junk wads to 
each gun, differing from the English, however, in using two shot in each 
charge. 

/ A2^p(ninders, — As regards the English 42-pounder, it has the first charge 
of powder three pounds less than that of the United States for this caliber, 
ana the second charge, four pounds greater ; but it should be remembered 
that that is 1,400 lbs. lighter than the American 42-pounder. 

32-poundcrs. — The first charges of the American and English 32- 
pounaers aire about the same ; but the second chatge for this caliber of the 
English piece is 21 lbs. 8 oz.^ while that for the American piece is only 16 
lbs. ; the latter gun being, notwithstanding, 2,240 lbs. heavier than the 
lightest Endish 32-pounder, and heavier than the heaviest by 1,344 lbs. 

24t'peHnders. — The English 24-poimder has 18 lbs. for the first char^, 
while that of the American gun, of the same caliber, has only 16 lbs. for 
this charge ; and in the second charge of this caliber the difference is stiU 
greater, the English charge being 6 lbs, greater than the American, 
while it must not be forgotten that the American giin is 1,147 lbs. heavier 
limit the lights Engtisb gun <^ this caliber, afad 500 lbs. heavier than the 
average weight of the English gtms Of this caliber. 

IS-pounders. — WHh regard to the IS-poimder, the Americans have not 
yi^t fiina% fixed on ibe dimensions of thiis |H(6ce ; buit it0 proof-charges have 



15 [16] 

been established to be in the same proportion as for the seacoast artillery. 
The English first charge for this piece being 15 Jbs., is 3 lbs. heavier than 
the American second charge ; which would make it two-thirds greater than 
the American second charge-^tlie English being 15 lbs., and the Ameri- 
can 9 lbs. 

It thus appears that in Great Britain the proof -charges of powder are 
variant^ being' comparatively high with single shot; while in the United 
States^ the proof-charges of powder are uniform, but comparatively low 
with doubla shot — our artillery being much heavier, having greater 
thickness of metal. 

From all which we would conclude, with regard to the proof-charges, 
that they are far froRi being excessive, and ought not to be reduced ; and 
this conclusion is confirmed by the able report, (marked li^ on the same 
subject, of Major General Macomb and Bri^radier General Wool, who state : 
" We believe there must have been some defect in the guns which did not 
stand the proof. The fact that so many guns have stood the prescribed 
prooij at Bellona arsenal, as well as at every other foundry, is a strong pre- 
suEZkption that the proof to which the guns have been subjected is not too 
great." 

If it be shown by these investigations that the proof charges were not ex- 
ctssvoCi we have next the further question (under the second division ol 
the subject) to examine, viz. 

Were the proof-charges accurately measured and correctly used by the 

inspectors ? 

To make this examination, we must inquire, from the facts in the case, 

Firsts If the inspectors had the necessary ability, experience, and care- 
fulness for the transaction of such business; and 

Secondly, If they were culpable, either from public or private motives. 

The hispectors were both selected for their general ability and experi- 
ence. Those of the 'senior inspi^ctor were undoubted, and generally ac- 
knowledged. He^ had been selected t*) command in some "of the most 
important stations in the army, the cadets at West Point, in the artillery 
s^ool of practice at Portress Monroe, and lastly, for the command of one of 
the hugest arsenals of munitions of war in the country, viz. that at Frank- 
ford, Pa. In the latter situations, his information in the affairs of the ord- 
nance, which was before more gfoneral, became now necessarily more par- 
ticular, exact, and in detail ; and he w is in consequence selected to super- 
intend the operations in inspection of cannon at the foundries. Ilis rank, 
besides^ to which the Governmont, impressed with his abilities and services, 
had recently advanced him in the Ordnance Department, gave him a 
claim to this position in the inspections. 

In addition to these views of general ability and experience, the senior 
inspector had acquired much detailed experience in the proof of cannon 
immediately before proceeding with the July inspection of Major Clarke, 
in which seven guns were burst. The facts show that he had, before that 
inspection/ inspected the other three foundries, and proved 118 cannon; 
and that without the slightesr objection on the part of th^ founders, although 
one of them had nine cann<m burst and four rejected. 

It tnost foe remarked here, with regard to the borsting of these lait 



[16] 16 

mentioned cannon, that the transaction shows, in a striking manner, the 
ability and experience manifested by the senior inspector, and their remark- 
able advantages to the Government in the detection of defective cannon, 
and in the improvement in the manufacture which followed. 

The reports show two inspections at the Pittsburg foundry, by the senior 
inspector, precedi^ig the July inspection of Major Clarke. In the first, 
seven guns were burst, and in the second, two. But though the founders 
seem to have been satisfied, by the result, that the guns were of defective 
metal, yet they thought it well to be better assured of the fact, and ac- 
cordingly presented, with thirty one other cannon of superior metal, two 
of the metal of the bursted guns. The inspectors knew nothing of any 
difference in the metal. The thirty one cannon stood the proo^ but the 
two, of different metnl, burst ; which perfectly assured the fouriders of their 
defective metal. (See their letters on this subject, pages 5. and 6.) 

It is not, perhaps, possible to exhibit a stronger case^ going to establish 
ability, carefulness, experience, and knowledge of his business, in an in- 
spector of cannon. Here, without previously knowing any thing of the 
metal, he detected the existence of defective metal in two several instances, 
to the great advantage of the Government, and the entire satisfaction of the 
founders. As a consequence, not a gun has burst at that foundry since, 
although the proof-charges have been since increased. (On this subject, 
of the fitness of the inspector, see also the answers of G. Kembie, Esq., 
page 6.) 

The senior inspector did not, therefore, appear at the Bellona arsenal 
without much experience of a detailed and specific character in the proof 
of cannon. Having arrived at tlie foundry, how did he conduct himself? 
He requested Major Clarke to be present at the proof, as well as at all the 
operations preceding it. The regulations, all the preparatory operations, 
were proposed to be explained to him, to any extent he might desire. He 
had the power to stop the proof, or other operations, at any moment, and to 
refer any point of objection to the proper department. Yet Major Clarke, 
having lull power to stop the inspectors, either in the proof or in the initi- 
atory operations, and to correct them in all points, did not do so, until they 
had proceeded to the extent noted in the facts. The conduct of the in- 
spectors was in accordance with the resfulations ; it was formal, regular, 
uniform. They proceeded, step by step, in the most detailed manner, espe- 
cially in the second inspection The proof of each barrel of powder is 
given in their tables, made upon the spot, and the exact amount, in pounds 
and ounces, of each of the proof-charges for each gun, according to the 
strength of each barrel from which it was drawn. All this detailed infor- 
mation is given in the facts, which exhibit a laborious attention to particu- 
lars which would seem to leave no room to doubt of the exactness of the 
inspectors ; and yet, in the July inspection, seven guns were burst, out of 
the seventy-two proved. 

But if, in the first inspection in which the seven guns were burst, there 
was no reason to believe that the inspector^ had committed errors in the 
proof, it was still less probable in the second inspection; in which (in con- 
sequence of the complaints made by Major Clarke, about the result of the 
first inspection) unusual and extraordinary efforts were made by the in- 
spectors to attain the greatest possible correctness in every thing, and y^t 
nine guns burst in the second inspection, out of the forty-two proved. 

We see, in this second (or August) inspection at Major Clarke's foundry 



17 lU} 

the same laborious attention to minute details, in the correspondence of the 
weight of all the charges with the proof of each barrel of powder, and with 
the t;ibles of proof-charges furnished from this office. We see, also, that, 
to please Major Clarke, and at his suggestion, cylinder, instead of round 
shot, were used ; that the powder wa^ proved, and all the other operations 
performed in his presence ; ai^d that he was invited to see, and to object 
freely to any and every thing not clearly correct. Under such circum- 
stances, it does not seem possible that the inspectors could bbve committed 
an error in a matter so plain ; and especially after so much conversation 
and Complaint, on the part of the founder, because of the previous bursting. 

But why should we not consider the bursting to proceed, not from a mis- 
take, but from defective metal? Only a short time before, we see that seven 
guns, out of twenty, burst at Pittsburgh, by the same inspectors, and the same 
charges; the founders inferring, from the bursting ^ihtd it was in conse- 
quence of defective metal ; and that they were right in this inference is 
proved by the fact that, from that proving, they proceeded to improve their 
metal ; and although 215 guns have been proved since, with higher charges, 
not one has burst.' Is there any difference between the case of Pittsburj^h, 
in which seven out of twenty burst, and that of Major Clarke, in which six- 
teen out of one hundred and fourteen burst ? The Pittsburgh foiinders did 
not, prior to the proof, certainly know of the existence of defective metal, 
any more than did Major Clarke; but thevTas the result showed) rightly in- 
f erred that from the proof; and why shouia we not make the same mference 
in the case of Major Clarke, who has also had eighty cannon proved since, 
with higher charges, and without bursting? The cases are precisely alike; 
only in the formr.r, the proof charges are admitted by the founders to be the 
tests of the goodness of the metal, which the subsequent proofs of two hun- 
dred and fifteen guns have confirmad ; and in the latter, they are denied, by 
Major Clarke, to be so, upon vague, indefinite, and general grounds. 

But if it be shown that the ins|iectors had the necessary ability, experience, 
and carefulness, for the transaction of such business, it becomes necessary 
next to inquire if they were culpable, either from public or private motives. 
And here it should be remarked, that no accusation of the kind has been 
even distantly alluded to against them. Universally acknowledged, by all 
who know them, to be correct and honorable in all ihin^; wholly uncon- 
nected in their, pecuniary relations with the other three Founders, and with 
the othpr departments of the ordnance, it is impossible even to suppose that 
they could be influenced by unworthy motives. 

1 have the honor to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

; G. BOMFQRD, 

. <7'>/. of Ordnance. 
To the Hon. J. R. Poinsett, 

Secretart/ of War, 

P. S. All the papers not named in the above report, and having reference 
to the subject, are also herewith transmitted, marked as follows: Nos. 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 

2 



\ 



tie J 



19 



A.— INSPECTION OF CANNON, BELLONA FOUNDRY, AUGUST 7, 1834, 

Ditnensions and proof of for ty'ttpo^^ponndtr iron canfion, manufac- 
tured by Major John Clarke, Bellona foundry , for the United States. 



VARUTfOio 
ALLOWED. 


t 

3i 




DUMETERS NOt TCRNtm, J ?^^ 'j^ 


i 


^4 

So 


*« s 




141 

c s s 


SJSs 


1 


8J 


•s-g 


15 o 


m 

B 


to 


1 . 


;|2 

eeC 

•"• o 




1^' 


2 O.n 

sis 

09 3 O 


lis 


1^ 
.11 


15 




15 


'S 




o« 


^•?cg 


9i e 








iSg 





• 

o 






^a 


^Jia 


<-;'£B 


•J 5 




-a 


«• c 

^4 


4 




^ 


• 




(»: 


• 


• 


.Atf 


• 


s 




6.41 


5.20 


6.41 


21.70 


20.70 


20.70 


* 


19.50 18.90 13.C0 


389 


6.33 


5.09 


6.40 


31.82 


30.67 


120.67 




i9.eo 


19.d 13.« 


330 


6.41 


5.18 


6.40 


21.86 


30.67 


20.67 




19.7(J| 19. It 


13.10 


331 


6.35 


5.H 


6.42 


21.88 


20.69 


20.69 




19.61 


19.20 


13.17 


33d 


6.37 


5.12 


6.43 


21.80 


20.68 


20.68 




19.60 


19.131 13.15 


333 


6.88 


5^ 


6.43 


21.88 


30.70 


20.70 




19.701 19.81 


13.19 


334 


6.35 


5.02 


€.40 


21.85 


20.70 


20.70 




19.64 19.191 13.15 


335 


6.35 


5.11 


6.41 


21.88 


20. G8 


20.68 




19. GO 19.09 


13.13 


336* 


6.33 


5.06 


6.41 


21.76 


20. M 


20.64 




19.61 19.10 


13.15 


337 


6.36 


5.07 


6.41 


31.83 


30.64 


20.64 




19.6d 19.11 


13.17 


338 


6.36 


5.13 


6.40 


31.86 


20.65 


20.65 




19.62 


19.11 


13.15 


339 


6.36 


5.09 


6.40 


21.83 


20.67 


20.67 




19.62 


19.131 13.17 


340 


6.38 


5.11 


6.41 


21.83 


20.62 


20.63 




19.61 


19.10 13.13 


341 


6.35 


5.06 


6.41 


21.80 


20.63 


30.63 




19.56 


19.14 1316 


34d 


6.37 


5.06 


6.42 
6.41 


31.84 


20.67 


20.67 




19.67 


19.14 13.17 


343 


6.37 


5.12 


21.81 


20.70 


20.70 




19.69 


19.10 13.20 


344 


6.39 


5.08 


6.41 


31.85 


20.63 


30.63 




19.67 


19.11 


13.17 


345 


6.41 


6.00 


6.41 


1^1.90 


20.65 


20.65 




19.71 


19.13 


13.20 


346 


6.39 


5.00 


6.41 


81.80 


39.66 


20.66 




19.71 


19.10 


13.'^ 


347 


6.3d 


5.09 


6.40 


21.81 


20.68 


30.68 




19.71 


19.13 


13.11 


348 


6.36 


5.15 


6.42 


31.80 


20:69 


30.69 




19.72 


19.19 


13. a 


349 


6.40 


5.04 


6.41 


31.81 


20.68 


30.63 




19.63 


19.00 


13.S6 


3d0 


6.39 


5.04 


6.40 


31.82 


20.63 


30.63 




19.70 


19.12 


13.15 


351 


6.33 


5.03 


6.42 


21.84 


20.70 


20.70 




19.60 


19.12 


13.19 


353 


6.38 


5.00 


6.39 


21.80 


30.68 


30.68 


- 


19.72 


19.17 


13.80 


353 


6.37 


5.06 


6.40 


21.81 


20.71 


30.71 




19.71 


19.15 


13.20 


354* 


6.32 


5.11 


6.41 


21.81 


20.71 


20.71 




19.67 


19.18 


13.25 


355 


6.39 


5.04 


6.40 


21.77 


20.69 


30.69 


_ 


19.70 


19.80 


13.18 


356 


6.38 


5.06 


6.41 


21.81 


20.70 


30.70 


_ 


19.70 


19.16 


13.17 


357* 


6.40 


5.64 


6.40 


31.80 


30.67 


30.67 


_ 


19.71 


19.16 


13.10 


358^ 


6.31 


5.0^ 


6.40 


31.74 


30.70 


30.70 


^^ 


19.70 


19.18 


13.20 


359 


6.49 


5.19 


6.43 


21.86 


30.69 


20.69 


-«» 


19.70 


19.84 


13.25 


360* 


638 


5.09 


6.44 


31.80 


30.70 


20.69 


^ 


19.66 


19.25 


13.36 


361 


6.38 


5.06 


6.44 


21.80 


30.13 


20.78 


.1 


19.63 


19.10 


13.18 


363 


6.40 


5.05 


6.43 


21.72 


30.70 


30.70 




19.70 


19.15 


13.25 


363 


6.41 


5.30 


6.46 


21.80 


30.72 


20.72 


_ 


19.68 


19.14 


13.25 


364 


6.23 


5.08 


6.46 


21.84 


30.68 


20.68 




19.65 


19.18 


13.95 


365* 


6.38 


5.09 


6.44 


31.80 


30.73 


20.73 




18.58 


19.05 


13.28 


366 


6.39 


5.K) 


6.43 


31.78 


20.7« 


30.78 


^^ 


19.68 


19.15 


13.30 


367t 


6.43 


5.11 


6.43 


21.81 


30.70 


30.70 


_ 


19.70 


19.13 


13.14 


368 


6.33 


5.04 


6.41 


21.80 


20.70 


3r).70 


_ 


19.67 


19.11 13.30 


369* 


6.38 


5.03 


6.40 


31.80 


30.71 


30.71 




19.56 


19.11 


13.35 


370* 


6.37 


5.07 


6.40 


31.77 


30.69 


30.69 


. 19.6^ 


19.14 


13.31 



• Barsted first fire. 



t Borsted second Art, 



19 [ 16 ] 

A.-INSPECT10N OP CANNON, BELLONA FOUNDRY-Cowinuea. 



Variation 

AL.LOW&D. 



s 
be 



6 



329 

330 

331 

33-2 

333 

334 

335 

336* 

337 

338 

339 

310 

341 

3|2 

343 

344 

345 

34G 

347 

348 

349 

350 

351 

352 

353 

354* 

355 

356 

357* 

358* 

359 

360* 

361 

362 

363 

364 

365* 

366 

367t 

368 

369* 

370* 



DiA3iGT£as ) More or 
TURNED, ) less .05. ^ 



I 



^ Q 



& 






1£3.30 



29.32 

23.32 

22.31 

^.30 

22.30 

22.32 

28.32 

22.31 

22.32 

22.31 

22.33 

22.32 

22.31 

^.31 

22.33 

23.32 

23.32 

22.32 

22.30 

^.34 

22.30 

22.30 

22.31 

1^.31 

22.3^ 

22.33 

28.33 

22.32 

22.33 

22.30 

22.35 

122.29 

5^.33 

i».34 

22.35 

29.35 

29.32 

29.35 

29.32 

29.33 

29.31 

29.32 



V 

^ 



o 



. N 

o a 
*- B 

«-§ 
• > 



15.00 



15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
14.9^ 
15.00 
15.08 
15.00 
14.96 
15.03 
15.00 
15.00 
15.01 
15.04 
15.00 
15.01 
15.02 
15.00 
15.02 
15.04 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.02 
15.02 
15.01 
15.01 
15.00 
15.00 
15.02 
14.98 
15.00 
16.03 
15.0fS 
15.05 
15.02 
15.08 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 



•B ^ 

fea 
l-S 

c 



13.50 



13.51 
13.50 
13.50 
13.50 
13.51 
13.51 
13.50 
13.50 
13.50 
13.50 
13.50 
13.52 
13.51 
13.50 

13.51 
13.49 
13.51 
13.51 
13.50 

13.53 

13.50 

13.50 

13.53 

13.50 

13.49 

13.51 

13.50 

13.48 

13 50 

13.49 

13.52 

13.54 

13.54 

19.58 

13.52 

13.51 

13.51 

13.51 

13.50 

13.50 

13.50 

13.51 



More or 
less .20 



O V V 



11.20 



}i; 



11.15 
11.26 
11.23 
11.26 
11.20 
11.90 
11.10 
11.20 
11.20 
11.26 
26 
16 
11.24 
11.21 
11.21 
11.^ 
11.26 
11.26 
11.20 
11.21 
11.22 
11.14 
11.15 
11.21 
11.18 
11.12 
11.17 
11.20 
11.19 
11.17 
11.26 
11.20 
11. 2S 
11.30 
11.30 
11.30 
11.15 
11.25 
11.25 
11.20 
11.24 
11.15 



More 

or less 

.06. 



More or 
less .20. 



2. 



2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

S. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2. 

9. 

2. 

2. 



More or 
less .20. 



More or More or 
less .25. less .20. 




42.20 



42.20 

42.^ 

42.30 

42.20 

42.30 

42.22 

42. i8 

42.25 

42.20 

42.18 

42.22 

42.^2 

42.20 

42.24 

42.25 

42.30 

42.22 

42.20 

42.26 

42.38 

42.20 

42.24 

42.34 

42.32 

42.30 

42.27 

42.26 

42.30 

42.36 

42.30 

42.25 

42.20 

42.20 

42. 2d 

42.26 

42.35 

42.26 

42.30 

42.30 

42.26 

42.36 

42.26 



57.00 



57.18 

57.35 

57. 11 

57.16 

57. 17 

57.23 

57.15 

57.25 

57.20 

57.17 

57. 10 

57.20 

57.11 

57.34 

57.17 

57.22 

57.10 

57.20 

57.20 

57.16 

57.18 

57.15 

57.90 

57.15 

57.15 

57.18 

57.14 
57.17 
57.10 
57.12 
57.10 
57.12 
57.18 
67. 18 
57.13 
67.13 
57.13 
67.12 
57.18 
6T.05 
57.10 
57.04 



rrr 



114.00 



114.05 

114.12 

114.16 

114.16 

114.22 

114.30 

1U.25 

114.27 

114.32 

114.25 

114.20 

114.20 

114.38 

114. 18 

114.25 

114.^ 

114.20 

114.22 

114.20 

114.30 

114.27 

114.28 

114.28 

114.98 

114.20 

114.24 

114.36 

114.33 

114.15 

1H.14 

114.30 

114.36 
114.20 
114.26 
114.26 
114.34 
114.26 
114.33 
114.17 
114.20 
114.18 
114.20 



o 

xi 

a 
o 



V 



^2 



107.59 



107.69 

107.69 

107.80 

107.85 

107.90 

107.59 

107.85 

107.78 

107.70 

107.78 

107.60 

107.68 

107.75 

107.82 

107.76 

107.68 

107. 70 

107.70 

107.74 

107.62 

107.78 

107.73 

107.86 

107.67 

107. 76 

107.75 

107.63 

107. 78 

107.85 

107.05 

107.92 

107.93 

107.70 

107.85 

107.70 

107.87 

107.75 

107.85 

107.78 

107.76 

107.76 

107.85 



* Barsted first fire. 



t Barsted secomf irm 



[16] 20 

A.-.INSPECTION OF CANNON, BELLONA FOUNDRY— Conllnncd. 



VARIATION 


More or 


Less. 04, 


More.20, 


Above 




More04, 


More 


More oi 


iMore er 


ALLOWED. 


less .20. 


more .00. 


le,ss .10. 


.00, be- 


le^s .oo: 


.05. 


less .20Jiess .9(1 










low .20. 


J 


r 










« 01 

.C 43 


O 




5^ S 


• 

a 
s 


•5 




8 


C 
4) 




O £9 




%-i 


-i.2 


%m 


*o 




> 


> 


• 

o 

• 


K. P. Length ( 
chase, includii 
muzzle. 


G. H. Diamet 

trunnions. 


f. g. Length c 
trunnions. 


Position of the 
nions aboveor 
the axis of the 


Alignment of the 
nions. 


P.P. Diameter 

bore. 


0) 

o 
Q 


Position of the 
exterior. 


PoRition of the 
interior. 




57.00 


6.41 


6. 


On the 
axis. . 




6.41 


.20 


6.301 


1.GG2 


329 


56.87 


6.40 


6. 


.00 




6.44 


.20 


6.30 


1 -lo 


330 


56.77 


6.41 


6. 


.04 




• 6.44 


.20 


6.'2& 


1.50 


331 


57.05 


6.41 


6. 


.04 




6.44 


.20 


6/2& 


1.66 


33^2 


57.00 


6.40 


6. 


.07 




6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1.63 


333 


57.05 


6.40 


6. 


.10 




6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1 70 


334 


57.07 


6.41 


6. 


.08 




6.45 


.20 


6.20 


].€3 


335 


57.10 


6.40 


6. 


.00 


\ 


6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


336« 


57.02 


6.40 


(.. 


.00 




6.45 


.20 


6.20 


16S 


337 


57.12 


6.40 


6. 


.16 




6.45 


.20 


6.22 


1 60 


338 


57.08 


6.41 


6. 


.05 




6.44 


.20 


6.25 


1.C5 


339 


57. 10 


6.41 


6. 


.05 




6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


340 


57.00 


6.40 


6. 


.05 




6.41 


.20 


6.21 


1.C8 


341 


57.20 


6.40 


6. 


.05 




6.45 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


•342 


56.81 


6.40 


6. 


.00 




6.45 


.20 


6.20 


1.65 


343 


57.08 


6.40 


6. 


.20 




6.42 


.20 


6.2& 


1.60 


344 


57.11 


6.41 


6. 


.05 




6.44 


.20 


6.20 


J. 60 


345 


57.10 


6.40 


6. 


.05 




6.43 


.20 


6.20 


1.58 


346 


57.02 


6.41 


6. 


.00 




6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1.70 


347 


57.00 


6.40 


6. 


.00 


6.42 


.20 


6.20 


1 65 


348 


57.14 


6.40 


6. 


.06 


ta 


6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1.65 


349 


57.09 


6.40 


6. 


.05 


ei 

^ A 


6.43 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


350 


57.13 


6.40 


6. 


.10 


O 


6.43 


.20 


6.20 


1..^ 


351 


57.08 


6.40 


6. 


.11 


6.45 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


^2 


57.13 


6.40 


6. 


.17 


^^ 


6.45 


.20 


6.20 


1.50 


353 


57.05 


6.40 


6. 


.11 




6.43 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


354* 


57.06 


6.40 


6. 


.06 




6.45 


.20 


6.20 


1.65 


355 


57.22 


6.40 


6. 


.16 




6.42 


.20 


6.20 


1.65 


356 


57.16 


6.40 


6. 


.15 




6.43 


.20 


6.20 


l.W 


357» 


57.05 


6.40 


6. 


.05 




6.45 


.20 


6.20 


1 75 


358* 


57.02 


6.40 


6. 


.04 




6.42 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


359 


57.20 


6.40 


6. 


.00 




6 45 


.20 


6.20 


1.62 


360* 


67.23 


6.40 


6. 


.05 




6.42 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


361 


57.09 


6.40 


6. 


.03 




6.43 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


362 


57.07 


6.40 


6. 


.03 


• 


6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1.65 


363 


57.12 


6.40 


6. 


.06 




6.45 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


364 


57.21 


6.39 


6. 


.11 




6.45 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


365* 


57.12 


6.41 


6. 


.00 




6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1.65 


366 


57.21 


6.39 


6. 


.07 




6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1.64 


367t 


56.99 


6.40 


6. 


.17 




6.43 


.20 


6.20 


1.64 


368 


57.15 


6.40 


6. 


.00 




6.43 


.20 


6.20 


1.70 


369* 


57.08 


6.40 


6. 


.04 




6.44 


.20 


6.20 


1.60 


370* 


57.16 


6 40 


6. 


.04 




6.43 


.20 


6.20 


1.58 



*Bur&ted first fire. 



t Bursted second fire. 



ai 



Cic] 



A. -INSPECTION OP CANNON, BELLONA POUNDRY-Condnucd. 



a 






339 

330 

331 

33a 

333 

334 

335 

336* 

337 

338 

339 

340 

341 

342 

343 

344 

345 

346 

347 

34S 

349 

350 

351 

352 

353 

354* 

355 

3q6 

357* 

35fi* 

359 

360* 

361 

362 

363 

361 

365* 

36G 

367t 

368 

369* 

370* 



cs 
o 

M 

o 
be 



7,540 



7,550 

7,552 

7,548 

7,530 

7,554 

7,548 

7,550 

7,552 

7,540 

7,552 

7,546 

7,542 

7,538 

7,567 

7,557 

7,557 

7,559 

7,555 

7,557 

7,540 

7,558 

7,530 

7,556 

7,560 

7,548 

7,550 

7,550 

7,548 

7,556 

7,546 

7,550 

7,552 

7,548 

7,552 

7,552 

7,538 

7,530 

7,534 

7,550 

7.538 

7,546 

7,540 



i 

2 

tiO 

c 



.07 

.05 

.04 

.10 

.08 

.00 

.00 

.00 

.10 

.00 

.07 

.03 

.00 

.00 

.04 

.06 

.02 

.03 

.03 

.02 

.00 

.00 

.07 

.03 

.06 

.(U 

.02 

.00 

.04 

.00 

.00 

.00 

.00 

.00 

.00 

.02 

.00 

.00 

.02 

.02 

.00 

.00 



•a 



o 



Yards. 



273 
225 
273 
273 
973 
225 
276 
273 
225 
225 
255 
255 
242 
242 
255 
255 
226 
226 
255 
276 
242 
242 
276 
226 
226 
279 
284 
281 
284 
281 
284 
281 
981 
281 
281 
279 
226 
284 
284 
277 
277 
277 



Ist proof. 



ei 

M 

o 



be 



U)s. 



17 

21 

17 

17 

17 

21 

17 

17 

21 

21 

19 

19 

20 

20 

19 

19 

21 

21 

19 

17 

20 

20 

17 

21 

21 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

21 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 



oz. 



131 
5 

131 

131 

131 

5 

11 

I3f 

5 

5 

4 

4 

1 

1 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

U 

1 

1 

11 
4 
4 
9 
5 
7 
5 
7 
5 
7 
7 
7 
7 
9 
4 
5 
5 
10 
10 
10 



7S 






lbs. oz. 



66 
66 
66 



66 
66 
66 
66 
66 
66 
65 
66 
66 
65 
66 
65 
65 
66 



66 
66 
66 



65 
&5 
66 
66 
66 
67 
67 
67 



3 

7 
4 



66 00 



7 
6 
2 
3 
6 
5 

14 
4 

10 
1 
4 
1 
1 

13 



2d proof. 



66 00 
66 00 
66 00 
66 00 
66 n 
66 00 
66 6 
66 00 

65 14 
2 

00 
9 

66 00 
66 6 
66 00 
06 00 



10 

12 

4 

12 

10 

6 

6 

6 



1 

o 

c 

8 

04 



Yards. 



276 
276 
276 
276 
276 
973 
969 

276 
269 
269 
269 
276 
269 
269 
926 
276 
269 
979 
276 
279 
976 
279 
276 
279 

261 
245 



261 



Urn 



bo 



lbs. oz. 



13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 

13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
15 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 

14 
14 



14 



261 


14 


2 


66 


261 


14 


2 


66 


261 


14 


2 


66 


245 


14 


14 


66 


261 


14 


2 


66 


245 


14 


14 


66 


277 


13 


4 


67 



o 

o 
to 



lbs. oz. 



5 


65 


5 


66 


5 


65 


5 


66 


5 


65 


6\ 


66 


10 


66 


5 


65 


10 


66 


10 


65 


10 


66 


5 


66 


10 


66 


10 


66 


15 


66 


5 


66 


10 


66 


31 


66 


5 


66 


3i 


66 


5 


65 


3i 


66 


5 


66 


31 


66 


2 


66 


14 


66 



12 
2 
9 
7 

14 
4 



6 

00 

10 

4 

00 

I 

00 

4 

1 

12 
00 
4 
7 
12 
4 
6 
4 

00 
00 



60 00 



00 

00 

4 

00 

00 
4 
6 



• Bursted first fire. 



t Bnrsted second fire. 



£16] 



22 



Remarks,'^Fi[iy'ei^hi guns were preseHted and inspected, although only 4d appear on this 
report, the proof having at that uumt)er been discontinued at the notice ol the founder. Wos. 
33t), 354, 357, 358, 360, 365, 369, and 370, broke on the first, and 367 on the second fire. Tte 
powder used, except eight charges for the second fire drawn from Bellona arsenal, was ot 
Dupont's manufacture: for charges and ranges, see face of the return ; for proof of three suc- 
cessive periods, see table below. The powder was most carefully proved on the ground by 
the inspectors, and the charges weighed by them in presence of the founder. 367, which broke 
on the second fire, was charged with 14 lbs. 14 oz. of Bellona powder, marked range 194, and 
r J -proof 245 yards. 

The exterior finish and general appearance of these guns was not of that degree of excel- 
lence which might be attained by proper care and skill; a. a. and b. b. exceed the yariaiidi 
allowed below the prescribed dimension generally; k. k., D. K , D. P., andF. P. generally 
above. With the exception of a. a. and b. b», the errors pointed out last year hare beea cor- 
rected. 

The fotmder ascribes the failure of his guns to excessive proving-charges; the inspectors 
entertain a different opiniou, and ascribe the result to defect either in the metad or the manner 
of working it, in which they were sustained by the nature of the fractures; specimens were 
preserved, and have been smce submitted to experienced founders, who, without knowing any 
tains of the circumstances, or whence they came, at once decided that the metal was good, 
but had beeU injured and rendered unfit for gun metal in melting and casting^ that the result 
arises from this cause cannot be doubted, when it is remembered that the cannon at other 
foundries are subjected to the like proof, and, for the past year, without failure. The last three 
guns were charged with two round shot, and the oineis with one cylindrical shot : fpr tl:e 
weight of which, see face of \he report 

. The founder presented 637 32-pounder ahot : of which were rejected 37 for being phigged ; 
65 cavitias exceeding allowance; 3 too small; 1 too large; 53*3 received, average weight of 
which was 33 lbs. 7 oz. The true point of sight was determined, and marked at the swell of 
the muzzle and lock-piece of the gtms. 

Respectnilly submitted. 

W. J. WORTH. 
Brevd Lt. Col.^ Maj. (hdnanc-. Inspect qt. 
WM. MAYNADIKR, 
Lieul.y Assist^Td Inspector of Ordnanu. 

Table showing the jjroof range of each barrel ofpotvder used in the fore- 
going inspection, by the proqfs in the years of 1829 and 1833, /// 
Prankford arsenal, and at Bellona foundry at the time of vse. 



No. of 


Proof range 


Proof range 


Proof range 




barrel. 


of 1829. 


of 1833. 


ofl©4. 




98 


281 


225 


' 273 




99 


310 


235 


269 




100 


272 


226 


2hl 




101 


291 


229 


255 




103 


287 


230 


276 




104 


267 


227 


226 




105 


300 


231 


273 




106 


276 


225 


279 




107 


28S 


226 


276 




106 


280 


226 


,24i 




109 


30O 


235 


279 




110 


307 


227 


2*^ 




113 


26.') 


225 


284 




114 


267 


230 


225 




556 


194 


_ 


245 ) 
261 5 


Drawn fioii] 


80 


210 


- 


ccssiiy, an 



u 



D19] 



B.-INSPECTION OP CAMiON, BELLONA POUMDRY, JULY 18, 1883, 

Dimensions and proof of seveuty-two ^2-pounder, iron cannon, mami/dc 
tared for lite United iSlates by John Clarke, Esq. 



:^7^. 






.„™ .„„.„,, J 


More . 
Less 


20. 
05. 






I' 
1 


i 


31 


ft. 


Us 

i 


ill 
iii 


5i 


1 
■i 

^1 




=1 


■ 


^ 


t> 


"-^ 


•a 




■^ 


- 






£.U 


5.S0 


El.W 


ao.'W 


20.70 


00 


19.50 


ip.w 


13. Of) 


257 




5.00 


21.9-2 






19. » 


19.05 






6.31 


5.M 


21.87 


20.W 














6.33 


5.04 


El .90 


20.68 






19.J9 


ID.OO 








5.04 


2L90 


SO-60 


or. 60 








13.10 


'Jtil 


6.30 


5.W 


21.9-2 , iJO.SO , 20.1» 




19.16 


19,00 


13.25 


2«i 






^1.92 








18.34 












21.92 








19-40 


19. OO 






£.35 


5.03 


21.93 


20.62 








19.00 






6.3tl 


500 


21.93 










18.96 






fi.34 


5.08 


21.89 




20.59 






19.00 






6.31) 


bm 


ai.Si 


20.31 


20. M 






19.01 


13 25 


• awe 


6.38 


b.Of, 


21. S^ 


20.61 


20.61 




19 45 


w.oo 


13.0K 


aiu 




4.99 


21.87 


20.60 


20.60 


_ 


10. &2 


18,00 


13. a) 



6.30 


5,00 


31.85 


■20,60 


20.60 


" 


19,60 


19,00 


6.37 


5,00 


21.86 


20,64 


30.64 _ . 


10,60 


19,05 


6 34 


5,00 


21. M 


20.58 


20.58 


19,35 


18,98 


6.40 


5,08 


21.85 


30 60 


20.60 




19,30 


18.98 


6.35 


5,00 


21.82 


20.60 


20,60 




19-40 


9,10 


6.40 


5.10 


21.85 


20.65 


30.05 




I0.36 


8,93 


6.41 


5.00 


21,7(( 


20.99 


20.59 




19.63 


9.00 


6.49 


5,08 


21, 8S 


20,57 


30.57 




19.38 


18.00 


6.10 


5.10 


21,80 


30,61 


20,61 




19.60 


9.J5 


6.30 


6.02 


21,76 


20.66 


20 66 




19,30 


8,90 


6.36 


&-U5 


21.80 


20.61 


20,61 




19.37 


19.00 


6,35 


5,4S 


21.80 


20.55 


30.56 




19,68 


19,00 


6.31 


5.03 


21.86 


20.60 


20.00 




19,57 


18,02 


6.33 


508 


31,82 


20.69 


20.60 




19.45 


19 05 


6 35 


5.90 


21.85 


20.60 


20,66 




la- 


19,10 


6.30 


5.00 


■21.75. 


20.55 


20,55 




19,00 


6 30 


5,07 


21.7^ 


20.5ft 


90,98 




19.45 


19,08 


6.33 


5,10 


2i.eo 


20.56 


30.56 




19,60 


19,00 


6.31 


5,12 


31.85 


90-60 


2n,60 




19,60 


19,00 


6.31 


5,10 


31.89 


20.59 


20,59 




19,60 


WOO 


6,31 


5.14 


21, 71^ 


20.52 


20.52 




19,47 


WOO 


6,36 


5,15 


21.82 


2(60 


90.60 




19.60 


W,ll 


6.35 


5,90 


28,88 


30.55 


20,55 




10 42 
19 60 


19.06 


6,28 


5,S0 


21.75 


20.55 


20,. '>5 




19,10 


6,30 


5.18 


21,80 


30,55 


20,. W 




19,50 


19.05 


6,33 


9.15 


21.83 


30,58 


20 53 




19,45 


19.08 


6,41 


5,15 


21,75 


20,56 


20,Sfi 




19,50 


19,00 


6,38 


3,30 


21, B2 


2;1,58 


20,5a 


I 


19.47 


19.06 



13,26 
13,26 
13,31 
13.9(t 
13.20 
13,21) 



I3,2» 
13,14 
13,10 



[16] 



24 



B —INSPECTION OP CANNON, BELLONA FOUNDRY— Continued. 



VARIATION 


XHilMETKRS TURNED. .05. 










ALLOWED. 






/ 














^ 


V 


^ ej 


V 


« s^ 


a> 


V o ««• 


*S o 




M 


jC 


js.Si 


/3 


-z% 


JQ 


® — c 


c -* 






- • 

-3 


^ s* 


' ^ *« 


«rf 


i-o 2 


fe« 


• 


•si 


9J c3 




O 
V N 


C ec t) 


■s 




y c ^ 

U C y 

c 5.5 


S 

s 
to 

'"3 

• 

o 


"5 


6 c. 
-1 






V -^ o 


m 






25 


• 


« 

rs 


• 


6 




Q 


Q 


Q 




6.41 


22.30 


15.00 


13.50 


11.20 


2.00 
2.00 


42.20 


57.00 


•257 


6.45 


32.32 


15.02 


13.50 


11.32 


42.30 


57.£0 


258 


6.45 


22.34 


15.00 


13.50 


11.35 


2.00 


42.20 


57.30 


259 


6.45 


22.40 


15.00 


13.50 


11.40 


2.00 


42.18 


57.20 


260 


^.37 


22.81 


15.00 


13.50 


11.34 


2.00 


42.22 


57.20 


261 


6.44 


22.37 


15.00 


13.50 


11.25 


2.00 


42.30 


57.35 


•262 


6.45 


22.33 


15.00 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


42.30 


' 57.35 


263 


^.46 


2-2 37 


15.00 


13.50 


11.35 


2.00 


42.25 


57.10 


264 


^.43 


22.87 


15.00 


13.50 


11.40 


2.00 


42.30 


57.21 


265 


6.43 


22 31 


15.00 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


42.25 


57.40 


266 


6.47 


22.31 


14.93 


13.50 


11.30 


2.m 


42.20 


57. S5 


•267 


6.41 


22.31 


15.01 


13.45 


1 1 .30 


2.00 


42.32 


57.30 


268 


6.42 


22.30 


15.01 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


42.30 


57.20 


269 


6.43 


22.30 


15.00 


13.50 


11.40 


2.00 


42.20 


57.15 


•270 


6.52 


22.35 


15.00 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


42.20 


57. ?5 


271 


6.49 


22.35 


15.05 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


4-2.32 


57. (^ 
57. IB 


272 


6.50 


2-2.28 


15.00 


13.50 


11.42 


2.00 


42. 18 


273 


6.48 


22.35 


15.00 


13.46 


11.30 


2.00 


42.20 


67.10 


274 


6.50 


22 35 


15.00 


13 50 


11.25 


2.00 


42.22 


57.05 


•275 


6.43 


22.31 


15.00 


13.50 


11.20 


2.00 


42.20 


57.10 


276 


€.42 


22.31 


15.00 


13.40 


11.30 


2.00 


42.20 


57.04 


'277 


6.41 


22.33 


15.00 


13.50 


11.15 


2.00 


42.25 


57.20 


278 


6.36 


22.33 


15.00 


13.40 


11.50 


2.00 


42.20 


57. IH) 


279 


6.42 


22.26 


15.00 


13.48 


11.15 


2.00 


42.26 


57.28 


•280 


6.44 


22.30 


15.00 


13.50 


11.15 


2.00 


42.35 


57.30 


^281 


6.42 


2-2,32 


15.00 


13.46 


11.12 


2.00 


42.30 


57.12 


^•282 


6.41 


22.31 


14.98 


13.50 


n.12 


2.00 


42.28 


57.10 


283* 


6.42 


22.30 


15.00 


13.42 


11.20 


2.00 


42.20 


57. 15 


284 


6.40 


22.40 


15,00 


13.50 


11.55 


2.00 


42.20 


57.20 


285* 


6.40 


22.30 


14.98 


13.50 


11.20 


2.00 


42.20 


57.10 


286 


6.41 


22.30 


15.04 


13 50 


11.20 


2.00 


42.20 


57.10 


• : -287 


6.40 


22.30 


14.96 


13,50 


11.30 


2.00 


42.19 


57.10 


288 


6.40' 


22.30 


16.00 


13.41 


11.11 


2.00 


42.10 


57.12 


•289 


6.39 


$2.32 


15.00 


13.50 


11.26' 


'2.00 


42.25 


57.20 


290 


6.40 


22.30 


14.fte 


13:4<5 


11.20 


2.00 


42.10 


57.00 


291 


6.40 


22.31 


14.98 


13.48 


11.20 


2.00 


42.20 


57.00 


292 


6.35 


22.35 


15.00 


13.49 


11.30 


2.00 


42.30 


57.10 


•293 


6.40 


22.30 


15.00 


13.5(» 


11.20 


2.00 


42.30 


57.10 


2f»4 


6.43 


22.38 


15.00 


13.50 


11.25 


2.00 


42.28 


57.20 


295 


6.40 


22.30 


15.03 


13.50 


11.40 


2.00 


42.22 


57.10 


•296 


6.39 


22 81 


14.96 


13.47 


11.80 


2.00 


4!s^.26 


57.18 


297 


6.40 


22.30 


15.00 


13.50 


11.25 


2.00 


42. -20 


57.20 



♦Burst firjsf fire. 



S5 [16] 

-INSPECTIOS OP CANNOS, BELLONA FOUXEBT— ConiinueJ. 



V^HUTION 




.an. 




less. 04, 


Moru.IO 


Above .00, 




AK...O., 


AI....1WED. 










Less .05 


Below ,30, 




L,i--i .oa 




'S2 


■3 


■25 


~^ 


^ 


o*& 


a 


i 




















ll. 




•3? 


t 


^ 




•s 


•3 




-Si 




t«a 


S 










1 




ii 








ill 

lis 


ll 


1 


.5 


^11 


a^S 


'■.U 


X 




•:l 


« 


D 


107.59 


57.00 


d 

6.41 


6.00 


*j 


p. 




114.00 


.00 




6.41 


357 


1H.30 


107.70 


67.10 


6.39 


6,00 


.16 




6.44 


•258 


1M.-25 


107.70 


5C.95 


6.39 


600 


.14 




6.42 


250 


114.25 


107.69 


57.05 


6.40 


6.00 


.10 




6.13 


-JM 


IH.35 


107. (JO 


67.15 


6.39 


6,00 


.10 






m 


114 15 


107. W 


wi.eo 


6.40 


6,00 


.10 




6^43 


•i6i 


114.30 


107.00 


56,85 


6.40 


6.00 


.09 




6.44 


•i63 


114.20 


107.65 


67,10 


6.40 


COO 






e.43 


■iiii 


114. SO 


107.60 


67,00 


6,40 


6,01) 


!io 




6.43 


•2&t 


114.30 


107.68 


66,90 




6,00 


.07 




6.42 


■J06 


114.20 


107.60 


56,65 


6:^ 


600 


.08 




6.43 


■261 


114.20 


107 62 


50,30 


6,37 


GOO 


,05 




6.43 


■m 


114.25 


107.70 


67.05 


6,41 


<i,00 


.10 




6.4:] 


■2eo 


114.05 


107.65 


66.90 


6,40 


6,00 


.10 




6A2 


27« 


H4.25 


107. 6( 


67,00 


6.39 


6-00 


.08 




6.43 


21\ 


114.30 


107,65 


57.25 


6,39 


6.00 


.06 




11^3 


-■73 


114.32 


107.60 


57.14 


6,39 


6,00 


.07 


H 


6.43 


■273 


114.40 


107.70 


57,30 


6,49 


6.00 


.13 


6.42 


■271 


1M.30 


107.70 


57.25 


6,40 


6,00 


.00 




G.43 


■275 


114. SO 


107.80 


57,10- 


6.40 


6,00 


.15 


8 


6.43 


■276 


114.20 


107.80 


57,16 


6,39 


6,00 


.13 


6.42 


ill 


114.28 


107.05 


67,08 


639 


6,00 


.ri 


6.44 


■278 


114.30 


107,60 


67.30 


6,39 


6,00 


,10 




6.43 


■279 


114,30 


107- BO 


67,0-2 


6.39 


6 00 


.12 


6.43 


■JflO 


114.34 


107.70 


57,04 


6,40 


6,00 


.14 


6,41 


■Jftt 


114 65 


107.70 


57.13 


6.39 


6,00 


.OS 


6.43 


282 


114.30 


107.6rt 


57.20 


6.40 


6,00 


.04 


6. 4-2 


i83' 


114,35 


107.72 


67.20 


0.30 


6.00 


.04 


6.44 


■i84 


114.30 


107.73 


67.10 


6.40 


6.00 


.06 


6.43 


■2fi;. 


114.35 


107.70 


57.25 


6,40 


6,00 


.00 




6.42 


i«6 


114.-20 


107.73 


57.10 


6.40 


6,00 


.03 




6.44 


■287 


114.26 


107.75 


67,15 


6.40 


6,00 


.05 




6.40 


2f« 


114. SO 


107. G6 


67,05 


6-40 


6,00 


.05 




642 


■21=0 


114.30 


107.75 


57,10 


6.40 


d.OO 


.06 




6.43 


■290 


IU25 


107.80 


67,26 


6.40 


6,00 


.09 




6.45 


231 


114.20 


107.75 


B7.21 


6.40 


6,00 


.Oii 




6.43 


292 


114.30 


107.80 


57,20 


6,39 


6,00 


.25 




6.44 


■J93 


114.30 


107.70 


67,20 


6.39 


6,00 


.02 




6.44 


*29i 


114.20 


107.80 


67,00 


6,40 


6.00 


,28 




6.42 


295 


114.25 


10'. 75 


67.16 


6.40 


6,00 


.05 




6.42 


2fMl 


114.25 


107. no 


67,07 


6.39 


6.00 


.02 




6,42 


S97 


111.35 


107.75 


67.15 


6.39 


6,00 


,25 




6.42 



[16 3 26 

B.-INSPECTION OF CANNOK, B ELLON A FOUNDRY— C Mil in ned. 



ALLOWED. 


.05 




















i t 






i 




.■ 














£-1 




s-i 




! 




1 1 




■3 




i 




i 


ttu : 




s s 






s.^ 


1 


1-2 




■3 1 

1 i 




1^ 1 


i 


1 


Bm"^ 


i 


11 


1 




2 


6.41 1 


60 




Yards. 


lbs. 02. 


Yaids. 


Its. 01 


S^ 


2 


6.43 1 


60 


7,537 


368 


18 3 


acD 


13 P 


SS8 


2 


6.38 I 


60 


7,537 


968 


18 3 


9GQ 


13 10 


059 


2 


6.30 1 


60 


7,501 


367 


18 6 


2BB 


13 ID 


SCO 


2 


6.40 1 


40 


7.637 


266 


K 6 


3« 


14 11 


2Ct 


2 


6.40 1 


60 


7,519 


S3S 


20 6 


35& 


14 6 


363 


2 




60 


7607 


tm 


18 3 


269 


13 111 


S63 


2 


G.3Q 1 


75 


7,517 


S38 


SO 6 


349 


14 11 


SG4 


2 


6.40 I 


SO 


7:513 


366 


18 6 


8«l 


14 II 


265 


2 


6.33 1 


60 


7,533 


2.W 


19 U 


368 


13 10 


S66 


Q 


6.30 I 


50 


7,500 


266 


18 6 


349 


14 II 


an 


a 


6.S0 1 


60 


7,637 


3H6 


18 6 


349 


H 11 


266 


2 


6.45 1 


SO 


7,51 1 


238 


20 6 


961 


14 9 


869 


2 


6. 35 1 


50 


7, MS 


26H 


18 3 


349 


14 11 


STO 


2 


6.36 1 


30 


7,529 


238 


20 6 


269 


IS 10 


271 


2 


6.40 1 


60 


T.m 


3I» 


18 6 


36a 


13 Id 


372 


2 


6-28 1 


48 


7,507 


248 


19 tl 


267 


H 5 


273 


2 


6.30 1 


45 


7,537 


368 


18 3 


369 


13 10 


274 


2 


6.40 1 


60 


7537 


218 


19 11 


269 


13 10 


275 


2 


6.26 I 


45 


7;541 


268 


IB 3 


369 


13 111 


276 


■2 


6,37 1 


60 


7,502 


354 


19 1 


357 


14 :. 


277 


2 


6.40 1 


55 


7,620 


268 


IS 3 


369 


13 10 


278 


2 


6.40 1 


60 


7.537 


261 


18 15 


857 


14 5 


P 


2 


0.48 I 


56 


7,507 


268 


18 3 


957 


14 6 


2-W 


2 


6.40 1 


60 


7,530 


968 


18 3 


309 


13 in 


2dl 


2 


6.40 1 


S8 


7,534 


268 


18 3 


369 


13 in 


iH2 


2 


6.30 1 


58 


7,540 


365 


18 R 


257 


14 5 


Si^S' 




6.40 I 


61 




965 


18 8 






S3R* 


8 


6.40 1 


62 


7,530 


248 


19 11 


3S7 


14 5 


385- 


2 


6.3C 1 


56 




264 


18 9 






StW 


2 


l!.3C I 


60 


7,541 


258 


19 4 


362 


14 1 


2^7 


2 


6.30 1 


60 


7,546 


261 


18 13 


863 


14 1 


2SH 


2 


6.25 1 


55 


7,529 


361 


18 13 


969 


14 1 


aai 


8 


B.3S 1 


58 


7,547 


2« 


19 11 




14 1 


290 


2 


6.30 I 


60 


7,542 


2« 


18 9 


363 


14 1 


291 


2 


6.38 1 


60 


7,550 


337 


20 7 


260 


14 3 


292 


9 


6.40 t 


56 


7,558 


364 


18 9 


969 


13 10 


293 


2 


6.30 1 


60 


7,530 


337 


SO 7 


960 


14 3 


294 


2 


6.25 I 


59 


7,5SR 


936 


SO S 


S64 


13 15 


295 




6.30 1 


59 


7,542 


265 


IS 8 


360 


14 3 


99C 


3 


G.S5 1 


60 


7,5« 


348 


SO 1 


959 


14 4 


297 


3 


6.40 1 


59 


7,612 


365 


IS 8 


96* 


14 3 



27 



E 16 ] 



B.— INSPECTION OP CANNON, BELLONA FOUNDRY— Continued. 



VARIATION 
ALLOWED. 


DUMETERa MOT TURNED, J j^^® "q- * 




u 
o 


V 




1 cJ . 


O it (n 








.a 

O 'n 


• 

a 

9 


B 


1'- 


o to 

s.i « 


ii§ 

•3 iH '9 


2|.i 

«3 3 O 


(u 9 

i'i 


B ^ 




la's 


• 






6^a 


^■su 


.X3 




.-:.2 o 


^r 


^ 


• 

C3 


xi 


6 


«a- 


• 




• 


• 


6 




6.41 


5.20 


21.70 


20.70 


90.70 




19.50 


18.90 


13.00 


298 


6.30 


5.90 


21.82 


20.58 


20.58 




19.52 


19.09 


13.25 


299 


6.31 


5.20 


21.84 


20.60 


90.60 




19.50 


19. lis 


13.15 


300 


6.30 


5.11 


21.83 


20.67 


90.67 




19.48 


• 19.10 


13. 1 1 


301 


6.35 


5.18 


21.82 


20.54 


90.54 




19.52 


19.02 


13.18 


30-2* 


6.30 


5.15 


21.80 


20.60 


90.60 


^ 


19.40 


19.00 


13.10 


303* 


6.35 


5.15 


21.77 


20.50 


20.50 


_ 


19.50 


19.00 


13.10 


304 


6.30 


5.20 


21.80 


20.60 


20.60 


_ 


19.41 


19.00 


13.15 


305 


6.30 


5.05 


21.70 


20.55 


20.55 




19.45 


19.00 


13.15 


300 


6.30 


5.20 


21.75 


20.60 


20.60 


_ 


19.45 


19.05 


13.20 


307 


6.29 


5.15 


21.70 


20.50 


20.50 




19.50 


19.00 


13.15 


308* 


6.30 


5.20 


21.70 


20.53 


20.53 


_ 


19.42 


19.02 


13.10 


309 


6.30 


5.20 


21.80 


20.58 


20.58 


^^ 


19.50 


19.06 


13.10 


310 


6.30 


5.10 


21.84 


20.50 


10.50 


_ 


19.45 


19.06 


13.15 


311 


6.30 


5.12 


21.80 


20.58 


20.58 


■ 


19.50 


19.06 


13.12 


31-2* 


6.33 


5.20 


21.76 


20.60 


20.60 


. 


19.56 


19.08 


13.18 


313 


6.35 


5.18 


21.80 


20.60 


20.60 


„ 


19.51 


19.06 


13.10 


314 


6.32 


5.15 


21.75 


20.60 


20.60 


. 


19.50 


19.00 


13.10 


315 


6.40 


5 10 


21.90 


20.60 


V0.60 


^ 


19.50 


19.06 


13.12 


310 


6.35 


5.15 


21.80 


20.63 


20.63, 


^ 


19.50 


19.00 


13.12 


317 


6.30 


5.15 


21.75 


20.60 


20.60 


^ 


19.50 


19.00 


13.16 


318 


6.30 


5.12 


21.82 


20.58 


20.58 


^ 


19.44 


19.00 


13.20 


3111 


6.35 


5.12 


21.75 


20.60 


90.60 


,. 


19.50 


19.00 


13.20 


3-20t 


6.40 


5.20 


21.80 


20.61 


20.60 


^ 


19 50 


19.00 


13.15 


321 


6.40 


5.20 


21.80 


20.62 


20.62 


^ 


19.50 


19.08 


13.15 


3-22 


6.42 


5.18 


21.78 


20.60 


20.60 


, 


19.50 


19.00 


13. 10 


3-23 


6.40 


5.11 


21.70 


20.60 


2). 60 


^ 


19.50 


19. oa 


13.18 


324 


6.39 


5.10 


21.71 


20.60 


20.60 


^ 


19.48 


W.90 


13.10 


3*25 


6.39 


5.15 


21.70 


20.60 


20.60 


. 


19.50 


19.00 


13.11 


3*26 


6.40 


5.20 


21.71 


20.60 


20.60 


.^ 


19.48 


18.90 


13.11 


327 


6.30 


5.16 


21.70 


20.55 


20.55 


^ 


19.42 


19.05 


13.16 


323 


6.31 


5.15 


31.70 


30.00 


20.60 


- 


19.40 


19.00 


13.12 



♦ Burst first fire. t Burst second fire. 



[ 16 ] 28 

B.— INSPECTION OP CANNON, BELLONA FOUNDRY— Continued. 



VARIATION 








j>v 












DiAMETERfl TURNKD. . 


05. 










ALLOWKD. 






# 














V 


4> 


0- a," 


« e5 


«) V • 


%f 


V o « 


*5? O 




M 


•«-: 




-fi-a 


•as « 


JC • 


C - c 


O — 




** 


— -o 


Urn ** 


"' s 


•*"S rt 


•S-TS 


l-'C o 


"C . 


• 

a 




a'9- 






a 


lis 

*- * — 


(- e c) 
a zi o 

t» 5 *- 


• 

C 


H O 

6«a 


5'S 

Si 


e9 o 


lo 
63 










55 


• 


9 


• 


6 
K't.dO 

13.52 


< 
11.20 


o 


O 


Q 




6.41 


^.30 


15.00 


2.00 


42.20 


57.00 


296 


6.40 


22.30 


15.02 


11.20 


2.00 


42.30 


57.10 


299 


6.41 


22.30 


15.00 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


42.30 


57.15 


300 


6.40 


22.35 


15.00 


13.50 


11.20 


2.00 


42.20 


67.00 


301 


6.40 


22.30 


15.00 


13.48 


11.25 


2.00 


42.15 


57.15 


30-2* 


6.40 


22.32 


15.00 


13.50 


11.40 


2.00 


42.35 


57.05 


303* 


6.40 


22.30 


15.00 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


42.20 


57.15 


304 


6.42 


22.31 


15.00 


13.49 


11.25 


2.00 


42.20 


57.15 


305 


6.40 


22.31 


15.00 


13.49 


11.55 


2.00 


42 20 


57.20 


306 


6.40 


22.28 


15.00 


13.50 


11.25 


2.00 


42.20 


57.10 


307 


6.40 


22.28 


15.00 


13.50 


11.35 


2.00 


42 20 


57.20 


308* 


6.38 


22.28 


15.00 


13.50 


11.45 


2.00 


42. 10 


57.10 


309 


6.40 


22.32 


15.00 


13.50 


11.35 


2.00 


42.20 


57.00 


310 


6.40 


22.32 


15.00 


13.50 


11.32 


2.00 


42.12 


57.05 


•Jll 


6.40 


22.21 


15.00 


13.5) 


11 40 


2.00 


42. 15 


57. CO 


312* 


6.40 


22.35 


15.00 


13.50 


11.35 


2.00 


42.22 


57.15 


313 


6.40 


22.32 


15. a» 


13.48 


11.40 


2.00 


42.28 


57.15 


314 


6.40 


22.32 


15.00 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


42 25 


57.10 


:^I5 


6.40 


22.30 


15.00 


13.50 


11.33 


2.00 


42.20 


57.10 


316 


6.40 


22.32 


15.00 


13.50 


11.25 


2.00 


42. 10 


57.00 


317 


6.40 


22 30 


15.00 


13.48 


11.10 


2.00 


42.20 


57.12 


318 


6.40 


22.32 


15.00 


13.50 


11.40 


2.00 


42.20 


57.10 


319 


6.40 


22.30 


15.00 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


42.20 


57.00 


390t 


6 35 


22.31 


15.02 


13.48 


11.30 


2.00 


42. 18 


57.20 


321 


6.50 


22.32 


15.00 


13.50 


11.45 


2.00 


42. 10 


57.10 


322 


6.41 


22.30 


15.00 


13.50 


11.25 


2.00 


42.25 


57.20 


323 


6.40 


22.31 


15.00 


13.50 


11.45 


2.00 


42. 10 


57 18 


324 


6.42 


22.30 


15.00 


13.48 


11.40 


2.00 


42. 18 


57.15 


3-25 


6.40 


22.30 


14.49 


13.49 


11.30 


2.00 


42.09 


57.00 


326 


6.42 


22.29 


15.00 


13.50 


11.10 


2.00 


42.10 


57.10 


327 


6.40 


22.35 


14.98 


13.50 


11.30 


2.00 


42.13 


57.10 


328 


d.43 


22.30 


14.98 


13.50 


11.35 


2.00 


42. 10 


57.10 



♦ Bur.<t first fire. + Burst second fire. 



29 



[16] 



B—INSPECTIOX OF CANNON, BELLONA POUND RY-Cominued. 



VARIATTOX 




.20. 




Les.^ .04. 


1 
More. 10. Above .00. 




More .04. 


ALLOWED. 










Less .05. Below .30. 




Less .W». 


• 

S 

tuo 


Si . 


o 

Xi 

To 

s 


:-gs 


1 

a 

o 

s 


o 

JS 
• 9 


■§gs 


i 

s 

9 

u 

d 

O 

s 

a> 

B 

.5? 


c 
c 
To 

6 

a 


^; 


Q 


&;'' 


ui 


d 


v: 


£ 


< 


&« 




114.00 


107.59 


57.00 


G.41 


6.00 


.00 




6.41 


298 


114.20 


107.75 


57.10 


6.40 


6.00 


.05 




6.45 


a99 


114.30 


107.80 


57.15 


6.39 


6.00 


.06 




6.45 


300 


114.20 


107.75 


57.20 


6.3!> 


6.00 


.10 




6.43 


301 


114.25 


107.70 


57 10 


6.40 


6.00 


.06 




6.4:J 


302* 


114.15 


107.80 


57.10 


6.40 


6.00 


.08 




6.43 


303* 


114.25 


107.80 


57.10 


6.39 


6.0U 


.17 




6.42 


304 


114.25 


107.85 


57.10 


6.39 


6.00 


.11 




6.42 


305 


114.20 


107.80 


57.00 


6.39 


6.00 


.21 




6.4:< 


30H 


114.25 


107.80 


57.15 


6.39 


6.00 


.25 




6.43 


307 


114.30 


107.80 


57.10 


6.39 


6.00 


.10 




6.4.'> 


308* 


114.35 


107.75 


57.25 


6.39 


6.00 


.14 




6.45 


309 


114.15 


107.90 


57.15 


•6.40 


6.00 


.15 




6.44 


310 


114.15 


107.70 


57.10 


6.40 


6.00 


.00 


h 


6.44 


311 


114.^ 


107. 70 


57.28 


6.40 


6.00 


.03 


^—1 


6.45 


312* 


114.15 


107.70 


57.00 


6.40 


6.00 


.07 


UJ 


6.43 


313 


114.15 


107. 75 


57.00 


6.39 


6.00 


.07 




6.44 


314 


1U.25 


107.70 


57.15 


6.39 


6.00 


.05 


o 


6.43 


315 


1H.22 


107.70 


57. 12 


6.40 


6.00 


.12 


o 


6.43 


316 


114.25 


107.80 


57.25 


6.40 


6.00 


.15 




6 44 


317 


114.28 


107. f.5 


57. IG 


6.40 


6.00 


.15 




6.42 


318 


114.15 


107.70 


57.05 


6.40 


6.00 


.06 




6.43 


310 


U4.H) 


107.75 


57.10 


6.40 


6.00 


.11 




6.43 


320t 


114.24 


107. R5 


57.04 


6.40 


6.00 


.00 




6.42 


3>1 


114.10 


107.70 


57.00 


6.44 


6.00 


.09 




6.4.1 


32:2 


114.25 


107.70 


57.05 


6.40 


6.00 


.03 




6.44 


323 


114.25 


107.80 


57.07 


6.40 


6.00 


.04 




6.44 


324 


114.15 


107.75 


57.00 


6.41 


6.00 


.00 




6.44 


325 


114.25 


107.70 


57.25 


6.40 


6.00 


.09 




6.42 


32r) 


114.28 


107.80 


57.18 


6.40 


6.00 


.10 




6.45 


327 


114.30 


107.80 


57. ^?0 


6.40 


6.00 


.06 




6.44 


328 

• 


114.25 


107.80 


57.15 


6.40 


6.00 


.16 




6.44 



* Burst first fire. t Burst second fiie. 



[IM 



30 



B.— INSPECTION OF CANNON, BELLONA FOUNDRY— Continued. 



VARIATION 


More .05. 












. 




ALLOWED. 






















• 






& 










• 

a 




c 


• 

to 


8.^ 




nowd 
barge 


• 
CO 


rgun. 


> 
2 


on of ve 

• 
• 


o 

g • 


o 


range of 
first chaj 


i 


range of 
second c 


o 


O 

■ 


S 

CD 


PosiU 
rioi 


fa 








Proof 
for 


§ 




.2 


6.41 


1.60 


Pounds. 


Yards. 


lbs. oz. 


Yaxxli. 


lbs. oz. 


Q»6 


.2 


6.38 


1.60 


7,530 


265 


18 8 


26)2 


14 1 


299 


.2 


6.40 


1.60 


7,544 


237 


20 7 


1^02 


14 1 


300 


.2 


6.32 


1.58 


7,550 


260 


18 15 


259 


14 4 


301* 


.2 


6.30 


1.53 


7,634 


236 


20 8 


262 


14 1 


302* 


.2 


6.40 


1.54 




236 


20 8 


^ 




303 


.2 


6.42 


1.60 




236 i 


20 8 


^ 




304 


.3 


6.33 


1.50 


7,538 


264 


18 9 


247 


14 13 


305 


.2 


6.32 


1.60 


7,544 


237 


20 7 


259 


14 4 


306 


.2 


6.30 


1.55 


7,530 


264 


18 9 


260 


14 3 


307 


.2 


6.45 


1.55 


7,517 


237 


20 7 


259 


14 4 


308* 


.2 


6.38 


1.60 




247 


19 12 


^ 






.2 


6.40 


1.55 


7,542 


240 


20 3 


285 


12 15 


310 


.2 


6.30 


1.60 


7,518 


245 


19 13 


259 


14 4 


311 


.2 


6.30 


1.60 


7,530 


216 


19 13 


259 


14 4 


312* 


.2 


6.36 


1.60 




245 


19 13 


^ 




313 


.2 


6.37 


1.60 


7,526 


271 


17 15 


258 


14 5 


314 


.2 


6.35 


1.55 


7,542 


247 


19 12 


285 


U lb 


315 


.2 


6.25 


1.60 


7,502 


245 


19 13 


252 


14 9 


316 


.2 


6.40 


1.60 


7,542 


247 


19 12 


285 


12 15 


317 


.2 


6.20 


1.60 


7,526 


271 


17 15 


259 


U 4 


318 


.2 


6.38 


1.60 


7,526 


240 


20 3 


285 


12 15 


319 


.2 


6.35 


1.60 


7,528 


. 258 


19 1 


252 


14 9 


320t 


.2 


6.30 


1.55 




210 


20 3 


285 


12 15 


321 


.2 


6.35 


1.60 


7,534 


258 


19 1 


271 


13 8 


322 


.2 


6.33 


1.60 


7,522 


271 


17 15 


285 


12 15 


323 


.2 


6.30 


1.62 


7,519 


258 


19 1 


258 


14 5 


324 


.2 


6.38 


1.62 


7,528 


258 


19 1 


247 


14 13 


325 


.2 


6.29 


1.60 


7,624 


240 


20 3 


258 


14 5 


326 


.2 


6.28 


1.60 


7,548 


271 


17 15 


252 


14 9 


327 


.2 


6.30 


1.60 


7,517 


245 


19 13 


252 


14 9 


328 


.2 


6.25 


1.58 


7,537 


252 


19 7 


251 


14 9 



* Burst first fire. t Bum second ^r e. 

Rbmarks.— These guns were proved with Dupont powder ; the charges regulated in strict 
conformity with tables furnished by the Ordnance Department. Twenty barrels of proviai? 
powder was recently forwarded to Beliona from Frankford arsenal, where it had been care- 
fully proved by the standard eprouvette; the remainder, about seven barrels, was drawn from 
the magazine at Bellona, and carefully re-proved immediately before use. It will be perceived 
that, generally, the guns conform in measurement very closely to the established pattern ; seven 
guns burst in proof— six at the first, and one at the second, discharge. In several instances, the 
evidence was very conclusive that the breaking had been can&ea or accelerated by the break- 
ing and wedging of the shot; two shot and two wads were used at both discharges, agreeably 
to regulations. 

W. J. WORTH, 
Bre7>et LieuUnant ColoneL Major Ordnance, and Inspector. 

JNO. CHILDE, 
LietUenantand Assidant Inspector, 



31 £16] 

ERRATA. 

July 24th, 1833, examined this report and found the following errors, 
to wit : 

1st. The dimensions under the columns of f. f. and h. h. vary from the 
deviations allowed by the regulations. The allowances under those two 
heads may be either j^^ of an inch more, or yf ^ less, thail the prescribed 
dimensions. 

2d. Theaiiowauce shown over the heading of the "position of the trun- 
nions, above or below the axis of the bore," instead of « ^\ of an inch be- 
low the axis of the bore," it should be " y\ of an inch." 

The guns Nos. ^2, 294, 297, and 306, exceed the allowance authorized 
under the last mentioned head. 

3d. The following differences have also been found in the charges, viz : 

Secbnd charge of gun No. 261 should be Hj\ lbs. instead of 14y% lbs. 

First do. do. 276 do. 19^*^ do. 19^^ do. 

First *do. do. 286 do. 19yV do. 19 ^^ do. 

First do.' do. 296 do. 19^^ do. 20y', do. 

(See letter to Colonel Worth of 26th July, 1833, pointing out the above 
differences.) 



C. 

a* 

Bellona Foundry, July 18, 1833. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit my detailed report of the inspection of 
72 thirty-two pounder cannon, manufactured by John Clarke, Esq., for the 
United States ; of which number, 65 have been found conformable to the 
established pattern, sustained the required proof, and been received on ac- 
count of the United Stales. Seven burst in the proof— six on the first, and 
one on the second, discharge. I have also inspected/proved, and received, 
834 thirty-two pounder shot, independent of those used in proof. 

With high respect, 

1 have the honor to be. 

Your obedient servant, 

W. J. WORTH, 
BL Lt. CoL^ Maj, Ordnance^ and Inspector, 
CoL. George Bomford, 

Ordnance Coi^, 



D. 



PiKESVILLE AR8ENAL, Md., 

May 21, 1836. 



Colonel: I send you, herewith, a letter from Mr. John Childe, late a 
lieutenant in the army, and assistant to Lieutenant Colonel Worth, the in- 
spector of ordnance. This letter gives a statement of Uie facts connected 



[16] S3 

with the proof of guns at Belloua foundry, at which Mr. Childe was pres- 
ent. It is sent to you under the impression that it may be useful when lire 
claim advanced by Major Clarke, for pay for the bursted guns, is brought 
before the Secretary of Vv^ar for his decision. 

I have the honor to be, 
Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, • 

WM. MAYNADIER, 

Ut Lf. 1st Art. 
Col. Gko. Bom ford, 

Chief Ord. Dej)(.j Washington^ D, C. 



York, Pa., May 10, 1836. 

My dkar kriend Maynadier: Yours of the 7ih instant came to 
hand last night. 1 will, with pleasure, answer the questions you ask re- 
specting the proof of stvtn guns which were bursted af Major Chirkes 
foundry, in 1833. 

1st. The powder was all proved by the regulation eprouvetle, immedi- 
ately before putting it into the proof cartridges. 

2d. The quantity of powder put into the cartridges was the same as is 
prescribed by the Ordnance Regulations, taking 225 yards as the proof 
range of standard powder. When stronger, the quantity was reduced ; 
when weaker, increased ; in accordance with tables furnished for that pur- 
pose by the Colonel of Ordnance. I would here remark, that the strength 
and quantity of powder fired in each gun proved at Major Clarke's foun- 
dry in 1833, were entered on the margin of the inspection report sent to 
the Ordnance Office, which, I presume, may now be found in that office, 
on file. 

3d. The guns were loaded and fired under my immediate inspcctionj 
and in strict accordance with the regulations. 

4th. The proof and inspection at Bellona foundry was conducted, in 
every respect, in exact accordance with the Ordnance Regulations upon 
that subject, and in precisely the same manner as at all other foundries. 

When I left the inspection service, there was a manuscript book in Col. 
Worth's possession, in which had been entered a rough sketch of each in- 
spection that r attended; embracing, with a general outline of procedure, 
all uncommon circumstances that occurred at the inspections worthy of re- 
collection. This book probably contains some notes upon the inspection of 
1S33, at Bellona; and I think you will find something therein about the 
sevdn bursted guns. The circumstances, however, have passed my recol- 
lection. 

With many wishes for your health and happiness, 

I am truly yours, 

JNO. CHILUE. 

Lt. Wm. Maynadier, 

United States Army. 

P. S.— I shall endeavor to call and see you befcre I leave this quarter of 
the country. 



33 [16 ]' 

E. 

Washington, U. C, Matj 28, 1836. 

Colonel : On the 29th of April last I addressed you a letter, giviug a 
statement of facts in relation to the proof of cannon at Btillona foundry, in 
Atigust, 1834. 

I have since seen a letter from Mr. Clarke, the proprietor of that foundry, 
addressed to the Secretary of War, in which he advances a claim for pay 
for the bursted guns, on the grounds that the inspecting officers, being 
newly appointed, were not acquainted with> or experienced in, the inspec- 
tion and proof of cannon, anci that some prror in the proof must have been 
made. 

That the inspecting officers were newly appointed was true ; but that 
any error or mistake was made by them in the proof of Mr. Clarke's guns, 
or any other, I utterly and unequivocally deny. I am positively certain 
that, at every inspection made after I was appointed to that duty, the most 
scrupulous attention was paid to the performance of it in a correct manner ; 
and the inspectors never lost sight of the idea that, whilst their duty bound 
them, for the interest of the Government, to see to the faithftil performance 
of the duties of contractors, the interest of the latter was not to be jeop- 
arded by any want of attention on their part, or by the undue strictness of 
the inspectioa or proof. On the contrary, great soUqitude was always felt 
for their interests, s^nd the reputation of their establishments. 

That any mistake could have been made iif the. proof of Mr. Clarke's 
guns, in August, 1834, is, from the very strict attention paid by the in- 
spectors to the proof of po>yder and filling of the cartridges, impossible ; 
and he himself, who witnessed both operations, ought to knpw it. It is not 
probable that an error so sensibly affecting his interest would have escaped 
his notice, or have foiled to have been corrected by him at the time. Be- 
side??, he was distinctly informed by Colonel Wortli, (who had burst several 
guns on the previous inspection at that foundry,) that if he had any objec- 
tion to urge against the manner of the proof, i( should be done before he 
proceeded lurther i^ his operations. 

Mr. Clarke seems to think that as Captain Ripley proved sixteen guns of 
the same manufacture the year following without bursting one, it is clear 
evidence that the first proof was excessive. Colonel Worth, at the inspec- 
tion made by him, proved and received thtrty-three guns — more than 
double the number received by Captain Ripley of that lot. I have not the 
least doubt that the sixteen guns proved by Captain Ripley would have, 
been received by Colonel Worth, or any other inspecting officer who might 
have been directed to prove them under the same regulations ; unless, per- 
haps. Captain R.'s experience (thi^ beins[ the first inspection he ever made) 
made him a more competent judge of the correct manner of proving, can- 
non. Besides, a year had elapsed since the inspection by Colonel Worth ; 
and it is believed by many that cast iron, especially that of an open, coarse- 
grained structure, improves in strength by Exposure to the atmosphere. 
On this hypothesis, the different results of the two inspections may be ac- 
counted for, without calling in question any officer's attention to the correct 
performance of his duty. In the proof of the guns newly cast, the elastic 
fluid, generated by the ignition of the powder and urged by its expansive 
force, penetrated between the particle^, and exerted a separate force on each« 

3 * 



L 16 ] 34 

ii 

tending to separate it from the next. After a yearns exposure, the absorp- 
tioa of oxygen from the atmosphere had filled the interstices, and more 
firmly united the particles, enabling them to resist a force greater than that 
to which they had previously yielded. 

Finally, the guns bursted at Bellona foundry were proved as guns made 
by all other contractors are proved, and as alt the contractors know that 
they will be proved, before they undertake to mn^e or offer them to the 
Government. Mr. Clarke, in my opinion, has no just claim on the Gov- 
ernment for pay for the bursted guns. 

I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfoRy, 

Your obedient servant, 

WM, MAYNADIER, 
1st Lt. 1st Artilleryy In. Ord. 
Col. Geo. Bom ford, 

Chief Ord. D^i., Washington, DC. 



T * " 



WASHiPrGTOw, JJfoy 28^ 1836. 

Sir : On the subject of M^jor Clarke's claim to pay for 16 broken gims, 
I have very little to state, other than to affirm that the inspection and proof 
were conducted in strict and rigid accordance with the established regula- 
tions ; that those regulation^ were fully explained to him j that he teas 
informed if he had any objections to the regulations, or the manner of ad- 
ministering them, the inspectors would await the further orders of the de- 
partment ; that he was required by the in^ctors to be present at, and 
was actually present, and assisting in proving the powder and weighing 
the proving-charges, and loading the ^nns. The mistake^ whidi he sup- 
poses may have taken place, had no fonndation, save in his imagination. 
There was no error, except in the quality of his metal. 

The Major dwells, with apparent confidence, upon the inexperience of 
the inspector. The undersigned, with his assistants, had conducted Jive 
inspections at other foundries before his first visit to Bellona, and fourteen 
before his second. 114 guns were presented by Major Clarke on the oc- 
casion of the visits in July, 1833, and August, 1834, of which number, 98 
guns were received, and l6 broken. The Major, however, does not find 
it convenient to his purpose to notice any want of experience in Colonel 
Worth's- successor, who proved (and no doubt with care and acctiracy) 
the remaining sixteen guns, althoujo^h this was his first and unprepared 
effort. The question of fitness, however, was. it is presumed, well con- 
sidered by those who hod the appointing power. 

In two several inspections at the Pennsylvania foundry, the result wa? 

as follows : 

20 guns were presented, 11 broken, 9 received. 

33 guns were presented, 2 broken, 31 received. 

The two broken at the second inspection were of the same Tot of metal 
whereof the first were made. The founders, instead of seeking payment 
for broken guns, assured of the inferior quality of the metal, took active 
and successfiil measures to remedy their own fault, and protect their own 
interest for the futute. Since that period, not a gun has been broken at 
f/je/r workA 



9« C 16 J 

This Case has been refeited t<», as strikinety contrastiiig with, and illus- 
trsttiv^ of, the one iu question. I reqtiest that ail my reports, and all cor- 
respondenee with the office, may be submitted to the officers to whom the 
Secretary has referred this matter. The letter accompanying ray report 
of last inspection at Betiona, is aimexed to this* communication, and par- 
ticularlt referred to; 

During the period that I p^formed the duties of inspector, the correction 
of abusas, and protection of the Gtoverninent's interest, were reg«Jrded as a 
paramotmt diity. Bat I never cejised to feel a hrely solicitude so to per- 
form this diify i\s not to infringe on the rights and proper interests of the 
fouttdfers. 

Iiin^siri 

Yonr obedient 9er?]int, 

W. J. WORTH, 

Lhuttnani Cohnri* 
Col. Geo. Bomford, 

Ordnance corps* 



PRANKFORD ArsENAL, Aug%lSt 15, 1834. 

Sir : 1 have the honor to forward a detailed report of the recent inspec- 
tion at Bellona foundry: 58 guns were presentai and inspected, and 42 
proved J of which latter number 9 were broken, eight on the first, and one 
on the second fire, and 33 accepted. 

Having in view the misfortunes of this founder on the preceding inspec- 
tion," and his prejudices against the method of ascertaining the strength of 
powder, (by use of the established eprouvette,) no means were left untried 
to arrive at the greatest practicable accuracy* Every circumstance will be 
found carefully noted on the detailed report. It will be recollected that, 
heretofore, Major Clarke raised great objections to the use of two round shot^ 
to the breaking and wedging of which, iu the passage through the gim, he 
mainly ascribed the bursting. On this occasion, cylinder snot was used, 
except, at his suggestion, in the last three guns tried, two of which broke 
in like manner with the preceding. The powder used (with the exception 
of eight charges for the second fire) was sent from this arsenal the' 29th of 
April last, selected from among the lowest range on hand by the proof of 
1833. I have noted, orf the detailed report, the proof of this same powder 
in July, 1829, November, 1833, and now at the time of it^ use. The 
season, added to partial deterioration, will account for the difference in the 
first two proofs. The last, the time of use, bringfe it up again nearly to the 
first, 1829, which is accounted for satisfactorily to the inspectors : 1st, by 
its deposite, for the period of three months, in one of the best magazides in 
the United States, subject to the action of southern heat; 2d, its being ne- 
cessarily exposed some houfs, when verifying the proof, to an intemperate 
heat. Still it did not exceed the proof of 1829, and was. within the pre- 
scribed limits. The eprouvette used was No. 11, of the 17 new ones, 
which, from less use, doubtless gave higher ranges (and, consequently, 
greater reductions in quantity by the tables) than that of the same series in 
use at this arsenal. An opinion as to the tnie cause of the failure will be 
found on the detailed report. 



[Ml 



36 



The supply of Dupont's powder at this arsenal, whence, by existing: 
orders, it is drawn for proving purposes, is exhausted. I now beg leave 
iigain to request authority, either by exchange or purchase, to contract for 
a sufficient quantity lor the next year's proof ; and especially for tlie comple- 
tion of Major Clarke's proof, in December, of the precise range of 225 yards. 
I do not attach much importance to it, but the founder does. Such an ar- 
ran^nrant, therefore, will take from him all qause of eomplaint, and relieve 
the mspectors from painful and unsatisfactory discussions. 

The proof was discontinued at the request of this /ounder. I have taken 
great pains to possess the def)artment of all the facts in the case, in view of 
a correspondence which 1 foresee will ensue. Sixteen inspected but un- 
proved guns remain, and nine are to be made to complete his complement. 
The practice of plugging shot was observed. All such were rejected, 
and notice given that in future any such practice would be deemed suffi- 
cient'cause for abandonment of the inspection. The founder stated that 
special orders had been given to that effect. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. J. WORTH, 
Bt, LL CoL, Maj, Ord., and Inspector. 
Col. Geo. Bomfo'rd, 

Ordnance corps. 



STATEMENT of all the proofs and inspeclloiis of ordnance and pro- 
jectiles 7nade by Lt, Col, Worthy whilst inspector ; shoxcing the number 
of guns and shot of each calibe?^ received and rejected. 



Date. 


Foundry. 


No. of guns. 


RecVd 


Rejected.^ 


No. of shot. 


RecVd. 


Rejected. 


1833, Nov. 


Columbia 


20 iron 


20 






1 


1833, Dec. 


Pittsburgh 


20 


9 


11 








1833, Apnl 


Pittsburgh 


33 


31 


2 








1833, May 


West Point 


34 


34 




' 






1833, July 1 


West Point 


11 


11 










1833, July 18 


Bellona 


72 


65 


7 








1833, Sept. 


Pittsburgh 


34 


34 










1833, Dec. 


Pittsburgh 


21 


21 










1834, Jan. 


Columbia 


8 


8 










1834, April 
1834, May 


Pittsburgh 


27 


27 


^ 


790 


. 


102 


West Point 


20 


20 










1834, May 


Columbia 


14 


14 


^" 


1,847 


1,230 


617 


1834, July 19 


Columbia 


12 


12 


^ 


2,400 






1834, July 26 


West Point 


25 


25 


^ 


527 


310 


217 


1834, August 


Bellona 


42 


33 


9 


637 


532 


105 


1834, October 


Pittsburgh 


25 


• 25 










1834, Dec. 


West Point 


6 bra,<s 




6 


1 







*The reasons for the rejection of any gun, shot, or shell, are set forth in full on the detailed 
report made immediately aAer each inspection to the Colonel of Ordnance; which reports ac- 
company this statement. 



57 i[ 16 ] 

L. 

Washington, June 18, 1886. 

Sir: The Commandinj^ General and Inspector General, to whom the 
case of Major Clarke was referred, would make the following report: 

From the statements furnished, it appears that Major Clarke cast for the 
United States, between the lOth of June, 1829, and the 25th June, 1832, 
two hundred and fifty-six 32-poundeT cannon, of which only one burst, 
under th^ inspection and proof of Colonel Bankhead and Lieutenant Sym- 
ington. It also appears that he cast for the United States seventy-two 32- 
pounder cannon, which were inspected and proved by Lieutenant Colonel 
Worth, and Lieutenant Child, the 18th of July, 1833, of which 7 burst ; 
and also 42 on the 7th of August, 1834, which were inspected by Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Worth, and Lieutenant Maynadier, of which 9 burst. On the 
9th of July, 1835, he furnished forty-five 32-pounders, 16 of which were 
of the ^ame parcel inspected by Lieutenant Colonel Worth and Lieutenant 
Maynadier, of which none burst in the proof made by Captain Ripley and 
Lieutenant Maynadier. The whole number of 32pounder cannon fur- 
nished by Major Clarke for inspection and proof, from the 10th June, 1821>, 
and the 9th of July, 1835, amounts to 415; of which 17 burst in the prov- 
ing. Of this number, 16 burst under the inspection and proof of Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Worth. 

Major Clarke states that the iron, casting, and the manufacture of his 
guns, throughout the whole number, were m all respects the same : there- 
fore, and from the fact that of three hundred and one 32-pounders proved 
previous to any inspection made by Lieutenant Colonel Worth, only one 
burst, and froni the further fact, that, of 45 subsequently proved by Captain 
Ripley, none burst, that Lieutenant Cobnel Worth must have committed 
some error in the preparation of the proof-charges, und that they must 
have been much stronger than any chat-^es previously used by Colonel 
Bankhead, or subsequently Ufjcd by Captam Ripley. Hence he infers the 
bursting of his guns, for which he claims remuneration. 

In answer to which it appears, from the inspection reports of Lieutenant 
Colonel Worth, Lieutenant Child, and Lieutenant Maynadier, that the in- 
spection and proof of the guns for which Major Clarke claims remunera- 
tion, and inspected by them, was in all respects conformable to the regu- 
lations prescribed by the Ordnance Department, and precisely the same as 
used for tlie proof of cannon at all other foimdries. Each and all assert, 
with the utmost confidence, thiere could have bi^en no mistake or error 
committed in the preparation of the proof-charges for any part of the guws^ 
proved at the foundry of Major Clarke. 

It, however, appears remarkable, and perhaps extraordinary, that so great 
a difference should appear in the result of the proof of his guns, and that,, 
with the exception of one gun, all should have burst in the two inspec- 
tions made by Lieutetiant Colonel Worth ; and yet we have nothing before 
us to call in question, or in any respect to doubt the accuracy of the in- 
spections or the reports and statements of the inspectors, who we conceive 
could not have had any other motive than a rigid and faithful discharge of 
their duty. 

After a careful investigation of the subject under consideration, we have 
arrived at the conclusion that the proving of the guns referred to, as havinjr 
been bursted by Lieutenant Colonel Worth, was done in conformity with 



1^1 

the established regulations governing the Ordnance Department, and we 
beheve there must have been some defect in the gims which did not stand 
the proof. The fact that so many guns have stood the prescribed proof 
at liellona arsenal, as well as at every other foundry, is a stro^ag presump- 
tion that the proof to which (he guns have been subjected is ^lot too gjeat. 
This is supported by the further evidence thai no complaints of the proof 
being too great has ever been made to the Ordnance Department, by any 
person who contracted V> furnish the Governnient with cannon, but Major 
Clarke. The circumstance to which he has alluded, and to which he ap- 
pears strongly to rely in support of his claim for remuneration, that the 
British prove their iron guns witba less charge tlian the United States, will 
not, we tbiuk, add or give ^rength to his claim. The British prove their 
32'pounders weighing from 6,160 to 6,4% lbs., with 211bs. Soz. powder, one 
shot and two wads. The United States prove the same guns, weighing 
7,5001bs., with '^llbs. 4oz. powder, two shot, and two wndi. The British 
repeat tbo same proof, but the United Stales reduce the 4uantity of powder 
from 21 lbs. 4oz> to 161bs., with two shot and two wads. It may, however, 
be a subject worthy of consideration, whether the proof as ostablished by 
the Ordnance Department ought not to be changed^ so far, at least, as to 
prp¥e with one siipt instead of two. This is suggested fjfom the cir(Him- 
sluQce that it has been found by experience that two shot fired at the same 
time, under a heavy charge, are subject to be broken, arwi when thus 
hioken are liable to cut grooves in the iron as they pass through ^he hove of 
the pieces, and it is possible that the fragments might be so wedged in as 
to burst the gun. 

It is, however, worthy of particulinr notice, tliat the charges used in prov- 
ing the guns in question was less than any proof, by 25 yards, since used 
for the same purpose ; and since the proof charge has been increased, not a 
single gun, as we are informed by the Ordnance Department, has burst, 
under the increased proof-charge, which is now 250 yards. 

We have the honor to be,, sir. 
Very respectfully, 

Your most obedient servants, 

ALEX. MACOMB, 

Major General. 
JOHN E. WOOL, 
lirig. Gen. and Ins, Gen, U. S. Army. 

To the Hon. Lewis Ca.ss, 

Secretary of War. 



M. 

Letter to Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Worthy re/^vlating the proof-charges 
for cannon, based on the standard proof range of 225 yards, 

^Ordnance Office, 
Washington, November 29, 1832. 

Sir : The proof charges of powder, as established by the present regula- 
tions for the proof of the heavy ordnance, are two-thirds of the weight of 
the shot for the first charge, and one-half of the weight of the shot for the 
second charge. But since the strength of the serviceable powder now in 



the magftzines varies so much (as indicated by ttie new eprouvettc) as be- 
tween SiOO and 300 yards, the cradnation of the charges to be used in the 
imwf of cannon, according to this variety in the qualify of the powder, be- 
rumes a matter of importance; for it is obvious that whatever qnalily of 
poii'der is used in the charges, they should be so increased or diminished as 
lo prodnce. in all cases, if possible, the same explosive force upon the gun. 
To effect this, it is necessary that some particular qnahty of powder should 
l»e adopted as a standard, so that, of ihat qnalily the full chains of two- 
thirds and one half the weight of the shot may, in all cases, be used in the 
proof of heavy cannon. As it is not desired at present to deviute from the 
standard heretofore in use in this department, ihat of 2()0 yards by the old 
Rpronvette will still be continued. But as all the powder now in the maga- 
/nies is tested by the new eproiivette, which gives a range about 12J per 
cent, greater than the old one, the standard of 200 yntd^ by this Inst will 
thus become 226 yards by the new epronvette, and this, therefore, will be 
considered, untit iiirther orders, as the proof range of the standard powder ; 
of which, the full charges of two-thirds and one-half the weight of the shot 
will, in all cases when it can be obtained, be used in the proof of heavy 
can>iiKi. 

Bnl as standard pow:ler cannot al ways be obtained, it hence becomes ne- 
cessary to increase or diminish the quantity used in the standard charges, 
.according as the proof range of the powder to be used is less or greater Uiau 
tlie standard proof ran;^. 

To be enabled to make this graduation of the charges, according to the 
iiualityof the powder, an experiment was directed by this department to 
he made with the eprouTclte, at the arsenal in this city, in 1S26 ; the result 
of which is satisfactory, and is as follows : 



mi 




l.i| 




3C„ 


..„„. 


Sl-rUL'NDEH. 


lilt 
lliJl 


t 


il 


1 


ni 
fill 






11} 


Ig^'^a 


l-yj 


hi- 


§ 


vlf,8- 


'iU 


■Si'H 


■Sl-18. 


Um 


isis 


fC^s 


f 


101 


^m 


lii^ 


I'm 


& - o 


^ " 


2 




»• 


I 




Graioa. 


Oz. Grs. 


Oz. gra. 


Yanb. 


PoDUd*. 


Ponnds. 


Pound*. 


Poands. 


ssa.o 


l-»37( 


1 4371 


305 


less' 


1-2. S& 


13.25 


9.18 


<D)3S1.0 


CAll- 


[B)-» 4171 


{Q>'»S 


(H)I7.H 


1U.S4 


l-i.f» 


9. 63 


3fi8.7 




4(1 3[»7i 


271 


J7.97 


13.48 


13.48 


10.11 


388.3 




ti0 3:7( 


2(i0 


18.93 


14.30 


14.30 


10.65 


m.i 




so 357J 


an 


19.98 


14.99- 


14. M 


11. ;a 


4M.3 




liK) a.-)?! 


9*7 


21.17 


15. 8H 


15.88 


11.91 


<'E>137,5 




I»i.5335 


(C)3W 


(F)21.33 


Ki.OO 


16.00 


U.IMi 


461. e 




iJO 3171 


•nn 


'si.so 


l(i.88 


16. K8 


li.66 


«6.fi 




130 307 


an 


23.33 


17.43 


17.42 


13.0-3 


493, G 




140 *)7 


l!tO 


£4.01 


18.01 


18.01 


13.05 


&^.l 




i«ia77i 


IM 


35.74 


19.31 


19.31 


14.47 



[16 



40 



The third colunui shows the charges used, and the fourth cohimn the 
result of the experiment. The ranges are perceived to be so regular as to 
be reduced generally by about 17 yards for every reduction of 20 grains 
in the charge. 

The second column shows the ounce charges of 11 diflerent kinds of 
powder; the ranges correspondiuff, being the same with those in the fourth 
column. The fifth and sixth, and seventh and eighth columns show the 
reduced proof charges for the 32 and 24-pounders, as obtained from the 
data in the other columns. 

To explain the principle on which these reduced charges were obtained, 
it is necessary to observe, first, with regard to the third column, that it in- 
dicates 11 different charges of the same kind of powder, producing II dif- 
ferent ranges, as given in the fourth column ; and that the same ranges are 
also produced by 11 ounce charges of II differmt kinds of powder, as in 
the second column ; the effect of each of these last charges, formed from 
different qualities of powder, being equal to that of its corresponding 
charge in the third column in prodiicing the same range. If, for example, 
we wished to reduce the charge (B) in the third column to such a degree 
as when fired from the eprouvette, it will produce the standard range (C) 
of 225 yards, we would diminish it by (417.3 — 335= ) 82^ grains, out 
tho charge (B), though of a different kind of powder from that of the 
charge (A), is exactly equal to it in effect, as they both produce the same 
range of 288 yards ; if, therefore, in reducing the charge (B) by 82 J grains 
we give it the standard range of 225 yards, we shall, in like manner, by 
reducing its equal, (in effect the charge (A) by a proportional quantity, ob- 
tain a charge of powder (D) (of the same quality with that of (A) which 
will also give the standard range of 225 yards. 

To give an example of the method of obtaining the. charges in the first 
column — 

As the charge B, (417^ grains) : (41 7 J — 335= ) 82^ grains : : charge A. 
( =437A grains) : 86.4 grains, which is the quantity accordinor to which 
the charge (A) ought to ba reduced, in order U> make the reduction propor- 
tional to that of (B) ; 86.4 grains being therefore deducted from charge (A) 
=437^ grains, leaves the charge (D) equal to 351 grains, as seen m the 
table. 

In this manner all the ounce charges, (of the second column,) which are 
taken from 11 different qualities of powder, are reduced to the corres- 
ponding charges in the first column, which lust are all of equal strength 
one with another, each producing the standard range of 225 yards ; the 
standard charge (E) in this column being equal to one ounce, and all above 
it less, and all below it greater, than one ounce. 

We have, therefore, in the first column a series of 11 charges of differ- 
entqualities of powder, (these qualities being indicated in the fourth column.) 
all giving the standard range, viz. 225 yards, and having, therefore, the 
same effect upon the eprouvette; and it is next necessary to find a series 
of proof-charges (for the 32-pounder for example) corresponding to these 
different qualities of powder, and all being equal in effect to the standard 
proof charge (F) 21.33 lbs., and exerting, therefore, the same effect upon 
the gim. Now, as all the reduced proof-charges of the eprouvette in the 
first colunm are equal in effect to that of the standard proof charge (E) ; 
and as all the reduced proof charges for cannon (for example, in the fifth 
column,) ought to be equal in effect to that of the standard proof-charge. 



41 [i6] 

(P) 21.33 lbs.) it is hence evident that these last in column five ought to 
be directly proportional to the former in the first column ; and this is the 
principle on which the charges in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th columns have 
been determined. To give an example : in finding the charge in the fiftfi 
column which corresponds to the range (G) of 288 yards : as the charge 
E= (437.5 grains): D=(35l grains):: P= (21.33 lbs.): H== (17.11 lbs.) : 
which, as seen in the fifth column, is the required reduction of powder 
giving: 288 yards ; and so far the other charges in this statement, and for 
all other cases of the reduction of charges for cannon of other calibers. 

The general principle used in the above statement, in obtaining the 
charges for the proof of catinon by reference to corresponding reduced 
charges of the eprouvette, giving the same range, is esteemed to be the only 
correct one ; and it is believed, if charo^es sq large as these could be tested 
by the balastic pendulum, that the in*f ;il velocities would be found to be 
nearly equal. 

I have 10 direct, in conclusion, that the several charges set forth in the 
5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th columns for the proof of the 32 and 24-pounders, be 
used in the proof of those calibers until further orders, and that no powder 
be hereafter used in the proof of cannon giving a proof range greater than 
290 yards, or less than 190 yards. 

Your report, that you consider the charges of powder used in the latter 
part of the late inspection as insufiScient, has led to the above investigation 
of the subject, and it is now hoped that these charges are established with 
suitable regard to the interest of the Government, and to what, in justice, is 
due to the founder. 

Respectfully, I am, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

GEO. BOMFORD, 



Miijor W. J. Worth, 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvama. 



Colonel of Ordnance. 



No. 1. 



To the honorable the Senate and House of RepresentcUives of the United 

SicUes in Congress assembled: 

The petition of John Clarke, of Virgmia, 

Rkspectfully represents : 

That your petitioner i^ th(5 proprietor of a' cannon foundry and boring 
mills on James river a few miles above the city of Richmond, called the 
Bellona works. He was induced to erect them by the solicitation of the 
Government during the administration of President Madison, for the man- 
ufacture of ordnance for the service of the United States. [See the letter 
of the late President Monroe, addressed to your petitioner aated 29th De- 
cember, 1816, marked A, to which is annexed an extract from Colonel 
Romford's (printed) report to the Secretary of War, dated 29th November. 
1825.1 

Before that time your petititioner had been engaged by the Governme 
of Virginia to form the plan, construot the works, machinery, &c., and 



[ 16 ] 42 

})erintend the operations of the Stale fnanafaetory of afofts, at Richmond ; 
an extensive establishment, in which more than t\?o hundred artificers were 
employed in the manu&cture of small arms and iield artillery, for the mili- 
tia'of Virginia ; and which was continued until the General Oovemment 
took upon itself to supply arms to the militia of the States. 

The iron used at his works is from the upper counties of Virginia, on 
and near James river : f^nd he is thoroughly convinced, by the experience 
of thirty years, and by numerous comparative expt^irnents of the best pig 
iron of Great Britain, and of several of the States of this Union, that the 
James river iron used by him, is superior in strength and toughness to any 
other that he has ever tried. It ischiefly of that iron, mixed and tempered 
by a uniform process, that his guns are made. And he challenges a com- 
parison of them with any others, manufactured either in America or Eu- 
rope. [See the accompanying letters of the late Colonel Decius Wadswortb, 
then at the head of the ordnance corps, to the Secretary of War, marked 
B and C ; also, letters atid certificates (marked D« E, F, G, H) of the late 
(Japtain John Hills, of the ordnance corps — an officer highly quaUfieddy 
many years of practical experience, in the inspection and proof of ord- 
nance] The original letti^rs may bi^ seen by reference to the records of 
the War and Ordnance offices. 

When 32-pounder cannon were required for the fortifications, your peti- 
tioner made the first or pattern gun ; and when tiie first parcel thcireof, con- 
sisting of 58 guns, were proved, in June, 1829, one of them was burst, with 
too strong a charge, before there was any experience in 'respect to the 
strength of the proof-charges proper for those guns. 

The whole number of 32-pounder cannon for fortifications, manufactured 
by your petitioner previous to the end of the year 1836, is four hundred 
and forty -six. The greater part of those guns were proved at different pe- 
riods between the years 1828 and 1833, under the regulations of the Ord- 
nance Department, and by skilful proving officers; and save the single 
gun of the first parcel aforesaid, not a gun was burst. But after the forma- 
tion of the new ordnance corps, the inspection and proof of ordnance for 
the service of the United States was pommitted to. an officer newly initiated 
into that corps, and without the aid of experience in the proof of ordnance ; 
he burst sixteen of those excellent 32-pounder cannon. Your petitioner, 
witnessing the unprecedented destruction of cannon of as good quality as 
he ever made, objected to the continuation of the proof by that officer; and 
he accordingly discontinued the proof, leaving sixteen of the same parcel 
of guns unproved, which 16 guns, together with 60 others, (making seven- 
ty ^ix 32-poundcr cannon,) have «ince that time been proved by another 
proving officer, and not a gun of the whole number burst. 

All those 446 guns were made, not only at the same works, but of the 
same pattern, in the same manner, of the same kind of iron, and by the 
same skilful artificers. And when it is consivlered that, save the single gun 
of the first parcel aforesaid, the whole 446 ^uns withstood proof, excepting 
the 16 guns which were bursted by the said newly appointed proving offi- 
cer, and that it was only by him that any of those guns were bursted, either 
before or after he acted as proving officer, the conclusion is irresistible 
that the guns proved by him were subjected to an unusual and excessive 
test, and that the destruction of the 16 bursted guns was occasioned by 
some error or defect in the proof, arising from mistake, or the want of ex- 
perience of the proving officer. This conclusion is rendered still more ir- 



43 [ 16 ] 

resistible by the fact ihat the proofs made by hi in were attended with evi- 
dences of excessive violence, not only unusual, but, in the experience of 
your petitioner, wholly without example. The recoil of the guns while 
undei^oing proof was nearly double what had ever been before, or has 
been since. A fragment of one of the bursted guns, weighing several 
hundred pounds, was thrown several hundred yards from the proving 
ground, through one of the principal buildings of the United Stales 
arsenal ; and many other fragments were thrown to still greater distances. 

Your petitioner dees not desire to say any thing derogatory of the char- 
acter of the officer who burst the 16 guns. But, however well qualified 
fot the performance of other duties, he certainly was not experienced in the 
proof of ordnance ; and, in the opinion of your petitioner, there is no ser- 
vice in which the aid of experience is more necessary, to counteract the 
dangerous errors to which the present mode of proving ordnance is liable. 

VVhen your petitioner was indnced, by the highest officers of the Govern- 
ment, to build the Bellona works for the manufacture of ordnance for the 
United Startes, it was certainly intended that the pieces of artillery made at 
those works should undergo the usual proof of similar pieces at works 
where the greatest experience in the proving of cannon had been attained ; 
and that tl^ inspection and proof thereof should be conducted by men well 
qualified by practical experience in the performance of that important ser- 
vice. Whether that has been done in the case now submitted for your con- 
sideration, you will decide. The Bellona works and machinery are con- 
structed in the most permanent manner, and on the most improved plan ; 
and the records of the War and Ordnance offices will s-how that, according 
to the opinions of the most experienced and able judges, the pieces of ord- 
nance mauufactued at those works are, for quality of metal, neatness and 
exactness of execution, and strengt^i, equal if not superior to any pieces of 
artillery made in the United States. 

Your petitioner has faithfully performed his part of the undertaking, at 
great expense, and with profits inferior to the interest upon the original cost 
of his works. And, as his guns when made are inspected and proved un- 
der the sole management and control of an agent of the Government, your 
petitioned conceives himself entitled to indenmity against loss or damage 
iiappening by reason of either the error or the want of experience oj tne 
proving offi)Qer. 

In the month of April last, your petitioner applied for compensation for 
the J6 bursted guns to Qen. Cass, Secretary of War ; and as that application 
was founded upon the inexperience and unfitness of an officer who was 
appointed by the ordnance corps to prove the ordnance for the Government, 
it was expected, by your petitioner that the Secretary of War, after his mak- 
ing full investigation, would decide the oase bimseli, not that he would refer 
it to the ordnance corps by whom ttie said proving officer was appointed, 
and who^ it might be presimied, would be unwilling to admit the fallibility 
of a proving officer who was but recently appointed by that corj)s. But to 
the astonishment of your petitioner, the Secretary of War (General Cass^ 
did transmit the papers and refer the case of your petitioner to Colonel 
Bomford, the head of the Ordnance corps, for hisreport thereon. That offi- 
cer, however, declined making a report, under an apprehension, perhaps, 
that, if he should make a report unfavorable to your petitioner, he might be 
accused of injustice ; and if he should make a report favorable to your pe* 
titioner, it would be an acknowledgement of the incompetency of said prov- 
ing officer, and would reflect an imjiutation on that department itself, for 



[ 16 ] 44 

having appointed such an officer, to perform duties so highly important to 
this nation. He therefore caused the said proving officer and his assistants, 
by whom the guns were bursted, to attend in person at the ordnance office; 
and after obtaining letters from them in behalf of themselves^ those letters, 
with the two letters which your petitioner had addressed to the Secretary 
of War, were transmitted by Colonel Bomford (without any written report 
from himsclt) to the Secretary of War, who afterwards caused those papers 
to be sent to Generals Macomb and Wool, tor consideration and report ; and 
near the termination of the last session of Cono:ress. those gentlemen made 
a report. But that report was founded upon the assertions made in the let- 
ter of Lieutenant Colonel Worth, the very officer and hi^ assistants who 
destroyed the said 16 guns ; and, so far as it respects your petitioner, the 
report of the two Generals is, in efiect, the report of the said Lieutenant 
Colonel Worth, v/ho doubtless made every effort in 'his power to free him- 
self from the imputation of being unqualined for the inspection and proof 
of ordnance. 

But he not only thinks himself qualified for proving cannon, but that he 
is also qualified to judge of the qualities of the metals proper for their man- 
ufacture ; for he says in his letter to Colonel Bomford, upon which letter 
Generals Macomb and Wool have founded their report, that " there was no 
error except in the qualiti/ of his metal /' by which he endeavors to induce 
a belief that the guns were burst in consequence of the bad quality of the 
i"aetal, and not by any error or want of qualification in himself. His opin- 
ion, however, is in direct conflict with the opinions of numerous persons, 
who, by their long actual use of iron, have become the best judcres of its 
quality. The BeTlona works have been in operation about twenty years, 
and numerous pieces of ordnance, of vadous descriptions, for the sea and 
the land service, have been made there, and proved by many well qualified 
officers ; and they, as well as others who are considered to be the best 
judges, have declared that iron to be of the toughest and very best quality. 
Lieutenant Colonel Worth stands abne in his opinion, which I never knew 
until I saw it mentioned in his said lelter to Colonel Boinford ; and had it 
not been necessary to exonerate himself from the charge of incompetency, 
he perhaps never would have thought of advancing such a churge against 
the quality of the iron. ' ' 

In the same letter, he has also asserted that your petitioner " assisted in 
weiffhinff the proving-charges and toadiffff the ^i/7/v'?," which your peti- 
tioner positively denies, and solemnly declares that he did not assist in 
weighing the proof charges, nor did he knowthe quantity of powder which 
Tiieutenaut Colonel Worth and his assistants put into his proof-charo-es, 
nor did he assist in loading the guns ; which duties belong exclusively to 
the proving officer, and with which j^our petitioner never did, on any occa- 
sion, meddle or interfere. 

The eprouvette used in the United States for testing the strength of orim- 
powder, is a small mortar, with a caliber sm'ted to fit a 24-pbund cannon 
ball, at the bottom of which caliber there is a small chamber for containint*" 
om ounce avoirdupois of powder, which, when the axis of the caliber is 
placed at an angle of 45 degrees, must propel the 24Ib. ball 2tK) yards, 
(measured horizontally) otherwise the powder would not be deemed to pos- 
sess sufficient strength for standard powder. Such was the kind of proof 
to which powder was subjected in the year 1816 ; and the same kind of 
eprouvette is used at this time. 

This mode of testing the strength of gun -powder, when the eprouvette 



U [ 16 ] 

is in its best condition and without windage, is subject to great variation 
and inaccuracy,, in consequence of the density or the rarity of the air 
through which the ball is projected. But, by frequent use, thecaliber of the 
eprouvette is soon worn larger^ by the friction of the ball ; so that much 
windage is the consequence, and a considerable portion of the force of that 
small quantity of powder is lost in the windage between the ball and the 
caliber of the eprouvette. And as the distance to wliich the ball is propelled 
depends much upon the greater or lesser degree of the windage, and as the 
windage is always increased by the use and consequent wear and enlarge- 
ment of thecaliber, the real strength of gun-powder cannot be ascertained 
by such eprouvettes. 

The calibers of the eprouvettes are so much enlarged that a 251b. ball 
instead of a 24 lb. ball became necessary to fill the caliber ; and as the weight 
of the ball has been increased, the weight of the powder which propels it, 
should be increased in the same proportion. But that has not been done, 
and the one ounce of powder must be of such strength as to propel a25lb. 
ball 200 yards, whereas it was formerly required to be of sufficient strength 
to propel a 241b. ball 200 yards. 

But vithin a few years the standard range by the eprouvette was in- 
creased, and the powder was required to be of such strength that one ounce 
thereof should propel the 251h. ball 225 yards instead of 200, as formerly. 
And more recently, the Ordnance Department has again increased the 
standard range by the eprouvette ; and the powder is required to be of such 
a degree^ of strength that one ounce thereof shall propel the 251b. ball 
250 yards, instead of 225, to which, not long before, it had been increased 
from 200 yards. 

A 42-pounder cannon (the largest class of our guns) requires for one 
proof-charge 281bs. or 448 ounces of powder ; ana can it be imagined 
that, by a 448th part of such a charge, (only one ounce of powder,) fired 
from such eprouvettes, and under the circumstances above stated, the real 
strength of gunpowder can be ascertained. 

The British nation, who have manufactured more cannon, and had more 
experience in the proof, as well as the actual use of it, than any other nation, 
prove their cannon with only one cannon ball in each proof-charge. For 
example, they prove a 42-pounder cannon by firing twice a proof charge 
of 25 Z6*s of powder^ one bally and two wads. The Americans (less 
experienced) prove a 42-pounder cannon with 28/65. of powder, two balls, 
and two wads, in the first proof-charge ; and in the second proof -charge, 
2llbs. of powder, two balls, and two wads. Thus there are 3lbs. of pow- 
der more, and double the weight of shot, used in our first proof-charge 
(which is the most straining charge) than there is in the first proof-charge 
for the British gun ; which the books on giinnery will show, and they shall 
be seen if required. 

The officers who prove ordnance for the United States have informed 
your petitioner that they were directed by the Ordnance Department that, 
for any excess of strength in the jpowder beyond the standard range of the 
ball from the eprouvette, the quantity or weight thereof should be reduced 
in the proof-charge in proportion to the strength of the powder. Your pe- 
titioner, however, knows not by what rule the reductions are made. 

But such a procedure, instead of affording a remedy, is attended with 
most destructive effects, which your petitioner will endeavor to explain : 
Suppose the strength of the powder used in the proof of cannon should be 
double as great as the strength of standard powder ; then, instead of the fulj 



[16 J 4« 

weight and bulk of a proof-charge of standard powder, only one-half of that 
weight and bulk is taken of the extra strong powder, and made a proof- 
charge, instead of a proof charge of standard powder. That proof-charge 
of extra strong powder having all the strength, and occupying only half 
the space or number of superficial inches within the caliber, which i^ould 
have been occupied by a proof-charge of standard powder, every superficial 
inch, therefore, of the caliber occupied by the extra strong powder, is sub- 
jected to double the degree of stress or straining force that it would have 
been subjected to, if the gun had been proved with powder of standard 
strength. And it is not to be expected that cannon, whose thickness of 
metal is proportioned to sustain the strength of standard powder, shoitld 
withstana tJie force of powder of double that strength. 

In Great Britain, whenever the powder exceeds the standard strength, it 
is mixed with a weaker powder, so as to bring it to the standard degree of 
strength. [See Beauchant's Naval Gunner, published in London in the 
yecur 1829.] And it is much to be regretted, that the same method is not 
invariably practiced in this country. But tlie powdejr used in the proof of 
ordnance, here, is mu6h stronger than even the very high degree of 
strength r^^qxrired for standard powder by the Ordnance Department ; and 
wheiT this extra strong powder is sent to prove cannon, no weaker powder 
is sent to be mixed with that which is excessively strong, so as to produce 
the standard degree of strength ; and the proving officers proceed to prove 
the guns with the excessively strong powder alone, or unmixed with weaker 
powder, in the manner already mentioned^ which is attended wfth most 
ruinous effects. 

It is found that two shot, in one char^ fired from a cannon, range to 
only half the distance of one shot, witli ilie same charge of powder, and nt 
the same eilevation ; therefore, in service, it is only for short distances that 
caunon are double shotted, and then they are fired vvith less than one-third 
of the weight of their proof-charges in powder ; otherwise, the balk split 
within the guns, and the recoil is too violent. [See Beauchant's, also Adyes 
Gunnery, respecting the charges for cannon, and the splitting or breaking 
of shot, which shall be seen if required.] It having been demonstrated that 
the shot split and break in pieces within the gun when double shotted and 
fired with less than one third of its proof-charge in powder, it is most evident 
that the gun, when double shotted and fired with its full proof-charge of pou-- 
der, will produce effects vastly more inj^urious ; and why, therefore, should 
guns, when subjected to proof, be double shotted? It is, doubtless, for the 
reasons above stated, that the British gunners prove their cannon with only 
one shot in the. proof-charge, which is demonstrated to be fully sufficient 
for testing the strength of guns, without overstraining them ; and, in the 
opinion of your pet iiioner, that injurious practice ought to be abandoned 
in our country. 

Two cannoir balls can touch each other only in a single point ; and, in 
the caliber of a gun, when subjected to proof with an excessively strong 
proof charge, that small point, unable to withstand the immense ana instan- 
taneous impetus with which the hindmost shot is driven against the fore- 
most while it is at rest, the shot inevitably break (as is well Imown, and 
may be seen if required) into conical pieces, or rounding wedges, which, 
being driven into the shot, split tlieni, and, by enlarging their diameters, 
burst the guns ; and when the guns thus proved do not happen to burst, 
the angular pieces of the broken shot driven out with so great a degree of 



47 



[1«] 



violenee as to ctit such deep' grooved iii their calibres as to render them 
unfit for service. Sudi was the case in relation to five 24-pounder cannon 
made at the Bellona ivorks for our sloops of war ; and although those ex* 
cellent guns were ruined and useless, they were paid for by the Navy De- 
partment, as well as other guns which did burai with such excessive proof. 

To prevent the evils resulting from the breaking of the two shot in the 
caliber of the gun while undergoing proof with excessive charges, recourse 
was had to proving with one shot of cylindrical form, but of double the 
weigld of one rofind shoL Yet the guns thus proved were also bnrsted, 
and will: inevitably burst with die great excess of strength in the charges 
with whioh they are proved: 

Some yeani past, the Ordnance I>epfirtnient caused ITepfouvetles tobe 
made.fQ^ proving the gnu^powder manufactured for the United Slates; and 
tlie following tMe- is a list of them, and their several respective ranges^ 
furnished from that department, and is as follows: 

Proqf ranges of 17 eprovtetteSi 



No. 




Yarda^ 


1 


range 


295| 


2 


u 


•274 


3 


ic 


•312 


4 


It 


309 


5 


u 


289 


6 


n 


289^ 




13 
14 
15 
16 
17 



range 

<( 
li 




Each of these 17 eprouvettes give a different range to the 25 lb. ball : 
and between the highest range, i. e. 312 yards, and the lowest range, 274 
yards, there is a difference of 38 yards. Your petitioner was informed 
that when those eprouvettes were made, each of them was fired a consi- 
derable number of times with one ounce of powder of the same kind and 
strength; and there being a difierence in the distance to which the ball 
Wiis propelled at each of those fires, the medium of those distances was 
taken as the range of that particular eprouvette ; and so on, respectively, 
throughout the whole of the 17 eprpuveltes. 

As the eprouvettes all differ in their respective ranges, how is the stand* 
ard strength of powder to be ascertained by them? The proving oflicers 
were directed to reduce the.quantitv of powder in the proof charge in pro- 
portion to the excess of the strength of the powder. But by which of the 
eprouvettes, and what number of yards of tfi0 range of that particular 
eprouvette^ is t&be taken as the standard range or distance on which they 
are (o make the reduction ? 

Your petitioner has been informed that the 17 eprouvettes (on each of 
which is engraved its number, from 1 to 17, as per the above table) have 
been distributed; one to each of the United States arsenals, and one to 
each of the manufactories of cannon. Now, the range for standard powder 
last adopted by the Ordnance Department (i. e. 250"yardB) being deducted 
from the respective ranges of the eprouvettes, (all of which differ,) and the 
excess or overplus number of yards being taken to determine how much 
the proof-charge of extra strong powder shall be reduced, there conse- 



[ 16 ] 48 

f[uentljr is a considerable difference in the strength of the proof-charges 
used in proving cannon at the several cannon foundries at which they are 
made. At some of those foundries, the largest class of guns may be sub- 
jected to proof with several poirads more of extra strong powder in the 
proof-charge than gims of the same description are proved with at other 
foundries. 

The manufacture of gun-jwwder has been greatly improved within a 
few years ; and the great importance of that material, in the defence of our 
national rights, requires that its best or most advantageous effects in the 
use of cannon and other fire-arms, should be fully ascertained. That de- 
gree of strength in powder which will produce the longest ranges or 
greatest distances to which balls from cannon can be propelled, may, by 
experiments, be ascertained ; and when ascertained, that degree (your peti- 
tioner humbly conceives) should; be established as the standard rate of 
strength for gun-powder. 

By the skilful labors of scientific men, under the authority and patronage 
of the British Government, the art of gunnery and the proof of ordnance 
have been brought to greater perfection in that country than in any other. 
Those skilful men, after numerous experiments, have demonstratively as- 
certained the different velocities, ranges, and effects of cannon balls, when 
propelled by great, by medium, ana by small charges of powder ; and 
that, in consequence of the immense resistance of the air in great velocities, 
the following effects are produced : 

Maxim 4. " The ranges of pieces at a given elevation are no just mea- 
sures of the velocity of the shot ; for the same piece, fired successively at an 
invariable elevation, with the powder, bullet, and every other circumstance 
as nearly the same as possible, will range to very different distances." 

Maxim 7. " That action of the air, by which it retards the motion of 
projectiles, is, in many instances, an immense force ; and hence, the motion 
of these resisted bodies is totally different from what has been generally 
supposed." 

Maxim 8. " This retarding force of the air acts \inth different degrees of 
violence, according as the projectile moves with a greater or lesser velocity ; 
and the resistances observe this law, that to a velocity which is double 
another, the resistance (within certain limits) is four-fold, and to a treble 
velocity, nine-fold ; and so on." 

Maxim 13. *^If the same piece of cannon be successively fired at an 
invariable elevation, but with various charges of powder, the greatest 
charge being the whole weight of the bullet in powaer, and the least not 
less than one-fifth of that weight, then, if the elevation be not less than 
eight or ten degrees, it will be found that some of the ranges, with the least 
charge, will exceed some of thoM with the greatest." 

Maxim 20. " No field piece ought, at any time, to be loaded with more 
than one-sixth, or, at the utmost, one-fifth of the weight of its bullet in 
powder ; nor should the charge of any battering piece exceed one-third of 
the weight of its bullet." 

In the American edition of the New Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, under the 
head of Gunnery, see the above quoted practical maxims relative id the 
effects and management of artillery—the flight of shot and shells. 

Asjthe great and variable resistance of the air prevents the strength of 
powder from being ascertained by the distance to which balls are thrown, 
even by repeated discharges from the same piece of long cannon^ loaded 



49 [16] 

*^"ctch lime w^itli the same weight and quality of poxvder, how can it be 
imagined that its strength can b3 ascertained by our eprouvette? A small 
inortar, with a caliber suited to a 25lb. shot^ and by the ignitioa of only 
one ounce of powder in that m )rtar, whose caliber is only a few inches 
lon^, and in which the powder cannot exert its full force in consequence 
of Its shortness. 

In preference to so uncertain a method for proving powder, as projecting 
a ball through the ever- varying tand elastic atmosphere to a given distance, 
some experienced mm in Great Britain have found that a more decisive 
experiment is, to try the penetration of the bullet into some uniform sub- 
starrce placed a small distance before the muzzle of the piece. It would, 
however, be difficult to procure a perfectly uniform substance at every 
place where cannon are proved. 

But the mode most eligible, in the humble opinion of your petitioner, 
would be, to cause the force of a pound, or perhaps less, of powder to act 
against gravitation, (which never varies,) by throwing up, vertically, a 
heavy weight of iron from a piece of cannon, or a tube of iron, whose 
length should be equal to the length of the caliber of the cannon, which 
may be easily done, and would certainly be much more accurate than 
the method now practised. 

The standard rate of strength for British gun-powder is as follows: 

The powder must be of such strength, that 4 ounces thereof shall propel, 
from an eight-inch mortar, at forty-five degrees elevation, a 68lb. iron ball 
380 feet, or 126 yards and 2 feet. 

[See Morton's British Gunner, publislied in London, in the year 1828.] 

The standard rate of strength adopted by the Ordnance Department 
for gun-powder for the United States, is as follows : 

The powder must be of such strength, that one ounce thereof shall pro- 
pel, from a mortar of suitable caliber, at forty-five degrees elevation, a 
251b. iron ball 750 feet, or 250 yards. 

Thus it is seen that the strength of powder, required by the Ordnance 
Department, is of considerable more than double the strength of British 
standard powdsr. Moreover, that department requires that the cannon 
shall be proved with double the weight of metal or shot in our proof- 
charges that is used in the British proof-charges. 

And with such tremendous charges as are used in proving cannon for 
the service of the United States, the guns are ruined ; as those of them 
which do not burst, while undergoing proof, are so overstrained as to be 
liable to burst when in actual service. 

A founder of cannon for the United States, after incurjpi«|f Ae heavy 
expense of constructing his works and machinery, is annually under the 
necessity of selecting and procuring large suppIliBs of the purest and toughest 
iron, to the amount of many thousands of dollars ; and when made into 
pieces of ordnance, the amount is greatly increased by the price of the coal 
and other materials, and the labor of many skilful artificers employed in 
the manufacture. And if this great amount of the founder's property is to 
be at the mercy of a capricious or incompetent person, who may get himself 
appointed a proving officer, such person or officer has it in his power to 
rum or make a bankrupt of the founder, who has no alternative but an 
appeal to Congress for justice and relief. 

The two letters which your petitioner addressed to (General Cass) the 
Secretary of .War; also, die report of Generals Macomb and Wool, and 
4 



[16] 50 

the letter of the proving officer, Lieutenant Colonel Worth, to Colonel 
Bomford. upon which letter, that report was founded, accompany this pe- 
tition, and are marked I, J, K, L. 

Since the application was made to the Secretary of War last spring, 
your petitioner has obtained certificates, on oath, of men of high respccta- 
hility, and of undoubted veracity, who have had great experience in the 
manufacture, as well as the inspection and proof of ordnance. They have 
witnessed the inspection and proof of all the pieces of ordnance manufac- 
tured at the Bellona works for many years past, including the ffuns proved 
by Lieutenant Colonel Worth at those works, and their several affidavits, 
marked Nos. 1, 2, 3, accompany this petition. 

As no rehef has been given by the War Department, your petitioner now 
appeals to the justice of his country, and prays your honorable bodies to 
pass a law granting him indemnity for the injury which he has sustained. 

JNO. CLARKE. 



(I.)— No. 2. 

Washington City, April 20, 1836. 

Sir : I am the proprietor of a cannon foundry and borhig mills on James 
river, about ten miles above the city of Richmond, called the Bellona works, 
which were built at the soHcitation of the Government, during the admin- 
istration of President Madison, for the manufacture of ordnance for the 
service of the United States. [See President Monroe's letter, marked A, 
addressed to the subscriber, and dated 29th December. 1816.] 

Previous to my engnjjements wiih the F^ederal Government, I was en- 
gaged by the State Government of Virginia to form the plan, erect the w^orks, 
machinery, (fee, and superintend the operations of the Virginia manufac- 
tory of arras, (an extensive establishment, in which upwards of two hun- 
dred artificers were employed in tfie manufacture of muskets, rifles, swords, 
pistols, field artillery, &c., for the militia of Virginia,) which was continued 
until the Federal Government determined to supply arms for the militia of 
the States, at the expense of the nation. 

The manufacture of good cannon requires the most'strong and tenacious 
or tough metal; judiciously mixed and prepared for the purpose ; and from 
numerous experiments made by me for te.sting the strength and tenacit)'^ of 
the best pig iron made in Great Britain, as well as the pig iron made in 
many of the States of this Union, I found that the pig iron made in some 
of the tipper counties of Virginia, bordering on James river, possesses a 
greater d^^e-of strength and toughness than any other iron I have yet 
tried, in the course of more than thirty ye^irs' experience in the manu&c- 
ture of that material into all the varieties of ordnance for land and sea 
service. And it is of this James river iron, chiefly, that I manufacture 
cannon for the service of the United States. 

Besides various other experiments for testing the strength of the guns I 
manufacture, I reduced the size of a field-piece, (a 6-pounder cannon) after 
it had been completed and proved, by turning (as in a lathe) one inch in depth 
from its whole exterior surface, thus rendering it two inches less in its di- 
ameter than when 'it was proved, which made it a thinner and lighter gim 
of its caliber than I ever heard or read of. Thus reduced in substance or 
thickness of metal, I proved this gun with varions charges of powder and 
1 nil. increasing the strength of each charge at every fire. Finding that it 



51 [16] 

did not burst, I then fired this thin light gun witii the full proof-charge, 
which it withstood, and I repeatedly fired it wilhthe full proof-charges for 
heavy 6-pounder cannon, all of which it withstood ; but they caused this 
light gun tp recoil about thirty-six feet at each fire. This little gun, 
which is now quite too light tor actual service, had, before 1 reduced its sub- 
stance, been inspected and proved by the proving officer of the Ordnance 
Department, and would have been received by him for the service of the 
United States: but I determined to sacrifice the giui, to enable me to test 
the strength of the metal I use iu the fabrication of cannon. Col. Decius 
VVadsworth, then at the head of the Ordnance Department, on being in- 
formed of these facts by the proving officer of that department, (who had 
proved the gun before it was reduced in size and thickness, and had also 
witnessed t\ie effects of all the proof charges after that reduction,) requested 
me to send the little gun to the Ordnance Department, which I did ; and 
after it arrived there it was repeatedly fired with full proof-charges for 
heavy 6-pounder cannon, all of which it withstood ; and since that period 
it has remained at the United States arsenal, on Greenleaf's Point, in the 
city of Washington, where it may now be seen. 

i mention these facts to show the great strength and tenacity of the iron 
employed by me in the manufacture of cannon, between which and similar 
pieces manufactured any where else, either in America or Europe, I should 
ha happy to witness a comparative inspection and proof hi/ compeCenl 
judges. By sucli a comparative inspection and proof, it would be found 
that the quality of metal, neatness and exactness iu the execiUion of the 
work, and strength of tlie guns when subjected to proof, are at least equal 
to any gwn^ used in the military or naval service of- the nation ; in sup- 
port of which opinion, 1 beg leave to refer you to Col. Decius Wads worth's 
letters to the Secretary of War, dated llth August, 1818, and lOth July, 
1S20, copies of which (marked B and C) accompany this communication. 
I also request your attention to the accompanying copies of reports and cer- 
tificates of Lieut. Hills, late a captain in the ordnance corps, (an officer of 
great experience in the inspection and proof of ordnance.) dated 28th 
August, 1817, (marked D and E ;) 27th June, 1820, (marked F;) 5ih Sep- 
tember, 1821, (marked G;) 12th September, 182K (marked H.) 

Cannon for our national defence should be fabricated in the best man- 
ner, of the best materials, and should be inspected and proved by men of 
clear, sound judgment, and much experience iu testing their strength. If 
they be tested by proof-charges loo severe ^ the giuis become overstrained, 
are rendered less strong, and more liable to burst when in actual service : 
it being found that when guns burst on being proved, they are scrimich , 
overstrained by the first proof-charjges that they generally burst with the 
second proof-charges, which are considerably less strong than the first proof- 
charges, by which they were overstrained. 

The pieces of ordnance manufactured by me for the United States, have 
usually been inspected and proved by gentlemen qualified by long experi- 
ence in the inspection and proof of ordnance. But after the formation of 
the new ordnance corps, officers newly initiated into that corps, without 
the aid of experience in the inspection and proof of ordnance, were author- 
ized to inspect and test the quality of the guns required for national de- 
fence ; which has already been attended with deep injury, as many pieces 
of excellent cannon have been burst by proof-charges of excessive strength, 
and those guns which do not burst when prov^ with such charges arc 



[16] 



5-2 



rendered unsafe when used in actual service, tliey having been overstrained 
by such excessively strong proof-charges. 

When 32-pounder cannon were required for our fortifications,! made the 
lirst or pattern gun ; and when the first parcel thereof were proved, in 
June, 1829, one of them burst, before any experience was had in relation 
to the proof-charges proper for them, which was the only gun that burst out 
of 415, except sixteen 32-pounder cannon, (excellent guns,) which were burst 
and destroyed by excessive proof-charges, used by n newly appointed oflS- 
cer ; unquestionably an accomplished one in other matters, though certainly 
inexperienced on the proof of cannon. On witnessing such unprece- 
dented destruction of cannon of the best quality, I objected to a continua- 
tion of the proof with such tremendous proof-charges ; and when the 
otDcer de5:isted, he left unproved sixteen of the 32-pounder cannon, which 
he intended to have proved ; which sixteen guns were afterwards proved 
by Capt. Ripley, with twenty-nine other such guns subsequently manufac- 
tured, (making forty-five 32-pounder cannon,) without bursting a single 



gun. 



These pieces of ordnance were all manufactured in the same manner, 
of the same kind of iron, and by the same skilful artificers. And the fol- 
lowing statement, which accords with the documents and reports in the 
Ordnance Department, shows the periods at which, and the persons by 
whom, the 415 pieces of cannon were proved : 



No. of 
proof. 


32poiuider cannon proved by 


Date of report. 


No. 
proved. 

58 
29 
84 
24 
16 
45 


No. 
burst. 


1st 

3d 
4ih 
5th 
6th 


Col. Bankhead, a.««isted by Lieut. Symington 
Do. do. do. 
Do. do. do. 
Do. do. do. 
Do. do. do. 
Do. do. do. 

Ma^'or Worth, a.ssisied by Lieut. Child 
Major Worth, assisted by Lieut. Maynadier 

Capt. Ripley, assisted by Lieut. Maynadier 


June 10, 1829 
Oct. 28, 1829 
June 20, 1830 
Dec. 21, 1830 
June 7, 1831 
June 25, 1832 

July 18, 1833 
Aug. 7, 1834 

July 9, 1835 


I 









256 


1 


7lh 

8th 


72 
43 


7 
9 


9ih 


114 
45 


16 




256 32-pounder cannon were proved by Col. Bankhead ; one burst, of the 
first parcel provfed. 
45 32-pounder cannon were proved by Capt. Ripley ; none burst. 

301 32-pounder cannon were proved by Col. Bankhead and Capt. Ripley. 
114 32-pounder cannon were proved by Major Worth, and sixteen were 
burst. 

415 32-pounder cannon ; all which have been proved as above stated. 

The British nation, which has perhaps manufactured more cannon, and 
TasA more experience in the proof, as well as the use of it, than any other 



53 [ 1« ] 

nation, prove cannon with only one cannon-ball in the proof-charge; while 
the Americans, less experienced than the British, prove cannon with two 
cannon-balls in the proof charge ; thus subjecting the gun to be strained 
by a force twice as great as that of the British proof-charge, and vastly 
more powerful than it can, in any circumstances, be required to bear in 
actual service. For short distances, guns are sometimes double-shotted ; 
but the two shot are not propelled by a force greater than that of the com- 
mon service charge of powder, which is not more than half the force of 
the proof-charge ; and, with that degree of force, the two shot will not over- 
strain the gun, nor will the shot be split in pieces by their contact within 
the gun. 

England has long employed the acute ingenuity of her most scientific 
and skilful experimenters in the art of gimnery, to ascertain all the facts 
which relate to the fabrication and proof of cannon, as well as its useful- 
ness in the service for which it is intended. And, when we consider the 
effect of double-shotting guns, and the consequent spotting of the shot, even 
with the moderate charges of powder mentioned in books of recent date on 
British gimnery, we are inevitably brought to the conclusion that they have 
ascertained, by actual experiments, that guns tested by one shot in the 
proof-charge (as adopted by them) fully and effectually tests the strength of 
the gun, without its being weakened by it, and that the great superfluoui^ 
force of the American proof-charge has the injurious effect of overstraining 
and destroying the strength of the gun. 

Theofficersof our navy have sometimes burst good cannon by excessive 
proof charges, which is well known to the officers by whom the guns were 
proved. I was, however, paid by the Navy Department for the bursted 
cannon. 

And if further proof be wanthig of the excellent quality of the metal 
used by me in the fabrication of cannon, or that the proof-charges were ex- 
cessive, it may be found in the examination of five 24-pounder cannon, 
made some years ago for sloops of war, and which are now lying at the 
Bellona works. These guns did not burst, although they were proved 
with charges of excessive strength ; but such deep grooves were cut into the 
calibers of the guns, by the angular pieces of shot split or broken within the 
guns by the excessive force of the proof charges, that those excellent pieces 
of cannon were deemed unfit for service by the officer who proved them. 
They were paid for by the Navy Department : because guns manufactured 
for the Government are inspected and proved by the agents of the Govern- 
ment ; and if they are burst or destroyed in pursuance of improper instruc- 
tions given by those agents who dictate the mode of proof, the strength and 
composition of the proof-charges, &c., or if they are burst by other agents, 
who, by improperly proving, ourst the cannon, the loss is to be sustained 
by the Government, whose agents have improperly caused the destruction 
of the guns. 

In the autumn of IS33, soon after Major Worth had destroyed a parcel 
of my 32-pounder cannon, of as good quality as were ever made, I applied 
for payment for them at the Ordnance Department, and was informed by 
Col. Bomford that the Secretary of War was so much occupied that he 
could not at that time attend to my case, but imagined that he would find 
leisure to do so' after a week or ten days. I then went to Philadelphia, and 
after about two weeks, I returned to Washington, and again applied at the 
Ordnance office, and was informed by Col. Bomford that the Secretary of 



[ 16] 



54 



War was then more busily occupied than on my first application, being 
engaged in making arrangements with the Governor of Alabama relative 
to Indian afiairs. 1 therefore returned to Virginia ; and since that period 1 
have had no convenient opportunity of making further application for pay- 
ment. I now beg leave to request that payment may be made to me for 
the said sixteen pieces of cannon, destroyed by excessive proof-charges. 
As 1 am now in Washington, if any further information or explanation 
shall be deemed necessary I will endeavor to procure it, if required. 

1 have the honor to be. 

Your obedient servant, 

J NO. CLARKE. 
The Honorable the Skcretary of War. 

P. S. — The powder used by Capt. Ripley, who did not burst a single 
gvn, was part of the same parcel or lot of powder used by Major Worth, 
who burst sixteen guns. 



(j.)_No. 3. 

Washington City, May 9, 1836. 

Sir; Colonel Bomford, within a few days past, handed me a paper, of 
which the following is a copy, marked with inverted commas ; and stated 
that he intended to present it to you, without making any report himself on 
the subject to which it relates. 

"Ordnance Office, 
" Washington, April 29, 1836. 

"Colonel: Having been present at the inspection and proof in August, 
" 1834, as assistant to Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Worth, of forty-two 32- 
" pounder iron cannon manufactured at Bellona foundry, Virginia, I am 
"enabled to give the following stateTient of facts in relation thereto : 

" The powder used in the proof of all these gims was of Dupont's man- 
"ufacture, and was carefully proved in tke presence and under the direc- 
"tionof the inspecting officers, immediately previous to filling the car- 
" tridges to be used in the proof-charges. The proof ranges given by the 
"eprouvette were within the liniits prescribed by the regulations of the Ord- 
" nance Department for the proof of cannon. 

" The cartridge bags were filled in the presence and under the direction 
" of the inspecting officers, with the exact quantity of powder, by weight, re- 
'•' quired by the ordnance regulations for the proof of cannon of tliis ^iber. 
"The guns were in every particular properly loaded and fired. 
"The inspection and proof throughout was made in exact conformity 
" with the regulations of the Ordnance Department on this subject, and in 
" a manner exactly similar to that in which inspections and proofs had beei^ 
" made at other foundries. 

" I have the honor to be, 
" Very respectfully, 

" Your obedient servant, 

" WM. MAYNADIER, 

" 1^^ Lieut, \st, ArtP 



55 [16] 

" At the inspection and proof of cannon, in July, 1S35, at Bellona foundry, 
•' forty -five 32-pounder iron gims were presented by the founder, of which 
" number, sixteen had been inspected by Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Worth, 
'• tfie year previous, but had been withdrawn by the founder before proof. 
*• All these guns were proved in exact accordance with the regulations of the 
•• Ordnance Dopartment, and withstood the proof-charges. The powder 
'• used in the proof of these ginis was principally of the same parcel as that 
'• used by Colonel Worth, the year before. There not being, however, a 
^- sufficient quaiitity to prove all the guns, a mixture was made of this and 
•• other powder from the magazine of Bellona arspnal ; all of which, from a 
'^ proof of each barrel before the mixture, was found to be within the limits 
^•prescribed by the ordnance regulations for tlie strength of powder to be 
^* used in proof-charges. This mixture was carefully proved before the proof- 
^* cartridges were made, the quantity of powder in which, was determined 
*• from the regulation range of standard powder, 250 yards. 

" This inspection and proof was, in every particular, similar to those at 
^•otber foundries. 

" Very respectfully, 

" Your obedient servants, 

« JAMES RIPLEY, Captain, ^c. 

" WRL M AYNADIER, 1^^ LieuL, (J-c." 

Lieut. Maynadier was the assistant of Colonel Worth when they burst 
the 32-pounder guns with excessive proof-charges. They were newly ap- 
pointed inspectiiigand proving officers, liut neither of them acquainted with, 
or experienced in, the inspection and proof of cannon, which requires the 
most critical accuracy. I suppose they both thoitght that they proved the 
cannon correctly: but are such men competent to judge whether the guns 
were proved correctly or not ? 

When Lieut. Maynadier assisted Col. Worth in proving the guns which 
they burst, bethought they were proved, in all respects, as the other officers 
who did not burst the guns, proved them; for he says in his statement 
(above) that "/Ac ius-pectioii and proof throng ho7it was made in exact con- 
formlty with the regulations of the Ordnance Department^ Afterwards 
Lieutenant Maynadier assisted Captain Ripley who proved a greater num- 
ber of the same kind of guns, with the same powder, and under the same 
regulations, without bursting a single gun. And Lieutenant Maynadier 
unites with Captain Ripley in stating (as above) that " all these guns were 
proved in exact accordance with the regulations of the Ordnance Depart- 
ment, and withstood the proof charges. 

When s^uns, in all respects the same, are proved with the same powder, 
by two different persons, one of whom, in proving a given number, bursts 
many of thegun^, and the other, in proving a greater number of them, 
under the same written regulations, does not burst one gun, the conclusion 
must be, that the guns which were burst, were not correctly proved ; and 
that if Captain Ripley had used proof charges of such enormous strength as 
those used by Colonel Worth, he would have burst theguns ; and if Colonel 
Worth had proved the guns correctly, he would not have burst them. And 
it is most evideul, when we consider that hundreds of these 32-pounder 
cannon, made of the material, by the same artificers, ar.d at the same works, 
have been proved by officers who had many years of experience in the 
proof of cannon, as well as the proof of powder, and without bursting the 



£16] 



5Q 



ffims ; and consider, also, that soon after Colonel Worth burst the said 
guns, Captain Ripley, (under the same regulations,) without hurstivg a sin- 
gle guHj proved forty-live of thera, sixteen of which, were of the same par- 
cel tliat Col. Wortli began to prove, but left those sixteen guns unproved, 
when I stopped him in his work of destruction. 

The error or mistake which produced the bursting of so many excellent 
pieces of cannon, (by those inexperienced provers ot guns.) may have been 
made in reducing the quantity of powder in the proof charges, in proportion 
to its excess of strength ; or it might have been that, through mistake, 
more weights, or not the proper ones, were put into the scales when the pow- 
der for the proof charges was weighed ; either of which causes might have 
produced the same result. But suth was the strength of those immensely 
powerful proof-charges, that the guns, on undergoing proof, recoiled nearly 
double the the distance to which they had ever before recoiled on being 
proved ; which was most obvious to all who were present, and were accus- 
tomed to witness the proof of ordnance; which circumstance I repeatedly 
mentioned to Colonel Worth while the proof was carried on. By the tre- 
mendous force of these proof-charges, a fragment (weighing several hundred 
weight) of one of the guns burst by Colonel Worth, was projected several 
hundred yards fron^ the proving ground, and passed through one of the 
principal buildings of the United States arsenal, and immerous other large 
fragments were thrown to greater distances, around the proving ground, 
while the guns \vere bursting with those enormous proof charges. 

When I was induced, by the highest officers of the Government, to build 
the Bellona works, for the manufacture of ordnance for the United States, 
and promised their endeavors to encourage and support those w^orks as Ions: 
ns the Government would require cannon, it was doubtless mtended an^ 
expected by the parties that the guns and other pieces of ordnance were 
to be of the best quality, and that they were to be fairly and properly in- 
spected and proved, by men well skilled by experience in that business. 
But that has not been done in the case now submitted for your considera- 
tion ; and I ask of my country remuneration for the injury I have sus- 
tained in consequence thereof 

My works and machinery are constructed in the most permanent manner, 
and on the most improved plan ; and the records of the War office and those 
of the Ordnance office, will show that, according to the best judges, the 
pieces of ordnance manufactured at those works are equal if not superior 
to any pieces of artillery made in the United States. It has been generally 
supposed that the manufacture of cannon for the Government is a very prof- 
itable business. But 1 have manuflictured ordnance for the Government, 
for sea and land service, for the Inst nineteen or twenty years, with skilful 
artificers, and with activity and economy, and the profit of the work exe- 
cuted does not amount to as much as the legal interest of the money that 
was necessarily expended in buildino; the fellona works. And I would 
now willingly sell the whole establisnment for a reasonable price ; although 
it has the advantages of being situated only a few miles above the city of 
Richmond, in the immediate vicinity of inexhaustible coal mines, and ou 
the margin of James river, by the navigation of which, iron of superior 
quality is brought down to the works. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfuUy, 

Your obedient servant, 

JNO. CLARKE. 

The Honorable the Secretary of War. 



57 



[16] 



No. 4. 

In Senate of the United States, 

February 27, 1837. 

Resolved, That the Secretary of War be requested to ascertain the facts 
connected with the burstiiifir of sixteen cannon at Major Clarke's fonndr\^j 
ill July, 1833, and August, 1834, especially such as may explain the 
mode of proof used upon that occasion, and the quality of the rnetal. 
Also the difference between the strength of the charges used in proving 
those guns, and the strength of the charges used in proving such guns in 
Great Britain ; and report to the Senate, iit its next session, his opinion of 
the remuneration to which the said Clarke should be entitled upon prin- 
ciples of equity. 

March 7, 1837, 

Note, — It is my opinion that the Secretary of War, in causing to be carried 
into effect the order of the Senate in relation te the bursting of Mr. darkens 
cannon, would better accomplish the object of that order by construing it 
to include the additional inquiries mentioned above. 

THOMAS H. BENTON, 
Chairman Com. Mil, Affairs. Senate. 



No. 5. 

Washington, D. C. Jiwe 17, 1836. 

General : I give below a statement of the quantity of powder used in 
the proof of 32-pounder guns at Bellona foundry at the proofs and inspec- 
tions made by Col. Worth in 1834, and by Capt. Ripley in 1835 ; as also 
the strength of the powder in each case, as determined by the regulation 
eprouvette. 



Proof range. 


Proof range. 


Weight of charge. 


• 

Weight of charge. 


1834. 


1836. 


1834. 


1835. 


Yards. 

fl 


Yards. 


lbs. oz. 


Ib^. oz. 


273 


265 


17 13| 


20 3 


279 




17 9 




284 




J7 5 




281 




17 7 


■ • 


2S1 




17 7 




22() 




21 4 




277 




17 10 




277 




17 10 




245 




14 14 


Burst 2d fire. 



tie J 58 

The powder used in 1835 was a mixture of the powder left in 1834 
with that in the magazine at the Bellona arsenal. This mixture gave a 
proof range of 265 yards, in accordance with which the weight of the 
cartridges was fixed at 20 pounds 3 ounces, taking the range of 250 yards 
as a standard. At the proof in 1834. the range "of standard powder was 
225 yards, which required the weight of proof cartridge's, made of powder 
ranging 265 yards, to he 18 pounds 8 ounces. Thus the powder used in 
1834, though showing a greater proof range, was, both range and quan- 
tity considered, less than equivalent in effect to that used in 1835. 

I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully^ 

Your obedient servant. 

WM. MAYNADIER, 

16/ LL \st Arlilltri/, 
Gkn. Wool, Insp^r. Gen. U. S. Arm;/, 

Washington^ D. C 



No. 6. 
West Point Foundry, Ji/ne 2, 1836. 

Sir : 1 am favored with your letter of the 26tli May, desiring me to 
answer certain interrogatories contained in Col. Worth's letter to you of 
the same date, a copy of which you have done me ihe honor to enclose. 

To the first interrogatory, requiring to know the number of inspections 
made by Col. Worth at this place, I should answer, five inspections of 
^uns and shot, viz. in May and July, 1833, in May and July, 1834, and 
in August, 1835. 

To the second interrogatory, requiring " my opinion as to the care, 
attention, and accuracy wUh which those inspections were conducted," I 
would answer, that no inspecting officer can be more careful, accurate, or 
attentive, than Col. Worth has always been in the performatice of his 
duties. 

To the third interrogatory, requiring me "to slate sueJi casualties in 
<j:uns, shot, and shells, as herve occurred, together with an opinion on the 
quality of the metal, and accuracy of proof." To this I would answer, 
that but one gun ever gave way in the powder proof, and this an experi- 
ment 12-potuider, at the inspection of experiment guns in August, 
1835 ; that this gtm possessed les.s relative strength to sustain the pow- 
der proof tfaad the brass 12 pounder, and that, although one of the same 
size and proportions stood the proof as well on repeated firings afterwards, 
and that the immediate cause of its failtire was the accident<il breaking of 
the shot in the gun, I should not deem it a safe model to be adopted for the 
.service. N(» shells were ever inspected by Col. Worth at this establish- 
ment. Shot have been occasionally condemned, both on account of cavi- 
ties and general roughness of the surface ; the proportion 1 cannot precisely 
state, but it would not be great, as no shot, observed to be even doubtful is 
ever permitted to be presented to an inspecting officer. 

Kespectfully, your obedient servant, 

GOUV. KEMBLE. 

Col. George Bomford, 

CoL of Ordnance. 



59 [16] 

No. 7. 

Ordnance Office, 
Washington, April 29, 1836. 

Colonel : Having been present at the inspeciion and proof, in August 
1834, as assistant to Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Worth, of 42 32 pounder 
iron cannon, manufactured at Bellona foundry, Virginia, I am enabled to ^ 
give the following statement of facts in relation thereto : 

The powder used in the proof of all these guns was of Duponfs manu- 
fticture, and was carefully proved, in the presence and under the direction 
of .the inspecting officers, immediately previous to filling the cartridges to 
be used in the proof-charges. The proof ranges given by the eprouvclte 
were within the limits prescribed by the regulations of the Ordnance De- 
partment for the proof of cannon. 

The cartridge-bags were filled, in the presence and under the direction 
of the inspecting officers, with the exact quantity of powder, by weight, 
required by tlie ordnance regulations for the proof of cannon of thiscAliber. 
The ^uns were, in every particular, properly loaded and fired. 
The inspection and proof throughout was nv^de in exact conformity with 
the regulations of the Ordnance Department on this subject, and in a man- 
ner exactly similar to that in which inspections and proofs had been made 
at other foundries. 

1 have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM MAYNADIER, 

\st LL \st Artilltry. 

At the inspection and proof of cannon, in July, 1835, at Bellona foun- 
dry, 45 32-pounder iron guns were presented by the founder, of which 
number sixteen <had been inspected by Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Worth, 
the year previous, but had been withdrawn by Ihe founder before the proof. 
All these guns were proved in exact accordance with the regulations of the 
Ordnance Department, and withstood the proof-charges. The powder used 
in the proof of these guns was principally of the same parcel as that used 
by Colonel Worth the year before. There not being, however, a sufficient 
quantity to prove all the guns, a mixture was made of this and other pow- 
der from the magazine of Bellona arsenal ; all of which, from a proof of 
each barrel before the mixture, was found to be within the limits prescribed 
by the ordnance regulations for the strength of powder to be used in proof- 
charges. This mixture was carefully proved Ixefore the proof-cartridges 
were made; the quantity of powder in which was determined from the 
regulation range of standard powder — 250 yards. 

This inspection and proof was, in every particular, similar to those at^ 
other foundries. 

Very respectfully. 

Your obedient servants, 

J AS. W. RIPLEY, 
Captain^ Inspector of Ordnance, 

WM. MAYNADIER, 
1*/ Lt» \st Art., Assist, Ins. Ord. 



f 16 ] 60 

No. 8. 

April 7, 1836. 

Dear Sir : I have examined Major Clarke's papers relative to the burst- 
ing of 16 cannons in proof-charges with double shot. I have no doubt but 
that cannon so charged, with double shot, are subjected to a trial beyond 
all use, and that the best of guns are so bursted. The globular form of the 
two balls have the effect upon one another of the hammer and wedge; one 
splits the other, drives in a sectioi\ of it, bursts it, and bursts the gun. My 
opinion is, that Major Clarke's guns were too severely tested with these dou- 
ble shot, and that he has a claim for compensation for them. Being on the 
Military Committee, Major Clarke has made an exposition of his case to me. 
upon which this opinion is based. 

Yours, truly, 

THOMAS H. BENTON. 

Hon. Mr. Rives. 



No. 9. 

Richmond, February 28, 1836. 

Dear Sir : 1 beff leave to introduce to you Major John Clarke, of Vir- 
jsrinia, who goes to Washington on some business connected with your de- 
partment. 1 have known this gentleman from my youth, and for twenty 
years he has been an esteemed and intimate friend. 1 need not, then, say to 
you that he is one in whom entire confidence maybe placed. He is among 
the first of our useful and best men. Any aid or facility that you may he 
able, consistently with the public interest, to give him, will be gratefully re- 
ceived by him, and acknowledged by, 

Dear sir, your friend and obedient servant. 

A. STEVENSO^S. 
The Honorable L. Cass, ^ 

Secretary of War, Washington City. 



No. 10. 



Richmond, February 27, 1836. 

Dear Sir: I do myself the pleasure of introducing to you Major John 
Clarke, of Virginia. He is engaged in the manufacture of ordjiance, and 
has supplied the Government of the United States frequently, on contract. 
He superintended the State n)anufactory of Virginia for many years, and is 
probably the oldest manufacturer of cannon in the United States ; and I 
have always considered him as one of the most accomplished. Such is his 
reputation with gentlemen of the highest standing in Virginia. He is a 
gentleman of the greatest respectability ; and I would as soon take his 
statements for true as those of any other gendeman in my acquaintance. 
He desires particularly to be known to you, from the high respect he has 
formed for you, as well as from your peculiar relations to the defence of the 
nation. I trust, my dear sir, I shall not too much intrude upon your valu- 
able time, by asking you to converse with the Major, not only upon the 



61 [16] 

fortifications of the country, but upon the matter of a claim which he has 
upon the Government for g^uns which were burst in consequence of their 
being improperly proved. Be so good as to examine his several, as well as 
liis particular documents ; for you may have it in your power to serve the 
country, as well as a man of worth. 

I am, sir, very respectfully yours, 

THOMAS RITCHIE. 
Colonel Thomas H. Benton, 

Senate of United States^ Washington* 



(A.)— No. 11. 

Washington, December 29, 1816. 

Dear Sir : I well recollect that when you suggested your intention to 
establish a foundry on James river, above Richmond, you inquired of me 
how far you might calculate on encouragement and support from the Gov- 
ernment : and that I informed you, that you might fairly presume on such 
support, it being essentially the interest of the United States to promote 
three establishments of the kind, one of which should be on James river. 
I recollect, also, having communicated at the time with the Secretary of 
the Navy, if not with the Secretary of War ; and being authorized by the 
former, and, as I think, by the latter, to give you an assurance to this effect, 
I did it with the greatest confidence. 1 nave no doubt that you made the 
establishment in consequence of this assurance. 

I am, dear sir. 

With great respect and esteem, 

Your very obedient servant, 

JAMES MONROE. 
Major John Clarke. 



Extract from one of Colonel BomfordCs annual reports to the Secretary 

of War, dated ^th November^ 1825. 

" All the existing cannon foundries, as well as the manufactories of small 
arms, had been established under assurances of continued support from the 
Government, if their terms and the quality of their work should prove satis- 
factory. These foundries have, accordingly, continued to furnish all the 
ordnance required for the public service, both for the War and Navy De- 
partments. The experience acquired in a practice of many years, enables 
them to furnish ordnance of a more safe and durable description, and of 
a better quality, generally, than could be expected from new establishments. 
The cannon foundries now established are capable of furnishing more 
ordnance than is required in the public service. It was not, therefore, con* 
sidered either advantageous to the public interest, or just to those who had 
relied upon the promr^ support of the Groveniment, to depart from the 
course long since established, and uniformly pursued for a number of years, 
by inviting proposals from persons unaccustomed to the business, and there- 
by encouragingthe establishment of additional cannon foundries, which the 
wants of the public service did not require, and could not sustain." 



[16] 



6S 

(B.)— No. 12. 



Ordnanck Office, 

August 11, 181 S. 

Sir: My letter of yesterday, in relation to P. Townsend's contract, will 
evince that no further reliance is to be placed on him for the performance 
of his contracts for fabricating cannon. 

Messrs. Wirt and Clarke having completed their contract for three hun- 
dred tons of cannon and cannon shot, and the work having been executed, 
not only promptly, but in a style of workmanship, as appears from my own 
personal inspection of a few of the pieces, as well as the report of the in- 
specting officer, superior, it is believed, to what has ever been seen before 
in this country, I feel solicitous they should receive all the encouragement 
to which they are entitled in consequience. 

I would, therefore, respectfully propose entering into a further contract 
with them for three hundred tons of cannon, cannon-shot, and shells, lobe 
delivered as early as n may be convenient. This quantity will not be suf- 
ficient to make up the deficiency on P. Townsend's contract ; besides, snf 
ficient attention has not been giv^en by the Ordnance Department to obtain 
the due proportion of small gims for field service. We have, already, too 
many 18-pounders and 12-pounders, and too few mortars and howitzers. 
We want a supply of spherical-case-shot and canister shot. 

Should the Government decide to erect extensive batteries and fortifica- 
tions for the defence of the Chesapeake, many 24-pounders and mortars 
will be required for that service ; and should prefer to give that work to the 
Bellona foundry, on the James river, rather than to the foundry at George- 
town, because of its proximity to the place where the guns, <fcc., will be 
wanted, and because I think the proprietors have spared, and will spare, 
no pains to give satisfaction in what they may undertake. 

'I'hey will require an advance of fifteen thousand dollars, which may be 
spared conveniently enough. 

I have the honor to 1^., (fcc, (fcc, 

DECIUS WADSWORTH, 

Colonel of Ordnance. 

Hon. John C. Calhouk. 



(O— No. 13. 

Ordnance Office, Jnlp 10, 1820. 

8iR : Messrs. John Clarke & Co. have delivered, on their contract, can- 
hon and other ci\stings to the amount of about $29,000. The amount of 
advances to them has been $27,000. There will be, consequently, a small 
balance due them on their account, which will be paid of course. In ad- 
dition to which, they are desirous of having the original advance of 
$15,000^ from the fund for arming and equipping the militia, renewed to 
them. I am of opinion it will be expedient to grant them anotlier advance 
of $15,000 from the fund for arming and equipping the militia. Besides 
the cannon, (fcc, already proved, inspected, and delivered, tliey have on 
hand, nearly ready for delivery, cannon, &c., to the amount, when finished, 



63 [ 16 ] 

of l)Gl\rcen $7,000 and SS.OO \ as appears by a statement which has been 
transmitted to njc by Lieiitenaut Hills. It is known that a large amount ol' 
capital is required to enable persons to carry on a cannon foundry ; and 
as the work executed by Mcy.-rs. Clarke & Co., for the United States, has 
been in quahty equal, if not superior, to any other in the I'nited States, I 
think they njerit all the favor and encouragement from the (jlovernment 
that can with propriety be given. 1 beg leave, therefore, to recommend 
that the sum of §15,000 be paid them in advance, on accou!it of their con- 
tract for field-pieces to arm and equip the militia. 

I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, sir, 

Your verv obedient servant, 

DECIUS WADSVVORTH, 

Colonel of Ordnance, 
Hon. John C. Calhoun. 



(D.)— No. 14. 

Depot, near Richmond, 

August 28, 18ir. 

Sir: Herewith enclosed, I have the honor to transmit a certificate ot 
the proof and inspection of a quantity of ordnance, cannon-shot, and shells^ 
fabricated at the Bellona foundry, in this State, by Major John Clarke and 
Company, agreeably to their contract with the Ordnance Department. 

It is with much satisfaction and pleasure that I am enabled to add that 
the quality of the iron of which these castings are made, as also the execu- 
tion of the work, is equal, if not superior, to that of any other foundrv'' in 
the United States. 

I have the honor to be, sir. 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

JOHN HH.LS, 



Col. Decivh WaD:SW0RTH. 



Lievtenajii nf Ordnance. 



I H .Ifc 



(E.)— No. 15. 

Depot, keaU Richmond^ 

Augtist 28, 1817. 

1 hereby certify that I proved and inspected sixty pieces of cannon, and 
Upwards of sixty tons of cannon-shot and bombshells, fabricated at the 
Bellona foundry, belonging to Major John Clarke and Company, jn the 
county of Chesterfield, in the State of Virffinia, for the Ordnance Depart- 
ment of the United States : the whole of which cannon stood an unusually 
severe ptoof, as the gnn*powder used in that process Was of much greater 
strenofth than is customarily used in the proof of guns. And I further 
certi^ that the quality of the iron, and the execution of the work of said 
castings, is equal, if not superior, to any in the United Slates. 

JOHN HILLS. 



[16] 64 

(F.)— No. 16. 

Arsenal, near RichmonDj 

June 27, 1820. 

Sir: Enclosed, herewith, I transmit a certificate of the proof and iu« 
spection, to which is subjoined the receipt of the military storekeeper of this 
stcition, for the canr*on and howitzers, cannon-shot and shells which have 
been fabricated for the United States at the Bellona foundry. 

It affords me a high degree of satisfaction in being enabled to state that 
the castings above referred to, are superior, in point of workmanship and 
quality of iron, to those produced from any other works in the United 
States. 

I have the honor to be, sir. 
With much respect. 

Your most obedient servant, 

JOHN HILLS, 
First Liev tenant of Ordnance* 
To John Clarke, Ksq. 



(G.)— No. 17. 

Arsenal, near Richmond, 

September b, 1821. 

Sir: I transmit, herewith, a statement of proof and inspection, exhibit* 
ing the number of caimon, howitzers, cannon-shot, and shells received 
from the Bellona foundry in the present year. 

It is with much satisfaction that I have to acquaint you that the castiiigs 
are of a very superior quality, both in point of excellence of metal and gooid 
workmanship ; and that castings of a better quality are not to be found in 
any of our works of defence, or depots of the Ordnance Department, than 
those which are fabricated lor the General Government at the Bellona 
foundry. 

1 have the honor to be, sir, 
Very respectfully. 

Your most obedient servant, 

JOHN HILLS, 
1^/ Lieut, 3d Art, on Ordnance Duty* 
To John Clarke, Esq* 



(HO-No 18. 
[extract.] 

• 

"The cannon, shot^ and shells furnished agi'eeably to the present cod- 
tract, are of excellent quality, both as respects excellence of workmanship 
and the superior quaUty of the iron used in their fabrication. No better 
castings are to be found in any of our works of defence, or dep6ts of the 
Ordnance Departi^ent, than those which have been received from the Bel" 
lona foundry.'* 



65 [ 16 ] 

The above is an extract from a letter addressed to Lieutenant Colonel 
George Bomford, transmitting a statement of proof and inspection of cast- 
ings received from the Bellona foundry, dated 12th September, lB21. 

JOHN HILLS. 

To Major John Clarke. 



No. 19. 



Ordnance Office, 

November 16, 1837. 

At the request of Major Clarke^ I state, that in the years 182^ 1829, and 
1830, or during somfe of those years, L fired a 24-pounder, new- pattern, 
manufactured by him, about eight hundred times, v/ith the service-charges 
for single and double shot, and powder stronger than ordinary. That during 
all the firings, examinations of metal, and transacti6ns with that gun, 
(which is no\^ mounted at foi^ress Monroe,) I was satisfied that it was 
labricat^ of exceedingly good metal. 

The gun, now in the batteries of fortress Monroe, has the history of its 
firing^, and the trials it htis sustained, marked upon its carriage, and may 
Us seeh by any one. It has, as I understand, been fired many times, with- 
out injury, ^ince my experiments. 

WM. H.BELL, 
Captain of Ordtiance. 



No. 20. 

Wednesdav, -WarcA 16, 1837. 

I certify, that I was the inspector of oidnance fcfr the navy of the United 
States, and repeatedl]^ inspected and pnmvd oasni^i shot, ds«., maoufactared 
by Major John ClArke, at his Bellana W0rk9 iirVifgmia,aswell as at other 
similar works io the employ of the €byermiient ; and ever found that the 
metal' ueed at thei BeUoni works wiaof vi^ryea^orquality, the work neatiy 
execute, and the inspectioh and ptt>«f thereof was performeld according io 
the recrulations of the Oommisaion^rs of the Navy. 

■ S.CASSINj 

Captain U. 8. Navy. 



No. 21. 

Washington, il/arcA 3| 1837. 

I c^ify^ thaX I was thie Insgpector 0^ Ordnance for the Government of 

the VhitM States between SIX and seven years; that I inspected at the 

BdhsMT feiftidrv,f btfloogiitf t(o Miigor Mm Cwke, »evend Imwfed wm>n 

of Titi0iii^it2^ i^Ecmd^ Sd-foandev guoi ; that the iron of wbieh 

5 



[16] 66 

the g^ns were made was of most excellent quality, having sustained the 
proof, which was made in strict accordance with the established reffulatiotis, 
except in one instance, when a 32-pounder gun, of the first parcel proved, 
burst ; and that the dimensions of the guns, and the execution of the work, 
were correct and faithful. 

JAMES BANKHEAD, Lt. Col M Art% 
And late inspector of Ordnance for the Army, 



(1) No. 22. 

I hereby certify that, for several years past, I hav^ been employed as an 
artificer in the boring of cannon at Major John Clarke's Bellona cannon 
foundry] but for want of work from the Government I left said foundry 
iu the latter part of last year. 

While I was employed at said works, I attended and witnessed the in- 
spection and proof of cannon by the Government oflicers at those works; 
and was present and witnessed the inspection. and proof of all the cannon 
proved at the s^id foundry by CJolonel Worth ; and I am confident that the 
guns, when proved by Colonel Worth, recoiled or flew backward to double 
the distance that I had ever before seen thirty-two ^pounder cannon recoil 
back when they were proved ; which I think must have been owing to the 
guns being ovQrloiuled or proved with charges much greater than usual. 

Witness my hand this twelfth day of July, eighteen hundred and thirty- 
six. 

SUBLETT McGRUDER. 

I also certify, that when Colonel Worth had bursted sixteen 32-pounder 
cannon at Major Clarke's foundry, the said Clarke stopped Colonel Worth 
from proving any more of his guns, at which time. Colonel Worth left 
sixteen of the guns unijvoved — which sixteen guns, with twenty-nine other 
32-pouhder canaon, nuJting forty-five guns, vere afterwards proved by 
Cs^in Ripley, who did not burst any of the guns. I lUso witnessed this 

E roof of guns by Captain Ripley, and. am confident that the guto proved 
y Captain Ri|dey did not recoU (when proved) more than half the distance 
to which the guns proved by Colonel Worth recoiled when he proved them. 
Witness my hand this twelfth day of July, dghteen hundred and thirty- 
six. , 

SUBLETT McGRUDER. 

Chesterfield County, to wit : 

This day Sublett McGnider (whose name is abote subscribed) person- 
ally appeared before me, in said county, and made oati^ to the truth of the 
foregoing certificate. 

Given under my hand this 12th day of July, 1836. 

H. HANCOCK, 
A Justice of the Peace for the County of 

Chesterfield, Stat6 of Virginia. 

Since the date of the foie^oing certificate, thirly-one 32-pounder cannon 
were proved by Gaptain Ripley, at the Bellona work?^ without bmsting a 



67 [16] 

(2) No. 23. 

B^LLONA Foundry, 

December 13, 1836. 

I hereby certify, that during the last nine years I have been employed 
in the manufacture of cannon at Major John Clarke's Bellona works, where, 
for tbe greater part of that time, I have acted, and do now act, as assistant 
foreman of those works, and have regularly attended the insp^tion and 
proof of the various pieces oi ordnance manufactured at the said works. 

In the year 1828 we commenced the manufacture of thirty-two-pounder 
cannon for fortifications, and fifty-eight of them were proved in June, 1829. 
This was the first time that any of the 32-pounder cannon were proved : 
and it was beforei the strerigth of the proof-charges, proper for those guns, 
was ascertained ; and in testing the strength of those ^8 gun?, one of them 
burst, and 57 stood proof. Previous to this 13th of December, 1836, we 
have manufactured, at said works, four hundred and forty-six 32-pounder 
cannon for fortifications, which have been proved at tfin difierent periods, 
and by different proving officers. And with the. exception of the one gun, 
which was burst on the first trial of their strength, not one of the 446 guns 
was burst, excepting the sixteen of them which were burst when proved 
by Colonel Worth, who, in proving the guns, used proof-charges, which, 
unquestionably, must have been vastly more powerful tlian usual, being 
so extremely strong as to cause the guns proved by him to. recoil nearly 
double as far as I ever saw such guns recoil when proved by any other 
officer than hioi. 

And, as the whole of those 446 guns were made of the same kind of 
metal, (best James River iron,) and were manufactured at the same works, 
and by the same yrorkmen, and with the exception of the one gun which 
burst at the first trial of their strength, none of the guns burst excepting 
those that were burst by Colonel Worth ; it is evident that the proof-charges 
used by him must have been much more powerful than the proof-charges 
used by the other officers, who proved portions of those guns at difierent 
periods, both before and after Colonel Worth proved guns at those works. 

RANDOLPH AMONETT. 

Virginia, I to wit 

Chesterfield County ^ \ 

This day Randolph Amonett, who has signed the foregroing certificate, 
personally appeared before hie, Higgison Hancock, a justice of the peace 
for said county, ^d made oath that said certificate is true and correct. 

Given under my hand this 14ch day of December, 1836. 

H. HANCOCK, / P. 



(3) No. 24. 

Bellona Foundry, 

December 13, 1836. 

I hereby certify, that for many years I have been occupied in the manu- 
facture of cannon, &c., at Major John Clarke's Bellona works, where, for 



[16] 68 

the last fourteen years, I have acted, and do now act, as foreman of the 
works, and have regularly attended the inspection and proof of the various 
pieces of ordnance made at said works for the land as well as for the naval 
service. 

' On or about the year 1828, the founders of cannon for the United States 
were required to make 32-pounder cannon for fortifications ; and the first 
^n of that pattern, called the pattern gun, was made at the Bellona works. 
We proceeded to manufacture those gtms, sind, as soon as fifty-eight of 
them were completed, they were provra by the proving officers of the Go- 
vernment ; and one of the 58 guns burst by the very great st^h^h of the 
probf-chargtss. This happened at the first time of proving 8§-pounder 
cannoO, and bdfore the strength of the proo^oharges were proportioned to 
the strength of the gun. Between the years 18§8andthe present time, 
we have manufactured, at said works, four hundred and forty-six 32- 
pbunder cannon for fortifications ; some of which were proved every year, 
a9 soon as they were made and ready for proof, and, with the exception of 
the one gun at the first proving, not a gun of them wAs burst until Colonel 
Worth (who seemed new to the business) burst sixteen of them. The 
whole 446 guns were made of James River iron, of excellent quality, and 
by the same experienced workmen, and were, I verily believe, of as great 
Strength and good quality as any such guns ever yet were made ; and 1 
am confident VnaX the 16 guns, which were burst by Colonel Worth, were 
as good as any of the 32-pounder cannon which did not burst on foein^ 
proved ; and, although some of the guns, proved by Colonel Worth, did 
not burst, yet, in my opinion, the proof-charges usea by him wjre so ex- 
cessively strong as to overstrain the guns, and render them iiabie to burst 
when u^ed in war. Those proof-charges were made of powder greatly 
exceeding the standard strength of powder ; and, in proving the guns^ 
those proof-charges were made to discharge, from the caliber of ^e gun. 
double the weight of shot used in proving guns in Europe, and caused 
those guns to recoil to a much peater distance than any 32-pounder can- 
non ever did recoil, when proved at these works by any other officer than 
Colonel Worth himself. Such in fact was the vast stt*ength of his proof- 
charges, that, while the guns were bursting, a fragment weighing several 
hundred pounds was thrown several hundred yards, and in its progress 
passed through one of the principal buildings of the United States arsenal ; 
and many other fragments of the bursted guns were thrown still fiirther. 
The destruction of those excellent pieces of ordnance was so great that 
Major Clarke forbade Colonel Worth to proceed with the proof of them ; at 
which time sixteen of the £uns remained unproved ; aqd the next year, 
viz : 1835, those 16 guns left unproved, by Colonel Wprth, witfi twenty- 
nine others, (making forty-five 32-pounder cannon,}^ were proved by Capt 
Ripley without bursting a gun ; and, in October last, (the present year, 
1836,) Captain Ripley proved an, additional number of thirty-one 32- 
pounder cannon without bursting a gun ; and, with the exception of the 
one gun which burst at the first proving of said guns, not one of the 446 
32-pounder cannon was burst, excepting the 16 guns proved by Colonel 
Worth. 

JOSEPH YOUNG, Sen. 



69 



[16] 



vnt. 



Virginia, ) . 

Chesterfield Ceunly, ) 

This day, Joseph Young, sen., the signer of the foregoing certificate, 
personally appeared • before me, Higgison Hancock, a justice of the peace 
for said county, and made oath to the truth of the said certificate. 

Given under my hand this 14th day of December, 1836. 

H. HANCOCK, / P. 



^ 



i 



26th Congress, 
1st Session. 



[ SENATE. ] 



E 17 J! 



STATEMENTS 



SHOWING 



THE COINAGE AND IMPORTS AND EXPCtflTS OF SPECIE 

During the year 1837. 



September 19, 1837. 

Sabmitted by Mr. Benton, and ordered to be printed. 



Oold coinage at the Mint ef the United States in 1837^ 

January . . . ^ . . . None. 

February - - - - - $35,500 

March 108,380 

April 181,000 

May 268,000 

June ----.--. 46,250 

July 104,490 

August -.-...- 110,205 



Treasury Department. 



$863,825 



Statement of imports and exports of specie since 30/A September 
IS36^ as per returns received cU the TVeasury Department to the I9th 
September, 1837, inclttsive. 



Imports - - . - 

Exports . - - - 

Treasury Department, 

^September 19, 1837. 



- 810,288,87tV 
6,164,882 
McCLINTOCK YOUNG. 



Blair & Rives, printers. 



36th Couammaa, [ SENATE. ] T 18 1 

UtSattimt. -* 



LETTER 



mou 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 

iv€ to the neeessiijf of making further appropriaiions to prooeeuU 

the wmr in FUfrida. 



Sbptembsr 21, 1837. 

Submitted by Mr, Wright as explanatoiy of tke bill of the Senate No. 10, and ordiered to bt 

printed. 



War Department, 

September 14, 1837. 

Sf R : The Seminole Indians having a second time failed to comply with 
their engagements, this department has been compelled to make extensive 
preparations for a vigorous prosecution of the war in Florida. The suc- 
cess of the measures adopted by the Government, in pursuance of a humane 
policy towards the Indians, and our duty to protect the persons and pro- 
perty of the citizens of that territory from outrage and violence, leave vm 
no alternative other than the enforcement of the treaty ; and an effort is 
being made to enable the officers charged with its execution, effectually to 
accomplish this object. The nature of the country and of the Glimafe,hat 
enabl^ the enemy to prolong this contest to an unexpected length : but 
tibe experience of the officers who, with so much constancy and couraee, 
have hitherto conducted the military operations there, the knowledge of me 
country they have acquired, and the means which will be placed at their 
disposal, all give reasonable hopes of bringing the war to a speedy and 
successful close. 

The disastrous consequences of an unsuccessful summer campaign In- 
volved the country in great expenses, that were much increased during th« 
protracted negotiations which terminated so unfortunately by the Incuans 
again violating their treaty obligations. During this period, vessels were 
kept in readiness at great cost, and other means provided to facilitate the 
emigration of the Indians, while the ordinary expenses of the war estab- 
lishment were necessarily continued. These unavoidable expenses, widi 
tfiose incurred by the preparations now making to collect a sumcient force 
and ample supplies for the ensuing campaign, have exhausted the means 

E laced at the disposition of this department for the suppression of Indian 
ostilities, and will render further legislative provision necessary. 
There will be required for the suppression of Indian hostilities, under the 
Xollowing heads, the sum of $1,588,848 22, to wit: 

Blair ft Rives, printers. 



. ( 



• ( 



iu> 



For forage, means of transportation, and various other objects of sappiy, 
to be procured by die Quartermaster's Department, and to meet the con 

■ . ^B • • ^tt. ^^ ^^ ^X M • ^^ ^^ ^^^ 



tingent expenses of the service - 
For pay of vohmteer force that will be employed in Florida 
For clothing and equipage to be provided by the Purchasing 

Department - - i . . 

For supplies to be fiirnished by the Ordnance Department - 
For medical supplies - • - . , . 



$800,000 00 
600,000 00 

153,848 22 

25,000 00 
10,000 00 



1,588,848 22 



-^With a view to an economical proseciilion of Ibe-iioporljant Tj^Qxk: n^w 
in progress on the Red river — the remowal ofithe raft — it is respectfully sug- 
gested that the sum of $25,000 be appropriated at the present time. This 
amount, it is confidently believed if applied now, will enable the depart- 
ment to complete that obj^t ; whereas, if the works be suspended for want 
qf funds, until the usual period of malang the annual appropriations, much 
precious time will be lost, and great additional expense incurred^ 

Very respectfully. 

Your most obedient servant, 

J. R. POINSETT. 
IJpn. Silas Wright, jr.. 

Chairman Committee on Finance^ Senate. 



.^ 



25th CoNGRBss. [ SENATE. ] [19 1 

\^ Sestum. 



B£SOLUnONS 



OP 



THE LEGISLATURE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, 

Against the incorporation of a National Bank. 



September 21, 1837. 

Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



Resolved^ by the Senate and House o^ Representatives in Oenerat 
Court convened, That our Senators in vongiesa be iivstructed, and the 
Bepresentatives from this State requested, to oppose any and every propo- 
sition to charter a bank of the United States, both because this Legislature 
denies tfie constitutional power of Congress to charter such an institution, 
and because they deem it l^E^Z inexpedient. 

And be it further resolved^ That the Secretary of State be directed to 
famish each of the Senators and Representatives in Congress from thii» 
StatOi with a copy of this resolution. 

IRA A. EASTMAN, 
Speaker of the House of BepreseniaHves. 

JOHN WOODBURY, 



Apf&ovbd, Mjf 7, 1837. 

A true o^ of the original resolutions. 



Blair ARiTet, printers. 



President of the Senate. 

ISAAC HILL, Governor. 

RALPH METCALF, 
Secretary of skate. 



-^' 



25th Congress, [ SENATE. ] [401 

\st Usession. 



MJi^^ORIAL 



Of 



A NUMBER OF CITIZENS OF CLAIBORNE CO. xMISSISSIPPI, 
Praying the incorpcratioUr of a national bank. 



September 22, 1837. 

Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

Slates in Congress assembled. 

The memorial of the subscribers, inhabitants of Claiborne county, in the 

State of Mississippi, 

Respectfully represents: 

That in the midst of profound peace, embarrassed by no great political 
struggles, surrounded by all the elements of prosperity, we find our coimtry 
involved in financial ruiu ; the hand of industry arrested; all harmony and 
concert in our monetary operations destroyed ; all interchanges of property 
impeded ; all internal exchanges emt)arrassed'; and the whole nation forced 
to the desperate resort of a suspension of specie payments. Thus are con- 
tracts rendered insecure ; public and private faith violated ; the value of 
property unsettled; and the people exposed to the imposition of uncontrolled 
issues of irredeemable State bank notes. In addition to these disasters^ 
new enterprises, which w;oLiId furnish profitable employment to the laborer, 
the mechanic, and Xh^ agriculturist, are prevented ; and, in fine, general 
confidence, which, judiciously guided and controlled, is Uie safe basis of 
agricultural and commercial prosperity, annihilated. 

Your memorialists confidently avow the belief that tlie only remedy for 
these accumulated evils is within the jurisdiction o( your honorable 
bodies — that it exists in the creation of a specie-paying national institution, 
obligated to perform such fiscal duties as may be required by Government, 
and whose energies and resources shall chiefly be directed to the collection 
of moneys, and furnishing of drafts on all parts of the United Slates, so as 
to eflfect an equalisation of exchanges throughout the country. Such an 
institution, by extending its prosperous influences to the threshold of every 
citizen, would, your menioriali9ts believe, prove a national blessing. 

In the creation of such an institution, two great objects, intimately con- 
nected with the well beiagpf the nation, would, in the judgment of your 
memorialists, be attained. 

Blair Ci Rives, priDtcrs. 



[ 20 1 



■9.. 



1. A resumption ot specie payments, without which, no safe standard of 
value can exist. 

2. An equalisation, so far as practicable, of the exchanges of the United 
States. 

As to the power of the Government to orgaiiize such an institution, no 
doubt, it is presumed, can now be entertained. ' It was exercised during the 
administration of Washington, and has received in some form, more or less 
direct, the sanction of all nis successors. 

Your memorialists accordingly, request t(iat Ck)ngress will create such an . 
institiition as is herein suggested, by which great advantages Will be con- 
ferred on the country, while the rights of the General Government and of 
the States may, at the same time, be serupulously protected from encroach- 
ment and injury. 

And your memorialists, as in duty Jtxmnd, will ever pray. 



Wm. Finley 
Joseph Nicolls 
D. Bush 
Wiley Dillar?d 
Josian Foster 
Stephen B. Gary 
G. W. Elmer 
David Kiinby 
H. N. Spencer 
J. L. Foote 
Jas. J. Person 
R. Parkinson 
Geo. W. Sevier 
S. m Tibbits 
D.Y. Thomas 

D. J. Ely 

Wm. H. D. Denney 

E. J/Rickhow 
JfiTcm Coen 
T. Noel 

Geo. W. Thar^) 
P. Cortex Chambliss 
Thomas L. Moore 
William Moore 
P. % Scarborough 
Jerome Yates ' 
D.M. Stiles 
Wm, W. Stileis 
Geo. A. Brisicoe 
L. Burroughs 
Jno^. R. Murray 
A.McCiure ' 
R. W. Carapbrfr 
John A, Robert^ 
Mile»Lttstl3r 
J. B. Cobera 
Jas. Derrah 



1 1 



•; .1 



John Barnes 
J. H. Maury 
P. Briscoe 
Lewis Cronly 
James Barland 
Barney Gross 
James Evans 
A. T. Bowie 
Robert Slemone 

A. Tunstall 
Robert H. Bayly- 
Dan. McDougall ^ 
J. M. Scanland 
Wm. R. Macfarlan 
6. W. Summers 
G.P.Maxwell 

P: Green 
Anidr^w J. Gireen 

B. A. McLean 
M.W. Eagan 
J. A. Ferguson 
W. T. L. Gomptort 
Willmer & Brown 
H. P. Levey 

L. W. Heath 
R. B. Ford 
J: L: Torrey 
John Whitematt 
P.A.PrioI 
J. Lindsay ^ 
A. W. Hlgbeje ' ' 
Wm.Harmah 
Aafcin Winning 
J68^ph Thdrri ' 
G^tge W;Leter 
Jeremiah Calahon 
Gilbert Lemmon 



f ' ■ 1 



[20] 



Samuel P. Bernard 
Wm. M. Randolph 

B. B. Ellis 
John G. Hastings 
Lewis Williams 
Joseph Wurman 
Peachy R. Taliaferro 

C. H. Whiteman 
V. M. Sniivan 

C. M. Rhodes 
Hugh Watt 
Samuel Whitney 

D. F. Barney 
R. Bethea ' 

L. W. Kemper 
W. Harman 
J. N. Miller 
A. T. Thomson 
T. O. Owings 
F. Hume 
John C. Wilroy 
J. R. Harris 
Jubal Richardson 
Dennis Murphy 
James M. Applegate . 
Geo. W. McNider 
Abner M. Sawyer 
T. Kendall 
Joseph N. Rolson 
Lewis Jaques 
li. M. Heath 
H. W. Abrams 
L. Matthews 
A. C. Sharkey 
J. D. Jones 
John Dunning 
William. C. Tait 

E. D. Watson 
J. W. Fisher 
Geo. Phillips 
Hiram Mould 
J. W. Jones 
Charles Cox 
J. S. Ryland 
Thomaes Stone 
Orange Clarke 
Matthew Q. Maury 
P. M. Man 

S. F. R. Abbay 
H. W. Pope 
H. P. Merrifield 
H. M. Posey 







1 f I 

i -t ; 



M. C. Edwards 
. E. W. Swann 

G. W. Merrifield 
] R. J. Bland 

John T. Vestner 

S. O. Bridewell 

J. Hendebert 

R Y. Partlow 
. Passmore Hoopes 

Volney Stamps 

Benjamin Kuykendall 

M.D.Dillon 

Richard T. Archer ^ 

E. C. Briscoe 

J. S. Bradshaw - 

r Stev. Davis 

Wm.E. Wells 

Harrison Cooper 

William Cooper 

Samuel Smith 
. William Beaty 

Robert F. Moore 

James Dennis 

E. Conklin 

M. T. Wilson 

Samuel H. Butler 

N.W.S. Wheeler 

Elijah Mount 

Z. S.Elv \ 

J. E. Calhoun 
, A. C. Fairmau j 

Robert W. Harper 

Benjamin G. Humphreys 
! Duncan McDougall 
^W.F. Abrams 

Frederick J. Poor 

Wm. Conell [' " 

R. R. Green 

D. H. Turpin 

W. R. Oldham 

John D. Freeman 

Edward B. Hill 

Jlenry H. Hall 

H.T. Palmer 

John Browne 
, iJ. L. Levy 

H. H. Harby 

H. W. Cathcart 

John Spurgin 
' jjacob Blake 

, Robert Fulton 
' Thomas L. Jones 



[ I 



J > • 



■" i;. 
I / 



•f 






I .1 



- n 






-'-■; 



!f 



. } 



1 1 



/ 



A 
f 



[20 



H. W. G. Spooney 
A. Mitchell 
Crane & Palmer 
Wm. Bearbawes 
Levi Lockrey 
M. M. Elliott 

C. Shren 

W. E. Ward ' 
J. J. Hedden 

D. H. Hoopes 

D. G. Humphreys 

James S. Douglass 

Thompson White 

Samson Bridgers 

Jas. McCaul 

William H. Martin 

J. N. Carpenter 

Joseph H. Moore 

W. E. Meir 

Wm. J. Wilmer 

W. F. Dillon 

Robert L. Brenham 

Wm. M. Willoughby 

J. M. Rhodes 

John Femon 

R. H. Smith 
. A. Johnson 

John Slocumb 

J. S. Youash 

G. A. Drury 

J. W. John 

G. H. Schofield 

J. J. Fisher 
James Markham 
P. S. Wood 

William Daitu^ 
C. O. Tichenor 
H. B. Robinson 
James Murrell 
L. Sugars 
George E. Evans 
Isaac Perkins 
G. K. Dudley 
Prank T. Gibbons 
E. Rogers 
James H. Worland 
Geo. Smiley 
Edward A. Scanlan 
James Rrander 
R. M. Moore 
Middleton Kelley 
Newton S. Nelson 



Sexton Shaw 
James A. Bass 
Alexander Torrey 
Elijah L. Clarke 
Gipson C. Hedrick 
Baker Phillips 
Wm. P. Spiers 

A. W. Best 
Galen Norton 

G. W. Montgomery 
J. Jones 
Joel Perkins 

B. Hughes 
H. Anaerson 
Edward Martin 
G. V. Moody 

J. O. Pierson 

A. W. Hodge 

R. R. Hodge 

Wm. Wealherby 

James Chamberlain 

A. J. McGill 

W. T. Pernell 

W. B. Smith 

N. McDoug:all 

A. S. Merrifield 

A. S. Forbes 

James Boyd 

Mark Twitchel 

S. Davis 

James Boyd 

J. W. Choat 

John M. Chilton 

D. J. Millard 

Francis Murdock 
James Moor 
Wm. Sillus 
H. O. Anderson 
John McDougall 
David Gatsham 
John M. Maury 
J. M. Sutton 
John H. Brown 
Samuel Walker 
F. B. Lee 
Alfred Clark 
Wm. Davis 
Wm. B. Jennings 
A. Ryan 

Thomas B. Magruder 
Samuel Cobun 
Archibald D. Douglass 



I 



[20] 



James M. Moreland 
Sidney S. Nerlly 
VVm. Kennison 
James Macbeth 
J. C. Mills 
Edward N. Low 
R. M. Eilia 
R. RuDdell 
Wm. Clarke 
James A. Maxwell 
Edward Griffith 
Daniel Hays 
Henry Burd 
Thomas J. Martin 
Lewis Palmer 
Geo. Hopkins 
T. W. Tompkins 
Robert T. Beheal 
Wm. G. Bheal 
J. T. Botrick 
J. B. Shields 
James W. Scan Ian 
Stephen C. Archer 
Wm. Avery, Esq. 
N.Green 
Wal^rave Arkley 
Harrison Hord 
J. Yates 
H. E. Metcalf 



Richard W. Hudson 
Hngh Harris 
John R. Harris 
Thomas B. Adams 
John Tomlinson 
J. B. Thrasher 
Francis W. Tiirpin 
Geo. p. Applegale 
James G. Muir 
Robert Watt 
J. Harper 
J. B. Robinson 
J. Macbeth 
George Lyde, jr. 
G. R. Summers 
J. D. Davis 
Richards & Bartling 
James Scott 
D. G. Rose 
Wm. R. Keyes 
S. K. Thompson 
George R. Orr 
John H. Dale 

D. H. Jones 
Peter C. Chambliss 

E. H. Dorsey 
Ezra Rundell 
Thomas Parks 
Byron Benton 



* : « 



26lh Congress. [ SEP<tA.TE. ] PM li 

1st Session. L J ♦ 



M£SSAG]S 

FROM TBS 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Ur |t£LATION 

Tq th^ work^ at Black Rock ; in compliance with a resolution of the SiS' 

note 0/ the 2d Mareh^ 1837. 



1«»4 lad pntcfed to^pr^At^. 



WASSfNG'FONr, iSl^f. Id, IBS^. 

Sir: I have tl^e honor to enclase f^ report of the Secretary of MTaT} on 
the object of the resolution of the Senate of the 2d of Mm'cb, 1837. 

Very respectfully, 

xov^x nK)st obedient servant* 

Hop. R, BT. Johnson, 

Prmdent of the St^^ti^. 



■ I » " 



i^temJberl9,W7. 

Sim : I boivothe honor tp t^wiwEifiy borfjiiifiiliilbf^r^Kirt of ibe Chief. Eftr 

S'neer on the subject of the resolution of tba SemlQ vi^fi^^ \h» 3d ieagf pi 
arch, 1837,^rQque6tiAgthePfeii{)epi(ito«<9qer^iB \vtie|heir(N wojrjfii at 
Black Rock raise the waters pf I^ko Eriie, ta the injury of property on its 
southern and wei»t€|rjr^ ?bpr^ <]^s" The report contains the causes of the 
delay in cftrrying out the views indicated by the resolution and in obtaining 
the required information. 

Very respeeljfii^y, 

Your most obedient servant, 

J. R. POINSETT. 
To the President op the United States. 

^« . ^ ' w%.*. '^' ^ '^ I ' ll!. - 

BUuc ^ Rjh^$j printers. 



[2a] « 

IN SENATE OP THE UNITED STATES. 

March 2, 1837. 

Reselvedj That the President be requested to ascertain, during the re- 
cess of Congress, whether the works at Black Rock raise the waters of 
T^ake Erie, to the injury of property ^n its jsouthern and western shores, 
and to communicate to Congress, at their next session, the result of the ex- 
amination. 



Engineer Department, 
Waskin£^(ntj JSeptember 15, 1837. . 

Sm : In reference to tfie Resolution of me Senate of March 2, 1837, 
calling for information in regard to the waters of Lake Erie being raised 
by the works near BuflEalo, I have tbeiioaor to report : 

That no funds having been appropriated for the survey, Capt. A. Tal- 
c(^t, and Messrs. Courtenay ana Brown, formerly of the corps of engineers, 
were requested, on the 14tn of April, 1837, to make the necessary exami- 
nation on their own responsibility, to he reimbursed from an appropriation 
to be asked afterward of Congress. These gentlemen acceptea the offer; 
but iwo of jthem \)^g pjt>)j|g|^^ter wards to withdraw, the examination 
co^ld not 1^ roj5i(ie. 

For tne same reason, of a want of funds, \\\e request made by Mr.. 
Brown, United States' Agent p^t l)unkirk, W. Y. that Col. Totten and Ma- 
jor Douglass ;^Quld be flippointedj could not be complied with. 

Aproi)ositiQ;i was also afterwards made by Mr. Brown, after Messrs. 
Talcott and Courtenay had left the lake, that those gentlome^ should piake 
the examination, and the expense be defrftye^ from an unexpended balance 
of appropriation for other objects tlien in his hands. To this proposition 
Capt. Talcott acceded ; but this department, having no authority to make 
the transter of funds, Mr. Brown was informed that the application of them 
to this purpose would be on his individual responsibility. Since then, the 
depari;£M^n;t js in receipt of no further information. 

Unless, therefore, Mr. Brown has concluded to make the survey on his 
own respohsJEbiiity, ^(he information required cannot he comfnmnicated, there 
hekitt no ftinds t^ lliat purpose. 

I huve the honor to retuhi herewith the resdution referred to. 

Tery respec€ftiily,Sir, 

iTour obedient servant, 



Hon. J. R. Poinsett, 

Stcretary of War. 



C. GRATIOT. 



Engineer Departments 
Washington^ September 18, 1837. 

Sir : In compliance with your verbal instructions, given in pursuance 
of a resolution of the Senate of March 2, 1837, '< That the President be 
requested, to ascertain, during the recess of Congress, whether the works at 



3 [21] 

Black Rock raise the waters of Lake Erie, to the injury of property on its 
southern and western shores, &C.,'' I have the honor to submit herewith an 
approximate estimate of the cost of an examination of the lake with that 
view, namely : 

Three commissioners, one month, at $5 per day - - $450 

Transportation of bagfi;age at 10 cents per mile - - 290 

Surveyor, including all expenses .... 300 

Contingencies --..-. 160 

$1200 
I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

C. GRATIOT. 
Hon. J. R. Poinsett, 

Secretary of War. 



25th Congress, [ SENATE. ] f 2^ 1 

1st Stssion. *■ 



MEMORIAL 

OP 

A NUMBER OF CITIZENS OP MOBILE, ALABAMA, 
Praying the incorporation of a national bank. 



September 23, 1837". 

Laid on the table, a&d ordered to be printed. 



To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

StcUes in Congress assembled : 

The memorial of the subscribers, inhabitants of Mobile, in the State of 

Alabama, 

Respectfully represents: 

That in the midst of profound peace, embarrassed by no fifreat political 
stritggles, surrounded by all the elements of prosperity, wo find our country 
involved in financial ruin ; the hand of industry arrested ; all ha^cmony 
and concert in our monetarv operations destroyed ; all interchanges of 
property impeded ; all internal estchanges embarrassed ; and the whole na- 
tion forced to the desperate resort of a suspension of specie payment. 
Thus are contracts rendered insecure ; public and private faith violated ; 
the value of property unsettled ; and the people exposed to the impositioii 
of uncontrolled issues of irredeemable State bank notes. In addition to 
these disasters, new enterprises, which would furnish profitable employ* 
ment to the laborer, the mechanic, and the agriculturist, are preivented ; 
and, in fine, general confidence, which, judiciciusly guided and controlled,' 
is the safe basis of agricultural and commercial prosperity, annihilated. 

your memorialists confidently avow the belief that the only remedy for 
these accumulated evils is within the jurisdiction of your honorable bodies ;• 
that it exists in the creation of a specie-paying national institution, (^niajoritjr 
of the stock of which should^in the opinion of your memorialists, be owned 
by individuals, and represented in the board of directors,) obligated to per- 
form such fiscal duties as may be required by Government, and whose en- 
ergies and resources shall chiefly be directed to the collection of moneys, 
and furnishing of drafts on all parts of the United States, so as to efifect an 
equalisation of exchanges throughout the country. Such an insMtutioni 
by extending its prosperous influences to the threshold of eveiy eitizen, 
would, your memorialists believe, prove a national blessing* 

In the creation of such an institution, two great objects, intioiately con- 
nected with the well-being ^f . the nation, would, in the judgment of your 
memorialists, be attained : 

Bl&ir A RiTes, printers. 



t^] 



1. A resumption of specie payments, wijhout which no safe standard of 
value can exist. 

2. An equalisation, so far as practicable, of the exchanges of the United 
States. 

As to the power of the Gptetnipeut to Organize such an institution, no 
doubt, it is presumed, can now be entertained. It was exercised during 
the administration of Washine^ton, and has received, in some form, more or 
ess direct, the sanction of all his successors. 

Your memorialists accordingly tequesllhat Cbilgt^sd will cre«le iiuch an 
institution as is herein suggested, by which great advantages will be con- 
ferred on the country, while the riehts of the Getleral Gk>ve]rnment and of 
the States must, at the same time, be scrupulously protected from encroach- 
ment and injury. 

And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 



S. O. Harris 
Samuel C. Head 
James Martin 
W. W. Deloach 
J. H. Knox 
H. O. Hall 
Thomas B. Taylor 
John Rolston 
Joseph C. Megginson 
Daniel Geare 
Oeoree A. SnAih 
J. P« Magie 
L. Judttdn 
JoKfl B. Mibit 
Jdhn Fedin 
JaUtM OilLmioile 
G. J« IliabMny 
LawPIfill 
Lenfhox Bkirkie 
George Poe^ jr. 
Robert D; Kimball 
Qo^ge W. Gyiuit 
Wittiain B. AUen 
J.O. Adktiaa 
G. G, Foster 
Jebn M6«^gei% 
lai^^es Wheder 
W; L. Tm^t 

Jolm Jiitnea Horn 
R H.^^r8 
Di^tellWlie^ter 
J.ai/ftidlier 
WiUiam O. Ellis 
G&ltoliP^4 
JLBMlkB 
J. E. SuUon 



John Patham 
John G. Moore 
Jared S. Green 
L.Hall 

F. G. Kimball 
R. Greene 

C. Milton^Pbpe 
James M. Smith 
Theodore McGregor 
A. F. Edwards 

J. T. Smith 
Charles B. Warren 
N. G. McGttnnigle 
S.Kellum 
RN.Philpot 
D.E. Hall 

G. S. Hale 
(!)barle8 L. Koons 

D. H. Laganiis 
G. Dellinger 
John Affroy 
G. Balie 
John S. Sutton 

E. De Vender 
Ward H. Blaekley 
John Huntington 
WiUJam W. Ford 
Charles E. Hariris 

• Hetilry Myers 
Williatti H. Robertson 
Gostavns Beal 
JdhoMayriint 
Jdftkil C. Catifi^d 
S. Ilkson 
Jilf. Waiteti 
J. If^UiAna 
Curtis Lewis 



3 



£22]] 



M. T. Aubert 

James M. Muldon & Co. 

James Sands 

John S. Everett 

John S. Remsen 

H. J. Jude 

Jude ic Alshork 

H. Lewis 

J. B. Dorrance 

C. H. Austin 

William Bayard 

R. W. Holbrook 

John G. Clivlan 

Benjamin McLaughlin 

George S. Kinsman 

T. J. De Yampert 

Alexander Watson, jr, 

R. RCorlis 

J. S. Allen 

A. Armstrong ' 

J. Parrine 

George E. Redwood 
Abner S. Lipscomb 

J. W. Isacrott 

William D. Dunn 
Francis H. T. Gaines 

R. C. McAlpin 
A. M. Sprague 
Jacob Magee 
Gurdan H. Bacchus 
John P. Reney 
S. Throwel 
J. Gayle 
Robert B. Owen 
A. Larisson 
A. R. Meclin 
A. Verdereau 
T. M. English 
Henry N. Allen 
David Whits 
Jolm Cox 
William Edmond 
Daniel Robertson 
Simon S. Preston 
George H. Byard 
W. A. Smith 
W. Poole 
J. T. Ross 
W. S. Hoyt 
James Fomiller 
K. B. Lyman 
M. A. Ward 



Solomon J. Jones 
John Test 
W. V. Randall 
M. M. Roman 
A. Wetherby 
Percy Walker 
Richard H. Redwood 
H. C. Howorth 
R. D. HaU 

D. G. McRea 

E. C. Southworth 
M. G. Almindinger 
Edward Daws 
Ezra Green 

J. M. Sumeralt 
T. C. Fay 
Joseph Auzl 
Charles Auzl 
A. S. Conn 
John Reid 
John Scott, jr. 
John Stephenson 
S. S. Fonville 
Asa Fonville 
J. B. Toulmin 
Newton St. John 
W. Jefferson Jones 
George A. Puthill 
J. W. Roper 
Thomas Bates 
Philip McLoskey 
John H. Lucas 
H. A. Schroeder 
William Hutchison 
Charles Gascoigne 
George C. Barney 
L. Chandler 
Charles Wilson 
William Hamilton 

D. Goodman 
F. F. Swan 
F. J. Lechr 
Theodore L. Moody 
John C. Hodges 
William Chamberlain 
A. B. Homer 
James Innerarity 

E. Solomon 
George W. Fenno 
Thomas Rogers 
William Graham 
Henry Stickney 



[23] 



John M. Whidden 
Charles A. Hoppin 
H. A. Barclay 
J. S. Simmons 
L. Young 

D. D. Kane 
William Edridge 
J. Hamilton Hastie 
William H. Stokes 

E. Huntington 

H. Y. Chamberlain 
J. S. Kneedler 
Warren Andrews 
Owen McMahou 
L. C. Hubbell 
Levi Fletcher 
Henry C. Neale 
B. Baldwin 

Williamson &, Johnson 
Charles Goodwin 
L. Gunin^r 
James H. Pollard 
S. C. Fisher 
J. P. McDonnold 
Parker Paine 
Edward Hall 
Edward George 
Thoma* H. Wies 
George M. Mallory 
J. Y. Cluis 
James M. McRea 
S. P. Bullard 
B. N. Tardy 
Edward O. Conner 
J. G. Cox 
John Barretre 
Edward Jones 
P. C. Lane 
George F. Sail 6 
George G. Henry 
William E. Pennings 
Charles E. I «ewis 
William H. Kelly 
William Salle 
Samuel B. Head 
Thomas Sturtevant 
J. C. Chamberlain 
John H. Woodcock 
Samuel Hopkins 
James S. Unee 
J. W. Washburn 
Arthur F. Keene 



Andrew Dexter 
R. McLean 
H. A. Donaldson 
Charles J. Wheeler 
S. Warren 
Daniel H. Pallais 
William Crothers 
Daniel McNiel 
J. W. Bridges 
David Uunson 
M. E. Jennesse 
T. W. Jones 
William Carlyon 
Thomas J. Burrell 
Isaac H. Erwin 
William H. Burton 
George Arbery 
D. W. H. Smith 
Thomas McDonald 
Mark Tucker 

F. L. Etlett 
John Kennedy 
John R. Reid 

G. D. Caller 
Samuel H. Wilkin» 
R. E. Redwood 
Joseph Wood 

C. C. Hodges 
Joseph M. Femander 
Israel J. Jones 
William McMillan, jr. 
Joseph Clement 
C. L. Strother 
Thomas J. Butler 
Moses Harris 
Henry V. H. Voorhis 
George Flagg 
L. Cninple 
R. Cowles 
William T. Marshall 
J. W. Holloway 
Robert White Smith 
G. Round 
Aaron Ga£;e 
Creorge W. Hoskyns 
T. H: Howard 
Edward March 
S. Crunwel 
Dean Knox 
A. D. Hedenberg 
Thomas Reid 
George Wood 



[22] 



Geo. R. Washburn 
Charles J. Hedenberg 
John Mulligan 
A. S. Diimie 
L. Gayle 

Thomas McMillan 
Edwin Harriman 
O. Noyes 
Henry S. Levat 
A. Campbell 
Israel Slee 
P. Mosely 
S. H. Rokenbaugh 
James Slaughter 
Preston Moore 
Samuel A. Roberts 
W. C. Reddall 
Geo. C. Sweet 
James M. Malone 
P. R. Rives 
George Davis, jr. 
Thos. A. Pamiell 
E. N. Thompsom 
George Star 
C. C. Hazard 
W. W. Fry 
Stephen B. North 
C. W. Dorrance 
M. Da Costa 
Harry J. Thornton 
Talcott, Irwin, & Co. 
C. B. Dalhin 
J. B. Todd 
George N. Stewart 
Thomas L. Clarke 
George Walton 
N. J. Tisdale 
S. Gaffetts Fisher 
Jeremiah Rea 
Edward McDermott 
3. B. Nixon 
Paul Powers 
Benj. Christian 
M. J. D. Balduryn 
William Brooks 
William B. Ileus 
Robert M. Kee 
Edward Halslauer 
William Berry 
Lawrence Hickey 
James Power 
Henry B. Moore 



E. O. Jones 
Isaac Nolan 
Samuel Tomlinson 

C. W. Duby 
N. Volok 

William J. Dunan 
Samuel Love 

S. B. Taylor > 
H. M. Croper 
H. Sheffrine 
Thomas Brothers 
L. Montany 

F. Hurtel 

H. Pumington 
John Hurtel 
John H. Simmons 
John Pollard 
Felix Lenoe 
Henry Bablic, jr. 
N. Gueringer 
Martin Kirby 
M. McDonald 
W. R. Peeville 
A. Muhite 
Ramon Late 
Bennett Olive 
Daniel Derby 
Patrick Hebely . 
John Crosbee 
James Meskee 

D. Dill 

A. Van Amburgh 
A. H. Miller 

A. G. Parker 
J. H. Cocke 
Silas Bowen 
William Pitt 
John McMahon 
C. DeBage 

E. Jourdan 
John W. Geib 
Charles Harris 
Eidward McCaskin 
George S. Martin 

F. M. Alexander 
Thomas Short 
J. P. Truck 

B. V. Tomlinson 
J. Reese 

M. Marshall 
John S. Demeritt 
S. S. Johnston 



[SW ] 



6 



W. Ellis 

Thomas J. McClary 

William Langthorp 

Charles L. Smith 

B. J. S. Bright 

P. M. Montgomery 

Daniel S. Baldwin 

James Roland 

Sidney Smith 

J. B. Ewing 

David N. Pascal 

Thomas Ellisby, jr. 

J. P. Moore 

W. Cirik 

Elam Fernandes 

William Phinehas Btowne 

Thomas T. King 

John C. Cabarris 

James Lyon 

John Ferguson 

Roderick Matterson 

E. Walpole 

T. M. Ballard 

John McGowan 

William H. Smith 

W. Skiller 

James Tharp 

James Waters 

M. Rudler 

J. W. Oneal 

J. E. Ellis 

W. Upham 

Eliote Headington 

G. R. Rash 

J. H. Stephenson 

William McLean 

James H. Vail 

Hiram W. Brown 

W;illiam Caldwell 

Oilman Prescott 

J. J. Sherman 

James Coaming 

Charles W. OgSen 

W. P. Haller 

L. N. Hitchcock 

Joel T. Case 

John B. Heard 

George W. AVelch 

W. Conell 

Wiillam Wilkins 

N. Radcliffe 

John Bloodgood 



B. F. Boardman 
William Wentworth, jr. 
Charles W. Sniffen 
Joseph E. Monroe 
Henry B. Brewster 

M. H. Davis 
H. M. Gleeson 
G. Westfeldt 
James Hagan 
James Kelso, jr. 
Patrick Furlong 
Dr. Philips 
George Wragg 
M. O. Connor, jr. 
John E. Lipscomb 
Thomas S. King 
William Culvert 
Henry Lazarus 
Samuel E. Barnett 
L. R M. Tarleton 
A. Girard & Co. 
J. E. Turotz 
H. Hitchcock 
Robert Williamson 
Sayre & Greene 
Edwaid Martineau ^ 
Joseph W. Seiscerne 
P. B. Taylor 
Richard Worth 
W. Beal Cook 
William J. Faires 
L. A. Costikin 
William Alkbin 
Rufiis Dunham 
James Barnes 
R. E. B. Baylor 
M. T. Pooryman 
Joel A. Roberts 
Charles Steele 
Thomas Oliver k, Co. 
John Myers 
John Cotchett 
G. M. Bourne 
iH. M. McGuire 
P. F. Sandoz, jr. 
Henry Oracell 
A. Rigaud 
E. Pouchet 
O. B. Feuilloley 

C. Paynter 
Joseph Ellis 
J. Mechhn, jr. 



[«M 



David Talcott 
John S. Newhouse 
Samuel Beucler 
Pope & Power 
E. Latady 

S. H. St. John & Co. 
Alfred Bull 
William L. Powers 
Cowlea & Wichet 
C. Wickes 

C. Lancelot 

Goodman, Miller & Co. 
J. S. Hopper 

John P. Nicolas 
J. B. Ramity 
Israel Schooley 
U. Ogden 
John Larkin 
James Thompson 
L. Sherman 

D. Walker 
D. M. Burke 
Samuel Morgan 
John N. Gri^ick 
J. S. Secor 

D. Daly 

N. C. Quigley 

M. Clark 

B. F. King 
George Ross 
Groka Bitzer 

C. D. Bert 
Charles Gesenius 
WiUiam Creighton 
Richard Cosgrood 
John Magee 
George Brown 
James Strother 

P. S. Stradford 
Asa F. Colbech 
T. P. Lambert 
R. Hinridwen 
O. W. Colerige 
Charles J. Granger 
WiUiam W. Smith 
H. B. Schofield 
John Paul 
H. Tracy 
James Anah 
B. Breckenridjge 
Thomas J. Omcer 
A. Beyens 



H. J. Crocheran 
A. B. Smith 

E. G. Pratt 

H. P. M. Michael 
A. Mackenzie ic Co. 
T. H. Cooper 
H. V. Raymond 
Daniel M. Prichard 
Gorham Davenport 
.George Smyth 
N. H. Davidson 
Mark Killingsworth 
J. Reynolds 
A. N. Carpenter 
P. G. Maguire 
•Dasha, Bradford & Co. 
Thomas B. Stallworth 
W. G. Vandergraff 
Piatt Stout 
WiUiam Wilde 
Charles Lewis 
Georc^e W. Lappington 
Charles T. Jenkins 
George Bancroft 
James Forster 
Henry Witmer 
John Lepper 
Story Knox 
William Lyon 
Richard P. Field 
A. Delomel 

F. A. MiUe 
'WUIiam Fiske 
A. P. Cleveland 

I Daniel H. Ryder 
Walter Smith 
D. W. Goodman 
H. Dunning 
Isaac Bryan 
James Bonner 
R. J. Carter 
John F. Irwin 
J. H. Saxon 
Jeremiah Findley 
Peter Gilchrist 
Lewis G. Glover 
Jacob Sloner 
; E. S. Waits 
Joel W. Slaughter 
WiUiam Stuart 
*Tobias Eeger 
James G. Elliot 



[22] 



8 



John Earl 
John Dunn 
Charles Flanders 
John H. Eury 
Alexander Stoddard 
S. M. Sevenson 
John C. Finley 
T. Seigton 

A. Wright 
Thomas Prichard 
John K. Randall 
John P. Irwin, jr. 
Edward Robinson 
Wm. Bisser 

J. Miller 
S. Anderson 
George Dickson 
Vincent Vaughan 
P. O'Sheehan 
J. Maithe 
R. R. Dade 
Reuben Plummer 
Wm. Charpentier 
D. Girard 
Fran. La Cobaro 
C. P. Schock 

B. T. Menne 
Martin Nicolas 
George Meckerel 
Jo. Jeerig 

John Gronn 
G. W. Forwke 
James C, Martin 
R. C. Drake 
James Callan 
Charles Mancoe 
Gabriel Hahu 
George Dalah 
Jos. liindon 
Jos. Miller 
John N. GifTord 
John Whittler 
Lewis Reeneck 
Samuel Lutz 
N. D. Morton 
Jos. Goodman 
W. B. Crawford 
James Bums 
L. Pettis 
Isaac Staniford 
James Carr 
Wm. Paraell 



J. H. Hendrick 
Jas. Reed, jr. 
R. W. Ashlock 
A. E. Rouse 
Francis Horace 
L. Rivers 
Chas. Auzl 
Wm. Holway 
A. L. McCoy 
F. W. McCoy 
Chas. Chidsey 
L. J. Wilson 
R. Caldwell 
Wm. Hillard 
Patrick Muhony 
E. J. Foster 
H. H. Raymond 
M. Durand 
Benj. F. Marshall 
Jno. Reilly 
L. M. Wilson 
J. J. Manroy 
A. J. Tardy 
Sam. Selden 
David F. Woodbury 
John H. Bosworth 
William Fisher 
L. G. Collins & Co. 
E. L. Moore 
S. Bromberg & Co 
W. Grame 
E. Smith 
W. Smith 
S. G. Morris 
J. Richardson 
Robert M. Parker 
Deloach & Jones 
Chas. J. Wheeler 
James Higgin 
P. J. Yost 
Joseph Case 
John James Horn 
Benj. Dorman 
Amos Horn 
Hugh McCane 
W. H. Thomas 
W. R, Dunning 
Answell & Harris 
Robert Flenner 
B. F. Bigelow 
y. C. Kennedy 
H. A. Neehil 



9^ 



1 2ft; Y 



Chas. S. Davenport 
William S. Patton 
L. R. Brown 
J. Freiksey 
M. P. Holman 
Sam. P. Myers 
G. M. Mallett 
Will. Dunn 
L. S. Benedict 
Nath. F. Williams 
John Steel 

A. Wilkins 

Miller &, Tomlinson 
Henry G. Thwing 
Jas. A. Watson 
J. Neriton 
Thomas Adams 

B. H. Mullikin 
Sam. Conwalt 
Rufiis Gmn 
W. J. Prichard 
Robert McLean 
John P. King 
John L. Bostwick 
Benjamin Leavens 
J« Pritchard 
George H. Pry 
John A. T. Pry 
Jas. Dimsford 

J. M. Norman 
Peter Salkila 

C. Taylor 
Martin B. Harper 
George H. Poote 
J. L. Seabury 
Horace W. Robbins 
J. Bigelow & Co. 
Darlinff Collins 

B. A. Mann 
B. Winding 
Jefferson Townsend 
John J. Springsteel 
Jas. J. Adams 

D. J. Hoge 
John G, Alirers 
Thomas C&isty 
Jacob Peterson 
George Shept • 
Robert Haney 
Martin Comelly 
Frederick Ooroen • 
Henry Blakeman 



Edward Da Gentzeh 
Wm. Harrlaner 
J. W. H. Eustis 
Antonio Sanchez 
S. M. Duke 
John P. Owen 
Ani^s Campbell 
Christian Kiebler 
Simeon Wheeler 
James Pa^ 
Robert Cnttenden 
Greorge Collard 
J. B. Wilson 
Edmund J. Drake 
Wm. Jones 
John Pemell 
Saccrdate & Jessi 
William Service 
John B. Hope 
Wm. Jarvis 
Patrick Curstin 
Barney Sheridan 
T. Pourcade 
T. B. Balenironiff 
James Gumming 
Robert Gehareshde 
M. Faulkner 
Geo. C. Simington 
Simon Dubois 
J. Wilhelm 
John Daniel 
Hugh T, Parker 
Thomas Parnell 
Francis Inge 
S. W. IVotter 
Matthew Nolus 
Jno. Hewan 
Francis Rhear 
C. B. Churchill 
James Ross 
Benj. C. Steele 
ArtMnas Runville 
Joseph Butler 
David R. Robertson 
Samuel Lenny 
J. N. Connell 
R.Mikoy 
K McCttUougfa 
A. B. Cammack 
A. Giraid 
John Spear / 
L. Cooper 



[ n ] 10 

Richard T. Hanson J. G. Lyon 

Joseph Hall Chas. E. Bolles 

Chas. Smith Joseph S. Kennedy 



« '^ 



t 



26th Congress, [ SfiNATR ] if 23 h 

Ist Session. 



MEMORIAL 

OP 

A NUMBER OP CITI25EN8 OP SCHUYLER COUNTY, ILLINOIS, 

Praying (he creaHon nf a ntMiianal bank. 



, September 1^, 1637. . 

Referred to the Committee on Finance, 
SsPTtRMBKB, 2h 1837. 

R^rt adverse. 

September 26, 1837. 

Ordered to be printed. 



; 1 . * ' < ' I 



7o the hontnrable the &e^afs\ andSbitse of RepresentcUives of the United 

States in Congress assembled: 

The memorial of the subscr^tatejCf > vv^^bitants of Schuyler county, in the 

iState of Illinois, 

Respectfully represents: 

That in the midst of prpfpund pciace, embarrassed by no great .political 
struggles, surrounded by all the elements of prosperity, we mid our couitr 
cry mvolyed in financial rui^ ; tb^ h^nd of industry arrested ;, all harmony 
and concert in our mpnetary ppiBrations destroyed; all iqt€irohans|es.Qf 
property impeded ; all internai ^chiinges embarrassed ; ^3^ tbe .who}^ na- 
tion forced to the desperate resprt of a suspension of specie pay n^^ntp. 
Thus are contracts render^ ips^^iire ; public and priyato faith yjoJIa^,; 
the value of property, upsettl^d; and the people exposed to th9iii1ipositiqq.9f 
uncontrolled. issues of irre^mable, $tate bank notes. In addit^n to tbeiB 
disasters, new enterprise^ which would furnish profitable employment fo^ 
the laborer, the mechanic, and the agriculturist, are prevented ; a|^d,4n fiM, 
general confidence, which, jydjciously guided and controlled, is the safe 
basis of agriculuiral apd commercial prosperity, annihilated^ , , ; ^ 

Your memorialists corj|$dpnt)y i^vqw the belief that the only rein|y]y jfor 
these accumulated evils is wi^iio thie jurisdiction of your ho^Qiabl^bodiiefai; 
that it exists in the cren^tipp^pf ;^ i$pecie-paying national institutioPr oblu 
gated to perform such ^i^l (jlpties as may be required by Qovernm^nt^ftn4 
whose energies and resource shall, chiefly be directed to the cq^leQtloa cf 
moneys, and furnishing o( dr^ pn all parts of the United St»tie6,:SQ,aSk^ 
effect an equalisation of pi^chapgei^ throughout the country, l^ch ap, iu^ 
^titution, by extending its prpsp^ous influences to the thr^hold. pf every 
citizen, would, your memorialists believe, prove a national blessing. 

BUir Sl Rives, printers. 



[ 23 ] 



3 



In the creation of such an institution, two great objects, intimately con- 
nected with the well-being of the nation, would, in the judgment of your 
memorialists, be attained : 

1. A resumption of specie payments, without which no safe standard of 
value can exist. 

2. An equalisation, so far as practicable, of the exchangfes of the United 
States. 

As to the power of the Government to organize such an institution, no 
doubt, it is presumed, can now be entertained. It was exercised during the 
administration of Washington, and has received, in some form, more or less 
direct, the sanction of all his successors. 

Your memorialists accordingly request that Congress will create such an 
institution as is herein suggested, by which great advantages will be con- 
ferred on the country, whue the rights of the General Government and of 
the States may, at the same time, be scrupulously protected from encroach- 
ment and injury. 

And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 



Valentine Cupp 
Joseph Smith 
Robert N. Curry 
William Irwin 
Thomas K. Ball 
William Rice 
James Breckman 
Henry Cheseldine 
Daniel Curry 
John M. Irwin 
E. W. B. Newby 
Robert Trabue 
Ralph Alexander 
Henry Lot]? 
Benjamin ftrry 
William Thomas 
George Simmons 
George S. Brown 
Bird Waffgener 
Stephen S. Tabbton 
William H. Bates 
Mark Riggins 
Winslow Parker 
William Robins 
Thomas Wilson 
Richard Briggs 
John Sides 
James Longdon 
Samuel Crane 
James Sargeont 
Josephus Price 
Thomas Owen 
John Owen 
George Hay ward 
Abram Fry 



John Lomax 
Samuel W. WaMQ 
W. H. Kendrick 
James Givens 
Richard Bell 
Coulson Tucker 
Robert Kirk 
William Hamilton 
Moses W. Pettigrew 
William M. Hatton 
Samuel N. Giddings 

C. F. Rowell 
William Taylor 
James Gristy 
G. R. Givens 

J. B. Brown 
Thomas Rckett 
Luke Perry 
John Taylor, jr. 
Levin Marshall 
Joseph M. Philips 
Joseph Walker 
George Smith 
James Cox 
S. W. Dunlap 
Benjamin D. Stout 
Benjamin Taylor 
Iram Nye 
John Bradish 
James W. Singleton 

D. E. Brainard 
William Kendrick 
John Trabue 
Wesley Durgen 
Benjamin Adam» 



[23} 



Walter Cecil 
John D. Patterson 
Bentley Ballard 
John Means 
Daniel M. Caskill 
Christopher Shafer 
Richard Ests 
Jacob Hersman 
Rice Martin 
Matthew Alexander 
William M. Haley 
Alexander Curry 
Michael Hersman 



Daniel Roberts 
Leven Wilson 
Alfred Wilgus 
Calvin Clark 
James G. Brown 
L. H. Baker 
David Boss 
Julius Ouer 
Thomas S. Adams 
R. H. Hurlbert 
John B. Anderson 
D. R. Lucas 
Clark Giddins 



I 



26th CoNoaE89, [ SENITE. ] t ^^ I 

1^/ Session* 



•' ■ ' ■ r. '. ^ ; 1 ■ ' 

\ ■ .-'..; . I V ■ : ' ■■■,'■■ • ■ ' 

OP ll^^dUKirsi (AND O^HBftS 01" BAETlMOftlS, 

I^iij^ 4ke i^^imitUiion^^ 6r (fie Mibitimitm kf 

the United States Bank of Pennsylvania. 

■ '■■'.■'. ■./•■.:■ .• ■ ' ■■ :. ■ • ■■ ' ■ ■■ ^ 



i 






The underaignecl, iQ^rphantpit WWi&cturers, and mecb^^H^Xb Of fhe.<i|yi4f 

Baltimore, would> ^Q@|)Q^ii{Q{ly^^ rtupresent to your houorablet^bodiei^: 

I -, .1 

That the present ooaditiW^ftllir exchange and currency* 'Ofttbl&iUtiit^ 
States, the unsettled and, ^afiMjfed' state of the whole monetary^g^en^ 
the country, has;llegi(Hl^ti»tfe^ b^T^rious losses and difficulties, t6 y6ulr 
memorialists the absolute «H30e$9ityiof a national bank^ with braaoheb JH 
each State, or some ^8paV agl^i^ of federal jurisdiction, with iit)ity/#f Jda^* 
ital, unity of purpose,^:ikii4)i(li49ir thie control of a commonihoflldiol/tsiiiifrr- 
intendence, aa the Mly r#fi9ppiiUe fmeans that ow CQAeffttbd/cmrreliicy, 
equalise exchauj^es, ana restrain the over issues of doubtful and irrespon- 
sible local establishments. 

The United States Bank closed its official existence but a short time 
since, and in this short period we already realize precisely the same results 
that followed the interval between the expiration of the charter of the first, 
and preceding that of the second charter of the United States Bank. 

Your memorialists would refrain from enlarging upon the numerous 
topics so appropriate to illustrate the necessity of a federal fiscal oaq)ora- 
tioii, and tne manifest error and impolicy of permitting the currency and 
exchanges to relapse into the hands of twenty-six or more independent 
soverei^ties *, in short, in withdrawing all legislative control over interests 
that affect, for evil or for good, almost every individual in the community, 
and leaving mechanics, merchants, and manufacturers exposed to all the 
evils of a usurious and ruinous system of brokerage. 

The close of the United States Bank has brought into existence millions 
upon millions of independent State bank paper ; and the heavy discounts 
attending; its n^otiation, even in a day's ride from the counters whence it 
issues, &monstrate the want of public confidence in its int^ity, and are 
at once an instructive commentary upon what now constitutes a major por- 
tion of the natioiial c urrency. 

Blair A RiTes, priaten. 



C«41 



.1 



; .■ 



The fruits of ihe system of withdrawing congressional control oVer Ihd 
currency, or permitting the States exclusively to monopolize it, are but now 
appearing ; the perfection of the scheme, the full harvest, cannot be real- 
ised for years to come. 

The rates of exchange beltvjfeeh ;th€ sea^tfbard, the west, the south, and 
south-west, now range from three to ten per centum, (which formerly stood 
between a minimumand maximum rate of J to 1 per cent.,) not only with- 
out prospect of improvement, but with the certainty of excess and deterio- 
rati)oii. This is not only a \0$$ upc3^\profit^ Md at {iteoflute in^ m irade, 
but has produced the greatest embarrassment to all kinds of business, from 
the iiQpossibility of coUeotiog on some poiutS) tlireu|[b ^ 3<^te baiUcsi on 
any terms. v - ' 

Your memorialists therefore pray that Congress will take this matter into 
serious consideration, and create a naiional bank, with such limitations and 
powers as may seem riglit, 4"i!ing its present session ; or substitute the 
present United States Bank pf Pennst/lvania ss the 6scb\ agent of the 
Government ; which, in the opinibn of your memorialists, would relieve 
both the people and the Govemihent at once, by equalising exchanges 
throughout the country by its agencies, gradually collect the scattered m1* 
ances due the GovBrtmoettf witbont lods. and leikl to a genetal resmntnion 
of specie payments in less than siit inkHitns. 



Birckhead St Peah^e 
Joseph Jewett ^ 

Wartman & Welsh 
E. C. Thomas 
John Chapman 
/.Wall 

A.Lane ' 

S.D. Walker 
Jot^ MoKim, jn 
Wiiliam Wilson & Sons 



(5¥ai^rd & McKini 
John Fitoeiaciis' 
Z. H. Cooch 
C%irk ft Kidllogg' 
T. Shfeppard 
W. MfcDonald & Co* 
E. T. Griffin 
€harl6^ D. Delord 
Trueman Oosa 
Eastman ft Within^ti 



I : ' 



[ , ■ 



N '-;..■• : ' ; 






J, ' 



I ' 



» . 



■ t 



J • 



' ^ ' '^1 . 



! I 



':•> nil 



I . . 1 ' ' > 



. ■■.!■. 



• * t ' I 



»,■ 



r 



i : 



-'■ ' -. 1 



ft: ; i 



' t 



if t 



, . .,- 



>ii 



25th Congress, [ SENATE. ] T 45 1 

1.9/ ASoaWam L -I 



MEMORIAL 

OP 

A NUMBER OF CITIZENS OF WHEELING, VIRGINIA, 
Praying the incorporation of a national bank. 



September 26, 1S37. 

Lftid on the taUe, and ordered to be printed. 



To the honorable the SetuUe and Mouse of Representatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled* 

The memorial of the suhaoriberai, inhabitants of the city of Wheeling in ti^ 

State of Virginia : 

Respectfully aEFiufsiK<}T8 ; 

That in the midst of profound peace, embarrassed by no great political 
struggles, surrounded by all the elements of prosperity, we find our ooun^ 
try involved in financial ruin; the hand of industry arreted ; all harmony 
and concert in our monetary operations destroyed ; all interchanges of 
property impeded; sil internal exchanges embarrassed ; and the whole na- 
tion forced to the desperate retort of a suspension of specie payments. 
Thus are contracts rendered insecure; public and private faitii violated; 
the value of property unsettled; and the people exposed to the imposition ot 
uncontrolled issues of irredeem^bte State bwk notes. In addition to these 
disasters, new enterprises^ which would furnish profitable emplcyment to 
the laborer, the mechanic, and the agriculturist, are prevented ; and, in fine, 

general confidence, which, judiciousiy guided and controlled, is the ^afe 
asis of agricultural and commerdal prosperity, annihilated. 
Tour memorialists confidentl]^ avow the belief that the only remedy for 
these accumulated evib is within the jurisdiction of your honorable bodies; 
that it exists in the creation of a specie-paying national iusthndon,. obli- 
gated to perform such fiscal dikti^ as may be required by Government, and 
whose enerdes and resources shall chiefly be directed to the collection of 
moneys, and famishing of drails on all parts of the United Stat^, so ias to 
efifect an equalisation of exchanges throughout the coitntry. Bfkoh an in- 
stitution, by extending its prosperous influences to the threshold of every 
citizen, would, your meaief laNsts believe, prove a national ble8Su%. 

In the creation of such an ihstitution, two great objects, intHnialttly con-^ 
nected with the well-being of the nation, wou3, in the judgiMiH of yotui 
memorialists, be attainecl: 

1. A resumption of specie payBvents, without which no safe standard of 
value can exist. ■■ ^ ■ 

Blair &Ri7es, printers. 



125] 



2. An equalisation, so far as practicable, of the exchanges of the United 
States. 

As to .the power of the Government to organize such an institution, no 
doubt, it is presumed, can now be entertained. It was exercised during the 
administration of Washington, and has received, in some form, more or less 
direct, the sanction of all his successors. 

Your memorialists accordingly request that Congress will create such an 
institution as is herein sugs;estea, by which great advantages will be con- 
ferred on the country, while the rights of the General Government and of 
the States may, at the same time, l^ scrupulously protected from encroach- 
ment and injury. 

And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

Wheeling, August, 1837. 

Henry Moore 

J. W. Mitchell 

D. Lamb 

Chas. G. Strong 

Geo. Harrison 

Geo. T. Tinde 

Jacob S. Shriver 

W.W.Shriver 

J. D. Shipley 

Wm. K. Newnam 

Chas. Danforth 

K. McKee 

McKee, Harding, & Co. 

Thos. G. Black 

Richard W. Harding 

W. B. Tyson 

A. N. Davison 

Jo. W. Dempsey 

Moses Rhodes 

J. R. Greer 

James Baker 

Joseph Updegraff 

Wm. B. Quanier 

John Morgan 

B« Smith 

John H. Lyman 

J. F. UpdegraS' 

James D. Jackson 

T. Plunkett 

Edwin S; Hoff 

P. Campbell 

Ritchies io Wilson 

John Ritchie 

Jas. H. Roberts 

Robert Fisher ' 

John Fidher 

James M. StepheLson 

Charles D. Knox 



Robert Armstrong 
Jno. List, jr. 
John M. Clarke 
Sam. S.Jones 

B. C. Johnston 
Wm. T. Peterson 
Albert P. Goff 
E. B. Swearingeu 
W. T. Selby 
Thomas J. B. Pentoney 
Mark Douglass 
R. T. Ford 
G. K. Swearingen, 
Geo. Dulty 
Hamilton P(»llQck 
Robert Guy 
Amos Wright 
Abram Howser 
Wm. S. Goshonn 
Benj. F. Kelly 
David Agnew 
W. P. Morris 

C. Yeaaer 
Jas. A Claike 
J. Y. Armstroiva 
Wm. McConneu 
Jas. Y. Patterson 
William Le Bacan » 
James Lloyd 
George Carothers 
R. Givin 

Wm. Cunningham 
Wm. H. Houston 
J. R. Forayth 
W. B. Buchanan 
M. & R. H. Sweeney & Co. 
JohnKeUey 
G^ox^^ Hobbs 



[25] 



James McCloskey 

George Hartley 

Robert Snell 

Martin Wesly 

William Wesly 

John S. Browne 

John Fawcett 

S.S.HuUihen 

A. S. Todd 

Alf. Bennett 

James McLure 

David Gorden 

F. A. Wandelohr 

Wm. A. Davison • 

S. H. Melcoiir 

S. Rice 

A. Getty 

Ebenezer McCoy 

McCoy & Berry 

H. Morton 

Isaac N. Ellmaker 

H. B. Chubback 

Geo. W. Sights 

W. W. & S. H. Jimesoii 

James D. Walker 

O. H. P. Millol 

David Hull 

James R. Rnker 

J. List 

James M. Wheat 

William Hall 

Joseph Godfrey 

J. (fc J. Godfrey 

John EolFik Son 

John D. Eoff 

John Gilchrist 

Daniel J. Hoye 

John J. Hoye 

George Mc Murray 

Wra. H. Greer 

Robert Monow 

John R. Monow 

P. M. Moore 

R. F. Deg2:e 

William Sissons 

John R. Miller 

H. M. Miller 

E. W. Newton <fc Co. 

Bushey 6c Little 

David McColloch 

Mordecai Morgan 

William Elliot 



D. Darragh 
Samuel Neel 
Alexander Paxton 
Jacob E. Bier 
Thomas Morris 
George Kelsall 
S. Cuthbert 
F. Judson 
Robert Watterson 
Samuel C. Clark 
J. C, Kerr 
John McLane 
Andrew Po 
Henry Wright 
George W. Stanbery 
P. D. Duffield 
Z. T. Goldenburgh 
Jacob Winesburgh 
Samuel Winesburgh 
R. C. Bonham 
Wm. George 
John Clarke 
Orr George 
Solomon Clark 
Joseph Morrison 
J. H. Widney 
Nicholas Griffith 
H. B. Vandoren 
Moore & Clarke 
Charles M. Coen 
Otis Dexter 
John Hill 
Thomas Bell 
James J. Caldwell 
R. Donagan 
A. C. McCallam 
Henry J. Jones 
George H. Carter 
John Hudson 
Thomas Conard 
J. A. Fawcett 
William Clark 
Mad. Street 
Thomas Townsend 
Isaac P. McNamee 
George P. Fundenberg 
Isaiah Steen 
H. D. Brown 
M. Warren 
Wm. M. Lob 
R. B. Swearingen 
George S. Thompson 



[^5] 



J. Kiger 

E.Day 

Curtii & Pearson 

Jonathan McCalloch 

A. H. Miller 

B. McMahon 
S. S. Hammoqd 
William Garrison 
John Rahan 
Jumes Bell 
Robert Boyd 
Stout & Hull 
Ja& C. Stout 
John G. fiddle 
James McGonnell 
James Godfrey 
O. Montcalm 
R.Gray 
Joseph Reilly 

J. Garrell 
R. Morrow & Son 
M. A. Purdy 
George G. Shaw 
John Freil 
R J. Coen 
Hiram Dysart 
Samuel Fawcett 
Beunet White 
James F. Melven 
Eichard Simras 



John K. Botsford 
irwin & Miller 
S. Atkinson 
Timothy Tayler 
David McConaughey 
Arthur Little 
Gordon Lofland 
Joseph Jordan 
Charles Kemple 
John Moore 
Archibald Fisher 
Robert Baldwin 
Robert Hamilton 
Moore, Morris, & Bredey 
James H. White 
Sherrard Clemens 
J. Gooding 
John F. Clarke 
Henry Helm 
George Brooks 
R, Varney 
J. Boggs 
Peter E. Linn 
A. Richardson 
H. McAfee 
Isaiah Feldein 
Job Stanbery 
Richard Cowl 
Richard Frances 



.^v 



25th Congress, [ SENATE. ] f gfi 

Isi Session. 



PETmoK 



OP 



HENRY PERRINE. 

* 

Pot a grant ef land^ for the encouragement of the growth of tropical 

plants. ^ 



September 29, 1837. 

Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 

America in Congress assembled: 

The memorial of Henry Perrine^ Doctor of Medicine, &c., and late A,merican 

Consul at Campeche, in Yucatan, 

Respectfully showeth: 

1. That on the 6th day of February, 1832, your memorialist, respect- 
fully directed from the city of New York, to your honorable assembly, a 
memorial in favor of the immediate domestication of tropical plants in 
Southern Florida, which resulted in the printed pamphlets of the 1st Ses- 
sion of the 22d Congress, headed Doc. 198, Rep. No. 454, and H. R. 555, 
a bill to encourage the introduction and promote the cultivation of trop> 
ical plants in the United States. 

2. The said bill, conveying to your memorialist and his associates, a 
township of land, on the condition that every section should be forfeited if 
at least one-fourth thereof should not be occupied and successfully culii- 
f>ated in tropical and other exotic plants within Jive yearsy was reported 
on the 26th day of April, 1832, " read twice, and committed to a Commit- 
tee of the Whole House tomorrow ; " that, as that jperiod had not arrived 
on the 29th December, 1834, yoQt Daeoioriftiist respectfully directed from 
the city of Campeche a supplementary memorial, to solicit that said bill 
might become a law, with such modifications as the wisdom and justice of 
that Congress should suggest ; and that as said supplementary memorial 
was not, apparently, ever presented, your memorialist has come to this city 
of Washington, with the hope of attracting the attention of Congress to 
the most important enterprise ever proposed by a humble citizen of the 
United States to promote the prosperity of his country. 

3. That t& avoid alL unnecessary occupation of the time or attention of 

Blair & Rives, printers. 



£26] 2 

either House during the present short session of Congress, your memorialist 
most respectfully solicits that his petition may be referred to the Conmiittee 
on Agriculture, before whom he can appear with specimens of tropical 
plants, accompanied with documents and details to prove the merits of his 
claims, and the importance of his enterprise to the peace, population, pros< 
perity, and permanency of the Union. 

And your memoriaUst, &c., 

HENRY PERRINE. 

Washington, D. C, September 8, 1837. 



^ '"N*". ... .,/T -» K ' . » '^ 



25ih Congress, [ SENATE. ] [ 27 ] 

l^^ Session, 



MExMORIAL 

OP 

LEVI HAMILTON AND OTHERS, 

Citizens of McD^nough county ^ lllinoisy praying to be allowed the benefit 

of the pre-emption (aws. 



3ePT EMBER 30, 1837. 

Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled. 

Your memorialist, Levi Hamilton, begs leave to 

Represent: 

That in the beginning of the year 1833 a certain Joseph Myers settled 
on the north half of section five in township six north, in range two west, 
of the fourth principal meridian, and made some improvements on the same. 
Your memorialist states, that, in the month of October in the same year, he 
purchased the improvement of said Myers for the sum of eighty dollars, and 
caused further improvements to be begun in that year, and about tlie mid- 
dle of February, 1834, moved to and became a settler thereon in proper 
person, and has since that time made valuable improvements on the two 
northern eighty acre lots of said half section, has built a frame hoiise and 
other necessary buildings, enclosed and has in cultivation between eighty 
and one hundred acres on said northeast and northwest [lots] of section nve ; 
in short, he did and performed those acts which entitled him to a pre-emp- 
tion under the late pre-emption law, and made the proper declaration and 
proof, and presented them in due time, together with the prop^ amount of 
money, to the register and receiver of the land office in Quincy ; and, al- 
though said officers Qonsidered and adjudged his proof and papers to be in 
due form, and sufficient to entitle him to enter said two eighty acr^iptH^. 
pre-emption, and his tender of money sufficient in amog^yer,as the report 
of the surveyor had not baen ramfM 1iNP4Hte township, they revised to 
reoeiiFQ hi« rmxMf and give him a certificate of purchase, but encouraged 
him to hope, that, as our wise and equitable Government would deed out its 
benefits equally to the hardy pioneers who pushed the infant settlement 
westward, provisions would be made by which the actual settlers in said 
townships might save their homes and labor b^ private entry. Thus en- 
omragea, he has farther improved his farm ; on it he has bestowed the labor 
of nearly four years, and it constitutes nearly all his wealth ; when it was 
setUed it was wild prairie ; he has procured timber and built his houses and 

Blair & Rives, prioten. 



his farm; and thus improved, if sold at public sale, would bring an amount 
far beyond what he could pay ; he earnestly begs Congress to interpose 
and let him have his home, without having to purchase it (if he were able) 
as improved, with four year's labor, toil, privation, and suffering, in a new 
country ; and, as in duty bound, will ever pray, &c. 

LEVI HAMILTON, [rfteAL.] 
August 10, 1S37. 



To the hmorable the Senate and House 6/ Representatives of the United 

States in Congress dseehibUd. 

Your memorialists, Robert Grant, EKsfaa Fargusson, Elijah Fargusson, 
Thomas A. Brooking, Joseph P. Updegraff, Jadies R. Simpson, Edmund 
F. Murray, Henry Frizell, William J. Frazer, Demosthenes R. Hamilton, 
William W. Bailey, Francis W. Simpson, Lawson H. Robinson, Cyrus 
Haynes, and Thomas B. Grant, beg leave to 

Represent: 

That owing to the encouragement Congress have, from time to time, 
liberally extended to settlers on the public land, they have been induced to 
settle, or purchase settlers' rights, on the Government lands in township six 
north, in range two west, of the fourth principal meridian, in the full hope 
and expectation that Government would extend to them the means of 
securing to them their homes and their lafbor, as has been dbnebn the Gov- 
ernment lands elsewhere. The situation of these lands is, as tliey believe, 
folly and faithfully set forth in a petition signed by sundry citizens of Mc- 
Donough county, of the date of August 10, 1837. 

Your memorialist, Robert Gtant, states, that in ^vember, 1883, be took 
possession of the northwest quarter of section nineteen in the above named 
township, got logs for a heuse, made rails and stakes, and <kiring the re- 
mainder of the year 1833 made preparation to settle on said quarter and 
improve and cultivate the same ; and, in ^ood faith did persevere, and in 
the month of November, 1834, moved his family to, and settled ony said 
quarter, and during the year 18^4 enclosed and cultivated near fifty acres 
of com with a good and substantial fence ; was residing on the said quar- 
ter bn the fir^t day of June 18S4, and has continued to reside on the same 
up to the present time; has made valuable and lasting improrements bn it— 
a good large frtime house with suitable out-bnildings, stables, d&c., and has 
vMbanelosed and in good cultivation one hundr^ and fburceen acres. 
Your memotiallH >i^«i8 entitled to a pre-emption under the general pre-emp- 
tion law, but not having s^ltv^ iiibMmftfiis '^Aom the Comniissiotier of 
the General Land Office ta the several regisleirs and r^cdtvess^ Mrmitdi^ 

Eersetts who had not actually cultivated the soil^in the year 1833,; but wlio 
ImI, during that year, made preparations to enclose and cultivate, which 
W^re followed up in good faith by settlen^ent and culthration jbefore the 
fiietday of June, 18m; and htving some do^ts on tbier subject, he pur- 
cbaM r%bt8 to floating entries from persons vfho were eatided) liy proof 
of preemption on eighty acres each, t& float on two other e^kty acre kits, 
and presented ibooe floating rights lo ihe [re^eter nt Gluiiiey bdwre the first 



3 [2T] 

day of June, 193&, arid offered to pay to the receiver the money on the 
original two eighty acre lots, and on the eighty acre lots on which your 
memorialist lives, and desired to enter and purchase his home by virtue of 
said floating rights. Your memorialist farther states, that both the register 
and receiver decided that the pre-emption rights were legal and fully pro- 
ven, and the right to float from them clear; yet, as the survey had not 
been received, your memorialist could i^ot purchase his lands Until the re- 
ception of survey or action of Congress, but encouraged him to improve, 
and that GbngVess would not fail to secure to him his labor ; arid he prays 
to be protected from the merciless grasp of speculators, and that the Gov- 
ernment of bis dioice will pertnit hiin to enter' his land, secure his home, 
and in his old age enjoy the fruits of his labor. 

Your memorialist, Thomas B. Grant, states that he is a single man, the 
son of the above natned Robert Grant, and resides witTi him ; tliat, vlrhen 
his father took possession of the northwest [quarter] of [sectioii] nineteen, he 
also took possession of the southern half mthe southwest quarter of section 
18; that he aided his father in making his improvemetits, and enclosed a 
part of the aforesaid 80 acres, and cultivated the same in 1834; and has con- 
tinued to do the same ever since ; he states that, by his said father, he pi^o- 
cured a good well-proven floating right to enter 80 acres, and presented the 
same to the proper oflicers at Quincy, as described in his father's memo- 
rial ; yet while his right to enter land by said floating pre-emption right 
was admitted, they remsed to receive his money and permit him to enter 
the land, because the survey had not been received, as described in his 
father's memorial. He states that, although of full age, he resides on an 
adjoining quarter with his father, and prays to be permitted to purchase 
his land and secure his labor at Government price. 

Your memorialist, W. J. Frazer, states that he purchased a settler's right 
on the southwest quarter of section 29, in said township, in the year 1833, 
and occupied the same, by his tenant, from the month of October, in that 
year, until he Settled on the same with his family in January, 1834; he 
states that he cultivated a crop of wheat, say one acre, on said quarter in 
the year 1833, and was fully possessed of the same ever since : but owing 
to the unhealthy site where the houses stood on said quarter, he settled on 
an adjoining quarter in the month of May, 1834, which said quaner is an 
integral part of his farm where he lived on the first day of June, 1834, and 
still resides ; he states, however, that he still, by his tenant, kept possession 
by actual residence on said quarter ; he states that he has acres in cul- 
tivation, well enclosed, and handsomely improved ; he states tl\at he went 
to the land office in Quinojr, and there made his case knowri, and made 
proof and filed a pre-emption tight tinder the eye and inspection of the 
register fend receiver, who pronounced the same regular and legal in all 
respects, and to them he tendered, in proper and legal amount Of rnoney, to 
enter and purchase said quarter; but they would not permit him to enter 
the same, because the survey had not been legally received ; this he did 
in May, 1835; he states that, until that time, he had no doubt but this 
township was in the situation of all others in which land had been patented, 
and mignt be appropriated by pre-emption right and private entry; he 
prays to be permitted to enter his land and save this quarter, which is an 
integral part of his farm on which he livesj at Government price. 



[27] 4 

Your memorialist, Joseph P. Updegraflf, states that a certain Jacob Hinton, 
in the spring of 1834, took possession of the northern half of the southwest, 
and the south half of the northwest quarters of section eighteen in the afore- 
said township, and built a house, but did not actually settle on it as he was 
a single man ; the house was of good dimensions, two rooms of 14 by 16 
feet each ; that, in the year 1835, he broke seven acres of land on the said 
80 acre lots, and sold his settlers' right to Wayne A. Strode, who shortly 
afterwards sold the same to your memorialist, who farther improved the 
same in the year 1836, repairing the houses and enclosing lands, and in 
March, of the.present year, settled on, and now resides on the same : has 
40 acres well enclosed and 20 acres in cultivation ; and prays that he may 
be permitted to enter his lands, save his labor, and secure his home, at 
Government price. 

Janie,'^ R. Simpson, your memorialist, states that Henry Frizell settled on 
the southwest quarter of section nineteen, in the fall of 1834; took posses- 
sion and enclosed 12 acre*— ^built a house ; and in 1835 cultivated said 12 
acres, and, in that year, sold the same to Win. W. Walker, who settled on 
the same, and occupied, improved, and cultivated the same in the year 
1836, and sold the same to your memorialist; who, in. Id arch of the present 
year, moved to, and settled on the same, and is now living on it ^ he states 
that he has enclosed seven acres more, and that there are lo acres enclosed 
and in cultivation, with houses, stables, and other improvements, to the 
value of three hundred dollars ; he prays that he may be permitted to enter 
the same at Government price. 

Your memorialist, Edmund F. Murry, states that in the year 1834, 
Richard Churchill took possession of the north half of the northwest [quarter] 
of section eighteen, and the south half of the southwest [quarter] of section 
seven in said township, and made some improvement by hauling out 
some house logs, and sold the same to your memorialist, who, during the 

f)resent year, has been improving the same, and has erected a dwelling 
louse, and will shortly move his family to and reside on it, designing it to 
be his permanent home ; he prays that he may be permitted to enter the 
same, and save his labor and his home by private entry at Government 
price. 

Your memorialist, Thomas A. Brooking, states that in the year 1834, Lewis 
F. Temple look possession of the north half of the southwest fquarter] of sec- 
tion seven, and the south half of the northwest [quarter] of same section, in 
the said township, and began improving the same in that year by hauling out 
house logs ; and in 1835 built his house and settled on the same, and enclosed 
fifty acres and put sevdn of it in cultivation by n wheat crop, and in the year 
I83&cultivatea the entire 50 acres; and in 1836 yout memorialist purchased 
the same of Temple, and moved in March of the present year, and has 
cultivated the land and further improved the farm by building an additional 
house, so that the same is valuably improved, which has been done at great 
expense and labor as the land is all prairie, and is more than two miles dis- 
tant from timber ; all this has been done on the faith that Government 
would secure to actual settlers their homes, and continue that policy which 
has been so beneficial to Government in enhancing the value of her wild 
lands, and furnii^hiug homes to her citizens. 



'5 [27] 

Your memorialist, H^ry Frizell, states that in the^'year 1836y ascertain 
John Mobley took possession of the north half of the northwest quarter of 
section seven, in the foregoing township, and improved the same by hauling 
out house logs, and brea^ihg about an acre of ground, and sold the same to 
your memorialist, who, in 1836, improved the same by breaking about 
sixteen acres of land, and hauling out rails and house logs, and building a 
house ; and in March of the present year moved to and settled on the same ; 
and has twenty acres enclosed and in cultivation ; and resides on the same ; 
has made valuable and lasting improvements, with great labor and expense, 
as he has had to haul his timber two miles ; he prays to be permitted to en- 
ter this land at the Government price, and to save his labor and home. 

Your memorialist, Cyrus Haynes, states that in the spring of 1835, a 
certain Obadiah T. L. Martin, took possession of the southwest quarter of 
section six, in the fore named township, and improved the same by bauliiig 
out logs for a house on this quarter, and shortly after sold his settler's right 
and improvement to your memorialist, who has taken possession of the 
same, and further improved it by breaking ten or twelve acres of prairie, 
and is making arrangement to settle on it. 

Your memorialists, Elisha and Elijah Fargusson, beg leave to state that, 
earlv in the spring of the vear 1835, they settled and improved the north 
half of section six, in the foregoing township, and during that year built a 
house, and enclosed about fifty acres and cultivated the same in corn ; that 
they have continued ever since to reside on this land, and have improved it 
by building two dwdling houses, beside stables and other necessary build- 
ings ; have enclosed seventy acres, about sixty of which is in cultivation ; 
they have made lasting and valuable improvements ; they state the land is 
all prairie, and they have hauled their timber more than a mile to make 
their improvements. They also state that a certain Rufus Botts, in the year 
1834, took possession of the southern 80 acres of the northwest [quarter] of sec- 
tion 5, and claimed it in conjunction with the south half of the northeast quar- 
ter] of said section, which he so improved as to be entitled to a pre-emption 
rigtit under the late law of CongrcFs, and was prevented from proving his 
pre-emption only because the register and receiver had refused to receive 
proof and permit lands in said township to be entered, because the survey 
nad not been received. Your memorialists further state, that said Botts re- 
tained possession and occupation of the same until in the fall of 1836, when 
he sold the same to you memorialists, who have improved the same by en- 
closing and cultivating seven acres. They pray permission to purchase 
the aforesaid lands by private entry. 



f ' 



Your niemorialist, D. R.H^nuUon,^tes that acertain Rufus Botts, in the 
fall and winter of 1833, made preparation to settle and improve the south half 
of the northeast [quarter] of section five, in the before mentioned township, 
by preparing to enclose and cultivate lands, and settled on an adjacent quar- 
ter ; and during the year 1834 and '5 enclosed twenty acfes, and broke and 
cultivated ^en acres, and was entitled to a pre-emption ; but owing to the 
reports from the officers of the land office, that entries would not be per- 
mitted, because the survey was not returned and received, he failed to make 
application ; vour memorialist states that said Botts continued to keep the 
occupation of'^the same until August, 1836, when he sold it to your memo- 



[ 1i7 ] 6 

rialist, who has it in possessi6n and cultivation at this time, and prays per- 
mission to enter the same by private entry. 

Your memorialist, William W. Bailey, states that a certain Thomas 
Roberts purchai^d two pre-emption floats to lay on the east half of north- 
west quarter 6f section tnirty, township six north, tanse two west, and the 
east half of southwest quarter of section thirty, township six north, range 
two west, and the money was tendered in the land oflJce at duincy, and 
couH not be received ^r want of the official plat, and he now holds the 
register's certificate to that etfect ; said Robert settled on the land, built a 
house and cultivated some of the land ; but becoming dissatisfied for fear 
he might be troubled in procuring a right, your memorialist purchased his 
claim and iniprbvement, for which he paid him three hundred and fifty 
dollars ; said purchase Was made in July, 1836, and he has since occupied 
it by tenant; and, prays to be permitted to purchase his land at Govem- 
ment price. 

Your memorialist, F. W. Simpson, states that he has an improvement on 
the west half of the southwest quarter of section thirty, township six north, 
range two west, of the fourth principal meridian, which he hopes Congress 
will permit him to enter at Congress price ; the improvement and claim 
cost nie two hundred and fifty dollars. 

After the foregoing facts your memorialists would urge that, although 
some of their settlements were not made at time sufficiently early lo have 
entitle them to have purchased by private entry by virtue of pre emptidn, 
yet the claiins in all cases are of long standing, and the hope was Indulged 
that the pre-emption t^rivileges would have been extended to this township, 
and the lime Enlarged; they would further state, that if this township had 
been brought into mairket when the other lands of the district were sold, 
they coulaat that time have been purchased by the settlers at Government 
price, as at that time Speculators, however they might disregard naked claims, 
would not interfere with an actual settler so as to take away his labor. 
Your memorialists would further state that, in the two townships south of 
this one, all the actual settlers secured their lands by purchasing floating 
pre-emption rights, for the surveys had been receiveci and purchases couU 
be made by ptivate entry ; but that since the sales, companies have been 
formed for purposes of speculation, and by use of distant and irresponsible 
names settlers have been ousted, their labor taken away, and themselves 
turned out Of their homes. Your memorialists consider their individual 
cases entitled to the kind interposition of Congress, as they want their lands, 
not for purposes^ of ^pej^ulation, but for homes,. and as those settlements 
were made without a knowteflge of Ihe' difficulties attending the survey of 
the township. They believe that the wealth of nations Consist in virtuous 
and industrious citizens; and the protection they task is not to defralid Gov- 
ernment, but ptotection as^inst speculators who have produced, and are 
producing, so much difficulty to our country; the lands are almost wholly 
prairie, and if any Of them have timber it is broken, hilly, sandy lands ; and 
if the improvements were taken away, and the lands reduced to the state 
they were when settled, it is doubtful whether they would bring Congress 
price ; they were only selected for settlement because of the difficulty in the 
titles of the adjoining military lands. It is only the labor and improve. 



7 [ 27 ] 

ments that might cause speculators to bid high prices. They appeal to the 
mc^^nanimity of Congress with confidence, inllie hope that their prayer will 
be answered : and as in duty bound will ever pray, &c. 

THOS. A. BROOKING. 

ELISHA FARGUSSON. 

his 

EDMUND M MURRY. 

mark. 

HBNRT T. FRIZELL. 
J. P. UPDEGRAPP. 
WM. W. BAILEY. 
EUJAH PARGUSSON. 
F. W. SIMPSON. 
D. R. HAMILTON. 



26th Congress, [ SENATE. ] [ 28 ] 

1^/ Session. 



MEMORIAL 



OP 



A NUMBER OP CITIZENS OP COLUMBIANA COUNTY, OHIO 



AGAINST 



The incorporation of q, nulional bank, and praying an uwrease of tlte 

circulation of gold and silver. 



October 2, 1837, 

Laid 00 the table, and ordered to be printed. 



7b the honorable the Innate and House of Representatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled : 

The undersigned petitioners^ citizens of Ck)himbiana county, Ohio, 
Respectfully represent: 

That it is with regret we have learned that another attempt will be made, 
at your extra session, to procure an act of incorporation for a national bank, 
either by renewing the charter of the present "Bank of the United States," 
or by granting bankinc powers to another company similar in their nature 
to the late charter of that institution. We deem it unnecessary to present 
•arguments to enlighten the minds of your honorable body upon the dan- 
frers to be apprehended from granting such an act of incorporation. The 
history of the last few years is too vivid, in your recollection, to need even 
A recapitulation of the gross abuse of the powers conferred by Congress on 
such an instiiution. We have witnessed, as well as felt, the effects of the 
disastrous convulsions which the business of the country has at times been 
subject to, in consequence of the unceasing struggle of the Bank of the 
United States to force a renewal of its national existence. We believe that 
the constitution does not confer upon Congress the power to establish such 
a moneyed corporation ; ancj, even if such a power were conferred, we 
should deem it inexpediept to exercise it: believing, as we do, that it would 
be creating an irresponsible power greater than the Government itself, 
through the omnipotence to bo obtained over the currency of the country. 

" That in the midst of profound peace, embarrassed by no great political 
struggles, surrounded by all the elements of prosperity, we find our country 
involved in financial ruin :*' not from a want of banking and paper money, 
but mainly from a superabundance of them, and the iaitli^ess manner in 
which their obligations to the public have been executed. 

Blair & Rives, printers. 



[2«] 



Your petitioners therefore request, that instead of creating more banking 
capital, and thereby the issue of more paper money, you will take ail 
constitutional measures to increase the circulation of the constitutional cur- 
rency of gold and silver, and to cause a proportionate decrease in the cir- 
culation of their unworthy representatives— paper money. And we believe 
the first, and most effectual, measure for accomplishing this much desired 
object, should be the total separation of the fiscal concerns of the Govern- 
ment of the United States from the concerns of banking institutions, and 
the receiving and disbursing, by the Graverttmeat, of none oth^ than the 
legal and constitutional currency of the country. 



Peter Bushong 
Wm. Greenawyer 
D. Strickler 
John Strickler 
John Younff 
Johannez Matzanberger 
nilegible] 
Edmund Cope 
B. Child 
Charles Young 
David Glosser 
Isaac Keister 
Joseph Strickler 
Jacob Seachrist 
Jobs Sturgeon 
Daniel Stouffer 
Jolm Voglesong 
George 8. Snowcum 
Frederick Bates 
Henry Havil 
John Dayhoff 
Michael Cook 
riHegibleJ 
David Neidig 
David A. Nefdig 
Wm. Bushong 
miegiblej 
George Fanyk 
John A. Snyder 
William Bushong 
John G. Oberlandez 
Jacob Harfnaw 
Gotlobb Bo6nger 
Wm. Phillips, Jr. 
Samuel Harold 
Pegible) 
Bngey Cole 
John Wisey 
Jacob Witdasiann 
Adam Harman 
Adam Yarian 



John Laiphly 
Daniel Bushong 
Matthias J. Rotzel 
George Miller 
Henry Seachrist 
John X Sheaffer 
Joseph J. Herey 
Jacob X Dones 
William Eisenberg 
Wm. Sturgeon 
Peter W. Dehoff 
John Shiery 
EmaBuel Bru backer 
Daniel Smith 
George Welch 
Wia Gordon 
D. S. Silver 
Samuel Seachrist 
WRIiam Steel 
John Steel 
Jacob Bushong 
Samuel Homshere 
Andrew Spouood 
Qeoree Outerer 
John Eber 
Michael Jottsels 
Solomon Wildasiann 
Gottlob Wagg 
Leonard Baumbargar 
Giving Horklar 
Jordan Maynor 
Emmor Phillips 
Johatiiies Spermour 
Lindries GorgaH 
Solomon Harman 
John Douglass 
John Pirkrns 
David Bushong 
Henry Baker 
Samuel Beans 
John Firestone 



[28] 



Benjamin Shoyer 
William Grove 
[Illegriblel 
George B. Smith 
Jop. G. Banrhaff 

illegible 

Illegible 

Illegible 

Illegible 



Jacob Glocklar 
John Conraet 
Geor^ S. Truksass 
Charles Faimet 
[Illegible] 
[Illeeiblei 
Jacob Scnriber 
John E. Souders 
[Illegible] 



I 



25th Congress, [ SENATE. ] [ 39 ] 

1st SestUm. 



REPORT 



PROM 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 



nLANSMITTUiO 



77^ report of a board of qficers appointed to examine the improvemenia 
in certain fire-arms ; in compliance with a resolution of the Sena4e of 
the ^th January^ 1837. 



October 3, 1837. 

Retd, «nd ordered to be printed. 



War Department, 

October 2, 1837. 

Sir : The President of the board of officers, a^^inted under a resohi' 
tioB of the Senate to examine certain arms, has, with the consent of the 
board, submitted to this department the accompanying report of their ex* 
amination. This document appears to me not only to present the result of 
the investigation in a more condensed shape, but to contain some useful 
iuforniation omitted in the fomoer. I beg leave, therefore, to withdraw that 
dociunent, and to substitute the report herewith submitted. 

Very respectfully, 

Yonir most obedient servwit, 

3. IL PMNSETT. 
Hon. R. M. Joimsoii, 

President of the Senate. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The board of officers, appointed by General Orders No. 2, February 3, 
in conformity with a resolution of the Senate, of the 27th January, 1837, 
'< to inquire into and report upon the improvement in firo-arms inade by 
Hall, Colt, Cochran, and the Baron Hackett, and to show the importance of 
each in all important military points of view,'^ have the honor to report, that 
the results of the various experiments to which the board has subjected 
the several arms named in the resolution, and which have not failed to 
establish a decided opinion as regards their advanta£[es and faults, as 
weapons proper for arming troops in field service, are herewith presented 
in tabular form, as required by the resolution. 

BUir & Rives, printers 



[99] I 

The board, constrained to pursue the order prescribed in the resolution 
of the Senate, has involved some repetitions. 

I. CELERITY OF FIRE. 

The tables ^Lve the following results in loading and firing: 

1. With ike Musket. 

No. 1 Hacketl's - - - - - , - 5 

2 HalPs . - . • . . 5 

3 Colt's . - - - - 3.1 

4 (yochran's - - - - - - 3 

5 United States standard - - - - 3 

2. WitbRi/Les, 

No. 1 Colt's - - - - • ' 3.4 

2 Colt's (mu-sket calibre) - - - - 3.4 

3 Hall's 3.4 

4 Cochran's • - - , - - - 3.-2 

5 liCavitt - - V - • - 1.2 

Muskets.— Hackett's and Hall's load at the breech with single charges, 
though constructed on diflSerent principles. 

No. 5. The United States standard loads at the muzzle. 

Nos. 3 and 4. Colt's and Cochran's load at the breech with many-cham- 
bered shifting i^eceivers of their charges. 

The firing with Hackett's, HalPs, and the United States muskets was in 
rapid aiiccesmon. 

Colt's and Cochran's required from 2* to 2' 10" to charge a receiver, (a) 

To determine the cottiparative celehly, the parties were each furnished 
with & target, and were required each to load and fire the greatest nurabeT 
of rounds in a given time; Ha<±ett,. Hall, and the United States musket 
being supplied with cartridges, Cochran and Colt with loose ammuni- 
tion ; all commenced loading at the word <'fire." 

The ixMird adopted this mode, to place the respective weapons upon 
an equal footing, and under such circumstances a& would ordinarily 
occur, in actual service. 

II. EXTENT OP THE RECOIL. 

The arms of Hall, Hackeit, Coll, and« Cochran, being loaded at the breech, 
receive a ball of ^eater diameter than agun which is loaded ^t the muzzle; 
the consequence i^, a smaller quantity of powder being required to produce 
the same propelling power necessary for the ihusket, where of cou/se there 
must be windage, the recoil must, even on that. account, be considerably 
diminished ; but besides the action of the powder, upon the resisting point 
of these ffuns, is niuch less than theeflfeot produced by the elastic flukl 
upon the breech of other gims of the usual construction; the recoil does 
net appear suffieient in any of them to have occ^isioiied any inconveni- 
ence to the persons uskig the arms. 

(a.) To charge these receivers %' to y were Becessary. Colt, to press the baU dowa, 
used a lever; Cochran, a rammer alid mallet; these were appendages apparently necessary. 
A rest was necessary to load the latter, Cochran's, receiver. 



i^n 



III THE EFFICIENCY OF FIRE. 



From the experiments made, it appears that, for guns of the same cali- 
bre, and in the same resisting medium, the penetration of the arms loading 
ut the breech, and having their correct charge of powder, is greater than 
those which are loaded at the muzzle ; this is supposed to proceed from 
the powder, in the former case, having its whole propelling force operating 
on the ball ; in the latter case, it cannot, owing to the windage. 

The statement, in the following table, shows the results of experiments 
made at West Point, on the 19th June, 1837. 

Target of yseli seasoned oaL 



Arm. 


Charge. 


Distance of 


Penetcaiion. 


^ 


^ 


' target. 


! 


. 


f9mtiM. 


Feet. 


Hiekes. 


United States musfcet 


134 


10 


2.3 


Hiail's musket - -• 


110 


u 


ai 


Coifs musket 


134 


a 


3.6 


Obit's mnsket . . 


110 


u 


».7 


Ook's musket . - - 


100 


ti 


3.0 


Cochran's musket 


80 


t( 


i;6 


* 






■ 



NdTH. — The chamber of Oochmn's gnn was not capable of containing 
oirer 80 jBfrains. 

It is worthy of remark, that in tiie case of Coitus gun, has been illus- 
trated and confirmed the experiments and theory of celebrated writers upon 
artillery and the effect of powder. 



Graihs. 
134 
110 
WJO 



produced 
ppoduoed 
j^rodiiced 



Jiwhes. 
2.64 

3.00 



Thus the declaration is here clearly demonstrated, that over charges pro- 
duce diminished ranges ! ! 

IV. INCONVENIBNQE FROM HEATED BARRELS. 

Guns which are loaded at thebreeeh are supposed to ifLcquixe a less de- 
gree of heat) after a rapid and continued fire, than the common arm ; in 
consequence of being cooled by a current of firesh air passing through the 
barrel during the period of loading ; in the experiments^ here, such does 
not appear to have been materially the case. The temperature of the 
interior of the several barreb wfis c^certained by the introduction of a. ther- 
mometer immediately after firing, in a given period, a certain number of 
rounds in quick succession, from 25 to 30 rounds. The result was as ipl- 
lows : Hall's, 150<^ ; HackeU's, — ; Colt's, 120o ; Cochran'^ 122o. 



« 

V. CAPACITY OP BEING USB0 AS A RIFLE. 

In positious not uncorbmon to ligbt troops, the experiments with Hall's 
rifle in 1826, at Fort Monroe, when in the hands of regular troops, fiiUy 
prove this arm admirably adapted to that description of service ; it wiU 
equally apply to the cavalry or mounted corps, in all situations where fire- 
arms mny he required. 

The mauy-chambered guns, from causes before mentioned, connected 
with their complicated construction, are by no means suitable to the ser- 
vice of light troops, and particularly wnen mounted ; HalPs rifle and 
Hackett's gun (reduced in length) may, it is considered, be very appropriate 
to the service recjuired ; the fulminating primer is, it must be stated, the 
only apparent objection to the adoption of Hackett's gun. 

VI. SIMPLICITY AND CHEAPNESS OP CONSTRUCTION. 

The attainment of simplicity, in the construction of fire-arms, is un- 
questionably of the first importance, in order that those who are to use 
them may readily comprehend their principles and utiUty^ 

In the examination of Hall's gun, nothing appears complicated ; on the 
contrary, one is struck with the simplicity and solidity of the component 
parts, and the absence of the various appendages (equipments) which are 
attendant upon^ and are indispensable to, the use and service of the arms 
both of Colt and Cochran. As regards simplicity and solidity of ccmstruc- 
tion, what has been said of the arms of Hall, may in general be applied to 
Hackett's gun. It possesses many of the features of utility which charac- 
teiize the former, and which render them so valuable for military purposes. 
An arm, complicated in its mechanism and arrangements, deranges and 
fjerplexes the soldier in its management ; it requires more than common 
attention to its care and preservation ; and should it perchance fail in its 
operation, which its complexity of construction would frequently occasion, 
he will lose all confidence in its powers of execution. 

Hall's and Hackett's arms, possessing, apparently, the desired simplicity, 
are more easily managed, present less accountability to the soldier, are less 
liable to get out of order, and when they are, they are more easily repaired. 

The master armorers, at the national manufactories, have been instruct- 
ed to prepare estimates of the cost of the manufacture of each description 
of arm. Their report, which, it is supposed, will approximate the reality^ 
will accompany this report, C. 

VII. DURABILITY. 

The means of testing the durability of the several description of arms is 
not within the control of the Board ; it can only be determined by requiring 
the inventors to undertake a fatiguing course of firing, greater than some 
of them could endure, or by placing \he arms in the hands of troops, and 
having them exposed to all the incidents and trials of active field service. 

The experiments with Hall's gun, in 1826, g^ave results satisfactory as 
to its power of resisting the effect of long finng ; and there can be no 
' doubt that the durability of all description of guns will depend greatly upon 
simplicity, and consequent strength of construction. 



[29] 



VIII. SAYING OP AMMUNITION- 



It has been stated that those arms which load at the breech require less 
powder to produce the same result than those of common construction. 
— See No. 2, Efficiency of Pire. 

Iii^the common musket, 144 ^ains of powder constitute the charge ibr 
service, including ten grains for priming. Colt's musket, charged with 
100 grains, (primed with a percussion cap,^ gave proof of equal, and even 
of superior power of penetration ; whicn determined that quantity of 
powder was fully sufficient for that musket. Cochran's musket could not, 
from its construction, receive more than 80 grains, which was insufficient 
to accomplish the range and penetration of the United States musket, or 
that of Colt, with their respective charges ; but the . reduction of Colt's 
charge to that of Cochran's produced equal power. 

These experiments being directed to facts, in regard to the proper 
charges to be used in the new description of arms, and likewise with a 
view to test their relative powers, were cenclusive in their results, and 
prove that in muskets of the same calibre, the saving of powder would be 
in favor of those which load at the breech as 100 is to 144 ;* and secondly, 
the same principle operating in the diffisrent arms of Hall, Haekett, Colt, 
and Cochran, the same charge would produce the same effect 

APPENDAGES- 

The inventors, Colt and Cochran, propose that each «o)dier should, when 
armed, carry five receivers, (cylinders,) four e^tclusive of that affixed to 
the guru 

Colt's 4, each 3 lbs., would be - - - - - 12 U 

To which udd their charges - - - - -114 

Would be for Colt— total - - - - - 13 14 

Cochrnn, when increased to hold 100 gfains, would weigh, with 

their charges as above, a total of - - - - 16 14 

<The same number of rounds, 85, contained in these receivers or cylinders, 
weighing, in one instance, 16 lbs. 14 oz., would, in the common mode of 
tfransportitiion, only weigh 2 lbs. 12 oz. Thus the soldier would be en- 
cumbered with near 12 lbs. additional weight of a substance inconvenient 
in form, and in its position oppressive ia a nigh degree.t 

To load the many-K^hambared guns, several implements of novel and 
inconvenient form are required ; the use and accountability of which would 
be equally difficult and oppressive to the soldier, besides adding still more 
to ^reat weicrht, and appendagfes already noticed. In the common muskei, 
and with Hall's apd Haekett's, these equipments are not re(}uired. 

iX. THE NUMBER OP CHARGES WHICH MAY BE CARRIED 

BY AN INFANTRY SOLDIER, 

The greatest number of cartri^jes which are carried by a Foldier are 
f^ixty»41bs. Colt's and Cochran's guns, to transport little more than 

* Percussion co|)s were used in the chambered guns, flint in the musket ; the latter probably 
i< the ]fBA expense. It is sunr)osed the regalation charge for the musket is too great. 

t Wiih this weight of metallic substance, md filed roand the ttraist, how long would the 
iioldier endure the heat and damp in the swamps of Florida 1 



[2^] is 

half that number of charges, would, as has been presented, require the 
soldier to sustain an additional wei^lit to thai of his arms, his knapsack. 
<foc., of from 14 to 17 lbs., which, it is believed, he could pot support. 

This is one of the serious objections to the arms of Colt and Cochran. 
The arms of Hall and Hackelt are exempt from these objections ; they 
may be provided with os many charges as are allowed for the musket iu 
the u^ual cartridge-box, or other modes of transportation. 

X. THE ADVANTAGES WHEN USED AGAINST A CHARGE 

OF CAVALRY. 

In sustaining an attack from cavalry, arms which can keep up a con- 
inuous fire, preserving, at the same time, a position of defence with the 
oayopet, have certainly an advantage greatly superior to those which are 
oblige to change their position " to load." Hall's and Hackett's muskets 
possess the above advantage in an eminent degree, beiag — even during 
the process of loading — at the charge, and ready for personal defence. This 
is not the case with Coitus and Cochran's arms, in consequence of the 
necessity of disconnecting their parts for the purpose of charging them. 

XL THE ADVANTAGES WHEN USED BY CAVALRY. 

The advantage is very great in favor of gims which load at the breech ; 
they are easily managed, and conveniently loaded on horseback ; they are 
therefore peculiarly adapted tp cavalry service. 

Another advantage they possess : the ball being larger than the diameter 
of the barrel, the ball is not deranged in its chamber by the movement of 
the hoirse. 

For reasons stated in No. 5 of this report, the many-chambered arms 
are deemed inapplicable to the service of cavalry. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

The various arms under consideration, which imve been submitted to 
the board, constitute two classes, viz: 

The first comprises the guns of Hall and Hackett, which load at the 
breech with single chamber. 

The second are the " many-chambered," or repeating guns of Colt and 
Cochran, the breech of which is formed of cylindrical receivers, which re- 
volve on a pivot, and in which are conical chambers to contain a number 
of charges^ which are brought successively in line with the barrel. The 
first class differ in cortstruction. Hnckett's gtm, opening al the breech, un- 
covers the bottom of the bore into which 'tile chai^ is inserted^ in the form 
of a cartridge. 

2. HalFs gun, the chamber of which being raised by mimns of a spring, 
receives its charge, either of cartridge, or powder and ball, from a flask. 

The second class, also, varies in construction. The receiver which con- 
tains the chambers for the charges, in Cochran's, revolves horizontally on 
an axis, perpendicular to the bore ; whereas, Colt's receiver, revolvee on an 
axis parallel to the bore. 

All these guns load at tlie breech. The advantages of this system are. 
therefore, common to all — viz : the ball being larger than the bore, prevents 



7 [20] 

windage; and, in eon^quonce, obtains a greater rai)^*;, more exactnass of 
fire, arid, less powder being required, the recoil is diminished. An addi- 
tiodnl ad\rantaore belongs to the first class, namely. Hall's and Hacketl's; 
they can be loaded with great facility, and in any situation or position. 
This, for skirmishers and light troops, is very infjporlant. 

Hackett's gun being loaded, with cartridge, it often occurs that a part of 
the paper sticks to the side of the chamber, which, in some degree, chokes 
it ; besidosj tiiis paper may at times retain fire, and expose the succeedinfif 
cartridge to explosion. This may be avoided in UalPs gun, it being loaded 
with loose powder. 

The guns of Cochran and Colt are equally exposed with the others, to 
the escape of gas through the joints, and to a lodgment of burnt matter, 
rendenng them stiff and difficult of movement ; and, from the contiguity of 
the loaded chambers and primers, they are liable to explosion of more than 
one charge at the same time. This may wdl happeri from defeet in the 
metal, or imperfection of workmanship ; m that case, these arms become as 
dangerous and destructive to yourselves as the enetny. One accident of 
the kind occurred on the 19th of June. A similar occurrenoe inthefieW 
would not only impair the confidence of the troops in the power and safety 
of their arms, but might render doubtful at least, the success of their opera- 
tions. It is shown also from the experiments, that risk of greait itijuiy might 
he apprehended by the bursting of the caps. However ingenious^ there- 
fore, may be the invention, however creditable the skill of the mannfac* 
tiircr, the Board is of opinion, that the arm of Cochran is an unsafe weapori, 
and unsuited to the use of bodies acting in line or in masses. 

The arm of Colt, possessing all the merits, and exempt from some of the 
objections attending the former, may he usefully applied in special caies, 
(such as in stationary defence, entrenchments, blockhouses, perhaps too, 
in the naval service, in the tops of ships, to cover or repel boarders, and in 
boat service.) Notwithstandinjj these objects favorable to it, the board is 
unanimous in opinipn, that from the complicated construction of this ami, 
its liability to accidents, (one having occurred on the 2lst of June, see 
note,) in firing, and for other reasons before noticed, that it is not adapted to 
the ^[eueral purposes of the service. 

The arm of Hackett the board considers of great merit, possessing, in 
general, the quiUities of the musket, and over it, in bcveral instances, ad- 
vantages ; but it is exposed to the serious objection of a dangerous arrange- 
ment of its ammunition, as regards its packing and transportation, and 
from the impossibility of loading it with lose powder and ball, the necessity 
for which often occurs. The primer of fulminating powder, and attached 
to the cartridge, is considered dangerous when in connexion with large 
quantities of ammunition. These objections may be overcome by those in 
Kurope, who are devoting great attention and consideration to this arm ; 
if so, we should place ourselves on a footing with those military nations 
who may adopt it, and to whom hereafter we may be opposed. The board 
is therefore of opinion, we sliould be in possession of this arm, known in 
Europe as the Fiisil Robert; and that the Honorable Secretary of War be 

requested to have purchased stand of these guns, and cause them 

to be placed in the hands of select men, in order to a thorough course of ex- 
periments, embracing all the incidents of campaign service, both in respect 
to the weapon, and its ammunition. 

The arms now in use in the United States service possess the power, in 
skilful hands, of all the effect of celerity and efficiency. 



[29] 



8 



The experiments just finished, are oonclusive, that up to forty rounds iif 
fire, in reference to the usual character and incidents of service, they have 
the advantage in several respects ; and equality in others, to those of many 
chambers. 

In the instances of the arras under consideration, it is believed, if even 
there be any thing gained by their peculiarities, over the common musket 
and Hall's guns, m point of celerity, such advantage has been acquired by 
too great a sacrifice of important apd indisputable principles ; that, in the 
desire ^to reach perfection in the construction of these arms, the convenience, 
physical power, and safety of those who are to use them, have been wholly 
overlooked, and their liability to be assailed when not in a state of prepara- 
tion to continue their fire, would detract greatly from thdr character for efli- 
ciency. 

The board confirms the favorable reports and opinion of various com- 
missions established to test the merits of Hall's guns, some modifications 
and changes in the arm, and the equipments ; they are easily effected. 
Then the board must entertain the opinion that, as an arm for military 
purposes, it possesses n decided superiority over every other now known 
construction of the system of guns which are loaded at the breech. 

The application of percussion primers, to arms for the use of troops, has 
not yet been successful. With improved means of attaching them to the 
nipple, or cone, they may be introauced into the service of light troops, act- 
ing as tiralleurs. The difficulty of placing and fiiungso small an object as 
the cap, during the excitement of action, in excessively cold weather, or in 
dark nights, are deemed almost impracticable, and has prevented this im- 
provement in fire arms being generally adopted in any service.* 

Finally, it is the unanimous opinion of the board, that the arms now in 
use in the service of the United States, viz : the musket, the rifle, and Hall's 
musket, rifle, and carbine, with such improvements in the construction as 
the latter are capable of, combine, in a higher degree, all the requisites of 
convenience, durability, simplicity, and efficiency, than any that have been 
suggested for the general armament AH of which is respectfully submitted. 
Signed on part of the board. 

JOHN R. FENWICK, 
Br. General and President. 

* The liability of these caps to explode in pieces^ and thereby annoy and maim the contiguoiu 
men, was folly illustrated by the experiments. 



C. 
Cost ofcm£ gunfrom 5,000 to 50,000 of ike new invented ams. 



Hdckett's 
Colt's - 
Cochran's 



5,000 


10,000 


20,000 


40,000 

m-2 27 
1^42 
11 66 


50,000 


Weight of 
musket. 


813 09 
20 23 
13 06 


S12 83 
19 13 
13 26 


S12 57 
IR 66 
11 86 


$12 23 
18 .?7 
1162 


10 12 ; 
15 5 

11 14 



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H 



Mean penetrations in seasoned white oak. 



Arm used. 


Charges ol 
powder, ex- 
clusive of 
priming. 


Distances from lars^el in yards. 




Grains. 


3* yds. 


9 yds. 


50 yds. 


1 
100 yds. 


150 yds. 


260 yds. 


300 yds 


United States musket J 


134 

125 

90 


2.15 

1.60 
1.60 


1.37 
1.80 


1.43 


1.00 


0.66 


0.55 


O.OO* 


Harper's Ferry rifle - 


92 


2.32 


1.43 


0.94 


0.65 


0.29 


O.OOt 


Hall's musket, pcrcus-^ 
sioR lock 

I. 


110 
110 

86 
82 
80 


1.804 
2.175: 


0.85 


0.88 


0.84 


0,07 


O.OOtt 




Hall's musket, flint lock 


100 


1.07 


1.70 






0.40 






Hall's rifle 


• 70 


1.12 


0.63 


0.93 


0.001 




Cochran's small rifle, i 
— balls to the pound ( 


36 
35 


- 


1.13 


0.56 


0.51 


0.20 


0.14 




Cochran's carbine < 


45 

3d 


fM 


U.yu 


o76i 


0.27 


19 


0.02 




Cochran's musket 


80 
72 


1.65 
1.76 








• 


, 


« 


Coil's small rifle, - i 
balls to the pound \ 


36 
SO 


- 


0.97 


0.60 


0.36 


0.30 


o.ooir 




CiAVs musket } 


134 
110 
100 


2.64 
2.75 
3.00 














CoJl'g rifle, myskclcBl^ ) 
iber { 


100 


1.60 










• 




CqU's c^rbine^ musket > 
caliber 5 


79 


1.57 




- 










Haekett's musket 


144 
73 


- 


1.35 
0.82 


0.81 
0.35 


0.46 


0.32 


0.10 


0.'^* 


Leaviti's carbine —J 
balls to the pound ( 


50 


- 


- 


049 


0.30 


0.11 





* One ball imbedded. 

t Balls rebounded— mean indentation 0l2. 

t Patched. 

11 One ball imbedded. 

§ Two balls imbedded. 

T One ball Imbedded. 

•• At the distance of 4iO yards. 



7 

i. 



15 



[29 J 



Penetrations In cartridge paper at thirteen and one third yards distance. 



Arm used. 



United States miiskot 



Harper's Ferry rifle 



HilTs mrisket, percussion 



Cochran's mnsket 



Colt's carbine 



Coil's carbine 





Charge in grains 
priming eiclud 
ed. 


No. of sheets penetrated. 




Musket cartridge paper. 




No. 1, sheets of. 


No. 2, sheets of 


- 


134 


053 


770 


^ * 


92 


500 


■ 


- 


80 


— 


386 


• ) 


80 
80 


— 


454* 
154t 




100 
80 


717 


481 


m 


80 


672 





♦ Fired wiihoa! a patch. 



t Fired with a patch. 



25th Congress, [ SENATE. ] F 30 1 



PETITION 

OP 

WILLIAM BRENT, JR., OF VIRGINIA, 

Praying a more gfneral distribiUion of the printed documents and lawt^ 

of the Ufi^U^ SllM€$. 



October 4, 1837. 

Laid 00 (he table, and ordered to be printed. 



The pelilion of William Brent, jr., of the State of Virginia, to the Speaker 

and Members of the Senate of the United Spates, 

Respectfully represents : 

That in the year 1814 it was said by Jefferson, that in the United States, 
'< as vehicles of information, andra curb on our public functionaries, news- 
papers have rendered .themselves useless by forfeiting all title to belief." 

Whether this was true then, or how far true since, and in 1837, are 
questions which your petitioner will not take upon himself to determine ; 
and yet, if true, it is but charity to hope that there were then,, have 
been since, and now are, very many honorable exceptions. But whatever 
is the valiie of newspapers in furnishing the people with correct informa- 
tion, in a durable and systematic form, the deep conviction which your peti- 
tioner entertains that some such plan as the following would come in as a 
most valuable aid to the newspapers, on this important subject, induces your 
petitioner to request that your honorable body will appoint a committee to 
institute an inquiry, how far it would be beneficial to the public good 
to collect and regularly deposile at every coimty court-house in the United 
States, under proper regulations, for safe-keeping, and for the benefit and 
information of the people of the United States, the following papers and 
documents: 

1. All reports of the heads of the departments made to the President of 
the United States, which are by him transmitted to Congress; that all such 
reports shall be printed, and transmitted fortliwith, without awaiting the 
meeting of Congress ; that in all cases where in the opinion of the head 
of any d^artment, or of the President of the United States, it would be 
injurious to the public weal that such publication should be mAde forth- 
with, the reasons for such temporary suspension should be anne:sed to 
such report by the department, or by the President, as the case might be, 
and that such report and reasons should be preserved, and when the reasons 
for secrecy ceased, should then be published and distributed ; that it shall 

Blair & Rives, printers. 



[ 30 3 2 

be the duty of the President to have all such reports, as are temporarily re- 
tained, annually examined and reported for publication and distribution 
when, in his opinion, the reasons for secrecy no longer exist. 

And, that there should be also published and distributed forthwith, as 
well during the recess as during the session of Congress, the following 
papers and documents, with the same limitations and exceptions as to 
temporary secrecy and future publication as set out above, 

2. All treaties and commercial arrangements, and regulations with foreign 
nations, or in our own ports. 

3. All instructions to foreign ministers, commissioners, consuls, and other 
agents, and all correspondences to and from them. 

4. All messages of the President of the United States, with the accom- 
panying documents. 

5. All communications to Congress, or any of its committees, with the 
documents, and which have been made by the heads of any of the depart- 
ments. 

6. All reports of committees of both houses of Congress, whether several 
or joint, whether of the majority or of the minority of such committees. 

7. All laws and joint resolutions of both houses of Congress. 

8. All the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the 
decisions of the different Circuit Courts of the United States. 

9. All the reports of the cases decided in the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

10. All the laws and resolutions of the different States, more especially 
those in relation to questions arising under the constitution of the United 
States. 

11. All the reports of cases decided by the Supreme Courts of the differ- 
ent States on questi(ms arising under the constitution of thq United States. 

12. All amendments proposed to the constitution of the United States, 
whether by the Congress, by the State legislatures, or by conventions ; all 
amendments cdopted, and the acts and proceedings of the Congress, of the 
States, and of the conventions, in relation thereto. 

13. The messages of the Governors of the States at the opening of their 
respective legislatures, and such other messages as relate to questions aris- 
ing under the constitution or laws of the United States. 

14. Proclamations of the Governors of the different States, and of the 
President of the United States. 

16. All reports and resolutions adopted by the legislatures of the States, 
or by either branch of the State legislatures, touching the constitution of 
the United States, or laws made in pursuance thereof, and treaties of the 
United States. 

16. The constitution and laws of the different States. 

17. All American Slate-papers, and other works of authority referred to, 
or cited by the Supreme Court of the United States, in setthng their con- 
^ruclion and interpretation of the true meaning of the words and phrases 
used in the constitution of the United States. 

18. The journals of both houses of the Congress. 

19. In fine, all such papers and documents as are used, and are before 
public functionaries when they make up their opinions on any important 
subject, and which also should be before an intelligent people, in order for 
them to possess the means of correctly determining how far these public 
servants may have mistaken or pursued the public good. 



3 [ 30 ] 

And your petitioner further requests, that the said committee to whom 
this petition may be referred by your honorable body, shall further inquire 
and report whether it would not be desirable, and in the true spirit of our 
political institutions, to have all such public papers, as are above detailed, 
regularly and systematically collected, arranged, and preserved at the seat 
of the Government of the United States, so as at all times to be accessible 
to the nation at large, whence accredited copies might at any time be ob- 
tained. And, moreover, that the said committee inquire and report whether 
the appointment of an officer, holding his office during good behavior, 
and not at the nod, and will, and pleasure of the President, or of either 
house of Congress, or of any department, whose duty it shall be to collect, 
preserve, arrange, safe-keep, and distribute these papers and documents, 
might not advance the public good ; and, again, that the said committee be 
instructed to inquire into and report as to the benefit of transmitting and 
distributing these documents as follows : 

1. As mentioned above, to the county courts of every State and Territory 
of the United States, where the legislatures shall make proper and ade- 
quate regulations for the safe and proper keeping of the same, by the clerk 
or clerks, or the officer for that purpose ; or where the people of a county 
shall themselves adopt such regulations, for this purpose, as Congress may 
suggest. 

2. To the President of the United States, and all the Ex- Presidents dur- 
ing their lives, respectively. 

3. To all the members of the two houses of the Congress, and for seven 
years after they shall have ceased to be such ; not only during the session 
of the Congress but during its recess, as the case may be, and as these seve* 
ral papers shall be received by the hands of the officer appointed to collect 
and distribute them. 

4. To all the heads of the different Departments, to the attorney general 
of the United States, to the judges of the different courts of the United 
States during their continuance in office, and for seven years thereafter, if 
they live so long. 

5. To the commanders-in-chief and brigadier generals of the United 
States. 

6. Two copies of these papers to be deposited at every permanent mili- 
tary post, fortress, and fortification, where at any one time may have been 
stationed one thousand men. 

7. Two copies at every navy yard, where may have been stationed one 
thousand men. 

8. Two copies to the Executive of each State, to the respective houses 
of the legislatures of the different States, and to the supreme judiciary of 
each State and Territory. 

9. To all foreign ministers near the Government (Jfthe United States. 

10. To all the foreign ministers, consuls, and other foreign agents of the 
United States, to be by them preserved in the archives oftheir respective 
missions and consulates. 

11. To all incorporated seminaries of learning, and all incorporated hbra- 
ries in the United States ; and one copy for the principal library in each 
capital city of Europe, and of North and South America. 

12. To the printers of the laws of the different States, and to the printers 
of the laws of the United States, to be by them delivered over to their suc- 
cessors in office. 



[ 31 ] !i 

7. Then let the report of the one be referred to the other committee, and 
vice versa; let each committee make an analysis of the report referred to 
them, and from the whole select sucli plan as they think best calculated 
lor the public good, stating their reasons and facts as before. These reports 
shall be simultaneously made. 

8. Let these reports and evidence be published, and sent forthwith to 
every court-house in the United States. 

Your petitioner further prays, that the committee to whom this petition 
shall be referred shall, if favorable to the prayer^ give their reasons ; and 
if not favorable, shall show the fallacy, and produce their own plan, views, 
and reasons touching it. 

All which is respectfully submitted by 

WILLIAM BRENT, Jr., 

of Virginia* 
September 13, 1837, 



' » . . • • 



25th Congress, [ SENATE. ] [ 32 ] 

1st Session. 



STATEMENT 



SHOWINiJ 



THE IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF SPECIE 

Since the I9th of Septejnber, 1837. 



October 9, 1837. 

Submitted by Mr. Bcnlun, and ordered to be printed. 



Treasury' Department, 

Oclober 2, 1837. 

Dear Sir: I have just summed up the returns of imports and exports 
of specie received at the department since the 19th ultimo, to which period 
the late statement sent to you was made up; and I find the imports since 
then amount to $490,820, and the exports only to $150,985. 

Very respectfully, 

McCMNTOCK YOIt>;(J. 
Hon. T. H. Benton, 

Senate United States, 



Blair & Rive.*;, printers. 



26th Congress, [ SENATE. ] F 33 1 



RESOLUTIONS 



OP 



A NUMBER OF DEMOCRATIC CITIZENS OF HAMILTON 

COUNTY, OHIO, 

Approving (he measures proposed by the Executive^ ^c. 



October 10, 1837. 

Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



DEMOCRATIC MEETING. 

At an aggregate meeting of the democrats of Hamilton county, in pur- 
suance of pubhc notice, on Saturday, the 23d of September, Colonel John 
C. Avery was appointed Chairman ; and General Jno. Snyder, William Cone- 
lin, Hugh Carr, and Providence White, Vice Presiclents; and Captain 
Ro^rs, Secretary. 

On motion, it was resolved, that a conmiittee of seven members be ap- 
pointed by the chair, for the purpose of preparing a preamble and resolu- 
tions to be laid before the meeting for its consideration and adoption, when 
the following persons were appointed : Moses Dawson, General John Sny- 
der, Joseph S. Benham, Samuel Bond, William Jessup, James H. Ewing, 
and Joseph Ross. 

On motion, the meeting agreed upon, a short recess, to give time for the 
committee, to report. 

On the meeting re-assen^>ling, and the report of the committee being 
called for, Moses Dawson, their chairman, presented the following pream- 
ble and resolutions, the whole of which were adopted without a single dis- 
senting voice : 

REPORT. 

The committee report, through their chairman, Moses Dawson, the fol- 
lowing preamble and resolutions : 

Whereas, The revenue of the United States is entirely derived from the 
labor and ingenuity of the industrious classes of the community, and that 
revenue being raised by indirect, not by direct taxation, these classes being 
the most numerous portion of the community as well as of the consumers, 
are the payers of the largest portion of the taxes ; it therefore becomes their 
peculiar duty to have a vigilant eye towards the collection, the safe keeping, 
and the honest expenditure of the public money : 

Whereas, From the commencement of our Government to the present . 
day, the safe keepi-ig and distribution of the public revenue have been im- 
portant desiderata with the best and most intelhgent of our statesmen, who 

Blair & Rives, primers. 



[33 ] ' 2 

have never found out and acted upon a system which has given security 
^ to our funds, and satisfaction to our citizens, since they departed from the 
old system of a National Treasury ; on the contrary, those which have been 
resorted to have resulted in loss t<^ the Treasury, or ingreater evils to the 
community at large : 

Wherb:as, Dear bought experience has taught u^ that banks, national, 
State, or local, do not answer the end of either safe or efficient fiscal agents, 
as in all cases in which they have been tried they have failed to perform the 
duties required of them : 

Whereas, Under the pecuftar drctims'tailces of the present crisis, witli 
our country at peace and amitj with foreign nations, and in commercial in- 
tercourse with a greater number than ever beforti krioWn ; ad oteirflowinff 
Treasury ; no national debt ; an industrious and enterprising people ; and 
aland flowing with milk and honey, eighty-three banks entrusted with the 
public treasury, and more than thirty millions df that treasure in their cof- 
fers, have declared to the world that they are imable to discharge their pe- 
cuniary obligations to the people or to the Government ; and, in violation of 
their charters as well as solemn contracts with the Goveniment, they have 
refused to pay their notes in specie, ot* to refund to tiie Government and 
others the money deposited with them for safe keeping ; under these im- 
perious circumstances, then, we say that banks ought no longer to be trtisted 
as the fiscal agents of the nation, and thiit it now becomes the imperative 
duty of the General Governinisnt to place the finances of the nation upon a 
firm and a permanent basis unconnected with banks : 

Whereas. We. the democrats of Hamilton county, have always depre- 
cated the union of Church and State, as being destructive to jthe liberty and 
.independence of the people ; rec^ht ei'^ents have proved to us that a union 
of banks and State, have been no less deleterious to the public weal ; not 
only dangerous to liberty but productive ofthfe most intolerable evils^ as 
well to the national property as to tlie private pecuniary concerns of indi- 
viduals; inasmuch as the many millions collected of the people in taxes 
and public lands, being committed to the custody of banks. With the ex- 
press understanding that those banks should trade upon the money so de- 
posited, has induced them not only to extend their discounts and loans to 
an extraordinary amount, b\it so greatly to increase their issues of bank 
paper as to encourage a rage for the wildest speculation, the grossest mo- 
nopoly, and the most luxurious living, among the trading portion of our 
fellow-citizens, and also to enhance the price ofthe necessaries of life to our 
industrious mechanics, quite disproportionate to the wages received for 
their labor, as weil as tp encourage the importation of foreign products, to 
the fi^reat injury of the agricultural interests of pur own country : 

Whkreas, We believejhat the sages who formed the constitution of the 
United Slates were hard money men, that they never contemplated the em- 
ployment of banks, national, State, or local, as fiscal agents of the Govera- 
njcnt or keepers of the natiopal treasure; and as they interdicted the with- 
drawal of money frpm the Treasury except in pursuance of the appropria- 
tions made by law, they in oui; opinion contended that the public money, 
when collected, should never be taken from the Treasury for any other pur- 
pose than paying the. necessary expenses of the Government, and that, al- 
ways " pursuant to appropriations made by law ;" nor did they ever intend 
that the public money should be created a fund for bankers, merchants, 
jspeculators, and stock gamblers, to trade upon, and thereby expose to di- 



3 { 33 ] 

lapidation or entire loss, the money wrung from the hard earnings of the 
people to pay th(? expenses of their Government : 

And whereas, The present derangement of the national finances, cau^d 
by the failure of the banks, has induced the President of the tlnited States 
to convene an extra session of Congress, for tbe purpose of taking into their 
consideration the fiscal affairs of the nation, and having laid before that 
Congress in his message an able, lucid, and fully explicit exposition of the 
difficiiUies to which the country has been reduced, and the causes of tte 
same,^and suggesting a plan for a restoration of the public Treasury where- 
by the funds of the natiou may hereafter be safely and conveniently admin- 
istered without the agency of banks : therefore, 

isL itesolvfid, That it is the firm conviction of this n^eetitijg^, that no 
banks, national, State, or local, should ever be eniployed as the nscal agent 
of the Government; and those now in existence as deposite banks sliould be 
divorced from the Government, now, henceforth ancl for ever. 
' 2d* iiesolved, That the two plans proposed by Secretary Woodbury, for 
t^e permanent establishment of the national Treasury, upon copstitution^i 
principles, have our most unqualified approbation; and we do most earn- 
estly desire that Congress may adopt either of them, which they may think 
best calculated for the public interest of the nation. 

3d. Resolved^ -That we have sufficient confidence in the virtue and in- 
tegrity of our fellow-citizens, and in the honest intentions and sagacity of 
the President of the United States, to induce in us a willingness, that he, 
with the consent of the Senate, ishall select from the people such officers as 
may be necessary to the proper administration of the Treasury. 

4/A. Resolved^ That we highly approve of the mode practised by the 
General Government in the collection and disbursement of the public reve- 
nue, both as being the most expedient, and as being perfectly conformable 
to the constitution, that sacred instrument recognising nothing but gold 
and silver coin in the collection and disbursement of the revenue. 

bih. Resolved^ That it is the opinion of this meeting, that the collection 
4nd disbursement of the public revenue is the best if not the only mode 
in the power of the Government of restraining the banks in the over-issues 
of paper, and is well calculated to promote the circulation of specie, for all 
the ordinary purposes of life, among the producing cesses of the communi- 
ty ; and that there is now nothing wanted to consummate that great desidera- 
tum, a sound currency, but the action of the State legislatures, to make it 
penal for any bank to issue any notes of circulation under the valye of 
twenty dollars. 

6^A. Resolved^ That it is the opinion of this meeting, that Congress 
should abolish credit on duties on foreign imposts, as we view that system 
as an incitement to speculation by our citizens, and as furnishing to for- 
eigners a fictitious capital, to enable them to introduce larger quantities of 
foreign manufactures, tbereljiy in a great measure rendering our protective 
tariff nugatory, to the great injury of our own manufactures. 

7th, Resolved^ That we do not approve of such legislative measures, by 

our General or Stale Governments, as would tend to the ip crease of taxa- 

, tioi^ fo^ the purp<»se of affording relief to men whose own imprudence, and 

aviduy for gain, have brought on themselves the embarrassments under 

which theyTaW. 

8ih. Jiesolved, That the constitutional principles of equal rights and 
equal laws do not authorise special legislation in favor of any particular 
class of the community, and injurious fo others. 






i 



[33] 4 

9th. Resolved, That, in accordance with the eighth resolution, passed at 
the great democratic meeting held on the 12th June last, at Cincinnati, a 
committee of twenty-one members, eleven to be a quorum, be appointed by 
this meeting, for the purpose " of memorializing our next Legislature at Co- 
lumbus, to take early measures to compel the banks of this State to resume 
specie payments ; to appoint commissioners to examine the affairs of those 
banks ; to annul the charters of those found insolvent, and so reported by 
the commissioners ; to oblige those so reported to yrind up their affairs ; 
and by one general and penal law to prohibit any bank from issuing any 
banknote of less value than twenty dollars ; and to refuse to charter or re- 
charter any banks during the session." Of this committee, the president, 
vice presidents, and secretaries of this meeting shall be members ; who 
shall sigUj on behalf of this meeting, such memorial as shall be prepared 
in pursuance of this resolution. 

10/A. Resolved, That, without contending for an exclusive metallic cur- 
rency, or the abolition of all credit, which the opposition has falsely charged 
upon the democratic party, we do hold that a metallic currency should be 
so far exclusive as to prevent bank notes being made a payment in any 
transaction below the value of $20 ; and that credit should be so far re- 
strained, that no man or body of men, corporate or otherwise, should, by 
an act of the Legislature, be authorized to put in circulation as currency, 
and as a substitute for gold and silver, evidences of their own debt. 

l\th. Resolved, That it is with indignation we have seen public notices 
from banks to their stockholders, that dividends of profits, accruing within 
the last six months, are ready to be paid to them, the said stockholders; and 
that we have also seen bank notes in circulation, bearing date in Septem- 
ber, 1837 ; and also tickets for less sums than one dollar, purporting to be 
issued from banks in this State ; all of which proves that, although they 
refuse to pay their creditors, they can be liberal to themselves, and that, 
instead of restraining, they are increasing their circulation. 

12/A. Resolved, That, in order to mark our abhorrence of those palpable 
frauds, practised by certain banks, we pledge ourselves to our country and 
to each other, that we will not accept in payment any bank note bearing 
date subsequent to the 16th of May last, nor under the sum of one dollar. 

13/A. Resolved, That we would highly approve of a bankrupt law 
passed by Congress for the restraint of banks and other corporations ; and, 
in case of such law being enacted by Congress, one of its provisions should 
be making the refusal of any bank or other corporation to pay their notes 
or other written obligations, in specie, an act of bankruptcy ; and upon 
such refusal being made and attested before the proper authority, that a 
commission of bankruptcy should issue accordingly against the party re- 
fusing to pay. 

14/A. Resolved, That we hail, with delight, that part of the President's 
message, in which he reiterates his hostility to a national bank of any de- 
scription, and expresses his conviction that " lessons of experience must 
be forgotten, if we suppose that the present overthrow of credit could have 
been prevented by the existence of a national bank." 

\5th. Resolved, That, by the able and argumentative message of the 

President to the National Legislature, he has given sufficient evidence that 

he will redeem his pledge of carrying out the principles of his illustrious 

; predecessor, the u ever-to-be-forgotten Andrew Jackson — the glorious prin- 

clples promulgated by Jefferson, and for the establishment of which our 



6 [33 I 

ikthers fought and bled at the revolution, and wliich we anxiously desire 
to have perpetuated to our latest posterity. 

16^A. Resolvedj That we, with our worthy President, assert that " they 
must" indeed ^< form an erroneous estiioate of the American people, who 
suppose that they can be induced, by pecuniary pressure, or any other 
combination of circumstances, to surrender principles they have so long 
and inflexibly maintained." And it is with pride we reflect that the demo- 
cracy of Hamilton county has held feist those principles, notwithstanding 
those appalling circumstances which have agitated^e nation. 

17th. Resolved, That we highly approve of the resolutions of the House 
of Representatives of the United States confining the business of the extra 
session to die matters contained in the President's message. 

18/A. Resolved, That we have ^ood reason to believe that the suspen- 
sion of specie payment has been the result of a combination between the 
bank of the United States of Pennsylvania, and the State and local banks, 
for the purpose of producing a panic and pressure favorable to the establish- 
ment of a national bank. 

19/A. Resolved, That we believe the act of the Pennsylvania Bank of 
the United States, putting into circulation the notes of the late Bank of the 
United States, to be a fraud upon the public, no institution in existence 
being responsible for their payment. 

20th. Resolved, That the ticket agreed upon by the convention at 
Carthage, on the 5th of August last, shall have our decided and undivided 
support on the second Tuesday in October next ; and, in the interim, we 
will use our utmost influence, with our absent friends, to have it sustained. 

2lst. Resolved, That we have full confidence in the talents and integrity 
of our Representative in Congress, Alexander Duncan, Esa., and that 
he will represent the 1st district of Ohio with honor to himself and fidelity 
to his constituents. 

22d. Resolved, That the deleg;ates wlio composed the county convention, 
held at this place on the I2th of June last, be a general committee of vigi- 
lance for the management of the ensuing election, who shall have power 
to add to their number in the different wards and townships which they 
represented at that convention respectively, so as to form separate commit- 
tees at each of the polls on the day of election. 

23d. Resolved, That the proceeding of this meeting be transmitted to 
the President, late President, and Vice President of the United States, and 
to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, with a request to the two 
latter to have them laid before the respective Houses of Congress over which 
they preside. 

2Ath. Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be publiflfaed ia 
the democraticpapers in Cincinnati ; and that the Ohio Statesman at Co- 
lumbus, and Washington Globe, be requested to copy the same. 



25thCoNOREss, [ SKNATE. ] [ 34 1 

1*/ Session. 



RESOLUTIONS 

OP THE 

BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS. 

REQUESTING 

DofiatUms of land in aid of the internal improvements in that iState^ 



October 13, 1837. 

Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



Whereas, The General Assembly of the State of Illinois, at its session 
held in the years 1836 and 1837, passed an act to establish and maintain 
a general system of internal improvements : 

And whereas, A Bbardof Commissioners of Public Works of the State 
of Illinois was organized in pursuance of the provisions of said act, on 
the 4th day of April last past ; and it being the determination of the Board, 
thus organized, to use every exertion to carry into effect the provisions 
of said act, according to the intent and meaning thereof: 

And whereas, The people of the State feel a deep solicitude and lively 
interest in the earliest possible commencement and completion of the whole. 
or at least the most prominent works provided for in said act : 

Therefore, With the view of providing a source from which a por- 
tion of the necessary aid may be derived, 

Be it resolved^ That our representation in Congress be respectfully 
requested to use their most diligent efforts to procure the passage of a law 
through the Congress of the United States, making a donation of each 
alternate section on each side of the most important works contemplated 
by the act aforesaid ; or, in the failure of this, to ur^e the adoption of some 
other measure which will contribute to the aid o! the State in her great 
undertaking. 

Resolved, That the President of this Board be requested to furnish the 
Speakers of both Houses of Congress, and each of our representation in 
that body, with a copy of these proceedings. 

WM. KINNEY, 
President of the Board of PiMic Works, State of llVmois. 
Blair & Rires, printers. 



• ( 



/■ 



aSth Congress, [ SENATE. ] f 35 1 

1^^ Session. *• "^ 



MEMORIAL 



OF 



A N UMBER OF CITIZENS OF RAHWAY, NEW JERSEY, 
P raffing the incorporation of a national bank. 



October 13, 1837, 

Lakl on the table, and ordered to be printed. 



To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled : 

The memorial of the subscribers, inhabitants of Rahway, in the county 'Of 

Middlesex, in the State of New Jersey, 

Respectfully represents : 

That in the midst of profound peace, embarrassed by no great poHtical 
struggles, surrounded by all the elements of prosperity, we find our coun- 
try involved in financial ruin ; the hand of industry arrested; all harmony 
and concert in our monetary operations destroyed ; all interchanges of pro- 
perty impeded ; all internal exchanges embarrassed, and the whole nation 
forced to the desperate resort of a suspension of specie payments. Thus 
are contracts rendered insecure ; public and private faith violated ; the 
value of property unsettled ; and the people exposed to the imposition of un-^ 
controlled issues of irredeemable State bank notes. In addition to these 
disasters, new enterprises which would furnish profitable employment to 
the laborer, the mechanic, and the a^iculturist, are prevented; and, in 
fine, general confidence, which judiciously gtiided aiui controlled, is the 
safe basis of agricultural and commercial prosperity, annihilated. 

Your memorialists confidently avow the belief, that the only remedy for 
these accumulated^ evils is within the jurisdiction of your honorable bodies ; 
that it exists in the creation of a specie-paying national institutkHfr, obli- 
gated to perform such fiscal duties as may be required by Governmeni, and 
whose energies and resources shall chiefly be directed to the collection of 
moneys, and furnishing of drafts on all parts of the United States, so as to 
effect an equalization of exchanges throughout the country. Such an in- 
stitution, by extending its prosperous influences to the threshold of every 
citizen, would, your memorialists believe, prove a national blessing. 

In the creation of such an institution, two great objects, intimately con- 
nected with the well-being of the nation, would, in the judgment ot your 
memorialists, be attained. 

Blair & Rives, printers. 



[35] 



1. A resumption of specie paj^mentS; without which no safe standard of 
value can exist. 

2. An equalization, so far as practicable, of the exchanges of tlie United 
States. 

As to the power of the Government to organize such an institution, no 
doubt, it is presumed, cdn now be entertained. It was exercised during the 
administration of Washington, and has received in some form, more or less 
direct, the sanction of all his successors. 

Your memorialists accordingly request that Congress will create such an 
institution as is herein suggested, by which great advantages will be con- 
ferred on the country, while the rights of the General Government and ol 
the States, may at the same time be scrupulously protected from encroach- 
ment and injury. 

And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 



Samuel B. Dibble 
Robert Lee 
J. P. Freeman 
P. C. Scudder 
W. H. I.ee 
Thomas Lee, Jr. 
Francis Van Winkle 
Thomas Bennet 
Jos. S. Freeman 
Lewis Cary 
H. Gordon 
Isaac Brown 

E. Y. Rogers 
Jonathan Thompson 
John Pearson 

Ira Clanson 
John E. Clarkson 
George F. Webb 
John M. Burdsall 
George Martin 
Samuel Moore 
John B. Lee 
A. L. Duckin 
Daniel D. Miller 
O. Vanderhovan 
Wm, Jewell 
C Jewell 
Asber Skinner. 

F. Kinff 
Wm. Marsh 
Samuel Oliver 
W. B. Oliver 
Jackson Freeman 



Henry R. Lee 
Robert B. l^ee 
Benjamin M. Price 
M. F. Carman 
Edwin Martin 
Job Shotwell, Jr. 
Edmund M. Brown 
Philip Brown. Jr. 
Wm. 11. Keel'cr 
J. R. Keeler 
William Green 
Wm. H. Underbill 
W. H. Bedell 
J. Teneich 
M. M. Kinim 
W. B. Freeman 
Christopher Marsh 
J. M. Pattin 
Thos. A. Green 
Adam Iice 
Smith H. Noe 
E. R. Smith 
Isaac Osborn 
James S. Couenhoven 
licwis Drake 
Daniel S. Clark, Jr. 
William Moore 
Wm. H. (Cleaver 
Job Clark 
David Albertson 
Moses Ritten 
Nathan Thorp 
Henry Mondy 



25th Congress, [ SEl>jfATE. ] [36 ] 

1st Session. 



MEMORIAL 



OP A 

NU^ER OF MANUEAQTURERS, TRADE^JIRN, AKP OTHER 

CITIZENS OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, 



AGAiNar 



The Resent system (^ finance^ and in favor of a separation ijf thetrac(e 

of banking from affairs of Stcife. "'' ^ 



October 14, 1837. 

Laid on the t^ble, and ordered to be prii^ted. 



To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the Uniffft 

States in Congress assembled : 

The memorial of numerous manufacturers, tradesmen, and other citizens 
of the city of Brooklyn, county of Kings, pnd State of flew Yorlc, in 
public meeting convened this 18th day of Augjust, 181^7, in the (^oimoii 
Council Chamber, in the city of Brooklyn aforesaid, 

|fl0ST RESPECTFULLY SI^^Wf:T|I I 

That your memorialists, suffering in common with their fe|low-Qitizens 
throughout their beloved country, fropi the pecuniary embarrassnrients 
brought upon them by the use of a base, fraudulent, wicked, and uncon- 
stitutional paper currency, turn with confidence to you in quest of relief 
and deliverance from their manifold wrongs and sufferings ; that the 5y5- 
tem ofjinaftce, by which the revenues of the Gefieral Government iare 
raised and disbursed, (being, as it is believed to be, the model from which 
similar systems for raising and disbursing the revenues of all our public 
bodies, down even to those of cities, towns, ^nd village corporations, have 
been formed,) has been the prolific parent of national debts. State debts, 
city, town, and village loans, and is so fraught with evil, that from it, as a 
primary cause, has spmns: a species of taxation so subtle and indirect in 
Its operations, that it is difficult to trace it through all its ran^ifications atifi 
passes, to its ultimate abstraction of a large aiiioui^t of bur property, and 
most terrible infringements 6n oitr rights and liberties. That, from the 
means thus covertly taken from us, have arisen up among us, ar)c| over us, 
all those odious monopolies by )vhich we are plundered of still larger por- 
tions of the fruit of our sweat, toil, and care, and from these means, too, are 
drawn the material of which the fetters are forged by which our liberty is 
hianacled, and of which a dagger may be wrought to stab her to the heart; 
that, from this baneful system of finance (as an original cause) has ema- 
nated our present pecuniary epubarrassments, the prostration of our credit, 
the abasement of otir moral character, and the deep national disgrace of 

Blair 6l Rives, printers. 



[36] 2 

being regarded by the whole world as utterly devoid of integrity and honor; 
that your memorialists most ardently desire an entire and eternal separa- 
tion of the trade of banking and the affairs of State; that they verily 
believe that no such separation can be effected so long as the present sys- 
tem of finance be permitted to endure, and that such separation seems to 
them absolutely necessaiy as a means of effecting other important and sal- 
utary reforms; that your n^emorialists would, with all deference to your 
honorable bodies, most respectfully suggest that Congress might, in its wis- 
dom, devise ways and means of raising revenues for the use of the Gen- 
eral Government, and by which its disbursements might be made in such 
manner as to free her from all liability to suffer embarrassment, either from 
a redundant or straitened Treasury ; to free her from all liability to be 
brought into collision with any and every class of citizens, whether manu- 
facturing, commercial, or agricultural ; that a system of finance, based upon 
a general and direct tax on all the property of every citizen, and levied 
and collected by the several States, through their present town and county 
assessors and collectors, would enable the General Government to discharge 
her duty to all, without abridging the liberty of any. 

That by the adoption of such a system of finance, she could have no 
surplus revenues to embarrass her, or to be jeoparded by being placed in 
banks that might fail ; nor could she be charged with being an accessory in 
the commission of any of the numerous sins charged to these institutions ; 
that the adoption of such a system would free our Government from the 
necessity of connecting herself with any bank, either State or federal, her 
revenue would be safe in the pockets oi our citizens, while our merchants 
would be left unshackled by our present custom-house restrictions, to pur- 
sue their own interests in their own way, neither being stimulated or re- 
pressed by the action of the Government, through the operations of the 
Treasury; that, under such a system, our manufacturers and artizans 
would need no protection from the excessive importations of merchants, 
who, relying on their own capital and credit, and unaided by excessive 
bank accommodations and Government bounties, given in shape of credits 
on duties, could never interfere injuriously with them, nor could our far- 
mers be made to suffer by being brought to compete with the tax-ridden 
farmers of foreign nations ; but merchant, mechanic, and farmer, being all 
alike free, free from the favors or frowns of Government, all would act in 
harmony, and prosperity would be their reward : that such a system would 
place our Government and the republic on a rock from which no contin- 
gency in the commercial world, no commotions that might arise in the 
storms of war, and no unholy combinations of foreign despots, could shake 
,U9 or disturb our repose; that, in such a system, we should have that abso- 
lute independence of other nations, which, as yet, we have only supposed 
we have ; and, with such a system, we might have " hard money for our 
common transactions, and bank notes, equivalent to specie, for the com- 
merce of the country." 

That your honorable bodies may be pleased to examine and consider 
these premises, and to adopt such measures in relation thereto, as you, in 
your wisdom, may deem most proper, we, your memorialists, will, as in 
duty bound, ever pray. 

Signed by order of the meeting. 

EBENEZER FORD, Chairman. 

Job Johnson, Jr., Secretary, 



25th OoKOBEss, [ SENATE. ] [ 37 ] 

1st Session. 



STATEMENTS 

OF ALL APPROPRIATIONS MADE DURING THE 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

AND 

Of the offices created, and the salaries thereof. 



October 17, 1837. 

Prepared by the Secretary of the Senate, in pursuance of the sixth section of the act, approved 
July 4, l^, *' to authorize the appointment of additional paymastei*s, and for other purposes." 



I. A STATEMENT OF ALL APPROPRIATIONS MADE DURING THE FIRST 

SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS. 

Bi/ " An act to authorize the issning of Treasury notes.'' 

For defraying the expense of preparing, printing, engraving, 
signing, and otherwise incident to the issuing of the notes 
authorized by this act - - - - - $20,000 

By " An act making an additional appropriation for the sup- 
pression of Indian hostilities for the year 1837." 

To defray any expenses jvhich have been, or may be, incurred, 

in preventing or suppressing the hostihties of any Indians - 1,600,000 

By *' An act making further appropriations for the year 1837." 

For pay and mileage of the members of Congress and delegates 248,500 

For stationery, fuel^ printing, and all other contingent expenses 

of the Senate - - - - " - - 30,000 

For stationery, fuel, printing, and all other contingent expenses 

of the House of Representatives . - . . 50,000 

For the contingent expenses of the Navy, as enumerated in the 
act of the 3d of March last, in addition to the amount appro- 
priated by that act - - - - - - 120,000 

For the relief and protection of American seamen in foreign 
countries ------- 10,000 

For defraying the expenses attending the prosecution of the 
claim of the United States to the legacy bequeathed by the 
late James Smithson, of London - . - - 5,000 

Rbir & Rives, printers. 



C 37 ] « 

For contingent exposes of the oflSce of the Treasurer - $ 600 

For preparing, printing, and binding documents ordered by the 
resolutions or the Senate, of the 2d of July, 1836, 26th of 
February, 1837, and 2d of March, 1837, to be disbursed 
under the direction of the cominijtlee tp au<|Uil and control the 
contingent expenses of the Senate .... 26|000 
If the revenue frpm duties, or from the sales of public lands, 
remaining in the hands of the receiving and collecting offi- 
cers, be not suffici^t at any time tp pi^ dehentures jm4 
other charges which are, by existing laws, made payable out 
of the accruing revenue before it is transferred to the credit 
of the Treasurer, the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby 
authorized to pay the said debentures ^d other charges out 
of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. — IndefinUe. 

Amount exclusive of indefinite appropriations • - $2,109,000 



II. A 8TAT9M9NT OF THE N1(W OFFICII CftBATEP PVJIINQ THB F1B8T 
SESSION OF THE TWENTT-FIFTH CONGRESS, WITH THE SALARIES OP 
EACH. 

Four additional temporary clerks to be empljDyed by the Treasurer and 
Register of the Treasury, at salaries not to exceed the rate of 1,200 dollars 
per annunii each.